WorldWideScience

Sample records for cumulative subject index

  1. Chemical evolution and the origin of life: cumulative keyword subject index 1970-1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, A. C.; Powers, J. V.; Rummel, J. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1990-01-01

    This cumulative subject index encompasses the subject indexes of the bibliographies on Chemical Evolution and the Origin of Life that were first published in 1970 and have continued through publication of the 1986 bibliography supplement. Early bibliographies focused on experimental and theoretical material dealing directly with the concepts of chemical evolution and the origin of life, excluding the broader areas of exobiology, biological evolution, and geochemistry. In recent years, these broader subject areas have also been incorporated as they appear in literature searches relating to chemical evolution and the origin of life, although direct attempts have not been made to compile all of the citations in these broad areas. The keyword subject indexes have also undergone an analogous change in scope. Compilers of earlier bibliographies used the most specific term available in producing the subject index. Compilers of recent bibliographies have used a number of broad terms relating to the overall subject content of each citation and specific terms where appropriate. The subject indexes of these 17 bibliographies have, in general, been cumulatively compiled exactly as they originally appeared. However, some changes have been made in an attempt to correct errors, combine terms, and provide more meaningful terms.

  2. SUBJECT INDEX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid, zinc sulfate, experimental colitis, 2003328AC133 antigen, hematopoietic stem cells, fetal blood, immunophe-notyping, 2003138ALR2 gene, eNOS gene, PON1 gene, RAGE gene, 2003179 ATN-ISI, prognosis, acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis-individual severity index, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation, 2003118 Alzheimer disease, interleukin-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha,

  3. A new family of cumulative indexes for measuring scientific performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Kozak

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a new family of cumulative indexes for measuring scientific performance which can be applied to many metrics, including h index and its variants (here we apply it to the h index, h(2 index and Google Scholar's i10 index. These indexes follow the general principle of repeating the index calculation for the same publication set. Using bibliometric data and reviewer scores for accepted and rejected fellowship applicants we examine how valid the cumulative variant is compared to the original variant. These analyses showed that the cumulative indexes result in higher correlations with the reviewer scores than their original variants. Thus, the cumulative indexes better reflect the assessments by peers than the original variants and are useful extensions of the original indexes. In contrast to many other measures of scientific performance proposed up to now, the cumulative indexes seem not only to be effective, but they are also easy to understand and calculate.

  4. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A cumulative index to the 1980 issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    A cumulative index to the abstracts contained in the Supplements 203 through 214 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography is presented. It includes three indexes--subject, personal author, and corporate source.

  5. SUBJECT AND AUTHOR INDEXS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJBE Volume 1

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available SUBJECT INDEX IJBE VOLUME 1EPA, 1Agrotourism, 148AHP, 148balance scorecard, 63batik tulis Rolla Junior, 23Broiler, 90business model canvas, 137business performance,32capital structure, 81cashew industry,158CHAID,106CLI,42coal transportation service,63company’s characteristics, 81competitive advantage, 12competitive strategy, 127consumer satisfaction, 51CSI, 42customer loyalty, 42customer satisfaction,42decision of visitors, 72development strategy, 23development,158entrepreneurship, 32Feasibility studies, 90FEM, 81gap analysis, 1Indonesia Stock Exchange, 177Indosat, 137investor,177Kawah Putih, 72kedai sop durian lodaya (KSDL,51klassen typology, 96leading sector, 96less cash society, 137liquidity ratio, 165location quotient, 96logistic regression, 115market, 177marketing development strategy, 148Marketing mix, 72mobile payment, 137modern and Traditional cage, 90multiple regression analyse,165multiple regression, 177net working capital, 165organic tofu product, 115Padang, 106paired comparison, 63partnership, 1, 32Pecking Order Theory, 81PLS, 81Portfolio, 96power, 32product quality, 51profitability ratio, 165Prol Tape Primadona, 127purchase decision, 115purchase intention, 51purchasing interest,115QSPM, 23, 127refilled drinking water, 106seed,1segmentation, 106SEM, 42, 51service quality, 51SMEs, 96specialty coffee, 12stock,177strategic diagnosis,137strategy, 158Sukorambi Botanic Garden, 148SWOT, 23, 127, 148, 158SWOT-AHP, 12tourists,72UD. Primadona, 127value chain, 12VRIO,12 AUTHOR INDEX IJBE VOLUME 1Adiningsih, Kartika Puspitasari,42Aknesia, Vharessa,12Amalia, Firda Rachma,90Andati, Trias, 177Anggraeni, Lukytawati,23Asriani,158Daryanto, Arief,12, 90Djamaludin, MD., 42Djohar, Setiadi,96Fachrodji, Achmad,72Fahmi, Idqan,1, 63, 127Fasyni, Awisal,106Hubeis, Musa,148Iskandar, Dodi,51Juanda, Bambang, 165Kirbrandoko, 12, 106, 115Lumbantoruan, Dewi Margareth,96Maulana, TB Nur Ahmad,81Muksin, 148Mukti Soleh, Cecep,63Najib, Mukhamad,106Noor, Tajudin,81

  6. SUBJECT AND AUTHOR INDEXS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJBE Volume 2

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available SUBJECT INDEX IJBE VOLUME 2access credit, 93acquisition, 177AHP, 61, 82, 165arena simulation,43BMC, 69Bojonegoro, 69brand choice, 208brand image, 208brand positioning, 208bullwhip effect, 43burger buns, 1business synergy and financial reports, 177capital structure, 130cluster, 151coal reserves, 130coffee plantation, 93competitiveness, 82consumer behaviour, 33consumer complaint behavior, 101cooking spices, 1crackers, 1cross sectional analytical, 139crosstab, 101CSI, 12direct selling, 122discriminant analysis, 33economic value added, 130, 187employee motivation, 112employee performance, 112employees, 139EOQ, 23farmer decisions, 93farmer group, 52financial performance evaluation, 187financial performance, 52, 177financial ratio, 187financial report, 187fiva food, 23food crops, 151horticulture, 151imports, 151improved capital structure, 177IPA, 12leading sector, 151life insurance, 165LotteMart, 43main product, 61marketing mix, 33, 165matrix SWOT, 69MPE, 61multiple linear regression, 122muslim clothing, 197Ogun, 139Pangasius fillet, 82Pati, 93pearson correlation, 101perceived value, 208performance suppy chain, 23PLS, 208POQ, 23portfolio analyzing, 1product, 101PT SKP, 122pulp and papers, 187purchase decision, 165purchase intention, 33remuneration, 112re-purchasing decisions, 197sales performance, 122sawmill, 52SCOR, 23sekolah peternakan rakyat, 69SEM, 112SERVQUAL, 12Sido Makmur farmer groups, 93SI-PUHH Online, 12small and medium industries (IKM, 61socio-demographic, 139sport drink, 208stress, 139supply chain, 43SWOT, 82the mix marketing, 197Tobin’s Q, 130trade partnership, 52uleg chili sauce, 1 AUTHOR INDEX IJBE VOLUME 2Achsani, Noer Azam, 177Andati, Trias, 52, 177Andihka, Galih, 208Arkeman, Yandra, 43Baga, Lukman M, 69Cahyanugroho, Aldi, 112Daryanto, Arief, 12David, Ajibade, 139Djoni, 122Fahmi, Idqan, 1Fattah, Muhammad Unggul Abdul, 61Hakim, Dedi Budiman, 187Harianto, 93Hartoyo, 101Homisah, 1Hubeis, Musa, 112Hutagaol, M. Parulian, 93Jaya, Stevana

  7. Cumulative index 1981-1985, Volumes 138-157.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    This cumulative index also includes listings of all major papers from the American Journal of Neuroradiology, American Journal of Roentgenology, Clinics in Diagnostic Ultrasound, Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography, Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine, RadioGraphics, Radiologic Clinics of North America, Seminars in Nuclear Medicine, Seminars in Roentgenology, and Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MR.

  8. Cumulative index 1981-1985, Volumes 138-157

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    This cumulative index also includes listings of all major papers from the American Journal of Neuroradiology, American Journal of Roentgenology, Clinics in Diagnostic Ultrasound, Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography, Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine, RadioGraphics, Radiologic Clinics of North America, Seminars in Nuclear Medicine, Seminars in Roentgenology, and Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MR.

  9. Cumulative glycemia and microangiopathy in subjects with impaired glucose regulation in the Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Inger Christine; Larsen, Michael; Kessel, Line

    2011-01-01

    participants. RESULTS: Lens fluorescence, a quantitative index of life-long cumulative glycemia, was increased by 7.5% (CI(95) 0.37-15.1%) in subjects with impaired fasting glucose, by 13.0% (CI(95) 5.5-21%) in subjects with combined impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance (IFG+IGT), and by 11......AIMS: To assess cumulative glycemia, microvascular characteristics, and associated risk factors for diabetes in subjects with impaired glucose regulation. METHODS: Cross-sectional, population-based study comprising systemic characteristics in 6487 participants and ocular characteristics in 970.......8% (CI(95) 6.8-17.1%) in subjects with screen-detected diabetes compared to normoglycemic subjects, adjusted for age, sex, and smoking. The prevalences of microalbuminuria and retinopathy were significantly increased in subjects with screen-detected diabetes after adjusting for age, sex and systolic...

  10. Cumulative Index to the Sixteenth through the Twentieth Semiannual Reports of the Commission to the Congress. January 1954 - June 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Lewis L.

    1956-07-30

    The sixteenth through the twentieth semiannual reports of the United States Atomic Energy Commission to Congress are covered in this cumulative index, which included both a name and subject index as aids to finding information in the full reports.. The full semiannual reports themselves cover the major unclassified activities of the Commission from January 1954 through June 1956.

  11. Cumulative Index to the First Fifteen Semiannual Reports of the Commission to the Congress. January 1947 - 1953

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, Gordon

    1954-01-31

    The first fifteen semiannual reports of the United States Atomic Energy Commission to Congress cover the major unclassified activities of the Commission from January 1947 through December 1953. This cumulative name and subject index provides a guide to the information published in these reports.

  12. Semiotics and Indexing: An Analysis of the Subject Indexing Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Jens-Erik

    2001-01-01

    Explains some major problems related to the subject indexing process and proposes semiotics as a framework for understanding the interpretive nature of the process. Explores the approach to studies of indexing and library and information science suggested by Fairthorne, Blair, Benediktsson, and others. Offers an explanation of what occurs in the…

  13. Subject/Author Index 1968-1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupidura, Eva, Ed.; Kupidura, Peter, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This 25-year index contains annotations of feature articles by subject and by author. Representative subjects include basic education, development education, empowerment, human rights, lifelong education, peace education, popular education, rural development, social/political action, technological advancement, and transformative research. Articles…

  14. Cumulative Index to Twenty Five Semiannual Reports of the Commission to the Congress. January 1947 - January 1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCone, John A.

    1960-01-31

    The first twenty five semiannual reports of the United States Atomic Energy Commission to Congress cover the major unclassified activities of the Commission from January 1947 through January 1959. In addition to the semiannual summaries, a series of special reports on important atomic energy programs were included in many of the semiannual reports. This cumulative name and subject index provides a guide to the information published in these reports. Beginning in 1960, the Commission will be issuing annual reports, each separately indexed, ceasing the semiannual reporting.

  15. Subject Indexing of children's and juvenile literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Fedeli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article tries to highlight some issues related to subject indexing applied to fiction, with a focus on how it could be implemented on children's literature and then also on adults fiction. In fact, Italy is one of the country that does not add subject indexing to fiction, and despite the numerous and ongoing debates on this topic there is not any National plan to solve this issue. Users who requires more this kind of research are children and teenagers: children’s literature, in fact, is involved in some interesting steps on subject indexing applied to fiction, even if this initiative is carried out in an independent way by individual library networks.

  16. Cumulative risk assessment of phthalate exposure of Danish children and adolescents using the hazard index approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søeborg, T; Frederiksen, H; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2012-01-01

    and adolescents and resulting estimated daily intakes of four different phthalates. These daily intake estimates are used for a cumulative risk assessment with anti-androgenic effects as the endpoint using Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) values determined by the European Food Safety Authorities (EFSA) or Reference...... endpoint for the phthalates included in this article. Using the EFSA TDI values, 12 children exceeded the hazard quotient for the sum of di-n-butyl phthalate and di-iso-butyl phthalate (∑DBP((i+n)) ) and one child exceeded the hazard quotient for di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). Nineteen children...... exceeded the cumulated hazard index for three phthalates. Using the RfD AA values, one child exceeded the hazard quotient for DEHP and the same child exceeded the cumulated hazard index for four phthalates. The EFSA TDI approach thus is more restrictive and identifies ∑DBP((i+n)) as the compound...

  17. Chicano Periodical Index: A Cumulative Index to Selected Chicano Periodicals Between 1967 and 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabran, Richard; Garcia, Francisco

    The Index provides comprehensive access to 18 Chicano periodicals which were retrospectively indexed through October 1978. All material within the periodicals was indexed except photographs and advertisements. Periodicals were selected from academic journals, general consumption magazines, and humanities journals. The Index consists of three main…

  18. Cumulative oxytocin dose during induction of labor according to maternal body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roloff, Kristina; Peng, Sheppard; Sanchez-Ramos, Luis; Valenzuela, Guillermo J

    2015-10-01

    To determine the cumulative oxytocin dose needed to achieve vaginal delivery among obese and non-obese women. A retrospective study was undertaken of women with singleton, term (≥37 weeks) pregnancies who delivered at an institution in California, USA, between May 1 and July 31, 2012. Women were deemed to be obese when their body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters) was 30 or above. Cumulative oxytocin doses were calculated for women who achieved vaginal delivery. Overall, 413 women were included. Among 357 women for whom BMI data were available, 204 (57.1%) were obese. Vaginal delivery was achieved in 379 women. Among women who received augmentation after spontaneous labor onset, obese women trended towards more cumulative oxytocin (minimum: 24.7 ± 100.5 mU among women with a BMI of 18.50-24.99; maximum: 1580.5 ± 2530.5 mU among women with a BMI of 35.00-39.99; P=0.086). Women who underwent induction of labor required significantly more oxytocin with increasing BMI class (Plabor. Obese women required a larger cumulative oxytocin dose to achieve vaginal birth during labor induction, but not during augmentation of labor. The physiology of spontaneous labor could supersede or influence the metabolic derangement facing obese patients undergoing induction of labor. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 1 CFR 6.2 - Analytical subject indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Analytical subject indexes. 6.2 Section 6.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER INDEXES AND ANCILLARIES § 6.2 Analytical subject indexes. Analytical subject indexes covering the contents of the...

  20. Assessing cumulative pressures and impacts in a regional scale: HELCOM Baltic Sea Impact Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korpinen, S.; Meski, L.; Andersen, Jesper;

    of identifying hot spots needs to be replaced by spatial high-resolution maps associated with estimated impacts on key ecosystem components. The Baltic Sea Marine Environment Protection Commission (HELCOM) took a first step towards an initial regional assessment of anthropogenic pressures in the Initial Holistic...... of macrozoobenthic communities in some Baltic sub-basins and the results have suggested that more specific selection of pressures is needed in order to assess anthropogenic impacts on benthic habitats. Such an adaptation of the tool has already been tested to assess the sea-floor integrity under the MSFD qualitative...... Assessment of the Baltic Sea by producing the Baltic Sea Pressure Index (BSPI) and the Baltic Sea Impact Index (BSII). The BSPI visualizes cumulative anthropogenic pressures in the Baltic Sea scale, whereas the BSII consists of potential impacts of anthropogenic pressures on key ecosystem components...

  1. Pragmatic Approach to Subject Indexing: A New Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, S.; Sinha, P. K.

    1984-01-01

    Describes adoption at Sorghum and Millets Information Center (India) of Pragmatic Approach to Subject Index (PASI), computer-manipulative indexing procedure in which key words are arranged in meaningful sequence. Indexing problems, search for suitable system, PASI indexing steps, and computerization are discussed. Thirteen references and…

  2. Cumulative Impact Evaluation in Central Part of Liepaja with Comulative Pollution Index Method and Air Pollution Dispersion Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalniņš Viesturs

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cumulative impact evaluation is one of the most actual problems in air quality monitoring. At the same time, it is also the most problematic factor to evaluate due to lack of appropriate methodology. The aim of this study was to assess the opportunity to use a new method – Cumulative Pollution Index (CPI in cumulative impact calculation from two different sets of data – bioindication survey with Index of Atmospheric Purity method and air pollution dispersion modelling. Results show that the usage of modelling data, instead of measurements, in cumulative impact evaluation can be quite difficult due to the fact that dispersion models not always give sufficiently accurate data. Despite the issues with modelling specifics, the use of dispersion modelling in CPI calculation shows that the use of this approach not only gives plausible data – obtained values correlate with pollution level and forming strong clustering in spatial distribution, but also reveals new facts about cumulative impact – demonstrates the city microclimate importance in forming of cumulative effect due to geometry of street canyons.

  3. Third cumulative index for Koedoe: volumes 35/2-44/1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Rautenbach

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Index to Koedoe: volumes 35/2 - 44/1 Authors85 Subjects98 Botany 98 Ecology and behaviour 100 Wildlife conservation & techniques 100 Zoology102 Invertebrata 102 Pisces 103 Amphibia 103 Reptilia 103 Aves104 Mammalia 104 Archaeology and History 105 Bibliography 106 Climate 106 Geologyand Pedology 106 Environmental impact on rivers & water quality 106 Check list 107 Issues in conservation 107 Maps 108 Social Science 108 Parks

  4. Cumulative risk assessment for plasticizer-contaminated food using the hazard index approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J W; Chen, C Y; Yan, B R; Chang, M H; Tseng, S H; Kao, Y M; Chen, J C; Lee, C C

    2014-06-01

    Phthalates strongly and adversely affect reproduction, development and liver function. We did a cumulative risk assessment for simultaneous exposure to nine phthalates using the hazard index (HI) and the levels of nine phthalates in 1200 foodstuff samples. DEHP (di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate) present the highest level (mean: 0.443 mg/kg) in 1200 samples, and the highest average daily dose (ADD) was found in DEHP, ΣDBP(i + n) (the sum of dibutyl phthalate [DBP] isomers [DnBP + DiBP]) posed the highest risk potential of all the phthalates. In seven phthalates, the 95th percentiles of the ADDs for ΣDBP(i + n) in 0-6-yr-old children accounted for 91% (79-107%) of the tolerable daily intake, and the 95th percentiles of the HIs for the anti-androgenic effects of five phthalates in 0-3-yr-old children and 4-6-yr-old girls were >1. We conclude that the health of younger Taiwanese may be adversely affected by overexposure of phthalate-contaminated foods.

  5. The Composite Strain Index (COSI) and Cumulative Strain Index (CUSI): methodologies for quantifying biomechanical stressors for complex tasks and job rotation using the Revised Strain Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Arun; Moore, J Steven; Kapellusch, Jay M

    2016-11-04

    The Composite Strain Index (COSI) quantifies biomechanical stressors for complex tasks consisting of exertions at different force levels and/or with different exertion times. The Cumulative Strain Index (CUSI) further integrates biomechanical stressors from different tasks to quantify exposure for the entire work shift. The paper provides methodologies to compute COSI and CUSI along with examples. Complex task simulation produced 169,214 distinct tasks. Use of average, time-weighted average (TWA) and peak force and COSI classified 66.9, 28.2, 100 and 38.9% of tasks as hazardous, respectively. For job rotation the simulation produced 10,920 distinct jobs. TWA COSI, peak task COSI and CUSI classified 36.5, 78.1 and 66.6% jobs as hazardous, respectively. The results suggest that the TWA approach systematically underestimates the biomechanical stressors and peak approach overestimates biomechanical stressors, both at the task and job level. It is believed that the COSI and CUSI partially address these underestimations and overestimations of biomechanical stressors. Practitioner Summary: COSI quantifies exposure when applied hand force and/or duration of that force changes during a task cycle. CUSI integrates physical exposures from job rotation. These should be valuable tools for designing and analysing tasks and job rotation to determine risk of musculoskeletal injuries.

  6. Introduction to Subject Indexing; A Programmed Text. Volume One: Subject Analysis and Practical Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alan George

    This programed text presents the basic principles and practices of subject indexing--limited to the area of precoordinate indexing. This first of two volumes deals with the subject analysis of documents, primarily at the level of summarization, and the basic elements of translation into classification schemes. The text includes regular self-tests…

  7. The Automatic indexing of Grey Literature by Subject Headings of the Polythematic Structured Subject Heading System

    OpenAIRE

    Kocourek, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    The contribution is devoted to the automatic indexing of grey literature by subject headings of the Polythematic Structured Subject Heading System in the National repository of grey literature. The paper describes the initial situation, previous experience, analysis, stages of implementation and demonstration of indexing.

  8. Blood lead levels and cumulative blood lead index (CBLI) as predictors of late neurodevelopment in lead poisoned children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Linda H.; Wright, Robert O.; Bellinger, David C.; Hussain, Javed; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra; Chettle, David R.; Pejović-Milić, Ana; woolf, Alan; Shannon, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objective To find the best lead exposure assessment marker for children. Methods We recruited 11 children, calculated a cumulative blood lead index (CBLI) for the children, measured their concurrent BLL, assessed their development, and measured their bone lead level. Results Nine of 11 children had clinically significant neurodevelopment problems. CBLI and current blood lead level, but not the peak lead level, were significantly or marginally negatively associated with the full-scale IQ score. Conclusion Lead exposure at younger age significantly impacts a child’s later neurodevelopment. CBLI may be a better predictor of neurodevelopment than are current or peak blood lead levels. PMID:21827276

  9. Problems of Controlled Vocabulary versus Uncontrolled Vocabulary in Subject Indexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-chen Chen

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is mainly to survey the centennial controversy between controlled vocabulary v. uncontrolled vocabulary of subject indexing in the western library and information society. We also discuss the related problems in Chinese information retrieval systems and analyze the factors affecting their performance. [Article content in Chinese

  10. Introduction to Subject Indexing; a Programmed Text. Volume Two: UDC and Chain Procedure in Subject Cataloguing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A. G.; And Others

    This is the second of two volumes dealing with practical classification and subject indexing. The programed text considers use of the Universal Decimal Classification (UDC) and techniques of cross referencing based on UDC in the construction of classified and alphabetical subject catalogs. (Author/LS)

  11. CUMEX: a cumulative hazard index for assessing limiting exposures to environmental pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, P.J.; Killough, G.G.; Parzyck, D.C.; Rohwer, P.S.; Rupp, e.M.; Whitfield, B.L.; Booth, R.S.; Raridon, R.J.

    1977-04-01

    A hazard index methodology called CUMEX has been developed for limiting human exposure to environmental pollutants. Hazard index is defined as Q/Q/sub L/ where Q is exposure or dose to total-body, organ or tissue from all environmental pathways and Q/sub L/ is a limit which should not be exceeded because of health risk to humans. Mathematical formulations for hazard indices are developed for each sampling medium corresponding to each effluent type. These hazard indices are accumulated into composite indices such that total human intake or dose would not exceed the health risk limit. Mathematical formulation for composite hazard indices or CUMEX indices for multiple pollutants are presented. An example CUMEX application to cadmium release from a smelter complex in East Helena, Montana demonstrates details of the methodology for a single pollutant where human intake occurs through inhalation and ingestion.

  12. The collected papers of Albert Einstein. - Vol. 11: Cumulative index, bibliography, list of correspondence, chronology, and errata to volumes 1-10

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kox, A.J.; Sauer, T.; Kormos Buchwald, D.; Hirschmann, R.; Moses, O.; Aronin, B.; Stolper, J.

    2009-01-01

    This index volume provides quick access to the most authoritative compilation of documents and information concerning Einstein's work and correspondence for the first half of his life. It offers readers a Cumulative Index to the first ten volumes of the collected papers, the first complete bibliogra

  13. Bibliography on Cold Regions Science and Technology. Cumulative Subject Index. Volumes 38-42

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    100). rusj 40-52? Hydrology and geochemistry of a sub-Arctic landfill , Fairbanks. Aluka. Flynn, D.M.. [1985, 41p., eng] 40-1431 Applications of...Power, J.M., [1985, p.59-71, eng] 40-1125 Hydrology and geochemistry of a sub-Arctic landfill . Fairbanks, Alaska. Flynn, D.M., [1985, 41p., eng...trans-Channel Icebridge a viable alternative to the Channel Tunnel. Cathcart , R.B., [1987, p.63-63. t ’■"lU* Artificial upbuilding of ice on small

  14. Investigation of hydrological drought using Cumulative Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI 30) in the eastern Mediterranean region (Damascus, Syria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakhem, Boulos Abou; Kattaa, Bassam

    2016-07-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean region has been exposed to drought episodes, which have been occurring more frequently during the last decades. The objective of the present paper is to study the precipitation regime of the Damascus (Mazzeh) meteoric station by analysing drought characteristics using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and comparing this with the drought in Cyprus. The cumulative drought conceptis proposed to characterize long-term hydrologic drought, which affects the shallow groundwater productivity in terms of quantity and quality. Gamma probability distribution was fitted to the long-term annual precipitation in Damascus from 1918-1919 to 2007-2008 ( n = 90 years). Generally, a decreasing trend of 17% to the mean annual rainfall of Damascus and 13% to the mean annual rainfall of Cyprus was estimated between 1970 and 2000. The SPI identifies three major extended drought periods: (1) 9 years of severe drought (1954-1963) with an average 20% precipitation deficit per year compared to the mean. (2) 8 years of severe drought (1983-1991) with a 27% deficit per year on average. (3) 9 years of extreme drought (1993-2002) with a 31% deficit per year on average. The cumulative standardized precipitation index (SPI 30) demonstrates positive values for the first period and is indicative of having no effect on the global water balance. SPI 30 exhibits sensitive equilibrium with near zero values / a near zero value (±1.5) for the second period. For the third period, however, the SPI 30 decreases below -10 indicating an extreme hydrological drought that has negative consequences on the recent groundwater recharge. It is required to develop and implement a sustainable groundwater management strategy to reduce long-terms drought risks. Generally, the SPI 30 in Cyprus is parallel to that in Damascus with a 3-5 year delay. Thus, the central zone of the Eastern Mediterranean region is facing big challenges and has been suffering from three decades of moderate to

  15. Investigation of hydrological drought using Cumulative Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI 30) in the eastern Mediterranean region (Damascus, Syria)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Boulos Abou Zakhem; Bassam Kattaa

    2016-07-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean region has been exposed to drought episodes, which have been occurring morefrequently during the last decades. The objective of the present paper is to study the precipitation regimeof the Damascus (Mazzeh) meteoric station by analysing drought characteristics using the StandardizedPrecipitation Index (SPI) and comparing this with the drought in Cyprus. The cumulative droughtconcept is proposed to characterize long-term hydrologic drought, which affects the shallow groundwaterproductivity in terms of quantity and quality. Gamma probability distribution was fitted to the long-termannual precipitation in Damascus from 1918–1919 to 2007–2008 (n = 90 years). Generally, a decreasingtrend of 17% to the mean annual rainfall of Damascus and 13% to the mean annual rainfall of Cypruswas estimated between 1970 and 2000. The SPI identifies three major extended drought periods: (1)9 years of severe drought (1954–1963) with an average 20% precipitation deficit per year compared tothe mean. (2) 8 years of severe drought (1983–1991) with a 27% deficit per year on average. (3) 9 yearsof extreme drought (1993–2002) with a 31% deficit per year on average. The cumulative standardizedprecipitation index (SPI 30) demonstrates positive values for the first period and is indicative of havingno effect on the global water balance. SPI 30 exhibits sensitive equilibrium with near zero values / a nearzero value (±1.5) for the second period. For the third period, however, the SPI 30 decreases below −10indicating an extreme hydrological drought that has negative consequences on the recent groundwaterrecharge. It is required to develop and implement a sustainable groundwater management strategy toreduce long-terms drought risks. Generally, the SPI 30 in Cyprus is parallel to that in Damascus witha 3–5 year delay. Thus, the central zone of the Eastern Mediterranean region is facing big challengesand has been suffering from three decades of moderate to

  16. Bibliography on Cold Regions Science and Technology. Cumulative Author Index. Volumes 28-32, Cumulative Subject Index. Volumes 28-32, Parts 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-12-01

    breakup 1976. Johnson, P., at A, C1977,0p.92.59%, ema Proceedings, the secoed International Conference on Port and Ocean 32-320 Enghneering under...Causes of daily rhythms in photosynthetic rates of phytoplanktc~i. 2. p.25,eo32-4337 (1975,patecontol3, e peso ntnmpns tos, 3’-281 Microbiological

  17. Human Cumulative Irritation Tests of Common Preservatives Used in Personal Care Products: A Retrospective Analysis of Over 45 000 Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Russel M; Khanna, Preeya; Hamilton, Matthew; Mays, David A; Telofski, Lorena

    2015-11-01

    The cumulative irritation test (CIT) is an accepted method used to evaluate the skin irritation potential and safety of individual ingredients and formulas of leave-on skin care and cosmetic compounds. Here, we report the results of CITs collected by JOHNSON & JOHNSON Consumer Companies, Inc. (Skillman, NJ), part of an extensive tiered program to evaluate product safety. In the CIT, test formulations were applied to the skin of adults (18-70 years) with no known skin disease or allergies, 3 times per week for 2 weeks using semi-occlusive clinical patches. Preservatives were 1 of up to 16 components of test formulas, and included ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, diazolidinyl urea, 1,3-Bis(hydroxymethyl)-5,5-dimethylimidazolidine-2,4-dione, parabens, isothiazolinone, phenoxyethanol, sorbates, or benzoates. Skin sites were scored after each patch removal using a 5-point scale, with 0 = no visible reaction and 4 = erythema, marked edema, or substantial vesiculation. Scores were reported as percentage of maximal irritation score. Data were analyzed from 1363 CIT studies (over 45 000 subjects). There were no significant differences in percentage of maximal scores between formulas grouped by preservative types (p > .1). Median score across the entire dataset was 0.44, with most formulas showing none or mild irritation. Although seasonal variations were observed, no correlation was noted between score and preservative concentration. In conclusion, in a large, normal subject dataset, preservatives at typical in-use concentrations did not appear to contribute to skin irritation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Subject indexing in the Portuguese polytechnic libraries: proposing a simplified model to make it possible

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Mª Catarina Barradas

    2014-01-01

    Academic libraries are still working based on the traditional documentation techniques of cataloguing and indexing. The research about subject access in OPACs has demonstrated that inadequate indexing policies have negative influence on the way users search the catalogs: subject indexing and retrieval have a direct correspondence. Searching by subject in bibliographic catalogs must be, as much as possible, a successful experience for the users, and consistent subject indexes contribute to a m...

  19. Human Cumulative Irritation Tests of Common Preservatives Used in Personal Care Products: A Retrospective Analysis of Over 45 000 Subjects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walters, Russel M; Khanna, Preeya; Hamilton, Matthew; Mays, David A; Telofski, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    The cumulative irritation test (CIT) is an accepted method used to evaluate the skin irritation potential and safety of individual ingredients and formulas of leave-on skin care and cosmetic compounds...

  20. Determination and Analysis of Some Parameters Affecting the Subject Indexing Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lufkin, Richard C.

    This report describes a quantitative study of subject-indexing as it is being performed by catalogers who are developing an augmented catalog as part of Project Intrex. Learning curves for the average time taken to index technical documents on a per-page basis were derived for a group of indexers. The average indexing times per page were also…

  1. Education and Training. Annotated Bibliography. Author and Subject Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

    Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) publications and documents issued by the Human Resources and Institutions division and by other technical divisions in the technical, economic, and social fields are selected, annotated and indexed in this bibliography. Documents issued prior to 1967 are not included but can be found in the Rural…

  2. 1960-69 Cumulative Index of Articles Related to Oceanography and Limnology Education in The Science Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Maxwell

    Indexed are articles relating to oceanography and limnology published in "The Science Teacher" between 1960 and 1969. Articles are indexed under title, author, and topic. Topics include background information, course descriptions, and laboratory equipment and techniques. (EB)

  3. Access to Nonbook Materials: The Limits of Subject Indexing for Visual and Aural Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svenonius, Elaine

    1994-01-01

    Examines some nonbook materials with respect to an aboutness model of indexing, showing that there are instances that defy subject indexing. These occur not so much because of the nature of the medium but because it is being used for nondocumentary purposes or because the subject referenced is nonlexical. (Contains 20 references.) (KRN)

  4. Cumulative viral load and virologic decay patterns after antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected subjects influence CD4 recovery and AIDS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent C Marconi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The impact of viral load (VL decay and cumulative VL on CD4 recovery and AIDS after highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART is unknown. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Three virologic kinetic parameters (first year and overall exponential VL decay constants, and first year VL slope and cumulative VL during HAART were estimated for 2,278 patients who initiated HAART in the U.S. Military HIV Natural History Study. CD4 and VL trajectories were computed using linear and nonlinear Generalized Estimating Equations models. Multivariate Poisson and linear regression models were used to determine associations of VL parameters with CD4 recovery, adjusted for factors known to correlate with immune recovery. Cumulative VL higher than the sample median was independently associated with an increased risk of AIDS (relative risk 2.38, 95% confidence interval 1.56-3.62, p<0.001. Among patients with VL suppression, first year VL decay and slope were independent predictors of early CD4 recovery (p = 0.001 and overall gain (p<0.05. Despite VL suppression, those with slow decay during the first year of HAART as well as during the entire therapy period (overall, in general, gained less CD4 cells compared to the other subjects (133 vs. 195.4 cells/µL; p = 0.001 even after adjusting for potential confounders. CONCLUSIONS: In a cohort with free access to healthcare, independent of established predictors of AIDS and CD4 recovery during HAART, cumulative VL and virologic decay patterns were associated with AIDS and distinct aspects of CD4 reconstitution.

  5. A Different Kind of Publishing; Subject Listings; Library Distributors; Publisher Index; Index to Advertisers; Best Sellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Eric; Kim, Ann; Miller, Rebecca; Ward, Nathan

    2002-01-01

    This annual supplement discusses issues related to reference books and the publishing industry. Highlights include producing reference books for the library market; a bibliography of over 1000 titles organized by categories and indicating appropriate grade levels; a descriptive list of library distributors; a publisher's index; and a list of the…

  6. Back-of-Book Subject Indexing with APL: Automated Indexing for Those without Computer Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, John C.

    1978-01-01

    Considers the question of the utility of a book indexing computer program for those without computer background or experience. APL time-sharing systems seem well adapted to support a simple, "portable," and relatively inexpensive system to operate for this purpose. (Author)

  7. A Different Kind of Publishing; Subject Listings; Library Distributors; Publisher Index; Index to Advertisers; Best Sellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Eric; Kim, Ann; Miller, Rebecca; Ward, Nathan

    2002-01-01

    This annual supplement discusses issues related to reference books and the publishing industry. Highlights include producing reference books for the library market; a bibliography of over 1000 titles organized by categories and indicating appropriate grade levels; a descriptive list of library distributors; a publisher's index; and a list of the…

  8. Child maltreatment, impulsivity, and antisocial behavior in African American children: Moderation effects from a cumulative dopaminergic gene index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Eric L; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A

    2015-11-01

    A model examining the effects of an increasing number of maltreatment subtypes experienced on antisocial behavior, as mediated by impulsivity and moderated by a polygenic index of dopaminergic genotypes, was investigated. An African American sample of children (N = 1,012, M age = 10.07) with and without maltreatment histories participated. Indicators of aggression, delinquency, and disruptive peer behavior were obtained from peer- and counselor-rated measures to form a latent variable of antisocial behavior; impulsivity was assessed by counselor report. Five genotypes in four dopaminergic genes (dopamine receptors D4, D2, known as DRD4, DRD2; dopamine active transporter 1, known as DAT1; and catechol-O-methyltransferase, known as COMT) conferring heightened environmental sensitivity were combined into one polygenic index. Using structural equation modeling, a first-stage, moderated-mediation model was evaluated. Age and sex were entered as covariates, both as main effects and in interaction with maltreatment and the gene index. The model had excellent fit: χ2 (32, N = 1,012) = 86.51, p impulsivity (β = 0.173, p impulsivity was stronger as children evinced more differentiating genotypes, thereby strengthening the mediational effect of impulsivity on antisocial behavior. These findings elucidate the manner by which maltreated children develop early signs of antisocial behavior, and the genetic mechanisms involved in greater vulnerability for maladaptation in impulse control within the context of child maltreatment.

  9. Effects of Immediate and Cumulative Syntactic Experience in Language Impairment: Evidence from Priming of Subject Relatives in Children with SLI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garraffa, Maria; Coco, Moreno I.; Branigan, Holly P.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the production of subject relative clauses (SRc) in Italian pre-school children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and age-matched typically-developing children (TD) controls. In a structural priming paradigm, children described pictures after hearing the experimenter produce a bare noun or an SRc description, as part of a…

  10. Effects of Immediate and Cumulative Syntactic Experience in Language Impairment: Evidence from Priming of Subject Relatives in Children with SLI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garraffa, Maria; Coco, Moreno I.; Branigan, Holly P.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the production of subject relative clauses (SRc) in Italian pre-school children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and age-matched typically-developing children (TD) controls. In a structural priming paradigm, children described pictures after hearing the experimenter produce a bare noun or an SRc description, as part of a…

  11. SUBJECT INDEX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    13th lymph nodes,sentinels,periampullary carcinoma,20133151p21 deletion,multiple myeloma,thalidomide-based first line treatment,201347425-dihydroxy,vitamin D3,kidney,aquaporin 2,2013233-protein 2,renal tubular epithelal cells,201344225-hydroxyvitamin D,metabolic syndrome,2103440-parathyroid hormone,type 2 diabetes mellitus,20134413-dimensional speckle tracking imaging,left ventricular function,coronary artery disease,2013451A1 segment,artery aneurysms,cerebral artery,morphological features,2013128

  12. SUBJECT INDEX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    α-actinin,nephrin,podocin,nephrotic syndrome , 2004261 β-lactamases. Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonias, genotype, 2004451β2 adrenergic receptor,heart failure,single nucleotide polymorphism,gene , 2004340β3-adreneric-receptor, protein-2 genes, type 2 diabetes, obesity, 2004328 γ-radiation,apoptosis, pancreatic cancer cells,2004114

  13. SUBJECT INDEX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    123I-IMP,99mTc-HMPAO,99mTc-ECD,cerebralperfusion,SPECT imaging,930426131I-HIPDM,obstructive pulmonary disease,930116201T tomographic imaging,coronary heart disease,9300015-FU,rectal cancer,9305236-Keto-prostaglandin FI alpha,nephropathy,throm-boxane B2,93015499mTC-DTPA aerosol,silicosis,pulmonary clear-

  14. SUBJECT INDEX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, growth hormone,acromegaly, 9202551-methyl-4phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetra-hydropy-ridine, dyskinesia, 920599201TL planar imaging, myocardial disease,9202165-fluorouracil, pharmacokinetics, 9200165-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, congestive heartfailure, 5-hydroxytryptamine, norepinephrine,9204785-hydroxytryptamine, epidemic hemorrhagicfever, 9200355-hydroxytryptamine, congestive heart failure,

  15. SUBJECT INDEX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    αadrenergic receptor, autoantibodies, cardiac remodeling, hypertension, 2006464β-catenin, tyrosine phosphorylation, cadherin ,2006495β-adrenergic receptor antagonist, apoptosis, myocardial infarction , oncogene,2006353β-catenin, pancreatic carcinoma, prognosis ,2006391β-cell function,diabetes mellitus,non insulin dependent,2006443β-defensin-2, nuclear factor-kappa B, Helicobacter pylori, peptic ulcer,2006150β-lactamases, plasmid, K pneumonia, gene,2006161 10-23 DNAzymes,hepatitis B virus,S gene,C gene,2006153

  16. Child Maltreatment, Impulsivity, and Antisocial Behavior in African-American Children: Moderation Effects from a Cumulative Dopaminergic Gene Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Eric L.; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2015-01-01

    A model examining the effects of an increasing number of maltreatment subtypes experienced on antisocial behavior, as mediated by impulsivity and moderated by a polygenic index of dopaminergic genotypes, was investigated. An African American sample of children (N = 1012, M age = 10.07) with and without maltreatment histories participated. Indicators of aggression, delinquency, and disruptive peer behavior were obtained from peer and counselor rated measures to form a latent variable of antisocial behavior; impulsivity was assessed by counselor report. Five genotypes in four dopaminergic genes (DRD4, DRD2, DAT1, and COMT) conferring heightened environmental sensitivity were combined into one polygenic index. Using SEM, a first-stage, moderated-mediation model was evaluated. Age and sex were entered as covariates, both as main effects and in interaction with maltreatment and the gene index. The model had excellent fit: χ2(32, N =1012) = 86..51, p<0.001; CFI = 0.982; TLI = 0.977; RMSEA = 0.041; SRMR = 0.022. The effect of maltreatment subtypes on antisocial behavior was partially mediated by impulsivity (β= 0.173, p<0.001), and these relations were moderated by the number of differentiating dopaminergic genotypes. Specifically, a significant GxE interaction (b = 0.016, p = 0.013) indicated that the relation between maltreatment and impulsivity was stronger as children evinced more differentiating genotypes, thereby strengthening the mediational effect of impulsivity on antisocial behavior. These findings elucidate the manner by which maltreated children develop early signs of antisocial behavior, and the genetic mechanisms involved in greater vulnerability for maladaptation in impulse-control within context of child maltreatment. PMID:26535948

  17. Bibliography, subject index, and author index of the literature examined by the Radiation Shielding Information Center. Volume 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trubey, D.K.; Roussin, R.W.; Gustin, A.B.

    1983-08-01

    An indexed bibliography of open literature selected by the Radiation Shielding Information Center since the previous volume was published in 1980 is presented in the area of radiation transport and shielding against radiation from nuclear reactors (fission and fusion), x-ray machines, radioisotopes, nuclear weapons (including fallout, and low energy accelerators (e.g., neutron generators). The bibliography was typeset from computer files constituting the RSIC Storage and Retrieval Information System. In addition to lists of literature titles by subject categories (accessions 6201-10156), an author index is given. Most of the literature selected for Volume VII was published in the years 1977 to 1981.

  18. Cumulative increased risk of incident type 2 diabetes mellitus with increasing triglyceride glucose index in normal-weight people: The Rural Chinese Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Wang, Bingyuan; Liu, Yu; Sun, Xizhuo; Luo, Xinping; Wang, Chongjian; Li, Linlin; Zhang, Lu; Ren, Yongcheng; Zhao, Yang; Zhou, Junmei; Han, Chengyi; Zhao, Jingzhi; Hu, Dongsheng

    2017-03-01

    Risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increased in metabolically obese but normal-weight people. However, we have limited knowledge of how to prevent T2DM in normal-weight people. We aimed to evaluate the association between triglyceride glucose (TyG) index and incident T2DM among normal-weight people in rural China. We included data from 5706 people with normal body mass index (BMI) (18.5-23.9 kg/m(2)) without baseline T2DM in a rural Chinese cohort followed for a median of 6.0 years. A Cox proportional-hazard model was used to assess the risk of incident T2DM by quartiles of TyG index and difference in TyG index between follow-up and baseline (TyG-D), estimating hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A generalized additive plot was used to show the nonparametric smoothed exposure-response association between risk of T2DM and TyG index as a continuous variable. TyG was calculated as ln [fasting triglyceride level (mg/dl) × fasting plasma glucose level (mg/dl)/2]. Risk of incident T2DM was increased with quartiles 2, 3 and 4 versus quartile 1 of TyG index (adjusted HR [aHR] 2.48 [95% CI 1.20-5.11], 3.77 [1.83-7.79], and 5.30 [2.21-12.71], P trend Risk of incident T2DM was increased with quartile 4 versus quartile 1 of TyG-D (aHR 3.91 [2.22-6.87]). The results were consistent when analyses were restricted to participants without baseline metabolic syndrome and impaired fasting glucose level. The generalized additive plot showed cumulative increased risk of T2DM with increasing TyG index. Risk of incident T2DM is increased with increasing TyG index among rural Chinese people, so the index might be an important indicator for identifying people at high risk of T2DM.

  19. Dissociation of subjectively reported and behaviorally indexed mind wandering by EEG rhythmic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jungang; Perdoni, Christopher; He, Bin

    2011-01-01

    Inattention to current activity is ubiquitous in everyday situations. Mind wandering is an example of such a state, and its related brain areas have been examined in the literature. However, there is no clear evidence regarding neural rhythmic activities linked to mind wandering. Using a vigilance task with thought sampling and electroencephalography recording, the current study simultaneously examined neural oscillatory activities related to subjectively reported and behaviorally indexed mind wandering. By implementing time-frequency analysis, we found that subjectively reported mind wandering, relative to behaviorally indexed, showed increased gamma band activity at bilateral frontal-central areas. By means of beamformer source imaging, we found subjectively reported mind wandering within the gamma band to be characterized by increased activation in bilateral frontal cortices, supplemental motor area, paracentral cortex and right inferior temporal cortex in comparison to behaviorally indexed mind wandering. These findings dissociate subjectively reported and behaviorally indexed mind wandering and suggest that a higher degree of executive control processes are engaged in subjectively reported mind wandering.

  20. Dissociation of subjectively reported and behaviorally indexed mind wandering by EEG rhythmic activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungang Qin

    Full Text Available Inattention to current activity is ubiquitous in everyday situations. Mind wandering is an example of such a state, and its related brain areas have been examined in the literature. However, there is no clear evidence regarding neural rhythmic activities linked to mind wandering. Using a vigilance task with thought sampling and electroencephalography recording, the current study simultaneously examined neural oscillatory activities related to subjectively reported and behaviorally indexed mind wandering. By implementing time-frequency analysis, we found that subjectively reported mind wandering, relative to behaviorally indexed, showed increased gamma band activity at bilateral frontal-central areas. By means of beamformer source imaging, we found subjectively reported mind wandering within the gamma band to be characterized by increased activation in bilateral frontal cortices, supplemental motor area, paracentral cortex and right inferior temporal cortex in comparison to behaviorally indexed mind wandering. These findings dissociate subjectively reported and behaviorally indexed mind wandering and suggest that a higher degree of executive control processes are engaged in subjectively reported mind wandering.

  1. Residential environment index system and evaluation model established by subjective and objective methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Jian(葛坚); HOKAO Kazunori

    2004-01-01

    In this research, the residential environment index system and evaluation model were established by means of subjective and objective methods. The methodology for establishing the evaluation system for residential environment was first analyzed; then the subjective evaluation data-base was established by questionnaire survey; and at the same time, the objective evaluation data-base was constructed by Geographic Information System (GIS); and then the related equation system between subjective and objective system was developed by multiple regression analysis. This research could benefit evaluation of the residential environment quality for various purposes, and also provide important rudimentary data-base for the development and improvement of residential environment for officials. Furthermore, the index system and evaluation model established in this research could construct a strong relation between subjective evaluation and objective data; and thus could provide a comprehensive, efficient and effective methodology for the evaluation of residential environment.

  2. Determinants of the ambulatory arterial stiffness index in 7604 subjects from 6 populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adiyaman, Ahmet; Dechering, Dirk G; Boggia, José

    2008-01-01

    The ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI) is derived from 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure recordings. We investigated whether the goodness-of-fit of the AASI regression line in individual subjects (r(2)) impacts on the association of AASI with established determinants of the relation between...

  3. Large-scale international validation of the ADO index in subjects with COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puhan, Milo A; Hansel, Nadia N; Sobradillo, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    analyses. RESULTS: 1350 (9.7%) of all subjects with COPD (60% male, mean age 61 years, mean FEV(1) 66% predicted) had died at 3 years. The original ADO index showed high discrimination but poor calibration (pindex (scores from 0...... to 14) preserved excellent discrimination (area under curve 0.81, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.82) but showed much improved calibration with predicted 3-year risks from 0.7% (95% CI 0.6% to 0.9%, score of 0) to 64.5% (61.2% to 67.7%, score of 14). The ADO index showed higher net benefit in subjects at low......BACKGROUND: Little evidence on the validity of simple and widely applicable tools to predict mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exists. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a large international study to validate the ADO index that uses age, dyspnoea and FEV(1) to predict 3...

  4. Assessment of periodontal status among dental fluorosis subjects using community periodontal index of treatment needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pradeep R; John, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    To determine the periodontal status and treatment needs among dental fluorosis subjects residing in Ennore, Chennai, using Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN). All the subjects with dental fluorosis above 15 years of age, permanent residents of Ennore, were included in the study. Subjects with known systemic diseases and subjects with other intrinsic dental stains were excluded from the study. Periodontal status was estimated using CPITN and Dental fluorosis was recorded using Dean's Dental Fluorosis Index. The total number of study subjects was 1075, of which 489 were males and 586 were females. Males were predominantly affected with periodontal disease than females. This was found to be statistically significant (P=0.000). The association between Degree of Fluorosis and Periodontal Status is statistically significant (P=0.000). There was statistically significant difference in mean number of sextants between the degree of fluorosis in each of the periodontal status (P=0.000). The finding that the lower prevalence of shallow pockets in the study area, where the fluoride level in the drinking water ranges from 1.83 to 2.01 ppm, indicates that the use of fluoride in water is beneficial to the periodontal tissues.

  5. Arterial stiffness evaluation by cardio-ankle vascular index in hypertension and diabetes mellitus subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyu; Liu, Jinbo; Zhao, Hongwei; Fu, Xiaobao; Shang, Guangyun; Zhou, Yingyan; Yu, Xiaolan; Zhao, Xujing; Wang, Guang; Shi, Hongyan

    2013-01-01

    Arterial stiffness is an independent predictor for vascular diseases. Cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) is a new index of arterial stiffness. In the present study, we investigated the possible risk factors involving CAVI in hypertension and diabetes mellitus (DM) subjects. One thousand sixty-three subjects (M/F 533/530) from Shougang Corporation Examination Center were divided into four groups: healthy group (n = 639); hypertension group (n = 312); DM group (n = 58); and hypertension with DM group (n = 54). CAVI was measured by VS-1000 apparatus. Our results showed that CAVI was significantly higher in hypertension subjects with DM than in healthy and hypertension group, respectively (8.59 ± 1.08 vs 7.23 ± 1.10; 8.59 ± 1.08 vs 7.94 ± 1.33; both P hypertension subjects with DM compared with healthy and hypertension groups. Copyright © 2013 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. High hydrostatic pressure processing reduces the glycemic index of fresh mango puree in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizondo-Montemayor, Leticia; Hernández-Brenes, Carmen; Ramos-Parra, Perla A; Moreno-Sánchez, Diana; Nieblas, Bianca; Rosas-Pérez, Aratza M; Lamadrid-Zertuche, Ana C

    2015-04-01

    Dietary guidelines recommend the daily consumption of fruits; however, healthy and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) subjects receive conflicting messages regarding ingestion of fruits, such as mango, because of its sugar content. We investigated the effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing of fresh mango puree (MP) on the glycemic indexes (GIs) and postprandial glycemic responses of 38 healthy Mexican subjects in a randomized cross-over clinical trial. Physicochemical characterization of MP included sugar profiles by HPLC-ELSD, starch, fibers, moisture, viscosity, swelling capacity and solubility properties of alcohol insoluble residue (AIR). The mean GI for HHP-MP was significantly lower (32.7 ± 13.4) than that of unprocessed-MP (42.7 ± 19.5). A significantly higher proportion of subjects showed a low GI following the consumption of HHP-MP compared to unprocessed-MP and none of them showed a high GI for the HHP-MP, compared to a significantly higher proportion for the unprocessed-MP. The viscosity and AIR solubility values of HHP-MP samples were significantly higher, which influenced glucose peaking later (Tmax) at 45 minutes and induced 20% lower AUC values than unprocessed-MP, corresponding to greater retardation indexes. The study findings support data stating that low GI fruits are appropriate for glycemic control and that mango may be included as part of healthy subjects' diets and potentially T2DM subjects' diets. Furthermore, HHP processing of mango may offer additional benefits for glycemic control, as its performance regarding GI, AUC and Tmax was significantly better than that of the unprocessed-MP. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the impact of this commercial non-thermal pasteurization technology on glucose metabolism.

  7. Fatty Liver Index Associates with Relative Sarcopenia and GH/ IGF- 1 Status in Obese Subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Poggiogalle

    Full Text Available Recently the association between hepatic steatosis and sarcopenia has been described. GH/IGF-1 axis has been postulated to play a role in linking fatty liver and low muscle mass. The aim of our study was to explore the association between fatty liver index, sarcopenic obesity, insulin sensitivity, and GH/IGF-1 status.427 subjects [age: 45.65±13.94 years, BMI: 36.92±6.43 kg/m2] were enrolled. Participants were divided into three groups: fatty liver index (FLI <20, 20≥FLI<60, and FLI≥60. Body composition was assessed by DXA. The truncal fat mass (TrFM to appendicular skeletal muscle (ASM ratio was used as an indicator of sarcopenic obesity. ISI-Matsuda index was used.BMI, fat mass, and the TrFM/ASM ratio were higher in subjects with FLI≥60. GH, IGF-1 and ISI-Matsuda were lower in the high FLI group (all p<0.05. A significantly positive correlation between FLI and TrFM/ ASM ratio (r = 0.221, p<0.001 was found, whereas FLI levels were negatively correlated with ISI- Matsuda (r = -0.335, p<0.001, GH (r = -0.200, p = 0.006, and IGF- 1 levels (r = -0.157, p = 0.028. Stepwise linear regression analysis showed that GH levels were significantly negatively correlated with FLI, while the TrFM/ ASM ratio was positively associated with FLI, after adjustment for age, BMI, total fat mass, truncal fat mass, fat- free mass, and ISI- Matsuda.Impairment of GH/IGF-1 axis seems to be associated to the risk of the development of sarcopenic obesity and ectopic fat deposition in the liver. Metabolic and hormonal derangements as determinants of ectopic fat deposition and body composition deserve to be evaluated in obese subjects.

  8. Assessment of periodontal status in dental fluorosis subjects using community periodontal index of treatment needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana K

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontitis is multifactorial in nature. The various determinants of periodontal disease are age, sex, race, socioeconomic status, and risk factors including tobacco usage and oral hygiene status. However, there is inconsistent epidemiological data on the periodontal status of subjects living in high-fluoride areas. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of dental fluorosis on the periodontal status using community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN, as a clinical study. The purpose of this study is to determine the periodontal status using CPITN index in a population aged between 15 and 74 years residing in the high-fluoride areas of Davangere district. The possible reasons for the susceptibility of this population to periodontal disease are discussed. Materials and Methods: 1029 subjects, aged between 15 and 74 years suffering from dental fluorosis were assessed for their periodontal status. Clinical parameters recorded were OHI-S to assess the oral hygiene status, Jackson′s fluorosis index to assess the degree of fluorosis and CPITN index to assess the periodontal status where treatment need was excluded. Results: Gingivitis and periodontitis were more common in females (65.9% and 32.8%, respectively than in males (75.1% and 24.2%, respectively. Periodontitis was significantly more common in females. As the age advanced from 15 to 55 years and above, gingivitis reduced from 81.0 to 42.9% and periodontitis increased steadily from 18.0 to 57.1%, which was significant. Periodontitis was high in subjects with poor oral hygiene (81.3%, compared to those with good oral hygiene (14.5%, which was significant. As the degree of fluorosis increased, severity of gingivitis reduced and periodontitis increased, i.e., with A degree fluorosis, gingivitis was 89.4% and periodontitis 8.5%, but with F degree fluorosis the former was 64% and the latter 35.8%, which was statistically significant. Conclusion: The results

  9. Body mass index classification misses subjects with increased cardiometabolic risk factors related to elevated adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ambrosi, J; Silva, C; Galofré, J C; Escalada, J; Santos, S; Millán, D; Vila, N; Ibañez, P; Gil, M J; Valentí, V; Rotellar, F; Ramírez, B; Salvador, J; Frühbeck, G

    2012-02-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is widely used as a measure of overweight and obesity, but underestimates the prevalence of both conditions, defined as an excess of body fat. We assessed the degree of misclassification on the diagnosis of obesity using BMI as compared with direct body fat percentage (BF%) determination and compared the cardiovascular and metabolic risk of non-obese and obese BMI-classified subjects with similar BF%. We performed a cross-sectional study. A total of 6123 (924 lean, 1637 overweight and 3562 obese classified according to BMI) Caucasian subjects (69% females), aged 18-80 years. BMI, BF% determined by air displacement plethysmography and well-established blood markers of insulin sensitivity, lipid profile and cardiovascular risk were measured. We found that 29% of subjects classified as lean and 80% of individuals classified as overweight according to BMI had a BF% within the obesity range. Importantly, the levels of cardiometabolic risk factors, such as C-reactive protein, were higher in lean and overweight BMI-classified subjects with BF% within the obesity range (men 4.3 ± 9.2, women 4.9 ± 19.5 mg l(-1)) as well as in obese BMI-classified individuals (men 4.2 ± 5.5, women 5.1 ± 13.2 mg l(-1)) compared with lean volunteers with normal body fat amounts (men 0.9 ± 0.5, women 2.1 ± 2.6 mg l(-1); Pbody fat, the inclusion of body composition measurements together with morbidity evaluation in the routine medical practice both for the diagnosis and the decision-making for instauration of the most appropriate treatment of obesity is desirable.

