WorldWideScience

Sample records for cumulative risks posed

  1. Potential Health Risks Posed by Plant-Derived Cumulative Neurotoxic Bufadienolides in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo Botha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bufadienolide-type cardiac glycosides have a worldwide distribution and are mainly synthesized by plants, but there are also animal sources. In South Africa, members of three genera of the Crassulaceae (Cotyledon, Tylecodon and Kalanchoe cause a unique chronic form of cardiac glycoside poisoning, predominantly in small stock. This paretic/paralytic condition is referred to as “krimpsiekte”, cotyledonosis or “nenta”. “Krimpsiekte” is a plant poisoning only reported from South Africa and is regarded as the most important plant poisoning of small stock in the semi-arid Little Karoo and southern fringes of the Great Karoo. The toxicosis is caused by cumulative bufadienolides which have neurotoxic properties. Four types of cumulative neurotoxic bufadienolides, namely cotyledoside, and the tyledosides, orbicusides and lanceotoxins, have been isolated. Based on the structure activity relationships and certain toxicokinetic parameters possible reasons for their accumulation are presented. Consumption of edible tissues from animals that have ingested these plants poses a potential risk to humans.

  2. Flameless Candle Batteries Pose Risk to Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162882.html Flameless Candle Batteries Pose Risk to Kids If swallowed, serious damage ... WEDNESDAY, Jan. 4, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Tiny button batteries that light up flameless "tea candles" pose a ...

  3. 'Button' Batteries Pose Serious Risk to Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip navigation U.S. National Library of Medicine Menu ... Pose Serious Risk to Children Toddlers may swallow the tiny batteries used to power many common household objects To use the sharing features ...

  4. Infant Sleep Positioners Pose Suffocation Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Infant Sleep Positioners Pose Suffocation Risk Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print Infant Sleep Positioner Example See more images of Infant Sleep ...

  5. "Light" Tobacco Products Pose Heavy Health Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates "Light" Tobacco Products Pose Heavy Health Risks Share Tweet ... Feed A federal law is restricting the words “light,” “low,” and “mild” from tobacco products now on ...

  6. Cancer risks posed by aflatoxin M1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, D P; Cullen, J M; Hsieh, L S; Shao, Y; Ruebner, B H

    1985-01-01

    The suspect milk-borne carcinogen, aflatoxin M1 (AFM), was produced and isolated from the rice culture of the fungus Aspergillus flavus NRRL3251 for confirmation and determination of the potency of its carcinogenicity in the male adult Fischer rat. The carcinogen was mixed into an agar-based, semisynthetic diet at 0, 0.5, 5, and 50 ppb (microgram/kg) and was fed to groups of animals continuously for 19-21 months. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB), of which AFM is a metabolite, at 50 ppb was used as a positive control. Hepatocarcinogenicity of AFM was detected at 50 ppb, but not at 5 or 0.5 ppb, with a potency of 2-10% that of AFB. A low incidence of intestinal adenocarcinomas was found in the AFM 50 ppb group, but not in any other groups. At 0.5 ppb, the action level enforced by the U.S.A. Food and Drug Administration, AFM induced no liver lesions in the rats but stimulated the animals' growth. On the average, the rats in the 0.5 ppb group weighed 11% (p less than 0.001) more than those in the control group. This increased growth was associated with increased feed intake. Based on the biological activity of AFM at the relevant low doses and the estimated level of human exposure to AFM through consumption of milk, the cancer risk posed by this contaminant for human adults is assessed to be very low. For infants, further studies are warranted because milk constitutes the major ingredient of the infant diet and because infant animals have been shown to be more sensitive to the carcinogenicity of AFB than adult animals.

  7. EPA Workshop on Epigenetics and Cumulative Risk ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agenda Download the Workshop Agenda (PDF) The workshop included presentations and discussions by scientific experts pertaining to three topics (i.e., epigenetic changes associated with diverse stressors, key science considerations in understanding epigenetic changes, and practical application of epigenetic tools to address cumulative risks from environmental stressors), to address several questions under each topic, and included an opportunity for attendees to participate in break-out groups, provide comments and ask questions. Workshop Goals The workshop seeks to examine the opportunity for use of aggregate epigenetic change as an indicator in cumulative risk assessment for populations exposed to multiple stressors that affect epigenetic status. Epigenetic changes are specific molecular changes around DNA that alter expression of genes. Epigenetic changes include DNA methylation, formation of histone adducts, and changes in micro RNAs. Research today indicates that epigenetic changes are involved in many chronic diseases (cancer, cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, mental health disorders, and asthma). Research has also linked a wide range of stressors including pollution and social factors with occurrence of epigenetic alterations. Epigenetic changes have the potential to reflect impacts of risk factors across multiple stages of life. Only recently receiving attention is the nexus between the factors of cumulative exposure to environmental

  8. Cumulative risks of foster care placement for Danish children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fallesen, Peter; Emanuel, Natalia; Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Although recent research suggests that the cumulative risk of foster care placement is far higher for American children than originally suspected, little is known about the cumulative risk of foster...

  9. Cumulative Risks of Foster Care Placement for Danish Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallesen, Peter; Emanuel, Natalia; Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Although recent research suggests that the cumulative risk of foster care placement is far higher for American children than originally suspected, little is known about the cumulative risk of foster care placement in other countries, which makes it difficult to gauge the degree to which factor...... is for Danish children. Results suggest that at the beginning of the study period (in 1998) the cumulative risk of foster care placement for Danish children was roughly in line with the risk for American children. Yet, by the end of the study period (2010), the risk had declined to half the risk for American...... foster care placement is salient in other contexts. In this article, we provide companion estimates to those provided in recent work on the US by using Danish registry data and synthetic cohort life tables to show how high and unequally distributed the cumulative risk of foster care placement...

  10. Childhood Cumulative Risk Exposure and Adult Amygdala Volume and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gary W; Swain, James E; King, Anthony P; Wang, Xin; Javanbakht, Arash; Ho, S Shaun; Angstadt, Michael; Phan, K Luan; Xie, Hong; Liberzon, Israel

    2016-06-01

    Considerable work indicates that early cumulative risk exposure is aversive to human development, but very little research has examined the neurological underpinnings of these robust findings. This study investigates amygdala volume and reactivity to facial stimuli among adults (mean 23.7 years of age, n = 54) as a function of cumulative risk exposure during childhood (9 and 13 years of age). In addition, we test to determine whether expected cumulative risk elevations in amygdala volume would mediate functional reactivity of the amygdala during socioemotional processing. Risks included substandard housing quality, noise, crowding, family turmoil, child separation from family, and violence. Total and left hemisphere adult amygdala volumes were positively related to cumulative risk exposure during childhood. The links between childhood cumulative risk exposure and elevated amygdala responses to emotionally neutral facial stimuli in adulthood were mediated by the corresponding amygdala volumes. Cumulative risk exposure in later adolescence (17 years of age), however, was unrelated to subsequent adult amygdala volume or function. Physical and socioemotional risk exposures early in life appear to alter amygdala development, rendering adults more reactive to ambiguous stimuli such as neutral faces. These stress-related differences in childhood amygdala development might contribute to the well-documented psychological distress as a function of early risk exposure.

  11. Cumulative risks of foster care placement for Danish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallesen, Peter; Emanuel, Natalia; Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Although recent research suggests that the cumulative risk of foster care placement is far higher for American children than originally suspected, little is known about the cumulative risk of foster care placement in other countries, which makes it difficult to gauge the degree to which factor foster care placement is salient in other contexts. In this article, we provide companion estimates to those provided in recent work on the US by using Danish registry data and synthetic cohort life tables to show how high and unequally distributed the cumulative risk of foster care placement is for Danish children. Results suggest that at the beginning of the study period (in 1998) the cumulative risk of foster care placement for Danish children was roughly in line with the risk for American children. Yet, by the end of the study period (2010), the risk had declined to half the risk for American children. Our results also show some variations by parental ethnicity and sex, but these differences are small. Indeed, they appear quite muted relative to racial/ethnic differences in these risks in the United States. Last, though cumulative risks are similar between Danish and American children (especially at the beginning of the study period), the age-specific risk profiles are markedly different, with higher risks for older Danish children than for older American children.

  12. Cumulative Effect of Depression on Dementia Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Olazarán

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze a potential cumulative effect of life-time depression on dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD, with control of vascular factors (VFs. Methods. This study was a subanalysis of the Neurological Disorders in Central Spain (NEDICES study. Past and present depression, VFs, dementia status, and dementia due to AD were documented at study inception. Dementia status was also documented after three years. Four groups were created according to baseline data: never depression (nD, past depression (pD, present depression (prD, and present and past depression (prpD. Logistic regression was used. Results. Data of 1,807 subjects were investigated at baseline (mean age 74.3, 59.3% women, and 1,376 (81.6% subjects were evaluated after three years. The prevalence of dementia at baseline was 6.7%, and dementia incidence was 6.3%. An effect of depression was observed on dementia prevalence (OR [CI 95%] 1.84 [1.01–3.35] for prD and 2.73 [1.08–6.87] for prpD, and on dementia due to AD (OR 1.98 [0.98–3.99] for prD and OR 3.98 [1.48–10.71] for prpD (fully adjusted models, nD as reference. Depression did not influence dementia incidence. Conclusions. Present depression and, particularly, present and past depression are associated with dementia at old age. Multiple mechanisms, including toxic effect of depression on hippocampal neurons, plausibly explain these associations.

  13. Cumulative risk hypothesis: Predicting and preventing child maltreatment recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, David; Åsberg, Kia; Peer, Samuel; Prince, Gwendolyn

    2016-08-01

    Although Child Protective Services (CPS) and other child welfare agencies aim to prevent further maltreatment in cases of child abuse and neglect, recidivism is common. Having a better understanding of recidivism predictors could aid in preventing additional instances of maltreatment. A previous study identified two CPS interventions that predicted recidivism: psychotherapy for the parent, which was related to a reduced risk of recidivism, and temporary removal of the child from the parent's custody, which was related to an increased recidivism risk. However, counter to expectations, this previous study did not identify any other specific risk factors related to maltreatment recidivism. For the current study, it was hypothesized that (a) cumulative risk (i.e., the total number of risk factors) would significantly predict maltreatment recidivism above and beyond intervention variables in a sample of CPS case files and that (b) therapy for the parent would be related to a reduced likelihood of recidivism. Because it was believed that the relation between temporary removal of a child from the parent's custody and maltreatment recidivism is explained by cumulative risk, the study also hypothesized that that the relation between temporary removal of the child from the parent's custody and recidivism would be mediated by cumulative risk. After performing a hierarchical logistic regression analysis, the first two hypotheses were supported, and an additional predictor, psychotherapy for the child, also was related to reduced chances of recidivism. However, Hypothesis 3 was not supported, as risk did not significantly mediate the relation between temporary removal and recidivism.

  14. The proportional odds cumulative incidence model for competing risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Frank; Li, Jianing; Scheike, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We suggest an estimator for the proportional odds cumulative incidence model for competing risks data. The key advantage of this model is that the regression parameters have the simple and useful odds ratio interpretation. The model has been considered by many authors, but it is rarely used in pr...

  15. Does ketoprofen or diclofenac pose the lowest risk to fish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuklev, Filip; Fick, Jerker; Cvijovic, Marija; Kristiansson, Erik; Förlin, Lars; Larsson, D G Joakim

    2012-08-30

    Ketoprofen and diclofenac are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) often used for similar indications, and both are frequently found in surface waters. Diclofenac affects organ histology and gene expression in fish at around 1 μg/L. Here, we exposed rainbow trout to ketoprofen (1, 10 and 100 μg/L) to investigate if this alternative causes less risk for pharmacological responses in fish. The bioconcentration factor from water to fish blood plasma was Ketoprofen only reached up to 0.6 ‰ of the human therapeutic plasma concentration, thus the probability of target-related effects was estimated to be fairly low. Accordingly, a comprehensive analysis of hepatic gene expression revealed no consistent responses. In some contrast, trout exposed to undiluted, treated sewage effluents bioconcentrated ketoprofen and other NSAIDs much more efficiently, according to a meta-analysis of recent studies. Neither of the setups is however an ideal representation of the field situation. If a controlled exposure system with a single chemical in pure water is a reasonable representation of the environment, then the use of ketoprofen is likely to pose a lower risk for wild fish than diclofenac, but if bioconcentration factors from effluent-exposed fish are applied, the risks may be more similar.

  16. Assessing the risk posed by natural hazards to infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidsvig, Unni Marie K.; Kristensen, Krister; Vidar Vangelsten, Bjørn

    2017-03-01

    This paper proposes a model for assessing the risk posed by natural hazards to infrastructures, with a focus on the indirect losses and loss of stability for the population relying on the infrastructure. The model prescribes a three-level analysis with increasing level of detail, moving from qualitative to quantitative analysis. The focus is on a methodology for semi-quantitative analyses to be performed at the second level. The purpose of this type of analysis is to perform a screening of the scenarios of natural hazards threatening the infrastructures, identifying the most critical scenarios and investigating the need for further analyses (third level). The proposed semi-quantitative methodology considers the frequency of the natural hazard, different aspects of vulnerability, including the physical vulnerability of the infrastructure itself, and the societal dependency on the infrastructure. An indicator-based approach is applied, ranking the indicators on a relative scale according to pre-defined ranking criteria. The proposed indicators, which characterise conditions that influence the probability of an infrastructure malfunctioning caused by a natural event, are defined as (1) robustness and buffer capacity, (2) level of protection, (3) quality/level of maintenance and renewal, (4) adaptability and quality of operational procedures and (5) transparency/complexity/degree of coupling. Further indicators describe conditions influencing the socio-economic consequences of the infrastructure malfunctioning, such as (1) redundancy and/or substitution, (2) cascading effects and dependencies, (3) preparedness and (4) early warning, emergency response and measures. The aggregated risk estimate is a combination of the semi-quantitative vulnerability indicators, as well as quantitative estimates of the frequency of the natural hazard, the potential duration of the infrastructure malfunctioning (e.g. depending on the required restoration effort) and the number of users of

  17. Cumulative Risk Assessment Toolbox: Methods and Approaches for the Practitioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret M. MacDonell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The historical approach to assessing health risks of environmental chemicals has been to evaluate them one at a time. In fact, we are exposed every day to a wide variety of chemicals and are increasingly aware of potential health implications. Although considerable progress has been made in the science underlying risk assessments for real-world exposures, implementation has lagged because many practitioners are unaware of methods and tools available to support these analyses. To address this issue, the US Environmental Protection Agency developed a toolbox of cumulative risk resources for contaminated sites, as part of a resource document that was published in 2007. This paper highlights information for nearly 80 resources from the toolbox and provides selected updates, with practical notes for cumulative risk applications. Resources are organized according to the main elements of the assessment process: (1 planning, scoping, and problem formulation; (2 environmental fate and transport; (3 exposure analysis extending to human factors; (4 toxicity analysis; and (5 risk and uncertainty characterization, including presentation of results. In addition to providing online access, plans for the toolbox include addressing nonchemical stressors and applications beyond contaminated sites and further strengthening resource accessibility to support evolving analyses for cumulative risk and sustainable communities.

  18. Cumulative Risk Assessment Toolbox: Methods and Approaches for the Practitioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonell, Margaret M.; Haroun, Lynne A.; Teuschler, Linda K.; Rice, Glenn E.; Hertzberg, Richard C.; Butler, James P.; Chang, Young-Soo; Clark, Shanna L.; Johns, Alan P.; Perry, Camarie S.; Garcia, Shannon S.; Jacobi, John H.; Scofield, Marcienne A.

    2013-01-01

    The historical approach to assessing health risks of environmental chemicals has been to evaluate them one at a time. In fact, we are exposed every day to a wide variety of chemicals and are increasingly aware of potential health implications. Although considerable progress has been made in the science underlying risk assessments for real-world exposures, implementation has lagged because many practitioners are unaware of methods and tools available to support these analyses. To address this issue, the US Environmental Protection Agency developed a toolbox of cumulative risk resources for contaminated sites, as part of a resource document that was published in 2007. This paper highlights information for nearly 80 resources from the toolbox and provides selected updates, with practical notes for cumulative risk applications. Resources are organized according to the main elements of the assessment process: (1) planning, scoping, and problem formulation; (2) environmental fate and transport; (3) exposure analysis extending to human factors; (4) toxicity analysis; and (5) risk and uncertainty characterization, including presentation of results. In addition to providing online access, plans for the toolbox include addressing nonchemical stressors and applications beyond contaminated sites and further strengthening resource accessibility to support evolving analyses for cumulative risk and sustainable communities. PMID:23762048

  19. Cumulative risk: toxicity and interactions of physical and chemical stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, Cynthia V; Boekelheide, Kim; Catlin, Natasha; Gordon, Christopher J; Morata, Thais; Selgrade, Maryjane K; Sexton, Kenneth; Simmons, Jane Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Recent efforts to update cumulative risk assessment procedures to incorporate nonchemical stressors ranging from physical to psychosocial reflect increased interest in consideration of the totality of variables affecting human health and the growing desire to develop community-based risk assessment methods. A key roadblock is the uncertainty as to how nonchemical stressors behave in relationship to chemical stressors. Physical stressors offer a reasonable starting place for measuring the effects of nonchemical stressors and their modulation of chemical effects (and vice versa), as they clearly differ from chemical stressors; and "doses" of many physical stressors are more easily quantifiable than those of psychosocial stressors. There is a commonly held belief that virtually nothing is known about the impact of nonchemical stressors on chemically mediated toxicity or the joint impact of coexposure to chemical and nonchemical stressors. Although this is generally true, there are several instances where a substantial body of evidence exists. A workshop titled "Cumulative Risk: Toxicity and Interactions of Physical and Chemical Stressors" held at the 2013 Society of Toxicology Annual Meeting provided a forum for discussion of research addressing the toxicity of physical stressors and what is known about their interactions with chemical stressors, both in terms of exposure and effects. Physical stressors including sunlight, heat, radiation, infectious disease, and noise were discussed in reference to identifying pathways of interaction with chemical stressors, data gaps, and suggestions for future incorporation into cumulative risk assessments.

  20. Childhood poverty and health: cumulative risk exposure and stress dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gary W; Kim, Pilyoung

    2007-11-01

    A massive literature documents the inverse association between poverty or low socioeconomic status and health, but little is known about the mechanisms underlying this robust relation. We examined longitudinal relations between duration of poverty exposure since birth, cumulative risk exposure, and physiological stress in two hundred seven 13-year-olds. Chronic stress was assessed by basal blood pressure and overnight cortisol levels; stress regulation was assessed by cardiovascular reactivity to a standard acute stressor and recovery after exposure to this stressor. Cumulative risk exposure was measured by multiple physical (e.g., substandard housing) and social (e.g., family turmoil) risk factors. The greater the number of years spent living in poverty, the more elevated was overnight cortisol and the more dysregulated was the cardiovascular response (i.e., muted reactivity). Cardiovascular recovery was not affected by duration of poverty exposure. Unlike the duration of poverty exposure, concurrent poverty (i.e., during adolescence) did not affect these physiological stress outcomes. The effects of childhood poverty on stress dysregulation are largely explained by cumulative risk exposure accompanying childhood poverty.

  1. Crisis planning to manage risks posed by animal rights extremists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Matthew R; Rich, Barbara A; Bennett, B Taylor

    2010-01-01

    Among the multitude of crises that US research institutions may face are those caused by animal rights activists. While most activists opposed to animal research use peaceful and lawful means of expressing their opinions, some extremists resort to illegal methods. Arson, break-ins, and theft with significant property damage at US animal research facilities began in the 1980s. The most troubling trend to develop in the past decade is the targeting of individuals associated with animal research, whether directly or indirectly, and the use of violent scare tactics to intimidate researchers and their families. The National Association for Biomedical Research has a 30-year history of monitoring the animal rights movement and assisting member institutions with crisis situations. In this article we discuss attacks on researchers at their homes, cyber crimes, exploitation of new media formats, infiltration of research facilities, and the targeting of external research stakeholders and business partners. We describe the need for a well-conceived crisis management plan and strong leadership to mitigate crisis situations. Institutions with well-informed leaders and crisis management teams ready to take timely action are best equipped to protect staff, laboratory animals, and research programs. They act on early warnings, provide support for targeted staff, seek legal remedies, thoughtfully control access to research facilities, and identify and enlist new research supporters. We underscore the importance of up-to-date crisis planning so that institutions are not only aware of ongoing risks posed by animal rights extremists but also better prepared to take preemptive action and able to manage those risks successfully.

  2. Internet poses multiple risks to children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColgan, Maria D; Giardino, Angelo P

    2005-05-01

    Computers and Internet usage, whether by children at home or at public places such as schools and libraries, are here to stay. Tremendous benefits in terms of educational opportunities, communication, and recreation can be expected. With all the benefits that such information technology provides, however, there is an element of risk that should not inhibit its use but must be attended to and managed. The methods child sexual offenders use to pursue their criminal interests will continue to evolve as technology evolves. The first and most important line of defense calls for parents and other caregivers to remain directly responsible for the safety of the children in their care. Parents, teachers, healthcare providers, and other caregivers need to learn continually about the Internet and remain aware of how best to protect children who use the computer and the Internet. Law enforcement agencies must also continue to prepare for advances in computer technology, to better anticipate the behavior of child sexual offenders, and to investigate and prosecute offenders. All law enforcement, medical, and social services personnel who have contact with children on a regular basis must continue to educate children and their parents or guardians about the dangers posed by the Internet. After a child is victimized, law enforcement, medical, and social services personnel also must remain cognizant that the victim's computer may contain evidence that may help identify and prosecute the offender. In short, all those charged with the protection of children and the prosecution of child sexual offenders must continue to adapt to our ever-evolving computer technology.

  3. The cumulative effect of risk compensation on infection preventive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxin, Daniel; Sega, Laurentiu; Eaton, Lisa

    2016-12-01

    We study several epidemic models (with and without gender structure) that incorporate risk compensation behavior in response to a lower chance of acquiring the infection as a result of preventive measures that are only partially effective. We show that the cumulative risk compensation that occurs between a high risk susceptible and infectious individual may play an important role in whether the implementation of these measures is successful in lowering the epidemic reproductive number. In addition, we show that certain levels of risk compensation may cancel the benefit of the low infection risk practiced by diagnosed infectious individuals when the goal is a reduction of the epidemic reproductive number. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Use of a Cumulative Risk Scale to Predict Poor Intellectual and Academic Outcomes in Childhood Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, Brian C; Scarborough, Vanessa Ramos; Salorio, Cynthia F

    2016-06-01

    Discrete risk factors for poor outcomes in childhood epilepsy have been identified, but it is unclear whether the combined effect of several risk factors better predicts outcome. The Epilepsy Cumulative Risk Scale was developed to quantify cumulative risk for poor outcomes in childhood epilepsy. Participants included 156 clinic-referred children with epilepsy. The Epilepsy Cumulative Risk Scale was developed using variables previously associated with functional outcomes. Scale utility was examined through its association with intellectual and academic functioning. All Epilepsy Cumulative Risk Scale variables were significantly associated with functioning. The Total Score (ie, cumulative effect) was most strongly correlated with cognition and academic skills. A Total Score ≥ 5 had the best sensitivity and specificity for differentiating those at high risk for poor outcomes. The Epilepsy Cumulative Risk Scale shows promise as a practical, data-driven tool for quantification of cumulative risk for poor outcomes in childhood epilepsy and may be helpful in detecting those needing referral for additional services.

  5. 75 FR 69662 - Workshop: Cumulative Mixtures Risk of Six Selected Phthalates in Support of Summary Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... AGENCY Workshop: Cumulative Mixtures Risk of Six Selected Phthalates in Support of Summary Information on...: Notice of Peer Consultation Workshop on the Cumulative Mixtures Risk of Six Selected Phthalates; Request... phthalates as set forth in the National Academies of Science (NAS) report ``Phthalates and Cumulative...

  6. 21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18... posing a risk of cancer. (a) The principal display panel of the label and any labeling accompanying a... your skin and has been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals. (b) Hair dyes containing...

  7. Zika Won't Pose Risks At the Olympics: Health Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160250.html Zika Won't Pose Risks at the Olympics: Health ... Brazil won't trigger a global spread of Zika virus, with little risk of potentially infected competitors ...

  8. Pregnancy-Linked Diabetes Poses Risks for Mom, Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gestational diabetes go up in the obese. "Gestational diabetes is a dangerous entity, and the child is at risk," said Dr. Robert Courgi, an endocrinologist at Northwell Health's Southside Hospital, in Bay Shore, ... increases, so does [the risk of] diabetes," he added. "We need to do a better ...

  9. Cumulative Incidence Association Models for Bivariate Competing Risks Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu; Fine, Jason P

    2012-03-01

    Association models, like frailty and copula models, are frequently used to analyze clustered survival data and evaluate within-cluster associations. The assumption of noninformative censoring is commonly applied to these models, though it may not be true in many situations. In this paper, we consider bivariate competing risk data and focus on association models specified for the bivariate cumulative incidence function (CIF), a nonparametrically identifiable quantity. Copula models are proposed which relate the bivariate CIF to its corresponding univariate CIFs, similarly to independently right censored data, and accommodate frailty models for the bivariate CIF. Two estimating equations are developed to estimate the association parameter, permitting the univariate CIFs to be estimated either parametrically or nonparametrically. Goodness-of-fit tests are presented for formally evaluating the parametric models. Both estimators perform well with moderate sample sizes in simulation studies. The practical use of the methodology is illustrated in an analysis of dementia associations.

  10. Does development finance pose an additional risk to monetary policy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruna Issahaku

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates whether remittances entail extra risk for macroeconomic policy management and examines the role (if any that the financial system can play in the interaction between remittances and monetary policy. Employing panel data for 106 developing countries from 1970 to 2013, the results from our panel vector autoregressive (PVAR model reveal that remittance volatility reduces macroeconomic risk in developing countries while simultaneously stimulating a reduction in domestic interest rates. This finding remains robust to alternative specifications of remittance volatility and monetary policy risk and to variations in the degree of financial development. The key lesson from this study is that developing countries can leverage the positive impact of remittances in reducing macroeconomic instability by implementing policies that induce remittances.

