WorldWideScience

Sample records for cuo codoped zno

  1. Co-Doped ZnO nanoparticles: minireview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djerdj, Igor; Jaglicić, Zvonko; Arcon, Denis; Niederberger, Markus

    2010-07-01

    Diluted magnetic semiconductors with a Curie temperature exceeding 300 K are promising candidates for spintronic devices and spin-based electronic technologies. We review recent achievements in the field of one of them: Co-doped ZnO at the nanoparticulate scale.

  2. Complete transformation of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles in ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here, we present evidence on complete transformation of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles, which are among the most heavily studied metal oxide particles, during 24 h in vitro toxicological testing with human T-lymphocytes. Synchrotron radiation-based X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy results revealed that Zn speciation profiles of 30 nm and 80 nm ZnO nanoparticles, and ZnSO4- exposed cells were almost identical with the prevailing species being Zn-cysteine. This suggests that ZnO nanoparticles are rapidly transformed during a standard in vitro toxicological assay, and are sequestered intracellularly, analogously to soluble Zn. Complete transformation of ZnO in the test conditions was further supported by almost identical Zn spectra in medium to which ZnO nanoparticles or ZnSO4 was added. Likewise, Cu XANES spectra for CuO and CuSO4-exposed cells and cell culture media were similar. These results together with our observation on similar toxicological profiles of ZnO and soluble Zn, and CuO and soluble Cu, underline the importance of dissolution and subsequent transformation of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles during toxicological testing and provide evidence that the nano-specific effect of ZnO and CuO nanoparticulates is negligible in this system. We strongly suggest to account for this aspect when interpreting the toxicological results of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles. Although a number of studies have discussed the transformation of nanoparticles during

  3. Effect of shallow donors on Curie–Weiss temperature of Co-doped ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shuxia, E-mail: gsx0391@sina.com [Department of Physics, Jiaozuo Teachers College, Jiaozuo 454001 (China); Key Laboratory for Special Functional Materials of Ministry of Education, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Li, Jiwu [Department of Physics, Jiaozuo Teachers College, Jiaozuo 454001 (China); Du, Zuliang [Key Laboratory for Special Functional Materials of Ministry of Education, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Co-doped ZnO and Al, Co co-doped ZnO polycrystalline powders were synthesized by co-precipitation method. The magnetization curves measured at 2 K show no hysteresis neither remanence for all samples. ZnO:Co grown at low temperature has a positive Curie–Weiss temperature Θ, and ZnO:Co grown at high temperature has a negative Θ. But Al-doped ZnO:Co grown at high temperature has a positive Θ. Positive Curie–Weiss temperature Θ was considered to have relation to the presence of shallow donors in the samples. - Highlights: • Co-doped ZnO and Al, Co co-doped ZnO polycrystalline powders were synthesized. • No hysteresis is observed for all samples. • The Curie–Weiss temperature Θ changes its sign by Al doping. • Positive Θ should be related to shallow donors.

  4. Photovoltaic Properties of Co-doped ZnO Thin Film on Glass Substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabia Aye; Zin Ma Ma; May Nwe Oo; Than Than Win; Yin Maung Maung; Ko Ko Kyaw Soe

    2011-12-01

    Cobalt (Co) 0.4 mol doped zinc oxide (ZnO) fine powder was prepared by solid state mixed oxide route. Phase formation and crystal structure of Co-doped ZnO (CZO) powder were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the micro structure of Co doped ZnO powder. Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescent (EDXRF) technique gave the elemental content of cobalt and zinc. Co-doped ZnO film was formed on glass substrate by spin coating technique. Photovoltaic properties of CZO/glass cell were measured.

  5. Optical and magnetic properties of Co-doped CuO flower/plates/particles-like nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basith, N Mohamed; Vijaya, J Judith; Kennedy, L John; Bououdina, M; Hussain, Shamima

    2014-03-01

    In this study, pure and Co-doped CuO nanostructures (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 at wt% of Co) were synthesized by microwave combustion method. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). Powder X-ray diffraction patterns refined by the Rietveld method indicated the formation of single-phase monoclinic structure. The surface morphology and elemental analysis of Co-doped CuO nanostructures were studied by using HR-SEM and EDX. Interestingly, the morphology was found to change considerably from nanoflowers to nanoplates then to nanoparticles with the variation of Co concentration. The optical band gap calculated using DRS was found to be 2.1 eV for pure CuO and increases up to 3.4 eV with increasing cobalt content. Photoluminescence measurements also confirm these results. The magnetic measurements indicated that the obtained nanostructures were ferromagnetic at room temperature with an optimum value of saturation magnetization at 1.0 wt.% of Co-doped CuO, i.e., 970 micro emu/g.

  6. Magnetic behavior of Co–Mn co-doped ZnO nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hengda; Liu, Xinzhong; Zheng, Zhigong

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report on systematic studies of the magnetic properties of Co and Mn co-doped ZnO nanoparticles prepared by a sol–gel technique. The effect of the concentration of the doping ions on the magnetic properties of Co and Mn co-doped ZnO nanoparticles is presented. X-ray diffraction characterizations (XRD) of co-doped ZnO nanoparticles are all wurtzite structure. The Zn 0.96 Co 0.02 Mn 0.02 O nanoparticles and Zn 0.94 Co 0.02 Mn 0.04 O nanoparticles display ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature. Superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer figures show that with the concentration of the Mn ions increased, the saturation magnetic moment (M s ) increased, and the magnetic is probably due to the co-doping of the Mn ions. Our results demonstrate that the Mn ions doping concentration play an important role in the ferromagnetic properties of Co–Mn co-doped ZnO nanoparticles at room temperature. - Highlights: • The effect of the doping ions on the magnetic properties is presented. • The magnetic is probably due to the co-doping of the Mn ions. • The Mn ions concentration play an important role in the ferromagnetic properties

  7. Rapid synthesis of Co, Ni co-doped ZnO nanoparticles: Optical and electrochemical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romeiro, Fernanda C.; Marinho, Juliane Z.; Lemos, Samantha C.S. [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, 38400-902 Uberlândia, MG (Brazil); Moura, Ana P. de [LIEC, Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista, 14800-900 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Freire, Poliana G. [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, 38400-902 Uberlândia, MG (Brazil); Silva, Luis F. da; Longo, Elson [LIEC, Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista, 14800-900 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Munoz, Rodrigo A.A. [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, 38400-902 Uberlândia, MG (Brazil); Lima, Renata C., E-mail: rclima@iqufu.ufu.br [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, 38400-902 Uberlândia, MG (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    We report for the first time a rapid preparation of Zn{sub 1−2x}Co{sub x}Ni{sub x}O nanoparticles via a versatile and environmentally friendly route, microwave-assisted hydrothermal (MAH) method. The Co, Ni co-doped ZnO nanoparticles present an effect on photoluminescence and electrochemical properties, exhibiting excellent electrocatalytic performance compared to undoped ZnO sample. Photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements indicated the reduction of the green–orange–red visible emission region after adding Co and Ni ions, revealing the formation of alternative pathways for the generated recombination. The presence of these metallic ions into ZnO creates different defects, contributing to a local structural disorder, as revealed by Raman spectra. Electrochemical experiments revealed that the electrocatalytic oxidation of dopamine on ZnO attached to multi-walled carbon nanotubes improved significantly in the Co, Ni co-doped ZnO samples when compared to pure ZnO. - Graphical abstract: Rapid synthesis of Co, Ni co-doped ZnO nanoparticles: optical and electrochemical properties. Co, Ni co-doped ZnO hexagonal nanoparticles with optical and electrocatalytic properties were successfully prepared for the first time using a microwave hydrothermal method at mild conditions. - Highlights: • Co{sup 2+} and Ni{sup 2+} into ZnO lattice obtained a mild and environmentally friendly process. • The heating method strongly influences in the growth and shape of the particles. • Short-range defects generated by the ions insertion affects the photoluminescence. • Doped ZnO nanoparticles improve the electrocatalytic properties of pure oxide.

  8. Speciation of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles exposed to culture medium and lymphocyte cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Spectral fits and linear combination data for ZnO and CuO nanoparticles exposure during toxicity testing. This dataset is associated with the following publication:...

  9. Optical and structural properties of individual Co-doped ZnO microwires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolomys, O. F.; Strelchuk, V. V.; Rarata, S. V.; Hayn, R.; Savoyant, A.; Giovannelli, F.; Delorme, F.; Tkach, V.

    2018-06-01

    The Co-doped ZnO microwires (MWs) were grown using the optical furnace method. We used Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), polarized micro-Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) and optical absorption spectroscopy to systematic investigation of the optical and structural properties of Co-doped ZnO MWs. The SEM analysis reveals that Co-doped ZnO MWs has hexagonal facets and cavity inside. The EDS results confirmed the presence and non-uniform distribution of Co impurities in the samples. Co doping of ZnO MWs leads to the decreased intensity, drastically broadening and high-energy shift of the NBE PL band. The red emission band at 1.85 eV originates from 2E(2G) → 4A2 (4F) intra-3d-transition of Co2+ in the ZnO lattice has been observed. The intense structured absorption bands within the near infrared ranges 3800-4800 and 5500-9000 cm-1 are caused by electronic spin-allowed transitions 4T2(F) ← 4A2(F) and 4T1(F) ← 4A2(F) of the tetrahedrally coordinated Co2+ (3 d7) ions substituting Zn2+ ions in Co-doped ZnO MWs. Micro-Raman studies of Co doped ZnO MWs show doping/disorder induced additional modes as compared to the undoped sample. The resonant enhancement of the additional local Co-related A1-symmetry Raman mode is observed in the parallel polarization geometry y(z , z) ybar . For the Co doped ZnO MWs, the enhancement of the additional Co-related local vibration mode with an increase in the excitation photon energy is also observed in the Raman spectra.

  10. Piezoelectricity and charge trapping in ZnO and Co-doped ZnO thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico D’Agostino

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectricity and charge storage of undoped and Co-doped ZnO thin films were investigated by means of PiezoResponse Force Microscopy and Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy. We found that Co-doped ZnO exhibits a large piezoelectric response, with the mean value of piezoelectric matrix element d33 slightly lower than in the undoped sample. Moreover, we demonstrate that Co-doping affects the homogeneity of the piezoelectric response, probably as a consequence of the lower crystalline degree exhibited by the doped samples. We also investigate the nature of the interface between a metal electrode, made up of the PtIr AFM tip, and the films as well as the phenomenon of charge storage. We find Schottky contacts in both cases, with a barrier value higher in PtIr/ZnO than in PtIr/Co-doped ZnO, indicating an increase in the work function due to Co-doping.

  11. Structural and optical properties of Co-doped ZnO nanocrystallites prepared by a one-step solution route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ping; Wang Sha; Li Jibiao; Wei Yu

    2012-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocrystallites with different Co-doping levels were successfully synthesized by a simple one-step solution route at low temperature (95 deg. C) in this study. The structure and morphology of the samples thus obtained were characterized by XRD, EDS, XPS and FESEM. Results show that cobalt ions, in the oxidation state of Co 2+ , replace Zn 2+ ions in the ZnO lattice without changing its wurtzite structure. The dopant content varies from 0.59% to 5.39%, based on Co-doping levels. The pure ZnO particles exhibit well-defined 3D flower-like morphology with an average size of 550 nm, while the particles obtained after Co-doping are mostly cauliflower-like nanoclusters with an average size of 120 nm. Both the flower-like pure ZnO and the cauliflower-like Co:ZnO nanoclusters are composed of densely arrayed nanorods. The optical properties of the ZnO nanocrystallites following Co-doping were also investigated by UV-Visible absorption and Photoluminescence spectra. Our results indicate that Co-doping can change the energy-band structure and effectively adjust the luminescence properties of ZnO nanocrystallites. - Highlights: → Co-doped ZnO nanocrystallites were synthesized via a simple one-step solution route. → Co 2+ ions incorporated into the ZnO lattice without changing its wurtzite structure. → Co-doping changed the energy band structure of ZnO. → Co-doping effectively adjusted the luminescence properties of ZnO nanocrystallites.

  12. Structural and optical properties of Co-doped ZnO nanocrystallites prepared by a one-step solution route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Ping, E-mail: lipingchina@yahoo.com.cn [Provincial Key Laboratory of Inorganic Nanomaterials, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Hebei Normal University, 113 Yuhua Road, Shijiazhuang 050016, Hebei (China); Wang Sha; Li Jibiao; Wei Yu [Provincial Key Laboratory of Inorganic Nanomaterials, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Hebei Normal University, 113 Yuhua Road, Shijiazhuang 050016, Hebei (China)

    2012-01-15

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocrystallites with different Co-doping levels were successfully synthesized by a simple one-step solution route at low temperature (95 deg. C) in this study. The structure and morphology of the samples thus obtained were characterized by XRD, EDS, XPS and FESEM. Results show that cobalt ions, in the oxidation state of Co{sup 2+}, replace Zn{sup 2+} ions in the ZnO lattice without changing its wurtzite structure. The dopant content varies from 0.59% to 5.39%, based on Co-doping levels. The pure ZnO particles exhibit well-defined 3D flower-like morphology with an average size of 550 nm, while the particles obtained after Co-doping are mostly cauliflower-like nanoclusters with an average size of 120 nm. Both the flower-like pure ZnO and the cauliflower-like Co:ZnO nanoclusters are composed of densely arrayed nanorods. The optical properties of the ZnO nanocrystallites following Co-doping were also investigated by UV-Visible absorption and Photoluminescence spectra. Our results indicate that Co-doping can change the energy-band structure and effectively adjust the luminescence properties of ZnO nanocrystallites. - Highlights: > Co-doped ZnO nanocrystallites were synthesized via a simple one-step solution route. > Co{sup 2+} ions incorporated into the ZnO lattice without changing its wurtzite structure. > Co-doping changed the energy band structure of ZnO. > Co-doping effectively adjusted the luminescence properties of ZnO nanocrystallites.

  13. Structural, chemical and magnetic properties of secondary phases in Co-doped ZnO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ney, A; Kovács, András; Ney, V

    2011-01-01

    , chemical and magnetic properties of Co-doped ZnO samples. It can be established on a quantitative basis that the superparamagnetic (SPM) behavior observed by integral superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry is not an intrinsic property of the material but stems from precipitations...

  14. Magnetic properties in (Mn,Fe)-codoped ZnO nanowire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Huawei; Lu, Pengfei; Cong, Zixiang; Yu, Zhongyuan; Cai, Ningning; Zhang, Xianlong; Gao, Tao; Wang, Shumin

    2013-01-01

    Using the first-principles density functional theory, we have studied the electronic structures and magnetic properties of Mn/Fe codoped ZnO nanowires systematically. The calculated results of formation energy indicate that the configuration of the lowest energy where Mn and Fe atoms form nearest neighbors on the outer cylindrical surface layer along the [0001] direction, will be determined. The magnetic coupling of 8 types of Mn/Fe codoped ZnO nanowires was investigated and ferromagnetic state was found in certain configurations. The mechanism is from the fierce hybridization between 3d of Mn and Fe with O 2p near the Fermi level. The relative energy difference for configuration VIII is 0.221 eV, which indicates that room temperature ferromagnetism could be obtained in such a system and Mn/Fe codoped ZnO nanowires are a promising nanoscale spintronic material. - Highlights: • The stable structure prefers that Mn/Fe form nearest neighbors on the outer surface. • The fierce p–d hybridization is responsible for ferromagnetic (FM) coupling. • Mn/Fe codoped ZnO nanowire is a promising FM semiconductor material

  15. Magnetic properties in (Mn,Fe)-codoped ZnO nanowire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Huawei [Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications (Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications), Ministry of Education, Beijing 100876 (China); Lu, Pengfei, E-mail: photon.bupt@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications (Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications), Ministry of Education, Beijing 100876 (China); Cong, Zixiang [School of Information and Communication Engineering, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100976 (China); Yu, Zhongyuan; Cai, Ningning; Zhang, Xianlong [Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications (Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications), Ministry of Education, Beijing 100876 (China); Gao, Tao [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Wang, Shumin [Photonics Laboratory, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2013-12-02

    Using the first-principles density functional theory, we have studied the electronic structures and magnetic properties of Mn/Fe codoped ZnO nanowires systematically. The calculated results of formation energy indicate that the configuration of the lowest energy where Mn and Fe atoms form nearest neighbors on the outer cylindrical surface layer along the [0001] direction, will be determined. The magnetic coupling of 8 types of Mn/Fe codoped ZnO nanowires was investigated and ferromagnetic state was found in certain configurations. The mechanism is from the fierce hybridization between 3d of Mn and Fe with O 2p near the Fermi level. The relative energy difference for configuration VIII is 0.221 eV, which indicates that room temperature ferromagnetism could be obtained in such a system and Mn/Fe codoped ZnO nanowires are a promising nanoscale spintronic material. - Highlights: • The stable structure prefers that Mn/Fe form nearest neighbors on the outer surface. • The fierce p–d hybridization is responsible for ferromagnetic (FM) coupling. • Mn/Fe codoped ZnO nanowire is a promising FM semiconductor material.

  16. CuO nanoparticles supported on nitrogen and sulfur co-doped graphene nanocomposites for non-enzymatic glucose sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Meixia [Hebei University of Engineering, Faculty of Material Science and Engineering (China); Guo, Qingbin, E-mail: guoqingbinhue@163.com [Hebei University of Engineering, Academic Affairs office (China); Xie, Juan; Li, Yongde; Feng, Yapeng [Hebei University of Engineering, Faculty of Material Science and Engineering (China)

    2017-01-15

    Developing highly active catalysts to promote the electrocatalytic glucose oxidation (EGO) is a crucial demand for non-enzymatic glucose sensing. Herein, we reported the use of nitrogen and sulfur co-doped graphene (NSG) as a novel support material for anchoring CuO nanoparticles and obtained CuO/NSG was employed as an efficient EGO catalyst for non-enzymatic glucose sensing. The results showed that the NSG endowed the CuO/NSG with large surface area, increased structural defects, improved conductivity, and strong covalent coupling between NSG and CuO. Owing to the significant contribution of NSG and the synergistic effect of NSG and CuO, the CuO/NSG exhibited a remarkably higher EGO activity than CuO and CuO/reduced graphene oxide. The CuO/NSG-based sensor displayed excellent glucose sensing performances with a considerably low detection limit of 0.07 μM. These findings elucidate that the NSG is a promising support material for non-enzymatic glucose detection.

  17. TUNABLE MAGNETIC AND ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF Co-DOPED ZnO FILMS BY VARYING OXYGEN PARTIAL PRESSURE

    OpenAIRE

    L. G. WANG; H. W. ZHANG; X. L. TANG; Y. X. LI; Z. Y. ZHONG

    2011-01-01

    High quality Co-doped ZnO films with good reproducibility have been prepared under different oxygen partial pressure by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. These films were characterized using numerous characterization techniques including X-ray diffraction, electrical transport, and magnetization measurements. The effect of oxygen partial pressure on the structural, magnetic, and electrical properties of Co-doped ZnO films has been systematically studied. It was found that the structural, ...

  18. Photoluminescence properties of Co-doped ZnO nanocrystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lommens, P.; Smet, P.F.; De Mello Donega, C.

    2006-01-01

    We performed photoluminescence experiments on colloidal, Co -doped ZnO nanocrystals in order to study the electronic properties of Co in a ZnO host. Room temperature measurements showed, next to the ZnO exciton and trap emission, an additional emission related to the Co dopant. The spectral...... position and width of this emission does not depend on particle size or Co concentration. At 8 K, a series of ZnO bulk phonon replicas appear on the Co-emission band. We conclude that Co ions are strongly localized in the ZnO host, making the formation of a Co d-band unlikely. Magnetic measurements...

  19. Toxicity of nanoparticles of CuO, ZnO and TiO2 to microalgae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruoja, Villem; Dubourguier, Henri-Charles; Kasemets, Kaja; Kahru, Anne

    2009-02-01

    Toxicities of ZnO, TiO2 and CuO nanoparticles to Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata were determined using OECD 201 algal growth inhibition test taking in account potential shading of light. The results showed that the shading effect by nanoparticles was negligible. ZnO nanoparticles were most toxic followed by nano CuO and nano TiO2. The toxicities of bulk and nano ZnO particles were both similar to that of ZnSO4 (72 h EC50 approximately 0.04 mg Zn/l). Thus, in this low concentration range the toxicity was attributed solely to solubilized Zn2+ ions. Bulk TiO2 (EC50=35.9 mg Ti/l) and bulk CuO (EC50=11.55 mg Cu/l) were less toxic than their nano formulations (EC50=5.83 mg Ti/l and 0.71 mg Cu/l). NOEC (no-observed-effect-concentrations) that may be used for risk assessment purposes for bulk and nano ZnO did not differ (approximately 0.02 mg Zn/l). NOEC for nano CuO was 0.42 mg Cu/l and for bulk CuO 8.03 mg Cu/l. For nano TiO2 the NOEC was 0.98 mg Ti/l and for bulk TiO2 10.1 mg Ti/l. Nano TiO2 formed characteristic aggregates entrapping algal cells that may contribute to the toxic effect of nano TiO2 to algae. At 72 h EC50 values of nano CuO and CuO, 25% of copper from nano CuO was bioavailable and only 0.18% of copper from bulk CuO. Thus, according to recombinant bacterial and yeast Cu-sensors, copper from nano CuO was 141-fold more bioavailable than from bulk CuO. Also, toxic effects of Cu oxides to algae were due to bioavailable copper ions. To our knowledge, this is one of the first systematic studies on effects of metal oxide nanoparticles on algal growth and the first describing toxic effects of nano CuO towards algae.

  20. Effects of CuO co-doping on γ-ray irradiation resistance of active ions doped phosphate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhihuan [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); ENEA-UTTMAT, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); Baccaro, Stefania; Cemmi, Alessia [ENEA-UTTMAT, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); Shen, Wei [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Chen, Guorong, E-mail: grchen@ecust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2013-09-15

    The effect of copper ion doping on the γ-ray irradiation resistance of Mn{sup 2+} and Pr{sup 3+} doped phosphate glasses has been studied. UV–visible transmission spectra and photoluminescence spectra have been measured before and after γ-irradiation to characterize the radiation-induced defects. The electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of the irradiated samples with, and without Cu ions have been compared to show the ability of Cu ions to suppress the generation of radiation-induced color centers. The differential transmission spectra and the radiation-induced absorption coefficients have also been calculated for discussion of the observed phenomena. The much improved γ-irradiation resistance of Mn{sup 2+} and Pr{sup 3+} doped phosphate glasses has been demonstrated through CuO co-doping.

  1. Improved photocatalytic activity of ZnO coupled CuO nanocomposites synthesized by reflux condensation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mageshwari, K.; Nataraj, D.; Pal, Tarasankar; Sathyamoorthy, R.; Park, Jinsub

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CuO–ZnO nanocomposites were synthesized by reflux condensation method. • Photodegradation of methyl orange and methylene blue dyes was investigated. • Morphological studies show 3D flower-like CuO microspheres adorned with ZnO nanorods. • Optical analysis showed characteristic absorption bands of CuO and ZnO. • CuO–ZnO nanocomposites exhibited superior photocatalytic activity than CuO. - Abstract: Nanostructured CuO–ZnO nanocomposites were successfully synthesized for different Zn 2+ concentrations by reflux condensation method without using any surfactant, and their photocatalytic activity was evaluated using methyl orange and methylene blue dyes under UV light irradiation. XRD revealed the formation of CuO–ZnO nanocomposites, composing of monoclinic CuO and hexagonal ZnO. XPS analysis revealed that CuO–ZnO nanocomposites are made up of Cu(II), Zn(II) and O. FESEM and TEM images showed that pure CuO exhibit 3D flower-like microstructure, while the CuO–ZnO nanocomposites prepared for different Zn 2+ concentrations have 3D flower-like CuO, microstructure adorned with rod-like ZnO particles. UV–Vis DRS showed absorption bands corresponding to CuO and ZnO around 960 nm and 395 nm, respectively. PL spectra of CuO–ZnO nanocomposites exhibited reduced PL emissions compared to pure CuO, indicating the low recombination rate of photogenerated electrons and holes. Photodegradation assay revealed that catalytic activity of CuO–ZnO nanocomposites increased with Zn 2+ concentration, and also effectively degrade methyl orange and methylene blue dyes when compared to pure CuO. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of CuO–ZnO nanocomposites were mainly ascribed to the reduced recombination and efficient separation of photogenerated charge carriers. The possible mechanism for the improved photocatalytic activity of CuO–ZnO nanocomposites was proposed

  2. Complete transformation of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles in culture medium and lymphocyte cells during toxicity testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here, we present evidence on complete transformation of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles, which are among the most heavily studied metal oxide particles, during 24 h in vitro toxicological testing with human T-lymphocytes. Synchrotron radiation-based X-ray absorption near edge st...

  3. Comparison of Antibacterial Effects of ZnO and CuO Nanoparticles Coated Brackets against Streptococcus Mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramazanzadeh, Baratali; Jahanbin, Arezoo; Yaghoubi, Masoud; Shahtahmassbi, Nasser; Ghazvini, Kiarash; Shakeri, Mohammadtaghi; Shafaee, Hooman

    2015-09-01

    During the orthodontic treatment, microbial plaques may accumulate around the brackets and cause caries, especially in high-risk patients. Finding ways to eliminate this microbial plaque seems to be essential. The aim of this study was to compare the antibacterial effects of nano copper oxide (CuO) and nano zinc oxide (ZnO) coated brackets against Streptococcus mutans (S.mutans) in order to decrease the risk of caries around the orthodontic brackets during the treatment. Sixty brackets were coated with nanoparticles of ZnO (n=20), CuO (n=20) and CuO-ZnO (n=20). Twelve uncoated brackets constituted the control group. The brackets were bonded to the crowns of extracted premolars, sterilized and prepared for antimicrobial tests (S.mutans ATCC35668). The samples taken after 0, 2, 4, 6 and 24 hours were cultured on agar plates. Colonies were counted 24 hours after incubation. One-way ANOVA and Tukey tests were used for statistical analysis. In CuO and CuO-ZnO coated brackets, no colony growth was seen after two hours. Between 0-6 hours, the mean colony counts were not significantly different between the ZnO and the control group (p>0.05). During 6-24 hours, the growth of S.mutans was significantly reduced by ZnO nanoparticles in comparison with the control group (pbrackets have better antimicrobial effect on S.mutans than ZnO coated brackets.

  4. First-principles study on electronic and magnetic properties of (Mn,Fe)-codoped ZnO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Huawei; Lu, Pengfei; Cai, Ningning; Zhang, Xianlong; Yu, Zhongyuan; Gao, Tao; Wang, Shumin

    2014-01-01

    First-principle calculations have been performed to investigate the electronic and magnetic properties of (Mn,Fe)-codoped ZnO within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and GGA+U schemes. The formation energy of five different configurations is investigated and the ground state is demonstrated to be ferromagnetic ordering. By applying the U correction, the band gap energy of pure ZnO is close to the experimental values, while the ferromagnetic ordering of the ground state remains unchanged. The ferromagnetic stabilization is mediated by double exchange mechanism. In addition, defects corresponding to Zn-vacancy and O-vacancy cannot enhance the ferromagnetism obviously. These results indicate that (Mn,Fe)-codoped ZnO are promising magneto-electronic and spintronic materials. - Highlights: • We have considered 5 different configurations of Mn/Fe codoped bulk ZnO. • The formation energy is calculated to investigate the structural stability. • The double exchange mechanism is responsible for the ferromagnetic behavior. • Defects are not effective method to get room temperature ferromagnetism. • Mn/Fe codoped ZnO are promising ferromagnetic semiconductor materials

  5. First-principles study on electronic and magnetic properties of (Mn,Fe)-codoped ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Huawei [Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications (Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications), Ministry of Education, Beijing 100876 (China); Lu, Pengfei, E-mail: photon.bupt@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications (Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications), Ministry of Education, Beijing 100876 (China); Cai, Ningning; Zhang, Xianlong; Yu, Zhongyuan [Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications (Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications), Ministry of Education, Beijing 100876 (China); Gao, Tao [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Wang, Shumin [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Photonics Laboratory, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2014-02-15

    First-principle calculations have been performed to investigate the electronic and magnetic properties of (Mn,Fe)-codoped ZnO within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and GGA+U schemes. The formation energy of five different configurations is investigated and the ground state is demonstrated to be ferromagnetic ordering. By applying the U correction, the band gap energy of pure ZnO is close to the experimental values, while the ferromagnetic ordering of the ground state remains unchanged. The ferromagnetic stabilization is mediated by double exchange mechanism. In addition, defects corresponding to Zn-vacancy and O-vacancy cannot enhance the ferromagnetism obviously. These results indicate that (Mn,Fe)-codoped ZnO are promising magneto-electronic and spintronic materials. - Highlights: • We have considered 5 different configurations of Mn/Fe codoped bulk ZnO. • The formation energy is calculated to investigate the structural stability. • The double exchange mechanism is responsible for the ferromagnetic behavior. • Defects are not effective method to get room temperature ferromagnetism. • Mn/Fe codoped ZnO are promising ferromagnetic semiconductor materials.

  6. Characteristics of hydrogen co-doped ZnO : Al thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S H; Lee, T S; Lee, K S; Cheong, B; Kim, W M; Kim, Y D

    2008-01-01

    ZnO films co-doped with H and Al (HAZO) were prepared by sputtering ZnO targets containing 1 wt% Al 2 O 3 on Corning glass at a substrate temperature of 150 deg. C with Ar and H 2 /Ar gas mixtures. The effects of hydrogen addition to Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films with low Al content on the electrical, the optical and the structural properties of the as-grown films as well as the vacuum- and air-annealed films were examined. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy analysis showed that the hydrogen concentration increased with increasing H 2 in sputter gas. For the as-deposited films, the free carrier number increased with increasing H 2 . The Hall mobility increased at low hydrogen content, reaching a maximum before decreasing with a further increase of H 2 content in sputter gas. Annealing at 300 deg. C resulted in the removal of hydrogen, causing a decrease in the carrier concentration. It was shown that hydrogen might exist as single isolated interstitial hydrogen bound with oxygen, thereby acting like an anionic dopant. Also, it was shown that the addition of hydrogen to ZnO films doped with low metallic dopant concentration could yield transparent conducting films with very low absorption loss as well as with proper electrical properties, which is suitable for thin film solar cell applications

  7. Synthesis and characterization of ZrO2-CuO co-doped ceria nanoparticles via chemical precipitation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viruthagiri, G; Gopinathan, E; Shanmugam, N; Gobi, R

    2014-10-15

    In the present study, the fluorite cubic phase of bare and ZrO2-CuO co-doped ceria (CeO2) nanoparticles have been synthesized through a simple chemical precipitation method. X-ray diffraction results revealed that average grain sizes of the samples are within 5-6nm range. The functional groups present in the samples were identified by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) study. Surface area measurement was carried out for the ceria nanoparticles to characterize the surface properties of the synthesized samples. The direct optical cutoff wavelength from DRS analysis was blue-shifted evidently with respect to the bulk material and indicated quantum-size confinement effect in the nanocrystallites. PL spectra revealed the strong and sharp UV emission at 401nm. The surface morphology and the element constitution of the pure and doped nanoparticles were studied by scanning electron microscope fitted with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer arrangement. The thermal decomposition course was followed using thermo gravimetric and differential thermal analyses (TG-DTA). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. In situ codoping of a CuO absorber layer with aluminum and titanium: the impact of codoping and interface engineering on the performance of a CuO-based heterojunction solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masudy-Panah, Saeid; Radhakrishnan, K.; Ru, Tan Hui; Yi, Ren; Wong, Ten It; Dalapati, Goutam Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Aluminum-doped cupric oxide (CuO:Al) was prepared via an out-diffusion process of Al from an Al-coated substrate into the deposited CuO thin film upon thermal treatment. The effect of the annealing temperature on the structural and optical properties of CuO:Al was investigated in detail. The influence of Al incorporation on the photovoltaic properties was then investigated by preparing a p-CuO:Al/n-Si heterojunction solar cell. A significant improvement in the performance of the solar cell was achieved by controlling the out-diffusion of Al. A novel in situ method to co-dope CuO with Al and titanium (Ti) has been proposed to demonstrate CuO-based solar cells with the front surface field (FSF) design. The FSF design was created by depositing a CuO:Al layer followed by a Ti-doped CuO (CuO:Ti) layer. This is the first successful experimental demonstration of the codoping of a CuO thin film and CuO thin film solar cells with the FSF design. The open circuit voltage (V oc), short circuit current density (J sc) and fill factor (FF) of the fabricated solar cells were significantly higher for the FSF device compared to devices without FSF. The FF of this device improved by 68% through the FSF design and a record efficiency ɳ of 2% was achieved. The improvement of the solar cell properties is mainly attributed to the reduction of surface recombination, which influences the charge carrier collection.

  9. Suppression of Na interstitials in Na-F codoped ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Wenxing; Mei, Zengxia; Tang, Aihua; Liang, Huili; Du, Xiaolong

    2018-04-01

    Controlling the formation of interstitial Na (Nai) self-compensating defects has been a long-term physics problem for effective Na doping in ZnO. Herein, we present an experimental approach to the suppression of Nai defects in ZnO via Na and F codoping under an oxygen-rich condition during the molecular beam epitaxy growth process. It is found that the incorporation of such large numbers of Na and F dopants (˜1020 cm-3) does not cause an obvious influence on the lattice parameters. Hall-effect measurements demonstrate that F doping efficiently raises the Fermi level (EF) of ZnO films, which is expected to make the formation energy of Nai and NaZn increase and decrease, respectively. Most of the Na atoms occupy the substitutional Zn sites, and the formation of Nai is suppressed consequently. Secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements reveal that F and Na atoms are tightly bonded together due to their strong Coulomb interaction. The enhanced deep level emission (DLE) in ZnO:Na-F is ascribed to the considerable amount of isolated Zn vacancy (VZn) defects induced by the elevated EF and the formation of neutral (" separators="| FO + - Na Zn - ) 0 complexes. On the other hand, formation of (" separators="| FO + - VZn 2 - ) - complexes in ZnO:F exhausts most of the isolated Zn vacancies, leading to the disappearance of the DLE band.

  10. Synergistic effect of indium and gallium co-doping on the properties of RF sputtered ZnO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheera, M.; Girija, K. G.; Kaur, Manmeet; Geetha, V.; Debnath, A. K.; Karri, Malvika; Thota, Manoj Kumar; Vatsa, R. K.; Muthe, K. P.; Gadkari, S. C.

    2018-04-01

    ZnO thin films were synthesized using RF magnetron sputtering, with simultaneous incorporation of Indium (In) and Gallium (Ga). The structural, optical, chemical composition and surface morphology of the pure and co-doped (IGZO) thin films were characterized by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible spectroscopy, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), and Raman spectroscopy. XRD revealed that these films were oriented along c-axis with hexagonal wurtzite structure. The (002) diffraction peak in the co-doped sample was observed at 33.76° with a slight shift towards lower 2θ values as compared to pure ZnO. The surface morphology of the two thin films was observed to differ. For pure ZnO films, round grains were observed and for IGZO thin films round as well as rod type grains were observed. All thin films synthesized show excellent optical properties with more than 90% transmission in the visible region and band gap of the films is observed to decrease with co-doping. The co doping of In and Ga is therefore expected to provide a broad range optical and physical properties of ZnO thin films for a variety of optoelectronic applications.

  11. Structural, optical and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Co-doped ZnO thin films grown by sol-gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayani, Zohra Nazir; Shah, Iqra; Zulfiqar, Bareera; Sabah, Aneeqa [Lahore College for Women Univ., Lahore (Pakistan); Riaz, Saira; Naseem, Shahzad [Univ. of the Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan). Centre of Excellence in Solid State Physics

    2018-04-01

    Cobalt-doped ZnO thin films have been deposited using a sol-gel route by changing the number of coats on the substrate from 6 to 18. This project deals with various film thicknesses by increasing the number of deposited coats. The effect of thickness on structural, magnetic, surface morphology and optical properties of Co-doped ZnO thin film was studied. The crystal structure of the Co-doped ZnO films was investigated by X-ray diffraction. The films have polycrystalline wurtzite hexagonal structures. A Co{sup 2+} ion takes the place of a Zn{sup 2+} ion in the lattice without creating any distortion in its hexagonal wurtzite structure. An examination of the optical transmission spectra showed that the energy band gap of the Co-doped ZnO films increased from 3.87 to 3.97 eV with an increase in the number of coatings on the substrate. Ferromagnetic behaviour was confirmed by measurements using a vibrating sample magnetometer. The surface morphology of thin films was assessed by scanning electron microscope. The grain size on the surface of thin films increased with an increase in the number of coats.

  12. Preparation and characterization of Co-doped ZnO nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Huaming; Nie Sha

    2009-01-01

    Freeze-drying is a convenient cryochemical powder processing method. In this paper, Co-doped ZnO nanomaterials (CZN) with Co content from 2 mol% to 10 mol% have been successfully synthesized via a novel freeze-drying route. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) were used to characterize the structure and morphology of the as-synthesized samples. All samples have a similar hexagonal wurtzite phase without metal cobalt, cobalt oxides or composites in the samples with Co concentration below 6 mol%. TEM image shows that CZN (4 mol% Co) is nanometer scale with average crystal size of 40 nm. Samples have a spherical morphology with moderate aggregation. The band gap energy of CZN from ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy decreases with increasing the Co doping concentration

  13. Local fields in Co and Mn Co-doped ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, W., E-mail: wsato@se.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Kanazawa University, Institute of Science and Engineering (Japan); Kano, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Nakagawa, M. [Kanazawa University, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology (Japan); Kobayashi, Y. [The University of Electro-Communications, Department of Engineering Science (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    The magnetic properties of ZnO co-doped with 5 at. % Co and 5 at. % Mn(Zn{sub 0.90}Co{sub 0.05}Mn{sub 0.05}O) synthesized by a solid-state reaction were investigated by means of {sup 57}Co emission Mössbauer spectroscopy. The majority of the probe ions (80 %) residing in defect-free substitutional Zn sites take the oxidation state of {sup 57}Fe {sup 2+}, and the others presumably form local defects taking the state of {sup 57}Fe {sup 3+} at room temperature. Both components show doublets, and RT ferromagnetism was thus absent in the sample. For the measurement at 10 K, spectral broadening was observed, implying a possible presence of a weak magnetic component.

  14. A boron and gallium co-doped ZnO intermediate layer for ZnO/Si heterojunction diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuanxi; Huang, Jian; Li, Bing; Tang, Ke; Ma, Yuncheng; Cao, Meng; Wang, Lin; Wang, Linjun

    2018-01-01

    ZnO (Zinc oxide)/Si (Silicon) heterojunctions were prepared by depositing n-type ZnO films on p-type single crystal Si substrates using magnetron sputtering. A boron and gallium co-doped ZnO (BGZO) high conductivity intermediate layer was deposited between aurum (Au) electrodes and ZnO films. The influence of the BGZO layer on the properties of Au/ZnO contacts and the performance of ZnO/Si heterojunctions was investigated. The results show an improvement in contact resistance by introducing the BGZO layer. Compared with the ZnO/Si heterojunction, the BGZO/ZnO/Si heterojunction exhibits a larger forward current, a smaller turn-on voltage and higher ratio of ultraviolet (UV) photo current/dark current.

  15. Investigation of Structural, Magnetic, and Optical Properties of ZnO Codoped with Co and Cd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubna Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Co and Cd have been codoped in ZnO using a simple solid state reaction technique to synthesize dilute magnetic oxide semiconductors of composition Zn0.9Co0.1−xCdxO (x = 0.0-0.1 with an increment of 0.02. Hexagonal wurtzite structure has been obtained for samples up to x = 0.06, using X-ray diffractometry. However, at x = 0.08 and 0.1, secondary peak of CdO is observed. Raman spectra of the samples have been obtained in 200–800 cm−1 range. UV-VIS spectrophotometer is used to study the optical properties, which shows that band gap energy decreases with the increase in Cd concentration. A weak ferromagnetic behavior was evident which decreased further by adding Cd in the series. Room temperature resistivity measurements performed using four-point probe technique showed that their values lie in the semiconductor range. Structural morphology of the samples has been investigated by a scanning electron microscope and grain size has been determined. Raman spectra and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the successful incorporation of Co and Cd ions into the host ZnO lattice.

  16. Properties of fluorine and tin co-doped ZnO thin films deposited by sol–gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Zhanchang; Zhang, Pengwei; Tian, Xinlong; Cheng, Guo; Xie, Yinghao; Zhang, Huangchu; Zeng, Xiangfu; Xiao, Chumin; Hu, Guanghui; Wei, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •F and Sn co-doped ZnO thin films were synthesized by sol–gel method. •The effects of different F doping concentrations were investigated. •The co-doped nanocrystals exhibit good crystal quality. •The origin of the photoluminescence emissions was discussed. •The films showed high transmittance and low resistivity. -- Abstract: Highly transparent and conducting fluorine (F) and tin (Sn) co-doped ZnO (FTZO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates by the sol–gel processing. The structure and morphology of the films are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) with various F doping concentrations. SEM images showed that the hexagonal ZnO crystals were well-arranged on the glass substrates and the HRTEM images indicated that the individual nanocrystals are highly oriented and exhibited a perfect lattice structure. Owing to its high carrier concentration and mobility, as well as good crystal quality, a minimum resistivity of 1 × 10 −3 Ω cm was obtained from the FTZO thin film with 3% F doping, and the average optical transmittance in the entire visible wavelength region was higher than 90%. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) study confirmed the substitution of Zn 2+ by Sn ions and Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) observed for pure and FTZO thin films suggested the films exhibit a good crystallinity with a very low defect concentration

  17. New vision to CuO, ZnO, and TiO2 nanoparticles: their outcome and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chibber, Sandesh; Ansari, Shakeel Ahmed; Satar, Rukhsana

    2013-01-01

    Nanomaterials and nanotechnology have attracted more and more attention due to their wide ranges of applications in various fields. With a high level of surface energy, high magnetism, high surface area, and low melting point, engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) has been widely used in industry for various applications. Metal nanoparticles, in particular, have been shown to cause significant biological effects. Review discusses cytotoxic to neurotoxic effects of CuO, ZnO, and TiO 2 nanoparticles based on the scenario drawn from various in vitro and in vivo studies. ENPs such as TiO 2 and ZnO NPs have great practical importance in industrial applications. CuO NPs is also widely used in biomedical applications as catalyst supports, drug carriers, and gene delivery. However, study conducted on TiO 2 NPs have forecast that oxidative DNA damage could be attributed due to reduced glutathione levels with concomitant increase in lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species generation. Moreover, there are many evidences showing that ZnO NP and CuO NPs generates ROS production and can cause cell death in different types of cultured cell. Nanoparticle toxicity is assessed by set of tests designed to characterize a given risk and also the mechanism for related outcomes. Conclusively, it becomes more and more important for nanotechnologist to understand the potential health effects of ENPs and what new methodology can be applied to reveal problems like gene silencing and inhibition in antioxidant defense mechanism which can be occurred on severe effects to oxidative stress by ENPs.

  18. New vision to CuO, ZnO, and TiO2 nanoparticles: their outcome and effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibber, Sandesh; Ansari, Shakeel Ahmed; Satar, Rukhsana

    2013-04-01

    Nanomaterials and nanotechnology have attracted more and more attention due to their wide ranges of applications in various fields. With a high level of surface energy, high magnetism, high surface area, and low melting point, engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) has been widely used in industry for various applications. Metal nanoparticles, in particular, have been shown to cause significant biological effects. Review discusses cytotoxic to neurotoxic effects of CuO, ZnO, and TiO2 nanoparticles based on the scenario drawn from various in vitro and in vivo studies. ENPs such as TiO2 and ZnO NPs have great practical importance in industrial applications. CuO NPs is also widely used in biomedical applications as catalyst supports, drug carriers, and gene delivery. However, study conducted on TiO2 NPs have forecast that oxidative DNA damage could be attributed due to reduced glutathione levels with concomitant increase in lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species generation. Moreover, there are many evidences showing that ZnO NP and CuO NPs generates ROS production and can cause cell death in different types of cultured cell. Nanoparticle toxicity is assessed by set of tests designed to characterize a given risk and also the mechanism for related outcomes. Conclusively, it becomes more and more important for nanotechnologist to understand the potential health effects of ENPs and what new methodology can be applied to reveal problems like gene silencing and inhibition in antioxidant defense mechanism which can be occurred on severe effects to oxidative stress by ENPs.

  19. Efficient photocatalytic performance enhancement in Co-doped ZnO nanowires coupled with CuS nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Wang, Guojing; Feng, Yimeng; Li, Zhengcao

    2018-01-01

    In this research, a kind of highly efficient semiconductor photocatalyst was fabricated by depositing CuS nanoparticles uniformly on the surface of Co-doped ZnO nanowires. ZnO nanowires were synthesized by hydrothermal method and CuS nanoparticles were modified by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR). By conducting methyl orange (MO) degradation experiments under the illumination of visible light, the photocatalytic activity of Co-doped ZnO nanowires modified with CuS nanoparticles was found to be nearly three times active when compared to bare ZnO nanowires. Its superior photocatalytic performance has two main reasons. The doped Co2+ ions can inhibit the recombination of photo-generated electron-hole pairs and decrease the optical bandgap, while the p-n heterostructure can enhance the visible light absorption ability and promote the separation of photo-excited charge carriers. Furthermore, the effect of the amount of deposited CuS nanoparticles on the photocatalysis was also investigated. The photocatalytic efficiency firstly raised along with the increment of SILAR cycle times and reached a maximum at 10 cycles but then decreased as the cycle times continue to increase. This originates from that an excessive amount of CuS would not only cover the active reacting sites, but also serve as recombination centers. Overall, this new nanostructure is expected to work as an efficient photocatalyst.

  20. Highly transparent and conductive Sn/F and Al co-doped ZnO thin films prepared by sol–gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Zhanchang; Luo, Junming; Tian, Xinlong; Wu, Shoukun; Chen, Chun; Deng, Jianfeng; Xiao, Chumin; Hu, Guanghui; Wei, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • F/Sn and Al co-doped ZnO thin films were synthesized by sol–gel method. • The co-doped nanocrystals exhibit good crystal quality. • The origin of the photoluminescence emissions was discussed. • The films showed high transmittance and low resistivity. -- Abstract: Al doped ZnO, Al–Sn co-doped ZnO and Al–F co-doped ZnO nanocrystals were successfully synthesized onto glass substrates by the sol–gel method. The structure and morphology of the films are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The results indicated that all the films were polycrystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite structure and exhibited a c-axis preferred orientation. The electrical and optical properties were also investigated by 4-point probe device and Uv–vis spectroscopy, room temperature photoluminescence (PL) and Raman spectrum (Raman), respectively. The PL and Raman results suggested that the co-doped films with a very low defect concentration and exhibit a better crystallinity than AZO thin films. The XPS study confirmed the incorporation of Al, Sn and F ions in the ZnO lattice

  1. The study of structural and optical properties of (Eu, La, Sm) codoped ZnO nanoparticles via a chemical route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, Jihui; Zhang, Qi; Han, Qiang; Fang, Yue; Wang, Jiaying; Li, Xiuyan; Liu, Yanqing [Key Laboratory of Functional Materials Physics and Chemistry of the Ministry of Education, Jilin Normal University, Siping, 136000 (China); Wang, Dandan [Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, 130033 (China); Yang, Jinghai, E-mail: jhyang1@jlnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Functional Materials Physics and Chemistry of the Ministry of Education, Jilin Normal University, Siping, 136000 (China); Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, 130033 (China)

    2017-06-15

    The (Eu, La, Sm) ions were doped into ZnO nanoparticles by a chemical route, and the substitution of (Eu, La, Sm) for Zn{sup 2+} ions was proved by analytic techniques of X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman, transmission electron microscope (TEM), photoluminescence (PL) and UV–vis absorption spectroscopy. The results revealed that the codoping did not change the wurtzite structure of ZnO nanoparticles, but the diameter of the nanoparticles decreased with increasing the rare earth (RE) doping concentrations. The optical bandgaps calculated through UV–visible absorption spectroscopy were found to decrease from 3.26 to 3.14 eV with increasing the RE doping concentrations, which also proved by the slight shift of UV positions in PL spectra. The sharp red emissions located at 578.2, 590.1 and 615.7 nm were originated from the 4f-4f transitions in Eu{sup 3+} ions under excitation of 325 nm. And these red emissions of Eu{sup 3+} ions showed a strong correlation with the energy storage centers of oxygen vacancies in the samples which was introduced by the other RE ions of La{sup 3+} and Sm{sup 3+} codoping. - Highlights: • Doping of (Eu, La, Sm) ions into ZnO nanoparticles is realized by a chemical route. • Eu{sup 3+}-related red emissions from intra-4f follow a similar trend as broad defect emission. • Red emissions of Eu{sup 3+} enhance with RE codoping due to oxygen vacancies as energy storage centers. • The bandgap can be tuned by RE codoping, which shows a prospect for the visible utilization.

  2. Effect of co-doping process on topography, optical and electrical properties of ZnO nanostructured

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, R.; Mamat, M. H.; Malek, M. F.; Ismail, A. S.; Yusoff, M. M.; Syamsir, S. A.; Khusaimi, Z.; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    We investigated of Undoped ZnO and Magnesium (Mg)-Aluminium (Al) co-doped Zinc Oxide (MAZO) nanostructured films were prepared by sol gel spin coating technique. The surface topography was analyzed using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Based on the AFM results, Root Mean Square (RMS) of MAZO films have rougher surface compared to pure ZnO films. The optical and electrical properties of thin film samples were characterized using Uv-Vis spectroscopy and two point probes, current-voltage (I-V) measurements. The transmittance spectra for both thin samples was above 80% in the visible wavelength. The MAZO film shows the highest conductivity compared to pure ZnO films. This result indicates that the improvement of carrier mobility throughout doping process and possibly contribute by extra ion charge.

  3. Structural and magnetic properties of Co-doped ZnO thin films grown by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdad, R.; Lemée, N.; Lamura, G.; Zeinert, A.; Hadj-Zoubir, N.; Bousmaha, M.; Bezzerrouk, M. A.; Bouyanfif, H.; Allouche, B.; Zellama, K.

    2017-04-01

    Cobalt-doped ZnO thin films with several different percentage of Co from 0 up to 15 at% were synthesized via a cheap, simple and versatile method i.e. ultrasonic spray pyrolysis at atmospheric pressure and a substrate temperature of 350 °C. The structure of the as-prepared samples was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and FTIR. The Co-doping effect is revealed by the presence of three additional peaks around 235, 470 and 538 cm-1 respect to the Raman spectra of the unsubstituted film. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) put in evidence the decrease of the bond force constant f with increasing Co-doping. By ultra-violet visible near infrared (UV-Vis-NIR) spectroscopy on Co-doped samples it was possible to show the presence of additional absorption bands at approximately 570, 620 and 660 nm suggesting that Co2+ ions do not change their oxidation when substituted to zinc and the ZnO lattice does not change its wurtzite structure as well. Finally, all our samples exhibit a paramagnetic behavior without any trace of intrinsic room temperature ferromagnetism.

  4. Synthesis Structural and Optical Properties Of (Co, Al) co-doped ZnO Nano Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swapna, P.; Venkatramana Reddy, S.

    2018-02-01

    We prepared (Co, Al) co-doped ZnO nanostructures using the method chemical co-precipitation successfully, at room temperature using PEG (Poly ethylene glycol) as stabilizing agent. Samples are prepared with different concentrations by keeping aluminium at 5 mol percent constant and varying the concentration of cobalt from 1 to 5 mol percent. After the preparation all the samples are carefully subjected to characterizations such as XRD, SEM with EDS, TEM, PL and UV-VIS-NIR. XRD pattern shows that all the samples possess hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure having no secondary phases pertaining to Al or cobalt, which shows successful dissolution of the dopents. TEM results shows the accurate size of particles and is confirmed the XRD data. SEM images of all the samples shows that particles are in nearly spherical shape, EDS spectrum reveals that incorporation of cobalt and aluminum in host lattice. PL spectrum shows that all the samples containing two prominent peaks centered at 420 nm and 446 nm. UV-VIS-NIR spectra has shown three absorptions peaks in the range of wavelength 550 nm to 700 nm, which are ascribed as typical d-d transitions of cobalt ions.

  5. Synthesis and their enhanced photoelectrochemical performance of ZnO nanoparticle-loaded CuO dandelion heterostructures under solar light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Guanying; Du, Bin; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Weiwei; Liang, Yujie; Shi, Honglong; Wang, Wenzhong, E-mail: wzhwangmuc@163.com

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • ZnO/CuO nanoparticle/dandelion heterostructures were fabricated for the first time. • ZnO/CuO nanoparticle/dandelion heterostructures show enhanced PEC activity. • ZnO nanoparticle loading contents have significant effect on PEC water splitting. • Interaction, charge transfer and enhanced mechanism of photocatalyst were proposed. • p-n junction drives the photoexcited charges efficient separation. - Abstract: Here we report an easy and large-scale synthesis of three-dimensional (3D) ZnO nanoparticle-loaded CuO dandelion (denoted as n-ZnO/p-CuO nanoparticle/dandelion) heterostructures and their photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting under simulated solar light illumination. CuO dandelions were fabricated by a facile and cost-effective chemical strategy, in which the ribbon-like CuO nanoplates were first formed and then assembled into dandelion-like architectures. ZnO nanoparticle-loaded CuO dandelion heterostructures were fabricated by calcining Zn(Ac){sub 2}-loaded CuO dandelions. High resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) studies demonstrate that intimate p-n junction is built between p-CuO and n-ZnO interface. The n-ZnO/p-CuO nanoparticle/dandelion photoelectrodes exhibit significant improvement in PEC water splitting to CuO dandelion photoelectrodes. The correlation between photocurrents and different loading contents of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) is studied in which the n-ZnO/p-CuO nanoparticle/dandelion heterostructures with loading 4.6 wt% ZnO NPs show higher photocathodic current. The efficient separation of the photogenerated electrons and holes driven by the intimate p-n junction between p-type CuO and n-type ZnO interface is mainly contributed to the enhanced photoanode current. The achieved results in the present study offer a very useful strategy for designing p-n junction photoelectrodes for efficiency and low-cost PEC cells for clean solar hydrogen production.

  6. Al and Fe co-doped transparent conducting ZnO thin film for mediator-less biosensing application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibu Saha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Highly c-axis oriented Al and Fe co-doped ZnO (ZAF thin film is prepared by pulsed laser deposition. Fe introduces redox centre along with shallow donor level while Al doping enhances conductivity of ZnO, thus removing the requirement of both mediator and bottom conducting layer in bioelectrode. Model enzyme (glucose oxidase, was immobilized on surface of ZAF matrix. Cyclic voltammetry and photometric assay show that prepared bio-electrode is sensitive to glucose concentration with enhanced response of 0.18 μAmM-1cm-2 and low Km ∼ 2.01 mM. The results illustrate that ZAF is an attractive matrix for realization of miniaturized mediator-less solid state biosensor.

  7. Effect of strain on the structural and optical properties of Cu-N co-doped ZnO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yue; Zhou Mintao; Li Zhao; Lv Zhiyong; Liang Xiaoyan; Min Jiahua; Wang Linjun; Shi Weimin

    2011-01-01

    Polycrystalline ZnO thin films co-doped with Cu and N have been obtained by chemical bath deposition. Introduction of Cu and N causes the change of strained stress in ZnO films, which subsequently affects the structural and optical properties. The dependence of structural and optical properties of the ZnO films on lattice strained stress is investigated by XRD measurement, SEM, PL spectrum, optical reflection and Raman spectrum. The result of photoluminescence of Cu-N co-doped ZnO films indicates that the UV emission peaks shift slightly towards higher energy side with decrease in tensile strain and vise versa. The blue-shift of the absorption edge and up-shift of E2 (high) mode of the films can be observed in the optical reflection and Raman spectra. - Highlights: →Cu-N co-doped ZnO is first prepared by the wet chemical method. → Stress is produced by the introduction of Cu and N atoms. → Effect of stress on the structural and optical properties of ZnO film is investigated. → Cu concentration will be used to control the structural and optical properties.

  8. Resistive switching: An investigation of the bipolar–unipolar transition in Co-doped ZnO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Daniel A.A.; Zeng, Hao; Macêdo, Marcelo A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A purely bipolar behavior on a Co-doped ZnO thin film has been demonstrated. • We have shown what can happen if a unipolar test is performed in a purely bipolar device. • An explanation for how a sample can show a purely bipolar switching behavior was suggested. • An important open issue about resistive switching effect was put in debate. - Abstract: In order to investigate the resistive switching effect we built devices in a planar structure in which two Al contacts were deposited on the top of the film and separated by a small gap using a shadow mask. Therefore, two samples of 10% Co-doped ZnO thin films were sputtered on glass substrate. High resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) revealed a highly c-axis oriented crystalline structure, without secondary phase. The high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) showed a flat surface with good coverage and thickness about 300 nm. A Keithley 2425 semiconductor characterization system was used to perform the resistive switching tests in the bipolar and unipolar modes. Considering only the effect of compliance current (CC), the devices showed a purely bipolar behavior since an increase in CC did not induce a transition to unipolar behavior

  9. On single doping and co-doping of spray pyrolysed ZnO films: Structural, electrical and optical characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vimalkumar, T.V.; Poornima, N.; Jinesh, K.B.; Kartha, C. Sudha; Vijayakumar, K.P.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present studies on ZnO thin films (prepared using Chemical Spray pyrolysis (CSP) technique) doped in two different ways; in one set, 'single doping' using indium was done while in the second set, 'co-doping' using indium and fluorine was adopted. In the former case, effect of in-situ as well as ex-situ doping using In was analyzed. Structural (XRD studies), electrical (I-V measurements) and optical characterizations (through absorption, transmission and photoluminescence studies) of the films were done. XRD analysis showed that, for spray-deposited ZnO films, ex-situ doping using Indium resulted in preferred (0 0 2) plane orientation, while in-situ doping caused preferred orientation along (1 0 0), (0 0 2), (1 0 1) planes; however for higher percentage of in-situ doping, orientation of grains changed from (0 0 2) plane to (1 0 1) plane. The co-doped films had (0 0 2) and (1 0 1) planes. Lowest resistivity (2 x 10 -3 Ω cm) was achieved for the films, doped with 1% Indium through in-situ method. Photoluminescence (PL) emissions of ex-situ doped and co-doped samples had two peaks; one was the 'near band edge' emission (NBE) and the other was the 'blue-green' emission. But interestingly the PL emission of in-situ doped samples exhibited only the 'near band edge' emission. Optical band gap of the films increased with doping percentage, in all cases of doping.

  10. CuO and ZnO nanoparticles: phytotoxicity, metal speciation, and induction of oxidative stress in sand-grown wheat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimkpa, Christian O., E-mail: cdimkpa@usu.edu [Utah State University, Department of Biological Engineering (United States); McLean, Joan E. [Utah State University, Utah Water Research Laboratory (United States); Latta, Drew E. [Argonne National Laboratory, Biosciences Division (United States); Manangon, Eliana [University of Utah, Department of Geology and Geophysics (United States); Britt, David W. [Utah State University, Department of Biological Engineering (United States); Johnson, William P. [University of Utah, Department of Geology and Geophysics (United States); Boyanov, Maxim I. [Argonne National Laboratory, Biosciences Division (United States); Anderson, Anne J. [Utah State University, Department of Biological Engineering (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) are reported to impact plant growth in hydroponic systems. This study describes the impact of commercial CuO (<50 nm) and ZnO (<100 nm) NPs on wheat (Triticum aestivum) grown in a solid matrix, sand. The NPs contained both metallic and non-metallic impurities to different extents. Dynamic light scattering and atomic force microscopy (AFM) assessments confirmed aggregation of the NPs to submicron sizes. AFM showed transformation of ZnO NPs from initial rhomboid shapes in water to elongated rods in the aqueous phase of the sand matrix. Solubilization of metals occurred in the sand at similar rates from CuO or ZnO NPs as their bulk equivalents. Amendment of the sand with 500 mg Cu and Zn/kg sand from the NPs significantly (p = 0.05) reduced root growth, but only CuO NPs impaired shoot growth; growth reductions were less with the bulk amendments. Dissolved Cu from CuO NPs contributed to their phytotoxicity but Zn release did not account for the changes in plant growth. Bioaccumulation of Cu, mainly as CuO and Cu(I)-sulfur complexes, and Zn as Zn-phosphate was detected in the shoots of NP-challenged plants. Total Cu and Zn levels in shoot were similar whether NP or bulk materials were used. Oxidative stress in the NP-treated plants was evidenced by increased lipid peroxidation and oxidized glutathione in roots and decreased chlorophyll content in shoots; higher peroxidase and catalase activities were present in roots. These findings correlate with the NPs causing increased production of reactive oxygen species. The accumulation of Cu and Zn from NPs into edible plants has relevance to the food chain.

  11. In and Ga Codoped ZnO Film as a Front Electrode for Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duy Phong Pham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Doped ZnO thin films have attracted much attention in the research community as front-contact transparent conducting electrodes in thin film silicon solar cells. The prerequisite in both low resistivity and high transmittance in visible and near-infrared region for hydrogenated microcrystalline or amorphous/microcrystalline tandem thin film silicon solar cells has promoted further improvements of this material. In this work, we propose the combination of major Ga and minor In impurities codoped in ZnO film (IGZO to improve the film optoelectronic properties. A wide range of Ga and In contents in sputtering targets was explored to find optimum optical and electrical properties of deposited films. The results show that an appropriate combination of In and Ga atoms in ZnO material, followed by in-air thermal annealing process, can enhance the crystallization, conductivity, and transmittance of IGZO thin films, which can be well used as front-contact electrodes in thin film silicon solar cells.

  12. Properties of In–N codoped p-type ZnO nanorods grown through a two-step chemical route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duta, M.; Mihaiu, S.; Munteanu, C. [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu”, Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Anastasescu, M., E-mail: manastasescu@icf.ro [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu”, Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Osiceanu, P.; Marin, A.; Preda, S. [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu”, Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Nicolescu, M., E-mail: mnicolescu2006@yahoo.com [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu”, Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Modreanu, M. [Tyndall National Institute, University College, Cork (Ireland); Zaharescu, M.; Gartner, M. [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu”, Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021 Bucharest (Romania)

    2015-07-30

    Highlights: • p-Type ZnO film codoped with In, N on glass substrate was obtained. • The films were prepared by sol–gel followed by hydrothermal method. • Influence of annealing regimes on opto-electrical properties was studied. • Thin films morphology consists of interconnected, randomly oriented nanorods. • 3.31 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup −3}carrier concentration and 85% transmission were obtained at 500 °C. - Abstract: By codoping with a donor–acceptor pair through a two-step chemical method we have succeed to obtain p-type ZnO thin films on glass. Firstly, a thin undoped ZnO seed layer was deposited by sol–gel method followed by the deposition of In–N codoped ZnO film obtained through the hydrothermal technique. The influence of post-deposition annealing temperature (100 °C, 300 °C and 500 °C) on the samples was investigated from a structural, chemical, morphological and optoelectrical point of view. X-ray diffractometry (XRD), infrared ellipsometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses have confirmed the codoped nature of the ZnO thin films. The XRD pattern analysis has established the films have wurtzite nanocrystalline structure, the crystallite sizes varying between 10 nm and 13 nm with the annealing temperature. Continuous and homogenous films with nanorods surface morphology has been obtained, as visualized by scanning electron microscopy measurements. Hall Effect measurements have established that all samples, regardless of annealing temperature, showed p-type conduction due to the successful incorporation of nitrogen in the film, with the highest carrier concentration registered at 500 °C. This is in good correlation with the nitrogen content in the films as revealed from XPS. In all samples, the XPS depth profiling has shown a nitrogen gradient with higher elemental concentration at the surface.

  13. Evidence of cation vacancy induced room temperature ferromagnetism in Li-N codoped ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, B. Y. [Key Laboratory of Excited State Process, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Changchun 130033 (China); School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Yao, B. [Key Laboratory of Excited State Process, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Changchun 130033 (China); State Key Laboratory of Superhard Material, Department of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Li, Y. F.; Xing, G. Z. [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Material, Department of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Liu, A. M. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Zhang, Z. Z.; Li, B. H.; Zhao, D. X.; Shan, C. X.; Shen, D. Z. [Key Laboratory of Excited State Process, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Changchun 130033 (China); Wu, T. [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Qin, X. B. [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analysis Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2011-10-31

    Room temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) was observed in Li-N codoped ZnO thin films [ZnO:(Li, N)] fabricated by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy, and p-type ZnO:(Li, N) shows the strongest RTFM. Positron annihilation spectroscopy and low temperature photoluminescence measurements indicate that the RTFM in ZnO:(Li, N) is attributed to the defect complex related to V{sub Zn}, such as V{sub Zn} and Li{sub i}-N{sub O}-V{sub Zn} complex, well supported by first-principles calculations. The incorporation of N{sub O} can stabilize and enhance the RTFM of ZnO:(Li, N) by combining with Li{sub i} to form Li{sub i}-N{sub O} complex, which restrains the compensation of Li{sub i} for V{sub Zn} and makes the ZnO:(Li, N) conduct in p-type.

  14. Evidence of cation vacancy induced room temperature ferromagnetism in Li-N codoped ZnO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, B. Y.; Yao, B.; Li, Y. F.; Xing, G. Z.; Liu, A. M.; Zhang, Z. Z.; Li, B. H.; Zhao, D. X.; Shan, C. X.; Shen, D. Z.; Wu, T.; Qin, X. B.

    2011-01-01

    Room temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) was observed in Li-N codoped ZnO thin films [ZnO:(Li, N)] fabricated by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy, and p-type ZnO:(Li, N) shows the strongest RTFM. Positron annihilation spectroscopy and low temperature photoluminescence measurements indicate that the RTFM in ZnO:(Li, N) is attributed to the defect complex related to V Zn , such as V Zn and Li i -N O -V Zn complex, well supported by first-principles calculations. The incorporation of N O can stabilize and enhance the RTFM of ZnO:(Li, N) by combining with Li i to form Li i -N O complex, which restrains the compensation of Li i for V Zn and makes the ZnO:(Li, N) conduct in p-type.

  15. Evidence of cation vacancy induced room temperature ferromagnetism in Li-N codoped ZnO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B. Y.; Yao, B.; Li, Y. F.; Liu, A. M.; Zhang, Z. Z.; Li, B. H.; Xing, G. Z.; Wu, T.; Qin, X. B.; Zhao, D. X.; Shan, C. X.; Shen, D. Z.

    2011-10-01

    Room temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) was observed in Li-N codoped ZnO thin films [ZnO:(Li, N)] fabricated by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy, and p-type ZnO:(Li, N) shows the strongest RTFM. Positron annihilation spectroscopy and low temperature photoluminescence measurements indicate that the RTFM in ZnO:(Li, N) is attributed to the defect complex related to VZn, such as VZn and Lii-NO-VZn complex, well supported by first-principles calculations. The incorporation of NO can stabilize and enhance the RTFM of ZnO:(Li, N) by combining with Lii to form Lii-NO complex, which restrains the compensation of Lii for VZn and makes the ZnO:(Li, N) conduct in p-type.

  16. The influence of Co content on the luminescence properties of Co-doped ZnO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shuxia; Jiang, Haitao

    2018-04-01

    Co-doped ZnO nanoparticles have been synthesized by co-precipitation technique. Photoluminescence spectra change in the range from 350 nm to 600 nm and remain unchanged at about 690 nm with the Co content increase. The UV emission is assigned to exciton emission. The density of band-edge states increases with Co content. The blue emission could be ascribed to the recombination of electrons in Co+ ions and holes in the valence band, whose relative intensity and full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) increase with the increase of cobalt concentration. The red emission results from the intra-d-shell emission at Co, which is independent of Co content. The relative density and energy-level position of green emission centers are also influenced by Co content.

  17. Sulfur and Nitrogen co-doped graphene quantum dot decorated ZnO nanorod/polymer hybrid flexible device for photosensing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hmar, Jehova Jire L.; Majumder, Tanmoy; Dhar, Saurab; Mondal, Suvra Prakash, E-mail: suvraphy@gmail.com

    2016-08-01

    S and N co-doped graphene quantum dots (S,N-GQDs) have been synthesized by a hydrothermal process. S,N-GQDs are made up of 1–5 monolayer of graphene with average diameter 13.3 nm. The absorption peaks at 336 and 621 nm, are attributed to n → Π{sup ⁎} transitions of electrons in C=O and S=O bonds, respectively. S,N-GQDs are highly luminescent and showed excitation dependent emission behaviors. Hybrid photosensing device has been fabricated with S,N-GQD sensitized ZnO nanorods and a conjugated polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). S,N-GQD decorated ZnO nanorod demonstrated higher photoresponse compared to pristine ZnO nanorod based device. S,N-GQD/ZnO nanorod hybrid device showed superior incident photon to electron conversion efficiency (IPCE), photoresponsivity and detectivity compared to the control samples. The flexibility study of the samples has been monitored by measuring current-voltage characteristics at different bending angles. - Highlights: • S and N co-doped graphene quantum dots (S,N-GQDs) were synthesized. • ZnO nanorods were grown on ITO coated flexible PET substrates. • S,N-GQDs were attached with ZnO nanorods and used as a green sensitizer. • Photosensing properties of S,N-GQD/ZnO and P3HT polymer hybrid device was studied.