  10. Third molar maturity index by measurements of open apices in a Libyan sample of living subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardouri, Ashref Ali Khalifa; Cameriere, Roberto; De Luca, Stefano; Vanin, Stefano

    2016-10-01

    In most countries, forensic age estimation in living subjects has become increasingly important in the last few years. In addition, as the age of legal majority ranges from 14 to 18 in many countries, and in Libya it is 18 years, radiographic assessment of the degree of third molar development is essential for forensic age estimation of adolescents and young adults. The aim of this paper is to assess the accuracy of the cut-off value of 0.08, by measurements of third molar index (I3M), in determining if a subject is adult or not in Libyan population. Digital panoramic radiographs of 307 healthy subjects (163 girls, 144 boys), aged between 14 and 22, were analysed. The I3M, the age and the sex of the subjects were used as predictive variable for age estimation. Using a cut-off of 0.08, the sensitivity of the test for boys was 90.9% and the specificity 100%. The proportion of correctly classified individuals was 95.1% (95% CI: 91.5-98.7%). The sensitivity for girls was 90.6% and the specificity 100%. The proportion of correctly classified individuals was 94.5% (95% CI: 90.9-98.1%). Estimated post-test probability in boys and girls was 100%. Further analyses, performed using a cut-off of 0.09, do not affect the specificity (100%) while they improve the sensitivity for both boys and girls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The fatty liver index is associated with increased mortality in subjects referred to coronary angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerchbaum, E; Pilz, S; Grammer, T B; Boehm, B O; Stojakovic, T; Obermayer-Pietsch, B; März, W

    2013-12-01

    Fatty liver index (FLI), a surrogate parameter for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, is an emerging risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and mortality. We aimed to evaluate whether FLI is associated with all-cause, cardiovascular, and non-cardiovascular mortality as well as fatal cancer in a cohort of subjects routinely referred to coronary angiography. FLI was calculated using BMI (body mass index), waist circumference (WC), triglycerides (TG) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in 3270 subjects who were referred to coronary angiography (1997-2000). The main outcome measures were Cox proportional hazard ratios (HRs) for mortality from all causes, cardiovascular causes, non-cardiovascular causes, and fatal cancer. After a median follow-up time of 7.7 years, 740 subjects (22.6%) had died. There were 437 deaths due to cardiovascular disease and 303 deaths due to non-cardiovascular disease. Age-, sex-, and BMI-adjusted HRs (with 95% confidence intervals) for all-cause, cardiovascular, and non-cardiovascular mortality in the highest compared to the lowest FLI quartile were 2.56 (1.90-3.43; p < 0.001), 2.17 (1.47-3.22; p < 0.001), and 3.49 (2.16-5.66; p < 0.001), respectively. In age-, sex-, and BMI-adjusted analyzes, we found no significant association of FLI with fatal cancer. Multivariate adjusted HRs for all-cause, cardiovascular, non-cardiovascular mortality, and fatal cancer in the highest compared to the lowest FLI quartile were 2.17 (1.58-2.99; p < 0.001), 1.64 (1.07-2.51; p = 0.023), 3.72 (2.22-6.24; p < 0.001), and 2.33 (1.01-5.41; p = 0.048) respectively. In subjects referred to coronary angiography, high FLI levels are independently associated with increased all-cause, cardiovascular, and non-cardiovascular mortality as well as fatal cancer. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Plasma vanillylmandelic acid level as an index of psychological stress response in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, M; Hata, A; Niwa, S; Hiramatsu, K; Honda, H; Nakagome, K; Iwanami, A

    1996-06-26

    The relationships between psychological stress responses and plasma levels of vanillylmandelic acid (VMA), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), homovanillic acid (HVA), and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) were investigated in normal volunteers. Two questionnaires were used to measure stress: the Psychological Stress Response Scale (PSRS) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Plasma levels of VMA--but not MHPG, HVA, and 5-HIAA--showed significant positive correlations with PSRS emotional and cognitive-behavioral stress and STAI state anxiety. Significant positive correlations were also found between plasma levels of VMA and MHPG and psychological stress responses measured repeatedly in a longitudinal study of an Olympic swimmer. Plasma VMA measurements, which reflect the level of activity of the peripheral sympathetic nervous system, may provide a useful biochemical index of psychological stress responses in normal subjects.

  13. Hyperglycemic clamp-derived disposition index is negatively associated with metabolic syndrome severity in obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sapna S; Ramirez, Claudia E; Powers, Alvin C; Yu, Chang; Shibao, Cyndya A; Luther, James M

    2016-06-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with insulin resistance and increased future risk of type 2 diabetes. This study investigates the relationship between insulin secretion, insulin resistance and individual metabolic syndrome components in subjects without a prior diagnosis of diabetes. We assessed insulin secretion during hyperglycemic clamps by infusing dextrose to maintain hyperglycemia (200mg/dL), followed by L-arginine administration. Studies in 98 individuals (mean age 45.3±1.2years, 56% female, 22% African-American, 49% with metabolic syndrome) were analyzed. We tested the association between the number of metabolic syndrome components and individual outcome variables using linear mixed-effects models to adjust for potential confounding effects of age, sex, and race. Insulin sensitivity index was reduced in the presence of 1 or more metabolic syndrome components. Insulin sensitivity was independently associated with age, waist circumference, male gender and decreased HDL cholesterol. The acute insulin response was greater with two or more metabolic syndrome components, and late glucose-stimulated and L-arginine-stimulated insulin responses exhibited a similar trend. In contrast, the disposition index, a measure of beta cell compensation for insulin resistance, was linearly lower with the number of metabolic syndrome components, and was negatively associated with age, Caucasian race, waist circumference, fasting glucose, and decreased HDL cholesterol. The insulin secretory response in metabolic syndrome is inadequate for the worsening insulin sensitivity, as demonstrated by a decline in disposition index. A dysfunctional insulin secretory response is evident in non-diabetic individuals and worsens with accumulation of metabolic syndrome components. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Usage and Impact of Controlled Vocabularies in a Subject Repository for Indexing and Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Borst

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Since 2009, the German National Library for Economics (ZBW supports both indexing and retrieval of Open Access scientific publications like working papers, postprint articles and conference papers by means of a terminology web service. This web service is based on concepts organized as a ‘Standard Thesaurus for Economics’ (STW, which is modelled and regularly published as Linked Open Data. Moreover, it is integrated into the institution’s subject repository for automatically suggesting appropriate key words while indexing and retrieving documents, and for automatically expanding search queries on demand to gain better search results. While this approach looks promising to augment ‘off the shelf’ repository software systems in a lightweight manner with a disciplinary profile, there is still significant uncertainty about the effective usage and impact of controlled terms in the realm of these systems. To cope with this, we analyze the repository’s logfiles to get evidence of search behaviour which is potentially influenced by auto suggestion and expansion of scientific terms derived from a discipline’s literature.

  15. Effect of Grewia asiatica fruit on glycemic index and phagocytosis tested in healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesaik, Muhammad Ahmed; Ahmed, Asif; Khalid, Ahmed Shukralla; Jan, Saleem; Siddiqui, Afaq Ahmed; Perveen, Shahida; Azim, Muhammad Kamran

    2013-01-01

    The Grewia asiatica (commonly known as Phalsa or Fasla) is a shrub or small tree found in southern Asia. It produces purple to black color fruit when ripe. In folk medicine the edible Grewia asiatica fruit is used in a number of pathological conditions. The current study described the effects of Grewia asiatica fruit on glycemic index (GI) and phagocytosis in healthy non-diabetic human subjects. The results showed that Grewia asiatica fruit has low GI value of 5.34 with modest hypoglycemic activity. Luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence assay was carried out to determine the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the oxidative burst activity of whole blood. ROS production was found to be significantly affected, having the 78.3, 58.6 and 30.8% when the subjects were fed with D-glucose, mixture of D-glucose and Grewia asiatica fruit and Grewia asiatica fruit alone respectively as compared to the control. The aqueous, methanolic and butanolic extracts of Grewia asiatica fruits were found to produce a stimulatory effect on ROS production however; the chloroform, hexane and ethanol-acetate extracted exerted significant inhibitory effect. These results demonstrated that Grewia asiatica fruit has desirable effects on blood glucose metabolism manifested as low glycemic response and modulation of ROS production.

  16. Obesity indexes and total mortality among elderly subjects at high cardiovascular risk: the PREDIMED study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A Martínez-González

    Full Text Available Different indexes of regional adiposity have been proposed for identifying persons at higher risk of death. Studies specifically assessing these indexes in large cohorts are scarce. It would also be interesting to know whether a dietary intervention may counterbalance the adverse effects of adiposity on mortality.We assessed the association of four different anthropometric indexes (waist-to-height ratio (WHtR, waist circumference (WC, body mass index (BMI and height with all-cause mortality in 7447 participants at high cardiovascular risk from the PREDIMED trial. Forty three percent of them were men (55 to 80 years and 57% were women (60 to 80 years. All of them were initially free of cardiovascular disease. The recruitment took place in 11 recruiting centers between 2003 and 2009.After adjusting for age, sex, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, intervention group, family history of coronary heart disease, and leisure-time physical activity, WC and WHtR were found to be directly associated with a higher mortality after 4.8 years median follow-up. The multivariable-adjusted HRs for mortality of WHtR (cut-off points: 0.60, 0.65, 0.70 were 1.02 (0.78-1.34, 1.30 (0.97-1.75 and 1.55 (1.06-2.26. When we used WC (cut-off points: 100, 105 and 110 cm, the multivariable adjusted Hazard Ratios (HRs for mortality were 1.18 (0.88-1.59, 1.02 (0.74-1.41 and 1.57 (1.19-2.08. In all analyses, BMI exhibited weaker associations with mortality than WC or WHtR. The direct association between WHtR and overall mortality was consistent within each of the three intervention arms of the trial.Our study adds further support to a stronger association of abdominal obesity than BMI with total mortality among elderly subjects at high risk of cardiovascular disease. We did not find evidence to support that the PREDIMED intervention was able to counterbalance the harmful effects of increased adiposity on total mortality.Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN35739639.

  17. Obesity Indexes and Total Mortality among Elderly Subjects at High Cardiovascular Risk: The PREDIMED Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, Miguel A.; García-Arellano, Ana; Toledo, Estefanía; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Bulló, Mónica; Corella, Dolores; Fito, Montserrat; Ros, Emilio; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa Maria; Rekondo, Javier; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Santos-Lozano, Jose Manuel; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Martínez, J. Alfredo; Eguaras, Sonia; Sáez-Tormo, Guillermo; Pintó, Xavier; Estruch, Ramon

    2014-01-01

    Background Different indexes of regional adiposity have been proposed for identifying persons at higher risk of death. Studies specifically assessing these indexes in large cohorts are scarce. It would also be interesting to know whether a dietary intervention may counterbalance the adverse effects of adiposity on mortality. Methods We assessed the association of four different anthropometric indexes (waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI) and height) with all-cause mortality in 7447 participants at high cardiovascular risk from the PREDIMED trial. Forty three percent of them were men (55 to 80 years) and 57% were women (60 to 80 years). All of them were initially free of cardiovascular disease. The recruitment took place in 11 recruiting centers between 2003 and 2009. Results After adjusting for age, sex, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, intervention group, family history of coronary heart disease, and leisure-time physical activity, WC and WHtR were found to be directly associated with a higher mortality after 4.8 years median follow-up. The multivariable-adjusted HRs for mortality of WHtR (cut-off points: 0.60, 0.65, 0.70) were 1.02 (0.78–1.34), 1.30 (0.97–1.75) and 1.55 (1.06–2.26). When we used WC (cut-off points: 100, 105 and 110 cm), the multivariable adjusted Hazard Ratios (HRs) for mortality were 1.18 (0.88–1.59), 1.02 (0.74–1.41) and 1.57 (1.19–2.08). In all analyses, BMI exhibited weaker associations with mortality than WC or WHtR. The direct association between WHtR and overall mortality was consistent within each of the three intervention arms of the trial. Conclusions Our study adds further support to a stronger association of abdominal obesity than BMI with total mortality among elderly subjects at high risk of cardiovascular disease. We did not find evidence to support that the PREDIMED intervention was able to counterbalance the harmful effects of increased adiposity on total mortality. Trial

  18. Cumulative Timers for Microprocessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battle, John O.

    2007-01-01

    It has been proposed to equip future microprocessors with electronic cumulative timers, for essentially the same reasons for which land vehicles are equipped with odometers (total-distance-traveled meters) and aircraft are equipped with Hobbs meters (total-engine-operating time meters). Heretofore, there has been no way to determine the amount of use to which a microprocessor (or a product containing a microprocessor) has been subjected. The proposed timers would count all microprocessor clock cycles and could only be read by means of microprocessor instructions but, like odometers and Hobbs meters, could never be reset to zero without physically damaging the chip.

  19. Large-scale international validation of the ADO index in subjects with COPD: an individual subject data analysis of 10 cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puhan, Milo A; Hansel, Nadia N; Sobradillo, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    analyses. Results: 1350 (9.7%) of all subjects with COPD (60% male, mean age 61 years, mean FEV1 66% predicted) had died at 3 years. The original ADO index showed high discrimination but poor calibration (pindex (scores from 0...... to 14) preserved excellent discrimination (area under curve 0.81, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.82) but showed much improved calibration with predicted 3-year risks from 0.7% (95% CI 0.6% to 0.9%, score of 0) to 64.5% (61.2% to 67.7%, score of 14). The ADO index showed higher net benefit in subjects at low......Background: Little evidence on the validity of simple and widely applicable tools to predict mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exists.Objective: To conduct a large international study to validate the ADO index that uses age, dyspnoea and FEV1 to predict 3-year...

  20. Exercise training decreases body mass index in subjects aged 50 years and over

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatio Rika Haryono

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Exercise training can improve blood pressure in normotensive, prehypertensive, and hypertensive subjects. One of the mechanisms of blood pressure reduction in hypertensive patients with obesity is through weight loss. This study aimed to examine the effect of exercise training on bodyweight and the relationship between weight loss and reduction of blood pressure. An experimental pre-post test design without controls was used to evaluate the effect of exercise training on weight loss. The study involved 89 elderly aged 50 years or more, consisting of 40 men and 49 women, who were members of Senayan Sport Fitness Club and had been exercising for at least three months. Exercise training was programmed and performed three times a week, consisting of aerobic (walking, jogging, static cycling, and resistance exercise. All exercise was performed for one to two hours with mild to moderate intensity. Blood pressure and body weight were obtained from medical records. Paired t-test showed that systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, mean arterial pressure (MAP, pulse pressure (PP, and body mass index (BMI were significantly lower after training [(systolic, 126.3 ± 2.9 vs 122.3 ± 2.7, p=0.02, (diastolic, 80.2 ± 3.1 vs 77.2 ± 2.4, p=0.00, (MAP, 95.6 ± 4.6 vs 92.2 ± 3.4, p=0.00, (PP, 46.1 ± 4.2 vs 45.1 ± 3.6, p=0.04, (BMI, 24.5 ± 2.9 vs 23.6 ± 2.9, p=0.04]. Duration of training was the most influential factor affecting rBMI, (Beta = 0.38; p=0.00. Exercise training could lower BMI and the reduction in diastolic blood pressure was higher for the subjects aged 70 years and over.

  1. Nutritional Status of Hospitalized Stroke Patients: Assessment by Body Mass Index and Subjective Global Assessment Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Kartika

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stroke is a disease with a high mortality rate and common cause of disability. Nutritional factors are strongly associated with this disease. Malnutrition in hospitalized patients increases the incidence of complications, prolonged the length of stay and also the cost of hospitalization. Furthermore, nutritional status of stroke patients can deteriorate during hospitalization. The prevalence of malnutrition in hospitalized stroke patients is about 6% to 62%. The objective of this study was to identify  the nutritional status of hospitalized stroke patient. Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Population of the study was hospitalized stroke patients at Neurology Ward, Kemuning Building Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung, Indonesia from August until October 2014 who meet the inclusion criteria. Nutritional status was measured objectively using Body Mass Index (BMI and subjectively using Subjective Global Assessment (SGA method. The collected data were processed using  frequency tabulation and percentage. Results: Twenty six hospitalized stroke patients were included in this study. The hospitalized patients with normal BMI were about 12 people (46.15%, 8 people were overweight (30.77%, 4 people were undernourished (15.39% and 2 people (7.69% were obese. According to SGA measurement, approximately 18 people (69.22% were moderately malnourished, and as much as 4 people (15.39% were in good nutrition, whereas 4 people (15.39% were severely malnourished. Conclusions: Majority of the hospitalized stroke patients has normal BMI and moderately malnourished based on SGA.   DOI: 10.15850/amj.v4n2.1090

  2. Exercise training decreases body mass index in subjects aged 50 years and over

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatio Rika Haryono

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Exercise training can improve blood pressure in normotensive, prehypertensive, and hypertensive subjects. One of the mechanisms of blood pressure reduction in hypertensive patients with obesity is through weight loss. This study aimed to examine the effect of exercise training on bodyweight and the relationship between weight loss and reduction of blood pressure. An experimental pre-post test design without controls was used to evaluate the effect of exercise training on weight loss. The study involved 89 elderly aged 50 years or more, consisting of 40 men and 49 women, who were members of Senayan Sport Fitness Club and had been exercising for at least three months. Exercise training was programmed and performed three times a week, consisting of aerobic (walking, jogging, static cycling, and resistance exercise. All exercise was performed for one to two hours with mild to moderate intensity. Blood pressure and body weight were obtained from medical records. Paired t-test showed that systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, mean arterial pressure (MAP, pulse pressure (PP, and body mass index (BMI were significantly lower after training [(systolic, 126.3 ± 2.9 vs 122.3 ± 2.7, p=0.02, (diastolic, 80.2 ± 3.1 vs 77.2 ± 2.4, p=0.00, (MAP, 95.6 ± 4.6 vs 92.2 ± 3.4, p=0.00, (PP, 46.1 ± 4.2 vs 45.1 ± 3.6, p=0.04, (BMI, 24.5 ± 2.9 vs 23.6 ± 2.9, p=0.04]. Duration of training was the most influential factor affecting rBMI, (Beta = 0.38; p=0.00. Exercise training could lower BMI and the reduction in diastolic blood pressure was higher for the subjects aged 70 years and over.

  3. Glycemic index determination of vegetable and fruits in healthy Bangladeshi subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatema, K; Sumi, N; Rahman, F; Kobura, K; Ali, L

    2011-12-01

    Fruits and vegetables are an important part of the diet especially for their complex carbohydrates, dietary fibre and micronutrients. The present study investigated the glycemic index (GI) of a vegetable [carrot (Daucas carota)] and fruits [banana (Chapa kola) Musa Sp. and plum (Bau kul) Zizyphus mauritiana] of Bangladeshi origin. Fourteen healthy Bangladeshi subjects, comprising 7 males and, 7 females, with mean age of 26 +/- 3 years, BMI 22 +/- 3 kg/m2, waist-hip ratio of 0.89 +/- 0.01 and 0.84 +/- 0.04 respectively for males and females. Under a cross-over design, they consumed equi-carbohydrate amounts (25 g of total available carbohydrate) of the test foods and two times glucose as reference food (25 g of total carbohydrate), with a run in period of 7 days between the consecutive items. Serum glucose levels were determined at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min. The GIs was calculated. The carrot, banana and plum samples showed significantly lower serum glucose values (incremental area under the curve 30.4 +/- 12.6, 37.3 +/- 19.2 and 41.8 +/- 20.7 respectively) than glucose (132.7 +/- 36.0). The carrot showed a lower GI value than banana and plum respectively (23 +/- 9, 30 +/- 18 and 32 +/- 15). The vegetable and fruit samples tested of Bangladesh origin were shown to have comparatively low GI values.

  4. The Subjective Index for Physical and Social Outcome (SIPSO in Stroke: investigation of its subscale structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Steve

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Short and valid measures of the impact of a stroke on integration are required in health and social settings. The Subjective Index of Physical and Social Outcome (SIPSO is one such measure. However, there are questions whether scores can be summed into a total score or whether subscale scores should be calculated. This paper aims to provide clarity on the internal construct validity of the subscales and the total scale. Methods SIPSO data were collected as part of two parallel surveys of the met and unmet needs of 445 younger people (aged 18-65 with non-recent stroke (at least one year and living at home. Factor, Mokken and Rasch analysis were used. Results Factor analysis supported a two factor structure (explaining 68% of the variance as did the Mokken analysis (overall Loevinger coefficient 0.77 for the Physical Integration subscale; 0.51 for the Social Integration subscale. Both subscales fitted the Rasch model (P > 0.01 after adjusting for some observed differential item functioning. The 10-items together did not fit the Rasch model. Conclusions The SIPSO subscales are valid for use with stroke patients of working age but the total SIPSO is not. The conversion table can be used by clinicians and researchers to convert ordinal data to interval level prior to mathematical operations and other parametric procedures. Further work is required to explore the occurrence of bias by gender for some of the items.

  5. Bibliography, subject index, and author index of the literature examined by the radiation shielding information center. Volume 6. Reactor and weapons radiation shielding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    An indexed bibliography is presented of literature selected by the Radiation Shielding Information Center since the previous volume was published in 1978 in the area of radiation transport and shielding against radiation from nuclear reactors, x-ray machines, radioisotopes, nuclear weapons (including fallout), and low energy accelerators (e.g., neutron generators). The bibliography was typeset from data processed by computer from magnetic tape files. In addition to lists of literature titles by subject categories (accessions 4951-6200), an author index is given.

  6. Bibliography, subject index, and author index of the literature examined by the Radiation Shielding Information Center (Reactor and Weapons Radiation Shielding). [1973--1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    An indexed bibliography is presented of literature selected by the Radiation Shielding Information Center since the previous volume was published in 1974 in the area of radiation transport and shielding against radiation from nuclear reactors, x-ray machines, radioisotopes, nuclear weapons (including fallout), and low-energy accelerators (e.g., neutron generators). In addition to lists of literature titles by subject categories (accessions 3501-4950), author and keyword indexes are given. Most of the literature selected for Vol. V was published in the years 1973 to 1976.

  7. Glycaemic index of parboiled rice depends on the severity of processing: study in type 2 diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, H. N.; Rasmussen, O. W.; Rasmussen, Peter Have

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the influence of parboiling and the severity of the process on glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to rice in type 2 diabetes. Moreover, to examine changes in starch structure related to parboiling, which may affect the metabolic responses and digestibility. Design: Nine type...... subjects. There was no effect of TP on glycaemic index, whereas PP reduced the glycaemic index by almost 30% compared to NP....... diabetic subjects ingested four test meals: white bread (WB) and three meals of cooked polished rice of the same variety being non-parboiled (NP), mildly traditionally parboiled (TP) and severely pressure parboiled (PP). The participants ingested the test meals (50 g available carbohydrates) on separate...

  8. Composition of The Knee Index, a novel three-dimensional biomechanical index for knee joint load, in subjects with mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Brian; Andriacchi, Tom; Nielsen, Dennis Brandborg

    index of joint load for the knee, in patients with mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis. Methods The contribution of frontal, sagittal and transversal plane knee moments to KI was investigated in 24 subjects (13 women, age: 58 ± 7.6 years, BMI: 27.1 ± 3.0) with clinically diagnosed mild to moderate knee......Background Knee joint load is an important factor associated with progression of knee osteoarthritis. To provide an overall understanding of knee joint loading, the Knee Index (KI) has been developed to include moments from all three planes (frontal, sagittal and transversal). However, before KI...... osteoarthritis according to the ACR criteria. Three dimensional gait analysis was performed. Subjects walked barefoot at self-selected walking speed. The first peak magnitude KI from all three planes were calculated using inverse dynamics. Results Frontal plane kinematics contributed with 59.3% (SD 25.6) of KI...

  9. Age, Cumulative Trauma and Stressful Life Events, and Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms among Older Adults in Prison: Do Subjective Impressions Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschi, Tina; Morgen, Keith; Zgoba, Kristen; Courtney, Deborah; Ristow, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aging prison population in the United States presents a significant public health challenge with high rates of trauma and mental health issues that the correctional system alone is ill-prepared to address. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of age, objective, and subjective measures of trauma and stressful…

  10. Higher triglyceride serum level increases atherosclerotic index in subjects 50-70 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martiem Mawi

    2016-04-01

    Higher triglyceride levels increase AI in subjects 50-70 years of age. Subjects with high serum triglyceride level but without symptoms of cardiovascular disease should be examined for the development of coronary artery blockage.

  11. Haplotype structure of the beta2-adrenergic receptor gene in 814 Danish Caucasian subjects and association with body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mette Kamp; Nielsen, Morten; Koefoed, Pernille

    2009-01-01

    with body mass index (BMI). The SNPs showed organization into 13 distinct haplotypes and 41 haplotype pairs. The study identified four common haplotypes: ACCCC (10.1 +/- 0.3 %), ACCCG (27.9 +/- 0.3 %), GCCAC (10.8 +/- 0.1 %) and GGCCG (41.0 +/- 0.2 %) (frequencies (SD), seen in 91 % of the population....... In the total population (mean age +/- SD: 50 +/- 16 years), BMI was not related to haplotype pairs, individual SNPs or allelic haplotypes. However, in subjects ... to individual SNPs. In subjects subjects (BMI

  12. The Soft Cumulative Constraint

    CERN Document Server

    Petit, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    This research report presents an extension of Cumulative of Choco constraint solver, which is useful to encode over-constrained cumulative problems. This new global constraint uses sweep and task interval violation-based algorithms.

  13. Usage and Impact of Controlled Vocabularies in a Subject Repository for Indexing and Retrieval

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Borst, Timo

    2012-01-01

    Since 2009, the German National Library for Economics (ZBW) supports both indexing and retrieval of Open Access scientific publications like working papers, postprint articles and conference papers by means of a terminology web service...

  14. Glycemic response to carob (ceratonia siliqua L) in healthy subjects and with the in vitro hydrolysis index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milek Dos Santos, Luciana; Tomzack Tulio, Lindamir; Fuganti Campos, Leticia; Ramos Dorneles, Marcelo; Carneiro Hecke Krüger, Claudia

    2014-09-12

    The purpose of this study was to determine the in vivo glycemic index of carob tablets with healthy subjects and to determine the in vitro glycemic index of carob tablets and carob flour by the hydrolysis index. Seven healthy volunteers consumed portions of carob tablets containing 26g of available carbohydrate. Their capillary blood was taken at intervals after carob or glucose consumption. The glycemic hydrolysis index by an in vitro technique was based in the release of glucose after enzymatic treatment of carob tablets and carob flour. The determination of the fiber content was performed using the enzymatic- gravimetric method. By the in vivo determination, the estimated glycemic index of carob tablets could be considered low (≤ 55). By the in vitro determination, the estimated glycemic index ranged from 40.1+0.02 of carob tablets to 40.6+0.05 of carob flour. The total fiber values obtained for carob flour samples were from 42.6% ± 0.49 to 42.9% ± 0.68 with no statistical significant differences between samples. Carob tablets and carob flour could be classified as low glycemic index food and low glycemic load food. Carob flour is a high fiber food, containing mainly high levels of insoluble fiber.

  15. The relationship between body mass index and subjective well-being - the moderating role of body dissatisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brdarić Dragana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Excess bodyweight and obesity are widespread health problems throughout the world. In Serbia, over 50% of the adult population is overweight and the Province of Vojvodina is one of the regions with the highest percentage of obesity. The relationship between obesity and health complications has been consistently demonstrated. However, research on the relationship between obesity and subjective well-being has not provided clear results. Body dissatisfaction is considered to be an important factor for understanding this relationship. The main objective of this study was to investigate the moderating effect of body dissatisfaction in the relationship between body mass index and subjective well-being. Material and Methods. The study sample included 731 respondents (72.6% women, with the mean age 28.93 years (SD = 8.47 from the Province of Vojvodina who had completed an online set of tests consisting of Body Shape Questionnaire, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21, Satisfaction with Life Scale, Scale of Positive and Negative Experience and a self-assessment of bodyweight and body height. Results. The results indicate that the moderating effect of body dissatisfaction in the relationship between body mass index and indicators of subjective well-being is statistically significant in both sexes. Specifically, the women with higher body mass index values who expressed lower body dissatisfaction reported lower levels of emotional distress and higher levels of pleasant emotions than those with lower body mass index. On the other hand, the men with higher bodyweight preoccupation and low body mass index reported significantly higher levels of pleasant emotions than those with higher body mass index values. Conclusion. These results suggest the necessity of a more detailed study of this relationship on both clinical and general population samples from Serbia.

  16. Indexing it all the subject in the age of documentation, information, and data

    CERN Document Server

    Day, Ronald E

    2014-01-01

    In this book, Ronald Day offers a critical history of the modern tradition of documentation. Focusing on the documentary index (understood as a mode of social positioning), and drawing on the work of the French documentalist Suzanne Briet, Day explores the understanding and uses of indexicality. He examines the transition as indexes went from being explicit professional structures that mediated users and documents to being implicit infrastructural devices used in everyday information and communication acts. Doing so, he also traces three epistemic eras in the representation of individuals and groups, first in the forms of documents, then information, then data. Day investigates five cases from the modern tradition of documentation. He considers the socio-technical instrumentalism of Paul Otlet, "the father of European documentation" (contrasting it to the hermeneutic perspective of Martin Heidegger); the shift from documentation to information science and the accompanying transformation of persons and texts i...

  17. Simulating of marble subjected to uni-axial loading using index-parabola damage model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温世游; 李夕兵; 骆达成

    2001-01-01

    The limitations of several existing classical rock damage models were critically appraised. Thereafter, a description of a new model to estimate the response of rock was provided. The results of an investigation lead to the development and confirmation of a new index-parabola damage model. The new model is divided into two parts, fictitious damage and real damage and bordered by the critical damage point. In fictitious damage, the damage variable follows the index distribution, while in the real damage a parabolic distribution is used. Thus, the so-called index-parabola damage model is derived. The proposed damage model is applied to simulate the damage procedure of marble under uni-axial loading. The results of the tests show that the proposed model is in excellent agreement with experimental data, in particular the nonlinear characteristic of rock deformation is adequately represented.

  18. NASA thesaurus alphabetical update: Subject terms for indexing scientific and technical information

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    The NASA THESAURUS - ALPHABETICAL UPDATE is an alphabetical listing of all subject terms (postable and nonpostable) that are currently approved for use in the NASA scientific and technical information system. Contained in the listing are the subject terms that were listed in the Preliminary Edition of the NASA THESAURUS and the additional subject terms that were approved during the period January 1, 1967 June 30, 1971. Complete Thesaurus structuring, including scope notes, category assignments, and cross-references, is provided for each term as appropriate.

  19. Atherogenic index as a predictor of atherosclerosis in subjects with familial Mediterranean fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akif Acay

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Elaboration of clinical models of inflammation-induced atherogenesis may further advance our knowledge of multiple inflammatory pathways implicated in atherogenesis and provide a useful tool for cardiovascular prevention. We believe that the atherogenic index also be used as a preliminary indication of accelerated atherosclerosis in FMF. However, large-scale prospective studies on this issue are needed.

  20. Cumulative Estrogen Exposure and Prospective Memory in Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesson, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    This study looked at cumulative lifetime estrogen exposure, as estimated with a mathematical index (Index of Cumulative Estrogen Exposure (ICEE)) that included variables (length of time on estrogen therapy, age at menarche and menopause, postmenopausal body mass index, time since menopause, nulliparity and duration of breastfeeding) known to…

  1. Indexed

    CERN Document Server

    Hagy, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Jessica Hagy is a different kind of thinker. She has an astonishing talent for visualizing relationships, capturing in pictures what is difficult for most of us to express in words. At indexed.blogspot.com, she posts charts, graphs, and Venn diagrams drawn on index cards that reveal in a simple and intuitive way the large and small truths of modern life. Praised throughout the blogosphere as “brilliant,” “incredibly creative,” and “comic genius,” Jessica turns her incisive, deadpan sense of humor on everything from office politics to relationships to religion. With new material along with some of Jessica’s greatest hits, this utterly unique book will thrill readers who demand humor that makes them both laugh and think.

  2. The Subjective Wellbeing of Indigenous Australian Adolescents: Validating the Personal Wellbeing Index-School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomyn, Adrian J.; Norrish, Jacolyn M.; Cummins, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    By almost all measures of objective life quality, Indigenous Australians are disadvantaged relative to the general population. However, no measures of their Subjective Wellbeing (SWB) have been published. This paper presents the first such data, norm-referenced to the general Australian population. A total of 519 Indigenous adolescents, aged…

  3. Subjective Judgments of Clarity and Intelligibility for Filtered Stimuli with Equivalent Speech Intelligibility Index Predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Laurie S.; Dirks, Donald D.; Takayanagi, Sumiko; Martinez, Amy Schaefer

    1998-01-01

    A study investigated subjective judgments of clarity and intelligibility in 20 listeners in conditions in which speech was equated for predicted intelligibility but varied in bandwidth. Listeners produced clarity and intelligibility ratings for the same speech material and experimental conditions that were highly related but differed in magnitude.…

  4. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) for indexing and retrieving open-source healthcare data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc, David T; Khairat, Saif S

    2014-01-01

    The US federal government initiated the Open Government Directive where federal agencies are required to publish high value datasets so that they are available to the public. Data.gov and the community site Healthdata.gov were initiated to disperse such datasets. However, data searches and retrieval for these sites are keyword driven and severely limited in performance. The purpose of this paper is to address the issue of extracting relevant open-source data by proposing a method of adopting the MeSH framework for indexing and data retrieval. A pilot study was conducted to compare the performance of traditional keywords to MeSH terms for retrieving relevant open-source datasets related to "mortality". The MeSH framework resulted in greater sensitivity with comparable specificity to the keyword search. MeSH showed promise as a method for indexing and retrieving data, yet future research should conduct a larger scale evaluation of the performance of the MeSH framework for retrieving relevant open-source healthcare datasets.

  5. Inverse relationship of cardioankle vascular index with BMI in healthy Japanese subjects: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagayama D

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Daiji Nagayama,1,2 Haruki Imamura,2 Yuta Sato,2 Takashi Yamaguchi,2 Noriko Ban,2 Hidetoshi Kawana,2 Masahiro Ohira,2 Atsuhito Saiki,2 Kohji Shirai,3 Ichiro Tatsuno2 1Center of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shin-Oyama City Hospital, Oyama-City, 2Center of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, 3Department of Vascular Function, Sakura Medical Center, Toho University, Sakura-City, Japan Objective: The objective of this study is to investigate the association of body mass index (BMI with arterial stiffness assessed by cardioankle vascular index (CAVI. Subjects and methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted in 23,257 healthy Japanese subjects (12,729 men and 10,528 women, aged 47.1 ± 12.5 years, BMI 22.9 ± 3.4 kg/m2 who underwent health screening between 2004 and 2006 in Japan. Exclusion criteria were current medication use and a past history of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, stroke, diabetes, and nephritis. Results: Male subjects showed significantly higher BMI, CAVI, and triglycerides and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol compared with female subjects. Next, the subjects were divided into tertiles of BMI: lower, middle, and upper, in a gender-specific manner. After adjusting for confounders including age, systolic blood pressure, and HDL-cholesterol identified by multiple regression analysis, the mean CAVI decreased progressively as BMI tertile increased in both genders. Furthermore, a negative inverse relationship between BMI and adjusted CAVI was observed throughout the BMI distribution. Multivariate logistic regression model for contributors of high CAVI (≥90th percentile identified obesity (odds ratios (95% confidence interval: 0.804 (0.720–0.899], older age [15.6 (14.0–17.4], male gender [2.26 (2.03–2.51], hypertension [2.28 (2.06–2.54], impaired fasting glucose [1.17 (1.01–1.37], and low HDL-cholesterol [0.843 (0.669–1.06] as independent factors. Conclusion: We demonstrated an

  6. Water retention and s index of an oxisol subjected to weed control methods in a coffee crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Henrique da Silva Siqueira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Weed control in different crops affects the chemical, physical, and biological properties of the soil and consequently its structural quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate, using water retention characteristics and the S index, the physical quality of an Oxisol (Red-Yellow Latosol, subjected to weed control during the cultivation of coffee. The following weed control methods were evaluated: harrowing, brushcutting, residue crushing, manual weeding, post-emergence herbicide application, pre-emergence herbicide application, and maintenance of soil cover with peanut forage, Brachiaria grass, and spontaneous vegetation (no weed treatment. The following properties were determined for physical characterization of the soil: bulk density, total porosity, macroporosity, microporosity, water retention, and the S index. The weed control method significantly affected the physical properties and water retention in the subsurface layer of the Oxisol. Soil bulk density, total porosity, macroporosity, and microporosity were significantly correlated with the S index. According to the S index, the physical quality of the soil was classified as very good for the various weed control methods investigated.

  7. The myocardial performance index during low-dose dobutamine echocardiography in control subjects and patients with a recent myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørager, Betina; Husic, Mirza; Møller, Jacob E

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Wall-motion analysis during low-dose dobutamine echocardiography (LDDE) is a semiquantitative measure of left ventricular contractile reserve after myocardial infarction (MI). The Doppler echocardiographic myocardial performance index (MPI) is a quantitative measure of combined left...... ventricular systolic and diastolic function. We sought to characterize the changes in MPI during LDDE in control subjects and patients with MI, and to describe the relation of these changes to changes in regional systolic function. METHODS: MPI was obtained at rest and during LDDE (10 microg/kg/min) in 25......MPI was defined as the change from rest to LDDE. RESULTS: MPI decreased significantly during LDDE in groups 1 and 2A, whereas MPI increased in group 2B (DeltaMPI = 0.12 +/- 0.04 and 0.10 +/- 0.08 vs -0.03 +/- 0.08, P index predicted DeltaMPI (beta = 0...

  8. Quality of pharmacy-specific Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) assignment in pharmacy journals indexed in MEDLINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguet, Fernando; Salgado, Teresa M; van den Boogerd, Lucienne; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is the National Library of Medicine (NLM) controlled vocabulary for indexing articles. Inaccuracies in the MeSH thesaurus have been reported for several areas including pharmacy. To assess the quality of pharmacy-specific MeSH assignment to articles indexed in pharmacy journals. The 10 journals containing the highest number of articles published in 2012 indexed under the MeSH 'Pharmacists' were identified. All articles published over a 5-year period (2008-2012) in the 10 previously selected journals were retrieved from PubMed. MeSH terms used to index these articles were extracted and pharmacy-specific MeSH terms were identified. The frequency of use of pharmacy-specific MeSH terms was calculated across journals. A total of 6989 articles were retrieved from the 10 pharmacy journals, of which 328 (4.7%) were articles not fully indexed and therefore did not contain any MeSH terms assigned. Among the 6661 articles fully indexed, the mean number of MeSH terms was 10.1 (SD = 4.0), being 1.0 (SD = 1.3) considered as Major MeSH. Both values significantly varied across journals. The mean number of pharmacy-specific MeSH terms per article was 0.9 (SD = 1.2). A total of 3490 (52.4%) of the 6661 articles were indexed in pharmacy journals without a single pharmacy-specific MeSH. Of the total 67193 MeSH terms assigned to articles, on average 10.5% (SD = 13.9) were pharmacy-specific MeSH. A statistically significant different pattern of pharmacy-specific MeSH assignment was identified across journals (Kruskal-Wallis P journals can be improved to further enhance evidence gathering in pharmacy. Over half of the articles published in the top-10 journals publishing pharmacy literature were indexed without a single pharmacy-specific MeSH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Japanese version of voice handicap index for subjective evaluation of voice disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Aki; Mise, Kazuyo; Nishikubo, Kaori; Hyodo, Masamitsu; Shiromoto, Osamu

    2012-09-01

    Recently, the Voice Handicap Index (VHI), developed in the United States, has been highlighted as a means to assess a patient's perceptions of the severity of his or her voice disorder. The VHI is based on a self-administered questionnaire that quantifies the degree of a patient's disability related to his/her voice disorder. The questionnaire was translated into Japanese and applied to Japanese patients with various kinds of disordered voice or dysphonia. The results were analyzed and the usefulness discussed. In this study, 546 patients (281 males and 265 females) were included. Mean VHI scores were 36.2/120 in males and 44.1/120 in females. In the male patients, VHI scores were the highest among teens. However, VHI scores did not vary with age in the female patients. Patients with vocal fold paralysis, functional dysphonia, psychological dysphonia, and spasmodic dysphonia showed relatively high VHI scores, whereas those with laryngeal granuloma and laryngopharyngeal reflux disease showed low scores. In most diseases, functional and physiological scores were higher than emotional scores. In any treated patients, those with vocal nodule, vocal polyp, polypoid vocal fold, and recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis, VHI scores decreased after therapeutic intervention. These findings suggest that the Japanese VHI is a useful tool for monitoring a patient's psychological status, choosing appropriate treatment, and assessing the therapeutic outcome.

  10. Characterizing depth-dependent refractive index of articular cartilage subjected to mechanical wear or enzymic degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kuyu; Wu, Jianping; Day, Robert; Kirk, Thomas Brett; Hu, Xiaozhi

    2016-09-01

    Utilizing a laser scanning confocal microscope system, the refractive indices of articular cartilage (AC) with mechanical or biochemical degenerations were characterized to investigate whether potential correlations exist between refractive index (RI) and cartilage degeneration. The cartilage samples collected from the medial femoral condyles of kangaroo knees were mechanically degenerated under different loading patterns or digested in trypsin solution with different concentrations. The sequences of RI were then measured from cartilage surface to deep region and the fluctuations of RI were quantified considering combined effects of fluctuating frequency and amplitude. The compositional and microstructural alterations of cartilage samples were assessed with histological methods. Along with the loss of proteoglycans, the average RI of cartilage increased and the local fluctuation of RI became stronger. Short-term high-speed test induced little influence to both the depth fluctuation and overall level of RI. Long-term low-speed test increased the fluctuation of RI but the average RI was barely changed. The results substantially demonstrate that RI of AC varies with both compositional and structural alterations and is potentially an indicator for the degeneration of AC.

  11. Associations of Subjective Social Status with Physical Activity and Body Mass Index across Four Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Frerichs

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aims of this study were to (1 assess physical activity and weight status differences and (2 explore the direction and shape of subjective social status (SSS association with physical activity and weight status within four Asian countries. Methods. Cross section data of adult respondents from the nationally representative East Asian Social Survey were used for analyses. Logistic regression stratified by gender was conducted for the first aim, and simple and quadratic logistic regression models were used for the second. Results. SSS was significantly associated with odds of weekly or daily physical activity across all countries and genders, except for South Korean and Japanese females. Quadratic models provided significantly better fit for Chinese males (LR (d.f. = 1 = 6.51, P value <.05 and females (LR (d.f. = 1 = 7.36, P value <.01, South Korean males (LR (d.f. = 1 = 4.40, P value <.05, and Taiwanese females (LR (d.f. = 1 = 4.87, P value <.05. Conclusions. This study provides a comparable cross Asian country measure of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and new findings that a connection exists between SSS and physical activity. Differences of class distinction help explain the different shaped SSS relationships.

  12. Regulatory and technical reports (abstract index journal): Annual compilation for 1994. Volume 19, Number 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This compilation consists of bibliographic data and abstracts for the formal regulatory and technical reports issued by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Staff and its contractors. It is NRC`s intention to publish this compilation quarterly and to cumulate it annually. The main citations and abstracts in this compilation are listed in NUREG number order. These precede the following indexes: secondary report number index, personal author index, subject index, NRC originating organization index (staff reports), NRC originating organization index (international agreements), NRC contract sponsor index (contractor reports), contractor index, international organization index, and licensed facility index. A detailed explanation of the entries precedes each index.

  13. Leg joint power output during progressive resistance FES-LCE cycling in SCI subjects: developing an index of fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faghri Pouran D

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the biomechanics of the hip, knee and ankle during a progressive resistance cycling protocol in an effort to detect and measure the presence of muscle fatigue. It was hypothesized that knee power output can be used as an indicator of fatigue in order to assess the cycling performance of SCI subjects. Methods Six spinal cord injured subjects (2 incomplete, 4 complete between the ages of twenty and fifty years old and possessing either a complete or incomplete spinal cord injury at or below the fourth cervical vertebra participated in this study. Kinematic data and pedal forces were recorded during cycling at increasing levels of resistance. Ankle, knee and hip power outputs and resultant pedal force were calculated. Ergometer cadence and muscle stimulation intensity were also recorded. Results The main findings of this study were: (a ankle and knee power outputs decreased, whereas hip power output increased with increasing resistance, (b cadence, stimulation intensity and resultant pedal force in that combined order were significant predictors of knee power output and (c knowing the value of these combined predictors at 10 rpm, an index of fatigue can be developed, quantitatively expressing the power capacity of the knee joint with respect to a baseline power level defined as fatigue. Conclusion An index of fatigue was successfully developed, proportionalizing knee power capacity during cycling to a predetermined value of fatigue. The fatigue index value at 0/8th kp, measured 90 seconds into active, unassisted pedaling was 1.6. This indicates initial power capacity at the knee to be 1.6 times greater than fatigue. The fatigue index decreased to 1.1 at 2/8th kp, representing approximately a 30% decrease in the knee's power capacity within a 4 minute timespan. These findings suggest that the present cycling protocol is not sufficient for a rider to gain the benefits of FES and thus

  14. Indexing Publicly Available Health Data with Medical Subject Headings (MeSH): An Evaluation of Term Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc, David T; Zhang, Rui; Beattie, James; Gatewood, Laël C; Khairat, Saif S

    2015-01-01

    As part of the Open Government Initiative, the United States federal government published datasets to increase collaboration, transparency, consumer participation, and research, and are available online at HealthData.gov. Currently, HealthData.gov does not adequately support the accessibility goal of the Open Government Initiative due to issues of retrieving relevant data because of inadequately cataloguing and lack of indexing with a standardized terminology. Given the commonalities between the HealthData.gov and MEDLINE metadata, Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) may offer an indexing solution, but there needs to be a formal evaluation of the efficacy of MeSH for covering the dataset concepts. The purpose of this study was to determine if MeSH adequately covers the HealthData.gov concepts. The noun and noun phrases from the HealthData.gov metadata were extracted and mapped to MeSH using MetaMap. The frequency of no exact, partical and no matches with MeSH terms were determined. The results of this study revealed that about 70% of the HealthData.gov concepts partially or exactly matched MeSH terms. Therefore, MeSH may be a favorable terminology for indexing the HealthData.gov datasets.

  15. Dewey Decimal Classification Online Project: Evaluation of a Library Schedule and Index Integrated into the Subject Searching Capabilities of an Online Catalog. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markey, Karen; Demeyer, Anh N.

    In this research project, subject terms from the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) Schedules and Relative Index were incorporated into an online catalog as searcher's tools for subject access, browsing, and display. Four features of the DDC were employed to help searchers browse for and match their own subject terms with the online catalog's…

  16. Indices of vascular stiffness and wave reflection in relation to body mass index or body fat in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wykretowicz, Andrzej; Adamska, Karolina; Guzik, Przemyslaw; Krauze, Tomasz; Wysocki, Henryk

    2007-10-01

    1. Obesity appears to influence vascular stiffness, an important cardiovascular risk factor. An accurate picture of arterial stiffness may be obtained when a combination of various techniques is used. 2. The purpose of the present study was to assess whether the body mass index (BMI) and body fat content obtained by bioimpedance were of equal value in estimating the influence of body fatness on various indices of vascular stiffness and wave reflection. 3. A total of 175 healthy subjects was studied. Anthropometric measurements and total body bio-impedance analysis were performed to assess fat mass as a proportion of total body composition. Arterial stiffness and wave reflection were assessed using digital volume pulse analysis and tonometric measurement of the wave reflection indices and central haemodynamics. 4. Significant differences in the stiffness index (SI(DVP); P < 0.0001), peripheral augmentation index (pAI(x); P < 0.0001), central augmentation index (cAI(x); P < 0.0001), peripheral pulse pressure (pPP; P = 0.026) and central pulse pressure (cPP; P < 0.0001) were found when the population examined was divided accordingly to tertile of body fat content. However, subdividing various indices of arterial stiffness according to the tertile of BMI did not reveal any significant differences between groups, except for pPP and cPP. 5. Body fat content was significantly correlated with SI(DVP), pAI(x), cAI(x), pPP and cPP. The BMI correlated weakly with SI(DVP), pPP and cPP. 6. In conclusion, the BMI is not very useful in predicting changes in arterial stiffness and wave reflection due to obesity. However, stiffness and wave reflection indices derived from digital volume pulse analysis, the characteristics of radial and aortic pressure waveforms and peripheral and aortic pulse pressure are all related to body fat content, as estimated by bioimpedance.

  17. Age-related and sex-related changes in perfusion index in response to noxious electrical stimulation in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishimura T

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Toshiki Nishimura,1 Aya Nakae,2 Masahiko Shibata,3 Takashi Mashimo,4 Yuji Fujino21Osaka University Medical School, 2Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, 3Department of Pain Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Japan; 4Toyonaka Municipal Hospital, Toyonaka, JapanBackground: Even though pain is a subjective phenomenon, its objective evaluation in humans is important because subjects requiring pain evaluation may be unable to describe their pain intensity because of decreased awareness or impaired cognitive function. Previous reports indicate that the perfusion index (PI, which is calculated from pulse oximeter waveforms, has some utility in assessing pain. However, age-associated and sex-associated differences in change of PI have hitherto not been evaluated for assessment of pain. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the utility of age-related differences in PI change among healthy volunteers subjected to electrical stimulation.Methods: We measured PI and pulse rate in 70 healthy volunteers exposed to gradually increasing electrical stimulation. The subjects were classified into four groups, ie, young men, young women, aged men, and aged women. Stimulation was stopped when subjects reached their pain tolerance threshold. The average PI and pulse rate were calculated 10 seconds before and after electrical stimulation and compared across the four groups. Changes in PI and pulse rate were analyzed using the paired t-test.Results: The PI was significantly decreased in response to pain stimulation in young men (P<0.0001, young women (P=0.0002, and aged men (P=0.0158. However, aged women failed to show significant changes in PI before or after stimulation. The pulse rate was not significantly altered in any of the groups.Conclusion: PI may be an independent parameter reflecting the perception of noxious stimuli and could be used for objective evaluation of pain perception in healthy volunteers, except when it

  18. Glycemic index of split peas, rice (Binam, kidney beans, green peas, "Lavash" bread and broad bean kernels in NIDDM subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darabi A

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Equal amounts of carbohydrates from various foodstuffs do not increase blood glucose to the same extent. This study was carried out, therefore, in 1996 at the National Nutrition and Food Technology Research institute in Tehran to determine the glycemic index of split pease, rice (Binam, kidney beans, green peas, “Lavash” bread and broad bean kernels. Diabetic subjects were studied in a clinical trial. The exact amount of cabohydrate in foodstuffs was determined using AOAC. Methods. White bread was used as the reference food. After a 12-hour overnight fast on seven separate days each subject was given the test food in an amount to provide 25 g of carbohydrate. Blood glucose was determined after 0, 60, 120 minutes using orthotouidine method. Glycemi response in each individual was calculated as the area under the 2- hour glucose individual was calculated as the area under the test food glucose curve as a percentage of the mean area under the whith bread glucose curve. Glycemic indices of the test foods were 31± 8.5 for split peas, 42.9±3 for rice, 44±9 for kidney beans, 57±7 for green peas, 69±8.5 for “Lavash” bread, and 96±14 for broad bean kernels .Legumes and rice (Binam can be used efficiently in meal planning for the diabetic subjects.

  19. Directory of Book Trade and Related Organizations. Books Trade Associations, United States and Canada; International and Foreign Book Trade Associations; National Information Standards Organization (NISO) Standards; Calendar, 2003-2012; Acronyms; Index of Organizations; Subject Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker Annual Library and Book Trade Almanac, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Includes two lists: one of book trade associations in the United States and Canada, and one of international and foreign book trade associations. Concludes with National Information Standards Organization (NISO) standards; calendar, 2003-2012; acronyms; index of organizations; and subject index. (LRW)

  20. 2008 Subject Index

    OpenAIRE

    Dizini, Konu

    2014-01-01

    Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever CCHF virüs causes severe disease in humans with a mortality reaching 30 It has the most extensive geographic distribution among the medically important tick borne viral diseases Although it is more frequently recovered from animals without any symptoms sporadic cases or epidemics may also be seen in human beings Acute course of the disease appears with symptoms of generalized pain myalgia fever nausea vomiting abdominal pain diarrhoea ecchymoses and bleeding a...

  1. 2007 Subject Index

    OpenAIRE

    Dizini, Konu

    2007-01-01

    Passive smoking environmental tobacco smoke is an important public health problem causing several adverse effects on the health outcomes of children Adverse effects of passive smoking occur from conception through adolescence Exposure to passive smoking in children is associated especially with increased upper and lower respiratory infection and increased asthmatic symptoms Globally including Turkey the percentage of children exposed to environmental tobacco smoke is considerably high Exposur...

  2. In hemodialysis, adiponectin, and pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels may be subjected to variations in body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimarchi, Hernan; Muryan, Alexis; Dicugno, Mariana; Forrester, Mariano; Lombi, Fernando; Young, Pablo; Pomeranz, Vanesa; Iriarte, Romina; Barucca, Nanci; Campolo-Girard, Vicente; Alonso, Mirta; Lindholm, Bengt

    2011-10-01

    Adiponectin exerts cardiovascular protective actions, although some studies have shown the opposite. In hemodialysis, obese subjects display lower mortality rates despite hypoadiponectinemia, while higher adiponectin concentrations correlate with an elevated cardiovascular risk in nonobese subjects. The aim of the study is to suggest that adiponectin level variations are associated with differences in the body mass index (BMI). The interplay between adiponectin and pro-brain natriuretic peptide (Pro-BNP) levels may vary according to body fat mass. Fifty-two chronic hemodialysis patients were divided into three groups. Group A, BMI30 (n=11). Diabetics: Group A 10%; Group B 6 29%; Group C 55%, P=0.027. Determinations: Adiponectin, Pro-BNP, insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA), troponin T, nutritional status, ultrafiltration rates, C-reactive protein (CRP), vascular accesses, and echocardiography. Group A: adiponectinemia positively and significantly correlated with Pro-BNP, CRP, and troponin T. As BMI increased, adiponectin, Pro-BNP, and malnutrition significantly decreased, while insulin, HOMA, and ultrafiltration rates significantly increased. Cardiac restriction was significantly higher in obese patients. In all groups, Pro-BNP and troponin T displayed a strong positive correlation. In low-BMI subjects, high Pro-BNP and adiponectin, low myocardial restriction, and worse nutritional status were prevalent. In obesity, hypoadiponectinemia stimulates cardiac remodeling, cardiac hypertrophy, and decreased stretching, rendering Pro-BNP levels low despite high ultrafiltration rates. Thus, adiponectin correlates inversely with BMI, probably playing different cardiovascular roles as BMI changes. © 2011 The Authors. Hemodialysis International © 2011 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  3. Cumulative fatigue damage models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgaw, Michael A.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of calculating expected component life under fatigue loading conditions is complicated by the fact that component loading histories contain, in many cases, cyclic loads of widely varying amplitudes. In such a case a cumulative damage model is required, in addition to a fatigue damage criterion, or life relationship, in order to compute the expected fatigue life. The traditional cumulative damage model used in design is the linear damage rule. This model, while being simple to use, can yield grossly unconservative results under certain loading conditions. Research at the NASA Lewis Research Center has led to the development of a nonlinear cumulative damage model, named the double damage curve approach (DDCA), that has greatly improved predictive capability. This model, which considers the life (or loading) level dependence of damage evolution, was applied successfully to two polycrystalline materials, 316 stainless steel and Haynes 188. The cumulative fatigue behavior of the PWA 1480 single-crystal material is currently being measured to determine the applicability of the DDCA for this material.