  11. Linking turbine collision risks with population models to assess cumulative impacts of multiple wind farms on threatened birds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smales, Ian; Muir, Stuart; Meredith, Charles; Baird, Robert

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Assessment of the effects on birds of wind turbine collisions has generally been focussed on the number of individuals that might be killed at a particular facility. However, this measure, of itself, may have little relevance to evaluating the potential or real effects on conservation status of threatened species. Determination of the overall effect any such mortality may have on the functioning of these populations will provide a better basis for decisions that have a strong foundation in ecology. For species with sufficient demographic information, we have developed and applied an approach combining collision risk modelling for all wind farms within the range of a threatened species with population modelling. This permits population-level evaluation of potential cumulative impacts of multiple wind farms. In Australia, regulatory authorities are increasingly interested in the cumulative risk to threatened species that may be posed by multiple wind energy facilities within a species. range. The approach outlined here has been applied in the pre-construction approval stage using collision risk modelling, and can be applied to operational facilities using data on actual mortalities. Cumulative modelling of risk posed by multiple wind farms requires different approaches for sedentary and migratory species. For sedentary species the cumulative effect will be the sum of the impact experienced by those parts of the population whose range intersects with wind farms. Cumulative impact is derived for migratory species by assessing the probability of birds surviving encounters with one wind farm after another on the migratory route and is thus the product of their survivorship rates for the relevant wind farms. The collision risk modelling used will be outlined along with the method in which it is integrated with a population model. Case studies for a crane (Brolga Grus rubicundus) and a parrot (orange- bellied parrot Neophema chrysogaster) species will be

  12. Fluoroquinolone-Associated Tendinopathy: Does Levofloxacin Pose the Greatest Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidell, Monique R; Lodise, Thomas P

    2016-06-01

    Fluoroquinolone antibiotics recently have gained increased national attention due to safety concerns. A well-described and serious adverse event associated with receipt of fluoroquinolones is tendinitis and tendon rupture. These tendon injuries can result in long-term sequelae, including chronic pain and mobility restrictions, and may warrant surgery. Due to the severity of these adverse events, a black box warning is included in the product labeling of all fluoroquinolones. In light of the mounting concerns surrounding fluoroquinolone-associated toxicities, the purpose of this clinical review is to provide a comprehensive summary of the risk of tendinopathy associated with levofloxacin, one of the most widely prescribed antibiotics in the United States, across in vitro, animal, and clinical studies, relative to other antibiotics. As part of this review, clinical presentation and onset, proposed mechanisms, patient-specific risk factors, and management of fluoroquinolone-induced tendon injury are summarized. Data were obtained from a comprehensive PubMed literature search and a review of U.S. Food and Drug Administration documents. Although tendinopathy is considered a fluoroquinolone class-wide toxicity, data from in vitro studies, animal studies, patient-level analyses, and large national and international surveillance reports suggest that levofloxacin, as well as its parent compound ofloxacin, possess higher propensities to cause tendon damage relative to other fluoroquinolones. Risk with ofloxacin and levofloxacin appears to be exposure dependent, with higher doses and longer durations being most commonly associated with tendinopathy. Other well-described patient risk factors for fluoroquinolone-associated tendinopathy include older age (older than 60 yrs), receipt of concomitant corticosteroid therapy, presence of renal dysfunction, and history of solid organ transplantation. Given widespread use of levofloxacin across patient care settings, knowledge of both

  13. [Abuse of energy drinks: does it pose a risk?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Aymeric; Karila, Laurent; Lejoyeux, Michel

    2015-03-01

    Energy drinks designate "any product in the form of a drink or concentrated liquid containing a mixture of ingredients having the property to raise the level of energy and liveliness". Their introduction has raised many reluctance and reserves after numerous cardiovascular and neurological injuries among regular consumers. This article attempts to synthesize the existing literature on energy drinks. The review focuses to show that excessive energy drinks consumption cause many complications. The literature review was conducted from 2001 to 2014, using PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and PsycInfo, using the following keywords alone or combined: energy drinks, caffeine, taurine, toxicity, dependence, complications. Occasional or moderate consumption of these cans seem to present little risk to healthy adults. However, their repeated consumption in proportions that far exceed the recommendations for recommended use by the manufacturers, combined with the use of alcohol or illicit drugs consumption increases the risk of occurrence of somatic and psychiatric complications, especially among underage, and subjects with cardiovascular and neurological history. Repeated consumption of energy drinks increases the risk of somatic and psychiatric complications. Further studies must be controlled to improve our understanding of other possible negative consequences on health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. First Days of Preseason Practice Pose Big Heat Risks for College Football Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Preseason Practice Pose Big Heat Risks for College Football Players Coaches, trainers need to be aware of ... FRIDAY, Aug. 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- As college football players trade in their beach towels for helmets ...

  15. The effects of antipoverty programs on children's cumulative level of poverty-related risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassman-Pines, Anna; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2006-11-01

    The authors examined the effects of antipoverty programs on children's cumulative poverty-related risk and the relationship between cumulative poverty-related risk and child outcomes among low-income families. Samples included 419 children ages 3-10 years in the New Hope program and 759 children ages 2-9 years in the Minnesota Family Investment Program (MFIP), which tested 2 program approaches. Nine poverty-related risks made up the measure of cumulative risk. Both MFIP program approaches reduced cumulative poverty-related risk. New Hope reduced cumulative poverty-related risk among long-term welfare recipients. In both New Hope and MFIP, significant linear relationships between cumulative poverty-related risk and parent-reported behavior problems and school achievement were found. Cumulative poverty-related risk partially mediated the impacts of the MFIP programs on children's behavior problems. Among long-term welfare recipients, cumulative poverty-related risk partially mediated New Hope's impact on parent-reported school achievement.

  16. Unintended allergens in precautionary labelled and unlabelled products pose significant risks to UK allergic consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remington, B.C.; Baumert, J.L.; Blom, W.M.; Houben, G.F.; Taylor, S.L.; Kruizinga, A.G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Allergens in food may pose a risk to allergic consumers. While there is EU regulation for allergens present as an ingredient, this is not the case for unintended allergen presence (UAP). Food companies use precautionary allergen labels to inform allergic individuals of a potential risk fr

  17. Cumulative risk assessment for plasticizer-contaminated food using the hazard index approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J W; Chen, C Y; Yan, B R; Chang, M H; Tseng, S H; Kao, Y M; Chen, J C; Lee, C C

    2014-06-01

    Phthalates strongly and adversely affect reproduction, development and liver function. We did a cumulative risk assessment for simultaneous exposure to nine phthalates using the hazard index (HI) and the levels of nine phthalates in 1200 foodstuff samples. DEHP (di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate) present the highest level (mean: 0.443 mg/kg) in 1200 samples, and the highest average daily dose (ADD) was found in DEHP, ΣDBP(i + n) (the sum of dibutyl phthalate [DBP] isomers [DnBP + DiBP]) posed the highest risk potential of all the phthalates. In seven phthalates, the 95th percentiles of the ADDs for ΣDBP(i + n) in 0-6-yr-old children accounted for 91% (79-107%) of the tolerable daily intake, and the 95th percentiles of the HIs for the anti-androgenic effects of five phthalates in 0-3-yr-old children and 4-6-yr-old girls were >1. We conclude that the health of younger Taiwanese may be adversely affected by overexposure of phthalate-contaminated foods.

  18. Cumulative risk and asthma outcomes in inner-city African-American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josie, Katherine Leigh; Greenley, Rachel Neff; Drotar, Dennis

    2007-09-01

    A cumulative risk framework was used to examine the impact of the presence of multiple risk factors on key asthma outcomes (i.e., health-related quality of life [HRQoL], severity) for a sample of 149 inner-city African-American youth with asthma. The presence of a greater number of risk factors was associated with lower HRQoL and greater severity, regardless of age or gender. Cumulative risk methodology, in combination with selection of risk factors based on theoretical and empirical work, is a viable option for researchers and clinicians who are interested in examining the impact of multiple risk factors on disease functioning and status.

  19. Low Fruit/Vegetable Consumption in the Home: Cumulative Risk Factors in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Wendy L.; Swindle, Taren M.; Kyzer, Angela L.; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    Cumulative risk theory suggests that a variety of social risk factors would have an additive effect on obesity risk. Multiple studies have suggested that obesity is related to basic resources such as transportation and financial resources. Additional research points to parental engagement and parental monitoring as additional sources of risk. This…

  20. Child food insecurity increases risks posed by household food insecurity to young children's health

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US Food Security Scale (USFSS) measures household and child food insecurity (CFI) separately. Our goal was to determine whether CFI increases risks posed by household food insecurity (HFI) to child health and whether the Food Stamp Program (FSP) modifies these effects. From 1998 to 2004, 17,158 ...

  1. Statistical Methods for Estimating the Cumulative Risk of Screening Mammography Outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hubbard, R.A.; Ripping, T.M.; Chubak, J.; Broeders, M.J.; Miglioretti, D.L.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study illustrates alternative statistical methods for estimating cumulative risk of screening mammography outcomes in longitudinal studies. METHODS: Data from the US Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) and the Nijmegen Breast Cancer Screening Program in the Netherlands were

  2. When Dread Risks Are More Dreadful than Continuous Risks: Comparing Cumulative Population Losses over Time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolai Bodemer

    Full Text Available People show higher sensitivity to dread risks, rare events that kill many people at once, compared with continuous risks, relatively frequent events that kill many people over a longer period of time. The different reaction to dread risks is often considered a bias: If the continuous risk causes the same number of fatalities, it should not be perceived as less dreadful. We test the hypothesis that a dread risk may have a stronger negative impact on the cumulative population size over time in comparison with a continuous risk causing the same number of fatalities. This difference should be particularly strong when the risky event affects children and young adults who would have produced future offspring if they had survived longer. We conducted a series of simulations, with varying assumptions about population size, population growth, age group affected by risky event, and the underlying demographic model. Results show that dread risks affect the population more severely over time than continuous risks that cause the same number of fatalities, suggesting that fearing a dread risk more than a continuous risk is an ecologically rational strategy.

  3. Mechanisms and risk of cumulative impacts to coastal ecosystem services: An expert elicitation approach

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Gerald G.

    2017-05-23

    Coastal environments are some of the most populated on Earth, with greater pressures projected in the future. Managing coastal systems requires the consideration of multiple uses, which both benefit from and threaten multiple ecosystem services. Thus understanding the cumulative impacts of human activities on coastal ecosystem services would seem fundamental to management, yet there is no widely accepted approach for assessing these. This study trials an approach for understanding the cumulative impacts of anthropogenic change, focusing on Tasman and Golden Bays, New Zealand. Using an expert elicitation procedure, we collected information on three aspects of cumulative impacts: the importance and magnitude of impacts by various activities and stressors on ecosystem services, and the causal processes of impact on ecosystem services. We assessed impacts to four ecosystem service benefits — fisheries, shellfish aquaculture, marine recreation and existence value of biodiversity—addressing three main research questions: (1) how severe are cumulative impacts on ecosystem services (correspondingly, what potential is there for restoration)?; (2) are threats evenly distributed across activities and stressors, or do a few threats dominate?; (3) do prominent activities mainly operate through direct stressors, or do they often exacerbate other impacts? We found (1) that despite high uncertainty in the threat posed by individual stressors and impacts, total cumulative impact is consistently severe for all four ecosystem services. (2) A subset of drivers and stressors pose important threats across the ecosystem services explored, including climate change, commercial fishing, sedimentation and pollution. (3) Climate change and commercial fishing contribute to prominent indirect impacts across ecosystem services by exacerbating regional impacts, namely sedimentation and pollution. The prevalence and magnitude of these indirect, networked impacts highlights the need for

  4. Cumulative Risk and Teacher Well-Being in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Sharon; Torrente, Catalina; McCoy, Marissa; Rasheed, Damira; Aber, J. Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Remarkably little systematic research has examined the living and working conditions for teachers in sub-Saharan Africa and how such conditions predict teacher well-being. This study assesses how various risks across several domains of teachers' lives--measured as a "cumulative risk index"--predict motivation, burnout, and job…

  5. Probabilistic cumulative risk assessment of anti-androgenic pesticides in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Anne Kirstine; Nielsen, Elsa

    2008-01-01

    A cumulative risk assessment of three anti-androgenic pesticides vinclozolin, procymidone and prochloraz in combination has been carried out using an Integrated Probabilistic Risk Assessment (IPRA) model. In the model, variability in both exposure and sensitivity between individuals were combined...

  6. Cumulative Family Risk Predicts Increases in Adjustment Difficulties across Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Cheryl; Gerard, Jean M.

    2013-01-01

    Family is an important socialization context for youth as they move through early adolescence. A significant feature of this complex socialization context is the accumulation of potential family risk factors that may compromise youth adjustment. This study examined cumulative family risk and adolescents' adjustment difficulties in 416 two-parent…

  7. Probabilistic cumulative risk assessment of anti-androgenic pesticides in food.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, A.K.; Bosgra, S.; Boon, P.E.; van der Voet, H.; Nielsen, E.; Ladefoged, O.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a cumulative risk assessment of three anti-androgenic pesticides (vinclozolin, procymidone and prochloraz) using the relative potency factor (RPF) approach and an integrated probabilistic risk assessment (IPRA) model. RPFs for each substance were estimated for three reprodu

  8. Probabilistic cumulative risk assessment of anti-androgenic pesticides in food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, A.K.; Bosgra, S.; Boon, P.E.; Voet, van der H.; Nielsen, E.; Ladefoged, O.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a cumulative risk assessment of three anti-androgenic pesticides (vinclozolin, procymidone and prochloraz) using the relative potency factor (RPF) approach and an integrated probabilistic risk assessment (IPRA) model. RPFs for each substance were estimated for three reprodu

  9. Cumulative family risk predicts increases in adjustment difficulties across early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Cheryl; Gerard, Jean M

    2013-06-01

    Family is an important socialization context for youth as they move through early adolescence. A significant feature of this complex socialization context is the accumulation of potential family risk factors that may compromise youth adjustment. This study examined cumulative family risk and adolescents' adjustment difficulties in 416 two-parent families using four waves of annual longitudinal data (51% female youth). Risk factors in four family domains were examined: socioeconomic, parents' psychological realm, marital, and parenting. Cumulative family risk experienced while in 6th grade was associated concurrently with daughters' higher internalizing problems and with increased internalizing problems during early adolescence. Cumulative family risk was associated concurrently with sons' higher externalizing problems and with daughters' increased externalizing problems over time. Cumulative family risk was associated concurrently with lower grades and with declining grades over time for both daughters and sons. The number of risk domains also was associated with youths' adjustment difficulties during early adolescence, providing evidence that risk in two-parent families involves more than ineffective parenting. These findings suggest a critical need to provide strong support for families in reducing a variety of stressors across multiple family domains as their children traverse early adolescence.

  10. The impact of cumulative family risks on various levels of food insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Daphne C

    2015-03-01

    The study uses the Fragile Families and Child Well-being Study (N=2025) to examine the relationship between four cumulative family risk indices and refined measures of food hardship: marginal food security, low food security, and very low food security. Regression analyses indicate that cumulative family risk indices are useful in differentiating various levels of food insecurity. Specifically, the maternal poor health and risky health behaviors index is pertinent for distinguishing (1) food insecure from marginal food secure households and (2) very low food secure from low food secure households. In addition, the financial strain index is pertinent for differentiating between marginal food secure families from food secure families among non-poor households. Connecting food assistance programs with established social services may decrease the negative impact that cumulative family-level risk factors have on families' varying levels of food insecurity.

  11. Assessing exposure risks for freshwater tilapia species posed by mercury and methylmercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yi-Hsien; Lin, Yi-Jun; You, Shu-Han; Yang, Ying-Fei; How, Chun Ming; Tseng, Yi-Ting; Chen, Wei-Yu; Liao, Chung-Min

    2016-08-01

    Waterborne and dietborne exposures of freshwater fish to mercury (Hg) in the forms of inorganic (Hg(II)) and organic (methylmercury or MeHg) affect their growth, development, and reproduction. However, an integrated mechanistic risk model framework to predict the impact of Hg(II)/MeHg on freshwater fish is lacking. Here, we integrated biokinetic, physiological and biogeographic data to calibrate and then establish key risk indices-hazardous quotient and exceedance risk-for freshwater tilapia species across geographic ranges of several major rivers in Taiwan. We found that Hg(II) burden was highest in kidney followed by gill, intestine, liver, blood, and muscle. Our results showed that Hg was less likely to pose mortality risk (mortality rate less than 5 %) for freshwater tilapia species. However, Hg is likely to pose the potential hazard to aquatic environments constrained by safety levels for aquatic organisms. Sensitivity analysis showed that amount of Hg accumulated in tilapia was most influenced by sediment uptake rate. Our approach opens up new possibilities for predicting future fish population health with the impacts of continued Hg exposure to provide information on which fish are deemed safe for human consumption.

  12. Childhood poverty and young adults' allostatic load: the mediating role of childhood cumulative risk exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gary W; Kim, Pilyoung

    2012-09-01

    Childhood poverty is linked to a host of physical and psychological disorders during childhood and later in life. In the study reported here, we showed that the proportion of childhood spent in poverty from birth to age 9 was linked to elevated allostatic load, a marker of chronic physiological stress, in 17-year-olds. Furthermore, this prospective longitudinal relationship was mediated by cumulative risk exposure at age 13. The greater the duration of early life spent in poverty, the greater the exposure to cumulative risk. This, in turn, leads to elevated allostatic load. Multiple psychological, biological, and neurological pathways likely account for the social patterning of psychological and physical disease.

  13. May Organically Farmed Animals Pose a Risk for Campylobacter Infections in Humans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engvall Anders

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic farming of meat producing poultry like broilers, means that the animals should be kept outdoors as much as possible. This pose a risk that they get infected with Campylobacter. At slaughter, carcasses may be contaminated with campylobacter. If cross contamination occurs in the kitchen or if the meat is undercooked people may ingest the bacteria and suffer from enteritis. It seems possible that close to 100 percent of organically farmed flocks may be infected with campylobacter while under Swedish conditions only 10 percent of conventionally reared flocks are infected.

  14. Cumulative risk effects in the bullying of children and young people with autism spectrum conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebron, Judith; Oldfield, Jeremy; Humphrey, Neil

    2017-04-01

    Students with autism are more likely to be bullied than their typically developing peers. However, several studies have shown that their likelihood of being bullied increases in the context of exposure to certain risk factors (e.g. behaviour difficulties and poor peer relationships). This study explores vulnerability to bullying from a cumulative risk perspective, where the number of risks rather than their nature is considered. A total of 722 teachers and 119 parents of young people with autism spectrum conditions participated in the study. Established risk factors were summed to form a cumulative risk score in teacher and parent models. There was evidence of a cumulative risk effect in both models, suggesting that as the number of risks increased, so did exposure to bullying. A quadratic effect was found in the teacher model, indicating that there was a disproportionate increase in the likelihood of being bullied in relation to the number of risk factors to which a young person was exposed. In light of these findings, it is proposed that more attention needs to be given to the number of risks to which children and young people with autism spectrum conditions are exposed when planning interventions and providing a suitable educational environment.

  15. Cumulative risk assessment of the intake of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides in the Danish diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, A. F.; Petersen, Annette; Granby, Kit

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the potential cumulative effects of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides that act through a common mechanism of toxicity, and to assess the long- and short-term risks for the Danish population. The intake estimates are based on dietary intake data collected...... in the Danish nation-wide food consumption survey in 1995. The pesticide data are based on the Danish pesticide residue-monitoring programme from 1996-2001. The amount of 35 organophosphorus pesticides and carbamates were included in the cumulative risk assessment. Processing factors, such as reduction...... of pesticide levels by rinsing and peeling, were applied in the exposure assessment. The "Toxicity Equivalence Factor" (TEF) approach was used to normalise the toxicity of the different organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides. Cumulative chronic exposure of organophosphorus and carbamates pesticides via...

  16. New approaches to uncertainty analysis for use in aggregate and cumulative risk assessment of pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kennedy, M.C.; Voet, van der H.; Roelofs, V.J.; Roelofs, W.; Glass, C.R.; Boer, de W.J.; Kruisselbrink, J.W.; Hart, A.D.M.

    2015-01-01

    Risk assessments for human exposures to plant protection products (PPPs) have traditionally focussed on single routes of exposure and single compounds. Extensions to estimate aggregate (multi-source) and cumulative (multi-compound) exposure from PPPs present many new challenges and additional uncert

  17. Associations between parenting, media use, cumulative risk, and children’s executive functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linebarger, D.L.; Barr, R.; Lapierre, M.A.; Piotrowski, J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to examine how parenting style, media exposure, and cumulative risk were associated with executive functioning (EF) during early childhood. Methods: A nationally representative group of US parents/caregivers (N = 1156) with 1 child between 2 and 8 years

  18. Effects of Cumulative Family Risk Factors on American Students' Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunst, Carl J.; Hamby, Deborah W.

    2016-01-01

    The relationships between cumulative family risk factors and American students' academic performance were examined in all 50 States and the District of Columbia. Data from the 2007 "American Community Survey" were used to ascertain the percent of birth to 18 year old children in the United States who experienced three or more risk…

  19. 76 FR 82296 - Pyrethrins/Pyrethroid Cumulative Risk Assessment; Extension of Comment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... AGENCY Pyrethrins/Pyrethroid Cumulative Risk Assessment; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice; extension of comment period. SUMMARY: EPA issued a notice... called ``the pyrethroids'') and opened a public comment period on this document and other supporting...

  20. Parenting intervention and the caregiving environment : cumulative risk and process evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, Mirjam Neeltje

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the research described in this thesis was to study single and cumulative family risk in relation to early childhood externalizing problems and the effectiveness of a parenting intervention program. The Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting and Sensitive Disciplin

  1. Associations between parenting, media use, cumulative risk, and children’s executive functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.L. Linebarger; R. Barr; M.A. Lapierre; J. Piotrowski

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to examine how parenting style, media exposure, and cumulative risk were associated with executive functioning (EF) during early childhood. Methods: A nationally representative group of US parents/caregivers (N = 1156) with 1 child between 2 and 8 years participate

  2. Cumulative risk assessment of phthalate exposure of Danish children and adolescents using the hazard index approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søeborg, T; Frederiksen, H; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2012-01-01

    and adolescents and resulting estimated daily intakes of four different phthalates. These daily intake estimates are used for a cumulative risk assessment with anti-androgenic effects as the endpoint using Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) values determined by the European Food Safety Authorities (EFSA) or Reference...... endpoint for the phthalates included in this article. Using the EFSA TDI values, 12 children exceeded the hazard quotient for the sum of di-n-butyl phthalate and di-iso-butyl phthalate (∑DBP((i+n)) ) and one child exceeded the hazard quotient for di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). Nineteen children...... exceeded the cumulated hazard index for three phthalates. Using the RfD AA values, one child exceeded the hazard quotient for DEHP and the same child exceeded the cumulated hazard index for four phthalates. The EFSA TDI approach thus is more restrictive and identifies ∑DBP((i+n)) as the compound...

  3. The interconnected and cross-border nature of risks posed by infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, Jonathan E; Van Cangh, Thomas; Beauté, Julien; Bartels, Cornelius; Tsolova, Svetla; Pharris, Anastasia; Ciotti, Massimo; Semenza, Jan C

    2014-01-01

    Infectious diseases can constitute public health emergencies of international concern when a pathogen arises, acquires new characteristics, or is deliberately released, leading to the potential for loss of human lives as well as societal disruption. A wide range of risk drivers are now known to lead to and/or exacerbate the emergence and spread of infectious disease, including global trade and travel, the overuse of antibiotics, intensive agriculture, climate change, high population densities, and inadequate infrastructures, such as water treatment facilities. Where multiple risk drivers interact, the potential impact of a disease outbreak is amplified. The varying temporal and geographic frequency with which infectious disease events occur adds yet another layer of complexity to the issue. Mitigating the emergence and spread of infectious disease necessitates mapping and prioritising the interdependencies between public health and other sectors. Conversely, during an international public health emergency, significant disruption occurs not only to healthcare systems but also to a potentially wide range of sectors, including trade, tourism, energy, civil protection, transport, agriculture, and so on. At the same time, dealing with a disease outbreak may require a range of critical sectors for support. There is a need to move beyond narrow models of risk to better account for the interdependencies between health and other sectors so as to be able to better mitigate and respond to the risks posed by emerging infectious disease.

  4. Risk drivers pose to themselves and other drivers by violating traffic rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penmetsa, Praveena; Pulugurtha, Srinivas S

    2017-01-02

    Violation of traffic rules is a major contributing factor in both crashes and fatalities in the United States. This study aims at quantifying risk that drivers pose to themselves and other drivers by violating traffic rules. Crash data from 2010 to 2013 were gathered for the state of North Carolina. Descriptive analysis was carried out to identify frequent traffic violations and who were committing the traffic violations that resulted in crashes. A multinomial logit model was then developed to examine the relation between different traffic violations and driver injury severity. Additionally, odds ratios were estimated to identify the likelihood (probability) of severe or moderate injury to the driver and other drivers due to a driver violating a traffic rule that led to a crash. Exceeding the speed limit is more likely to result in severe injury compared to disregarding traffic signals. However, going the wrong way is more likely to result in severe injury to other drivers when compared to any other traffic violation. Driving under the influence of alcohol is 2 times more likely to result in severe injury than driving under the influence of drugs. These 2 traffic violations by a driver are almost equally likely to result in severe injury to other drivers. Drivers often perceive that violating traffic rules will not result in a crash or severe injury. However, the results from this study show that a majority of the traffic violations lead to severe injury to the violator as well as to other drivers. The findings from this study serve as documented evidence to educate drivers about the risk they pose to themselves and to other drivers by violating traffic rules and encourage the adaptation of safe driving behavior in order to contribute toward reaching the "zero traffic deaths" vision. They also help make policy changes pertaining to penalty points and fines for violating a traffic rule.

  5. Do biological medicinal products pose a risk to the environment?: a current view on ecopharmacovigilance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühler, Thomas C; Andersson, Mikael; Carlin, Gunnar; Johnsson, Ann; Akerblom, Lennart

    2009-01-01

    The occurrence of active pharmaceutical substances in the environment is of growing concern. The vast majority of the compounds in question are of low molecular weight, intended for oral use and designed to tolerate, for example, the digestive enzymes in the upper alimentary tract, the harsh milieus found in the acidic stomach, or the microbe rich intestine. Accordingly, these xenobiotic compounds may, due to their inherent biological activity, constitute a risk to the environment. Biological medicinal products, for example recombinant human insulin or monoclonal antibodies, however, are different. They are primarily made up of oligomers or polymers of amino acids, sugars or nucleotides and are thus readily metabolized. They are therefore generally not considered to pose any risk to the environment. Certain classes of biological medicinal products, however, are associated with specific safety issues. Genetically modified organisms as vectors in vaccines or in gene therapy products have attracted much attention in this regard. Issues include the degree of attenuation of the live recombinant vaccine, replication restrictions of the vaccine vector, alteration of the host and tissue tropism of the vector, the possibility of reversion to virulence, and risk to the ecosystem. In this review we discuss the fate and the potential environmental impact of biological medicinal products following clinical use from an ecopharmacovigilance point of view, and review relevant policy documents and regulatory statements.

  6. Do bib clips pose a cross-contamination risk at the dental clinic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt-Holland, Addy; Srinivasan, Sreedevi; Lucier, Rebekah; Kublin, Claire L; Fong, Jennifer M; Goldfein, Joshua; Baker, David L; Park, Angel; Finkelman, Matthew; Kawai, Toshihisa; Paster, Bruce J; Kugel, Gerard

    2012-07-01

    Although multiple-use dental napkin holders have a relatively low risk of transmitting infection, they do require disinfection between patients. This study sought to: 1) determine the presence of bacterial load on two types of clips of reusable bib chains after dental procedures at the Endodontics and Orthodontics clinics at Tufts University School of Dental Medicine; and 2) evaluate the effectiveness of disinfecting the clips. These specialty clinics represent a wide spectrum of patients, procedures, and appointment times. Bacterial load on the bib clips was determined immediately following dental treatments-both before and after their disinfection-during morning and afternoon sessions. The results revealed that, after treatments, there was a statistically significant difference when comparing the two clinics for bacterial burden on the clips. Furthermore, there was a statistically significant difference in bacterial load on the two types of clips. Disinfection of the bib clips was highly effective in both clinics. Clinically, the results suggest that due to the nature of the treatment, the demographic population, and the type of bib clips used, patients in different clinics may be exposed to varying bacterial concentrations on the bib clips, and thus to different possible cross-contamination risks. Future analyses will be performed to identify the bacterial species in samples from both pre- and post-disinfected clips, and to determine if they harbor disease-causing bacterial species that can pose a potential, yet undetermined risk for cross-contamination.

  7. Cumulative Risk Assessment: An Overview of Methodological Approaches for Evaluating Combined Health Effects from Exposure to Multiple Environmental Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Systematic evaluation of cumulative health risks from the combined effects of multiple environmental stressors is becoming a vital component of risk-based decisions aimed at protecting human populations and communities. This article briefly examines the historical development of cumulative risk assessment as an analytical tool, and discusses current approaches for evaluating cumulative health effects from exposure to both chemical mixtures and combinations of chemical and nonchemical stressors. A comparison of stressor-based and effects-based assessment methods is presented, and the potential value of focusing on viable risk management options to limit the scope of cumulative evaluations is discussed. The ultimate goal of cumulative risk assessment is to provide answers to decision-relevant questions based on organized scientific analysis; even if the answers, at least for the time being, are inexact and uncertain. PMID:22470298

  8. Modelling the cumulative risk of a false-positive screening test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Rebecca A; Miglioretti, Diana L; Smith, Robert A

    2010-10-01

    The goal of a screening test is to reduce morbidity and mortality through the early detection of disease; but the benefits of screening must be weighed against potential harms, such as false-positive (FP) results, which may lead to increased healthcare costs, patient anxiety, and other adverse outcomes associated with diagnostic follow-up procedures. Accurate estimation of the cumulative risk of an FP test after multiple screening rounds is important for program evaluation and goal setting, as well as informing individuals undergoing screening what they should expect from testing over time. Estimation of the cumulative FP risk is complicated by the existence of censoring and possible dependence of the censoring time on the event history. Current statistical methods for estimating the cumulative FP risk from censored data follow two distinct approaches, either conditioning on the number of screening tests observed or marginalizing over this random variable. We review these current methods, identify their limitations and possibly unrealistic assumptions, and propose simple extensions to address some of these limitations. We discuss areas where additional extensions may be useful. We illustrate methods for estimating the cumulative FP recall risk of screening mammography and investigate the appropriateness of modelling assumptions using 13 years of data collected by the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC). In the BCSC data we found evidence of violations of modelling assumptions of both classes of statistical methods. The estimated risk of an FP recall after 10 screening mammograms varied between 58% and 77% depending on the approach used, with an estimate of 63% based on what we feel are the most reasonable modelling assumptions.