  18. Microstructure and magnetic properties of Co-doped ZnO films deposited by gas flow sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakuma, H., E-mail: hsakuma@cc.utsunomiya-u.ac.jp [Research Division of Functional Materials Design, Utsunomiya University, 7-1-2 Yoto, Utsunomiya 321-8585 (Japan); Watanabe, Y. [Research Division of Functional Materials Design, Utsunomiya University, 7-1-2 Yoto, Utsunomiya 321-8585 (Japan); Aramaki, K.; Yun, K.S. [Sony Chemical and Information Device Corporation, 1078 Kamiishikawa, Kanuma 322-8503 (Japan); Ishii, K. [Research Division of Functional Materials Design, Utsunomiya University, 7-1-2 Yoto, Utsunomiya 321-8585 (Japan); Ikeda, Y.; Kondo, H. [Sony Chemical and Information Device Corporation, 1078 Kamiishikawa, Kanuma 322-8503 (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    Co-doped ZnO films with a Co concentration of 8-20 at.% were fabricated using the low-energy process of gas flow sputtering. X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and optical absorption measurements revealed that the Co ions replace Zn ions in the ZnO matrix and that the Co ions have an oxidation state of 2+. The magnetic properties of the film depend on the Co concentration. The plots of magnetization and inverse susceptibility vs. temperature indicate that the film with a high Co concentration (20 at.%) contains a ferromagnetic component, while that with a low Co concentration (8 at.%) contains an antiferromagnetic component. The film with an intermediate Co concentration (10 at.%) contains a ferromagnetic component with a low Curie temperature. Hysteresis was not found in magnetization curves for all the samples, including the sample at 5 K. The films exhibited a high resistivity of 4 x 10{sup 7}-2 x 10{sup 8} {Omega} cm at room temperature, and carrier-mediated magnetism is not likely to be applicable for the mechanisms of the magnetism in the films.

  19. Microstructure and magnetic properties of Co-doped ZnO films deposited by gas flow sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuma, H.; Watanabe, Y.; Aramaki, K.; Yun, K.S.; Ishii, K.; Ikeda, Y.; Kondo, H.

    2010-01-01

    Co-doped ZnO films with a Co concentration of 8-20 at.% were fabricated using the low-energy process of gas flow sputtering. X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and optical absorption measurements revealed that the Co ions replace Zn ions in the ZnO matrix and that the Co ions have an oxidation state of 2+. The magnetic properties of the film depend on the Co concentration. The plots of magnetization and inverse susceptibility vs. temperature indicate that the film with a high Co concentration (20 at.%) contains a ferromagnetic component, while that with a low Co concentration (8 at.%) contains an antiferromagnetic component. The film with an intermediate Co concentration (10 at.%) contains a ferromagnetic component with a low Curie temperature. Hysteresis was not found in magnetization curves for all the samples, including the sample at 5 K. The films exhibited a high resistivity of 4 x 10 7 -2 x 10 8 Ω cm at room temperature, and carrier-mediated magnetism is not likely to be applicable for the mechanisms of the magnetism in the films.

  20. Experimental and theoretical investigations on magnetic behavior of (Al,Co) co-doped ZnO nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, O D; Achary, S N; Sudakar, C; Naik, R; Salunke, H G; Rao, Rekha; Peng, X; Ahuja, R; Tyagi, A K

    2010-08-01

    We present the structural and magnetic properties of Zn(0.95-x)Co(0.05)Al(x)O (x = 0.0 to 0.1) nanoparticles, synthesized by a novel sol-gel route followed by pyrolysis. Powder X-ray diffraction data confirms the formation of a single phase wurtzite type ZnO structure for all the compositions. The Zn(0.95)Co(0.05)O nanoparticles show diamagnetic behavior at room temperature. However, when Al is co-doped with Co with x = 0.0 to 0.10 in Zn(0.95-x)Co(0.05)Al(x)O, a systematic increase in ferromagnetic moment is observed up to x = 0.07 at 300 K. Above x = 0.07 (e.g. for x = 0.10) a drastic decrease in ferromagnetic nature is observed which is concomitant with the segregation of poorly crystalline Al rich ZnO phase as evidenced from TEM studies. Theoretical studies using density functional calculations on Zn(0.95-x)Co(0.05)Al(x)O suggest that the partial occupancy of S2 states leads to an increased double exchange interaction favoring the ferromagnetic ground states. Such ferromagnetic interactions are favorable beyond a threshold limit. At a high level doping of Al, the exchange splitting is reduced, which suppresses the ferromagnetic ordering.

  1. Synthesis of Cu and Ce co-doped ZnO nanoparticles: crystallographic, optical, molecular, morphological and magnetic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawat Mohit

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present research work, crystallographic, optical, molecular, morphological and magnetic properties of Zn1-xCuxO (ZnCu and Zn1-x-yCeyCuxO (ZnCeCu nanoparticles have been investigated. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA coated ZnCu and ZnCeCu nanoparticles have been synthesized by chemical sol-gel method and thoroughly studied using various characterization techniques. X-ray diffraction pattern indicates the wurtzite structure of the synthesized ZnCu and ZnCeCu particles. Transmission electron microscopy analysis shows that the synthesized ZnCu and ZnCeCu particles are of spherical shape, having average sizes of 27 nm and 23 nm, respectively. The incorporation of Cu and Ce in the ZnO lattice has been confirmed through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Room temperature photoluminescence spectra of the ZnO doped with Cu and co-doped Ce display two emission bands, predominant ultra-violet near-band edge emission at 409.9 nm (3 eV and a weak green-yellow emission at 432.65 nm (2.27 eV. Room temperature magnetic study confirms the diamagnetic behavior of ZnCu and ferromagnetic behavior of ZnCeCu.

  2. Evaluation of mechanical hardness and fracture toughness of Co and Al co-doped ZnO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddheswaran, R.; Mangalaraja, R.V.; Avila, Ricardo E.; Manikandan, D.; Esther Jeyanthi, C.; Ananthakumar, S.

    2012-01-01

    Combustion synthesized nanocrystalline Co and Al co-doped ZnO powders [(Zn 1−x−y Co x Al y O; x=0.04, 0.03, 0.02; y=0.01, 0.02, 0.03)] were fabricated into cylindrical discs by uni-axial pressing and sintered intentionally at 1000 °C for 2 h to assess the mechanical performance. The crystallinity of the pure and doped ZnO was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. The microstructures of the sintered samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to examine the density, porosity, grain size and its distribution. Grains of 0.5–3 μm were observed for the samples sintered at 1000 °C. The mechanical properties such as micro-hardness, fracture toughness and strain hardening co-efficient were investigated by the Vickers indentation method. It was found that the crack mode observed during the indentation on the samples belongs to median cracks under a load of 19.6 N. Also, the hardness was enhanced with increasing mol% of Co, while the trend was reversed with the increase of Al content. In addition, the strain hardening coefficient and fracture toughness were calculated using the indentation data.

  3. Reversible p-type conductivity in H passivated nitrogen and phosphorous codoped ZnO thin films using rapid thermal annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannam, Ramanjaneyulu, E-mail: ramu.nov9@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Nano Functional Materials Technology Centre and Materials Science Research Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Kumar, E. Senthil [SRM Research Institute, Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, SRM University, Kattankulathur 603203, Tamil Nadu (India); DasGupta, Nandita [Microelectronics and MEMS Laboratory, Electrical Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Ramachandra Rao, M.S., E-mail: msrrao@iitm.ac.in [Department of Physics, Nano Functional Materials Technology Centre and Materials Science Research Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Electrical transport measurements revel that the (P, N) codoped ZnO thin films exhibited change in conductivity from p-type to n-type over a span of 120 days. • Hydrogen and carbon are found to be the main unintentional impurities in n-type (P, N) codoped ZnO thin films. • Rapid thermal annealing has been used to remove both H and C from the films. • Carbon can be removed at an annealing temperature of 600 °C, whereas, the dissociation of N−H complex takes place only at 800 °C. • The n-type (P, N) codoped ZnO thin film exhibited change in conductivity to p-type at an annealing temperature of 800 °C. - Abstract: We demonstrate reversible p-type nature of pulsed laser deposited (P, N) codoped ZnO thin films using rapid thermal annealing process. As grown thin films exhibited change in conductivity from p to n-type over a span of 120 days. Non-annealed n-type thin films contain unintentional donor impurities such as hydrogen and carbon. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman measurements conclusively show that hydrogen passivates nitrogen acceptors by forming N−H complex. Carbon can be annealed out at 600 °C, whereas, the dissociation of N−H complex takes place at 800 °C. The films revert its p-type nature at an annealing temperature of 800 °C.

  4. Accumulation and Toxicity of CuO and ZnO Nanoparticles through Waterborne and Dietary Exposure of Goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Mehmet; Arslan, Zikri; Demir, Veysel; Daniels, James; Farah, Ibrahim O.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary and waterborne exposure to CuO and ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) was conducted using a simplified model of an aquatic food chain consisting of zooplankton (Artemia salina) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) to determine bioaccumulation, toxic effects and particle transport through trophic levels. Artemia contaminated with NPs were used as food in dietary exposure. Fish were exposed to suspensions of the NPs in waterborne exposure. ICP-MS analysis showed that accumulation primarily occurred in the intestine, followed by the gills and liver. Dietary uptake was lower, but was found to be a potential pathway for transport of NPs to higher organisms. Waterborne exposure resulted in about a tenfold higher accumulation in the intestine. The heart, brain and muscle tissue had no significant Cu or Zn. However, concentrations in muscle increased with NP concentration, which was ascribed to bioaccumulation of Cu and Zn released from NPs. Free Cu concentration in the medium was always higher than that of Zn, indicating CuO NPs dissolved more readily. ZnO NPs were relatively benign, even in waterborne exposure (p≥0.05). In contrast, CuO NPs were toxic. Malondialdehyde levels in the liver and gills increased substantially (p<0.05). Despite lower Cu accumulation, the liver exhibited significant oxidative stress, which could be from chronic exposure to Cu ions. PMID:24860999

  5. Development of transparent conductive indium and fluorine co-doped ZnO thin films: Effect of F concentration and post-annealing temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadri, A. [University Mohammed V, Faculty of Sciences, Physics Department, LPM, B.P. 1014, Rabat (Morocco); Taibi, M. [University of Mohammed V, LPCMIN, Ecole Normale Superieure, Rabat (Morocco); Loghmarti, M.; Nassiri, C.; Slimani Tlemçani, T. [University Mohammed V, Faculty of Sciences, Physics Department, LPM, B.P. 1014, Rabat (Morocco); Mzerd, A., E-mail: mzerd@yahoo.fr [University Mohammed V, Faculty of Sciences, Physics Department, LPM, B.P. 1014, Rabat (Morocco)

    2016-02-29

    In the present work ZnO, In doped ZnO and In-F co-doped ZnO (IFZO) films were synthesized on heated glass substrates (350 °C) by the chemical spray technique. The effect of fluorine concentration on the structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties was studied. It was observed from X-ray diffraction (XRD) that the films have a polycrystalline structure and the intensity of the peaks depend on the doping and co-doping concentration. No diffraction peak related to dopants in XRD patterns along with shift in peaks angles to ZnO proved that In and F ions were doped into ZnO thin films. The Raman spectra confirm the hexagonal structure of the as-deposited films, and demonstrated an enhancement of the surface phonon mode of doped and co-doped films as compared to undoped films. The as-deposited films showed an average transmittance above 70%, in the wavelength range of 400–800 nm. A minimum electrical resistivity, in the order of 5.2 × 10{sup −} {sup 2} Ω cm was obtained for the IFZO thin film with 5 at.% F doping. Moreover, the electrical properties of doped and co-doped films were enhanced after post-deposition annealing. It was found that post-annealed thin films at 350 °C showed a decrease of one order of magnitude of the resistivity values. Such a transparent and conducting thin film can be suitable for optical and electrical applications owing to their low resistivity combined with high transmittance in the visible range. - Highlights: • Conductive transparent ZnO, IZO, IFZO thin films were deposited by spray pyrolysis. • Doping and co-doping affect morphology and optoelectrical properties. • As deposited film with high fluorine content exhibited high carrier mobility (55 cm{sup 2} V{sup −} {sup 1} s{sup −} {sup 1}). • Correlation between intrinsic defects and carrier mobility was observed. • Post-annealing in Ar atmosphere improves conductivity.

  6. Comparative investigation on cation-cation (Al-Sn) and cation-anion (Al-F) co-doping in RF sputtered ZnO thin films: Mechanistic insight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallick, Arindam; Basak, Durga, E-mail: sspdb@iacs.res.in

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • Comparative study on Al, Al-Sn and Al-F doped ZnO films has been carried out. • High transparent Al-F co-doped film shows three times enhanced carrier density. • Al-F co-doped film shows larger carrier relaxation time. • Al-Sn co-doped films shows carrier transport dominated by impurity scattering. • Al-F co-doped ZnO film can be applied as transparent electrode. - Abstract: Herein, we report a comparative mechanistic study on cation-cation (Al-Sn) and cation-anion (Al-F) co-doped nanocrystalline ZnO thin films grown on glass substrate by RF sputtering technique. Through detailed analyses of crystal structure, surface morphology, microstructure, UV-VIS-NIR transmission-reflection and electrical transport property, the inherent characteristics of the co-doped films were revealed and compared. All the nanocrystalline films retain the hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO and show transparency above 90% in the visible and NIR region. As opposed to expectation, Al-Sn (ATZO) co-doped film show no enhanced carrier concentration consistent with the probable formation of SnO{sub 2} clusters supported by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study. Most interestingly, it has been found that Al-F (AFZO) co-doped film shows three times enhanced carrier concentration as compared to Al doped and Al-Sn co-doped films attaining a value of ∼9 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3} due to the respective cation and anion substitution. The carrier relaxation time increases in AFZO while it decreases significantly for ATZO film consistent with the concurrence of the impurity scattering in the latter.

  7. Comparative Toxicity of Nanoparticulate CuO and ZnO to Soil Bacterial Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousk, Johannes; Ackermann, Kathrin; Curling, Simon F.; Jones, Davey L.

    2012-01-01

    The increasing industrial application of metal oxide Engineered Nano-Particles (ENPs) is likely to increase their environmental release to soils. While the potential of metal oxide ENPs as environmental toxicants has been shown, lack of suitable control treatments have compromised the power of many previous assessments. We evaluated the ecotoxicity of ENP (nano) forms of Zn and Cu oxides in two different soils by measuring their ability to inhibit bacterial growth. We could show a direct acute toxicity of nano-CuO acting on soil bacteria while the macroparticulate (bulk) form of CuO was not toxic. In comparison, CuSO4 was more toxic than either oxide form. Unlike Cu, all forms of Zn were toxic to soil bacteria, and the bulk-ZnO was more toxic than the nano-ZnO. The ZnSO4 addition was not consistently more toxic than the oxide forms. Consistently, we found a tight link between the dissolved concentration of metal in solution and the inhibition of bacterial growth. The inconsistent toxicological response between soils could be explained by different resulting concentrations of metals in soil solution. Our findings suggested that the principal mechanism of toxicity was dissolution of metal oxides and sulphates into a metal ion form known to be highly toxic to bacteria, and not a direct effect of nano-sized particles acting on bacteria. We propose that integrated efforts toward directly assessing bioavailable metal concentrations are more valuable than spending resources to reassess ecotoxicology of ENPs separately from general metal toxicity. PMID:22479561

  8. Preparation and characterizations of CuO doped ZnO nano-structure for the photocatalytic degradation of 4-chlorophenol under visible light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Shokri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, a ZnO nanostructure was synthesized by means of precipitation and sonochemical methods. The X-ray diffraction (XRD pattern indicated that the wurtzite structure of ZnO had a hexagonal symmetry and there was no impurity. The average ZnO particles crystallite size was calculated at about 41 nm. The SEM and TEM images revealed nanostructure ZnO particles with a cauliflower-like and rod morphology with dimensions of 85, 79 and 117 nm. In order to investigate the increment of ZnO photoactivity under visible light, the CuO doped ZnO nanostructures were fabricated by a wet impregnation method using copper oxide as the copper source and ZnO as the precursor. The XRD analysis confirmed that the CuO phase was present in the as-prepared sample and the average size of nano crystalline decreased to about 36 nm. The DRS spectra indicated the extended absorption of CuO-ZnO to the visible range as a result of band gap reduction to 2.9 eV (in comparison of 3.2 eV in ZnO. In order to investigate the photocatalytic activity of the synthesized photocatalyst, the degradation of 4-Chlorophenol under visible light was performed. Sixteen experiments using full factorial were executed by adjusting four parameters (amount of catalyst, initial concentration of 4-Chlorophenol, pH, and time of irradiation. An empirical expression was proposed and successfully used to model the photocatalytic process with a high correlation, and an optimal experimental region was also obtained. According to the developed model for degradation and the subsequent ANOVA test using Design Expert software, the time of irradiation with a 46.57% effect played the most important role in the photocatalytic activity, while the influences of parameters on each other were negligible. Optimal experimental conditions for 4-Chlorophenol concentration (0.01 g/L were found at an initial pH =8 and a catalyst loading of 0.07 g/L. The results indicated that CuO-ZnO can remove 95

  9. Enhanced room temperature ferromagnetism in electrodeposited Co-doped ZnO nanostructured thin films by controlling the oxygen vacancy defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simimol, A. [Nanomaterials Research Lab, Surface Engineering Division, CSIR-National Aerospace Laboratories, Post Bag No. 1779, Bangalore 560017 (India); Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Calicut 673601 (India); Anappara, Aji A. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Calicut 673601 (India); Greulich-Weber, S. [Department of Physics, Nanophotonic Materials, Faculty of Science, University of Paderborn, 33095 Paderborn (Germany); Chowdhury, Prasanta [Nanomaterials Research Lab, Surface Engineering Division, CSIR-National Aerospace Laboratories, Post Bag No. 1779, Bangalore 560017 (India); Barshilia, Harish C., E-mail: harish@nal.res.in

    2015-06-07

    We report the growth of un-doped and cobalt doped ZnO nanostructures fabricated on FTO coated glass substrates using electrodeposition method. A detailed study on the effects of dopant concentration on morphology, structural, optical, and magnetic properties of the ZnO nanostructures has been carried out systematically by varying the Co concentration (c.{sub Co}) from 0.01 to 1 mM. For c.{sub Co }≤ 0.2 mM, h-wurtzite phase with no secondary phases of Co were present in the ZnO nanostructures. For c.{sub Co} ≤ 0.2 mM, the photoluminescence spectra exhibited a decrease in the intensity of ultraviolet emission as well as band-gap narrowing with an increase in dopant concentration. All the doped samples displayed a broad emission in the visible range and its intensity increased with an increase in Co concentration. It was found that the defect centers such as oxygen vacancies and zinc interstitials were the source of the visible emission. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies revealed, Co was primarily in the divalent state, replacing the Zn ion inside the tetrahedral crystal site of ZnO without forming any cluster or secondary phases of Co. The un-doped ZnO nanorods exhibited diamagnetic behavior and it remained up to a c.{sub Co} of 0.05 mM, while for c.{sub Co }> 0.05 mM, the ZnO nanostructures exhibited ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature. The coercivity increased to 695 G for 0.2 mM Co-doped sample and then it decreased for c.{sub Co }> 0.2 mM. Our results illustrate that up to a threshold concentration of 0.2 mM, the strong ferromagnetism is due to the oxygen vacancy defects centers, which exist in the Co-doped ZnO nanostructures. The origin of strong ferromagnetism at room temperature in Co-doped ZnO nanostructures is attributed to the s-d exchange interaction between the localized spin moments resulting from the oxygen vacancies and d electrons of Co{sup 2+} ions. Our findings provide a new insight for tuning the

  10. Effect of Co doping concentration on structural properties and optical parameters of Co-doped ZnO thin films by sol-gel dip-coating method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Giwoong; Yoon, Hyunsik; Kim, Byunggu; Lee, Dong-Yul; Kim, Jong Su; Leem, Jae-Young

    2014-11-01

    The structural and optical properties of Co-doped ZnO thin films prepared by a sol-gel dip-coating method were investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the thin films were grown with a c-axis preferred orientation. The position of the (002) peak was almost the same in all samples, irrespective of the Co concentration. It is thus clear that Co doping had little effect on the position of the (002) peak. To confirm that Co2+ was substituted for Zn2+ in the wurtzite structure, optical measurements were conducted at room temperature by a UV-visible spectrometer. Three absorption peaks are apparent in the Co-doped ZnO thin films that do not appear for the undoped ZnO thin film. As the Co concentration was increased, absorption related to characteristic Co2+ transitions increased because three absorption band intensities and the area underneath the absorption wells between 500 and 700 nm increased with increasing Co concentration. The optical band gap and static dielectric constant decreased and the Urbach energy and extinction coefficient increased with increasing Co concentration.

  11. Removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions using Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, ZnO, and CuO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdavi, Shahriar, E-mail: smahdaviha@yahoo.com; Jalali, Mohsen, E-mail: jalali@basu.ac.ir [College of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Department of Soil Science (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Afkhami, Abbas, E-mail: afkhami@basu.ac.ir [College of Chemistry, Bu-Ali Sina University, Department of Analytical Chemistry (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    This study investigated the removal of Cd{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, and Pb{sup 2+} from aqueous solutions with novel nanoparticle sorbents (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, ZnO, and CuO) using a range of experimental approaches, including, pH, competing ions, sorbent masses, contact time, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The images showed that Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, ZnO, and CuO particles had mean diameters of about 50 nm (spheroid), 25 nm (rod shape), and 75 nm (spheroid), respectively. Tests were performed under batch conditions to determine the adsorption rate and uptake at equilibrium from single and multiple component solutions. The maximum uptake values (sum of four metals) in multiple component solutions were 360.6, 114.5, and 73.0 mg g{sup -1}, for ZnO, CuO, and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, respectively. Based on the average metal removal by the three nanoparticles, the following order was determined for single component solutions: Cd{sup 2+} > Pb{sup 2+} > Cu{sup 2+} > Ni{sup 2+}, while the following order was determined in multiple component solutions: Pb{sup 2+} > Cu{sup 2+} > Cd{sup 2+} > Ni{sup 2+}. Sorption equilibrium isotherms could be described using the Freundlich model in some cases, whereas other isotherms did not follow this model. Furthermore, a pseudo-second order kinetic model was found to correctly describe the experimental data for all nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray before and after metal sorption, and soil solution saturation indices showed that the main mechanism of sorption for Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} was adsorption, whereas both Cu{sup 2+} and Ni{sup 2+} sorption were due to adsorption and precipitation. These nanoparticles have potential for use as efficient sorbents for the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions and ZnO nanoparticles were identified as the most promising sorbent due to their high metal uptake.

  12. CL from ZnO nanowires and microneedles Co-doped with N and Mn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, M; Morales, A; Díaz, J A

    2014-01-01

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) was used to study the luminescence emission of ZnO : N, Mn nanowires and microneedles grown by thermal evaporation. CL spectra acquired at room temperature showed the presence of near band edge and defect-related emissions. The defect related emission comprised two bands centered at 2.28 and 2.5 eV. The first component was attributed to the formation of spinel ZnMn 2 O 4  and the second to the well-known ZnO green emission. CL spectra acquired at 100 K showed two emissions centered at 3.22 and 3.25 eV that were attributed to donor–acceptor pair (DAP) and FA transitions, respectively. It was proposed that substitutional nitrogen (N O ) and zinc interstitial (Zn i ) were acceptor and shallow-donor centers in the DAP transition. (paper)

  13. Structural, linear and nonlinear optical properties of co-doped ZnO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaaban, E. R.; El-Hagary, M.; Moustafa, El Sayed; Hassan, H. Shokry; Ismail, Yasser A. M.; Emam-Ismail, M.; Ali, A. S.

    2016-01-01

    Different compositions of Co-doped zinc oxide [(Zn(1- x)Co x O) ( x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 and 0.10)] thin films were evaporated onto highly clean glass substrates by thermal evaporation technique using a modified source. The structural properties investigated by X-ray diffraction revealed hexagonal wurtzite ZnO-type structure. The crystallite size of the films was found to decrease with increasing Co content. The optical characterization of the films has been carried out using spectral transmittance and reflectance obtained in the wavelength range from 300 to 2500 nm. The refractive index has been found to increase with increasing Co content. It was further found that optical energy gap decreases from 3.28 to 3.03 eV with increasing Co content from x = 0 to x = 0.10, respectively. The dispersion of refractive index has been analyzed in terms of Wemple-DiDomenico (WDD) single-oscillator model. The oscillator parameters, the single-oscillator energy ( E o), the dispersion energy ( E d), and the static refractive index ( n 0), were determined. The nonlinear refractive index of the Zn(1- x)Co x O thin films was calculated and revealed well correlation with the linear refractive index and WDD parameters which in turn depend on the density and molar volume of the system.

  14. Intrinsic and spatially nonuniform ferromagnetism in Co-doped ZnO films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, L. T.; Suter, A.; Wang, Y. R.; Xiang, F. X.; Bian, P.; Ding, X.; Tseng, A.; Hu, H. L.; Fan, H. M.; Zheng, R. K.; Wang, X. L.; Salman, Z.; Prokscha, T.; Suzuki, K.; Liu, R.; Li, S.; Morenzoni, E.; Yi, J. B.

    2017-09-01

    Co doped ZnO films have been deposited by a laser-molecular beam epitaxy system. X-ray diffraction and UV spectra analysis show that Co effectively substitutes the Zn site. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy analysis indicate that there are no clusters. Co dopants are uniformly distributed in ZnO film. Ferromagnetic ordering is observed in all samples deposited under an oxygen partial pressure, PO2=10-3 , 10-5, and 10-7 torr, respectively. However, the magnetization of PO2=10-3 and 10-5 is very small at room temperature. At low temperature, the ferromagnetic ordering is enhanced. Muon spin relaxation (μ SR ) measurements confirm the ferromagnetism in all samples, and the results are consistent with magnetization measurements. From μ SR and TEM analysis, the film deposited under PO2=10-7 torr shows intrinsic ferromagnetism. However, the volume fraction of the ferromagnetism phase is approximately 70%, suggesting that the ferromagnetism is not carrier mediated. Resistivity versus temperature measurements indicate Efros variable range hopping dominates the conductivity. From the above results, we can confirm that a bound magnetic polaron is the origin of the ferromagnetism.

  15. Mass production and photoelectric performances of P and Al Co-doped ZnO nanocrystals under different cooling post-processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Ya-Juan; Lu, Yi; Liu, Jin-Ku; Yang, Xiao-Hong

    2015-01-01

    The phosphorus and aluminum co-doped in zinc oxide (ZnO) called PAZO nano-crystals (NCs) have been mass synthesized by a combustion method, which shows a preferable photocatalytic capability and conductive ability. This article focuses on the properties of PAZO NCs experienced by three cooling-down aftertreatments, which were the normalizing, quenching and annealing process, respectively. The influences of different cooling processes on the photocatalytic and conductive performances are discussed in details. From the research, we found the quenched-PAZO NCs showed the most unappealing photocatalysis and conductivity, because excessive defects as the recombination center of electron–hole pairs were generated in the quenching process. - Graphical abstract: This research focuses on the PAZO NCs experienced by different cooling-down aftertreatments, which were the normalizing, quenching and annealing process, respectively. The quenched-PAZO NCs had the most unappealing photocatalysis and conductivity, because of generating excessive defects as the recombination center of electron–hole pairs in the quenching process. - Highlights: • We presented a method to mass synthesize co-doped P and Al in ZnO nanocrystals. • The PAZO NCs have novel photoelectric performances. • The cooling post-process influence on the photoelectric properties was studied. • The excessive defects decline the photocatalytic and conductive activities

  16. Low resistivity of Ni–Al co-doped ZnO thin films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering at low sputtering power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, JongWoo [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, San 30 Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Hui, K.N. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Hui, K.S., E-mail: kshui@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Y.R., E-mail: yescho@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, San 30 Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Ho-Hwan [Global Core Research Center for Ships and Offshore Plants (GCRC-SOP), Pusan National University, San 30 Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-28

    Ni–Al co-doped ZnO (NiAl:ZnO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates by DC magnetron sputtering in Ar using a single ceramic, spark-plasma-sintered target with 2 wt% Al and 5 wt% Ni. The effects of the sputtering power and gas pressure on the NiAl:ZnO films were studied. The structural, electrical, and optical properties of the films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, Hall effect measurements and UV–vis transmission spectroscopy. As the sputtering power and gas pressure increased, the crystallinity, electrical properties and optical band gap of the films were improved. The NiAl:ZnO film deposited at 40 W at 6.0 mTorr had the strongest (0 0 2) XRD peak and the lowest resistivity of approximately 2.19 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm with an optical transmittance of 90%.

  17. Direct observation of hopping induced spin polarization current in oxygen deficient Co-doped ZnO by Andreev reflection technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Kung-Shang; Huang, Tzu-Yu; Dwivedi, G.D. [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Lin, Lu-Kuei; Lee, Shang-Fan [Taiwan Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Sun, Shih-Jye [Department of Applied Physics, National Kaohsiung University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chou, Hsiung, E-mail: hchou@mail.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • Co-doped ZnO thin-films were grown with varying V{sub O} concentartion. • PCAR measurements were done to study the SPC. • High spin polarization was observed above a certain V{sub O} concentartion. • High V{sub O} samples provide a high density of completed percolation path. • This complete percolation path gives rise to high SPC. - Abstract: Oxygen vacancy induced ferromagnetic coupling in diluted magnetic oxide (DMO) semiconductors have been reported in several studies, but technologically more crucial spin-polarized current (SPC) is still under-developed in DMOs. Few studies have claimed that VRH mechanism can originate the SPC, but, how VRH mechanism associated with percolation path, is not clearly understood. We used Point-contact Andreev reflection (PCAR) technique to probe the SPC in Co-doped ZnO (CZO) films. Since the high resistance samples cause broadening in conductance(G)-voltage(V) curves, which may result in an unreliable evaluation of spin polarization, we include two extra parameters, (i) effective temperature and (ii) spreading resistance, for the simulation to avoid the uncertainty in extracting spin polarization. The effective G-V curves and higher spin polarization can be obtained above a certain oxygen vacancy concentration. The number of completed and fragmentary percolation paths is proportional to the concentration of oxygen vacancies. For low oxygen vacancy samples, the Pb-tip has a higher probability of covering fragmentary percolation paths than the complete ones, due to its small contact size. The completed paths may remain independent of one another and get polarized in different directions, resulting in lower spin-polarization value. High oxygen vacancy samples provide a high density of completed path, most of them link to one another by crossing over, and gives rise to high spin-polarization value.

  18. Influence of Al doping on structural and optical properties of Mg–Al co-doped ZnO thin films prepared by sol–gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Dongyu; Lin, Kui; Xue, Tao; Cui, Can; Chen, Xiaoping; Yao, Pei; Li, Huijun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Mg–Al co-doped ZnO thin films were prepared by sol–gel spin coating method. • The effects of Al doping on structural and optical properties of AMZO thin films were investigated. • The EDS spectra confirmed presence of Mg and Al elements in AMZO thin films. • The optical band gap of AMZO thin films increased with Al doping concentration increased. • The origin of the photoluminescence emissions was discussed. -- Abstract: Mg–Al co-doped ZnO (AMZO) thin films were successfully deposited onto quartz glass substrates by sol–gel spin coating method. The structure, surface morphology, composition, optical transmittance, and photoluminescence properties of AMZO thin films were characterized through X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy, UV–VIS–NIR spectrophotometry, and fluorescence spectrophotometry. The results indicated that AMZO thin films exhibited preferred orientation growth along the c-axis, and the full width at half maximum of the (0 0 2) diffraction peak decreased first and subsequently increased, reaching a minimum of approximately 0.275° at 3% Al content. The calculated crystallite size increased from 30.21 nm to 40.73 nm. Al doping content increased from 1% to 3% and subsequently reached 19.33 nm for Al doping content at 5%. The change in lattice parameters was demonstrated by the c/a ratio, residual stress, bond length, and volume per unit cell. EDS analysis confirmed the presence of Mg and Al elements in ZnO thin films. The atomic percentage of Mg and Al elements was nearly equal to their nominal stoichiometry within the experimental error. In addition, the optical transmittance of AMZO thin films was over 85% in the visible region, and the optical band gap increased with increasing Al doping concentration. Room temperature photoluminescence showed ultraviolet emission peak and defect emission peak. The defect emission peak of

  19. A comparative study of the effects of CuO, NiO, ZrO{sub 2} and CeO{sub 2} coupling on the photocatalytic activity and characteristics of ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherly, Eluvathingal Devassy; Vijaya, John Judith [Loyola College, Chennai (India); Kennedy, Lourdusamy John [Vellore Institute of Technology (VIT) University, Chennai (India); Meenakshisundaram, Arunachalam; Lavanya, Melcureraj [Chennai Petroleum Corporation Limited, Manali (India)

    2016-04-15

    ZnO nanoparticles were coupled with CuO, NiO, ZrO{sub 2} and CeO{sub 2} in 2 : 1 molar ratio by a microwave assisted one pot solution combustion synthesis. Structural, morphological and optical properties of ZnO and coupled oxides were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Brunauer- Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis. XRD data revealed the presence of two phases in the coupled oxides. Photocatalytic activity of pure ZnO and ZnO coupled oxides was compared for the degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4- DCP) under near UV light (365 nm) irradiation and the rate constant (k) values were calculated from the kinetic studies. The coupled oxide, Zn{sub 2}Ce with ZnO and CeO{sub 2} in 2 : 1 molar ratio showed maximum degradation efficiency due to the efficient interparticle electron transfer between ZnO and CeO{sub 2}.

  20. Effect of Co and O defects on ferromagnetism in Co-doped ZnO: An X-ray absorption spectroscopic investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Rishi K.; Jakhar, Narendra; Samariya, A.; Dolia, S. N.; Kumar, Sudhish

    2018-02-01

    Understanding of origin of ferromagnetism in dilute magnetic oxides (DMO's) has become one of the most challenging research problems in condensed matter physics. Here we are reporting a detailed study of magnetic properties and electronic structure of two 5% Co-doped ZnO samples (the as-prepared sample Zn0.95Co0.05O and the hydrogenated sample Zn0.95Co0.05O:H). The as-prepared sample is found to be paramagnetic while through hydrogenation, we observed inducement of remarkable ferromagnetism in it. The H-mediated magnetic transition is accompanied by electronic structure modifications with no structural deviations. To get in-depth information into electronic structure correlations of the observed ferromagnetism, we have investigated their electronic properties in detail. For this purpose, we have employed the site-selective and element-sensitive X-ray-absorption spectroscopy (XAS) in the vicinity of the Cobalt L2,3 edge, the oxygen K edge, and the Zinc L3 edge using synchrotron radiation. The Co L2,3 edge spectra clearly show that Co dopants reside at the Zn sites for both these samples and that they are tetrahedrally coordinated with the ligand O atoms. Very minor changes are observed in the Zn L3 edge spectra. However, the O 1s edge spectra display dominant additional components in the ferromagnetic hydrogenated sample Zn0.95Co0.05O:H, not observed in the as-prepared non-magnetic sample Zn0.95Co0.05O. We conclude that the observed spectral features can be attributed to the presence of O vacancies and the hybridization of Co 3d states with O 2p vacancy states. These two factors together are likely to play important role in inducement of ferromagnetic ordering in this Co-doped ZnO system. However, which of these two weighs more in this mechanism, cannot be pinpointed and more studies are required in this regard.

  1. Study of working pressure on the optoelectrical properties of Al–Y codoped ZnO thin-film deposited using DC magnetron sputtering for solar cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Feng-Hao; Wang, Na-Fu; Tsai, Yu-Zen; Chuang, Ming-Chieh; Cheng, Yu-Song; Houng, Mau-Phon

    2013-01-01

    Low cost transparent conductive Al–Y codoped ZnO (AZOY) thin-films were prepared on a glass substrate using a DC magnetron sputtering technique with various working pressures in the range of 5–13 mTorr. The relationship among the structural, electrical, and optical properties of sputtered AZOY films was studied as a function of working pressure. The XRD measurements show that the crystallinity of the films degraded as the working gas pressure increased. The AZOY thin-film deposited at a working pressure of 5 mTorr exhibited the lowest electrical resistivity of 4.3 × 10 −4 Ω cm, carrier mobility of 30 cm 2 /V s, highest carrier concentration of 4.9 × 10 20 cm −3 , and high transmittance in the visible region (400–800 nm) of approximately 90%. Compared with Al doped ZnO (AZO) thin-films deposited using DC or RF magnetron sputtering methods, a high carrier mobility was observed in our AZOY thin-films. This result can be used to effectively decrease the absorption of near infrared-rays in solar cell applications. The mechanisms are attributed to the larger transition energy between Ar atoms and sputtering particles and the size compensation of the dopants. Finally, the optimal quality AZOY thin-film was used as an emitter layer (or window layer) to form AZOY/n-Si heterojunction solar cells, which exhibited a stable conversion efficiency (η) of 9.4% under an AM1.5 illumination condition.

  2. Study of working pressure on the optoelectrical properties of Al–Y codoped ZnO thin-film deposited using DC magnetron sputtering for solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Feng-Hao [Institute of Microelectronics, Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, Dasyue Road, East District, Tainan City 701, Taiwan (China); Wang, Na-Fu; Tsai, Yu-Zen; Chuang, Ming-Chieh; Cheng, Yu-Song [Department of Electronic Engineering, Cheng Shiu University, 840 Chengcing Road, Niaosong District, Kaohsiung City 833, Taiwan (China); Houng, Mau-Phon, E-mail: mphoung@eembox.ncku.edu.tw [Institute of Microelectronics, Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, Dasyue Road, East District, Tainan City 701, Taiwan (China)

    2013-09-01

    Low cost transparent conductive Al–Y codoped ZnO (AZOY) thin-films were prepared on a glass substrate using a DC magnetron sputtering technique with various working pressures in the range of 5–13 mTorr. The relationship among the structural, electrical, and optical properties of sputtered AZOY films was studied as a function of working pressure. The XRD measurements show that the crystallinity of the films degraded as the working gas pressure increased. The AZOY thin-film deposited at a working pressure of 5 mTorr exhibited the lowest electrical resistivity of 4.3 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm, carrier mobility of 30 cm{sup 2}/V s, highest carrier concentration of 4.9 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3}, and high transmittance in the visible region (400–800 nm) of approximately 90%. Compared with Al doped ZnO (AZO) thin-films deposited using DC or RF magnetron sputtering methods, a high carrier mobility was observed in our AZOY thin-films. This result can be used to effectively decrease the absorption of near infrared-rays in solar cell applications. The mechanisms are attributed to the larger transition energy between Ar atoms and sputtering particles and the size compensation of the dopants. Finally, the optimal quality AZOY thin-film was used as an emitter layer (or window layer) to form AZOY/n-Si heterojunction solar cells, which exhibited a stable conversion efficiency (η) of 9.4% under an AM1.5 illumination condition.

  3. Study of defects and vacancies in structural properties of Mn, co-doped oxides: ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Harish; Kaushik, A.; Alvi, P. A.; Dalela, B.; Dalela, S.

    2018-05-01

    The paper deals with the Structural properties on Mn, Co doped oxides ZnO samples using XRD, Positron Annihilation Lifetime (PAL) Spectra and Raman Spectra. The Mn, Co doped ZnO samples crystallize in a wurtzite structure without any impurity phases in XRD Spectra. The defect state of these samples has been investigated by using positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) spectroscopy technique in which all the relevant lifetime parameters are measured for all the spectra. The results are explained in the direction of doping concentration in these samples in terms of defects structure on Zn lattice site VZn and oxygen defects Vo.

  4. Effect of hydrogen doping on the properties of Al and F co-doped ZnO films for thin film silicon solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Fang-Hsing, E-mail: fansen@dragon.nchu.edu.tw; Yang, Tung-Hsin

    2016-04-30

    Aluminum and fluorine co-doped zinc oxide (AFZO) thin films were prepared in Ar + H{sub 2} atmospheres by rf magnetron sputtering at room temperature. The structural, electrical, and optical properties of the prepared films were investigated using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Hall-effect measurement, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and ultraviolet–visible spectrometry, and their dependence on deposition atmosphere (i.e. H{sub 2} / (H{sub 2} + Ar) ratio) was studied. The resulting films showed a (0 0 2) diffraction peak, indicating a typical wurtzite structure, and the optimal film crystallinity was obtained with the H{sub 2} / (H{sub 2} + Ar) ratio of 3%. The electrical resistivity of AFZO films decreased to 9.16 × 10{sup −4} Ω-cm, which was lower than ZnO:Al and ZnO:F films due to double doping effect of Al and F. The resistivity further decreased to below 5 × 10{sup −4} Ω-cm for the AFZO film with the H{sub 2} / (H{sub 2} + Ar) ratio of 3%–5%. All the films regardless of hydrogen content displayed high transmittances (> 92%) in the visible wavelength range. Applying the developed AFZO films as front transparent electrodes, amorphous Si thin film solar cells were fabricated and the open-circuit voltage, fill factor, and efficiency of the cell with the hydrogenated AFZO film were improved in contrast to those without the hydrogenated film. - Highlights: • H{sub 2} doping improves optoelectronic properties of Al, F co-doped ZnO (AFZO) films. • Resistivity of AFZO films decreases to 4.4 × 10{sup −4} Ω-cm with the 3% H{sub 2}/(Ar + H{sub 2}) ratio. • AFZO films show high average visible transmittances of above 92%. • Efficiency of a-Si thin film solar cells is improved by AFZO:H as front electrode.

  5. CuO and ZnO nanoparticles: phytotoxicity, metal speciation, and induction of oxidative stress in sand-grown wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimkpa, Christian O.; McLean, Joan E.; Latta, Drew E.; Manangón, Eliana; Britt, David W.; Johnson, William P.; Boyanov, Maxim I.; Anderson, Anne J.

    2012-09-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) are reported to impact plant growth in hydroponic systems. This study describes the impact of commercial CuO (release did not account for the changes in plant growth. Bioaccumulation of Cu, mainly as CuO and Cu(I)-sulfur complexes, and Zn as Zn-phosphate was detected in the shoots of NP-challenged plants. Total Cu and Zn levels in shoot were similar whether NP or bulk materials were used. Oxidative stress in the NP-treated plants was evidenced by increased lipid peroxidation and oxidized glutathione in roots and decreased chlorophyll content in shoots; higher peroxidase and catalase activities were present in roots. These findings correlate with the NPs causing increased production of reactive oxygen species. The accumulation of Cu and Zn from NPs into edible plants has relevance to the food chain.

  6. Influence of Al concentration and annealing temperature on structural, optical, and electrical properties of Al co-doped ZnO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gürbüz, Osman; Kurt, İsmail; Çalışkan, Serkan; Güner, Sadık

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • RF magnetron sputtering technique seems to be very efficient method for fabrication of Al doped ZnO (AZO) films. • Long range single crystalline structure improves with annealing process. • Optical properties became much better after annealing process especially for the AZO films that include high Al concentration. • Much greater conductivity with increasing Al concentration and annealing process. • AZO films have potential applicability in spintronic devices. - Abstract: The pure ZnO and Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films (thickness: 200 nm) were prepared on both side polished silica (SiO 2 ) substrates via RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature by using 2.5 inches high-purity ZnO (99.9%) and Al (99.9%) targets. The samples were annealed at 300 °C, 400 °C and 500 °C for 45 min in N 2 ambient in quartz annealing furnace system, respectively. We investigated the effects of various Al concentrations and annealing treatment on the structural, electrical, and optical properties of films. The preferred crystallization was observed along c axis (single (0 0 2) diffraction peak) from substrate surface assigning the single crystalline Würtzite lattice for pure ZnO and AZO thin films. Although increasing Al concentration decreases the order of crystallization of as-grown films, annealing process increases the long range crystal order. The crystallite sizes vary between minimum 12.98 nm and maximum 20.79 nm for as-grown and annealed samples. The crystallite sizes decrease with increasing Al concentration but increase with increasing annealing temperature as general trend. The grain size and porosity of films change with annealing treatment. The smaller grains coalesce together to form larger grains for many films. However, a reverse behavior is seen for Al 2.23 ZnO and Al 12.30 ZnO samples. That is, Al concentration plays critical role as well as temperature on grain size. Low percent optical transmittance (T%) is observed due to higher Al

  7. Influence of Codoping on the Optical Properties of ZnO Thin Films Synthesized on Glass Substrate by Chemical Bath Deposition Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Shanmuganathan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fe and K simultaneously doped ZnO thin films Zn0.99 K0.01 (Fex O (x=1, 2, 3, and 4% were synthesized by chemical bath deposition method. The XRD investigation reveals that all the doped ZnO thin films are in hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure without impurity phases. With increase in Fe concentration, the growth of thin films along c axis is evident from the XRD which indicates the increase in intensity along (002 direction. The same is visible from the surface morphology which shows the formation of hexagonal structure for higher Fe concentration. The topography shows gradual variation with Fe incorporation. The optical energy band gap obtained from the transmittance spectrum decreases from 3.42 to 3.06 eV with increase in Fe concentration indicating the red shift and this trend is consistent with the earlier experimental results. The UV emission is centered around 3.59 eV. The optical constants such as refractive index, extinction coefficient, and absorption coefficient which are essential for the optoelectronic applications were also determined.

  8. Chemo-sensors development based on low-dimensional codoped Mn2O3-ZnO nanoparticles using flat-silver electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammed M; Gruner, George; Al-Ghamdi, Mohammed Saad; Daous, Muhammed A; Khan, Sher Bahadar; Asiri, Abdullah M

    2013-03-28

    Semiconductor doped nanostructure materials have attained considerable attention owing to their electronic, opto-electronic, para-magnetic, photo-catalysis, electro-chemical, mechanical behaviors and their potential applications in different research areas. Doped nanomaterials might be a promising owing to their high-specific surface-area, low-resistances, high-catalytic activity, attractive electro-chemical and optical properties. Nanomaterials are also scientifically significant transition metal-doped nanostructure materials owing to their extraordinary mechanical, optical, electrical, electronic, thermal, and magnetic characteristics. Recently, it has gained significant interest in manganese oxide doped-semiconductor materials in order to develop their physico-chemical behaviors and extend their efficient applications. It has not only investigated the basic of magnetism, but also has huge potential in scientific features such as magnetic materials, bio- & chemi-sensors, photo-catalysts, and absorbent nanomaterials. The chemical sensor also displays the higher-sensitivity, reproducibility, long-term stability, and enhanced electrochemical responses. The calibration plot is linear (r2 = 0.977) over the 0.1 nM to 50.0 μM 4-nitrophenol concentration ranges. The sensitivity and detection limit is ~4.6667 μA cm-2 μM-1 and ~0.83 ± 0.2 nM (at a Signal-to-Noise-Ratio, SNR of 3) respectively. To best of our knowledge, this is the first report for detection of 4-nitrophenol chemical with doped Mn2O3-ZnO NPs using easy and reliable I-V technique in short response time. As for the doped nanostructures, NPs are introduced a route to a new generation of toxic chemo-sensors, but a premeditate effort has to be applied for doped Mn2O3-ZnO NPs to be taken comprehensively for large-scale applications, and to achieve higher-potential density with accessible to individual chemo-sensors. In this report, it is also discussed the prospective utilization of Mn2O3-ZnO NPs on the basis

  9. Selective Oxidation of Styrene to Benzaldehyde by Co-Ag Codoped ZnO Catalyst and H2O2 as Oxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderrazak Aberkouks

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Various ratio of Co-Ag supported on ZnO have been evaluated in the selective catalytic oxidation of styrene to benzaldehyde, using H2O2 as an oxidant. The catalysts were prepared by a sol-gel process and were characterized using XRD, FT-IR, TG-DTG, BET, and SEM/EDX. The performance of the prepared catalyst was investigated under different parameters such as solvent, temperature, substrate/oxidant molar ratios, reaction time, and doping percent. The Zn1−x−yAgxCoyO catalysts exhibit a good activity and a high selectivity towards benzaldehyde (95% with the formation of only 5% of acetophenone.

  10. Effect of co-doping of sodium on the thermoluminescence dosimetry properties of copper-doped zinc lithium borate glass system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidu, A.; Wagiran, H.; Saeed, M.A.; Alajerami, Y.S.M.; Kadir, A.B.A.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of sodium as a co-dopant on the thermoluminescence (TL) properties of copper-doped zinc lithium borate (ZLB: Cu) subjected to Co-60 gamma radiation is reported in this study. TL intensity is enhanced with the introduction of sodium in ZLB: Cu. The obtained glow curve is simple with a single peak. The annealing procedure and the best heating rate for the proposed thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) are established, and the phosphor is reusable. The TL response within the dose range of 0.5–1000 Gy is investigated. The results show that the thermal fading behaviour is improved significantly. - Highlights: • Dosimetry properties of an improved TL dosimeter. • The dosimeter is made of lithium borate, modified with ZnO, doped with CuO and co-doped with Na 2 O. • With addition of Na to Cu in the ZLB host, TL yield and sensitivity has significantly enhanced. • The fading behaviour has also been minimized significantly. • The new material is also characterized with the linear dose response, and good reproducibility behaviour.

  11. Physical Properties of ZnO Thin Films Codoped with Titanium and Hydrogen Prepared by RF Magnetron Sputtering with Different Substrate Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Hsing Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transparent conducting titanium-doped zinc oxide (TZO thin films were prepared on glass substrates by RF magnetron sputtering using 1.5 wt% TiO2-doped ZnO as the target. Electrical, structural, and optical properties of films were investigated as a function of H2/(Ar + H2 flow ratios (RH and substrate temperatures (TS. The optimal RH value for achieving high conducting TZO:H thin film decreased from 10% to 1% when TS increased from RT to 300°C. The lowest resistivity of 9.2×10-4 Ω-cm was obtained as TS=100°C and RH=7.5%. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that all of TZO:H films had a hexagonal wurtzite structure with a preferred orientation in the (002 direction. Atomic force microscopy analysis revealed that the film surface roughness increased with increasing RH. The average visible transmittance decreased with increasing RH for the RT-deposited film, while it had not considerably changed with different RH for the 300°C-deposited films. The optical bandgap increased as RH increased, which is consistent with the Burstein-Moss effect. The figure of merits indicated that TS=100°C and RH=7.5% were optimal conditions for TZO thin films as transparent conducting electrode applications.

  12. Upconversion in rare earth ions doped TeO2-ZnO glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanty, Deepak Kumar; Rai, Vineet Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The Er 3+ /Yb 3+ doped/codoped TeO 2 -ZnO glasses have been fabricated by conventional melt and quenching technique. The absorption spectra of the doped/codoped glasses have been performed. The visible upconversion emissions of both doped and codoped glasses have been observed using 808 nm diode laser excitation. The process involved in upconversion emissions has been discussed in detail. (author)

  13. In situ DRIFTS study of O{sub 3} adsorption on CaO, γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CuO, α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ZnO at room temperature for the catalytic ozonation of cinnamaldehyde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jianfeng; Su, Tongming; Jiang, Yuexiu; Xie, Xinling [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Qin, Zuzeng, E-mail: qinzuzeng@gmail.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Ji, Hongbing, E-mail: jihb@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); School of Chemistry, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • In situ DRIFTS study of O{sub 3} adsorption on metal oxides at room temperature. • Using acidic probe molecules (DRIFTS) characterization of surface basicity. • Correlation between basic strength of metal oxides and O{sub 3} adsorption. • Study on the competitive adsorption of O{sub 3} and CO{sub 2}. • DRIFTS study of cinnamaldehyde ozonation and benzaldehyde excessive oxidation. - Abstract: In situ DRIFTS were conducted to identify adsorbed ozone and/or adsorbed oxygen species on CaO, ZnO, γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CuO and α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} surfaces at room temperature. Samples were characterized by means of TG, XRD, N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption, pyridine-IR, nitrobenzene-IR, chloroform-IR, and CO{sub 2}-TPD. Pyridine-DRIFTS measurements evidence two kinds of acid sites in all the samples. Nitrobenzene, chloroform-DRIFTS, and CO{sub 2}-TPD reveal that there are large amounts of medium-strength base sites on all the metal oxides, and only CaO, ZnO, and γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} have strong base sites. And the benzaldehyde selectivity was increased in the same order of the alkalinity of the metal oxides. With weaker sites, ozone molecules form coordinative complexes bound via the terminal oxygen atom, observed by vibrational frequencies at 2095–2122 and 1026–1054 cm{sup −1}. The formation of ozonide O{sub 3}{sup −} at 790 cm{sup −1}, atomic oxygen at 1317 cm{sup −1}, and superoxide O{sub 2}{sup −} at 1124 cm{sup −1} was detected; these species are believed to be intermediates of O{sub 3} decomposition on strong acid/base sites. The adsorption of ozone on metal oxides is a weak adsorption, and other gases, such as CO{sub 2}, will compete with O{sub 3} adsorption. The mechanism of cinnamaldehyde ozonation at room temperature over CaO shows that cinnamaldehyde can not only be oxidized into cinnamic acid, but also be further oxidized into benzaldehyde, benzoic acid, maleic anhydride, and ultimately mineralized to CO{sub 2} in the

  14. Energy transfer upconversion in Er3+-Tm3+ codoped sodium silicate glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Pandey, Anurag; Ntwaeaborwa, O. M.; Swart, H. C.

    2018-04-01

    Er3+/Tm3+ doped and codoped Na2O-SiO2-ZnO (NSZO) glasses were prepared by the conventional melt-quenching method. The amorphous nature of the prepared glasses was confirmed by the X-ray diffraction analysis. The optical absorption spectrum displayed several peaks, which correspond to Er3+ and Tm3+ dopant ions embedded into the NSZO glass. Both dopants experienced upconversion emission under 980 nm excitation. Efficient energy transfer from Er3+ to Tm3+ was observed in the co-doped samples to enhance the near infrared emission of the Tm3+ ions.

  15. Interfacial engineering of CuO nanorod/ZnO nanowire hybrid nanostructure photoanode in dye-sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Bayram; Turkdogan, Sunay; Astam, Aykut; Baran, Sümeyra Seniha; Asgin, Mansur; Gur, Emre; Kocak, Yusuf

    2018-01-01

    Developing efficient and cost-effective photoanode plays a vital role determining the photocurrent and photovoltage in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Here, we demonstrate DSSCs that achieve relatively high power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) by using one-dimensional (1D) zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires and copper (II) oxide (CuO) nanorods hybrid nanostructures. CuO nanorod-based thin films were prepared by hydrothermal method and used as a blocking layer on top of the ZnO nanowires' layer. The use of 1D ZnO nanowire/CuO nanorod hybrid nanostructures led to an exceptionally high photovoltaic performance of DSSCs with a remarkably high open-circuit voltage (0.764 V), short current density (14.76 mA/cm2 under AM1.5G conditions), and relatively high solar to power conversion efficiency (6.18%) . The enhancement of the solar to power conversion efficiency can be explained in terms of the lag effect of the interfacial recombination dynamics of CuO nanorod-blocking layer on ZnO nanowires. This work shows more economically feasible method to bring down the cost of the nano-hybrid cells and promises for the growth of other important materials to further enhance the solar to power conversion efficiency.

  16. Structural and optical characterization of indium-antimony complexes in ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Türker, M.; Deicher, M., E-mail: manfred.deicher@tech-phys.uni-sb.de; Johnston, K.; Wolf, H.; Wichert, Th. [Universität des Saarlandes, Experimentalphysik (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    One of the main obstacles to the technical application of the wide-gap semiconductor ZnO represents the difficulty to achieve reliable p-type doping of ZnO with group V elements (N, P, As, Sb) acting as acceptors located on O lattice sites. The theoretically proposed concepts of cluster-doping or codoping may lead to an enhanced and stable p-type conductivity of ZnO. We report on PAC results obtained by codoping experiments of ZnO by ion implantation using the donor {sup 111}In and the group-V acceptor Sb. The formation of In-Sb pairs has been observed. Based on these PAC results, there is no evidence for the formation of In-acceptor complexes involving more than one Sb acceptor. These results has been complemented by photoluminescence measurements.

  17. Single and couple doping ZnO nanocrystals characterized by positron techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasang, Tenzin; Namratha, Keerthiraj; Byrappa, Kullaiah; Guagliardo, Paul; Ranganathaiah, Chikkakuntappa; Samarin, S; Williams, J F

    2015-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocrystals have been synthesized using a mild hydrothermal process using low temperatures and pressures with the advantages of free growth catalyst, low cost and alternative technology. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy and coincidence Doppler broadening (CDB) spectroscopic methods have been used to investigate the roles of single- and co-dopants and native defects of the ZnO nanocrystals controlled by the synthesis process. It is shown that single Ag 1+ and Pd 2+ dopants occupy interstitial sites of the ZnO lattice and single Ru 3+ doping replaces Zn vacancies substitutionally with a significant effect on the CDB momentum ratio curves when compared using ZnO as the reference spectrum. The co-doping of the ZnO lattice with (Sn 4+ + Co 2+ ) shows similar CDB ratios as Ru 3+ single-doping. Also co-doping with (Ag 1+ + Pd 2+ ) or (Ag 1+ + W 6+ ) shows significant decreases in the band gap energy up to about 12.6% compared to single doping. The momentum ratio curves, referenced to undoped ZnO, indicate dopants in interstitial and substitutional sites. The presence of transition metal ions interstitially will trap electrons which resist the recombination of electrons and in turn affect the conductivity of the material. (paper)

  18. Single and couple doping ZnO nanocrystals characterized by positron techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasang, Tenzin; Namratha, Keerthiraj; Guagliardo, Paul; Byrappa, Kullaiah; Ranganathaiah, Chikkakuntappa; Samarin, S.; Williams, J. F.

    2015-04-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocrystals have been synthesized using a mild hydrothermal process using low temperatures and pressures with the advantages of free growth catalyst, low cost and alternative technology. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy and coincidence Doppler broadening (CDB) spectroscopic methods have been used to investigate the roles of single- and co-dopants and native defects of the ZnO nanocrystals controlled by the synthesis process. It is shown that single Ag1+ and Pd2+ dopants occupy interstitial sites of the ZnO lattice and single Ru3+ doping replaces Zn vacancies substitutionally with a significant effect on the CDB momentum ratio curves when compared using ZnO as the reference spectrum. The co-doping of the ZnO lattice with (Sn4+ + Co2+) shows similar CDB ratios as Ru3+ single-doping. Also co-doping with (Ag1+ + Pd2+) or (Ag1+ + W6+) shows significant decreases in the band gap energy up to about 12.6% compared to single doping. The momentum ratio curves, referenced to undoped ZnO, indicate dopants in interstitial and substitutional sites. The presence of transition metal ions interstitially will trap electrons which resist the recombination of electrons and in turn affect the conductivity of the material.

  19. Magnetic excitations in CuO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ain, M.; Reichardt, W.; Hennion, B.; Pepy, G.; Wanklyn, B.M.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have studied the magnetic excitations of CuO both in the ordered and the paramagnetic phase. Their results demonstrate the dominance of the magnetic interaction along the 10-1 Cu-O zigzag chains. In this direction the slope of the acoustic branch is 550 neV Angstrom

  20. Effect of (Mn,Cr) co-doping on structural, electronic and magnetic properties of zinc oxide by first-principles studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimouch, D. E.; Meskine, S.; Boukortt, A.; Zaoui, A.

    2018-04-01

    In this study, structural, electronic and magnetic properties of Mn doped (ZnO:Mn) and (Mn,Cr) co-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:(Mn,Cr)) have been calculated with the FP-LAPW method by using the LSDA and LSDA+U approximations. Going through three configurations of Mn,Cr co-doped ZnO corresponding to three different distances between manganese and chromium, we have analyzed that ZnO:(Mn,Cr) system is more stable in its preferred configuration2. The lattice constant of undoped ZnO that has been calculated in this study is in a good agreement with the experimental and theoretical values. It was found to be increased by doping with Mn or (Mn,Cr) impurities. The band structure calculations showed the metallic character of Mn doped and Mn,Cr co-doped ZnO. As results, by using LSDA+U (U = 6eV), we show the half-metallic character of ZnO:Mn and ZnO:Mn,Cr. We present the calculated exchange couplings d-d of Mn doped ZnO which is in a good agreement with the former FPLO calculation data and the magnetization step measurement of the experimental work. The magnetic coupling between neighboring Mn impurities in ZnO is found to be antiferromagnetic. In the case of (Mn,Cr) co-doped ZnO, the magnetic coupling between Mn and Cr impurities is found to be antiferromagnetic for configuration1 and 3, and ferromagnetic for configuration2. Thus, the ferromagnetic coupling is weak in ZnO:Mn. Chromium co-doping greatly enhance the ferromagnetism, especially when using configuration2. At last, we present the 2D and 3D spin-density distribution of ZnO:Mn and ZnO:(Mn,Cr) where the ferromagnetic state in ZnO:(Mn,Cr) comes from the strong p-d and d-d interactions between 2p-O, 3d-Mn and 3d-Cr electrons. The results of our calculations suggest that the co-doping ZnO(Mn, Cr) can be among DMS behavior for spintronic applications.

  1. 139La and 63Cu NMR investigation of charge order in La2CuO4 +y (Tc=42 K)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, T.; Lee, Y. S.

    2018-03-01

    We report 139La and 63Cu NMR investigation of the successive charge order, spin order, and superconducting transitions in superoxygenated La2CuO4 +y single crystal with stage-4 excess oxygen order at Tstage≃290 K. We show that the stage-4 order induces tilting of CuO6 octahedra below Tstage, which in turn causes 139La NMR line broadening. The structural distortion continues to develop far below Tstage, and completes at Tcharge≃60 K, where charge order sets in. This sequence is reminiscent of the the charge-order transition in Nd codoped La1.88Sr0.12CuO4 that sets in once the low-temperature tetragonal phase is established. We also show that the paramagnetic 63Cu NMR signals are progressively wiped out below Tcharge due to enhanced low-frequency spin fluctuations in charge-ordered domains, but the residual 63Cu NMR signals continue to exhibit the characteristics expected for optimally doped superconducting CuO2 planes. This indicates that charge order in La2CuO4 +y does not take place uniformly in space. In addition, unlike the typical second-order magnetic phase transitions, low-frequency Cu spin fluctuations as probed by 139La nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate do not exhibit critical divergence at Tspin(≃Tc ) =42 K. These findings, including the spatially inhomogeneous nature of the charge-ordered state, are qualitatively similar to the case of La1.885Sr0.115CuO4 [Imai et al., Phys. Rev. B 96, 224508 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevB.96.224508 and Arsenault et al., Phys. Rev. B 97, 064511 (2018), 10.1103/PhysRevB.97.064511], but both charge and spin order take place more sharply in the present case.

  2. Effects of CuO nanoparticles on Lemna minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guanling; Hou, Wenhua; Gao, Yuan; Wang, Yan; Lin, Lin; Zhang, Zhiwei; Niu, Qiang; Ma, Rulin; Mu, Lati; Wang, Haixia

    2016-12-01

    Copper dioxide nanoparticles (NPs), which is a kind of important and widely used metal oxide NP, eventually reaches a water body through wastewater and urban runoff. Ecotoxicological studies of this kind of NPs effects on hydrophyte are very limited at present. Lemna minor was exposed to media with different concentrations of CuO NPs, bulk CuO, and two times concentration of Cu 2+ released from CuO NPs in culture media. The changes in plant growth, chlorophyll content, antioxidant defense enzyme activities [i.e., peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities], and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were measured in the present study. The particle size of CuO NPs and the zeta potential of CuO NPs and bulk CuO in the culture media were also analyzed to complementally evaluate their toxicity on duckweed. Results showed that CuO NPs inhibited the plant growth at lower concentration than bulk CuO. L. minor roots were easily broken in CuO NPs media under the experimental condition, and the inhibition occurred only partly because CuO NPs released Cu 2+ in the culture media. The POD, SOD, and CAT activities of L. minor increased when the plants were exposed to CuO NPs, bulk CuO NPs and two times the concentration of Cu 2+ released from CuO NPs in culture media, but the increase of these enzymes were the highest in CuO NPs media among the three kinds of materials. The MDA content was significantly increased compared with that of the control from 50 mg L -1 CuO NP concentration in culture media. CuO NPs has more toxicity on L. minor compared with that of bulk CuO, and the inhibition occurred only partly because released Cu 2+ in the culture media. The plant accumulated more reactive oxygen species in the CuO NP media than in the same concentration of bulk CuO. The plant cell encountered serious damage when the CuO NP concentration reached 50 mg L -1 in culture media. The toxicology of CuO NP on hydrophytes must be considered because that hydrophytes

  3. Effect of Al and Fe doping in ZnO on magnetic and magneto-transport properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Santosh; Deepika; Tripathi, Malvika; Vaibhav, Pratyush; Kumar, Aman; Kumar, Ritesh; Choudhary, R.J.; Phase, D.M.

    2016-01-01

    The structural, magnetic and magneto-transport of undoped ZnO, Zn_0_._9_7Al_0_._0_3O, Zn_0_._9_5Fe_0_._0_5O and Zn_0_._9_2Al_0_._0_3Fe_0_._0_5O thin films grown on Si(100) substrate using pulsed laser deposition were investigated. The single phase nature of the films is confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy measurements. The possibility of Fe metal cluster in Fe doped/co-doped films is ruled out by Fe 2p core level photoelectron spectra. From O 1s core level spectra it is observed that oxygen vacancy is present in all the films. The undoped ZnO film shows magnetic ordering below ∼175 K, whereas Fe doped/codoped samples show magnetic ordering even at 300 K. The Al doped sample reveals paramagnetic behavior. The magneto-transport measurements suggest that the mobile carriers undergo exchange interaction with local magnetic moments. - Highlights: • Al, Fe, Al–Fe co-doped and undoped films of ZnO are deposited on Si by PLD. • Single phase (002) oriented Wurtzite ZnO phase is formed for all films. • Fe doped and Fe–Al co-doped ZnO films reveal magnetic hysteresis at 300 K. • Negative magnetoresistance is observed in undoped and Fe–Al co-doped ZnO film. • It is apparent that charge carriers are coupled with the local magnetic moment.

  4. Effect of Al and Fe doping in ZnO on magnetic and magneto-transport properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Santosh, E-mail: skphysics@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, College of Commerce, Arts & Science, Patna 800020, Bihar (India); Deepika [Department of Physics, College of Commerce, Arts & Science, Patna 800020, Bihar (India); Tripathi, Malvika [UGC DAE, Consortium for scientific research, Indore 452001, Madhya Pradesh (India); Vaibhav, Pratyush [Jaypee University of Engineering and Technology, Guna 473226, Madhya Pradesh (India); Kumar, Aman [Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India); Kumar, Ritesh [Department of Physics, College of Commerce, Arts & Science, Patna 800020, Bihar (India); Choudhary, R.J., E-mail: ram@csr.res.in [UGC DAE, Consortium for scientific research, Indore 452001, Madhya Pradesh (India); Phase, D.M. [UGC DAE, Consortium for scientific research, Indore 452001, Madhya Pradesh (India)

    2016-12-01

    The structural, magnetic and magneto-transport of undoped ZnO, Zn{sub 0.97}Al{sub 0.03}O, Zn{sub 0.95}Fe{sub 0.05}O and Zn{sub 0.92}Al{sub 0.03}Fe{sub 0.05}O thin films grown on Si(100) substrate using pulsed laser deposition were investigated. The single phase nature of the films is confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy measurements. The possibility of Fe metal cluster in Fe doped/co-doped films is ruled out by Fe 2p core level photoelectron spectra. From O 1s core level spectra it is observed that oxygen vacancy is present in all the films. The undoped ZnO film shows magnetic ordering below ∼175 K, whereas Fe doped/codoped samples show magnetic ordering even at 300 K. The Al doped sample reveals paramagnetic behavior. The magneto-transport measurements suggest that the mobile carriers undergo exchange interaction with local magnetic moments. - Highlights: • Al, Fe, Al–Fe co-doped and undoped films of ZnO are deposited on Si by PLD. • Single phase (002) oriented Wurtzite ZnO phase is formed for all films. • Fe doped and Fe–Al co-doped ZnO films reveal magnetic hysteresis at 300 K. • Negative magnetoresistance is observed in undoped and Fe–Al co-doped ZnO film. • It is apparent that charge carriers are coupled with the local magnetic moment.