  4. A 14-item Mediterranean diet assessment tool and obesity indexes among high-risk subjects: the PREDIMED trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Martínez-González

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Independently of total caloric intake, a better quality of the diet (for example, conformity to the Mediterranean diet is associated with lower obesity risk. It is unclear whether a brief dietary assessment tool, instead of full-length comprehensive methods, can also capture this association. In addition to reduced costs, a brief tool has the interesting advantage of allowing immediate feedback to participants in interventional studies. Another relevant question is which individual items of such a brief tool are responsible for this association. We examined these associations using a 14-item tool of adherence to the Mediterranean diet as exposure and body mass index, waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR as outcomes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional assessment of all participants in the "PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea" (PREDIMED trial. SUBJECTS: 7,447 participants (55-80 years, 57% women free of cardiovascular disease, but with either type 2 diabetes or ≥ 3 cardiovascular risk factors. Trained dietitians used both a validated 14-item questionnaire and a full-length validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary habits. Trained nurses measured weight, height and waist circumference. RESULTS: Strong inverse linear associations between the 14-item tool and all adiposity indexes were found. For a two-point increment in the 14-item score, the multivariable-adjusted differences in WHtR were -0.0066 (95% confidence interval, -0.0088 to -0.0049 for women and -0.0059 (-0.0079 to -0.0038 for men. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for a WHtR>0.6 in participants scoring ≥ 10 points versus ≤ 7 points was 0.68 (0.57 to 0.80 for women and 0.66 (0.54 to 0.80 for men. High consumption of nuts and low consumption of sweetened/carbonated beverages presented the strongest inverse associations with abdominal obesity. CONCLUSIONS: A brief 14-item tool was able to capture a strong monotonic inverse association between

  5. A 14-Item Mediterranean Diet Assessment Tool and Obesity Indexes among High-Risk Subjects: The PREDIMED Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, Miguel Angel; García-Arellano, Ana; Toledo, Estefanía; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Corella, Dolores; Covas, Maria Isabel; Schröder, Helmut; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Lapetra, José; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa Maria; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Pintó, Xavier; Muñoz, Miguel Angel; Wärnberg, Julia; Ros, Emilio; Estruch, Ramón

    2012-01-01

    Objective Independently of total caloric intake, a better quality of the diet (for example, conformity to the Mediterranean diet) is associated with lower obesity risk. It is unclear whether a brief dietary assessment tool, instead of full-length comprehensive methods, can also capture this association. In addition to reduced costs, a brief tool has the interesting advantage of allowing immediate feedback to participants in interventional studies. Another relevant question is which individual items of such a brief tool are responsible for this association. We examined these associations using a 14-item tool of adherence to the Mediterranean diet as exposure and body mass index, waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) as outcomes. Design Cross-sectional assessment of all participants in the “PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea” (PREDIMED) trial. Subjects 7,447 participants (55–80 years, 57% women) free of cardiovascular disease, but with either type 2 diabetes or ≥3 cardiovascular risk factors. Trained dietitians used both a validated 14-item questionnaire and a full-length validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary habits. Trained nurses measured weight, height and waist circumference. Results Strong inverse linear associations between the 14-item tool and all adiposity indexes were found. For a two-point increment in the 14-item score, the multivariable-adjusted differences in WHtR were −0.0066 (95% confidence interval, –0.0088 to −0.0049) for women and –0.0059 (–0.0079 to –0.0038) for men. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for a WHtR>0.6 in participants scoring ≥10 points versus ≤7 points was 0.68 (0.57 to 0.80) for women and 0.66 (0.54 to 0.80) for men. High consumption of nuts and low consumption of sweetened/carbonated beverages presented the strongest inverse associations with abdominal obesity. Conclusions A brief 14-item tool was able to capture a strong monotonic inverse association between

  6. Bispectral index dynamics during propofol hypnosis is similar in red-haired and dark-haired subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doufas, Anthony G; Orhan-Sungur, Mukadder; Komatsu, Ryu; Lauber, Rolf; Akca, Ozan; Shafer, Steven L; Sessler, Daniel I

    2013-02-01

    We have previously shown that red hair is associated with increased desflurane requirement for immobility, compared with dark hair. The effect of red hair on IV anesthetic requirement remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the propofol concentration in the effect site associated with half maximal electroencephalogram response, Ce50, is at least 50% higher in subjects with red hair. We modeled the propofol concentration versus electroencephalogram response relationship using a 2-step approach in 29 healthy dark- and red-haired volunteers receiving a propofol infusion to produce loss of consciousness. Bispectral Index (BIS) was the measure of drug effect. The parameters of a 3-compartment pharmacokinetic model were fit to measured arterial propofol concentrations. The relationship between effect-site propofol concentration (Ce) and BIS was characterized using a sigmoid Emax model. Model performance and accuracy of the estimated parameters were evaluated using accepted metrics and bootstrap resampling. The effect of hair color on the Ce50 for BIS response in the final model was assessed using a threshold of 6.63 (P<0.01) in reduction of -2 log likelihood. The influence of body weight on the model was also assessed. The inclusion of hair color as a model covariate did not improve either the pharmacokinetic or the pharmacodynamic model. A separate analysis for the dark- and red-haired subjects estimated a median (95% confidence interval) Ce50 BIS of 2.71 μg/mL (2.28-3.36 μg/mL) and 2.57 μg/mL (1.68-3.60 μg/mL), respectively. Body weight was a significant covariate for the CL1 and V1. Red hair phenotype does not affect the pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics of propofol.

  7. The Tell-Tale Heart: heart rate fluctuations index objective and subjective events during a game of chess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Juliana Leone

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available During a decision making process, the body changes. These somatic changes have been related to specific cognitive events and also have been postulated to assist decision making indexing possible outcomes of different options. We used chess to analyze heart rate (HR modulations on specific cognitive events. In a chess game, players have a limited time-budget to make about 40 moves (decisions that can be objectively evaluated and retrospectively assigned to specific subjectively perceived events, such as setting a goal and the process to reach a known goal. We show that HR signals events: it predicts the conception of a plan, the concrete analysis of variations or the likelihood to blunder by fluctuations before to the move, and it reflects reactions, such as a blunder made by the opponent, by fluctuations subsequent to the move. Our data demonstrate that even if HR constitutes a relatively broad marker integrating a myriad of physiological variables, its dynamic is rich enough to reveal relevant episodes of inner thought.

  8. Cumulative Vehicle Routing Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Kara, &#;mdat; Kara, Bahar Yeti&#;; Yeti&#;, M. Kadri

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a new objective function and corresponding formulations for the vehicle routing problem. The new cost function defined as the product of the distance of the arc and the flow on that arc. We call a vehicle routing problem with this new objective function as the Cumulative Vehicle Routing Problem (CumVRP). Integer programming formulations with O(n2) binary variables and O(n2) constraints are developed for both collection and delivery cases. We show that the CumVRP is a gener...

  9. Can body mass index, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio and waist-height ratio predict the presence of multiple metabolic risk factors in Chinese subjects?

    OpenAIRE

    Lu Liping; Tong Weiwei; Tong Guanghui; Liu Yong; Qin Xiaosong

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Obesity is associated with metabolic risk factors. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-height ratio (WHtR) are used to predict the risk of obesity related diseases. However, it has not been examined whether these four indicators can detect the clustering of metabolic risk factors in Chinese subjects. Methods There are 772 Chinese subjects in the present study. Metabolic risk factors including high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, and gl...

  10. Combining Body Mass Index With Measures of Central Obesity in the Assessment of Mortality in Subjects With Coronary Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, Thais; Goel, Kashish; Corrêa de Sá, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to assess the mortality risk of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) based ona combination of body mass index (BMI) with measures of central obesity.......This study sought to assess the mortality risk of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) based ona combination of body mass index (BMI) with measures of central obesity....

  11. Improved metabolic response after 16 weeks of calorie-restricted low-glycaemic index diet and metformin in impaired glucose tolerance subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Helena Macedo da Costa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study analyzed the metabolic effects of dietary advice to follow calorie-restricted low-glycaemic index diet with metformin in overweight / obese impaired glucose tolerance subjects. Methods: Sixteen subjects with body mass index between 27-38 kg/m² were followed monthly for 16 weeks and treated with metformin (1 g/day and dietary prescription for low-glycaemic index diet with energy reduction of 25-30% their total energy expenditure. Glucose metabolism, lipid profile, anthropometric and body composition, and food intake parameters were measured before and after the treatment. Paired t-tests/Wilcoxon tests were used to compare differences from baseline, with a statistical significance criterion of p < 0.05. Results: There were significant reductions in anthropometric and body composition parameters, decrease in HOMA2-%β and triglycerides concentrations, and increase in Cederholm index. These results show enhanced peripheral insulin sensitivity and preservation of pancreatic beta-cell function. Conclusion: Calorie-restricted low-glycaemic index diet and metformin was benefit to metabolic and anthropometric parameters in overweight/obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance.

  12. Index to Publications of the Manpower Administration: January 1969 through June 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC.

    The document is a cumulative index of 850 publications issued by the Manpower Administration for the period January 1969 through June 1973. Chapters and major subdivisions of the "Manpower Reports of the President" and all articles in "Manpower" magazine are indexed separately. Items are arranged in 54 subject categories. (MS)

  13. Cumulative environmental effects. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This report presents a compilation of knowledge about the state of the environment and human activity in the Norwegian part of the North Sea and Skagerrak. The report gives an overview of pressures and impacts on the environment from normal activity and in the event of accidents. This is used to assess the cumulative environmental effects, which factors have most impact and where the impacts are greatest, and to indicate which problems are expected to be most serious in the future. The report is intended to provide relevant information that can be used in the management of the marine area in the future. It also provides input for the identification of environmental targets and management measures for the North Sea and Skagerrak.(Author)

  14. High total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio predicting deterioration of ankle brachial index in Asian type 2 diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I-Te; Huang, Chien-Ning; Lee, Wen-Jane; Lee, Hong-Shen; Sheu, Wayne Huey-Herng

    2008-03-01

    We conducted a prospective study to determine the risk factors for decrease in ABI in Chinese subjects with type 2 diabetes during a 3-year period. Type 2 diabetic subjects with normal ABI were enrolled in this study. The risk factors for PVD and ABI were examined before and after the follow-up period. A total of 107 type 2 diabetic subjects completed the assessment. Based on the change of ABI, the study subjects were divided into two groups. Forty subjects, in Group 1, had a decrease in ABI; 67 subjects, in Group 2, had no decrease in ABI after the 3-year follow-up. The baseline total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio (4.5+/-1.2 vs. 3.9+/-1.0, P=0.018) and serum creatinine (99.0+/-18.0micromol/L vs. 88.8+/-15.7micromol/L, P=0.004) were significantly higher, and the HDL cholesterol concentration was significantly lower (1.11+/-0.26mmol/L vs. 1.27+/-0.39mmol/L, P=0.011) in Group 1 than in Group 2. Furthermore, total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio was the variable showed an inverse correlation and independent predictor for the change in ABI after the 3-year follow-up. Total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio is a major risk factor for PVD and showed an inverse trend to change in ABI in Asian type 2 diabetic subjects.

  15. UBIQUITOUS POLLUTANTS FROM CUMULATIVE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPS) as environmental pollutants is a multifaceted issue whose scope continues to become better delineated since the escalation of concerted attention beginning in the 1980s. PPCPs typically occur as trace environmental pollutants (primarily in surface but also in ground waters) as a result of their widespread, continuous, combined usage in a broad range of human and veterinary therapeutic activities and practices. With respect to the risk-assessment paradigm, the growing body of published work has focused primarily on the origin and occurrence of these substances. Comparatively less is known about human and ecological exposure, and even less about the known or even potential hazards associated with exposure to these anthropogenic substances, many of which are highly bioactive. The continually growing, worldwide importance of freshwater resources underscores the need for ensuring that any aggregate or cumulative impacts on water supplies and resultant potential for human or ecological exposure be minimized. This has prompted the more recent investigations on waste treatment processes for one of the major sources of environmental disposition, namely sewage. Despite the paucity of health effects data for long-term, simultaneous exposure to multiple xenobiotics (particularly PPCPS) at low doses (a major toxicological issue that can be described by the

  16. Association of Waist Circumference and Body Fat Weight with Insulin Resistance in Male Subjects with Normal Body Mass Index and Normal Glucose Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Ryoma; Yano, Yutaka; Yasuma, Taro; Onishi, Yuki; Suzuki, Toshinari; Maruyama-Furuta, Noriko; Gabazza, Esteban C; Sumida, Yasuhiro; Takei, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Objective We investigated the relationship of the waist circumference (WC) and body fat weight (BF) with insulin resistance in subjects with normal body mass index (BMI) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) during a routine medical check-up. Methods We categorized 167 male subjects in three groups as follows: a group with normal BMI but high WC (normal-BMI/high-WC group; 22≤BMIBMI and normal WC (normal-BMI/normal-WC group, waist BMI and normal WC (low normal-BMI/normal-WC group; 18.5≤BMIBMI/high-WC group showed significantly decreased Matsuda index and increased homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) compared with normal-BMI/normal-WC group. Univariate regression analyses showed significant correlation of HOMA-IR with WC (r=0.39) and BF (r=0.37). Matsuda index was significantly correlated with WC (r=-0.39) and BF (r=-0.47). The multiple regression analysis showed that the BF is significantly correlated with HOMA-IR (pBMI/high-WC group. Multivariate analysis showed that BF is associated with decreased Matsuda index and increased HOMA-IR and that WC is not associated with either factors.

  17. Glycemic index of dietary formula may not be predictive of postprandial endothelial inflammation: a double-blinded, randomized, crossover study in non-diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kim, Do Ram; Kim, Kyoung Soo; Kim, Mi Kyung; Kwon, Oran

    2013-08-01

    The emerging role of endothelial inflammation in diabetes has stimulated research interest in the effects of nutrition on related indices. In the current study we investigated whether the nutrient composition of dietary formula as reflected in glycemic index (GI) may be predictive of postprandial endothelial inflammation in non-diabetic subjects. A double-blinded, randomized, crossover study was conducted in non-diabetic subjects (n = 8/group). Each subject consumed three types of diabetes-specific dietary formulas (high-fiber formula [FF], high-monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) formula [MF] and control formula [CF]) standardized to 50 g of available carbohydrates with a 1-week interval between each. The mean glycemic index (GI) was calculated and 3-hour postprandial responses of insulin, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), nitrotyrosine (NT) and free fatty acids (FFA) were measured. The MF showed the lowest mean GI and significantly low area under the curve (AUC) for insulin (P = 0.038), but significantly high AUCs for sICAM-1 (P formula as reflected in the GI may differently influence acute postprandial inflammation in non-diabetic subjects.

  18. A comparison of indexing methods to evaluate quality of soils subjected to different erosion: the role of soil microbiological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniuk, Romina; Lidia, Giuffre; Alejandro, Costantini; Norberto, Bartoloni; Paolo, Nannipieri

    2010-05-01

    Soil quality assessment is needed to evaluate the soil conditions and sustainability of soil and crop management properties, and thus requires a systematic approach to select and interpret soil properties to be used as indicators. The aim of this work was to evaluate and compare different indexing methods to assess quality of an undisturbed grassland soil (UN), a degraded pasture soil (GL) and a no tilled soil (NT) with four different A horizon depths (25, 23, 19 and 14 cm) reflecting a diverse erosion. Twenty four soil properties were measured from 0 to10 (1) and 10 to 20 cm. (2) and a minimum data set was chosen by multivariate principal component analysis (PCA) considering all measured soil properties together (A), or according to their classification in physical, chemical or microbiological (B) properties. The measured soil properties involved either inexpensive or not laborious standard protocols, to be used in routine laboratory analysis (simple soil quality index - SSQI), or a more laborious, time consuming and expensive protocols to determine microbial diversity and microbial functionality by methyl ester fatty acids (PLFA) and catabolic response profiles (CRP), respectively (complex soil quality index - CSQI). The selected properties were linearly normalized and integrated by the weight additive method to calculate SSQI A, SSQI B, CSQI A and CSQI B indices. Two microbiological soil quality indices (MSQI) were also calculated: the MSQI 1 only considered microbiological properties according to the procedure used for calculating SQI; the MSQI 2 was calculated by considering microbial carbon biomass (MCB), microbial activity (Resp) and functional diversity determined by CPR (E). The soil quality indices were SSQI A = MCB 1 + Particulate Organic Carbon (POC)1 + Mean Weight Diameter (MWD)1; SSQI B = Saturated hydraulic conductivity (K) 1 + Total Organic Carbon (TOC) 1 + MCB 1; CSQI A = MCB 1 + POC 1 + MWD 1; CSQI B = K 1+ TOC 1+ 0.3 * (MCB 1+ i/a +POC 1) + 0

  19. A 14-item Mediterranean diet assessment tool and obesity indexes among high-risk subjects: the PREDIMED trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, Miguel Angel; García-Arellano, Ana; Toledo, Estefanía; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Corella, Dolores; Covas, Maria Isabel; Schröder, Helmut; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Lapetra, José; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa Maria; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Pintó, Xavier; Muñoz, Miguel Angel; Wärnberg, Julia; Ros, Emilio; Estruch, Ramón

    2012-01-01

    Independently of total caloric intake, a better quality of the diet (for example, conformity to the Mediterranean diet) is associated with lower obesity risk. It is unclear whether a brief dietary assessment tool, instead of full-length comprehensive methods, can also capture this association. In addition to reduced costs, a brief tool has the interesting advantage of allowing immediate feedback to participants in interventional studies. Another relevant question is which individual items of such a brief tool are responsible for this association. We examined these associations using a 14-item tool of adherence to the Mediterranean diet as exposure and body mass index, waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) as outcomes. Cross-sectional assessment of all participants in the "PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea" (PREDIMED) trial. 7,447 participants (55-80 years, 57% women) free of cardiovascular disease, but with either type 2 diabetes or ≥ 3 cardiovascular risk factors. Trained dietitians used both a validated 14-item questionnaire and a full-length validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary habits. Trained nurses measured weight, height and waist circumference. Strong inverse linear associations between the 14-item tool and all adiposity indexes were found. For a two-point increment in the 14-item score, the multivariable-adjusted differences in WHtR were -0.0066 (95% confidence interval, -0.0088 to -0.0049) for women and -0.0059 (-0.0079 to -0.0038) for men. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for a WHtR>0.6 in participants scoring ≥ 10 points versus ≤ 7 points was 0.68 (0.57 to 0.80) for women and 0.66 (0.54 to 0.80) for men. High consumption of nuts and low consumption of sweetened/carbonated beverages presented the strongest inverse associations with abdominal obesity. A brief 14-item tool was able to capture a strong monotonic inverse association between adherence to a good quality dietary pattern (Mediterranean diet

  20. County-level cumulative environmental quality associated with cancer incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagai, Jyotsna S; Messer, Lynne C; Rappazzo, Kristen M; Gray, Christine L; Grabich, Shannon C; Lobdell, Danelle T

    2017-08-01

    Individual environmental exposures are associated with cancer development; however, environmental exposures occur simultaneously. The Environmental Quality Index (EQI) is a county-level measure of cumulative environmental exposures that occur in 5 domains. The EQI was linked to county-level annual age-adjusted cancer incidence rates from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program state cancer profiles. All-site cancer and the top 3 site-specific cancers for male and female subjects were considered. Incident rate differences (IRDs; annual rate difference per 100,000 persons) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using fixed-slope, random intercept multilevel linear regression models. Associations were assessed with domain-specific indices and analyses were stratified by rural/urban status. Comparing the highest quintile/poorest environmental quality with the lowest quintile/best environmental quality for overall EQI, all-site county-level cancer incidence rate was positively associated with poor environmental quality overall (IRD, 38.55; 95% CI, 29.57-47.53) and for male (IRD, 32.60; 95% CI, 16.28-48.91) and female (IRD, 30.34; 95% CI, 20.47-40.21) subjects, indicating a potential increase in cancer incidence with decreasing environmental quality. Rural/urban stratified models demonstrated positive associations comparing the highest with the lowest quintiles for all strata, except the thinly populated/rural stratum and in the metropolitan/urbanized stratum. Prostate and breast cancer demonstrated the strongest positive associations with poor environmental quality. We observed strong positive associations between the EQI and all-site cancer incidence rates, and associations differed by rural/urban status and environmental domain. Research focusing on single environmental exposures in cancer development may not address the broader environmental context in which cancers develop, and future research should address cumulative environmental

  1. Weight loss maintenance in overweight subjects on ad libitum diets with high or low protein content and glycemic index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aller, E E J G; Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Holst, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Background:A high dietary protein (P) content and low glycemic index (GI) have been suggested to be beneficial for weight management, but long-term studies are scarce.Objective:The DIOGENES randomized clinical trial investigated the effect of P and GI on weight loss maintenance in overweight....../high GI (HP/HGI), low P/low GI (LP/LGI), low P/high GI (LP/HGI) and a control diet. During the first 6 months foods were provided for free through a shop system, during the whole 12-month period subjects received guidance by a dietician. Primary outcome variable was the change in body weight over the 12...

  2. Dissociation of supplementary motor area and primary motor cortex in human subjects when comparing index and little finger movements with functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdler, M; Windischberger, C; Lanzenberger, R; Edward, V; Gartus, A; Deecke, L; Beisteiner, R

    2001-11-02

    This study provides the first investigation of supplementary motor area (SMA) and primary motor cortex (MI) activation with similar movements differing only in subjective difficulty of motor control. Brain activation with simple tapping of the right index finger (well trained during daily life and easy to perform) was compared with tapping of the little finger (less trained and difficult to perform) using functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3 Tesla. Due to optimised movement standardisation, extrinsic influences on activation levels such as movement complexity, amplitude and frequency were minimised. Fifth finger tapping significantly increased the number of activated SMA voxels by 450% whereas MI activation showed no significant difference between fingers. We conclude that with similar movements the degree of subjective difficulty specifically modifies SMA but not MI activation.

  3. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) delta genetic polymorphism and its association with insulin resistance index and fasting plasma glucose concentrations in Chinese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, C; Jia, W; Fang, Q; Zhang, R; Wang, C; Lu, J; Xiang, K

    2006-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD) genetic polymorphism affects cholesterol metabolism in Whites. This association was not observed in a Korean population in a separate study, but this study showed a link between the PPARD polymorphism and body weight and fasting plasma glucose. The purpose of this study was to determine whether polymorphisms of PPARD influence glucose and cholesterol metabolism in Chinese subjects. We investigated the association between the polymorphism (-87T/C) of the human PPARD gene and phenotypes related to body weight, insulin sensitivity, glucose and lipid metabolism in Chinese subjects. Unrelated Chinese subjects (n = 663) in Shanghai were studied; 287 had newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes mellitus and 376 were non-diabetic control subjects over 40 years old. Clinical parameters were collected and genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. In normal glucose tolerant (NGT) subjects, the C allele carriers had higher fasting plasma glucose concentrations (P = 0.0078) and a lower insulin sensitivity index (ISI) (P = 0.0365). The C allele carriers also showed higher concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.0261) and percentage of body fat (P = 0.0357). There was a trend towards higher visceral adiposity in C allele carriers, but the difference was not significant (P = 0.0830). In diabetes patients, similar results were detected for plasma glucose concentrations (fasting plasma glucose P polymorphism is associated with higher fasting plasma glucose concentrations in both NGT and diabetic subjects, largely due to impaired insulin sensitivity.

  4. [Parameters of oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide output ventilatory efficiency during exercise are index of circulatory function in normal subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xingguo; Wang, Guizhi; Lyu, Jing; Tan, Xiaoyue; William, W Stringer; Karlman, Wasserman

    2014-12-01

    To observe oxygen uptake efficiency plateau (OUEP, i.e.highest V˙O2/V˙E) and carbon dioxide output efficiency (lowest V˙E/V˙CO2) parameter changes during exercise in normal subjects. Five healthy volunteers performed the symptom limited maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center. V˙O2/V˙E and V˙E/V˙CO2 were determined by both arterial and central venous catheters. After blood gas analysis of arterial and venous sampling at the last 30 seconds of every exercise stage and every minute of incremental loading, the continuous parameter changes of hemodynamics, pulmonary ventilation were monitored and oxygen uptake ventilatory efficiency (V˙O2/V˙E and V˙E/V˙CO2) was calculated. During CPET, as the loading gradually increased, cardiac output, heart rate, mixed venous oxygen saturation, arteriovenous oxygen difference, minute ventilation, minute alveolar ventilation, tidal volume, alveolar ventilation and pulmonary ventilation perfusion ratio increased near-linearly (P change (P > 0.05); stroke volume, respiratory rate, arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide, arterial blood hydrogen ion concentration and dead space ventilation ratio significantly changed none-linearly (compare resting state P exercise increased from 30.9 ± 3.3 at resting state to the highest plateau 46.0 ± 4.7 (P exercise. The V˙E/V˙CO2 during exercise decreased from the resting state (39.2 ± 6.5) to the minimum value (24.2 ± 2.4) after AT for a few minutes (P > 0.05 vs.earlier stage), then gradually increased after the ventilatory compensation point (P exercise. Cardiac and lung function as well as metabolism change during CPET is synchronous.In the absence of pulmonary limit, appearing before and after anaerobic threshold, OUEP and lowest V˙E/V˙CO2 could be used as reliable parameters representing the circulatory function.

  5. Quality Control of Motor Unit Number Index (MUNIX Measurements in 6 Muscles in a Single-Subject "Round-Robin" Setup.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Neuwirth

    Full Text Available Motor Unit Number Index (MUNIX is a neurophysiological measure that provides an index of the number of lower motor neurons in a muscle. Its performance across centres in healthy subjects and patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS has been established, but inter-rater variability between multiple raters in one single subject has not been investigated.To assess reliability in a set of 6 muscles in a single subject among 12 examiners (6 experienced with MUNIX, 6 less experienced and to determine variables associated with variability of measurements.Twelve raters applied MUNIX in six different muscles (abductor pollicis brevis (APB, abductor digiti minimi (ADM, biceps brachii (BB, tibialis anterior (TA, extensor dig. brevis (EDB, abductor hallucis (AH twice in one single volunteer on consecutive days. All raters visited at least one training course prior to measurements. Intra- and inter-rater variability as determined by the coefficient of variation (COV between different raters and their levels of experience with MUNIX were compared.Mean intra-rater COV of MUNIX was 14.0% (±6.4 ranging from 5.8 (APB to 30.3% (EDB. Mean inter-rater COV was 18.1 (±5.4 ranging from 8.0 (BB to 31.7 (AH. No significant differences of variability between experienced and less experienced raters were detected.We provide evidence that quality control for neurophysiological methods can be performed with similar standards as in laboratory medicine. Intra- and inter-rater variability of MUNIX is muscle-dependent and mainly below 20%. Experienced neurophysiologists can easily adopt MUNIX and adequate teaching ensures reliable utilization of this method.

  6. Quality Control of Motor Unit Number Index (MUNIX) Measurements in 6 Muscles in a Single-Subject “Round-Robin” Setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuwirth, Christoph; Burkhardt, Christian; Alix, James; Castro, José; de Carvalho, Mamede; Gawel, Malgorzata; Goedee, Stephan; Grosskreutz, Julian; Lenglet, Timothée; Moglia, Cristina; Omer, Taha; Schrooten, Maarten; Weber, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Background Motor Unit Number Index (MUNIX) is a neurophysiological measure that provides an index of the number of lower motor neurons in a muscle. Its performance across centres in healthy subjects and patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) has been established, but inter-rater variability between multiple raters in one single subject has not been investigated. Objective To assess reliability in a set of 6 muscles in a single subject among 12 examiners (6 experienced with MUNIX, 6 less experienced) and to determine variables associated with variability of measurements. Methods Twelve raters applied MUNIX in six different muscles (abductor pollicis brevis (APB), abductor digiti minimi (ADM), biceps brachii (BB), tibialis anterior (TA), extensor dig. brevis (EDB), abductor hallucis (AH)) twice in one single volunteer on consecutive days. All raters visited at least one training course prior to measurements. Intra- and inter-rater variability as determined by the coefficient of variation (COV) between different raters and their levels of experience with MUNIX were compared. Results Mean intra-rater COV of MUNIX was 14.0% (±6.4) ranging from 5.8 (APB) to 30.3% (EDB). Mean inter-rater COV was 18.1 (±5.4) ranging from 8.0 (BB) to 31.7 (AH). No significant differences of variability between experienced and less experienced raters were detected. Conclusion We provide evidence that quality control for neurophysiological methods can be performed with similar standards as in laboratory medicine. Intra- and inter-rater variability of MUNIX is muscle-dependent and mainly below 20%. Experienced neurophysiologists can easily adopt MUNIX and adequate teaching ensures reliable utilization of this method. PMID:27135747

  7. The Association of Unintentional Changes in Weight, Body Composition, and Homeostasis Model Assessment Index with Glycemic Progression in Non-Diabetic Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Jung Rhee

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWe performed a retrospective longitudinal study on the effects of changes in weight, body composition, and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA indices on glycemic progression in subjects without diabetes during a four-year follow-up period in a community cohort without intentional intervention.MethodsFrom 28,440 non-diabetic subjects who participated in a medical check-up program in 2004, data on anthropometric and metabolic parameters were obtained after four years in 2008. Body composition analyses were performed with a bioelectrical impedance analyzer. Skeletal muscle index (SMI, % was calculated with lean mass/weight×100. Subjects were divided into three groups according to weight change status in four years: weight loss (≤-5.0%, stable weight (-5.0 to 5.0%, weight gain (≥5.0%. Progressors were defined as the subjects who progressed to impaired fasting glucose or diabetes.ResultsProgressors showed worse baseline metabolic profiles compared with non-progressors. In logistic regression analyses, the increase in changes of HOMA-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR in four years presented higher odds ratios for glycemic progression compared with other changes during that period. Among the components of body composition, a change in waist-hip ratio was the strongest predictor, and SMI change in four years was a significant negative predictor for glycemic progression. Changes in HOMA β-cell function in four years was a negative predictor for glycemic progression.ConclusionIncreased interval changes in HOMA-IR, weight gain and waist-hip ratio was associated with glycemic progression during a four-year period without intentional intervention in non-diabetic Korean subjects.

  8. Mapping cumulative environmental effects, social vulnerability, and health in the San Joaquin Valley, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ganlin; London, Jonathan

    2012-05-01

    To understand the social distribution of environmental hazards, methods to assess cumulative effects and their health implications are needed. We developed a cumulative environmental hazard index integrating environmental data on pollution sites, air quality, and pesticide use; a social vulnerability index to measure residents' resources to prevent or mitigate health effects; and a health index. We found that communities in California's San Joaquin Valley with high social vulnerability face more environmental burdens and have worse health conditions.

  9. Analytic subject index to 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    43.05. History; 43.10. General; 43.15. Standards; 43.20. General linear acoustics; 43.25. Nonlinear acoustics; 43.28. Aeroacoustics and atmospheric sound; 43.30. Underwater sound; 43.35. Ultrasonics, quantum acoustics, and physical effects of sound; 43.38. Transduction, acoustical devices for the generation and reproduction of sound; 43.40. Structural acoustics and vibration; 43.50. Noise: its effects and control; 43.55. Architectural acoustics; 43.58. Acoustical measurements and instrumentation; 43.60. Acoustic signal processing; 43.64. Physiological acoustics; 43.66. Psychological acoustics; 43.70. Speech production; 43.71. Speech perception; 43.72. Speech processing and communication systems; 43.75. Music and musical instruments; 43.80. Bioacoustics; 43.90. Other topics in acoustics.

  10. Analytic subject index to 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    43.05. History; 43.10. General; 43.15. Standards; 43.20. General linear acoustics; 43.25. Nonlinear acoustics; 43.28. Aeroacoustics and atmospheric sound; 43.30. Underwater sound; 43.35. Ultrasonics, quantum acoustics, and physical effects of sound; 43.38. Transduction, acoustical devices for the gen- eration and reproduction of sound; 43.40. Structural acoustics and vibration; 43.50. Noise: its effects and control; 43.55. Architectura] acoustics; 43.58. Acoustical measurements and instrumentation; 43.60. Acoustic signal processing; 43.64. Physiological acoustics; 43.66. Psychological acoustics; 43.70. Speech production; 43.71. Speech perception; 43.72. Speech processing and communication systems; 43.75. Music and musical instruments; 43.80. Bioacoustics; 43.90. Other tooics in acou.~tic.~.

  11. Body Mass Index and Mortality in the General Population and in Subjects with Chronic Disease in Korea: A Nationwide Cohort Study (2002-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Hoon Kim

    Full Text Available The association between body mass index (BMI and mortality is not conclusive, especially in East Asian populations. Furthermore, the association has been neither supported by recent data, nor assessed after controlling for weight changes.We evaluated the relationship between BMI and all-cause or cause-specific mortality, using prospective cohort data by the National Health Insurance Service in Korea, which consisted of more than one million subjects. A total of 153,484 Korean adults over 30 years of age without pre-existing cardiovascular disease or cancer at baseline were followed-up until 2010 (mean follow-up period = 7.91 ± 0.59 years. Study subjects repeatedly measured body weight 3.99 times, on average.During follow-up, 3,937 total deaths occurred; 557 deaths from cardiovascular disease, and 1,224 from cancer. In multiple-adjusted analyses, U-shaped associations were found between BMI and mortality from any cause, cardiovascular disease, and cancer after adjustment for age, sex, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, socioeconomic status, and weight change. Subjects with a BMI < 23 kg/m2 and ≥ 30 kg/m2 had higher risks of all-cause and cause-specific mortality compared with the reference group (BMI 23-24.9 kg/m2. The lowest risk of all-cause mortality was observed in subjects with a BMI of 25-26.4 kg/m2 (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.86; 95% CI 0.77 to 0.97. In subgroup analyses, including the elderly and those with chronic diseases (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease, subjects with a BMI of 25-29.9 kg/m2 (moderate obesity had a lower risk of mortality compared with the reference. However, this association has been attenuated in younger individuals, in those with higher socioeconomic status, and those without chronic diseases.Moderate obesity was associated more strongly with a lower risk of mortality than with normal, underweight, and overweight groups in the general population of South Korea

  12. Distribution of body mass index among subjects with COPD in the Middle East and North Africa region: data from the BREATHE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koniski ML

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Marie-Louise Koniski,1 Hocine Salhi,2 Aïcha Lahlou,3 Nauman Rashid,4 Abdelkader El Hasnaoui4 1Respiratory Division, Lebanese American University Medical Center – Rizk Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon; 2Foxymed, Paris, France; 3MS Health, Rabat, Morocco; 4GlaxoSmithKline, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Background: Data describing the potential relationship between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and body mass index (BMI are limited within the Middle East and North Africa (MENA region. Objective: To evaluate the distribution of BMI among subjects with COPD in the general population of the MENA region. Methods: This study was a subanalysis of the BREATHE study, a cross-sectional survey of COPD conducted in the general population of ten countries in the MENA region and Pakistan. The study population consisted of subjects screened for COPD who documented their weight and height. A COPD questionnaire was administered to subjects who screened positively for COPD in order to collect data on patient characteristics, symptom severity, management and burden of disease, comorbidities, and health care resource utilization and data allowing calculation of the BMI. The COPD Assessment Test (CAT was administered to those screened positively for COPD to collect data on the impact of respiratory symptoms. Results: Nine hundred and ninety-six subjects with COPD, who completed the detailed COPD questionnaire and documented their weight and height, were included in this analysis. The mean BMI was 27.7±5.7 kg/m2. The proportion of COPD patients with a BMI ≥25 kg/m2 is significantly higher than the proportion with a BMI <25 kg/m2 (64.6% [n=643] vs 35.4% [n=353], respectively; P<0.0001. There were no significant differences between the distribution of BMI, ages, sex, COPD symptoms, exacerbations, CAT scores, COPD-associated health care resource consumption, and GOLD severity groups. However, the occurrence of comorbidities such as diabetes and cardiovascular

  13. Responsiveness and Minimal Important Changes of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index in Subjects Undergoing Rehabilitation Following Hip Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monticone, Marco; Ambrosini, Emilia; Secci, Claudio; Rocca, Barbara; Ferrante, Simona; Capone, Antonio

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the responsiveness and minimal important changes (MICs) for the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and its subscales in subjects with hip fractures. At the beginning and end of a 2-month rehabilitation program, 106 patients completed the WOMAC. After the program, the global perceived effect (GPE) was analyzed to produce a dichotomous outcome (improved vs. stable). Responsiveness for the WOMAC and its subscales were calculated by distribution (effect size; standardized response mean) and anchor-based methods (receiver operating characteristic curves; correlations between change scores of the WOMAC and its subscales and GPE). Receiver operating characteristic curves were also used in order to compute the best cutoff levels between improved and stable subjects (MICs). The effect size ranged from 0.64 to 11.10 and the standardized response mean from 0.79 to 2.65. The receiver operating characteristic analyses revealed an MIC value (area under the curve, sensitivity, specificity) for the WOMAC of 29 (0.817, 92, 78); values of 35 (0.820, 77, 76) 44 (0.625, 25, 95), and 24 (0.707, 100, 76) were found for pain, stiffness, and physical function subscales, respectively. Correlations between change scores of the WOMAC and its subscales and GPE were low (0.240, for stiffness subscale) to moderate (0.438-0.570 for the other subscales and the WOMAC). The WOMAC and its subscales (all but stiffness) were sensitive in detecting clinical changes in subjects with hip fracture undergoing rehabilitation. We recommend taking the MICs provided into account when assessing patients' improvement or planning studies in this clinical context.

  14. Pro12Ala variant of the PPARG2 gene increases body mass index: An updated meta-analysis encompassing 49,092 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbete, C; Toledo, E; Martínez-González, M A; Martínez, J A; Guillén-Grima, F; Marti, A

    2013-07-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2 (PPARG2) gene has been intensively studied with relation to obesity and metabolic disorders. Indeed, a large number of studies assessing the association between the PPARG2 polymorphism Pro12Ala (rs1801282) and body mass index (BMI) have been published with some controversial results. In this meta-analysis, the effects of Pro12Ala polymorphism of the PPARG2 gene on BMI were investigated. Externally published data were collected and we included our own novel data from a study in the elderly participants (>55 years) of a Mediterranean cohort, the SUN ("Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra") Project (n = 972). A total of 75 independent studies with 49,092 subjects (39,806 with the genotype Pro12Pro and 9,286 carrier subjects of the Ala allele) were included. The meta-analysis revealed a higher BMI with an overall estimation of +0.065 kg/m(2) (95%CI = 0.026-0.103, P = 0.001) for homo-/heterozygous carriers of the Ala allele of the PPARG2 gene in comparison to non-carriers. The analysis also showed that there was heterogeneity (P for heterogeneity Pro12Ala polymorphism of the PPARG2 gene and increased BMI was stronger in Caucasian. Thus, carriers of the Ala allele had significantly higher BMI than non-carriers in a subsample of 6,528 Caucasian male subjects (standardized mean difference = 0.090, 95%CI=0.032-0.148, P = 0.002, P for heterogeneity = 0.121). This updated meta-analysis showed that carriers of the Ala12 allele of the PPARG2 gene had a higher average BMI. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  15. Cumulant expansions for atmospheric flows

    CERN Document Server

    Ait-Chaalal, Farid; Meyer, Bettina; Marston, J B

    2015-01-01

    The equations governing atmospheric flows are nonlinear, and consequently the hierarchy of cumulant equations is not closed. But because atmospheric flows are inhomogeneous and anisotropic, the nonlinearity may manifests itself only weakly through interactions of mean fields with disturbances such as thermals or eddies. In such situations, truncations of the hierarchy of cumulant equations hold promise as a closure strategy. We review how truncations at second order can be used to model and elucidate the dynamics of turbulent atmospheric flows. Two examples are considered. First, we study the growth of a dry convective boundary layer, which is heated from below, leading to turbulent upward energy transport and growth of the boundary layer. We demonstrate that a quasilinear truncation of the equations of motion, in which interactions of disturbances among each other are neglected but interactions with mean fields are taken into account, can successfully capture the growth of the convective boundary layer. Seco...

  16. Electro-cumulation CNF project

    CERN Document Server

    Grishin, V G

    2000-01-01

    bound or free ion current within solid substances; non-plain symmetry; cumulation of the ion interaction. Experimental result: an Ice SuperPolarization. Cold nuclear fusion ? At http://www.shortway.to/to2084 . Keywords: ion, current, solid, symmetry, cumulation, cold nuclear fusion, polarization, depolarization, ionic conductor, superionic conductor, ice, crystal, strain, V-center, V-centre, doped crystal, interstitial impurity, intrinsic color center, high pressure technology, Bridgman, experiment, crowdion, dielectric, proton, layer, defect, lattice, dynamics, electromigration, mobility, muon catalysis, concentration, doping, dopant, conductivity, pycnonuclear reaction, permittivity, dielectric constant, point defects, interstitials, polarizability, imperfection, defect centers, glass, epitaxy, sodium hydroxide, metallic substrate, crystallization, point, tip, susceptibility, ferroelectric, ordering, force, correlation, collective, shift, distortion, coalescence, crowdions, electrolysis.

  17. 经纬网格与流域计算的地形指数累积分布函数及其均值差异分析%Analyses on Differences Between Cumulative Distribution Functions and Means of Topographic Indexes for Grid Cell and Individual Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖燕; 邓慧平; 孙菽芬

    2012-01-01

    To improve simulations of hydrological processes,the topographic-index hydrological model(TOPMODEL)has been applied to land surface models.The simplified scheme which applies TOPMODEL to grid cells of Global Climate Model(GCM)can simplify application of TOPMODEL in land surface models.The 2°×2°grid cell located in mountainous region of Changjiang basin and the other located in relatively flat region of Amazon basin are selected.The topographic indexes are calculated and statistical properties of topographic indexes for two grid cells are extracted using the data from digital elevation model of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission.River basins and drainage network are extracted using the same dataset and statistics are extracted for each basin.The difference between the cumulative distribution functions and means of topographic index for whole grid cell and for individual basin are analyzed.the cumulative distribution functions for whole grid cell and individual basin are fitted by exponential function.The main conclusions are summarized as follows:(1)Although there are differences between the cumulative distribution functions and means for whole grid cell and individual basin but the differences are not significant.It may be a reasonable simplification to apply TOPMODEL directly to grid cell of GCM;(2)The exponential function can fit the cumulative distribution functions well.These results provide helpful information for designing a TOPMODEL based and simplified hydrological model for use in land surface model.%为了改进陆面模式对水文过程的模拟,地形指数水文模型(Topographic-index hydrologicalmodel,TOPMODEL)已被应用于陆面模式(Land Surface Models,LSMs)。当前直接将TOPMODEL应用于全球气候模式(Global Climate Model,GCM)的网格单元的方案,简化了TOPMODEL在陆面模式中的应用。按GCM网格单元统计与按流域单元统计的地形指数分布函数之间的差异大小进行分析,可为研

  18. Cumulative Paired φ-Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo Klein

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A new kind of entropy will be introduced which generalizes both the differential entropy and the cumulative (residual entropy. The generalization is twofold. First, we simultaneously define the entropy for cumulative distribution functions (cdfs and survivor functions (sfs, instead of defining it separately for densities, cdfs, or sfs. Secondly, we consider a general “entropy generating function” φ, the same way Burbea et al. (IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 1982, 28, 489–495 and Liese et al. (Convex Statistical Distances; Teubner-Verlag, 1987 did in the context of φ-divergences. Combining the ideas of φ-entropy and cumulative entropy leads to the new “cumulative paired φ-entropy” ( C P E φ . This new entropy has already been discussed in at least four scientific disciplines, be it with certain modifications or simplifications. In the fuzzy set theory, for example, cumulative paired φ-entropies were defined for membership functions, whereas in uncertainty and reliability theories some variations of C P E φ were recently considered as measures of information. With a single exception, the discussions in the scientific disciplines appear to be held independently of each other. We consider C P E φ for continuous cdfs and show that C P E φ is rather a measure of dispersion than a measure of information. In the first place, this will be demonstrated by deriving an upper bound which is determined by the standard deviation and by solving the maximum entropy problem under the restriction of a fixed variance. Next, this paper specifically shows that C P E φ satisfies the axioms of a dispersion measure. The corresponding dispersion functional can easily be estimated by an L-estimator, containing all its known asymptotic properties. C P E φ is the basis for several related concepts like mutual φ-information, φ-correlation, and φ-regression, which generalize Gini correlation and Gini regression. In addition, linear rank tests for scale that

  19. Regulatory and technical reports (abstract index journal): Compilation for third quarter 1994, July--September. Volume 19, Number 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1994-12-01

    This compilation consists of bibliographic data and abstracts for the formal regulatory and technical reports issues by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Staff and its contractors. It is NRC`s intention to publish this compilation quarterly and to cumulate it annually. The main citations and abstracts in this compilation are listed in NUREG number order: NUREG-XXXX, NUREG/CP-XXXX, NUREG/CR-XXXX, and NUREG/IA-XXXX. These precede the following indexes: Secondary Report Number Index, Personal Author Index, Subject Index, NRC Originating Organization Index (Staff Reports), NRC Originating Organization Index (International Agreements), NRC Contract Sponsor Index (Contractor Reports) Contractor Index, International Organization Index, Licensed Facility Index. A detailed explanation of the entries precedes each index.

  20. Regulatory and technical reports (abstract index journal): Compilation for third quarter 1996 July--September. Volume 21, Number 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This compilation consists of bibliographic data and abstracts for the formal regulatory and technical reports issued by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Staff and its contractors. It is NRC`s intention to publish this compilation quarterly and to cumulate it annually. The main citations and abstracts in this compilation are listed in NUREG number order: NUREG-XXXX, NUREG/CP-XXXX, NUREG/CR-XXXX, and NUREG/IA-XXXX. These precede the following indexes: secondary report number index; personal author index; subject index; NRC originating organization index (staff reports); NRC originating organization index (international agreements); NRC contract sponsor index (contractor reports); contractor index; international organization index; and licensed facility index. A detailed explanation of the entries precedes each index.

  1. Hierarchical Bayesian parameter estimation for cumulative prospect theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nilsson, H.; Rieskamp, J.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.

    2011-01-01

    Cumulative prospect theory (CPT Tversky & Kahneman, 1992) has provided one of the most influential accounts of how people make decisions under risk. CPT is a formal model with parameters that quantify psychological processes such as loss aversion, subjective values of gains and losses, and

  2. Association between cerebral cannabinoid 1 receptor availability and body mass index in patients with food intake disorders and healthy subjects: a [(18)F]MK-9470 PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarini, J; Weltens, N; Ly, H G; Tack, J; Van Oudenhove, L; Van Laere, K

    2016-07-12

    Although of great public health relevance, the mechanisms underlying disordered eating behavior and body weight regulation remain insufficiently understood. Compelling preclinical evidence corroborates a critical role of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in the central regulation of appetite and food intake. However, in vivo human evidence on ECS functioning in brain circuits involved in food intake regulation as well as its relationship with body weight is lacking, both in health and disease. Here, we measured cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) availability using positron emission tomography (PET) with [(18)F]MK-9470 in 54 patients with food intake disorders (FID) covering a wide body mass index (BMI) range (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, functional dyspepsia with weight loss and obesity; BMI range=12.5-40.6 kg/m(2)) and 26 age-, gender- and average BMI-matched healthy subjects (BMI range=18.5-26.6 kg/m(2)). The association between regional CB1R availability and BMI was assessed within predefined homeostatic and reward-related regions of interest using voxel-based linear regression analyses. CB1R availability was inversely associated with BMI in homeostatic brain regions such as the hypothalamus and brainstem areas in both patients with FID and healthy subjects. However, in FID patients, CB1R availability was also negatively correlated with BMI throughout the mesolimbic reward system (midbrain, striatum, insula, amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex), which constitutes the key circuit implicated in processing appetitive motivation and hedonic value of perceived food rewards. Our results indicate that the cerebral homeostatic CB1R system is inextricably linked to BMI, with additional involvement of reward areas under conditions of disordered body weight.

  3. The Algebra of the Cumulative Percent Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Andrew J.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to help students avoid some pervasive reasoning errors in solving cumulative percent problems. Discusses the meaning of ."%+b%." the additive inverse of ."%." and other useful applications. Emphasizes the operational aspect of the cumulative percent concept. (KHR)

  4. Adaptive strategies for cumulative cultural learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehn, Micael; Laland, Kevin

    2012-05-21

    The demographic and ecological success of our species is frequently attributed to our capacity for cumulative culture. However, it is not yet known how humans combine social and asocial learning to generate effective strategies for learning in a cumulative cultural context. Here we explore how cumulative culture influences the relative merits of various pure and conditional learning strategies, including pure asocial and social learning, critical social learning, conditional social learning and individual refiner strategies. We replicate the Rogers' paradox in the cumulative setting. However, our analysis suggests that strategies that resolved Rogers' paradox in a non-cumulative setting may not necessarily evolve in a cumulative setting, thus different strategies will optimize cumulative and non-cumulative cultural learning.

  5. [Cumulative effect of Coriolis acceleration on coronary hemodynamics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapaev, E V; Bednenko, V S

    1985-01-01

    Time-course variations in coronary circulation and cardiac output were measured in 29 healthy test subjects who performed tests with a continuous cumulation of Coriolis accelerations and in 12 healthy test subjects who were exposed to Coriolis accelerations combined with acute hypoxia. Adaptive changes in coronary circulation were seen. It is recommended to monitor coronary circulation during vestibulometric tests as part of medical expertise of the flying personnel.

  6. Latino Mothers' Cumulative Food Insecurity Exposure and Child Body Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Daphne C

    2016-01-01

    To document whether an intergenerational transmission of food insecurity is occurring by assessing low-income foreign-born Latino mothers' experiences with food insecurity as none, once (either childhood or adulthood) or twice (during both childhood and adulthood). Also the association between maternal cumulative food insecurity and children's body composition was examined. Maternal self-reported surveys on retrospective measures of food insecurity during childhood, current measures of food insecurity, and demographics were collected from Houston-area community centers (N = 96). Children's body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were directly assessed. Covariate-adjusted logistic regression models analyzed the association between cumulative food insecurity experiences and children's body composition. Fifty-eight percent of mothers experienced food insecurity both as a child and as an adult and 31% of the mothers experienced food insecurity either as a child or adult. Maternal cumulative exposure to food insecurity was unrelated to BMI but was negatively related to elevated WC. Although an intergenerational transmission of food insecurity does exist, maternal cumulative exposure to food insecurity does not impact children's body composition negatively in the short term. Studying the long-term effects of cumulative food insecurity exposure can provide information for the development and timing of obesity interventions.

  7. "Buddha's Light" of Cumulative Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Kopeliovich, Vladimir B; Potashnikova, Irina K

    2014-01-01

    We show analytically that in the cumulative particles production off nuclei multiple interactions lead to a glory-like backward focusing effect. Employing the small phase space method we arrived at a characteristic angular dependence of the production cross section $d\\sigma \\sim 1/ \\sqrt {\\pi - \\theta}$ near the strictly backward direction. This effect takes place for any number $n\\geq 3 $ of interactions of rescattered particle, either elastic or inelastic (with resonance excitations in intermediate states), when the final particle is produced near corresponding kinematical boundary. Such a behaviour of the cross section near the backward direction is in qualitative agreement with some of available data.

  8. A Resource Cost Aware Cumulative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonis, Helmut; Hadzic, Tarik

    We motivate and introduce an extension of the well-known cumulative constraint which deals with time and volume dependent cost of resources. Our research is primarily interested in scheduling problems under time and volume variable electricity costs, but the constraint equally applies to manpower scheduling when hourly rates differ over time and/or extra personnel incur higher hourly rates. We present a number of possible lower bounds on the cost, including a min-cost flow, different LP and MIP models, as well as greedy algorithms, and provide a theoretical and experimental comparison of the different methods.

  9. Body image discrepancy and subjective norm as mediators and moderators of the relationship between body mass index and quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pétré B

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Benoit Pétré,1 André J Scheen,2 Olivier Ziegler,3 Anne-Françoise Donneau,1 Nadia Dardenne,1 Eddy Husson,1 Adelin Albert,1 Michèle Guillaume1 1Department of Public Health, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium; 2Division of Diabetes, Nutrition and Metabolic Disorders, Department of Medicine, CHU Sart Tilman, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium; 3Department of Diabetes, Metabolic Diseases and Nutrition, Nancy University Hospital, Nancy, France Background and objective: Despite the strength and consistency of the relationship between body mass index (BMI and quality of life (QoL, a reduction in BMI does not necessarily lead to an improvement in QoL. Between-subject variability indicates the presence of mediators and moderators in the BMI–QoL association. This study aimed to examine the roles of body image discrepancy (BID and subjective norm (SN as potential mediators and moderators. Subjects and methods: In 2012, 3,016 volunteers (aged ≥18 years participated in a community-based survey conducted in the French-speaking region of Belgium. Participation was enhanced using a large multimedia campaign (which was supported by a large network of recruiters that employed the nonstigmatizing slogan, “Whatever your weight, your opinion will count”. Participants were invited to complete a web-based questionnaire on their weight-related experiences. Self-reported measures were used to calculate each participant’s BMI, BID, SN, and QoL (a French obesity-specific QoL questionnaire was used to calculate the participants’ physical dimension of QoL scores [PHY-QoL], psychosocial dimension of QoL scores [PSY/SOC-QoL], and their total scores. The covariates included gender, age, subjective economic status, level of education, household size, and perceived health. The mediation/moderation tests were based on Hayes’ method. Results: Tests showed that the relationships between BMI and PHY-QoL, PSY/SOC-QoL, and TOT-QoL were partially mediated by BID

  10. A paradox of cumulative culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yutaka; Wakano, Joe Yuichiro; Ohtsuki, Hisashi

    2015-08-21

    Culture can grow cumulatively if socially learnt behaviors are improved by individual learning before being passed on to the next generation. Previous authors showed that this kind of learning strategy is unlikely to be evolutionarily stable in the presence of a trade-off between learning and reproduction. This is because culture is a public good that is freely exploited by any member of the population in their model (cultural social dilemma). In this paper, we investigate the effect of vertical transmission (transmission from parents to offspring), which decreases the publicness of culture, on the evolution of cumulative culture in both infinite and finite population models. In the infinite population model, we confirm that culture accumulates largely as long as transmission is purely vertical. It turns out, however, that introduction of even slight oblique transmission drastically reduces the equilibrium level of culture. Even more surprisingly, if the population size is finite, culture hardly accumulates even under purely vertical transmission. This occurs because stochastic extinction due to random genetic drift prevents a learning strategy from accumulating enough culture. Overall, our theoretical results suggest that introducing vertical transmission alone does not really help solve the cultural social dilemma problem. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of sensory ratings data with cumulative link models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen; Brockhoff, Per B.

    2013-01-01

    Examples of categorical rating scales include discrete preference, liking and hedonic rating scales. Data obtained on these scales are often analyzed with normal linear regression methods or with omnibus Pearson chi2 tests. In this paper we propose to use cumulative link models that allow...... for regression methods similar to linear models while respecting the categorical nature of the observations. We describe how cumulative link models are related to the omnibus chi2 tests and how they can lead to more powerful tests in the non-replicated setting. For replicated categorical ratings data we present...... a quasi-likelihood approach and a mixed effects approach both being extensions of cumulative link models. We contrast population-average and subject-specific interpretations based on these models and discuss how different approaches lead to different tests. In replicated settings, naive tests that ignore...

  12. No evidence for genome-wide interactions on plasma fibrinogen by smoking, alcohol consumption and body mass index: results from meta-analyses of 80,607 subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Baumert

    Full Text Available Plasma fibrinogen is an acute phase protein playing an important role in the blood coagulation cascade having strong associations with smoking, alcohol consumption and body mass index (BMI. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified a variety of gene regions associated with elevated plasma fibrinogen concentrations. However, little is yet known about how associations between environmental factors and fibrinogen might be modified by genetic variation. Therefore, we conducted large-scale meta-analyses of genome-wide interaction studies to identify possible interactions of genetic variants and smoking status, alcohol consumption or BMI on fibrinogen concentration. The present study included 80,607 subjects of European ancestry from 22 studies. Genome-wide interaction analyses were performed separately in each study for about 2.6 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs across the 22 autosomal chromosomes. For each SNP and risk factor, we performed a linear regression under an additive genetic model including an interaction term between SNP and risk factor. Interaction estimates were meta-analysed using a fixed-effects model. No genome-wide significant interaction with smoking status, alcohol consumption or BMI was observed in the meta-analyses. The most suggestive interaction was found for smoking and rs10519203, located in the LOC123688 region on chromosome 15, with a p value of 6.2 × 10(-8. This large genome-wide interaction study including 80,607 participants found no strong evidence of interaction between genetic variants and smoking status, alcohol consumption or BMI on fibrinogen concentrations. Further studies are needed to yield deeper insight in the interplay between environmental factors and gene variants on the regulation of fibrinogen concentrations.