  9. Cumulative Doses of T-Cell Depleting Antibody and Cancer Risk after Kidney Transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny H C Chen

    Full Text Available T-cell depleting antibody is associated with an increased risk of cancer after kidney transplantation, but a dose-dependent relationship has not been established. This study aimed to determine the association between cumulative doses of T-cell depleting antibody and the risk of cancer after kidney transplantation. Using data from the Australian and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry between 1997-2012, we assessed the risk of incident cancer and cumulative doses of T-cell depleting antibody using adjusted Cox regression models. Of the 503 kidney transplant recipients with 2835 person-years of follow-up, 276 (55%, 209 (41% and 18 (4% patients received T-cell depleting antibody for induction, rejection or induction and rejection respectively. The overall cancer incidence rate was 1,118 cancers per 100,000 patient-years, with 975, 1093 and 1377 cancers per 100,000 patient-years among those who had received 1-5 doses, 6-10 doses and >10 doses, respectively. There was no association between cumulative doses of T cell depleting antibody and risk of incident cancer (1-5: referent, 6-10: adjusted hazard ratio (HR 1.19, 95%CI 0.48-2.95, >10: HR 1.42, 95%CI 0.50-4.02, p = 0.801. This lack of association is contradictory to our hypothesis and is likely attributed to the low event rates resulting in insufficient power to detect significant differences.

  10. Modeling Joint Exposures and Health Outcomes for Cumulative Risk Assessment: The Case of Radon and Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan I. Levy

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Community-based cumulative risk assessment requires characterization of exposures to multiple chemical and non-chemical stressors, with consideration of how the non-chemical stressors may influence risks from chemical stressors. Residential radon provides an interesting case example, given its large attributable risk, effect modification due to smoking, and significant variability in radon concentrations and smoking patterns. In spite of this fact, no study to date has estimated geographic and sociodemographic patterns of both radon and smoking in a manner that would allow for inclusion of radon in community-based cumulative risk assessment. In this study, we apply multi-level regression models to explain variability in radon based on housing characteristics and geological variables, and construct a regression model predicting housing characteristics using U.S. Census data. Multi-level regression models of smoking based on predictors common to the housing model allow us to link the exposures. We estimate county-average lifetime lung cancer risks from radon ranging from 0.15 to 1.8 in 100, with high-risk clusters in areas and for subpopulations with high predicted radon and smoking rates. Our findings demonstrate the viability of screening-level assessment to characterize patterns of lung cancer risk from radon, with an approach that can be generalized to multiple chemical and non-chemical stressors.

  11. Covariate adjustment of cumulative incidence functions for competing risks data using inverse probability of treatment weighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Anke; Billionnet, Cécile

    2016-06-01

    In observational studies without random assignment of the treatment, the unadjusted comparison between treatment groups may be misleading due to confounding. One method to adjust for measured confounders is inverse probability of treatment weighting. This method can also be used in the analysis of time to event data with competing risks. Competing risks arise if for some individuals the event of interest is precluded by a different type of event occurring before, or if only the earliest of several times to event, corresponding to different event types, is observed or is of interest. In the presence of competing risks, time to event data are often characterized by cumulative incidence functions, one for each event type of interest. We describe the use of inverse probability of treatment weighting to create adjusted cumulative incidence functions. This method is equivalent to direct standardization when the weight model is saturated. No assumptions about the form of the cumulative incidence functions are required. The method allows studying associations between treatment and the different types of event under study, while focusing on the earliest event only. We present a SAS macro implementing this method and we provide a worked example.

  12. Wild buckwheat is unlikely to pose a risk to buckwheat-allergic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordlee, Julie A; Panda, Rakhi; Baumert, Joseph L; Goodman, Richard E; Taylor, Steve L

    2011-10-01

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) is a commonly allergenic food especially in Asia where buckwheat is more commonly consumed. Wild buckwheat (Polygonum convolvulus, recently changed to Fallopia convolvulus) is an annual weed prevalent in grain-growing areas of the United States. Wild buckwheat is not closely related to edible buckwheat although the seeds do have some physical resemblance. A large shipment of wheat into Japan was halted by the discovery of the adventitious presence of wild buckwheat seeds over possible concerns for buckwheat-allergic consumers. However, IgE-binding was not observed to an extract of wild buckwheat using sera from 3 buckwheat-allergic individuals either by radio-allergosorbent test inhibition or by immunoblotting after protein separation by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Furthermore, the extract of wild buckwheat was not detected in a buckwheat enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay developed with antisera against common buckwheat. Thus, wild buckwheat is highly unlikely to pose any risk to buckwheat-allergic individuals. The common names of plants should not be a factor in the risk assessment for possible cross-allergenicity.

  13. The impact of physical activity on cumulative cardiovascular disease risk factors among Malaysian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasiah, Rajah; Thangiah, Govindamal; Yusoff, Khalid; Manikam, Rishya; Chandrasekaran, Sankara Kumar; Mustafa, Rujhan; Bakar, Najmin Binti Abu

    2015-12-16

    Numerous studies have shown the importance of physical activity in reducing the morbidity and mortality rates caused by cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, most of these studies emphasise little on the cumulative effect of CVD risk factors. Hence, this study investigates the association between physical exercise and cumulative CVD risk factors among adults in three different age groups. Using a sample of 7276 respondents drawn from community centers, the REDISCOVER team gathered information on physical activity, CVD risk factors (obesity, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, tobacco use) and socioeconomic and demographic variables in Malaysia. Because the study required medical examination, a convenience sampling frame was preferred in which all volunteers were included in the study. Fasting blood samples and anthropometric (height, weight and more) measurements were collected by trained staffs. Socio-demographic and physical activity variables were recorded through questionnaires. A Chi-square test was performed to identify the bivariate association between the covariates (socioeconomic variables, demographic variables and physical activity) and outcome variable. The association between the main exposure, physical activity, and the outcome variable, cumulative CVD risk factors, was assessed using an ordinal logistic regression model, controlling for socioeconomic status and demographic influences in three different age groups, 35-49, 50-64 and 65 and above. The mean age of participants is 51.8 (SD = 9.4). Respondents in the age groups of 35-49 (aORmoderate = 0.12; 95 % CI: 0.02 - 0.53 ) and 65 and above (aORhigh = 0.58; 95 % CI: 0.24, 0.78) showed a statistically significant inverse relationship between physical activity and cumulative CVD risk factors. However, this relationship was not significant among respondents in the 50-64 age group suggesting the possible influence of other variables, such as stress and environment. The

  14. Historical state of knowledge of the health risks of asbestos posed to seamen on merchant ships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, David G; Beck, Barbara D

    2016-12-01

    We examined the development of knowledge concerning the risks posed by asbestos to seamen working aboard merchant ships at sea (i.e. commercial, rather than naval vessels). Seamen were potentially exposed to "in-place" asbestos on merchant ships by performing intermittent repair and maintenance tasks. We reviewed studies measuring airborne asbestos onboard merchant ships and health outcomes of merchant seamen, as well as studies, communications, and actions of U.S. organizations with roles in maritime health and safety. Up to the 1970s, most knowledge of the health risks of asbestos was derived from studies of workers in asbestos product manufacturing and asbestos mining and milling industries, and certain end-users of asbestos products (particularly insulators). We found that attention to the potential health risks of asbestos to merchant seamen began in the mid- to late 1970s and early 1980s. Findings of pleural abnormalities in U.S. seamen elicited some concern from governmental and industry/labor organizations, but airborne asbestos concentrations aboard merchant ships were found to be <1 f/cc for most short-term repair and maintenance tasks. Responses to this evolving information served to warn seamen and the merchant shipping industry and led to increased precautions regarding asbestos exposure. Starting in the 1990s, findings of modest increases in lung cancer and/or mesothelioma in some epidemiology studies of seamen led some authors to propose that a causal link between shipboard exposures and asbestos-related diseases existed. Limitations in these studies, however, together with mostly unremarkable measures of airborne asbestos on merchant ships, preclude definitive conclusions in this regard.

  15. Winners, losers, and posers: The effect of power poses on testosterone and risk-taking following competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kristopher M; Apicella, Coren L

    2016-11-10

    A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition. The effect of postural power displays (i.e. power poses) on hormone levels and decision-making has recently been challenged. While Carney et al. (2010) found that holding brief postural displays of power leads to increased testosterone, decreased cortisol and greater economic risk taking, this failed to replicate in a recent high-powered study (Ranehill et al. 2015). It has been put forward that subtle differences in social context may account for the differences in results. Power displays naturally occur within the context of competitions, as do changes in hormones, and researchers have yet to examine the effects of poses within this ecologically relevant context. Using a large sample of 247 male participants, natural winners and losers of a physical competition were randomly assigned to hold a low, neutral or high-power postural display. We found no main effect of pose type on testosterone, cortisol, risk or feelings of power. Winners assigned to a high-power pose had a relative, albeit small, rise in testosterone compared to winners who held neutral or low-power poses. For losers, we found little evidence that high-power poses lead to increased testosterone relative to those holding neutral or low-powered poses. If anything, the reverse was observed - losers had a reduction in testosterone after holding high-power poses. To the extent that changes in testosterone modulate social behaviors adaptively, it is possible that the relative reduction in testosterone observed in losers taking high-powered poses is designed to inhibit further "winner-like" behavior that could result in continued defeat and harm. Still, effects were small, multiple comparisons were made, and the results ran counter to our predictions. We thus treat these conclusions as preliminary.

  16. Cumulative association of obstructive sleep apnea severity and short sleep duration with the risk for hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascaline Priou

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA and short sleep duration are individually associated with an increased risk for hypertension (HTN. The aim of this multicenter cross-sectional study was to test the hypothesis of a cumulative association of OSA severity and short sleep duration with the risk for prevalent HTN. Among 1,499 patients undergoing polysomnography for suspected OSA, 410 (27.3% previously diagnosed as hypertensive and taking antihypertensive medication were considered as having HTN. Patients with total sleep time (TST <6 h were considered to be short sleepers. Logistic regression procedures were performed to determine the independent association of HTN with OSA and sleep duration. Considering normal sleepers (TST ≥6 h without OSA as the reference group, the odds ratio (OR (95% confidence intervals for having HTN was 2.51 (1.35-4.68 in normal sleepers with OSA and 4.37 (2.18-8.78 in short sleepers with OSA after adjustment for age, gender, obesity, diabetes, depression, current smoking, use of thyroid hormones, daytime sleepiness, poor sleep complaint, time in bed, sleep architecture and fragmentation, and study site. The risk for HTN appeared to present a cumulative association with OSA severity and short sleep duration (p<0.0001 for linear trend. The higher risk for HTN was observed in short sleepers with severe OSA (AHI ≥30 (OR, 4.29 [2.03-9.07]. In patients investigated for suspected OSA, sleep-disordered breathing severity and short sleep duration have a cumulative association with the risk for prevalent HTN. Further studies are required to determine whether interventions to optimize sleep may contribute to lower BP in patients with OSA.

  17. Modeling the cumulative genetic risk for multiple sclerosis from genome-wide association data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Joanne H; Pappas, Derek; De Jager, Philip L; Pelletier, Daniel; de Bakker, Paul Iw; Kappos, Ludwig; Polman, Chris H; Chibnik, Lori B; Hafler, David A; Matthews, Paul M; Hauser, Stephen L; Baranzini, Sergio E; Oksenberg, Jorge R

    2011-01-18

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common cause of chronic neurologic disability beginning in early to middle adult life. Results from recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have substantially lengthened the list of disease loci and provide convincing evidence supporting a multifactorial and polygenic model of inheritance. Nevertheless, the knowledge of MS genetics remains incomplete, with many risk alleles still to be revealed. We used a discovery GWAS dataset (8,844 samples, 2,124 cases and 6,720 controls) and a multi-step logistic regression protocol to identify novel genetic associations. The emerging genetic profile included 350 independent markers and was used to calculate and estimate the cumulative genetic risk in an independent validation dataset (3,606 samples). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was implemented to compare clinical characteristics of individuals with various degrees of genetic risk. Gene ontology and pathway enrichment analysis was done using the DAVID functional annotation tool, the GO Tree Machine, and the Pathway-Express profiling tool. In the discovery dataset, the median cumulative genetic risk (P-Hat) was 0.903 and 0.007 in the case and control groups, respectively, together with 79.9% classification sensitivity and 95.8% specificity. The identified profile shows a significant enrichment of genes involved in the immune response, cell adhesion, cell communication/signaling, nervous system development, and neuronal signaling, including ionotropic glutamate receptors, which have been implicated in the pathological mechanism driving neurodegeneration. In the validation dataset, the median cumulative genetic risk was 0.59 and 0.32 in the case and control groups, respectively, with classification sensitivity 62.3% and specificity 75.9%. No differences in disease progression or T2-lesion volumes were observed among four levels of predicted genetic risk groups (high, medium, low, misclassified). On the other hand, a significant

  18. Cumulative family risks across income levels predict deterioration of children's general health during childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Ching; Seo, Dong-Chul

    2017-01-01

    Family is considered an important agent in the health development of children. This process is significant but quite complex because the prevalence of potential risk factors in the family can hinder children's health. This study examined if multiple family risks might have cumulative effect on children and youth's health across various levels of household income. The data in this study were drawn from the 2011-2012 U.S. National Survey of Children's Health (N = 79,601). A cumulative family risk (CFR) index was developed, which included such constructs as single-parenthood, unstable employment, large family, parenting stress, poor maternal education, poor maternal general health and poor maternal mental health. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that CFR level was significantly related to children and youth's poor health outcome (p families than on those from poor families. Overall there was a consistent pattern of trend in the point estimate as well as confidence limits as levels of affluence and numbers of family risk increased although some of the confidence intervals overlapped. Living in disadvantaged families might serve as a protective factor against CFRs possibly through repeated exposure to hardships and subsequent formation of resilience among some of the disadvantaged children.

  19. Invasion risks posed by ornamental freshwater fish trade to southeastern Brazilian rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Lincoln Barroso de Magalhaes

    , P. reticulata, and Amatitlania nigrofasciata can potentially invade the Todos os Santos River. Six recommendations are suggested to reduce the invasion risk of non-native fish on the rivers surveyed posed by aquarium trade.

  20. DOSE-RESPONSE MODELING FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF CUMULATIVE RISK DUE TO EXPOSURE TO N-METHYL CARBAMATE PESTICIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US EPAs N-Methyl Carbamate Cumulative Risk Assessment (NMCRA) assesses the effect on acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity of exposure to 10 N-methyl carbamate (NMC) pesticides through dietary, drinking water, and residential exposures.

  1. Export of commercial Hass avocados from Argentina poses negligible risk of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagrán, M Elvira; Willink, Eduardo; Vera, M Teresa; Follett, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Argentina has to meet quarantine restrictions because of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to export 'Hass' avocados, Persea americana Miller, to certain countries. Hass avocado at the hard, mature green stage is potentially a conditional nonhost for C. capitata and could open export markets without the need for a quarantine treatment. Trapping data from 1998 to 2006 showed that C. capitata was present in avocado orchards, particularly early in the harvest season. The host status of hard, mature green Hass avocado to C. capitata was evaluated using laboratory and field cage tests under no-choice conditions and by assessing natural levels of infestation in commercially harvested fruit from the main avocado production area. In total, 2,250 hard, mature green avocado fruit were exposed to 11,250 gravid females for 24 or 48 h after harvest in laboratory or field cages, and no infestations were found. During 11 seasons, 5,949 fruit in total were sampled from the trees and 992 fruit were collected from the ground, and in none of them were any live or dead fruit fly larvae found. Inspection of >198,000 commercial fruit at the packinghouse from 1998 to 2011 showed no symptoms of fruit fly infestation. These data exceed the published standards for determination of nonhost status, as well as the Probit 9 standard for development of quarantine treatments. Hass avocado harvested at the hard, mature green stage was not infested by C. capitata and seems to pose a negligible quarantine risk. As a consequence, no postharvest treatment or other quarantine actions should be required by importing countries.

  2. Estimation of the environmental risk posed by landfills using chemical, microbiological and ecotoxicological testing of leachates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matejczyk, Marek; Płaza, Grażyna A; Nałęcz-Jawecki, Grzegorz; Ulfig, Krzysztof; Markowska-Szczupak, Agata

    2011-02-01

    parameters of the landfill leachates should be analyzed together to assess the environmental risk posed by landfill emissions.

  3. Nonparametric Estimation of Cumulative Incidence Functions for Competing Risks Data with Missing Cause of Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Effraimidis, Georgios; Dahl, Christian Møller

    In this paper, we develop a fully nonparametric approach for the estimation of the cumulative incidence function with Missing At Random right-censored competing risks data. We obtain results on the pointwise asymptotic normality as well as the uniform convergence rate of the proposed nonparametric...... estimator. A simulation study that serves two purposes is provided. First, it illustrates in details how to implement our proposed nonparametric estimator. Secondly, it facilitates a comparison of the nonparametric estimator to a parametric counterpart based on the estimator of Lu and Liang (2008...

  4. Cumulative risk and developmental health: an argument for the importance of a family-wide science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Dillon T; Plamondon, Andre; Prime, Heather; Puente-Duran, Sofia; Wade, Mark

    2015-01-01

    A substantial body of research links social disadvantage and developmental health via a cascade running from poverty, to cumulative psychosocial risk, to disrupted family dynamics, to child biological regulatory systems and neurocognitive processing, and finally to morbidity across the lifespan. Most research in this area employs single-dyad or between-family methodology. While informative, there are limitations to this approach. Specifically, it is impossible to determine how risk alters psychosocial environments that are similar for all persons within a household, versus processes that are unique to particular children. This is important in light of literature citing the primacy of child-specific environments in driving developmental health. Methodologically speaking, there are both benefits and challenges to family-wide approaches that differentiate between- and within-family environments. This review describes literature linking cumulative risk and developmental health via family process, while articulating the importance of family-wide approaches. Areas of shortcoming and recommendations for a family-wide science are provided.

  5. A semiparametric censoring bias model for estimating the cumulative risk of a false-positive screening test under dependent censoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Rebecca A; Miglioretti, Diana L

    2013-03-01

    False-positive test results are among the most common harms of screening tests and may lead to more invasive and expensive diagnostic testing procedures. Estimating the cumulative risk of a false-positive screening test result after repeat screening rounds is, therefore, important for evaluating potential screening regimens. Existing estimators of the cumulative false-positive risk are limited by strong assumptions about censoring mechanisms and parametric assumptions about variation in risk across screening rounds. To address these limitations, we propose a semiparametric censoring bias model for cumulative false-positive risk that allows for dependent censoring without specifying a fixed functional form for variation in risk across screening rounds. Simulation studies demonstrated that the censoring bias model performs similarly to existing models under independent censoring and can largely eliminate bias under dependent censoring. We used the existing and newly proposed models to estimate the cumulative false-positive risk and variation in risk as a function of baseline age and family history of breast cancer after 10 years of annual screening mammography using data from the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium. Ignoring potential dependent censoring in this context leads to underestimation of the cumulative risk of false-positive results. Models that provide accurate estimates under dependent censoring are critical for providing appropriate information for evaluating screening tests.

  6. Predicting Academic Achievement from Cumulative Home Risk: The Mediating Roles of Effortful Control, Academic Relationships, and School Avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Jodi; Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Components of the home environment are associated with children's academic functioning. The accumulation of risks in the home are expected to prove more detrimental to achievement than any one risk alone, but the processes accounting for this relation are unclear. Using an index of cumulative home risk (CHR) inclusive of protective factors, as…

  7. Prevalence and risk factors of upper extremity cumulative trauma disorder in dental hygienists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenkar, O; Mann, J; Shevach, A; Ever-Hadani, P; Weiss, P L

    1998-01-01

    Cumulative trauma disorder (CTD) refers to a number of conditions arising from overuse of joints or soft tissues. The common risk factors that contribute to the development of these disorders are related to personal and occupational variables. Job analysis of the tasks performed by the dental hygienist have shown that this occupation is particularly at risk. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of CTD symptoms amongst dental hygienists in Israel and to identify which are the factors that are related to CTD. A questionnaire including items concerning demographic data, employment history, professional occupational information, use of instrumentation, and CTD symptomatology was mailed to all 530 registered dental hygienists. Two hundred forty-six hygienists (46%) returned the questionnaire; 63% of the respondents were classified as CTD 'sufferers', Age, year of graduation, hours worked per week, and frequency of changing instruments were found to be significantly related to CTD symptoms. Hygienists at high risk included those aged 50 years or more (Odds ratio, OR = 6), those who graduated before 1986 (OR = 3), those who work more than 34 h per week (OR = 2.5) and those who change two or fewer instruments per patient (OR = 2). The major recommendation resulting from this study is to make dental hygienists aware that they work in a high-risk profession. It is hoped that increased awareness of the risk will spur the hygienist to make appropriate work practice, administrative, and engineering modifications and to seek treatment at the first indication of CTD symptoms.

  8. Invasion risks posed by ornamental freshwater fish trade to southeastern Brazilian rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Lincoln Barroso de Magalhães

    , P. reticulata, and Amatitlania nigrofasciata can potentially invade the Todos os Santos River. Six recommendations are suggested to reduce the invasion risk of non-native fish on the rivers surveyed posed by aquarium trade.Um modelo foi desenvolvido para avaliar o risco de invasão de peixes ornamentais não-nativos em seis rios do estado de Minas Gerais, sudeste do Brasil, com foco na popularidade das espécies. Trinta e nove lojas de aquário em seis cidades foram visitadas mensalmente de janeiro a dezembro de 2007. Em cada cidade, as espécies foram identificadas e suas biologias e histórias de invasão foram obtidas da literatura. Calculou-se a frequência de ocorrência anual e quantidade média mensal de exemplares disponíveis nas lojas. Foram obtidas temperaturas trimestrais da água e dados de oxigênio dissolvido de 1997 a 2007 dos rios Velhas, Muriaé, Uberabinha, Sapucaí-Mirim, Doce e Todos os Santos a partir de bases de dados públicas. O risco de invasão de cada espécie foi avaliado através de um modelo composto por nove parâmetros agrupados em quatro variáveis: (i Invasividade (limite de alcance térmico/oxigênio dissolvido, dieta, cuidado parental ou fecundidade, (ii Histórico de invasões (estabelecimento, (iii Pressão de propágulos (sucesso comercial, composto pela frequência de ocorrência anual e número de exemplares disponíveis mensalmente nas lojas, e (iv Invasibilidade (temperatura da água/oxigênio dissolvido dos rios compatível com o limite de alcance térmico/ oxigênio dissolvido das espécies. Das 345 espécies de peixes ornamentais para venda, 332 são não-nativos para Minas Gerais (n = 151 ou Brasil (n = 194. Com base nos valores de corte propostos, cinco espécies de peixes ornamentais não-nativos (Cyprinus rubrofuscus, Carassius auratus, Xiphophorus hellerii, Poecilia reticulata e P. latipinna podem potencialmente invadir os rios Velhas e Muriaé, quatro espécies (C. rubrofuscus, C. auratus, X. helleri, P

  9. Optimization of the cumulative risk assessment of pesticides and biocides using computational techniques: Pilot project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Svava Osk; Reffstrup, Trine Klein; Petersen, Annette

    This pilot project is intended as the first step in developing a computational strategy to assist in refining methods for higher tier cumulative and aggregate risk assessment of exposure to mixture of pesticides and biocides. For this purpose, physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK) models were...... developed for two compounds, tebuconazole and prochloraz, and a binary mixture of these compounds in two species, rat and human. PBTK models can be used to estimate the concentration levels (internal doses) of toxic substances and their metabolites in blood and tissue, by a collection of differential...... the models. Exposure scenarios were constructed based on findings of pesticide residues in food of ordinary consumers, and assessment of dermal exposure of professional workers. PBTK simulations were carried using these scenarios....

  10. Metals in residential soils and cumulative risk assessment in Yaqui and Mayo agricultural valleys, northern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza-Montenegro, Maria M; Gandolfi, A Jay; Santana-Alcántar, María Ernestina; Klimecki, Walter T; Aguilar-Apodaca, María Guadalupe; Del Río-Salas, Rafael; De la O-Villanueva, Margarita; Gómez-Alvarez, Agustín; Mendivil-Quijada, Héctor; Valencia, Martín; Meza-Figueroa, Diana

    2012-09-01

    This investigation examines the extent of soil metal pollution associated with the Green Revolution, relative to agricultural activities and associated risks to health in the most important agricultural region of Mexico. Metal contents in bulk soil samples are commonly used to assess contamination, and metal accumulations in soils are usually assumed to increase with decreasing particle size. This study profiled the spatial distribution of metals (Ni, Cr, Pb, Cu, Fe, Cd, V, Hg, Co, P, Se, and Mn) in bulk soil and fine-grained fractions (soil-derived dust) from 22 towns and cities. The contamination of soil was assessed through the use of a geoaccumulation index (Igeo) and pollution index (PI). The results of this study indicated that a number of towns and cities are moderately to highly polluted by soil containing Be, Co, Hg, P, S, V, Zn, Se, Cr, and Pb in both size fractions (coarse and fine). Hazard index in fine fraction (HI(children)=2.1) shows that risk assessment based on Co, Mn, V, and Ni spatially related to power plants, have the potential to pose health risks to local residents, especially children. This study shows that risk assessment based on metal content in bulk soil could be overestimated when compared to fine-grained fraction. Our results provide important information that could be valuable in establishing risk assessment associated with residential soils within agricultural areas, where children can ingest and inhale dust. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. When Two Isn't Better than One: Predictors of Early Sexual Activity in Adolescence Using a Cumulative Risk Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Myeshia N.; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2009-01-01

    This study explored factors that may be associated with early initiation of sexual activity among adolescents. Using the cumulative risk model, we hypothesized that as exposure to risk factors increases, so does the likelihood of early sexual debut. A sample of 273 (53% girls, 90% European American) adolescents was followed longitudinally from age…

  12. Serious, Minor, and Non-Delinquents in Early Adolescence : The Impact of Cumulative Risk and Promotive Factors. The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, A.M.; Veenstra, R.; Bogaerts, S.; Verhulst, F.C.; Ormel, J.

    2010-01-01

    This study uses a social-ecological approach to the development of delinquency. The authors emphasize that a balance between eliminating risk and enhancing protection across domains is essential in reducing problems and promoting competence. The cumulative risk and promotive effects of temperament,

  13. Cumulative Cardiovascular Polypharmacy Is Associated With the Risk of Acute Kidney Injury in Elderly Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Chia-Ter; Tsai, Hung-Bin; Wu, Chia-Yi; Lin, Yu-Feng; Hsu, Nin-Chieh; Chen, Jin-Shin; Hung, Kuan-Yu

    2015-08-01

    Polypharmacy is common in the elderly due to multimorbidity and interventions. However, the temporal association between polypharmacy and renal outcomes is rarely addressed and recognized. We investigated the association between cardiovascular (CV) polypharmacy and the risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) in elderly patients.We used the Taiwan National Health Insurance PharmaCloud system to investigate the relationship between cumulative CV medications in the 3 months before admission and risk of AKI in the elderly at their admission to general medical wards in a single center. Community-dwelling elderly patients (>60 years) were prospectively enrolled and classified according to the number of preadmission CV medications. CV polypharmacy was defined as use of 2 or more CV medications.We enrolled 152 patients, 48% with AKI (based upon Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes [KDIGO] classification) and 64% with CV polypharmacy. The incidence of AKI was higher in patients taking more CV medications (0 drugs: 33%; 1 drug: 50%; 2 drugs: 57%; 3 or more drugs: 60%; P = 0.05) before admission. Patients with higher KDIGO grades also took more preadmission CV medications (P = 0.04). Multiple regression analysis showed that patients who used 1 or more CV medications before admission had increased risk of AKI at admission (1 drug: odds ratio [OR] = 1.63, P = 0.2; 2 drugs: OR = 4.74, P = 0.03; 3 or more drugs: OR = 5.92, P = 0.02), and that CV polypharmacy is associated with higher risk of AKI (OR 2.58; P = 0.02). Each additional CV medication increased the risk for AKI by 30%.We found that elderly patients taking more CV medications are associated with risk of adverse renal events. Further study to evaluate whether interventions that reduce polypharmacy could reduce the incidence of geriatric AKI is urgently needed.