  5. CuO cauliflowers for supercapacitor application: Novel potentiodynamic deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubal, Deepak P.; Gund, Girish S.; Lokhande, Chandrakant D.; Holze, Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic experimental setup used for the potentiodynamic mode of electrodeposition for the synthesis of CuO cauliflower onto stainless steel substrate. Highlights: ► Synthesis of CuO using potentiodynamic mode of electrodeposition. ► Uniformly spread cauliflower-like nanostructure. ► CuO cauliflowers provide high specific capacitance with good stability. ► CuO cauliflowers show high power and energy density values. -- Abstract: In present investigation, synthesis and characterization of novel cauliflower-like copper oxide (CuO) and its electrochemical properties have been performed. The utilized CuO cauliflowers were prepared by potentiodyanamic mode from an aqueous alkaline bath. X-ray diffraction pattern confirm the formation of monoclinic CuO cauliflowers. Scanning electron micrograph analysis reveals that CuO cauliflowers are uniformly spread all over the substrate surface with the surface area of 49 m 2 g −1 with bimodal pore size distribution. Electrochemical analysis shows that CuO cauliflower exhibits high specific capacitance of 179 Fg −1 in 1 M Na 2 SO 4 electrolyte with 81% capacity retention after 2000 cycles. The Ragone plot discovers better power and energy densities of cauliflowers-like CuO sample. Present investigation illustrates that the potentiodynamic approach for the direct growth of cauliflower-like CuO is simple and cost-effective and can be applied for synthesis of other metal oxides, polymers etc.

  6. Implanted ZnO thin films: Microstructure, electrical and electronic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.; Metson, J.; Evans, P.J.; Kinsey, R.; Bhattacharyya, D.

    2007-01-01

    Magnetron sputtered polycrystalline ZnO thin films were implanted using Al, Ag, Sn, Sb and codoped with TiN in order to improve the conductivity and to attempt to achieve p-type behaviour. Structural and electrical properties of the implanted ZnO thin films were examined with X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and conductivity measurements. Depth profiles of the implanted elements varied with the implant species. Implantation causes a partial amorphisation of the crystalline structure and decreases the effective grain size of the films. One of the findings is the improvement, as a consequence of implantation, in the conductivity of initially poorly conductive samples. Heavy doping may help for the conversion of conduction type of ZnO thin films. Annealing in vacuum mitigated structural damage and stress caused by implantation, and improved the conductivity of the implanted ZnO thin films

  7. Effect of cobalt doping on the mechanical properties of ZnO nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahtrus, Mikk; Šutka, Andris [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Ostwaldi 1, 50412 Tartu (Estonia); Polyakov, Boris [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Kengaraga 8, LV-1063 Riga (Latvia); Oras, Sven; Antsov, Mikk [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Ostwaldi 1, 50412 Tartu (Estonia); Doebelin, Nicola [RMS Foundation, Bischmattstrasse 12, Bettlach 2544 (Switzerland); Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern, Baltzerstrasse 1–3, Bern 3012 (Switzerland); Lõhmus, Rünno; Nõmmiste, Ergo [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Ostwaldi 1, 50412 Tartu (Estonia); Vlassov, Sergei, E-mail: vlassovs@ut.ee [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Ostwaldi 1, 50412 Tartu (Estonia)

    2016-11-15

    In this work, we investigate the influence of doping on the mechanical properties of ZnO nanowires (NWs) by comparing the mechanical properties of pure and Co-doped ZnO NWs grown in similar conditions and having the same crystallographic orientation [0001]. The mechanical characterization included three-point bending tests made with atomic force microscopy and cantilever beam bending tests performed inside scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the Young's modulus of ZnO NWs containing 5% of Co was approximately a third lower than that of the pure ZnO NWs. Bending strength values were comparable for both materials and in both cases were close to theoretical strength indicating high quality of NWs. Dependence of mechanical properties on NW diameter was found for both doped and undoped ZnO NWs. - Highlights: •Effect of Co doping on the mechanical properties of ZnO nanowires is studied. •Co substitutes Zn atoms in ZnO crystal lattice. •Co addition affects crystal lattice parameters. •Co addition results in significantly decreased Young's modulus of ZnO. •Bending strength for doped and undoped wires is close to the theoretical strength.

  8. CuO mesostructures as ammonia sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvaneshwari, S.; Gopalakrishnan, N.

    2018-04-01

    The emission threshold of NH3 in air is 1000 kg/yr which is now about 20 Tg/yr according to environmental protection agencies. Hence, there is a rapid increase in need of NH3 sensors to timely detect and control NH3 emissions. Metal oxide nanostructures such as CuO with special features are potential candidates for NH3 sensing. In the present study, morphology controlled 3-dimensional CuO mesostructures were synthesized by surfactant-free hydrothermal method. A modified approach using a mixture of water and ethylene glycol (EG) was used as solvent to control the growth process. Hierarchical mesostructures namely, hollow-sphere-like and urchin-like feature with particle dimensions ranging from 0.3-1 µm were obtained by varying water/EG ratio. The room temperature ammonia sensing behavior of all samples was studied using an indigenous gas sensing set-up. It was found that hollow-sphere like CuO nanostructures showed a maximum response of 2 towards 300 ppm ammonia with a response and recovery time of 5 and 15 min. The hydrothermal synthesis strategy reported here has the advantage of producing shape controlled hierarchical materials are highly suitable for various technological applications.

  9. Magnetoelectric Coupling in CuO Nanoparticles for Spintronics Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Mandeep; Tovstolytkin, Alexandr; Lotey, Gurmeet Singh

    2018-05-01

    Multiferroic copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles have been synthesized by colloidal synthesis method. The morphological, structural, magnetic, dielectric and magnetodielectric property has been investigated. The structural study reveals the monoclinic structure of CuO nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy images disclose that the size of the CuO nanoparticles is 18 nm and the synthesized nanoparticles are uniform in size and dispersion. Magnetic study tells the weak ferromagnetic character of CuO nanoparticles with coercivity and retentivity value 206 Oe and 0.060 emu/g respectively. Dielectric study confirms that the dielectric constant of CuO nanoparticles is around 1091 at low frequency. The magnetoelectric coupling in the synthesized CuO nanoparticles has been calculated by measuring magnetodielectric coupling coefficient.

  10. Synthesis of Thermally Spherical CuO Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nittaya Tamaekong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper oxide (CuO nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by a thermal method. The CuO nanoparticles were further characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, differential thermal analysis (DTA, X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS, and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, respectively. The specific surface area (SSABET of CuO nanoparticles was determined by nitrogen adsorption. The SSABET was found to be 99.67 m2/g (dBET of 9.5 nm. The average diameter of the spherical CuO nanoparticles was approximately 6–9 nm.

  11. CuO cauliflowers for supercapacitor application: Novel potentiodynamic deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubal, Deepak P., E-mail: deepak.dubal@chemie.tu-chemnitz.de [Technische Universität Chemnitz, Institut für Chemie, AG Elektrochemie, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Gund, Girish S.; Lokhande, Chandrakant D. [Thin Film Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur, 416004 (M.S) (India); Holze, Rudolf, E-mail: rudolf.holze@chemie.tu-chemnitz.de [Technische Universität Chemnitz, Institut für Chemie, AG Elektrochemie, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Schematic experimental setup used for the potentiodynamic mode of electrodeposition for the synthesis of CuO cauliflower onto stainless steel substrate. Highlights: ► Synthesis of CuO using potentiodynamic mode of electrodeposition. ► Uniformly spread cauliflower-like nanostructure. ► CuO cauliflowers provide high specific capacitance with good stability. ► CuO cauliflowers show high power and energy density values. -- Abstract: In present investigation, synthesis and characterization of novel cauliflower-like copper oxide (CuO) and its electrochemical properties have been performed. The utilized CuO cauliflowers were prepared by potentiodyanamic mode from an aqueous alkaline bath. X-ray diffraction pattern confirm the formation of monoclinic CuO cauliflowers. Scanning electron micrograph analysis reveals that CuO cauliflowers are uniformly spread all over the substrate surface with the surface area of 49 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} with bimodal pore size distribution. Electrochemical analysis shows that CuO cauliflower exhibits high specific capacitance of 179 Fg{sup −1} in 1 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte with 81% capacity retention after 2000 cycles. The Ragone plot discovers better power and energy densities of cauliflowers-like CuO sample. Present investigation illustrates that the potentiodynamic approach for the direct growth of cauliflower-like CuO is simple and cost-effective and can be applied for synthesis of other metal oxides, polymers etc.

  12. Impacts of Co doping on ZnO transparent switching memory device characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simanjuntak, Firman Mangasa; Wei, Kung-Hwa [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China); Prasad, Om Kumar [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China); Panda, Debashis [Department of Electronics Engineering, National Institute of Science and Technology, Berhampur, Odisha 761008 (India); Lin, Chun-An; Tsai, Tsung-Ling; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen, E-mail: tseng@cc.nctu.edu.tw [Department of Electronics Engineering and Institute of Electronics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China)

    2016-05-02

    The resistive switching characteristics of indium tin oxide (ITO)/Zn{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}O/ITO transparent resistive memory devices were investigated. An appropriate amount of cobalt dopant in ZnO resistive layer demonstrated sufficient memory window and switching stability. In contrast, pure ZnO devices demonstrated a poor memory window, and using an excessive dopant concentration led to switching instability. To achieve suitable memory performance, relying only on controlling defect concentrations is insufficient; the grain growth orientation of the resistive layer must also be considered. Stable endurance with an ON/OFF ratio of more than one order of magnitude during 5000 cycles confirmed that the Co-doped ZnO device is a suitable candidate for resistive random access memory application. Additionally, fully transparent devices with a high transmittance of up to 90% at wavelength of 550 nm have been fabricated.

  13. Study of upconversion fluorescence property of novel Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped tellurite glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tie-Feng; Li, Guang-Po; Nie, Qiu-Hua; Shen, Xiang

    2006-06-01

    Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped TeO2-B2O3-Nb2O5-ZnO (TBN) glasses were prepared. The absorption spectra and upconversion luminescence spectra of TBN glasses were measured and analyzed. The upconversion emission bands centered at 530, 546 and 658 nm were observed under the excitation at 975 nm, corresponding to the transitions of 2H11/2-->4I15/2, 4S3/2-->4I15/2 and 4F9/2-->4I15/2 respectively. The ratio of red emission to green emission increases with an increasing of Yb3+ ions concentration. According to the quadratic dependence on excitation power, the possible upconversion mechanisms and processes were discussed.

  14. Defect mediated magnetic interaction and high Tc ferromagnetism in Co doped ZnO nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Bappaditya; Giri, P K

    2011-10-01

    Structural, optical and magnetic studies have been carried out for the Co-doped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs). ZnO NPs are doped with 3% and 5% Co using ball milling and ferromagnetism (FM) is studied at room temperature and above. A high Curie temperature (Tc) has been observed from the Co doped ZnO NPs. X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis confirm the absence of metallic Co clusters or any other phase different from würtzite-type ZnO. UV-visible absorption and photoluminescence studies on the doped samples show change in band structure and oxygen vacancy defects, respectively. Micro-Raman studies of doped samples shows defect related additional strong bands at 547 and 574 cm(-1) confirming the presence of oxygen vacancy defects in ZnO lattice. The field dependence of magnetization (M-H curve) measured at room temperature exhibits the clear M-H loop with saturation magnetization and coercive field of the order of 4-6 emu/g and 260 G, respectively. Temperature dependence of magnetization measurement shows sharp ferromagnetic to paramagnetic transition with a high Tc = 791 K for 3% Co doped ZnO NPs. Ferromagnetic ordering is interpreted in terms of overlapping of polarons mediated through oxygen vacancy defects based on the bound magnetic polaron (BMP) model. We show that the observed FM data fits well with the BMP model involving localised carriers and magnetic cations.

  15. Photoconductive ZnO Films Printed on Flexible Substrates by Inkjet and Aerosol Jet Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winarski, D. J.; Kreit, E.; Heckman, E. M.; Flesburg, E.; Haseman, M.; Aga, R. S.; Selim, F. A.

    2018-02-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have remarkable versatility in sensor applications. Here, we report simple ink synthesis and printing methods to deposit ZnO photodetectors on a variety of flexible and transparent substrates, including polyimide (Kapton), polyethylene terephthalate, cyclic olefin copolymer (TOPAS), and quartz. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the dependence of the film orientation on the substrate type and sintering method, and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption measurements revealed a band edge near 380 nm. van der Pauw technique was used to measure the resistivity of undoped ZnO and indium/gallium-codoped ZnO (IGZO) films. IGZO films showed lower resistivity and larger average grain size compared with undoped ZnO films due to addition of In3+ and Ga3+, which act as donors. A 365-nm light-emitting diode was used to photoirradiate the films to study their photoconductive response as a function of light intensity at 300 K. The results revealed that ZnO films printed by aerosol jet and inkjet techniques exhibited five orders of magnitude photoconductivity, indicating that such films are viable options for use in flexible photodetectors.

  16. Effect of Cu-Dopant on the Structural, Magnetic and Electrical Properties of ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryanto, D.; Kurniawan, C.; Subhan, A.; Sudiro, T.; Sebayang, P.; Ginting, M.; Siregar, S. M. K.; Nasruddin, M. N.

    2017-05-01

    Zn1- x Cu x O (x = 0, 2, 3, and 4 at.%) was synthesized by using solid-state reaction technique. The ZnO and CuO powders were mixed and then milled by using high-speed shaker mill. The influence of Cu dopants on the structure, magnetic, and electrical properties was investigated by using XRD, VSM, and I-V and C-V measurements. The XRD analysis showed that the Zn1- x Cu x O had hexagonal wurtzite polycrystalline. The diffraction intensity decreased and the peak position shifted directly to a higher 2θ angle with increasing the dopant concentration. Furthermore, the lattice parameters decreased when the ZnO was doped with x = 0.04, which indicated that the crystal structure changed. The increase of Cu dopants was believed to affect the magnetic and electrical properties of ZnO.

  17. Revisiting 63Cu NMR evidence for charge order in superconducting La1.885Sr0.115CuO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, T.; Takahashi, S. K.; Arsenault, A.; Acton, A. W.; Lee, D.; He, W.; Lee, Y. S.; Fujita, M.

    2017-12-01

    The presence of charge and spin stripe order in the La2CuO4 -based family of superconductors continues to lead to new insight on the unusual ground-state properties of high-Tc cuprates. Soon after the discovery of charge stripe order at Tcharge≃65 K in Nd3 + co-doped La1.48Nd0.4Sr0.12CuO4 (Tc≃6 K) [Tranquada et al., Nature (London) 375, 561 (1995), 10.1038/375561a0], Hunt et al. demonstrated that La1.48Nd0.4Sr0.12CuO4 and superconducting La2 -xSrxCuO4 with x ˜1 /8 (Tc≃30 K) share nearly identical NMR anomalies near Tcharge of the former [Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4300 (1999), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.82.4300]. Their inevitable conclusion that La1.885Sr0.115CuO4 also undergoes charge order at a comparable temperature became controversial, because diffraction measurements at the time were unable to detect Bragg peaks associated with charge order. Recent advances in x-ray diffraction techniques finally led to definitive confirmations of the charge order Bragg peaks in La1.885Sr0.115CuO4 with an onset at as high as Tcharge≃80 K. Meanwhile, improved instrumental technology has enabled routine NMR measurements that were not feasible two decades ago. Motivated by these new developments, we revisit the charge order transition of a La1.885Sr0.115CuO4 single crystal based on 63Cu NMR techniques. We demonstrate that 63Cu NMR properties of the nuclear spin Iz=-1/2 to +1/2 central transition below Tcharge exhibit unprecedentedly strong dependence on the measurement time scale set by the separation time τ between the 90∘ and 180∘ radio-frequency pulses; a new kind of anomalous, very broad winglike 63Cu NMR signals gradually emerge below Tcharge only for extremely short τ ≲4 μ s , while the spectral weight INormal of the normal NMR signals is progressively wiped out. The NMR linewidth and relaxation rates depend strongly on τ below Tcharge, and their enhancement in the charge ordered state indicates that charge order turns on strong but inhomogeneous growth of Cu spin

  18. Properties and local environment of p-type and photoluminescent rare earths implanted into ZnO single crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Rita, EMC; Wahl, U; Soares, JC

    This thesis presents an experimental study of the local environment of p-type and Rare- Earth dopants implanted in ZnO single-crystals (SCs). Various nuclear and bulk property techniques were combined in the following evaluations: Implantation damage annealing was evaluated in ZnO SCs implanted with Fe, Sr and Ca. P-type dopants Cu and Ag implanted ZnO SCs were studied revealing that the solubility of Cu in substituting Zn is considerably higher than that of Ag. These results are discussed within the scope of the ZnO p-type doping problematic with these elements. Experimental proofs of the As “anti-site” behavior in ZnO were for the first time attained, i.e., the majority of As atoms are substitutional at the Zn site (SZn), possibly surrounded by two Zn vacancies (VZn). This reinforces the theoretical prediction that As acts as an acceptor in ZnO via the AsZn-2VZn complex formation. The co-doping of ZnO SC with In (donor) and As (acceptor) was addressed. The most striking result is the possible In-As “p...

  19. High-quality ZnO growth, doping, and polarization effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kun, Tang; Shulin, Gu; Jiandong, Ye; Shunming, Zhu; Rong, Zhang; Youdou, Zheng

    2016-03-01

    The authors have reported their recent progress in the research field of ZnO materials as well as the corresponding global advance. Recent results regarding (1) the development of high-quality epitaxy techniques, (2) the defect physics and the Te/N co-doping mechanism for p-type conduction, and (3) the design, realization, and properties of the ZnMgO/ZnO hetero-structures have been shown and discussed. A complete technology of the growth of high-quality ZnO epi-films and nano-crystals has been developed. The co-doping of N plus an iso-valent element to oxygen has been found to be the most hopeful path to overcome the notorious p-type hurdle. High mobility electrons have been observed in low-dimensional structures utilizing the polarization of ZnMgO and ZnO. Very different properties as well as new physics of the electrons in 2DEG and 3DES have been found as compared to the electrons in the bulk. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61025020, 61274058, 61322403, 61504057, 61574075), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (Nos. BK2011437, BK20130013, BK20150585), the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities.

  20. Preparation and characterization of CuO nanowire arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Dongliang; Ge Chuannan; Du Youwei

    2009-01-01

    CuO nanowire arrays were prepared by oxidation of copper nanowires embedded in anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes. The AAO was fabricated in an oxalic acid at a constant voltage. Copper nanowires were formed in the nanopores of the AAO membranes in an electrochemical deposition process. The oxidized copper nanowires at different temperatures were studied. X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the formation of a CuO phase after calcining at 500 0 C in air for 30 h. A transmission electron microscopy was used to characterize the nanowire morphologies. Raman spectra were performed to study the CuO nanowire arrays. After measuring, we found that the current-voltage curve of the CuO nanowires is nonlinear.

  1. ZnO based transparent conductive oxide films with controlled type of conduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaharescu, M., E-mail: mzaharescu@icf.ro [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu”, Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Mihaiu, S., E-mail: smihaiu@icf.ro [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu”, Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Toader, A. [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu”, Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Atkinson, I., E-mail: irinaatkinson@yahoo.com [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu”, Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Calderon-Moreno, J.; Anastasescu, M.; Nicolescu, M.; Duta, M.; Gartner, M. [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu”, Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Vojisavljevic, K.; Malic, B. [Institute Jožef Stefan, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Ivanov, V.A.; Zaretskaya, E.P. [State Scientific and Production Association “Scientific-Practical Materials Research Center of the National Academy of Science Belarus, P. Brovska str.19, 220072, Minsk (Belarus)

    2014-11-28

    The transparent conductive oxide films with controlled type of conduction are of great importance and their preparation is intensively studied. In our work, the preparation of such films based on doped ZnO was realized in order to achieve controlled type of conduction and high concentration of the charge carriers. Sol–gel method was used for films preparation and several dopants were tested (Sn, Li, Ni). Multilayer deposition was performed on several substrates: SiO{sub 2}/Si wafers, silica-soda-lime and/or silica glasses. The structural and morphological characterization of the obtained films were done by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy respectively, while spectroscopic ellipsometry and transmittance measurements were done for determination of optical properties. The selected samples with the best structural, morphological and optical properties were subjected to electrical measurement (Hall and Seebeck effect). In all studied cases, samples with good adherence and homogeneous morphology as well as monophasic wurtzite type structure were obtained. The optical constants (refractive index and extinction coefficient) were calculated from spectroscopic ellipsometry data using Cauchy model. Films with n- or p-type conduction were obtained depending on the composition, number of deposition and thermal treatment temperature. - Highlights: • Transparent conductive ZnO based thin films were prepared by the sol–gel method. • Controlled type of conduction is obtained in (Sn, Li) doped and Li-Ni co-doped ZnO films. • Hall and Seebeck measurements proved the p-type conductivity for Li-Ni co-doped ZnO films. • The p-type conductivity was maintained even after 4-months of storage. • Influence of dopant- and substrate-type on the ZnO films properties was established.

  2. Structure and characterization of Sn, Al co-doped zinc oxide thin films prepared by sol–gel dip-coating process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Min-I [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Taiwan (China); Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique, Institut Charles Delaunay, CNRS - UMR STMR 6279, Université de Technologie de Troyes (France); Huang, Mao-Chia [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Taiwan (China); Legrand, David [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Taiwan (China); Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique, Institut Charles Delaunay, CNRS - UMR STMR 6279, Université de Technologie de Troyes (France); Lerondel, Gilles [Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique, Institut Charles Delaunay, CNRS - UMR STMR 6279, Université de Technologie de Troyes (France); Lin, Jing-Chie, E-mail: jclin4046@gmail.com [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Taiwan (China)

    2014-11-03

    Transparent conductive zinc oxide co-doped with tin and aluminum (TAZO) thin films were prepared via sol–gel dip-coating process. Non-toxic ethanol was used in this study instead of 2-methoxyethanol used in conventional work. Dip-coating was repeated several times to obtain relatively thick films consisting of six layers. The films were then annealed at 500 °C for 1 h in air or in vacuum and not subsequently as employed in other studies. The X-ray diffraction patterns indicated that all the samples revealed a single phase of hexagonal ZnO polycrystalline structure with a main peak of (002). The optical band gap and resistivity of the TAZO films were in the ranges of 3.28 to 3.32 eV and 0.52 to 575.25 Ω cm, respectively. The 1.0 at.% Sn, 1.0 at.% Al co-doped ZnO thin film annealed in vacuum was found to have a better photoelectrochemical performance with photocurrent density of about 0.28 mA/cm{sup 2} at a bias of 0.5 V vs. SCE under a 300 W Xe lamp illumination with the intensity of 100 mW/cm{sup 2}. Compared to the same dopant concentration but annealed in air (∼ 0.05 mA/cm{sup 2} bias 0.5 V vs. SCE), the photocurrent density of the film annealed in vacuum was 5 times higher than the film annealed in air. Through electrochemical measurements, we found that the dopant concentration of Sn plays an important role in TAZO that affected photocurrent density, stability of water splitting and anti-corrosion. - Highlights: • Al, Sn co-doped ZnO (TAZO) films was synthesized by sol–gel process. • The parameters of TAZO films were dopant concentration and annealed ambient. • The photoelectrochemical characteristics of TAZO films were investigated.

  3. Preparation and characterization of electrodeposited ZnO and ZnO:Co nanorod films for heterojunction diode applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caglar, Yasemin, E-mail: yasemincaglar@anadolu.edu.tr [Anadolu University, Science Faculty, Physics Department, Eskisehir (Turkey); Arslan, Andaç [Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Art and Science Faculty, Chemistry Department, Eskisehir (Turkey); Ilican, Saliha [Anadolu University, Science Faculty, Physics Department, Eskisehir (Turkey); Hür, Evrim [Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Art and Science Faculty, Chemistry Department, Eskisehir (Turkey); Aksoy, Seval; Caglar, Mujdat [Anadolu University, Science Faculty, Physics Department, Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •Undoped and Co-doped ZnO films were deposited on p-Si by electrodeposition method. •The effects of Co doping on some properties of ZnO films were investigated. •ZnO morphology was converted uniform multi-oriented rods with incorporation of Co. •Co-doped ZnO nanorod films showed a multi-oriented spear-like structure. -- Abstract: Well-aligned undoped and Co-doped nanorod ZnO films were grown by electrochemical deposition onto p-Si substrates from an aqueous route. Aqueous solution of Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}⋅6H{sub 2}O and hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) were prepared using triple distilled water. Two different atomic ratios of Co(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}⋅6H{sub 2}O were used as a dopant element. Electrodepositions were carried out in a conventional three electrode cell for the working electrode (p-Si), reference electrode (Ag/AgCl, sat.) and counter electrode (platin wire). The effects of Co doping on the structural, morphological and electrical properties of ZnO films were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement showed that the undoped ZnO nanorod film was crystallized in the hexagonal wurtzite phase and presented a preferential orientation along the c-axis. Only one peak, corresponding to the (0 0 2) phase, appeared on the diffractograms. The lattice parameters and texture coefficient values were calculated. The nanorods were confirmed by the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) measurements. The FE-SEM image showed that the ZnO nanorods grow uniformly on the substrates, providing a surface with fairly homogeneous roughness. The surface morphology was transformed into uniform multi-oriented rods with incorporation of Co. Co-doped ZnO nanorod films showed a multi-oriented spear-like structure. The diffuse reflectance spectra of the films were measured and the optical band gap values were determined using Kubelka–Munk theory. The van der Pauw method was used to measure the sheet resistance of the films. The sheet resistance

  4. Displacement waves in La2CuO(4-delta) and La(1.85)Sr(0.15)CuO(4-delta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajitani, Tsuyoshi; Onozuka, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Yasuo; Hirabayashi, Makoto; Syono, Yasuhiko

    1987-11-01

    Structural investigation of orthorhombic La2CuO(4-delta) and La(1.85)Sr(0.15)CuO(4-delta) was carried out by means of X-ray and neutron diffraction on the basis of the space group Cmmm. The periodic expansion/contraction type distortion of CuO6 octahedra was found in both orthorhombic compounds. The distortion is nearly one-dimensional in La2CuO(4-delta) but is two-dimensional in La(1.85)Sr(0.15)CuO(4-delta). The existence of a charge-density wave is highly possible in the structures.

  5. Synthesis, microstructural characterization and optical properties of CuO nanorods and nanowires obtained by aerosol assisted CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugo-Ruelas, M.; Amézaga-Madrid, P.; Esquivel-Pereyra, O.; Antúnez-Flores, W.; Pizá-Ruiz, P.; Ornelas-Gutiérrez, C.; Miki-Yoshida, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanorods and nanowires of CuO were successfully synthesized by AACVD technique. • The carrier gas velocity was a determinant factor for the growth of nanorods or nanowires. • The increase of deposition time generates the reduction in the evenness and distribution density. • The crystalline phase of nanorods and nanowires was monoclinic tenorite. - Abstract: Copper oxide is a particularly interesting material because it presents photovoltaic, electrochemical and catalytic properties. Its unique properties are very important in the area of nanotechnology and may be an advantage because these nanomaterials can be applied in the design and manufacture of nanosensors, photocatalysis area, nanolasers switches and transistors. Nowadays one-dimensional nanostructures as nanorods, nanowires, etc., have generated a great importance and have received considerable attention and study due to their unique physical and chemical properties. In this work we report the synthesis, microstructural characterization and optical properties of CuO nanorods and nanowires grown by aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition onto a CuO, ZnO and TiO 2 thin film covered and bare borosilicate glass substrate. Concentration of the precursor solution and carrier gas flux were previously optimized and fixed at 0.1 mol dm −3 and 5 L min −1 , respectively. Other deposition parameters such as substrate temperature, as well the carrier gas velocity and deposition time were varied from 623 to 973 K, 0.88 to 1.77 m s −1 and 11 to 16 min, respectively. Their influence on the morphology, microstructure and optical properties of the nanorods and nanowires were analyzed. The crystalline structure of the materials was characterized by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction; results indicate the presence of the tenorite phase. Surface morphology and microstructure were studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy, and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Optical

  6. Functional CuO Microstructures for Glucose Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Gulzar; Tahira, Aneela; Mallah, Arfana Begum; Mallah, Sarfraz Ahmed; Ibupoto, Akila; Khand, Aftab Ahmed; Baradi, Waryani; Willander, Magnus; Yu, Cong; Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain

    2018-02-01

    CuO microstructures are produced in the presence of water-soluble amino acids by hydrothermal method. The used amino acids include isoleucine, alpha alanine, and arginine as a soft template and are used for tuning the morphology of CuO nanostructures. The crystalline and morphological investigations were carried out by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The XRD study has shown that CuO material obtained in the presence of different amino acids is of high purity and all have the same crystal phase. The CuO microstructures prepared in the presence of arginine were used for the development of sensitive and selective glucose biosensor. The linear range for the glucose detection are from 0.001 mM to 30 mM and limit of detection was found to be 0.0005 mM. The sensitivity was estimated around 77 mV/decade. The developed biosensor is highly selective, sensitive, stable and reproducible. The glucose biosensor was used for the determination of real human blood samples and the obtained results are satisfactory. The CuO material is functional therefore can be capitalized in wide range of applications such as lithium ion batteries, all oxide solar cells and supercapacitors.

  7. Progress in ZnO Acceptor Doping: What Is the Best Strategy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith G. Reynolds

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the recent progress in acceptor doping of ZnO that has been achieved with a focus toward the optimum strategy. There are three main approaches for generating p-type ZnO: substitutional group IA elements on a zinc site, codoping of donors and acceptors, and substitution of group VA elements on an oxygen site. The relevant issues are whether there is sufficient incorporation of the appropriate dopant impurity species, does it reside on the appropriate lattice site, and lastly whether the acceptor ionization energy is sufficiently small to enable significant p-type conduction at room temperature. The potential of nitrogen doping and formation of the appropriate acceptor complexes is highlighted although theoretical calculations predict that nitrogen on an oxygen site is a deep acceptor. We show that an understanding of the growth and annealing steps to achieve the relevant acceptor defect complexes is crucial to meet requirements.

  8. Synthesis of CuO nanoflower and its application as a H2O2 sensor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    CuO; nanoflowers; electrochemical; H2O2. 1. Introduction. Cupric oxide (CuO) is an important transition metal oxide ... several high temperature superconductors and giant mag- ... precipitate was washed with ethanol and distilled water.

  9. Green synthesis of CuO nanoparticles using Cassia auriculata leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To undertake green synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) using Cassia auriculata leaf extract ... Several methods are available for CuO NP preparation ... reader. Characterization .... would be important targets in current.

  10. Structural and optical studies of CuO nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chand, Prakash, E-mail: KK-PC2006@yahoo.com; Gaur, Anurag, E-mail: KK-PC2006@yahoo.com; Kumar, Ashavani, E-mail: KK-PC2006@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra-136119 (India)

    2014-04-24

    In the present study, copper oxide (CuO) nanostructures have been synthesized at 140 °C for different aging periods, 1, 24, 48 and 96 hrs by hydrothermal method to investigate their effects on structural and optical properties. The X-ray diffractometer (XRD) pattern indicates the pure phase formation of CuO and the particle size, calculated from XRD data, has been found to be increasing from 21 to 36 nm for the samples synthesized at different aging periods. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) analysis also shows that the average diameter and length of these rectangular nano flakes increases with increasing the aging periods. Moreover Raman spectrums also confirm the phase formation of CuO. The optical band gaps calculated through UV-visible spectroscopy are found to be decreasing from 2.92 to 2.69 eV with increase in aging periods, 1 to 96 hrs, respectively.

  11. Structural and optical studies of CuO nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chand, Prakash; Gaur, Anurag; Kumar, Ashavani

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, copper oxide (CuO) nanostructures have been synthesized at 140 °C for different aging periods, 1, 24, 48 and 96 hrs by hydrothermal method to investigate their effects on structural and optical properties. The X-ray diffractometer (XRD) pattern indicates the pure phase formation of CuO and the particle size, calculated from XRD data, has been found to be increasing from 21 to 36 nm for the samples synthesized at different aging periods. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) analysis also shows that the average diameter and length of these rectangular nano flakes increases with increasing the aging periods. Moreover Raman spectrums also confirm the phase formation of CuO. The optical band gaps calculated through UV-visible spectroscopy are found to be decreasing from 2.92 to 2.69 eV with increase in aging periods, 1 to 96 hrs, respectively

  12. Structural and optical studies of CuO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Prakash; Gaur, Anurag; Kumar, Ashavani

    2014-04-01

    In the present study, copper oxide (CuO) nanostructures have been synthesized at 140 °C for different aging periods, 1, 24, 48 and 96 hrs by hydrothermal method to investigate their effects on structural and optical properties. The X-ray diffractometer (XRD) pattern indicates the pure phase formation of CuO and the particle size, calculated from XRD data, has been found to be increasing from 21 to 36 nm for the samples synthesized at different aging periods. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) analysis also shows that the average diameter and length of these rectangular nano flakes increases with increasing the aging periods. Moreover Raman spectrums also confirm the phase formation of CuO. The optical band gaps calculated through UV-visible spectroscopy are found to be decreasing from 2.92 to 2.69 eV with increase in aging periods, 1 to 96 hrs, respectively.

  13. Tailored 3D CuO Nanogrid Formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.; Gouma, P.I.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the controlled synthesis of 3D CuO nano grids by the combined use of electro spinning and thermal oxidation of a composite metal mesh/polymer mat architecture. The obtained nano grids result from three steps encompassing: (i) Cu atom clusters diffusing into the nano fibers producing polymer-metal core-shell-type fibers (ii) decomposition of the polymeric shell; (iii) oxidation of the metallic core of the nano fibers to form self-supported, open nano grids consisting of continuous nano fibers of CuO nanoparticles with an average diameter of 20 nm. The calculated band gap energy of the cupric oxide nano grids was determined from the UV-Vis spectrum to be 1.32 eV. The unique 3D CuO nano grids may be used as key components of 3D nano batteries, photo catalysts, and p-type chemo sensors.

  14. Synthesis of a new compound - Sr2CuO2CO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fomichev, D.V.; Khardanov, A.L.; Antipov, E.V.; Kovba, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    A new compound of Sr 2 CuO 2 CO 3 composition, being an intermediate product of solid phase synthesis in air in SrCo 3 -CuO system at T 2 CuO 2 CO 3 have low resistance at room temperature and semiconductor type conductivity

  15. Positron annihilation study in La2CuO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Y.; Asano, S.

    1992-01-01

    The positron annihilation study for La 2 CuO 4 are performed using the full-potential linearized augmented-plane-wave(FLAPW) calculated electron and positron densities. The electron-positron momentum density(EPMD) is computed, and the well known Lock-Crisp-West(LCW) zone folding of the EPMD is produced. In the LCW analysis, small residual variations of order about 3 % are observed. The calculations show that the relative weights of the Fermi surface discontinuities are substantially altered due to the positron preferentially sampling the Cu-O plane region

  16. Niobia and tantala codoped orthorhombic zirconia ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeftberger, M.; Gritzner, G.

    1995-01-01

    During recent studies it was found that codoping of zirconia with niobia and tantala yielded very corrosion resistant, orthorhombic zirconia ceramics. The powders for those novel ceramics were made via the sol-gel technique by hydrolysis of the respective metal propoxides; a method which required dry-box techniques during the preparation of the alkoxides. In these studies the authors investigated the fabrication of precursor material from aqueous solutions. The preparation of aqueous solutions of salts of zirconium, niobium and tantalum is hampered by rapid hydrolysis. Premature hydrolysis of the chlorides and oxichlorides of niobium, tantalum and zirconium can be, however, prevented in aqueous solutions of oxalic acid. Thus the authors investigated the coprecipitation of hydroxides as precursors by reacting oxalic acid solutions of the respective cations with aqueous ammonia. In addition they studied the effects of calcination and of hydrothermal conversion of the hydroxides to oxides on the powder characteristics and on the mechanical properties of the niobia and tantala codoped zirconia ceramics

  17. Trap assisted charge multiplication enhanced photoresponse of Li-P codoped p-ZnO/n-Si heterojunction ultraviolet photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Bhardwaj, Ritesh; Kumar, Amitesh; Mukherjee, Shaibal

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we report a high-performance p-ZnO/n-Si heterojunction-based ultraviolet (UV) photodetector fabricated by dual ion beam sputter deposition. The lithium-phosphorus (Li-P) codoping route was used to realize low resistive and stable p-type ZnO. The current-voltage characteristics of p-ZnO/n-Si heterojunction photodiode showed good rectifying behavior with a rectification ratio of 170 at  ±3 V. The spectral response measurements of the photodiode showed excellent responsivity with a peak observed around ~325 nm and cutoff wavelength around 370 nm. The maximum responsivity achieved was 2.6 A W-1 at an applied reverse bias of  -6 V. The external quantum efficiency determined was of the order of ~1000% which is attributed to the trap assisted multiplication of charge carriers.

  18. Spectroscopy and visible frequency upconversion in Er3+-Yb3+: TeO2-ZnO glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Deepak Kumar; Rai, Vineet Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The UV-Vis-NIR absorption studies of the Er(3+)/Er(3+)-Yb(3+) doped/codoped TeO2-ZnO (TZO) glasses fabricated by the melting and quenching method has been performed. The spectroscopic radiative parameters viz. radiative transition probabilities, branching ratios and lifetimes have been determined from the absorption spectrum by using Judd-Ofelt theory. The near infrared (NIR) to visible frequency upconversion (UC) have been monitored by using an excitation of 976 nm wavelength radiation from a CW diode laser. The effect of codoping with Yb(3+) ions on the intensity of the UC emission bands from the Er(3+) ions throughout visible region has been studied. The mechanism responsible for the observed upconversion emissions in the prepared samples have been explained on the basis of excited state absorption and efficient energy transfer processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Defects in codoped NiO with gigantic dielectric response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ping; Ligatchev, Valeri; Yu, Zhi Gen; Zheng, Jianwei; Sullivan, Michael B.; Zeng, Yingzhi

    2009-06-01

    We combine first-principles, statistical, and phenomenological methods to investigate the electronic and dielectric properties of NiO and clarify the nature of the gigantic dielectric response in codoped NiO. Unlike previous models which are dependent on grain-boundary effects, our model based on small polaron hopping in homogeneous material predicts the dielectric permittivity (104-5) for heavily Li- and MD -codoped NiO (MD=Ti,Al,Si) . Furthermore, we reproduce the experimental trends in dielectric properties as a function of the dopants nature and their concentrations, as well as the reported activation energies for the relaxation in Li- and Ti-codoped NiO (0.308 eV or 0.153 eV depending on the Fermi-level position). In this study, we demonstrate that small polaron hopping on dopant levels is the dominant mechanism for the gigantic dielectric response in these codoped NiO.

  20. A dual-colored bio-marker made of doped ZnO nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Y L; Zeng, X T [Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, 71 Nanyang Drive, 638075 (Singapore); Fu, S; Kwek, L C [National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, 1 Nanyang Walk, 637616 (Singapore); Tok, A I Y; Boey, F C Y [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore); Lim, C S [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore)

    2008-08-27

    Bio-compatible ZnO nanocrystals doped with Co, Cu and Ni cations, surface capped with two types of aminosilanes and titania are synthesized by a soft chemical process. Due to the small particle size (2-5 nm), surface functional groups and the high photoluminescence emissions at the UV and blue-violet wavelength ranges, bio-imaging on human osteosarcoma (Mg-63) cells and histiocytic lymphoma U-937 monocyte cells showed blue emission at the nucleus and bright turquoise emission at the cytoplasm simultaneously. This is the first report on dual-color bio-images labeled by one semiconductor nanocrystal colloidal solution. Bright green emission was detected on mung bean seedlings labeled by all the synthesized ZnO nanocrystals. Cytotoxicity tests showed that the aminosilanes capped nanoparticles are non-toxic. Quantum yields of the nanocrystals varied from 79% to 95%. The results showed the potential of the pure ZnO and Co-doped ZnO nanocrystals for live imaging of both human cells and plant systems.

  1. Facile Large-scale synthesis of stable CuO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, P.; Abdollahi-Nejand, B.; Eskandari, M.; Kohnehpoushi, S.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, a novel approach in synthesizing the CuO nanoparticles was introduced. A sequential corrosion and detaching was proposed in the growth and dispersion of CuO nanoparticles in the optimum pH value of eight. The produced CuO nanoparticles showed six nm (±2 nm) in diameter and spherical feather with a high crystallinity and uniformity in size. In this method, a large-scale production of CuO nanoparticles (120 grams in an experimental batch) from Cu micro-particles was achieved which may met the market criteria for large-scale production of CuO nanoparticles.

  2. Preparation and characterization of nanostructured CuO thin films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    wyas 1999). CuO is attractive as a selective solar absorber since it ... of water. A semiconductor, to be used as photoelectrode in PEC cell, must be chemically stable and should have ... into volatile compounds under heat treatment (Armelao et.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of cupric oxide (CuO) nanoparticles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present work, cupric oxide (CuO) nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by adopting aqueous precipitation method using copper sulphate 5-hydrate as a precursor and NaOH as a stabilizing agent. This gives a large scale production of CuO-NPs which are utilized for the removal of methylene blue (MB) dye. The CuO ...

  4. Growth, characterization and electrochemical properties of hierarchical CuO nanostructures for supercapacitor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnamoorthy, Karthikeyan [Nanomaterials and System Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jeju National University, Jeju 690 756 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang-Jae, E-mail: kimsangj@jejunu.ac.kr [Nanomaterials and System Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jeju National University, Jeju 690 756 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Mechatronics Engineering, Jeju National University, Jeju 690 756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Hierarchical CuO nanostructures were grown on Cu foil. • Monoclinic phase of CuO was grown. • XPS analysis revealed the presence of Cu(2p{sub 3/2}) and Cu(2p{sub 1/2}) on the surfaces. • Specific capacitance of 94 F/g was achieved for the CuO using cyclic voltammetry. • Impedance spectra show their pseudo capacitor applications. - Abstract: In this paper, we have investigated the electrochemical properties of hierarchical CuO nanostructures for pseudo-supercapacitor device applications. Moreover, the CuO nanostructures were formed on Cu substrate by in situ crystallization process. The as-grown CuO nanostructures were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform-infra red spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) analysis. The XRD and FT-IR analysis confirm the formation of monoclinic CuO nanostructures. FE-SEM analysis shows the formation of leave like hierarchical structures of CuO with high uniformity and controlled density. The electrochemical analysis such as cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies confirms the pseudo-capacitive behavior of the CuO nanostructures. Our experimental results suggest that CuO nanostructures will create promising applications of CuO toward pseudo-supercapacitors.

  5. Growth, characterization and electrochemical properties of hierarchical CuO nanostructures for supercapacitor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamoorthy, Karthikeyan; Kim, Sang-Jae

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Hierarchical CuO nanostructures were grown on Cu foil. • Monoclinic phase of CuO was grown. • XPS analysis revealed the presence of Cu(2p 3/2 ) and Cu(2p 1/2 ) on the surfaces. • Specific capacitance of 94 F/g was achieved for the CuO using cyclic voltammetry. • Impedance spectra show their pseudo capacitor applications. - Abstract: In this paper, we have investigated the electrochemical properties of hierarchical CuO nanostructures for pseudo-supercapacitor device applications. Moreover, the CuO nanostructures were formed on Cu substrate by in situ crystallization process. The as-grown CuO nanostructures were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform-infra red spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) analysis. The XRD and FT-IR analysis confirm the formation of monoclinic CuO nanostructures. FE-SEM analysis shows the formation of leave like hierarchical structures of CuO with high uniformity and controlled density. The electrochemical analysis such as cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies confirms the pseudo-capacitive behavior of the CuO nanostructures. Our experimental results suggest that CuO nanostructures will create promising applications of CuO toward pseudo-supercapacitors

  6. Adsorption and inhibition of CuO nanoparticles on Arabidopsis thaliana root

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lina

    2018-02-01

    CuO NPs, the size ranging from 20 to 80 nm were used to detect the adsorption and inhibition on the Arabidopsis thaliana roots. In this study, CuO NPs were adsorbed and agglomerated on the surface of root top after exposed for 7 days. With the increasing of CuO NPs concentrations, CuO NPs also adsorbed on the meristernatic zone. The growth of Arabidopsis thaliana lateral roots were also inhibited by CuO NPs exposure. The Inhibition were concentration dependent. The number of root top were 246, 188 and 123 per Arabidopsis thaliana, respectively. The number of root tops after CuO NPs exposure were significantly decreased compared with control groups. This results suggested the phytotoxicity of CuO NPs on Arabidopsis thaliana roots.

  7. The electronic, magnetic and optical properties of ZnO doped with doubles impurities (Cr, Fe): An LDA-SIC and Monte Carlo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmani, El Mehdi, E-mail: elmehdisalmani@gmail.com [LMPHE, Faculté des Sciences, Université Mohammed V, Rabat (Morocco); Laghrissi, Ayoub; Lamouri, Rachida; Ez-Zahraouy, Hamid [LMPHE, Faculté des Sciences, Université Mohammed V, Rabat (Morocco); Benyoussef, Abdelilah [Institute for Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); Académie Hassan II des Sciences et Techniques, Rabat (Morocco)

    2017-01-15

    Electronic structure, magnetic and optical properties of ZnO doped with single and double impurities Zn{sub 1−x}Cr{sub x}O, Zn{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}O, and Zn{sub 1−2x}Cr{sub x}Fe{sub x}O (x=0.03 and 0.06) are investigated using first-principles calculations. Based on the Korringa–Kohn–Rostoker method combined with the coherent potential approximation, we investigated the half-metallic ferromagnetic behavior of doubles impurities (Cr, Fe) doped ZnO. To support our results, we apply the self-interaction-corrected local density approximation (SIC-LDA) to study the electronic structure, optical and magnetic properties of Co-doped ZnO with doubles impurities (Cr, Fe) showing that the half-metallic ferromagnetic state still persists. The stability of the ferromagnetic state compared with the spin-glass state is investigated by comparing their total energies. The exchange interactions obtained from first principle calculations and used in a classical Ising model by a Monte Carlo approach resulted in ferromagnetic states with high Neel temperature. - Highlights: • The electronic structure calculations for ZnO doped with doubles impurities (Cr, Fe) have been discussed. • The half-metallic aspect was proven to take place for doubles impurities (Cr, Fe) codoped ZnO. • The doubles impurities (Cr, Fe)impurities are shown to introduce the necessary magnetic moment that makes ZnO good candidates for spintronic applications.

  8. Displacement waves in La/sub 2/CuO(4-delta) and La(1. 85)Sr(0. 15)CuO(4-delta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajitani, T.; Onozuka, T.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Hirabayashi, M.; Syono, Y.

    1987-11-01

    Structural investigation of orthorhombic La/sub 2/CuO(4-delta) and La(1.85)Sr(0.15)CuO(4-delta) was carried out by means of X-ray and neutron diffraction on the basis of the space group Cmmm. The periodic expansion/contraction type distortion of CuO6 octahedra was found in both orthorhombic compounds. The distortion is nearly one-dimensional in La/sub 2/CuO(4-delta) but is two-dimensional in La(1.85)Sr(0.15)CuO(4-delta). The existence of a charge-density wave is highly possible in the structures. 20 references.

  9. Oriented Mn-doped CuO nanowire arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Dongqiang; Wu, Zhaofeng; Wang, Zhihe; Yang, Shaoguang

    2016-01-01

    Using anodic aluminum oxide membranes as the nanoreactors and controller, oriented nanowire arrays of the diluted magnetic semiconductor Mn-doped CuO have been successfully fabricated using Mn(NO_3)_2 · 4H_2O and Cu(NO_3)_2 · 3H_2O as the starting materials. X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the as-prepared oriented nanowire arrays are of high purity. Scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope studies showed the nanowires are oriented, continuous and uniform with a diameter and length of about 170 nm and several tens of micrometers, respectively, and thus of a high aspect ratio. Low-temperature magnetic measurements showed the ferromagnetic property of the oriented Mn-doped CuO nanowire arrays with the critical temperature at around 80 K, which will endow them with great potential applications in spintronics in the future. (paper)

  10. Plant Mediated Green Synthesis of CuO Nanoparticles: Comparison of Toxicity of Engineered and Plant Mediated CuO Nanoparticles towards Daphnia magna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Saif

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Research on green production methods for metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs is growing, with the objective to overcome the potential hazards of these chemicals for a safer environment. In this study, facile, ecofriendly synthesis of copper oxide (CuO nanoparticles was successfully achieved using aqueous extract of Pterospermum acerifolium leaves. P. acerifolium-fabricated CuO nanoparticles were further characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and dynamic light scattering (DLS. Plant-mediated CuO nanoparticles were found to be oval shaped and well dispersed in suspension. XPS confirmed the elemental composition of P. acerifolium-mediated copper nanoparticles as comprised purely of copper and oxygen. DLS measurements and ion release profile showed that P. acerifolium-mediated copper nanoparticles were more stable than the engineered CuO NPs. Copper oxide nanoparticles are used in many applications; therefore, their potential toxicity cannot be ignored. A comparative study was performed to investigate the bio-toxic impacts of plant-synthesized and engineered CuO nanoparticles on water flea Daphnia. Experiments were conducted to investigate the 48-h acute toxicity of engineered CuO NPs and plant-synthesized nanoparticles. Lower EC50 value 0.102 ± 0.019 mg/L was observed for engineered CuO NPs, while 0.69 ± 0.226 mg/L was observed for plant-synthesized CuO NPs. Additionally, ion release from CuO nanoparticles and 48-h accumulation of these nano CuOs in daphnids were also calculated. Our findings thus suggest that the contribution of released ions from nanoparticles and particles/ions accumulation in Daphnia needs to be interpreted with care.

  11. Magnetic excitations in La2CuO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.R.P.

    1989-01-01

    The authors compare the experimentally observed magnetic excitations in La 2 CuO 4 with those calculated for a square lattice spin-1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet. They find that the short-wavelength spin-pair excitation spectrum deduced from light scattering, and the long wavelength spin- wave dispersion deduced from neutron scattering are both consistent with a nearest neighbor model with the exchange constant J of about 1500 K

  12. Characterization of Hf/Mg co-doped ZnO thin films after thermal treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chih-Hung; Chung, Hantsun [Graduate Institute of Applied Mechanics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Chen, Jian-Zhang, E-mail: jchen@ntu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Applied Mechanics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Cheng, I-Chun, E-mail: iccheng@ntu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics, Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2014-11-03

    Rf-sputtered Mg{sub 0.05}Zn{sub 0.95}O thin films become amorphous/nanocrystalline with the addition of hafnium oxide. All films (thickness: ∼ 100 nm) sputter-deposited from Hf{sub x}Mg{sub 0.05}Zn{sub 0.95−x}O targets are highly transparent (> 80%) from 400 to 800 nm. The Tauc bandgap ΔE (eV) increases with the Hf content. However, the bandgap decreases after thermal treatment. The reduction in the bandgap is positively correlated with the Hf content and annealing temperature. The residual stresses of films sputtered from Mg{sub 0.05}Zn{sub 0.95}O and Hf{sub 0.025}Mg{sub 0.05}Zn{sub 0.925}O targets are determined based on X-ray diffraction (XRD) data using a bi-axial stress model. The residual stresses of as-deposited films are compressive. As the annealing temperature increases, the residual stresses are relaxed and even become tensile. The bandgap narrowing after thermal treatment is attributed to the stress relaxation that changes the repulsion between the oxygen 2p and zinc 4s bands. Slight grain growth may also result in bandgap reduction because bandgap modification caused by the quantum confinement effect becomes significant in amorphous/nanocrystalline materials. The amorphous thin films reveal good thermal stability after 600 °C annealing for up to 2 h, as evidenced by the XRD and transmission spectra. - Highlights: • Thin films are sputtered from Hf{sub x}Mg{sub 0.05}Zn{sub 0.95−x}O targets at room temperature. • Bandgap increases with Hf content but decreases with post-annealing temperature. • Bandgap narrowing after annealing partly results from the relaxation of stresses. • Bandgap narrowing partly results from quantum confinement effect by nanomaterials. • Hf doping increases resistivity due to the lattice disorder and enlarged bandgap.

  13. Ab initio studies of magnetic anisotropy energy in highly Co-doped ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Łusakowski, A., E-mail: lusak@ifpan.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, PL-02668 Warsaw (Poland); Szuszkiewicz, W. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, PL-02668 Warsaw (Poland); Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Rzeszów, ul. S. Pigonia 1, PL-35959 Rzeszów (Poland)

    2017-03-15

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the energy of magnetic anisotropy for diluted magnetic semiconductor (Zn,Co)O were performed using OpenMX package with fully relativistic pseudopotentials. The analysis of the band spin-orbit interaction and the magnetic ion's surrounding on magnetic anisotropy have been provided. As a result, the calculations show that the magnetic anisotropy in (Zn,Co)O solid solution, mainly of the single ion anisotropy type has been caused by Co ions. - Highlights: • The magnetic anisotropy in (Zn,Co)O is mainly due to anisotropy of single cobalt ion. • The magnetic anisotropy of (Zn,Co)O strongly depends on the nearest neighborhood of magnetic ion including local lattice deformations. • For (Zn,Co)O the energy of magnetic anisotropy is described by second order terms in magnetization.

  14. Cr-N CO-DOPED ZnO NANOPARTICLES: SYNTHESIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BCSE

    Figure 1. Structural formula of thymol blue (C27H30O5S). Synthesis of photocatalyst ... As-synthesized zinc oxide (15 g) was added to urea (30 g), ground in an agate .... shifts in the recorded XRD indicates the segregation of Cr particles in the ...

  15. Toxicity and transfer of CuO Nanoparticles on Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shilin; Dai, Yanhui; Xu, Lina

    2018-02-01

    CuO engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) are widely used in commercial applications. With increasing CuO ENPs production, CuO ENPs are likely to present in the environment and cause a potential threaten to ecosystem. In this work, Arabidopsis thaliana (Bay-0) was chosen to take the toxic experiment after exposed to CuO ENPs (0, 20, and 50 mg/L) and Cu2+ (0.15 mg/L). And the copper content of shoots at 50 mg/L CuO ENPs was about 20 times of control, indicating that CuO ENPs could be absorbed into Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings and transfered from root to shoot in a certain way.

  16. Exchange bias effect in composites of cuo nanoparticles and nanosilica glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranjan Saha, Dhriti [MLS Professor' s Unit, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, 2A and 2B Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India); Kumar Nandi, Arun [Polymer Science Unit, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, 2A and 2B Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India); Chakravorty, Dipankar, E-mail: mlsdc@iacs.res.in [MLS Professor' s Unit, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, 2A and 2B Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2014-04-15

    Nanodimensional silica based glass containing iron ions was prepared within the compressed pellet of CuO nanoparicles. The nanocomposite material showed exchange bias effect. This effect arose due to ferromagnetic iron doped CuO phase and antiferromagnetic CuO interface formation within the nanocomposite during the synthesis process. Coercive field as a function of temperature was fitted with Arhenius–Neel equation and extracted blocking temperature was 511 K. The value of effective anisotropy constant for the nanocomposite was found to be 3.64x10{sup 5} erg/cc. - Highlights: • Nanoglass comprising SiO{sub 2} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} was grown with pores of CuO nanoparticle compacts. • CuO (AFM)-core and Fe doped CuO (FM) shell were formed during synthesis. • The nanocomposite material showed exchange bias effect.

  17. Microwave, sonochemical and combustion synthesized CuO nanostructures and their electrical and bactericidal properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karunakaran, C.; Manikandan, G.; Gomathisankar, P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •CuO nanoleaves synthesized by CTAB-assisted hydrothermal method. •CuO nanodiscs synthesized by CTAB-assisted sonochemical method. •Combustion synthesized CuO is highly porous. •Synthetic method and morphology influence CuO bactericidal activity. -- Abstract: Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-assisted microwave synthesis of CuO provides nanoleaves and in the absence of CTAB the shape of CuO is irregular. Sonochemical synthesis of CuO using CTAB gives nanodiscs whereas irregularly shaped flake-like structure is obtained without CTAB. Combustion synthesized CuO is highly porous with innumerable large holes. CTAB does not provide any structure in combustion synthesis. Transmission electron micrographs (TEM) display the constituent nanoparticles of microwave and sonochemically synthesized CuO. The powder X-ray diffractogram (XRD) shows the sample obtained by sonochemical method in the absence of CTAB as a mixture of monoclinic CuO, cubic Cu 2 O, and orthorhombic Cu(OH) 2 . But the rest of the samples are pure CuO in monoclinic phase. The selected area electron diffractograms (SAED) of the microwave and sonochemically synthesized samples, in the presence as well as in the absence of CTAB, confirm the monoclinic phase of CuO and indicates the presence of amorphous CuO in traces. All the samples are characteristic of Fourier Transform infrared (FT-IR) Cu–O stretching frequencies. The method of synthesis and also the morphology influence the electrical properties as well as the bactericidal activity of CuO

  18. Resistivity distribution of silicon single crystals using codoping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jong Hoe

    2005-07-01

    Numerous studies including continuous Czochralski method and double crucible technique have been reported on the control of macroscopic axial resistivity distribution in bulk crystal growth. The simple codoping method for improving the productivity of silicon single-crystal growth by controlling axial specific resistivity distribution was proposed by Wang [Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43 (2004) 4079]. Wang [J. Crystal Growth 275 (2005) e73] demonstrated using numerical analysis and by experimental results that the axial specific resistivity distribution can be modified in melt growth of silicon crystals and relatively uniform profile is possible by B-P codoping method. In this work, the basic characteristic of 8 in silicon single crystal grown using codoping method is studied and whether proposed method has advantage for the silicon crystal growth is discussed.

  19. CuO reduction induced formation of CuO/Cu2O hybrid oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lu; Yin, Qiyue; Wang, Yiqian; Zhou, Guangwen

    2013-12-01

    Reduction of CuO nanowires results in the formation of a unique hierarchical hybrid nanostructure, in which the parent oxide phase (CuO) works as the skeleton while the lower oxide (Cu2O) resulting from the reduction reaction forms as partially embedded nanoparticles that decorate the skeleton of the parent oxide. Using in situ transmission electron microscopy observations of the reduction process of CuO nanowires, we demonstrate that the formation of such a hierarchical hybrid oxide structure is induced by topotactic nucleation and growth of Cu2O islands on the parent CuO nanowires.

  20. Facile Synthesis of Colloidal CuO Nanocrystals for Light-Harvesting Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Lim, Yee-Fun; Choi, Joshua J.; Hanrath, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    CuO is an earth-abundant, nontoxic, and low band-gap material; hence it is an attractive candidate for application in solar cells. In this paper, a synthesis of CuO nanocrystals by a facile alcohothermal route is reported. The nanocrystals are dispersible in a solvent mixture of methanol and chloroform, thus enabling the processing of CuO by solution. A bilayer solar cell comprising of CuO nanocrystals and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) achieved a power conversion efficiency of 0.04%, indicating the potential of this material for light-harvesting applications.

  1. Synthesis of CuO nanocrystalline and their application as electrode materials for capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hongxia; Zhang Milin

    2008-01-01

    Cauliflower-like, nanobelt-shaped and feather-like CuO nanocrystallines were synthesized by the chemical deposition method. The microstructure and morphology of CuO were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive spectrum (EDS) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Results showed that the morphology of CuO was affected by property of alkali added into system. The probable mechanisms of the formation of CuO with different morphologies were discussed. The electrochemical properties of CuO as electrode material were enhanced by the improving of morphology. Cauliflower-like CuO exhibited a higher specific capacitance (116.9 F g -1 ) than nanobelt-shaped and feather-like CuO, and also showed good reversibility. Specific capacitance of cauliflower-like CuO (115.3 F g -1 ) was 343.5% higher than CuO bought (26 F g -1 ) at 5 mA cm -2

  2. Synthesis of CuO nanocrystalline and their application as electrode materials for capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Hongxia [Department of Material Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China)], E-mail: zhanghongxia.412@163.com; Zhang Milin [Department of Material Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China)], E-mail: zhangmilin@hrbeu.edu.cn

    2008-04-15

    Cauliflower-like, nanobelt-shaped and feather-like CuO nanocrystallines were synthesized by the chemical deposition method. The microstructure and morphology of CuO were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive spectrum (EDS) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Results showed that the morphology of CuO was affected by property of alkali added into system. The probable mechanisms of the formation of CuO with different morphologies were discussed. The electrochemical properties of CuO as electrode material were enhanced by the improving of morphology. Cauliflower-like CuO exhibited a higher specific capacitance (116.9 F g{sup -1}) than nanobelt-shaped and feather-like CuO, and also showed good reversibility. Specific capacitance of cauliflower-like CuO (115.3 F g{sup -1}) was 343.5% higher than CuO bought (26 F g{sup -1}) at 5 mA cm{sup -2}.

  3. Strategies of making TiO2 and ZnO visible light active

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, Shama; Ullah, Ruh; Butt, A.M.; Gohar, N.D.

    2009-01-01

    In modern purification techniques employing semiconductor mediated photooxidation of toxic substances, zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) are the most widely used metal oxides due to their unique blend of properties. However, the band edges of these semiconductors lie in the UV region which makes them inactive under visible light irradiation. Researchers have been interested in the modification of electronic and optical properties of these metal oxides for their efficient use in water and air purification under visible light irradiation. Visible light activity has been induced in TiO 2 and ZnO by surface modification via organic materials/semiconductor coupling and band gap modification by doping with metals and nonmetals, co-doping with nonmetals, creation of oxygen vacancies and oxygen sub-stoichiometry. This paper encompasses the progress and developments made so far through these techniques in the visible light photocatalysis with TiO 2 and ZnO. Recently, nitrogen doping in titania has been extensively carried out and therefore somewhat detailed discussion in this respect has been presented. Visible light activation of titania clusters encapsulated in zeolite-Y by nitrogen doping and incorporation of dye or organic sensitizers inside the zeolite framework, has also been highlighted in this review.

  4. Synergistic effects of Mo and F doping on the quality factor of ZnO thin films prepared by a fully automated home-made nebulizer spray technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, K.; Dineshbabu, N.; Arun, T.; Manivasaham, A.; Sindhuja, E.

    2017-01-01

    Transparent conducting oxide films of undoped, Mo doped, Mo + F co-doped ZnO were deposited using a facile homemade nebulizer spray pyrolysis technique. The effects of Mo and F doping on the structural, optical, electrical and surface morphological properties were investigated using XRD, UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy, I-V and Hall probe techniques, FESEM and AFM, and XPS, respectively. The XRD analysis confirms that all the films are well crystallized with hexagonal wurtzite structure. All the synthesized samples exhibit high transmittance (above 85%) in the visible region. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics show the ohmic conduction nature of the films. The Hall probe measurements show that the synergistic effects of Mo and F doping cause desirable improvements in the quality factor of the ZnO films. A minimum resistivity of 5.12 × 10-3 Ω cm with remarkably higher values of mobility and carrier concentration is achieved for Mo (2 at.%) + F (15 at.%) co-doped ZnO films. A considerable variation in the intensity of deep level emission caused by Mo and F doping is observed in the photoluminescence (PL) studies. The presence of the constituent elements in the samples is confirmed by XPS analysis.

  5. Rational growth of semi-polar ZnO texture on a glass substrate for optoelectronic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, B.; Ma, M. J.; Ye, Y. H.; Lu, J. G.; He, H. P.; Ye, Z. Z.

    2013-02-01

    Semi-polar ZnO films with surface texture were grown on glass substrates via pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) through Co-Ga co-doping. Oxygen pressure (PO2) was found to have significant effects on the structural and optical properties of the Zn(Co, Ga)O (ZCGO) films. A self-textured film with (1\\,0\\,\\bar {1}\\,1) preferred orientation (PO) was achieved by varying the growth conditions including a crucial narrow PO2 window and growth time. A possible mechanism underlying the PO evolution and the final texture of the films was proposed, which can be attributed to the collaboration of the doping effect and the PO2-dependent evolutionary selection process, in which certain grains can have increased vertical growth rate with respect to the substrate surface through interplane diffusion. Moreover, the growth of undoped pure ZnO films proceeded by using the (1\\,0\\,\\bar {1}\\,1) ZCGO film as a buffer layer. The ZnO layers retained a semi-polar characteristic with improved crystallinity and better optical quality. The epitaxy-like orientation of ZnO layers grown on (1\\,0\\,\\bar {1}\\,1) ZCGO films has applications in the development of semi-polar ZnO-based light-emitting diodes.

  6. ZnO Film Photocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosi Yin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have synthesized high-quality, nanoscale ultrathin ZnO films at relatively low temperature using a facile and effective hydrothermal approach. ZnO films were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectra (PL, and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. The products demonstrated 95% photodegradation efficiency with Congo red (CR after 40 min irradiation. The photocatalytic degradation experiments of methyl orange (MO and eosin red also were carried out. The results indicate that the as-obtained ZnO films might be promising candidates as the excellent photocatalysts for elimination of waste water.

  7. Electronic structure studies of La2CuO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachs, A. L.; Turchi, P. E. A.; Jean, Y. C.; Wetzler, K. H.; Howell, R. H.; Fluss, M. J.; Harshman, D. R.; Remeika, J. P.; Cooper, A. S.; Fleming, R. M.

    1988-07-01

    We report results of positron-electron momentum-distribution measurements of single-crystal La2CuO4 using two-dimensional angular correlation of positron-annihilation-radiation techniques. The data contain two components: a large (~85%), isotropic corelike electron contribution and a remaining, anisotropic valence-electron contribution modeled using a linear combination of atomic orbitals-molecular orbital method and a localized ion scheme, within the independent-particle model approximation. This work suggests a ligand-field Hamiltonian to be justified for describing the electronic properties of perovskite materials.

  8. Cu-O superconductors: through a lens, but darkly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orenstein, J.; Thomas, G.A.; Rapkine, D.H.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of reflectivity R, for single crystal samples of La 2 CuO 4 (c-La) and pressed pellets of ceramic La/sub 2-x/Sr/sub x/CuO 4 (LaSr) for x = 0, 0.04, 0.075, 0.175, 0.225 are reported. A plot of R vs log nu for c-La is shown. The samples were cube-like objects approximately 2 mm on a side, which were polished as previously described

  9. Electronic structure studies of La2CuO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachs, A.L.; Turchi, P.E.A.; Jean, Y.C.

    1988-01-01

    We report results of positron-electron momentum-distribution measurements of single-crystal La 2 CuO 4 using two-dimensional angular correlation of positron-annihilation-radiation techniques. The data contain two components: a large (∼85%), isotropic corelike electron contribution and a remaining, anisotropic valence-electron contribution modeled using a linear combination of atomic orbitals--molecular orbital method and a localized ion scheme, within the independent-particle model approximation. This work suggests a ligand-field Hamiltonian to be justified for describing the electronic properties of perovskite materials

  10. Ho3+-Yb3+ codoped tellurite based glasses in visible lasers and optical devices: Judd-Ofelt analysis and frequency upconversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Mohd; Rai, Vineet Kumar

    2017-04-01

    The optical absorption and frequency upconversion emission in the Ho3+/Yb3+ codoped TeO2-ZnO (TZ), TeO2-ZnO-WO3 (TZW) and TeO2-ZnO-WO3-TiO2 (TZWTi) glasses prepared by melting and quenching method has been studied. Judd-Ofelt theory has been used to calculate the Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters (Ω2, Ω4 and Ω6), transition probabilities, radiative lifetimes, absorption cross sections and the branching ratios. Upconversion (UC) emission bands centered at ∼ 549 nm, ∼658 nm and ∼754 nm are observed upon 980 nm excitation. On codoping with the Yb3+ ions at 3.0 mol% the upconversion emission intensity enhancement of about ∼57 times, ∼342 times and ∼480 times for the green band whereas for the red band arising from the Ho3+ ions it is about ∼71 times, ∼438 times and ∼707 times respectively have been observed. The enhancement observed in the UC emission intensity is explained on the basis of efficient energy transfer from Yb3+ to Ho3+, larger absorption cross section, larger oscillator strengths and increase in the local field corrections factor. The spectroscopic quality factor Ω4/Ω6 has been calculated to get the information about the developed materials for laser applications. The upconversion emission cross section determined on the basis of Judd-Ofelt analysis is found to be maximum for Ho-Yb-TZWTi glass. The nephelauxetic ratio, bonding and covalency parameters have been calculated to know the nature of bonding between the rare earth ions and neighbouring oxygen atoms. The high color purity 83.8% has been reported in the codoped glasses at ∼81.2 W/cm2 pump power density.