  13. Microvascular retinopathy in subjects without diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Inger Christine; Kessel, Line; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2012-01-01

    tolerance testing, clinical and laboratory examinations, non-invasive ocular lens fluorometry and seven-field fundus photography. Results: Retinopathy was present in 8.3% (CI(95) 6.3-10.3%) of subjects. Higher systolic blood pressure (SBP) (p = 0.032), increasing body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.014) and wider......Purpose: Retinal vascular lesions such as microaneurysms and haemorrhages, while typical of diabetic retinopathy, are also seen in subjects without diabetes where they are associated with elevated cardiovascular mortality. In theory, these lesions could be a consequence of past hyperglycaemia. We...... examined the prevalence and risk factors for retinopathy, including lens fluorescence, a biomarker of cumulative life-time glycaemia in adults without diabetes. Methods: Cross-sectional population-based study of 711 subjects without diabetes (WHO 1999 criteria) aged 30-60 years, including oral glucose...

  14. Index to Volume 110

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, R. A.

    2001-02-01

    The Subject Index references items under general headings; where a contribution covers two or more clearly defined subjects, each is separately referenced, but otherwise sub-headings within the same topic are not included. Book and other reviews are indexed as such, but their subjects are not further cross-indexed. The Author Index details all named contributions, including talks at Ordinary Meetings, but not questions from the floor.

  15. Cumulate Fragments in Silicic Ignimbrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, O.; Ellis, B. S.; Wolff, J.

    2014-12-01

    Increasingly, studies are concluding that silicic ignimbrites are the result of the amalgamation of multiple discrete magma batches. Yet the existence of discrete batches presents a conundrum for magma generation and storage; if silicic magma batches are not generated nearly in situ in the upper crust, they must traverse, and reside within, a thermally hostile environment with large temperature gradients, resulting in low survivability in their shallow magmatic hearths. The Snake River Plain (Idaho, USA) is a type example of this 'multi-batch' assembly with ignimbrites containing multiple populations of pyroxene crystals, glass shards, and crystal aggregates. The ubiquitous crystal aggregates hint at a mechanism to facilitate the existence of multiple, relatively small batches of rhyolite in the upper crust. These aggregates contain the same plagioclase, pyroxene, and oxide mineral compositions as single phenocrysts of the same minerals in their host rocks, but they have significantly less silicic bulk compositions and lack quartz and sanidine, which occur as single phenocrysts in the deposits. This implies significant crystallization followed by melt extraction from mushy reservoir margins. The extracted melt then continues to evolve (crystallizing sanidine and quartz) while the melt-depleted margins provide an increasingly rigid and refractory network segregating the crystal-poor batches of magma. The hot, refractory, margins insulate the crystal-poor lenses, allowing (1) extended residence in the upper crust, and (2) preservation of chemical heterogeneities among batches. In contrast, systems that produce cumulates richer in low-temperature phases (quartz, K-feldspars, and/or biotite) favour remelting upon recharge, leading to less segregation of eruptible melt pockets and the formation of gradationally zoned ignimbrites. The occurrence of similar crystal aggregates from a variety of magmatic lineages suggests the generality of this process.

  16. Relationship between cumulative BMI and symptomatic, psychosocial, and medical outcomes in patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenburg, Frances R; Zanarini, Mary C

    2011-08-01

    We examined the relationship between cumulative body mass index (BMI) and symptomatic, psychosocial, and medical outcomes in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Two hundred female borderline patients were weighed and measured during their index admission. They were subsequently interviewed at six-, eight-, and 10-year intervals. Over 10 years of prospective follow-up, increases in cumulative BMI were significantly associated with self-mutilation and dissociation (but not suicide attempts). Increases in cumulative BMI were also significantly associated with having no life partner, a poor work or school history, being on disability, being rated with a GAF score in the fair or poor range, and having a low income. In addition, increases in BMI were related to having two or more other medical conditions and using costly forms of health care. Increases in cumulative BMI may be a marker for adverse symptomatic, functional, and medical outcomes in patients with BPD.

  17. Cumulative dietary exposure of the population of Denmark to pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Nielsen, Elsa

    2015-01-01

    We used the Hazard Index (HI) method to carry out a cumulative risk assessment after chronic dietary exposure to all monitored pesticides in fruit, vegetables and cereals for various consumer groups in Denmark. Residue data for all the pesticides were obtained from the Danish monitoring programme...... that included processing factors and set non-detects to ½ LOR, but limited the correction (Model 3), gave the most realistic exposure estimate. With Model 3 the HI was calculated to be 0.44 for children and 0.18 for adults, indicating that there is no risk of adverse health effects following chronic cumulative...... exposure to the pesticides found in fruit, vegetables and cereals on the Danish market. The HI was below 1 even for consumers who eat more than 550 g of fruit and vegetables per day, corresponding to 1/3 of the population. Choosing Danish-produced commodities whenever possible could reduce the HI...

  18. Cumulative human impacts on marine predators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maxwell, Sara M; Hazen, Elliott L; Bograd, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Stressors associated with human activities interact in complex ways to affect marine ecosystems, yet we lack spatially explicit assessments of cumulative impacts on ecologically and economically key components such as marine predators. Here we develop a metric of cumulative utilization and impact...

  19. Cumulative Effect of Depression on Dementia Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Olazarán

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze a potential cumulative effect of life-time depression on dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD, with control of vascular factors (VFs. Methods. This study was a subanalysis of the Neurological Disorders in Central Spain (NEDICES study. Past and present depression, VFs, dementia status, and dementia due to AD were documented at study inception. Dementia status was also documented after three years. Four groups were created according to baseline data: never depression (nD, past depression (pD, present depression (prD, and present and past depression (prpD. Logistic regression was used. Results. Data of 1,807 subjects were investigated at baseline (mean age 74.3, 59.3% women, and 1,376 (81.6% subjects were evaluated after three years. The prevalence of dementia at baseline was 6.7%, and dementia incidence was 6.3%. An effect of depression was observed on dementia prevalence (OR [CI 95%] 1.84 [1.01–3.35] for prD and 2.73 [1.08–6.87] for prpD, and on dementia due to AD (OR 1.98 [0.98–3.99] for prD and OR 3.98 [1.48–10.71] for prpD (fully adjusted models, nD as reference. Depression did not influence dementia incidence. Conclusions. Present depression and, particularly, present and past depression are associated with dementia at old age. Multiple mechanisms, including toxic effect of depression on hippocampal neurons, plausibly explain these associations.

  20. Comparing subjective and objective indicators to describe the national entrepreneurial context: the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor and the Global Competitiveness Index contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Coduras

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship research is progressing towards the construction of indexes that integrate the information of the three predominant approaches: the entrepreneurial activity output; the population’s entrepreneurial behavior, values and aspirations; and the context in which entrepreneurship takes place. In this study we compare the Global Competitiveness Index data, one of the objective sources of information selected among those recognized as descriptors of national contexts, with the national entrepreneurial context qualitative information provided by the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. The main purpose of this research is to contribute to the knowledge of entrepreneurial context sources of information by opening a discussion around the usefulness and contribution that could make the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor source in this field, and to determine if it is recommendable to proceed to its formal validation in the short time. The obtained results evidence that the two sources do not overlap to the degree of substituting one by the other and that the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor provides relevant qualitative details about the state of entrepreneurial context that are interesting to complement the Global Competitiveness Index information. The conclusion is to recommend the formal validation of this source, being also necessary to make comparisons with other relevant sources and to clear up its role in the progress of the integrated indexes construction.

  1. The interleukin-1 receptor antagonist anakinra improves first-phase insulin secretion and insulinogenic index in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Poppel, P C M; van Asseldonk, E J P; Holst, Jens Juul

    2014-01-01

    -phase insulin secretion improved after anakinra treatment compared with placebo, 148 ± 20 versus 123 ± 14 mU/l, respectively (p = 0.03), and the insulinogenic index was higher after anakinra treatment. These results support the concept of involvement of IL-1β in the (progressive) decrease of insulin secretion...

  2. No evidence for genome-wide interactions on plasma fibrinogen by smoking, alcohol consumption and body mass index : Results from meta-analyses of 80,607 subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Baumert (Jens); J. Huang (Jian); B. McKnight (Barbara); M. Sabater-Lleal (Maria); M. Steri (Maristella); A.Y. Chu (Audrey); S. Trompet (Stella); Lopez, L.M. (Lorna M.); Fornage, M. (Myriam); A. Teumer (Alexander); W. Tang (Weihong); A.R. Rudnicka (Alicja); A. Mälarstig (Anders); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); M. Kavousi (Maryam); J. Lahti (Jari); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); C. Hayward (Caroline); J.E. Huffman (Jennifer); P.-E. Morange (P.); L.M. Rose (Lynda); S. Basu (Saonli); A. Rumley (Ann); D.J. Stott (David. J.); B.M. Buckley (Brendan M.); A.J. de Craen (Anton); S. Sanna (Serena); G. Masala (Giovanna); R. Biffar (Reiner); G. Homuth (Georg); A. Silveira (Angela); B. Sennblad (Bengt); A. Goel (Anuj); H. Watkins (Hugh); M. Müller-Nurasyid (Martina); Rückerl, R. (Regina); K.D. Taylor (Kent); Chen, M.-H. (Ming-Huei); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); A. Hofman (Albert); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); M.P.M. de Maat (Moniek); A. Palotie (Aarno); G. Davies (Gail); D.S. Siscovick (David); I. Kolcic (Ivana); S.H. Wild (Sarah); Song, J. (Jaejoon); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); I. Ford (Ian); N. Sattar (Naveed); D. Schlessinger (David); A. Grotevendt (Anne); M. Franzosi; Illig, T. (Thomas); M. Waldenberger (Melanie); T. Lumley (Thomas); G.H. Tofler (Geoffrey); G.A.H.M. Willemsen (Gonneke); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); K. Räikkönen (Katri); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); A.R. Folsom (Aaron); G.D.O. Lowe (Gordon); R.G.J. Westendorp (Rudi); P.E. Slagboom (Eline); F. Cucca (Francesco); H. Wallaschofski (Henri); R.J. Strawbridge (Rona); U. Seedorf (Udo); W. Koenig (Wolfgang); J.C. Bis (Joshua); K. Mukamal (Kenneth); Van Dongen, J. (Jenny); E. Widen (Elisabeth); O.H. Franco (Oscar); J.M. Starr (John); K.Y. Liu; L. Ferrucci (Luigi); O. Polasek (Ozren); J.F. Wilson (James F); T. Oudot-Mellakh (Tiphaine); H. Campbell (Harry); P. Navarro (Pau); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); Eriksson, J. (Johan); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); A. Dehghan (Abbas); R. Clarke (Robert); A. Hamsten (Anders); Boerwinkle, E. (Eric); J.W. Jukema (Jan Wouter); S. Naitza (Silvia); P.M. Ridker (Paul); H. Völzke (Henry); Deary, I.J. (Ian J.); A. Reiner (Alexander); D.-A. Tregouet (David-Alexandre); C.J. O'Donnell (Christopher); D.P. Strachan (David); A. Peters (Annette); Smith, N.L. (Nicholas L.)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractPlasma fibrinogen is an acute phase protein playing an important role in the blood coagulation cascade having strong associations with smoking, alcohol consumption and body mass index (BMI). Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a variety of gene regions associated with

  3. Ovarian response and cumulative live birth rate of women undergoing in-vitro fertilisation who had discordant anti-Mullerian hormone and antral follicle count measurements: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hang Wun Raymond; Lee, Vivian Chi Yan; Lau, Estella Yee Lan; Yeung, William Shu Biu; Ho, Pak Chung; Ng, Ernest Hung Yu

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate ovarian response and cumulative live birth rate of women undergoing in-vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment who had discordant baseline serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) level and antral follicle count (AFC). This is a retrospective cohort study on 1,046 women undergoing the first IVF cycle in Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong. Subjects receiving standard IVF treatment with the GnRH agonist long protocol were classified according to their quartiles of baseline AMH and AFC measurements after GnRH agonist down-regulation and before commencing ovarian stimulation. The number of retrieved oocytes, ovarian sensitivity index (OSI) and cumulative live-birth rate for each classification category were compared. Among our studied subjects, 32.2% were discordant in their AMH and AFC quartiles. Among them, those having higher AMH within the same AFC quartile had higher number of retrieved oocytes and cumulative live-birth rate. Subjects discordant in AMH and AFC had intermediate OSI which differed significantly compared to those concordant in AMH and AFC on either end. OSI of those discordant in AMH and AFC did not differ significantly whether either AMH or AFC quartile was higher than the other. When AMH and AFC are discordant, the ovarian responsiveness is intermediate between that when both are concordant on either end. Women having higher AMH within the same AFC quartile had higher number of retrieved oocytes and cumulative live-birth rate.

  4. Cumulative social disadvantage and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Laurie J; Silver, Ellen J; Stein, Ruth E K

    2006-04-01

    Disparities in child health are a major public health concern. However, it is unclear whether these are predominantly the result of low income, race, or other social risk factors that may contribute to their health disadvantage. Although others have examined the effects of the accumulation of risk factors, this methodology has not been applied to child health. We tested 4 social risk factors (poverty, minority race/ethnicity, low parental education, and not living with both biological parents) to assess whether they have cumulative effects on child health and examined whether access to health care reduced health disparities. We analyzed data on 57,553 children low parental education, and single-parent household) were consistently associated with child health. These were summed, generating the Social Disadvantage Index (range: 0-3). A total of 43.6% of children had no social disadvantages, 30.8% had 1, 15.6% had 2, and 10.0% had all 3. Compared with those with no social disadvantages, the odds ratios (ORs) of being in "good, fair, or poor health" (versus "excellent or very good") were 1.95 for 1 risk, 3.22 for 2 risks, and 4.06 for 3 risks. ORs of having a chronic condition increased from 1.25 (1 risk) to 1.60 (2 risks) to 2.11 (3 risks). ORs for activity limitation were 1.51 (1 risk) to 2.14 (2 risks) and 2.88 (3 risks). Controlling for health insurance did not affect these findings. The accumulation of social disadvantage among children was strongly associated with poorer child health and having insurance did not reduce the observed health disparities.

  5. Nonlinear cumulative damage model for multiaxial fatigue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG De-guang; SUN Guo-qin; DENG Jing; YAN Chu-liang

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of the continuum fatigue damage theory,a nonlinear uniaxial fatigue cumulative damage model is first proposed.In order to describe multiaxial fatigue damage characteristics,a nonlinear multiaxial fatigue cumulative damage model is developed based on the critical plane approach,The proposed model can consider the multiaxial fatigue limit,mean hydrostatic pressure and the unseparated characteristic for the damage variables and loading parameters.The recurrence formula of fatigue damage model was derived under multilevel loading,which is used to predict multiaxial fatigue life.The results showed that the proposed nonlinear multiaxial fatigue cumulative damage model is better than Miner's rule.

  6. INDEXING AND INDEX FUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAKAN SARITAŞ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Proponents of the efficient market hypothesis believe that active portfolio management is largely wasted effort and unlikely to justify the expenses incurred. Therefore, they advocate a passive investment strategy that makes no attempt to outsmart the market. One common strategy for passive management is indexing where a fund is designed to replicate the performance of a broad-based index of stocks and bonds. Traditionally, indexing was used by institutional investors, but today, the use of index funds proliferated among individual investors. Over the years, both international and domestic index funds have disproportionately outperformed the market more than the actively managed funds have.

  7. Cumulative cultural learning: Development and diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legare, Cristine H

    2017-07-24

    The complexity and variability of human culture is unmatched by any other species. Humans live in culturally constructed niches filled with artifacts, skills, beliefs, and practices that have been inherited, accumulated, and modified over generations. A causal account of the complexity of human culture must explain its distinguishing characteristics: It is cumulative and highly variable within and across populations. I propose that the psychological adaptations supporting cumulative cultural transmission are universal but are sufficiently flexible to support the acquisition of highly variable behavioral repertoires. This paper describes variation in the transmission practices (teaching) and acquisition strategies (imitation) that support cumulative cultural learning in childhood. Examining flexibility and variation in caregiver socialization and children's learning extends our understanding of evolution in living systems by providing insight into the psychological foundations of cumulative cultural transmission-the cornerstone of human cultural diversity.

  8. Calculating Cumulative Binomial-Distribution Probabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuer, Ernest M.; Bowerman, Paul N.

    1989-01-01

    Cumulative-binomial computer program, CUMBIN, one of set of three programs, calculates cumulative binomial probability distributions for arbitrary inputs. CUMBIN, NEWTONP (NPO-17556), and CROSSER (NPO-17557), used independently of one another. Reliabilities and availabilities of k-out-of-n systems analyzed. Used by statisticians and users of statistical procedures, test planners, designers, and numerical analysts. Used for calculations of reliability and availability. Program written in C.

  9. WOMAC Osteoarthritis Index--additional dimensions for use in subjects with post-traumatic osteoarthritis of the knee. Western Ontario and MacMaster Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Ewa M.; Roos, H P; Lohmander, L S

    1999-01-01

    To compare the sensitivity of WOMAC and the two added dimensions Sport and Recreation Function and Knee Related Quality of Life in subjects with radiographic knee OA to that in controls. To study the influence of age on the reported outcomes....

  10. Investigation of the changes in the positions of upper and lower incisors, overjet, overbite, and irregularity index in subjects with different depths of curve of Spee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baydaş, Bülent; Yavuz, Ibrahim; Atasaral, Nesrin; Ceylan, Ismail; Dağsuyu, Ilhan Metin

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the depth of the curve of Spee and positions of upper and lower incisors, overjet, overbite, and anterior lower crowding. The material consisted of lateral head films and dental casts of 137 untreated adolescent subjects, 76 girls and 61 boys, aged 13 to 16 years. The subjects were divided into three groups with normal Spee, flat Spee, and deep Spee and were compared with one another. Differences between the Spee groups and between sexes were assessed by means of analysis of variance and a post hoc multiple comparison test. In addition, correlation coefficients between the depth of curve of Spee and other variables were calculated. Finally, cephalometric measurements for all subjects were subjected to a multiple regression analysis, with the depth of curve of Spee as the dependent variable. The results showed that there were no statistically significant differences in the positions of upper and lower incisors and anterior lower crowding among the Spee groups. However, overjet and overbite demonstrated significant differences among the groups. Statistically significant correlations were found between the depth of curve of Spee and overjet and overbite. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that chronological age and all other variables used in the study could account for only 28.7% of the total variance of the curve of Spee. The overbite alone explained 17.3% of the total variance of the curvature.

  11. Cumulative cultural evolution: the role of teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Laureano; Toro, Miguel A

    2014-04-21

    In humans, cultural transmission occurs usually by cumulative inheritance, generating complex adaptive behavioral features. Cumulative culture requires key psychological processes (fundamentally imitation and teaching) that are absent or impoverished in non-human primates. In this paper we analyze the role that teaching has played in human cumulative cultural evolution. We assume that a system of cumulative culture generates increasingly adaptive behaviors, that are also more complex and difficult to imitate. Our thesis is that, as cultural traits become more complex, cumulative cultural transmission requires teaching to ensure accurate transmission from one generation to the next. In an increasingly complex cultural environment, we consider that individuals commit errors in imitation. We develop a model of cumulative cultural evolution in a changing environment and show that these errors hamper the process of cultural accumulation. We also show that a system of teaching between parents and offspring that increases the fidelity of imitation unblocks the accumulation and becomes adaptive whenever the gain in fitness compensates the cost of teaching.

  12. Human cumulative culture: a comparative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Lewis G; Vale, Gill L; Laland, Kevin N; Flynn, Emma; Kendal, Rachel L

    2014-05-01

    Many animals exhibit social learning and behavioural traditions, but human culture exhibits unparalleled complexity and diversity, and is unambiguously cumulative in character. These similarities and differences have spawned a debate over whether animal traditions and human culture are reliant on homologous or analogous psychological processes. Human cumulative culture combines high-fidelity transmission of cultural knowledge with beneficial modifications to generate a 'ratcheting' in technological complexity, leading to the development of traits far more complex than one individual could invent alone. Claims have been made for cumulative culture in several species of animals, including chimpanzees, orangutans and New Caledonian crows, but these remain contentious. Whilst initial work on the topic of cumulative culture was largely theoretical, employing mathematical methods developed by population biologists, in recent years researchers from a wide range of disciplines, including psychology, biology, economics, biological anthropology, linguistics and archaeology, have turned their attention to the experimental investigation of cumulative culture. We review this literature, highlighting advances made in understanding the underlying processes of cumulative culture and emphasising areas of agreement and disagreement amongst investigators in separate fields.

  13. A Microfilm Index to "Chemical Abstracts"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, F.

    1973-01-01

    To improve access to the recent Chemical Abstracts,'' a cumulative quarterly index, based on the keyword phrases, has been produced in microfilm form. The index is available soon after the end of each quarter. Abstract titles are included in the index, thus increasing its value as a working tool. (4 references) (Author/SJ)

  14. Index and Indexing Assessment: Criteria and Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ashrafi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Indexing is one of the most important methods of content representation where by assigning descriptors to the documents, their subject content are made known. Since index and indexing are remarkably significant in information retrieval, its quality and evaluation and provision of criteria and standards had always been the mainstay of researchers in this field. Given the fact that Indexing is a complex process, offering definitions, principles and methods could be step towards optimal use of the information. The present study, while offering a capsule definition of index, will investigate the indexing evaluation criteria and would follow it up with a definition of indexing. Finally a number of standards in the field of indexing are presented and would make its conclusions.

  15. Predicting Cumulative Incidence Probability by Direct Binomial Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas H.; Zhang, Mei-Jie

    Binomial modelling; cumulative incidence probability; cause-specific hazards; subdistribution hazard......Binomial modelling; cumulative incidence probability; cause-specific hazards; subdistribution hazard...

  16. Mapping breast cancer blood flow index, composition, and metabolism in a human subject using combined diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging and diffuse correlation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdi, Hossein S.; O'Sullivan, Thomas D.; Leproux, Anais; Hill, Brian; Durkin, Amanda; Telep, Seraphim; Lam, Jesse; Yazdi, Siavash S.; Police, Alice M.; Carroll, Robert M.; Combs, Freddie J.; Strömberg, Tomas; Yodh, Arjun G.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2017-04-01

    Diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging (DOSI) and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) are model-based near-infrared (NIR) methods that measure tissue optical properties (broadband absorption, μa, and reduced scattering, μs‧) and blood flow (blood flow index, BFI), respectively. DOSI-derived μa values are used to determine composition by calculating the tissue concentration of oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin (HbO2, HbR), water, and lipid. We developed and evaluated a combined, coregistered DOSI/DCS handheld probe for mapping and imaging these parameters. We show that uncertainties of 0.3 mm-1 (37%) in μs‧ and 0.003 mm-1 (33%) in μa lead to ˜53% and 9% errors in BFI, respectively. DOSI/DCS imaging of a solid tissue-simulating flow phantom and a breast cancer patient reveals well-defined spatial distributions of BFI and composition that clearly delineates both the flow channel and the tumor. BFI reconstructed with DOSI-corrected μa and μs‧ values had a tumor/normal contrast of 2.7, 50% higher than the contrast using commonly assumed fixed optical properties. In conclusion, spatially coregistered imaging of DOSI and DCS enhances intrinsic tumor contrast and information content. This is particularly important for imaging diseased tissues where there are significant spatial variations in μa and μs‧ as well as potential uncoupling between flow and metabolism.

  17. The impact of cumulative family risks on various levels of food insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Daphne C

    2015-03-01

    The study uses the Fragile Families and Child Well-being Study (N=2025) to examine the relationship between four cumulative family risk indices and refined measures of food hardship: marginal food security, low food security, and very low food security. Regression analyses indicate that cumulative family risk indices are useful in differentiating various levels of food insecurity. Specifically, the maternal poor health and risky health behaviors index is pertinent for distinguishing (1) food insecure from marginal food secure households and (2) very low food secure from low food secure households. In addition, the financial strain index is pertinent for differentiating between marginal food secure families from food secure families among non-poor households. Connecting food assistance programs with established social services may decrease the negative impact that cumulative family-level risk factors have on families' varying levels of food insecurity.

  18. Cumulative Culture and Future Thinking: Is Mental Time Travel a Prerequisite to Cumulative Cultural Evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, G. L.; Flynn, E. G.; Kendal, R. L.

    2012-01-01

    Cumulative culture denotes the, arguably, human capacity to build on the cultural behaviors of one's predecessors, allowing increases in cultural complexity to occur such that many of our cultural artifacts, products and technologies have progressed beyond what a single individual could invent alone. This process of cumulative cultural evolution…

  19. A study on the physical fitness index, heart rate and blood pressure in different phases of lunar month on male human subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Ujjwal; Ghosh, Tusharkanti

    2013-09-01

    The gravitational pull of the moon on the earth is not the same in all phases of the lunar month, i.e. new moon (NM), first quarter (FQ), full moon (FM) and third quarter (TQ), and as a result the amplitude of tide differs in different phases. The gravitational pull of the moon may have effects on the fluid compartments of the human body and hence the cardiovascular system may be affected differentially in the different phases of the lunar month. In the present study resting heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP), physical fitness index (PFI), peak HR and BP immediately after step test, and recovery HR and BP after step test were measured during different phases of the lunar month in 76 male university students (age 23.7 ± 1.7 years). At rest, both systolic and mean arterial BP were ˜5 mmHg lower in NM and FM compared to FQ and TQ, but resting HR was not significantly different between phases. Further, peak HR and peak systolic BP after step test were lower (˜4 beat/min and ˜5 mmHg, respectively) in NM and FM compared to FQ and TQ. PFI was also higher (˜5) in NM and FM compared to FQ and TQ. Recovery of HR after step test was quicker in NM and FM compared to that of FQ and TQ. It appears from this study that gravitational pull of the moon may affect the cardiovascular functions of the human body. Moreover, the physical efficiency of humans is increased in NM and FM due to these altered cardiovascular regulations.

  20. A study on the physical fitness index, heart rate and blood pressure in different phases of lunar month on male human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Ujjwal; Ghosh, Tusharkanti

    2013-09-01

    The gravitational pull of the moon on the earth is not the same in all phases of the lunar month, i.e. new moon (NM), first quarter (FQ), full moon (FM) and third quarter (TQ), and as a result the amplitude of tide differs in different phases. The gravitational pull of the moon may have effects on the fluid compartments of the human body and hence the cardiovascular system may be affected differentially in the different phases of the lunar month. In the present study resting heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP), physical fitness index (PFI), peak HR and BP immediately after step test, and recovery HR and BP after step test were measured during different phases of the lunar month in 76 male university students (age 23.7 ± 1.7 years). At rest, both systolic and mean arterial BP were ∼5 mmHg lower in NM and FM compared to FQ and TQ, but resting HR was not significantly different between phases. Further, peak HR and peak systolic BP after step test were lower (∼4 beat/min and ∼5 mmHg, respectively) in NM and FM compared to FQ and TQ. PFI was also higher (∼5) in NM and FM compared to FQ and TQ. Recovery of HR after step test was quicker in NM and FM compared to that of FQ and TQ. It appears from this study that gravitational pull of the moon may affect the cardiovascular functions of the human body. Moreover, the physical efficiency of humans is increased in NM and FM due to these altered cardiovascular regulations.

  1. Gender disparities among the association between cumulative family-level stress & adolescent weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Daphne C; Pressler, Emily

    2015-04-01

    To investigate precursors to gender-related obesity disparities by examining multiple family-level stress indices. Analyses was based on adolescents born between 1975 and 1991 to women from the 1979 National Longitudinal Study of Youth data set (N=4762). Three types of family-level stressors were captured from birth to age 15: family disruption and conflict, financial strain, and maternal risky health behaviors, along with a total cumulative risk index. Body mass index was constructed on reference criteria for children outlined by the Centers for Disease Control. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted for the three types of family stressors and for the total cumulative index. The accumulation of family disruption and conflict and financial stress was positively related to female adolescents being overweight/obese. Childhood exposure to maternal risky health behaviors was positively associated with higher weight status for male adolescents. Total cumulative stress was related to overweight/obesity for females, but not males. Different family-level stress indices are associated with the weight status of female and male adolescents. Combining types of family-level stress into one cumulative index appears to mask these differences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cumulative Risk and Teacher Well-Being in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Sharon; Torrente, Catalina; McCoy, Marissa; Rasheed, Damira; Aber, J. Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Remarkably little systematic research has examined the living and working conditions for teachers in sub-Saharan Africa and how such conditions predict teacher well-being. This study assesses how various risks across several domains of teachers' lives--measured as a "cumulative risk index"--predict motivation, burnout, and job…

  3. Waist circumference vs body mass index in association with cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy men and women: a cross sectional analysis of 403 subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagan Shiri Sherf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Body mass index (BMI is more commonly used than waist circumference as a measure of adiposity in clinical and research settings. The purpose of this study was to compare the associations of BMI and waist circumference with cardiorespiratory fitness. Methods In a cross-sectional study of 403 healthy men and women aged 50 ± 8.8 years, BMI and waist circumference were measured. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed from estimated maximal O2 uptake (VO2max, as calculated from a maximal fitness test. Results Mean BMI (kg/m2 was 27.8 ± 3.7 and 25.5 ± 4.6; and mean waist circumference (cm 94.1 ± 9.7 and 84.3 ± 10.4 for men and women, respectively. Both men and women reported an average of 2.5 hours of weekly sports related physical activity, and 18% were current smokers. Correlation coefficients between both BMI and waist circumference, and VO2max were statistically significant in men (r = −0.280 and r = −0.377, respectively, p > 0.05 for both and in women (r = −0.514 and r = −0.491, respectively, p > 0.05 for both. In women, the contribution of BMI to the level of VO2max in a regression model was greater, while in men waist circumference contributed more to the final model. In these models, age, hours of training per week, and weekly caloric expenditure in sport activity, significantly associated with VO2max, while smoking did not. Conclusion The differences observed between the sexes in the associations of BMI and waist circumference with VO2max support the clinical use of both obesity measures for assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness.

  4. The relationship between the activates of antioxidant enzymes in red blood cells and body mass index in Iranian type 2 diabetes and healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taheri Ehsaneh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by increased production of free radicals and oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione reductase (GR, and glutathione peroxide (GSH-PX in type 2 diabetic patients compared with healthy subjects. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 100 type 2 diabetic patients and 100 healthy controls. Total antioxidant capacity and fasting serum levels of SOD, GR, and GSH-Px were measured. All data were analyzed using SPSS software compatible with Microsoft Windows. Results The activity levels of SOD were lower in diabetic patients (111.93 ± 354.99 U/g Hb than in healthy controls (1158.53 ± 381.21 U/g Hb, but this was not significant. Activity levels of GSH-PX and GR in diabetics (62.33 ± 36.29 and 7.17 ± 5.51 U/g Hb, respectively were higher than in controls (24.62 ± 11.2 and 3.16 ± 2.95 U/g Hb, respectively. The statistical difference in enzyme activity of both GSH-Px and GR was significant (P Conclusion The increasing production of free radicals and changes in activity levels of antioxidant enzymes in order to scavenge free radicals and/or the effect of diabetes on the activity levels of antioxidant enzymes has an important effect on diabetic complications and insulin resistance. Evaluation of the levels of antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant factors in patients at different stages of the disease, and pharmaceutical and nutritional interventions, can be helpful in reducing oxidative stress in type 2 diabetic patients. There were positive relationship between BMI and the activity of antioxidant enzymes including SOD, GR and GPX in both groups.

  5. Is cumulated pyrethroid exposure associated with prediabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Rune; Jørs, Erik; Lander, Flemming;

    2014-01-01

    , cumulative exposure) was assessed from questionnaire data. Participants were asked about symptoms of diabetes. Blood samples were analyzed for glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), a measure of glucose regulation. No association was found between pyrethroid exposure and diabetes symptoms. The prevalence...

  6. Cumulative Disadvantage among the Highly Ambitious.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Katherine

    1990-01-01

    Using a social reproduction theory framework, analyzes the process by which high school seniors aspiring to high-level positions are sorted out after graduation. Analyzes early educational attainments and changes in occupational expectations. Shows a process of cumulative disadvantage in which White males are more likely to achieve their goals.…

  7. Pavlovian conditioning and cumulative reinforcement rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Justin A; Patterson, Angela E; Gharaei, Saba

    2015-04-01

    In 5 experiments using delay conditioning of magazine approach with rats, reinforcement rate was varied either by manipulating the mean interval between onset of the conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US) or by manipulating the proportion of CS presentations that ended with the US (trial-based reinforcement rate). Both manipulations influenced the acquisition of responding. In each experiment, a specific comparison was made between 2 CSs that differed in their mean CS-US interval and in their trial-based reinforcement rate, such that the cumulative reinforcement rate-the cumulative duration of the CS between reinforcements-was the same for the 2 CSs. For example, a CS reinforced on 100% of trials with a mean CS-US interval of 60 s was compared with a CS reinforced on 33% of trials and a mean duration of 20 s. Across the 5 experiments, conditioning was virtually identical for the 2 CSs with matched cumulative reinforcement rate. This was true as long as the timing of the US was unpredictable and, thus, response rates were uniform across the length of the CS. We conclude that the effects of CS-US interval and of trial-based reinforcement rate are reducible entirely to their common effect on cumulative reinforcement rate. We discuss the implications of this for rate-based, trial-based, and real-time associative models of conditioning.

  8. An Axiomatization of Cumulative Prospect Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, P.P.; Tversky, A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a method for axiomatizing a variety of models for decision making under uncertainty, including Expected Utility and Cumulative Prospect Theory. This method identifies, for each model, the situations that permit consistent inferences about the ordering of value differences. Exampl

  9. Cumulative Disadvantage among the Highly Ambitious.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Katherine

    1990-01-01

    Using a social reproduction theory framework, analyzes the process by which high school seniors aspiring to high-level positions are sorted out after graduation. Analyzes early educational attainments and changes in occupational expectations. Shows a process of cumulative disadvantage in which White males are more likely to achieve their goals.…

  10. Some Matters Needing Attention in Subject Headings ’ Indexing of the Books Published in the Period of the Republic of China%民国时期图书主题词标引应注意的问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓菊; 侯薇

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT:In the period of Republic of China, the information record of books’ publication and distribution was not standardized, making the subject headings’ indexing become a difficulty in bibliographic data description of the books published in the period of Republic of China. Taking the historical materials and relevant legislations about the books’ publication and distribution in the period of Republic of China as the bases, and in the light of the contents and features of the books published in the period of Republic of China, this paper probes into some matters needing attention in subject headings’ indexing of the books published in the period of Republic of China by using some relevant instances, and puts forward some corresponding solutions.%民国时期图书出版发行信息记载不规范,使得主题词标引成为民国图书书目数据著录工作的难点。以民国时期出版发行史料和相关立法为依据,针对民国图书的内容特点,以相关实例探讨了民国时期图书主题词标引应注意的问题,提出了相应的解决方法。

  11. Cumulative human threats on fish biodiversity components in Tunisian waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. BEN RAIS LASRAM

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Human activities are increasingly impacting biodiversity. To improve conservation planning measures in an ecosystem-based management context, we need to explore how the effects of these activities interact with different biodiversity components. In this study, we used a semi-quantitative method to assess the cumulative impacts of human activities on three biodiversity components (species richness, phylogenetic diversity, and functional diversity in Tunisia’s exclusive economic zone. For each of the nine activities considered, we developed an understanding of their effects from local studies and the expert opinion of stakeholders with country-specific experience. We mapped the cumulative effects and the three biodiversity components and then assessed the degree to which these elements overlapped using an overlap index. This is the first time such an assessment has been made for Tunisia’s marine ecosystems and our assessment highlight the inappropriateness of current conservation measures. The results of this study have specific application for the prioritization of future management actions.

  12. Cumulative human threats on fish biodiversity components in Tunisian waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. BEN RAIS LASRAM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Human activities are increasingly impacting biodiversity. To improve conservation planning measures in an ecosystem-based management context, we need to explore how the effects of these activities interact with different biodiversity components. In this study, we used a semi-quantitative method to assess the cumulative impacts of human activities on three biodiversity components (species richness, phylogenetic diversity, and functional diversity in Tunisia’s exclusive economic zone. For each of the nine activities considered, we developed an understanding of their effects from local studies and the expert opinion of stakeholders with country-specific experience. We mapped the cumulative effects and the three biodiversity components and then assessed the degree to which these elements overlapped using an overlap index. This is the first time such an assessment has been made for Tunisia’s marine ecosystems and our assessment highlight the inappropriateness of current conservation measures. The results of this study have specific application for the prioritization of future management actions.

  13. Cumulative dietary exposure of the population of Denmark to pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Nielsen, Elsa; Christensen, Tue; Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Andersen, Jens Hinge

    2015-09-01

    We used the Hazard Index (HI) method to carry out a cumulative risk assessment after chronic dietary exposure to all monitored pesticides in fruit, vegetables and cereals for various consumer groups in Denmark. Residue data for all the pesticides were obtained from the Danish monitoring programme during the period 2004-2011. Food consumption data were obtained from DANSDA (the DAnish National Survey of Diet and physical Activity) for the period 2005-2008. The calculations were made using three different models to cope with residues below the limit of reporting (LOR). We concluded that a model that included processing factors and set non-detects to ½ LOR, but limited the correction (Model 3), gave the most realistic exposure estimate. With Model 3 the HI was calculated to be 0.44 for children and 0.18 for adults, indicating that there is no risk of adverse health effects following chronic cumulative exposure to the pesticides found in fruit, vegetables and cereals on the Danish market. The HI was below 1 even for consumers who eat more than 550 g of fruit and vegetables per day, corresponding to 1/3 of the population. Choosing Danish-produced commodities whenever possible could reduce the HI by a factor of 2.

  14. Assessing environmental impacts on stream water quality: the use of cumulative flux and cumulative flux difference approaches to deforestation of the Hafren Forest, mid-Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Neal

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for examining the impacts of disturbance on stream water quality based on paired catchment “controlâ€? and “responseâ€? water quality time series is described in relation to diagrams of cumulative flux and cumulative flux difference. The paper describes the equations used and illustrates the patterns expected for idealised flux changes followed by an application to stream water quality data for a spruce forested catchment, the Hore, subjected to clear fell. The water quality determinands examined are sodium, chloride, nitrate, calcium and acid neutralisation capacity. The anticipated effects of felling are shown in relation to reduction in mist capture and nitrate release with felling as well as to the influence of weathering and cation exchange mechanisms, but in a much clearer way than observed previously using other approaches. Keywords: Plynlimon, stream, Hore, acid neutralisation capacity, calcium, chloride, nitrate, sodium, cumulative flux, flux

  15. Cumulative incidence of youth obesity is associated with low cardiorespiratory fitness levels and with maternal overweight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Reis Gaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This longitudinal study evaluated the association between the incidence of youth overweight/obesity (Ow/Ob and low levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF over 4 years and youths' and their parents' demographic and nutritional characteristics. The randomized sample comprised 398 youth, aged 7-17 years at baseline, from a city in southern Brazil. Subjects were classified as being Ow/Ob according to international body mass index (BMI parameters. Parental weight and height were determined by direct questioning. Youth CRF was measured by a 9-minute walk-and-run test. The cumulative incidences of Ow/Ob and of low CRF levels were 25.1% and 20.5%, respectively. Relative to other youth, youth who were classified as "unhealthy" at baseline (with respect to CRF and by the fourth year were more likely to be classified as Ow/Ob (relative risks: 1.12 and 1.10, respectively. Youth whose mothers were categorized as Ow/Ob were at higher risk of being classified as Ow/Ob than youth whose mothers had normal BMIs (relative risks: 1.19 at baseline and 1.20 in the fourth year. The incidence of Ow/Ob among the former youth was associated with low CRF levels and with maternal Ob.

  16. Complexity and demographic explanations of cumulative culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Querbes

    Full Text Available Formal models have linked prehistoric and historical instances of technological change (e.g., the Upper Paleolithic transition, cultural loss in Holocene Tasmania, scientific progress since the late nineteenth century to demographic change. According to these models, cumulation of technological complexity is inhibited by decreasing--while favoured by increasing--population levels. Here we show that these findings are contingent on how complexity is defined: demography plays a much more limited role in sustaining cumulative culture in case formal models deploy Herbert Simon's definition of complexity rather than the particular definitions of complexity hitherto assumed. Given that currently available empirical evidence doesn't afford discriminating proper from improper definitions of complexity, our robustness analyses put into question the force of recent demographic explanations of particular episodes of cultural change.

  17. Avoiding Program-Induced Cumulative Overload (PICO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Robin; Knapik, Joseph J; Pope, Rodney

    2016-01-01

    This article defines the concept of program-induced cumulative overload (PICO), provides examples, and advises ways to mitigate the adverse effects. PICO is the excessive cumulative physical workload that can be imparted to military personnel by a military training program with an embedded physical training component. PICO can be acute (accumulating within a single day) or chronic (accumulating across the entirety of the program) and results in adverse outcomes for affected personnel, including detrimental fatigue, performance degradation, injuries, or illness. Strategies to mitigate PICO include focusing administration and logistic practices during the development and ongoing management of a trainee program and implementing known musculoskeletal injury prevention strategies. More training is not always better, and trainers need to consider the total amount of physical activity that military personnel experience across both operational training and physical training if PICO is to be mitigated.

  18. Sharing a quota on cumulative carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raupach, Michael R.; Davis, Steven J.; Peters, Glen P.; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Ciais, Philippe; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Jotzo, Frank; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Le Quéré, Corinne

    2014-10-01

    Any limit on future global warming is associated with a quota on cumulative global CO2 emissions. We translate this global carbon quota to regional and national scales, on a spectrum of sharing principles that extends from continuation of the present distribution of emissions to an equal per-capita distribution of cumulative emissions. A blend of these endpoints emerges as the most viable option. For a carbon quota consistent with a 2 °C warming limit (relative to pre-industrial levels), the necessary long-term mitigation rates are very challenging (typically over 5% per year), both because of strong limits on future emissions from the global carbon quota and also the likely short-term persistence in emissions growth in many regions.

  19. Structural Vibration Monitoring Using Cumulative Spectral Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Goto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a resonance decay estimation for structural health monitoring in the presence of nonstationary vibrations. In structural health monitoring, the structure's frequency response and resonant decay characteristics are very important for understanding how the structure changes. Cumulative spectral analysis (CSA estimates the frequency decay by using the impulse response. However, measuring the impulse response of buildings is impractical due to the need to shake the building itself. In a previous study, we reported on system damping monitoring using cumulative harmonic analysis (CHA, which is based on CSA. The current study describes scale model experiments on estimating the hidden resonance decay under non-stationary noise conditions by using CSA for structural condition monitoring.

  20. Cumulative carbon emissions and the Green Paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Ploeg, Frederick Van der

    2013-01-01

    The green paradox states that a gradually more ambitious climate policy such as a renewables subsidy or an anticipated carbon tax induces fossil fuel owners to extract more rapidly and accelerate global warming. However, if extraction becomes more costly as reserves are depleted, such policies also shorten the fossil fuel era, induce more fossil fuel to be left in the earth, and thus curb cumulative carbon emissions. These consequences are relevant, as global warming depends primarily on cumu...

  1. Expansive Soil Crack Depth under Cumulative Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei-xiao Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The crack developing depth is a key problem to slope stability of the expansive soil and its project governance and the crack appears under the roles of dry-wet cycle and gradually develops. It is believed from the analysis that, because of its own cohesion, the expansive soil will have a certain amount of deformation under pulling stress but without cracks. The soil body will crack only when the deformation exceeds the ultimate tensile strain that causes cracks. And it is also believed that, due to the combined effect of various environmental factors, particularly changes of the internal water content, the inherent basic physical properties of expansive soil are weakened, and irreversible cumulative damages are eventually formed, resulting in the development of expansive soil cracks in depth. Starting from the perspective of volumetric strain that is caused by water loss, considering the influences of water loss rate and dry-wet cycle on crack developing depth, the crack developing depth calculation model which considers the water loss rate and the cumulative damages is established. Both the proposal of water loss rate and the application of cumulative damage theory to the expansive soil crack development problems try to avoid difficulties in matrix suction measurement, which will surely play a good role in promoting and improving the research of unsaturated expansive soil.

  2. EPA Workshop on Epigenetics and Cumulative Risk ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agenda Download the Workshop Agenda (PDF) The workshop included presentations and discussions by scientific experts pertaining to three topics (i.e., epigenetic changes associated with diverse stressors, key science considerations in understanding epigenetic changes, and practical application of epigenetic tools to address cumulative risks from environmental stressors), to address several questions under each topic, and included an opportunity for attendees to participate in break-out groups, provide comments and ask questions. Workshop Goals The workshop seeks to examine the opportunity for use of aggregate epigenetic change as an indicator in cumulative risk assessment for populations exposed to multiple stressors that affect epigenetic status. Epigenetic changes are specific molecular changes around DNA that alter expression of genes. Epigenetic changes include DNA methylation, formation of histone adducts, and changes in micro RNAs. Research today indicates that epigenetic changes are involved in many chronic diseases (cancer, cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, mental health disorders, and asthma). Research has also linked a wide range of stressors including pollution and social factors with occurrence of epigenetic alterations. Epigenetic changes have the potential to reflect impacts of risk factors across multiple stages of life. Only recently receiving attention is the nexus between the factors of cumulative exposure to environmental

  3. Modeling the Relationships Among Late-Life Body Mass Index, Cerebrovascular Disease, and Alzheimer's Disease Neuropathology in an Autopsy Sample of 1,421 Subjects from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center Data Set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alosco, Michael L; Duskin, Jonathan; Besser, Lilah M; Martin, Brett; Chaisson, Christine E; Gunstad, John; Kowall, Neil W; McKee, Ann C; Stern, Robert A; Tripodis, Yorghos

    2017-03-13

    The relationship between late-life body mass index (BMI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) is poorly understood due to the lack of research in samples with autopsy-confirmed AD neuropathology (ADNP). The role of cerebrovascular disease (CVD) in the interplay between late-life BMI and ADNP is unclear. We conducted a retrospective longitudinal investigation and used joint modeling of linear mixed effects to investigate causal relationships among repeated antemortem BMI measurements, CVD (quantified neuropathologically), and ADNP in an autopsy sample of subjects across the AD clinical continuum. The sample included 1,421 subjects from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center's Uniform Data Set and Neuropathology Data Set with diagnoses of normal cognition (NC; n = 234), mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n = 201), or AD dementia (n = 986). ADNP was defined as moderate to frequent neuritic plaques and Braak stageIII-VI. Ischemic Injury Scale (IIS) operationalized CVD. Joint modeling examined relationships among BMI, IIS, and ADNP in the overall sample and stratified by initial visit Clinical Dementia Rating score. Subject-specific random intercept for BMI was the predictor for ADNP due to minimal BMI change (p = 0.3028). Analyses controlling for demographic variables and APOE ɛ4 showed lower late-life BMI predicted increased odds of ADNP in the overall sample (p < 0.001), and in subjects with CDR of 0 (p = 0.0021) and 0.5 (p = 0.0012), but not ≥1.0 (p = 0.2012). Although higher IIS predicted greater odds of ADNP (p < 0.0001), BMI did not predict IIS (p = 0.2814). The current findings confirm lower late-life BMI confers increased odds for ADNP. Lower late-life BMI may be a preclinical indicator of underlying ADNP.

  4. Case Study of Local Damage Indicators for a 2-Bay, 6-Storey RC-Frame subject to Earthquakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjærbæk, P. S.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    A simulation study of a 2-bay, 6storey model test RC-frame(scale 1:5) subject to earthquakes is considered in this paper. Based on measured (simulated) storey accelerations and ground surface accelerations several indices for the storey damage, including interstorey drift, flexural damage ratios......, normalized cumulative dissipated energy, Park and Ang's indicator, a low-cycle fatigue damage index and a recently proposed local softening damage index estimated from time-varying eigenfrequencies are used to evaluate the damage state of the structure after the earthquake. Storey displacements are obtained...

  5. Case Study of Local Damage Indicators for a 2-Bay, 6-Storey RC-Frame subject to Earthquakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjærbæk, P. S.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    1997-01-01

    A simulation study of a 2-bay, 6storey model test RC-frame(scale 1:5) subject to earthquakes is considered in this paper. Based on measured (simulated) storey accelerations and ground surface accelerations several indices for the storey damage, including interstorey drift, flexural damage ratios......, normalized cumulative dissipated energy, Park and Ang's indicator, a low-cycle fatigue damage index and a recently proposed local softening damage index estimated from time-varying eigenfrequencies are used to evaluate the damage state of the structure after the earthquake. Storey displacements are obtained...

  6. Cumulative Stress and Cortisol Disruption among Black and Hispanic Pregnant Women in an Urban Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suglia, Shakira Franco; Staudenmayer, John; Cohen, Sheldon; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2010-01-01

    While adult hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis functioning is thought to be altered by traumatic experiences, little data exist on the effects of cumulative stress on HPA functioning among pregnant women or among specific racial and ethnic groups. Individuals may be increasingly vulnerable to physiological alterations when experiencing cumulative effects of multiple stressors. These effects may be particularly relevant in urban poor communities where exposure to multiple stressors is more prevalent. The goal of this study was to explore the effects of multiple social stressors on HPA axis functioning in a sample of urban Black (n = 68) and Hispanic (n = 132) pregnant women enrolled in the Asthma Coalition on Community, Environment, and Social Stress (ACCESS). Pregnant women were administered the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (R-CTS) survey to assess interpersonal violence, the Experiences of Discrimination (EOD) survey, the Crisis in Family Systems-Revised (CRISYS-R) negative life events survey, and the My Exposure to Violence (ETV) survey, which ascertains exposure to community violence. A cumulative stress measure was derived from these instruments. Salivary cortisol samples were collected five times per day over three days to assess area under the curve (AUC), morning change, and basal awakening response in order to characterize diurnal salivary cortisol patterns. Repeated measures mixed models, stratified by race/ethnicity, were performed adjusting for education level, age, smoking status, body mass index and weeks pregnant at time of cortisol sampling. The majority of Hispanic participants (57%) had low cumulative stress exposure, while the majority of Black participants had intermediate (35%) or high (41%) cumulative stress exposure. Results showed that among Black but not Hispanic women, cumulative stress was associated with lower morning cortisol levels, including a flatter waking to bedtime rhythm. These analyses suggest that the combined

  7. Cumulative Stress and Cortisol Disruption among Black and Hispanic Pregnant Women in an Urban Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suglia, Shakira Franco; Staudenmayer, John; Cohen, Sheldon; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Wright, Rosalind J

    2010-12-01

    While adult hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis functioning is thought to be altered by traumatic experiences, little data exist on the effects of cumulative stress on HPA functioning among pregnant women or among specific racial and ethnic groups. Individuals may be increasingly vulnerable to physiological alterations when experiencing cumulative effects of multiple stressors. These effects may be particularly relevant in urban poor communities where exposure to multiple stressors is more prevalent. The goal of this study was to explore the effects of multiple social stressors on HPA axis functioning in a sample of urban Black (n = 68) and Hispanic (n = 132) pregnant women enrolled in the Asthma Coalition on Community, Environment, and Social Stress (ACCESS). Pregnant women were administered the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (R-CTS) survey to assess interpersonal violence, the Experiences of Discrimination (EOD) survey, the Crisis in Family Systems-Revised (CRISYS-R) negative life events survey, and the My Exposure to Violence (ETV) survey, which ascertains exposure to community violence. A cumulative stress measure was derived from these instruments. Salivary cortisol samples were collected five times per day over three days to assess area under the curve (AUC), morning change, and basal awakening response in order to characterize diurnal salivary cortisol patterns. Repeated measures mixed models, stratified by race/ethnicity, were performed adjusting for education level, age, smoking status, body mass index and weeks pregnant at time of cortisol sampling. The majority of Hispanic participants (57%) had low cumulative stress exposure, while the majority of Black participants had intermediate (35%) or high (41%) cumulative stress exposure. Results showed that among Black but not Hispanic women, cumulative stress was associated with lower morning cortisol levels, including a flatter waking to bedtime rhythm. These analyses suggest that the combined

  8. Cumulative risks of foster care placement for Danish children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fallesen, Peter; Emanuel, Natalia; Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Although recent research suggests that the cumulative risk of foster care placement is far higher for American children than originally suspected, little is known about the cumulative risk of foster...

  9. Recursive Numerical Evaluation of the Cumulative Bivariate Normal Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Christian

    2010-01-01

    We propose an algorithm for evaluation of the cumulative bivariate normal distribution, building upon Marsaglia's ideas for evaluation of the cumulative univariate normal distribution. The algorithm is mathematically transparent, delivers competitive performance and can easily be extended to arbitrary precision.

  10. Climate mitigation: sustainable preferences and cumulative carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckle, Simon

    2010-05-01

    We develop a stylized AK growth model with both climate damages to ecosystem goods and services and sustainable preferences that allow trade-offs between present discounted utility and long-run climate damages. The simplicity of the model permits analytical solutions. Concern for the long-term provides a strong driver for mitigation action. One plausible specification of sustainable preferences leads to the result that, for a range of initial parameter values, an optimizing agent would choose a level of cumulative carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions independent of initial production capital endowment and CO2 levels. There is no technological change so, for economies with sufficiently high initial capital and CO2 endowments, optimal mitigation will lead to disinvestment. For lower values of initial capital and/or CO2 levels, positive investment can be optimal, but still within the same overall level of cumulative emissions. One striking aspect of the model is the complexity of possible outcomes, in addition to these optimal solutions. We also identify a resource constrained region and several regions where climate damages exceed resources available for consumption. Other specifications of sustainable preferences are discussed, as is the case of a hard constraint on long-run damages. Scientists are currently highlighting the potential importance of the cumulative carbon emissions concept as a robust yet flexible target for climate policymakers. This paper shows that it also has an ethical interpretation: it embodies an implicit trade off in global welfare between present discounted welfare and long-term climate damages. We hope that further development of the ideas presented here might contribute to the research and policy debate on the critical areas of intra- and intergenerational welfare.

  11. Long and Short Term Cumulative Structural Priming Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Kaschak, Michael P.; Kutta, Timothy J.; Coyle, Jacqueline M.

    2012-01-01

    We present six experiments that examine cumulative structural priming effects (i.e., structural priming effects that accumulate across many utterances). Of particular interest is whether (1) cumulative priming effects transfer across language production tasks and (2) the transfer of cumulative priming effects across tasks persists over the course of a week. Our data suggest that cumulative structural priming effects do transfer across language production tasks (e.g., from written stem complet...

  12. Preserved cumulative semantic interference despite amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Michael Oppenheim

    2015-05-01

    As predicted by Oppenheim et al’s (2010 implicit incremental learning account, WRP’s BCN RTs demonstrated strong (and significant repetition priming and semantic blocking effects (Figure 1. Similar to typical results from neurally intact undergraduates, WRP took longer to name pictures presented in semantically homogeneous blocks than in heterogeneous blocks, an effect that increased with each cycle. This result challenges accounts that ascribe cumulative semantic interference in this task to explicit memory mechanisms, instead suggesting that the effect has the sort of implicit learning bases that are typically spared in hippocampal amnesia.

  13. Cumulant matching for independent source extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phlypo, Ronald; Zarzoso, Vicente; Comon, Pierre; Lemahieu, Ignace

    2008-01-01

    In this work we show how one can make use of priors on signal statistics under the form of cumulant guesses to extract an independent source from an observed mixture. The advantage of using statistical priors on the signal lies in the fact that no specific knowledge is needed about its temporal behavior, neither about its spatial distribution. We show that these statistics can be obtained either by reasoning on the theoretical values of a supposed waveform, either by using a subset of the observations from which we know that their statistics are merely hindered by interferences. Results on an electro-cardiographic recording confirm the above assumptions.

  14. A Missing Link in the Evolution of the Cumulative Recorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Toshio; Lattal, Kennon A.

    2012-01-01

    A recently recovered cumulative recorder provides a missing link in the evolution of the cumulative recorder from a modified kymograph to a reliably operating, scientifically and commercially successful instrument. The recorder, the only physical evidence of such an early precommercial cumulative recorder yet found, was sent to Keio University in…

  15. Original and cumulative prospect theory: a discussion of empirical differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P. Wakker; H. Fennema

    1997-01-01

    This note discusses differences between prospect theory and cumulative prospect theory. It shows that cumulative prospect theory is not merely a formal correction of some theoretical problems in prospect theory, but it also gives different predictions. Experiments are described that favor cumulative

  16. Cumulative Environmental Management Association : Wood Buffalo Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friesen, B. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    The recently announced oil sands development of the Wood Buffalo Region in Alberta was the focus of this power point presentation. Both mining and in situ development is expected to total $26 billion and 2.6 million barrels per day of bitumen production. This paper described the economic, social and environmental challenges facing the resource development of this region. In addition to the proposed oil sands projects, this region will accommodate the needs of conventional oil and gas production, forestry, building of pipelines and power lines, municipal development, recreation, tourism, mining exploration and open cast mining. The Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA) was inaugurated as a non-profit association in April 2000, and includes 41 members from all sectors. Its major role is to ensure a sustainable ecosystem and to avoid any cumulative impacts on wildlife. Other work underway includes the study of soil and plant species diversity, and the effects of air emissions on human health, wildlife and vegetation. The bioaccumulation of heavy metals and their impacts on surface water and fish is also under consideration to ensure the quality and quantity of surface water and ground water. 3 figs.