  14. Comparison of competing risks models based on cumulative incidence function in analyzing time to cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianatkhah, Minoo; Rahgozar, Mehdi; Talaei, Mohammad; Karimloua, Masoud; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Oveisgharan, Shahram; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2014-01-01

    Competing risks arise when the subject is exposed to more than one cause of failure. Data consists of the time that the subject failed and an indicator of which risk caused the subject to fail. With three approaches consisting of Fine and Gray, binomial, and pseudo-value, all of which are directly based on cumulative incidence function, cardiovascular disease data of the Isfahan Cohort Study were analyzed. Validity of proportionality assumption for these approaches is the basis for selecting appropriate models. Such as for the Fine and Gray model, establishing proportionality assumption is necessary. In the binomial approach, a parametric, non-parametric, or semi-parametric model was offered according to validity of assumption. However, pseudo-value approaches do not need to establish proportionality. Following fitting the models to data, slight differences in parameters and variances estimates were seen among models. This showed that semi-parametric multiplicative model and the two models based on pseudo-value approach could be used for fitting this kind of data. We would recommend considering the use of competing risk models instead of normal survival methods when subjects are exposed to more than one cause of failure.

  15. Cumulative risk effects for the development of behaviour difficulties in children and adolescents with special educational needs and disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldfield, Jeremy; Humphrey, Neil; Hebron, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Research has identified multiple risk factors for the development of behaviour difficulties. What have been less explored are the cumulative effects of exposure to multiple risks on behavioural outcomes, with no study specifically investigating these effects within a population of young people with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND). Furthermore, it is unclear whether a threshold or linear risk model better fits the data for this population. The sample included 2660 children and 1628 adolescents with SEND. Risk factors associated with increases in behaviour difficulties over an 18-month period were summed to create a cumulative risk score, with this explanatory variable being added into a multi-level model. A quadratic term was then added to test the threshold model. There was evidence of a cumulative risk effect, suggesting that exposure to higher numbers of risk factors, regardless of their exact nature, resulted in increased behaviour difficulties. The relationship between risk and behaviour difficulties was non-linear, with exposure to increasing risk having a disproportionate and detrimental impact on behaviour difficulties in child and adolescent models. Interventions aimed at reducing behaviour difficulties need to consider the impact of multiple risk variables. Tailoring interventions towards those exposed to large numbers of risks would be advantageous.

  16. The role of violent media preference in cumulative developmental risk for violence and general aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxer, Paul; Huesmann, L Rowell; Bushman, Brad J; O'Brien, Maureen; Moceri, Dominic

    2009-03-01

    The impact of exposure to violence in the media on the long-term development and short-term expression of aggressive behavior has been well documented. However, gaps in this literature remain, and in particular the role of violent media exposure in shaping violent and other serious antisocial behavior has not been investigated. Further, studies of violent media effects typically have not sampled from populations with confirmed histories of violent and/or nonviolent antisocial behavior. In this study, we analyzed data on 820 youth, including 390 juvenile delinquents and 430 high school students, to examine the relation of violent media use to involvement in violence and general aggression. Using criterion scores developed through cross-informant modeling of data from self, parent/guardian, and teacher/staff reports, we observed that childhood and adolescent violent media preferences contributed significantly to the prediction of violence and general aggression from cumulative risk totals. Findings represent a new and important direction for research on the role of violent media use in the broader matrix of risk factors for youth violence.

  17. Modelling the Risk Posed by the Zebra Mussel Dreissena polymorpha: Italy as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosso, Luciano; De Conno, Carmelina; Russo, Danilo

    2017-08-01

    We generated a risk map to forecast the potential effects of the spreading of zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha across the Italian territory. We assessed the invader's potential impact on rivers, lakes, watersheds and dams at a fine-grained scale and detected those more at risk that should be targeted with appropriate monitoring. We developed a MaxEnt model and employed weighted overlay analyses to detect the species' potential distribution and generate risk maps for Italy. D. polymorpha has a greater probability of occurring at low to medium altitudes in areas characterised by fluviatile deposits of major streams. Northern and central Italy appear more at risk. Some hydroelectric power dams are at high risk, while most dams for irrigation, drinkable water reservoirs and other dam types are at medium to low risk. The lakes and rivers reaches (representing likely expansion pathways) at medium-high or high risk mostly occur in northern and central Italy. We highlight the importance of modelling potential invasions on a country scale to achieve the sufficient resolution needed to develop appropriate monitoring plans and prevent the invader's harmful effects. Further high-resolution risk maps are needed for other regions partly or not yet colonised by the zebra mussel.

  18. Non-chemical stressors and cumulative risk assessment: an overview of current initiatives and potential air pollutant interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ari S; Sax, Sonja N; Wason, Susan C; Campleman, Sharan L

    2011-06-01

    Regulatory agencies are under increased pressure to consider broader public health concerns that extend to multiple pollutant exposures, multiple exposure pathways, and vulnerable populations. Specifically, cumulative risk assessment initiatives have stressed the importance of considering both chemical and non-chemical stressors, such as socioeconomic status (SES) and related psychosocial stress, in evaluating health risks. The integration of non-chemical stressors into a cumulative risk assessment framework has been largely driven by evidence of health disparities across different segments of society that may also bear a disproportionate risk from chemical exposures. This review will discuss current efforts to advance the field of cumulative risk assessment, highlighting some of the major challenges, discussed within the construct of the traditional risk assessment paradigm. Additionally, we present a summary of studies of potential interactions between social stressors and air pollutants on health as an example of current research that supports the incorporation of non-chemical stressors into risk assessment. The results from these studies, while suggestive of possible interactions, are mixed and hindered by inconsistent application of social stress indicators. Overall, while there have been significant advances, further developments across all of the risk assessment stages (i.e., hazard identification, exposure assessment, dose-response, and risk characterization) are necessary to provide a scientific basis for regulatory actions and effective community interventions, particularly when considering non-chemical stressors. A better understanding of the biological underpinnings of social stress on disease and implications for chemical-based dose-response relationships is needed. Furthermore, when considering non-chemical stressors, an appropriate metric, or series of metrics, for risk characterization is also needed. Cumulative risk assessment research will benefit

  19. Oral contraceptive use and impact of cumulative intake of estrogen and progestin on risk of ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, M T; Jensen, A; Frederiksen, K

    2013-01-01

    women aged 35–79 years; 554 women with epithelial ovarian cancer and 1,564 age-matched controls were included in the analyses. Data were analyzed in multiple logistic regression models. RESULTS: The use of combined oral contraceptives only and the mixed use of combined and progestin-only pills decreased...... the risk of ovarian cancer, while no association was found with exclusive use of progestin-only pills. No major differences in risk were found for users of combined oral contraceptives with high- and low-potency estrogen and progestin. There was no effect of cumulative progestin intake, but decreased risks......PURPOSE: Oral contraceptive use decreases the risk of ovarian cancer, but no previous studies have assessed the impact of cumulative intake of estrogen and progestin on ovarian cancer risk. METHODS: We used data from a population-based case–control study conducted in Denmark in 1995–1999 among...

  20. Cumulative health risk assessment of 17 perfluoroalkylated and polyfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) in the Swedish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Daniel; Lund, Bert-Ove; Lindquist, Nils-Gunnar; Håkansson, Helen

    2013-09-01

    Humans are simultaneously exposed to a multitude of chemicals. Human health risk assessment of chemicals is, however, normally performed on single substances, which may underestimate the total risk, thus bringing a need for reliable methods to assess the risk of combined exposure to multiple chemicals. Per- and polyfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) is a large group of chemicals that has emerged as global environmental contaminants. In the Swedish population, 17 PFASs have been measured, of which the vast majority lacks human health risk assessment information. The objective of this study was to for the first time perform a cumulative health risk assessment of the 17 PFASs measured in the Swedish population, individually and in combination, using the Hazard Index (HI) approach. Swedish biomonitoring data (blood/serum concentrations of PFASs) were used and two study populations identified: 1) the general population exposed indirectly via the environment and 2) occupationally exposed professional ski waxers. Hazard data used were publicly available toxicity data for hepatotoxicity and reproductive toxicity as well as other more sensitive toxic effects. The results showed that PFASs concentrations were in the low ng/ml serum range in the general population, reaching high ng/ml and low μg/ml serum concentrations in the occupationally exposed. For those congeners lacking toxicity data with regard to hepatotoxicity and reproductive toxicity read-across extrapolations was performed. Other effects at lower dose levels were observed for some well-studied congeners. The risk characterization showed no concern for hepatotoxicity or reproductive toxicity in the general population except in a subpopulation eating PFOS-contaminated fish, illustrating that high local exposure may be of concern. For the occupationally exposed there was concern for hepatotoxicity by PFOA and all congeners in combination as well as for reproductive toxicity by all congeners in combination, thus a

  1. Does intake of trace elements through urban gardening in Copenhagen pose a risk to human health?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, Marlies; Hansen, Mette G.; Holm, Peter E.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the potential health risk from urban gardening. The concentrations of the trace elements arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in five common garden crops from three garden sites in Copenhagen were measured. Concentra......This study investigates the potential health risk from urban gardening. The concentrations of the trace elements arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in five common garden crops from three garden sites in Copenhagen were measured...... soil ingestion, vegetable consumption, measured trace element concentrations and tolerable intake levels. The HQs for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn do not indicate a health risk through urban gardening in Copenhagen. Exposure to Pb contaminated sites may lead to unacceptable risk not caused by vegetable...

  2. Urinary antibiotics of pregnant women in Eastern China and cumulative health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hexing; Wang, Na; Qian, Junhua; Hu, Lingyun; Huang, Peixin; Su, Meifang; Yu, Xin; Fu, Chaowei; Jiang, Feng; Zhao, Qi; Zhou, Ying; Lin, Haijiang; He, Gengsheng; Chen, Yue; Jiang, Qingwu

    2017-02-23

    Exposure to antibiotics during pregnancy can pose a systematic effect on human health. A few bio-monitoring studies have demonstrated an extensive exposure of children to antibiotics, but there is still lack of data for pregnant women. To assess the exposure of pregnant women to antibiotics and potential health risk, we investigated 536 pregnant women aged 16-42 years from two geographically different study sites in Eastern China in 2015. We measured 21 antibiotics of five categories (seven fluoroquinolones, three phenicols, four tetracyclines, three macrolides, and four sulfonamides) in urines by using the isotope dilution ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of-flight mass spectrometry. Hazard index (HI) was calculated based on estimated daily exposure dose and acceptable daily intakes. Sixteen antibiotics were found in urines with detection frequencies between 0.2% and 16.0%. Antibiotics were overall detected in 41.6% of urines, and two or more antibiotics were detected in 13.1% of urines. Ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and trimethoprim were most frequently detected in urine with detection frequencies between 10% and 20%. The majority of the antibiotics tested had an estimated daily exposure dose less than 1μg/kg/day and 4.3% of pregnant women had a HI value more than one. These findings indicated that pregnant women were frequently exposed to antibiotics and some individuals were in the potential risk of adverse microbiological effects induced by antibiotics.

  3. A cumulative risk factor model for early identification of academic difficulties in premature and low birth weight infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberts, G.; Bellinger, D.; McCormick, Marie C.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: Premature and low birth weight children have a high prevalence of academic difficulties. This study examines a model comprised of cumulative risk factors that allows early identification of these difficulties. Methods: This is a secondary analysis of data from a large cohort of premature

  4. Cumulative Risk and Adolescent's Internalizing and Externalizing Problems: The Mediating Roles of Maternal Responsiveness and Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Stacey N.; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E.; Evans, Gary W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine longitudinal associations among maternal responsiveness, self-regulation, and behavioral adjustment in adolescents. The authors used structural equation modeling to test a model that demonstrates that the effects of early cumulative risk on behavioral problems is mediated by maternal responsiveness…

  5. Benchmark Dose Analysis from Multiple Datasets: The Cumulative Risk Assessment for the N-Methyl Carbamate Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US EPA’s N-Methyl Carbamate (NMC) Cumulative Risk assessment was based on the effect on acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity of exposure to 10 NMC pesticides through dietary, drinking water, and residential exposures, assuming the effects of joint exposure to NMCs is dose-...

  6. Cumulative Socioeconomic Status Risk, Allostatic Load, and Adjustment: A Prospective Latent Profile Analysis with Contextual and Genetic Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H.; Yu, Tianyi; Chen, Yi-Fu; Kogan, Steven M.; Evans, Gary W.; Beach, Steven R. H.; Windle, Michael; Simons, Ronald L.; Gerrard, Meg; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Philibert, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    The health disparities literature has identified a common pattern among middle-aged African Americans that includes high rates of chronic disease along with low rates of psychiatric disorders despite exposure to high levels of cumulative socioeconomic status (SES) risk. The current study was designed to test hypotheses about the developmental…

  7. Hg-contaminated terrestrial spiders pose a potential risk to songbirds at Caddo Lake (Texas/Louisiana, USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gann, Gretchen L; Powell, Cleveland H; Chumchal, Matthew M; Drenner, Ray W

    2015-02-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is an environmental contaminant that can have adverse effects on wildlife. Because MeHg is produced by bacteria in aquatic ecosystems, studies of MeHg contamination of food webs historically have focused on aquatic organisms. However, recent studies have shown that terrestrial organisms such as songbirds can be contaminated with MeHg by feeding on MeHg-contaminated spiders. In the present study, the authors examined the risk that MeHg-contaminated terrestrial long-jawed orb weaver spiders (Tetragnatha sp.) pose to songbirds at Caddo Lake (Texas/Louisiana, USA). Methylmercury concentrations in spiders were significantly different in river, wetland, and open-water habitats. The authors calculated spider-based wildlife values (the minimum spider MeHg concentrations causing physiologically significant doses in consumers) to assess exposure risks for arachnivorous birds. Methylmercury concentrations in spiders exceeded wildlife values for Carolina chickadee (Poecile carolinensis) nestlings, with the highest risk in the river habitat. The present study indicates that MeHg concentrations in terrestrial spiders vary with habitat and can pose a threat to small-bodied nestling birds that consume large amounts of spiders at Caddo Lake. This MeHg threat to songbirds may not be unique to Caddo Lake and may extend throughout the southeastern United States. © 2014 SETAC.

  8. Cumulative biomedical risk and social cognition in the second year of life: prediction and moderation by responsive parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Mark; Madigan, Sheri; Akbari, Emis; Jenkins, Jennifer M

    2015-01-01

    At 18 months, children show marked variability in their social-cognitive skill development, and the preponderance of past research has focused on constitutional and contextual factors in explaining this variability. Extending this literature, the current study examined whether cumulative biomedical risk represents another source of variability in social cognition at 18 months. Further, we aimed to determine whether responsive parenting moderated the association between biomedical risk and social cognition. A prospective community birth cohort of 501 families was recruited at the time of the child's birth. Cumulative biomedical risk was measured as a count of 10 prenatal/birth complications. Families were followed up at 18 months, at which point social-cognitive data was collected on children's joint attention, empathy, cooperation, and self-recognition using previously validated tasks. Concurrently, responsive maternal behavior was assessed through observational coding of mother-child interactions. After controlling for covariates (e.g., age, gender, child language, socioeconomic variables), both cumulative biomedical risk and maternal responsivity significantly predicted social cognition at 18 months. Above and beyond these main effects, there was also a significant interaction between biomedical risk and maternal responsivity, such that higher biomedical risk was significantly associated with compromised social cognition at 18 months, but only in children who experienced low levels of responsive parenting. For those receiving comparatively high levels of responsive parenting, there was no apparent effect of biomedical risk on social cognition. This study shows that cumulative biomedical risk may be one source of inter-individual variability in social cognition at 18 months. However, positive postnatal experiences, particularly high levels of responsive parenting, may protect children against the deleterious effects of these risks on social cognition.

  9. Cumulative biomedical risk and social cognition in the second year of life: prediction and moderation by responsive parenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eWade

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available At 18 months, children show marked variability in their social-cognitive skill development, and the preponderance of past research has focused on constitutional and contextual factors in explaining this variability. Extending this literature, the current study examined whether cumulative biomedical risk represents another source of variability in social cognition at 18 months. Further, we aimed to determine whether responsive parenting moderated the association between biomedical risk and social cognition. A prospective community birth cohort of 501 families was recruited at the time of the child’s birth. Cumulative biomedical risk was measured as a count of 10 prenatal/birth complications. Families were followed up at 18 months, at which point social-cognitive data was collected on children’s joint attention, empathy, cooperation, and self-recognition using previously-validated tasks. Concurrently, responsive maternal behavior was assessed through observational coding of mother-child interactions. After controlling for covariates (e.g. age, gender, child language, socioeconomic variables, both cumulative biomedical risk and maternal responsivity significantly predicted social cognition at 18 months. Above and beyond these main effects, there was also a significant interaction between biomedical risk and maternal responsivity, such that higher biomedical risk was significantly associated with compromised social cognition at 18 months, but only in children who experienced low levels of responsive parenting. For those receiving comparatively high levels of responsive parenting, there was no apparent effect of biomedical risk on social cognition. This study shows that cumulative biomedical risk may be one source of inter-individual variability in social cognition at 18 months. However, positive postnatal experiences, particularly high levels of responsive parenting, may protect children against the deleterious effects of these risks on social

  10. Would Aluminum and Nickel Content of Apricot Pose Health Risk to Human?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamhossein DAVARYNEJAD

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Higher demands of food production for human consumption increased uses of fertilizers and other chemicals that arise in a major public problem and heavy-metal pollution. Levels of Aluminum and Nickel which affect mankind health in exact doses, were determined in fresh and dried samples of Jumbo Cot, Tom Cot, Gold Strike, Gold Bar, Bergeron, Bergarouge, Sweet Cot, Yellow cot and Zebra apricot cultivars to assess possible health risk of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. consumption. Highest content of Al and Ni among all cultivars, where 9.71 and 2.14 mg/kg of dehydrated apricot samples. Fresh fruit samples maximally contain 2.9 and 0.425 mg/kg of Aluminum and Nickel respectively. Data analysis showed significant differences between cultivars for Al and Ni. Furthermore, to reveal the health-risk possibility of dried and fresh fruit consumption daily intake of elements and health-risk index were calculated and compared.

  11. Does intake of trace elements through urban gardening in Copenhagen pose a risk to human health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warming, Marlies; Hansen, Mette G; Holm, Peter E; Magid, Jakob; Hansen, Thomas H; Trapp, Stefan

    2015-07-01

    This study investigates the potential health risk from urban gardening. The concentrations of the trace elements arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in five common garden crops from three garden sites in Copenhagen were measured. Concentrations (mg/kg dw) of As were 0.002-0.21, Cd 0.03-0.25, Cr gardening in Copenhagen. Exposure to Pb contaminated sites may lead to unacceptable risk not caused by vegetable consumption but by unintentional soil ingestion.

  12. Relations of Growth in Effortful Control to Family Income, Cumulative Risk, and Adjustment in Preschool-age Children

    OpenAIRE

    Lengua, Liliana J.; Moran, Lyndsey; Zalewski, Maureen; Ruberry, Erika; Kiff, Cara; Thompson, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The study examined growth in effortful control (executive control, delay ability) in relation to income, cumulative risk (aggregate of demographic and psychosocial risk factors), and adjustment in 306 preschool-age children (50% girls, 50% boys) from families representing a range of income (29% at- or near-poverty; 28% lower-income; 25% middle-income; 18% upper-income), with 4 assessments starting at 36–40 mos. Income was directly related to levels of executive control and delay ability. Cumu...

  13. Lead and Cadmium: Priorities for action from UNEP’s perspective for addressing risks posed by these two heavy metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piper D.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP has been focusing on actions with regard to lead and cadmium since 2001 when the work of the Partnership for Clean Fuels and Vehicles (PCFV was initiated. The development and finalization of the reviews of scientific information on lead and cadmium facilitated discussions among Governments in relation to the need for global action with regard to these heavy metals. UNEP continues to address priority areas for focusing to reduce risks posed by lead and cadmium. The Global Alliance to Eliminate Lead Paint (GAELP is a clear example for addressing those risks; however more work is expected to be done in relation to these key issues.

  14. Escarpment seeps at Shiprock, New Mexico. [Risk posed by seep water to human health and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to characterize the seeps identified at the Shiprock UMTRA Project site during the prelicensing custodial care inspection conducted in December of 1990, to evaluate the relationship between the seeps and uranium processing activities or tailings disposal, and to evaluate the risk posed by the seep water to human health and the environment. The report provides a brief description of the geology, groundwater hydrology, and surface water hydrology. The locations of the seeps and monitor wells are identified, and the water quality of the seeps and groundwater is discussed in the context of past activities at the site. The water quality records for the site are presented in tables and appendices; this information was used in the risk assessment of seep water.

  15. Toxicity assessment through multiple endpoint bioassays in soils posing environmental risk according to regulatory screening values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Ruiz, A; Asensio, V; Zaldibar, B; Soto, M; Marigómez, I

    2014-01-01

    Toxicity profiles of two soils (a brownfield in Legazpi and an abandoned iron mine in Zugaztieta; Basque Country) contaminated with several metals (As, Zn, Pb and Cu in Legazpi; Zn, Pb, Cd and Cu in Zugaztieta) and petroleum hydrocarbons (in Legazpi) were determined using a multi-endpoint bioassay approach. Investigated soils exceeded screening values (SVs) of regulatory policies in force (Basque Country; Europe). Acute and chronic toxicity bioassays were conducted with a selected set of test species (Vibrio fischeri, Dictyostelium discoideum, Lactuca sativa, Raphanus sativus and Eisenia fetida) in combination with chemical analysis of soils and elutriates, as well as with bioaccumulation studies in earthworms. The sensitivity of the test species and the toxicity endpoints varied depending on the soil. It was concluded that whilst Zugaztieta soil showed very little or no toxicity, Legazpi soil was toxic according to almost all the toxicity tests (solid phase Microtox, D. discoideum inhibition of fruiting body formation and developmental cycle solid phase assays, lettuce seed germination and root elongation test, earthworm acute toxicity and reproduction tests, D. discoideum cell viability and replication elutriate assays). Thus, albeit both soils had similar SVs, their ecotoxicological risk, and therefore the need for intervening, was different for each soil as unveiled after toxicity profiling based on multiple endpoint bioassays. Such a toxicity profiling approach is suitable to be applied for scenario-targeted soil risk assessment in those cases where applicable national/regional soil legislation based on SVs demands further toxicity assessment.

  16. Relations of growth in effortful control to family income, cumulative risk, and adjustment in preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengua, Liliana J; Moran, Lyndsey; Zalewski, Maureen; Ruberry, Erika; Kiff, Cara; Thompson, Stephanie

    2015-05-01

    The study examined growth in effortful control (executive control, delay ability) in relation to income, cumulative risk (aggregate of demographic and psychosocial risk factors), and adjustment in 306 preschool-age children (50 % girls, 50 % boys) from families representing a range of income (29 % at- or near-poverty; 28 % lower-income; 25 % middle-income; 18 % upper-income), with 4 assessments starting at 36-40 month. Income was directly related to levels of executive control and delay ability. Cumulative risk accounted for the effects of income on delay ability but not executive control. Higher initial executive control and slope of executive control and delay ability predicted academic readiness, whereas levels, but not growth, of executive control and delay ability predicted social competence and adjustment problems. Low income is a marker for lower effortful control, which demonstrates additive or mediating effects in the relation of income to children's preschool adjustment.

  17. Cumulative radiation exposure and cancer risk of patients with ischemic heart diseases from diagnostic and therapeutic imaging procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brix, Gunnar, E-mail: gbrix@bfs.de [Department of Medical and Occupational Radiation Protection, Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Ingoldstädter Landstraße 1, D-85764 Oberschleissheim (Germany); Berton, Marc, E-mail: marcberton@web.de [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, D-68167 Mannheim (Germany); Nekolla, Elke, E-mail: enekolla@bfs.de [Department of Medical and Occupational Radiation Protection, Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Ingoldstädter Landstraße 1, D-85764 Oberschleissheim (Germany); Lechel, Ursula, E-mail: ulechel@bfs.de [Department of Medical and Occupational Radiation Protection, Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Ingoldstädter Landstraße 1, D-85764 Oberschleissheim (Germany); Schegerer, Alexander, E-mail: aschegerer@bfs.de [Department of Medical and Occupational Radiation Protection, Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Ingoldstädter Landstraße 1, D-85764 Oberschleissheim (Germany); Süselbeck, Tim, E-mail: Tim.Sueselbeck@umm.de [Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, D-68167 Mannheim (Germany); Fink, Christian, E-mail: Christian.Fink@umm.de [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, D-68167 Mannheim (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    Objectives: To present a detailed analysis of the cumulative radiation exposure and cancer risk of patients with ischemic heart diseases (IHD) from diagnostic and therapeutic imaging. Methods: For 1219 IHD patients, personal and examination data were retrieved from the information systems of a university hospital. For each patient, cumulative organ doses and the corresponding effective dose (E{sup ¯}) resulting from all imaging procedures performed within 3 months before and 12 months after the date of the diagnosis were calculated. The cumulative lifetime attributable risk (LAR{sup ¯}) of the patients to be diseased by radiation-related cancer was estimated using sex-, age-, and organ-specific risk models. Results: Among the 3870 procedures performed in the IHD patients, the most frequent were radiographic examinations (52.4%) followed by coronary catheter angiographies and percutaneous cardiac interventions (41.3%), CT scans (3.9%), and perfusion SPECT (2.3%). 87% of patient exposure resulted from heart catheter procedures. E{sup ¯} and LAR{sup ¯} were significantly higher in males than females (average, 13.3 vs. 10.3 mSv and 0.09 vs. 0.07%, respectively). Contrary to the effective dose, the cancer risk decreased markedly for both sexes with increasing age. Conclusions: Although IHD patients were partially exposed to considerable amounts of radiation, estimated LAR{sup ¯}s were small as compared to their baseline risk to develop cancer in the remaining life.

  18. Seismic Hazard and Risk Posed by the Mentawai Segment of the Sumatran Megathrust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megawati, K.; Han, X.

    2010-12-01

    Several lines of evidence have indicated that the Mentawai segment of the Sumatran megathrust is very likely to rupture within the next few decades. The present study is to investigate seismic hazard and risk levels at major cities in Sumatra, Java, Singapore and the Malay Peninsula caused by the potential giant earthquakes. Two scenarios are considered. The first one is an Mw 8.6 earthquake rupturing the 280-km segment that has been locked since 1797; in the second scenario, rupture occurs along a 400-km segment covering the combined rupture areas of the 1797 and 1833 historical events, of which the southern portion has partially slipped on 12 and 13 September 2007, producing an Mw 8.8 earthquake. Simulation results indicate that ground motions produced by the hypothetical scenarios are strong enough to cause yielding to medium and high-rise buildings in many major cities in Sumatra. It is vital to ensure that the overall strength, stiffness and integrity of the structures are maintained throughout the entire duration of shaking. However, the ductile detailing in current practice is formulated based on an assumption that ground motions would last 20 to 40 seconds. This has not been tested for longer durations of three to five minutes, expected from giant earthquakes. In Singapore and Kuala Lumpur, only medium and high-rise buildings, especially those located on soft-soil sites, are at risk. Given that seismic design has not been required in both cities, and thus the resulting structures are relatively brittle, it is crucial to investigate their performance under moderate-amplitude, long-duration, ground motions. The present study also points out that the shift of response spectrum toward longer period range becomes prominent for sites located far from potential seismic sources, which should be carefully considered in formulation of future seismic codes for Singapore, Malaysia and Indonesia.