  11. Preparation and characterization of CuO nanostructures on copper substrate as selective solar absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karthick Kumar, S.; Murugesan, S.; Suresh, S.

    2014-01-01

    Selective solar absorber coatings of copper oxide (CuO) on copper substrates are prepared by room temperature oxidation of copper at different alkaline conditions. The surface morphology and structural analyses of the CuO coatings are carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and Raman spectroscopy techniques. XRD and Raman studies indicated the single phase nature and high crystallinity of the prepared CuO nanostructures. Different CuO nanostructures, viz., nanoneedles, nanofibers and nanoparticles are formed at different alkaline conditions. The influence of reaction time on morphology of the CuO nanostructures is also studied. The thermal emittance values of these nanostructured CuO samples are found to be in the range of 6–7% and their solar absorptances are ranged between 84 and 90%. The observed high solar selectivity values (>12.7) suggest that these coatings can be used as selective absorbers in solar thermal gadgets. - Highlights: • Nanostructured CuO thin films on Cu substrate have been prepared by a facile method. • Morphology of the CuO nanostructures varies with reaction pH. • The thin films show high absorptance in the visible region and low thermal emittance. • Multiple absorption in the porous structure leads to high solar absorptance. • Nanostructures posses solar selectivity values >12

  12. Effects of CuO nanoparticles on compressive strength of self ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present study, the compressive strength, thermal properties and microstructure of self-compacting concrete with different amounts of CuO nanoparticles have been investigated. CuO nanoparticles with an average particle size of 15 nm were added to self-compacting concrete and various properties of the specimens ...

  13. Tetragonal CuO: End member of the 3d transition metal monoxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemons, W.; Koster, Gertjan; Blank, David H.A.; Hammond, Robert H.; Geballe, Theodore H.; Beasley, Malcolm R.

    2009-01-01

    Monoclinic CuO is anomalous both structurally as well as electronically in the 3d transition metal oxide series. All the others have the cubic rocksalt structure. Here we report the synthesis and electronic property determination of a tetragonal (elongated rocksalt) form of CuO created using an

  14. CO gas sensing of CuO nanostructures, synthesized by an assisted solvothermal wet chemical route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslani, Alireza; Oroojpour, Vahid

    2011-01-01

    CuO nanostructures with different morphologies and sizes were grown in a controlled manner using a simple low-temperature hydrothermal technique. By controlling the pH of reaction mixture, spherical nanoparticles and cloudlike CuO structures were synthesized at 100-150 o C with excellent efficiency. These CuO nanostructures have been tested for CO gas monitoring by depositing them as thick films on an interdigitated alumina substrate and evaluated the surface resistance of the deposited layer as a function of operating temperature and CO concentrations. The gas sensitivity tests have demonstrated that the CuO nanostructures, especially cloudlike morphology, exhibit high sensitivity to CO proving their applicability in gas sensors. The role of the nanostructure on the sensing properties of CuO is also discussed.

  15. Study of the C-14-contamination potential of C-impurities in CuO and Fe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandeputte, K; Moens, L; Dams, R; van der Plicht, Johannes

    1998-01-01

    The carbon concentration in CuO and iron was determined by isolating C. The values were in agreement with results reported in other studies. Contaminating carbon from CuO and Fe was transformed to AMS targets and measured for C-14. C-traces in CuO were shown to be the major contribution to the C-14

  16. Magnetoresistance of magnetically doped ZnO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behan, A J; Mokhtari, A; Blythe, H J; Fox, A M; Gehring, G A [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Ziese, M, E-mail: G.A.Gehring@sheffield.ac.u [Division of Superconductivity and Magnetism, University of Leipzig, D-04103, Leipzig (Germany)

    2009-08-26

    Magnetoresistance measurements have been made at 5 K on doped ZnO thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition. ZnCoO, ZnCoAlO and ZnMnAlO samples have been investigated and compared to similar films containing no transition metal dopants. It is found that the Co-doped samples with a high carrier concentration have a small negative magnetoresistance, irrespective of their magnetic moment. On decreasing the carrier concentration, a positive contribution to the magnetoresistance appears and a further negative contribution. This second, negative contribution, which occurs at very low carrier densities, correlates with the onset of ferromagnetism due to bound magnetic polarons suggesting that the negative magnetoresistance results from the destruction of polarons by a magnetic field. An investigation of the anisotropic magnetoresistance showed that the orientation of the applied magnetic field, relative to the sample, had a large effect. The results for the ZnMnAlO samples showed less consistent trends.

  17. Wetting of molybdenum with molten Cu-O alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yupko, V.L.; Garbuz, V.V.; Kryuchkova, N.I.

    1992-01-01

    The Cu-O alloys were prepared from type MOb copper (GOST 859-78) with an oxygen content of 0.001 wt.% and type ChDA cuprous oxide (MRTU 6-09-1451-64), the powder of which was first pressed into briquettes. The weighted portions of Cu 2 O were weighed on an Elektrobalans scale having an absolute error of ±5 · 10 -7 g. The relative error in weighing an approximately 1 · 10 -4 g weighed portion of Cu 2 O for preparation of the alloy with the minimum oxygen content of 0.002% was, therefore, ± 0.5% and consequently for the alloys with a higher oxygen content the accuracy was higher. The alloys were prepared on a ZrO 2 + 5% Y 2 O 3 ceramic at 1,420 K in a vacuum of 6.7 · 10 -3 Pa,d their weight was 1.0-1.5 g, and the melting time 30 sec. The pure type MOb copper was remelted in the same manner. The time relationships of the angle of wetting of molybdenum by molten Cu-O alloys under conditions of combined heating are given. With an increase in oxygen content from 0.004 to 0.005%, wetting drops sharply

  18. Thermoluminescence responses of photon- and electron-irradiated lithium potassium borate co-doped with Cu+Mg or Ti+Mg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alajerami, Y.S.M.; Hashim, S.; Ramli, A.T.; Saleh, M.A.; Saripan, M.I.; Alzimami, K.; Min Ung, Ngie

    2013-01-01

    New glasses Li 2 CO 3 –K 2 CO 3 –H 3 BO 3 (LKB) co-doped with CuO and MgO, or with TiO 2 and MgO, were synthesized by the chemical quenching technique. The thermoluminescence (TL) responses of LKB:Cu,Mg and LKB:Ti,Mg irradiated with 6 MV photons or 6 MeV electrons were compared in the dose range 0.5–4.0 Gy. The standard commercial dosimeter LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) was used to calibrate the TL reader and as a reference in comparison of the TL properties of the new materials. The dependence of the responses of the new materials on 60 Co dose is linear in the range of 1–1000 Gy. The TL yields of both of the co-doped glasses and TLD-100 are greater for electron irradiation than for photon irradiation. The TL sensitivity of LKB:Ti,Mg is 1.3 times higher than the sensitivity of LKB:Cu,Mg and 12 times less than the sensitivity of TLD-100. The new TL dosimetric materials have low effective atomic numbers, good linearity of the dose responses, excellent signal reproducibility, and a simple glow curve structure. This combination of properties makes them suitable for radiation dosimetry. - Highlights: • Enhancement of about three times has been shown with the increment of MgO. • A comparison was carried out between the TL responses of the prepared dosimeters and TLD-100. • The prepared dosimeters show simple glow curve, low Z material and excellent reproducibility. • The TL measurements show a linear dose response in a long span of exposures. • The electron response shows 1.18 times greater than photon response for the prepared dosimeters

  19. Synthesis and concentration dependent antibacterial activities of CuO nanoflakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandiyarajan, T.; Udayabhaskar, R.; Vignesh, S.; James, R. Arthur; Karthikeyan, B.

    2013-01-01

    We report, synthesis and antibacterial activities of CuO nanoflakes. CuO nanoparticles are prepared at room temperature through sol–gel method. X-ray diffraction studies show the particles are monoclinic (crystalline) in nature. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images clearly show that the prepared particles are flake like in structure. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra exhibits three different bands that correspond to the A u and B u modes. Antibacterial studies were performed on Shigella flexneri, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholera, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aeromonas liquefaciens bacterial strains. Among these bacterial strains, S. flexneri and B. subtilis are most sensitive to copper oxide nanoparticles than the positive control (Penicillin G) and S. typhimurium strain shows the less sensitive. Results show that sensitivity is highly dependent on the concentrations of CuO nanoflakes. - Highlights: ► CuO nanoflakes are prepared through simple sol–gel method at room temperature. ► Bacterial strains are highly affected by CuO nanoflakes than the positive control. ► Zone of inhibition increases with an increase of CuO concentrations. ► Sensitivity is highly dependent on the concentrations of CuO nanoflakes

  20. Synthesis and concentration dependent antibacterial activities of CuO nanoflakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandiyarajan, T.; Udayabhaskar, R. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620 015 (India); Vignesh, S.; James, R. Arthur [Department of Marine Science, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620 024 (India); Karthikeyan, B., E-mail: balkarin@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620 015 (India)

    2013-05-01

    We report, synthesis and antibacterial activities of CuO nanoflakes. CuO nanoparticles are prepared at room temperature through sol–gel method. X-ray diffraction studies show the particles are monoclinic (crystalline) in nature. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images clearly show that the prepared particles are flake like in structure. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra exhibits three different bands that correspond to the A{sub u} and B{sub u} modes. Antibacterial studies were performed on Shigella flexneri, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholera, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aeromonas liquefaciens bacterial strains. Among these bacterial strains, S. flexneri and B. subtilis are most sensitive to copper oxide nanoparticles than the positive control (Penicillin G) and S. typhimurium strain shows the less sensitive. Results show that sensitivity is highly dependent on the concentrations of CuO nanoflakes. - Highlights: ► CuO nanoflakes are prepared through simple sol–gel method at room temperature. ► Bacterial strains are highly affected by CuO nanoflakes than the positive control. ► Zone of inhibition increases with an increase of CuO concentrations. ► Sensitivity is highly dependent on the concentrations of CuO nanoflakes.

  1. Enhancement in light harvesting ability of photoactive layer P3HT: PCBM using CuO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, D. C.; Dwivedi, Shailendra Kumar; Dipak, Pukhrambam; Chandel, Tarun

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we have synthesized CuO nanoparticles via precipitation method and incorporated CuO nanoparticles in the P3HT-poly (3-hexyl) thiophene: PCBM-[6, 6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester heterogeneous blend. The ratio of P3HT to CuO in the blend was varied, while maintaining the fixed ratio of PCBM. The UV-visible absorption spectra of P3HT: PCBM photoactive layer containing different weight percentages of CuO nanoparticles showed a clear enhancement in the photo absorption of the active layer. The absorption band starts from 310 nm to 750 nm for P3HT: CuO (NPs):PCBM (0.5:0.5:1). This shows that incorporation of CuO nanoparticles leads to larger absorption band. In addition, the X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows improvement in P3HT crystallinity and the better formation of CuO nanostructures.

  2. Nitrogen/Sulfur-Codoped Carbon Materials from Chitosan for Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei; Han, Xianlong; Chang, Xiaoqing; Yin, Wenchao; Ma, Jingyun

    2016-08-01

    d-Methionine and chitosan have been used for fabrication of nitrogen/sulfur-codoped carbon materials by a hydrothermal process followed by carbonization at 750°C for 3 h. The as-prepared carbon materials showed enhanced electrochemical performance, combining electrical double-layer capacitance with pseudocapacitance owing to the doping with sulfur and nitrogen. The specific capacitance of the obtained carbon material reached 135 F g-1 at current density of 1 A g-1, which is much higher than undoped chitosan (67 F g-1). The capacitance retention of the carbon material was almost 97.2% after 5000 cycles at current density of 1 A g-1. With such improved electrochemical performance, the nitrogen/sulfur-codoped carbon material may have promising potential for use in energy-storage electrodes of supercapacitors.

  3. Transforming from paramagnetism to room temperature ferromagnetism in CuO by ball milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daqiang Gao

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we experimentally demonstrate that it is possible to induce ferromagnetism in CuO by ball milling without any ferromagnetic dopant. The magnetic measurements indicate that paramagnetic CuO is driven to the ferromagnetic state at room temperature by ball milling gradually. The saturation magnetization of the milled powders is found to increase with expanding the milling time and then decrease by annealing under atmosphere. The fitted X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicate that the observed induction and weaken of the ferromagnetism shows close relationship with the valence charged oxygen vacancies (Cu1+-VO in CuO.

  4. Annealing effect on superconductivity of La2CuO4 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, I.; Takahashi, H.; Kojima, H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that La 2 CuO 4 single crystals grown at an oxygen pressure of 0.2 MPa by TSFZ method are superconducting below 32 K, and show a semiconducting behavior in nonsuperconducting state. The single crystals of La 2 CuO 4 are changed from superconductors to semiconductors by annealing in argon, and are returned to superconductors by annealing at ambient pressure of oxygen. Therefore, superconductivity of the La 2 CuO 4 single crystals is due to excess oxygen

  5. Annealing effect on superconductivity of La2CuO4 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, L.; Takahashi, H.; Kojima, H.

    1992-01-01

    La 2 CuO 4 single crystals grown at an oxygen pressure of 0.2 MPa by TSFZ method are superconducting below 32 K, and show a semiconducting behavior in nonsuperconducting state. The single crystals of La 2 CuO 4 are changed from superconductors to semiconductors by annealing in argon, and are returned to superconductors by annealing at ambient pressure of oxygen. Therefore, superconductivity of the La 2 CuO 4 single crystals is due to excess oxygen. (orig.)

  6. Synthesis and characterization of CuO flower-nanostructure processing by a domestic hydrothermal microwave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volanti, D.P.; Keyson, D.; Cavalcante, L.S.; Simoes, A.Z.; Joya, M.R.; Longo, E.; Varela, J.A.; Pizani, P.S.; Souza, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of CuO flower-nanostructure processed in domestic hydrothermal microwave oven was presented. Phase analysis was carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and micro-Raman scattering (MRS) and the results confirmed the CuO flower-nanostructure as a single-phase. The field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM) was used to estimate the average spheres diameter while transmission electron microscope (TEM) to observe the thorn of the flower-nanostructures. The mechanism of CuO flower-nanostructures formation is proposed and explained

  7. Synthesis and characterization of CuO flower-nanostructure processing by a domestic hydrothermal microwave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volanti, D.P. [Laboratorio Interdisciplinar em Ceramica, Departamento de Fisico-Quimica, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, P.O. Box 355, 14801-907 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Keyson, D. [Laboratorio de Ensino de Ciencias e Laboratorio de Combustiveis e Materiais, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal da Paraiba, 58051-900 Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Cavalcante, L.S. [Laboratorio Interdisciplinar de Eletroquimica e Ceramica, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, P.O. Box 676, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: laeciosc@bol.com.br; Simoes, A.Z. [Laboratorio Interdisciplinar em Ceramica, Departamento de Fisico-Quimica, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, P.O. Box 355, 14801-907 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Joya, M.R. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, P.O. Box 676, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Longo, E.; Varela, J.A. [Laboratorio Interdisciplinar em Ceramica, Departamento de Fisico-Quimica, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, P.O. Box 355, 14801-907 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Pizani, P.S. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, P.O. Box 676, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Souza, A.G. [Laboratorio de Ensino de Ciencias e Laboratorio de Combustiveis e Materiais, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal da Paraiba, 58051-900 Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2008-07-14

    The synthesis and characterization of CuO flower-nanostructure processed in domestic hydrothermal microwave oven was presented. Phase analysis was carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and micro-Raman scattering (MRS) and the results confirmed the CuO flower-nanostructure as a single-phase. The field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM) was used to estimate the average spheres diameter while transmission electron microscope (TEM) to observe the thorn of the flower-nanostructures. The mechanism of CuO flower-nanostructures formation is proposed and explained.

  8. Optical excitations in CuO2-sheets doped and undoped with electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokura, Y.; Arima, T.; Koshihara, S.; Takagi, H.; Ido, T.; Ishibashi, S.; Uchida, S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports optical reflectance spectra measured on single crystals of parent families of high T c copper oxide compounds with single-layered CuO 2 -sheets, which clearly show the strong transitons across the charge-transfer (CT) gaps at 1.5-2.0 eV in various types of CuO 2 -sheets. The carrier-doping effects on the CT excitations have been investigated on the Sr-doped La 2 CuO 4 and Ce-doped Nd 2 O 4 crystals

  9. Zeolite Encapsulated Nanocrystalline CuO: A Redox Catalyst for the Oxidation of Secondary Alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakthivel Vijaikumar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Zeolite encapsulated nanocrystalline CuO is synthesized and characterized by powder XRD and HRTEM analyses which clearly show that the particles are less than 15 nm and the nanoparticles are highly dispersed. This nano CuO encapsulated CuY zeolite is used as catalyst in the oxidation of aromatic secondary alcohols. CuY zeolite acts as an efficient support for nano CuO, by stabilizing it and preventing its aggregation. Plausible mechanisms for the formation of the various products are also given.

  10. Photocatalytic degradation of tartrazine dye using CuO straw-sheaf-like nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Martha Purnachander; Wu, Jerry J; Asiri, Abdullah M; Anandan, Sambandam

    2017-03-01

    Straw-sheaf-like CuO nanostructures were fruitfully synthesized using a chemical precipitation approach for the photocatalytic degradation assessment of tartrazine. Phase identification, composition, and morphological outlook of prepared CuO nanostructures were established by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analysis. The photocatalytic performance of the synthesized CuO nanostructures was appraised in the presence of visible light and the possible intermediates formed during the photocatalytic degradation were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A suitable degradation pathway has also been proposed.

  11. Nanostructured CuO thin film electrodes prepared by spray pyrolysis: a simple method for enhancing the electrochemical performance of CuO in lithium cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, Julian; Sanchez, Luis; Martin, Francisco; Ramos-Barrado, Jose R.; Sanchez, Miguel

    2004-01-01

    Nanostructured CuO thin films were prepared by using a spray pyrolysis method, copper acetate as precursor and stainless steel as substrate. The textural and structural properties of the films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The SEM images revealed thorough coating of the substrate and thickness of 450-1250 nm; the average particle size as determined from the AFM images ranged from 30 to 160 nm. The XRD patterns revealed the formation of CuO alone and the XPS spectra confirmed the presence of Cu 2+ as the main oxidation state on the surface. The films were tested as electrodes in lithium cells and their electrochemical properties evaluated from galvanostatic and step potential electrochemical spectroscopy (SPES) measurements. The discharge STEP curves exhibited various peaks consistent with the processes CuO Cu 2 O Cu and with decomposition of the electrolyte, a reversible process in the light of the AFM images. The best electrode exhibited capacity values of 625 Ah kg -1 over more than 100 cycles. This value, which involves a CuO Cu reversible global reaction, is ca. 50% higher than that reported for bulk CuO. The nanosize of the particles and the good adherence of the active material to the substrate are thought to be the key factors accounting for the enhanced electrochemical activity found

  12. Enhanced reactive oxygen species overexpression by CuO nanoparticles in poorly differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Mei-Lang; Hsieh, Shu-Ling; Wu, Chih-Chung; Chu, Tian-Huei; Lin, Yu-Chun; Yeh, Bi-Wen; Hsieh, Shuchen

    2015-01-01

    Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) are known to exhibit toxic effects on a variety of cell types and organs. To determine the oxidative impact of CuO NPs on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, well-differentiated (HepG2) and poorly differentiated (SK-Hep-1) cells were exposed to CuO NPs. Cell viability assay showed that the median inhibition concentration (IC50) for SK-Hep-1 and HepG2 cells was 25 μg ml-1 and 85 μg ml-1, respectively. Cellular fluorescence intensity using DCFH-DA staining analysis revealed significant intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation of up to 242% in SK-Hep-1 cells, compared with 86% in HepG2 cells. HPLC analysis demonstrated that a CuO NP treatment caused cellular GSH depletion of 58% and a GSH/GSSG ratio decrease to ~0.1 in SK-Hep-1 cells. The oxidative stress caused by enhanced superoxide anion production was observed in both HepG2 (146%) and SK-Hep-1 (192%) cells. The Griess assay verified that CuO NPs induced NO production (170%) in SK-Hep-1 cells. Comet assay and western blot further demonstrated that CuO NPs induced severe DNA strand breakage (70%) in SK-Hep-1 cells and caused DNA damage via increased γ-H2AX levels. These results suggest that well-differentiated HepG2 cells possess a robust antioxidant defense system against CuO NP-induced ROS stress and exhibit more tolerance to oxidative stress. Conversely, poorly differentiated SK-Hep-1 cells exhibited a deregulated antioxidant defense system that allowed accumulation of CuO NP-induced ROS and resulted in severe cytotoxicity.Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) are known to exhibit toxic effects on a variety of cell types and organs. To determine the oxidative impact of CuO NPs on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, well-differentiated (HepG2) and poorly differentiated (SK-Hep-1) cells were exposed to CuO NPs. Cell viability assay showed that the median inhibition concentration (IC50) for SK-Hep-1 and HepG2 cells was 25 μg ml-1 and 85 μg ml-1, respectively

  13. Azide-Alkyne Huisgen [3+2] Cycloaddition Using CuO Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunjoon Song

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in the synthesis of CuO nanoparticles (NPs and their application to the [3+2] cycloaddition of azides with terminal alkynes are reviewed. With respect to the importance of click chemistry, CuO hollow NPs, CuO hollow NPs on acetylene black, water-soluble double-hydrophilic block copolymer (DHBC nanoreactors and ZnO–CuO hybrid NPs were synthesized. Non-conventional energy sources such as microwaves and ultrasound were also applied to these click reactions, and good catalytic activity with high regioselectivity was observed. CuO hollow NPs on acetylene black can be recycled nine times without any loss of activity, and water-soluble DHBC nanoreactors have been developed for an environmentally friendly process.

  14. Spin dynamics in CuO and Cu[sub 1[minus][ital x

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carretta, P.; Corti, M.; Rigamonti, A. (Department of Physics Alessandro Volta,' ' University of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy))

    1993-08-01

    [sup 63]Cu nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR), nuclear antiferromagnetic resonance (AFNMR), and spin-lattice relaxation, as well as [sup 7]Li NMR and relaxation measurements in CuO and in Cu[sub 1[minus][ital x

  15. Comparison of internal friction in high Tc superconductors and CuO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gzowski, O.; Davoli, I.; Stizza, S.; Mancini, G.; Kusz, B.; Barczynski, R.; Gazda, M.; Sadowski, W.; Murawski, L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the internal friction and shielding effect in CuO, superconducting yttrium and bismuth ceramics and yttrium monocrystal that have been measured. Several features, some of them common for all specimens, have been found

  16. CuO urchin-nanostructures synthesized from a domestic hydrothermal microwave method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyson, D.; Volanti, D.P.; Cavalcante, L.S.; Simoes, A.Z.; Varela, J.A.; Longo, E.

    2008-01-01

    This letter reports the synthesis of CuO urchin-nanostructures by a simple and novel hydrothermal microwave method. The formation and growth of urchin-nanostructures is mainly affected by the addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG). The hierarchical malachite particles are uniform spheres with a diameter of 0.7-1.9 μm. CuO urchin-nanostructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM) and nitrogen adsorption (BET). The specific surface area of the CuO nanostructured microspheres was about 170.5 m 2 /g. A possible mechanism for the formation of such CuO urchin-nanostructures is proposed

  17. Structural and thermal properties of nanocrystalline CuO synthesized by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, M. [Department of Chemistry, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee-247667, India and Nano Science Laboratory, Institute Instrumentation Centre, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee-247667 (India); Gupta, V. K. [Department of Chemistry, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee-247667 (India); Gautam, Y. K.; Dave, V.; Chandra, R. [Nano Science Laboratory, Institute Instrumentation Centre, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee-247667 (India)

    2014-01-28

    Recent research has shown immense application of metal oxides like CuO, MgO, CaO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, etc. in different areas which includes chemical warfare agents, medical drugs, magnetic storage media and solar energy transformation. Among the metal oxides, CuO nanoparticles are of special interest because of their excellent gas sensing and catalytic properties. In this paper we report structural and thermal properties of CuO synthesized by reactive magnetron DC sputtering. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffractometer. The XRD result reveals that as DC power increased from 30W to 80W, size of the CuO nanoparticles increased. The same results have been verified through TEM analysis. Thermal properties of these particles were studied using thermogravimetry.

  18. CuO nanoparticle sensor for the electrochemical determination of dopamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, Sathish; Kumara Swamy, B.E.; Jayadevappa, H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The MCPE prepared from flake-shaped CuO nanoparticles exhibits good electrocatalytic activity for DA compared with MCPE prepared from rod-shaped CuO nanoparticles. ► The MCPE prepared from SDS/polyglycine/flake-shaped CuO nanoparticles strong electrocatalytic enhancement of redox peak currents for DA and large peak potential separation between E AA − E DA . ► Analysis of DA shows linearly increase in anodic peak current in presence of excess ascorbic acid. ► Ease of preparation and good analytical response supports its claim for use as a potential dopamine sensor. - Abstract: In the present work, different shaped CuO nanoparticles were synthesized using cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in a co-precipitation method. The CuO nanoparticles were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), infrared absorption spectroscopy (IR) and UV–visible absorption spectroscopy (UV–vis). The prepared CuO nanoparticles were used for the preparation of modified carbon-paste electrodes (MCPE) for the electrochemical detection of dopamine (DA) at pH 6.0. The MCPE prepared from flake-shaped CuO nanoparticles exhibited an enhanced current response for DA. Electrochemical parameters, such as the surface area of the electrode, the heterogeneous rate constant (k s ) and the lower detection limit (5.5 × 10 −8 M), were calculated and compared with those of the MCPE prepared from rod-shaped CuO nanoparticles. The MCPE prepared from SDS/polyglycine/flake-shaped CuO nanoparticles exhibited a further improved current response for DA and a high selectivity (E AA − E DA = 0.28 V) for the simultaneous investigation of DA and ascorbic acid (AA) at pH 6.0. The modified carbon-paste electrochemical sensors were compared, and the MCPE prepared from SDS/polyglycine/flake-shaped CuO nanoparticles exhibited better performance than the MCPE prepared from CTAB

  19. SELDI-TOF MS-based discovery of a biomarker in Cucumis sativus seeds exposed to CuO nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Young-Sun; Park, Eun-Sil; Kim, Tae-Oh; Lee, Hoi-Seon; Lee, Sung-Eun

    2014-11-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) can inhibit plant seed germination and root elongation via the release of metal ions. In the present study, two acute phytotoxicity tests, seed germination and root elongation tests, were conducted on cucumber seeds (Cucumis sativus) treated with bulk copper oxide (CuO) and CuO NPs. Two concentrations of bulk CuO and CuO NPs, 200 and 600ppm, were used to test the inhibition rate of root germination; both concentrations of bulk CuO weakly inhibited seed germination, whereas CuO NPs significantly inhibited germination, showing a low germination rate of 23.3% at 600ppm. Root elongation tests demonstrated that CuO NPs were much stronger inhibitors than bulk CuO. SELDI-TOF MS analysis showed that 34 proteins were differentially expressed in cucumber seeds after exposure to CuO NPs, with the expression patterns of at least 9 proteins highly differing from those in seeds treated with bulk CuO and in control plants. Therefore, these 9 proteins were used to identify CuO NP-specific biomarkers in cucumber plants exposed to CuO NPs. A 5977-m/z protein was the most distinguishable biomarker for determining phytotoxicity by CuO NPs. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the SELDI-TOF MS results showed variability in the modes of inhibitory action on cucumber seeds and roots. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that the phytotoxic effect of metal oxide NPs on plants is not caused by the same mode of action as other toxins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Influences of Co doping on the structural and optical properties of ZnO nanostructured

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed Khan, M. A.; Wasi Khan, M.; Alhoshan, Mansour; Alsalhi, M. S.; Aldwayyan, A. S.

    2010-07-01

    Pure and Co-doped ZnO nanostructured samples have been synthesized by a chemical route. We have studied the structural and optical properties of the samples by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), field-emission transmission electron microscope (FETEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and UV-VIS spectroscopy. The XRD patterns show that all the samples are hexagonal wurtzite structures. Changes in crystallite size due to mechanical activation were also determined from X-ray measurements. These results were correlated with changes in particle size followed by SEM and TEM. The average crystallite sizes obtained from XRD were between 20 to 25 nm. The TEM images showed the average particle size of undoped ZnO nanostructure was about 20 nm whereas the smallest average grain size at 3% Co was about 15 nm. Optical parameters such as absorption coefficient ( α), energy band gap ( E g ), the refractive index ( n), and dielectric constants ( σ) have been determined using different methods.

  1. Electronic structure and optical properties of Al and Mg co-doped GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Yan-Jun; Du Yu-Jie; Wang Mei-Shan

    2013-01-01

    The electronic structure and optical properties of Al and Mg co-doped GaN are calculated from first principles using density function theory with the plane-wave ultrasoft pseudopotential method. The results show that the optimal form of p-type GaN is obtained with an appropriate Al:Mg co-doping ratio rather than with only Mg doping. Al doping weakens the interaction between Ga and N, resulting in the Ga 4s states moving to a high energy region and the system band gap widening. The optical properties of the co-doped system are calculated and compared with those of undoped GaN. The dielectric function of the co-doped system is anisotropic in the low energy region. The static refractive index and reflectivity increase, and absorption coefficient decreases. This provides the theoretical foundation for the design and application of Al—Mg co-doped GaN photoelectric materials

  2. Fabrication and textural characterization of nanoporous carbon electrodes embedded with CuO nanoparticles for supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Kumaresa P S Prasad, Dattatray S Dhawale, Thiripuranthagan Sivakumar, Salem S Aldeyab, Javaid S M Zaidi, Katsuhiko Ariga and Ajayan Vinu

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a novel strategy of fabricating nanoporous carbons loaded with different amounts of CuO nanoparticles via a hard templating approach, using copper-containing mesoporous silica as the template and sucrose as the carbon source. The nature and dispersion of the CuO nanoparticles on the surface of the nanoporous carbons were investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). XRD r...

  3. Chlorination of iodide-containing waters in the presence of CuO: Formation of periodate

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Chao; Salhi, Elisabeth; Croue, Jean-Philippe; von Gunten, Urs

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown previously that the disproportionation of halogen-containing oxidants (e.g., HOCl, HOBr, and ClO2) is enhanced by a CuO-catalyzed process. In this study, the transformation of iodine during chlorination in the presence of CuO was investigated. There is no significant enhancement of the disproportionation of hypoiodous acid (HOI) in the presence of CuO. The formation rate of iodate (IO3 -) in the CuO-HOCl-I- system significantly increased when compared to homogeneous solutions, which was ascribed to the activation of HOCl by CuO enhancing its reactivity toward HOI. In this reaction system, iodate formation rates increase with increasing CuO (0-0.5 g L-1) and bromide (0-2 μM) doses and with decreasing pH (9.6-6.6). Iodate does not adsorb to the CuO surfaces used in this study. Nevertheless, iodate concentrations decreased after a maximum was reached in the CuO-HOCl-I-(-Br-) systems. Similarly, the iodate concentrations decrease as a function of time in the CuO-HOCl-IO3 - or CuO-HOBr-IO3 - system, and the rates increase with decreasing pH (9.6-6.6) due to the enhanced reactivity of HOCl or HOBr in the presence of CuO. It could be demonstrated that iodate is oxidized to periodate by a CuO-activated hypohalous acid, which is adsorbed on the CuO surface. No periodate could be measured in filtered solutions because it was mainly adsorbed to CuO. The adsorbed periodate was identified by scanning electron microscopy plus energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  4. Chlorination of iodide-containing waters in the presence of CuO: Formation of periodate

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Chao

    2014-11-18

    It has been shown previously that the disproportionation of halogen-containing oxidants (e.g., HOCl, HOBr, and ClO2) is enhanced by a CuO-catalyzed process. In this study, the transformation of iodine during chlorination in the presence of CuO was investigated. There is no significant enhancement of the disproportionation of hypoiodous acid (HOI) in the presence of CuO. The formation rate of iodate (IO3 -) in the CuO-HOCl-I- system significantly increased when compared to homogeneous solutions, which was ascribed to the activation of HOCl by CuO enhancing its reactivity toward HOI. In this reaction system, iodate formation rates increase with increasing CuO (0-0.5 g L-1) and bromide (0-2 μM) doses and with decreasing pH (9.6-6.6). Iodate does not adsorb to the CuO surfaces used in this study. Nevertheless, iodate concentrations decreased after a maximum was reached in the CuO-HOCl-I-(-Br-) systems. Similarly, the iodate concentrations decrease as a function of time in the CuO-HOCl-IO3 - or CuO-HOBr-IO3 - system, and the rates increase with decreasing pH (9.6-6.6) due to the enhanced reactivity of HOCl or HOBr in the presence of CuO. It could be demonstrated that iodate is oxidized to periodate by a CuO-activated hypohalous acid, which is adsorbed on the CuO surface. No periodate could be measured in filtered solutions because it was mainly adsorbed to CuO. The adsorbed periodate was identified by scanning electron microscopy plus energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  5. Preparation and photo Fenton-like activities of high crystalline CuO fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; He, Jing; Shi, Ruixia; Yang, Ping

    2017-11-01

    CuO fibers were successfully fabricated by a simple electrospinning method, followed by calcination. Some experimental parameters such as the content of Cu(NO3)2•3H2O, the content of PVP, the stirring time, the applied voltage, as well the calcination temperature were investigated, respectively, and their influences on the morphologies of fibers and the spinnability of precursor solution were analyzed. The CuO fibers calcined at 550 °C consisted of numerous CuO grains exhibited a well-crystalline structure. Furthermore, the CuO fibers demonstrated effective photo-Fenton degradation to methyl orange with the assist of H2O2 and the adding volume of H2O2 affects the degradation activities greatly. The degradation rate of methyl orange by the CuO fibers in the presence of 238.8 mmol/L H2O2 is 3.8 times as much as one by P25 alone under the irradiation of Xe lamp. The degradation ratio of methyl orange could achieve 83% in 180 min. The enhanced photocatalytic activities of the CuO fibers were attributed to two aspects: one is the well-crystalline of CuO fibers; the other is that H2O2 accepted the photogenerated electrons and holes effectively, which not only prevented the recombination of charge carriers but also produced additional rad OH. In this work, the formation and photocatalysis mechanisms of CuO fibers were also investigated.

  6. Co-doping effects on luminescence and scintillation properties of Ce doped Lu3Al5O12 scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Kei; Nikl, Martin; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Beitlerova, Alena; Nagura, Aya; Shoji, Yasuhiro; Pejchal, Jan; Ohashi, Yuji; Yokota, Yuui; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2015-01-01

    The Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba 200 ppm co-doped Ce:Lu 3 Al 5 O 12 single crystals were prepared by micro pulling down method. Absorption and luminescence spectra were measured together with several other scintillation characteristics, namely the scintillation decay and light yield to reveal the effect of the co-doping. The scintillation decays were accelerated by both Mg and Ca co-dopants. The Mg co-doped samples showed the fastest decay and the highest light yield among the co-doped samples

  7. Vacuum-annealing induced enhancements in the transparent conducting properties of Mo  +  F doped ZnO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dineshbabu, N.; Ravichandran, K.

    2017-09-01

    The decisive aim of the present study is to enhance the transparent conducting properties of Mo  +  F co-doped ZnO films through annealing. In this work, Mo  +  F co-doped ZnO (MFZO) films were deposited on glass substrates at a deposition temperature of 350 °C using a home-made nebulizer spray pyrolysis technique and the prepared samples were annealed under air and vacuum atmosphere at 400 °C for 2 h. The structural, electrical, optical, surface morphological and elemental properties of as-deposited, air-annealed and vacuum-annealed samples were compared using various analytical techniques. The vacuum-annealed sample shows lowest resistivity of 1.364  ×  10-3 Ω cm and high transmittance of 90% in the visible region with high ohmic conducting nature. The optical bandgap of the sample was found to be increased to 3.36 eV after vacuum annealing treatment. The XRD patterns of the films confirmed the polycrystalline nature. The PL measurements show the defect levels of the deposited films. The FESEM and AFM studies show an increase in the grain size and roughness of the films, respectively, after vacuum-annealing treatment. The presence of the elements before and after annealing treatment was confirmed using XPS analysis.

  8. Synthesis of novel CuO nanosheets and their non-enzymatic glucose sensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain; Khun, Kimleang; Beni, Valerio; Liu, Xianjie; Willander, Magnus

    2013-06-20

    In this study, we have developed a sensitive and selective glucose sensor using novel CuO nanosheets which were grown on a gold coated glass substrate by a low temperature growth method. X-ray differaction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques were used for the structural characterization of CuO nanostructures. CuO nanosheets are highly dense, uniform, and exhibited good crystalline array structure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) technique was applied for the study of chemical composition of CuO nanosheets and the obtained information demonstrated pure phase CuO nanosheets. The novel CuO nanosheets were employed for the development of a sensitive and selective non-enzymatic glucose sensor. The measured sensitivity and a correlation coefficient are in order 5.20 × 10² µA/mMcm² and 0.998, respectively. The proposed sensor is associated with several advantages such as low cost, simplicity, high stability, reproducibility and selectivity for the quick detection of glucose.

  9. Synthesis of Novel CuO Nanosheets and Their Non-Enzymatic Glucose Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Willander

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have developed a sensitive and selective glucose sensor using novel CuO nanosheets which were grown on a gold coated glass substrate by a low temperature growth method. X-ray differaction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM techniques were used for the structural characterization of CuO nanostructures. CuO nanosheets are highly dense, uniform, and exhibited good crystalline array structure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS technique was applied for the study of chemical composition of CuO nanosheets and the obtained information demonstrated pure phase CuO nanosheets. The novel CuO nanosheets were employed for the development of a sensitive and selective non-enzymatic glucose sensor. The measured sensitivity and a correlation coefficient are in order 5.20 × 102 µA/mMcm2 and 0.998, respectively. The proposed sensor is associated with several advantages such as low cost, simplicity, high stability, reproducibility and selectivity for the quick detection of glucose.

  10. Combination of CuO nanoparticles and fluconazole: preparation, characterization, and antifungal activity against Candida albicans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weitz, Iris S., E-mail: irisweitz@braude.ac.il; Maoz, Michal; Panitz, Daniel [ORT Braude College, Department of Biotechnology Engineering (Israel); Eichler, Sigal; Segal, Ester [Technion – Israel Institute of Technology, Department of Biotechnology and Food Engineering (Israel)

    2015-08-15

    Combination therapy becomes an important strategy in the management of invasive fungal infections and emergence of resistant fungi mutants. In this work, we examine the combination of copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles (NPs) with fluconazole as potential treatment against the pathogenic fungi, Candidaalbicans. CuO NPs (∼7 nm in size) were synthesized with acetate ligands assembled on their surface, as shown by both thermal gravimetric analysis and FTIR spectroscopy. Unlike the commercial CuO (both bulk and 50 nm particles), that are poorly dispersed in water, the interaction with water allows the fine dispersion of the coated CuO NPs and their excellent colloidal stability. The addition of fluconazole to the aqueous CuO dispersion induced spontaneous self-assembly of the NPs into linear pearl-like chains network, shown by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). The antifungal activity of the CuO NPs and their combination with fluconazole (fluconazole–CuO NPs) was studied against C. albicans. The best MIC values were obtained at concentrations as low as 0.2 and 0.3 mg/mL, respectively. The results suggest that fluconazole–CuO NPs can provide a potential alternative treatment for C. albicans infections.

  11. Photocatalytic effect of green synthesised CuO nanoparticles on selected environmental pollutants and pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuku, Xolile; Thovhogi, Ntevheleni; Maaza, Malik

    2018-05-01

    Highly crystalline irregular green synthesised CuO nanoparticles (CuO NPs) which are 10 nm in particle size were successfully characterised by HRSEM and AFM. EDS confirmed the main components of prepared sample which are Cu and O. Meanwhile, UV/Vis revealed the reflectance, transmittance, absorbance and the semiconducting nature of the synthesised nano-oxides. The optical band gap of CuO NPs was calculated to be 1.4 - 2.3 eV which indicates that CuO NPs can be used in metal oxide semiconductor-based devices. CuO NPs were found to be excellent photocatalysts for the degradation of methyl orange organic dye under the illumination of artificial light irradiation. The experiments demonstrated that MO in aqueous solution was more efficiently photo-degraded (65 %) using CuO NPs as photocatalysts. Further, the nanomaterials were also found to be good inhibitors of bacterial strains at both low and high concentrations of 5 - 10 mg mL-1.

  12. CuO nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterization, optical properties and interaction with amino acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Trass, A.; ElShamy, H.; El-Mehasseb, I. [Nanochemistry Laboratory, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Kafrelsheikh, University, 33516 Kafr ElSheikh (Egypt); El-Kemary, M., E-mail: elkemary@yahoo.com [Nanochemistry Laboratory, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Kafrelsheikh, University, 33516 Kafr ElSheikh (Egypt)

    2012-01-15

    Cupric oxide (CuO) nanoparticles with an average size of 6 nm have been successfully prepared by an alcothermal method. The prepared CuO nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. A strong sharp emission under UV excitation is reported from the prepared CuO nanoparticles. The results show that the CuO nanoparticles have high dispersion and narrow size distribution. The fluorescence emission spectra display an intense sharp emission at 365 nm and weak broad intensity emission at 470 nm. Picosecond fluorescence measurements of the nanoparticles suggest bi-exponential function giving time constants of {tau}{sub 1} (330 ps, 94.21%) and {tau}{sub 2} (4.69 ns, 5.79%). In neutral and alkaline solutions, Zeta potential values of CuO nanoparticles are negative, due to the adsorption of COO{sup -} group via the coordination of bidentate. At low pH the zeta potential value is positive due to the increased potential of H{sup +} ions in solution. Comparative UV-visible absorption experiments with the model amino acid compounds of positive and negative charges as arginine and aspartic acid, respectively confirmed the negative surface of CuO nanoparticles. The results should be extremely useful for understanding the mode of the interaction with biological systems. This binding process also affects the particle's behavior inside the body.

  13. Fabrication of CuO nanoplatelets for highly sensitive enzyme-free determination of glucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Juan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, 381 Wushan Road, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhang Weide, E-mail: zhangwd@scut.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, 381 Wushan Road, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2011-09-01

    Highlights: > Adhered growth of CuO nanoplatelets on Cu foils. > Enzyme-free glucose sensor with very high sensitivity. > Excellent stability and good anti-interference ability. - Abstract: CuO nanoplatelets were grown on Cu foils by a one step, template free process. The structure and morphology of the CuO nanoplatelets were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The CuO nanoplatelets grown on Cu foil were integrated to be an electrode for glucose sensing. The electrocatalytic activity of the CuO nanoplatelets electrode for glucose in alkaline media was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The electrode exhibits a sensitivity of 3490.7 {mu}A mM{sup -1} cm{sup -2} to glucose which is much higher than that of most reported enzyme-free glucose sensors and the linear range was obtained over a concentration up to 0.80 mM with a detection limit of 0.50 {mu}M (signal/noise = 3). Exhilaratingly, the electrode based on the CuO nanoplatelets is resistant against poisoning by chloride ion, and the interference from the oxidation of common interfering species, such as uric acid, ascorbic acid, dopamine and carbonhydrate compounds, can also be effectively avoided. Finally, the electrode was applied to analyze glucose concentration in human serum samples.

  14. Room temperature synthesis of 2D CuO nanoleaves in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yan; Li Yunling; Wang Zichen; Zhao Jingzhe; Ma Dechong; Hou Shengnan; Li Linzhi; Hao Xinli

    2011-01-01

    A simple room temperature method was reported for the synthesis of CuO nanocrystals in aqueous solution through the sequence of Cu 2+ → Cu(OA) 2 → Cu(OH) 2 → Cu(OH) 4 2- → CuO. Sodium oleate (SOA) was used as the surfactant and shape controller. The as-prepared samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-vis) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). It can be seen that 1D Cu(OH) 2 nanowires were first obtained from Cu(OA) 2 and, at room temperature, converted into 2D CuO nanoleaves (CuO NLs) in a short time under a weakly basic environment. On prolonging the reaction time, the top part of these 2D nanoleaves branched and separated along the long axis to form 1D rod-like nano-CuO because of the assistance of SOA. A possible transformation mechanism of Cu(OH) 2 to CuO nanostructures at room temperature in aqueous solution is discussed. The transformation velocity can be controlled by changing the pH value of the system. The prepared CuO NLs were used to construct an enzyme-free glucose sensor. The detecting results showed that the designed sensor exhibited good amperometric responses towards glucose with good anti-interferent ability.

  15. Acceptors in ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCluskey, Matthew D., E-mail: mattmcc@wsu.edu; Corolewski, Caleb D.; Lv, Jinpeng; Tarun, Marianne C.; Teklemichael, Samuel T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-2814 (United States); Walter, Eric D. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Norton, M. Grant; Harrison, Kale W. [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-2920 (United States); Ha, Su [Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-6515 (United States)

    2015-03-21

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) has potential for a range of applications in the area of optoelectronics. The quest for p-type ZnO has focused much attention on acceptors. In this paper, Cu, N, and Li acceptor impurities are discussed. Experimental evidence indicates these point defects have acceptor levels 3.2, 1.4, and 0.8 eV above the valence-band maximum, respectively. The levels are deep because the ZnO valence band is quite low compared to conventional, non-oxide semiconductors. Using MoO{sub 2} contacts, the electrical resistivity of ZnO:Li was measured and showed behavior consistent with bulk hole conduction for temperatures above 400 K. A photoluminescence peak in ZnO nanocrystals is attributed to an acceptor, which may involve a Zn vacancy. High field (W-band) electron paramagnetic resonance measurements on the nanocrystals revealed an axial center with g{sub ⊥} = 2.0015 and g{sub //} = 2.0056, along with an isotropic center at g = 2.0035.

  16. Conventional proximity effect in bilayers of superconducting underdoped $La_{1.88}Sr_{0.12}CuO_4$ islands coated with non superconducting overdoped $La_{1.65}Sr_{0.35}CuO_4$

    OpenAIRE

    Koren, G.; Millo, O.

    2009-01-01

    Following a recent study by our group in which a large $T_c$ enhancement was reported in bilayers of the non-superconducting $La_{1.65}Sr_{0.35}CuO_4$ and superconducting $La_{1.88}Sr_{0.12}CuO_4$ films [Phys. Rev. Lett. \\textbf{101}, 057005 (2008)], we checked if a similar effect occurs when superconducting $La_{1.88}Sr_{0.12}CuO_4$ islands are coated with a continuous layer of the non superconducting $La_{1.65}Sr_{0.35}CuO_4$. We found that no such phenomenon is observed. The bare supercond...

  17. Dependence of CuO particle size and diameter of reaction tubing on tritium recovery for tritium safety operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Cui, E-mail: cdxohc10000@163.com [Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan); Uemura, Yuki; Yuyama, Kenta; Fujita, Hiroe; Sakurada, Shodai; Azuma, Keisuke [Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan); Taguchi, Akira; Hara, Masanori; Hatano, Yuji [University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 939-8555 (Japan); Chikada, Takumi; Oya, Yasuhisa [Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Influence of CuO particle size and diameter of reaction tubing on the tritium recovery was evaluated. • Reaction rate constant of tritium with CuO particle has been calculated by the combination of experimental results and a simulation code. • Dependence of reaction tubing length on tritium conversion ratio has been explored. - Abstract: Usage of CuO and water bubbler is one of the conventional and convenient methods for tritium recovery. In present work, influence of CuO particle size and diameter of reaction tubing on the tritium recovery was evaluated. Reaction rate constant of tritium with CuO particle has been calculated by the combination of experimental results and a simulation code. Then, these results were applied for exploring the dependence of reaction tubing length on tritium conversion ratio. The results showed that the surface area of CuO has a great influence on the oxidation rate constant. The frequency factor of the reaction would be approximately doubled by reducing the CuO particle size from 1.0 mm to 0.2 mm. Cross section of reaction tubing mainly affected on the duration of tritium at the temperature below 600 K. Reaction tubing with length of 1 m at temperature of 600 K would be suitable for keeping the tritium conversion ratio above 99.9%. The length of reaction tubing can be reduced by using the smaller CuO particle or increasing the CuO temperature.

  18. Synthesis and cathodoluminescence of Sb/P co-doped GaN nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zaien; Liu, Baodan; Yuan, Fang; Hu, Tao; Zhang, Guifeng; Dierre, Benjamin; Hirosaki, Naoto; Sekiguchi, Takashi; Jiang, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Sb/P co-doped Gallium Nitride (GaN) nanowires were synthesized via a simple chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process by heating Ga 2 O 3 and Sb powders in NH 3 atmosphere. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) measurements confirmed the as-synthesized products were Sb/P co-doped GaN nanowires with rough morphology and hexagonal wurtzite structure. Room temperature cathodoluminescence (CL) demonstrated that an obvious band shift of GaN nanowires can be observed due to Sb/P co-doping. Possible explanation for the growth and luminescence mechanism of Sb/P co-doped GaN nanowires was discussed. Highlight: • Sb/P co-doped GaN nanowires were synthesized through a well-designed multi-channel chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. • Sb/P co-doping leads to the crystallinity deterioration of GaN nanowires. • Sb/P co-doping caused the red-shift of GaN nanowires band-gap in UV range. • Compared with Sb doping, P atoms are more easy to incorporate into the GaN lattice

  19. Hierarchical CuO hollow microspheres: Controlled synthesis for enhanced lithium storage performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Xiangfeng; Li Liping; Li Guangshe; Fu Zhengwei; Zheng Jing; Yan Tingjiang

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Hierarchical CuO microspheres with hollow interiors were formed through self-wrapping of a single layer of radically oriented CuO nanorods, and these microspheres showed excellent cycle performance and enhanced lithium storage capacity. Display Omitted Research highlights: → Hierarchical CuO hollow microspheres were prepared by a hydrothermal method. → The CuO hollow microspheres were assembled from radically oriented nanorods. → The growth mechanism was proposed to proceed via self-assembly and Ostwald's ripening. → The microspheres showed good cycle performance and enhanced lithium storage capacity. → Hierarchical microstructures with hollow interiors promote electrochemical property. - Abstract: In this work, hierarchical CuO hollow microspheres were hydrothermally prepared without use of any surfactants or templates. By controlling the formation reaction conditions and monitoring the relevant reaction processes using time-dependent experiments, it is demonstrated that hierarchical CuO microspheres with hollow interiors were formed through self-wrapping of a single layer of radically oriented CuO nanorods, and that hierarchical spheres could be tuned to show different morphologies and microstructures. As a consequence, the formation mechanism was proposed to proceed via a combined process of self-assembly and Ostwald's ripening. Further, these hollow microspheres were initiated as the anode material in lithium ion batteries, which showed excellent cycle performance and enhanced lithium storage capacity, most likely because of the synergetic effect of small diffusion lengths in building blocks of nanorods and proper void space that buffers the volume expansion. The strategy reported in this work is reproducible, which may help to significantly improve the electrochemical performance of transition metal oxide-based anode materials via designing the hollow structures necessary for developing lithium ion batteries and the relevant

  20. Safe-by-Design CuO Nanoparticles via Fe-Doping, Cu-O Bond Length Variation, and Biological Assessment in Cells and Zebrafish Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naatz, Hendrik; Lin, Sijie; Li, Ruibin; Jiang, Wen; Ji, Zhaoxia; Chang, Chong Hyun; Köser, Jan; Thöming, Jorg; Xia, Tian; Nel, Andre E; Mädler, Lutz; Pokhrel, Suman

    2017-01-24

    The safe implementation of nanotechnology requires nanomaterial hazard assessment in accordance with the material physicochemical properties that trigger the injury response at the nano/bio interface. Since CuO nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used industrially and their dissolution properties play a major role in hazard potential, we hypothesized that tighter bonding of Cu to Fe by particle doping could constitute a safer-by-design approach through decreased dissolution. Accordingly, we designed a combinatorial library in which CuO was doped with 1-10% Fe in a flame spray pyrolysis reactor. The morphology and structural properties were determined by XRD, BET, Raman spectroscopy, HRTEM, EFTEM, and EELS, which demonstrated a significant reduction in the apical Cu-O bond length while simultaneously increasing the planar bond length (Jahn-Teller distortion). Hazard screening was performed in tissue culture cell lines and zebrafish embryos to discern the change in the hazardous effects of doped vs nondoped particles. This demonstrated that with increased levels of doping there was a progressive decrease in cytotoxicity in BEAS-2B and THP-1 cells, as well as an incremental decrease in the rate of hatching interference in zebrafish embryos. The dissolution profiles were determined and the surface reactions taking place in Holtfreter's solution were validated using cyclic voltammetry measurements to demonstrate that the Cu + /Cu 2+ and Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ redox species play a major role in the dissolution process of pure and Fe-doped CuO. Altogether, a safe-by-design strategy was implemented for the toxic CuO particles via Fe doping and has been demonstrated for their safe use in the environment.

  1. Defect evolution and its impact on the ferromagnetism of Cu-doped ZnO nanocrystals upon thermal treatment: A positron annihilation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Yuan; Chen, Yuqian; Zhang, Q. K.; Qi, N.; Chen, Z. Q.; Wang, S. J.; Li, P. H.; Mascher, P.

    2017-01-01

    CuO/ZnO nanocomposites with 4 at. % CuO were annealed in air at various temperatures between 100 and 1200 °C to produce Cu-doped ZnO nanocrystals. X-ray diffraction shows that a CuO phase can be observed in the CuO/ZnO nanocomposites annealed at different temperatures, and the Cu-doped ZnO nanocrystals are identified to be of wurtzite structure. The main peak (101) appears at slightly lower diffraction angles with increasing annealing temperature from 400 up to 1200 °C, which confirms the successful doping of Cu into the ZnO lattice above 400 °C. Scanning electron microscopy indicates that most particles in the CuO/ZnO nanocomposites are isolated when annealing at 100-400 °C, but these particles have a tendency to form clusters or aggregates as the annealing temperature increases from 700 to 1000 °C. Positron annihilation measurements reveal a large number of vacancy defects in the interface region of the nanocomposites, and they are gradually recovered with increasing annealing temperature up to 1000 °C. Room-temperature ferromagnetism can be observed in the CuO/ZnO nanocomposites, and the magnetization decreases continuously with increasing annealing temperature. However, there may be several different origins of ferromagnetism in the CuO/ZnO nanocomposites. At low annealing temperatures, the ferromagnetism originates from the CuO nanograins, and the ferromagnetism of CuO nanograins decreases with an increase in the grain size after subsequent higher temperature annealing, which leads to the weakening of ferromagnetism in the CuO/ZnO nanocomposites. After annealing from 400 to 1000 °C, the ferromagnetism gradually vanishes. The ferromagnetism is probably induced by Cu substitution but is mediated by vacancy defects in the CuO/ZnO nanocomposites. The disappearance of ferromagnetism coincides well with the recovery of vacancy defects. It can be inferred that the ferromagnetism is mediated by vacancy defects that are distributed in the interface region.

  2. Investigation of structural, surface morphological, optical properties and first-principles study on electronic and magnetic properties of (Ce, Fe)-co doped ZnO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arul Mary, J.; Judith Vijaya, J.; Bououdina, M.; John Kennedy, L.; Daie, J.H.; Song, Y.

    2015-01-01

    We report on the synthesis of ((Zn 1−2x Ce x Fe x ) O (x=0.00, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04 and 0.05)) nanoparticles via microwave combustion by using urea as a fuel. To understand how the dopant influenced the structural, magnetic and optical properties of nanoparticles, it was characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), photoluminescence (PL) spectra and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The stability and magnetic properties of Ce and Fe co-doped ZnO were probed by first principle calculations. From the analysis of X-ray diffraction, the samples are identified with the wurtzite crystal structure. The change in lattice parameters, micro-strain, and a small shift in XRD peaks confirms the substitution of co dopants into the ZnO lattice. Morphological investigation of the products revealed the existence of irregular shapes, such as spherical, spherodial and hexagonal. DRS measurements showed a decrease in the energy gap with increasing dopants contents, probably due to an increase in the lattice parameters. PL spectra consist of visible emission, due to the electronic defects, which are related to deep level emissions, such as oxide antisite (O Zn ), interstitial zinc (Zn i ), interstitial oxygen (O i ) and zinc vacancy (V Zn ). Magnetic measurements showed a ferromagnetic behavior for all the doped samples at room temperature. The first principle calculation results showed that the Ce governs the stability, while the Fe adjusts the magnetic characteristics in the Ce and Fe co-doped ZnO

  3. Investigation of structural, surface morphological, optical properties and first-principles study on electronic and magnetic properties of (Ce, Fe)-co doped ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arul Mary, J. [Catalysis and Nanomaterials Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry Loyola College, Chennai 600 034 (India); Judith Vijaya, J., E-mail: jjvijayaloyola@yahoo.co.in [Catalysis and Nanomaterials Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry Loyola College, Chennai 600 034 (India); Bououdina, M. [Departments of Physics, College of Science, University of Bahrain, PO Box 32038 Kingdom of Bahrain (Bahrain); John Kennedy, L. [Materials Division, School of Advanced Sciences, Vellore Institute of Technology (VIT) University, Chennai Campus, Chennai 600 127 (India); Daie, J.H.; Song, Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, 2 West Wenhua Road, Weiahi 264209 (China)

    2015-01-01

    We report on the synthesis of ((Zn{sub 1−2x}Ce{sub x}Fe{sub x}) O (x=0.00, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04 and 0.05)) nanoparticles via microwave combustion by using urea as a fuel. To understand how the dopant influenced the structural, magnetic and optical properties of nanoparticles, it was characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), photoluminescence (PL) spectra and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The stability and magnetic properties of Ce and Fe co-doped ZnO were probed by first principle calculations. From the analysis of X-ray diffraction, the samples are identified with the wurtzite crystal structure. The change in lattice parameters, micro-strain, and a small shift in XRD peaks confirms the substitution of co dopants into the ZnO lattice. Morphological investigation of the products revealed the existence of irregular shapes, such as spherical, spherodial and hexagonal. DRS measurements showed a decrease in the energy gap with increasing dopants contents, probably due to an increase in the lattice parameters. PL spectra consist of visible emission, due to the electronic defects, which are related to deep level emissions, such as oxide antisite (O{sub Zn}), interstitial zinc (Zn{sub i}), interstitial oxygen (O{sub i}) and zinc vacancy (V{sub Zn}). Magnetic measurements showed a ferromagnetic behavior for all the doped samples at room temperature. The first principle calculation results showed that the Ce governs the stability, while the Fe adjusts the magnetic characteristics in the Ce and Fe co-doped ZnO.

  4. CuO nanostructures on copper foil by a simple wet chemical route at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jana, S.; Das, S.; Das, N.S.; Chattopadhyay, K.K.

    2010-01-01

    Uniform CuO nanostructures have been synthesized on copper foil substrates by oxidation of Cu in alkaline condition by a simple wet chemical route at room temperature. By controlling the alkaline condition (pH value) different CuO nanostructures like nanoneedles, self-assembled nanoflowers and staking of flake-like structures were achieved. The phase formation and the composition of the films were characterized by X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive analysis of X-ray studies. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies indicated that the samples were composed of CuO. The morphologies of the films were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. A possible growth mechanism is also proposed here. Band gap energies of the nanostructures were determined from the optical reflectance spectra. The different CuO nanostructures showed good electron field emission properties with turn-on fields in the range 6-11.3 V μm -1 . The field emission current was significantly affected by the morphologies of the CuO films.

  5. Facile synthesis of Zn doped CuO hierarchical nanostructures: Structural, optical and antibacterial properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Iqbal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ZnxCu1−xO (where x= 0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07 and 0.1 mol% hierarchical nanostructures have been prepared via soft chemical route. X-ray diffraction (XRD results of the synthesized samples reveal the monoclinic structure of CuO without any impurity related phases. The micro-structural parameters such as crystallite size and microstrain have been strongly influenced by Zn doping. Scanning electron microscope (SEM analyses depict the formation of hierarchical nanostructures having average particle size in the range of 26-43 nm. The surface area of CuO nanostructures has been reduced systematically with the increase in Zn content which is linked with the variations in particle size. An obvious decrease in the optical band gap energy of the synthesized CuO hierarchical nanostructures has been observed with Zn doping which is assigned to the formation of shallow levels in the band gap of CuO and combined transition from oxygen 2p states to d sates of Cu and Zn ions. The bactericidal potency of the CuO hierarchical nanostructures have been found to be enhanced remarkably with Zn doping.

  6. Green Synthesis and Characterizations of Flower Shaped CuO Nanoparticles for Biodiesel Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rintu Varghese

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterials are primary candidates to play a key role in energy future. In this work, plant-mediated green synthesis of CuO nanoparticles was studied. The CuO nanoparticles were used as the catalysts for the production of biodiesel from coconut oil. An aqueous extract of Centella Asiatica leaves was used as a bio-reducing agent for the synthesis of CuO nanoparticles. This biocatalyst was characterized by using different techniques (FTIR, UV-Vis spectroscopy, XRD, FESEM with EDX which were confirmed the formation of CuO nanoparticles. Further, the presences of FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester groups at the produced biodiesel were confirmed using both the GC-MS and FTIR analysis. From this work, it has been concluded that the plant extract mediated synthesis of CuO nanoparticles is quite simple, cost-effective and environmentally friendly. The produced biodiesel from coconut oil is considered to be a potential source for alternative conventional fuel.

  7. Optical and structural properties of CuO nanofilm: Its diode application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdogan, Ibrahim Y.; Guellue, O.

    2010-01-01

    The high crystalline CuO nanofilms have been prepared by spin coating and annealing combined with a simple chemical method. The obtained films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, ultraviolet-vis (UV-vis) spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Structural analysis results demonstrate that the single phase CuO on Si (1 0 0) substrate is of high a crystalline structure with a dominant in monoclinic (1 1 1) orientation. FT-IR results confirm the formation of pure CuO phase. UV-vis absorption measurements indicate that the band gap of the CuO films is 2.64 eV. The PL spectrum of the CuO films shows a broad emission band centered at 467 nm, which is consistent with absorption measurement. Also, Au/CuO/p-Si metal/interlayer/semiconductor (MIS) diodes have been fabricated. Electronic properties (current-voltage) of these structures were investigated. In addition, the interfacial state properties of the MIS diode were obtained. The interface-state density of the MIS diode was found to vary from 6.21 x 10 12 to 1.62 x 10 12 eV -1 cm -2 .

  8. Preparation and characterization of CuO catalyst for the thermolysis treatment of distillery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak; Prajapati, Abhinesh Kumar; Choudhary, Rumi; Kaushal, Rajesh Kumar; Pal, Dharm; Sawarkar, Ashish N

    2017-08-16

    CuO catalyst was prepared from copper sulfate by alkali precipitation method followed by drying and calcination. Characterization of CuO catalyst using X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, and Barrett-Joyner-Halenda surface area analysis envisaged the effectiveness of CuO as a catalyst for the treatment of biodigester effluent (BDE) emanated from distilleries. The catalytic thermolysis is an efficient advance treatment method for distillery biodigester effluent (BDE). CT treatment of BDE was carried out in a 0.5 dm 3 thermolytic batch reactor using CuO as a catalyst at different pH (1-9), temperatures (80-110°C), and catalyst loadings (1-4 kg/m 3 ). With CuO catalyst, a temperature of 110°C, catalyst loading of 4 kg/m 3 , and pH of 2 was found to be optimal, providing a maximum reduction in chemical oxygen demand of 65%. The settling characteristics at different temperatures of CT-treated sludge were also presented.

  9. A Root-Colonizing Pseudomonad Lessens Stress Responses in Wheat Imposed by CuO Nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Wright

    Full Text Available Nanoparticle (NPs containing essential metals are being considered in formulations of fertilizers to boost plant nutrition in soils with low metal bioavailability. This paper addresses whether colonization of wheat roots by the bacterium, Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6 (PcO6, protected roots from the reduced elongation caused by CuO NPs. There was a trend for slightly elongated roots when seedlings with roots colonized by PcO6 were grown with CuO NPs; the density of bacterial cells on the root surface was not altered by the NPs. Accumulations of reactive oxygen species in the plant root cells caused by CuO NPs were little affected by root colonization. However, bacterial colonization did reduce the extent of expression of an array of genes associated with plant responses to stress induced by root exposure to CuO NPs. PcO6 colonization also reduced the levels of two important chelators of Cu ions, citric and malic acids, in the rhizosphere solution; presumably because these acids were used as nutrients for bacterial growth. There was a trend for lower levels of soluble Cu in the rhizosphere solution and reduced Cu loads in the true leaves with PcO6 colonization. These studies indicate that root colonization by bacterial cells modulates plant responses to contact with CuO NPs.

  10. Effect of Cu Salt Molarity on the Nanostructure of CuO Prolate Spheroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabeeh, Sabah H.; Hussein, Hashim Abed; Judran, Hadia Kadhim

    Copper sulfate pentahydrate was used as a source of Cu ion with five different molarities (0.02, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 2 and 0.25M). XRD, FE-SEM and TEM techniques all showed that CuO samples have polycrystalline monoclinic structure. CuO prolate spheroid is assembled from nanoparticles as building units. It was demonstrated that the purity, morphology, size range of prolate spheroid and density of nano building units are significantly influenced by Cu precursor’s molarity. The pure phase of CuO prolate spheroid was produced via molarity of 0.2M with crystallite size of 15.1565nm while the particle size of building units ranges from 16nm to 21nm. The stability of CuO nanosuspension or nanofluid was evaluated by zeta potential analysis. The obtained properties of specific structure with large surface area of CuO prolate spheroid make it a promising candidate for wide range of potential applications as in nanofluids for cooling purposes.

  11. Facile synthesis of Zn doped CuO hierarchical nanostructures: Structural, optical and antibacterial properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, Javed, E-mail: tariqjan84@gmail.com, E-mail: javed.suggau@iiu.edu.pk; Jan, Tariq, E-mail: tariqjan84@gmail.com, E-mail: javed.suggau@iiu.edu.pk; Ul-Hassan, Sibt; Umair Ali, M.; Abbas, Fazal [Laboratory of Nanoscience and Technology, Department of Physics, International Islamic University, H-10, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ahmed, Ishaq [Experimental Physics Labs, National Center for Physics, Islamabad (Pakistan); Mansoor, Qaisar; Ismail, Muhammad [Institute of Biomedical and Genetic Engineering (IBGE), Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2015-12-15

    Zn{sub x}Cu{sub 1−x}O (where x= 0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07 and 0.1 mol%) hierarchical nanostructures have been prepared via soft chemical route. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results of the synthesized samples reveal the monoclinic structure of CuO without any impurity related phases. The micro-structural parameters such as crystallite size and microstrain have been strongly influenced by Zn doping. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses depict the formation of hierarchical nanostructures having average particle size in the range of 26-43 nm. The surface area of CuO nanostructures has been reduced systematically with the increase in Zn content which is linked with the variations in particle size. An obvious decrease in the optical band gap energy of the synthesized CuO hierarchical nanostructures has been observed with Zn doping which is assigned to the formation of shallow levels in the band gap of CuO and combined transition from oxygen 2p states to d sates of Cu and Zn ions. The bactericidal potency of the CuO hierarchical nanostructures have been found to be enhanced remarkably with Zn doping.

  12. Direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin immobilized in CuO nanowire bundles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yueming; Zhang, Qian; Li, Jinghong

    2010-11-15

    It is one of main challenges to find the suitable materials to enhance the direct electron transfer between the electrode and redox protein for direct electrochemistry field. Nano-structured metal oxides have attracted considerable interest because of unique properties, well biocompatibility, and good stability. In this paper, the copper oxide nanowire bundles (CuO NWBs) were prepared via a template route, and the bioelectrochemical performances of hemoglobin (Hb) on the CuO NWBs modified glass carbon electrodes (denoted as Hb-CuO NWBs/GC) were studied. TEM and XRD were used to characterize the morphology and structure of the as synthesized CuO NWBs. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) proved that Hb in the CuO NWBs matrix could retain its native secondary structure. A pair of well-defined and quasi-reversible redox peaks at approximately -0.325 V (vs. Ag/AgCl saturated KCl) were shown in the cyclic voltammogram curve for the Hb-CuO NWBs/GC electrode, which indicated the direct electrochemical behavior. The Hb-CuO NWBs/GC electrode also displayed a good electrocatalytic activity toward the reduction of hydrogen peroxide. These results indicate that the CuO NWBs are good substrates for immobilization of biomolecules and might be promising in the fields of (bio) electrochemical analysis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Carbon doped ZnO: Synthesis, characterization and interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, D.K.; Mohapatra, J.; Sharma, M.K.; Chattarjee, R.; Singh, S.K.; Varma, Shikha; Behera, S.N.; Nayak, Sanjeev K.; Entel, P.