  17. Cumulative environmental management and the oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    In response to concerns regarding the cumulative environmental impacts of oil sands development within the Athabasca oil sands deposit, the government of Alberta established a Regional Sustainable Development Strategy (RSDS) to balance development with environmental protection. The environmental issues identified through the RSDS were addressed by the Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA). CEMA's boundary is the Wood Buffalo region of northeastern Alberta. It identifies existing and future environmental effects in the region and proposes recommendations to regulatory bodies for reducing environmental impacts associated with oil sands development. This presentation outlined some of the 55 stakeholder representatives of CEMA, including Alberta government departments associated with resource development, oil sand developers within the region, and Aboriginal communities and First Nations. These stakeholders provide input on sector priorities and agree on environmental thresholds. Established working groups also address technical and scientific research issues identified in the RSDS such as sustainable ecosystems; surface waters; trace metals and air contaminants; nitrogen oxides and sulphur dioxides; and land reclamation. To date, CEMA has submitted more than 50 reports and has made 4 major environmental recommendations for trace metal management, ecosystem management tools, a framework for acid deposition management, and a landscape design checklist. tabs., figs.

  18. Higher Order Cumulants in Colorless Partonic Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Cherif, S; Ladrem, M

    2016-01-01

    Any physical system considered to study the QCD deconfinement phase transition certainly has a finite volume, so the finite size effects are inevitably present. This renders the location of the phase transition and the determination of its order as an extremely difficult task, even in the simplest known cases. In order to identify and locate the colorless QCD deconfinement transition point in finite volume $T_{0}(V)$, a new approach based on the finite-size cumulant expansion of the order parameter and the $\\mathscr{L}_{m,n}$-Method is used.We have shown that both cumulants of higher order and their ratios, associated to the thermodynamical fluctuations of the order parameter, in QCD deconfinement phase transition behave in a particular enough way revealing pronounced oscillations in the transition region. The sign structure and the oscillatory behavior of these in the vicinity of the deconfinement phase transition point might be a sensitive probe and may allow one to elucidate their relation to the QCD phase...

  19. Innovativeness, population size and cumulative cultural evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yutaka; Aoki, Kenichi

    2012-08-01

    Henrich [Henrich, J., 2004. Demography and cultural evolution: how adaptive cultural processes can produce maladaptive losses-the Tasmanian case. Am. Antiquity 69, 197-214] proposed a model designed to show that larger population size facilitates cumulative cultural evolution toward higher skill levels. In this model, each newborn attempts to imitate the most highly skilled individual of the parental generation by directly-biased social learning, but the skill level he/she acquires deviates probabilistically from that of the exemplar (cultural parent). The probability that the skill level of the imitator exceeds that of the exemplar can be regarded as the innovation rate. After reformulating Henrich's model rigorously, we introduce an overlapping-generations analog based on the Moran model and derive an approximate formula for the expected change per generation of the highest skill level in the population. For large population size, our overlapping-generations model predicts a much larger effect of population size than Henrich's discrete-generations model. We then investigate by way of Monte Carlo simulations the case where each newborn chooses as his/her exemplar the most highly skilled individual from among a limited number of acquaintances. When the number of acquaintances is small relative to the population size, we find that a change in the innovation rate contributes more than a proportional change in population size to the cumulative cultural evolution of skill level.

  20. Indexing Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Edie M.

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on access to digital image collections by means of manual and automatic indexing. Contains six sections: (1) Studies of Image Systems and their Use; (2) Approaches to Indexing Images; (3) Image Attributes; (4) Concept-Based Indexing; (5) Content-Based Indexing; and (6) Browsing in Image Retrieval. Contains 105 references. (AEF)

  1. The almost sure behavior of the oscillation modulus for PL-process and cumulative hazard process under random censorship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周勇[1; 孙六全[2; Paul; S.F.YIP[3

    1999-01-01

    The local behavior of oscillation modulus of the product-limit (PL) process and the cumulative hazard process is investigated when the data are subjected to random censoring. Laws of the iterated logarithm of local oscillation modulus for the PL-process and the cumulative hazard process are established. Some of these results are applied to obtain the almost sure best rates of convergence for various types of density estimators as well as the Bahadur-Kiefer type process.

  2. Increased gut hormones and insulin sensitivity index following a 3-d intervention with a barley kernel-based product: a randomised cross-over study in healthy middle-aged subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Anne C; Johansson-Boll, Elin V; Björck, Inger M E

    2015-09-28

    Certain purified indigestible carbohydrates such as inulin have been shown to stimulate gut-derived hormones involved in glycaemic regulation and appetite regulation, and to counteract systemic inflammation through a gut microbiota-mediated mechanism. Less is known about the properties of indigestible carbohydrates intrinsic to food. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility to affect release of endogenous gut hormones and ameliorate appetite control and glycaemic control by ingestion of a whole-grain cereal food product rich in NSP and resistant starch in healthy humans. In all, twenty middle-aged subjects were provided with a barley kernel-based bread (BB) or a reference white wheat bread during 3 consecutive days, respectively, in a randomised cross-over design study. At a standardised breakfast the following day (day 4), blood was collected for the analysis of blood (b) glucose regulation, gastrointestinal hormones, markers of inflammation and markers of colonic fermentation; 3 d of intervention with BB increased gut hormones in plasma (p) the next morning at fasting (p-glucagon-like peptide-1; 56%) and postprandially (p-glucagon-like peptide-2; 13% and p-peptide YY; 18%). Breath H₂ excretion and fasting serum (s) SCFA concentrations were increased (363 and 18%, respectively), and b-glucose (22%) and s-insulin responses (17%) were decreased after BB intervention. Insulin sensitivity index (ISI(composite)) was also improved (25%) after BB. In conclusion, 3 d of intervention with BB increased systemic levels of gut hormones involved in appetite regulation, metabolic control and maintenance of gut barrier function, as well as improved markers of glucose homoeostasis in middle-aged subjects, altogether relevant for the prevention of obesity and the metabolic syndrome.

  3. Assessing the cumulative environmental effects of marine renewable energy developments: Establishing common ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willsteed, Edward; Gill, Andrew B; Birchenough, Silvana N R; Jude, Simon

    2017-01-15

    Assessing and managing the cumulative impacts of human activities on the environment remains a major challenge to sustainable development. This challenge is highlighted by the worldwide expansion of marine renewable energy developments (MREDs) in areas already subject to multiple activities and climate change. Cumulative effects assessments in theory provide decision makers with adequate information about how the environment will respond to the incremental effects of licensed activities and are a legal requirement in many nations. In practise, however, such assessments are beset by uncertainties resulting in substantial delays during the licensing process that reduce MRED investor confidence and limit progress towards meeting climate change targets. In light of these targets and ambitions to manage the marine environment sustainably, reducing the uncertainty surrounding MRED effects and cumulative effects assessment are timely and vital. This review investigates the origins and evolution of cumulative effects assessment to identify why the multitude of approaches and pertinent research have emerged, and discusses key considerations and challenges relevant to assessing the cumulative effects of MREDs and other activities on ecosystems. The review recommends a shift away from the current reliance on disparate environmental impact assessments and limited strategic environmental assessments, and a move towards establishing a common system of coordinated data and research relative to ecologically meaningful areas, focussed on the needs of decision makers tasked with protecting and conserving marine ecosystems and services.

  4. Ion cumulation by conical cathode electrolysis.

    CERN Document Server

    Grishin, V G

    2002-01-01

    Results of solid-state sodium stearate electrolysis with conical and cylindrical cathodes is presented here. Both electric measurement and conical samples destruction can be explained if a stress developing inside the conical sample is much bigger than in the cylindrical case and there is its unlimited amplification along cone slopes. OTHER KEYWORDS: ion, current, solid, symmetry, cumulation, polarization, depolarization, ionic conductor,superionic conductor, ice, crystal, strain, V-center, V-centre, doped crystal, interstitial impurity, intrinsic color center, high pressure technology, Bridgman, anvil, experiment, crowdion, dielectric, proton, layer, defect, lattice, dynamics, electromigration, mobility, muon catalysis, concentration, doping, dopant, conductivity, pycnonuclear reaction, permittivity, dielectric constant, point defects, interstitials, polarizability, imperfection, defect centers, glass, epitaxy, sodium hydroxide, metallic substrate, crystallization, point, tip, susceptibility, ferroelectric, ...

  5. [Cumulative trauma disorders: work or professional disease?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Marcus Vitor Diniz; Cavalcanti, Francisco Ivo Dantas; Soriano, Evelyne Pessoa; de Miranda, Hênio Ferreira

    2009-06-01

    This study aimed at reviewing the Brazilian legislation applied to occupational health. It refers to the diseases embodied in the Repetition Strain Injury (RSI) and Cumulative Trauma Disorders (CTD) regarded as work or professional diseases. This analysis allowed to perform the historical evolution of legislation concerning the issue, noting that the state of the art of regulation on RSI-CTD is anchored in specific regulation present in the Normative Instruction 98/2003, that establishes the diagnostic criteria and classification of RSI-CTD. It was concluded that according to the existing legislation in Brazil, the pathologies related to RSI-CTD are considered as work diseases and their legal effects are similar to the work-related accidents.

  6. NEW CONCEPTS IN INDEXING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHANK, R

    1965-07-01

    Recent trends in indexing emphasize mechanical, not intellectual, developments. Mechanized operations have produced indexes in depth (1) of information on limited areas of science or (2) utilizing limited parameters for analysis. These indexes may include only citations or both useful data and citations of source literature. Both keyword-in-context and citation indexing seem to be passing the test of the marketplace. Mechanical equipment has also been successfully used to manipulate EAM cards for production of index copy. Information centers are increasingly being used as control devices in narrowly defined subject areas. Authors meet growing pressures to participate in information control work by preparing abstracts of their own articles. Mechanized image systems persist, although large systems are scarce and the many small systems may bring only limited relief for information control and retrieval problems. Experimentation and limited development continue on theory and technique of automatic indexing and abstracting.

  7. CUMULATIVE IMPACT OF YOGA PRACTICE ON QUALITY OF LI FE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Rani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted with two main objec tives. First it aims to experiment whether the ancient system of yoga can bring about change in the quality of life of its practitioners. The second objective was to study the cumulative im pact of yoga practice on Quality of Life. The study was conducted on four independent groups of y oga practitioners that varied in their length of experience in yoga practice. The first group compri sed of 76 subjects (49 male and 27 female with a mean age of 39 years (SD=9.8. All the participan ts in this group are novice practitioners. They have participated in the study immediately after th eir admission into yoga class. The second group comprised of 23 subjects (14 male and 9 female wit h a mean age of 34.2 years (SD= 11.07. Their length of experience in yoga practice is 3 months. The third group comprised of 18 subjects (11male and 7 female with a mean age of 33.83 year s (SD=9.33. Their length of experience in yoga practice is six months. The fourth group comprised of 17 subjects (11 male and 6 female with a mean age of 32.8 years (SD=9.5. Their length exper ience is 12 months. All the four independent groups were administered a questionnaire on Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF. The results on QOL gave scores on to tal quality of life and separate scores on Domain 1 (dealing with physical health Domain 2 (d ealing with psychological aspects, Domain 3 (dealing with social relationships and Domain 4 (d ealing with environmental aspects.

  8. A validation of a posture matching approach for the determination of 3D cumulative back loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Chad A; Albert, Wayne J; Wrigley, Allan T; Callaghan, Jack P

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this project was to investigate the amount of error in calculating cumulative lumbar spine kinetics using a posture matching approach (3DMatch) compared to a 3D coordinate electromagnetic tracking approach (FASTRAK). Six subjects were required to perform five repeats each of two symmetrical and two asymmetrical lifts while being simultaneously recorded from 4 camera views at viewing angles of 0 degrees , 45 degrees , 60 degrees and 90 degrees to the sagittal plane while wearing eight FASTRAK sensors to define an 8 segment rigid link model (RLM) of the head, arms, and trunk. Four hundred and eighty lifts (6 subjects x20 lifts x4 camera views) were analyzed using the 3DMatch posture-matching program to calculate the following cumulative loads at the L4/L5 joint: compression, anterior shear, posterior shear, reaction shear and extension moment. The errors in cumulative load calculation were determined as the difference between the values calculated for the same lifts using a 3D RLM that used electromagnetic motion tracking sensors (FASTRAK) positioned at the segment center of masses as model inputs. No significant difference (pposture matching by trained users can provide reasonable 3D data to calculate cumulative low back loads with a biomechanical model.

  9. Determining prenatal, early childhood and cumulative long-term lead exposure using micro-spatial deciduous dentine levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Arora

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the validity of micro-spatial dentine lead (Pb levels as a biomarker for accurately estimating exposure timing over the prenatal and early childhood periods and long-term cumulative exposure to Pb. In a prospective pregnancy cohort sub-sample of 85 subjects, we compared dentine Pb levels measured using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with Pb concentrations in maternal blood collected in the second and third trimesters, maternal bone, umbilical cord blood, and childhood serial blood samples collected from the ages of 3 months to ≥6 years. We found that Pb levels (as 208Pb:43Ca in dentine formed at birth were significantly associated with cord blood Pb (Spearman ρ = 0.69; n = 27; p<0.0001. The association of prenatal dentine Pb with maternal patella Pb (Spearman ρ = 0.48; n = 59; p<0.0001 was stronger than that observed for tibia Pb levels (Spearman ρ = 0.35; n = 41; p<0.03. When assessing postnatal exposure, we found that Pb levels in dentine formed at 3 months were significantly associated with Pb concentrations in children's blood collected concurrently (Spearman ρ = 0.64; n = 55; p<0.0001. We also found that mean Pb concentrations in secondary dentine (that is formed from root completion to tooth shedding correlated positively with cumulative blood lead index (Spearman ρ = 0.38; n = 75; p<0.0007. Overall, our results support that micro-spatial measurements of Pb in dentine can be reliably used to reconstruct Pb exposure timing over the prenatal and early childhood periods, and secondary dentine holds the potential to estimate long-term exposure up to the time the tooth is shed.

  10. Predicting Academic Achievement from Cumulative Home Risk: The Mediating Roles of Effortful Control, Academic Relationships, and School Avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Jodi; Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Components of the home environment are associated with children's academic functioning. The accumulation of risks in the home are expected to prove more detrimental to achievement than any one risk alone, but the processes accounting for this relation are unclear. Using an index of cumulative home risk (CHR) inclusive of protective factors, as…

  11. Long and Short Term Cumulative Structural Priming Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaschak, Michael P; Kutta, Timothy J; Coyle, Jacqueline M

    We present six experiments that examine cumulative structural priming effects (i.e., structural priming effects that accumulate across many utterances). Of particular interest is whether (1) cumulative priming effects transfer across language production tasks and (2) the transfer of cumulative priming effects across tasks persists over the course of a week. Our data suggest that cumulative structural priming effects do transfer across language production tasks (e.g., from written stem completion to picture description, and from picture description to written stem completion), but only when both tasks are presented in the same experimental session. When cumulative priming effects are established in one task, and the second (changed) task is not presented until a week later, the cumulative priming effects are not observed.

  12. Why Veterinary Medical Educators Should Embrace Cumulative Final Exams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, Kenneth D

    2017-01-03

    The topic of cumulative final examinations often elicits polarizing opinions from veterinary medical educators. While some faculty prefer cumulative finals, there are many who perceive these types of examinations as problematic. Specifically, faculty often cite cumulative examinations are more likely to cause students' greater stress, which may in turn result in negative student evaluations of teaching. Cumulative finals also restrict the number of items one may present to students on most recent material. While these cited disadvantages may have some merit, the advantages of cumulative examinations far exceed the disadvantages. The purpose of this article is to discuss the advantages of cumulative examinations with respect to learning evidence, grade/score validity, fairness issues, and implications for academic policy.

  13. Cumulative effects of early poverty on cortisol in young children: moderation by autonomic nervous system activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Clancy; Berry, Daniel; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Granger, Douglas

    2013-11-01

    The relation of the cumulative experience of poverty in infancy and early childhood to child cortisol at age 48 months was examined in a prospective longitudinal sample of children and families (N=1292) in predominantly low-income and rural communities in two distinct regions of the United States. Families were seen in the home for data collection and cumulative experience of poverty was indexed by parent reported income-to-need ratio and household chaos measures collected between child ages 2 months and 48 months. For the analysis presented here, three saliva samples were also collected over an approximate 90 min interval at child age 48 months and were assayed for cortisol. ECG data were also collected during a resting period and during the administration of a mildly challenging battery of cognitive tasks. Mixed model analysis indicated that child cortisol at 48 months decreased significantly over the sampling time period and that cumulative time in poverty (number of years income-to-need less than or equal to 1) and cumulative household chaos were significantly related to a flatter trajectory for cortisol change and to an overall higher level of cortisol, respectively. Findings also indicated that respiratory sinus arrhythmia derived from the ECG data moderated the association between household chaos and child cortisol and that increase in respiratory sinus arrhythmia during the cognitive task was associated with an overall lower level of cortisol at 48 months.

  14. Analysis of experimental data on correlations between cumulative particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlasov, A.V.; Doroshkevich, E.A.; Leksin, G.A. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    Experimental data on correlations between cumulative particles are analyzed. A space-time and energy-transfer pattern of hadron-nucleus interaction based on both correlation data and data on the inclusive spectra of cumulative particles is considered. A new variable that is convenient for describing the production of cumulative particles is proposed using the concept of symmetry between the one-particle and multiparticle distributions. 32 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Comportamiento de proporciones divinas e índice de Bolton en mediciones dentales de individuos con maloclusión Behavior of "divine" proportions and the Bolton's index in dental measurements of subjects with malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Lorenzo Uribazo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Los pacientes acuden cada vez con más frecuencia a los servicios estomatológicos en busca de mejorar su aspecto estético. Uno de los métodos más polémicos para el examen de la estética lo constituyen aquellos que se basan en el empleo de la proporción divina, esto motivó a la realización de este trabajo. Se evaluó el comportamiento de las proporciones divinas en mediciones dentales de individuos con maloclusión, mediante el empleo del índice de Bolton. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal en estudiantes del segundo al quinto años de la Facultad de Estomatología de La Habana, Cuba, desde el mes de enero del año 2009 al mes de enero del año 2010. Se emplearon modelos de yeso pertenecientes a 80 estudiantes de 18 a 25 años de edad. Se efectuaron mediciones de los anchos mesiodistales de los dientes y se relacionaron algunas secciones de dientes donde se identificaron los que guardaron relación de proporción divina, según la variable oclusión. Los estudiantes que presentaron maloclusión se estudiaron según la variación del índice de Bolton. En los estudiantes con maloclusión el índice de Bolton que predominó fue a favor de un mayor tamaño de los dientes anteroinferiores, con rangos de proporción divina menores de 1,60.Patients came more and more frequently to Stomatology services to improve the esthetic feature. Among the more polemic methods for esthetics examination are those based on the use of divine proportion, leading to carrying out of present paper to assess the behavior of divine proportions in the dental measurements of subjects with malocclusion using the Bolton's index. A cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted in second to fifth years students of the Stomatology Faculty of La Habana from January, 2009 to January, 2010 using the plaster casts in 80 students aged 18 to 25. Measurements of the mesio-distal width of teeth relating some sections of them where were identified those en

  16. Analysis of Memory Codes and Cumulative Rehearsal in Observational Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, Albert; And Others

    1974-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of memory codes varying in meaningfulness and retrievability and cumulative rehearsal on retention of observationally learned responses over increasing temporal intervals. (Editor)

  17. Continuously Cumulating Meta-Analysis and Replicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braver, Sanford L; Thoemmes, Felix J; Rosenthal, Robert

    2014-05-01

    The current crisis in scientific psychology about whether our findings are irreproducible was presaged years ago by Tversky and Kahneman (1971), who noted that even sophisticated researchers believe in the fallacious Law of Small Numbers-erroneous intuitions about how imprecisely sample data reflect population phenomena. Combined with the low power of most current work, this often leads to the use of misleading criteria about whether an effect has replicated. Rosenthal (1990) suggested more appropriate criteria, here labeled the continuously cumulating meta-analytic (CCMA) approach. For example, a CCMA analysis on a replication attempt that does not reach significance might nonetheless provide more, not less, evidence that the effect is real. Alternatively, measures of heterogeneity might show that two studies that differ in whether they are significant might have only trivially different effect sizes. We present a nontechnical introduction to the CCMA framework (referencing relevant software), and then explain how it can be used to address aspects of replicability or more generally to assess quantitative evidence from numerous studies. We then present some examples and simulation results using the CCMA approach that show how the combination of evidence can yield improved results over the consideration of single studies.

  18. Guidebook/index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    The Guidebook/Index introduces information dealing with the general rationale for energy conservation and deals with some of the definitions and concepts common to each of the subjects covered in the series of 10 booklets. The master index for the series is presented. Subjects covered are saving money in heating, cooling, and lighting; in process design and heat recovery; through production optimization; through combustion control; through steam and compressed air management; in transportation and delivery; through efficient people moving; in office practices; and through employee motivation and participation.

  19. Eccentric connectivity index

    CERN Document Server

    Ilić, Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    The eccentric connectivity index $\\xi^c$ is a novel distance--based molecular structure descriptor that was recently used for mathematical modeling of biological activities of diverse nature. It is defined as $\\xi^c (G) = \\sum_{v \\in V (G)} deg (v) \\cdot \\epsilon (v)$\\,, where $deg (v)$ and $\\epsilon (v)$ denote the vertex degree and eccentricity of $v$\\,, respectively. We survey some mathematical properties of this index and furthermore support the use of eccentric connectivity index as topological structure descriptor. We present the extremal trees and unicyclic graphs with maximum and minimum eccentric connectivity index subject to the certain graph constraints. Sharp lower and asymptotic upper bound for all graphs are given and various connections with other important graph invariants are established. In addition, we present explicit formulae for the values of eccentric connectivity index for several families of composite graphs and designed a linear algorithm for calculating the eccentric connectivity in...

  20. Effect of vascular burden as measured by vascular indexes upon vascular dementia: a matched case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi PY

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Paul Y Takahashi, Casey R Caldwell, Paul V TargonskiPrimary Care Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester MN, USABackground: Vascular dementia (VaD is a challenging illness that affects the lives of older adults and caregivers. It is unclear how multiple vascular risk factor exposures (polyvascular disease affect VaD.Purpose: To determine the relationship between multiple vascular risk exposures, as counted on an index in cases with VaD, compared with healthy age-/gender-matched controls.Methods: This was a matched case-control study of subjects living in Olmsted County, MN with documented VaD. Controls were selected by gender and age within 3 years from those who did not have dementia. The exposures included a total index (eleven exposure factors added together, along with indexes for cerebrovascular disease (two exposures, cardiovascular disease (four exposures, vascular disease (three exposures, and lifestyle (two exposures. Analysis used matched conditional univariable logistic regression for each index.Results: A total of 1736 potential subjects were identified, and 205 subjects were diagnosed with VaD. There was a significant association of the total score index with an odds ratio of 1.45 (95% confidence interval 1.21–1.74. The cerebrovascular index was also associated with VaD with an odds ratio of 12.18 (95% confidence interval 6.29–23.61. The cardiovascular and vascular indexes were also associated with VaD status. The lifestyle index was not associated with VaD.Conclusion: The cumulative role of multiple vascular risk factors or diseases increased the risk of VaD, as noted by the total vascular index. The lifestyle index did not reveal any significant differences. Further work is required for evaluation of these indexes.Keywords: polyvascular disease, elderly, vascular dementia

  1. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to “outside” discriminatory organizations, ; 86.31(b)(7), (c) Assurances, ; 86.4 Duration of obligation, 86.4(b) Form, 86.4(c) Athletics, ; 86.41 Adjustment period, ; 86.41(d) Contact sport defined, 86..., see “Financial assistance” 86.37 and “Assistance to ‘outside’ discriminatory organizations”,...

  2. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... “Remedial and Affirmative Actions” Assistance to “outside” discriminatory organizations, ; 106.31(b) (7), (c..., ; 106.41(d) Contact sport defined, 106.41(d) Equal opportunity, ; 106.41(d) Determining factors, 106.41... “Financial assistance” 106.37 and “Assistance to ‘outside’ discriminatory organizations”,...

  3. An Assessment of Cumulative Axial and Torsional Fatigue in a Cobalt-Base Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalluri, Sreeramesh; Bonacuse, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Cumulative fatigue under axial and torsional loading conditions can include both load-order (higMow and low/high) as well as load-type sequence (axial/torsional and torsional/axial) effects. Previously reported experimental studies on a cobalt-base superalloy, Haynes 188 at 538 C, addressed these effects. These studies characterized the cumulative axial and torsional fatigue behavior under high amplitude followed by low amplitude (Kalluri, S. and Bonacuse, P. J., "Cumulative Axial and Torsional Fatigue: An Investigation of Load-Type Sequance Effects," in Multiaxial Fatigue and Deformation: Testing and Prediction, ASTM STP 1387, S. Kalluri, and P. J. Bonacuse, Eds., American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA, 2000, pp. 281-301) and low amplitude followed by high amplitude (Bonacuse, P. and Kalluri, S. "Sequenced Axial and Torsional Cumulative Fatigue: Low Amplitude Followed by High Amplitude Loading," Biaxial/Multiaxial Fatigue and Fracture, ESIS Publication 31, A. Carpinteri, M. De Freitas, and A. Spagnoli, Eds., Elsevier, New York, 2003, pp. 165-182) conditions. In both studies, experiments with the following four load-type sequences were performed: (a) axial/axial, (b) torsional/torsional, (c) axial/torsional, and (d) torsional/axial. In this paper, the cumulative axial and torsional fatigue data generated in the two previous studies are combined to generate a comprehensive cumulative fatigue database on both the load-order and load-type sequence effects. This comprehensive database is used to examine applicability of the Palmgren-langer-Miner linear damage rule and a nonlinear damage curve approach for Haynes 188 subjected to the load-order and load-type sequencing described above. Summations of life fractions from the experiments are compared to the predictions from both the linear and nonlinear cumulative fatigue damage approaches. The significance of load-order versus load-type sequence effects for axial and torsional loading conditions

  4. A Study and Model of Machine-Like Indexing Behavior by Human Indexers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Caryl

    Although a large part of a document retrieval system's resources are devoted to indexing, the question of how people do subject indexing has been the subject of much conjecture and only a little experimentation. This dissertation examines the relationships between a document being indexed and the index terms assigned to that document in an attempt…

  5. Ductility and Strength Reduction Factors for Degrading Structures Considering Cumulative Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edén Bojórquez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of cumulative damage on the strength requirements of degrading structures is assessed through the evaluation of the target ductility and corresponding strength reduction factors of simple degrading structures. While the reduction on ductility is established through the use of Park and Ang index, the suggestions given by Bojórquez and Rivera are used to model the degradation of the structural properties of the simple systems. Target ductilities and their corresponding reduced strength reduction factors are established for five sets of ground motions; most of them are recorded in California. The results given in this paper provide insight into all relevant parameters that should be considered during seismic design of earthquake-resistant structures. Finally, some recommendations to evaluate the effect of cumulative damage on seismic design are suggested.

  6. Probabilistic assessment of the cumulative dietary exposure of the population of Denmark to endocrine disrupting pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Christiansen, Sofie

    2013-01-01

    The four pesticides epoxiconazole, prochloraz, procymidone and tebuconazole, are commonly used pesticides, all suspected of acting as endocrine disrupters. In the present study, we assessed the acute cumulative dietary exposure to the women of child bearing age and the general population of Denmark...... to these pesticides from the intake of fruit and vegetables. The assessment was carried out using the probabilistic approach combined with the relative potency factor (RPF) approach. Residue data for prochloraz, procymidone, and tebuconazole were obtained from the Danish monitoring programme 2006–2009, while residue....... Prochloraz was used as the index compound. All four pesticides increased nipple retention in male offspring, and epoxiconazole, prochloraz, and tebuconazole also increased the gestation period in pregnant rat dams. For women of childbearing age, the high-end cumulative exposure (99.9th percentile...

  7. A Framework for Treating Cumulative Trauma with Art Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naff, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Cumulative trauma is relatively undocumented in art therapy practice, although there is growing evidence that art therapy provides distinct benefits for resolving various traumas. This qualitative study proposes an art therapy treatment framework for cumulative trauma derived from semi-structured interviews with three art therapists and artistic…

  8. Cumulative Effects of Human Activities on Marine Mammal Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Cumulative Effects of Human Activities on Marine Mammal ...marine mammals . OBJECTIVES The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine has convened a volunteer committee that will...Review the present scientific understanding of cumulative effects of anthropogenic stressors on marine mammals with a focus on anthropogenic sound

  9. A Framework for Treating Cumulative Trauma with Art Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naff, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Cumulative trauma is relatively undocumented in art therapy practice, although there is growing evidence that art therapy provides distinct benefits for resolving various traumas. This qualitative study proposes an art therapy treatment framework for cumulative trauma derived from semi-structured interviews with three art therapists and artistic…

  10. The Seemingly Quixotic Pursuit of a Cumulative Psychological Science: Introduction to the Special Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Patrick J.

    2009-01-01

    The following manuscript is the final accepted manuscript. It has not been subjected to the final copyediting, fact-checking, and proofreading required for formal publication. It is not the definitive, publisher-authenticated version. The American Psychological Association and its Council of Editors disclaim any responsibility or liabilities for errors or omissions of this manuscript version, any version derived from this manuscript by NIH, or other third parties. The published version is available at www.apa.org/journals/met. The goal of any empirical science is to pursue the construction of a cumulative base of knowledge upon which the future of the science may be built. However, there is mixed evidence that the science of psychology can accurately be characterized by such a cumulative progression. Indeed, some argue that the development of a truly cumulative psychological science is not possible using the current paradigms of hypothesis testing in single-study designs. The author explores this controversy as a framework to introduce the six papers that make up this special issue that is focused on the integration of data and empirical findings across multiple studies. The author proposes that the methods and techniques described in this set of papers can significantly propel us forward in our ongoing quest to build a cumulative psychological science. PMID:19485622

  11. The cumulative ash curve: a best tool to evaluate complete mill performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhare, Suresh D; Inamdar, Aashitosh A

    2014-04-01

    Slick test is carried out by a flour miller to qualitatively segregate the flour from different streams in a roller flour mill. This test is done manually by pressing flour samples on tray using thin bladed paddle (the slick) and inspecting color or dress of the sample. However, the test is subjective and totally depends on human judgment. Cumulative ash curve relates to cumulative flour ash content and cumulative flour yield, which could help a flour miller to be more precise while selecting flour streams for different needs. In this study, cleaning and conditioning of wheat was carried out in the pilot plant of International School of Milling Technology (ISMT). Further, roller flour milling of wheat was done. Flour from different streams (four breaks, five reductions) was collected. Each flour stream was analyzed for ash content using standard AACC methods. The analytical values of ash content were used to plot the cumulative ash curve. It was found that ash content increased in the break passages from first to last break, with exception of first break (ash content 0.71%). An increase in percentage of ash was observed in the reduction passages (C1 to C5), however, C3 ash (0.76%) was slightly higher than that of C4 (0.65%). Higher yield of flour with minimum ash content was obtained from the front reduction passages C1 and C2; whereas, the break passages and the tail end reduction passages produce less flour with higher ash content.

  12. Model-checking techniques based on cumulative residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, D Y; Wei, L J; Ying, Z

    2002-03-01

    Residuals have long been used for graphical and numerical examinations of the adequacy of regression models. Conventional residual analysis based on the plots of raw residuals or their smoothed curves is highly subjective, whereas most numerical goodness-of-fit tests provide little information about the nature of model misspecification. In this paper, we develop objective and informative model-checking techniques by taking the cumulative sums of residuals over certain coordinates (e.g., covariates or fitted values) or by considering some related aggregates of residuals, such as moving sums and moving averages. For a variety of statistical models and data structures, including generalized linear models with independent or dependent observations, the distributions of these stochastic processes tinder the assumed model can be approximated by the distributions of certain zero-mean Gaussian processes whose realizations can be easily generated by computer simulation. Each observed process can then be compared, both graphically and numerically, with a number of realizations from the Gaussian process. Such comparisons enable one to assess objectively whether a trend seen in a residual plot reflects model misspecification or natural variation. The proposed techniques are particularly useful in checking the functional form of a covariate and the link function. Illustrations with several medical studies are provided.

  13. Estimation of cumulative cadmium intake causing Itai-itai disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Takeya; Kobayashi, Etsuko; Suwazono, Yasushi; Uetani, Mirei; Oishi, Mitsuhiro; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Nogawa, Koji

    2005-11-15

    This study was undertaken to estimate the amount of cadmium (Cd) exposure needed for the development of Itai-itai disease. The investigated subjects comprised 82 Itai-itai disease patients and 11 persons requiring observation who were admitted in 1977 and 1978 for medical testing. With the period when the Itai-itai disease patients started to perceive leg/back pain defined as the 'mild disease onset', and the period when they experienced the most severe manifestations such as ambulatory disturbance and bone fractures defined as 'severe disease onset'. Relative cumulative person number distribution according to life time cadmium intake (LCD) at mild disease onset, severe disease onset, and time of death was depicted as an sigmoid curve and the establishment of probit regression lines was demonstrated between them. LCD at the time when mild disease onset and severe disease onset were recognized in half of the Itai-itai disease patients was 3.1 and 3.8 g, respectively. Furthermore, LCD at the time when mild disease onset and severe disease onset were recognized in 5% of the Itai-itai disease patients was calculated to be 2.6 and 3.3 g, respectively. The present results clarify that Itai-itai disease, the most severe stage of chronic Cd poisoning, occurs at levels of Cd consumption amounting to approximately three-fold of those currently seen in Japan.

  14. Lattice QCD results on cumulant ratios at freeze-out

    CERN Document Server

    Karsch, Frithjof

    2016-01-01

    Ratios of cumulants of net proton-number fluctuations measured by the STAR Collaboration show strong deviations from a skellam distribution, which should describe thermal properties of cumulant ratios, if proton-number fluctuations are generated in equilibrium and a hadron resonance gas (HRG) model would provide a suitable description of thermodynamics at the freeze-out temperature. We present some results on sixth order cumulants entering the calculation of the QCD equation of state at non-zero values of the baryon chemical potential (mu_B) and discuss limitations on the applicability of HRG thermodynamics deduced from a comparison between QCD and HRG model calculations of cumulants of conserved charge fluctuations. We show that basic features of the $\\mu_B$-dependence of skewness and kurtosis ratios of net proton-number fluctuations measured by the STAR Collaboration resemble those expected from a O(mu_B^2) QCD calculation of the corresponding net baryon-number cumulant ratios.

  15. Cumulative Weight Exposure Is Associated with Different Weight Loss Strategies and Weight Loss Success in Adults Age 50 or Above

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Sénéchal; Jana Slaght; Bouchard, Danielle R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate if cumulative weight exposure is associated with weight loss strategy choices and weight loss success. Methods. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used; a total of 4,562 people age 50 years or older who reported trying to lose weight in the last year were studied. Cumulative weight exposure (CWE) score was defined as the sum of body mass index points above 25 kg/m2 at the age of 25, 10 years ago, 1 year ago, and now. Weight loss strateg...

  16. AP Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Planetary Amplitude index - Bartels 1951. The a-index ranges from 0 to 400 and represents a K-value converted to a linear scale in gammas (nanoTeslas)--a scale that...

  17. Speech Indexing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordelman, R.J.F.; Jong, de F.M.G.; Leeuwen, van D.A.; Blanken, H.M.; de Vries, A.P.; Blok, H.E.; Feng, L.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter will focus on the automatic extraction of information from the speech in multimedia documents. This approach is often referred to as speech indexing and it can be regarded as a subfield of audio indexing that also incorporates for example the analysis of music and sounds. If the objecti

  18. Childhood Cumulative Risk and Later Allostatic Load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doan, Stacey N; Dich, Nadya; Evans, Gary W

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study investigated the long-term impact of exposure to poverty-related stressors during childhood on allostatic load, an index of physiological dysregulation, and the potential mediating role of substance use. Method: Participants (n = 162) were rural children from New York...... in health across the life span and of the mechanisms by which adverse childhood environments impact health as children emerge into early adulthood. This knowledge will have implications for early intervention efforts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)....

  19. Responsiveness of the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form in comparison to the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, modified Cincinnati Knee Rating System, and Short Form 36 in patients with focal articular cartilage defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Nicholas J; Anderson, Allen F; Mann, Barton J; Cole, Brian J; Farr, Jack; Nissen, Carl W; Irrgang, James J

    2010-05-01

    The International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form (IKDC SKF) is a patient-reported knee-specific outcome measure that has been shown to be a reliable, valid, and responsive measure for patients with a variety of knee conditions. Further testing is required to compare the reliability and responsiveness of the IKDC SKF to other commonly used patient-reported outcome measures for patients with articular cartilage lesions. The IKDC SKF has equal or better levels of reliability and responsiveness than the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), modified Cincinnati Knee Rating System (CKRS), and the Short Form 36 in patients with articular cartilage lesions. Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. Reliability was assessed by administering the 4 patient-reported outcome measures to 17 individuals who had undergone articular cartilage surgery 5 years before participation in this study. Responsiveness was determined by administering the 4 patient-reported outcome measures to 51 individuals with diagnosed focal articular cartilage defects who were scheduled to undergo surgical treatment. In both groups, the outcome measures were administered at baseline and at 6 and 12 months' follow-up. Participants also provided a global rating of change in comparison to baseline at the 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Test-retest reliability coefficients were 0.91 and 0.93 for the IKDC SKF at the 6- and 12-month follow-ups, respectively. The effect sizes and standardized response means were large (>0.80) at 6 months after surgery for the WOMAC pain, physical function, and total scores and 12 months after surgery for the IKDC SKF; WOMAC pain, physical function, and total; and CKRS scores. Six months after surgery, significant differences between those who were improved compared with those who were unchanged or worse were found only for the IKDC SKF. Twelve months after surgery, significant differences between the improved and unchanged

  20. A bivariate optimal replacement policy with cumulative repair cost limit under cumulative damage model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MIN-T SAI LAI; SHIH-CHIH CHEN

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a bivariate replacement policy (n, T) for a cumulative shock damage process is presented that included the concept of cumulative repair cost limit. The arrival shocks can be divided into two kinds of shocks. Each type-I shock causes a random amount of damage and these damages are additive. When the total damage exceeds a failure level, the system goes into serious failure. Type-II shock causes the system into minor failure and such a failure can be corrected by minimal repair. When a minor failure occurs, the repaircost will be evaluated and minimal repair is executed if the accumulated repair cost is less than a predetermined limit L. The system is replaced at scheduled time T, at n-th minor failure, or at serious failure. The long-term expected cost per unit time is derived using the expected costs as the optimality criterion. The minimum-cost policy is derived, and existence and uniqueness of the optimal n* and T* are proved. This bivariate optimal replacement policy (n, T) is showed to be better than the optimal T* and the optimal n* policy.

  1. Longhi Games, Internal Reservoirs, and Cumulate Porosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, S. A.

    2009-05-01

    Fe in plagioclase at an early age, T-rollers (or not) on the Di-Trid boundary in Fo-Di-Sil, the mantle solidus, origins of anorthosites, esoteric uses of Schreinemakers rules and many more topics are all fresh and pleasant memories of John Longhi's prolific and creative work. The Fram-Longhi experimental effect of pressure on plagioclase partitioning with liquid in mafic rocks became essential to an understanding of multiphase Rayleigh fractionation of plagioclase in big layered intrusions. Only by using the pressure effect could I find a good equation through the data for the Kiglapait intrusion, and that result among others required the existence with probability 1.0 of an internal reservoir (Morse, JPet 2008). Knowledge of cumulate porosity is a crucial key to the understanding of layered igneous rocks. We seek both the initial (inverse packing fraction) and residual porosity to find the time and process path from sedimentation to solidification. In the Kiglapait Lower Zone we have a robust estimate of mean residual porosity from the modes of the excluded phases augite, oxides, sulfide, and apatite. To this we apply the maximum variance of plagioclase composition (the An range) to find an algorithm that extends through the Upper Zone and to other intrusions. Of great importance is that all these measurements were made in grain mounts concentrated from typically about 200 g of core or hand specimen, hence the represented sample volume is thousands of times greater than for a thin section. The resulting distribution and scatter of the An range is novel and remarkable. It is V-shaped in the logarithmic representation of stratigraphic height, running from about 20 mole % at both ends (base to top of the Layered Series) to near-zero at 99 PCS. The intercept of the porosity-An range relation gives An range = 3.5 % at zero residual porosity. Petrographic analysis reveals that for PCS less than 95 and greater than 99.9, the An range is intrinsic, i.e. pre-cumulus, for

  2. Kitap İndeksleri / Book Indexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral Alakuş

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is a review of Book Indexes from a variety of points, which are in fact the oldest indexes used in the world. They are different than journal indexes and database indexes which are ongoing projects. Book indexes, on the other hand, are unique in their own frameworks, as each one is a completed and finished unit. Construction of book indexes, types of indexes (according to subject headings and proper names, synthesis and analytic methods; and formats of indexes (indented and run-in formats are described. There is a list of important conventions relating to book indexes at the end of the article

  3. Cumulative phase delay imaging - A new contrast enhanced ultrasound modality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demi, Libertario, E-mail: l.demi@tue.nl; Sloun, Ruud J. G. van; Mischi, Massimo [Lab. of Biomedical Diagnostics, Dept. of Electrical Eng., Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Wijkstra, Hessel [Lab. of Biomedical Diagnostics, Dept. of Electrical Eng., Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Academic Medical Center, Urology Dept., University of Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-10-28

    Recently, a new acoustic marker for ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) has been introduced. A cumulative phase delay (CPD) between the second harmonic and fundamental pressure wave field components is in fact observable for ultrasound propagating through UCAs. This phenomenon is absent in the case of tissue nonlinearity and is dependent on insonating pressure and frequency, UCA concentration, and propagation path length through UCAs. In this paper, ultrasound images based on this marker are presented. The ULA-OP research platform, in combination with a LA332 linear array probe (Esaote, Firenze Italy), were used to image a gelatin phantom containing a PVC plate (used as a reflector) and a cylindrical cavity measuring 7 mm in diameter (placed in between the observation point and the PVC plate). The cavity contained a 240 µL/L SonoVueO{sup ®} UCA concentration. Two insonating frequencies (3 MHz and 2.5 MHz) were used to scan the gelatine phantom. A mechanical index MI = 0.07, measured in water at the cavity location with a HGL-0400 hydrophone (Onda, Sunnyvale, CA), was utilized. Processing the ultrasound signals backscattered from the plate, ultrasound images were generated in a tomographic fashion using the filtered back-projection method. As already observed in previous studies, significantly higher CPD values are measured when imaging at a frequency of 2.5 MHz, as compared to imaging at 3 MHz. In conclusion, these results confirm the applicability of the discussed CPD as a marker for contrast imaging. Comparison with standard contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging modalities will be the focus of future work.

  4. Indexes to Nuclear Regulatory Commission Issuances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Digests and indexes for issuances of the Commission (CLI), the Atomic Safety and licensing Board Panel (LBP), the Administrative Law Judges (ALJ) the Directors` Decisions (DD), and the Decisions on Petitions for Rulemaking (DPRM) are presented in this document. These digests and indexes are intended to serve as a guide to the issuances. Information elements are displayed in one or more of five separate formats arranged as follows: Case Name Index; Headers and Digests; Legal Citations Index; Subject Index; and Facility Index.

  5. Indexing from thesauri to the semantic web

    CERN Document Server

    de Keyser, Piet

    2012-01-01

    Indexing consists of both novel and more traditional techniques. Cutting-edge indexing techniques, such as automatic indexing, ontologies, and topic maps, were developed independently of older techniques such as thesauri, but it is now recognized that these older methods also hold expertise. Indexing describes various traditional and novel indexing techniques, giving information professionals and students of library and information sciences a broad and comprehensible introduction to indexing. This title consists of twelve chapters: an Introduction to subject readings and theasauri; Automatic i

  6. Cumulative stress and autonomic dysregulation in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Rachel; Tuit, Keri; Hong, Kwang-Ik; Donovan, Theresa; Lee, Forrester; Sinha, Rajita

    2016-05-01

    Whether cumulative stress, including both chronic stress and adverse life events, is associated with decreased heart rate variability (HRV), a non-invasive measure of autonomic status which predicts poor cardiovascular outcomes, is unknown. Healthy community dwelling volunteers (N = 157, mean age 29 years) participated in the Cumulative Stress/Adversity Interview (CAI), a 140-item event interview measuring cumulative adversity including major life events, life trauma, recent life events and chronic stressors, and underwent 24-h ambulatory ECG monitoring. HRV was analyzed in the frequency domain and standard deviation of NN intervals (SDNN) calculated. Initial simple regression analyses revealed that total cumulative stress score, chronic stressors and cumulative adverse life events (CALE) were all inversely associated with ultra low-frequency (ULF), very low-frequency (VLF) and low-frequency (LF) power and SDNN (all p stress and chronic stress each was significantly associated with SDNN and ULF even after the highly significant contributions of age and sex, with no other covariates accounting for additional appreciable variance. For VLF and LF, both total cumulative stress and chronic stress significantly contributed to the variance alone but were not longer significant after adjusting for race and health behaviors. In summary, total cumulative stress, and its components of adverse life events and chronic stress were associated with decreased cardiac autonomic function as measured by HRV. Findings suggest one potential mechanism by which stress may exert adverse effects on mortality in healthy individuals. Primary preventive strategies including stress management may prove beneficial.

  7. AA Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The geomagnetic aa index provides a long climatology of global geomagnetic activity using 2 antipodal observatories at Greenwich and Melbourne- IAGA Bulletin 37,...

  8. Walkability Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Walkabiliy Index dataset characterizes every Census 2010 block group in the U.S. based on its relative walkability. Walkability depends upon characteristics of...

  9. Review of Cohesion in Indexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Ashrafi Rizi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Indexers often disagree on judging terms that best reflect the content of a document. Difference of opinion highlights one of the characteristics of indexing which is indexing cohesion. Also known as consistency, little study of the subject matter has been undertaken in the past few years. However, its importance has been recently acknowledged in effective information retrieval and expansion of access points to the document content. The present paper investigates cohesion in indexing. In addition of presenting the definitions offered by experts, it takes note of the factors influencing indexing cohesion. Methods for measuring cohesion are offered.

  10. Entanglement entropy and particle number cumulants of disordered fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmistrov, I. S.; Tikhonov, K. S.; Gornyi, I. V.; Mirlin, A. D.

    2017-08-01

    We study the entanglement entropy and particle number cumulants for a system of disordered noninteracting fermions in d dimensions. We show, both analytically and numerically, that for a weak disorder the entanglement entropy and the second cumulant (particle number variance) are proportional to each other with a universal coefficient. The corresponding expressions are analogous to those in the clean case but with a logarithmic factor regularized by the mean free path rather than by the system size. We also determine the scaling of higher cumulants by analytical (weak disorder) and numerical means. Finally, we predict that the particle number variance and the entanglement entropy are nonanalytic functions of disorder at the Anderson transition.

  11. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  12. Writing and the 'Subject'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Charlotte

    /page. It is, moreover, an index pointing to the painting/writing subject; it is a special deictic mode of painting/writing. The handwriting of the Russian avant-garde books, the poetics of handwriting, and the way handwriting is represented in poetry emphasize the way the subject (the speaking and the viewing....../reading subject) manifests itself in the material mark on the page. The study shows how this indexical reference to a ‘subject’ is manipulated and used as a mask through which a writer/painter can perform a certain ‘subject’. Through analyses of the various levels on which the ‘subject’ is represented...... in the early as well as the contemporary avant-garde, it becomes clear that the ‘subject’ is an unstable category that can be exposed to manipulation and play. Handwriting is performing as a signature (as an index), but is at the same time similar to the signature of a subject (an icon) and a verbal construct...

  13. Thermodynamic formula for the cumulant generating function of time-averaged current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Takahiro; Sasa, Shin-ichi

    2011-12-01

    The cumulant generating function of time-averaged current is studied from an operational viewpoint. Specifically, for interacting Brownian particles under nonequilibrium conditions, we show that the first derivative of the cumulant generating function is equal to the expectation value of the current in a modified system with an extra force added, where the modified system is characterized by a variational principle. The formula reminds us of Einstein's fluctuation theory in equilibrium statistical mechanics. Furthermore, since the formula leads to the fluctuation-dissipation relation when the linear response regime is focused on, it is regarded as an extension of the linear response theory to that valid beyond the linear response regime. The formula is also related to previously known theories such as the Donsker-Varadhan theory, the additivity principle, and the least dissipation principle, but it is not derived from them. Examples of its application are presented for a driven Brownian particle on a ring subject to a periodic potential.

  14. Introduction to indexing and abstracting

    CERN Document Server

    Cleveland, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Successful information access in the digital information age requires robust systems of indexing and abstracting. This book provides a complete introduction to the subject that covers the many recent changes in the field.

  15. Indexing. ERIC Processing Manual, Section VII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Jim, Ed.

    Rules and guidelines are provided for subject indexing in the ERIC system. The principle of "subject access" is discussed with particular reference to "coordinate indexing," which involves designating subject content by unit terms (or tags) that may be put together or "coordinated" for subsequent retrieval. The nature…

  16. Bibliography on Cold Regions Science and Technology. Cumulative Author Index. Volumes 38-42

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    areas [1985. 8p, + figs., eng) 40-3004 Bruce, R.H. 1985 surge and ice dam of Glaciar Grande del Ncvado del Plomo , Argentina [1987, p,131-l32, eng] 41...surge and ice dam of Glaciar Grande del Nevado del Plomo , Argentina [1987. p.131-132, eng] 41-3607 Cadle, S.H. Contribution of dry...42-1470 Del Kosarlo Priato, M. Olicicr dim on the Rio Plomo ; a cyclic phenomenon [1986, p.73-78, engj

  17. Cumulative Author Index for Soviet Laser Bibliographies Nos. 67-93, September 1983-February 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-01

    50 91:76 ACIMOVIC-RASPOOVIC V 84:39 86:48 ABDYRAKHIHUV A 78:75 ADAM A 74:70 79:52,59 80:57 ABEL TH 89:20 ADAM C 73:17 ABEN KM K 68:58 78:6u ADAM fl 79...SCHAFER D 86:100 89:22 92:70 SCHAFER K 83:90 SAVITSKIY 0 V 72:99 74:87 75:115 SCHAFF W 85:44 76:110 79:85 85:87 87:100 93:92 SCHALGE R 84:33 SAVITSKIY I V

  18. Virginia ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  19. Louisiana ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all the hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  20. Maryland ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  1. Online Scheduling in Manufacturing A Cumulative Delay Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Suwa, Haruhiko

    2013-01-01

    Online scheduling is recognized as the crucial decision-making process of production control at a phase of “being in production" according to the released shop floor schedule. Online scheduling can be also considered as one of key enablers to realize prompt capable-to-promise as well as available-to-promise to customers along with reducing production lead times under recent globalized competitive markets. Online Scheduling in Manufacturing introduces new approaches to online scheduling based on a concept of cumulative delay. The cumulative delay is regarded as consolidated information of uncertainties under a dynamic environment in manufacturing and can be collected constantly without much effort at any points in time during a schedule execution. In this approach, the cumulative delay of the schedule has the important role of a criterion for making a decision whether or not a schedule revision is carried out. The cumulative delay approach to trigger schedule revisions has the following capabilities for the ...

  2. Cumulative Risks of Foster Care Placement for Danish Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallesen, Peter; Emanuel, Natalia; Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Although recent research suggests that the cumulative risk of foster care placement is far higher for American children than originally suspected, little is known about the cumulative risk of foster care placement in other countries, which makes it difficult to gauge the degree to which factor...... is for Danish children. Results suggest that at the beginning of the study period (in 1998) the cumulative risk of foster care placement for Danish children was roughly in line with the risk for American children. Yet, by the end of the study period (2010), the risk had declined to half the risk for American...... foster care placement is salient in other contexts. In this article, we provide companion estimates to those provided in recent work on the US by using Danish registry data and synthetic cohort life tables to show how high and unequally distributed the cumulative risk of foster care placement...

  3. Mapping cumulative human impacts in the eastern North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stock, A.; Andersen, Jesper; Heinänen, S.

    of the MSFD; and 3) to deepen the understanding of how errors in expert judgment affect the resulting cumulative human impact maps by means of Monte Carlo simulations. We combined existing data sets on the spatial distribution of 33 anthropogenic stressors (linked to the MSFD pressures) and 28 key habitats....... In contrast, the predicted impacts for much of the Norwegian EEZ and areas far offshore were lower. The Monte Carlo simulations confirmed earlier findings that mapping cumulative impacts is generally "robust", but also showed that specific combinations of errors can seriously change local and regional...... on marine ecosystems have only recently been developed. The aims of our study were: 1) to develop a map of cumulative human impacts for the Danish, Swedish, Norwegian and German parts of the Greater North Sea; 2) to adjust the existing methods for mapping cumulative human impacts to fit the requirements...

  4. Cumulative Production Per Township - SaMiRa

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset contains a selected township grid within the Sagebrush Mineral Resource Assessment project (SaMiRa) study area attributed with cumulative oil and gas...

  5. Cumulative radiation exposure in children with cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Reilly, R

    2010-02-01

    This retrospective study calculated the cumulative radiation dose for children with cystic fibrosis (CF) attending a tertiary CF centre. Information on 77 children with a mean age of 9.5 years, a follow up time of 658 person years and 1757 studies including 1485 chest radiographs, 215 abdominal radiographs and 57 computed tomography (CT) scans, of which 51 were thoracic CT scans, were analysed. The average cumulative radiation dose was 6.2 (0.04-25) mSv per CF patient. Cumulative radiation dose increased with increasing age and number of CT scans and was greater in children who presented with meconium ileus. No correlation was identified between cumulative radiation dose and either lung function or patient microbiology cultures. Radiation carries a risk of malignancy and children are particularly susceptible. Every effort must be made to avoid unnecessary radiation exposure in these patients whose life expectancy is increasing.

  6. Macroscopic cumulative fatigue damage of material under nonsymmetrical cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盖秉政

    2002-01-01

    Hashin's macroscopic theory of fatigue damage is further discussed and a new method has been proposed for prediction of cumulative fatigue damage of material and its lifetime under nonsymmetrical cyclic loading.

  7. Translation-Invariant Representation for Cumulative Foot Pressure Images

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Shuai; Tan, Tieniu

    2010-01-01

    Human can be distinguished by different limb movements and unique ground reaction force. Cumulative foot pressure image is a 2-D cumulative ground reaction force during one gait cycle. Although it contains pressure spatial distribution information and pressure temporal distribution information, it suffers from several problems including different shoes and noise, when putting it into practice as a new biometric for pedestrian identification. In this paper, we propose a hierarchical translation-invariant representation for cumulative foot pressure images, inspired by the success of Convolutional deep belief network for digital classification. Key contribution in our approach is discriminative hierarchical sparse coding scheme which helps to learn useful discriminative high-level visual features. Based on the feature representation of cumulative foot pressure images, we develop a pedestrian recognition system which is invariant to three different shoes and slight local shape change. Experiments are conducted on...

  8. Religious Culture as a School Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyrev, F. N.; Avest, K. H. ter

    2007-01-01

    In Russia a new school subject has been introduced in order to facilitate educators in shaping the enculturation process of the autonomous student into the cumulative tradition. In this article the Russian societal and educational context is described and the concepts "religion" and "culture" are clarified. Together they build the concentric…

  9. Machine-Aided Indexing for NASA STI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John

    1987-01-01

    Describes the use of machine aided indexing as part of NASA's information systems. The discussion covers reasons for incorporating machine aided indexing, the lexical dictionary used, subject switching, natural language processing, benefits to the system, and possible future developments. (CLB)

  10. Some Characterization Results on Dynamic Cumulative Residual Tsallis Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madan Mohan Sati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a generalized cumulative residual information measure based on Tsallis entropy and its dynamic version. We study the characterizations of the proposed information measure and define new classes of life distributions based on this measure. Some applications are provided in relation to weighted and equilibrium probability models. Finally the empirical cumulative Tsallis entropy is proposed to estimate the new information measure.

  11. Steps and pips in the history of the cumulative recorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Lattal, Kennon A.

    2004-01-01

    From its inception in the 1930s until very recent times, the cumulative recorder was the most widely used measurement instrument in the experimental analysis of behavior. It was an essential instrument in the discovery and analysis of schedules of reinforcement, providing the first real-time analysis of operant response rates and patterns. This review traces the evolution of the cumulative recorder from Skinner's early modified kymographs through various models developed by Skinner and his co...