  19. A preliminary approach to quantifying the overall environmental risks posed by development projects during environmental impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Sam; Chadès, Iadine

    2017-01-01

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is used globally to manage the impacts of development projects on the environment, so there is an imperative to demonstrate that it can effectively identify risky projects. However, despite the widespread use of quantitative predictive risk models in areas such as toxicology, ecosystem modelling and water quality, the use of predictive risk tools to assess the overall expected environmental impacts of major construction and development proposals is comparatively rare. A risk-based approach has many potential advantages, including improved prediction and attribution of cause and effect; sensitivity analysis; continual learning; and optimal resource allocation. In this paper we investigate the feasibility of using a Bayesian belief network (BBN) to quantify the likelihood and consequence of non-compliance of new projects based on the occurrence probabilities of a set of expert-defined features. The BBN incorporates expert knowledge and continually improves its predictions based on new data as it is collected. We use simulation to explore the trade-off between the number of data points and the prediction accuracy of the BBN, and find that the BBN could predict risk with 90% accuracy using approximately 1000 data points. Although a further pilot test with real project data is required, our results suggest that a BBN is a promising method to monitor overall risks posed by development within an existing EIA process given a modest investment in data collection.

  20. Cumulative Psychosocial and Medical Risk as Predictors of Early Infant Development and Parenting Stress in an African-American Preterm Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candelaria, Margo A.; O'Connell, Melissa A.; Teti, Douglas M.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined predictive linkages between cumulative psychosocial and medical risk, assessed neonatally, and infant development and parenting stress at 4 months of infant corrected age. Predominantly low-income, African-American mothers and their preterm infants served as participants. Cumulative psychosocial risk predicted early…

  1. Contamination of the Conchos River in Mexico: Does It Pose a Health Risk to Local Residents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Rubio-Arias

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Presently, water contamination issues are of great concern worldwide. Mexico has not escaped this environmental problem, which negatively affects aquifers, water bodies and biodiversity; but most of all, public health. The objective was to determine the level of water contamination in six tributaries of the Conchos River and to relate their levels to human health risks. Bimonthly samples were obtained from each location during 2005 and 2006. Physical-chemical variables (temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC, Total solids and total nitrogen as well as heavy metals (As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, V, Zn, and Li were determined. The statistical analysis considered yearly, monthly, and location effects, and their interactions. Temperatures differed only as a function of the sampling month (P < 0.001 and the pH was different for years (P = 0.006, months (P < 0.001 and the interaction years x months (P = 0.018. The EC was different for each location (P < 0.001, total solids did not change and total nitrogen was different for years (P < 0.001, months (P < 0.001 and the interaction years x months (P < 0.001. The As concentration was different for months (P = 0.008 and the highest concentration was detected in February samples with 0.11 mg L-1. The Cr was different for months (P < 0.001 and the interaction years x months (P < 0.001, noting the highest value of 0.25 mg L-1. The Cu, Fe, Mn, Va and Zn were different for years, months, and their interaction. The highest value of Cu was 2.50 mg L-1; forFe, it was 16.36 mg L-1; forMn it was 1.66 mg L-1; V was 0.55 mg L-1; and Zn was 0.53 mg L-1. For Ni, there were differences for years (P = 0.030, months (P < 0.001, and locations (P = 0.050, with the highest Ni value being 0.47 mg L-1. The Li level was the same for sampling month (P < 0.001. This information can help prevent potential health risks in the communities established along the river watershed who use this natural resource for swimming and fishing

  2. Some Wildfire Ignition Causes Pose More Risk of Destroying Houses than Others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Kathryn M; Penman, Trent D; Price, Owen F

    2016-01-01

    Many houses are at risk of being destroyed by wildfires. While previous studies have improved our understanding of how, when and why houses are destroyed by wildfires, little attention has been given to how these fires started. We compiled a dataset of wildfires that destroyed houses in New South Wales and Victoria and, by comparing against wildfires where no houses were destroyed, investigated the relationship between the distribution of ignition causes for wildfires that did and did not destroy houses. Powerlines, lightning and deliberate ignitions are the main causes of wildfires that destroyed houses. Powerlines were 6 times more common in the wildfires that destroyed houses data than in the wildfires where no houses were destroyed data and lightning was 2 times more common. For deliberate- and powerline-caused wildfires, temperature, wind speed, and forest fire danger index were all significantly higher and relative humidity significantly lower (P houses compared with wildfires where no houses were destroyed. For all powerline-caused wildfires the first house destroyed always occurred on the day of ignition. In contrast, the first house destroyed was after the day of ignition for 78% of lightning-caused wildfires. Lightning-caused wildfires that destroyed houses were significantly larger (P houses. Our results suggest that targeting fire prevention strategies around ignition causes, such as improving powerline safety and targeted arson reduction programmes, and reducing fire spread may decrease the number of wildfires that destroy houses.

  3. Increased temperature variation poses a greater risk to species than climate warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasseur, David A.; DeLong, John P.; Gilbert, Benjamin; Greig, Hamish S.; Harley, Christopher D. G.; McCann, Kevin S.; Savage, Van; Tunney, Tyler D.; O'Connor, Mary I.

    2014-01-01

    Increases in the frequency, severity and duration of temperature extremes are anticipated in the near future. Although recent work suggests that changes in temperature variation will have disproportionately greater effects on species than changes to the mean, much of climate change research in ecology has focused on the impacts of mean temperature change. Here, we couple fine-grained climate projections (2050–2059) to thermal performance data from 38 ectothermic invertebrate species and contrast projections with those of a simple model. We show that projections based on mean temperature change alone differ substantially from those incorporating changes to the variation, and to the mean and variation in concert. Although most species show increases in performance at greater mean temperatures, the effect of mean and variance change together yields a range of responses, with temperate species at greatest risk of performance declines. Our work highlights the importance of using fine-grained temporal data to incorporate the full extent of temperature variation when assessing and projecting performance. PMID:24478296

  4. Increased temperature variation poses a greater risk to species than climate warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasseur, David A; DeLong, John P; Gilbert, Benjamin; Greig, Hamish S; Harley, Christopher D G; McCann, Kevin S; Savage, Van; Tunney, Tyler D; O'Connor, Mary I

    2014-03-22

    Increases in the frequency, severity and duration of temperature extremes are anticipated in the near future. Although recent work suggests that changes in temperature variation will have disproportionately greater effects on species than changes to the mean, much of climate change research in ecology has focused on the impacts of mean temperature change. Here, we couple fine-grained climate projections (2050-2059) to thermal performance data from 38 ectothermic invertebrate species and contrast projections with those of a simple model. We show that projections based on mean temperature change alone differ substantially from those incorporating changes to the variation, and to the mean and variation in concert. Although most species show increases in performance at greater mean temperatures, the effect of mean and variance change together yields a range of responses, with temperate species at greatest risk of performance declines. Our work highlights the importance of using fine-grained temporal data to incorporate the full extent of temperature variation when assessing and projecting performance.

  5. Psychobiology of cumulative trauma: hair cortisol as a risk marker for stress exposure in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Matthew C; Abelson, James L; Mielock, Alyssa S; Rao, Uma

    2017-07-01

    Childhood trauma (CT) is associated with long-lasting alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and elevated risk for stress exposure in adulthood. Although HPA alterations are present in the early aftermath of trauma, it remains unclear how initial HPA activity is associated with subsequent stress exposure and whether CT exposure influences the strength and direction of this association. The present study examined prospective associations between hair cortisol content (HCC) and stress exposure from baseline to 3-month follow-up in young adult women with recent (i.e. past 3 months) exposure to interpersonal violence (IPV; i.e. physical or sexual assault) and non-traumatized controls. History of significant CT abuse or neglect was determined based on clinical cutoffs for a self-report CT measure: 12 women had abuse or neglect and recent IPV exposure (CT + IPV); 7 women had abuse or neglect but no IPV exposure (CT); 15 women had no history of trauma (NTC). HCC was computed for 3 cm sections reflecting cortisol secretion during the 3 months preceding the baseline assessment. The interaction of cumulative trauma and HCC predicted stress exposure over 3-month follow-up, controlling for baseline stress exposure and depressive symptoms. Simple slopes analyses revealed that lower baseline HCC predicted greater stress exposure in the CT + IPV group compared to the CT group; HCC was not associated with stress exposure in the NTC group. The present findings highlight the potential utility of HCC as a predictor of stress exposure for women with a history of childhood abuse or neglect, particularly in the context of recent IPV. Lay summary Adults with a history of CT show long-lasting alterations in major stress response systems, including the HPA axis. They are also more likely to experience stressful life events in adulthood. However, it is not clear how altered HPA activity influences risk for stress exposure and whether CT affects their

  6. [Do pharmaceutical waste and drug residue pose a risk to public health?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haguenoer, Jean-Marie

    2010-01-01

    Recently, awareness has developed of the environmental consequences of drug waste and disposal. These residues are identified as coming from either diffuse sources, the most significant of which is via the discharge of these residues in urine and feces, and thus the sewage system and water contains these drug remnants and their metabolites, or from point sources, sometimes with very high levels of concentration in waste from chemical and pharmaceutical industries, health care settings, but also from intensive livestock farming and aquaculture. Depending on their physical chemistry properties, these substances are more or less naturally biodegradable and easily treated in sewage purification plants. The effectiveness of these treatment processes is highly random and unpredictable, but is overall around 60%, nevertheless with variations of 2-99% according to the molecules. The silt from these treatment plants, sometimes very rich in lipophilic substances is on occasion reused for agricultural application as fertilizer, paving the way for a possible contamination of crops. Furthermore, the use of veterinary drugs in animals can lead to soil contamination either directly or through manure and slurry. The contamination can equally reach and affect surface water, groundwater and sometimes the water intended for human consumption. The National academy of Pharmacy has established some general recommendations on the proper use of drugs, environmental monitoring and surveillance, risk assessment for humans and the environment, prevention and the need for prevention. Several categories of drugs are more worrying: cancer treatments, antibiotics as well as transfers of anti-bio-resistance, and hormonal derivatives which has been previously demonstrated to contribute, along with other molecules, to detrimental effects on endocrines.

  7. Cumulative Small Effect Genetic Markers and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Poland, Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Serrano-Fernandez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The continued identification of new low-penetrance genetic variants for colorectal cancer (CRC raises the question of their potential cumulative effect among compound carriers. We focused on 6 SNPs (rs380284, rs4464148, rs4779584, rs4939827, rs6983267, and rs10795668, already described as risk markers, and tested their possible independent and combined contribution to CRC predisposition. Material and Methods. DNA was collected and genotyped from 2330 unselected consecutive CRC cases and controls from Estonia (166 cases and controls, Latvia (81 cases and controls, Lithuania (123 cases and controls, and Poland (795 cases and controls. Results. Beyond individual effects, the analysis revealed statistically significant linear cumulative effects for these 6 markers for all samples except of the Latvian one (corrected P value = 0.018 for the Estonian, corrected P value = 0.0034 for the Lithuanian, and corrected P value = 0.0076 for the Polish sample. Conclusions. The significant linear cumulative effects demonstrated here support the idea of using sets of low-risk markers for delimiting new groups with high-risk of CRC in clinical practice that are not carriers of the usual CRC high-risk markers.

  8. Does the groundwater nitrate pollution in China pose a risk to human health? A critical review of published data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yuanzheng; Lei, Yan; Wu, Jin; Teng, Yanguo; Wang, Jinsheng; Zhao, Xiaobing; Pan, Xiaodong

    2017-02-01

    Nitrate pollution has pervaded many parts of the world, especially in developing countries such as China. Based on the available groundwater nitrate data sets in China (2000-2015), the groundwater pollution levels at the provincial scale are evaluated which contains 33 provinces (units) except for Macau because of lacking data. Then, the potential risks posed to human health in national scale are quantified. In order to make the results more precise and systematical, both drinking and dermal contact exposure pathways are considered, and the influenced crowd are more finely divided into four groups to study the impacts of age and gender on the outcome, which include infants (0-6 months), children (7 months-17 years old), adult males (18 years old-), and adult females (18 years old-). Results indicate that there are seven units whose groundwater nitrate concentrations exceed the standard value with Shaanxi being a seriously poor condition. Facing the same level of nitrate, the health risk level changes in the order of infants > children > adult males > adult females. That is to say, minors and males are more vulnerable compared with adults and females, respectively. There is no adverse effect on adult females of the whole country, while gender really impacts on the health risk assessment result. Adult males, children, and infants face various degrees of health risk respectively in Shaanxi and Shandong, which are needed to pay more attention to.

  9. High cumulative insulin exposure : a risk factor of atherosclerosis in type 1 diabetes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muis, MJ; Bots, ML; Bilo, HJG; Hoogma, RPLM; Hoekstra, JBL; Grobbee, DE; Stolk, RP

    Background: Since insulin therapy might have an atherogenic effect, we studied the relationship between cumulative insulin dose and atherosclerosis in type 1 diabetes. We have focused on patients with type 1 diabetes instead of type 2 diabetes to minimise the effect of insulin resistance as a

  10. The Minimum Balance at Risk: A Proposal to Mitigate the Systemic Risks Posed by Money Market Funds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patrick E. McCabe; Marco Cipriani; Michael Holscher; Antoine Martin

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a proposal for money market fund (MMF) reform to mitigate the systemic risk and externalities that arise from the funds' vulnerability to runs and to protect shareholders who do not redeem quickly when runs occur...

  11. The cumulative risk of false-positive screening results across screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman, M., E-mail: Marta.Roman@kreftregisteret.no [Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo (Norway); Department of Women and Children’s Health, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Skaane, P., E-mail: PERSK@ous-hf.no [Department of Radiology, Oslo University Hospital Ullevaal, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Hofvind, S., E-mail: Solveig.Hofvind@kreftregisteret.no [Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo (Norway); Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Health Science, Oslo (Norway)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • We found variation in early performance measures across screening centres. • Radiologists’ performance may play a key role in the variability. • Potential to improve the effectiveness of breast cancer screening programs. • Continuous surveillance of screening centres and radiologists is essential. - Abstract: Background: Recall for assessment in mammographic screening entails an inevitable number of false-positive screening results. This study aimed to investigate the variation in the cumulative risk of a false positive screening result and the positive predictive value across the screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program. Methods: We studied 618,636 women aged 50–69 years who underwent 2,090,575 screening exams (1996–2010. Recall rate, positive predictive value, rate of screen-detected cancer, and the cumulative risk of a false positive screening result, without and with invasive procedures across the screening centres were calculated. Generalized linear models were used to estimate the probability of a false positive screening result and to compute the cumulative false-positive risk for up to ten biennial screening examinations. Results: The cumulative risk of a false-positive screening exam varied from 10.7% (95% CI: 9.4–12.0%) to 41.5% (95% CI: 34.1–48.9%) across screening centres, with a highest to lowest ratio of 3.9 (95% CI: 3.7–4.0). The highest to lowest ratio for the cumulative risk of undergoing an invasive procedure with a benign outcome was 4.3 (95% CI: 4.0–4.6). The positive predictive value of recall varied between 12.0% (95% CI: 11.0–12.9%) and 19.9% (95% CI: 18.3–21.5%), with a highest to lowest ratio of 1.7 (95% CI: 1.5–1.9). Conclusions: A substantial variation in the performance measures across the screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program was identified, despite of similar administration, procedures, and quality assurance requirements. Differences in the

  12. The excess risk of major osteoporotic fractures in hypothyroidism is driven by cumulative hyperthyroid as opposed to hypothyroid time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Jørgensen, Henrik L; Laulund, Anne Sofie

    2015-01-01

    The long-term relationship between hypothyroidism and fracture risk is challenging to dissect because of the modifying influence of subsequent thyroxine replacement with the potential for excessive replacement doses. We studied changes in serum thyrotropin concentration (TSH) over time and associ......The long-term relationship between hypothyroidism and fracture risk is challenging to dissect because of the modifying influence of subsequent thyroxine replacement with the potential for excessive replacement doses. We studied changes in serum thyrotropin concentration (TSH) over time...... as a predictor of fracture risk in postmenopausal women whereas hypothyroid time predicted increased fracture risk in men below age 75 years. In conclusion, among patients who present with an elevated TSH, the long-term risk of hip and other osteoporotic fractures is strongly related to the cumulative duration...

  13. Risk posed by the Ebola epidemic to the Pacific islands: findings of a recent World Health Organization assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam T Craig

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the public health risk posed by the ongoing Ebola virus disease (EVD epidemic in West Africa to Pacific island countries and areas and to highlight priority risk management actions for preparedness and response. Method: The likelihood of EVD importation and the magnitude of public health impact in Pacific island countries and areas were assessed to determine overall risk. Literature about the hazard, epidemiology, exposure and contextual factors associated with EVD was collected and reviewed. Epidemiological information from the current EVD outbreak was assessed. Results: As of 11 March 2015, there have been more than 24 200 reported cases of EVD and at least 9976 deaths in six West African countries. Three EVD cases have been infected outside of the West African region, and all have epidemiological links to the outbreak in West Africa. Pacific island countries’ and areas’ relative geographic isolation and lack of travel or trade links between countries with transmission means that EVD importation is very unlikely. However, should a case be imported, the health and non-health consequences would be major. The capacity of Pacific island countries and areas to respond adequately varies greatly between (and within states but in general is limited. Discussion: This risk assessment highlights the needs to enhance preparedness for EVD in the Pacific by strengthening the capacities outlined in the World Health Organization Framework for Action on Ebola. Priority areas include the ability to detect and respond to suspected EVD cases quickly, isolation and management of cases in appropriately resourced facilities and the prevention of further cases through infection prevention and control. These efforts for Ebola should enhance all-hazards public health preparedness in line with the International Health Regulations (2005.

  14. Informal inter-island poultry movement in Indonesia: does it pose a risk to HPAI H5N1 transmission?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Joanne; Abdurrahman, Muktasam; Toribio, Jenny-Ann; Ambarawati, Annie; Yusuf, Ria Puspa; Suadnya, Wayan

    2015-10-01

    Informal movement of domesticated poultry and wild birds is considered a major threat in terms of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 transmission between birds and from birds to humans. However, the risk of transmission from informal illegal poultry movement has received little attention in Indonesia where human fatalities are the highest in the world. This research investigated the illegal movement of adult poultry between the islands of Java, Bali and Lombok to determine the potential risk of HPAI H5N1 transmission. The aim was to determine known origins and destinations of poultry, estimated quantity and types of birds, people involved and the drivers of illegal movement. Transportation and handling methods and views on how to minimise illegal movement were also investigated. In-depth interviews were carried out with 71 key informants in Bali and Lombok in 2009. East Java was the main origin of poultry entering Bali, followed by Central Java and Lombok. Interviewees estimated that over 10,000 village chickens, 500 ducks and 50 fighting cocks were brought into Bali per month from all origins. However, there were significant discrepancies with quarantine records indicating that the majority of birds imported illegally are not detected. We conclude that although informal illegal movement of poultry in Indonesia poses a potentially high risk for potential HPAI H5N1 transmission if birds are infected, much can be done to increase surveillance, encourage reporting of sick birds, educate traders about the risks and provide effective quarantine within an appropriate cultural framework.

  15. A semi-parametric censoring bias model for estimating the cumulative risk of a false-positive screening test under dependent censoring

    OpenAIRE

    Hubbard, Rebecca A.; Miglioretti, Diana L.

    2013-01-01

    False-positive test results are among the most common harms of screening tests and may lead to more invasive and expensive diagnostic testing procedures. Estimating the cumulative risk of a false-positive screening test result after repeat screening rounds is therefore important for evaluating potential screening regimens. Existing estimators of the cumulative false-positive risk are limited by strong assumptions about censoring mechanisms and parametric assumptions about variation in risk ac...

  16. Cumulative risk on the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) underpins empathic communication difficulties at the first stages of romantic love.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Inna; Kanat-Maymon, Yaniv; Ebstein, Richard P; Feldman, Ruth

    2014-10-01

    Empathic communication between couples plays an important role in relationship quality and individual well-being and research has pointed to the role of oxytocin in providing the neurobiological substrate for pair-bonding and empathy. Here, we examined links between genetic variability on the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) and empathic behaviour at the initiation of romantic love. Allelic variations on five OXTR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with susceptibility to disorders of social functioning were genotyped in 120 new lovers: OXTRrs13316193, rs2254298, rs1042778, rs2268494 and rs2268490. Cumulative genetic risk was computed by summing risk alleles on each SNP. Couples were observed in support-giving interaction and behaviour was coded for empathic communication, including affective congruence, maintaining focus on partner, acknowledging partner's distress, reciprocal exchange and non-verbal empathy. Hierarchical linear modelling indicated that individuals with high OXTR risk exhibited difficulties in empathic communication. OXTR risk predicted empathic difficulties above and beyond the couple level, relationship duration, and anxiety and depressive symptoms. Findings underscore the involvement of oxytocin in empathic behaviour during the early stages of social affiliation, and suggest the utility of cumulative risk and plasticity indices on the OXTR as potential biomarkers for research on disorders of social dysfunction and the neurobiology of empathy.

  17. Probabilistic cumulative risk assessment of anti-androgenic pesticides in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Anne Kirstine; Bosgra, Sieto; Boon, Polly E.;

    2009-01-01

    reproductive endpoints (ano-genital distance, and weights of the seminal vesicles and the musculus levator ani/bulbocavernosus) in male rat foetuses exposed in utero. The cumulative dietary intake was estimated based on consumption data and residue data from the Netherlands. The IPRA model combines variability...... in both exposure and sensitivity between individuals into a distribution of individual margins of exposures (IMoEs) and IMoEs of 1 or less indicate a possible concern. The assessment did not result in IMoEs ≤ 1. The endpoint ‘weight of seminal vesicles’ resulted in the lowest IMoEs (0.1th percentile: 198...

  18. Meta-analysis for aggregated survival data with competing risks: a parametric approach using cumulative incidence functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonofiglio, Federico; Beyersmann, Jan; Schumacher, Martin; Koller, Michael; Schwarzer, Guido

    2016-09-01

    Meta-analysis of a survival endpoint is typically based on the pooling of hazard ratios (HRs). If competing risks occur, the HRs may lose translation into changes of survival probability. The cumulative incidence functions (CIFs), the expected proportion of cause-specific events over time, re-connect the cause-specific hazards (CSHs) to the probability of each event type. We use CIF ratios to measure treatment effect on each event type. To retrieve information on aggregated, typically poorly reported, competing risks data, we assume constant CSHs. Next, we develop methods to pool CIF ratios across studies. The procedure computes pooled HRs alongside and checks the influence of follow-up time on the analysis. We apply the method to a medical example, showing that follow-up duration is relevant both for pooled cause-specific HRs and CIF ratios. Moreover, if all-cause hazard and follow-up time are large enough, CIF ratios may reveal additional information about the effect of treatment on the cumulative probability of each event type. Finally, to improve the usefulness of such analysis, better reporting of competing risks data is needed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Understanding the Relation of Low Income to HPA-Axis Functioning in Preschool Children: Cumulative Family Risk and Parenting As Pathways to Disruptions in Cortisol

    OpenAIRE

    Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J.; Kiff, Cara J.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relation of low income and poverty to cortisol levels, and tested potential pathways from low income to disruptions in cortisol through cumulative family risk and parenting. The sample of 306 mothers and their preschool children included 29 % families at or near poverty, 27 % families below the median income, and the remaining families at middle and upper income. Lower income was related to lower morning cortisol levels, and cumulative risk predicted a flatter diurnal ...

  20. Lifetime cumulative risk factors predict cardiovascular disease mortality in a 50-year follow-up study in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinikainen, Jaakko; Laatikainen, Tiina; Karvanen, Juha; Tolonen, Hanna

    2015-02-01

    Systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and smoking are known predictors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. Less is known about the effect of lifetime accumulation and changes of risk factors over time as predictors of CVD mortality, especially in very long follow-up studies. Data from the Finnish cohorts of the Seven Countries Study were used. The baseline examination was in 1959 and seven re-examinations were carried out at approximately 5-year intervals. Cohorts were followed up for mortality until the end of 2011. Time-dependent Cox models with regular time-updated risk factors, time-dependent averages of risk factors and latest changes in risk factors, using smoothing splines to discover nonlinear effects, were used to analyse the predictive effect of risk factors for CVD mortality. A model using cumulative risk factors, modelled as the individual-level averages of several risk factor measurements over time, predicted CVD mortality better than a model using the most recent measurement information. This difference seemed to be most prominent for systolic blood pressure. U-shaped effects of the original predictors can be explained by partitioning a risk factor effect between the recent level and the change trajectory. The change in body mass index predicted the risk although body mass index itself did not. The lifetime accumulation of risk factors and the observed changes in risk factor levels over time are strong predictors of CVD mortality. It is important to investigate different ways of using the longitudinal risk factor measurements to take full advantage of them. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  1. Potential health risks posed by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in muscle tissues of fishes from the Athabasca and Slave Rivers, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohiozebau, Ehimai; Tendler, Brett; Codling, Garry; Kelly, Erin; Giesy, John P; Jones, Paul D

    2017-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are released to the environment from oil sands operations and from natural sources in Alberta, Canada. Concentrations of 16 USEPA priority PAHs were measured in tissues of fishes collected from three locations on the Athabasca River in Alberta and two downstream locations on the Slave River in the Northwest Territories, Canada. A total of 425 individual fish were collected including 89 goldeye (Hiodon alosoides), 93 whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), 104 northern pike/jackfish (Esox lucius), 96 walleye (Sander vitreus) and 43 burbot/loche mariah/mariah (Lota lota). Fish were sampled during the summer and fall of 2011 and spring of 2012. Dorsal muscle of fishes from upstream reaches of the Athabasca River, close to oil sands extraction and upgrading activities, contained greater concentrations of individual PAHs than concentrations in muscle of fishes from further downstream in the Slave River. Concentrations of the sum of USEPA indicator PAHs (∑PAHs) in fishes collected in the vicinity of Fort McKay, closest to oil sands activities, varied among seasons with average concentrations ranging from 11 (burbot, summer) to 1.2 × 10(2) ng/g, wm (burbot, spring) with a mean of 48 ng/g, wm. Concentrations of ∑PAHs in fishes collected in the vicinity of Fort Resolution, the location most distant from oil sands activities, also varied among species and seasons, with average concentrations ranging from 4.3 (whitefish, summer) to 33 ng/g, wm (goldeye, summer) with a mean of 13 ng/g, wm. Significant differences in concentrations of ∑PAHs in muscle were observed within goldeye, jackfish, walleye and whitefish among sites. Health risks posed by PAHs to humans were assessed probabilistically using a B[a]P equivalents approach (B[a]Peq). The average lifetime risk of additional cancers for humans who consumed fish was deemed to be within an 'acceptable' range of risk (i.e., less than 10(-6)).

  2. The present global financial and economic crisis poses an additional risk factor for mental health problems on the employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avčin, Bojana Avguštin; Kučina, Andrea Užmah; Sarotar, Brigita Novak; Radovanović, Mirjana; Plesničar, Blanka Kores

    2011-09-01

    The global financial and economic crisis starting in 2007 led to a deterioration of several socio-economic determinants of mental health. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the impact of the present economic crisis on the depression and anxiety levels of the employed in the private and public sector in Slovenia. Altogether 1592 employees completed an internet based self-reported questionnaire. Data about perceived impact of the economic crisis, several socio-demographic, socioeconomic, and health parameters were collected. Depression symptoms were assessed by the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale and anxiety symptoms by the Spielberger State-Inventory. Regression models were used 1) to explore the associations of the economic crisis with the level of depression and anxiety symptoms while controlling for some sociodemographic and work characteristic variables, and 2) to understand the relationship between some potentially important socioeconomic variables and the perception of the economic crisis. Depressive and anxiety scores were significantly increased among 590 (46.6%) employees being affected by the economic crisis. The level of depressive symptoms was significantly associated with perceived impact by the crisis, recent sick leave, reported injuries sustained at work, benzodiazepine and analgesic use, the lack of emotional support, and trust in crisis telephone lines. The level of anxiety symptoms yielded the robust association with the level of depression symptoms, reported injuries sustained on the way to work and education. The economic crisis poses an additional risk factor for mental health problems which clinicians should internalize and become more aware of them. Symptoms of depression and anxiety can be masked in high-utilizers of medical care with physical complaints or psychoactive drug use.