    2013-01-01

    A novel thermal plasma in-flight technique has been adopted to synthesize nanocrystalline ZnO and carbon doped nanocrystalline ZnO matrix. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies on these samples show the average particle sizes to be around 32 nm for ZnO and for carbon doped ZnO. An enhancement of saturation magnetization in nanosized carbon doped ZnO matrix by a factor of 3.8 has been found in comparison to ZnO nanoparticles at room temperature. Raman measurement clearly indicates the presence of Zn–C complexes surrounded by ZnO matrix in carbon doped ZnO. This indicates that the ferromagnetic signature in carbon doped ZnO arises from the creation of defects or the development of oxy-carbon clusters, in the carbon doped ZnO system. Theoretical studies based on density functional theory also support the experimental analyses. - Highlights: ► Synthesis of nanocrystalline ZnO and carbon doped ZnO matrix by inflight thermal plasma reactor. ► Enhancement of ferromagnetism in nanosized carbon doped ZnO in comparison to ZnO nanoparticles. ► Raman measurement indicates the presence of Zn–C complexes surrounded by ZnO matrix. ► Ferromagnetic signature in carbon doped ZnO arises from the development of oxy-carbon clusters. ► DFT supports experimental evidence of ferromagnetism in C doped ZnO nanoparticles.

  14. Photocatalytic oxidation of propylene on La and N codoped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jinfeng; Li, Haiyan; Zong, Lanlan; Li, Qiuye, E-mail: lqybys@163.com; Wang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Min; Yang, Jianjun, E-mail: yangjianjun@henu.edu.cn [Henan University, Key Laboratory for Special Functional Materials (China)

    2015-02-15

    Lanthanum- and nitrogen-codoped TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts was synthesized using orthorhombic nanotubes titanic acid as the precursor by a simple impregnation and subsequent calcination method. The morphology, phase structure, and properties of La- and N-codoped TiO{sub 2} were well characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectra. The La-/N-codoped TiO{sub 2} showed excellent photoactivity of propylene oxidation compared with the single-doped TiO{sub 2} and La-/N-codoped P25 TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles under visible light irradiation. The origin of the enhancement of the visible light-responsive photocatalytic activity was discussed in detail.

  15. Preparation and spectroscopic properties of Yb-doped and Yb-Al-codoped high silica glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao Yanbo; Wen Lei; Wu Botao; Ren Jinjun; Chen Danping; Qiu Jianrong

    2008-01-01

    Yb-doped and Yb-Al-codoped high silica glasses have been prepared by sintering nanoporous glasses. The absorption, fluorescent spectra and fluorescent lifetimes have been measured and the emission cross-section and minimum pump intensities were calculated. Codoping aluminum ions enhanced the fluorescence intensity of Yb-doped high silica glass obviously. The emission cross-sections of Yb-doped and Yb-Al-codoped high silica glasses were 0.65 and 0.82 pm 2 , respectively. The results show that Yb-Al-codoped high silica glass has better spectroscopic properties for a laser material. The study of high silica glass doped with ytterbium is helpful for its application in Yb laser systems, especially for high-power and high-repetition lasers

  16. Improving the photoluminescence response of Er-Tm: Al2O3 films by Yb codoping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Zhisong; Serna, R.; Afonso, C.N.; Cheng Guoan; Vickridge, I.

    2007-01-01

    Amorphous Al 2 O 3 films doped with Er, Tm and Yb have been prepared by pulsed laser deposition. A broadband emission in the range 1400-1700 nm with two peaks around 1540 and 1640 nm has been observed, both in the Er-Tm and Er-Tm-Yb codoped films. The Tm-related photoluminescence (PL) intensity at 1640 nm is enhanced when codoping with Yb thus suggesting the existence of multiple energy transfer processes from Yb to Er and Er to Tm. The Er-Tm-Yb codoped film exhibits a broadband emission with a full-width half-maximum of 184 nm similar to that of the film codoped with Tm and Er but having higher Tm to Er concentration ratio and higher PL lifetime values

  17. Co-doping with antimony to control phosphorous diffusion in germanium

    KAUST Repository

    Tahini, H. A.; Chroneos, Alexander; Grimes, R. W.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2013-01-01

    donor co-doping on the migration activation energies of vacancy-mediated diffusion processes. The migration energy barriers for phosphorous and antimony were found to be increased significantly when larger clusters involving two donor atoms and a vacancy

  18. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of different sizes of the CuO particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaojun; Zhang Dongen; Ni Xiaomin; Song Jimei; Zheng Huagui

    2008-01-01

    Well-dispersed cupric oxide (CuO) nanoparticles with the size from 10 to 100 nm were successfully synthesized by thermal decomposition of CuC 2 O 4 precursor at 400 deg. C. The prepared CuO nanoparticles of different sizes used as anode materials for Li ion battery all exhibit high electrochemical capacity at the first discharge. However, with the particles size changing, an interesting phenomenon appears. That is, the larger size of the particles is, the discharge capacity of the first time smaller is, while that of the second time is larger. At the same time, the mechanism of the above phenomenon is discussed in this paper. Surprisingly, we have synthesized the copper nanoparticles with different sizes by the CuO of different sizes as the electrodes

  19. Synthesis of Cu2O from CuO thin films: Optical and electrical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanya S. Murali

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hole conducting, optically transparent Cu2O thin films on glass substrates have been synthesized by vacuum annealing (5×10−6 mbar at 700 K for 1 hour of magnetron sputtered (at 300 K CuO thin films. The Cu2O thin films are p-type and show enhanced properties: grain size (54.7 nm, optical transmission 72% (at 600 nm and Hall mobility 51 cm2/Vs. The bulk and surface Valence band spectra of Cu2O and CuO thin films are studied by temperature dependent Hall effect and Ultra violet photo electron Spectroscopy (UPS. CuO thin films show a significant band bending downwards (due to higher hole concentration than Cu2O thin films.

  20. Electrical and thermoluminescence properties of γ-irradiated La2CuO4 crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kolaly, M. A.; Abd El-Kader, H. I.; Kassem, M. E.

    1994-12-01

    Measurements of the electrical properties of unirradiated as well as ?-irradiated La2CuO4 crystals were carried out at different temperatures in the frequency range of 0.1-100 kHz. Thermoluminescence (TL) studies were also performed on such crystals in the temperature range of 300-600K. The conductivity of the unirradiated La2CuO4 crystals were found to obey the power law frequency dependence at each measured temperature below the transition temperature (Tc = 450K). The activation energies for conduction and dielectric relaxation time have been calculated. The TL response and the dc resistance were found to increase with ?-irradiation dose up to 9-10 kGy. The results showed that the ferroelastic domain walls of La2CuO4 crystal as well as its TL traps are sensitive to ?-raditaion. This material can be used in radiation measurements in the range 225 Gy-10 kGy.

  1. Spectroscopic study of the CuO chains in YBa2Cu3O7-x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, H.; Derro, D.J.; Barr, A.L.; Markert, J.T.; de Lozanne, A.L.

    1996-01-01

    We interpret our previously published results obtained using a technique called current-imaging tunneling spectroscopy (CITS) to study the detailed electronic structure of the CuO chains in the high-temperature superconductor YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x near the Fermi level. Our CITS data comprise sequences of 32 simultaneously obtained images taken at bias voltages ranging from -78 to 72 mV. Cross sections of the CITS data, normalized-conductance analysis, and logarithmic-derivative analysis allow us to examine in detail the behavior of electronic modulations along the CuO chains and the energy gap in the CuO chains of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x . This new analysis lends a strong foundation to our previous interpretation of the CITS data [H. L. Edwards et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1387 (1995)]. copyright 1996 American Vacuum Society

  2. Electronic and Optical Properties of CuO Based on DFT+U and GW Approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, F; Agusta, M K; Dipojono, H K

    2016-01-01

    We report ab initio calculations of electronic structure and optical properties of monoclinic CuO based on DFT+U and GW approximation. CuO is an antiferromagnetic material with strong electron correlations. Our calculation shows that DFT+U and GW approximation sufficiently reliable to investigate the material properties of CuO. The calculated band gap of DFT+U for reasonable value of U slightly underestimates. The use of GW approximation requires adjustment of U value to get realistic result. Hybridization Cu 3dxz, 3dyz with O 2p plays an important role in the formation of band gap. The calculated optical properties based on DFT+U and GW corrections by solving Bethe-Salpeter are in good agreement with the calculated electronic properties and the experimental result. (paper)

  3. Improved electrochemical performances of CuO nanotube array prepared via electrodeposition as anode for lithium ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Anguo, E-mail: hixiaoanguo@126.com; Zhou, Shibiao; Zuo, Chenggang; Zhuan, Yongbing; Ding, Xiang

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: CuO nanotube array electrodes prepared by electrodeposition method exhibit an excellent lithium ion storage ability as anode of Li-ion battery. - Highlights: • CuO nanotube arrays are synthesized by an electrodeposition method. • CuO nanotube shows a high-rate performance. • CuO nanotube shows an excellent cycling performance. - Abstract: We report a facile strategy to prepared CuO nanotube arrays directly grown on Cu plate through the electrodeposition method. The as-prepared CuO nanotubes show a quasi-cylinder nanostructure with internal diameters of ca. ∼100 nm, external diameters of ca. ∼120 nm, and average length of ∼3 μm. As an anode for lithium ion batteries, the electrochemical properties of the CuO nanotube arrays are investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge/discharge tests. Due to the unique nanotube nanostructure, the as-prepared CuO electrodes exhibit good rate performance (550 mAh g{sup −1} at 0.1 C and 464 mAh g{sup −1} at 1 C) and cycling performance (581 mAh g{sup −1} at 0.1 C and 538 mAh g{sup −1} at 0.5 C)

  4. Enhanced stability and dissolution of CuO nanoparticles by extracellular polymeric substances in aqueous environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao, Lingzhan; Wang, Chao; Hou, Jun; Wang, Peifang; Ao, Yanhui; Li, Yi; Lv, Bowen; Yang, Yangyang; You, Guoxiang; Xu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Stability of engineered nanoparticles in aquatic environment is an essential parameter to evaluate their fate, bioavailability, and potential toxic effects toward living organisms. As CuO NPs enter the wastewater systems, they will encounter extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from microbial community before directly interacting with bacterial cells. EPS may play an important role in affecting the stability and the toxicity of CuO NPs in aquatic environment. In this study, the influences of flocculent sludge-derived EPS, as well as model protein (BSA) and natural polysaccharides (alginate) on the dissolution kinetics and colloidal stability of CuO NPs were investigated. Results showed that the presence of NOMs strongly suppressed CuO NPs aggregation, confirmed by DLS, zeta potentials, and TEM analysis. The enhanced stability of CuO NPs in the presence of EPS and alginate were attributed to the electrostatic combined with steric repulsion, while the steric-hindrance effect may be the predominant mechanism retarding nano-CuO aggregation for BSA. Higher degrees of copper release were achieved with the increasing concentrations of NOMs. EPS are more effective than alginate and BSA in releasing copper, probably due to the abundant functional groups and the excellent metal-binding capacity. The ratio of free-Cu 2+ /total dissolved Cu significantly decreased in the presence of EPS, indicating that EPS may affect the speciation and Cu bioavailability in aqueous environment. These results may be important for assessing the fate and transport behaviors of CuO NPs in the environment as well as for setting up usage regulation and treatment strategy.

  5. Fabrication and textural characterization of nanoporous carbon electrodes embedded with CuO nanoparticles for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Kumaresa P S; Dhawale, Dattatray S; Ariga, Katsuhiko; Vinu, Ajayan [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), World Premier International (WPI) Research Center, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Sivakumar, Thiripuranthagan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Anna University, Gundy, Chennai 600025 (India); Aldeyab, Salem S [Department of Chemistry, Petrochemicals Research Chair, Faculty of Science, King Saud University, PO Box 2455 Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Zaidi, Javaid S M, E-mail: vinu.ajayan@nims.go.jp [Department of Chemical Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-08-15

    We introduce a novel strategy of fabricating nanoporous carbons loaded with different amounts of CuO nanoparticles via a hard templating approach, using copper-containing mesoporous silica as the template and sucrose as the carbon source. The nature and dispersion of the CuO nanoparticles on the surface of the nanoporous carbons were investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). XRD results reveal that nanoporous carbons with embedded CuO nanoparticles exhibit a well-ordered mesoporous structure, whereas the nitrogen adsorption measurements indicate the presence of excellent textural characteristics such as high surface area, large pore volume and uniform pore size distribution. The amount of CuO nanoparticles in the nanochannels of the nanoporous carbon could be controlled by simply varying the Si/Cu molar ratio of the mesoporous silica template. Morphological characterization by SEM and TEM reveals that high-quality CuO nanoparticles are distributed homogeneously within the nanoporous carbon framework. The supercapacitance behavior of the CuO-loaded nanoporous carbons was investigated. The material with a small amount of CuO in the mesochannels and high surface area affords a maximum specific capacitance of 300 F g{sup -1} at a 20 mV s{sup -1} scan rate in an aqueous electrolyte solution. A supercapacitor containing the CuO-loaded nanoporous carbon is highly stable and exhibits a long cycle life with 91% specific capacitance retained after 1000 cycles.

  6. Fabrication and textural characterization of nanoporous carbon electrodes embedded with CuO nanoparticles for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Kumaresa P. S.; Dhawale, Dattatray S.; Sivakumar, Thiripuranthagan; Aldeyab, Salem S.; Zaidi, Javaid S. M.; Ariga, Katsuhiko; Vinu, Ajayan

    2011-08-01

    We introduce a novel strategy of fabricating nanoporous carbons loaded with different amounts of CuO nanoparticles via a hard templating approach, using copper-containing mesoporous silica as the template and sucrose as the carbon source. The nature and dispersion of the CuO nanoparticles on the surface of the nanoporous carbons were investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). XRD results reveal that nanoporous carbons with embedded CuO nanoparticles exhibit a well-ordered mesoporous structure, whereas the nitrogen adsorption measurements indicate the presence of excellent textural characteristics such as high surface area, large pore volume and uniform pore size distribution. The amount of CuO nanoparticles in the nanochannels of the nanoporous carbon could be controlled by simply varying the Si/Cu molar ratio of the mesoporous silica template. Morphological characterization by SEM and TEM reveals that high-quality CuO nanoparticles are distributed homogeneously within the nanoporous carbon framework. The supercapacitance behavior of the CuO-loaded nanoporous carbons was investigated. The material with a small amount of CuO in the mesochannels and high surface area affords a maximum specific capacitance of 300 F g-1 at a 20 mV s-1 scan rate in an aqueous electrolyte solution. A supercapacitor containing the CuO-loaded nanoporous carbon is highly stable and exhibits a long cycle life with 91% specific capacitance retained after 1000 cycles.

  7. One-dimensional CuO nanowire: synthesis, electrical, and optoelectronic devices application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lin-Bao; Wang, Xian-He; Xie, Chao; Li, Zhong-Jun; Lu, Rui; Yang, Xiao-Bao; Lu, Jian

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we presented a surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT)-assisted approach to the synthesis of one-dimensional copper oxide nanowires (CuO NWs) for nanodevices applications. The as-prepared CuO NWs have diameter and the length of 50 ~ 200 nm and 5 ~ 20 μm, respectively, with a preferential growth orientation along [1 [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] 0] direction. Interestingly, nanofield-effect transistor (nanoFET) based on individual CuO NW exhibited typical p-type electrical conduction, with a hole mobility of 0.129 cm2V-1 s-1 and hole concentration of 1.34 × 1018 cm-3, respectively. According to first-principle calculations, such a p-type electrical conduction behavior was related to the oxygen vacancies in CuO NWs. What is more, the CuO NW device was sensitive to visible light illumination with peak sensitivity at 600 nm. The responsitivity, conductive gain, and detectivity are estimated to be 2.0 × 102 A W-1, 3.95 × 102 and 6.38 × 1011 cm Hz1/2 W-1, respectively, which are better than the devices composed of other materials. Further study showed that nanophotodetectors assembled on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate can work under different bending conditions with good reproducibility. The totality of the above results suggests that the present CuO NWs are potential building blocks for assembling high-performance optoelectronic devices.

  8. Fabrication and textural characterization of nanoporous carbon electrodes embedded with CuO nanoparticles for supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumaresa P S Prasad, Dattatray S Dhawale, Thiripuranthagan Sivakumar, Salem S Aldeyab, Javaid S M Zaidi, Katsuhiko Ariga and Ajayan Vinu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a novel strategy of fabricating nanoporous carbons loaded with different amounts of CuO nanoparticles via a hard templating approach, using copper-containing mesoporous silica as the template and sucrose as the carbon source. The nature and dispersion of the CuO nanoparticles on the surface of the nanoporous carbons were investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD, high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM. XRD results reveal that nanoporous carbons with embedded CuO nanoparticles exhibit a well-ordered mesoporous structure, whereas the nitrogen adsorption measurements indicate the presence of excellent textural characteristics such as high surface area, large pore volume and uniform pore size distribution. The amount of CuO nanoparticles in the nanochannels of the nanoporous carbon could be controlled by simply varying the Si/Cu molar ratio of the mesoporous silica template. Morphological characterization by SEM and TEM reveals that high-quality CuO nanoparticles are distributed homogeneously within the nanoporous carbon framework. The supercapacitance behavior of the CuO-loaded nanoporous carbons was investigated. The material with a small amount of CuO in the mesochannels and high surface area affords a maximum specific capacitance of 300 F g-1 at a 20 mV s-1 scan rate in an aqueous electrolyte solution. A supercapacitor containing the CuO-loaded nanoporous carbon is highly stable and exhibits a long cycle life with 91% specific capacitance retained after 1000 cycles.

  9. Enhanced stability and dissolution of CuO nanoparticles by extracellular polymeric substances in aqueous environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Lingzhan; Wang, Chao; Hou, Jun, E-mail: hhuhjyhj@126.com; Wang, Peifang; Ao, Yanhui; Li, Yi; Lv, Bowen; Yang, Yangyang; You, Guoxiang; Xu, Yi [Hohai University, Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resources Development on Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education (China)

    2015-10-15

    Stability of engineered nanoparticles in aquatic environment is an essential parameter to evaluate their fate, bioavailability, and potential toxic effects toward living organisms. As CuO NPs enter the wastewater systems, they will encounter extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from microbial community before directly interacting with bacterial cells. EPS may play an important role in affecting the stability and the toxicity of CuO NPs in aquatic environment. In this study, the influences of flocculent sludge-derived EPS, as well as model protein (BSA) and natural polysaccharides (alginate) on the dissolution kinetics and colloidal stability of CuO NPs were investigated. Results showed that the presence of NOMs strongly suppressed CuO NPs aggregation, confirmed by DLS, zeta potentials, and TEM analysis. The enhanced stability of CuO NPs in the presence of EPS and alginate were attributed to the electrostatic combined with steric repulsion, while the steric-hindrance effect may be the predominant mechanism retarding nano-CuO aggregation for BSA. Higher degrees of copper release were achieved with the increasing concentrations of NOMs. EPS are more effective than alginate and BSA in releasing copper, probably due to the abundant functional groups and the excellent metal-binding capacity. The ratio of free-Cu{sup 2+}/total dissolved Cu significantly decreased in the presence of EPS, indicating that EPS may affect the speciation and Cu bioavailability in aqueous environment. These results may be important for assessing the fate and transport behaviors of CuO NPs in the environment as well as for setting up usage regulation and treatment strategy.

  10. Holistic electronic response underlying the development of magnetism in co-doped diluted magnetic semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriotis, Antonis N.; Menon, Madhu

    2018-05-01

    A systematic analysis of the properties of codoped diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMSs) reveals the role and the effect of the codopants in dictating the magnetic features of the DMSs. Our results indicate that the magnetic features of a codoped DMS is the outcome of synergistic electronic processes of the whole system rather than a local hybridization process isolated from the rest of the system. Specifically, the d-orbital hybridization of the (co)dopants and the introduction of their impurity bands lead to the readjustment of the position of the p-band center of the host’s anions and that of the valence band maximum (VBM). The overall effect of these is to pull the hybridized d-bands of the (co)dopants relative to the Fermi energy, E F , which in turn dictate the value of the magnetic moment of both the dopant as well as the codopant. More precisely, the magnetic moment of a dopant shows an almost linearly increasing (decreasing) variation as the dopant’s d-band center (the latter dictated by the codopant) moves away from (gets closer to) E F . Our results thus suggest a completely new approach in the investigation and understanding of the origin of the defect induced magnetism and support previous reports suggesting the Fermi-energy engineering as a mean for developing high T C DMSs. These trends are demonstrated with results obtained for GaN, GaP, and CdS doped with one of the V, Mn, Co and Cu dopants and codoped with the transition metals of the 3d-series.

  11. doped ZnO thick film resistors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The characterization and ethanol gas sensing properties of pure and doped ZnO thick films were investigated. Thick films of pure zinc oxide were prepared by the screen printing technique. Pure zinc oxide was almost insensitive to ethanol. Thick films of Al2O3 (1 wt%) doped ZnO were observed to be highly sensitive to ...

  12. Low temperature synthesis of seed mediated CuO bundle of nanowires, their structural characterisation and cholesterol detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibupoto, Z.H., E-mail: zafar.hussin.ibupoto@liu.se [Department of Science and Technology, Linköping University, Campus Norrköping, SE-60174 Norrköping (Sweden); Khun, K. [Department of Science and Technology, Linköping University, Campus Norrköping, SE-60174 Norrköping (Sweden); Liu, X. [Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, 58183 Linköping Sweden (Sweden); Willander, M. [Department of Science and Technology, Linköping University, Campus Norrköping, SE-60174 Norrköping (Sweden)

    2013-10-15

    In this study, we have successfully synthesised CuO bundle of nanowires using simple, cheap and low temperature hydrothermal growth method. The growth parameters such as precursor concentration and time for duration of growth were optimised. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) has demonstrated that the CuO bundles of nanowires are highly dense, uniform and perpendicularly oriented to the substrate. The high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) has demonstrated that the CuO nanostructures consist of bundle of nanowires and their growth pattern is along the [010] direction. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique described that CuO bundle of nanowires possess the monoclinic crystal phase. The surface and chemical composition analyses were carried out with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) technique and the obtained results suggested the pure crystal state of CuO nanostructures. In addition, the CuO nanowires were used for the cholesterol sensing application by immobilising the cholesterol oxidase through electrostatic attraction. The infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy study has also revealed that CuO nanostructures are consisting of only Cu-O bonding and has also shown the possible interaction of cholesterol oxidase with the sharp edge surface of CuO bundle of nanowires. The proposed cholesterol sensor has demonstrated the wide range of detection of cholesterol with good sensitivity of 33.88 ± 0.96 mV/decade. Moreover, the CuO bundle of nanowires based sensor electrode has revealed good repeatability, reproducibility, stability, selectivity and a fast response time of less than 10 s. The cholesterol sensor based on the immobilised cholesterol oxidase has good potential applicability for the determination of cholesterol from the human serum and other biological samples. - Highlights: • This study describes the synthesis of bundle of CuO nanowires by hydrothermal method. • CuO nanostructures exhibit good alignment and

  13. Low temperature synthesis of seed mediated CuO bundle of nanowires, their structural characterisation and cholesterol detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibupoto, Z.H.; Khun, K.; Liu, X.; Willander, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we have successfully synthesised CuO bundle of nanowires using simple, cheap and low temperature hydrothermal growth method. The growth parameters such as precursor concentration and time for duration of growth were optimised. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) has demonstrated that the CuO bundles of nanowires are highly dense, uniform and perpendicularly oriented to the substrate. The high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) has demonstrated that the CuO nanostructures consist of bundle of nanowires and their growth pattern is along the [010] direction. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique described that CuO bundle of nanowires possess the monoclinic crystal phase. The surface and chemical composition analyses were carried out with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) technique and the obtained results suggested the pure crystal state of CuO nanostructures. In addition, the CuO nanowires were used for the cholesterol sensing application by immobilising the cholesterol oxidase through electrostatic attraction. The infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy study has also revealed that CuO nanostructures are consisting of only Cu-O bonding and has also shown the possible interaction of cholesterol oxidase with the sharp edge surface of CuO bundle of nanowires. The proposed cholesterol sensor has demonstrated the wide range of detection of cholesterol with good sensitivity of 33.88 ± 0.96 mV/decade. Moreover, the CuO bundle of nanowires based sensor electrode has revealed good repeatability, reproducibility, stability, selectivity and a fast response time of less than 10 s. The cholesterol sensor based on the immobilised cholesterol oxidase has good potential applicability for the determination of cholesterol from the human serum and other biological samples. - Highlights: • This study describes the synthesis of bundle of CuO nanowires by hydrothermal method. • CuO nanostructures exhibit good alignment and

  14. Facile synthesis of Fe-incorporated CuO nanoarrays with enhanced electrochemical performance for lithium ion full batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heng, Bojun [Institute of Nano-science and Technology, Central-China Normal University, Wuhan, 430079 (China); Department of Applied Physics, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430065 (China); Qing, Chen; Wang, Hai; Sun, Daming; Wang, Bixiao [Institute of Nano-science and Technology, Central-China Normal University, Wuhan, 430079 (China); Tang, Yiwen, E-mail: ywtang@phy.ccnu.edu.cn [Institute of Nano-science and Technology, Central-China Normal University, Wuhan, 430079 (China)

    2015-11-15

    CuO nanoarrays (CNAs) and Fe-incorporated CuO nanoarrays (FCNAs) were fabricated by hydrothermal method. Addition of Fe salt to the reaction mixture allowed the introduction of iron oxide onto the CNAs surface, which was characterized by XPS and HRTEM. Introducing Fe ion into reaction precursor significantly affected not only the morphologies of as-prepared products but also their electrochemical performance as anode for lithium ion full battery. The FCNAs electrodes showed higher specific capacity and better capacity retention at different current densities than that of CNAs. - Highlights: • Fe-incorporated CuO nanoarrays were fabricated by hydrothermal method. • Fe salt in reaction mixture leads to iron oxides forming on the surface of CuO. • Fe-incorporating improves the lithium ion battery performance of CuO anodes.

  15. Facile dicyandiamide-mediated fabrication of well-defined CuO hollow microspheres and their catalytic application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shengyang; Wang Caifeng; Chen Li; Chen Su

    2010-01-01

    Nearly monodisperse CuO hollow microspheres were successfully synthesized by a straightforward one-pot hydrothermal approach using dicyandiamide (DDA) as structure-guiding agent. The composition, structure and morphology of the products were investigated in detail, via a set of characterizations including X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results demonstrated that different copper sources and experimental procedures would significantly affect the shape or size of CuO products. A possible formation mechanism of CuO microspheres in this process was thoroughly discussed. Also, some other novel CuO microstructures were fabricated based on DDA-mediated synthetic route. DSC/TGA analysis revealed that as-prepared CuO microspheres can be explored as a promising additive to accelerate the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate, a key oxidizer in composite solid propellants.

  16. Enhanced bromate formation during chlorination of bromide-containing waters in the presence of CuO: Catalytic disproportionation of hypobromous acid

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Chao; von Gunten, Urs; Croue, Jean-Philippe

    2012-01-01

    of bromide-containing waters in the presence of cupric oxide (CuO). CuO was effective to catalyze hypochlorous acid (HOCl) or hypobromous acid (HOBr) decay (e.g., at least 104 times enhancement for HOBr at pH 8.6 by 0.2 g L-1 CuO). Significant halate

  17. Oxidative fabrication of patterned, large, non-flaking CuO nanowire arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumm, F; Sikorski, P

    2011-01-01

    We report a simple and fast approach to fabricate large, non-flaking arrays of CuO nanowires by oxidizing thin copper substrates in air. Oxidative CuO nanowire growth is commonly accompanied by oxide layer flaking due to stress at the copper-copper oxide interface. Using thin substrates is shown to prevent this flaking by introducing favourable material thickness ratios in the samples after oxidation. Additionally, thin foils allow larger scale topographic patterns to be transferred from an underlying mould to realize non-flat, nanowire-decorated surfaces. Further patterning is possible by electrodeposition of a nickel layer, which restricts nanowire growth to specific areas of the sample.

  18. Polymethacrylic acid as a new precursor of CuO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosny, Nasser Mohammed; Zoromba, Mohamed Shafick

    2012-11-01

    Polymethacrylic acid and its copper complexes have been synthesized and characterized. These complexes have been used as precursors to produce CuO nanoparticles by thermal decomposition in air. The stages of decompositions and the calcination temperature of the precursors have been determined from thermal analyses (TGA). The obtained CuO nanoparticles have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). XRD showed a monoclinic structure with particle size 8-20 nm for the synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles. These nanoparticles are catalytically active in decomposing hydrogen peroxide and a mechanism of decomposition has been suggested.

  19. First principles calculation of lithium-phosphorus co-doped diamond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q.Y. Shao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We calculate the density of states (DOS and the Mulliken population of the diamond and the co-doped diamonds with different concentrations of lithium (Li and phosphorus (P by the method of the density functional theory, and analyze the bonding situations of the Li-P co-doped diamond thin films and the impacts of the Li-P co-doping on the diamond conductivities. The results show that the Li-P atoms can promote the split of the diamond energy band near the Fermi level, and improve the electron conductivities of the Li-P co-doped diamond thin films, or even make the Li-P co-doped diamond from semiconductor to conductor. The affection of Li-P co-doping concentration on the orbital charge distributions, bond lengths and bond populations is analyzed. The Li atom may promote the split of the energy band near the Fermi level and also may favorably regulate the diamond lattice distortion and expansion caused by the P atom.

  20. Defect Engineering by Codoping in KCaI3 :Eu2 + Single-Crystalline Scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuntao; Li, Qi; Jones, Steven; Dun, Chaochao; Hu, Sheng; Zhuravleva, Mariya; Lindsey, Adam C.; Stand, Luis; Loyd, Matthew; Koschan, Merry; Auxier, John; Hall, Howard L.; Melcher, Charles L.

    2017-09-01

    Eu2 + -doped alkali or alkali earth iodide scintillators with energy resolutions ≤3 % at 662 keV promise the excellent discrimination ability for radioactive isotopes required for homeland-security and nuclear-nonproliferation applications. To extend their applications to x-ray imaging, such as computed tomography scans, the intense afterglow which delays the response time of such materials is an obstacle that needs to be overcome. However, a clear understanding of the origin of the afterglow and feasible solutions is still lacking. In this work, we present a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the physical insights of codoping-based defect engineering which can reduce the afterglow effectively in KCaI3:Eu2 + single-crystal scintillators. We illustrate that Sc3 + codoping greatly suppresses the afterglow, whereas Y3 + , Gd3 + , or La3 + codoping enhances the afterglow. Meanwhile, a light yield of 57 000 photons / MeV and an energy resolution of 3.4% at 662 keV can be maintained with the appropriate concentration of Sc3 + codoping, which makes the material promising for medical-imaging applications. Through our thermoluminescence techniques and density-functional-theory calculations, we are able to identify the defect structures and understand the mechanism by which codoping affects the scintillation performance of KCaI3:Eu2 + crystals. The proposed defect-engineering strategy is further validated by achieving afterglow suppression in Mg2 + codoped KCaI3:Eu2 + single crystals.

  1. Low temperature synthesis of seed mediated CuO bundle of nanowires, their structural characterisation and cholesterol detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibupoto, Z H; Khun, K; Liu, X; Willander, M

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we have successfully synthesised CuO bundle of nanowires using simple, cheap and low temperature hydrothermal growth method. The growth parameters such as precursor concentration and time for duration of growth were optimised. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) has demonstrated that the CuO bundles of nanowires are highly dense, uniform and perpendicularly oriented to the substrate. The high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) has demonstrated that the CuO nanostructures consist of bundle of nanowires and their growth pattern is along the [010] direction. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique described that CuO bundle of nanowires possess the monoclinic crystal phase. The surface and chemical composition analyses were carried out with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) technique and the obtained results suggested the pure crystal state of CuO nanostructures. In addition, the CuO nanowires were used for the cholesterol sensing application by immobilising the cholesterol oxidase through electrostatic attraction. The infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy study has also revealed that CuO nanostructures are consisting of only CuO bonding and has also shown the possible interaction of cholesterol oxidase with the sharp edge surface of CuO bundle of nanowires. The proposed cholesterol sensor has demonstrated the wide range of detection of cholesterol with good sensitivity of 33.88±0.96 mV/decade. Moreover, the CuO bundle of nanowires based sensor electrode has revealed good repeatability, reproducibility, stability, selectivity and a fast response time of less than 10s. The cholesterol sensor based on the immobilised cholesterol oxidase has good potential applicability for the determination of cholesterol from the human serum and other biological samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Outcome of temperature variation on sol-gel prepared CuO nanostructure properties (optical and dielectric)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibi, Maryam [Nano Synthesis Laboratory, Department of Physics, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Javed, Qurat-ul-Ain, E-mail: quratulain@sns.nust.edu.pk [Nano Synthesis Laboratory, Department of Physics, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Abbas, Hussain [Institute of Avionics & Aeronautics (IAA), Air University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Baqi, Sabah [Nano Synthesis Laboratory, Department of Physics, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2017-05-01

    The optical and dielectric properties of Copper Oxide (CuO) have made it a fascinating material to be used in solar energy harvesting, gas sensing, optoelectronics and catalytical applications. Focusing on the cost-effectiveness of Sol-gel method, it is employed for nanostructured CuO production. Effect of changing temperature is observed on the formation mechanism of CuO and its properties. The temperature range of 300 °C–500 °C was used in annealing of samples to produce defect free CuO nanomaterial. Prepared material was investigated using phase characterization (X-ray diffraction ‘XRD’) technique, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV–Visible absorption spectroscopy and LCR meter. A structural change in prepared CuO was observed from cluster formation to Nano-fibrils by increase in annealing temperature. 11.99 nm–29.17 nm crystallites of CuO were attained by using Debye Scherer formula. A large band gap of 3.15 eV was achieved by increasing the annealing temperature upto 400 °C. For better solar energy harvest, wide band gapped CuO structures are proved to be functional and practical materials. The fabricated CuO nanostructures were found suitable to be used in devices for stabilizing circuit designs for sensitive appliances as well as micro electromechanical systems (mems). - Highlights: • CuO was synthesized by using sol gel method post growth annealing process. • XRD and SEM characterizations confirm the successful synthesis of CuO. • Change in morphology was observed with varying annealing temperature. • Improved optical and dielectric properties were observed.

  3. Chamomile flower extract-directed CuO nanoparticle formation for its antioxidant and DNA cleavage properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duman, Fatih, E-mail: fduman@erciyes.edu.tr [Erciyes University, Science Faculty, Biology Department, Kayseri 38039, Kayseri (Turkey); Ocsoy, Ismail [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Erciyes University, 38039, Kayseri (Turkey); Erciyes University, Nanotechnology Research Center, 38039, Kayseri (Turkey); Kup, Fatma Ozturk [Erciyes University, Science Faculty, Biology Department, Kayseri 38039, Kayseri (Turkey)

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we report the synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) using a medicinal plant (Matricaria chamomilla) flower extract as both reducing and capping agent and investigate their antioxidant activity and interaction with plasmid DNA (pBR322).The CuO NPs were characterized using Uv–Vis spectroscopy, FT-IR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), DLS (dynamic light scattering), XRD (X-ray diffraction), EDX (energy-dispersive X-ray) spectroscopy and SEM (scanning electron microscopy). The CuO NPs exhibited nearly mono-distributed and spherical shapes with diameters of 140 nm size. UV–Vis absorption spectrum of CuO NPs gave a broad peak around 285 and 320 nm. The existence of functional groups on the surface of CuO NPs was characterized with FT-IR analysis. XRD pattern showed that the NPs are in the form of a face-centered cubic crystal. Zeta potential value was measured as − 20 mV due to the presence of negatively charged functional groups in plant extract. Additionally, we demonstrated concentration-dependent antioxidant activity of CuO NPs and their interaction with plasmid DNA. We assumed that the CuO NPs both cleave and break DNA double helix structure. - Highlights: • The synthesis of microwave assisted green synthesis of CuO nanoparticles • The synthesized nanoparticles were analyzed by FT-IR, DLS, XRD, EDX and SEM. • Concentration-dependent antioxidant activity of CuO NPs was determined. • CuO NPs cause both cleavage in the DNA double helix structure and breaks as well.

  4. Thermally and optically stimulated radiative processes in Eu and Y co-doped LiCaAlF6 crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Kentaro; Yanagida, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Yttrium co-doping was attempted to enhance dosimeter performance of Eu doped LiCaAlF 6 crystal. Eu doped and Eu, Y co-doped LiCaAlF 6 were prepared by the micro-pulling-down technique, and their dosimeter characteristics such as optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) were investigated. By yttrium co-doping, emission intensities of OSL and TSL were enhanced by some orders of magnitude. In contrast, scintillation characteristics of yttrium co-doped crystal such as intensity of prompt luminescence induced by X-ray and light yield under neutron irradiation were degraded

  5. Fluorine and sulfur simultaneously co-doped suspended graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struzzi, C.; Sezen, H.; Amati, M.; Gregoratti, L.; Reckinger, N.; Colomer, J.-F.; Snyders, R.; Bittencourt, C.; Scardamaglia, M.

    2017-11-01

    Suspended graphene flakes are exposed simultaneously to fluorine and sulfur ions produced by the μ-wave plasma discharge of the SF6 precursor gas. The microscopic and spectroscopic analyses, performed by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and photoelectron spectromicroscopy, show the homogeneity in functionalization yield over the graphene flakes with F and S atoms covalently bonded to the carbon lattice. This promising surface shows potential for several applications ranging from biomolecule immobilization to lithium battery and hydrogen storage devices. The present co-doping process is an optimal strategy to engineer the graphene surface with a concurrent hydrophobic character, thanks to the fluorine atoms, and a high affinity with metal nanoparticles due to the presence of sulfur atoms.

  6. Co-doped phosphorene: Enhanced sensitivity of CO gas sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, S. Y.; Luan, S.; Yu, H.

    2018-03-01

    First-principle calculation was carried out to systematically investigate carbon monoxide (CO) adsorption on pristine and cobalt (Co)-doped phosphorenes (Co-bP). Whether or not CO is adsorped, pristine phosphorene is a direct-band-gap semiconductor. However, the bandgap of Co-bP experiences direct-to-indirect transition after CO molecule adsorption, which will affect optical absorption considerably, implying that Co doping can enhance the sensitivity of phosphorene as a CO gas sensor. Moreover, Co doping can improve an adsorption energy of CO to 1.31 eV, as compared with pristine phosphorene (0.12 eV), also indicating that Co-bP is energetically favorable for CO gas sensing.

  7. The origin of room temperature ferromagnetism mediated by Co–VZn complexes in the ZnO grain boundary

    KAUST Repository

    Devi, Assa Aravindh Sasikala

    2016-05-20

    Ferromagnetism in polycrystalline ZnO doped with Co has been observed to be sustainable in recent experiments. We use first-principle calculations to show that Co impurities favorably substitute at the grain boundary (GB) rather than in the bulk. We reveal that room-temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) at the Co-doped ZnO GB in the presence of Zn vacancies is due to ferromagnetic exchange coupling of a pair of closely associated Co atoms in the GB, with a ferromagnetic exchange coupling energy of ∼300 meV, which is in contrast to a previous study that suggested the O vacancy-Co complex induced ferromagnetism. Electronic structure analysis was used to predict the exchange coupling mechanism, showing that the hybridization of O p states with Co and Zn d states enhances the magnetic polarization originating from the GB. Our results indicate that RTFM originates from Co clusters at interfaces or in GBs. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  8. Pressure controlled tunable magnetic, electrical and optical properties of (Cu, Li)-codoped ZnO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liqiang; Lu, Bin; Ye, Zhizhen; Lu, Jianguo; Huang, Jingyun

    2013-09-01

    Zn0.989Cu0.01Li0.001O thin films have been deposited on c-plane sapphire substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The films deposited at 500 °C and the oxygen pressures (PO2) ranging from 0.04 to 40 Pa were of good crystallinity with a (0002) preferential orientation. Three conductivity regimes were observed for the films with varying the PO2. The n-type film obtained at 0.04 Pa had a low resistivity of 1.95×10-2 Ω cm, Hall mobility of 14.8 cm2 V-1 s-1, and carrier concentration of 2.16×1019 cm-3. The p-type Zn0.989Cu0.01Li0.001O film could achieve when oxygen ambient reached as high as 40 Pa and with a hole concentration of 1.12×1018 cm-3. Films grown at PO2 between 0.4 and 4 Pa commonly exhibited insulating behavior. All the Zn0.989Cu0.01Li0.001O films had a high transmittance above 80% in visible regions and the red-shift in optical band gap (Eg) happened as the PO2 increased. Magnetic measurements showed that only the film fabricated at 0.04 Pa with n-type conduction exhibited room temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) of 0.25μB/Cu while others obtained at higher PO2 were paramagnetic. Oxygen vacancies (VO) are speculated that would play a crucial role for the ferromagnetic behavior observed.

  9. Magnetic fluctuations in La1.95Ba0.05CuO4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayden, S.M.; Aeppli, G.; Mook, H.

    1991-01-01

    Neutron-scattering and resistivity experiments on single crystals of La1.95Ba0.05CuO4 are described. On warming to as high as 250 K, the correlation length does not change, and the temperature dependence of the generalized susceptibility chi(Q, omega) is due solely to the temperature dependence o...

  10. Photocatalytic generation of hydrogen under visible light on La2CuO4

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Laboratory of Storage and Valorization of Renewable Energies, Faculty of Chemistry (USTHB),. B.P. 32, 16111 ... The energy diagram shows the feasibility of La2CuO4 for the H2 evolution under visible light. The best ... An efficient photocata-.

  11. Synthesis of chrysalis-like CuO nanocrystals and their catalytic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    activity in the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate. JUN WANG a,b,. *, SHANSHAN HE ... analyzer at a heating rate of 10°C min. –1 from 35 to 500°C. ... ent reaction temperature, CuO nanocrystals were pre- pared to show different ...

  12. Magnetic and dielectric studies of multiferroic CuO nanoparticles confined to porous glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charnaya, E.V.; Lee, M.K.; Tien, C.; Pak, V.N.; Formus, D.V.; Pirozerskii, A.L.; Nedbai, A.I.; Ubyivovk, E.V.; Baryshnikov, S.V.; Chang, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    Dc magnetization and ac electric permittivity were measured for the CuO-porous glass nanocomposite made and for pressed powder CuO. Magnetization curves showed a bend between two linear segments for both the nanocomposite and bulk cupric oxide at 230 K evidencing that the temperature of the transition from the paramagnetic into multiferroic phase did not change noticeably under nanoconfinement. Results suggested also a reduction of the temperature of the second transition into the collinear antiferromagnetic phase. ZFC and FC magnetizations were found to bifurcate for the nanocomposite and bulk CuO. The bifurcation was accompanied with peaks on ZFC magnetization. - Highlights: ► CuO nanoparticles embedded into porous glass compared to bulk. ► ZFC and FC magnetizations bifurcate in the nanocomposite and bulk CuO. ► Dc magnetization suggests a reduction of the temperature T N1 till about 190 K. ► Temperature T N2 of the transition into multiferroic phase did not change.

  13. Theory of phonon properties in doped and undoped CuO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahoosh, S.G. [Institute of Physics, Martin-Luther-University, D-06099 Halle (Germany); Apostolov, A.T. [University of Architecture, Civil Engineering and Geodesy Faculty of Hydrotechnics, Department of Physics, 1, Hristo Smirnenski Blvd., 1046 Sofia (Bulgaria); Apostolova, I.N. [University of Forestry, Faculty of Forest Industry, 10, Kl. Ohridsky Blvd., 1756 Sofia (Bulgaria); Wesselinowa, J.M., E-mail: julia@phys.uni-sofia.bg [University of Sofia, Department of Physics, 5 J. Bouchier Blvd., 1164 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2012-07-02

    We have studied the phonon properties of CuO nanoparticles and have shown the importance of the anharmonic spin–phonon interaction. The Raman peaks of CuO nanoparticles shift to lower frequency and become broader as the particle size decreases in comparison with those of bulk CuO crystals owing to size effects. By doping with different ions, in dependence of their radius compared to the host ionic radius the phonon energies ω could be reduced or enhanced. The phonon damping is always enhanced through the ion doping effects. -- Highlights: ► The phonon properties of CuO nanoparticles are studied using a miscroscopic model. ► The phonon energy decreases whereas the damping increases with decreasing of particle size. ► It is shown the importance of the anharmonic spin–phonon interaction. ► By doping with RE-ions the phonon energy is reduced, whereas with TM-ions it is enhanced. ► The phonon damping is always enhanced through the ion doping effects.

  14. Room temperature ferromagnetism in Fe-doped CuO nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layek, Samar; Verma, H C

    2013-03-01

    The pure and Fe-doped CuO nanoparticles of the series Cu(1-x)Fe(x)O (x = 0.00, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08) were successfully prepared by a simple low temperature sol-gel method using metal nitrates and citric acid. Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction data showed that all the samples were single phase crystallized in monoclinic structure of space group C2/c with average crystallite size of about 25 nm and unit cell volume decreases with increasing iron doping concentration. TEM micrograph showed nearly spherical shaped agglomerated particles of 4% Fe-doped CuO with average diameter 26 nm. Pure CuO showed weak ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature with coercive field of 67 Oe. The ferromagnetic properties were greatly enhanced with Fe-doping in the CuO matrix. All the doped samples showed ferromagnetism at room temperature with a noticeable coercive field. Saturation magnetization increases with increasing Fe-doping, becomes highest for 4% doping then decreases for further doping which confirms that the ferromagnetism in these nanoparticles are intrinsic and are not resulting from any impurity phases. The ZFC and FC branches of the temperature dependent magnetization (measured in the range of 10-350 K by SQUID magnetometer) look like typical ferromagnetic nanoparticles and indicates that the ferromagnetic Curie temperature is above 350 K.

  15. Effect of CuO addition on structure and electrical properties of low ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 36; Issue 5. Effect of CuO addition on structure and electrical properties of low temperature sintered quaternary piezoelectric ceramics. Jianhua Li ... Keywords. Sintering; microstructure-final; piezoelectric properties; perovskites; Jahn–Teller effect.

  16. Legionella pneumophila transcriptional response following exposure to CuO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copper ions are an effective antimicrobial agent used to control Legionnaires’ disease and Pontiac fever arising from institutional drinking water systems. Here we present data on an alternative bactericidal agent, CuO nanoparticles (CuO-NPs), and test its efficacy at three conce...

  17. Porous SnO2-CuO nanotubes for highly reversible lithium storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Jun Young; Kim, Chanhoon; Jung, Ji-Won; Yoon, Ki Ro; Kim, Il-Doo

    2018-01-01

    Facile synthesis of rationally designed structures is critical to realize a high performance electrode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Among different candidates, tin(IV) oxide (SnO2) is one of the most actively researched electrode materials due to its high theoretical capacity (1493 mAh g-1), abundance, inexpensive costs, and environmental friendliness. However, severe capacity decay from the volume expansion and low conductivity of SnO2 have hampered its use as a feasible electrode for LIBs. Rationally designed SnO2-based nanostructures with conductive materials can be an ideal solution to resolve such limitations. In this work, we have successfully fabricated porous SnO2-CuO composite nanotubes (SnO2-CuO p-NTs) by electrospinning and subsequent calcination step. The porous nanotubular structure is expected to mitigate the volume expansion of SnO2, while the as-formed Cu from CuO upon lithiation allows faster electron transport by improving the low conductivity of SnO2. With a synergistic effect of both Sn and Cu-based oxides, SnO2-CuO p-NTs deliver stable cycling performance (91.3% of capacity retention, ∼538 mAh g-1) even after 350 cycles at a current density of 500 mA g-1, along with enhanced rate capabilities compared with SnO2.

  18. Ceramic Composites of 3Y-TZP Doped with CuO: Processing, Microstructure and Tribology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ran, S.

    2006-01-01

    The work described in this thesis is about processing, microstructure and tribology of CuO doped 3Y-TZP (3 mol% yttria stabilised tetragonal zirconia polycrystals) composite ceramics. This group of materials has shown attractive properties such as superplastic behaviour at elevated temperature and a

  19. Giant Cu 2p Resonances in CuO Valence-Band Photoemission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjeng, L.H.; Chen, C.T.; Ghijsen, J.; Rudolf, P.; Sette, F.

    1991-01-01

    We report the observation of a giant resonance in the Cu 2p resonant-photoemission spectra of CuO. The study allows the unambiguous identification of the local Cu 3d8 configuration in the valence-band photoemission spectrum, providing conclusive evidence for the charge-transfer nature of the

  20. CuO nanorods/graphene nanocomposites for high-performance lithium-ion battery anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qi; Zhao, Jun; Shan, Wanfei; Xia, Xinbei; Xing, Lili; Xue, Xinyu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • CuO/GNS nanocomposites are synthesized by a hydrothermal method. • CuO/GNSs as LIB anodes exhibit much higher cyclability and capacity than CuO nanostructures. • Such excellent performances can be attributed to the synergistic effect between CuO and GNSs. -- Abstract: CuO/graphene nanocomposites are synthesized by a hydrothermal method, and their application as anodes of lithium-ion batteries has been investigated. CuO nanorods are uniformly coating on the surface of graphene nanosheets. CuO/graphene nanocomposites exhibit high cyclability and capacity. After 50 cycles, the capacity can maintain at 692.5 mA h g −1 at 0.1 C rate (10 h per half cycle). Such a high performance can be attributed to the synergistic effect between graphene nanosheets and CuO nanorods. The present results indicate that CuO/graphene nanocomposites have potential applications in the anodes of lithium-ion battery

  1. Excellent field emission properties of vertically oriented CuO nanowire films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Feng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Oriented CuO nanowire films were synthesized on a large scale using simple method of direct heating copper grids in air. The field emission properties of the sample can be enhanced by improving the aspect ratio of the nanowires just through a facile method of controlling the synthesis conditions. Although the density of the nanowires is large enough, the screen effect is not an important factor in this field emission process because few nanowires sticking out above the rest. Benefiting from the unique geometrical and structural features, the CuO nanowire samples show excellent field emission (FE properties. The FE measurements of CuO nanowire films illustrate that the sample synthesized at 500 °C for 8 h has a comparatively low turn-on field of 0.68 V/μm, a low threshold field of 1.1 V/μm, and a large field enhancement factor β of 16782 (a record high value for CuO nanostructures, to the best of our knowledge, indicating that the samples are promising candidates for field emission applications.

  2. Characterization and gas sensing properties of CuO synthesized by DC directly applying voltage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinbumrung, Arrak [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thongtem, Titipun [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Materials Science Research Center, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thongtem, Somchai, E-mail: schthongtem@yahoo.com [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Materials Science Research Center, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • CuO as a p-type semiconductor. • It was synthesized by directly applying voltage. • A promising material for ammonia detection. - Abstract: CuO microstructure was successfully synthesized by 50 A and 3.6 V DC directly applying voltage. Crystalline structure was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), morphology by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM). The sample of the 15 min processing time has an irregular shape with diameter about several hundreds of nanometer. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) absorption spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) were used to determine vibrational modes and optical properties of the as-synthesized samples: 529 and 585 cm{sup −1} vibrational modes, 3.95 eV band gap, and 402 nm emitting wavelength in violet region of CuO. X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopy was used to determine chemical composition, Cu(II)O, of the metal oxide surface. Gas sensing performance exposing to NH{sub 3} mixed with air at various working temperatures and NH{sub 3} concentrations of the as-synthesized CuO has the best response at the optimal working temperature of 250 °C: sensitivity of 56.6% exposed to 5275 ppm NH{sub 3}.

  3. Characterization and gas sensing properties of CuO synthesized by DC directly applying voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinbumrung, Arrak; Thongtem, Titipun; Thongtem, Somchai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • CuO as a p-type semiconductor. • It was synthesized by directly applying voltage. • A promising material for ammonia detection. - Abstract: CuO microstructure was successfully synthesized by 50 A and 3.6 V DC directly applying voltage. Crystalline structure was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), morphology by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM). The sample of the 15 min processing time has an irregular shape with diameter about several hundreds of nanometer. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) absorption spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) were used to determine vibrational modes and optical properties of the as-synthesized samples: 529 and 585 cm −1 vibrational modes, 3.95 eV band gap, and 402 nm emitting wavelength in violet region of CuO. X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopy was used to determine chemical composition, Cu(II)O, of the metal oxide surface. Gas sensing performance exposing to NH 3 mixed with air at various working temperatures and NH 3 concentrations of the as-synthesized CuO has the best response at the optimal working temperature of 250 °C: sensitivity of 56.6% exposed to 5275 ppm NH 3

  4. Archetypal sandwich-structured CuO for high performance non-enzymatic sensing of glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meher, Sumanta Kumar; Rao, G. Ranga

    2013-02-01

    In the quest to enhance the selectivity and sensitivity of novel structured metal oxides for electrochemical non-enzymatic sensing of glucose, we report here a green synthesis of unique sandwich-structured CuO on a large scale under microwave mediated homogeneous precipitation conditions. The physicochemical studies carried out by XRD and BET methods show that the monoclinic CuO formed via thermal decomposition of Cu2(OH)2CO3 possesses monomodal channel-type pores with largely improved surface area (~43 m2 g-1) and pore volume (0.163 cm3 g-1). The fascinating surface morphology and pore structure of CuO is formulated due to homogeneous crystallization and microwave induced self assembly during synthesis. The cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry studies show diffusion controlled glucose oxidation at ~0.6 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) with extremely high sensitivity of 5342.8 μA mM-1 cm-2 and respective detection limit and response time of ~1 μM and ~0.7 s, under a wide dynamic concentration range of glucose. The chronoamperometry measurements demonstrate that the sensitivity of CuO to glucose is unaffected by the absence of dissolved oxygen and presence of poisoning chloride ions in the reaction medium, which essentially implies high poison resistance activity of the sandwich-structured CuO. The sandwich-structured CuO also shows insignificant interference/significant selectivity to glucose, even in the presence of high concentrations of other sugars as well as reducing species. In addition, the sandwich-structured CuO shows excellent reproducibility (relative standard deviation of ~2.4% over ten identically fabricated electrodes) and outstanding long term stability (only ~1.3% loss in sensitivity over a period of one month) during non-enzymatic electrochemical sensing of glucose. The unique microstructure and suitable channel-type pore architecture provide structural stability and maximum accessible electroactive surface for unimpeded mobility of glucose as well as the

  5. Low-frequency noise characterization of single CuO nanowire gas sensor devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinhauer, S.; Köck, A.; Gspan, C.; Grogger, W.; Vandamme, L.K.J.; Pogany, D.

    2015-01-01

    Low-frequency noise properties of single CuO nanowire devices were investigated under gas sensor operation conditions in dry and humid synthetic air at 350¿°C. A 1/f noise spectrum was found with the normalized power spectral density of current fluctuations typically a factor of 2 higher for humid

  6. Spectral characterization of mechanically synthesized MoO3-CuO nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundeep, Dola; Gopala Krishna, A.; Ravikumar, R. V. S. S. N.; Vijaya Kumar, T.; Daniel Ephraim, S.; Pavan, Y. L.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, MoO3-CuO metal oxide composite nanopowders are prepared by simple mechanochemical assisted synthesis technique with the stoichiometric weight ratios of MoO3 and CuO as 2.3:1 and 3.3:1, respectively. The structural and spectroscopic properties of the as-synthesised samples are characterised by XRD, SEM with EDS, FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy and TGA/DTA. X-ray diffraction pattern demonstrates the peaks correspond to orthorhombic phase of α-MoO3 and monoclinic phase of β-CuO. The average crystalline sizes of the 2.3:1 and 3.3:1 samples were found to be 16 and 24 nm, respectively, which are supported by Williamson-Hall (W-H) calculations. The correlations between the milling rotational speeds with morphological characteristics are revealed by the SEM images. The fundamental modes of Mo=O and Cu-O were analysed by FT-IR. Raman analysis has provided the qualitative information about the structure of the mixed oxide composite. Thermogravimetry analysis and Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) of MoO3-CuO have revealed that the dual phase mixed oxide composite is stable up to 709 °C with a negligible weight loss. Based on the above, it can be inferred that the synthesised mixed lubricous oxide nanocomposite could be used as a solid lubricant at elevated temperatures.

  7. Novel β-C3N4/CuO nanoflakes: facile synthesis and unique photocatalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Lan-Rong; Huang, Gui-Fang; Li, Dong-Feng; Tian, Qing-Nan; Yang, Ke; Si, Yuan; Chang, Shengli; Zhang, Xue-Ao; Huang, Wei-Qing

    2017-09-01

    For the first time, novel β-C3N4/CuO composites with superior photocatalytic activity are successfully fabricated via a facile reflux method followed by a thermal process. The morphologies, particle size and microstructure of the synthesized β-C3N4/CuO composites largely depended upon copper chloride and the volume ratio of V water:V ethanol in the mixed precursors. The fabricated β-C3N4/CuO nanoflakes exhibited obviously enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) with an  ˜3.4 and 1.9 fold increase in efficiency over that of pure g-C3N4 and commercial P25, respectively. The β-C3N4/CuO composite photocatalyst also showed photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methyl orange (MO). Moreover, the β-C3N4/CuO nanoflakes showed almost no loss of photocatalytic activity after three recycles of the degradation of the MB. A multiple synergetic mechanism in β-C3N4/CuO nanoflakes, which is featured by the highly reactive {0 0 2} facets, exposed many active sites of nanoflakes and the efficient charge separation are proposed to account for the distinguished photocatalytic activity. This work provides a facile and cost-effective strategy for designing novel β-C3N4/CuO photocatalysts for application in environmental purification.

  8. Use of Vegetable Waste Extracts for Controlling Microstructure of CuO Nanoparticles: Green Synthesis, Characterization, and Photocatalytic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hameed Ullah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical syntheses involve either hazardous reactants or byproducts which adversely affect the environment. It is, therefore, desirable to develop synthesis processes which either do not involve hazardous reactants or consume all the reactants giving no byproducts. We have synthesized CuO nanoparticles (NPs adhering to some of the principles of green chemistry. The CuO NPs have been synthesized exploiting extracts of vegetable wastes, that is, Cauliflower waste and Potatoes and Peas peels. The extracts were aimed to work as capping agents to get control over the microstructure and morphology of the resulting CuO NPs. The green synthesized CuO NPs were characterized to explore the microstructure, morphology, optical bandgaps, and photocatalytic performances. XRD revealed that the CuO NPs of all the samples crystallized in a single crystal system, that is, monoclinic. However, the morphologies and the optical bandgaps energies varied as a function of the extract of vegetable waste. Similarly, the CuO NPs obtained through different extracts have shown different photocatalytic activities. The CuO NPs produced with extract of Cauliflower have shown high degradation of MB (96.28% compared to obtained with Potatoes peels (87.37% and Peas peels (79.11%.

  9. ZnO nanocrystals and allied materials

    CERN Document Server

    Okada, Tatsuo

    2014-01-01

    ZnO has been the central theme of research in the past decade due to its various applications in band gap engineering, and textile and biomedical industries. In nanostructured form, it offers ample opportunities to realize tunable optical and optoelectronic properties and it was also termed as a potential material to realize room temperature ferromagnetism. This book presents 17 high-quality contributory chapters on ZnO related systems written by experts in this field. These chapters will help researchers to understand and explore the varied physical properties to envisage device applications of ZnO in thin film, heterostructure and nanostructure forms.

  10. Catalyst growth of single crystal aligned ZnO nanorods on ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Dongxu; Andreazza, Caroline; Andreazza, Pascal [Centre de Recherche sur la Matiere Divisee, CNRS-Universite d' Orleans, 1b rue de la Ferollerie, 45071 Orleans cedex 2 (France)

    2005-02-01

    One dimensional ZnO nanorods were successfully fabricated on Si substrates via a simple physical vapor-phase transport method at 950 C. A ZnO shell covered Au/Zn alloy is assumed as the nucleation site, then ZnO nanorods grow following a vapor-solid (VS) process. In order to guide the nanorod growth a c-axis oriented ZnO thin film and Au catalyst were first deposited on Si (100) surface. SEM images show nanorods grown on this substrate are vertical to the substrate surface. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Activated carbon-supported CuO nanoparticles: a hybrid material for carbon dioxide adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boruban, Cansu; Esenturk, Emren Nalbant

    2018-03-01

    Activated carbon-supported copper(II) oxide (CuO) nanoparticles were synthesized by simple impregnation method to improve carbon dioxide (CO2) adsorption capacity of the support. The structural and chemical properties of the hybrid material were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray diffraction (https://www.google.com.tr/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=3&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CCsQFjAC&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.intertek.com%2Fanalytical-laboratories%2Fxrd%2F&ei=-5WZVYSCHISz7Aatqq-IAw&usg=AFQjCNFBlk-9wqy49foh8tskmbD-GGbG9g&sig2=eKrhYjO75rl_Id2sLGpq4w&bvm=bv.96952980,d.bGg) (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analyses. The analyses showed that CuO nanoparticles are well-distributed on the activated carbon surface. The CO2 adsorption behavior of the activated carbon-supported CuO nanoparticles was observed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), temperature programmed desorption (TPD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and BET analyses. The results showed that CuO nanoparticle loading on activated carbon led to about 70% increase in CO2 adsorption capacity of activated carbon under standard conditions (1 atm and 298 K). The main contributor to the observed increase is an improvement in chemical adsorption of CO2 due to the presence of CuO nanoparticles on activated carbon.

  12. Electrochemical properties of CuO hollow nanopowders prepared from formless Cu–C composite via nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Jong Min [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Anam-Dong, Seongbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Hwa [Daegu Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, 80 Daehakro Bukgu, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yun Ju [Suncheon Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, Suncheon 540-742 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jung Sang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Anam-Dong, Seongbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Yun Chan, E-mail: yckang@korea.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Anam-Dong, Seongbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-25

    Hollow CuO nanopowders are prepared using a simple spray drying process that relied on nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion; these nanopowders have potential applications in lithium-ion batteries. Citric acid is used as both the carbon source material and chelating agent and plays a key role in the preparation of the hollow nanopowders. The formless Cu–C composite that formed as an intermediate product transforms into slightly aggregated CuO hollow nanopowders after post-treatment at 300 and 400 °C under an air atmosphere. The CuO hollow nanopowders exhibit higher initial discharge capacities and better cycling performances than those of the filled-structured CuO nanopowders, which are prepared at a post-treatment temperature of 500 °C under an air atmosphere. The discharge capacities of the CuO nanopowders post-treated at 300, 400, and 500 °C for the 150{sup th} cycle at a current density of 1 A g{sup −1} are 793, 632, and 464 mA h g{sup −1}, respectively, and their capacity retentions calculated from the maximum discharge capacities are 88, 80, and 73%, respectively. The CuO nanopowders with hollow structures exhibit better structural stability for repeated lithium insertion and desertion processes than those with filled structures. - Highlights: • Hollow CuO nanopowders are prepared using a simple spray drying process. • Cu–C composite transforms into CuO hollow nanopowders by Kirkendall diffusion. • Hollow CuO nanopowders show good electrochemical properties for lithium-ion storage.

  13. Surface accumulation conduction controlled sensing characteristic of p-type CuO nanorods induced by oxygen adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C; Fu, X Q; Xue, X Y; Wang, Y G; Wang, T H

    2007-01-01

    P-type CuO nanorods were synthesized by a hydrothermal method and the ethanol-sensing properties of sensors based on CuO were investigated. The sensor resistance increased when it was exposed to ethanol and decreased in the air, which is contrary to the case for sensors realized from n-type semiconductor. The resistance of the CuO-based sensor was about 2 kΩ in air and 6 kΩ in ethanol vapour with concentration of 2000 ppm. Such a sensing property is attributed to surface accumulation conduction. Sensors based on CuO nanorods have potential applications in detecting ethanol in low concentration

  14. Spectroscopic properties of Er3+/Yb3+ Co-doped zinc boro-tellurite glasses for 1.5 xB5m broadband optical amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthanthirakumar, P.; Karthikeyan, P.; Vijayakumar, R.; Marimuthu, K.

    2015-06-01

    A new series of Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped Zinc boro-tellurite glasses with the chemical composition (40-x-y)B2O3+ 25TeO2+20ZnO+15BaO+xYb2O3+yEr2O3 (where x = 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 3; y =1 in wt %) were prepared by melt quenching technique and their spectroscopic behavior were studied through UV-Vis-NIR absorption and NIR luminescence measurements. The bonding parameters (β ¯ and δ) and Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters Ωλ (λ=2, 4 and 6) have been calculated from the band positions of the absorption spectra. A broad near-infrared emission band at 1540 nm with a full width at half maximum around 80 nm was observed from the NIR luminescence spectra by monitoring an excitation at 980 nm. The absorption cross-section and emission cross-section for the4I13/2→4I15/2 transition of the Er3+ ions were also determined using McCumber theory and the results were discussed and reported.

  15. Indium-Nitrogen Codoped Zinc Oxide Thin Film Deposited by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis on n-(111 Si Substrate: The Effect of Film Thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chang Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indium-nitrogen codoped zinc oxide (INZO thin films were fabricated by spray pyrolysis deposition technique on n-(111 Si substrate with different film thicknesses at 450°C using a precursor containing zinc acetate, ammonium acetate, and indium nitrate with 1 : 3 : 0.05 at.% concentration. The morphology and structure studies were carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The grain size of the films increased when increasing the film thickness. From XRD spectra, polycrystalline ZnO structure can be observed and the preferred orientation behavior varied from (002 to (101 as the film thickness increased. The concentration and mobility were investigated by Hall effect measurement. the p-type films with a hole mobility around 3 cm2V−1s−1 and hole concentration around 3×1019 cm−3 can be achieved with film thickness less than 385 nm. The n-type conduction with concentration 1×1020 cm−3 is observed for film with thickness 1089 nm. The defect states were characterized by photoluminescence. With temperature-dependent conductivity analysis, acceptor state with activation energy 0.139 eV dominate the p type conduction for thin INZO film. And the Zn-related shallow donors with activation energy 0.029 eV dominate the n-type conduction for the thick INZO film.

  16. Spectral features and antibacterial properties of Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles prepared by sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alireza, Samavati; A, F. Ismail; Hadi, Nur; Z, Othaman; M, K. Mustafa

    2016-07-01

    Zn1-x Cu x O (x = 0.00, 0.01, 0.03, and 0.05) nanoparticles are synthesized via the sol-gel technique using gelatin and nitrate precursors. The impact of copper concentration on the structural, optical, and antibacterial properties of these nanoparticles is demonstrated. Powder x-ray diffraction investigations have illustrated the organized Cu doping into ZnO nanoparticles up to Cu concentration of 5% (x = 0.05). However, the peak corresponding to CuO for x = 0.01 is not distinguishable. The images of field emission scanning electron microscopy demonstrate the existence of a nearly spherical shape with a size in the range of 30-52 nm. Doping Cu creates the Cu-O-Zn on the surface and results in a decrease in the crystallite size. Photoluminescence and absorption spectra display that doping Cu causes an increment in the energy band gap. The antibacterial activities of the nanoparticles are examined against Escherichia coli (Gram negative bacteria) cultures using optical density at 600 nm and a comparison of the size of inhibition zone diameter. It is found that both pure and doped ZnO nanoparticles indicate appropriate antibacterial activity which rises with Cu doping. Project supported by the Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) (Grant No. R. J1300000.7809.4F626). Dr. Samavati is thankful to RMC for postdoctoral grants.