  12. Childhood Cumulative Risk Exposure and Adult Amygdala Volume and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gary W; Swain, James E; King, Anthony P; Wang, Xin; Javanbakht, Arash; Ho, S Shaun; Angstadt, Michael; Phan, K Luan; Xie, Hong; Liberzon, Israel

    2016-06-01

    Considerable work indicates that early cumulative risk exposure is aversive to human development, but very little research has examined the neurological underpinnings of these robust findings. This study investigates amygdala volume and reactivity to facial stimuli among adults (mean 23.7 years of age, n = 54) as a function of cumulative risk exposure during childhood (9 and 13 years of age). In addition, we test to determine whether expected cumulative risk elevations in amygdala volume would mediate functional reactivity of the amygdala during socioemotional processing. Risks included substandard housing quality, noise, crowding, family turmoil, child separation from family, and violence. Total and left hemisphere adult amygdala volumes were positively related to cumulative risk exposure during childhood. The links between childhood cumulative risk exposure and elevated amygdala responses to emotionally neutral facial stimuli in adulthood were mediated by the corresponding amygdala volumes. Cumulative risk exposure in later adolescence (17 years of age), however, was unrelated to subsequent adult amygdala volume or function. Physical and socioemotional risk exposures early in life appear to alter amygdala development, rendering adults more reactive to ambiguous stimuli such as neutral faces. These stress-related differences in childhood amygdala development might contribute to the well-documented psychological distress as a function of early risk exposure.

  13. A prospective study of cumulative job stress in relation to mental health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Isabelle; Kittel, France; Coppieters, Yves; Siegrist, Johannes

    2005-01-01

    Background This study tests associations between psychosocial stress at work measured by the effort-reward imbalance model in a dynamic perspective, and multiple indicators of poor mental health, in a prospective design. Methods 1986 male and female employees from four Belgian enterprises were followed-up over one year within the framework of the Somstress study. Based on two consecutive measurements, an index of cumulative job stress was constructed and its associations with five indicators of mental health were studied, excluding caseness at entry (for depression, anxiety, somatisation, chronic fatigue and psychotropic drug consumption respectively). Taking into account the longitudinal design, four categories of job stress are defined: 1) employees free from stress at both measures, 2) job stress present at first measure but not at the second one, 3) recent onset of job stress as evidenced by second measure 4) workers exposed to stress at both measures. Multivariate logistic regression with appropriate adjustments was applied. Results In bivariate analysis, a clear graded association of cumulative job stress with all five mental health indicators is observed, both in men and women. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, recent onset of stress is strongly associated with poor mental health among men (odds ratios ranging from 1.8 to 4.6), while cumulative stress shows strongest effects on mental health in women (odds ratios ranging from 1.4 to 7.1). Conclusion Cumulative experience and recent onset of job stress in terms of high effort spent and low reward received is associated with elevated risk of all five indicators of poor mental health at follow-up in a large cohort of employees. PMID:15958170

  14. A prospective study of cumulative job stress in relation to mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coppieters Yves

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study tests associations between psychosocial stress at work measured by the effort-reward imbalance model in a dynamic perspective, and multiple indicators of poor mental health, in a prospective design. Methods 1986 male and female employees from four Belgian enterprises were followed-up over one year within the framework of the Somstress study. Based on two consecutive measurements, an index of cumulative job stress was constructed and its associations with five indicators of mental health were studied, excluding caseness at entry (for depression, anxiety, somatisation, chronic fatigue and psychotropic drug consumption respectively. Taking into account the longitudinal design, four categories of job stress are defined: 1 employees free from stress at both measures, 2 job stress present at first measure but not at the second one, 3 recent onset of job stress as evidenced by second measure 4 workers exposed to stress at both measures. Multivariate logistic regression with appropriate adjustments was applied. Results In bivariate analysis, a clear graded association of cumulative job stress with all five mental health indicators is observed, both in men and women. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, recent onset of stress is strongly associated with poor mental health among men (odds ratios ranging from 1.8 to 4.6, while cumulative stress shows strongest effects on mental health in women (odds ratios ranging from 1.4 to 7.1. Conclusion Cumulative experience and recent onset of job stress in terms of high effort spent and low reward received is associated with elevated risk of all five indicators of poor mental health at follow-up in a large cohort of employees.

  15. INDEXING MECHANISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, L.J.

    1959-09-22

    A device is presented for loading and unloading fuel elements containing material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy. The device comprises a combination of mechanical features Including a base, a lever pivotally attached to the base, an Indexing plate on the base parallel to the plane of lever rotation and having a plurality of apertures, the apertures being disposed In rows, each aperture having a keyway, an Index pin movably disposed to the plane of lever rotation and having a plurality of apertures, the apertures being disposed in rows, each aperture having a keyway, an index pin movably disposed on the lever normal to the plane rotation, a key on the pin, a sleeve on the lever spaced from and parallel to the index pin, a pair of pulleys and a cable disposed between them, an open collar rotatably attached to the sleeve and linked to one of the pulleys, a pin extending from the collar, and a bearing movably mounted in the sleeve and having at least two longitudinal grooves in the outside surface.

  16. Cumulative areawise testing in wavelet analysis and its application to geophysical time series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Schulte

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Statistical significance testing in wavelet analysis was improved through the development of a cumulative areawise test. The test was developed to eliminate the selection of two significance levels that an existing geometric test requires for implementation. The selection of two significance levels was found to make the test sensitive to the chosen pointwise significance level, which may preclude further scientific investigation. A set of experiments determined that the cumulative areawise test has greater statistical power than the geometric test in most cases, especially when the signal-to-noise ratio is high. The number of false positives identified by the tests was found to be similar if the respective significance levels were set to 0.05. The new testing procedure was applied to the time series of the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO, North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO, Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO, and Niño 3.4 index. The testing procedure determined that the NAO, PDO, and AMO are consistent with red-noise processes, whereas significant power was found in the 2–7 year period band for the Niño 3.4 index.

  17. Cumulated UDC Supplement, 1965-1975. Volume IV: Classes 63/676 (63 Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, 64 Household and Domestic Economy, 65 Management. Communications, 66 Chemical Technology, 67/676 Various Industries; Leather, Pulp and Paper, Textiles, etc.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Federation for Documentation, The Hague (Netherlands). Committee on Classification Research.

    In continuation of the "Cumulated UDC Supplement - 1964" published by the International Federation for Documentation, this document provides a cumulative supplement to the Universal Decimal Classification for 1965-1975. This fourth of a five volume series lists new classification subdivisions added to the system in the following subject areas: (1)…

  18. Single-word predictions of upcoming language during comprehension: Evidence from the cumulative semantic interference task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Daniel; Runnqvist, Elin; Ferreira, Victor S

    2015-06-01

    Comprehenders predict upcoming speech and text on the basis of linguistic input. How many predictions do comprehenders make for an upcoming word? If a listener strongly expects to hear the word "sock", is the word "shirt" partially expected as well, is it actively inhibited, or is it ignored? The present research addressed these questions by measuring the "downstream" effects of prediction on the processing of subsequently presented stimuli using the cumulative semantic interference paradigm. In three experiments, subjects named pictures (sock) that were presented either in isolation or after strongly constraining sentence frames ("After doing his laundry, Mark always seemed to be missing one…"). Naming sock slowed the subsequent naming of the picture shirt - the standard cumulative semantic interference effect. However, although picture naming was much faster after sentence frames, the interference effect was not modulated by the context (bare vs. sentence) in which either picture was presented. According to the only model of cumulative semantic interference that can account for such a pattern of data, this indicates that comprehenders pre-activated and maintained the pre-activation of best sentence completions (sock) but did not maintain the pre-activation of less likely completions (shirt). Thus, comprehenders predicted only the most probable completion for each sentence.

  19. Indexes to Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances, January--June 1995. Volume 41, Index 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Digests and indexes for issuances of the Commission (CLI), the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel (LBP), the Administrative Law Judges (ALJ), the directors` Decisions (DD), and the Denials of Petitions for rulemaking (DPRM) are presented in this document. These digests and indexes are intended to serve as a guide to the issuances. The information elements are displayed in one or more of five separate formats arranged as follows: Case name index; digests and headers; legal citations index; subject index; and facility index.

  20. Indexes to Nuclear Regulatory Commission Issuances, July--December 1993. Volume 38, Index 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    Digests and indexes for issuances of the Commission (CLI), the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel (LBP), the Administrative Law Judges (ALJ), the Directors` Decisions (DD), and the Denials of Petitions for Rulemaking (DPRM) are presented in this document. These digests and indexes are intended to serve as a guide to the issuances. These information elements are displayed in one or more of five separate formats arranged as follows: Case Name Index; Digests and Headers; Legal Citations Index; Subject Index, and Facility Index.

  1. Afghanistan Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Poul Martin

    2007-01-01

    The Afghanistan index is a compilation of quantitative and qualitative data on the reconstruction and security effort in Afghanistan. The index aims at providing data for benchmarking of the international performance and thus provides the reader with a quick possibility to retrieve valid...... basis. The data are divided into different indicators such as security, polls, drug, social, economic, refugees etc. This represents a practical division and does not indicate that a picture as to for instance security can be obtained by solely looking at the data under security. In order to obtain...... a more valid picture on security this must incorporate an integrated look on all data meaning that for instance the economic data provides an element as to the whole picture of security....

  2. Cumulative risks of foster care placement for Danish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallesen, Peter; Emanuel, Natalia; Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Although recent research suggests that the cumulative risk of foster care placement is far higher for American children than originally suspected, little is known about the cumulative risk of foster care placement in other countries, which makes it difficult to gauge the degree to which factor foster care placement is salient in other contexts. In this article, we provide companion estimates to those provided in recent work on the US by using Danish registry data and synthetic cohort life tables to show how high and unequally distributed the cumulative risk of foster care placement is for Danish children. Results suggest that at the beginning of the study period (in 1998) the cumulative risk of foster care placement for Danish children was roughly in line with the risk for American children. Yet, by the end of the study period (2010), the risk had declined to half the risk for American children. Our results also show some variations by parental ethnicity and sex, but these differences are small. Indeed, they appear quite muted relative to racial/ethnic differences in these risks in the United States. Last, though cumulative risks are similar between Danish and American children (especially at the beginning of the study period), the age-specific risk profiles are markedly different, with higher risks for older Danish children than for older American children.

  3. USING CUMULATIVE NUMBER DENSITIES TO COMPARE GALAXIES ACROSS COSMIC TIME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behroozi, Peter S.; Wechsler, Risa H. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Marchesini, Danilo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Muzzin, Adam [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Papovich, Casey [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Stefanon, Mauro [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Comparing galaxies across redshifts at fixed cumulative number density is a popular way to estimate the evolution of specific galaxy populations. This method ignores scatter in mass accretion histories and galaxy-galaxy mergers, which can lead to errors when comparing galaxies over large redshift ranges (Δz > 1). We use abundance matching in the ΛCDM paradigm to estimate the median change in cumulative number density with redshift and provide a simple fit (+0.16 dex per unit Δz) for progenitors of z = 0 galaxies. We find that galaxy descendants do not evolve in the same way as galaxy progenitors, largely due to scatter in mass accretion histories. We also provide estimates for the 1σ range of cumulative number densities corresponding to galaxy progenitors and descendants. Finally, we discuss some limits on cumulative number density comparisons, which arise due to difficulties measuring physical quantities (e.g., stellar mass) consistently across redshifts. A public tool to calculate cumulative number density evolution for galaxies, as well as approximate halo masses, is available online.

  4. Maintenance hemodialysis patients have high cumulative radiation exposure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kinsella, Sinead M

    2010-10-01

    Hemodialysis is associated with an increased risk of neoplasms which may result, at least in part, from exposure to ionizing radiation associated with frequent radiographic procedures. In order to estimate the average radiation exposure of those on hemodialysis, we conducted a retrospective study of 100 patients in a university-based dialysis unit followed for a median of 3.4 years. The number and type of radiological procedures were obtained from a central radiology database, and the cumulative effective radiation dose was calculated using standardized, procedure-specific radiation levels. The median annual radiation dose was 6.9 millisieverts (mSv) per patient-year. However, 14 patients had an annual cumulative effective radiation dose over 20 mSv, the upper averaged annual limit for occupational exposure. The median total cumulative effective radiation dose per patient over the study period was 21.7 mSv, in which 13 patients had a total cumulative effective radiation dose over 75 mSv, a value reported to be associated with a 7% increased risk of cancer-related mortality. Two-thirds of the total cumulative effective radiation dose was due to CT scanning. The average radiation exposure was significantly associated with the cause of end-stage renal disease, history of ischemic heart disease, transplant waitlist status, number of in-patient hospital days over follow-up, and death during the study period. These results highlight the substantial exposure to ionizing radiation in hemodialysis patients.

  5. Cumulative Trauma Among Mayas Living in Southeast Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millender, Eugenia I; Lowe, John

    2016-01-04

    Mayas, having experienced genocide, exile, and severe poverty, are at high risk for the consequences of cumulative trauma that continually resurfaces through current fear of an uncertain future. Little is known about the mental health and alcohol use status of this population. This correlational study explored t/he relationship of cumulative trauma as it relates to social determinants of health (years in the United States, education, health insurance status, marital status, and employment), psychological health (depression symptoms), and health behaviors (alcohol use) of 102 Guatemalan Mayas living in Southeast Florida. The results of this study indicated that, as specific social determinants of health and cumulative trauma increased, depression symptoms (particularly among women) and the risk for harmful alcohol use (particularly among men) increased. Identifying risk factors at an early stage before serious disease or problems are manifest provides room for early screening leading to early identification, early treatment, and better outcomes.

  6. Cumulative pion production via successive collisions in nuclear medium

    CERN Document Server

    Motornenko, A

    2016-01-01

    Production of pions in proton-nucleus (p+A) reactions outside of a kinematical boundary of proton-nucleon collisions, the so-called cumulative effect, is studied. The kinematical restrictions on pions emitted in backward direction in the target rest frame are analyzed. It is shown that cumulative pion production requires a presence of massive baryonic resonances that are produced during successive collisions of projectile with nuclear nucleons. After each successive collision the mass of created resonance may increase and, simultaneously, its longitudinal velocity decreases. Simulations within Ultra relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics model reveals that successive collisions of baryonic resonances with nuclear nucleons plays the dominant role in cumulative pion production in p+A reactions.

  7. Solid-state electro-cumulation effect numerical simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Grishin, V G

    2001-01-01

    It is an attempt to simulate as really as possible a crystal's interatomic interaction under conditions of "Solid-state electro-cumulation (super-polarization) effect". Some theoretical and experimental reasons to believe that within solid substances an interparticles interaction could concentrate from the surface to a centre were given formerly. Now, numerical results show the conditions that could make the cumulation more effective. Another keywords: ion, current, solid, symmetry, cumulation, polarization, depolarization, ionic conductor,superionic conductor, ice, crystal, strain, V-center, V-centre, doped crystal, interstitial impurity, intrinsic color center, high pressure technology, Bridgman, anvil, experiment, crowdion, dielectric, proton, layer, defect, lattice, dynamics, electromigration, mobility, muon catalysis, concentration, doping, dopant, conductivity, pycnonuclear reaction, permittivity, dielectric constant, point defects, interstitials, polarizability, imperfection, defect centers, glass, epi...

  8. Association between diastolic blood pressure and cumulative work time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cordeiro

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Diastolic blood pressure was viewed as a generic indicator of aging, and its association with cumulative work time was studied after controlling for age as a potential confounding factor. The study was conducted among production line workers at a Brazilian tannery in July 1993. The association between diastolic blood pressure and cumulative work time was verified by fitting a second-order linear regression model, where diastolic blood pressure was a function of worker's age and cumulative work time. By fitting the model, one can predict that, in the beginning of working life at the tannery, on average each 1-year period is associated with an increase of about 1.5 mmHg in diastolic blood pressure. The fit obtained highlights one component directly associated with work as part of the rate of pressure increase in the study group. This component is twice as high as that directly associated with age.

  9. Baltic Sea biodiversity status vs. cumulative human pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper H.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Korpinen, Samuli

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Many studies have tried to explain spatial and temporal variations in biodiversity status of marine areas from a single-issue perspective, such as fishing pressure or coastal pollution, yet most continental seas experience a wide range of human pressures. Cumulative impact assessments have...... been developed to capture the consequences of multiple stressors for biodiversity, but the ability of these assessments to accurately predict biodiversity status has never been tested or ground-truthed. This relationship has similarly been assumed for the Baltic Sea, especially in areas with impaired...... status, but has also never been documented. Here we provide a first tentative indication that cumulative human impacts relate to ecosystem condition, i.e. biodiversity status, in the Baltic Sea. Thus, cumulative impact assessments offer a promising tool for informed marine spatial planning, designation...

  10. Session: What do we know about cumulative or population impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerlinger, Paul; Manville, Al; Kendall, Bill

    2004-09-01

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of a panel discussion followed by a discussion/question and answer period. The panelists were Paul Kerlinger, Curry and Kerlinger, LLC, Al Manville, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and Bill Kendall, US Geological Service. The panel addressed the potential cumulative impacts of wind turbines on bird and bat populations over time. Panel members gave brief presentations that touched on what is currently known, what laws apply, and the usefulness of population modeling. Topics addressed included which sources of modeling should be included in cumulative impacts, comparison of impacts from different modes of energy generation, as well as what research is still needed regarding cumulative impacts of wind energy development on bird and bat populations.

  11. Cumulant dynamics in a finite population linkage equilibrium theory

    CERN Document Server

    Rattray, M; Rattray, Magnus; Shapiro, Jonathan L.

    1999-01-01

    The evolution of a finite population at linkage equilibrium is described in terms of the dynamics of phenotype distribution cumulants. This provides a powerful method for describing evolutionary transients and we elucidate the relationship between the cumulant dynamics and the diffusion approximation. A separation of time-scales between the first and higher cumulants for low mutation rates is demonstrated in the diffusion limit and provides a significant simplification of the dynamical system. However, the diffusion limit may not be appropriate for strong selection as the standard Fisher-Wright model of genetic drift can break down in this case. Two novel examples of this effect are considered: we shown that the dynamics may depend on the number of loci under strong directional selection and that environmental variance results in a reduced effective population size. We also consider a simple model of a changing environment which cannot be described by a diffusion equation and we derive the optimal mutation ra...

  12. Effect of correlation on cumulants in heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, D K; Netrakanti, P K

    2015-01-01

    We study the effects of correlation on cumulants and their ratios of net-proton multiplicity distribution which have been measured for central (0-5\\%) Au+Au collisions at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This effect has been studied assuming individual proton and anti-proton distributions as Poisson or Negative Binomial Distribution (NBD). In-spite of significantly correlated production due to baryon number, electric charge conservation and kinematical correlations of protons and anti-protons, the measured cumulants of net-proton distribution follow the independent production model. In the present work we demonstrate how the introduction of correlations will affect the cumulants and their ratios for the difference distributions. We have also demonstrated this study using the proton and anti-proton distributions obtained from HIJING event generator.

  13. System Dynamics and Modified Cumulant Neglect Closure Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köylüoglu, H. Ugur; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    Dealing with multipeaked problems, the goal of the paper is to improve the quality of the approximations for the expectations appearing in the differential equations written for the statistical moments of the state vector, guided by insight in the system dynamics. For systems with polynomial non......-linearities, modifications in the cumulant neglect closure scheme are suggested. The methodology is illustrated using the two wells oscillator. An error analysis is performed to compare the modified and ordinary cumulant neglect closure schemes applied at the second and fourth order levels with the exact results available....

  14. Baltic Sea biodiversity status vs. cumulative human pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper H.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Korpinen, Samuli

    2015-01-01

    been developed to capture the consequences of multiple stressors for biodiversity, but the ability of these assessments to accurately predict biodiversity status has never been tested or ground-truthed. This relationship has similarly been assumed for the Baltic Sea, especially in areas with impaired...... status, but has also never been documented. Here we provide a first tentative indication that cumulative human impacts relate to ecosystem condition, i.e. biodiversity status, in the Baltic Sea. Thus, cumulative impact assessments offer a promising tool for informed marine spatial planning, designation...

  15. Aspect of cumulative fatigue damage under multiaxial strain cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamrik, S. Y.; Tang, P. Y.

    1972-01-01

    The concept of order of loading and its effect on cumulative fatigue damage under multiaxial strain cyclings was investigated. The effect is illustrated through nonlinear relationships between biaxial fatigue damage and cycle-ratio diagrams. Uniaxial theories such as Miner's method, the convergence method, and the double linear damage rule in its special and generalized form, were examined and extended to the biaxial case through the octahedral shear strain theory. The generalized double linear damage rule was found more applicable to biaxial cumulative fatigue damage.

  16. Cumulative Incidence of Cancer After Solid Organ Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Erin C.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Segev, Dorry L.; Engels, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Solid organ transplantation recipients have elevated cancer incidence. Estimates of absolute cancer risk after transplantation can inform prevention and screening. METHODS The Transplant Cancer Match Study links the US transplantation registry with 14 state/regional cancer registries. The authors used nonparametric competing risk methods to estimate the cumulative incidence of cancer after transplantation for 2 periods (1987–1999 and 2000–2008). For recipients from 2000 to 2008, the 5-year cumulative incidence, stratified by organ, sex, and age at transplantation, was estimated for 6 preventable or screen-detectable cancers. For comparison, the 5-year cumulative incidence was calculated for the same cancers in the general population at representative ages using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data. RESULTS Among 164,156 recipients, 8520 incident cancers were identified. The absolute cancer risk was slightly higher for recipients during the period from 2000 to 2008 than during the period from 1987 to 1999 (5-year cumulative incidence: 4.4% vs 4.2%; P =.006); this difference arose from the decreasing risk of competing events (5-year cumulative incidence of death, graft failure, or retransplantation: 26.6% vs 31.9%; P 50 years; range, 0.36%–2.22%). For recipients aged >50 years, the 5-year cumulative incidence was higher for colorectal cancer (range, 0.33%–1.94%) than for the general population at the recommended screening age (aged 50 years: range, 0.25%–0.33%). For recipients aged >50 years, the 5-year cumulative incidence was high for lung cancer among thoracic organ recipients (range, 1.16%–3.87%) and for kidney cancer among kidney recipients (range, 0.53%–0.84%). The 5-year cumulative incidence for prostate cancer and breast cancer was similar or lower in transplantation recipients than at the recommended ages of screening in the general population. CONCLUSIONS Subgroups of transplantation recipients have a high absolute risk

  17. A study of cumulative fatigue damage in AISI 4130 steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeelani, S.; Musial, M.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental data were obtained using AISI 4130 steel under stress ratios of -1 and 0. A study of cumulative fatigue damage using Miner's and Kramer's equations for stress ratios of -1 and 0 for low-high, low-high-mixed, high-low, and high-low-mixed stress sequences has revealed that there is a close agreement between the theoretical and experimental values of fatigue damage and fatigue life. Kramer's equation predicts less conservative and more realistic cumulative fatigue damage than the popularly used Miner's rule does.

  18. Reliability testing across the Environmental Quality Index and national environmental indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    One challenge in environmental epidemiology is the exploration of cumulative environmental exposure across multiple domains (e.g. air, water, land). The Environmental Quality Index (EQI), created by the U.S. EPA, uses principle component analyses combining environmental domains (...

  19. Historical Development of the "Insurance Periodicals Index" by the Insurance Division of the Special Libraries Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Jean E.

    The Insurance Division of the Special Libraries Association began an index to insurance magazines, the "Insurance Periodicals Index" (IPI), in 1962. This study examines its historical development. The index was published monthly in an insurance trade journal and then cumulated into an annual edition. Part of the background for its…

  20. Beyond the floor effect on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--4th Ed. (WISC-IV): calculating IQ and Indexes of subjects presenting a floored pattern of results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, A; Pezzuti, L; Hulbert, S

    2015-05-01

    It is now widely known that children with severe intellectual disability show a 'floor effect' on the Wechsler scales. This effect emerges because the practice of transforming raw scores into scaled scores eliminates any variability present in participants with low intellectual ability and because intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are limited insofar as they do not measure scores lower than 40. Following Hessl et al.'s results, the present authors propose a method for the computation of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--4th Ed. (WISC-IV)'s IQ and Indexes in intellectually disabled participants affected by a floored pattern of results. The Italian standardization sample (n = 2200) for the WISC-IV was used. The method presented in this study highlights the limits of the 'floor effect' of the WISC-IV in children with serious intellectual disability who present a profile with weighted scores of 1 in all the subtests despite some variability in the raw scores. Such method eliminates the floor effect of the scale and therefore makes it possible to analyse the strengths and weaknesses of the WISC-IV's Indexes in these participants. The Authors reflect on clinical utility of this method and on the meaning of raw score of 0 on subtest. © 2014 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Predicting Cumulative Watershed Effects using Spatially Explicit Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, L. H.; Litschert, S.

    2004-12-01

    Cumulative watershed effects /(CWEs/) result from the combined effects of land disturbances distributed over both space and time. They are of concern because changes in flow and sediment yields can adversely affect aquatic habitat, channel morphology, water yields, and water quality. The assessment procedures currently used by agencies such as the U.S. Forest Service generally rely on a lumped approach to quantify disturbance, despite the widespread recognition that site conditions and location do matter! The overall goal of our work is to develop spatially-explicit models to quantify changes in flow and sediment yields. Key objectives include: use of readily available GIS data; ease of use for resource managers with minimal GIS experience; modularity so that models can be added or updated; and allowing users to select the models and values for key parameters. The DeltaQ model calculates changes in peak, median, and low flows due to forest management activities and fires. Inputs include GIS data with disturbance polygons, an initial change in flow rate, and the time to recovery. Data from paired watershed studies are provided to help guide the user. The initial version of FORest Erosion Simulation Tools /(FOREST/) calculates sediment production from forest harvest, fires, and unpaved roads. Additional modules are being developed to deliver this sediment to the stream channel and route it to downstream locations. In accordance with our objectives, the user can predict sediment production rates using different empirical equations, assign an initial sediment production rate and a specified linear recovery period, or develop a look-up table based on local knowledge, published values, or data from other models such as WEPP. The required GIS layers vary according to the model/(s/) selected, but generally include past disturbances /(e.g., fires and timber harvest/), roads, and elevation. Outputs include GIS layers and text files that can be subjected to additional

  2. Indexing for ERIC. Volume 2, Lesson 1-Introduction to Indexing; Lesson 2-How to Index a Document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langridge, D.W.; And Others

    This volume contains the first two lessons of a course in subject indexing based upon the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) Thesaurus, Lesson 1 is an introduction to indexing, containing definitions and concepts related to the theory of indexing and information retrieval as well as an introduction to the ERIC Thesaurus. Lesson 2 is…

  3. Geoscience indexing at petroleum abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finnegan, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Geoscience literature received by Petroleum Abstracts Information System is indexed by Scientist with field experience. The indexing consists of relating concepts produced by the author to a controlled vocabulary used at Petroleum Abstracts. The primary emphasis of selection of the literature at Petroleum Abstracts is petroleum-related, but not petroleum restricted. Geoscience literature indexed at Petroleum Abstracts comprises the following subjects: Geology, Geochemistry, Geophysics, and Mineral Commodities. The depth of indexing attributed to each article does in fact depend on the amount of petroleum-related subject matter in the article. Once the indexing is completed, the abstract is then cut to approximately 150 words. The scientist who indexes at Petroleum Abstracts is not expected to know or remember every detail or concept ever published. But he or she is expected to be able to go to an atlas, dictionary, or any other reference material available and apply the concepts to a controlled vocabulary. This is somewhat of a restriction on scientists, but it is the only way to maintain any kind of consistency in the indexing. Successful searching of the Petroleum Abstracts Information System can be accomplished with an understanding of the indexing strategy and the importance and necessity of referencing the thesauri controlled vocabulary. It may be more time-consuming, but will certainly be more accurate in the retrieval of the information.

  4. Newspaper Indexing Handbook for Small Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donald R.

    This presentation of a simplified procedure for indexing local newspapers at a small library includes a brief discussion of 23 guidelines and rules for subject heading selection and use, indexing, and filing; a group of sample cards in the prescribed filing order; and a bibliography on newspaper indexing. (SW)

  5. A Parametric Cumulative Sum Statistic for Person Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Ronald D.; Shi, Min

    2009-01-01

    This article develops a new cumulative sum (CUSUM) statistic to detect aberrant item response behavior. Shifts in behavior are modeled with quadratic functions and a series of likelihood ratio tests are used to detect aberrancy. The new CUSUM statistic is compared against another CUSUM approach as well as traditional person-fit statistics. A…

  6. RECURSIVE CLASSIFICATION OF MQAM SIGNALS BASED ON HIGHER ORDER CUMULANTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Weidong; Yang Shaoquan

    2002-01-01

    A new feature based on higher order cumulants is proposed for classification of MQAM signals. Theoretical analysis justify that the new feature is invariant with respect to translation (shift), scale and rotation transform of signal constellations, and can suppress color or white additive Gaussian noise. Computer simulation shows that the proposed recursive orderreduction based classification algorithm can classify MQAM signals with any order.

  7. Cumulative psychosocial stress, coping resources, and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Sheila W; Kingston, Dawn; Bayrampour, Hamideh; Dolan, Siobhan M; Tough, Suzanne C

    2014-12-01

    Preterm birth constitutes a significant international public health issue, with implications for child and family well-being. High levels of psychosocial stress and negative affect before and during pregnancy are contributing factors to shortened gestation and preterm birth. We developed a cumulative psychosocial stress variable and examined its association with early delivery controlling for known preterm birth risk factors and confounding environmental variables. We further examined this association among subgroups of women with different levels of coping resources. Utilizing the All Our Babies (AOB) study, an ongoing prospective pregnancy cohort study in Alberta, Canada (n = 3,021), multinomial logistic regression was adopted to examine the independent effect of cumulative psychosocial stress and preterm birth subgroups compared to term births. Stratified analyses according to categories of perceived social support and optimism were undertaken to examine differential effects among subgroups of women. Cumulative psychosocial stress was a statistically significant risk factor for late preterm birth (OR = 1.73; 95 % CI = 1.07, 2.81), but not for early preterm birth (OR = 2.44; 95 % CI = 0.95, 6.32), controlling for income, history of preterm birth, pregnancy complications, reproductive history, and smoking in pregnancy. Stratified analyses showed that cumulative psychosocial stress was a significant risk factor for preterm birth at psychosocial stress on the risk for early delivery.

  8. The proportional odds cumulative incidence model for competing risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Frank; Li, Jianing; Scheike, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We suggest an estimator for the proportional odds cumulative incidence model for competing risks data. The key advantage of this model is that the regression parameters have the simple and useful odds ratio interpretation. The model has been considered by many authors, but it is rarely used in pr...

  9. Is learning in problem-based learning cumulative?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.H.J. Yew (Elaine); E. Chng (Esther); H.G. Schmidt (Henk)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractProblem-based learning (PBL) is generally organized in three phases, involving collaborative and self-directed learning processes. The hypothesis tested here is whether learning in the different phases of PBL is cumulative, with learning in each phase depending on that of the previous ph

  10. Cumulative assessment : Strategic choices to influence students' study effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerdijk, Wouter; Tio, Rene A.; Mulder, B. Florentine; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2013-01-01

    Background: It has been asserted that assessment can and should be used to drive students' learning. In the current study, we present a cumulative assessment program in which test planning, repeated testing and compensation are combined in order to influence study effort. The program is aimed at hel

  11. Repeated mild injury causes cumulative damage to hippocampal cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. Matser (Amy); C.I. de Zeeuw (Chris); J.T. Weber (John)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractAn interesting hypothesis in the study of neurotrauma is that repeated traumatic brain injury may result in cumulative damage to cells of the brain. However, post-injury sequelae are difficult to address at the cellular level in vivo. Therefore, it is necessary to compl

  12. The effects of cumulative practice on mathematics problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, Kristin H; Chase, Philip N

    2002-01-01

    This study compared three different methods of teaching five basic algebra rules to college students. All methods used the same procedures to teach the rules and included four 50-question review sessions interspersed among the training of the individual rules. The differences among methods involved the kinds of practice provided during the four review sessions. Participants who received cumulative practice answered 50 questions covering a mix of the rules learned prior to each review session. Participants who received a simple review answered 50 questions on one previously trained rule. Participants who received extra practice answered 50 extra questions on the rule they had just learned. Tests administered after each review included new questions for applying each rule (application items) and problems that required novel combinations of the rules (problem-solving items). On the final test, the cumulative group outscored the other groups on application and problem-solving items. In addition, the cumulative group solved the problem-solving items significantly faster than the other groups. These results suggest that cumulative practice of component skills is an effective method of training problem solving.

  13. A Parametric Cumulative Sum Statistic for Person Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Ronald D.; Shi, Min

    2009-01-01

    This article develops a new cumulative sum (CUSUM) statistic to detect aberrant item response behavior. Shifts in behavior are modeled with quadratic functions and a series of likelihood ratio tests are used to detect aberrancy. The new CUSUM statistic is compared against another CUSUM approach as well as traditional person-fit statistics. A…

  14. Variable cultural acquisition costs constrain cumulative cultural evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Mesoudi

    Full Text Available One of the hallmarks of the human species is our capacity for cumulative culture, in which beneficial knowledge and technology is accumulated over successive generations. Yet previous analyses of cumulative cultural change have failed to consider the possibility that as cultural complexity accumulates, it becomes increasingly costly for each new generation to acquire from the previous generation. In principle this may result in an upper limit on the cultural complexity that can be accumulated, at which point accumulated knowledge is so costly and time-consuming to acquire that further innovation is not possible. In this paper I first review existing empirical analyses of the history of science and technology that support the possibility that cultural acquisition costs may constrain cumulative cultural evolution. I then present macroscopic and individual-based models of cumulative cultural evolution that explore the consequences of this assumption of variable cultural acquisition costs, showing that making acquisition costs vary with cultural complexity causes the latter to reach an upper limit above which no further innovation can occur. These models further explore the consequences of different cultural transmission rules (directly biased, indirectly biased and unbiased transmission, population size, and cultural innovations that themselves reduce innovation or acquisition costs.

  15. About Subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正During my high school years,I found physics,chemistry and maths specially interesting.Actually,I was interested in many subjects,such as biology,history,geography and English.But somehow I simply couldn't remember the events of history or the facts about geography.I couldn't remember the some of the English idioms well either.On the other hand,physics,chemistry and maths were easy for me to learn.After considering carefully my interests and talents,I felt that science might be the best choice for me.So I was determined to study natural science at college.After graduating from college,I would like to return to school to teach.

  16. Cumulative effects of developed road network on woodland--a landscape approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini Vardei, Mahla; Salmanmahiny, Abdolrasoul; Monavari, Seyed Masoud; Kheirkhah Zarkesh, Mir Masoud

    2014-11-01

    Population growth, during the twentieth century, has increased demand for new farmlands. Accordingly, road networks have rapidly been developed to facilitate and accelerate human access to the essential resources resulted in extensive land use changes. The present study aims at assessing cumulative effects of developed road network on tree cover of Golestan Province in northern Iran. In order to detect changes over the study period of 1987-2002, the LULC map of the study area was initially prepared from the satellite images of Landsat TM (1987) and ETM+ (2002) using maximum likelihood supervised classification method. Afterwards, a total number of seven landscape matrices were selected to detect cumulative effects of the developed road network on woodland cover. The obtained results indicated that the fragile patches are mainly located at a distance of 171-342 m from the roadside. Furthermore, the majority of the patches affected by cumulative effects of development activities are situated at a distance of 342-684 m from the roadside, over an approximate area of 55 ha. The analysis of landscape metrics revealed that the developed road network has increased the landscape metrics of "the number of patches" and "patches perimeter-area ratio". It has also followed by a decrease in metrics such as "patches area", "Euclidean nearest neighbor distance", "patches proximity", "shape index", "contiguity", and "mean patches fractal dimension". The road network has also increased the "number of patches" and decreased the "mean patches area" representing further fragmentation of the landscape. With identification of highly affected wooldland cover patches, it would be possible to apply adaptive environmental management strategies to preserve and rehabilitate high-priority patches.

  17. CUMULANTS OF STOCHASTIC RESPONSE FOR A CLASS OF SPECIAL NONHOLONOMIC SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG MEI; ZHANG YI

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies the response cumulants for a kind of special nonholonomic systems under non-Gaussian, delta- correlated excitations. We present a new methodology for formulating the equations governing the evolution of the response cumulants of the stochastic dynamic systems. The response cumulant differential equations (CDEs) derived can be used to calculate the response cumulants for both linear and nonlinear systems. One example is given to illustrate how to use the CDEs for calculating response cumulants.

  18. Automatic inference of indexing rules for MEDLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shooshan Sonya E

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Indexing is a crucial step in any information retrieval system. In MEDLINE, a widely used database of the biomedical literature, the indexing process involves the selection of Medical Subject Headings in order to describe the subject matter of articles. The need for automatic tools to assist MEDLINE indexers in this task is growing with the increasing number of publications being added to MEDLINE. Methods: In this paper, we describe the use and the customization of Inductive Logic Programming (ILP to infer indexing rules that may be used to produce automatic indexing recommendations for MEDLINE indexers. Results: Our results show that this original ILP-based approach outperforms manual rules when they exist. In addition, the use of ILP rules also improves the overall performance of the Medical Text Indexer (MTI, a system producing automatic indexing recommendations for MEDLINE. Conclusion: We expect the sets of ILP rules obtained in this experiment to be integrated into MTI.

  19. 旅游学学科树构建及旅游学研究的时空特征分析--《旅游研究纪事》30年%Discipline Tree and Temporal and Spatial Characteristics of Tourism Studies: An Analysis on Thirty Years of Subject Index of Annals of Tourism Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴必虎; 邢珏珏

    2005-01-01

    本文对国际旅游学界权威学术刊物(Annals of Tourism Research)在1973~2003年间的(Subject Index)进行了统计研究,以此为依据绘制了旅游学学科树,并在此基础上分析了旅游学及其分支学科从1973年至今30多年来研究的时空特征.

  20. Cumulative family risks across income levels predict deterioration of children's general health during childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Ching; Seo, Dong-Chul

    2017-01-01

    Family is considered an important agent in the health development of children. This process is significant but quite complex because the prevalence of potential risk factors in the family can hinder children's health. This study examined if multiple family risks might have cumulative effect on children and youth's health across various levels of household income. The data in this study were drawn from the 2011-2012 U.S. National Survey of Children's Health (N = 79,601). A cumulative family risk (CFR) index was developed, which included such constructs as single-parenthood, unstable employment, large family, parenting stress, poor maternal education, poor maternal general health and poor maternal mental health. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that CFR level was significantly related to children and youth's poor health outcome (p families than on those from poor families. Overall there was a consistent pattern of trend in the point estimate as well as confidence limits as levels of affluence and numbers of family risk increased although some of the confidence intervals overlapped. Living in disadvantaged families might serve as a protective factor against CFRs possibly through repeated exposure to hardships and subsequent formation of resilience among some of the disadvantaged children.

  1. PER3 polymorphism predicts cumulative sleep homeostatic but not neurobehavioral changes to chronic partial sleep deprivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namni Goel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The variable number tandem repeat (VNTR polymorphism 5-repeat allele of the circadian gene PERIOD3 (PER3(5/5 has been associated with cognitive decline at a specific circadian phase in response to a night of total sleep deprivation (TSD, relative to the 4-repeat allele (PER3(4/4. PER3(5/5 has also been related to higher sleep homeostasis, which is thought to underlie this cognitive vulnerability. To date, no study has used a candidate gene approach to investigate the response to chronic partial sleep deprivation (PSD, a condition distinct from TSD and one commonly experienced by millions of people on a daily and persistent basis. We evaluated whether the PER3 VNTR polymorphism contributed to cumulative neurobehavioral deficits and sleep homeostatic responses during PSD. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: PER3(5/5 (n = 14, PER3(4/5 (n = 63 and PER3(4/4 (n = 52 healthy adults (aged 22-45 y demonstrated large, but equivalent cumulative decreases in cognitive performance and physiological alertness, and cumulative increases in sleepiness across 5 nights of sleep restricted to 4 h per night. Such effects were accompanied by increasing daily inter-subject variability in all groups. The PER3 genotypes did not differ significantly at baseline in habitual sleep, physiological sleep structure, circadian phase, physiological sleepiness, cognitive performance, or subjective sleepiness, although during PSD, PER3(5/5 subjects had slightly but reliably elevated sleep homeostatic pressure as measured physiologically by EEG slow-wave energy in non-rapid eye movement sleep compared with PER3(4/4 subjects. PER3 genotypic and allelic frequencies did not differ significantly between Caucasians and African Americans. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The PER3 VNTR polymorphism was not associated with individual differences in neurobehavioral responses to PSD, although it was related to one marker of sleep homoeostatic response during PSD. The comparability of PER3

  2. Crane Safety Assessment Method Based on Entropy and Cumulative Prospect Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aihua Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the safety status of cranes is an important problem. To overcome the inaccuracies and misjudgments in such assessments, this work describes a safety assessment method for cranes that combines entropy and cumulative prospect theory. Firstly, the proposed method transforms the set of evaluation indices into an evaluation vector. Secondly, a decision matrix is then constructed from the evaluation vectors and evaluation standards, and an entropy-based technique is applied to calculate the index weights. Thirdly, positive and negative prospect value matrices are established from reference points based on the positive and negative ideal solutions. Thus, this enables the crane safety grade to be determined according to the ranked comprehensive prospect values. Finally, the safety status of four general overhead traveling crane samples is evaluated to verify the rationality and feasibility of the proposed method. The results demonstrate that the method described in this paper can precisely and reasonably reflect the safety status of a crane.

  3. Ecological Network Construction Based on Minimum Cumulative Resistance for the City of Nanjing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihong Dong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With economic growth and the improvement of the urbanization level, human activities have constantly interfered with landscape patterns, resulting in serious threats to regional ecological security. Therefore, it is of great significance to study the evolution and optimization of the landscape patterns. Based on three TM images from 1990, 2000, and 2010, and selected landscape pattern indexes, the changes in the landscape pattern of Nanjing in the past twenty years were studied based on landscape ecology theory using Remote Sensing (RS and a Geographical Information System (GIS. The ecological network was built on the basis of extracted ecological nodes and the minimum cumulative resistance. The results show that changes in the landscape pattern of the city of Nanjing were notable. Class-level indexes indicate that the farmland landscape area decreased and the degree of patch fragmentation increased. The construction land area increased, and it tended to show dispersed distribution. The proportion of forest land increased and the shape of patches became more complex. The proportion of water firstly showed a decrease, followed by an increase, and the shape of the water became more regular. Landscape-level indexes indicate that biological diversity and the degree of fragmentation increased. Spatial heterogeneity of the natural landscape increased, and the patch shape of each landscape type developed similarly. The results also call for stepping-stones to enhance the connectivity and optimization of the ecological network, which will help improve ecological services and improve the landscape pattern of the city.

  4. A cumulative entropy method for distribution recognition of model error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yingjie; Chen, Wen

    2015-02-01

    This paper develops a cumulative entropy method (CEM) to recognize the most suitable distribution for model error. In terms of the CEM, the Lévy stable distribution is employed to capture the statistical properties of model error. The strategies are tested on 250 experiments of axially loaded CFT steel stub columns in conjunction with the four national building codes of Japan (AIJ, 1997), China (DL/T, 1999), the Eurocode 4 (EU4, 2004), and United States (AISC, 2005). The cumulative entropy method is validated as more computationally efficient than the Shannon entropy method. Compared with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and root mean square deviation, the CEM provides alternative and powerful model selection criterion to recognize the most suitable distribution for the model error.

  5. Experience of cumulative effects assessment in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piper Jake

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Cumulative effects assessment (CEA is a development of environmental impact assessment which attempts to take into account the wider picture of what impacts may affect the environment as a result of either multiple or linear projects, or development plans. CEA is seen as a further valuable tool in promoting sustainable development. The broader canvas upon which the assessment is made leads to a suite of issues such as complexity in methods and assessment of significance, the desirability of co-operation between developers and other parties, new ways of addressing mitigation and monitoring. After outlining the legislative position and the process of CEA, this paper looks at three cases studies in the UK where cumulative assessment has been carried out - the cases concern wind farms, major infrastructure and off-shore developments.

  6. Petrogenesis of the nakhlite meteorites - Evidence from cumulate mineral zoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Ralph P.; Mcsween, Harry Y., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to a simple igneous petrogenesis for the meteorite Nakhla, which was previously called into question because Mg/Fe ratios in olivine indicate substantial disequilibrium between the predominant cumulus minerals (olivine and augite). Comparative analyses of simulated diffusive zoning and the observed cumulus mineral zoning for all three nakhlites (Nakhla, Governador Valadares, and Lafayette) show that their current compositions do not necessarily reflect parental magma compositions. Diffusion has altered primary cumulus compositions to varying degrees, Nakhla being the least affected, and Lafayette being almost completely reequilibrated. Since mineral zoning in each meteorite is strongly concentric around mesostasis areas, it is inferred that reaction with intercumulus liquid has controlled the observed zoning. It is argued that the nakhlites appear to be a series of relatively simple cumulate rocks which have undergone various amounts of late-magmatic and subsolidus diffusion, possibly reflecting their relative positions in a cooling cumulate pile.

  7. Determination of radionuclides and pathways contributing to cumulative dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, B.A.

    1992-12-01

    A series of scoping calculations has been undertaken to evaluate the absolute and relative contributions of different radionuclides and exposure pathways to doses that may have been received by individuals living in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. This scoping calculation (Calculation 004) examined the contributions of numerous radionuclides to cumulative dose via environmental exposures and accumulation in foods. Addressed in this calculation were the contributions to organ and effective dose of infants and adults from (1) air submersion and groundshine external dose, (2) inhalation, (3) ingestion of soil by humans, (4) ingestion of leafy vegetables, (5) ingestion of other vegetables and fruits, (6) ingestion of meat, (7) ingestion of eggs, and (8) ingestion of cows' milk from Feeding Regime 1, as described in calculation 002. This calculation specifically addresses cumulative radiation doses to infants and adults resulting from releases occurring over the period 1945 through 1972.

  8. Cumulative impacts of oil fields on northern alaskan landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D A; Webber, P J; Binnian, E F; Everett, K R; Lederer, N D; Nordstrand, E A; Walker, M D

    1987-11-06

    Proposed further developments on Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain raise questions about cumulative effects on arctic tundra ecosystems of development of multiple large oil fields. Maps of historical changes to the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field show indirect impacts can lag behind planned developments by many years and the total area eventually disturbed can greatly exceed the planned area of construction. For example, in the wettest parts of the oil field (flat thaw-lake plains), flooding and thermokarst covered more than twice the area directly affected by roads and other construction activities. Protecting critical wildlife habitat is the central issue for cumulative impact analysis in northern Alaska. Comprehensive landscape planning with the use of geographic information system technology and detailed geobotanical maps can help identify and protect areas of high wildlife use.

  9. Effective Carrier Sensing in CSMA Networks under Cumulative Interference

    CERN Document Server

    Fu, Liqun; Huang, Jianwei

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes and investigates the concept of a safe carrier-sensing range that can guarantee interference safe (also termed hidden-node-free) transmissions in CSMA networks under the cumulative interference model. Compared with the safe carrier-sensing range under the commonly assumed but less realistic pairwise interference model, we show that the safe carrier-sensing range required under the cumulative interference model is larger by a constant multiplicative factor. The concept of a safe carrier-sensing range, although amenable to elegant analytical results, is inherently not compatible with the conventional power threshold carrier-sensing mechanism (e.g., that used in IEEE 802.11). Specifically, the absolute power sensed by a node in the conventional mechanism does not contain enough information for it to derive its distances from other concurrent transmitter nodes. We show that, fortunately, a carrier-sensing mechanism called Incremental-Power Carrier-Sensing (IPCS) can realize the carrier-sensing...

  10. Cumulants and Correlation Functions vs the QCD phase diagram

    CERN Document Server

    Bzdak, Adam; Strodthoff, Nils

    2016-01-01

    In this note we discuss the relation of particle number cumulants and correlation functions related to them. It is argued that measuring couplings of the genuine correlation functions could provide cleaner information on possible non-trivial dynamics in heavy-ion collisions. We extract integrated multi-particle correlation functions from the presently available experimental data on proton cumulants. We find that the STAR data contain significant four-particle correlations, at least at the lower energies, with indication of changing dynamics in central collisions. We also find that these correlations are rather long-ranged in rapidity. Finally based on the signs of genuine correlation functions we provide exclusion plots for the QCD phase diagram.

  11. Cumulants of heat transfer across nonlinear quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huanan; Agarwalla, Bijay Kumar; Li, Baowen; Wang, Jian-Sheng

    2013-12-01

    We consider thermal conduction across a general nonlinear phononic junction. Based on two-time observation protocol and the nonequilibrium Green's function method, heat transfer in steady-state regimes is studied, and practical formulas for the calculation of the cumulant generating function are obtained. As an application, the general formalism is used to study anharmonic effects on fluctuation of steady-state heat transfer across a single-site junction with a quartic nonlinear on-site pinning potential. An explicit nonlinear modification to the cumulant generating function exact up to the first order is given, in which the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation symmetry is found still valid. Numerically a self-consistent procedure is introduced, which works well for strong nonlinearity.

  12. Seasonal climate change patterns due to cumulative CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Leduc, Martin; Damon Matthews, H.

    2017-07-01

    Cumulative CO2 emissions are near linearly related to both global and regional changes in annual-mean surface temperature. These relationships are known as the transient climate response to cumulative CO2 emissions (TCRE) and the regional TCRE (RTCRE), and have been shown to remain approximately constant over a wide range of cumulative emissions. Here, we assessed how well this relationship holds for seasonal patterns of temperature change, as well as for annual-mean and seasonal precipitation patterns. We analyzed an idealized scenario with CO2 concentration growing at an annual rate of 1% using data from 12 Earth system models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Seasonal RTCRE values for temperature varied considerably, with the highest seasonal variation evident in the Arctic, where RTCRE was about 5.5 °C per Tt C for boreal winter and about 2.0 °C per Tt C for boreal summer. Also the precipitation response in the Arctic during boreal winter was stronger than during other seasons. We found that emission-normalized seasonal patterns of temperature change were relatively robust with respect to time, though they were sub-linear with respect to emissions particularly near the Arctic. Moreover, RTCRE patterns for precipitation could not be quantified robustly due to the large internal variability of precipitation. Our results suggest that cumulative CO2 emissions are a useful metric to predict regional and seasonal changes in precipitation and temperature. This extension of the TCRE framework to seasonal and regional climate change is helpful for communicating the link between emissions and climate change to policy-makers and the general public, and is well-suited for impact studies that could make use of estimated regional-scale climate changes that are consistent with the carbon budgets associated with global temperature targets.

  13. Heavy metal cumulation in crops after the sewage sludge application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gondová Andrea

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available During 1995 - 1996 the crops samples after the sewage sludge application were collected. The heavy metals cumulation in investigated crops from Bardejov increased in order: Zn > Cu > Pb > Ni > Cr > Cd and Banská Bystrica : Zn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Pb > Cd. Heavy metals contents after the sewage sludge application were increased in comparison with the highest admissible concentration in eatable part of crops. The sewage sludge application were not recommended in soils for the growth of vegetables

  14. Finite-volume cumulant expansion in QCD-colorless plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladrem, M. [Taibah University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Madinah, Al-Munawwarah (Saudi Arabia); Physics Department, Algiers (Algeria); ENS-Vieux Kouba (Bachir El-Ibrahimi), Laboratoire de Physique et de Mathematiques Appliquees (LPMA), Algiers (Algeria); Ahmed, M.A.A. [Taibah University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Madinah, Al-Munawwarah (Saudi Arabia); ENS-Vieux Kouba (Bachir El-Ibrahimi), Laboratoire de Physique et de Mathematiques Appliquees (LPMA), Algiers (Algeria); Taiz University in Turba, Physics Department, Taiz (Yemen); Alfull, Z.Z. [Taibah University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Madinah, Al-Munawwarah (Saudi Arabia); Cherif, S. [ENS-Vieux Kouba (Bachir El-Ibrahimi), Laboratoire de Physique et de Mathematiques Appliquees (LPMA), Algiers (Algeria); Ghardaia University, Sciences and Technologies Department, Ghardaia (Algeria)

    2015-09-15

    Due to the finite-size effects, the localization of the phase transition in finite systems and the determination of its order, become an extremely difficult task, even in the simplest known cases. In order to identify and locate the finite-volume transition point T{sub 0}(V) of the QCD deconfinement phase transition to a colorless QGP, we have developed a new approach using the finite-size cumulant expansion of the order parameter and the L{sub mn}-method. The first six cumulants C{sub 1,2,3,4,5,6} with the corresponding under-normalized ratios (skewness Σ, kurtosis κ, pentosis Π{sub ±}, and hexosis H{sub 1,2,3}) and three unnormalized combinations of them, (O = σ{sup 2}κΣ{sup -1},U = σ{sup -2}Σ{sup -1},N = σ{sup 2}κ) are calculated and studied as functions of (T, V). A new approach, unifying in a clear and consistent way the definitions of cumulant ratios, is proposed.Anumerical FSS analysis of the obtained results has allowed us to locate accurately the finite-volume transition point. The extracted transition temperature value T{sub 0}(V) agrees with that expected T{sub 0}{sup N}(V) from the order parameter and the thermal susceptibility χ{sub T} (T, V), according to the standard procedure of localization to within about 2%. In addition to this, a very good correlation factor is obtained proving the validity of our cumulants method. The agreement of our results with those obtained by means of other models is remarkable. (orig.)

  15. The cumulation of methylmercury in fish (Poecilia reticulata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stary, J.; Kratzer, K.; Havlik, B.; Prasilova, J.; Hanusova, J.

    1980-01-01

    Methylmercury labelled with mercury-203 was used for the investigation of the uptake and the release of methylmercury in fish. It has been found that methylmercury compounds adsorbed on fish food remain completely in fish and that they are released with the biological half-time of 110 days. The cumulation of methylmercury from water is very rapid. Equations for the calculation of the concentration of methylmercury in fish were derived and compared with the uptake of phenylmercury and inorganic mercury.

  16. Erupted cumulate fragments in rhyolites from Lipari (Aeolian Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forni, Francesca; Ellis, Ben S.; Bachmann, Olivier; Lucchi, Federico; Tranne, Claudio A.; Agostini, Samuele; Dallai, Luigi

    2015-12-01

    Over the last ~267 ky, the island of Lipari has erupted magmas ranging in compositions from basaltic andesites to rhyolites, with a notable compositional gap in the dacite field. Bulk geochemical and isotopic compositions of the volcanic succession, in conjunction with major and trace elemental compositions of minerals, indicate that the rhyolites were dominantly generated via crystal fractionation processes, with subordinate assimilation. Radiogenic (Sr, Nd, and Pb) and stable (O) isotopes independently suggest ≤30 % of crustal contamination with the majority of it occurring in mafic compositions, likely relatively deep in the system. Within the rhyolites, crystal-rich, K2O-rich enclaves are common. In contrast to previous interpretations, we suggest that these enclaves represent partial melting, remobilization and eruption of cumulate fragments left-over from rhyolite melt extraction. Cumulate melting and remobilization is supported by the presence of (1) resorbed, low-temperature minerals (biotite and sanidine), providing the potassic signature to these clasts, (2) reacted Fo-rich olivine, marking the presence of mafic recharge, (3) An38-21 plagioclase, filling the gap in feldspar composition between the andesites and the rhyolites and (4) strong enrichment in Sr and Ba in plagioclase and sanidine, suggesting crystallization from a locally enriched melt. Based on Sr-melt partitioning, the high-Sr plagioclase would require ~2300 ppm Sr in the melt, a value far in excess of Sr contents in Lipari and Vulcano magmas (50-1532 ppm) but consistent with melting of a feldspar-rich cumulate. Due to the presence of similar crystal-rich enclaves within the rhyolites from Vulcano, we propose that the eruption of remobilized cumulates associated with high-SiO2 rhyolites may be a common process at the Aeolian volcanoes, as already attested for a variety of volcanic systems around the world.