  3. Cumulative risk and AIDS-orphanhood: interactions of stigma, bullying and poverty on child mental health in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluver, Lucie; Orkin, Mark

    2009-10-01

    Research shows that AIDS-orphaned children are more likely to experience clinical-range psychological problems. Little is known about possible interactions between factors mediating these high distress levels. We assessed how food insecurity, bullying, and AIDS-related stigma interacted with each other and with likelihood of experiencing clinical-range disorder. In South Africa, 1025 adolescents completed standardised measures of depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress. 52 potential mediators were measured, including AIDS-orphanhood status. Logistic regressions and hierarchical log-linear modelling were used to identify interactions among significant risk factors. Food insecurity, stigma and bullying all independently increased likelihood of disorder. Poverty and stigma were found to interact strongly, and with both present, likelihood of disorder rose from 19% to 83%. Similarly, bullying interacted with AIDS-orphanhood status, and with both present, likelihood of disorder rose from 12% to 76%. Approaches to alleviating psychological distress amongst AIDS-affected children must address cumulative risk effects.

  4. Phthalates in Commercial Chinese Rice Wines: Concentrations and the Cumulative Risk Assessment to Adult Males in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yue; Lu, Wen Wei; Chen, Bo; You, Jie; Wu, Min; Li, Shu Guang

    2014-10-01

    The concentrations of 16 phthalates in 164 commercial Chinese rice wines (CRW) were detected by GC-MS, and consumption data on CRW in different packaging types was investigated from 634 adult males in Shanghai using a food frequency questionnaire. Based on the principles of probabilistic modelling and cumulative risk assessment, the exposure and health risk of phthalates from CRW to adult males in Shanghai was evaluated. DMP, DEP, DIBP, DnBP, BBP, and DEHP were detected in the samples, the range of detection frequency of individual phthalates varied from 6.10% for BBP to 15.24% for DIBP, and the detected concentrations were 51.06-200.34 ng/mL. All the respondents consumed CRW, 90.69% of them consumed CRW 0.01-49.9 mL/d, the minimum value of the average daily intake of CRW was 6.25 mL/d, the median was 13.72 mL/d and the maximum was 300 mL/d. The median exposure level of the 6 detected Phthalates to adult males in Shanghai were 6.58-7.10 ng/(d•kg), and the maximum exposure level were 137.38-540.47 ng/(d•kg). The cumulative exposure health risk index (HI) based on the median and maximum exposure level of the 6 Phthalates (DMP, DEP, DIBP, DnBP, BBP, and DEHP) were 0.001147 and 0.063396, both were far less than 1. In conclusion, CRW were generally consumed by the adult males in Shanghai, although multiple phthalates were detected in commercial CRW, health risk of such exposure levels from commercial CRW to the target adult males in Shanghai was very low.

  5. Measuring the Combined Risk to Young Children's Cognitive Development: An Alternative to Cumulative Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, James E.; Sammons, Pam; Sylva, Kathy; Melhuish, Edward; Taggart, Brenda; Siraj-Blatchford, Iram; Smees, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    In studies of child development, the combined effect of multiple risks acting in unison has been represented in a variety of ways. This investigation builds upon this preceding work and presents a new procedure for capturing the combined effect of multiple risks. A representative sample of 2,899 British children had their cognitive development…

  6. The use of modelling and probabilistic methods in cumulative risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosgra, S.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis was realized as part of the EU integrated project SAFE FOODS, the overall objective of which was to change the scope of decision-making on food safety from single risks to considering foods as sources of risks, benefits and costs associated with their production and consumption, and taki

  7. Cumulative Risk for Early Sexual Initiation among American Indian Youth: A Discrete-Time Survival Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Christina M.; Whitesell, Nancy Rumbaugh; Spicer, Paul; Beals, Janette; Kaufman, Carol E.

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 3 million teens are diagnosed with a sexually transmitted disease (STD) annually; STDs rates for American Indian young adults are among the highest of any racial/ethnic group. An important risk factor for STDs is early initiation of sex. In this study, we examined risk for early initiation with 474 American Indian youth ages 14-18,…

  8. Cumulative Effects of Mothers' Risk and Promotive Factors on Daughters' Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the ways in which the accumulation of maternal factors increases or reduces risk for girls' disruptive behavior during preadolescence. In the current study, maternal risk and promotive factors and the severity of girls' disruptive behavior were assessed annually among girls' ages 7-12 in an urban community sample (N = 2043).…

  9. Cumulative years in occupation and the risk of hip or knee osteoarthritis in men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Susan; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Davidsen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Occupational workload has been associated with an increased risk of osteoarthritis (OA), but only little research has been conducted among female workers. The objective of this study was to analyse if men and women in farming, construction or healthcare work have increased risk of developing OA...

  10. 78 FR 25440 - Request for Information and Citations on Methods for Cumulative Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ..., social sciences, dose response modeling and statistics (among others); and may also include addressing... understanding risk from multiple stressors, and that EPA had begun to address approaches to CRA. The NRC and EPA..., multi-stressor approaches to understanding risks to human health and the environment. For example, in...

  11. Chlorophenols in marine organisms from the southern coast of Hangzhou Bay, China, and an assessment of risks posed to human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Dan; Jiao, Haifeng; Zhong, Huiying; Qiu, Jishi; Yan, Xiaojun; Duan, Qingyuan; Chai, Liyue

    2017-06-01

    The composition of chlorophenols in marine organisms from the southern coast of Hangzhou Bay, China, was analyzed and the health risks posed to humans assessed. A total of 19 chlorophenols from 16 types of marine organism were analyzed across nine survey sections in Hangzhou Bay. The chlorophenols were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using a DB-5MS quartz capillary column. The concentrations of monochlorophenol, dichlorophenol, trichlorophenol, tetrachlorophenol, and pentachlorophenol ranged from below the detection limit (ND) to 132 μg/kg, ND-51.0 μg/kg, ND-42.5 μg/kg, ND-69.0 μg/kg, and ND-9.06 μg/kg, respectively. Additionally, concentration differences between each type of chlorophenol were not signifi cant (P>0.05). However, signifi cant differences were found between monochlorophenol (F=8.13, Prisk indices were risk was posed by 2-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol, and pentachlorophenol to humans consuming marine organisms from the study area. Furthermore, the carcinogenic risks posed by 2,4,6-trichlorophenol and pentachlorophenol were lower than limits set by the International Commission on Radiological Protection and the US Environmental Protection Agency. However, the noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic risks posed by chlorophenols in marine organisms from four of the survey sections (Sizaopu, Niluoshan, Longshan Town and Xinhong zha) were higher than the other survey sections.

  12. Scientific Opinion on the risk to plant health posed by Puccinia horiana Hennings for the EU territory, with the identification and evaluation of risk reduction options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Panel on Plant Health conducted a pest risk assessment for Puccinia horiana Hennings (the causal agent of chrysanthemum white rust for the EU territory, identified risk management options and evaluated their effectiveness. The assessment was conducted taking into account current EU legislation. The Panel also provided an opinion on the effectiveness of the present EU requirements against this organism, listed in Council Directive 2000/29/EC. Two major pathways for entry were identified: plant material of susceptible hosts for propagation purposes and cut flowers of Chrysanthemum × morifolium. The probability of further entry of the pest was considered unlikely, as the existing certification schemes for propagation material should reduce the risk of importing infected cuttings. For cut flowers, pest transfer to susceptible hosts is associated with the potentially incorrect disposal of cut flower waste within the vicinity of places of production, which is considered a rare event. The probability of establishment and further spread were both considered very likely. The current overall impact in the risk assessment area was considered minor, with medium uncertainty, mainly because standard protective actions are taken in most EU production areas. Risk reduction options to reduce the probability of entry and spread and mitigate the impact were analysed. Council Directive 2000/29/EC addresses mainly the sanitary status of the propagation material. The Directive cannot prevent the entry, establishment and spread, or mitigate the impact, of the pathogen. Were the current regulation to be removed, the frequency of introduction would probably increase. This poses a risk because, although the pest is widespread in the risk assessment area, not all Member States are infested and not all pest pathotypes are present. If a statutory certification system, with associated import requirements for propagation material of host plants, were introduced, this

  13. The Association between Cumulative Psychosocial Risk and Cervical HPV Infection Among Female Adolescents in a Free Vaccination Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Lourdes Oriana; Shankar, Viswanathan; Diaz, Angela; Nucci-Sack, Anne; Strickler, Howard D.; Peake, Ken; Weiss, Jocelyn; Burk, Robert D.; Schlecht, Nicolas F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the association of cervical Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection with cumulative psychosocial risk reflecting family disadvantage, psychological distress, and unhealthy life style. Methods The sample (N=745) was comprised of sexually-active female adolescent patients (12-19 years), primarily ethnic minorities, enrolled in a free HPV vaccination program. Subjects completed questionnaires and provided cervical swabs for HPV DNA testing. Unweighted and weighted Principal Component Analyses (PCA) for categorical data were used to derive multi-systemic psychosocial risk indices using nine indicators: low socioeconomic status, lack of adult involvement, not attending high-school/college, history of treatment for depression/anxiety, antisocial/delinquent behavior, number of recent sexual partners, use of alcohol, use of drugs, and dependency risk for alcohol/drugs. The association between cervical HPV (any-type, high risk-types, vaccine-types) assayed by polymerase chain reaction and self-reported number of psychosocial risk indicators was estimated using multivariable logistic regression. Results Subjects had a median of three psychosocial risk indicators. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed associations with unweighted and weighted number of psychosocial indicators for HPV any-type (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=1.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0-1.2 ); with the strongest associations between weighted drug/alcohol use, drug/alcohol dependency risk, and antisocial/delinquent behavior and detection of HPV vaccine-types (aOR=1.5; 95%CI: 1.1-2.0) independent of number of recent sexual partners and vaccine dose (0-3). Conclusion Increased HPV infections including HPV vaccine-types were associated with greater number of psychosocial risk indicators even after controlling for demographics, sexual behavior, history of chlamydia, and vaccine dose. PMID:25985216

  14. Risks to Ecological Receptors Posed by Contaminants of Potential Concern in the Lower Three Runs Cooling Ponds and Canals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paller, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Blas, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-03-21

    The upper portion of Lower Three Runs includes several ponds, reservoirs, and canals that were formerly used as a cooling system for nuclear production reactors. This area was divided into nine exposure areas (EAs) for the assessment of environmental contamination resulting from past reactor operations and other industrial processes. A tiered screening process identified several contaminants of potential concern including aluminum, cyanide, lead, manganese, mercury, DDD, DDE, and DDT. Risks posed by these contaminants to ecological receptors (river otter, belted kingfisher, raccoon, and blue heron) were assessed using contaminant exposure models that estimated contaminant intake resulting from ingestion of food, water, and sediment/ soil and compared these intakes with toxicity reference values (TRVs). The contaminant exposure models showed that the TRVs were not exceeded in the otter model, exceeded by aluminum in EA 7 (Pond 2 and associated canals) in the raccoon model, and exceeded by mercury in EAs 2, 3 (Pond B), 6 (Par Pond), and 8 (Ponds 4 and 5 and Canal to Pond C) in both the kingfisher and blue heron models. Hazard quotients (total exposure dose divided by the TRV) were 2.8 for aluminum and 1.7- 3.6 for mercury. The primary route of exposure for aluminum was the ingestion of soil, and the primary route of exposure for mercury was the ingestion of mercury contaminated fish. Elevated levels of mercury in fish were at least partly the result of the aerial deposition of mercury onto Lower Three Runs and its watershed. The atmospheric deposition of mercury creates pervasive contamination in fish throughout the Savannah River basin. Another possible source of mercury was the discharge of mercury contaminated Savannah River water into the Lower Three Runs cooling ponds and canals during previous years of reactor operation. This contamination originated from industries located upstream of the SRS. The aluminum exceedance for the raccoon was likely the result of

  15. Smoking and the risk of systemic lupus erythematosus: an updated systematic review and cumulative meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fan; Li, Suyun; Jia, Chongqi

    2015-11-01

    Published articles reported controversial results about the association of smoking with the risk of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). A meta-analysis was performed to assess the aforementioned association and arrive at a more precise estimate of effect. A comprehensive search was performed to identify case-control or cohort studies (from 1990 to 2015) of the aforementioned association. The I (2) statistic was used to examine between-study heterogeneity. Fixed or random effect model was selected based on heterogeneity test among studies. Publication bias was estimated using Egger's regression asymmetry test. A total of 12 published articles with 13 studies were finally included in our meta-analysis. Results showed that the pooled odds ratio (OR) for SLE risk was 1.56 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.26-1.95) among current smokers compared with nonsmokers. For ex-smokers versus nonsmokers, the pooled OR for SLE risk was 1.23 (95% CI = 0.93-1.63). Subgroup analysis by geographic location and cumulative meta-analysis were also analyzed. In conclusion, our meta-analysis suggested that smoking increased the risk of SLE. Further studies are needed to confirm this result.

  16. Single-compound and cumulative risk assessment of mycotoxins present in breakfast cereals consumed by children from Lisbon region, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, Ricardo; Vasco, Elsa; Nunes, Baltazar; Loureiro, Susana; Martins, Carla; Alvito, Paula

    2015-12-01

    Humans can be exposed to multiple chemicals, but current risk assessment is usually carried out on one chemical at a time. Mycotoxins are commonly found in a variety of foods including those intended to consumption by children namely breakfast cereals. The present study aims to perform, the risk assessment of single and multiple mycotoxins present in breakfast cereals consumed by children (1-3 years old) from Lisbon region, Portugal. Daily exposure of children to ochratoxin A, fumonisins and trichothecenes showed no health risks to the children population considering individual mycotoxins, while exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) suggested a potential health concern for the high percentiles of intake (P90, P95 and P99). The combined exposure to fumonisins and trichothecenes are not expected to be of health concern. The combined margin of exposure (MoET) for the aflatoxins group could constitute a potential health concern and AFB1 was the main contributor for MoET. Legal limits and control strategies regarding the presence of multiple mycotoxins in foodstuffs is an urgent need. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time a cumulative risk assessment was performed on multiple mycotoxins present in breakfast cereals consumed by children.

  17. Tsunami, War, and Cumulative Risk in the Lives of Sri Lankan Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catani, Claudia; Gewirtz, Abigail H.; Wieling, Elizabeth; Schauer, Elizabeth; Elbert, Thomas; Neuner, Frank

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the impact of children's exposure to natural disaster against the backdrop of exposure to other traumatic events and psychosocial risks. One thousand three hundred ninety-eight Sri Lankan children aged 9-15 years were interviewed in 4 cross-sectional studies about exposure to traumatic life events related to the war, the…

  18. Tsunami, War, and Cumulative Risk in the Lives of Sri Lankan Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catani, Claudia; Gewirtz, Abigail H.; Wieling, Elizabeth; Schauer, Elizabeth; Elbert, Thomas; Neuner, Frank

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the impact of children's exposure to natural disaster against the backdrop of exposure to other traumatic events and psychosocial risks. One thousand three hundred ninety-eight Sri Lankan children aged 9-15 years were interviewed in 4 cross-sectional studies about exposure to traumatic life events related to the war, the…

  19. Cumulative Risk Effects in the Bullying of Children and Young People with Autism Spectrum Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebron, Judith; Oldfield, Jeremy; Humphrey, Neil

    2017-01-01

    Students with autism are more likely to be bullied than their typically developing peers. However, several studies have shown that their likelihood of being bullied increases in the context of exposure to certain risk factors (e.g. behaviour difficulties and poor peer relationships). This study explores vulnerability to bullying from a cumulative…

  20. Multilevel Mediation: Cumulative Contextual Risk, Maternal Differential Treatment, and Children's Behavior within Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Jean Christophe; Boyle, Michael; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Jenkins, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that links between contextual risk and children's outcomes are partially explained by differential parenting. Using multi-informant measurement and including up to four children per family (M[subscript age] = 3.51, SD = 2.38) in a sample of 397 families, indirect effects (through maternal differential…

  1. Estimated Daily Intake and Cumulative Risk Assessment of Phthalates in the General Taiwanese after the 2011 DEHP Food Scandal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jung-Wei; Lee, Ching-Chang; Pan, Wen-Harn; Chou, Wei-Chun; Huang, Han-Bin; Chiang, Hung-Che; Huang, Po-Chin

    2017-03-01

    A food scandal occurred in Taiwan in 2011 because the DEHP (di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate) had been intentionally used in food products. We assessed the daily intakes (DIs) and cumulative risk of phthalates in Taiwan’s general population after the scandal. The DIs of 6 phthalates, including di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), and DEHP, were evaluated using urinary phthalate metabolites. Hazard quotients of phthalates classified as affecting the reproductive (HQrep) and hepatic (HQhep) systems were assessed using cumulative approach. The creatinine-based model showed that the highest DI values in children 7-to 12- years-old were for DEHP (males: median: 4.79 μg/kg bw/d; females: median: 2.62 μg/kg bw/d). The 95th percentile (P95) of HQrep values were all >1 in the 7- to 12-year-old and 18- to 40-year-old male groups. The P95 of HQhep values were all >1 in the 7- to 18- year-old male groups. Most of the HQrep was attributable to the HQs of DnBP and DiBP (53.9–84.7%), and DEHP contributed most to HQhep (83.1–98.6%), which reveals that DnBP, DiBP and DEHP were the main risk of phthalate exposure for Taiwanese. Taiwan’s general population is widely exposed to DnBP, DiBP and DEHP, especially for young children.

  2. Risk of therapy-related leukaemia and preleukaemia after Hodgkin's disease. Relation to age, cumulative dose of alkylating agents, and time from chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen-Bjergaard, J; Specht, L; Larsen, S O;

    1987-01-01

    391 patients treated intensively for Hodgkin's disease were followed for up to 15 years to evaluate the risk of therapy-related acute non-lymphocytic leukaemia (t-ANLL) and preleukaemia. Only two independent factors, patient age and cumulative dose of alkylating agents, were related to the risk o...

  3. A comparison of peak vs cumulative physical work exposure risk factors for the reporting of low back pain in the automotive industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, R.; Wells, R.; Neumann, P.; Frank, J.; Shannon, H.; Kerr, M.

    1998-12-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the relative importance of modelled peak spine loads, hand loads, trunk kinematics and cumulative spine loads as predictors of reported low back pain (LBP). BACKGROUND: The authors have recently shown that both biomechemical and psychosocial variables are important in the reporting of LBP. In previous studies, peak spinal load risk factors have been identified and while there is in vitro evidence for adverse effects of excessive cumulative load on tissue, there is little epidemiological evidence. METHODS: Physical exposures to peak and cumulative lumbar spine moment, compression and shear forces, trunk kinematics, and forces on hands were analyzed on 130 randomly selected controls and 104 cases. Univariable and multivariable odds ratios of the risk of reporting were calculated from a backwards logistic regression analysis. Interrelationships among variables were examined by factor analysis. RESULTS: Cases showed significantly higher loading on all biomechanical variables. Four independent risk factors were identified: integrated lumbar moment (over a shift), 'usual' hand force, peak shear force at the level of L(4)/L(5) and peak trunk velocity. Substituting lumbar compression or moment for shear did not appreciably alter odds ratios because of high correlations among these variables. CONCLUSIONS: Cumulative biomechanical variables are important risk factors in the reporting of LBP. Spinal tissue loading estimates from a biomechanical model provide information not included in the trunk kinematics and hand force inputs to the model alone. Workers in the top 25% of loading exposure on all risk factors are at about six times the risk of reporting LBP when compared with those in the bottom 25%. RELEVANCE: Primary prevention, treatment, and return to work efforts for individuals reporting LBP all require understanding of risk factors. The results suggest that cumulative loading of the low back is important etiologically and highlight the need for

  4. Cumulative contextual risk, maternal responsivity, and social cognition at 18 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Mark; Moore, Chris; Astington, Janet Wilde; Frampton, Kristen; Jenkins, Jennifer M

    2015-02-01

    By 18 months children demonstrate a range of social-cognitive skills that can be considered important precursors to more advanced forms of social understanding such as theory of mind. Although individual differences in social cognition have been linked to neurocognitive maturation, sociocultural models of development suggest that environmental influences operate in the development of children's social-cognitive outcomes. In the current study of 501 children and their mothers, we tested and found support for a model in which distal environmental risk, assessed when children were newborns, was indirectly associated with children's social-cognitive competency at 18 months through mothers' responsivity at 18 months. Part of this effect also operated through children's concomitant language skills, suggesting both a language-mediated and a language-independent mechanism of social-cognitive development. These findings are discussed with respect to the Vygotskian themes of internalization and semiotic mediation.

  5. Understanding the relation of low income to HPA-axis functioning in preschool children: cumulative family risk and parenting as pathways to disruptions in cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J; Kiff, Cara J; Fisher, Philip A

    2012-12-01

    This study examined the relation of low income and poverty to cortisol levels, and tested potential pathways from low income to disruptions in cortisol through cumulative family risk and parenting. The sample of 306 mothers and their preschool children included 29 % families at or near poverty, 27 % families below the median income, and the remaining families at middle and upper income. Lower income was related to lower morning cortisol levels, and cumulative risk predicted a flatter diurnal slope, with a significant indirect effect through maternal negativity, suggesting that parenting practices might mediate an allostatic effect on stress physiology.

  6. Cumulative impact of common genetic variants and other risk factors on colorectal cancer risk in 42 103 individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunlop, Malcolm G.; Tenesa, Albert; Farrington, Susan M.; Ballereau, Stephane; Brewster, David H.; Koessler, Thibaud; Pharoah, Paul; Schafmayer, Clemens; Hampe, Jochen; Voelzke, Henry; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hoffmeister, Michael; Brenner, Hermann; von Holst, Susanna; Picelli, Simone; Lindblom, Annika; Jenkins, Mark A.; Hopper, John L.; Casey, Graham; Duggan, David; Newcomb, Polly A.; Abuli, Anna; Bessa, Xavier; Ruiz-Ponte, Clara; Castellvi-Bel, Sergi; Niittymaeki, Iina; Tuupanen, Sari; Karhu, Auli; Aaltonen, Lauri; Zanke, Brent; Hudson, Tom; Gallinger, Steven; Barclay, Ella; Martin, Lynn; Gorman, Maggie; Carvajal-Carmona, Luis; Walther, Axel; Kerr, David; Lubbe, Steven; Broderick, Peter; Chandler, Ian; Pittman, Alan; Penegar, Steven; Campbell, Harry; Tomlinson, Ian; Houlston, Richard S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Colorectal cancer (CRC) has a substantial heritable component. Common genetic variation has been shown to contribute to CRC risk. A study was conducted in a large multi-population study to assess the feasibility of CRC risk prediction using common genetic variant data combined with other r

  7. Ergonomic risk exposure and upper-extremity cumulative trauma disorders in a maquiladora medical devices manufacturing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meservy, D; Suruda, A J; Bloswick, D; Lee, J; Dumas, M

    1997-08-01

    Workers at a Nogales, Mexico, maquiladora plant that assembles medical devices were studied to determine the prevalence of upper-extremity cumulative trauma disorders (CTD). Subjects included production workers employed 6 months or longer; of the 148 eligible workers, 145 (98%) participated. Subjects had a mean age of 24.6 years (SD = 5.2; range, 17 to 45) and the mean length of employment was 3.5 years (SD = 2.5; range, 0.5 to 14). Job tasks were videotaped and analyzed for ergonomic risk factors, using pre-defined criteria. All jobs performed by study subjects were found to involve one or more ergonomic risk factors associated with the development of CTD. A CTD questionnaire and screening physical examination format, similar to that used by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in a chicken processing plant study, were administered. Period prevalence of CTD within the previous year, as reported on the questionnaire, was 28%. Prevalence of CTD was 17%, using data from the screening physical examination. Point prevalence (current pain data from the questionnaire plus positive symptoms on the screening physical examination) was 15%. CTD was reported more frequently in women than men (46% and 25%, respectively; P < 0.05) and in subjects who had worked at the plant less than one year (50%; P < 0.05). Workforce turnover (3% monthly) may have resulted in those affected by CTD leaving employment, reducing the apparent CTD rate in experienced workers.

  8. CUMULATIVE TRAUMAS AND RISK THRESHOLDS: 12-MONTH PTSD IN THE WORLD MENTAL HEALTH (WMH) SURVEYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Elie G.; Friedman, Matthew J.; Hill, Eric D.; Kessler, Ronald C.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Petukhova, Maria; Sampson, Laura; Shahly, Victoria; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; Bromet, Evelyn J.; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Demyttenaere, Koen; Ferry, Finola; Florescu, Silvia E.; Haro, Josep Maria; He, Yanling; Karam, Aimee N.; Kawakami, Norito; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Medina-Mora, María Elena; Browne, Mark A. Oakley; Posada-Villa, José A.; Shalev, Arieh Y.; Stein, Dan J.; Viana, Maria Carmen; Zarkov, Zahari; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinical research suggests that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients exposed to multiple traumatic events (TEs) rather than a single TE have increased morbidity and dysfunction. Although epidemiological surveys in the United States and Europe also document high rates of multiple TE exposure, no population-based cross-national data have examined this issue. Methods Data were analyzed from 20 population surveys in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative (n 51,295 aged 18+). The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (3.0) assessed 12-month PTSD and other common DSM-IV disorders. Respondents with 12-month PTSD were assessed for single versus multiple TEs implicated in their symptoms. Associations were examined with age of onset (AOO), functional impairment, comorbidity, and PTSD symptom counts. Results 19.8% of respondents with 12-month PTSD reported that their symptoms were associated with multiple TEs. Cases who associated their PTSD with four or more TEs had greater functional impairment, an earlier AOO, longer duration, higher comorbidity with mood and anxiety disorders, elevated hyper-arousal symptoms, higher proportional exposures to partner physical abuse and other types of physical assault, and lower proportional exposure to unexpected death of a loved one than cases with fewer associated TEs. Conclusions A risk threshold was observed in this large-scale cross-national database wherein cases who associated their PTSD with four or more TEs presented a more “complex” clinical picture with substantially greater functional impairment and greater morbidity than other cases of PTSD. PTSD cases associated with four or more TEs may merit specific and targeted intervention strategies. Depression and Anxiety 31:130–142, 2014. PMID:23983056

  9. Cumulative traumas and risk thresholds: 12-month PTSD in the World Mental Health (WMH) surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Elie G; Friedman, Matthew J; Hill, Eric D; Kessler, Ronald C; McLaughlin, Katie A; Petukhova, Maria; Sampson, Laura; Shahly, Victoria; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Bromet, Evelyn J; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Demyttenaere, Koen; Ferry, Finola; Florescu, Silvia E; Haro, Josep Maria; He, Yanling; Karam, Aimee N; Kawakami, Norito; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Medina-Mora, María Elena; Browne, Mark A Oakley; Posada-Villa, José A; Shalev, Arieh Y; Stein, Dan J; Viana, Maria Carmen; Zarkov, Zahari; Koenen, Karestan C

    2014-02-01

    Clinical research suggests that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients exposed to multiple traumatic events (TEs) rather than a single TE have increased morbidity and dysfunction. Although epidemiological surveys in the United States and Europe also document high rates of multiple TE exposure, no population-based cross-national data have examined this issue. Data were analyzed from 20 population surveys in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative (n = 51,295 aged 18+). The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (3.0) assessed 12-month PTSD and other common DSM-IV disorders. Respondents with 12-month PTSD were assessed for single versus multiple TEs implicated in their symptoms. Associations were examined with age of onset (AOO), functional impairment, comorbidity, and PTSD symptom counts. 19.8% of respondents with 12-month PTSD reported that their symptoms were associated with multiple TEs. Cases who associated their PTSD with four or more TEs had greater functional impairment, an earlier AOO, longer duration, higher comorbidity with mood and anxiety disorders, elevated hyperarousal symptoms, higher proportional exposures to partner physical abuse and other types of physical assault, and lower proportional exposure to unexpected death of a loved one than cases with fewer associated TEs. A risk threshold was observed in this large-scale cross-national database wherein cases who associated their PTSD with four or more TEs presented a more "complex" clinical picture with substantially greater functional impairment and greater morbidity than other cases of PTSD. PTSD cases associated with four or more TEs may merit specific and targeted intervention strategies. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The cumulative incidence of conventional risk factors of cardiovascular disease and their population attributable risk in an Iranian population: The Isfahan Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Sadeghi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs are the leading cause of death in Iran. The present study evaluated the 7-year incidence of CVD risk factors among the participants of Isfahan cohort study (ICS. Materials and Methods: ICS was a longitudinal study on adults over 35 years of age from the urban and rural areas in three counties in central Iran. Data on clinical examination and blood measurements were collected in 2001. Subjects were followed and similar data were collected in 2007. Cumulative incidence was calculated through dividing new cases of each risk factor by the population free of that risk factor at baseline. Incidence proportion was determined for major CVD risk factors including hypertension (HTN, hypercholesterolemia (HC, hypertriglyceridemia (HTg, obesity, diabetes mellitus (DM, metabolic syndrome (MetS, and smoking. Results: A total number of 6323 adults free of CVDs were recruited. After 7 years of follow-up, 3283 individuals were re-evaluated in 2007. The participants′ age was 49.2 ± 10.3 years in 2001 (mean ± SD. The 7-year cumulative incidence of HTN, HC, HTg, overweight, obesity, DM, MetS, and smoking was 22.8%, 37.4%, 28.0%, 26.3%, 7.4%, 9.5%, 23.9%, and 5.9% in men and 22.2%, 55.4%, 33.5%, 35.0%, 18.8%, 11.3%, 36.1%, and 0.7% in women, respectively. Among those with overweight or obesity, 14.7% of men and 7.9% of women decreased their weight up to the normal level. Conclusions: The present study revealed a high incidence of CVD risk factors especially dyslipidemia, obesity, MetS and HTN. Therefore, the application of life-style modification interventions seems necessary.