  17. Post-annealing effect on the room-temperature ferromagnetism in Cu-doped ZnO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Yu-Min; Kuang, Chein-Hsiun; Han, Tai-Chun; Yu, Chin-Chung; Li, Sih-Sian

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we investigated the structural and magnetic properties of both as-deposited and post-annealed Cu-doped ZnO thin films for better understanding the possible mechanisms of room-temperature ferromagnetism (RT-FM) in ZnO-based diluted magnetic oxides. All of the films have a c-axis-oriented wurtzite structure and display RT-FM. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results showed that the incorporated Cu ions in as-deposited films are in 1+ valence state merely, while an additional 2+ valence state occurs in post-annealed films. The presence of Cu 2+ state in post-annealed film accompanies a higher magnetization value than that of as-deposited film and, in particular, the magnetization curves at 10 K and 300 K of the post-annealed film separate distinctly. Since Cu 1+ ion has a filled 3d band, the RT-FM in as-deposited Cu-doped ZnO thin films may stem solely from intrinsic defects, while that in post-annealed films is enhanced due to the presence of CuO crystallites

  18. Spectral features and antibacterial properties of Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles prepared by sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samavati, Alireza; Nur, Hadi; Othaman, Z; Ismail, A F; Mustafa, M K

    2016-01-01

    Zn 1−x Cu x O (x = 0.00, 0.01, 0.03, and 0.05) nanoparticles are synthesized via the sol-gel technique using gelatin and nitrate precursors. The impact of copper concentration on the structural, optical, and antibacterial properties of these nanoparticles is demonstrated. Powder x-ray diffraction investigations have illustrated the organized Cu doping into ZnO nanoparticles up to Cu concentration of 5% ( x = 0.05). However, the peak corresponding to CuO for x = 0.01 is not distinguishable. The images of field emission scanning electron microscopy demonstrate the existence of a nearly spherical shape with a size in the range of 30–52 nm. Doping Cu creates the Cu–O–Zn on the surface and results in a decrease in the crystallite size. Photoluminescence and absorption spectra display that doping Cu causes an increment in the energy band gap. The antibacterial activities of the nanoparticles are examined against Escherichia coli (Gram negative bacteria) cultures using optical density at 600 nm and a comparison of the size of inhibition zone diameter. It is found that both pure and doped ZnO nanoparticles indicate appropriate antibacterial activity which rises with Cu doping. (paper)

  19. Dielectric and magnetic properties of (Zn, Co) co-doped SnO2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajwali, Khan; Fang Ming-Hu

    2015-01-01

    Polycrystalline samples of (Zn, Co) co-doped SnO 2 nanoparticles were prepared using a co-precipitation method. The influence of (Zn, Co) co-doping on electrical, dielectric, and magnetic properties was studied. All of the (Zn, Co) co-doped SnO 2 powder samples have the same tetragonal structure of SnO 2 . A decrease in the dielectric constant was observed with the increase of Co doping concentration. It was found that the dielectric constant and dielectric loss values decrease, while AC electrical conductivity increases with doping concentration and frequency. Magnetization measurements revealed that the Co doping SnO 2 samples exhibits room temperature ferromagnetism. Our results illustrate that (Zn, Co) co-doped SnO 2 nanoparticles have an excellent dielectric, magnetic properties, and high electrical conductivity than those reported previously, indicating that these (Zn, Co) co-doped SnO 2 materials can be used in the field of the ultrahigh dielectric material, high frequency device, and spintronics. (paper)

  20. Insights into the CuO nanoparticle ecotoxicity with suitable marine model species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotini, A; Gallo, A; Parlapiano, I; Berducci, M T; Boni, R; Tosti, E; Prato, E; Maggi, C; Cicero, A M; Migliore, L; Manfra, L

    2018-01-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles, among them copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs), are widely used in different applications (e.g. batteries, gas sensors, superconductors, plastics and metallic coatings), increasing their potential release in the environment. In aquatic matrix, the behavior of CuO NPs may strongly change, depending on their surface charge and some physical-chemical characteristics of the medium (e.g. ionic strength, salinity, pH and natural organic matter content). Ecotoxicity of CuO NPs to aquatic organisms was mainly studied on freshwater species, few tests being performed on marine biota. The aim of this study was to assess the toxicity of CuO NPs on suitable indicator species, belonging to the ecologically relevant level of consumers. The selected bioassays use reference protocols to identify Effect/Lethal Concentrations (E(L)C), by assessing lethal and sub-lethal endpoints. Mortality tests were performed on rotifer (Brachionus plicatilis), shrimp (Artemia franciscana) and copepod (Tigriopus fulvus). While moult release failure and fertilization rate were studied, as sub-lethal endpoints, on T. fulvus and sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus), respectively. The size distribution and sedimentation rates of CuO NPs, together with the copper dissolution, were also analyzed in the exposure media. The CuO NP ecotoxicity assessment showed a concentration-dependent response for all species, indicating similar mortality for B. plicatilis (48hLC 50 = 16.94 ± 2.68mg/l) and T. fulvus (96hLC 50 = 12.35 ± 0.48mg/l), followed by A. franciscana (48hLC 50 = 64.55 ± 3.54mg/l). Comparable EC 50 values were also obtained for the sub-lethal endpoints in P. lividus (EC 50 = 2.28 ± 0.06mg/l) and T. fulvus (EC 50 = 2.38 ± 0.20mg/l). Copper salts showed higher toxicity than CuO NPs for all species, with common sensitivity trend as follows: P. lividus ≥ T. fulvus (sublethal endpoint) ≥ B. plicatilis >T. fulvus (lethal endpoint) >A. franciscana. CuO NP micrometric

  1. Intrinsic defects in ZnO varistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahan, G.D.

    1983-01-01

    Theoretical calculations are presented for equilibrium concentrations of zinc and oxygen vacancies in ZnO. Results are presented at the sintering temperature, and also at room temperature. Theoretical calculations of reaction constants show that the intrinsic donor is the oxygen vacancy, rather than the zinc interstitial. The depletion of vacancies in the surface region, as the ZnO is cooled from the sintering temperature, is also calculated. Homojunction effects which are caused by such depletion are shown to be small

  2. Structure and Properties of Al and Ga- Doped ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temizer, Namik Kemal

    Recently there is tremendous interest in Transparent conducting oxide (TCO) research due to the unlimited and exciting application areas. Current research is mostly focused on finding alternative low cost and sustainable materials in order to replace indium tin oxide (ITO), which caused serious concern due to the increasing cost of indium and chemical stability issues of ITO. The primary aim of this research is to develop alternative TCO materials with superior properties in order to increase the efficiency in optoelectronic applications, as well as to study the properties of these materials to fully characterize them. We have grown Al and Ga-doped ZnO films with an optimized composition under different deposition conditions in order to understand the effect of processing parameters on the film properties. We report a detailed investigation on the structure-property correlations in Ga and Al codoped ZnO films on c-sapphire substrates where the thin film microstructure varies from nanocrystalline to single crystal. We have achieved highly epitaxial films with very high optical transmittance (close to 90%) and low resistivity (˜110muO-cm) values. The films grown in an ambient oxygen partial pressure (PO2 ) of 50 mTorr and at growth temperatures from room temperature to 600°C showed semiconducting behavior, whereas samples grown at a Po2 of 1 mTorr showed metallic nature. The most striking feature is the occurrence of resistivity minima at relatively high temperatures around 110 K in films deposited at high temperatures. The structure-property correlations reveal that point defects play an important role in modifying the structural, optical, electrical and magnetic properties and such changes in physical properties are controlled predominantly by the defect content. To gain a better understanding of the conduction processes in doped ZnO thin films, we have studied the temperature variation of resistivity of some selected samples that showed some interesting behavior

  3. Effects of Na and K co-doping on growth and scintillation properties of Eu:SrI_2 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Tomoki; Yokota, Yuui; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Kral, Robert; Pejchal, Jan; Ohashi, Yuji; Kamada, Kei; Nikl, Martin; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2016-01-01

    We grew Na and K co-doped Eu:SrI_2 [Na,Eu:SrI_2 and K,Eu:SrI_2] crystals by a modified micro-pulling-down method to reveal the co-doping effects on the crystal growth and scintillation properties. The non-codoped, Na0.5%, Na1.0%, K0.5% and K1.0%,Eu:SrI_2 crystals indicated high transparency while the milky parts were generated in the Na5.0% and K5.0%,Eu:SrI_2 crystals. The light yields of Na,Eu:SrI_2 and K,Eu:SrI_2 crystals under γ-ray irradiation were decreased by the Na and K co-doping. On the other hand, there was a small change within 940–1020 ns in the decay times by the Na and K co-doping. In the light yield proportionality under γ-ray irradiation, the non-proportionality in the low energy region was improved by Na and K co-doping. - Highlights: • Na or K co-doped Eu:SrI_2crystals were grown by the modified μ-PD method. • The milky parts were generated in the Na5.0% and K5.0%,Eu:SrI_2crystals. • The light yield of Eu:SrI_2was decreased by the Na or K co-doping. • The decay times of Eu:SrI_2were almost constant by the Na or K co-doping. • The non-proportionalitywas improved in the low energy region by the K co-doping.

  4. Cupric Oxide (CuO) Oxidation Detects Pyrogenic Carbon in Burnt Organic Matter and Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatten, Jeff; Goñi, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Wildfire greatly impacts the composition and quantity of organic carbon stocks within watersheds. Most methods used to measure the contributions of fire altered organic carbon–i.e. pyrogenic organic carbon (Py-OC) in natural samples are designed to quantify specific fractions such as black carbon or polyaromatic hydrocarbons. In contrast, the CuO oxidation procedure yields a variety of products derived from a variety of precursors, including both unaltered and thermally altered sources. Here, we test whether or not the benzene carboxylic acid and hydroxy benzoic acid (BCA) products obtained by CuO oxidation provide a robust indicator of Py-OC and compare them to non-Py-OC biomarkers of lignin. O and A horizons from microcosms were burned in the laboratory at varying levels of fire severity and subsequently incubated for 6 months. All soils were analyzed for total OC and N and were analyzed by CuO oxidation. All BCAs appeared to be preserved or created to some degree during burning while lignin phenols appeared to be altered or destroyed to varying extents dependent on fire severity. We found two specific CuO oxidation products, o-hydroxybenzoic acid (oBd) and 1,2,4-benzenetricarboxylic acid (BTC2) that responded strongly to burn severity and withstood degradation during post-burning microbial incubations. Interestingly, we found that benzene di- and tricarboxylic acids (BDC and BTC, respectively) were much more reactive than vanillyl phenols during the incubation as a possible result of physical protection of vanillyl phenols in the interior of char particles or CuO oxidation derived BCAs originating from biologically available classes of Py-OC. We found that the ability of these compounds to predict relative Py-OC content in burned samples improved when normalized by their respective BCA class (i.e. benzene monocarboxylic acids (BA) and BTC, respectively) and when BTC was normalized to total lignin yields (BTC:Lig). The major trends in BCAs imparted by burning

  5. Growth of vertically aligned ZnO nanorods using textured ZnO films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meléndrez Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A hydrothermal method to grow vertical-aligned ZnO nanorod arrays on ZnO films obtained by atomic layer deposition (ALD is presented. The growth of ZnO nanorods is studied as function of the crystallographic orientation of the ZnO films deposited on silicon (100 substrates. Different thicknesses of ZnO films around 40 to 180 nm were obtained and characterized before carrying out the growth process by hydrothermal methods. A textured ZnO layer with preferential direction in the normal c-axes is formed on substrates by the decomposition of diethylzinc to provide nucleation sites for vertical nanorod growth. Crystallographic orientation of the ZnO nanorods and ZnO-ALD films was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. Composition, morphologies, length, size, and diameter of the nanorods were studied using a scanning electron microscope and energy dispersed x-ray spectroscopy analyses. In this work, it is demonstrated that crystallinity of the ZnO-ALD films plays an important role in the vertical-aligned ZnO nanorod growth. The nanorod arrays synthesized in solution had a diameter, length, density, and orientation desirable for a potential application as photosensitive materials in the manufacture of semiconductor-polymer solar cells. PACS 61.46.Hk, Nanocrystals; 61.46.Km, Structure of nanowires and nanorods; 81.07.Gf, Nanowires; 81.15.Gh, Chemical vapor deposition (including plasma-enhanced CVD, MOCVD, ALD, etc.

  6. Synthesis of 1-D ZnO nanorods and polypyrrole/1-D ZnO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1-D ZnO nanorods and PPy/1-D ZnO nanocomposites were prepared by the surfactant-assisted precipitation and in situ polymerization method, respectively. The synthesized nanorods and nanocomposites were characterized by UV–Vis spectrophotometer, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction ...

  7. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic property of CuO and Ag/CuO nanoparticles for the epoxidation of styrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lashanizadegan, Maryam; Erfaninia, Nasrin [Alzahra University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    CuO nanorodes, CuO nanoplates and Ag/CuO nanoparticles were synthesized in the presence of polyethylene glycol by depositional in alkaline environment. Oxide nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared absorption spectra (FT-IR). CuO and Ag/CuO nanoparticles show high catalytic activity for the selective epoxidation of styrene to styrene oxide by TBHP. Under the optimized reaction condition, the oxidation of styrene catalyzed by CuO nanorods gave 100% conversion with 60 and 35% styrene oxide and benzaldehyde, respectively. Ag/CuO gave 99% conversion and styrene oxide (71%) and benzaldehyde (12%) being the major product.

  8. Modeling Photoelectron Spectra of CuO, Cu2O, and CuO2 Anions with Equation-of-Motion Coupled-Cluster Methods: An Adventure in Fock Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orms, Natalie; Krylov, Anna I

    2018-04-12

    The experimental photoelectron spectra of di- and triatomic copper oxide anions have been reported previously. We present an analysis of the experimental spectra of the CuO - , Cu 2 O - , and CuO 2 - anions using equation-of-motion coupled-cluster (EOM-CC) methods. The open-shell electronic structure of each molecule demands a unique combination of EOM-CC methods to achieve an accurate and balanced representation of the multiconfigurational anionic- and neutral-state manifolds. Analysis of the Dyson orbitals associated with photodetachment from CuO - reveals the strong non-Koopmans character of the CuO states. For the lowest detachment energy, a good agreement between theoretical and experimental values is obtained with CCSD(T) (coupled-cluster with single and double excitations and perturbative account of triple excitations). The (T) correction is particularly important for Cu 2 O - . Use of a relativistic pseudopotential and matching basis set improves the quality of results in most cases. EOM-DIP-CCSD analysis of the low-lying states of CuO 2 - reveals multiple singlet and triplet anionic states near the triplet ground state, adding an extra layer of complexity to the interpretation of the experimental CuO 2 - photoelectron spectrum.

  9. Structural and magnetic properties of single-crystalline Co-doped barium titanate nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hongxue; Cao Baobao; O'Connor, Charles J.

    2010-01-01

    Undoped and Co-doped BaTiO 3 nanoparticles were synthesized by a one-step sol-precipitation method. For all the samples, X-ray diffraction showed characteristic diffraction lines for BaTiO 3 without the indication of secondary phases. High-resolution transition electron microscopy images showed that BaTiO 3 nanoparticles exhibit the nature of single-crystal. Magnetometry revealed that all the Co-doped BaTiO 3 samples show paramagnetic behaviors and Co ions in BaTiO 3 are present as isolated paramagnetic centers. This is contrasted to several reported cases of ferromagnetism in Co-doped BaTiO 3 .

  10. Diode-pumped femtosecond mode-locked Nd, Y-codoped CaF2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Jiangfeng; Zhang, Lijuan; Gao, Ziye; Wang, Junli; Wang, Zhaohua; Wei, Zhiyi; Su, Liangbi; Zheng, Lihe; Wang, Jingya; Xu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    A passively mode-locked femtosecond laser based on an Nd, Y-codoped CaF 2 disordered crystal was demonstrated. The Y 3+ -codoping in Nd : CaF 2 markedly suppressed the quenching effect and improved the fluorescence quantum efficiency and emission spectra. With a fiber-coupled laser diode as the pump source, the continuous wave tuning range covering from 1042 to 1076 nm was realized, while the mode-locked operation generated 264 fs pulses with an average output power of 180 mW at a repetition rate of 85 MHz. The experimental results show that the Nd, Y-codoped CaF 2 disordered crystal has potential in a new generation diode-pumped high repetition rate chirped pulse amplifier. (letter)

  11. Sb/Mn co-doped oxyfluoride silicate glasses for potential applications in photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Chaofeng [Key Laboratory of Processing and Testing Technology of Glass & Functional Ceramics of Shandong Province, Qilu University of Technology, Jinan 250353 (China); Laboratoire des Verres et Céramiques, UMR-CNRS 6226, Université de Rennes 1, Rennes 35042 (France); Zhang, Xianghua, E-mail: xiang-hua.zhang@univ-rennes1.fr [Laboratoire des Verres et Céramiques, UMR-CNRS 6226, Université de Rennes 1, Rennes 35042 (France); Ma, Hongli [Laboratoire des Verres et Céramiques, UMR-CNRS 6226, Université de Rennes 1, Rennes 35042 (France)

    2016-03-15

    A series of Sb/Mn co-doped oxyfluoride silicate glasses were prepared via the melt-quenching method to explore red luminescent materials for potential applications in photosynthesis of green plants, and these glasses are investigated by means of luminescence decay curves, absorption, emission, and excitation spectra. We find that the as-prepared glasses are transparent in the visible region and can emit strong red light under ultraviolet, purple, and green light excitations. Furthermore, energy transfer from Sb{sup 3+} to Mn{sup 2+} ions occurs in Sb/Mn co-doped glasses. The results demonstrate that the as-prepared Sb/Mn co-doped oxyfluoride silicate glasses may serve as a potential candidate for developing glass greenhouse, which can enhance the utilization of solar energy for the photosynthesis of the green plants.

  12. Nonlinear optical properties of Nd3+-Li+ co-doped ZnS-PVP thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwatkar, S. S.; Sunatkari, A. L.; Tamgadge, Y. S.; Muley, G. G.

    2018-04-01

    The nonlinear optical properties of Nd3+-Li+ co-doped ZnS-PVP nanocomposite were studied using a continuous wave (CW) He-Ne laser (λ = 632.8 nm)by z-scan technique. The nonlinear refractive index (n2), absorption coefficient (β) and third order nonlinear susceptibility (χ(3)) of PVP thin films embedded with Nd3+-Li+ co-doped ZnS NPs was found in the order of 10-7 cm2/W, 10-6 cm/W and 10-7 esu respectively. The nonlinearity found increasing with Nd3+-Li+ co-dopant concentration. Based on the results, it is proposed that this material is a new class of luminescent material suitable in optoelectronics devices application, especially in light-emitting devices, electroluminescent devices, display devices, etc.

  13. Cu charge fluctuations and anomalous behaviour in the phonon spectrum of La2CuO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobry, A.; Greco, A.; Migoni, R.; Stachiotti, M.

    1991-09-01

    The additional excitation observed in the phonon spectrum of La 2 CuO 4 is shown to arise from Cu charge fluctuations. A nonlinear breathing shell model is formulated for the coupling of these fluctuations with the lattice. The harmonic dynamics and exact nonlinear solutions are studied in a 2-D model of the CuO 2 planes. A molecular dynamics simulation shows an additional peak of nonphononic character originated by the nonlinear lattice dynamics. (author). 20 refs, 3 figs

  14. Subsolidus Phase Relations of the SrO-In2O3-CuO System in Air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude; Thydén, Karl Tor Sune

    2013-01-01

    The subsolidus phase relations of the SrO-In2O3-CuO system were investigated at 900 °C in air. Under these conditions, five binary oxide phases are stable: Sr2CuO3, SrCuO2, Sr14Cu24O41, In2Cu2O5 and SrIn2O4. The pseudo-ternary section is characterised by six three-phase regions and is dominated...

  15. Antibacterial Activity of Copper Oxide (CuO Nanoparticles Biosynthesized by Bacillus sp. FU4: Optimization of Experiment Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Taran, Maryam Rad, Mehran Alavi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are several methods for synthesis of metallic nanoparticles (NPs including chemical, physical and biological process. In this study, Bacillus sp. FU4 was used as biological source for biosynthesis of CuO NPs. Methods: CuO NPs have been prepared by copper sulfate (CuSO4. CuO NPs were formed after oxidation of Cu NPs. Design and analysis of Taguchi experiments (an orthogonal assay and analysis of variance (ANOVA carried out by the Qualitek-4 software. Average effect of CuSO4 concentration (0.1, 0.01 and 0.001 M, incubation and culturing time (48, 72, 96 hours as three controllable factors with three levels were evaluated in CuO NPs biosynthesis. Characterization of CuO NPs was determined by UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Also, the antimicrobial properties of CuO NPs were investigated using Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300 as multidrug resistant (MDR bacteria. Results: Results: It was evaluated that, NPs size distributions were in the range of 2-41 nm with spherical shapes. The anti-bacterial activities of CuO NPs were measured based on diameter of inhibition zone in disk diffusion tests of NPs dispersed in batch cultures. Two levels of CuSO4 concentrations (0.1 and 0.01M had antibacterial effect on E.coli (33±0.57 and 6 ±2mm. In the case of S. aureus, there was surprisingly no sign of growth. Conclusion: CuO NPs have antibacterial activity that can be benefit in medicinal aspect for fighting against prominent pathogen bacteria such as E.coli ATCC 25922 and S.aureus ATCC 43300.

  16. Direct structural and spectroscopic investigation of ultrathin films of tetragonal CuO: Six-fold coordinated copper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samal, D.; Tan, H.; Takamura, Y.; Siemons, W.; Verbeeck, J.; van Tendeloo, G.; Arenholz, E.; Jenkins, A.; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.; Koster, Gertjan

    2014-01-01

    Unlike other 3d transition metal monoxides (MnO, FeO, CoO, and NiO), CuO is found in a low-symmetry distorted monoclinic structure rather than the rocksalt structure. We report here of the growth of ultrathin CuO films on SrTiO3 substrates; scanning transmission electron microscopy was used to show

  17. One dimensional CuO nanocrystals synthesis by electrical explosion: A study on structural, optical and electronic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, Shutesh, E-mail: shutesh.k@onsemi.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); ON Semiconductor Package Innovation and Development Center, 70450 Seremban (Malaysia); Haseeb, A.S.M.A.; Johan, Mohd Rafie [Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • One-dimensional CuO nanoflakes were synthesized by novel wire explosion technique. • A physical synthesis method capable of producing high aspect ratio (1:16) nanocrystals. • Most energy efficient and eco-friendly synthesis of low-dimensional transition metal oxide nanocrystals. -- Abstract: One-dimensional (1D) copper oxide (CuO) nanocrystals were synthesized using a novel wire explosion in de-ionized (DI) water without any chemical additives. Highly crystalline 1D CuO nanocrystals with 1:16 aspect ratio were successfully synthesized using this technique. The chemical nature and physical structure of the nanocrystals were controlled by simply modulating the exploding medium temperature. The results showed that nanocrystals produced at explosion temperatures 65 °C and 95 °C are pure CuO with optical band-gap energy of 2.38 eV. High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope analysis (HRTEM) indicates that the CuO nanocrystals are with growth in [1{sup ¯}11] and [1 1 1] directions. The epitaxial crystal growth kinetics of the 1D nanostructure by aggregation was discussed. The incorporation of microstructural features like edge dislocations and porosity in the growth mechanism was examined. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization indicates the formation of high purity CuO nanocrystals with valence state +2. This study provides an energy efficient and eco-friendly synthesis method of 1D transition metal oxide nanocrystals for electronic applications.

  18. Preparation of octahedral CuO micro/nanocrystals and electrochemical performance as anode for lithium-ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Lili; Xuan, Zhewen; Bai, Yang; Zhao, Hongbo; Li, Li; Chen, Yashun; Yang, Xianqin; Su, Changwei; Guo, Junming; Chen, Xiaokai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Octahedral cupric oxides with hollow structure were prepared. • No hard template was used in the preparation of hollow cupric oxides. • The cupric oxides show good reversible capacity. - Abstract: Herein we report that three octahedral CuO samples with hollow or solid structure are successfully prepared by firstly preparation of Cu 2 O products using a chemical reduction method, then by calcination in a muffle furnace at 300 °C for 3 h in air atmosphere. The obtained CuO samples serve as a good model system for the study as anodes for lithium ion batteries. All the three CuO samples have high discharge specific capacity and good cycling stability from the 2nd cycling to the 50th cycling. Octahedral CuO hollow crystals with 400 nm in size have the highest reversible capacity and the smallest resistance. So their electrochemical performances are partly related to their morphologies. The results suggest that the as-prepared CuO samples, especially the 400 nm hollow octahedral CuO crystals could be a promising material for the anode of lithium-ion battery

  19. Controlled synthesis of uniform ultrafine CuO nanowires as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fei; Tao Weizhe; Zhao Mingshu; Xu Minwei; Yang Shengchun; Sun Zhanbo; Wang Liqun; Song Xiaoping

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The ultrafine CuO nanowires were controlled synthesized by a simple solution route. → CuO nanowires exhibit high capacity, superior cyclability and improved rate capability. → Voltage-capacity curves show larger extra reversible reactions at low potentials in CuO nanowires. → CV curves show lower over-potential in CuO nanowires. - Abstract: A simple solution route is used to synthesize ultrafine Cu(OH) 2 nanowires by restraining the morphology transformation of early formed 1D nanostructure. The obtained ultrafine nanowires can be well preserved at a low temperature structure transformation in solid state. As anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the ultrafine CuO nanowires exhibit high reversible capacity, superior cycling performance and improved rate capability. The improved electrochemical properties of CuO nanowires are ascribed to their ultrafine size which lead to the reduced over-potential, extra reversible reactions at low potentials and improved interface performance between the electrode and electrolyte.

  20. One dimensional CuO nanocrystals synthesis by electrical explosion: A study on structural, optical and electronic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, Shutesh; Haseeb, A.S.M.A.; Johan, Mohd Rafie

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • One-dimensional CuO nanoflakes were synthesized by novel wire explosion technique. • A physical synthesis method capable of producing high aspect ratio (1:16) nanocrystals. • Most energy efficient and eco-friendly synthesis of low-dimensional transition metal oxide nanocrystals. -- Abstract: One-dimensional (1D) copper oxide (CuO) nanocrystals were synthesized using a novel wire explosion in de-ionized (DI) water without any chemical additives. Highly crystalline 1D CuO nanocrystals with 1:16 aspect ratio were successfully synthesized using this technique. The chemical nature and physical structure of the nanocrystals were controlled by simply modulating the exploding medium temperature. The results showed that nanocrystals produced at explosion temperatures 65 °C and 95 °C are pure CuO with optical band-gap energy of 2.38 eV. High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope analysis (HRTEM) indicates that the CuO nanocrystals are with growth in [1 ¯ 11] and [1 1 1] directions. The epitaxial crystal growth kinetics of the 1D nanostructure by aggregation was discussed. The incorporation of microstructural features like edge dislocations and porosity in the growth mechanism was examined. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization indicates the formation of high purity CuO nanocrystals with valence state +2. This study provides an energy efficient and eco-friendly synthesis method of 1D transition metal oxide nanocrystals for electronic applications

  1. Bioaccumulation and toxicity of CuO nanoparticles by a freshwater invertebrate after waterborne and dietborne exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, Marie-Noele; Misra, Superb K.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    The incidental ingestion of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) can be an important route of uptake for aquatic organisms. Yet, knowledge of dietary bioavailability and toxicity of NPs is scarce. Here we used isotopically modified copper oxide (65CuO) NPs to characterize the processes governing their bioaccumulation in a freshwater snail after waterborne and dietborne exposures. Lymnaea stagnalis efficiently accumulated 65Cu after aqueous and dietary exposures to 65CuO NPs. Cu assimilation efficiency and feeding rates averaged 83% and 0.61 g g–1 d–1 at low exposure concentrations (–1), and declined by nearly 50% above this concentration. We estimated that 80–90% of the bioaccumulated 65Cu concentration in L. stagnalis originated from the 65CuO NPs, suggesting that dissolution had a negligible influence on Cu uptake from the NPs under our experimental conditions. The physiological loss of 65Cu incorporated into tissues after exposures to 65CuO NPs was rapid over the first days of depuration and not detectable thereafter. As a result, large Cu body concentrations are expected in L. stagnalis after exposure to CuO NPs. To the degree that there is a link between bioaccumulation and toxicity, dietborne exposures to CuO NPs are likely to elicit adverse effects more readily than waterborne exposures.

  2. Effects of exposure to nano and bulk sized TiO2 and CuO in Lemna minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolenc Koce, Jasna

    2017-10-01

    Nanoparticles of TiO 2 and CuO are among most commonly used nanoparticles, and elevated concentrations of them are expected to be found in all environments, including aquatic. A standard growth inhibition test ISO/CD 20079 was used to determine the toxicity of nano sized and larger micro sized (bulk) particles in the concentrations of 0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 1000 μM CuO and TiO 2 on common duckweed (Lemna minor L.). Both nano and bulk CuO particles caused changes in the structure and function of treated plants. The number of fronds and colonies decreased by as much as 78%, the length of roots and fronds decreased by 99% and 14%, respectively. Furthermore, photochemical efficiency was reduced by up to 35%, and the activities of antioxidative enzymes guaiacol peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase increased by more than 240%. The altered physiological state of the CuO exposed plants was also reflected in the elevated occurrence of necrosis and bleaching in the duckweed colonies. Nano sized particles of CuO proved more phytotoxic than bulk particles, and the effects of both studied CuO sizes were concentration dependent. On the other hand, both bulk and nano sized particles of TiO 2 caused no severe phytotoxic effects, there was no concentration dependence and they could be considered as non-harmful to common duckweed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Peroxymonosulfate activation and pollutants degradation over highly dispersed CuO in manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Ye, Peng; Fang, Jia; Wang, Manye; Wu, Deming; Xu, Aihua; Li, Xiaoxia

    2017-11-01

    Manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieves (OMS-2) supported CuO catalysts were synthesized, characterized and used in the removal of Acid Orange 7 (AO7) in aqueous solution by an oxidation process involving peroxymonosulfate (PMS). It was found that the CuO species were highly dispersed in OMS-2 with a high ratio of easily reduced surface oxygen species. The synergetic effect between CuO and OMS-2 significantly improved the dye degradation rate and catalytic stability, compared with CuO, OMS-2 and supported CuO on other materials. About 97% of the dye was removed within 15 min at neutral solution pH by using 0.2 g/L of CuO/OMS-2 and PMS. The effect of initial solution pH, PMS concentration, reaction temperature and CuO content in the composites on AO7 degradation was also investigated. Mechanism study indicated that SO4-rad radicals generated from the interaction between PMS and Mn and Cu species with different oxidation states, mainly accounted for the degradation.

  4. Electrochemical Properties for Co-Doped Pyrite with High Conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongchao Liu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the hydrothermal method was adopted to synthesize nanostructure Co-doped pyrite (FeS2. The structural properties and morphology of the synthesized materials were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, respectively. Co in the crystal lattice of FeS2 could change the growth rate of different crystal planes of the crystal particles, which resulted in various polyhedrons with clear faces and sharp outlines. In addition, the electrochemical performance of the doping pyrite in Li/FeS2 batteries was evaluated using the galvanostatic discharge test, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results showed that the discharge capacity of the doped material (801.8 mAh·g−1 with a doping ratio of 7% was significantly higher than that of the original FeS2 (574.6 mAh·g−1 because of the enhanced conductivity. Therefore, the doping method is potentially effective for improving the electrochemical performance of FeS2.

  5. NQR study in superconducting La2CuO4+δ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, K.; Sugata, T.; Kohori, Y.; Oda, Y.; Kohara, T.

    1992-01-01

    Cu NQR signals were observed around 33.1 and 36.0 MHz together with the antiferromagnetic Cu NMR signals in the superconducting La 2 CuO 4+ δ obtained by annealing in high pressure oxygen gas. The NQR intensity increases with increasing oxygen contents. The nuclear spin-lattice relaxation time, T 1 , of Cu NQR indicates that the paramagnetic phase is in the superconducting state at low temperatures. These results show that the NQR and NMR signals were coming from the Cu sites in the superconducting phase and the antiferromagnetic phase, respectively. No appreciable differences were observed in the Cu NQR spectrum and the relaxation time between the superconducting La 2 CuO 4 + δ samples annealed under the oxygen pressure of 400 ≅ 1200 bar. (orig.)

  6. CuO and Ag2O effect on electrical properties of barium vanadate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogomolova, L.D.; Glasova, M.N.; Kalygina, V.M.; Spasibkina, S.N.; Khorikov, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    Effect of CuO on barium vanadate glass (BVG) conductivity on direct and alternating currents in the frequency range (10 2 -10 4 )Hz has been studied. Effect of Ag 2 O has been also studied for comparison, as Ag and Cu have idendical structure of external electron shells (d 10 , S 1 ). CuO introduction to binary barium vanadate glasses as a modificator results in the conductivity improvement on direct and alternating currents conditioned with reducing activation energy of small radius polaron jump, apparently, owing to exchange (ferromagnetic) interaction between V(IV) and Cu(II). Jump activation energy in barium vanadate glasses with Ag 2 O increases and conductivity drops due to the distance increase between vanadium atoms

  7. Study of Optical Band Gap of CuO Using Fermi's Golden Rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemade, K R; Waghuley, S A

    2012-01-01

    Quantum size effect where the electronic and optical properties of solids are altered due to changes in the band structures, enhanced the surface/volume ratio in nano dimensions forces more than 33% of the atoms to be on the surface (for 10nm dot 35), which drastically altering the physical properties such as having lower melting temperature and lower sintering temperature, and higher diffusion force at elevated temperatures. Consequently, its Fermi's golden rule analysis becomes crucial. Cupric oxide (CuO) is an important transition metal oxide with the basis of several high temperature superconductors and giant magnetoresistance materials. In present investigation, optical Band Gap from UV data using Fermi's golden rule for single step chemically synthesized CuO was computed.

  8. Probing the CuO planes with positrons in high Tc cuprates: theoretical predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbiellini, B.; Jarlborg, T.; Massidda, S.; Peter, M.

    1995-01-01

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy is a useful tool to investigate the Fermi surface in high T c superconductors. To study the physics of the copper-oxygen subsystem that forms the Cu-O layers, it is important to provide theoretical predictions, on materials where there is a large overlap between the positron and the interesting Cu-O planes. We have performed first-principle electronic structure calculations obtained using the linear muffin-tin orbital and the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave methods. The positron charge distributions and their sensitivity to different potentials are calculated. Secondly, we have computed the annihilation rates and the electron-positron momentum density in order to give predictions of the Fermi surface signals. (orig.)

  9. Positron lifetime studies in undoped and Sr doped La2CuO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundar, C.S.; Bharathi, A.; Hariharan, Y.; Vasumathi, D.

    1992-01-01

    The results of positron lifetime measurements as a function of temperature, in undoped and Sr doped La 2 CuO 4 are presented. A second component of lifetime with a value of 225 ps is seen to develop after 100degC, whose intensity grows sharply in the range of 100degC to 250degC. The mean lifetime increases from 170 ps to 207 ps as the temperature is increased from room temperature to 300degC. Using the results of the theoretical calculations of positron lifetimes at vacancies in La 2 CuO 4 , it is argued that the increase in lifetime with temperature is due to positron trapping at the thermally generated La vacancies. From a two state trapping model analysis, the formation energy is estimated to be 0.39±0.04 eV

  10. Positron annihilation spectroscopy study on annealing effect of CuO nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Jianjian; Wang, Jiaheng; Yang, Wei; Zhu, Zhejie; Wu, Yichu

    2016-01-01

    The microstructure and defects of CuO nanoparticles under isochronal annealing were investigated by positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). XRD and SEM results indicated that the average grain sizes of CuO nanoparticles grew slowly below 800 °C, and then increased rapidly with the annealing temperature from 800 to 1000 °C. Positron lifetime analysis exhibited that positrons were mainly annihilated in mono-vacancies (V Cu , V O ) and vacancy clusters when annealing from 200 to 800 °C. Furthermore, W-S plot of Doppler broadening spectra at different annealing temperatures found that the (W, S) points distributed on two different defect species, which suggested that V − Cu - V + O complexes were produced when the grains grew to bigger size after annealing above 800 °C, and positrons might annihilate at these complexes. (author)

  11. Some crystal chemistry of (Ln,Ce)2CuO4-δ superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, P.; Keating, A.; Myhra, S.; White, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    Compounds of the form (Ln, Sr, Ce) 2 CuO 4-δ (Ln = rare earth element) crystallise as the Nd 2 CuO 4 structure type, K 2 NiF 4 structure type or perfectly and imperfectly ordered intergrowths of these parent structures. These structurally similar phases exhibit superconductivity in which the charge carriers are holes (in Sr-doped material) or electrons (in Ce doped material). In this study, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and High Resolution Electron Microscopy (HREM) were used to investigate the charge balancing mechanisms operating in each superconducting regime and the structural changes accompanying compositional variation. It was found that under slightly reducing conditions charge coupled cation substitutions predominate, whilst at low pO 2 ( -5 atm) perfectly ordered oxygen superlattices form. The structural and electronic changes which accompany deoxygenation were observed in situ during XPS and HREM observations. 29 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Antimicrobial activities of CuO films deposited on Cu foils by solution chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekthammathat, Nuengruethai [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thongtem, Titipun, E-mail: ttpthongtem@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Materials Science Research Center, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thongtem, Somchai, E-mail: schthongtem@yahoo.com [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Materials Science Research Center, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2013-07-15

    Monoclinic CuO thin films on Cu foils were successfully synthesized by a simple wet chemical method in alkaline solution with the pH of 13 at room temperature for different lengths of time. The as-synthesized thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). Formation mechanism of the phase and morphologies was also discussed according to the experimental results. In this research, assemblies of pure CuO nanospindles with different orientations containing in the thin film synthesized for 2 weeks with 400 nm and 413 nm violet emissions showed better antimicrobial activity against S. aureus than E. coli.

  13. Antimicrobial activities of CuO films deposited on Cu foils by solution chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekthammathat, Nuengruethai; Thongtem, Titipun; Thongtem, Somchai

    2013-01-01

    Monoclinic CuO thin films on Cu foils were successfully synthesized by a simple wet chemical method in alkaline solution with the pH of 13 at room temperature for different lengths of time. The as-synthesized thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). Formation mechanism of the phase and morphologies was also discussed according to the experimental results. In this research, assemblies of pure CuO nanospindles with different orientations containing in the thin film synthesized for 2 weeks with 400 nm and 413 nm violet emissions showed better antimicrobial activity against S. aureus than E. coli.

  14. Obtention of superconductivity by room temperature electrochemical oxidation of La2CuO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casan-Pastor, N.; Fuertes, A.; Gomez-Romero, P.

    1993-01-01

    The undoped oxide La2CuO4 has required traditionally synthesis under high pressure of oxygen (and high temperatures) to incorporate excess oxygen into its structure and become a superconductor. The electrochemical oxidation of this same oxide at room temperature and pressure constitutes a striking example of the use of an alternative driving force for the oxidation of oxides to become superconductors. Electrochemical treatment of oxides has been frequently applied to their reduction with cationic intercalation. Oxidations of these solid with the concomitant intercalation of anions into their lattice shows also great promises. The paper reports recent results in the electrochemical oxidation of La2CuO4 and other cuprates, showing also the important role of post-oxidation thermal treatments on the properties of the resulting solids

  15. ESR of Gd3+ in magnetically ordered Eu2CuO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rettori, C.; Oseroff, S.B.; Rao, D.; Valdivia, J.A.; Barberis, G.E.; Martins, G.B.; Sarrao, J.; Fisk, Z.; Tovar, M.

    1996-01-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) experiments of Gd 3+ in the antiferromagnetic (AF) ordered phase (T N ) of Eu 2 CuO 4 can be interpreted in terms of four magnetically nonequivalent rare-earth sites with local internal fields H i =±310(30) Oe along the [100] and [010] directions. The internal field is well described by a dipolar magnetic field of a noncollinear AF array of 0.35(4) μ B per Cu moment aligned along the [100] and [010] directions. This is consistent with recent results of magnetic-field-dependent neutron-diffraction experiments. From the ESR and magnetic susceptibility data, the crystal field parameters for Gd 3+ and Eu 3+ in Eu 2 CuO 4 are determined. The exchange parameters between the rare earths are also estimated. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  16. Influence of doping on the electronic structure of (La, Sr)2CuO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, R.H.; Fluss, M.J.; Sterne, P.A.; Kaiser, J.H.; Kitazawa, K.; Kojima, H.

    1994-01-01

    High-statistics (>4 x 10 8 counts), room-temperature measurements of the electron positron momentum density of La 2-x Sr x CuO 4 have been performed for samples with Sr concentrations of x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.13, and 0.2. These spectra have been analyzed in conjunction with theoretical calculations of the electron positron momentum density. The metallic samples show features consistent with the presence of a Fermi surface, but its evolution with increasing Sr concentration does not follow the predictions of band theory. These results may indicate the effects of electron-electron correlation on the electron momentum distribution in the Cu-O plane. 12 refs., 2 figs

  17. Defect pair formation in fluorine and nitrogen codoped TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordatos, A.; Kelaidis, N.; Chroneos, A.

    2018-04-01

    Titanium oxide is extensively investigated because of its high chemical stability and its photocatalytic properties; nevertheless, the large band gap limits its activity to a small portion of the solar spectrum. Nitrogen and fluorine codoping is an efficient defect engineering strategy to increase the photocatalytic activity of titanium oxide. In the present study, we apply density functional theory to investigate the interaction of nitrogen with fluorine and the formation of defect pairs. We show that in fluorine and nitrogen codoped titanium oxide, the FiNi, FONi, and FiNTi defects can form. Their impact on the electronic structure of titanium oxide is discussed.

  18. Preparation and photocatalytic activity of B, Y co-doped nanosized TiO_2 catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石中亮; 刘富梅; 姚淑华

    2010-01-01

    The catalysts of un-doped, single-doped and co-doped titanium dioxide (TiO2) powders were prepared by sol-gel method with Ti(OC4H9)4 as a raw material. The photocatalytic decomposition of phenol in aqueous solution under UV light was used as a probe reaction to evaluate their photocatalytic activities. The effects of B, Y co-doping on the crystallite sizes, crystal pattern, surface composition, and optical property of the catalyst were investigated by thermogravimetric differential thermal analysis, X-ray d...

  19. Understanding doping at the nanoscale: the case of codoped Si and Ge nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amato, Michele; Rurali, Riccardo; Palummo, Maurizia; Ossicini, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Results of first-principles DFT calculations of the structural and electronic properties of B–P codoped Si and Ge NWs are presented and discussed. We find that, according to experiments, for both Si and Ge NWs, impurities tend to get closer together and to occupy edge positions, as a result of minor structural relaxation and hence lower formation energy. The study of the electronic structure shows that the simultaneous addition of B and P only slightly modifies the energy band gap value with respect to the pure wire, and is strongly dependent on the particular codoping configuration considered. (paper)

  20. Morphology engineering of ZnO nanostructures for high performance supercapacitors: enhanced electrochemistry of ZnO nanocones compared to ZnO nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoli; Yoo, Joung Eun; Lee, Min Ho; Bae, Joonho

    2017-06-01

    In this work, the morphology of ZnO nanostructures is engineered to demonstrate enhanced supercapacitor characteristics of ZnO nanocones (NCs) compared to ZnO nanowires (NWs). ZnO NCs are obtained by chemically etching ZnO NWs. Electrochemical characteristics of ZnO NCs and NWs are extensively investigated to demonstrate morphology dependent capacitive performance of one dimensional ZnO nanostructures. Cyclic voltammetry measurements on these two kinds of electrodes in a three-electrode cell confirms that ZnO NCs exhibit a high specific capacitance of 378.5 F g-1 at a scan rate of 20 mV s-1, which is almost twice that of ZnO NWs (191.5 F g-1). The charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements also clearly result in enhanced capacitive performance of NCs as evidenced by higher specific capacitances and lower internal resistance. Asymmetric supercapacitors are fabricated using activated carbon (AC) as the negative electrode and ZnO NWs and NCs as positive electrodes. The ZnO NC⫽AC can deliver a maximum specific capacitance of 126 F g-1 at a current density of 1.33 A g-1 with an energy density of 25.2 W h kg-1 at the power density of 896.44 W kg-1. In contrast, ZnO NW⫽AC displays 63% of the capacitance obtained from the ZnO NC⫽AC supercapacitor. The enhanced performance of NCs is attributed to the higher surface area of ZnO nanostructures after the morphology is altered from NWs to NCs.

  1. Lattice instabilities and structural phase transformations in La2CuO4 superconductors and insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axe, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    Soft-mode structural phase transformations, common in many perovskite-based materials, are also found in La 2 CuO 4 and structurally related oxides. The resulting phase behavior is rather complex, but is a natural consequence of the degeneracy of the soft phonon order parameters. This paper reviews the structural and lattice-dynamical results and their interpretation based upon mean-field statistical mechanical models

  2. Geometric distribution of CuO chains in YBa2Cu3O6+x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matic, V.M.; Lazarov, N.Dj.

    2006-01-01

    Statistics of CuO chains in basal planes of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6+x high-T c superconductor has been studied in terms of two dimensional asymmetric next-to-nearest-neighbor Ising (ASYNNNI) model, with accentuation on distribution of CuO chains per different chain lengths. It has been shown that the fraction p(l) of CuO chains containing l oxygen ions (i.e., having the length equal to l), satisfies so-called ''law of geometric distribution''p(l)=ω(1-ω) l-1 , where the quantity ω is equal to the inverse of average chain length l av in the system, for given values of oxygen content x and temperature T. In the case of ortho-II (OII) structural phase, the geometric chain probability distribution is shown to hold separately for each of two different sublattices of oxygen sites, commonly known as α 1 and α 2 , with respectively defined l av α 1 (x,T) and l av α 2 (x,T). The theoretically derived result of the chain probability distribution p(l) is shown to be in a remarkable agreement with the results obtained out of extensive Monte Carlo calculations that were made within region of stability of orthorhombic structural phases in (x,T) space. The relevance of chain length distribution for accurate count of the number of transferred electronic holes to superconducting CuO 2 layers has been pointed out and expression for hole concentration has been derived. The concept of critical chain length for charge transfer mechanism was briefly discussed

  3. Building Selectivity for NO Sensing in a NOx Mixture with Sonochemically Prepared CuO Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max R. Mullen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Several technologies are available for decreasing nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions from combustion sources, including selective catalytic reduction methods. In this process, ammonia reacts with nitric oxide (NO and nitrogen dioxide (NO2. As the stoichiometry of the two reactions is different, electrochemical sensor systems that can distinguish between NO and NO2 in a mixture of these two gases are of interest. Since NO and NO2 can be brought to equilibrium, depending on the temperature and the surfaces that they are in contact with, the detection of NO and NO2 independently is a difficult problem and has not been solved to date. In this study, we explore a high surface area sonochemically prepared CuO as the resistive sensing medium. CuO is a poor catalyst for NOx equilibration, and requires temperatures of 500 C to bring about equilibration. Thus, at 300 C, NO and NO2 retain their levels after interaction with CuO surface. In addition, NO adsorbs more strongly on the CuO over NO2. Using these two concepts, we can detect NO with minimal interference from NO2, if the latter gas concentration does not exceed 20% in a NOx mixture over a range of 100–800 ppm. Since this range constitutes most of the range of total NOx concentrations in diesel and other lean burn engines, this sensor should find application in selective detection of NO in this combustion application. A limitation of this sensor is the interference with CO, but with combustion in excess air, this problem should be alleviated.

  4. Copper Oxide (CuO) 2-D Nanosheets for Advanced Electronic and Optical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    supercritical CO2 reactor is in progress. The reactor is being machined and experiments will begin September 1. 5. Transport measurements on pellets made...for the upgrading of biodiesel . In a collaboration with Professor Kim at Yale we have decorated CuO nanosheets with nanodiamonds as a new catalytic...and transport electrons like a conduit. In order to maximize the photocatalytic activity of ND/photocatalyst composites, the electrical conductivity of

  5. Superconductivity in La1.56Sr0.44CuO4/La2CuO4 Superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozovic, I.; Suter, A.; Morenzoni, E.; Prokscha, T.; Luetkens, H.; Wojek, B.M.; Logvenov, G.; Gozar, A.

    2011-01-01

    Superlattices of the repeated structure La 1.56 Sr 0.44 CuO 4 /La 2 CuO 4 (LSCO-LCO), where none of the constituents is superconducting, show a superconducting transition of T(prime) c 25 K. In order to elucidate the nature of the superconducting state we have performed a low-energy μSR study. By applying a magnetic field parallel (Meissner state) and perpendicular (vortex state) to the film planes, we could show that superconductivity is sheet like, resulting in a very anisotropic superconducting state. This result is consistent with a simple charge-transfer model, which takes into account the layered structure and the difference in the chemical potential between LCO and LSCO, as well as Sr interdiffusion. Using a pancake-vortex model we could estimate a strict upper limit of the London penetration depth to 380 nm in these superlattices. The temperature dependence of the muon depolarization rate in field cooling experiments is very similar to what is observed in intercalated BSCCO and suggests that vortex-vortex interaction is dominated by electromagnetic coupling but negligible Josephson interaction.

  6. Hydrothermal growth of CuO nanoleaf structures, and their mercuric ion detection application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibupoto, Z H; Khun, K; Willander, M

    2014-09-01

    Mercury is the hazardous heavy metal ion for the environment and the human being therefore its determination is very important and herein we describe the development of mercury ion sensor on the CuO nanoleaf like nanostructures using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant as template for the growth by hydrothermal growth method. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction study has shown high density and good crystal quality of the fabricated CuO nanostructures respectively. The presented mercury ion sensor has detected the wide range of 1.0 x 10(-7) to 1.0 x 10(-1) M mercury ion concentrations with an acceptable Nernstian behaviour and a sensitivity of 30.1 ± 0.6 mV/decade. The proposed mercury ion sensor exhibited low detection limit of 1.0 x 10(-8) M and also a fast response time of less than 5 s. In addition, the presented mercury ion sensor has shown an excellent repeatability, reproducibility, stability and selectivity. Moreover, the mercury ion selective electrode based on CuO nanoleaves was tested as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration.

  7. The synthesis of CuO nanoleaves, structural characterization, and their glucose sensing application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibupoto, Z. H.; Khun, K.; Willander, M.; Lu, J.

    2013-01-01

    The present study describes the synthesis of well aligned and highly dense polyethylene glycol template assisted cupric oxide (CuO) nanoleaves on the gold coated glass substrate by hydrothermal growth method. The structural study based investigations of CuO nanoleaves were performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRAS), and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The glucose sensor based on the glucose oxidase immobilized CuO nanoleaves electrode detected the wide range of glucose concentrations with good linearity and exhibited high sensitivity of 61.9 ± 2.0 mV/decade. The linear detection range was observed from 1.0 × 10 −5 to 2.0 × 10 −2 M with detection limit of 5.0 × 10 −6 M and a fast response time of less than 5 s was also observed. The glucose sensor electrode possesses good anti-interference ability, stability, repeatability, and reproducibility.

  8. Synthesis and Structural Study of Sr2CuO3+δ Superconductor under High Pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qing-Qing, Liu; Fu-Ren, Wang; Feng-Ying, Li; Liang-Chen, Chen; Ri-Cheng, Yu; Chang-Qing, Jin; Yan-Chun, Li; Jing, Liu

    2008-01-01

    A single-phase Sr 2 CuO 3+δ superconductor is synthesized under high temperature and high pressure, in which oxygen atoms only partially occupy the apical sites next to the CuO 2 planes and act as hole-dopants. The superconducting transition temperature with T c max = 75 K is achieved in the material. Structure analysis from x-ray powder diffraction data show that this material crystallizes into a K 2 NiF 4 structure with tetragonal unit cell of a = 3. 795(3) Å and c = 12. 507(1) Å. Energy-dispersive synchrotron x-ray-diffraction studies at ambient are performed on powder samples of Sr 2 CuO 3+δ in a diamond-anvil cell at pressure up to 35 GPa. Anisotropic compressibility is found. Pressure-induced isostructural phase transition might exist as revealed by the discontinuous change of crystal cell volume V with pressure. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  9. The synthesis of CuO nanoleaves, structural characterization, and their glucose sensing application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibupoto, Z. H.; Khun, K.; Willander, M. [Department of Science and Technology, Campus Norrkoeping, Linkoeping University, SE-60174 Norrkoeping (Sweden); Lu, J. [Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology (IFM), Linkoeping University, 58183 Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2013-03-11

    The present study describes the synthesis of well aligned and highly dense polyethylene glycol template assisted cupric oxide (CuO) nanoleaves on the gold coated glass substrate by hydrothermal growth method. The structural study based investigations of CuO nanoleaves were performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRAS), and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The glucose sensor based on the glucose oxidase immobilized CuO nanoleaves electrode detected the wide range of glucose concentrations with good linearity and exhibited high sensitivity of 61.9 {+-} 2.0 mV/decade. The linear detection range was observed from 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} to 2.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} M with detection limit of 5.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} M and a fast response time of less than 5 s was also observed. The glucose sensor electrode possesses good anti-interference ability, stability, repeatability, and reproducibility.

  10. A Robust, Enzyme-Free Glucose Sensor Based on Lysine-Assisted CuO Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qurrat-ul-Ain Baloach

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The production of a nanomaterial with enhanced and desirable electrocatalytic properties is of prime importance, and the commercialization of devices containing these materials is a challenging task. In this study, unique cupric oxide (CuO nanostructures were synthesized using lysine as a soft template for the evolution of morphology via a rapid and boiled hydrothermal method. The morphology and structure of the synthesized CuO nanomaterial were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD, respectively. The prepared CuO nanostructures showed high potential for use in the electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose in an alkaline medium. The proposed enzyme-free glucose sensor demonstrated a robust response to glucose with a wide linear range and high sensitivity, selectivity, stability, and reproducibility. To explore its practical feasibility, the glucose content of serum samples was successfully determined using the enzyme-free sensor. An analytical recovery method was used to measure the actual glucose from the serum samples, and the results were satisfactory. Moreover, the presented glucose sensor has high chemical stability and can be reused for repetitive measurements. This study introduces an enzyme-free glucose sensor as an alternative tool for clinical glucose quantification.

  11. Atomic resolution chemical bond analysis of oxygen in La2CuO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruta, M.; Nagai, T.; Lugg, N. R.; Neish, M. J.; Nagao, M.; Kurashima, K.; Allen, L. J.; Mizoguchi, T.; Kimoto, K.

    2013-08-01

    The distorted CuO6 octahedron in La2CuO4 was studied using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy at atomic resolution. The near-edge structure in the oxygen K-edge electron energy-loss spectrum was recorded as a function of the position of the electron probe. After background subtraction, the measured spectrum image was processed using a recently developed inversion process to remove the mixing of signals on the atomic columns due to elastic and thermal scattering. The spectra were then compared with first-principles band structure calculations based on the local-density approximation plus on-site Coulomb repulsion (LDA + U) approach. In this article, we describe in detail not only anisotropic chemical bonding of the oxygen 2p state with the Cu 3d state but also with the Cu 4p and La 5d/4f states. Furthermore, it was found that buckling of the CuO2 plane was also detectable at the atomic resolution oxygen K-edge. Lastly, it was found that the effects of core-hole in the O K-edge were strongly dependent on the nature of the local chemical bonding, in particular, whether it is ionic or covalent.

  12. CuO nanoparticles and their antimicrobial activity against nosocomial strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Marcela Gómez León

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Using a prototype reactor, CuO nanoparticles (NPs were synthetized through the precipitation method, starting from CuSO2·5H2O and Cu(CH3COO2·H2O. The obtained NPs were characterized by XDR, FT-IR, SEM, and TEM. The antimicrobial activity of the NPs was determined by the plate diffusion method, placing 20 mg of NPs onto four nosocomial strains obtained from north Lima national hospital Intensive-Care Unit (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Aerococcus viridans, Ochrobactrum anthropic, and Micrococcus lylae. NPs characterization revealed that those synthetized from acetate (CuO–Acet shown pure CuO phase, while those synthetized from sulphate CuO–Sulf shown two phases where CuO was the predominant one, having more than 84%. The crystal domains for CuO–Acet and CuO–Sulf were 15 and 19 nm, respectively. The inhibition halos for the studied strains were larger for CuO–Sulf NPs than CuO–Acet NPs, only Ochrobactrum anthropi displayed similar inhibition halos for both types of NPs.

  13. CuO and Co3O4 Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterizations, and Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rashad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper oxide and cobalt oxide (CuO, Co3O4 nanocrystals (NCs have been successfully prepared in a short time using microwave irradiation without any postannealing treatment. Both kinds of nanocrystals (NCs have been prepared using copper nitrate and cobalt nitrate as the starting materials and distilled water as the solvent. The resulted powders of nanocrystals (NCs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and atomic force microscopy (AFM measurements. The obtained results confirm the presence of the both of oxides nanopowders produced during chemical precipitation using microwave irradiation. A strong emission under UV excitation is obtained from the prepared CuO and Co3O4 nanoparticles. The results show that the nanoparticles have high dispersion and narrow size distribution. The line scans of atomic force microscopy (AFM images of the nanocrystals (NCs sprayed on GaAs substrates confirm the results of both X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, vibrational studies have been carried out using Raman spectroscopic technique. Specific Raman peaks have been observed in the CuO and Co3O4 nanostructures, and the full width at half maximum (FWHM of the peaks indicates a small particle size of the nanocrystals.

  14. SEM and AFM studies of dip-coated CuO nanofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanasekaran, V; Mahalingam, T; Ganesan, V

    2013-01-01

    Cupric oxide (CuO) semiconducting thin films were prepared at various copper sulfate concentrations by dip coating. The copper sulfate concentration was varied to yield films of thicknesses in the range of 445-685 nm by surface profilometer. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that the deposited films were polycrystalline in nature with monoclinic structure of (-111) plane. The surface morphology and topography of monoclinic-phase CuO thin films were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. Surface roughness profile was plotted using WSxM software and the estimated surface roughness was about ∼19.4 nm at 30 mM molar concentration. The nanosheets shaped grains were observed by SEM and AFM studies. The stoichiometric compound formation was observed at 30 mM copper sulfate concentration prepared film by EDX. The indirect band gap energy of CuO films was increased from 1.08 to 1.20 eV with the increase of copper sulfate concentrations. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Photoelectrochemical Properties of CuO Grown by Using a Modified Chemical Bath Deposition Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Jin-wook; Ryu, Hyukhyun [Inje University, Gimhae (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won-Jae [Dong-Eui University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    In this study, cupric oxide (CuO) nanorods were grown on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate using a modified-chemical bath deposition (M-CBD) method. We investigated the morphology, structural, optical and photoelectrochemical properties of the cupric oxide nanorods with various growth durations by using field-emission scanning-electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) and three-electrode potentiostat, respectively. In this work, we found that the morphologies, thickness, growth rate, crystallinities, grain sizes and optical bandgap were controllable on the growth duration, which affected photocurrent density and photo-stability. The highest growth rate of CuO nanorods was 126 nm/min. From the XRD measurement, we also confirmed that (020) directional growth affected the growth of the CuO nanorods. A maximum photocurrent density of-1.88 mA/cm² at -0.55 V (vs. SCE) and high photo-stability value about 40% was obtained with 10 minutes growth duration.

  16. Spin dynamics and exchange interactions in CuO measured by neutron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, H.; Gaw, S. M.; Princep, A. J.; Hamilton, E.; Tóth, S.; Ewings, R. A.; Enderle, M.; Wheeler, E. M. Hétroy; Prabhakaran, D.; Boothroyd, A. T.

    2018-04-01

    The magnetic properties of CuO encompass several contemporary themes in condensed-matter physics, including quantum magnetism, magnetic frustration, magnetically-induced ferroelectricity, and orbital currents. Here we report polarized and unpolarized neutron inelastic scattering measurements which provide a comprehensive map of the cooperative spin dynamics in the low-temperature antiferromagnetic (AFM) phase of CuO throughout much of the Brillouin zone. At high energies (E ≳100 meV ), the spectrum displays continuum features consistent with the des Cloizeax-Pearson dispersion for an ideal S =1/2 Heisenberg AFM chain. At lower energies, the spectrum becomes more three dimensional, and we find that a linear spin-wave model for a Heisenberg AFM provides a very good description of the data, allowing for an accurate determination of the relevant exchange constants in an effective spin Hamiltonian for CuO. In the high-temperature helicoidal phase, there are features in the measured low-energy spectrum that we could not reproduce with a spin-only model. We discuss how these might be associated with the magnetically-induced multiferroic behavior observed in this phase.

  17. Adsorption property of volatile molecules on ZnO nanowires ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    7

    Keywords: ZnO; interaction; ammonia; band structure; density of states. 1. 2. 3 .... Virtual NanoLab [18] software was utilized to construct the ZnO nanowires with 24 Zn ..... But in reality, the ZnO NWs shows a better response (80.2) towards NH3.

  18. Influence of Se/N Codoping on the Structural, Optical, Electronic and Photocatalytic Properties of TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelda Y. Gurkan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Se4+ and N3− ions were used as codopants to enhance the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 under sunlight irradiation. The Se/N codoped photocatalysts were prepared through a simple wet-impregnation method followed by heat treatment using SeCl4 and urea as the dopant sources. The prepared photocatalysts were well characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, UV-diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-DRS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and Raman spectroscopy. The codoped samples showed photoabsorption in the visible light range from 430 nm extending up to 580 nm. The photocatalytic activity of the Se/N codoped photocatalysts was evaluated by degradation of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP. The degradation of 4-NP was highly increased for the Se/N codoped samples compared to the undoped and single doped samples under both UV-A and sunlight irradiation. Aiming to determine the electronic structure and dopant locations, quantum chemical modeling of the undoped and Se/N codoped anatase clusters was performed using Density Functional Theory (DFT calculations with the hybrid functional (B3LYP and double-zeta (LanL2DZ basis set. The results revealed that Se/N codoping of TiO2 reduces the band gap due to mixing of N2p with O2p orbitals in the valence band and also introduces additional electronic states originating from Se3p orbitals in the band gap.

  19. Cu-O network dependence of optical charge-transfer gaps and spin-pair excitations in single-CuO2-layer compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokura, Y.; Koshihara, S.; Arima, T.; Takagi, H.; Ishibashi, S.; Ido, T.; Uchida, S.

    1990-01-01

    Spectra of optical conductivity and magnon Raman scattering have been investigated in single crystals of a parent family of cuprate superconductors with various types of Cu-O single-layer networks. The analysis of the spectra shows the systematic dependence of the charge-transfer gaps and covalent character of Cu-O bonds on the pattern of the Cu-O network, while the spin-exchange energy is rather convergent for all the single-CuO 2 -sheet compounds

  20. Anomalous enhancement of the thermoelectric figure of merit by V co-doping of Nb-SrTiO3

    KAUST Repository

    Ozdogan, K.; Alshareef, Husam N.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Upadhyay Kahaly, M.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of V co-doping of Nb-SrTiO3 is studied by full-potential density functional theory. We obtain a stronger increase of the carrier density for V than for Nbdopants. While in Nb-SrTiO3 a high carrier density counteracts a high thermoelectric figure of merit, the trend is inverted by V co-doping. The mechanism leading to this behavior is explained in terms of a local spin-polarization introduced by the V ions. Our results indicate that magnetic co-doping can be a prominent tool for improving the thermoelectric figure of merit.

  1. Anomalous enhancement of the thermoelectric figure of merit by V co-doping of Nb-SrTiO3

    KAUST Repository

    Ozdogan, K.

    2012-05-10

    The effect of V co-doping of Nb-SrTiO3 is studied by full-potential density functional theory. We obtain a stronger increase of the carrier density for V than for Nbdopants. While in Nb-SrTiO3 a high carrier density counteracts a high thermoelectric figure of merit, the trend is inverted by V co-doping. The mechanism leading to this behavior is explained in terms of a local spin-polarization introduced by the V ions. Our results indicate that magnetic co-doping can be a prominent tool for improving the thermoelectric figure of merit.

  2. Mild chemical strategy to grow micro-roses and micro-woolen like arranged CuO nanosheets for high performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubal, Deepak P.; Gund, Girish S.; Holze, Rudolf; Lokhande, Chandrakant D.

    2013-11-01

    The hierarchical structures of nanosheets, micro-roses and micro-woolen like CuO nanosheets were directly fabricated on stainless steel via surfactant-free and inexpensive chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. Further, these CuO nanostructures demonstrate excellent surface properties like uniform surface morphology, high surface area and uniform pore size distribution of CuO samples. The electrochemical properties of CuO nanostructures have been investigated by cyclic voltammetry, charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. The electrochemical studies of the CuO samples show obvious influence of surface properties on the pseudocapacitance performance. The maximum specific capacitances of nanosheets, micro-roses and micro-woolen like CuO nanosheets are found to be 303 Fg-1, 279 Fg-1 and 346 Fg-1, respectively at 5 mV s-1 scan rate. Further, the EIS analysis shows lower ESR value, high power performance, excellent rate as well as frequency response of micro-woolen like CuO sample. The Ragone plot ascertains better power and energy densities of all three CuO nanostructured samples than other electrical energy storage devices. The long-term cycling performance of CuO is examined at different scan rates and the morphology changes of the electrode materials were studied. Present investigation suggests the inexpensive CBD approach for fine-tuning surface properties of oxide materials for energy storage applications.

  3. Crystal Growth and Neutron Scattering Study of Spin Correlations of the T‧-Structured Pr2‑x Ca x CuO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Masaki; Tsutsumi, Kenji; Miura, Tomohiro; Danilkin, Sergey

    2018-03-01

    We studied Ca-doping effect on spin correlations in T‧-structured cuprate oxide RE2CuO4 (RE: rear earth) with growing a sizable single crystal of Pr2‑x Ca x CuO4 (x=0.05 and 0.10) as well as synthesizing powder samples of Pr1.90Ca0.10CuO4 and Eu1.90Ca0.10CuO4. In the all as-prepared and annealed samples, no evidence of shielding signal associated with superconductivity was observed by magnetic susceptibility measurement. Elastic neutron scattering measurements on the as-grown Pr1.90Ca0.10CuO4 clarified the existence of long-ranged magnetic order with commensurate spin correlation. The ordering temperature was determined to be ∼290K, which is comparable to Néel temperature in the parent compound of Pr2CuO4. The existence of commensurate low-energy spin excitation was also confirmed by inelastic neutron scattering measurements for the annealed Pr1.95Ca0.05CuO4. These results strongly suggest a negligible Ca-doping effect on the physical properties in T‧-RE2CuO4, which is quite different from the drastic doping evolution of magnetism in T -RE2CuO4.

  4. Novel CuCr_2O_4 embedded CuO nanocomposites for efficient photodegradation of organic dyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mageshwari, K.; Sathyamoorthy, R.; Lee, Jeong Yong; Park, Jinsub

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Novel CuO–CuCr_2O_4 nanocomposites synthesized by reflux condensation method. • Methyl orange and methylene blue dye degradation studied under UV light irradiation. • Nanocomposites characterized by XRD, FESEM, TEM, EDX, UV–vis DRS and PL. • CuCr_2O_4 loading effectively enhanced the catalytic activity of CuO. - Abstract: Novel photocatalyst based on CuO–CuCr_2O_4 nanocomposites was synthesized for different Cr"3"+ concentration by reflux condensation method, and their photocatalytic activity was evaluated by monitoring the photodegradation of methyl orange (MO) and methylene blue dyes (MB) under UV light irradiation. Phase evolution by X-ray diffraction showed monoclinic CuO and tetragonal CuCr_2O_4 as the components of the prepared nanocomposites. Morphological analysis by scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope revealed that the incorporation of Cr"3"+ in CuO lattice alters the morphology of CuO from microsphere to cluster shape. Photoluminescence spectra of CuO–CuCr_2O_4 nanocomposites exhibited reduced PL emissions compared to pure CuO, indicating the low recombination rate of photogenerated electrons and holes. As expected, the CuCr_2O_4 loaded CuO showed enhanced photocatalytic activity for MO and MB dyes, and the kinetic studies suggest that the degradation follows pseudo-first-order kinetics. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of CuO–CuCr_2O_4 nanocomposites can be attributed to the presence of CuCr_2O_4 as an electron acceptor, which improves the effective charge separation in CuO.

  5. Fabrication of Fe3O4@CuO core-shell from MOF based materials and its antibacterial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajabi, S.K.; Sohrabnezhad, Sh.; Ghafourian, S.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic Fe 3 O 4 @CuO nanocomposite with a core/shell structure was successfully synthesized via direct calcinations of magnetic Fe 3 O 4 @HKUST-1 in air atmosphere. The morphology, structure, magnetic and porous properties of the as-synthesized nano composites were characterized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and vibration sample magnetometer (VSM). The results showed that the nanocomposite material included a Fe 3 O 4 core and a CuO shell. The Fe 3 O 4 @CuO core-shell can be separated easily from the medium by a small magnet. The antibacterial activity of Fe 3 O 4 -CuO core-shell was investigated against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. A new mechanism was proposed for inactivation of bacteria over the prepared sample. It was demonstrated that the core-shell exhibit recyclable antibacterial activity, acting as an ideal long-acting antibacterial agent. - Graphical abstract: Fe 3 O 4 @CuO core-shell release of copper ions. These Cu 2+ ions were responsible for the exhibited antibacterial activity. - Highlights: • The Fe 3 O 4 @CuO core-shell was prepared by MOF method. • This is the first study of antibacterial activity of core-shell consist of CuO and Fe 3 O 4 . • The core-shell can be reused effectively. • Core-shell was separated from the reaction solution by external magnetic field.