  17. Relations between a novel, reliable, and rapid index of arterial compliance (PP-HDI) and well-established inidices of arterial blood pressure (ABP) in a sample of hypertensive elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamini, L; Finelli, M E; Bendini, C; Ferrari, E; Veschi, M; Neviani, F; Manni, B; Pelosi, A; Rioli, G; Neri, M

    2009-01-01

    Hypertension is a risk factor for a long-lasting arterial wall-remodelling leading to stiffness. The rapid method measuring the pulse pressure (PP) by means of the tool of Hypertension Diagnostic Instruments (HDI) called PP-HDI, overcomes some of the problems arising with more-time consuming methods, like ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), and give information about the elasticity of the arterial walls. We studied the relationship between the PP-HDI, the large artery compliance (LA-C) and small artery compliance (SA-C) and few well-established indices of arterial blood pressure (ABP) in a sample of 75 hypertensive subjects, aged 65 years and over. Significant correlations between LA-C and heart rate (HR), PP-ABPM and PP-HDI were found. SA-C relates with HR and systolic blood pressure (SBP) measured in lying and standing positions. Applying a stepwise regression analysis, we found that LA-C variance stems from PP-HDI and HR, while SA-C variance stems from SBP in lying position. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves for thresholds of PP showed that PP-HDI reached levels of sensitivity/specificity similar to PP-ABPM. In conclusion, surveillance of ABP through hemo-dynamic indices, in particular of SBP, is essential, nevertheless the advantage of this control is not known in an elderly population where the organ damage is already evident. PP needs necessarily an instrumental measurement. The PP-HDI result is similar in reliability with respect to PPABPM, but is more rapid and well applicable in an elderly population.

  18. The effect of water loading on the urinary ratio of cortisone to cortisol in healthy subjects and a new approach to the evaluation of the ratio as an index for in vivo human 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokokawa, Akitomo; Takasaka, Toru; Shibasaki, Hiromi; Kasuya, Yasuji; Kawashima, Soko; Yamada, Akira; Furuta, Takashi

    2012-10-01

    Factors that give rise to a large variation in the urinary ratio of free cortisone to cortisol (UFE/UFF) were investigated to accurately estimate 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11β-HSD2) activity in humans in vivo. A water loading test was first carried out in two healthy subjects to examine the effect of water intake or urine volume on the urinary ratio of free cortisone to cortisol (UFE/UFF). The ratio was found to increase by water loading. We also examined urinary concentrations and amounts of cortisol, cortisone, creatinine, Na(+), K(+), and Cl(-), and urine volume, as possible factors affecting the urinary ratio (UFE/UFF), in 60 urine samples obtained from 15 healthy volunteers. Among these factors tested, the urinary concentration of cortisol was most highly correlated with the UFE/UFF ratio (r=-0.858), indicating that the in vivo activity of 11β-HSD2 (UFE/UFF) should fluctuate with the changes of the urinary concentration of cortisol. Based on the findings, we proposed a new estimation method of in vivo activity of 11β-HSD2 in humans, using the UFE/UFF ratio correlated with the urinary concentration of cortisol (UFE/UFF-cortisol concentration). Taking into consideration the intra-individual variabilities in the urinary concentration of cortisol, there were no significant within-day variations in 11β-HSD2 activity. The findings indicate that 11β-HSD2 activities can be accurately evaluated by simply measuring free cortisol and cortisone concentrations in spot urine samples. Furthermore, administrations of glycyrrhetinic acid in three healthy volunteers were performed to confirm the usefulness of the present assessment for the activity of 11β-HSD2. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cumulative Risk Assessment Toolbox: Methods and Approaches for the Practitioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret M. MacDonell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The historical approach to assessing health risks of environmental chemicals has been to evaluate them one at a time. In fact, we are exposed every day to a wide variety of chemicals and are increasingly aware of potential health implications. Although considerable progress has been made in the science underlying risk assessments for real-world exposures, implementation has lagged because many practitioners are unaware of methods and tools available to support these analyses. To address this issue, the US Environmental Protection Agency developed a toolbox of cumulative risk resources for contaminated sites, as part of a resource document that was published in 2007. This paper highlights information for nearly 80 resources from the toolbox and provides selected updates, with practical notes for cumulative risk applications. Resources are organized according to the main elements of the assessment process: (1 planning, scoping, and problem formulation; (2 environmental fate and transport; (3 exposure analysis extending to human factors; (4 toxicity analysis; and (5 risk and uncertainty characterization, including presentation of results. In addition to providing online access, plans for the toolbox include addressing nonchemical stressors and applications beyond contaminated sites and further strengthening resource accessibility to support evolving analyses for cumulative risk and sustainable communities.

  20. Finite Volume Cumulant Expansion in QCD-Colorless Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Ladrem, M; Al-Full, Z; Cherif, S

    2015-01-01

    Due to the finite size effects, the localisation of the phase transition in finite systems and the determination of its order, become an extremely difficult task, even in the simplest known cases. In order to identify and locate the finite volume transition point $T_{0}(V)$ of the QCD deconfinement phase transition to a Colorless QGP, we have developed a new approach using the finite size cumulant expansion of the order parameter and the $L_{mn}$-method. The first six cumulants $C_{1,2,3,4,5,6}$ with the corresponding under-normalized ratios(skewness $\\Sigma$, kurtosis $\\kappa$ ,pentosis $\\Pi_{\\pm}$ and hexosis $\\mathcal{H}_{1,2,3}$) and three unnormalized combinations of them ($\\mathcal{O}={\\mathcal{\\sigma }^{2} \\mathcal{\\kappa } }{\\mathbf{\\Sigma }^{-1} }$, $\\mathcal{U} ={\\mathcal{\\sigma }^{-2} \\mathbf{\\Sigma }^{-1} }$, $\\mathcal{N} = \\mathcal{\\sigma }^{2} \\mathcal{\\kappa }$) are calculated and studied as functions of $(T,V)$. A new approach, unifying in a clear and consistent way the definitions of cumulant...

  1. Cumulative Risk Assessment Toolbox: Methods and Approaches for the Practitioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonell, Margaret M.; Haroun, Lynne A.; Teuschler, Linda K.; Rice, Glenn E.; Hertzberg, Richard C.; Butler, James P.; Chang, Young-Soo; Clark, Shanna L.; Johns, Alan P.; Perry, Camarie S.; Garcia, Shannon S.; Jacobi, John H.; Scofield, Marcienne A.

    2013-01-01

    The historical approach to assessing health risks of environmental chemicals has been to evaluate them one at a time. In fact, we are exposed every day to a wide variety of chemicals and are increasingly aware of potential health implications. Although considerable progress has been made in the science underlying risk assessments for real-world exposures, implementation has lagged because many practitioners are unaware of methods and tools available to support these analyses. To address this issue, the US Environmental Protection Agency developed a toolbox of cumulative risk resources for contaminated sites, as part of a resource document that was published in 2007. This paper highlights information for nearly 80 resources from the toolbox and provides selected updates, with practical notes for cumulative risk applications. Resources are organized according to the main elements of the assessment process: (1) planning, scoping, and problem formulation; (2) environmental fate and transport; (3) exposure analysis extending to human factors; (4) toxicity analysis; and (5) risk and uncertainty characterization, including presentation of results. In addition to providing online access, plans for the toolbox include addressing nonchemical stressors and applications beyond contaminated sites and further strengthening resource accessibility to support evolving analyses for cumulative risk and sustainable communities. PMID:23762048

  2. 4D Near-Field Source Localization Using Cumulant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Feng

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new cumulant-based algorithm to jointly estimate four-dimensional (4D source parameters of multiple near-field narrowband sources. Firstly, this approach proposes a new cross-array, and constructs five high-dimensional Toeplitz matrices using the fourth-order cumulants of some properly chosen sensor outputs; secondly, it forms a parallel factor (PARAFAC model in the cumulant domain using these matrices, and analyzes the unique low-rank decomposition of this model; thirdly, it jointly estimates the frequency, two-dimensional (2D directions-of-arrival (DOAs, and range of each near-field source from the matrices via the low-rank three-way array (TWA decomposition. In comparison with some available methods, the proposed algorithm, which efficiently makes use of the array aperture, can localize sources using sensors. In addition, it requires neither pairing parameters nor multidimensional search. Simulation results are presented to validate the performance of the proposed method.

  3. 4D Near-Field Source Localization Using Cumulant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junying Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new cumulant-based algorithm to jointly estimate four-dimensional (4D source parameters of multiple near-field narrowband sources. Firstly, this approach proposes a new cross-array, and constructs five high-dimensional Toeplitz matrices using the fourth-order cumulants of some properly chosen sensor outputs; secondly, it forms a parallel factor (PARAFAC model in the cumulant domain using these matrices, and analyzes the unique low-rank decomposition of this model; thirdly, it jointly estimates the frequency, two-dimensional (2D directions-of-arrival (DOAs, and range of each near-field source from the matrices via the low-rank three-way array (TWA decomposition. In comparison with some available methods, the proposed algorithm, which efficiently makes use of the array aperture, can localize N−3 sources using N sensors. In addition, it requires neither pairing parameters nor multidimensional search. Simulation results are presented to validate the performance of the proposed method.

  4. Cumulative risk: toxicity and interactions of physical and chemical stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, Cynthia V; Boekelheide, Kim; Catlin, Natasha; Gordon, Christopher J; Morata, Thais; Selgrade, Maryjane K; Sexton, Kenneth; Simmons, Jane Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Recent efforts to update cumulative risk assessment procedures to incorporate nonchemical stressors ranging from physical to psychosocial reflect increased interest in consideration of the totality of variables affecting human health and the growing desire to develop community-based risk assessment methods. A key roadblock is the uncertainty as to how nonchemical stressors behave in relationship to chemical stressors. Physical stressors offer a reasonable starting place for measuring the effects of nonchemical stressors and their modulation of chemical effects (and vice versa), as they clearly differ from chemical stressors; and "doses" of many physical stressors are more easily quantifiable than those of psychosocial stressors. There is a commonly held belief that virtually nothing is known about the impact of nonchemical stressors on chemically mediated toxicity or the joint impact of coexposure to chemical and nonchemical stressors. Although this is generally true, there are several instances where a substantial body of evidence exists. A workshop titled "Cumulative Risk: Toxicity and Interactions of Physical and Chemical Stressors" held at the 2013 Society of Toxicology Annual Meeting provided a forum for discussion of research addressing the toxicity of physical stressors and what is known about their interactions with chemical stressors, both in terms of exposure and effects. Physical stressors including sunlight, heat, radiation, infectious disease, and noise were discussed in reference to identifying pathways of interaction with chemical stressors, data gaps, and suggestions for future incorporation into cumulative risk assessments.

  5. Childhood poverty and health: cumulative risk exposure and stress dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gary W; Kim, Pilyoung

    2007-11-01

    A massive literature documents the inverse association between poverty or low socioeconomic status and health, but little is known about the mechanisms underlying this robust relation. We examined longitudinal relations between duration of poverty exposure since birth, cumulative risk exposure, and physiological stress in two hundred seven 13-year-olds. Chronic stress was assessed by basal blood pressure and overnight cortisol levels; stress regulation was assessed by cardiovascular reactivity to a standard acute stressor and recovery after exposure to this stressor. Cumulative risk exposure was measured by multiple physical (e.g., substandard housing) and social (e.g., family turmoil) risk factors. The greater the number of years spent living in poverty, the more elevated was overnight cortisol and the more dysregulated was the cardiovascular response (i.e., muted reactivity). Cardiovascular recovery was not affected by duration of poverty exposure. Unlike the duration of poverty exposure, concurrent poverty (i.e., during adolescence) did not affect these physiological stress outcomes. The effects of childhood poverty on stress dysregulation are largely explained by cumulative risk exposure accompanying childhood poverty.

  6. Multiway Filtering Based on Fourth-Order Cumulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Bourennane

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new multiway filtering based on fourth-order cumulants for the denoising of noisy data tensor with correlated Gaussian noise. The classical multiway filtering is based on the TUCKALS3 algorithm that computes a lower-rank tensor approximation. The presented method relies on the statistics of the analyzed multicomponent signal. We first recall how the well-known lower rank-(K1,…,KN tensor approximation processed by TUCKALS3 alternating least square algorithm exploits second-order statistics. Then, we propose to introduce the fourth-order statistics in the TUCKALS3-based method. Indeed, the use of fourth-order cumulants enables to remove the Gaussian components of an additive noise. In the presented method the estimation of the n-mode projector on the n-mode signal subspace are built from the eigenvectors associated with the largest eigenvalues of a fourth-order cumulant slice matrix instead of a covariance matrix. Each projector is applied by means of the n-mode product operator on the n-mode of the data tensor. The qualitative results of the improved multiway TUCKALS3-based filterings are shown for the case of noise reduction in a color image and multicomponent seismic data.

  7. Cumulative risk hypothesis: Predicting and preventing child maltreatment recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, David; Åsberg, Kia; Peer, Samuel; Prince, Gwendolyn

    2016-08-01

    Although Child Protective Services (CPS) and other child welfare agencies aim to prevent further maltreatment in cases of child abuse and neglect, recidivism is common. Having a better understanding of recidivism predictors could aid in preventing additional instances of maltreatment. A previous study identified two CPS interventions that predicted recidivism: psychotherapy for the parent, which was related to a reduced risk of recidivism, and temporary removal of the child from the parent's custody, which was related to an increased recidivism risk. However, counter to expectations, this previous study did not identify any other specific risk factors related to maltreatment recidivism. For the current study, it was hypothesized that (a) cumulative risk (i.e., the total number of risk factors) would significantly predict maltreatment recidivism above and beyond intervention variables in a sample of CPS case files and that (b) therapy for the parent would be related to a reduced likelihood of recidivism. Because it was believed that the relation between temporary removal of a child from the parent's custody and maltreatment recidivism is explained by cumulative risk, the study also hypothesized that that the relation between temporary removal of the child from the parent's custody and recidivism would be mediated by cumulative risk. After performing a hierarchical logistic regression analysis, the first two hypotheses were supported, and an additional predictor, psychotherapy for the child, also was related to reduced chances of recidivism. However, Hypothesis 3 was not supported, as risk did not significantly mediate the relation between temporary removal and recidivism.

  8. Ocular lens blue autofluorescence cannot be used as a measure of individual cumulative UVR exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandby-Møller, Jane; Thieden, Elisabeth; Alshede Philipsen, Peter; Schmidt, Grethe; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2004-02-01

    The accumulation of fluorophores in the ocular lens with age might be caused by ultraviolet solar radiation (UVR) exposure, but evidence of a relation between individual cumulative UVR exposure and lens autofluorescence is lacking. Individually determined UVR exposure has never before been related to lens autofluorescence, and the aim of this study was to investigate if ocular lens blue autofluorescence can be used as a biological UVR dosimeter. Ocular lens autofluorescence was quantified in vivo by fluorescence spectroscopy in 145 volunteers (108 healthy subjects, 18 with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and 19 with cutaneous malignant melanoma (MM)). The excitation wavelength was 350 nm and the fluorescence emission was 450 nm. Individual UVR exposure data were collected both retrospectively and prospectively using questionnaires and electronic personal UVR dosimeters. Lens blue autofluorescence increased significantly with age (P=0.01), and females had significantly higher autofluorescence than males (P=0.024); the two factors explained 10% of the total variation in lens autofluorescence. Neither smoking habits nor use of glasses/contact lenses or sunglasses influenced autofluorescence. No correlations between autofluorescence and UVR exposure measurements were found, and neither was there a difference in autofluorescence between groups with high and low UVR exposure (P-values>0.1), respectively. MM patients had significantly (P=0.019) higher autofluorescence than healthy subjects when age and sex differences were taken into account; no such difference (P=0.097) was detected between BCC patients and healthy subjects. The results indicate that age and gender only play a minor role in the level of lens blue autofluorescence. Exposure to UVR has been suggested to be responsible for a part of the age-related increase in autofluorescence, but this could not be confirmed in this study. The higher level of lens autofluorescence found in MM patients might be due to genetics

  9. El Carreto o Cumulá - Aspidosperma Dugandii Standl El Carreto o Cumulá - Aspidosperma Dugandii Standl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugand Armando

    1944-03-01

    Full Text Available Nombres vulgares: Carreto (Atlántico, Bolívar, Magdalena; Cumulá, Cumulá (Cundinamarca, ToIima. Según el Dr. Emilio Robledo (Lecciones de Bot. ed. 3, 2: 544. 1939 el nombre Carreto también es empleado en Puerto Berrío (Antioquia. El mismo autor (loc. cit. da el nombre Comulá para una especie indeterminada de Viburnum en Mariquita (Tolima y J. M. Duque, refiriendose a la misma planta y localidad (en Bot. Gen. Colomb. 340, 356. 1943 atribuye este nombre vulgar al Aspidosperma ellipticum Rusby.  Sin embargo, las muestras de madera de Cumulá o Comulá que yo he examinado, procedentes de la región de Mariquita -una de las cuales me fue recientemente enviada por el distinguido ictiólogo Sr. Cecil Miles- pertenecen sin duda alguna al A. Dugandii StandI. Por otra parte, Santiago Cortés (FI. Colomb. 206. 1898; ed, 2: 239. 1912 cita el Cumulá "de Anapoima y otros lugares del (rio Magdalena" diciendo que pertenece a las Leguminosas, pero la brevísima descripción que este autor hace de la madera "naranjada y notable por densidad, dureza y resistencia a la humedad", me induce a creer que se trata del mismo Cumula coleccionado recientemente en Tocaima, ya que esta población esta situada a pocos kilómetros de Anapoima. Nombres vulgares: Carreto (Atlántico, Bolívar, Magdalena; Cumulá, Cumulá (Cundinamarca, ToIima. Según el Dr. Emilio Robledo (Lecciones de Bot. ed. 3, 2: 544. 1939 el nombre Carreto también es empleado en Puerto Berrío (Antioquia. El mismo autor (loc. cit. da el nombre Comulá para una especie indeterminada de Viburnum en Mariquita (Tolima y J. M. Duque, refiriendose a la misma planta y localidad (en Bot. Gen. Colomb. 340, 356. 1943 atribuye este nombre vulgar al Aspidosperma ellipticum Rusby.  Sin embargo, las muestras de madera de Cumulá o Comulá que yo he examinado, procedentes de la región de Mariquita -una de las cuales me fue recientemente enviada por el distinguido ictiólogo Sr. Cecil Miles- pertenecen sin

  10. Do Multiple Concussions Lead to Cumulative Cognitive Deficits? A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumul, Joy Noelle; McKinlay, Audrey

    2016-11-01

    A concussion is an important health concern for children and adolescents, particularly in the context of sporting injuries. Some research suggests a cumulative effect from multiple concussions (also referred to as mild traumatic brain injury), which creates a dilemma when considering how to manage children and young persons who may experience multiple concussive events within a sporting season. However, there is very little research regarding the outcomes of multiple concussions and their optimal management. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the evidence regarding the cognitive outcomes of multiple concussions. After assessing the eligibility of the articles from the literature search, 7 studies were identified and included in the review. In most of the available literature, the cognitive outcomes related to multiple concussions are measured during the same developmental age as when the injuries happened. Moreover, most studies that investigated multiple concussions are focused on sports-related injuries, and only some are conducted in children and adolescents in the general population. The current evidence is inconclusive; whereas some studies reported adverse outcomes, others reported null findings. The studies that reported adverse or cumulative effects based their findings on worse cognitive outcomes, more subjective symptoms, and prolonged recovery postinjury. II. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Role of baseline antral follicle count and anti-Mullerian hormone in prediction of cumulative live birth in the first in vitro fertilisation cycle: a retrospective cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hang Wun Raymond; Lee, Vivian Chi Yan; Lau, Estella Yee Lan; Yeung, William Shu Biu; Ho, Pak Chung; Ng, Ernest Hung Yu

    2013-01-01

    This retrospective study determined for the first time the role of baseline antral follicle count (AFC) and serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) level in the first in-vitro fertilisation (IVF) cycle in predicting cumulative live birth from one stimulation cycle. We studied 1,156 women (median age 35 years) undergoing the first IVF cycle. Baseline AFC and AMH level on the day before ovarian stimulation were analysed. The main outcome measure was cumulative live birth in the fresh plus all the frozen embryo transfers after the same stimulation cycle. Serum AMH was significantly correlated with AFC. Both AMH and AFC showed significant correlation with age and ovarian response in the stimulated cycle and total number of transferrable embryos. Baseline AFC and serum AMH were significantly higher in subjects attaining a live birth than those who did not in the fresh stimulated cycle, as well as those attaining cumulative live birth. There was a significant trend of higher cumulative live birth rate in women with higher AMH or AFC. However, logistic regression revealed that both AMH and AFC were not significant predictors of cumulative live birth after adjusting for age and number of embryos available for transfer. Considering only one single predictor, the areas under the ROC curves for AMH (0.646, 95% CI 0.616-0.675) and age (0.648, 95% CI 0.618-0.677) were slightly higher than that for AFC (0.617, 95% CI 0.587-0.647) in predicting cumulative live birth. However, a model combining AMH (with or without AFC) and age of the women only classified an addition of less than 2% of subjects correctly compared to the model with age alone. Baseline AFC and serum AMH have only modest predictive performance on the occurrence of cumulative live birth, and may not give additional value on top of the women's age.

  12. Comparison of competing risks models based on cumulative incidence function in analyzing time to cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianatkhah, Minoo; Rahgozar, Mehdi; Talaei, Mohammad; Karimloua, Masoud; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Oveisgharan, Shahram; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2014-01-01

    Competing risks arise when the subject is exposed to more than one cause of failure. Data consists of the time that the subject failed and an indicator of which risk caused the subject to fail. With three approaches consisting of Fine and Gray, binomial, and pseudo-value, all of which are directly based on cumulative incidence function, cardiovascular disease data of the Isfahan Cohort Study were analyzed. Validity of proportionality assumption for these approaches is the basis for selecting appropriate models. Such as for the Fine and Gray model, establishing proportionality assumption is necessary. In the binomial approach, a parametric, non-parametric, or semi-parametric model was offered according to validity of assumption. However, pseudo-value approaches do not need to establish proportionality. Following fitting the models to data, slight differences in parameters and variances estimates were seen among models. This showed that semi-parametric multiplicative model and the two models based on pseudo-value approach could be used for fitting this kind of data. We would recommend considering the use of competing risk models instead of normal survival methods when subjects are exposed to more than one cause of failure.

  13. A Conceptual Framework for the Assessment of Cumulative Exposure to Air Pollution at a Fine Spatial Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahida, Kihal-Talantikite; Padilla, Cindy M; Denis, Zmirou-Navier; Olivier, Blanchard; Géraldine, Le Nir; Philippe, Quenel; Séverine, Deguen

    2016-03-15

    Many epidemiological studies examining long-term health effects of exposure to air pollutants have characterized exposure by the outdoor air concentrations at sites that may be distant to subjects' residences at different points in time. The temporal and spatial mobility of subjects and the spatial scale of exposure assessment could thus lead to misclassification in the cumulative exposure estimation. This paper attempts to fill the gap regarding cumulative exposure assessment to air pollution at a fine spatial scale in epidemiological studies investigating long-term health effects. We propose a conceptual framework showing how major difficulties in cumulative long-term exposure assessment could be surmounted. We then illustrate this conceptual model on the case of exposure to NO₂ following two steps: (i) retrospective reconstitution of NO₂ concentrations at a fine spatial scale; and (ii) a novel approach to assigning the time-relevant exposure estimates at the census block level, using all available data on residential mobility throughout a 10- to 20-year period prior to that for which the health events are to be detected. Our conceptual framework is both flexible and convenient for the needs of different epidemiological study designs.

  14. The role of cumulative physical work load in symptomatic knee osteoarthritis – a case-control study in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolmaali Nasreddin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To examine the dose-response relationship between cumulative exposure to kneeling and squatting as well as to lifting and carrying of loads and symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA in a population-based case-control study. Methods In five orthopedic clinics and five practices we recruited 295 male patients aged 25 to 70 with radiographically confirmed knee osteoarthritis associated with chronic complaints. A total of 327 male control subjects were recruited. Data were gathered in a structured personal interview. To calculate cumulative exposure, the self-reported duration of kneeling and squatting as well as the duration of lifting and carrying of loads were summed up over the entire working life. Results The results of our study support a dose-response relationship between kneeling/squatting and symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. For a cumulative exposure to kneeling and squatting > 10.800 hours, the risk of having radiographically confirmed knee osteoarthritis as measured by the odds ratio (adjusted for age, region, weight, jogging/athletics, and lifting or carrying of loads is 2.4 (95% CI 1.1–5.0 compared to unexposed subjects. Lifting and carrying of loads is significantly associated with knee osteoarthritis independent of kneeling or similar activities. Conclusion As the knee osteoarthritis risk is strongly elevated in occupations that involve both kneeling/squatting and heavy lifting/carrying, preventive efforts should particularly focus on these "high-risk occupations".

  15. Scientific Journal Indexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getulio Teixeira Batista

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available It is quite impressive the visibility of online publishing compared to offline. Lawrence (2001 computed the percentage increase across 1,494 venues containing at least five offline and five online articles. Results shown an average of 336% more citations to online articles compared to offline articles published in the same venue. If articles published in the same venue are of similar quality, then they concluded that online articles are more highly cited because of their easier access. Thomson Scientific, traditionally concerned with printed journals, announced on November 28, 2005, the launch of Web Citation Index™, the multidisciplinary citation index of scholarly content from institutional and subject-based repositories (http://scientific.thomson. com/press/2005/8298416/. The Web Citation Index from the abstracting and indexing (A&I connects together pre-print articles, institutional repositories and open access (OA journals (Chillingworth, 2005. Basically all research funds are government granted funds, tax payer’s supported and therefore, results should be made freely available to the community. Free online availability facilitates access to research findings, maximizes interaction among research groups, and optimizes efforts and research funds efficiency. Therefore, Ambi-Água is committed to provide free access to its articles. An important aspect of Ambi-Água is the publication and management system of this journal. It uses the Electronic System for Journal Publishing (SEER - http://www.ibict.br/secao.php?cat=SEER. This system was translated and customized by the Brazilian Institute for Science and Technology Information (IBICT based on the software developed by the Public Knowledge Project (Open Journal Systems of the British Columbia University (http://pkp.sfu.ca/ojs/. The big advantage of using this system is that it is compatible with the OAI-PMH protocol for metadata harvesting what greatly promotes published articles

  16. Probabilistic assessment of the cumulative dietary acute exposure of the population of Denmark to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Christensen, Tue

    2009-01-01

    Organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides are acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides and as such have a common mode of action. We assessed the cumulative acute exposure of the population of Denmark to 25 organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide residues from the consumption of fruit, vegetables...... the nationwide dietary survey conducted in 2000-2002. Contributions from 43 commodities were included in the calculations. We used the relative potency factor (RPF) approach to normalize the toxicity of the various organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides to the two index compounds chlorpyriphos...

  17. Mismatch or cumulative stress : Toward an integrated hypothesis of programming effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhof, Esther; Schmidt, Mathias V.

    2012-01-01

    This paper integrates the cumulative stress hypothesis with the mismatch hypothesis, taking into account individual differences in sensitivity to programming. According to the cumulative stress hypothesis, individuals are more likely to suffer from disease as adversity accumulates. According to the

  18. Indexes to Nuclear Regulatory Commission Issuances, January 1996--June 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    Digests and indexes for issuances of the Commission, the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel, The Administrative Law Judges, the Director`s Decisions, and the Decisions on Petitions for Rulemaking are presented in this document. The digests and indexes are intended to serve as a guide to the issuances. Information elements common the cases hear and ruled upon are displayed in one or more of five formats: case name index, headers and digests, legal citations index, subject index, and facility index.

  19. Mapping cumulative noise from shipping to inform marine spatial planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbe, Christine; MacGillivray, Alexander; Williams, Rob

    2012-11-01

    Including ocean noise in marine spatial planning requires predictions of noise levels on large spatiotemporal scales. Based on a simple sound transmission model and ship track data (Automatic Identification System, AIS), cumulative underwater acoustic energy from shipping was mapped throughout 2008 in the west Canadian Exclusive Economic Zone, showing high noise levels in critical habitats for endangered resident killer whales, exceeding limits of "good conservation status" under the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Error analysis proved that rough calculations of noise occurrence and propagation can form a basis for management processes, because spending resources on unnecessary detail is wasteful and delays remedial action.

  20. The Carvedilol Prospective Randomized Cumulative Survival (COPERNICUS) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, Eric J; Bristow, Michael R

    2001-01-01

    Previous trials (Metoprolol CR/XL Randomised Intervention Trial in Congestive Heart Failure [MERIT-HF], Cardiac Insufficiency Bisoprolol Study [CIBIS] II) have demonstrated a mortality benefit of beta-adrenergic blockade in patients with mild to moderate heart failure. The recent Carvedilol Prospective Randomized Cumulative Survival (COPERNICUS) trial has extended these results to a more advanced patient population. This trial did not, however, include patients who could not reach compensation, patients with far advanced heart failure symptoms, or a significant number of black patients. Future studies of beta-blockade may focus on these patients or patients with asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction.

  1. Neutron source capability assessment for cumulative fission yields measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Descalle, M A; Dekin, W; Kenneally, J

    2011-04-06

    A recent analysis of high-quality cumulative fission yields data for Pu-239 published in the peer-reviewed literature showed that the quoted experimental uncertainties do not allow a clear statement on how the fission yields vary as a function of energy. [Prussin2009] To make such a statement requires a set of experiments with well 'controlled' and understood sources of experimental errors to reduce uncertainties as low as possible, ideally in the 1 to 2% range. The Inter Laboratory Working Group (ILWOG) determined that Directed Stockpile Work (DSW) would benefit from an experimental program with the stated goal to reduce the measurement uncertainties significantly in order to make a definitive statement of the relationship of energy dependence to the cumulative fission yields. Following recent discussions between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), there is a renewed interest in developing a concerted experimental program to measure fission yields in a neutron energy range from thermal energy (0.025 eV) to 14 MeV with an emphasis on discrete energies from 0.5 to 4 MeV. Ideally, fission yields would be measured at single energies, however, in practice there are only 'quasi-monoenergetic' neutrons sources of finite width. This report outlines a capability assessment as of June 2011 of available neutron sources that could be used as part of a concerted experimental program to measure cumulative fission yields. In a framework of international collaborations, capabilities available in the United States, at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) in the United Kingdom and at the Commissariat Energie Atomique (CEA) in France are listed. There is a need to develop an experimental program that will reduce the measurement uncertainties significantly in order to make a definitive statement of the relationship of energy dependence to the cumulative fission yields. Fission and monoenergetic neutron sources

  2. The Carvedilol Prospective Randomized Cumulative Survival (COPERNICUS trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bristow Michael R

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Previous trials (Metoprolol CR/XL Randomised Intervention Trial in Congestive Heart Failure [MERIT-HF], Cardiac Insufficiency Bisoprolol Study [CIBIS] II have demonstrated a mortality benefit of β-adrenergic blockade in patients with mild to moderate heart failure. The recent Carvedilol Prospective Randomized Cumulative Survival (COPERNICUS trial has extended these results to a more advanced patient population. This trial did not, however, include patients who could not reach compensation, patients with far advanced heart failure symptoms, or a significant number of black patients. Future studies of β-blockade may focus on these patients or patients with asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction.

  3. Generalized Cumulative Residual Entropy for Distributions with Unrestricted Supports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noomane Drissi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the cumulative residual entropy (CRE a recently introduced measure of entropy. While in previous works distributions with positive support are considered, we generalize the definition of CRE to the case of distributions with general support. We show that several interesting properties of the earlier CRE remain valid and supply further properties and insight to problems such as maximum CRE power moment problems. In addition, we show that this generalized CRE can be used as an alternative to differential entropy to derive information-based optimization criteria for system identification purpose.

  4. Determining source cumulants in femtoscopy with Gram-Charlier and Edgeworth series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eggers, H. C.; De Kock, M. B.; Schmiegel, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Lowest-order cumulants provide important information on the shape of the emission source in femtoscopy. For the simple case of noninteracting identical particles, we show how the fourth-order source cumulant can be determined from measured cumulants in momentum space. The textbook Gram–Charlier s...

  5. High-resolution harmonic retrieval using the full fourth-order cumulant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, S.H.J.A.; Naus, H.W.L.; Zwamborn, A.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    The harmonic retrieval (HR) problem concerns the estimation of the frequencies in a sum of real or complex harmonics. Both correlation and cumulant-based approaches are used for this purpose. Cumulant-based HR algorithms use a single 1-D slice of the fourth-order cumulant that is estimated directly

  6. 75 FR 69662 - Workshop: Cumulative Mixtures Risk of Six Selected Phthalates in Support of Summary Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... AGENCY Workshop: Cumulative Mixtures Risk of Six Selected Phthalates in Support of Summary Information on...: Notice of Peer Consultation Workshop on the Cumulative Mixtures Risk of Six Selected Phthalates; Request... phthalates as set forth in the National Academies of Science (NAS) report ``Phthalates and Cumulative...

  7. Nutrition Education and Body Mass Index in Grades K-12: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Cayla; Cohen, Deborah; Pribis, Peter; Cerami, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Background: Overweight and obese body mass index (BMI) status affects an increasing number of children in the United States. The school setting has been identified as a focus area to implement obesity prevention programs. Methods: A database search of PubMed, Education Search Complete, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature…

  8. Embryo quality is the main factor affecting cumulative live birth rate after elective single embryo transfer in fresh stimulation cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinimäki, Maarit; Veleva, Zdravka; Martikainen, Hannu

    2015-11-01

    The study was aimed to evaluate which factors affect the cumulative live birth rate after elective single embryo transfer in women younger than 36 years. Additionally, number of children in women with more than one delivery per ovum pick-up after fresh elective single embryo transfer and subsequent frozen embryo transfers was assessed. Retrospective cohort study analysing data of a university hospital's infertility clinic in 2001-2010. A total of 739 IVF/ICSI cycles with elective single embryo transfer were included. Analyses were made per ovum pick-up including fresh and subsequent frozen embryo transfers. Factors affecting cumulative live birth rates were examined in uni- and multivariate analyses. A secondary endpoint was the number of children born after all treatments. In the fresh cycles, the live birth rate was 29.2% and the cumulative live birth rate was 51.3%, with a twin rate of 3.4%. In the multivariate analysis, having two (odds ratio (OR) 1.73; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12-2.67) or ≥3 top embryos (OR 2.66; 95% CI 1.79-3.95) was associated with higher odds for live birth after fresh and frozen embryo cycles. Age, body mass index, duration of infertility, diagnosis or total gonadotropin dose were not associated with the cumulative live birth rate. In cycles with one top embryo, the cumulative live birth rate was 40.2%, whereas it was 64.1% in those with at least three top embryos. Of women who had a live birth in the fresh cycle, 20.4% had more than one child after all frozen embryo transfers. Among women with three or more top embryos after ovum pick-up, 16.1% gave birth to more than one child. The cumulative live birth rate in this age group varies from 40% to 64% and is dependent on the quality of embryos. Women with three or more top embryos have good chance of having more than one child per ovum pick-up without elevated risk of multiple pregnancies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Search Interface Design Using Faceted Indexing for Web Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devadason, Francis; Intaraksa, Neelawat; Patamawongjariya, Pornprapa; Desai, Kavita

    2001-01-01

    Describes an experimental system designed to organize and provide access to Web documents using a faceted pre-coordinate indexing system based on the Deep Structure Indexing System (DSIS) derived from POPSI (Postulate based Permuted Subject Indexing) of Bhattacharyya, and the facet analysis and chain indexing system of Ranganathan. (AEF)

  10. Thoroughness of Book Review Indexing: A First Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Michael D. G.

    1986-01-01

    This discussion of the failure to include many book reviews by indexes in selected subject fields and by several general indexes highlights the technique used to check review materials in selected magazines to see what was actually indexed, the policies of specific indexes, and the practical consequences for librarians. (EM)

  11. Visualization of semantic indexing similarity over MeSH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Haixia; Yoo, Terry S

    2007-10-11

    We present an interactive visualization system for the evaluation of indexing results of the MEDLINE data-base over the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) structure in a graphical radial-tree layout. It displays indexing similarity measurements with 2D color coding and a 3D height field permitting the evaluation of the automatic Medical Text Indexer (MTI), compared with human indexers.

  12. INCOME (EARNINGS INDEXATION OF ENTERPRISE EMPLOYEES: ACCOUNTING AND CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Melnik

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article defined income of employees subject to indexation considered method of calculating CPI for indexation features reflected in the accounting and reporting of amounts indexed income of employees, agents that carry out supervision and control of violation of labor laws regarding Ukraine of indexation, the types of businesses liable for violation of labor laws.

  13. The seven-year cumulative survival rate of Osstem implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Kyun; Kim, Bum-Su; Yun, Pil-Young; Mun, Sang-Un; Yi, Yang-Jin; Jeong, Kyung-In

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study was performed to analyze the cumulative survival rate of Osstem implants (Osstem Implant Co., Ltd.) over a seven-year period. Materials and Methods A total of 105 patients who had 467 Osstem implants that were placed at the Section of Dentistry, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital (Seongnam, Korea) from June 2003 through December 2005 were analyzed. The life table method and a cross-tubulation analysis, log rank test were used to evaluate the survival curve and the influence that the prognostic factors. The prognostic factors, i.e., age and gender of patients, diameter and length, type of implants, bone graft history and loading time were determined with a Cox proportional hazard model based on logistic regression analysis. Results The seven-year cumulative survival rate of Osstem implants was 95.37%. The Cox proportional hazard model revealed that the following factors had a significant influence on survival rate; increased diameter, reduced prosthetic loading period and performance of bone grafting. Conclusion The osstem implants showed satisfactory results over the seven-year study period. PMID:24868503

  14. Extraction of Facial Feature Points Using Cumulative Histogram

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, Sushil Kumar; Bouakaz, Saida

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel adaptive algorithm to extract facial feature points automatically such as eyebrows corners, eyes corners, nostrils, nose tip, and mouth corners in frontal view faces, which is based on cumulative histogram approach by varying different threshold values. At first, the method adopts the Viola-Jones face detector to detect the location of face and also crops the face region in an image. From the concept of the human face structure, the six relevant regions such as right eyebrow, left eyebrow, right eye, left eye, nose, and mouth areas are cropped in a face image. Then the histogram of each cropped relevant region is computed and its cumulative histogram value is employed by varying different threshold values to create a new filtering image in an adaptive way. The connected component of interested area for each relevant filtering image is indicated our respective feature region. A simple linear search algorithm for eyebrows, eyes and mouth filtering images and contour algorithm for nos...

  15. A Cumulant-based Analysis of Nonlinear Magnetospheric Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay R. Johnson; Simon Wing

    2004-01-28

    Understanding magnetospheric dynamics and predicting future behavior of the magnetosphere is of great practical interest because it could potentially help to avert catastrophic loss of power and communications. In order to build good predictive models it is necessary to understand the most critical nonlinear dependencies among observed plasma and electromagnetic field variables in the coupled solar wind/magnetosphere system. In this work, we apply a cumulant-based information dynamical measure to characterize the nonlinear dynamics underlying the time evolution of the Dst and Kp geomagnetic indices, given solar wind magnetic field and plasma input. We examine the underlying dynamics of the system, the temporal statistical dependencies, the degree of nonlinearity, and the rate of information loss. We find a significant solar cycle dependence in the underlying dynamics of the system with greater nonlinearity for solar minimum. The cumulant-based approach also has the advantage that it is reliable even in the case of small data sets and therefore it is possible to avoid the assumption of stationarity, which allows for a measure of predictability even when the underlying system dynamics may change character. Evaluations of several leading Kp prediction models indicate that their performances are sub-optimal during active times. We discuss possible improvements of these models based on this nonparametric approach.

  16. Cumulative Effects Assessment: Linking Social, Ecological, and Governance Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Weber

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Setting social, economic, and ecological objectives is ultimately a process of social choice informed by science. In this special feature we provide a multidisciplinary framework for the use of cumulative effects assessment in land use planning. Forest ecosystems are facing considerable challenges driven by population growth and increasing demands for resources. In a suite of case studies that span the boreal forest of Western Canada to the interior Atlantic forest of Paraguay we show how transparent and defensible methods for scenario analysis can be applied in data-limited regions and how social dimensions of land use change can be incorporated in these methods, particularly in aboriginal communities that have lived in these ecosystems for generations. The case studies explore how scenario analysis can be used to evaluate various land use options and highlight specific challenges with identifying social and ecological responses, determining thresholds and targets for land use, and integrating local and traditional knowledge in land use planning. Given that land use planning is ultimately a value-laden and often politically charged process we also provide some perspective on various collective and expert-based processes for identifying cumulative impacts and thresholds. The need for good science to inform and be informed by culturally appropriate democratic processes calls for well-planned and multifaceted approaches both to achieve an informed understanding of both residents and governments of the interactive and additive changes caused by development, and to design action agendas to influence such change at the ecological and social level.

  17. Cumulative hierarchies and computability over universes of sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Cantone

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Various metamathematical investigations, beginning with Fraenkel’s historical proof of the independence of the axiom of choice, called for suitable definitions of hierarchical universes of sets. This led to the discovery of such important cumulative structures as the one singled out by von Neumann (generally taken as the universe of all sets and Godel’s universe of the so-called constructibles. Variants of those are exploited occasionally in studies concerning the foundations of analysis (according to Abraham Robinson’s approach, or concerning non-well-founded sets. We hence offer a systematic presentation of these many structures, partly motivated by their relevance and pervasiveness in mathematics. As we report, numerous properties of hierarchy-related notions such as rank, have been verified with the assistance of the ÆtnaNova proof-checker.Through SETL and Maple implementations of procedures which effectively handle the Ackermann’s hereditarily finite sets, we illustrate a particularly significant case among those in which the entities which form a universe of sets can be algorithmically constructed and manipulated; hereby, the fruitful bearing on pure mathematics of cumulative set hierarchies ramifies into the realms of theoretical computer science and algorithmics.

  18. Prefiltering and Cumulant Based Harmonic Retrieval in Mixed ARMA Noises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIShenghong; LIJianhua; XUEZhi; CHENLiya

    2005-01-01

    Harmonic retrieval is an important issue in the the field of statistical signal processing. However, in the case of harmonic retrieval in mixed colored Gaussian and Non-Gaussian Autoregressive movingaverage (ARMA) noises, the corresponding existing approaches can not retrieve a harmonic signal either with quadratic phase coupling components, or with cubic phase coupling components, or when the colored non-Gaussian ARMA noise is symmetrically distributed. In this paper, a new general approach is proposed to retrieve a one-dimensional real harmonic signal in the above mixed ARMA noises. A suitable filter is first used to remove all the sharp power spectrum peaks of the noisy observed process, then some kind of fourth-order cumulant is employed to identify the Autoregressive (AR) parameter values of the colored non-Gaussian ARMA noise model. After the real noisy observed data are filtered with the identified AR parameter values again, cumulant based methods can be made use of to retrieve the harmonics. The proposed new approach can be applied to retrieve a one-dimensional real harmonic signal in the above mixed colored Gaussian and non-Gaussian ARMA noises with no restrictions on the phase coupling of the harmonics and the distribution of the colored non-Gaussian ARMA noise. Simulation examples are presented to demonstrate its effectiveness.

  19. Petrogenesis of the nakhlite meteorites: Evidence from cumulate mineral zoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, R.P.; McSween, H.Y. Jr. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States))

    1992-04-01

    A simple igneous petrogenesis for the meteorite Nakhla has previously been called into question because Mg/Fe ratios in olivine indicate substantial disequilibrium between the predominant cumulus minerals (olivine and augite). Comparative analyses of simulated diffusive zoning and the observed cumulus mineral zoning for all three nakhlites (Nakhla, Governador Valadares, and Lafayette) show that their current compositions do not necessarily reflect parental magma compositions. Instead, diffusion has altered primary cumulus compositions to varying degrees, Nakhla being the least affected, and Lafayette being almost completely re-equilibrated. Only the cores of augite grains in Nakhla and Governador Valadares appear to have preserved their original compositions. Mineral zoning in each meteorite is strongly concentric around mesostasis areas, suggesting that reaction with intercumulus liquid has controlled the observed zoning. The presence of pigeonite and orthopyroxene overgrowths in Nakhla and Governador Valadares, and of poikilitic orthopyroxene enclosing olivine relicts in Lafayette, indicate substantial late-magmatic reactions. Two-pyroxene geothermometry for Lafayette indicates temperatures around 95C, suggesting subsolidus equilibration as well. The nakhlites appear to be a series of relatively simple cumulate rocks which have undergone various amounts of late-magmatic and subsolidus diffusion, possibly reflecting their relative positions in a cooling cumulate pile.

  20. Folksonomy与主题标引%Folksonomy and Subject Indexing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王翠英

    2007-01-01

    社会性书签的发展促进了Folksonomy的出现.本文首先介绍了Folksonomy的含义、类型和特点,然后分析了目前主题标引存在的不足之处,最后建议引入Folksonomy理念来提高书目数据质量.

  1. Medium-term predictions of cumulative runoff in a Mediterranean mountain river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulliver, Zacarías; Herrero, Javier; José Polo, María

    2016-04-01

    It is important to find patterns and hidden connections between data to assess the development of decision-making tools for water management. The climate variability of the Mediterranean environments makes it necessary the establishment of methodological/hydrological frameworks that allow us to limit the uncertainty on the decision for further periods within the year, and thus achieve better resource utilization. For that, a study of different machine learning methods has been applied in a Mediterranean mountainous basin in South Spain, by means of an ensemble classification and regression approach to predict the river flow volumes for further periods on a quarterly scale. The predictions are made within the same hydrological year and under two different time schemes, after three (A-scheme) and six months (B-scheme), testing the further periods. The study was carried out with the longest streamflow time series registered in the basin (43 years), collected at a high mountain gauge station (Narila, 975 metres above sea level) in the Guadalfeo River. This station is located in the upstream part of the river (with an associated 67 km2 contributing area), where there are not significant human alterations of the natural hydrological cycle (withdrawals or discharges) and with a strong influence of the snow regime. The set of selected predictors for the river water volumes includes cumulated runoff, cumulated rainfall and the average of different Climate indexes. The results show that the nature of future periods can be classified accurately in our study case by the methods proposed, classifying correctly more than 90 % of the values during the testing period.

  2. 18 CFR 342.3 - Indexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indexing. 342.3 Section....3 Indexing. (a) Rate changes. A rate charged by a carrier may be changed, at any time, to a level... under this section proposing to change a rate that is under investigation and subject to refund,...

  3. Witten Index and Wall Crossing

    CERN Document Server

    Hori, Kentaro; Yi, Piljin

    2014-01-01

    We compute the Witten index of one-dimensional gauged linear sigma models with at least ${\\mathcal N}=2$ supersymmetry. In the phase where the gauge group is broken to a finite group, the index is expressed as a certain residue integral. It is subject to a change as the Fayet-Iliopoulos parameter is varied through the phase boundaries. The wall crossing formula is expressed as an integral at infinity of the Coulomb branch. The result is applied to many examples, including quiver quantum mechanics that is relevant for BPS states in $d=4$ ${\\mathcal N}=2$ theories.

  4. Ten-year cumulative incidence of diabetic retinopathy. The Beijing Eye Study 2001/2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Xu

    Full Text Available To assess the cumulative 10-year incidence of diabetic retinopathy (DR and its associated factors in a population living in Greater Beijing.The population-based longitudinal Beijing Eye Study, which included 4439 subjects (age in 2001: 40+years in 2001, was repeated in 2011 with 2695 subjects participating (66.4% of the survivors. The study participants underwent a detailed ophthalmic examination. Fundus photographs were examined for the new development of DR.After excluding individuals with DR at baseline (n = 87 or no sufficient fundus photographs in 2011 (n = 6, the study included 2602 subjects with a mean age of 64.6±9.7 years (median: 64.0 years; range: 50 to 93 years. In the 10-year period, 109 subjects (39 men developed new DR with an incidence of 4.2% (95% confidence interval (CI: 3.45,5.03. In multiple logistic regression analysis, incident DR was significantly associated with higher HbA1c value (P<0.001; Odds Ratio (OR: 1.73; 95% Confidence Interval (CI: 1.35,2.21, longer duration of diabetes mellitus (P<0.001; OR: 1.16; 95% CI: 1.10,1.22, higher serum concentration of creatinine (P = 0.02; OR: 1.01; 95% CI: 1.002,1.022, lower educational level (P = 0.049; OR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.55,0.99, higher estimated cerebrospinal fluid pressure (P = 0.038; OR: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.01,1.22, and shorter axial length (P<0.001; OR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.33,0.71.The cumulative 10-year incidence (mean: 4.2% of DR in a North Chinese population was significantly associated with a higher HbA1c value, longer known duration of diabetes mellitus, higher estimated CSFP and shorter axial length (P<0.001. Shorter axial length (or hyperopia and, potentially, higher CSFP may be additional risk factors to be taken into account when counseling and treating patients with diabetes mellitus.

  5. Use of a Cumulative Risk Scale to Predict Poor Intellectual and Academic Outcomes in Childhood Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, Brian C; Scarborough, Vanessa Ramos; Salorio, Cynthia F

    2016-06-01

    Discrete risk factors for poor outcomes in childhood epilepsy have been identified, but it is unclear whether the combined effect of several risk factors better predicts outcome. The Epilepsy Cumulative Risk Scale was developed to quantify cumulative risk for poor outcomes in childhood epilepsy. Participants included 156 clinic-referred children with epilepsy. The Epilepsy Cumulative Risk Scale was developed using variables previously associated with functional outcomes. Scale utility was examined through its association with intellectual and academic functioning. All Epilepsy Cumulative Risk Scale variables were significantly associated with functioning. The Total Score (ie, cumulative effect) was most strongly correlated with cognition and academic skills. A Total Score ≥ 5 had the best sensitivity and specificity for differentiating those at high risk for poor outcomes. The Epilepsy Cumulative Risk Scale shows promise as a practical, data-driven tool for quantification of cumulative risk for poor outcomes in childhood epilepsy and may be helpful in detecting those needing referral for additional services.

  6. EJSCREEN Indexes 2015 Internal

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There is an EJ Index for each environmental indicator. There are 12 EJ Indexes in EJSCREEN reflecting the 12 environmental indicators. The EJ Index names are:...

  7. EJSCREEN Indexes 2016 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There is an EJ Index for each environmental indicator. There are eleven EJ Indexes in EJSCREEN reflecting the 11 environmental indicators. The EJ Index names are:...

  8. EJSCREEN Indexes 2015 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There is an EJ Index for each environmental indicator. There are eight EJ Indexes in EJSCREEN reflecting the 8 environmental indicators. The EJ Index names are:...

  9. Cities, regions, and the energy problem: a bibliography and index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankena, F.

    1979-01-01

    Literature covering the social aspects of energy analysis is compiled under sections relevant to cities, regions, and general policies in this annotated bibliograpy of 309 publications. A subject category index indentifies 28 subtopics. A breakdown of the index lists the number of entries under each category, their percentage share of the subject index, and their percentage share of citations. This is followed by a geographical index listing a mixture of cities, regions, states, and countries. (DCK)

  10. Cumulated UDC Supplement, 1965-1975. Volume V: Classes 677/9 (677/68 Various Industries and Crafts; Rubber and Plastics, Precision Mechanism Including Automatic Data Processing, Atuomatic Control Engineering, 69 Building, 7 Arts. Architecture. Sport, 8 Languages. Linguistics. Literature, 9 Geography. Biography. History).

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Federation for Documentation, The Hague (Netherlands). Committee on Classification Research.

    In continuation of the "Cumulated UDC Supplement - 1964" published by the International Federation for Documentation, this document provides a cumulative supplement to the Universal Decimal Classification for 1965-1975. This fifth volume of a five volume series lists new classification subdivisions in the following subject areas: (1) various…

  11. Cumulated UDC Supplement, 1965-1975. Volume V: Classes 677/9 (677/68 Various Industries and Crafts; Rubber and Plastics, Precision Mechanism Including Automatic Data Processing, Atuomatic Control Engineering, 69 Building, 7 Arts. Architecture. Sport, 8 Languages. Linguistics. Literature, 9 Geography. Biography. History).

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Federation for Documentation, The Hague (Netherlands). Committee on Classification Research.

    In continuation of the "Cumulated UDC Supplement - 1964" published by the International Federation for Documentation, this document provides a cumulative supplement to the Universal Decimal Classification for 1965-1975. This fifth volume of a five volume series lists new classification subdivisions in the following subject areas: (1) various…

  12. Cumulated UDC Supplement, 1965-1975. Volume III: Classes 6/62 (61 Medical Sciences, 62 Engineering and Technology Generally, 621 Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, 622 Mining, 623 Military and Naval Engineering, 624 Civil and Structural Engineering, 625 Railway and Highway Engineering, 626/627 Hydraulic Engineering Works, 628 Public Health Engineering, 629 Transport (Vehicle) Engineering).

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Federation for Documentation, The Hague (Netherlands). Committee on Classification Research.

    In continuation of the "Cumulated UDC Supplement - 1964" published by the International Federation for Documentation, this document provides a cumulative supplement to the Universal Decimal Classification for 1965-1975. This third of five volumes lists new classification subdivisions in the following subject areas: (1) medical sciences; (2)…

  13. Estimated cumulative radiation dose received by diagnostic imaging during staging and treatment of operable Ewing sarcoma 2005-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsen, Boel [Haukeland University Hospital, Centre for Nuclear Medicine and PET, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 1400, Bergen (Norway); Fasmer, Kristine Eldevik [Haukeland University Hospital, Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Section, Bergen (Norway); Boye, Kjetil [Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital, Department of Oncology, Oslo (Norway); Rosendahl, Karen; Aukland, Stein Magnus [Haukeland University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Paediatric Section, Bergen (Norway); University of Bergen, Department of Clinical Medicine, Bergen (Norway); Trovik, Clement [University of Bergen, Department of Clinical Medicine, Bergen (Norway); Haukeland University Hospital, Department of Surgery, Orthopaedic Section, Bergen (Norway); Biermann, Martin [Haukeland University Hospital, Centre for Nuclear Medicine and PET, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 1400, Bergen (Norway); University of Bergen, Department of Clinical Medicine, Bergen (Norway)

    2017-01-15

    Patients with Ewing sarcoma are subject to various diagnostic procedures that incur exposure to ionising radiation. To estimate the radiation doses received from all radiologic and nuclear imaging episodes during diagnosis and treatment, and to determine whether {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography - computed tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG PET-CT) is a major contributor of radiation. Twenty Ewing sarcoma patients diagnosed in Norway in 2005-2012 met the inclusion criteria (age <30 years, operable disease, uncomplicated chemotherapy and surgery, no metastasis or residual disease within a year of diagnosis). Radiation doses from all imaging during the first year were calculated for each patient. The mean estimated cumulative radiation dose for all patients was 34 mSv (range: 6-70), radiography accounting for 3 mSv (range: 0.2-12), CT for 13 mSv (range: 2-28) and nuclear medicine for 18 mSv (range: 2-47). For the patients examined with PET-CT, the mean estimated cumulative effective dose was 38 mSv, of which PET-CT accounted for 14 mSv (37%). There was large variation in number and type of examinations performed and also in estimated cumulative radiation dose. The mean radiation dose for patients examined with PET-CT was 23% higher than for patients not examined with PET-CT. (orig.)

  14. Mathematical modeling of detonation initiation via flow cumulation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, I.; Utkin, P.; Akhmedyanov, I.

    2016-07-01

    The paper concerns two problems connected with the idea of gaseous detonation initiation via flow cumulation effects and convergence of relatively weak shock waves (SW). The first one is the three-dimensional (3D) numerical investigation of shock-to-detonation transition (SDT) in methane-air mixture in a tube with parabolic contraction followed by the tube section of narrow diameter and conical expansion. The second problem is the numerical study of the start-up of the model small-scale hydrogen electrochemical pulse detonation engine with the use of electrical discharge generating the toroidal SW. The investigation is performed by means of numerical simulation with the use of modern high-performance computing systems.

  15. Practical management of cumulative anthropogenic impacts with working marine examples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyhn, Line Anker; Wright, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    for petroleum. Human disturbances, including the noise almost ubiquitously associated with human activity, are likely to increase the incidence, magnitude, and duration of adverse effects on marine life, including stress responses. Stress responses have the potential to induce fitness consequences...... for individuals, which add to more obvious directed takes (e.g., hunting or fishing) to increase the overall population-level impact. To meet the requirements of marine spatial planning and ecosystem-based management, many efforts are ongoing to quantify the cumulative impacts of all human actions on marine...... species or populations. Meanwhile, regulators face the challenge of managing these accumulating and interacting impacts with limited scientific guidance. We believe there is scientific support for capping the level of impact for (at a minimum) populations in decline or with unknown statuses. This cap...

  16. Effects of Surface Emitting and Cumulative Collisions on Elliptic Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-Li; WU Feng-Juan; ZHANG Jing-Bo; TANG Gui-Xin; HUO Lei

    2008-01-01

    @@ The integral and differential elliptic flow of partons is calculated using the multiphase transport model for Au+Au collisions at centre-of-mass energy √SNN=200 GeV.It is shown that elliptic flow of partons freezing out at early time,which is affected mainly by surface emittance,decreases with time and elliptic flow of partons freezing out at late time,which is dominated by cumulative collisions,increases with time.The elliptic flow of partons freezing out early has a large contribution to the flatting of curve of final differential elliptic flow at large transverse momentum.It is argued that the effect of surface emittance is not neglectable.