  11. Probabilistic acute risk assessment of cumulative exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides from dietary vegetables and fruits in Shanghai populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fan; Yuan, Yaqun; Meng, Pai; Wu, Min; Li, Shuguang; Chen, Bo

    2017-05-01

    Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) and carbamate pesticides (CPs) are among the most widely used pesticides in China, playing a major role in protecting agricultural commodities. In this study, we determined the cumulative acute exposure to OPs and CPs of Shanghai residents from vegetables and fruits (VFs). The food consumption data were obtained from the Shanghai Food Consumption Survey (SHFCS) of 2012-14 including a total of 1973 participants aged 2-90 years. The pesticide residue data were obtained from the Shanghai monitoring programme during 2008-11 with 34 organophosphates and 11 carbamates analysed in a total of 5335 samples of VFs. A probabilistic approach was performed as recommended by the EFSA, using the optimistic model with non-detects set as zero and with processing factors (PFs) being used and the pessimistic model with non-detects replaced by limit of detection (LOD) and without PFs. We used the relative potency factor (RPF) method to normalise the various pesticides to the index compound (IC) of methamidophos and chlorpyrifos separately. Only in the pessimistic model using methamidophos as the IC was there was small risk of exposure exceeding the ARfD (3 µg kg(-)(1) bw day(-)(1)) in the populations of preschool children (0.029%), school-age children (0.022%) and adults (0.002%). There were no risk of exposure exceeding the ARfD of methamidophos in the optimistic model and of chlorpyrifos (100 µg kg(-)(1) bw day(-)(1)) in both optimistic and pessimistic models in all three populations. Considering the Chinese habits of overwhelmingly eating processed food (vegetables being cooked, and fruits being washed or peeled), we conclude that little acute risk was found for the exposure to VF-sourced OPs and CPs in Shanghai.

  12. Risk of therapy-related leukaemia and preleukaemia after Hodgkin's disease. Relation to age, cumulative dose of alkylating agents, and time from chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen-Bjergaard, J.; Specht, L.; Larsen, S.O.;

    1987-01-01

    .0% (SE 3.0) at 10 years after which time there were no further cases. Calculated from cessation of therapy with alkylating agents, however, the cumulative risk curve increased steeply during the first 1-2 years then gradually levelled out and no new cases were observed beyond 7 years. With a 15-year...

  13. Understanding the Relation of Low Income to HPA-Axis Functioning in Preschool Children: Cumulative Family Risk and Parenting as Pathways to Disruptions in Cortisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J.; Kiff, Cara J.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relation of low income and poverty to cortisol levels, and tested potential pathways from low income to disruptions in cortisol through cumulative family risk and parenting. The sample of 306 mothers and their preschool children included 29 % families at or near poverty, 27 % families below the median income, and the…

  14. Understanding the Relation of Low Income to HPA-Axis Functioning in Preschool Children: Cumulative Family Risk and Parenting as Pathways to Disruptions in Cortisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J.; Kiff, Cara J.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relation of low income and poverty to cortisol levels, and tested potential pathways from low income to disruptions in cortisol through cumulative family risk and parenting. The sample of 306 mothers and their preschool children included 29 % families at or near poverty, 27 % families below the median income, and the…

  15. Exploring the risk factors for differences in the cumulative incidence of coeliac disease in two neighboring countries : the prospective DIABIMMUNE study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simre, Kärt; Uibo, Oivi; Peet, Aleksandr; Tillmann, Vallo; Kool, Pille; Hämäläinen, Anu-Maaria; Härkönen, Taina; Siljander, Heli; Virtanen, Suvi; Ilonen, Jorma; Knip, Mikael; Uibo, Raivo; Harmsen, Hermie J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During the last several decades the prevalence of coeliac disease (CD) has increased worldwide. AIM: To compare the cumulative incidence of CD between Estonian and Finnish children and to identify the risk factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Children were recruited as part of the DIABIMMUNE

  16. Cumulative health risk assessment of co-occurring mycotoxins of deoxynivalenol and its acetyl derivatives in wheat and maize: case study, Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zheng; Nie, Dongxia; Ediage, Emmanuel Njumbe; Yang, Xianli; Wang, Jianhua; Chen, Bo; Li, Shuguang; On, Stephen L W; De Saeger, Sarah; Wu, Aibo

    2014-12-01

    Humans are naturally and frequently exposed to a multitude of mycotoxins, but health risk assessments are usually performed on individual mycotoxins, which may underestimate the total risks. In this study, we assessed for the first time the cumulative health risks of concomitant exposure via dietary intake (DI) to multiple mycotoxins, namely deoxynivalenol (DON) and its acetyl derivatives of 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON) and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), based on the concentration addition (CA) concept. A cross-sectional study was conducted in seven districts in Shanghai, China with 1269 participants and 330 wheat and maize samples analyzed. After probabilistic analysis using Monte Carlo simulation, the results showed no health risks to the population in Shanghai considering individual mycotoxins. However, if the cumulative health risks were calculated based on the combined consideration of DON with either 3-ADON or 15-ADON or both, the DI values in 95th percentile were up to 1087 ng/kg body weight/day, exceeding the Provisional Maximum Tolerable Daily Intake (PMTDI) of 1000 ng/kg body weight/day and hence representing potential health risks to the population in Shanghai. The integrated study proposed here could be a model strategy for cumulative health risk assessment on the co-occurring hazards in the fields of food safety combined with environmental contaminants.

  17. [Assessment of children's health risk posed by traffic-related air pollution as exemplified by the city of Salekhard].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezhnin, V L; Konshina, L G; Sergeyeva, M V

    2014-01-01

    With the aim of determination of the levels of children's health risk from chemical air pollution caused by vehicle emissions, on the territory of the municipal district of the city of Salekhard there was carried out the work on the study of the intensity and the chemical structure of traffic-related air pollution in the locations of 16 children's preschool institutions. There was used the technique of the counting campaign for the structure and intensity of road traffic flows, children's health detriment was calculated according to the method of risk assessment. The main danger in the emissions of vehicles is belonged to nitrogen dioxide (43.6%), benzo(a)pyrene (37.4%), carbon monoxide (6.57%), formaldehyde (4.43%). Being detected at the level of I0(-4)-10(-5) and corresponding to the maximum permissible risk estimated cancer risk is a subject for continuous monitoring.

  18. Early introduction and cumulative consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages during the pre-school period and risk of obesity at 8-14 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantoral, A; Téllez-Rojo, M M; Ettinger, A S; Hu, H; Hernández-Ávila, M; Peterson, K

    2016-02-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) has been associated with risk of obesity, but little evidence exists to evaluate if age of introduction and cumulative SSB consumption increases risk in children. The objective of the study was to estimate the relationship between age of introduction and cumulative SSB consumption with risk of obesity in 227 Mexican children. SSB intake was measured every 6 months; age of introduction and cumulative consumption during the pre-school period were calculated. Height, weight, waist circumference, SSB intake and other relevant variables were measured at age 8-14 years and obesity defined using standard criteria. All participants were introduced to SSB before age 24 months and most (73%) before 12 months. Early SSB introduction (≤12 months) was not significantly associated with increased odds of obesity (odds ratio [OR] = 2.00, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.87, 4.59). However, children in the highest tertile of cumulative SSB consumption, compared with the lowest, had almost three times the odds of general (OR = 2.99, 95% CI: 1.27, 7.00) and abdominal (OR = 2.70, 95% CI: 1.03, 7.03) obesity at age 8-14 years. High SSB consumption increased the likelihood of obesity in 8-14-year-old children. Our results suggest that SSB intake should be delayed and excessive SSB consumption in pre-school period should be avoided. © 2015 World Obesity.

  19. Prenatal cocaine exposure: the role of cumulative environmental risk and maternal harshness in the development of child internalizing behavior problems in kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiden, Rina D; Godleski, Stephanie; Colder, Craig R; Schuetze, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the associations between prenatal exposure to cocaine and other substances and child internalizing behavior problems at kindergarten. We investigated whether maternal harshness or cumulative environmental risk mediated or moderated this association. Participants consisted of 216 (116 cocaine exposed, 100 non-cocaine exposed) mother-infant dyads participating in an ongoing longitudinal study of prenatal cocaine exposure. Results indicated that, as hypothesized, maternal harshness moderated the association between prenatal cocaine exposure to child internalizing in kindergarten such that prenatal cocaine exposure increased risk for internalizing problems at high levels of maternal harshness from 7 to 36months and decreased risk at low levels of harshness. Contrary to hypothesis, the association between prenatal cocaine exposure and child internalizing in kindergarten was not mediated by maternal harshness or cumulative environmental risk. However, cumulative environmental risk (from 1month of child age to kindergarten) was predictive of child internalizing behavior problems at kindergarten. Results have implications for parenting interventions that may be targeted toward reducing maternal harshness in high risk samples characterized by maternal substance use in pregnancy.

  20. Designing a risk communication strategy for health hazards posed by traditional slaughter of goats in Tshwane, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel N. Qekwana

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In African societies, traditional slaughter is linked to celebrations like weddings or births, as well as funerals and ancestor veneration. Participants in traditional slaughter of goats are at risk of exposure to hazards during slaughter, food preparation and consumption of goat meat. For risk mitigation strategies to be implemented, identification of the population at risk is required. This study is based on the premise that the demographic profile of people involved in traditional slaughter of goats is important for risk communication. Both structured and informal interviews were recorded and analysed using a thematic analysis. A total of 105 people were interviewed at taxi ranks in Tshwane, Gauteng. Of these, 48 were women and 57 men. The median age of women and men was 40.6 years and 44.3 years, respectively. The majority of respondents (61.9%, n = 65 interviewed were from the Gauteng Province. Sixty percent (n = 63 of respondents had a secondary education, whilst less than 4.81% (n = 5 of respondents had no formal education. This study demonstrated that interviewing commuters at taxi ranks gave access to a cross section of gender, age, language and origin. It was found that both genders were involved in traditional slaughter of goats. Risk communication strategies should thus target women as well as men. Communication strategies to mitigate the risks of traditional slaughter of goats should take into consideration the dynamic nature of demographic and cultural norms. In light of the wide demographic profile of the respondents, it was concluded that it should be possible to use taxi ranks for successful dissemination of food safety and occupational health risk mitigation messages.

  1. Defining the biosecurity risk posed by transported soil: Effects of storage time and environmental exposure on survival of soil biota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. McNeill

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil frequently occurs as a contaminant on numerous sea, land and air transport pathways. It can carry unwanted invasive species, is widely recognized as a biosecurity risk, and is usually strictly regulated by biosecurity authorities. However, little is known about relative risk levels between pathways, thus authorities have limited capability to identify and target the riskiest soil pathways for management. We conducted a an experiment to test the hypotheses that biosecurity risks from soil organisms will increase both with declining transport duration and with increasing protection from environmental extremes. Soil was collected from two sites, a native forest remnant and an orchard, and stored on, in and under sea containers, or in cupboards, and assayed after 0, 3, 6 and 12 months for bacteria, fungi, nematodes and seeds. Results showed that viability of Pseudomonas spp., bacteria, nematodes and plants declined over 12 months, irrespective of soil source. Also, mortality of most biota was higher when exposed to sunlight, moisture and desiccation than when protected. However, bacterial and fungal numbers were higher in exposed environments, possibly due to ongoing colonization of exposed soil by airborne propagules. The results were consistent with our observations of organisms in soil intercepted from airports and sea ports, and indicated there is potential to rank risks from transported soils based partly on transport duration and environmental exposure. This would help authorities to optimally allocate management resources according to pathway-specific risks.

  2. Using Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Models to Incorporate Chemical and Non-Chemical Stressors into Cumulative Risk Assessment: A Case Study of Pesticide Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan I. Levy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cumulative risk assessment has been proposed as an approach to evaluate the health risks associated with simultaneous exposure to multiple chemical and non-chemical stressors. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD models can allow for the inclusion and evaluation of multiple stressors, including non-chemical stressors, but studies have not leveraged PBPK/PD models to jointly consider these disparate exposures in a cumulative risk context. In this study, we focused on exposures to organophosphate (OP pesticides for children in urban low-income environments, where these children would be simultaneously exposed to other pesticides (including pyrethroids and non-chemical stressors that may modify the effects of these exposures (including diet. We developed a methodological framework to evaluate chemical and non-chemical stressor impacts on OPs, utilizing an existing PBPK/PD model for chlorpyrifos. We evaluated population-specific stressors that would influence OP doses or acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibition, the relevant PD outcome. We incorporated the impact of simultaneous exposure to pyrethroids and dietary factors on OP dose through the compartments of metabolism and PD outcome within the PBPK model, and simulated combinations of stressors across multiple exposure ranges and potential body weights. Our analyses demonstrated that both chemical and non-chemical stressors can influence the health implications of OP exposures, with up to 5-fold variability in AChE inhibition across combinations of stressor values for a given OP dose. We demonstrate an approach for modeling OP risks in the presence of other population-specific environmental stressors, providing insight about co-exposures and variability factors that most impact OP health risks and contribute to children’s cumulative health risk from pesticides. More generally, this framework can be used to inform cumulative risk assessment for any compound impacted by

  3. Scenario-targeted toxicity assessment through multiple endpoint bioassays in a soil posing unacceptable environmental risk according to regulatory screening values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Ruiz, A; Etxebarria, J; Boatti, L; Marigómez, I

    2015-09-01

    Lanestosa is a chronically polluted site (derelict mine) where the soil (Lanestosa (LA) soil) exceeds screening values (SVs) of regulatory policies in force (Basque Country; Europe) for Zn, Pb and Cd. A scenario-targeted toxicity assessment was carried out on the basis of a multi-endpoint bioassay approach. Acute and chronic toxicity bioassays were conducted with selected test species (Vibrio fischeri, Dictyostelium discoideum, Lactuca sativa, Raphanus sativus and Eisenia fetida) in combination with chemical analysis of soils and elutriates and with bioaccumulation studies in earthworms. Besides, the toxicity profile was compared with that of the mine runoff (RO) soil and of a fresh artificially polluted soil (LAAPS) resembling LA soil pollutant profile. Extractability studies in LA soil revealed that Pb, Zn and Cd were highly available for exchange and/or release into the environment. Indeed, Pb and Zn were accumulated in earthworms and LA soil resulted to be toxic. Soil respiration, V. fischeri, vegetative and developmental cycles of D. discoideum and survival and juvenile production of E. fetida were severely affected. These results confirmed that LA soil had unacceptable environmental risk and demanded intervention. In contrast, although Pb and Zn concentrations in RO soil revealed also unacceptable risk, both metal extractability and toxicity were much lower than in LA soil. Thus, within the polluted site, the need for intervention varied between areas that posed dissimilar risk. Besides, since LAAPS, with a high exchangeable metal fraction, was the most toxic, ageing under in situ natural conditions seemingly contributed to attenuate LA soil risk. As a whole, combining multi-endpoint bioassays with scenario-targeted analysis (including leaching and ageing) provides reliable risk assessment in soils posing unacceptable environmental risk according to SVs, which is useful to optimise the required intervention measures.

  4. Pediatric research posing a minor increase over minimal risk and no prospect of direct benefit: challenging 45 CFR 46.406.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iltis, Ana

    2007-01-01

    Subpart D of the Common Rule establishes 4 categories of research that may be conducted on children. One category, 45 CFR 46.406, permits research posing a minor increase over minimal risk and no prospect of direct benefit but expected to yield vital knowledge about the subjects' disorder or condition. To include other children in research posing a minor increase over minimal risk and no prospect of direct benefit requires federal review and approval of the Secretary of Health and Human Services under 45 CFR 46.407. It is widely held that children generally should not be exposed to more than minimal risk in research without the prospect of direct benefit. To justify deviating from this norm, as 406 allows, two claims must be true: (1) When there is vital knowledge to be gained from studying children, it is permissible to expose some children to a minor increase over minimal risk with no prospect of direct benefit; (2) It is permissible for locally reviewed and approved research to expose only children with the disorder or condition under investigation to greater risk with no prospect of direct benefit. The justification for (1) appears to be grounded in the magnitude of benefit to society combined with the need to study children. This article demonstrates that, even if the necessity and magnitude of benefit to society justify exposing children to increased risk, the decision to categorically restrict participation in such research to children with the disorder or condition under investigation (unless the study is federally reviewed and approved) is not justified. Subpart D should be revised.

  5. Scientific Opinion on the risks to plant health posed by European versus non-European populations of the potato cyst nematodes Globodera pallida and Globodera rostochiensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.

    2012-01-01

    The Panel on Plant Health has delivered a scientific opinion on the different risks posed by European and non-European populations of the potato cyst nematodes (PCN) Globodera pallida and Globodera rostochiensis to solanaceous plants in the EU and on the effectiveness of current control measures...... control measures to reduce the spread of PCN within the EU. A thorough and well-coordinated EU-wide survey using standardized methods would be necessary to evaluate the need to maintain these measures. The monitoring of PCN populations should exploit new diagnostic techniques (e.g. mitochondrial DNA...

  6. Shark fin, a symbol of wealth and good fortune may pose health risks: the case of mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Yu Bon; Wu, Sheng Chun; Wong, Ming Hung

    2014-12-01

    There is a lack of information concerning human health risks due to exposure to mercury contained in shark fins, through dietary intake. Health risk assessment of shark fins, collected from 5 cities in China: Hong Kong (HK), Beijing, Shanghai (SH), Haikou (HN) and Wenzhou (WZ), was conducted, based on total mercury and methylmercury, and analyzed by a cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry equipped with high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively. The results showed that 16.8 % samples from HK, 8.3 % from SH, 33.3 % from HN, and 16.8 % from WZ were regarded as unsafe for human consumption. Extremely high consumption rates of shark fins for an adult and a child (0.150 and 0.0807 kg/day, respectively), at 95th centile, samples from WZ demonstrated high non-cancer risks (adverse health effects) (Hazard Quotient = 16.0) on adults (aged 25-65), and samples from SH, HN and WZ also showed high non-cancer risks (Hazard Quotient = 12.9, 21.0, and 34.4, respectively) on children (aged 1-7). Consumption of shark fins may be detrimental to human health.

  7. Risk of violence of inpatients with severe mental illness--do patients with schizophrenia pose harm to others?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlinger, Monika; Rauch, Anna-Sophia; Kemmler, Georg; Yalcin-Siedentopf, Nursen; Fleischhacker, W Wolfgang; Hofer, Alex

    2014-11-30

    Individuals suffering from schizophrenia are frequently considered to be dangerous. The current longitudinal chart review was carried out to investigate the diagnostic mix of patients who were admitted to the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy at the Medical University Innsbruck due to risk of harm to others. The sample consisted of all adult inpatients admitted to psychiatric acute care units in the years 1992, 1997, 2002, and 2007. Data collection included diagnoses, criteria for risk of harm to others, and the use of mechanical restraint. Altogether, 7222 admissions were reviewed. Of these, 529 patients had to be admitted to a locked unit because of risk of harm to others. Among those mechanical restraint was more often used in patients with organic mental disorders, Cluster B personality disorders, and mania than in patients with schizophrenia. Patients suffering from schizophrenia with comorbid psychoactive substance use constitute a potentially harmful population and are therefore frequently admitted to locked units due to risk of harm to others. However, in the current study additional coercive measures were more commonly applied in patients suffering from personality disorders and organic mental disorders.

  8. Development of a comparative risk ranking system for agents posing a bioterrorism threat to human or animal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomuzia, Katharina; Menrath, Andrea; Frentzel, Hendrik; Filter, Matthias; Weiser, Armin A; Bräunig, Juliane; Buschulte, Anja; Appel, Bernd

    2013-09-01

    Various systems for prioritizing biological agents with respect to their applicability as biological weapons are available, ranging from qualitative to (semi)quantitative approaches. This research aimed at generating a generic risk ranking system applicable to human and animal pathogenic agents based on scientific information. Criteria were evaluated and clustered to create a criteria list. Considering availability of data, a number of 28 criteria separated by content were identified that can be classified in 11 thematic areas or categories. Relevant categories contributing to probability were historical aspects, accessibility, production efforts, and possible paths for dispersion. Categories associated with impact are dealing with containment measures, availability of diagnostics, preventive and treatment measures in human and animal populations, impact on society, human and veterinary public health, and economic and ecological consequences. To allow data-based scoring, each criterion was described by at least 1 measure that allows the assignment of values. These values constitute quantities, ranges, or facts that are as explicit and precise as possible. The consideration of minimum and maximum values that can occur due to natural variations and that are often described in the literature led to the development of minimum and maximum criteria and consequently category scores. Missing or incomplete data, and uncertainty resulting therefrom, were integrated into the scheme via a cautious (but not overcautious) approach. The visualization technique that was used allows the description and illustration of uncertainty on the level of probability and impact. The developed risk ranking system was evaluated by assessing the risk originating from the bioterrorism threat of the animal pathogen bluetongue virus, the human pathogen Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7, the zoonotic Bacillus anthracis, and Botulinum neurotoxin.

  9. DNA barcodes reveal species-specific mercury levels in tuna sushi that pose a health risk to consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, Jacob H.; Burger, Joanna; Jeitner, Christian W.; Amato, George; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Gochfeld, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Excessive ingestion of mercury—a health hazard associated with consuming predatory fishes—damages neurological, sensory-motor and cardiovascular functioning. The mercury levels found in Bigeye Tuna (Thunnus obesus) and bluefin tuna species (Thunnus maccoyii, Thunnus orientalis, and Thunnus thynnus), exceed or approach levels permissible by Canada, the European Union, Japan, the US, and the World Health Organization. We used DNA barcodes to identify tuna sushi samples analysed for mercury and demonstrate that the ability to identify cryptic samples in the market place allows regulatory agencies to more accurately measure the risk faced by fish consumers and enact policies that better safeguard their health. PMID:20410032

  10. A cost–benefit analysis of mitigation options for optimal management of risks posed by flow-like phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narasimhan, Harikrishna; Ferlisi, Settimio; Cascini, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Decisions associated with life safety risk management of natural hazards can involve significant potential consequences for public safety. Given possible limitations to available societal resources, it is therefore necessary to establish a clear and rational basis for the allocation of resources......) (Nathwani et al. in Affordable safety by choice: the life quality method. University of Waterloo, Waterloo, 1997; Nathwani et al. in Engineering decisions for life quality: how safe is safe enough? Springer, London, 2009). A case study involving the cost–benefit analysis of selected packages of measures...

  11. Long-Term Effects of Prematurity, Cumulative Medical Risk, and Proximal and Distal Social Forces on Individual Differences in Diurnal Cortisol at Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, Suzy B; Sullivan, Mary C; Roberts, Mary B; Bryce, Crystal I; Granger, Douglas A

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of prematurity, cumulative medical risk, and proximal and distal social forces on individual differences in the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in young adulthood. A prospective sample of 149 infants born healthy preterm (PT; n = 22), sick PT ( n = 93, medical illness, neurological illness, small for gestational age), and full term ( n = 34) was recruited from a Level III neonatal intensive care unit in southern New England between 1985 and 1989 and followed to age 23 years. Cumulative medical risk was indexed across seven assessment waves (spanning 17 years) using medical and neurological health status at birth, toddlerhood (ages 18 and 30 months), childhood (ages 4 and 8 years), and adolescence (ages 12 and 17 years). Distal risk included socioeconomic status (SES) at birth. Proximal social factors were indexed from assessments of the home environment and measures of child vulnerability and maternal self-esteem, involvement, and control style from birth, 4 years, 8 years, and 12 years. At age 23 years, five saliva samples were collected upon awakening, 45 min after waking, 4 hr after waking, 8 hr after waking, and bedtime (later assayed for cortisol). Results reveal effects of cumulative medical risk on the diurnal pattern of HPA axis activity, with moderating effects of SES and proximal social factors. Findings are discussed in terms of implications for contemporary theories related to developmental sensitivity and susceptibility to context and the developmental origins of health and disease theory.

  12. Restoration of nutrient-rich forestry-drained peatlands poses a risk for high exports of dissolved organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, Markku; Tahvanainen, Teemu; Sarkkola, Sakari; Menberu, Meseret Walle; Laurén, Ari; Sallantaus, Tapani; Marttila, Hannu; Ronkanen, Anna-Kaisa; Parviainen, Miia; Tolvanen, Anne; Koivusalo, Harri; Nieminen, Mika

    2017-05-15

    Restoration impact of forestry-drained peatlands on runoff water quality and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nutrient export was studied. Eight catchments were included: three mesotrophic (one undrained control, two treatments), two ombrotrophic (one drained control, one treatment) and three oligotrophic catchments (one undrained control, two treatments). Three calibration years and four post-restoration years were included in the data from seven catchments, for which runoff was recorded. For one mesotrophic treatment catchment only one year of pre-restoration and two years of post-restoration water quality data is reported. Restoration was done by filling in and damming the ditches. Water samples were collected monthly-biweekly during the snow-free period; runoff was recorded continuously during the same period. Water quality was estimated for winter using ratios derived from external data. Runoff for non-recorded periods were estimated using the FEMMA model. A high impact on DOC, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) was observed in the mesotrophic catchments, and mostly no significant impact in the nutrient-poor catchments. The DOC load from one catchment exceeded 1000kg (restored-ha)(-1) in the first year; increase of DOC concentration from 50 to 250mgl(-1) was observed in the other mesotrophic treatment catchment. Impact on total nitrogen export of over 30kg (restored-ha)(-1) was observed in one fertile catchment during the first year. An impact of over 5kg (restored-ha)(-1) on ammonium export was observed in one year in the mesotrophic catchment. Impact on P export from the mesotrophic catchment was nearly 5kg P (restored-ha)(-1) in the first year. The results imply that restoration of nutrient-rich forestry-drained peatlands poses significant risk for at least short term elevated loads degrading the water quality in receiving water bodies. Restoration of nutrient-poor peatlands poses a minor risk in comparison. Research is needed regarding the factors behind

  13. Techniques to Assess and Mitigate the Environmental Risk Posed by use of Airguns: Recent Advances from Academic Research Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, P. J.; Tyack, P. L.; Johnson, M. P.; Madsen, P. T.; King, R.