  6. Electrical characterization of ZnO nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlenker, E.; Bakin, A.; Postels, B.; Mofor, A.C.; Wehmann, H.H.; Waag, A. [Institute of Semiconductor Technology, Technical University Braunschweig, Hans-Sommer-Strasse 66, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Weimann, T.; Hinze, P. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2007-05-15

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods were grown by a wet chemical approach and by vapor phase transport. To explore the electrical properties of individual nanostructures current-voltage (I-V) characteristics were obtained by using an atomic force microscope (AFM) with a conductive tip or by detaching the nanorods from the growth substrate, transferring them to an isolating substrate and contacting them with evaporated Ti/Au electrodes patterned by electron-beam lithography. The AFM-approach only yields a Schottky diode behavior, while the Ti/Au forms ohmic contacts to the ZnO. For the latter method the obtained I-V curves reveal a resistivity of the nanorods in the order of 10{sup -5} {omega} cm which is unusually low for undoped ZnO. We therefore assume the existence of a highly conductive surface channel. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Photoluminescence measurements of ZnO heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Yutaka; Sakaguchi, Isao; Ohashi, Naoki; Haneda, Hajime; Ryoken, Haruki; Takenaka, Tadashi

    2003-01-01

    ZnO thin films were grown on TbAlO 3 single crystal substrates by pulsed laser deposition. In photoluminescence (PL) measurements, strong emissions from TbAlO 3 were observed with the emission from ZnO when the film thickness was less than 100 nm. The relationship between the ZnO film thickness and the emission intensity from TbAlO 3 was investigated in order to determine the penetration depth of excitation light. Information on the heterostructures ranging from the surface to a depth of 300 nm was obtained by PL measurements in this study, and the absorption coefficient for a wavelength of 325 nm was estimated to be 1.31x10 5 cm -1 . (author)

  8. Enhanced Cr(VI) removal by polyethylenimine- and phosphorus-codoped hierarchical porous carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shixia; Wang, Jun; Wu, Zeliang; Deng, Qiang; Tu, Wenfeng; Dai, Guiping; Zeng, Zheling; Deng, Shuguang

    2018-08-01

    The amino- and phosphorus-codoped (N,P-codoped) porous carbons derived from oil-tea shells were facilely fabricated through a combination of phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 ) activation and amino (polyethylenimine, PEI) modification method. The as-synthesized carbon adsorbents were systematically characterized and evaluated for Cr(VI) removal in aqueous solutions. The relationship between adsorbent properties and adsorption behaviors was illustrated. Moreover, the influences of contact time, initial Cr(VI) concentration, pH, coexisting anions and temperature were also investigated. The adsorption behavior of Cr(VI) could be perfectly described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Sips adsorption model. The maximum adsorption capacity of Cr(VI) on the carbon adsorbents synthesized in this work was 355.0 mg/g, and this excellent Cr(VI) capacity could be sustained with other coexisting anions. In addition to high surface area and suitable pore size distribution, the high Cr(VI) removal capacity is induced by rich heteroatoms incorporation and the Cr(VI) removal mechanism was clearly illustrated. Furthermore, the continuous column breakthrough experiment on obtained N,P-codoped carbon was conducted and well fitted by the Thomas model. This work revealed that PEI modification and P-containing groups could significantly enhance Cr(VI) adsorption capacity and make these N,P-codoped biomass-derived carbons potent adsorbents in practical water treatment applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Yb and Er co-doped Y2Ce2O7 nanoparticles: synthesis and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    much attention due to their potential applications in display .... Figure 1. XRD patterns of Yb3+ and Er3+ co-doped Y2Ce2O7 nanoparticles prepared for 4 h at different sintering .... vels relax to the ground 4I15/2 level (You et al 2012). For.

  10. Design of high-activity single-atom catalysts via n-p codoping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaonan; Zhou, Haiyan; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Jia, Jianfeng; Wu, Haishun

    2018-03-01

    The large-scale synthesis of stable single-atom catalysts (SACs) in experiments remains a significant challenge due to high surface free energy of metal atom. Here, we propose a concise n-p codoping approach, and find it can not only disperse the relatively inexpensive metal, copper (Cu), onto boron (B)-doped graphene, but also result in high-activity SACs. We use CO oxidation on B/Cu codoped graphene as a prototype example, and demonstrate that: (1) a stable SAC can be formed by stronger electrostatic attraction between the metal atom (n-type Cu) and support (p-type B-doped graphene). (2) the energy barrier of the prototype CO oxidation on B/Cu codoped graphene is 0.536 eV by the Eley-Rideal mechanism. Further analysis shows that the spin selection rule can provide well theoretical insight into high activity of our suggested SAC. The concept of n-p codoping may lead to new strategy in large-scale synthesis of stable single-atom catalysts.

  11. Solvothermal syntheses of Bi and Zn co-doped TiO_2 with enhanced electron-hole separation and efficient photodegradation of gaseous toluene under visible-light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Juan-Juan; Cai, Song-Cai; Xu, Zhen; Chen, Xi; Chen, Jin; Jia, Hong-Peng; Chen, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Bi-Zn co-doped TiO_2 catalysts were prepared by solvothermal route. • The incorporation of Bi doping into the TiO_2 generates intermediate energy levels. • Bi and Zn doping showed the enhanced absorption in visible-light region. • Zn dopant acts as a mediator of interfacial charge transfer. • TiBi_1_._9_%Zn_1_%O_2 exhibited high photocatalytic degradation for toluene. - Abstract: This study investigated the effects of Bi doped and Bi-Zn co-doped TiO_2 on photodegradation of gaseous toluene. The doped TiO_2 with various concentration of metal was prepared using the solvothermal route and characterized by SEM, XRD, Raman, BET, DRS, XPS, PL and EPR. Their photocatalytic activities under visible-light irradiation were drastically influenced by the dopant content. The results showed that moderate metal doping levels were obviously beneficial for the toluene degradation, while high doping levels suppressed the photocatalytic activity. The photocatalytic degradation of toluene over TiBi_1_._9_%O_2 and TiBi_1_._9_%Zn_1_%O_2 can reach to 51% and 93%, respectively, which are much higher than 25% of TiO_2. Bi doping into TiO_2 lattice generates new intermediate energy level of Bi below the CB edge of TiO_2. The electron excitation from the VB to Bi orbitals results in the decreased band gap, extended absorption of visible-light and thus enhances its photocatalytic efficiency. Zn doping not only further enhances the absorption in this visible-light region, but also Zn dopant exists as the form of ZnO crystallites located on the interfaces of TiO_2 agglomerates and acts as a mediator of interfacial charge transfer to suppress the electron-hole recombination. These synergistic effects are responsible for the enhanced photocatalytic performance.

  12. (Indium, Aluminum) co-doped Zinc Oxide as a Novel Material System for Quantum-Well Multilayer Thermoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teehan, Sean

    Waste heat recovery from low efficiency industrial processes requires high performance thermoelectric materials to meet challenging requirements. The efficiency such a device is quantified by the dimensionless figure of merit ZT=S2sigmaT/kappa, where S is the Seebeck coefficient, sigma is the electrical conductivity, T is the absolute temperature and kappa is the thermal conductivity. For practical applications these devices are only cost-effective if the ZT is higher than 2. Theoretically it has been proven that by engineering nanostructures with lower dimensionality one can significantly increase ZT. A superlattice, or a system of 2-dimensional multilayer quantum wells has previously shown the potential to be used for thermoelectric structures. However, the use of conventional materials within these structures has only allowed this at low temperatures and has utilized cross-plane transport. This study focuses on both high temperature range operation and the in-plane transport properties of such structures, which benefit from both quantum confinement and an enhancement in density of states near EF. The n-type structures are fabricated by alternately sputtering barrier and well materials of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) and indium co-doped AZO, respectively. Samples investigated consist of 50 periods with targeted layer thicknesses of 10nm, which results in sufficient sampling material as well as quantum well effects. The indium doping level within the quantum well was controlled by varying the target power, and ultimately results in a 3x improvement in power factor (S 2sigma) over the parent bulk materials. The film characterization was determined by X-ray reflectometry, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, auger electron spectroscopy, as well as other relevant techniques. In addition, process optimization was performed on material parameters such as layer thickness, interface roughness, and band-gap offset which all play a major role in determining the

  13. Synergistic effects of F and Fe in co-doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yufei, E-mail: zhang.yu.fei@stu.xjtu.edu.cn; Shen, Huiyuan; Liu, Yanhua, E-mail: yhliu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Xi’an Jiaotong University, Department of Building Environment and Services Engineering, School of Human Settlements and Civil Engineering (China)

    2016-03-15

    TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts co-doped with F and Fe were synthesized by a sol–gel method. Synergistic effects of F and Fe in the co-doped TiO{sub 2} were verified by NH{sub 3} decomposition, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ultraviolet–visible (UV–Vis) absorption spectroscopy, and was analyzed by the simulation based on the density functional theory (DFT). The results from NH{sub 3} decomposition confirmed that the cooperation of F and Fe broadened the optical response of TiO{sub 2} to visible light region and also enhanced the photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2} under ultraviolet light. XRD patterns, SEM and HRTEM images showed that the co-doped samples were nanometric anatase with an average particle size of 25 nm. Co-doping with F and Fe inhibited the grain growth of TiO{sub 2} from anatase to rutile and resulted in a larger lattice defect. XPS analysis exhibited that the doped F and Fe atoms were into the TiO{sub 2} lattice. UV–Vis absorption spectra showed that its optical absorption edge was moved up to approximately 617 nm and its ultraviolet absorption was also enhanced. The DFT results indicated that the cooperation of Fe 3d and O 2p orbits narrowed the band gap of TiO{sub 2} and F 2p orbit widened the upper valence bands. The synergistic electron density around F and Fe in co-doped TiO{sub 2} was capable to enhance the photo-chemical stability of TiO{sub 2}.

  14. First-principle study on magnetic properties of Mn/Fe codoped ZnS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Hongxia, E-mail: chenhongxia1@sina.com [College of Physical Science and Electronic Techniques, Yancheng Teachers University, Yancheng 224002 (China); Department of Physics, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China)

    2012-07-15

    We studied the magnetic properties of Mn/Fe codoped ZnS comparatively with and without defects using first-principle calculation. The calculated results indicate that the Mn/Fe codoped ZnS system tends to stabilize in a ferrimagnetic (FiM) configuration. To obtain a ferromagnetic (FM) configuration, we consider the doped system with defects, such as S or Zn vacancy. The calculated results indicate that the doped system with Zn vacancy favors FiM states. Although the FM states of the doped system with S vacancy are more stable than the FiM states in negative charge states, the FM states are not stable enough to exist. Finally, we replaced an S atom by a C atom in the doped system. The C atom prefers to substitute the S atom connecting Mn and Fe atoms. The formation energy of this defect is -0.40 eV, showing that Mn/Fe/C codoped ZnS can be fabricated easily by experiments. Furthermore, the FM state was lower in energy than the FiM state by 114 meV. Such a large energy difference between the FM and FiM states implies that room temperature ferromagnetism could be expected in such a system. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mn/Fe codoped ZnS system tends to stabilize in a ferrimagnetic configuration with or without defects. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer By additional C codoping, the doped system tends to stabilize in a ferromagnetic configuration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Energy difference between ferrimagnetic and ferromagnetic states is 114 meV. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This indicates room temperature ferromagnetism can be likely in such a system.

  15. On the role of diluted magnetic cobalt-doped ZnO electrodes in efficiency improvement of InGaN light emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hong-Ru; Wang, Shih-Yin; Ou, Sin-Liang; Wuu, Dong-Sing

    2016-01-01

    The 120-nm-thick cobalt-doped ZnO (Co-doped ZnO, CZO) dilute magnetic films deposited by pulsed laser deposition were employed as the n-electrodes for both lateral-type blue (450 nm) and green (520 nm) InGaN light emitters. In comparison to the conventional blue and green emitters, there were 15.9% and 17.7% enhancements in the output power (@350 mA) after fabricating the CZO n-electrode on the n-GaN layer. Observations on the role of CZO n-electrodes in efficiency improvement of InGaN light emitters were performed. Based on the results of Hall measurements, the carrier mobilities were 176 and 141 cm"2/V s when the electrons passed through the n-GaN and the patterned-CZO/n-GaN, respectively. By incorporating the CZO n-electrode into the InGaN light emitters, the electrons would be scattered because of the collisions between the magnetic atoms and the electrons as the device is driven, leading to the reduction of the electron mobility. Therefore, the excessively large mobility difference between electron and hole carriers occurred in the conventional InGaN light emitter can be efficiently decreased after preparing the CZO n-electrode on the n-GaN layer, resulting in the increment of carrier recombination rate and the improvement of light output power.

  16. Enhanced field emission of ZnO nanoneedle arrays via solution etching at room temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Huanming; Qin, Zhiwei; Wang, Zaide

    2017-01-01

    ZnO nanoneedle arrays (ZnO nns) were synthesized by a facile two-step solution-phase method based on the etching of pre-synthesized ZnO nanowire arrays (ZnO nws) with flat ends at room temperature. Field emission measurement results showed that the turn-on electronic fields of ZnO nns and nws wer...

  17. Room temperature chemically oxidized La2CuO4+y: Phase separation induced by thermal treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rial,C.; Moran, E.; Alario-Franco, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    The structure of roam temperature chemically oxidized La2CuO4+y [y = 0.103(4)] has been refined from powder neutron diffraction data using the space group Bmab. The modifications induced in the CuO2 and the LaO planes by the insertion of oxygen are consistent with the high T-c measured for this m......The structure of roam temperature chemically oxidized La2CuO4+y [y = 0.103(4)] has been refined from powder neutron diffraction data using the space group Bmab. The modifications induced in the CuO2 and the LaO planes by the insertion of oxygen are consistent with the high T-c measured...... a short treatment at 433 K, La2CuO4.103(4) undergoes a phase separation into two phases: phase 1, with estimated y(1) = 0.086(4) and T-cl = 30 K, and phase 2, with estimated y(2) = 0.12(1) and T-c2 = 17 K. By increasing the annealing times, phase 2 transforms to phase I and finally disappears. Therefore...

  18. Solid state green synthesis and catalytic activity of CuO nanorods in thermal decomposition of potassium periodate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vinay Kumar; Bhattacharya, Shantanu

    2017-09-01

    The present study reports a facile solid state green synthesis process using the leaf extracts of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis to synthesize CuO nanorods with average diameters of 15-20 nm and lengths up to 100 nm. The as-synthesized CuO nanorods were characterized by x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction. The formation mechanism of CuO nanorods has been explained by involving the individual role of amide I (amino groups) and carboxylate groups under excess hydroxyl ions released from NaOH. The catalytic activity of CuO nanorods in thermal decomposition of potassium periodate microparticles (µ-KIO4) microparticles was studied by thermo gravimetric analysis measurement. The original size (~100 µm) of commercially procured potassium periodate was reduced to microscale length scale to about one-tenth by PEG200 assisted emulsion process. The CuO nanorods prepared by solid state green route were found to catalyze the thermal decomposition of µ-KIO4 with a reduction of 18 °C in the final thermal decomposition temperature of potassium periodate.

  19. AC losses in Ag-sheathed Bi2223 tapes with Ca2CuO3 as interfilamentary resistive barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, R.; Iwata, Y.; Tateyama, K.; Nakamura, Y.; Oota, A.; Zhang, P.X.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we prepared the Bi2223 multifilamentary tapes with Ca 2 CuO 3 as interfilamentary resistive barriers and evaluated their AC magnetization loss properties at 77 K. The Bi2223 tapes with thin barrier layers of Ca 2 CuO 3 around the filaments were prepared by using a standard powder-in-tube (PIT) method. To fabricate the Ca 2 CuO 3 layers around each filament, the outside surface of monocore Ag-sheathed wires was coated by Ca 2 CuO 3 with the slurry. After the heat treatment to decompose and evaporate the organic binder in the slurry, the several coated monocore wires were stacked and packed into another Ag-tube. Then, the packed tube was drawn and rolled into tape shape. The tape was subsequently sintered to form Bi2223 phase inside filaments. The AC magnetization losses in an AC transverse magnetic field were measured by a pick-up coil method. The loss properties in the barrier tape were compared with those in the tape without barriers. The results indicated that introducing Ca 2 CuO 3 barriers is very effective to suppress the electromagnetic coupling among the filaments and also to reduce the magnetization losses under parallel transverse field

  20. Structural and optical properties of a NaCl single crystal doped with CuO nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addala, S.; Bouhdjer, L.; Halimi, O.; Boudine, B.; Sebais, M.; Chala, A.; Bouhdjar, A.

    2013-01-01

    A cupric oxide (CuO) nanocrystal-doped NaCl single crystal and a pure NaCl single crystal are grown by using the Czochralski (Cz) method. A number of techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, optical absorption in the UV—visible range, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy are used to characterize the obtained NaCl and NaCl:CuO crystals. It is observed that the average radius of CuO crystallites in NaCl:CuO crystal is about 29.87 nm, as derived from the XRD data analysis. Moreover, FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy results confirm the existence of the monoclinic CuO phase in NaCl crystal. UV—visible absorption measurements indicate that the band gap of the NaCl:CuO crystal is 434 nm (2.85 eV), and it shows a significant amount of blue-shift (ΔE g = 1 eV) in the band gap energy of CuO, which is due to the quantum confinement effect exerted by the CuO nanocrystals. The PL spectrum of the NaCl:CuO shows a broad emission band centred at around 438 nm, which is consistent with the absorption measurement. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  1. Fluorescence enhancement of samarium complex co-doped with terbium complex in a poly(methyl methacrylate) matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiu Hongfang; Zhang Lixin; Liu Guode; Fan Tao

    2009-01-01

    The fluorescence property of Sm(DBM) 3 phen- (DBM-dibenzoylmethide, phen-1,10-phenanthroline) and Tb(DBM) 3 phen-co-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) was investigated. The excitation, emission spectra and fluorescence lifetime of the co-doped samples were examined. In the co-doped samples, the luminescence intensities of Sm 3+ enhance with an increase of the Tb(DBM) 3 phen content and with a decrease of the Sm(DBM) 3 phen content. The reason for the fluorescence enhancement effect in the co-doped polymer is the intermolecular energy transfer. To give a vivid picture for this co-doped system, a model for the fluorescence enhancement of Sm(DBM) 3 phen- and Tb(DBM) 3 phen-co-doped PMMA is presented

  2. Hydrothermal synthesis, structure and photocatalytic properties of La/Bi co-doped NaTaO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan, Nguyen Thi; Huan, Bui Doan; Anh, Trinh Xuan; Chinh, Huynh Dang; Phan, Le Gia; Hoang, Luc Huy; Hong, Le Van

    2016-01-01

    La/Bi co-doped NaTaO 3 nanomaterials for photocatalytic applications have been successfully synthesized by hydrothermal method at low temperature. The obtained materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and UV-Vis molecular absorption spectroscopy. The results showed that the particle sizes of La/Bi co-doped NaTaO 3 were smaller than that of the pure NaTaO 3 . La/Bi co-doping has extended optical absorption in the visible light region and then successfully increased photocatalytic activity of the La/Bi-codoped NaTaO 3 that were evaluated by degradation of methylene blue (MB). (author)

  3. Intrinsic Bistability and Critical Slowing in Tm3+/Yb3+ Codoped Laser Crystal with the Photon Avalanche Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Li; Li-Xue, Chen; Xin-Lu, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    We present theoretically a novel intrinsic optical bistability (IOB) in the Tm 3+ /Yb 3+ codoped system with a photon avalanche mechanism. Numerical simulations based on the rate equation model demonstrate distinct IOB hysteresis and critical slowing dynamics around the avalanche thresholds. Such an IOB characteristic in Tm 3+ /Yb 3+ codoped crystal has potential applications in solid-state bistable optical displays and luminescence switchers in visible-infrared spectra. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  4. Effect of calcination temperature on structural properties and photocatalytic activity of Mn-C-codoped TiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Jianbo; Xin, Wei; Liu, Guanglong; Lin, Die; Zhu, Duanwei, E-mail: liugl@mail.hzau.edu.cn [Laboratory of Eco-Environmental Engineering Research, College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University (HZAU), Wuhan (China)

    2016-03-15

    Mn-C-codoped TiO{sub 2} catalysts were synthesized by modified sol-gel method based on the self-assembly technique using polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80) as template and carbon precursor and the effect of calcination temperature on their structural properties and photocatalytic activity were investigated. The XRD results showed undoped and Mn-C-codoped TiO{sub 2} calcined at 400 deg C only include anatase phase and the rutile phase appears when the calcination temperature reached to 600 deg C. UV-vis absorption spectroscopy demonstrates that the absorption spectra are strongly modified by the calcination temperature. Moreover, the Mn-C-TiO{sub 2} calcined at 400 deg C showed the lowest PL intensity due to a decrease in the recombination rate of photogenerated electrons and holes under light irradiation. The photocatalytic activity of Mn-C-codoped TiO{sub 2} were evaluated by the degradation of methyl orange (MO) under the simulate daylight irradiation and all the prepared Mn-C-codoped TiO{sub 2} samples exhibited high photocatalytic activities for photocatalytic decolorisation of methyl orange aqueous solution. At 400 deg C, the Mn-C-codoped TiO{sub 2} samples showed the highest photocatalytic activity due to synergetic effects of good crystallize ation, appropriate phase composition and slower recombination rate of photogenerated charge carriers, which further confirms the calcination temperature could affect the properties of Mn-C-codoped TiO2 significantly. (author)

  5. Evaluation of Ce3+ and alkali metal ions Co-doped LiSrAlF6 crystalline scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakahara, Shingo; Yanagida, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Yokota, Yuui; Pejchal, Jan; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Suzuki, Shotaro; Kawaguchi, Noriaki; Fukuda, Kentaro; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2013-01-01

    High scintillation efficiency of Eu-doped LiSrAlF 6 (LiSAF) and LiCaAlF 6 (LiCAF) codoped with alkali metal ions has been reported in our recent studies. Thus in this paper, we demonstrated the scintillation properties of 1% Ce-doped LiSAF crystals with 1% alkali metal ions co-doping to increase the light yield and understand the scintillation mechanism. The crystals showed intense emission band corresponding to the 5d-4f transition of Ce 3+ , and their light yields under thermal neutron excitation were higher than that of the Ce only doped crystal. Especially, the light yield of Ce–Na co-doped crystal exceeded about two times that of Ce only doped one. -- Highlights: ► Ce-doped and alkali metal co-doped LiSAF crystals were grown by μ-PD method. ► Alkali metal co-doped crystals showed higher light yield than Ce only doped crystal. ► Decay time of alkali metal co-doped LiSAF were longer than that of Ce only doped one

  6. A Class of Effective of Decarboxylative Perfluoroalkylating Reagents: [(phen)2Cu](O2CRF)

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Yangjie

    2016-04-13

    This article describes the invention of a class of effective reagents [(phen)2Cu](O2CRF) (1) for the decarboxylative perfluoroalkylation of aryl and heteroaryl halides. Treatment of the copper tert-butyloxide with phenanthroline ligands, with subsequent addition of perfluorocarboxylic acids afforded the air-stable copper(I) perfluorocarboxylato complexes 1. These complexes reacted with a variety of aryl and heteroaryl halides to form perfluoroalkyl(hetero)arenes in moderate to high yields. Computational studies suggested that the coordination of the second phen ligand may reduce the energy barrier for the decarboxylation of perfluorocarboxylate to facilitate the perfluoroalkylation.

  7. Karakterisasi Sensor Gas Lpg (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) Dari Bahan Komposit Semikonduktor Tio2(cuo)

    OpenAIRE

    Dewi, Ratna Sari; -, Elvaswer

    2015-01-01

    The Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG's) sensor in the form of composite has been characterized. The steps of manufacturing processes are the mixing of materials, calcinations at 500ºC for 4 hours, blended, compacted and sintered at 700ºC for 4 hours. The sensor was tested at room temperature through current (I)-voltage (V) characteristics, sensitivity, and conductivity. Based on measurement I-V characteristic it's known that sample with 10% addition of CuO have sensitivity of 10 at 10 volt vol...

  8. 17O NMR Study of Undoped and Lightly Hole Doped CuO2 Planes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurber, K.R.; Hunt, A.W.; Imai, T.; Chou, F.C.; Lee, Y.S.

    1997-01-01

    Using 17 O NMR, we probed the short wavelength excitations in the CuO 2 planes of insulating and weakly metallic high T c cuprates. We measured the spin wave damping for an S=1/2 2D quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnet for the first time. The results establish the nearly free behavior (asymptotic freedom) of the high energy spin waves, even without long range magnetic order. Light hole doping dramatically enhances the low energy excitation spectrum below 300K. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  9. A Class of Effective of Decarboxylative Perfluoroalkylating Reagents: [(phen)2Cu](O2CRF)

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Yangjie; Ajitha, Manjaly John; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Zhang, Zhongxing; Weng, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the invention of a class of effective reagents [(phen)2Cu](O2CRF) (1) for the decarboxylative perfluoroalkylation of aryl and heteroaryl halides. Treatment of the copper tert-butyloxide with phenanthroline ligands, with subsequent addition of perfluorocarboxylic acids afforded the air-stable copper(I) perfluorocarboxylato complexes 1. These complexes reacted with a variety of aryl and heteroaryl halides to form perfluoroalkyl(hetero)arenes in moderate to high yields. Computational studies suggested that the coordination of the second phen ligand may reduce the energy barrier for the decarboxylation of perfluorocarboxylate to facilitate the perfluoroalkylation.

  10. Preparation of CuO nanoparticles by laser ablation in liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdulateef, Sinan A., E-mail: sinan1974@yahoo.com; MatJafri, M. Z.; Omar, A. F., E-mail: thinker-academy@yahoo.com; Ahmed, Naser M.; Azzez, Shrook A. [School of Physics, USM, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Ibrahim, Issam M. [Baghdad university, physics department (Iraq); Al-Jumaili, Batool E. B. [Department of Physics, (UPM), Serdang, Selangor 43400 (Malaysia)

    2016-07-06

    Colloidal Cu nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by pulsed Nd:YAG laser ablation in acetone. Cu NPs were converted into CuO. The size and optical properties of these NPs were characterized using an UV/Vis spectrophotometer, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Cu NPs were spherical, and their mean diameter in acetone was 8 nm–10 nm. Optical extinction immediately after the ablation showed surface Plasmon resonance peaks at 602 nm. The color of Cu NPs in acetone was green and stable even after a long time.

  11. Synthesis of Cu3N from CuO and NaNH2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Miura

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on the low-temperature synthesis of submicron-sized Cu3N powder produced from CuO and NaNH2 powder mixture by heating at 150–190 °C in a Teflon-sealed autoclave. The structure was the anti-RuO3 type with a lattice parameter of 0.3814(1 nm, and strong optical absorption was observed below ∼1.9 eV. This synthesis method has the potential of facile control of the reaction with less use of ammonia sources.

  12. Enhanced catalytic activity without the use of an external light source using microwave-synthesized CuO nanopetals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govinda Lakhotiya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We report enhanced catalytic activity of CuO nanopetals synthesized by microwave-assisted wet chemical synthesis. The catalytic reaction of CuO nanopetals and H2O2 was studied with the application of external light source and also under dark conditions for the degradation of the hazardous dye methylene blue. The CuO nanopetals showed significant catalytic activity for the fast degradation of methylene blue and rhodamine B (RhB under dark conditions, without the application of an external light source. This increased catalytic activity was attributed to the co-operative role of H2O2 and the large specific surface area (≈40 m2·g−1 of the nanopetals. We propose a detail mechanism for this fast degradation. A separate study of the effect of different H2O2 concentrations for the degradation of methylene blue under dark conditions is also illustrated.

  13. Tailoring oxides of copper-Cu_2O and CuO nanoparticles and evaluation of organic dyes degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghav, Ragini; Aggarwal, Priyanka; Srivastava, Sudha

    2016-01-01

    We report a simple one-pot colloidal synthesis strategy tailoring cuprous or cupric nano-oxides in pure state. NaOH provided alkaline conditions (pH 12.5 -13) for nano-oxides formation, while its concentration regulated the oxidation state of the nano-oxides. The morphological, structural and optical properties of synthesized Cu_2O and CuO nanoparticles were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-vis spectroscopy. Dye degradation capability of CuO and Cu2O nanoparticles was evaluated using four organic dyes - Malachite green, Methylene blue, Methyl orange and Methyl red. The results demonstrate effective degradation of all four dyes employing with almost comparable activity both Cu_2O and CuO nanoparticles.

  14. Temperature dependence of the electronic structure of La2CuO4 in the multielectron LDA+GTB approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarov, I. A.; Ovchinnikov, S. G.

    2015-01-01

    The band structure of La 2 CuO 4 in antiferromagnetic and paramagnetic phases is calculated at finite temperatures by the multielectron LDA+GTB method. The temperature dependence of the band spectrum and the spectral weight of Hubbard fermions is caused by a change in the occupation numbers of local multielectron spin-split terms in the antiferromagnetic phase. A decrease in the magnetization of the sublattice with temperature gives rise to new bands near the bottom of the conduction band and the top of the valence band. It is shown that the band gap decreases with increasing temperature, but La 2 CuO 4 remains an insulator in the paramagnetic phase as well. These results are consistent with measurements of the red shift of the absorption edge in La 2 CuO 4 with increasing temperature

  15. Influence of CuO nanoparticle on palm oil based alkyd resin preparation and its antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruey Ong, Huei; Maksudur Rahman Khan, Md.; Ramli, Ridzuan; Shein Hong, Chi; Yunus, Rosli Mohd

    2018-03-01

    An alkyd resin has been synthesized from palm oil that reacted with glycerol and phthalic anhydride by alcoholysis-polyesterification process and co-catalyzed by CuO nanoparticle. The CuO nanoparticle was pre-prepared in the glycerol via sol gel method, which creates a new reaction condition for resin preparation. The resins were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), where a new ester linkage bond (C-O-C) was noticed for resin sample. The antimicrobial activity and the curing behaviour of the resin were determined by Kirby-Bauer and differential scanning calorimeter technique. It was found that, the addition of CuO speeded up the reaction rate and played antimicrobial role. Moreover, it shortens the reaction time of alcoholysis and polyesterification process.

  16. Building energetic material from novel salix leaf-like CuO and nano-Al through electrophoretic deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Yan Jun; Li, Xueming [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing (China)

    2016-11-15

    In this study, an energetic material was prepared by depositing nano-Al on CuO arrays via electrophoretic deposition (EPD), which offers a feasible route for nano-Al integration. The morphology and structure of the CuO arrays and Al/CuO composites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The CuO arrays were homogenously salix leaf-like structure with a width of ⁓150 to 200 nm. The energy density of Al/CuO composites was approximate to 1454.5 J/g by integrating the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) plot and the combustion performance was recorded by a high-speed camera. Moreover, the combustion flames were violent and the whole reaction process only lasted 72.2 ms, indicating that the energy of the Al/CuO nanothermite can be released effectively.

  17. Field-induced interplanar magnetic correlations in the high-temperature superconductor La1.88Sr0.12CuO4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer, A. T.; Jensen, P.; Jacobsen, H.

    2015-01-01

    We present neutron-scattering studies of the interplanar magnetic correlations in the high-temperature superconductor La1.88Sr0.12CuO4 (Tc=27 K). The correlations are studied both in a magnetic field applied perpendicular to the CuO2 planes, and in zero field under different cooling conditions. We...

  18. Magnetic-Field-Induced Soft-Mode Quantum Phase Transition in the High-Temperature Superconductor La1.855Sr0.145CuO4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, J.; Christensen, Niels Bech; Niedermayer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Inelastic neutron-scattering experiments on the high-temperature superconductor La1.855Sr0.145CuO4 reveal a magnetic excitation gap Delta that decreases continuously upon application of a magnetic field perpendicular to the CuO2 planes. The gap vanishes at the critical field required to induce long...

  19. Facile synthesis of nanosheet-like CuO film and its potential application as a high-performance pseudocapacitor electrode

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nwanya, AC

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe the chemical synthesis of binderless and surfactant free CuO films for pseudocapacitive applications. Nanosheet-like and nanorod-like CuO films are deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates using the successive ionic layer...

  20. Reducing ZnO nanoparticles toxicity through silica coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sing Ling Chia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available ZnO NPs have good antimicrobial activity that can be utilized as agents to prevent harmful microorganism growth in food. However, the use of ZnO NPs as food additive is limited by the perceived high toxicity of ZnO NPs in many earlier toxicity studies. In this study, surface modification by silica coating was used to reduce the toxicity of ZnO NPs by significantly reducing the dissolution of the core ZnO NPs. To more accurately recapitulate the scenario of ingested ZnO NPs, we tested our as synthesized ZnO NPs in ingestion fluids (synthetic saliva and synthetic gastric juice to determine the possible forms of ZnO NPs in digestive system before exposing the products to colorectal cell lines. The results showed that silica coating is highly effective in reducing toxicity of ZnO NPs through prevention of the dissociation of ZnO NPs to zinc ions in both neutral and acidic condition. The silica coating however did not alter the desired antimicrobial activity of ZnO NPs to E. coli and S. aureus. Thus, silica coating offered a potential solution to improve the biocompatibility of ZnO NPs for applications such as antimicrobial agent in foods or food related products like food packaging. Nevertheless, caution remains that high concentration of silica coated ZnO NPs can still induce undesirable cytotoxicity to mammalian gut cells. This study indicated that upstream safer-by-design philosophy in nanotechnology can be very helpful in a product development.

  1. Thermally and optically stimulated radiative processes in Eu and Y co-doped LiCaAlF{sub 6} crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Kentaro, E-mail: ken-fukuda@tokuyama.co.jp [Tokuyama Corporation, 1-1 Mikage-cho, Shunan-shi, Yamaguchi 745-8648 (Japan); Yanagida, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Yutaka [Kyushu Institute of Technology, 2-4 Hibikino, Wakamatsu, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 808-0196 (Japan)

    2015-06-01

    Yttrium co-doping was attempted to enhance dosimeter performance of Eu doped LiCaAlF{sub 6} crystal. Eu doped and Eu, Y co-doped LiCaAlF{sub 6} were prepared by the micro-pulling-down technique, and their dosimeter characteristics such as optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) were investigated. By yttrium co-doping, emission intensities of OSL and TSL were enhanced by some orders of magnitude. In contrast, scintillation characteristics of yttrium co-doped crystal such as intensity of prompt luminescence induced by X-ray and light yield under neutron irradiation were degraded.

  2. Embalagem a vácuo: efeito no escurecimento e endurecimento do feijão durante o armazenamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaella Araújo Zambaldi Lima

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A influência do uso de embalagem a vácuo no controle do escurecimento e endurecimento do tegumento foi avaliada em feijões da cv. 'Pérola'. Os feijões após secos foram submetidos a diferentes embalagens: polietileno seladas a vácuo (espessura de 80µm, polietileno seladas sem vácuo (espessura de 80µm e embalagem comercial (espessura de 20µm, armazenados por oito meses em condições ambiente. Foram realizadas análises de umidade, tempo de cozimento, cor, atividade enzimática e compostos fenólicos, logo após a secagem e em intervalos de dois meses até o oitavo mês. O tempo de cozimento foi maior para os grãos acondicionados em embalagem comercial do que nas outras embalagens, ao final do armazenamento. Os grãos embalados em sacos de polietileno selados a vácuo apresentaram menor queda nos valores de L*. As amostras da embalagem selada a vácuo apresentaram atividade da Peroxidase e Polifenoloxidase inferior aos grãos da embalagem comercial. O teor de fenólicos totais não apresentou diferença significativa. O uso da embalagem selada a vácuo foi eficiente em retardar o aumento no tempo de cozimento, o escurecimento do tegumento, a atividade das enzimas Polifenoloxidase e Peroxidase da cultivar 'Pérola', durante o armazenamento por oito meses em condição ambiente.

  3. Synthesis, spectroscopic analysis and electrochemical performance of modified β-nickel hydroxide electrode with CuO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Shruthi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, a modified β-nickel hydroxide (β-Ni(OH2 electrode material with CuO has been prepared using a co-precipitation method. The structure and property of the modified β-Ni(OH2 with CuO were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier Transform infra-red (FT-IR, Raman and thermal gravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA techniques. The results of the FT-IR spectroscopy and TG-DTA indicate that the modified β-Ni(OH2 electrode materials contain intercalated water molecules and anions. A pasted–type electrode was prepared using nickel hydroxide powder as the main active material on a nickel sheet as a current collector. Cyclic voltammetry (CV and Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS studies were undertaken to assess the electrochemical behavior of pure β-Ni(OH2 and modified β-Ni(OH2 electrode with CuO in a 6 M KOH electrolyte. The addition of CuO into β-nickel hydroxide was found to enhance the reversibility of the electrode reaction and also increase the separation of the oxidation current peak of the active material from the oxygen evolution current. The modified nickel hydroxide with CuO was also found to exhibit a higher proton diffusion coefficient and a lower charge transfer resistance. These findings suggest that the modified β-Ni(OH2 with CuO possesses an enhanced electrochemical response and thus can be recognized as a promising candidate for battery electrode applications.

  4. Electrochemical synthesis of multi-armed CuO nanoparticles and their remarkable bactericidal potential against waterborne bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, Pratibha, E-mail: rkpratibha@yahoo.com; Merwyn, S.; Agarwal, G. S.; Tripathi, B. K.; Pant, S. C. [Defence Research and Development Establishment (India)

    2012-01-15

    Copper (II) oxide multi-armed nanoparticles composed of 500-1000 nm long radiating nanospicules with 100-200 nm width near the base and 50-100 nm width at the tapered ends and {approx}25 nm thickness were synthesized by electrochemical deposition in the presence of an oxidant followed by calcination at 150 Degree-Sign C. The nanoparticles were characterized using SEM/EDX for morphology and composition, Raman spectroscopy for compound identification, and broth culture method for antibacterial efficacy. The CuO nanoparticles have shown remarkable bactericidal efficacy against Gram-positive and -negative waterborne disease causing bacteria like Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. E. coli has been chosen as representative species for waterborne disease causing bacteria. In antibacterial tests 500 {mu}g/mL nano CuO killed 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} CFU/mL E. coli bacteria within 4 h of exposure. Moreover, 8.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} CFU/mL E. coli were killed by 100 and 10 {mu}g/mL nano CuO within 15 min and 4 h of exposure, respectively. Antibacterial activity of nano CuO has been found many-fold compared with commercial bulk CuO. The fate of nanoparticles after antibacterial test has also been studied. The synthesized CuO nanoparticles are expected to have potential antibacterial applications in water purification and in paints and coatings used on frequently touched surfaces and fabrics in hospital settings.

  5. The layered double hydroxide route to Bi-Zn co-doped TiO₂ with high photocatalytic activity under visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benalioua, Bahia; Mansour, Meriem; Bentouami, Abdelhadi; Boury, Bruno; Elandaloussi, El Hadj

    2015-05-15

    In this work, a co-doped Bi-Zn-TiO₂ photocatalist is synthesized by an original synthesis route of layered double hydroxide followed by heat treatment at 670 °C. After characterization the photocatalyst efficiency is estimated by the photo-discoloration of an anionic dye (indigo carmine) under visible light and compare to TiO₂-P25 as reference material. In this new photocatalyst, anatase and ZnO wurtzite are the only identified crystalline phase, rutile and Bi₂O₃ being undetected. Moreover, the binding energy of Bi determined (XPS analysis) is different from the one of Bi in Bi₂O₃. Compared to TiO₂-P25, the absorption is red shifted (UV-vis DRS) and the Bi-Zn-TiO₂ photocatalyst showed sorption capacity toward indigo carmine higher than that TiO₂-P25. The kinetics of the photo-discoloration is faster with Bi-Zn-TiO₂ than with TiO₂-P25. Indeed, a complete discoloration is obtained after 70 min and 120 min in the presence of Bi-Zn-TiO₂ and TiO₂-P25 respectively. The identification of the responsible species on photo-discoloration was carried out in the presence of different scavengers. The study showed that the first responsible is h(+) specie with a moderate contribution of superoxide anion radical and a minor contribution of the hydroxyl radical. The material showed high stability after five uses with the same rate of photo-discoloration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Controlled Synthesis of Heterostructured SnO2-CuO Composite Hollow Microspheres as Efficient Cu-Based Catalysts for the Rochow Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hezhi Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we report the design and synthesis of a series of heterostructured SnO2-CuO hollow microspherical catalysts (H-SnO2(x-CuO, x is the weight ratio of Sn/Cu for the Rochow reaction. The microspherical catalysts with nanosheets and nanoparticles as building blocks were prepared by a facile one-pot hydrothermal method coupled with calcination. When tested for the Rochow reaction, the prepared H-SnO2(0.2-CuO composite exhibited higher dimethyldichlorosilane selectivity (88.2% and Si conversion (36.7% than the solid CuO, hollow CuO and other H-SnO2(x-CuO microspherical samples, because in the former there is a stronger synergistic interaction between CuO and SnO2.

  7. Chemical bond properties and Mossbauer spectroscopy in (La1-xMx)2CuO4 (M=Ba, Sr)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    By using the average band-gap model, the chemical bond properties of (La1-x Mx)2CuO4(M=Ba, Sr) were calculated . The calculated covalencies for Cu(O and La(O bond in the compounds are 0.3 and 0.03 respectively. M?ssbauer isomer shifts of 57Fe doped in La2CuO4 and 119Sn doped in La2CuO4 were calculated by using the chemical surrounding factor defined by covalency and electronic polarizability. Four valence state tin and three valence iron sites were identified in 57Fe and 119Sn doped La2CuO4.

  8. Structural properties of as-grown and reduced Pr2CuO4 single crystals investigated by ion channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haga, T.; Abe, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Ion channeling is very sensitive to atomic arrangements and small atomic displacements in real space. Thus, in order to clarify a role of reduction for Pr 2 CuO 4 , ion channeling properties for the materials have been measured in detail. Anomalous increases of dechanneling fractions of Cu and O atoms in the reduced samples have been found. These results could not be explained by the apical oxygen model but probably suggest that O atoms in Cu-O planes are removed by reduction. Taking these results into account, correlation between lattice instability and superconductivity in the material will be discussed. (orig.)

  9. Response speed of SnO2-based H2S gas sensors with CuO nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhuri, Arijit; Gupta, Vinay; Sreenivas, K.; Kumar, Rajeev; Mozumdar, Subho; Patanjali, P. K.

    2004-01-01

    CuO nanoparticles on sputtered SnO 2 thin-film surface exhibit a fast response speed (14 s) and recovery time (61 s) for trace level (20 ppm) H 2 S gas detection. The sensitivity of the sensor (S∼2.06x10 3 ) is noted to be high at a low operating temperature of 130 deg. C. CuO nanoparticles on SnO 2 allow effective removal of excess adsorbed oxygen from the uncovered SnO 2 surface due to spillover of hydrogen dissociated from the H 2 S-CuO interaction

  10. ZnO quantum dots–decorated ZnO nanowires for the enhancement of antibacterial and photocatalytic performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jyh Ming; Tsay, Li-Yi

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate highly antibacterial activities for killing off Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli using ZnO nanowires decorated with ZnO quantum dots (so-called ZnO QDs/NWs) under visible-light irradiation and dark conditions. The average size of the ZnO QDs is in the range of 3–5 nm; these were uniformly dispersed on the ZnO nanowires’ surface to form the ZnO QDs/NWs. A significant blue-shift effect was observed using photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The size of the ZnO QDs is strongly dependent on the material’s synthesis time. The ZnO QDs/NWs exhibited an excellent photocatalytic activity under visible-light irradiation. The ZnO QDs’ active sites (i.e. the O–H bond and Zn"2"+) accelerate the photogenerated-carrier migration from the QDs to the NWs. As a consequence, the electrons reacted with the dissolved oxygen to form oxygen ions and produced hydroperoxyl radicals to enhance photocatalytic activity. The antibacterial activities (as indicated by R-factor-inhibiting activity) of the ZnO QDs/NWs for killing off Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli is around 4.9 and 5.5 under visible-light irradiation and dark conditions, respectively. The hydroxyl radicals served as an efficient oxidized agent for decomposing the organic dye and microorganism species. The antibacterial activities of the ZnO QDs/NWs in the dark may be attributed to the Zn"2"+ ions that were released from the ZnO QDs and infused into the microbial solution against the growth of bacteria thus disrupting the microorganism. The highly antibacterial and photocatalytic activity of the ZnO QDs/NWs can be well implanted on a screen window, thus offering a promising solution to inhibit the spread of germs under visible-light and dark conditions. (paper)

  11. Chemical synthesis of flower-like hybrid Cu(OH)2/CuO electrode: Application of polyvinyl alcohol and triton X-100 to enhance supercapacitor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, S K; Fulari, V J; Kim, D-Y; Maile, N C; Koli, R R; Dhaygude, H D; Ghodake, G S

    2017-08-01

    In this research article, we report hybrid nanomaterials of copper hydroxide/copper oxide (Cu(OH) 2 /CuO). A thin films were prepared by using a facile and cost-effective successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. As-synthesized and hybrid Cu(OH) 2 /CuO with two different surfactants polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and triton-X 100 (TRX-100) was prepared having distinct morphological, structural, and supercapacitor properties. The surface of the thin film samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A nanoflower-like morphology of the Cu(OH) 2 /CuO nanostructures arranged vertically was evidenced on the stainless steel substrate. The surface was well covered by nanoflake-like morphology and formed a uniform Cu(OH) 2 /CuO nanostructures after treating with surfactants. X-ray diffraction patterns were used to confirm the hybrid phase of Cu(OH) 2 /CuO materials. The electrochemical properties of the pristine Cu(OH) 2 /CuO, PVA:Cu(OH) 2 /CuO, TRX-100:Cu(OH) 2 /CuO films were observed by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique. The electrochemical examination reveals that the Cu(OH) 2 /CuO electrode has excellent specific capacitance, 292, 533, and 443Fg -1 with pristine, PVA, and TRX-100, respectively in 1M Na 2 SO 4 electrolyte solution. The cyclic voltammograms (CV) of Cu(OH) 2 /CuO electrode shows positive role of the PVA and TRX-100 to enhance supercapacitor performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Positron annihilation spectroscopy study on annealing effect of CuO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Jianjian; Wang, Jiaheng; Yang, Wei; Zhu, Zhejie; Wu, Yichu, E-mail: ycwu@whu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Technology, Hubei Key Laboratory of Nuclear Solid State Physics, Wuhan University (WHU), Wuhan (China)

    2016-03-15

    The microstructure and defects of CuO nanoparticles under isochronal annealing were investigated by positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). XRD and SEM results indicated that the average grain sizes of CuO nanoparticles grew slowly below 800 °C, and then increased rapidly with the annealing temperature from 800 to 1000 °C. Positron lifetime analysis exhibited that positrons were mainly annihilated in mono-vacancies (V{sub Cu}, V{sub O}) and vacancy clusters when annealing from 200 to 800 °C. Furthermore, W-S plot of Doppler broadening spectra at different annealing temperatures found that the (W, S) points distributed on two different defect species, which suggested that V{sup −}{sub Cu} - V{sup +}{sub O} complexes were produced when the grains grew to bigger size after annealing above 800 °C, and positrons might annihilate at these complexes. (author)

  13. Room temperature ammonia and VOC sensing properties of CuO nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuvaneshwari, S.; Gopalakrishnan, N.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report a NH 3 and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) sensing prototype of CuO nanorods with peculiar sensing characteristics at room temperature. High quality polycrystalline nanorods were synthesized by a low temperature hydrothermal method. The rods are well oriented with an aspect ratio of 5.71. Luminescence spectrum of CuO nanorods exhibited a strong UV-emission around 415 nm (2.98 eV) which arises from the electron-hole recombination phenomenon. The absence of further deep level emissions establishes the lack of defects such as oxygen vacancies and Cu interstitials. At room temperature, the sensor response was recorded over a range of gas concentrations from 100-600 ppm of ammonia, ethanol and methanol. The sensor response showed power law dependence with the gas concentration. This low temperature sensing can be validated by the lower value of calculated activation energy of 1.65 eV observed from the temperature dependent conductivity measurement.

  14. Room temperature ammonia and VOC sensing properties of CuO nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvaneshwari, S.; Gopalakrishnan, N.

    2016-05-01

    Here, we report a NH3 and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) sensing prototype of CuO nanorods with peculiar sensing characteristics at room temperature. High quality polycrystalline nanorods were synthesized by a low temperature hydrothermal method. The rods are well oriented with an aspect ratio of 5.71. Luminescence spectrum of CuO nanorods exhibited a strong UV-emission around 415 nm (2.98 eV) which arises from the electron-hole recombination phenomenon. The absence of further deep level emissions establishes the lack of defects such as oxygen vacancies and Cu interstitials. At room temperature, the sensor response was recorded over a range of gas concentrations from 100-600 ppm of ammonia, ethanol and methanol. The sensor response showed power law dependence with the gas concentration. This low temperature sensing can be validated by the lower value of calculated activation energy of 1.65 eV observed from the temperature dependent conductivity measurement.

  15. Nonenzymatic amperometric determination of glucose by CuO nanocubes-graphene nanocomposite modified electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Liqiang; Zhu, Limei; Wang, Zhenxin

    2012-12-01

    Here, we report a nonenzymatic amperometric glucose sensor based on copper oxide (CuO) nanocubes-graphene nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode (CuO-G-GCE). In this case, the graphene sheets were cast on the GCE directly. CuO nanocubes were obtained by oxidizing electrochemically deposited Cu on the graphene. The morphology of CuO-G nanocomposite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The CuO-G-GCE-based sensor exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity and high stability for glucose oxidation. Under optimized conditions, the linearity between the current response and the glucose concentration was obtained in the range of 2μM to 4mM with a detection limit of 0.7μM (S/N=3), and a high sensitivity of 1360μAmM(-1)cm(-2). The proposed electrode showed a fast response time (less than 5s) and a good reproducibility. The as-made sensor was applied to determine the glucose levels in clinic human serum samples with satisfactory results. In addition, the effects of common interfering species, including ascorbic acid, uric acid, dopamine and other carbohydrates, on the amperometric response of the sensor were investigated and discussed in detail. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Designing 3D highly ordered nanoporous CuO electrodes for high-performance asymmetric supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavifard, Seyyed E; El-Kady, Maher F; Rahmanifar, Mohammad S; Kaner, Richard B; Mousavi, Mir F

    2015-03-04

    The increasing demand for energy has triggered tremendous research efforts for the development of lightweight and durable energy storage devices. Herein, we report a simple, yet effective, strategy for high-performance supercapacitors by building three-dimensional pseudocapacitive CuO frameworks with highly ordered and interconnected bimodal nanopores, nanosized walls (∼4 nm) and large specific surface area of 149 m(2) g(-1). This interesting electrode structure plays a key role in providing facilitated ion transport, short ion and electron diffusion pathways and more active sites for electrochemical reactions. This electrode demonstrates excellent electrochemical performance with a specific capacitance of 431 F g(-1) (1.51 F cm(-2)) at 3.5 mA cm(-2) and retains over 70% of this capacitance when operated at an ultrafast rate of 70 mA cm(-2). When this highly ordered CuO electrode is assembled in an asymmetric cell with an activated carbon electrode, the as-fabricated device demonstrates remarkable performance with an energy density of 19.7 W h kg(-1), power density of 7 kW kg(-1), and excellent cycle life. This work presents a new platform for high-performance asymmetric supercapacitors for the next generation of portable electronics and electric vehicles.

  17. GMI effect in CuO coated Co-based amorphous ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taysioglu, Asli Ayten; Peksoz, Ahmet; Kaya, Yunus; Derebasi, Naim; Irez, Gazi; Kaynak, Gokay

    2009-01-01

    A Copper oxide (CuO) film has been grown on a surface of Co-based amorphous ribbon using chemical successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction technique, at room temperature and atmosphere pressure. The influence of coating and width of ribbon on giant magneto impedance have been investigated over a frequency range from 0.1 to 3 MHz and under a static magnetic field between -8 and +8 kA/m. The results showed that Co-based amorphous ribbons, which are coated CuO film, have a significant effect on the magnitude and operation frequency for the giant magneto impedance effect as compared to the samples without coating. The highest giant magneto impedance effect was found to be 14.90 on 5 mm width coated ribbon, which is 60% higher than the sample without coating. A surface observation of these samples has been carried out by an atomic force microscope. The AFM images reveal the difference between surfaces of coated and as-cast sample.

  18. GMI effect in CuO coated Co-based amorphous ribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taysioglu, Asli Ayten [Department of Physics, Sciences and Arts Faculty, Uludag University, 16059 Gorukle, Bursa (Turkey); Peksoz, Ahmet, E-mail: peksoz@uludag.edu.t [Department of Physics, Sciences and Arts Faculty, Uludag University, 16059 Gorukle, Bursa (Turkey); Kaya, Yunus [Department of Chemistry, Sciences and Arts Faculty, Uludag University, 16059 Gorukle, Bursa (Turkey); Derebasi, Naim [Department of Physics, Sciences and Arts Faculty, Uludag University, 16059 Gorukle, Bursa (Turkey); Irez, Gazi [Department of Chemistry, Sciences and Arts Faculty, Uludag University, 16059 Gorukle, Bursa (Turkey); Kaynak, Gokay [Department of Physics, Sciences and Arts Faculty, Uludag University, 16059 Gorukle, Bursa (Turkey)

    2009-11-13

    A Copper oxide (CuO) film has been grown on a surface of Co-based amorphous ribbon using chemical successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction technique, at room temperature and atmosphere pressure. The influence of coating and width of ribbon on giant magneto impedance have been investigated over a frequency range from 0.1 to 3 MHz and under a static magnetic field between -8 and +8 kA/m. The results showed that Co-based amorphous ribbons, which are coated CuO film, have a significant effect on the magnitude and operation frequency for the giant magneto impedance effect as compared to the samples without coating. The highest giant magneto impedance effect was found to be 14.90 on 5 mm width coated ribbon, which is 60% higher than the sample without coating. A surface observation of these samples has been carried out by an atomic force microscope. The AFM images reveal the difference between surfaces of coated and as-cast sample.

  19. WO3 nanoflakes decorated with CuO clusters for enhanced photoelectrochemical water splitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongwu Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The low quantum efficiency arising from poor charges transfer and insufficient light absorption is one of the critical challenges toward achieving highly efficient water splitting in photoelectrochemical cells. Three dimensions (3D structures and heterojunctions have received intensive research interests recent years due to their excellent ability to separate photo-generated charges as well as the enhanced light harvesting property. Herein, 3D CuO/WO3 structure was fabricated through a facile solvothermal method followed by chemical bath deposition. The loading of CuO clusters on WO3 nanoflake arrays results in a much improved photocurrent density compared with that of pristine WO3 nanoflake arrays, which reaches 1.8 mA/cm2 at 1.23 V vs. the reversible hydrogen electrode. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement demonstrates that the improved performance of CuO/WO3 electrode is attributed to the accelerated charge transfer kinetics as a result of the desirable band alignment in CuO/WO3 heterojunction. This work demonstrates a facile strategy to construct superior WO3 electrode, which will ultimately allow for efficient storage of solar energy into hydrogen. Keywords: Photoelectrochemistry, Water splitting, Tungsten trioxide photoanode, CuO clusters, Heterojunction

  20. Room temperature ammonia and VOC sensing properties of CuO nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhuvaneshwari, S.; Gopalakrishnan, N., E-mail: ngk@nitt.edu [Thin film laboratory, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli-620015 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Here, we report a NH{sub 3} and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) sensing prototype of CuO nanorods with peculiar sensing characteristics at room temperature. High quality polycrystalline nanorods were synthesized by a low temperature hydrothermal method. The rods are well oriented with an aspect ratio of 5.71. Luminescence spectrum of CuO nanorods exhibited a strong UV-emission around 415 nm (2.98 eV) which arises from the electron-hole recombination phenomenon. The absence of further deep level emissions establishes the lack of defects such as oxygen vacancies and Cu interstitials. At room temperature, the sensor response was recorded over a range of gas concentrations from 100-600 ppm of ammonia, ethanol and methanol. The sensor response showed power law dependence with the gas concentration. This low temperature sensing can be validated by the lower value of calculated activation energy of 1.65 eV observed from the temperature dependent conductivity measurement.

  1. Subsolidus phase relations of Bi2O3-Nd2O3-CuO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yezhou

    1997-01-01

    The subsolidus phase relations of the Bi 2 O 3 -Nd 2 O 3 -CuO ternary system and its binary systems along with crystallographic parameters of the compounds were investigated by X-ray powder diffraction and differential thermal analysis. The room temperature section of the phase diagram of the Bi 2 O 3 -Nd 2 O 3 -CuO system can be divided into two diphase regions and six triphase regions. No ternary compound was found. There exist two solid solutions (α, β) and a compound Bi 0.55 Nd 0.45 O 1.5 in the (Bi 2 O 2 ) 1-x (Nd 2 O 3 ) x system. Both solid solution α (0.05≤x≤0.30) and β (0.53≤x≤0.73) belong to the rhombohedral system (R3m). The lattice parameters represented by a hexagonal cell are a=3.9832(4), c=27.536(5) A for Bi 0.8 Nd 0.2 O 1.5 (α phase) and a=3.8826(3), c=9.727(1) A for Bi 0.4 Nd 0.8 O 1.5 (β phase). The Bi 0.55 Nd 0.45 O 1.5 compound crystallizes in a face-centered cubic (f.c.c.) lattice with a=5.5480(2) A. (orig.)

  2. Green fabricated CuO nanobullets via Olea europaea leaf extract shows auspicious antimicrobial potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, Qaisar; Iftikhar, Sidra; Nazar, Mudassar; Abbas, Fazal; Saleem, Asif; Hussain, Talib; Kausar, Rizwan; Anwaar, Sadaf; Jabeen, Nyla

    2017-06-01

    In present investigation, copper oxide (CuO) nanostructures have been prepared via green chemistry. Olea europaea leaf extract act as strong chelating agent for tailoring physical as well as bio-medical characteristics of CuO at the nano-size. Physical characterisation such as scanning electron microscope analysis depicts the formation of homogenised spherical shape nanoparticles (NPs) with average size of 42 nm. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy further confirmed the crystalline pure phase and monoclinic structure. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) testing is performed to evaluate the relative concentration of bioactive molecules in the O. europaea leaf extract. From HPLC results capping action of organic molecules around CuO-NPs is hypothesised. The antimicrobial potency of biosynthesised CuO-NPs have been evaluated using colony forming unit (CFU) counting assay and disc diffusion method which shows a significant zone of inhibition against bacterial and fungal strains may be highly potential for future antimicrobial pharmaceutics. Furthermore, reduction of various precursors by plant extract will reduce environmental impact over chemical synthesis.

  3. A density functional theory study of CO oxidation on CuO1-x(111).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bing-Xing; Ye, Li-Ping; Gu, Hui-Jie; Huang, Jin-Hua; Li, Hui-Ying; Luo, Yong

    2015-08-01

    The surface structures, CO adsorption, and oxidation-reaction properties of CuO1-x(111) with different reduction degree have been investigated by using density functional theory including on-site Coulomb corrections (DFT + U). Results indicate that the reduction of Cu has a great influence on the adsorption of CO. Electron localization caused by the reduction turns Cu(2+) to Cu(+), which interacts much stronger with CO, and the adsorption strength of CO is related to the electronic interaction with the substrate as well as the structural relaxation. In particular, the electronic interaction is proved to be the decisive factor. The surfaces of CuO1-x(111) with different reduction degree all have good adsorption to CO. With the expansion of the surface reduction degree, the amount of CO that is stably adsorbed on the surface increases, while the number of surface active lattice O decreases. In general, the activity of CO oxidation first rises and then declines.

  4. Effects of hydrogen annealing on the room temperature ferromagnetism and optical properties of Cr-doped ZnO nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Liuniu; Wang Yichao; He Xianmei; Han Huaibin; Xia Ailin; Hu Jinlian

    2012-01-01

    We explore the effects of hydrogen annealing on the room temperature ferromagnetism and optical properties of Cr-doped ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by the sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data show evidence that Cr has been incorporated into the wurtzite ZnO lattice as Cr 2+ ions substituting for Zn 2+ ions without any detectable secondary phase in as-synthesized Zn 0.97 Cr 0.03 O nanopowders. The room temperature magnetization measurements reveal a large enhancement of saturation magnetization M s as well as an increase of coercivity of H 2 -annealed Zn 0.97 Cr 0.03 O:H samples. It is found that the field-cooled magnetization curves as a function of temperature from 40 to 400 K can be well fitted by a combination of a standard Bloch spin-wave model and Curie–Weiss law. The values of the fitted parameters of the ferromagnetic exchange interaction constant a and the Curie constant C of H 2 -annealed Zn 0.97 Cr 0.03 O:H nanoparticles are almost doubled upon H 2 -annealing. Photoluminescence measurements show evidence that the shallow donor defect or/and defect complexes such as hydrogen occupying an oxygen vacancy H o may play an important role in the origin of H 2 -annealing induced enhancement of ferromagnetism in Cr-H codoped ZnO nanoparticles. - Graphical Abstract: The H 2 -annealing induced enhancement of room temperature ferromagnetism in Cr-doped ZnO nanoparticles is observed. It is found that the field-cooled M-T curves can be well fitted by a combination of a standard Bloch spin-wave model and Curie–Weiss law. The values of the fitted parameters of the ferromagnetic exchange interaction constant a and the Curie constant C of H 2 -annealed Zn 0.97 Cr 0.03 O:H nanoparticles are almost doubled upon H 2 -annealing. The PL data show evidence that the hydrogen related shallow donor defect or/and defect complexes may be responsible for it. Display Omitted Highlights: ► The H 2 -annealing induced a large enhancement of

  5. Admittance spectroscopy of spray-pyrolyzed ZnO film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavasoglu, Nese; Kavasoglu, A. Sertap

    2008-01-01

    A ZnO film was deposited using the spray pyrolysis method. The admittance spectroscopy method was used to establish the contributions to electrical behavior from grains, grain boundaries, and electrodes of film. Proper equivalent electrical circuit of a ZnO film composed of a single parallel resistor, capacitor, and inductor network connected with a series resistance was proposed. Moreover, we displayed metal-semiconductor transition (MST) in the ZnO film via admittance spectroscopy

  6. Room temperature ferromagnetism in Cu doped ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nasir; Singh, Budhi; Khan, Zaheer Ahmed; Ghosh, Subhasis

    2018-05-01

    We report the room temperature ferromagnetism in 2% Cu doped ZnO films grown by RF magnetron sputtering in different argon and oxygen partial pressure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to ascertain the oxidation states of Cu in ZnO. The presence of defects within Cu-doped ZnO films can be revealed by electron paramagnetic resonance. It has been observed that saturated magnetic moment increase as we increase the zinc vacancies during deposition.

  7. The influence on intrinsic light emission of calcium tungstate and molybdate powders by multivalence Pr codoping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Fang; Xiao, Zhisong; Yan, Lu; Zhang, Feng; Huang, Anping

    2010-01-01

    For trivalent praseodymium (Pr 3+ ) and quadrivalent praseodymium (Pr 4+ ) codoped CaMO 4 (M = W, Mo) powders, the luminescence propriety of matrix is obviously influenced by carrier concentration. The light emission intensity of CaWO 4 matrix decreases exponentially with increasing of Pr concentration because oxygen-deficient (WO 3 .V O ) obtains an electron supplied by Pr 3+ (5d). However, the light emission intensity of CaMoO 4 is enhanced by Pr codoping because the quasi-free electrons increase the probability of radiative combination. The difference of photoluminescence properties in the two materials are attributed to the bonding character of M and O in the CaMO 4 structure. (orig.)

  8. Change in structural morphology on addition of ZnO and its effect on fluorescence of Yb³⁺/Er³⁺ doped Y₂O₃.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, R V; Verma, R K; Kaur, G; Rai, S B

    2013-02-15

    Yb(3+)/Er(3+) codoped Y(2)O(3) phosphor and its composite with ZnO have been synthesized by combustion method. Morphology of the materials has been investigated using X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. XRD confirms the constituents as Y(2)O(3) and ZnO, with average crystallite size of 112 nm. On addition of ZnO, a small shifting in XRD pattern of Y(2)O(3) is observed. SEM pattern suggests that the average particle size lies in micro-range (0.5 μm). A dumble like structure is observed for hybrid material on annealing at 1473 K. A strong green (525, 546 nm) with weak blue (411 nm) and red (657 nm) emissions through upconversion has been observed from the phosphor on excitation with 976 nm diode laser. The observed emissions involve (2)H(9/2)→(4)I(15/2), (2)H(11/2)→(4)I(15/2), (4)S(3/2)→(4)I(15/2) and (4)F(9/2)→(4)I(15/2) electronic transitions, respectively. The upconversion process has been confirmed by power dependence measurements and its slope value was found to be 1.85, 1.72 for green and red emissions, respectively. On addition of ZnO, the intensity of these emissions is enhanced several times. The reason behind the enhancement is discussed with the help of the emitting level lifetime. An interesting dual mode property (upconversion and downconversion) to the same material has been observed on excitation with 532 nm laser source. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Optical Properties of ZnO Nanoparticles Capped with Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Noguchi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Optical properties of ZnO nanoparticles capped with polymers were investigated. Polyethylene glycol (PEG and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP were used as capping reagents. ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by the sol-gel method. Fluorescence and absorption spectra were measured. When we varied the timing of the addition of the polymer to the ZnO nanoparticle solution, the optical properties were drastically changed. When PEG was added to the solution before the synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles, the fluorescence intensity increased. At the same time, the total particle size increased, which indicated that PEG molecules had capped the ZnO nanoparticles. The capping led to surface passivation, which increased fluorescence intensity. However, when PEG was added to the solution after the synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles, the fluorescence and particle size did not change. When PVP was added to the solution before the synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles, aggregation of nanoparticles occurred. When PVP was added to the solution after the synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles, fluorescence and particle size increased. This improvement of optical properties is advantageous to the practical usage of ZnO nanoparticles, such as bioimaging

  10. Preparation of ZnO nanocrystals via ultrasonic irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qian, D.; Jiang, Jianzhong; Hansen, P. L.

    2003-01-01

    A simple and rapid process has been developed for the preparation of nanometer-sized ZnO crystals via ultrasonic irradiation, by which pure ZnO nanocrystals with an average size of 6 nm and narrow size distribution can be synthesized in a short time and without using any solvents for the precipit......A simple and rapid process has been developed for the preparation of nanometer-sized ZnO crystals via ultrasonic irradiation, by which pure ZnO nanocrystals with an average size of 6 nm and narrow size distribution can be synthesized in a short time and without using any solvents...

  11. Sulfur and Nitrogen Co-Doped Graphene Electrodes for High-Performance Ionic Artificial Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotal, Moumita; Kim, Jaehwan; Kim, Kwang J; Oh, Il-Kwon

    2016-02-24

    Sulfur and nitrogen co-doped graphene electrodes for bioinspired ionic artificial muscles, which exhibit outstanding actuation performances (bending strain of 0.36%, 4.5 times higher than PSS electrodes, and 96% of initial strain after demonstration over 18 000 cycles), provide remarkable electro-chemo-mech anical properties: specific capacitance, electrical conductivity, and large surface area with mesoporosity. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Magnetic nanoparticles formed in glasses co-doped with iron and larger radius elements

    OpenAIRE

    Edelman , Irina; Ivanova , Oxana; Ivantsov , Ruslan; Velikanov , D.; Zabluda , V.; Zubavichus , Y.; Veligzhanin , A.; Zaikovskiy , V.; Stepanov , S.; Artemenko , Alla; Curély , Jacques; Kliava , Janis

    2012-01-01

    International audience; A new type of nanoparticle-containing glasses based on borate glasses co-doped with low contents of iron and larger radius elements, Dy, Tb, Gd, Ho, Er, Y, and Bi, is studied. Heat treatment of these glasses results in formation of magnetic nanoparticles, radically changing their physical properties. Transmission electron microscopy and synchrotron radiation-based techniques: x-ray diffraction, extended x-ray absorption fine structure, x-ray absorption near-edge struct...