  17. Modelling the evolution and diversity of cumulative culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enquist, Magnus; Ghirlanda, Stefano; Eriksson, Kimmo

    2011-01-01

    Previous work on mathematical models of cultural evolution has mainly focused on the diffusion of simple cultural elements. However, a characteristic feature of human cultural evolution is the seemingly limitless appearance of new and increasingly complex cultural elements. Here, we develop a general modelling framework to study such cumulative processes, in which we assume that the appearance and disappearance of cultural elements are stochastic events that depend on the current state of culture. Five scenarios are explored: evolution of independent cultural elements, stepwise modification of elements, differentiation or combination of elements and systems of cultural elements. As one application of our framework, we study the evolution of cultural diversity (in time as well as between groups). PMID:21199845

  18. Ratcheting up the ratchet: on the evolution of cumulative culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennie, Claudio; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2009-08-27

    Some researchers have claimed that chimpanzee and human culture rest on homologous cognitive and learning mechanisms. While clearly there are some homologous mechanisms, we argue here that there are some different mechanisms at work as well. Chimpanzee cultural traditions represent behavioural biases of different populations, all within the species' existing cognitive repertoire (what we call the 'zone of latent solutions') that are generated by founder effects, individual learning and mostly product-oriented (rather than process-oriented) copying. Human culture, in contrast, has the distinctive characteristic that it accumulates modifications over time (what we call the 'ratchet effect'). This difference results from the facts that (i) human social learning is more oriented towards process than product and (ii) unique forms of human cooperation lead to active teaching, social motivations for conformity and normative sanctions against non-conformity. Together, these unique processes of social learning and cooperation lead to humans' unique form of cumulative cultural evolution.

  19. Cumulative Laws,Team Assembling Mechanisms Determining Network Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Bin; LIU Qi; YE Qi

    2008-01-01

    A number of researching works have shed light on the field of complex networks recently.We investigate a wide range of real-world networks and find several interesting phenomena.Firstly,almost all of these networks evolve by overlapping new small graphs on former networks.Secondly,not only the degree sequence of the mature network follows a power-law distribution,but also the distribution of the cumulative occurrence times during the growing process are revealed to have a heavy tail.Existing network evolving models do not provide interpretation to these phenomena.We suggest a model based on the team assembling mechanism,which is extracted from the growing processes of real-world networks and requires simple parameters,and produces networks exhibiting these properties observed in the present study and in previous works.

  20. Modelling the evolution and diversity of cumulative culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enquist, Magnus; Ghirlanda, Stefano; Eriksson, Kimmo

    2011-02-12

    Previous work on mathematical models of cultural evolution has mainly focused on the diffusion of simple cultural elements. However, a characteristic feature of human cultural evolution is the seemingly limitless appearance of new and increasingly complex cultural elements. Here, we develop a general modelling framework to study such cumulative processes, in which we assume that the appearance and disappearance of cultural elements are stochastic events that depend on the current state of culture. Five scenarios are explored: evolution of independent cultural elements, stepwise modification of elements, differentiation or combination of elements and systems of cultural elements. As one application of our framework, we study the evolution of cultural diversity (in time as well as between groups).

  1. Cumulative early life adversity predicts longevity in wild baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Jenny; Archie, Elizabeth A; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C

    2016-04-19

    In humans and other animals, harsh circumstances in early life predict morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Multiple adverse conditions are thought to be especially toxic, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested in a prospective, longitudinal framework, especially in long-lived mammals. Here we use prospective data on 196 wild female baboons to show that cumulative early adversity predicts natural adult lifespan. Females who experience ≥3 sources of early adversity die a median of 10 years earlier than females who experience ≤1 adverse circumstances (median lifespan is 18.5 years). Females who experience the most adversity are also socially isolated in adulthood, suggesting that social processes partially explain the link between early adversity and adult survival. Our results provide powerful evidence for the developmental origins of health and disease and indicate that close ties between early adversity and survival arise even in the absence of health habit and health care-related explanations.

  2. The cumulative effect of risk compensation on infection preventive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxin, Daniel; Sega, Laurentiu; Eaton, Lisa

    2016-12-01

    We study several epidemic models (with and without gender structure) that incorporate risk compensation behavior in response to a lower chance of acquiring the infection as a result of preventive measures that are only partially effective. We show that the cumulative risk compensation that occurs between a high risk susceptible and infectious individual may play an important role in whether the implementation of these measures is successful in lowering the epidemic reproductive number. In addition, we show that certain levels of risk compensation may cancel the benefit of the low infection risk practiced by diagnosed infectious individuals when the goal is a reduction of the epidemic reproductive number. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cumulative semantic interference for associative relations in language production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Sebastian Benjamin; Abdel Rahman, Rasha

    2016-07-01

    Associations between conceptual representations and thematic relations play an important role in the organization of semantic memory. However, language production research on semantic context effects shows that associative (e.g., dog and bone) and categorical relations (dog and horse) seem to diverge. While categorical contexts typically induce semantic interference that has traditionally been taken to reflect competitive lexical selection, evidence for comparable associative modulations is rare. In three experiments we tested whether thematic associations between objects induce cumulative interference in the continuous naming paradigm, assuming that this paradigm hampers lexical selection via the activation of highly active lexical cohorts steadily increasing in size. Indeed, naming times increased linearly with each newly named member of thematic contexts irrespective of the pre-activation of associations before the naming task (Experiment 1), and irrespective of whether categorical links were partially included (Experiments 1 and 2) or entirely absent (Experiment 3). These findings demonstrate that different types of semantic relations induce interference.

  4. EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION OF CUMULATIVE SURFACE LOCATION ERROR FOR TURNING PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam K. Kiss

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to create a mechanical model which is suitable to investigate the surface quality in turning processes, based on the Cumulative Surface Location Error (CSLE, which describes the series of the consecutive Surface Location Errors (SLE in roughing operations. In the established model, the investigated CSLE depends on the currently and the previously resulted SLE by means of the variation of the width of cut. The phenomenon of the system can be described as an implicit discrete map. The stationary Surface Location Error and its bifurcations were analysed and flip-type bifurcation was observed for CSLE. Experimental verification of the theoretical results was carried out.

  5. Cumulative protons in 12C fragmentation at intermediate energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramov B.M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the FRAGM experiment at heavy ion accelerator complex TWAC-ITEP, the proton yields at an angle 3.5° have been measured in fragmentation of carbon ions at T0 = 0.3, 0.6, 0.95 and 2.0 GeV/nucleon on beryllium target. The data are presented as invariant proton yields on cumulative variable x in the range 0.9 < x < 2.4. Proton spectra cover six orders of invariant cross section magnitude. They have been analyzed in the framework of quark cluster fragmentation model. Fragmentation functions of quarkgluon string model are used. The probabilities of the existence of multi-quark clusters in carbon nuclei are estimated to be 8–12% for six-quark clusters and 0.2–0.6% for ninequark clusters.

  6. The modified cumulant expansion for two-dimensional isotropic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi, T.; Yanase, S.

    1981-09-01

    The two-dimensional isotropic turbulence in an incompressible fluid is investigated using the modified zero fourth-order cumulant approximation. The dynamical equation for the energy spectrum obtained under this approximation is solved numerically and the similarity laws governing the solution in the energy-containing and enstrophy-dissipation ranges are derived analytically. At large Reynolds numbers the numerical solutions yield the k to the -3rd power inertial subrange spectrum which was predicted by Kraichnan (1967), Leith (1968) and Batchelor (1969), assuming a finite enstrophy dissipation in the inviscid limit. The energy-containing range is found to satisfy an inviscid similarity while the enstrophy-dissipation range is governed by the quasi-equilibrium similarity with respect to the enstrophy dissipation as proposed by Batchelor (1969). There exists a critical time which separates the initial period and the similarity period in which the enstrophy dissipation vanishes and remains non-zero respectively in the inviscid limit.

  7. Cumulative Incidence Association Models for Bivariate Competing Risks Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu; Fine, Jason P

    2012-03-01

    Association models, like frailty and copula models, are frequently used to analyze clustered survival data and evaluate within-cluster associations. The assumption of noninformative censoring is commonly applied to these models, though it may not be true in many situations. In this paper, we consider bivariate competing risk data and focus on association models specified for the bivariate cumulative incidence function (CIF), a nonparametrically identifiable quantity. Copula models are proposed which relate the bivariate CIF to its corresponding univariate CIFs, similarly to independently right censored data, and accommodate frailty models for the bivariate CIF. Two estimating equations are developed to estimate the association parameter, permitting the univariate CIFs to be estimated either parametrically or nonparametrically. Goodness-of-fit tests are presented for formally evaluating the parametric models. Both estimators perform well with moderate sample sizes in simulation studies. The practical use of the methodology is illustrated in an analysis of dementia associations.

  8. Glycaemic index methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouns, F; Bjorck, I; Frayn, K N; Gibbs, A L; Lang, V; Slama, G; Wolever, T M S

    2005-06-01

    The glycaemic index (GI) concept was originally introduced to classify different sources of carbohydrate (CHO)-rich foods, usually having an energy content of >80 % from CHO, to their effect on post-meal glycaemia. It was assumed to apply to foods that primarily deliver available CHO, causing hyperglycaemia. Low-GI foods were classified as being digested and absorbed slowly and high-GI foods as being rapidly digested and absorbed, resulting in different glycaemic responses. Low-GI foods were found to induce benefits on certain risk factors for CVD and diabetes. Accordingly it has been proposed that GI classification of foods and drinks could be useful to help consumers make 'healthy food choices' within specific food groups. Classification of foods according to their impact on blood glucose responses requires a standardised way of measuring such responses. The present review discusses the most relevant methodological considerations and highlights specific recommendations regarding number of subjects, sex, subject status, inclusion and exclusion criteria, pre-test conditions, CHO test dose, blood sampling procedures, sampling times, test randomisation and calculation of glycaemic response area under the curve. All together, these technical recommendations will help to implement or reinforce measurement of GI in laboratories and help to ensure quality of results. Since there is current international interest in alternative ways of expressing glycaemic responses to foods, some of these methods are discussed.

  9. Is uveitis associated with topiramate use? A cumulative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldberg JL

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey L Goldberg,1 Amy G Lau,2 Bo Fan,2 Lisa Ford,3 Howard E Greenberg3 1Byers Eye Institute, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, 2Janssen Research & Development, LLC, Horsham, PA, 3Janssen Research & Development, LLC, Titusville, NJ, USA Abstract: Occasional reports of uveitis following topiramate use necessitated an investigation of relevant cases from safety databases and published biomedical literature. Data mining of the Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System and cumulative review of cases from the global safety database (sponsor database and published literature were conducted to assess association between topiramate use and uveitis. The Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System search identified disproportional reporting of uveitis (n=23 and related terms (choroidal detachment, n=25; iridocyclitis, n=17. The postmarketing reporting frequency of uveitis and related events from the global safety database and based on an estimated topiramate exposure of 11,185,740 person-years from launch to April 2015 was 0.38 per 100,000 person-years and assigned as very rare. A total of 14 potential uveitis cases were identified from the cumulative review. Seven of these 14 cases were complicated by inadequate documentation, appearance of uveitic signs following drug withdrawal, or concurrent use of other sulfonamides. In acute angle-closure glaucoma and uveal effusions cases, insufficient evidence for underlying inflammation suggested that uveitis was not a component. Only seven of 14 cases were well documented, potentially topiramate-associated uveitis cases. Uveitis may occur in the setting of topiramate use only in very rare instances. Current evidence did not reveal a dose- or duration-dependent relationship between uveitis and topiramate use. Keywords: topiramate, uveitis, acute angle-closure glaucoma, drug safety, Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System, postmarketing 

  10. Economic and policy implications of the cumulative carbon budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M. R.; Otto, F. E. L.; Otto, A.; Hepburn, C.

    2014-12-01

    The importance of cumulative carbon emissions in determining long-term risks of climate change presents considerable challenges to policy makers. The traditional notion of "total CO2-equivalent emissions", which forms the backbone of agreements such as the Kyoto Protocol and the European Emissions Trading System, is fundamentally flawed. Measures to reduce short-lived climate pollutants benefit the current generation, while measures to reduce long-lived climate pollutants benefit future generations, so there is no sense in which they can ever be considered equivalent. Debates over the correct metric used to compute CO2-equivalence are thus entirely moot: both long-lived and short-lived emissions will need to be addressed if all generations are to be protected from dangerous climate change. As far as long-lived climate pollutants are concerned, the latest IPCC report highlights the overwhelming importance of carbon capture and storage in determining the cost of meeting the goal of limiting anthropogenic warming to two degrees. We will show that this importance arises directly from the cumulative carbon budget and the role of CCS as the technology of last resort before economic activity needs to be restricted to meet ambitious climate targets. It highlights the need to increase the rate of CCS deployment by orders of magnitude if the option of avoiding two degrees is to be retained. The difficulty of achieving this speed of deployment through conventional incentives and carbon-pricing mechanisms suggests a need for a much more direct mandatory approach. Despite their theoretical economic inefficiency, the success of recent regulatory measures in achieving greenhouse gas emissions reductions in jurisdictions such as the United States suggests an extension of the regulatory approach could be a more effective and politically acceptable means of achieving adequately rapid CCS deployment than conventional carbon taxes or cap-and-trade systems.

  11. CDF-XL: computing cumulative distribution functions of reaction time data in Excel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, George; Grange, James A

    2011-12-01

    In experimental psychology, central tendencies of reaction time (RT) distributions are used to compare different experimental conditions. This emphasis on the central tendency ignores additional information that may be derived from the RT distribution itself. One method for analysing RT distributions is to construct cumulative distribution frequency plots (CDFs; Ratcliff, Psychological Bulletin 86:446-461, 1979). However, this method is difficult to implement in widely available software, severely restricting its use. In this report, we present an Excel-based program, CDF-XL, for constructing and analysing CDFs, with the aim of making such techniques more readily accessible to researchers, including students (CDF-XL can be downloaded free of charge from the Psychonomic Society's online archive). CDF-XL functions as an Excel workbook and starts from the raw experimental data, organised into three columns (Subject, Condition, and RT) on an Input Data worksheet (a point-and-click utility is provided for achieving this format from a broader data set). No further preprocessing or sorting of the data is required. With one click of a button, CDF-XL will generate two forms of cumulative analysis: (1) "standard" CDFs, based on percentiles of participant RT distributions (by condition), and (2) a related analysis employing the participant means of rank-ordered RT bins. Both analyses involve partitioning the data in similar ways, but the first uses a "median"-type measure at the participant level, while the latter uses the mean. The results are presented in three formats: (i) by participants, suitable for entry into further statistical analysis; (ii) grand means by condition; and (iii) completed CDF plots in Excel charts.

  12. Cumulative Interarrival Time Distributions of Freeway Entrance Ramp Traffic for Traffic Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdinç Öner

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cumulative interarrival time (IAT distributions for signalized and non-signalized freeway entrance ramps were developed to be used in digital computer traffic simulation models. The data from four different non-signalized entrance ramps (three ramps with a single lane, one ramp with two lanes and two different signalized entrance ramps (both with a single lane were used for developing the cumulative IAT distributions. The cumulative IAT distributions for the signalized and non-signalized entrance ramps were compared with each other and with the cumulative IAT distributions of the lanes for freeways. The comparative results showed that the cumulative IAT distributions for non-signalized entrance ramps are very close to the leftmost lane of a 3-lane freeway where the maximum absolute difference between the cumulative IAT distribution of the leftmost lane of a 3-lane freeway and the entrance ramps cumulative IAT distribution was 3%. The cumulative IAT distribution for the signalized entrance ramps was found to be different from the non-signalized entrance ramp cumulative IAT distribution. The approximated cumulative IAT distributions for signalized and non-signalized entrance ramp traffic for any hourly traffic volume from a few vehicles/hour up to 2,500 vehicles/hour can be obtained at http://www.ohio.edu/orite/research/uitds.cfm.

  13. Constrained parametric model for simultaneous inference of two cumulative incidence functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haiwen; Cheng, Yu; Jeong, Jong-Hyeon

    2013-01-01

    We propose a parametric regression model for the cumulative incidence functions (CIFs) commonly used for competing risks data. The model adopts a modified logistic model as the baseline CIF and a generalized odds-rate model for covariate effects, and it explicitly takes into account the constraint that a subject with any given prognostic factors should eventually fail from one of the causes such that the asymptotes of the CIFs should add up to one. This constraint intrinsically holds in a nonparametric analysis without covariates, but is easily overlooked in a semiparametric or parametric regression setting. We hence model the CIF from the primary cause assuming the generalized odds-rate transformation and the modified logistic function as the baseline CIF. Under the additivity constraint, the covariate effects on the competing cause are modeled by a function of the asymptote of the baseline distribution and the covariate effects on the primary cause. The inference procedure is straightforward by using the standard maximum likelihood theory. We demonstrate desirable finite-sample performance of our model by simulation studies in comparison with existing methods. Its practical utility is illustrated in an analysis of a breast cancer dataset to assess the treatment effect of tamoxifen, adjusting for age and initial pathological tumor size, on breast cancer recurrence that is subject to dependent censoring by second primary cancers and deaths.

  14. Nucleic acid indexing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilfoyle, Richard A.; Guo, Zhen

    1999-01-01

    A restriction site indexing method for selectively amplifying any fragment generated by a Class II restriction enzyme includes adaptors specific to fragment ends containing adaptor indexing sequences complementary to fragment indexing sequences near the termini of fragments generated by Class II enzyme cleavage. A method for combinatorial indexing facilitates amplification of restriction fragments whose sequence is not known.

  15. Biokinetics of (13)C in the human body after oral administration of (13)C-labeled glucose as an index for the biokinetics of (14)C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Tsuyoshi; Tako, Yasuhiro; Matsushita, Kensaku; Takeda, Hiroshi; Endo, Masahiro; Nakamura, Yuji; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2016-09-01

    The retention of (13)C in the human body after oral administration of (13)C-labeled glucose was studied in three healthy volunteer subjects to estimate the 50 year cumulative body burden for (13)C as an index of the committed dose of the radioisotope (14)C. After administration of (13)C-labeled glucose, the volunteers ingested controlled diets with a fixed number of calories for 112 d. Samples of breath and urine were collected up to 112 d after administration. Samples of feces were collected up to 14 d after administration. Hair samples were obtained at 119 d after administration and analyzed as a representative index of the rate of excretion of organic (13)C via pathways such as skin cell exfoliation and mucus secretion. All samples were analyzed for (13)C/(12)C atomic ratio to determine the rate of excretion via each pathway. We then constructed a metabolic model with a total of four pathways (breath, urine, feces, and other) comprising seven compartments. We determined the values of the biokinetic parameters in the model by using the obtained excretion data. From 74% to 94% of the (13)C administered was excreted in breath, whereas    0.1). In addition, the dataset for one of the three subjects was markedly different from those of the other two. When we estimated the 50 year cumulative body burden for (13)C by using our model and we included non-statistically significant parameters, a considerable cumulative body burden was found in the compartments excreting to the other pathway. Although our results on the cumulative body burden of (13)C from orally administered carbon as glucose were inconclusive, we found that the compartments excreting to the other pathway had a markedly long residence time and therefore should be studied further to clarify the fate of carbon in the human body. In addition to excreta, data for serum and blood cell samples were also collected from the subjects to examine the metabolism of (13)C in human body.

  16. Sensitivity Tests for Cumulative Damage Function (CDF) for the PGSFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chiwoong; Ha, Kwiseok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    A safety analysis including the design basis and beyond design basis events has been conducted using MARS-LMR. Previous safety limits were based on temperature and the duration time. However, the cumulative damage function (CDF) will be used as the safety limit to evaluate the fuel cladding integrity. Recently, a 4S reactor developed by Toshiba used the same approach for a safety analysis. Therefore, the development a CDF is necessary to evaluate the safety limit for the PGSFR safety analyses. The major keys in the CDF model are behavior of fuel and cladding. It is not easy to obtain a metallic fuel database for a CDF model including the cladding materials. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in the United States is the only major leading group for metallic fuel experiments. They conducted various experiments with various facilities and experimental reactors, for example, EBR-II, FFTF, and TREAT. In addition, they have recently been trying to extend their oxide fuel based a severe accident code, SAS4A/SASSYS, to a metallic fuel version using their metallic fuel database. In this study, the preliminary CDF model was supplemented in the MARS-LMR code. The major source was the SAS4A/SASSYS modules related to fuel and cladding transient behaviors.. In addition, a sensitivity test for some parameters in the CDF model was conducted to evaluate the capability of these models and to find the major parameter of fuel failure. The Cumulative Damage Function is a good indicator for a fuel failure. The major parameters for the CDF model are selected including cladding and fuel temperatures, initial pressure and volume in the gas plenum, clad thickness, and fission power in the fuel pin. The most sensitive parameter is the cladding temperature. Also, cladding thickness and gas pressure in the fuel pin are effective parameters on the CDF. During an actual transient, various parameter including sensitivity test parameters in this study will be changed simultaneously. This study can

  17. Existence of Solutions of a Riccati Differential System from a General Cumulant Control Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley R. Liberty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a system of infinitely many Riccati equations that arise from a cumulant control problem, which is a generalization of regulator problems, risk-sensitive controls, minimal cost variance controls, and k-cumulant controls. We obtain estimates for the existence intervals of solutions of the system. In particular, new existence conditions are derived for solutions on the horizon of the cumulant control problem.

  18. Scenario dependency of the transient climate response to cumulative emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Katherine; Williams, Ric; Oschlies, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    The transient climate response to emissions (TCRE), in relating surface temperature changes to cumulative carbon emissions, provides a means of estimating carbon budgets from global warming benchmarks. Current Earth System Model results indicate that the TCRE is linear and scenario-independent. We explore the sensitivity of the TCRE to scenario and model parameter uncertainties using 8 configurations of the UVic Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity, forced by 2 twenty-first-century emissions scenarios (RCP 4.5 and 8.5). We find that the TCRE is higher under RCP 4.5 than 8.5 by 0.3-0.8 K/1000 Pg C and shows opposing nonlinear tendencies in these scenarios: an increase of 0.15-0.5 K/1000 Pg C over RCP 4.5 and a decrease of 0-0.7 K/1000 Pg C over RCP 8.5. These differences are robust across model configurations with perturbed land and ocean parametrizations and are the result of the decreased efficiency of heat transport into the deep ocean under decelerating emissions.

  19. High selection pressure promotes increase in cumulative adaptive culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Vegvari

    Full Text Available The evolution of cumulative adaptive culture has received widespread interest in recent years, especially the factors promoting its occurrence. Current evolutionary models suggest that an increase in population size may lead to an increase in cultural complexity via a higher rate of cultural transmission and innovation. However, relatively little attention has been paid to the role of natural selection in the evolution of cultural complexity. Here we use an agent-based simulation model to demonstrate that high selection pressure in the form of resource pressure promotes the accumulation of adaptive culture in spite of small population sizes and high innovation costs. We argue that the interaction of demography and selection is important, and that neither can be considered in isolation. We predict that an increase in cultural complexity is most likely to occur under conditions of population pressure relative to resource availability. Our model may help to explain why culture change can occur without major environmental change. We suggest that understanding the interaction between shifting selective pressures and demography is essential for explaining the evolution of cultural complexity.

  20. INTERACTIVE VISUALIZATION OF PROBABILITY AND CUMULATIVE DENSITY FUNCTIONS

    KAUST Repository

    Potter, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    The probability density function (PDF), and its corresponding cumulative density function (CDF), provide direct statistical insight into the characterization of a random process or field. Typically displayed as a histogram, one can infer probabilities of the occurrence of particular events. When examining a field over some two-dimensional domain in which at each point a PDF of the function values is available, it is challenging to assess the global (stochastic) features present within the field. In this paper, we present a visualization system that allows the user to examine two-dimensional data sets in which PDF (or CDF) information is available at any position within the domain. The tool provides a contour display showing the normed difference between the PDFs and an ansatz PDF selected by the user and, furthermore, allows the user to interactively examine the PDF at any particular position. Canonical examples of the tool are provided to help guide the reader into the mapping of stochastic information to visual cues along with a description of the use of the tool for examining data generated from an uncertainty quantification exercise accomplished within the field of electrophysiology.

  1. Microcanonical thermostatistics analysis without histograms: cumulative distribution and Bayesian approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Alves, Nelson A; Rizzi, Leandro G

    2015-01-01

    Microcanonical thermostatistics analysis has become an important tool to reveal essential aspects of phase transitions in complex systems. An efficient way to estimate the microcanonical inverse temperature $\\beta(E)$ and the microcanonical entropy $S(E)$ is achieved with the statistical temperature weighted histogram analysis method (ST-WHAM). The strength of this method lies on its flexibility, as it can be used to analyse data produced by algorithms with generalised sampling weights. However, for any sampling weight, ST-WHAM requires the calculation of derivatives of energy histograms $H(E)$, which leads to non-trivial and tedious binning tasks for models with continuous energy spectrum such as those for biomolecular and colloidal systems. Here, we discuss two alternative methods that avoid the need for such energy binning to obtain continuous estimates for $H(E)$ in order to evaluate $\\beta(E)$ by using ST-WHAM: (i) a series expansion to estimate probability densities from the empirical cumulative distrib...

  2. Cumulative sum quality control for calibrated breast density measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heine, John J.; Cao Ke; Beam, Craig [Cancer Prevention and Control Division, Moffitt Cancer Center, 12902 Magnolia Drive, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States); Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1603 W. Taylor St., Chicago, Illinois 60612 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Purpose: Breast density is a significant breast cancer risk factor. Although various methods are used to estimate breast density, there is no standard measurement for this important factor. The authors are developing a breast density standardization method for use in full field digital mammography (FFDM). The approach calibrates for interpatient acquisition technique differences. The calibration produces a normalized breast density pixel value scale. The method relies on first generating a baseline (BL) calibration dataset, which required extensive phantom imaging. Standardizing prospective mammograms with calibration data generated in the past could introduce unanticipated error in the standardized output if the calibration dataset is no longer valid. Methods: Sample points from the BL calibration dataset were imaged approximately biweekly over an extended timeframe. These serial samples were used to evaluate the BL dataset reproducibility and quantify the serial calibration accuracy. The cumulative sum (Cusum) quality control method was used to evaluate the serial sampling. Results: There is considerable drift in the serial sample points from the BL calibration dataset that is x-ray beam dependent. Systematic deviation from the BL dataset caused significant calibration errors. This system drift was not captured with routine system quality control measures. Cusum analysis indicated that the drift is a sign of system wear and eventual x-ray tube failure. Conclusions: The BL calibration dataset must be monitored and periodically updated, when necessary, to account for sustained system variations to maintain the calibration accuracy.

  3. Enhanced cumulative sum charts for monitoring process dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abujiya, Mu'azu Ramat; Riaz, Muhammad; Lee, Muhammad Hisyam

    2015-01-01

    The cumulative sum (CUSUM) control chart is widely used in industry for the detection of small and moderate shifts in process location and dispersion. For efficient monitoring of process variability, we present several CUSUM control charts for monitoring changes in standard deviation of a normal process. The newly developed control charts based on well-structured sampling techniques - extreme ranked set sampling, extreme double ranked set sampling and double extreme ranked set sampling, have significantly enhanced CUSUM chart ability to detect a wide range of shifts in process variability. The relative performances of the proposed CUSUM scale charts are evaluated in terms of the average run length (ARL) and standard deviation of run length, for point shift in variability. Moreover, for overall performance, we implore the use of the average ratio ARL and average extra quadratic loss. A comparison of the proposed CUSUM control charts with the classical CUSUM R chart, the classical CUSUM S chart, the fast initial response (FIR) CUSUM R chart, the FIR CUSUM S chart, the ranked set sampling (RSS) based CUSUM R chart and the RSS based CUSUM S chart, among others, are presented. An illustrative example using real dataset is given to demonstrate the practicability of the application of the proposed schemes.

  4. Detection of abrupt baseline length changes using cumulative sums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Volker

    2009-06-01

    Dynamic processes are usually monitored by collecting a time series of observations, which is then analysed in order to detect any motion or non-standard behaviour. Geodetic examples include the monitoring of dams, bridges, high-rise buildings, landslides, volcanoes and tectonic motion. The cumulative sum (CUSUM) test is recognised as a popular means to detect changes in the mean and/or the standard deviation of a time series and has been applied to various monitoring tasks. This paper briefly describes the CUSUM technique and how it can be utilised for the detection of small baseline length changes by differencing two perpendicular baselines sharing a common site. A simulation is carried out in order to investigate the expected behaviour of the resulting CUSUM charts for a variety of typical deformation monitoring scenarios. This simulation shows that using first differences (between successive epochs) as input, rather than the original baseline lengths, produces clear peaks or jumps in the differenced CUSUM time series when a sudden change in baseline length occurs. These findings are validated by analysing several GPS baseline pairs of a network deployed to monitor the propagation of an active ice shelf rift on the Amery Ice Shelf, East Antarctica.

  5. LINGUISTIC DETERMINISM, CUMULATIVE EVOLUTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhoverkhov A. V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to examine how language and its historically inherited content and structure allows accumulating knowledge and determines the development of the individuals, culture and science. The article shows the theoretical drawbacks of modern "pragmatic turn" in which language is depicted only as a derivate of natural, cultural and cognitive systems. Instead, it is stated that language, in addition to all of the above, have to be considered also as a relatively independent basis and one of the causes that determine individual and social development. For that reason, the study examines the system nature of language, thought and culture, their environmental and social "embeddiness", a close relationship with other sign systems and with various forms of social activities. From that point, theoretical reduction of multiple relations and varying causes in complex ecological and social systems only to bilateral relations of language-thought, language-culture are revised. Particular attention is paid to the role of language in the accumulation and systematization of scientific knowledge and the transmission of cultural traditions. In that context, language is seen as part of the non-genetic inheritance systems, "social a priori" that determines the content and creates conditions for cumulative social evolution. Therefore, it is maintained that the comprehensive studies of language and its significance for culture and science have to embrace within a systems approach both the linguistic and pragmatic "turns"

  6. Simulation of the cumulative hydrological response to green infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avellaneda, P. M.; Jefferson, A. J.; Grieser, J. M.; Bush, S. A.

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we evaluated the cumulative hydrologic performance of green infrastructure in a residential area of the city of Parma, Ohio, draining to a tributary of the Cuyahoga River. Green infrastructure included the following spatially distributed devices: 16 street-side bioretention cells, 7 rain gardens, and 37 rain barrels. Data consisted of rainfall and outfall flow records for a wide range of storm events, including pretreatment and treatment periods. The Stormwater Management Model was calibrated and validated to predict the hydrologic response of green infrastructure. The calibrated model was used to quantify annual water budget alterations and discharge frequency over a 6 year simulation period. For the study catchment, we observed a treatment effect with increases of 1.4% in evaporation, 7.6% in infiltration, and a 9.0% reduction in surface runoff. The hydrologic performance of green infrastructure was evaluated by comparing the flow duration curve for pretreatment and treatment outfall flow scenarios. The flow duration curve shifted downward for the green infrastructure scenario. Discharges with a 0.5, 1, 2, and 5 year return period were reduced by an average of 29%. Parameter and predictive uncertainties were inspected by implementing a Bayesian statistical approach.

  7. A New Tool for Seismology--the Cumulative Spectral Power

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, Randall D

    2007-01-01

    The power spectral density (PSD) function is commonly used to specify seismometer performance. It is derived from the FFT of acceleration and correction is made for the transfer function of the instrument that generated the data. As with any such spectrum of density (`per Hz') type, the noise inherent to a PSD is large. This article illustrates the value of a function that is derived from the PSD and for which the influence of noise is significantly reduced. Called the cumulative spectral power (CSP), it is obtained from the PSD through the noise-reducing process of integration. The maximum of the CSP (corresponding to the longest graphed value of the period) provides a means for estimating the total vibrational power of the earth. The present author has significantly simplified the process of PSD generation. Thus routine graphing is straightforwared-of first the FFT, followed by the generation of both a PSD and its associated CSP. The unique properties of the CSP make it valuable for the study of a variety o...

  8. A shock process with a non-cumulative damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkelstein, M.S.; Zarudnij, V.I

    2001-01-01

    Two types of non-cumulative damage shock models are considered. Based on the distribution of damage, caused by a shock effecting a system, the intervals with small, intermediate and large damage are introduced. The initial homogeneous Poisson shock process is split into three homogeneous Poisson processes and studied independently. Several criteria of failure are considered, based on the assumption that shocks with a small level of damage are harmless for a system, shocks with a large level of damage results in the system's failure and shocks with an intermediate level of damage can result in the system's failure only with some probability. The second model is based on an assumption that shocks with a small level of damage are harmless to a system, if they are not too close to each other. The probability of the system's failure-free performance in [0,t) is derived explicitly. Simple asymptotic exponential approximations are obtained The accuracy of this method is analyzed. Possible generalizations are discussed.

  9. Cumulative signal transmission in nonlinear reaction-diffusion networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego A Oyarzún

    Full Text Available Quantifying signal transmission in biochemical systems is key to uncover the mechanisms that cells use to control their responses to environmental stimuli. In this work we use the time-integral of chemical species as a measure of a network's ability to cumulatively transmit signals encoded in spatiotemporal concentrations. We identify a class of nonlinear reaction-diffusion networks in which the time-integrals of some species can be computed analytically. The derived time-integrals do not require knowledge of the solution of the reaction-diffusion equation, and we provide a simple graphical test to check if a given network belongs to the proposed class. The formulae for the time-integrals reveal how the kinetic parameters shape signal transmission in a network under spatiotemporal stimuli. We use these to show that a canonical complex-formation mechanism behaves as a spatial low-pass filter, the bandwidth of which is inversely proportional to the diffusion length of the ligand.

  10. New tests of cumulative prospect theory and the priority heuristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Birnbaum

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous tests of cumulative prospect theory (CPT and of the priority heuristic (PH found evidence contradicting these two models of risky decision making. However, those tests were criticized because they had characteristics that might ``trigger'' use of other heuristics. This paper presents new tests that avoid those characteristics. Expected values of the gambles are nearly equal in each choice. In addition, if a person followed expected value (EV, expected utility (EU, CPT, or PH in these tests, she would shift her preferences in the same direction as shifts in EV or EU. In contrast, the transfer of attention exchange model (TAX and a similarity model predict that people will reverse preferences in the opposite direction. Results contradict the PH, even when PH is modified to include a preliminary similarity evaluation using the PH parameters. New tests of probability-consequence interaction were also conducted. Strong interactions were observed, contrary to PH. These results add to the growing bodies of evidence showing that neither CPT nor PH is an accurate description of risky decision making.

  11. Cumulative creep fatigue damage in 316 stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgaw, Michael A.

    1989-01-01

    The cumulative creep-fatigue damage behavior of 316 stainless steel at 1500 F was experimentally established for the two-level loading cases of fatigue followed by fatigue, creep fatigue followed by fatigue, and fatigue followed by creep fatigue. The two-level loadings were conducted such that the lower life (high strain) cycling was applied first for a controlled number of cycles and the higher life (low strain) cycling was conducted as the second level to failure. The target life levels in this study were 100 cycles to failure for both the fatigue and creep-fatigue lowlife loading, 5000 cycles to failure for the higher life fatigue loading and 10,000 cycles to failure for the higher life creep-fatigue loading. The failed specimens are being examined both fractographically and metallographically to ascertain the nature of the damaging mechanisms that produced failure. Models of creep-fatigue damage accumulation are being evaluated and knowledge of the various damaging mechanisms is necessary to ensure that predictive capability is instilled in the final failure model.

  12. Cumulative biological impacts of The Geysers geothermal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brownell, J.A.

    1981-10-01

    The cumulative nature of current and potential future biological impacts from full geothermal development in the steam-dominated portion of The Geysers-Calistoga KGRA are identified by the California Energy Commission staff. Vegetation, wildlife, and aquatic resources information have been reviewed and evaluated. Impacts and their significance are discussed and staff recommendations presented. Development of 3000 MW of electrical energy will result in direct vegetation losses of 2790 acres, based on an estimate of 11.5% loss per lease-hold of 0.93 acres/MW. If unmitigated, losses will be greater. Indirect vegetation losses and damage occur from steam emissions which contain elements (particularly boron) toxic to vegetation. Other potential impacts include chronic low-level boron exposure, acid rain, local climate modification, and mechanical damage. A potential exists for significant reduction and changes in wildlife from direct habitat loss and development influences. Highly erosive soils create the potential for significant reduction of aquatic resources, particularly game fish. Toxic spills have caused some temporary losses of aquatic species. Staff recommends monitoring and implementation of mitigation measures at all geothermal development stages.

  13. Cumulative Causation, Market Transition, and Emigration from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zai; Chunyu, Miao David; Zhuang, Guotu; Ye, Wenzhen

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we report findings from a recent survey of international migration from China's Fujian province to the United States. We take advantage of the ethnosurvey approach as used in the Mexican Migration Project. Surveys were done in migrant-sending communities in China as well as in destination communities of New York City. We derive hypotheses from two strands of recent studies-the international migration literature and the market transition debate. Our results are in general consistent with hypotheses derived from cumulative causation of migration. However, because of the geographical location of China as compared to Mexico, there are some differences between the two countries in terms of particular migration patterns to the United States. As expected, at the community level, migration prevalence ratio (measuring migration networks) increases the propensity of migration for other members in the community. In contrast, having a household member migrated previously does not increase the propensity of migration of other household members until debt for previous migration is paid off. Our research clearly demonstrates the value of bringing the case of China into the comparative study of international migration. With respect to market transition theory, we find that political power continues to be an important factor in the order of social stratification in the coastal Fujian province. PMID:19569396

  14. The cumulative energy effect for improved ignition timing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markhotok, A., E-mail: amarhotk@phys.washington.edu [Physics Department, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    A technique capable of improving timing in ignition applications is proposed. It is based on the use of shock waves propagating in a specific medium that allows achieving extremely high speeds and energies. The model uses the energy cumulation effect in the presence of the shock wave refraction on an interface with plasma. The problem was solved analytically and the effects were demonstrated for a cylindrically symmetrical geometry. Numerical results show very quick and uneven acceleration of different portions of the shock front. Its strong distortions lead to formation of a sharply focused jet near the axis of symmetry. The ability of the shock to achieve extremely high speeds and energies can be useful in design of efficient combustors for hypersonic systems, and possibly offers an alternative way of construction of a nuclear fusion reactor. Recommendations are given in terms of adjustment parameters and can be applied at any problem scale and for various combinations of the strengths of the effects involved in the problem.

  15. Cumulative life course impairment in melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piaserico, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Patients with skin cancer remain at risk for disease progression or relapse for many years. Therefore, skin cancer may be considered a chronic, life-threatening disease. It could impact on patients lifestyles and social and professional activities. Although no direct study of cumulative life course impairment (CLCI) in skin cancer patients has been carried out, a few studies suggest that skin cancer may strongly impair quality of life and eventually determine a significant CLCI (melanoma more than nonmelanoma skin cancer). Obviously, the life course of patients with melanoma at an advanced stage of the disease may change considerably. A number of cancer-associated problems may determine a CLCI, including familial or professional changes and a reduction of life expectancy may eventually lead to social withdrawal and depressive disorders. Even patients with a low stage disease may experience an important impairment of quality of life and in some cases a CLCI. Some skin cancer patients may have physical and psychological after effects from their cancer surgery. Several patients complain about lymphedema, discomfort experienced from wearing surgical stockings, and diminished range of physical motion postsurgery. A few are concerned about their body image due to surgical scars, and they may consider changing their job position because of the supposed negative impact of scars in visible sites on their ability to perform their job. Some female melanoma survivors may have a reduced desire of having children in the future.

  16. A study of cephalic index and facial index in Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Lakshmi Kumari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The description of the human body has been a major concern since ancient times. The use of medical terminology enhances reliability of comparison made between studies from different areas thereby contributing higher level of scientific evidence. Cephalic index is an important parameter in forensic medicine, anthropology and genetics to know the sex and racial differences between individuals. Facial index is useful index for forensic scientists, plastic surgeons and anatomist. The parameters are useful for plastic surgeons during treatment of congenital and traumatic deformities, identification of individuals in medicolegal cases by forensic scientists and identifying craniofacial deformities of genetic syndromes by geneticist. Methods: 170 males and 110 female adults from Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India region are included in this study. Anthropometric points for cephalic index were measured by using spreading calipers. Facial index measurements were taken by measuring tape. All measurements were taken in subjects sitting in relaxed condition and subjects head is in anatomical position. Cranial index and facial index were calculated as per the formula. Results: Maximum number of males with mean cephalic index values of 80.21 were observed as mesocephalic and female with mean value of 79.25 observed as brachycephalic. Regarding facial index males were leptoprosopic and females were mesoprosopic. Conclusion: Cephalic index and facial index were terms used by anthropologists, anatomists, plastic surgeons and forensic scientists to identify individual's race and sex for treatment of craniofacial deformities. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(3.000: 656-658

  17. Cumulative Effects of Hypertension, Dyslipidemia, and Chronic Kidney Disease on Carotid Atherosclerosis in Chinese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. The aim of this study is to determine the extent of carotid atherosclerosis in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes in relation to the cumulative atherosclerosis risk factors using ultrasonography. Methods. The presence of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and chronic kidney disease (CKD was documented in 106 Chinese subjects with type 2 diabetes. Subjects with 0, 1, and ≥2 additional atherosclerosis risk factors were assigned into groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively (n=17, 49, and 40, resp.. Using ultrasound, the carotid arteries were assessed for the presence of carotid plaque, plaque score, intima-media thickness (IMT, and carotid arterial stiffness. Results. With the adjustment for age and gender, the presence of plaque and plaque score were significantly higher in groups with more atherosclerosis risk factors (P 60 years old (odds ratio = 2.75; 95% CI: 1.26–6.0 and the presence of hypertension (odds ratio = 2.48; 95% CI: 1.11–5.58, dyslipidemia (odds ratio = 2.41; 95% CI: 1.05–5.51, and CKD (odds ratio = 7.80; 95% CI: 1.46–41.72 could independently predict higher plaque score (P<0.05. Conclusions. Hypertension, dyslipidemia, and CKD in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes have cumulative effects on the burden of carotid plaque.

  18. Cumulative Reactant Species Index for Volumes I-V of the Compilation of Data Relevant to Gas Lasers. Volume VI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-01

    cross section (relative) 2027 ICt Electron affinity 214, 1161 Extinction coefficient for continuous absorption 702, 2032 12 Electron affinity 214, 1161...864 On Ne, high-energy production of free electrons 1622 On W, elt -ctron yields from surface 865 On Xe, high-energy ionization 1624 On He, high-energy

  19. CENDI Indexing Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The CENDI Indexing Workshop held at NASA Headquarters, Two Independence Square, 300 E Street, Washington, DC, on September 21-22, 1994 focused on the following topics: machine aided indexing, indexing quality, an indexing pilot project, the MedIndEx Prototype, Department of Energy/Office of Scientific and Technical Information indexing activities, high-tech coding structures, category indexing schemes, and the Government Information Locator Service. This publication consists mostly of viewgraphs related to the above noted topics. In an appendix is a description of the Government Information Locator Service.

  20. Hysterectomy in very obese and morbidly obese patients: a systematic review with cumulative analysis of comparative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blikkendaal, Mathijs D; Schepers, Evelyn M; van Zwet, Erik W; Twijnstra, Andries R H; Jansen, Frank Willem

    2015-10-01

    Some studies suggest that also regarding the patient with a body mass index (BMI) ≥35 kg/m(2) the minimally invasive approach to hysterectomy is superior. However, current practice and research on the preference of gynaecologists still show that the rate of abdominal hysterectomy (AH) increases as the BMI increases. A systematic review with cumulative analysis of comparative studies was performed to evaluate the outcomes of AH, laparoscopic hysterectomy (LH) and vaginal hysterectomy (VH) in very obese and morbidly obese patients (BMI ≥35 kg/m(2)). PubMed and EMBASE were searched for records on AH, LH and VH for benign indications or (early stage) malignancy through October 2014. Included studies were graded on level of evidence. Studies with a comparative design were pooled in a cumulative analysis. Two randomized controlled trials, seven prospective studies and 14 retrospective studies were included (2232 patients; 1058 AHs, 959 LHs, and 215 VHs). The cumulative analysis identified that, compared to LH, AH was associated with more wound dehiscence [risk ratio (RR) 2.58, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.71-3.90; P = 0.000], more wound infection (RR 4.36, 95 % CI 2.79-6.80; P = 0.000), and longer hospital admission (mean difference 2.9 days, 95 % CI 1.96-3.74; P = 0.000). The pooled conversion rate was 10.6 %. Compared to AH, VH was associated with similar advantages as LH. Compared to AH, both LH and VH are associated with fewer postoperative complications and shorter length of hospital stay. Therefore, the feasibility of LH and VH should be considered prior the abdominal approach to hysterectomy in very obese and morbidly obese patients.

  1. An empirical study to order citation statistics between subject fields

    CERN Document Server

    van Zyl, J Martin

    2012-01-01

    An empirical study is conducted to compare citations per publication, statistics and observed Hirsch indexes between subject fields using summary statistics of countries. No distributional assumptions are made and ratios are calculated. These ratios can be used to make approximate comparisons between researchers of different subject fields with respect to the Hirsch index.

  2. Long-Term Effects of Prematurity, Cumulative Medical Risk, and Proximal and Distal Social Forces on Individual Differences in Diurnal Cortisol at Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, Suzy B; Sullivan, Mary C; Roberts, Mary B; Bryce, Crystal I; Granger, Douglas A

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of prematurity, cumulative medical risk, and proximal and distal social forces on individual differences in the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in young adulthood. A prospective sample of 149 infants born healthy preterm (PT; n = 22), sick PT ( n = 93, medical illness, neurological illness, small for gestational age), and full term ( n = 34) was recruited from a Level III neonatal intensive care unit in southern New England between 1985 and 1989 and followed to age 23 years. Cumulative medical risk was indexed across seven assessment waves (spanning 17 years) using medical and neurological health status at birth, toddlerhood (ages 18 and 30 months), childhood (ages 4 and 8 years), and adolescence (ages 12 and 17 years). Distal risk included socioeconomic status (SES) at birth. Proximal social factors were indexed from assessments of the home environment and measures of child vulnerability and maternal self-esteem, involvement, and control style from birth, 4 years, 8 years, and 12 years. At age 23 years, five saliva samples were collected upon awakening, 45 min after waking, 4 hr after waking, 8 hr after waking, and bedtime (later assayed for cortisol). Results reveal effects of cumulative medical risk on the diurnal pattern of HPA axis activity, with moderating effects of SES and proximal social factors. Findings are discussed in terms of implications for contemporary theories related to developmental sensitivity and susceptibility to context and the developmental origins of health and disease theory.

  3. Ankle Brachial Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikstroem, J.; Hansen, T.; Johansson, L.; Lind, L.; Ahlstroem, H. (Dept. of Radiology and Dept. of Medical Sciences, Uppsala Univ. Hospital, Uppsala (SE))

    2008-03-15

    Background: Whole-body magnetic resonance angiography (WBMRA) permits noninvasive vascular assessment, which can be utilized in epidemiological studies. Purpose: To assess the relation between a low ankle brachial index (ABI) and high-grade stenoses in the pelvic and leg arteries in the elderly. Material and Methods: WBMRA was performed in a population sample of 306 subjects aged 70 years. The arteries below the aortic bifurcation were graded after the most severe stenosis according to one of three grades: 0-49% stenosis, 50-99% stenosis, or occlusion. ABI was calculated for each side. Results: There were assessable WBMRA and ABI examinations in 268 (right side), 265 (left side), and 258 cases (both sides). At least one >=50% stenosis was found in 19% (right side), 23% (left side), and 28% (on at least one side) of the cases. The corresponding prevalences for ABI <0.9 were 4.5%, 4.2%, and 6.6%. An ABI cut-off value of 0.9 resulted in a sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value of 20%, 99%, 83%, and 84% on the right side, and 15%, 99%, 82%, and 80% on the left side, respectively, for the presence of a >= 50% stenosis in the pelvic or leg arteries. Conclusion: An ABI <0.9 underestimates the prevalence of peripheral arterial occlusive disease in the general elderly population

  4. Columbia River ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  5. American Samoa ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all the hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  6. Human Use Index (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the...

  7. Human Use Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the...

  8. Master Veteran Index (MVI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — As of June 28, 2010, the Master Veteran Index (MVI) database based on the enhanced Master Patient Index (MPI) is the authoritative identity service within the VA,...

  9. Audio Indexing for Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnlom, Harold F.; Pedrick, Lillian

    1978-01-01

    This article describes Zimdex, an audio indexing system developed to solve the problem of indexing audio materials for individual instruction in the content area of the mathematics of life insurance. (Author)

  10. Glycemic index and diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000941.htm Glycemic index and diabetes To use the sharing features on ... GI diet also may help with weight loss. Glycemic Index of Certain Foods Low GI foods (0 to ...

  11. IndexCat

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — IndexCat provides access to the digitized version of the printed Index-Catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon General's Office; eTK for medieval Latin texts; and...

  12. Unified Index Unveiled

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RENWEI

    2005-01-01

    China unveiled a unified stock index to track both markets in Shanghai and Shenzhen in April, a move likely to open a floodgate for more trading derivatives such as index futures. The new index, with 300 component companies traded on Shanghai and Shenzhen stock exchanges, will be the first of its kind on the mainland. The index members will be the largest 300 stocks - 180 from Shanghai and 120 from Shenzhen - in terms of market capitalization,

  13. On the duration and intensity of cumulative advantage competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bo; Sun, Liyuan; Figueiredo, Daniel R.; Ribeiro, Bruno; Towsley, Don

    2015-11-01

    Network growth can be framed as a competition for edges among nodes in the network. As with various other social and physical systems, skill (fitness) and luck (random chance) act as fundamental forces driving competition dynamics. In the context of networks, cumulative advantage (CA)—the rich-get-richer effect—is seen as a driving principle governing the edge accumulation process. However, competitions coupled with CA exhibit non-trivial behavior and little is formally known about duration and intensity of CA competitions. By isolating two nodes in an ideal CA competition, we provide a mathematical understanding of how CA exacerbates the role of luck in detriment of skill. We show, for instance, that when nodes start with few edges, an early stroke of luck can place the less skilled in the lead for an extremely long period of time, a phenomenon we call ‘struggle of the fittest’. We prove that duration of a simple skill and luck competition model exhibit power-law tails when CA is present, regardless of skill difference, which is in sharp contrast to the exponential tails when fitness is distinct but CA is absent. We also prove that competition intensity is always upper bounded by an exponential tail, irrespective of CA and skills. Thus, CA competitions can be extremely long (infinite mean, depending on fitness ratio) but almost never very intense. The theoretical results are corroborated by extensive numerical simulations. Our findings have important implications to competitions not only among nodes in networks but also in contexts that leverage socio-physical models embodying CA competitions.

  14. Measuring a fair and ambitious climate agreement using cumulative emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Glen P.; Andrew, Robbie M.; Solomon, Susan; Friedlingstein, Pierre

    2015-10-01

    Policy makers have called for a ‘fair and ambitious’ global climate agreement. Scientific constraints, such as the allowable carbon emissions to avoid exceeding a 2 °C global warming limit with 66% probability, can help define ambitious approaches to climate targets. However, fairly sharing the mitigation challenge to meet a global target involves human values rather than just scientific facts. We develop a framework based on cumulative emissions of carbon dioxide to compare the consistency of countries’ current emission pledges to the ambition of keeping global temperatures below 2 °C, and, further, compare two alternative methods of sharing the remaining emission allowance. We focus on the recent pledges and other official statements of the EU, USA, and China. The EU and US pledges are close to a 2 °C level of ambition only if the remaining emission allowance is distributed based on current emission shares, which is unlikely to be viewed as ‘fair and ambitious’ by others who presently emit less. China’s stated emissions target also differs from measures of global fairness, owing to emissions that continue to grow into the 2020s. We find that, combined, the EU, US, and Chinese pledges leave little room for other countries to emit CO2 if a 2 °C limit is the objective, essentially requiring all other countries to move towards per capita emissions 7 to 14 times lower than the EU, USA, or China by 2030. We argue that a fair and ambitious agreement for a 2 °C limit that would be globally inclusive and effective in the long term will require stronger mitigation than the goals currently proposed. Given such necessary and unprecedented mitigation and the current lack of availability of some key technologies, we suggest a new diplomatic effort directed at ensuring that the necessary technologies become available in the near future.

  15. Cumulative Effects of Barriers on the Movements of Forest Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Bélisle

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there is a consensus of opinion that habitat fragmentation has deleterious effects on animal populations, primarily by inhibiting dispersal among remaining patches, there have been few explicit demonstrations of the ways by which degraded habitats actually constrain individual movement. Two impediments are primarily responsible for this paucity: it is difficult to separate the effects of habitat fragmentation (configuration from habitat loss (composition, and conventional measures of fragmented habitats are assumed to be, but probably are not, isotropic. We addressed these limitations by standardizing differences in forest cover in a clearly anisotropic configuration of habitat fragmentation by conducting a homing experiment with three species of forest birds in the Bow Valley of Banff National Park, Canada. Birds were translocated (1.2-3.5  km either parallel or perpendicular to four/five parallel barriers that are assumed to impede the cross-valley travel of forest-dependent animals. Taken together, individuals exhibited longer return times when they were translocated across these barriers, but differences among species suggest a more complex interpretation. A long-distance migrant (Yellow-rumped Warbler, Dendroica coronata behaved as predicted, but a short-distance migrant (Golden-crowned Kinglet, Regulus satrapa was indifferent to barrier configuration. A resident (Red-breasted Nuthatch, Sitta canadensis exhibited longer return times when it was translocated parallel to the barriers. Our results suggest that an anisotropic arrangement of small, open areas in fragmented landscapes can have a cumulative barrier effect on the movement of forest animals, but that both modelers and managers will have to acknowledge potentially counterintuitive differences among species to predict the effect that these may have on individual movement and, ultimately, dispersal.

  16. The glycemic index: methodology and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Cyril W C; Augustin, Livia S A; Emam, Azadeh; Josse, Andrea R; Saxena, Nishta; Jenkins, David J A

    2006-01-01

    The glycemic index concept owes much to the dietary fiber hypothesis that fiber would reduce the rate of nutrient absorption and increase the value of carbohydrate foods in the maintenance of health and treatment of disease. However, properties and components of food other than its fiber content contribute to the glycemic and endocrine responses postprandially. The aim of the glycemic index classification of foods was therefore to assist in the physiological classification of carbohydrate foods which, it was hoped, would be of relevance in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases such as diabetes. Over the past two decades low glycemic index diets have been reported to improve glycemic control in diabetic subjects, to reduce serum lipids in hyperlipidemic subjects and possibly to aid in weight control. In large cohort studies, low glycemic index or glycemic load diets (glycemic index multiplied by total carbohydrate) have also been associated with higher levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, reduced C-reactive protein concentrations and with a decreased risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease. More recently, some case-control and cohort studies have also found positive associations between the dietary glycemic index and the risk of colon, breast and other cancers. While the glycemic index concept continues to be debated and there remain inconsistencies in the data, sufficient positive findings have emerged to suggest that the glycemic index is an aspect of diet of potential importance in the treatment and prevention of chronic diseases.

  17. Indexing for ERIC. Volume 3, Lessons 3 and 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langridge, D.W.; And Others

    The last half of a course in subject indexing for the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) system is presented in this volume. The demonstration of indexing techniques, lesson 3, uses a typical document (given in full in an appendix in volume 1) to show how indexing concepts are chosen in practice and converted into terms contained in…

  18. A bottom-up approach to MEDLINE indexing recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jimeno-Yepes, Antonio; Wilkowski, Bartlomiej; Mork, James/G

    2011-01-01

    MEDLINE indexing performed by the US National Library of Medicine staff describes the essence of a biomedical publication in about 14 Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). Since 2002, this task is assisted by the Medical Text Indexer (MTI) program. We present a bottom-up approach to MEDLINE indexing...

  19. Indexing Executive Compensation Contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Dittmann (Ingolf); E.G. Maug (Ernst); O.G. Spalt (Oliver)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze the efficiency of indexing executive pay by calibrating the standard model of executive compensation to a large sample of US CEOs. The benefits from linking the strike price of stock options to an index are small and fully indexing all options would increase compensation costs

  20. Textile Index Monitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Part I–Price Index National Index for China Textile City (located in Keqiao, Shaoxing county in Zhejiang Province, east of China) concludes its price index (periodic code:20101101) at 100.31 points rise of 0.68% as against its previous week.