  13. Morphological Control of Mesoporosity and Nanoparticles within Co3O4-CuO Electrospun Nanofibers: Quantum Confinement and Visible Light Photocatalysis Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Amaresh C; Uyar, Tamer

    2017-10-18

    The one-dimensional (1D) mesoporous and interconnected nanoparticles (NPs) enriched composite Co 3 O 4 -CuO nanofibers (NFs) in the ratio Co:Cu = 1/4 (Co 3 O 4 -CuO NFs) composite have been synthesized by electrospinning and calcination of mixed polymeric template. Not merely the mesoporous composite Co 3 O 4 -CuO NFs but also single mesoporous Co 3 O 4 NFs and CuO NFs have been produced for comparison. The choice of mixed polymer templates such as polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) for electrospinning is responsible for the formation of 1D mesoporous NFs. The HR-TEM result showed evolution of interconnected nanoparticles (NPs) and creation of mesoporosity in all electrospun NFs. The quantum confinement is due to NPs within NFs and has been proved by the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) study and the UV-vis-NRI diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS). The high intense photoluminescence (PL) spectra showing blue shift of all NFs also confirmed the quantum confinement phenomena. The lowering of PL spectrum after mixing of CuO in Co 3 O 4 nanofibers framework (Co 3 O 4 -CuO NFs) proved CuO as an efficient visible light response low cost cocatalyst/charge separator. The red shifting of the band gap in composite Co 3 O 4 -CuO NFs is due to the internal charge transfer between Co 2+ to Co 3+ and Cu 2+ , proved by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. Creation of oxygen vacancies by mixing of CuO and Co 3 O 4 also prevents the electron-hole recombination and enhances the photocatalytic activity in composite Co 3 O 4 -CuO NFs. The photocurrent density, Mott-Schottky (MS), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies of all NFs favor the high photocatalytic performance. The mesoporous composite Co 3 O 4 -CuO NFs exhibits high photocatalytic activity toward phenolic compounds degradation as compared to the other two NFs (Co 3 O 4 NFs and CuO NFs). The kinetic study of phenolic compounds followed first order rate equation. The high photocatalytic

  14. A comparative investigation on structure and multiferroic properties of bismuth ferrite thin films by multielement co-doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Guohua; Tan, Guoqiang, E-mail: tan3114@163.com; Luo, Yangyang; Liu, Wenlong; Xia, Ao; Ren, Huijun

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Multielement (Tb, Cr and Mn) co-doped BiFeO{sub 3} films were fabricated by CSD method. • Multielement co-doping induces a structural transition. • It is found effective to stabilize the valence of Fe ions at +3 by the strategy. • The co-doping at A/B-sites gives rise to the superior multiferroic properties. - Abstract: (Tb, Cr and Mn) multielement co-doped BiFeO{sub 3} (BTFCMO) thin films were prepared by the chemical solution deposition method on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates. X-ray diffraction, Rietveld refinement and Raman analyses revealed that a phase transition from rhombohedral to triclinic structure occurs in the multielement co-doped BiFeO{sub 3} films. It is found that the doping is conducive to stabilizing the valence of Fe ions and reducing leakage current. In addition, the highly enhanced ferroelectric properties with a huge remanent polarization (2P{sub r}) of 239.6 μC/cm{sup 2} and a low coercive field (2E{sub c}) of 615.6 kV/cm are ascribed to the well film texture, the structure transition and the reduced leakage current by the co-doping. Moreover, the structure transition is the dominant factor resulting in the significant enhancement observed in magnetization (M{sub s} ∼ 10.5 emu/cm{sup 3}), owing to the collapse of the space-modulated spin structure. In this contribution, these results demonstrate that the multielement co-doping is in favor of the enhanced multiferroic properties of the BFO films for possible multifunctional applications.

  15. Synthesis and properties of Co-doped titanate nanotubes and their optical sensitization with methylene blue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, V.C.; Nunes, M.R.; Silvestre, A.J.; Monteiro, O.C.

    2013-01-01

    Here we report on a novel chemical route to synthesize homogenous cobalt-doped titanate nanotubes (CoTNT), using an amorphous Co-doped precursor. The influence of the synthesis temperature, autoclave dwell time and metal doping on the structural and microstructural as well as on the optical properties of the synthesized titanate nanotubes is studied and discussed. The optical band gaps of the CoTNT samples are red shifted in comparison with the values determined for the undoped samples, such red shifts bringing the absorption edge of the CoTNT samples into the visible region. CoTNT materials also demonstrate particular high adsorption ability for methylene blue, the amount of the adsorbed dye being higher than the one predictable for a monolayer formation. This suggests the possibility of intercalation of the dye molecule between the TiO 6 layers of the TNT structure. It is also shown that the methylene blue sensitized Co-doped nanostructures are highly stable under UV radiation and present a strong and broad absorption in the visible region. - Highlights: • New hydrothermal chemical route to synthesize cobalt-doped titanate nanotubes. • The Co-doping stabilizes the TNTs morphology in a temperature range of 160–200 °C. • Optical band gaps of CoTNTs are red shifted compared to the TNT samples. • Methylene blue sensitized CoTNTs are highly stable under UV–vis irradiation

  16. Carbon Nitrogen Co-Doped P25: Parameter Study on Photodegradation of Reactive Red 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azami M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic degradation rate of reactive red 4 (RR4 using carbon coated nitrogen doped TiO2 (C N co-doped TiO2 in photocatalysis process is main goal on this research. The main operating the parameters such as effect of initial dye concentration, catalyst loading, aeration flow rate and initial pH on degradation of RR4 under 45 W fluorescent lamp was investigated. photocatalytic activity of RR4 dye decreased with increasing RR4 dye concentration. The optimum loading is around 0.04 g and optimum aeration rate is about 25 mL min-1 of C N co-doped TiO2. Effect of pH was conducted based on the optimum loading and conclude that the photocatalytic degradation of RR4 became faster at pH 2 - 7. For the future work, the modification of doping with others element like non-metal or metal with C N co-doped TiO2 can be enhanced toward the higher efficieny of photodegradation under visible light. Moreover, the immobilized technique can be used in future to overcome the difficulty of filtration on suspension.

  17. Comparative studies on magnetic properties of Mn/Fe codoped ZnS nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hongxia, E-mail: chenhongxia1@sina.com [College of Physical Science and Electronic Techniques, Yancheng Teachers University, Yancheng 224002 (China); Department of Physics, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Chen, Changyuan [College of Physical Science and Electronic Techniques, Yancheng Teachers University, Yancheng 224002 (China)

    2013-03-15

    We studied magnetic properties of Mn and Fe codoped ZnS nanowires (NWs) using the first-principles calculations. Our results indicate that the doped ZnS NWs tend to adopt the ferrimagnetic (FiM) configuration with and without surface dangling bonds. To obtain ferromagnetic (FM) configuration, we considered effects of both defects and anion codoping. We found that S vacancies facilitate FM states; the FM state is lower in energy than the FiM state by as much as 0.219 eV. We further replaced an S atom by a C atom and found that the C atom prefers to substitute the S atom connecting the Mn and Fe atoms. The FM states are lower in energy than the FiM states by 0.361 and 0.641 eV. Such large energy differences imply that room temperature ferromagnetism can be expected in these systems. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The doped system favors ferrimagnetic configuration both with and without surface dangling bonds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The doped system with S vacancy favors stable ferromagnetic states at negative charge state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer With additional C codoping, the doped system tends to stabilize in a ferromagnetic configuration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Large energy difference indicates that room temperature ferromagnetism could be expected.

  18. Synthesis and properties of Co-doped titanate nanotubes and their optical sensitization with methylene blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, V.C. [University of Lisbon, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and CQB, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Nunes, M.R. [University of Lisbon, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and CCMM, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Silvestre, A.J. [Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Department of Physics and ICEMS, R. Conselheiro Emídio Navarro 1, 1959-007 Lisboa (Portugal); Monteiro, O.C., E-mail: ocmonteiro@fc.ul.pt [University of Lisbon, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and CQB, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2013-10-01

    Here we report on a novel chemical route to synthesize homogenous cobalt-doped titanate nanotubes (CoTNT), using an amorphous Co-doped precursor. The influence of the synthesis temperature, autoclave dwell time and metal doping on the structural and microstructural as well as on the optical properties of the synthesized titanate nanotubes is studied and discussed. The optical band gaps of the CoTNT samples are red shifted in comparison with the values determined for the undoped samples, such red shifts bringing the absorption edge of the CoTNT samples into the visible region. CoTNT materials also demonstrate particular high adsorption ability for methylene blue, the amount of the adsorbed dye being higher than the one predictable for a monolayer formation. This suggests the possibility of intercalation of the dye molecule between the TiO{sub 6} layers of the TNT structure. It is also shown that the methylene blue sensitized Co-doped nanostructures are highly stable under UV radiation and present a strong and broad absorption in the visible region. - Highlights: • New hydrothermal chemical route to synthesize cobalt-doped titanate nanotubes. • The Co-doping stabilizes the TNTs morphology in a temperature range of 160–200 °C. • Optical band gaps of CoTNTs are red shifted compared to the TNT samples. • Methylene blue sensitized CoTNTs are highly stable under UV–vis irradiation.

  19. Sodium doping in ZnO crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, N. S.; Lynn, K. G.

    2015-01-01

    ZnO bulk single crystals were doped with sodium by thermal diffusion. Positron annihilations spectroscopy confirms the filling of zinc vacancies, to >6 μm deep in the bulk. Secondary-ion mass spectrometry measurement shows the diffusion of sodium up to 8 μm with concentration (1-3.5) × 1017 cm-3. Broad photoluminescence excitation peak at 3.1 eV, with onset appearance at 3.15 eV in Na:ZnO, is attributed to an electronic transition from a NaZn level at ˜(220-270) meV to the conduction band. Resistivity in Na doped ZnO crystals increases up to (4-5) orders of magnitude at room temperature.

  20. Sodium doping in ZnO crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parmar, N. S.; Lynn, K. G.

    2015-01-01

    ZnO bulk single crystals were doped with sodium by thermal diffusion. Positron annihilations spectroscopy confirms the filling of zinc vacancies, to >6 μm deep in the bulk. Secondary-ion mass spectrometry measurement shows the diffusion of sodium up to 8 μm with concentration (1–3.5) × 10 17  cm −3 . Broad photoluminescence excitation peak at 3.1 eV, with onset appearance at 3.15 eV in Na:ZnO, is attributed to an electronic transition from a Na Zn level at ∼(220–270) meV to the conduction band. Resistivity in Na doped ZnO crystals increases up to (4–5) orders of magnitude at room temperature

  1. Sodium doping in ZnO crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parmar, N. S., E-mail: nparmar@wsu.edu; Lynn, K. G. [Center for Materials Research, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-2711 (United States)

    2015-01-12

    ZnO bulk single crystals were doped with sodium by thermal diffusion. Positron annihilations spectroscopy confirms the filling of zinc vacancies, to >6 μm deep in the bulk. Secondary-ion mass spectrometry measurement shows the diffusion of sodium up to 8 μm with concentration (1–3.5) × 10{sup 17 }cm{sup −3}. Broad photoluminescence excitation peak at 3.1 eV, with onset appearance at 3.15 eV in Na:ZnO, is attributed to an electronic transition from a Na{sub Zn} level at ∼(220–270) meV to the conduction band. Resistivity in Na doped ZnO crystals increases up to (4–5) orders of magnitude at room temperature.

  2. Preparation, structural and optical characterization of ZnO, ZnO: Al nanopowder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan, R. Raj [Department of ECE, Gojan School of Business and Technology, Chennai (India); Rajendran, K. [Department of Electronics, Government Arts College for Women, Ramanathapuram, TN (India); Sambath, K. [Department of ECS, Sri Krishna Arts and Science College, Coimbatore, TN (India)

    2014-01-28

    In this paper, ZnO and ZnO:Al nanopowders have been synthesized by low cost hydrothermal method. Zinc nitrate, hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) and aluminium nitrate are used as precursors for ZnO and AZO with different molar ratios. The structural and optical characterization of doped and un-doped ZnO powders have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX), photoluminescence (PL) and ultra violet visible (UV-Vis) absorption studies. The SEM results show that the hydrothermal synthesis can be used to obtain nanoparticles with different morphology. It is observed that the grain size of the AZO nanoparticles increased with increasing of Al concentration. The PL measurement of AZO shows that broad range of green emission around 550nm with high intensity. The green emission resulted mainly because of intrinsic defects.

  3. Improving ultraviolet photodetection of ZnO nanorods by Cr doped ZnO encapsulation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safa, S.; Mokhtari, S.; Khayatian, A.; Azimirad, R.

    2018-04-01

    Encapsulated ZnO nanorods (NRs) with different Cr concentration (0-4.5 at.%) were prepared in two different steps. First, ZnO NRs were grown by hydrothermal method. Then, they were encapsulated by dip coating method. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, and ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectrophotometer analyses. XRD analysis proved that Cr incorporated into the ZnO structure successfully. Based on optical analysis, band gap changes in the range of 2.74-3.84 eV. Finally, UV responses of all samples were deeply investigated. It revealed 0.5 at.% Cr doped sample had the most photocurrent (0.75 mA) and photoresponsivity (0.8 A/W) of all which were about three times greater than photocurrent and photoresponsivity of the undoped sample.

  4. La2CuO4+δ: Synthesis under high oxygen pressure and study of phase relations and energetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapp, R.P.; Mehta, A.; DiCarlo, J.; Navrotsky, A.

    1994-01-01

    High oxygen pressures have been achieved in a piston-cylinder apparatus using a double capsule assembly consisting of a sealed outer Au capsule, containing an oxygen source (KMnO 4 ), and an inner, open Pt capsule containing the sample. Using this technique, La 2 CuO 4 was annealed at 800 degree C, 5--25 kbar for 2--4 h. Transposed temperature drop calorimetry at 704 degree C was used to determine the enthalpy of oxidation, and weight loss measurements characterized the oxygen nonstoichiometry, δ, in La 2 CuO 4+δ , in the high-pressure, oxygen annealed samples. For samples analyzed at room temperature, x-ray diffraction measurements show that beyond δ∼0.10--0.13, additional oxygen is accommodated in a perovskite-like LaCuO 3-α phase. An analysis of the thermochemical measurements indicates that the nature of holes in La 2 CuO 4+δ could change in the range of δ∼0.03--0.06. 16,17 It is further suggested that the observed change in the thermochemical behavior in the range of δ∼0.01--0.06 could be the driving influence behind the spinodal decomposition of La 2 CuO 4+δ at low temperatures (Dabrowski et al. 10 )

  5. A new way for preparing superconducting materials: the electrochemical oxidation of La2CuO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wattiaux, A.; Park, J.C.; Grenier, J.C.; Pouchard, M.

    1990-01-01

    The electrochemical oxidation in alkaline medium is described as a new way for preparing superconducting oxides at room temperature. The application of this method to La 2 CuO 4 gave rise to a metallic material with a superconducting behaviour below 39 K and whose physical and chemical features appear as quite promising [fr

  6. Novel method for controllable fabrication of a superhydrophobic CuO surface on AZ91D magnesium alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Zuxin; Li, Qing; Wang, Zhongwei; Li, Longqin; Chen, Funan; Zhou, Juncen

    2012-08-01

    A novel method for controllable fabrication of a superhydrophobic CuO surface on AZ91D magnesium alloy is reported in this paper. Hierarchical structure composed of micro/nano-featherlike CuO was obtained by electrodeposition of Cu-Zn alloy coating and subsequently an electrochemical anodic treatment in alkaline solution. After modification with lauric acid, the surface became hydrophobicity/superhydrophobicity. The formation of featherlike CuO structures was controllable by varying the coating composition. By applying SEM, ICP-AES, and water contact angle analysis, the effects of coating composition on the surface morphology and hydrophobicity of the as-prepared surfaces were detailedly studied. The results indicated that at the optimal condition, the surface showed a good superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle as high as 155.5 ± 1.3° and a sliding angle as low as about 3°. Possible growth mechanism of featherlike CuO hierarchical structure was discussed. Additionally, the anticorrosion effect of the superhydrophobic surface was studied by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. The interface model for anticorrosion mechanism of superhydrophobic surface in corrosive medium was proposed. Besides, the mechanical stability test indicated that the resulting superhydrophobic surfaces have good mechanical stability.

  7. Structural studies of Nd1.85Ce0.15CuO4 + Ag superconducting ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nd1.85Ce0.15CuO4, on its crystal structure and local structural features, using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. (SXRD) and ..... extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). ... [1] Zhang and Chongmin 1991 Thesis, University of British.

  8. A comparative investigation of SO2 oxidative transfer over CuO with a CeO2 surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yifeng; Shen, Benxian; Pi, Zhipeng; Chen, Hua; Zhao, Jigang

    2017-04-01

    To further improve the catalytic desulfurization function of the Mg-Al spinel sulfur transfer agent in a fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) unit, the reaction paths of SO2 oxidation by O2 over the metal oxide surface of CuO (111) and CeO2 (111) were investigated. In reference to the fact that SO2 reacting with O2 over CuO was a Mars-van Krevelen cycle, a similar reaction law for SO2 oxidation over CeO2 was also verified by characterization methods (e.g., IR, XPS). Meanwhile, the molecular simulation results indicated that the rate-control step of SO2 oxidation over CeO2 (111) and CuO (111) was a SO3 desorption step. The lower energy barrier in the rate-control step corresponded to better catalytic performance; hence, it could explain the reason that CeO2 had a better sulfur oxidization transfer performance than CuO.

  9. Solid-State Synthesis and Effect of Temp erature on Optical Prop erties of CuO Nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C. C. Vidyasagar; Y. Arthoba Naik∗; T. G. Venkatesha; R. Viswanatha

    2012-01-01

    Modulation of band energies through size control offers new ways to control photoresponse and photoconversion efficiency of the solar cell. The P-type semiconductor of copper oxide is an important functional material used for photovoltaic cells. CuO is attractive as a selective solar absorber since it has high solar absorbance and a low thermal emittance. The present work describes the synthesis and characterization of semiconducting CuO nanoparticles via one-step, solid-state reaction in the presence of Polyethylene glycol 400 as size controlling agent for the preparation of CuO nanoparticles at different temperatures. Solid-state mechanochemical processing, which is not only a physical size reduction process in conventional milling but also a chemical reaction, is mechanically activated at the nanoscale during grinding. The present method is a simple and efficient method of preparing nanoparticles with high yield at low cost. The structural and chemical composition of the nanoparticles were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectrometer, respectively. Optical properties and band gap of CuO nanoparticles were studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy. These results showed that the band gap energy decreased with increase of annealing temperature, which can be attributed to the improvement in grain size of the samples.

  10. Shape-controlled synthesis of Sn-doped CuO nanoparticles for catalytic degradation of Rhodamine B

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vomáčka, Petr; Štengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří; Kormunda, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 481, NOV (2016), s. 28-38 ISSN 0021-9797 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015073 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Sn-doped CuO * Tin doping * Copper oxide * Catalyst * Catalytic activity * Morphology Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.233, year: 2016

  11. Use of low-temperature nanostructured CuO thin films deposited by spray-pyrolysis in lithium cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, J.; Sanchez, L.; Martin, F.; Ramos-Barrado, J.R.; Sanchez, M.

    2005-01-01

    Nanostructured CuO thin films were prepared by spray pyrolysis of aqueous copper acetate solutions at temperatures over 200-300 deg C range. The textural and structural properties of the films were determined by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Although the sole crystalline phase detected in the film was CuO, XPS spectra revealed a more complex surface structure due to the presence of undecomposed copper acetate that can be easily removed by Ar + ion sputtering. The heating temperature was found to have little limited effect on the particle size and thickness of the films, which, however, increased significantly increasing deposition time. The film with the smallest grain size exhibited an excellent electrochemical response in Li battery electrodes and was capable of supplying sustained specific capacity as high as 625 A h kg -1 (50% greater than that delivered by bulk CuO and close to the theoretical capacity for the CuO Cu reaction) upon extensive cycling

  12. Fabrication of Fe3O4@CuO core-shell from MOF based materials and its antibacterial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, S. K.; Sohrabnezhad, Sh.; Ghafourian, S.

    2016-12-01

    Magnetic Fe3O4@CuO nanocomposite with a core/shell structure was successfully synthesized via direct calcinations of magnetic Fe3O4@HKUST-1 in air atmosphere. The morphology, structure, magnetic and porous properties of the as-synthesized nano composites were characterized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and vibration sample magnetometer (VSM). The results showed that the nanocomposite material included a Fe3O4 core and a CuO shell. The Fe3O4@CuO core-shell can be separated easily from the medium by a small magnet. The antibacterial activity of Fe3O4-CuO core-shell was investigated against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. A new mechanism was proposed for inactivation of bacteria over the prepared sample. It was demonstrated that the core-shell exhibit recyclable antibacterial activity, acting as an ideal long-acting antibacterial agent.

  13. Preparation of Advanced CuO Nanowires/Functionalized Graphene Composite Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The copper oxide (CuO nanowires/functionalized graphene (f-graphene composite material was successfully composed by a one-pot synthesis method. The f-graphene synthesized through the Birch reduction chemistry method was modified with functional group “–(CH25COOH”, and the CuO nanowires (NWs were well dispersed in the f-graphene sheets. When used as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries, the composite exhibited good cyclic stability and decent specific capacity of 677 mA·h·g−1 after 50 cycles. CuO NWs can enhance the lithium-ion storage of the composites while the f-graphene effectively resists the volume expansion of the CuO NWs during the galvanostatic charge/discharge cyclic process, and provide a conductive paths for charge transportation. The good electrochemical performance of the synthesized CuO/f-graphene composite suggests great potential of the composite materials for lithium-ion batteries anodes.

  14. Synthesis of a highly dispersed CuO catalyst on CoAl-HT for the epoxidation of styrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rui; Yang, Pengfei; Pan, Yongning; Li, Yunpeng; He, Yufei; Feng, Junting; Li, Dianqing

    2017-10-10

    A highly dispersed CuO catalyst was prepared by the deposition-precipitation method and evaluated for the catalytic epoxidation of styrene with tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) as the oxidant under solvent acetonitrile conditions. Compared with MgAl hydrotalcite (MgAl-HT)-, MgO-, TiO 2 -, C-, and MCM-22-supported catalysts, CuO/CoAl-HT exhibited preferable activity and selectivity towards styrene oxide (72% selectivity at 99.5% styrene conversion) due to its high dispersion of CuO and surface area of Cu. The improved dispersion of CuO/CoAl-HT could be ascribed to the nature of HT support, especially the synergistic effect of acidic and basic sites on the surface, which facilitated the formation of highly dispersed CuO species. A structure-performance relationship study indicated that copper(ii) in CuO was the active site for the epoxidation and oxidation of styrene, and that Cu II of rich electronic density favored the improvement of selectivity of styrene oxide. Based on these results, a reaction mechanism was proposed. Moreover, the preferred catalytic performance of CuO/CoAl-HT could be maintained in five reused cycles.

  15. Low energy excitations in superconducting La1.86Sr0.14CuO4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mason, T.E.; Aeppli, G.; Hayden, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    We present magnetic neutron scattering and specific heat data on the high-T(c) superconductor La1.86Sr0.14CuO4. Even when the samples are superconducting and the magnetic response, chi'', is suppressed, there are excitations with energies well below 3.5k(B)T(c). The wave-vector dependence of chi...

  16. Photoluminescence lineshape of ZnO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Ullrich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The merger of the absorption coefficient dispersion, retrieved from transmission by the modified Urbach rule introduced by Ullrich and Bouchenaki [Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L1285, 1991], with the extended Roosbroeck-Shockley relation reveals that the optical absorption in ZnO distinctively determines the photoluminescence lineshape. Additionally, the ab initio principles employed enable the accurate determination of the carrier lifetime without further specific probing techniques.

  17. Spin noise spectroscopy of ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, H.; Berski, F.; Balocchi, A.; Marie, X.; Mansur-Al-Suleiman, M.; Bakin, A.; Waag, A.; Hübner, J.; Oestreich, M.

    2013-12-01

    We investigate the thermal equilibrium dynamics of electron spins bound to donors in nanoporous ZnO by optical spin noise spectroscopy. The spin noise spectra reveal two noise contributions: A weak spin noise signal from undisturbed localized donor electrons with a dephasing time of 24 ns due to hyperfine interaction and a strong spin noise signal with a spin dephasing time of 5 ns which we attribute to localized donor electrons which interact with lattice defects.

  18. Spin noise spectroscopy of ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, H.; Berski, F.; Hübner, J.; Oestreich, M. [Institute for Solid State Physics, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Appelstr. 2, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Balocchi, A.; Marie, X. [INSA-CNRS-UPS, LPCNO, Université de Toulouse, 135 Av. de Rangueil, 31077 Toulouse (France); Mansur-Al-Suleiman, M.; Bakin, A.; Waag, A. [Institute of Semiconductor Technology, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Hans-Sommer-Straße 66, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2013-12-04

    We investigate the thermal equilibrium dynamics of electron spins bound to donors in nanoporous ZnO by optical spin noise spectroscopy. The spin noise spectra reveal two noise contributions: A weak spin noise signal from undisturbed localized donor electrons with a dephasing time of 24 ns due to hyperfine interaction and a strong spin noise signal with a spin dephasing time of 5 ns which we attribute to localized donor electrons which interact with lattice defects.

  19. The effect of excitation intensity variation and silver nanoparticle codoping on nonlinear optical properties of mixed tellurite and zinc oxide glass doped with Nd2O3 studied through ultrafast z-scan spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, L.; Falci, R. F.; Darabian, H.; Anjos, V.; Bell, M. J. V.; Kassab, L. R. P.; Bordon, C. D. S.; Doualan, J. L.; Camy, P.; Moncorgé, R.

    2018-05-01

    The research on Nd3+ doped new solid-state laser hosts with specific thermo-mechanical and optical properties is very active. Nd3+ doped tellurite glasses are suitable for these applications. They have high linear and nonlinear refraction index, wide transmittance range. The TeO2-ZnO (TZO) glass considered in the present work combines all those features and the nonlinear optical properties can be used for the development of Kerr-lens mode-locked sub picosecond lasers. Recently the laser performance of Nd3+ doped TZO glass and was reported and laser slope efficiency of 21% was observed. We investigate how the intensity variation and the silver nanoparticles codoping affects the nonlinear optical properties of Nd3+ doped TZO glasses. Intensity dependent nonlinear refraction indices coefficients at 750, 800 and 850 nm were observed. The nonlinear optical features were obtained through ultrafast single beam z-scan technique with excitations at 750, 800 and 850 nm and are up to two orders of magnitude higher than those reported in the literature.

  20. Novel-structured electrospun TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers for high efficient photocatalytic cogeneration of clean water and energy from dye wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Siew Siang; Bai, Hongwei; Liu, Zhaoyang; Sun, Darren Delai

    2013-08-01

    It is still a challenge to photocatalytically cogenerate clean water and energy from dye wastewater owing to the relatively low photocatalytic efficiency of photocatalysts. In this study, novel-structured TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers were successfully fabricated via facile electrospinning. For the first time, the TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers demonstrated multifunctional ability for concurrent photocatalytic organic degradation and H2 generation from dye wastewater. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers was ascribed to its excellent synergy of physicochemical properties: 1) mesoporosity and large specific surface area for efficient substrate adsorption, mass transfer and light harvesting; 2) red-shift of the absorbance spectra for enhanced light utilization; 3) long nanofibrous structure for efficient charge transfer and ease of recovery, 4) TiO2/CuO heterojunctions which enhance the separation of electrons and holes and 5) presence of CuO which serve as co-catalyst for the H2 production. The TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers also exhibited rapid settleability by gravity and uncompromised reusability. Thus, the as-synthesized TiO2/CuO composite nanofibers represent a promising candidate for highly efficient concurrent photocatalytic organic degradation and clean energy production from dye wastewater. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Density functional theory study of the adsorption and dissociation of O{sub 2} on CuO(1 1 1) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Shujuan, E-mail: sunshujuan@hebut.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Li, Chunyu [Science and Technology Innovation Center, Datang Technologies Industry Group Company Limited, Beijing (China); Zhang, Dongsheng [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Wang, Yanji, E-mail: yjwang@hebut.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China)

    2015-04-01

    Highlights: • The dissociation mechanisms of O{sub 2} on the CuO(1 1 1) surface have been obtained. • The energy barriers and reaction energies are calculated. • The presence of oxygen vacancy can obviously improve the catalytic activity of CuO. - Abstract: Density functional theory (DFT) have been performed to investigate the adsorption and dissociation of O{sub 2} on the perfect and oxygen-deficient CuO(1 1 1) surfaces. The calculated results indicate that the bridge site of two Cu{sub sub} atoms is the most favorable site for O adsorption on the perfect CuO(1 1 1) surface. But on the oxygen-deficient CuO(1 1 1) surface, the O atom adsorbed on O{sub vacancy} site after optimization. On the perfect and oxygen-deficient CuO(1 1 1) surfaces, the O{sub 2} are all paralleling to the surface after optimization. Possible dissociation pathways of molecularly adsorbed O{sub 2} on the two surfaces are identified. The calculated results suggest that the presence of oxygen vacancy exhibits a strong chemical reactivity towards the dissociation of O{sub 2} and can obviously improve the catalytic activity of CuO.

  2. Ultrasonic synthesis of fern-like ZnO nanoleaves and their enhanced photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Qing Lan; Xiong, Rui; Zhai, Bao-gai; Huang, Yuan Ming

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Fern-like ZnO nanoleaves were synthesized by ultrasonicating Zn microcrystals in water. • A fern-like ZnO nanoleaf is a self-assembly of ZnO nanoplates along one ZnO nanorod. • Fern-like ZnO nanoleaves exhibit enhanced photocatalytic activity than ZnO nanocrystals. • The branched hierarchical structures are responsible for the enhanced photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: Two-dimensional fern-like ZnO nanoleaves were synthesized by ultrasonicating zinc microcrystals in water. The morphology, crystal structure, optical property and photocatalytic activity of the fern-like ZnO nanoleaves were characterized with scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, respectively. It is found that one fern-like ZnO nanoleaf is composed of one ZnO nanorod as the central trunk and a number of ZnO nanoplates as the side branches in opposite pairs along the central ZnO nanorod. The central ZnO nanorod in the fern-like nanoleaves is about 1 μm long while the side-branching ZnO nanoplates are about 100 nm long and 20 nm wide. Further analysis has revealed that ZnO nanocrystals are the building blocks of the central ZnO nanorod and the side-branching ZnO nanoplates. Under identical conditions, fern-like ZnO nanoleaves exhibit higher photocatalytic activity in photodegrading methyl orange in aqueous solution than spherical ZnO nanocrystals. The first-order photocatalytic rate constant of the fern-like ZnO nanoleaves is about four times as large as that of the ZnO nanoparticles. The branched architecture of the hierarchical nanoleaves is suggested be responsible for the enhanced photocatalytic activity of the fern-like ZnO nanoleaves

  3. Anodized ZnO nanostructures for photoelectrochemical water splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Mao-Chia [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan 32001, Taiwan (China); Wang, TsingHai [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environment Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Wu, Bin-Jui [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan 32001, Taiwan (China); Lin, Jing-Chie, E-mail: jclin4046@gmail.com [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan 32001, Taiwan (China); Wu, Ching-Chen [Green Energy and Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu 310, Taiwan (China)

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • ZnO nanostructures were synthesized by electrochemical anodic process. • The parameter of ZnO nanostructure was anodic potential. • The model of growth of ZnO nanostructure was investigated. - Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures were fabricated on the polished zinc foil by anodic deposition in an alkaline solution containing 1.0 M NaOH and 0.25 M Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}. Potentiostatic anodization was conducted at two potentials (−0.7 V in the passive region and −1.0 V in the active region vs. SCE) which are higher than the open circuit potential (−1.03 V vs. SCE) and as-obtained ZnO nanostrcutures were investigated focusing on their structural, optical, electrical and photoelectrochemical (PEC) characteristics. All samples were confirmed ZnO by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectra. Observations in the SEM images clearly showed that ZnO nanostructures prepared at −0.7 V vs. SCE were composed of nanowires at while those obtained at −1.0 V vs. SCE possessed nanosheets morphology. Result from transmission electron microscope and X-ray diffraction patterns suggested that the ZnO nanowires belonged to single crystalline with a preferred orientation of (0 0 2) whereas the ZnO nanosheets were polycrystalline. Following PEC experiments indicated that ZnO nanowires had higher photocurrent density of 0.32 mA/cm{sup 2} at 0.5 V vs. SCE under 100 mW/cm{sup 2} illumination. This value was about 1.9 times higher than that of ZnO nanosheets. Observed higher photocurrent was likely due to the single crystalline, preferred (0 0 2) orientation, higher carrier concentration and lower charge transfer resistance.

  4. The effects of CuO nanoparticles on properties of self compacting concrete with GGBFS as binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nazari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, strength assessments and percentage of water absorption of high performance self compacting concrete containing different amounts of ground granulated blast furnace slag and CuO nanoparticles as binder have been investigated. Portland cement was replaced by different amounts of ground granulated blast furnace slag and the properties of concrete specimens were investigated. Although it negatively impacts the physical and mechanical properties of concrete at early age of curing, ground granulated blast furnace slag was found to improve the physical and mechanical properties of concrete up to 45 wt. (% at later ages. CuO nanoparticles with the average particle size of 15 nm were partially added to concrete with the optimum content of ground granulated blast furnace slag and physical and mechanical properties of the specimens were measured. CuO nanoparticle as a partial replacement of cement up to 3.0 wt. (% could accelerate C-S-H gel formation as a result of increased crystalline Ca(OH2 amount at the early age of hydration and hence increase strength and improve the resistance to water permeability of concrete specimens. The increased the CuO nanoparticles' content more than 3.0 wt. (%, causes the reduced the split tensile strength because of the decreased crystalline Ca(OH2 content required for C-S-H gel formation. Several empirical relationships have been presented to predict flexural and split tensile strength of the specimens by means of the corresponding compressive strength at a certain age of curing. More rapid appearance of the peaks related to hydrated products in X-ray diffraction results, all indicate that CuO nanoparticles could improve mechanical and physical properties of the concrete specimens.

  5. Effects of Zr4+ codoping on the Lu0.8Sc0.2BO3:Ce scintillation materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yuntao; Ren, Guohao; Ding, Dongzhou; Shang, Shanshan; Sun, Dandan; Zhang, Guoqing; Wang, Jiayu; Pan, Shangke; Yang, Fan

    2013-01-01

    Both Zr-codoped Lu 0.8 Sc 0.2 BO 3 :Ce polycrystalline powders and single crystals were obtained by solid-state reaction and Czochralski method, respectively. The effects of Zr codoping on the optical absorption, Ce 3+ /Ce 4+ ratio, scintillation efficiency, decay time and point defect in Lu 0.8 Sc 0.2 BO 3 :Ce materials were examined systematically. Our results show that there is no positive contribution of Zr 4+ ion codoping to the scintillation efficiency. And the reasons for the deterioration of scintillation efficiency by codoping Zr 4+ were revealed. - Highlights: ► No positive contribution of the Zr 4+ ions on the scintillation efficiency was found. ► New optical absorption band was in the region from 200 to 225 nm. ► Continuously accelerated decay time indicated that Zr 4+ codoping induced new point defects. ► The induced hole trap located at 1.91 eV below the conduction band.

  6. N/S Co-doped Carbon Derived From Cotton as High Performance Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiawen Xiong

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Highly porous carbon with large surface areas is prepared using cotton as carbon sources which derived from discard cotton balls. Subsequently, the sulfur-nitrogen co-doped carbon was obtained by heat treatment the carbon in presence of thiourea and evaluated as Lithium-ion batteries anode. Benefiting from the S, N co-doping, the obtained S, N co-doped carbon exhibits excellent electrochemical performance. As a result, the as-prepared S, N co-doped carbon can deliver a high reversible capacity of 1,101.1 mA h g−1 after 150 cycles at 0.2 A g−1, and a high capacity of 531.2 mA h g−1 can be observed even after 5,000 cycles at 10.0 A g−1. Moreover, excellently rate capability also can be observed, a high capacity of 689 mA h g−1 can be obtained at 5.0 A g−1. This superior lithium storage performance of S, N co-doped carbon make it as a promising low-cost and sustainable anode for high performance lithium ion batteries.

  7. Co-doping as a tool for tuning the optical properties of singlewalled carbon nanotubes: A first principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepa; Jaggi, Neena

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a first principles study on the effect of co-doping on various optical spectra of a zigzag single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT). Optical spectra of a pristine SWCNT, SWCNT co-doped with Aluminum (Al) & Phosphorus (P) and another one co-doped with Al, P and Nitrogen (N) have been calculated using density functional theory (DFT).The theory has been implemented using the Cambridge sequential total energy package (CASTEP) code available as a userfriendly module with the software 'Material Studio'. Polarized and unpolarized light as well as light through polycrystalline media have been considered. The dependence of various spectra on the status of incident light presents a clear evidence of anisotropicity in the optical properties. Analysis of the simulated spectra involves calculation and comparison of different optical properties like dielectric function, reflectivity, refractive index, conductivity and loss function for the pristine and co-doped SWCNTs. Noticeable variations are observed in the optical properties on simultaneously doping the SWCNT with Al and P and then further introducing N atom into the structure so that it can be concluded that co-doping (simultaneous doping with different combinations of dopants) can be evolved as a novel and effective tool for tailoring the optical properties of SWCNTs as per the requirements while designing an optical device. It will prove to be highly significant for effective designing of SWCNT based sensitive optical devices for a variety of technological applications.

  8. A new effect on the dependence of Tc on the number of Cu-O layers in the non-rare-earth ceramic superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chela-Flores, J.; Martin, P.; Rodriguez-Nunez, J.J.

    1988-08-01

    We argue from the experimental evidence that the superconductivity in the non-rare-earth compounds is confined to two inequivalent layers of Cu-O planes where electron pairing occurs. This conjecture leads us to a set of phenomenological equations in terms of two order parameters that correctly describe the characteristic lengths of the copper oxide ceramics. The formalism developed indicates that samples with a larger number of Cu-O layers may have higher transition temperatures. The formalism suggests that in a multilayered Cu-O compound increments of T c as a function of the doping parameter will be more pronounced the larger the number of layers. (author). 12 refs

  9. Generalized One-Band Model Based on Zhang-Rice Singlets for Tetragonal CuO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, I. J.; Manuel, L. O.; Aligia, A. A.

    2018-04-01

    Tetragonal CuO (T-CuO) has attracted attention because of its structure similar to that of the cuprates. It has been recently proposed as a compound whose study can give an end to the long debate about the proper microscopic modeling for cuprates. In this work, we rigorously derive an effective one-band generalized t -J model for T-CuO, based on orthogonalized Zhang-Rice singlets, and make an estimative calculation of its parameters, based on previous ab initio calculations. By means of the self-consistent Born approximation, we then evaluate the spectral function and the quasiparticle dispersion for a single hole doped in antiferromagnetically ordered half filled T-CuO. Our predictions show very good agreement with angle-resolved photoemission spectra and with theoretical multiband results. We conclude that a generalized t -J model remains the minimal Hamiltonian for a correct description of single-hole dynamics in cuprates.

  10. CuGeO3 and CuO by respectively elastic and inelastic polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ain, M.; Regnault, L.P.; Lorenzo, J.; Dhalenne, G.; Revcolevschi, A.

    2005-01-01

    Polarization analysis permitted to verify very promptly that the plane of the helix in the incommensurate phase of CuO was not (a*,c*) as first proposed but another one containing without equivoque the b*-axis.Inelastic polarization analysis under applied magnetic field permitted to study the triplet magnon-like mode of spin-Peierls CuGeO 3 . This mode splits in three, as expected. Intensities of inelastic neutron scattering measurements with polarization analysis have been collected in both spin-flip and nonspin-flip channels. This Zeeman splitting revealed that two out of the three processes are purely spin-flip excitations, while the third undisplaced one is a nonspin-flip process in which the neutron conserves its spin orientation

  11. Preparation of Uniform Hexapod Cu{sub 2}O and Hollow Hexapod CuO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Youngsik; Huh, Youngduk [Dankook Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The filled hexapod Cu{sub 2}O precursors were also prepared under microwave irradiation for only 120 s using a commercial microwave oven. The optimal experimental conditions for the perfect and uniform hexapod-like Cu{sub 2}O precursors were examined. The control of the cooling rate by adding cold water was also examined for the elimination of further crystal growth at the end of the arm of the hexapod Cu{sub 2}O precursors due to the thermal diffusion in reaction medium. The uniform hollow structure and hexapod CuO products were also prepared from the direct thermal oxidation of the filled hexapod Cu{sub 2}O precursors. The morphology-dependent properties of inorganic materials, such as magnetic, photocatalytic, and antibacterial activities, is one of the most important experimental issues in inorganic technology. Many researchers have prepared uniform and specific shaped inorganic oxides to understand the morphology-dependent properties of inorganic oxides.

  12. Ultrasonication Assisted Production of Biodiesel from Sunflower Oil by Using CuO: Mg Heterogeneous Nanocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Rintu; Jose, Sony; Joyprabu, H.; Johnson, I.

    2017-08-01

    Biodiesel is a clean, renewable, biodegradable, eco-friendly and alternative fuel used in the diesel engine. The present work was carried out at constant operational conditions such as methanol to oil molar ratio 6:1, catalyst concentration 0.25%, 30 minute reaction time and the reaction temperature at 60°C. Biodiesel was synthesized by transesterification of sunflower oil (SFO) with methanol, using CuO: Mgas nanocatalyst. This nanocatalyst was prepared by quick precipitation method. The biodiesel yield of 71.78% was achieved under reaction condition. The presence of methyl ester groups at the produced biodiesel was confirmed using the Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The FAME conversion yield up to 82.83 % could be obtained under the operating conditions.

  13. Evidence for anisotropic excitonlike enhancement of the Raman scattering from La2CuO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, W.H.; Peters, C.R.; Wanklyn, B.M.; Chen, C.; Watts, B.E.

    1988-01-01

    Polarized Raman studies on oriented single crystals of La 2 CuO 4 yield α/sub z//sub z/ spectra with narrow lines at 429 and 228 cm/sup -1/ that are identified as the two A 1 /sub g/ modes expected for the tetragonal K 2 NiF 4 structure; α/sub x//sub z/ spectra with one line at 228 cm/sup -1/ that has E/sub g/ symmetry; and α/sub x//sub x/ spectra with numerous peaks that are due to normally forbidden phonon excitations. The α/sub x//sub x/ spectra also show strong second-order features, suggesting a highly anisotropic, excitonlike enhancement of the Raman scattering

  14. Photoluminescent ZnO Nanoparticles and Their Biological Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-Yong Zhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available During the past decades, numerous achievements concerning luminescent zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs have been reported due to their improved luminescence and good biocompatibility. The photoluminescence of ZnO NPs usually contains two parts, the exciton-related ultraviolet (UV emission and the defect-related visible emission. With respect to the visible emission, many routes have been developed to synthesize and functionalize ZnO NPs for the applications in detecting metal ions and biomolecules, biological fluorescence imaging, nonlinear multiphoton imaging, and fluorescence lifetime imaging. As the biological applications of ZnO NPs develop rapidly, the toxicity of ZnO NPs has attracted more and more attention because ZnO can produce the reactive oxygen species (ROS and release Zn2+ ions. Just as a coin has two sides, both the drug delivery and the antibacterial effects of ZnO NPs become attractive at the same time. Hence, in this review, we will focus on the progress in the synthetic methods, luminescent properties, and biological applications of ZnO NPs.

  15. Variable range hopping in ZnO films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nasir; Ghosh, Subhasis

    2018-04-01

    We report the variable range hopping in ZnO films grown by RF magnetron sputtering in different argon and oxygen partial pressure. It has been found that Mott variable range hopping dominant over Efros variable range hopping in all ZnO films. It also has been found that hopping distance and energy increases with increasing oxygen partial pressure.

  16. Photochemical events during photosensitization of colloidal ZnO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The photosensitization of colloidal ZnO nanoparticles with riboflavin (RF) was investigated using absorption, fluorescence spectroscopic measurements and time resolved fluorescence measurements. Riboflavin adsorbed strongly on the surface of ZnO nanoparticles. Apparent association constant was obtained from the ...

  17. Fast synthesize ZnO quantum dots via ultrasonic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weimin; Zhang, Bing; Ding, Nan; Ding, Wenhao; Wang, Lixi; Yu, Mingxun; Zhang, Qitu

    2016-05-01

    Green emission ZnO quantum dots were synthesized by an ultrasonic sol-gel method. The ZnO quantum dots were synthesized in various ultrasonic temperature and time. Photoluminescence properties of these ZnO quantum dots were measured. Time-resolved photoluminescence decay spectra were also taken to discover the change of defects amount during the reaction. Both ultrasonic temperature and time could affect the type and amount of defects in ZnO quantum dots. Total defects of ZnO quantum dots decreased with the increasing of ultrasonic temperature and time. The dangling bonds defects disappeared faster than the optical defects. Types of optical defects first changed from oxygen interstitial defects to oxygen vacancy and zinc interstitial defects. Then transformed back to oxygen interstitial defects again. The sizes of ZnO quantum dots would be controlled by both ultrasonic temperature and time as well. That is, with the increasing of ultrasonic temperature and time, the sizes of ZnO quantum dots first decreased then increased. Moreover, concentrated raw materials solution brought larger sizes and more optical defects of ZnO quantum dots. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of Dopants in ZnO Films on Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cheng-Xiao; Weng, Hui-Min; Zhang, Yang; Ma, Xing-Ping; Ye, Bang-Jiao

    2008-12-01

    The influence of dopants in ZnO films on defects is investigated by slow positron annihilation technique. The results show S that parameters meet SAl > Sun > SAg for Al-doped ZnO films, undoped and Ag-doped ZnO films. Zinc vacancies are found in all ZnO films with different dopants. According to S parameter and the same defect type, it can be induced that the zinc vacancy concentration is the highest in the Al-doped ZnO film, and it is the least in the Ag-doped ZnO film. When Al atoms are doped in the ZnO films grown on silicon substrates, Zn vacancies increase as compared to the undoped and Ag-doped ZnO films. The dopant concentration could determine the position of Fermi level in materials, while defect formation energy of zinc vacancy strongly depends on the position of Fermi level, so its concentration varies with dopant element and dopant concentration.

  19. Ultrasonic-assisted fabrication of superhydrophobic ZnO nanowall ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The results suggested that the synergistic effect of the aluminium oxide seed layer and sonochemical process can enable the formation of ZnO nanowall structures favourable for superhydrophobic property. A possible growth mechanism of ZnO nanowalls formation during sonication process has been discussed in detail.

  20. Critical current density in MgB2 bulk samples after co-doping with nano-SiC and poly zinc acrylate complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.; Suo, H.; Ma, L.; Zhang, T.; Liu, M.; Zhou, M.

    2011-01-01

    SiC and poly zinc acrylate complexes co-doped MgB 2 bulk has been synthesized. Co-doping can cause higher carbon substitutions and the second phase particles. Co-doping can further increase the Jc value of MgB 2 bulk on the base of the SiC doping. The co-doped MgB 2 bulk samples have been synthesized using an in situ reaction processing. The additives is 8 wt.% SiC nano powders and 10 wt.% [(CH 2 CHCOO) 2 Zn] n poly zinc acrylate complexes (PZA). A systematic study was performed on samples doped with SiC or PZA and samples co-doped with both of them. The effects of doping and co-doping on phase formation, microstructure, and the variation of lattice parameters were studied. The amount of substituted carbon, the critical temperature (T c ) and the critical current density (J c ) were determined. The calculated lattice parameters show the decrease of the a-axis, while no obvious change was detected for c-axis parameter in co-doped samples. This indicates that the carbon was substituted by boron in MgB 2 . The amount of substituted carbon for the co-doped sample shows an enhancement compared to that of the both single doped samples. The co-doped samples perform the highest J c values, which reaches 3.3 x 10 4 A/cm 2 at 5 K and 7 T. It is shown that co-doping with SiC and organic compound is an effective way to further improve the superconducting properties of MgB 2 .

  1. CuO Nanoflowers growing on Carbon Fiber Fabric for Flexible High-Performance Supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Weina; Dai, Shuge; Liu, Guanlin; Xi, Yi; Hu, Chenguo; Wang, Xue

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: One of the best electrochemical performances for CuOelectrodes based supercapacitorisachieved by the CuOhierarchical structure growing on the carbon fiber fabric (CuO/CFF) in aqueous electrolyte. Meanwhile, a flexible solid-state supercapacitoris also fabricated as a promising candidate in energy storage for flexible, wearable and lightweight electronics. - Highlights: • The electrodes are fabricated by cupric oxide growing on carbon fiber fabric (CuO/CFF). • The capacitor performance is optimized by the mass loading. • One of the best electrochemical performances is achieved for CuO/CFF supercapacitor. • A highly flexible solid-state supercapacitor can power 3 light-emitting diodes for about 5 min. - Abstract: A hierarchical CuO nano-structure is prepared by directly growing CuO nanoflowers on carbon fiber fabric (CuO/CFF) via a hydrothermal method. The CuO/CFF is used as the electrode material of a supercapacitor for electrochemical energy storage. The supercapacitor displays superior electrochemical performance in aqueous electrolyte with the specific capacitance of 839.9 F/g at the scan rate of 1 mV/s, energy density of 10.05 Wh/kg and power density of 1798.5 W/kg, which are the highest values for the CuO/CFF electrodes. Moreover, a flexible symmetric solid-state symmetric supercapacitor is also fabricated by using the CuO/CFF as electrodes. The solid-state supercapacitor exhibits a specific capacitance of 131.34 F/g at the scan rate of 1 mV/s with a power density of 145.12 W/kg, and 95.8% capacitance retention after 2000 charge-discharge cycles.

  2. Thermal history dependence of superconducting properties in La2CuO4+δ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, T.; Nakagawa, M.; Sumiyama, A.; Oda, Y.

    1998-01-01

    We studied the thermal history dependence of the superconducting properties below/above room temperature (RT) in the ceramic La 2 CuO 4-δ with excess oxygen. The phase separation (O-rich phase: superconducting and O-poor phase: antiferromagnetic) was concluded to occur above 373 K, in contrast with the usual report of the phase separation around 320 K. As for the superconducting phases, the well-known T c onset of 32 or 36 K, dependent on thermal history around 200 K, in the samples annealed in high-pressure oxygen gas, was not changed by thermal history between RT and 373 K. The samples electrochemically oxidized at RT included the phase with the high T c of 45 K, which was not changed by thermal history below RT, and the phase with the low T c of 32 or 36 K. The 45 K phase was changed into the low-T c phase by annealing at 373 K. The samples electrochemically oxidized at 333 K, which was accompanied with the diffusion of excess oxygen, showed gradual change of superconducting behavior: the single low-T c (32 or 36 K) phase (oxidation time = 24 h), coexistence of the low-T c phase and the high-T c (45 K) phase (36 h), and the single high T c phase (48 and 72 h). Thus, the single superconducting phase with the high T c of 45 K has been obtained, which showed a metallic behavior in normal resistivity and apparent changes of lattice constant in comparison with that of stoichiometric La 2 CuO 4 . (orig.)

  3. Kinetics of carbon monoxide oxidation over modified supported CuO catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loc, Luu Cam; Tri, Nguyen; Cuong, Hoang Tien; Thoang, Ho Si [Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST), Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam). Inst. of Chemical Technology; Agafonov, Yu.A.; Gaidai, N.A.; Lapidus, A.L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). N.D. Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry

    2013-11-01

    The following supported on {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts: 10(wt.)%CuO (CuAl), 10%CuO+10%Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} (CuCrAl) and 10%CuO+20%CeO{sub 2} (CuCeAl) were under the investigation. Physico-chemical characteristics of the catalysts were determined by the methods of BET, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), and Temperature-Programmed Reduction (TPR). A strong interaction of copper with support in CuAl resulted in the formation of low active copper aluminates. The bi-oxide CuCrAl was more active than CuAl owing to the formation of high catalytically active spinel CuCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}. The fact of very high activity of the sample CuCeAl can be explained by the presence of the catalytically active form of CuO-CeO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The kinetics of CO total oxidation was studied in a gradientless flow-circulating system at the temperature range between 200 C and 270 C. The values of initial partial pressures of carbon monoxide (P{sup o}{sub CO}), oxygen (P{sup o}{sub O2}), and specially added carbon dioxide (P{sup o}{sub CO{sub 2}}) were varied in ranges (hPa): 10 / 45; 33 / 100, and 0 / 30, respectively. (orig.)

  4. Hybrid ZnO:polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells from a ZnO precursor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, W.J.E.; Slooff, L.H.; Wienk, M.M.; Kroon, J.M.; Janssen, R.A.J.; Kafafi, Z.H.

    2005-01-01

    We describe a simple and new method to create hybrid bulk heterojunction solar cells consisting of ZnO and conjugated polymers. A gel-forming ZnO precursor, blended with conjugated polymers, is converted into crystalline ZnO at temperatures as low as 110 °C. In-situ formation of ZnO in MDMO-PPV

  5. Hydrogen absorption in thin ZnO films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melikhova, O.; Čížek, J.; Lukáč, F.; Vlček, M.; Novotný, M.; Bulíř, J.; Lančok, J.; Anwand, W.; Brauer, G.; Connolly, J.; McCarthy, E.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Mosnier, J.-P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Thin ZnO films and high quality ZnO crystal were electrochemically doped with hydrogen. ► Hydrogen absorbed in ZnO causes plastic deformation both in ZnO crystal and thin films. ► In ZnO crystal a sub-surface region with very high density of defects was formed. ► Moreover, plastic deformation causes specific surface modification of ZnO crystal. ► In ZnO films hydrogen-induced plastic deformation introduced defects in the whole film. -- Abstract: ZnO films with thickness of ∼80 nm were grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on MgO (1 0 0) single crystal and amorphous fused silica (FS) substrates. Structural studies of ZnO films and a high quality reference ZnO single crystal were performed by slow positron implantation spectroscopy (SPIS). It was found that ZnO films exhibit significantly higher density of defects than the reference ZnO crystal. Moreover, the ZnO film deposited on MgO substrate exhibits higher concentration of defects than the film deposited on amorphous FS substrate most probably due to a dense network of misfit dislocations. The ZnO films and the reference ZnO crystal were subsequently loaded with hydrogen by electrochemical cathodic charging. SPIS characterizations revealed that absorbed hydrogen introduces new defects into ZnO

  6. Hydrogen absorption in thin ZnO films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melikhova, O., E-mail: oksivmel@yahoo.com [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holesovickach 2, CZ-180 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Čížek, J.; Lukáč, F.; Vlček, M. [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holesovickach 2, CZ-180 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Novotný, M.; Bulíř, J.; Lančok, J. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague (Czech Republic); Anwand, W.; Brauer, G. [Institut für Strahlenphysik, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, PO Box 510 119, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Connolly, J.; McCarthy, E.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Mosnier, J.-P. [National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology, School of Physical Sciences, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: ► Thin ZnO films and high quality ZnO crystal were electrochemically doped with hydrogen. ► Hydrogen absorbed in ZnO causes plastic deformation both in ZnO crystal and thin films. ► In ZnO crystal a sub-surface region with very high density of defects was formed. ► Moreover, plastic deformation causes specific surface modification of ZnO crystal. ► In ZnO films hydrogen-induced plastic deformation introduced defects in the whole film. -- Abstract: ZnO films with thickness of ∼80 nm were grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on MgO (1 0 0) single crystal and amorphous fused silica (FS) substrates. Structural studies of ZnO films and a high quality reference ZnO single crystal were performed by slow positron implantation spectroscopy (SPIS). It was found that ZnO films exhibit significantly higher density of defects than the reference ZnO crystal. Moreover, the ZnO film deposited on MgO substrate exhibits higher concentration of defects than the film deposited on amorphous FS substrate most probably due to a dense network of misfit dislocations. The ZnO films and the reference ZnO crystal were subsequently loaded with hydrogen by electrochemical cathodic charging. SPIS characterizations revealed that absorbed hydrogen introduces new defects into ZnO.

  7. Photocatalysis and Bandgap Engineering Using ZnO Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Johar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposites have a great potential to work as efficient, multifunctional materials for energy conversion and photoelectrochemical reactions. Nanocomposites may reveal more improved photocatalysis by implying the improvements of their electronic and structural properties than pure photocatalyst. This paper presents the recent work carried out on photoelectrochemical reactions using the composite materials of ZnO with CdS, ZnO with SnO2, ZnO with TiO2, ZnO with Ag2S, and ZnO with graphene and graphene oxide. The photocatalytic efficiency mainly depends upon the light harvesting span of a material, lifetime of photogenerated electron-hole pair, and reactive sites available in the photocatalyst. We reviewed the UV-Vis absorption spectrum of nanocomposite and photodegradation reported by the same material and how photodegradation depends upon the factors described above. Finally the improvement in the absorption band edge of nanocomposite material is discussed.

  8. Processing of ZnO nanocrystals by solochemical technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusatti, M.; Speckhahn, R.; Silva, L.A.; Rosario, J.A.; Lima, R.B.; Kuhnen, N.C.; Riella, H.G.; Campos, C.E.M.

    2009-01-01

    In the present work, we report the synthesis of high quality ZnO nanocrystals by solochemical technique. This synthetic strategy has been shown to have advantages over other methods of producing nanostructures in terms of low cost, efficiency, simplicity and uniformity of crystal structure. Zinc chloride solution at room temperature was mixed with sodium hydroxide solution at 50°C to produce ZnO nanocrystals. Transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the ZnO nanocrystals obtained. The structure of ZnO was refined by the Rietveld Method from X-ray diffraction data. These methods showed that the product consisted of pure ZnO nanocrystals and has, predominantly, a rod-like morphology. (author)

  9. Power-dependent photocatalytic activity of ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, So Yeon; Han, Noh Soo; Jeong, Seong Hyun; Park, Seung Min; Song, Jae Kyu [Dept. of Chemistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Cheol Joo; Choi, Myong Yong [Dept. of Chemistry (BK21) and Research Institute of Natural Science, Gyeongsang NationalUniversity, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    the power-dependent photocatalytic activity of ZnO was examined for the photoreduction processes of Rh101 and AN in the presence of hole scavengers, where the fluorescence spectra were measured as a function of irradiation time and excitation intensity. The concentration of the reactants decreased, while the concentration of the products increased accordingly, which indicated the single-electron reduction process by electrons supplied from the conduction band of ZnO. Despite the single-electron process, the efficiency of the photoreaction depended nonlinearly on the excitation intensity, which was explained by the saturation of defect states in ZnO. The enhanced ratio of available electrons in ZnO led to a superlinear increase in the photoreduction efficiency, while the single-electron process linearly reflected the electrons available in ZnO.

  10. Growth of misfit dislocation-free p/p+ thick epitaxial silicon wafers on Ge-B-codoped substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Huihua; Yang Deren; Ma Xiangyang; Tian Daxi; Li Liben; Que Duanlin

    2006-01-01

    The growth of p/p + silicon epitaxial silicon wafers (epi-wafers) without misfit dislocations has been successfully achieved by using heavily boron-doped Czochralski (CZ) silicon wafers codoped with desirable level of germanium as the substrates. The lattice compensation by codoping of germanium and boron into the silicon matrix to reduce the lattice mismatch between the substrate (heavily boron-doped) and epi-layer (lightly boron-doped) is the basic idea underlying in the present achievement. In principle, the codoping of germanium and boron in the CZ silicon can be tailored to achieve misfit dislocation-free epi-layer with required thickness. It is reasonably expected that the presented solution to elimination of misfit dislocations in the p/p + silicon wafers can be applied in the volume production

  11. First-principles investigation of H{sub 2}O adsorption on a BN co-doped nanotube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Jianwei; Pu, Lichun; Hu, Nan [College of Optoelectronic Information, Chongqing University of Technology, Chongqing 400054 (China); Zeng, Hui [College of Physical Science and Technology, Yangtze University, Jingzhou 434023 (China); Liang, Junwu [Department of Physics and Information Science, Yulin Normal University, Yulin 537000 (China); Peng, Ping [College of Science and Technology of Materials, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2012-01-15

    We have investigated the electronic and optical properties of a water adsorbed carbon nanotube (CNT) with boron/nitrogen co-doping by means of density-functional theories (DFTs). These properties play an important role in biological application of the co-doped nanotube. The positions of the inside adsorbed water molecules are all much alike due to confinement effects. The calculated results indicate that the water can be stably adsorbed both inside and outside of the co-doped nanotube. More importantly, the water molecule can act as donor or acceptor depending on its position. The adsorption can significantly decrease the band gap and enhance the localization of the {pi} electron. The optical properties are affected nonlinearly owing to the strong interactivity between the water molecule and the nanotube. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Enhanced Electrical Activation in In-Implanted Si0.35Ge0.65 by C Co-Doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Ruixing; Kremer, Felipe; Sprouster, David J.; Mirzaei, Sahar; Decoster, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In this report, we have achieved a significant increase in the electrically active dopant fraction in Indium (In)-implanted Si 0.35 Ge 0.65 , by co-doping with the isovalent element Carbon (C). Electrical measurements have been correlated with X-ray absorption spectroscopy to determine the electrical properties and the In atom lattice location. With C+In co-doping, the solid solubility of In in Si 0.35 Ge 0.65 was at least tripled from between 0.02 and 0.06 at% to between 0.2 and 0.6 at% as a result of C–In pair formation, which suppressed In metal precipitation. A dramatic improvement of electrical properties was thus attained in the co-doped samples.

  13. Hydrothermal Growth of Vertically Aligned ZnO Nanorods Using a Biocomposite Seed Layer of ZnO Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain; Khun, Kimleang; Eriksson, Martin; AlSalhi, Mohammad; Atif, Muhammad; Ansari, Anees; Willander, Magnus

    2013-08-19

    Well aligned ZnO nanorods have been prepared by a low temperature aqueous chemical growth method, using a biocomposite seed layer of ZnO nanoparticles prepared in starch and cellulose bio polymers. The effect of different concentrations of biocomposite seed layer on the alignment of ZnO nanorods has been investigated. ZnO nanorods grown on a gold-coated glass substrate have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) techniques. These techniques have shown that the ZnO nanorods are well aligned and perpendicular to the substrate, and grown with a high density and uniformity on the substrate. Moreover, ZnO nanorods can be grown with an orientation along the c -axis of the substrate and exhibit a wurtzite crystal structure with a dominant (002) peak in an XRD spectrum and possessed a high crystal quality. A photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy study of the ZnO nanorods has revealed a conventional near band edge ultraviolet emission, along with emission in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum due to defect emission. This study provides an alternative method for the fabrication of well aligned ZnO nanorods. This method can be helpful in improving the performance of devices where alignment plays a significant role.

  14. Hydrothermal Growth of Vertically Aligned ZnO Nanorods Using a Biocomposite Seed Layer of ZnO Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar Hussain Ibupoto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Well aligned ZnO nanorods have been prepared by a low temperature aqueous chemical growth method, using a biocomposite seed layer of ZnO nanoparticles prepared in starch and cellulose bio polymers. The effect of different concentrations of biocomposite seed layer on the alignment of ZnO nanorods has been investigated. ZnO nanorods grown on a gold-coated glass substrate have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM techniques. These techniques have shown that the ZnO nanorods are well aligned and perpendicular to the substrate, and grown with a high density and uniformity on the substrate. Moreover, ZnO nanorods can be grown with an orientation along the c-axis of the substrate and exhibit a wurtzite crystal structure with a dominant (002 peak in an XRD spectrum and possessed a high crystal quality. A photoluminescence (PL spectroscopy study of the ZnO nanorods has revealed a conventional near band edge ultraviolet emission, along with emission in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum due to defect emission. This study provides an alternative method for the fabrication of well aligned ZnO nanorods. This method can be helpful in improving the performance of devices where alignment plays a significant role.

  15. Trioctylphosphine-assisted morphology control of ZnO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yun-Kun; Cho, GeonHee; Park, YoonSu; Oh, Soong Ju; Ha, Don-Hyung

    2018-06-01

    This study investigates the morphological change in colloidal ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) synthesized with trioctylphosphine (TOP). The addition of TOP to the synthesis causes an evolution in the shape of ZnO NPs to tadpole-like particles from quasi-spherical particles at 300 °C. The total length of the tadpole-like ZnO NPs can be modified by controlling the molar ratio of TOP to oleylamine (OLAM). The tadpole-like particles are elongated as the concentration of TOP increased but decreased when the addition of TOP is excessive. These tadpole-like ZnO NPs transform to quasi-spherical NPs regardless of the amount of TOP at a reaction time of 3 h at 300 °C. At 200 °C, the effect of TOP on the ZnO NP synthesis differs from that at 300 °C. The ZnO NPs synthesized by controlling the molar ratios of surfactant ligands (TOP:OLAM = 2:100 and 70:100) at 200 °C share similar amorphous structures, while a crystalline ZnO phase is formed when the reaction time is 3 h. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis shows that TOP influences the oxidation of ZnO and suggests that a combination of OLAM and TOP plays a role in controlling the shape of ZnO NPs. These results provide critical insights to the utilization of TOP for a shape controlling ligand in ZnO NPs and suggest a new route to design oxide NPs.

  16. Morphological transition of ZnO nanostructures influenced by magnesium doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premkumar, T.; Zhou, Y.S.; Gao, Y.; Baskar, K.; Jiang, L.; Lu, Y.F.

    2012-01-01

    Wurtzite zinc oxide (ZnO) nanochains have been synthesized through high-pressure pulsed laser deposition. The chain-like ZnO nanostructures were obtained from magnesium (Mg) doped ZnO targets, whereas vertically aligned nanorods were obtained from primitive ZnO targets. The Mg doping has influenced the morphological transition of ZnO nanostructures from nanorods to nanochains. The field emission scanning electron microscope images revealed the growth of beaded ZnO nanochains. The ZnO nanochains of different diameters 40 and 120 nm were obtained. The corresponding micro-Raman spectra showed strong E 2H mode of ZnO, which confirmed the good crystallinity of the nanochains. In addition to near band edge emission at 3.28 eV, ZnO nanochains show broad deep level emission at 2.42 eV than that of ZnO nanorods.

  17. Enhancing the photocatalytic activity of nanocrystalline TiO2 by co-doping with fluorine and yttrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Huarong; Miao, Guashuai; Ma, Xingping; Wang, Bei; Zheng, Haiwu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • (F, Y)-codoped TiO 2 nanoparticles were prepared by a simple sol–gel method. • The highest photocatalytic activity (15 times of that over the pure TiO 2 ) was exhibited in the codoped TiO 2 with 0.05% Y doping level. • The Y doping induced oxygen vancancies played a duel role on the photocatalyic activity of the codoped TiO 2 . • The photocatalytic reactive oxygen species are critical to the photocatalytic degradation processes. - Abstract: Fluorine and yttrium codoped TiO 2 nanoparticles were prepared using a simple sol–gel method. The products were characterized with various spectroscopic and analytical techniques to determine their structural, morphological, optical absorption and photocatalytic properties. The results reveal that neither F nor Y doping causes obvious absorption edge shift in TiO 2 . Photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra present that the PL signal is enhanced, suggesting a decrease of photo-generated charge carrier separation efficiency, after the F or Y doping. The synergistic action by the F and Y doping leads to the highest photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue solution in the 0.05% (F, Y)-codoped sample (15 times of that over the pure TiO 2 ). With the increase of Y doping level, the photocatalytic performance in the codoped samples increases firstly and then decreases. The photocatalytic activity variations after the F and Y doping were interpreted by the formation of photocatalytic reactive oxygen species induced by the dopings

  18. Role of heat on the development of electrochemical sensors on bare and modified Co3O4/CuO composite nanopowder carbon paste electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mohan; Kumara Swamy, B E

    2016-01-01

    The Co3O4/CuO composite nanopowder (NP) was synthesized by a mechanochemical method and characterized by using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The synthesized Co3O4/CuO NP was used as a modified carbon paste electrode (MCPE) and further the bare carbon paste and Co3O4/CuO NP modified carbon paste was heated at different temperatures (100, 150, 200 and 250 °C) for 10 min. The Co3O4/CuO NP MCPE was used to study the consequences of scan rate and dopamine concentration. Furthermore the preheated modified electrodes were used to study the electrochemical response to dopamine (DA), ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of CuO chains on the local density of states in the vortex phase of YBa2Cu3O7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, W A

    2009-01-01

    We examine the effects of the CuO chains on the density of states in the vortex phase in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 , via a calculation based on the tight-binding proximity model. In this model, chain superconductivity results from single-electron hopping between the intrinsically normal chains and intrinsically superconducting CuO 2 planes. The calculations are based on self-consistent solutions of the Bogolyubov-de Gennes equations for a bilayer consisting of a single CuO 2 layer and a single CuO chain layer. We find that, in addition to the dispersing resonances found in single-layer models, there are a second set of dispersing resonances, associated with the induced gap in the chain layer. These new resonances are highly anisotropic and distort the vortex core shape.

  20. Effect of V-Nd co-doping on phase transformation and grain growth process of TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatun, Nasima; Amin, Ruhul; Anita, Sen, Somaditya

    2018-05-01

    The pure and V-Nd co-doped TiO2 samples are prepared by the modified sol-gel process. The phase formation is confirmed by XRD spectrum. Phase transformation is delayed in V-Nd co-doped TiO2 (TVN) samples compared to pure TiO2. The particle size is comparatively small in TVN samples at both the temperature 450 °C and 900 °C. Hence the effect of Nd doping is dominated over V doping in both phase transformation and grain growth process of TiO2.