    2006-05-01

    There is considerable uncertainty about the ways in which marine mammals might react to noise, the biological significance of reactions, and the effectiveness of planning and real-time mitigation techniques. A planning tool commonly used to assess environmental risk of acoustic activities uses simulations to predict acoustic exposures received by animals, and translates exposure to response using a dose-response function to yield an estimate of the undesired impact on a population. Recent advances show promise to convert this planning tool into a real-time mitigation tool, using Bayesian statistical methods. In this approach, being developed for use by the British Navy, the environmental risk simulation is updated continuously during field operations. The distribution of exposure, set initially based on animal density, is updated in real-time using animal sensing data or environmental data known to correlate with the absence or presence of marine mammals. This conditional probability of animal presence should therefore be more accurate than prior probabilities used during planning, which enables a more accurate and quantitative assessment of both the impact of activities and reduction of impact via mitigation decisions. Two key areas of uncertainty in addition to animal presence/absence are 1.) how biologically-relevant behaviours are affected by exposure to noise, and 2.) whether animals avoid loud noise sources, which is the basis of ramp-up as a mitigation tool. With support from MMS and industry partners, we assessed foraging behaviour and avoidance movements of 8 tagged sperm whales in the Gulf of Mexico during experimental exposure to airguns. The whale that was approached most closely prolonged a surface resting bout hours longer than typical, but resumed foraging immediately after the airguns ceased, suggesting avoidance of deep diving necessary for foraging near active airguns. Behavioral indices of foraging rate (echolocation buzzes produced during prey

  14. Cumulative Risk Assessment and Environmental Equity in Air Permitting: Interpretation, Methods, Community Participation and Implementation of a Unique Statute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory C. Pratt

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2008, the statute authorizing the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA to issue air permits was amended to include a unique requirement to analyze and consider “cumulative levels and effects of past and current environmental pollution from all sources on the environment and residents of the geographic area within which the facility's emissions are likely to be deposited.” Data describing the Statute Area suggest it is challenged by environmental and socioeconomic concerns, i.e., concerns which are often described by the phrase ‘environmental equity’. With input from diverse stakeholders, the MPCA developed a methodology for implementing a cumulative levels and effects analysis when issuing air permits in the designated geographic area. A Process Document was created defining explicit steps a project proposer must complete in the analysis. An accompanying Reference Document compiles all available environmental health data relevant to the Statute Area that could be identified. The final cumulative levels and effects methodology is organized by health endpoint and identifies hazard, exposure and health indices that require further evaluation. The resulting assessment is summarized and presented to decision makers for consideration in the regulatory permitting process. We present a description of the methodology followed by a case study summary of the first air permit processed through the “cumulative levels and effects analysis”.

  15. Cumulative risk assessment and environmental equity in air permitting: interpretation, methods, community participation and implementation of a unique statute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellickson, Kristie M; Sevcik, Sarah M; Burman, Shelley; Pak, Steven; Kohlasch, Frank; Pratt, Gregory C

    2011-11-01

    In 2008, the statute authorizing the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) to issue air permits was amended to include a unique requirement to analyze and consider "cumulative levels and effects of past and current environmental pollution from all sources on the environment and residents of the geographic area within which the facility's emissions are likely to be deposited." Data describing the Statute Area suggest it is challenged by environmental and socioeconomic concerns, i.e., concerns which are often described by the phrase 'environmental equity'. With input from diverse stakeholders, the MPCA developed a methodology for implementing a cumulative levels and effects analysis when issuing air permits in the designated geographic area. A Process Document was created defining explicit steps a project proposer must complete in the analysis. An accompanying Reference Document compiles all available environmental health data relevant to the Statute Area that could be identified. The final cumulative levels and effects methodology is organized by health endpoint and identifies hazard, exposure and health indices that require further evaluation. The resulting assessment is summarized and presented to decision makers for consideration in the regulatory permitting process. We present a description of the methodology followed by a case study summary of the first air permit processed through the "cumulative levels and effects analysis".

  16. Copper and zinc, but not other priority toxic metals, pose risks to native aquatic species in a large urban lake in Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhiyou; Wu, Fengchang; Chen, Lulu; Xu, Bingbing; Feng, Chenglian; Bai, Yingchen; Liao, Haiqing; Sun, Siyang; Giesy, John P; Guo, Wenjing

    2016-12-01

    Over the past 20 years, global production of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) rank in the top three compared to other metals such as Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, As and Hg. However, due to the potential for exposure and toxicity to humans, more attention of environmental pollution was paid to other metals such as Cd and Hg. Aquatic organisms are sensitive to Cu and Zn. Even though internal concentrations of these required elements are homeostatically controlled, toxic effects can occur at the fish gill surface. In this work, concentrations in surface waters and toxic effects of Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Pb, Cd, As, Hg were determined and risk of various metals in Tai Lake, China were evaluated using both risk quotients and joint probability distributions. Two transition metals, Cu and Zn posed the greatest risks to aquatic organisms while measured concentrations of other metals were less than thresholds for adverse effects. Approximately 99.9% and 50.7% of the aquatic organisms were predicted to be affected by Cu and Zn in surface water of Tai Lake respectively. Our results highlight ecological risks of Cu and Zn in water of a typical, large, urban lake in Eastern China, which was ignored in the past. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Status of Environmental Management Initiatives to Accelerate the Reduction of Environmental Risks and Challenges Posed by the Legacy of the Cold War

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-01-01

    Fifty years of nuclear weapons production and energy research in the United States during the Cold War generated large amounts of radioactive wastes, spent nuclear fuel (SNF), excess plutonium and uranium, thousands of contaminated facilities, and contaminated soil and groundwater. During most of that half century, the Nation did not have the environmental regulatory structure or nuclear waste cleanup technologies that exist today. The result was a legacy of nuclear waste that was stored and disposed of in ways now considered unacceptable. Cleaning up and ultimately disposing of these wastes is the responsibility of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In 1989, DOE established the Office of Environmental Management (EM) to solve the large scale and technically challenging risks posed by the world's largest nuclear cleanup. This required EM to build a new nuclear cleanup infrastructure, assemble and train a technically specialized workforce, and develop the technologies and tools required to safely decontaminate, disassemble, stabilize, disposition, and remediate unique radiation hazards. The sites where nuclear activities produced legacy waste and contamination include the original Manhattan Project sites--Los Alamos, New Mexico; Hanford, Washington; and Oak Ridge, Tennessee--as well as major Cold War sites, such as Savannah River Site, South Carolina; the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho; Rocky Flats Plant, Colorado; and Fernald, Ohio. Today EM has responsibility for nuclear cleanup activities at 21 sites covering more than two million acres in 13 states, and employs more than 30,000 Federal and contractor employees, including scientists, engineers and hazardous waste technicians. This cleanup poses unique, technically complex problems, which must be solved under the most hazardous of conditions, and which will require billions of dollars a year for several more decades. The EM program focus during its first 10 years was on managing the most urgent risks and

  18. Evaluation of the pollution and human health risks posed by heavy metals in the atmospheric dust in Ebinur Basin in Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuduwailil, Jilili; Zhaoyong, Zhang; Fengqing, Jiang

    2015-09-01

    Recently, a large amount of research assessing pollution levels and the related health risks posed by atmosphere dust has been undertaken worldwide. However, little work has been done in the oases of the arid regions of Northwest China. In this paper, we studied the pollution and health risks over a year of seven heavy metals in the atmospheric dust of Ebinur Basin, a typical oasis in Northwest China. The results showed the following: (1) The annual amount of atmospheric deposition in Ebinur Basin was 298.23 g m(-2) and the average monthly atmospheric deposition was 25.06 g m(-2). The average and maximum values of the seven heavy metals measured were all below the National Soil Environmental Quality Standards (2nd). (2) Heavy metals of Cu, Cr, and As in the atmospheric deposition mainly originated from the natural geological background, while Zn came from human activity. This study also showed that among the seven measured heavy metals, the ratios of the no-pollution status of Pb, Cd, and Hg were higher than those of others with moderate degrees of pollution also accounting for a certain ratio. (3) The carcinogenic risks from As, Cd, and Cr were all lower than the corresponding standard limit values, and these metals are considered not harmful to the health of the basin. However, there is a relatively high risk of exposure for children from hand-to-mouth intake, which is worthy of attention. This research showed that both human activity and natural factors, such as wind and altitude, influenced the heavy metal contents in the atmospheric dust of the study area. Furthermore, recent human activity in the study area had the most negative influence on the accumulation of the heavy metals and the corresponding health risks, especially for Hg, Pb, and Cd, which is worthy of attention.

  19. 国内外累积性环境风险评估研究进展%Research Progress of Cumulative Environmental Risk Assessment at Home and Abroad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁鹏; 李文秀; 彭剑峰; 宋永会; 许伟宁

    2015-01-01

    随着环境风险评估的重点由单一源、单一传播途径、单受体转向多来源、多传播途径、多受体的评估,累积性环境风险评估逐渐成为当前研究热点。通过概念辨析和文献调研的方法,综述了美国累积性环境风险评估的发展历史、评估流程,并对国内外累积性环境风险评估方法、应用研究进展进行了评述。指出了目前国内开展累积性环境风险评估存在的方法不完善、基础科研工作不足、宏观环境管理政策亟待加强等问题。建议应尽快明确累积性环境风险评估概念与管理要求,制订累积性环境风险评估的流程、框架与技术指南,加强基础数据库建立和实践探索,为长效的环境风险管理提供决策依据。%With the focuses of environmental risk assessment gradually evolving from assessment of single source or stressor, single exposure route and single risk receptor toward integrated assessment involving several sources or stressors, multiple exposure routes and multiple receptors in recent years, the cumulative risk assessment has become a study hot spot.Through concepts discrimination and literatures search, the development history and assessment procedure in the US, and the methods and practices of cumulative risk assessment both at home and abroad were reviewed.It was pointed out that there were several problems in conducting cumulative risk assessment in China, such as lack of assessment methods, lack of basic scientific data and urgent need of reinforcement of macro-environmental management policy and so on.It was suggests that the concept and management requirements of cumulative environmental risk assessment should be defined, the evaluation process, framework and technical guide be formulated, and the construction of foundational databases and practical explorations be reinforced as soon as possible,which can provide the decision support for the long-term effective environmental

  20. Towards personalized screening: Cumulative risk of breast cancer screening outcomes in women with and without a first-degree relative with a history of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripping, Theodora Maria; Hubbard, Rebecca A; Otten, Johannes D M; den Heeten, Gerard J; Verbeek, André L M; Broeders, Mireille J M

    2016-04-01

    Several reviews have estimated the balance of benefits and harms of mammographic screening in the general population. The balance may, however, differ between individuals with and without family history. Therefore, our aim is to assess the cumulative risk of screening outcomes; screen-detected breast cancer, interval cancer, and false-positive results, in women screenees aged 50-75 and 40-75, with and without a first-degree relative with a history of breast cancer at the start of screening. Data on screening attendance, recall and breast cancer detection were collected for each woman living in Nijmegen (The Netherlands) since 1975. We used a discrete time survival model to calculate the cumulative probability of each major screening outcome over 19 screening rounds. Women with a family history of breast cancer had a higher risk of all screening outcomes. For women screened from age 50-75, the cumulative risk of screen-detected breast cancer, interval cancer and false-positive results were 9.0, 4.4 and 11.1% for women with a family history and 6.3, 2.7 and 7.3% for women without a family history, respectively. The results for women 40-75 followed the same pattern for women screened 50-75 for cancer outcomes, but were almost doubled for false-positive results. To conclude, women with a first-degree relative with a history of breast cancer are more likely to experience benefits and harms of screening than women without a family history. To complete the balance and provide risk-based screening recommendations, the breast cancer mortality reduction and overdiagnosis should be estimated for family history subgroups.

  1. 基于累积前景理论的出行风险分析%Cumulative Prospect Theory-based Analysis of Travel Risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘佐贤; 陈红; 冯微; 邓亚娟

    2014-01-01

    Cumulative prospect theory-based travel costs ,namely cumulative perceived value (CPV ) made up of travel time cost and arrival time perceived value is proposed in the paper .First ,the pros-pect theory as well as the further developed cumulative prospect theory is introduced ,and the concept of arrival time perceived value (ATPV) is brought in to establish the contact of arrive time and per-ceived value .Second ,a simple parallel network with variable message sign (VMS) set up or not is as an ex-ample to analysis the use of cumulative prospect theory in travel option .The result shows that ,the cumula-tive perceived value based on cumulative prospect theory is good to depict the travel choice risk under different travel environment .The existence of VMS is favorable for traveler to reduce travel cost .%将出行者基于累积前景理论的出行成本---累积感知价值(CPV )看作是由路径出行时间成本和到达目的地后的到达时间感知价值共同组成,对累积前景理论(CPT )进行了介绍,同时引入到达时间感知价值(ATPV)概念建立到达时间与出行感知价值之间的联系,以一个中间节点设置可变信息情报板(VMS)的简单平行网络为例,对累积前景理论在出行决策中的运用进行了分析。结果表明,基于累积前景理论的累积感知价值建模方式较好的刻画了不同出行环境下出行选择风险,VMS的设置有利于降低出行风险。

  2. Carcinoma in the Remnant Stomach During Long-Term Follow-up After Distal Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer: Analysis of Cumulative Incidence and Associated Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanyu, Takaaki; Wakai, Atsuhiro; Ishikawa, Takashi; Ichikawa, Hiroshi; Kameyama, Hitoshi; Wakai, Toshifumi

    2017-09-18

    The number of patients with remnant gastric cancer following resection of gastric cancer may increase. The aims of this study were to investigate the development of remnant gastric cancer after distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer and to examine its cumulative incidence, clinicopathological characteristics, and risk factors. We examined 437 patients with relapse-free survival for 5 years or more after distal gastrectomy with Billroth I reconstruction for gastric cancer performed between 1985 and 2005. A total of 17 patients suffered from remnant gastric cancer. The cumulative incidence was 3.7% at 10 years and 5.4% at 20 years. The median time until development of remnant gastric cancer was 79 months (range 30-209 months). The presence of synchronous multiple gastric cancers was a significant independent risk factor for remnant gastric cancer (hazard ratio 4.036; 95% confidence interval 1.478-11.02; P = 0.006). Of the 17 patients, the 13 whose remnant gastric cancer was detected via regular endoscopy showed better prognoses than the patients detected by other means (P gastric cancer was 5.4% at 20 years. In particular, patients who had multiple gastric cancers at initial gastrectomy were at higher risk for remnant gastric cancer. Therefore, long-term endoscopic surveillance is important.

  3. Sustained Reduction in Sexual Behavior that May Pose a Risk of HIV Transmission Following Diagnosis During Early HIV Infection Among Gay Men in Vancouver, British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Mark; Taylor, Darlene; Michelow, Warren; Grace, Daniel; Balshaw, Robert; Kwag, Michael; Lim, Elgin; Fischer, Benedikt; Patrick, David; Ogilvie, Gina; Coombs, Daniel; Steinberg, Malcolm; Rekart, Michael

    2017-02-06

    Increased viral load during early HIV infection (EHI) disproportionately contributes to HIV transmission among gay men. We examined changes in sexual behavior that may pose a risk of HIV transmission (condomless anal sex (AS) with a serodiscordant or unknown status partner, CAS-SDU) in a cohort of 25 gay men newly diagnosed during EHI who provided information on 241 sexual partners at six time points following diagnosis. Twenty-two (88%) participants reported ≥1 AS partner (median time to first AS 80 days) and 12 (55%) reported ≥1 partnership involving CAS-SDU (median 116 days). In hierarchical generalized linear mixed effects models, AS was significantly less likely in all time periods following diagnosis and more likely with serodiscordant partners. The likelihood of CAS-SDU decreased three months after diagnosis and was higher in recently versus acutely infected participants. Most men in our study abstained from sex immediately after diagnosis with sustained longer-term reduction in CAS-SDU, confirming the importance of timely diagnosis during EHI.

  4. Might gluten traces in wheat substitutes pose a risk in patients with celiac disease? A population-based probabilistic approach to risk estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gibert, A.; Kruizinga, A.G.; Neuhold, S.; Houben, G.F.; Canela, M.A.; Fasano, A.; Catassi, C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In patients with treated celiac disease (CD), the ingestion of gluten traces contained in gluten-free (GF) wheat substitutes (eg, GF bread, flour, and pasta) could cause persisting intestinal mucosal damage. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the proportion of CD patients at risk

  5. Scientific Opinion on the risk to plant health posed by Strawberry crinkle virus to the EU territory with the identification and evaluation of risk reduction options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Panel on Plant Health assessed the risk to plant health of Strawberry crinkle virus (SCV for the European Union (EU territory, and evaluated the current EU legislation and possible risk reduction options. This virus is widely distributed both within and outside Europe and the same applies to its main vector, the strawberry aphid, Chaetosiphon fragaefolii. At-risk hosts (Fragaria spp. occur widely in Europe. Plants for planting were identified as the most significant entry pathway and the probability of entry is rated as unlikely to moderately likely with high uncertainty. The probability of establishment is rated as very likely with low uncertainty. The probability of local spread by natural means is moderately likely, with high uncertainty, whereas that of human-assisted long-distance spread is unlikely, with medium uncertainty. The potential consequences are rated as minimal to minor with medium uncertainty. Prohibition and restricting import or intra-EU trade to certified materials or to materials originating from pest-free areas or pest-free places of production are the options with highest effectiveness against the risks of introduction or against the risks of further spread. Prohibition and certification are also among the options of high or very high feasibility. In addition, it should be noted that the combination of options (cultural practices, certification, exclusion conditions, tolerant varieties has an overall high to very high level of effectiveness and feasibility. The current legislation has few weaknesses: the reliance on visual inspection, as well as the exceptions or derogations offered to some countries in which SCV is present. If the current legislation were removed, no major consequences would be expected unless the industry simultaneously ceased its widely adopted certification activity, which seems unlikely given the potential consequences.

  6. Scientific Opinion on the risks to plant health posed by Xylella fastidiosa in the EU territory, with the identification and evaluation of risk reduction options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The EFSA Panel on Plant Health conducted a pest risk assessment and an evaluation of risk reduction options for Xylella fastidiosa. X. fastidiosa has been detected in olive in the EU with a distribution restricted to the region of Apulia in Italy and is under official control. X. fastidiosa has a very broad host range, including many common cultivated and wild plants. All xylem fluid-feeding insects in Europe are considered to be potential vectors. Philaenus spumarius (Hemiptera: Aphrophoridae, a polyphagous spittlebug widespread in the whole risk assessment area, has been identified as a vector in Apulia. The probability of entry of X. fastidiosa from countries where X. fastidiosa is reported is very high with plants for planting and moderate with infectious insect vectors carried with plant commodities or travelling as stowaways. Establishment and spread in the EU is very likely. The consequences are considered to be major because yield losses and other damage would be high and require costly control measures. The systematic use of insecticides for vector control may create environmental impacts. With regard to risk reduction options, strategies for the prevention of introduction and for the containment of outbreaks should focus on the two main pathways (plants for planting and infectious insect vectors and combine the most effective options in an integrated approach. For plants for planting, these could be pest-free production areas, surveillance, certification, screened greenhouse production, vector control and testing for infection and, for some plant species, treatments (e.g. thermotherapy. To prevent entry of the infectious vectors, insecticide treatments and inspection of consignments and production sites are required. The Panel has also reviewed the effectiveness of risk reduction options for X. fastidiosa and its vectors listed in Directive 2000/29/EC and in the EU emergency measures. The Panel recommends the continuation and

  7. Scientific Opinion on the risk to plant health posed by Strawberry mild yellow edge virus to the EU territory with the identification and evaluation of risk reduction options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Panel on Plant Health assessed the risk to plant health of Strawberry mild yellow edge virus (SMYEV for the European Union (EU territory, and evaluated the current EU legislation and possible risk reduction options. This virus is widely distributed both within and outside Europe and the same applies to its main vector, the strawberry aphid, Chaetosiphon fragaefolii. At-risk hosts (Fragaria spp. occur widely in Europe. Plants for planting were identified as the most significant entry pathway and the probability of entry is rated as unlikely to moderately likely with high uncertainty. The probability of establishment is rated very likely with low uncertainty. The probability of local spread by natural means is moderately likely to likely, with medium uncertainty, whereas that of human-assisted long-distance spread is unlikely, with medium uncertainty. The potential consequences are rated as minimal to minor with medium uncertainty. Prohibition and restricting import or intra-EU trade to certified materials or to materials originating from pest-free areas or pest-free places of production are the options with highest effectiveness against the risks of introduction or against the risks of further spread. Prohibition and certification are also among the options of high or very high feasibility. In addition, it should be noted that the combination of options (cultural practices, certification, exclusion conditions, tolerant varieties has an overall high to very high level of effectiveness and feasibility. The current legislation has few weaknesses: the reliance on inefficient visual inspection as well as the exceptions or derogations offered to some countries in which SMYEV is present. If the current legislation were removed, no major consequences would be expected unless the industry simultaneously ceased its widely adopted certification activity, which seems unlikely given the potential consequences.

  8. The New Transgenic cry1Ab/vip3H Rice Poses No Unexpected Ecological Risks to Arthropod Communities in Rice Agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zengbin; Dang, Cong; Han, Naishun; Shen, Zhicheng; Peng, Yufa; Stanley, David; Ye, Gongyin

    2016-04-01

    The ecological risks to nontarget organisms should be rigorously assessed before Bt crops are released. Here, the impacts of a new Cry1Ab/Vip3H rice line on arthropod communities in rice agroecosystems were evaluated across 3 yr. Arthropods collected via vacuum were sorted into five guilds. The abundance and proportion of each guild as well as community-level parameters were determined in Cry1Ab/Vip3H and control rice fields. Changes in arthropod species assemblage over sampling dates were investigated by principal response curves (PRCs). Cry1Ab/Vip3H rice did not exert significant impacts on the seasonal density and proportion of each guild, except parasitoids. Detritivore seasonal density, but not its relative abundance, was significantly affected by Cry1Ab/Vip3H rice. Four community indices (species richness S, Shannon-Wiener index H', Simpson index D, and evenness index J') were similar between rice types. PRCs revealed a slight community difference between rice types in the past two tested years, with rice types accounting for 1.0-3.5% of the variance among arthropod communities. However, sampling dates explain 32.1-67.6% for these community differences. Of the 46 taxa with higher species weights, 26.1% of the taxa were significantly different, including seven taxa with higher abundance and five with lower density in Cry1Ab/Vip3H rice fields. These differences may be attributed to change in abundance of prey or hosts but not to direct effects of Bt proteins. We infer that this new Cry1Ab/Vip3H rice line poses no unintended ecological risks to the arthropod community. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Reproduction Symposium: does grazing on biosolids-treated pasture pose a pathophysiological risk associated with increased exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, N P; Bellingham, M; Sharpe, R M; Cotinot, C; Rhind, S M; Kyle, C; Erhard, H; Hombach-Klonisch, S; Lind, P M; Fowler, P A

    2014-08-01

    Biosolids (processed human sewage sludge), which contain low individual concentrations of an array of contaminants including heavy metals and organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans known to cause physiological disturbances, are increasingly being used as an agricultural fertilizer. This could pose a health threat to both humans and domestic and wild animal species. This review summarizes results of a unique model, used to determine the effects of exposure to mixtures of environmentally relevant concentrations of pollutants, in sheep grazed on biosolids-treated pastures. Pasture treatment results in nonsignificant increases in environmental chemical (EC) concentrations in soil. Whereas EC concentrations were increased in some tissues of both ewes and their fetuses, concentrations were low and variable and deemed to pose little risk to consumer health. Investigation of the effects of gestational EC exposure on fetal development has highlighted a number of issues. The results indicate that gestational EC exposure can adversely affect gonadal development (males and females) and that these effects can impact testicular morphology, ovarian follicle numbers and health, and the transcriptome and proteome in adult animals. In addition, EC exposure can be associated with altered expression of GnRH, GnRH receptors, galanin receptors, and kisspeptin mRNA within the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, gonadotroph populations within the pituitary gland, and regional aberrations in thyroid morphology. In most cases, these anatomical and functional differences do not result in altered peripheral hormone concentrations or reproductive function (e.g., lambing rate), indicating physiological compensation under the conditions tested. Physiological compensation is also suggested from studies that indicate that EC effects may be greater when exposure occurs either

  10. Scientific Opinion on the risk to plant health posed by Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch in the EU territory, with the identification and evaluation of risk reduction options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Panel on Plant Health conducted a pest risk assessment for the grapevine insect pest, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (an aphid species commonly known as phylloxera, in the European Union, identified risk reduction options and evaluated the effectiveness of the phytosanitary measures listed in Council Directive 2000/29/EC. Entry was assessed as potentially very likely for plants intended for planting (although the pathway is closed by Article 15 of Annex III and very unlikely for fruit for consumption because transport and transfer would be very difficult, even though phylloxera has a moderate likelihood of association with the pathway. Establishment is very likely as the pest is already very widespread in the risk assessment area, occurring almost everywhere Vitis plants are present. Successful eradication is very unlikely and small populations can persist undetected in the soil. Spread within the EU is considered to be very likely because there are no effective barriers, it can disperse up to a few kilometres aided by the wind and it can readily be moved long distances with planting material. Grafting with resistant rootstocks throughout the EU ensures that the production of fruit and plants for planting is rarely affected by phylloxera infestations and, if so, only at a limited level. The Panel considers that the IIAII measures for D. vitifoliae do not assist in preventing entry and are ineffective in preventing spread because detection is so difficult. Restricting movements of plants for planting to cuttings grafted on resistant rootstocks, in combination with treatments (e.g. particularly fungicides and hot water treatments, was found to be the most effective risk reduction option. Limitations in the Cyprus protected zone regulations were identified.

  11. Scientific Opinion on the risk to plant health posed by Phialophora cinerescens (Wollenweber van Beyma for the EU territory, with the identification and evaluation of risk reduction options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Panel on Plant Health conducted a pest risk assessment for Phialophora cinerescens (Wollenweber van Beyma (the causal agent of Phialophora carnation wilt for the EU territory, identified risk management options and evaluated their effectiveness. The risk assessment was conducted taking into account current EU legislation. The Panel also provided an opinion on the effectiveness of the present EU requirements against this organism, listed in Council Directive 2000/29/EC. Four pathways for entry were identified. Plants for propagation (rooted and unrooted cuttings of host plants were considered as a major pathway. Entry via this pathway was rated as unlikely because of the effective disease prevention techniques for cuttings now in place in places of production. P. cinerescens has been found in most Member States but with few occurrences or restricted distribution. In some Member States the pest was eradicated. Owing to current cultural practices and control measures, establishment in areas in which the pest was not previously present is considered very unlikely. For the same reasons, the probability of infection of crops is strongly reduced and hence the probability of spread to areas where the pest was not previously present is very unlikely. Similarly, the impact on carnation is at the moment minimal and unlikely to increase in the future. Risk reduction options to reduce the probability of entry and spread and mitigate the impact were evaluated; those addressing the phytosanitary status of the propagation material were considered to be the most effective and feasible (e.g., the officially accepted carnation certification system for source planting material, including the current regulations laid down in Council Directive 2000/29/EC. If the current regulation were removed, a certification system could be just as effective as the existing regulation, provided it included practically all the prescriptions of the present regulation.

  12. Project 6: Cumulative Risk Assessment Methods and Applications: Task 6.3. Applying Genetic and Epigenetic Data to Inform Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susceptibility is defined by the NRC (2009) as the capacity to be affected. A person can be at greater or less risk relative to population median risk because of susceptibility factors such as life stage, sex, genetics, socioeconomic status, prior exposure to chemicals, and non-c...

  13. Scientific Opinion on the risk to plant health posed by Parasaissetia nigra (Nietner in the EU territory, with the identification and evaluation of risk reduction options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Panel on Plant Health conducted a pest risk assessment for Parasaissetia nigra in the European Union (EU and identified and evaluated the phytosanitary measures listed in Council Directive 2000/29/EC. Entry through the principal pathways is assessed as moderately likely for plants for planting and very unlikely for living parts of plants, such as fruit and cut flowers with foliage, the discrepancy being mainly due to the difference in probability of transfer to a suitable host. Establishment is rated as very likely outdoors in Mediterranean areas and indoors in the whole risk assessment area (where the pest has been present for a long time, and unlikely outdoors in non-Mediterranean areas. Spread within the EU is considered to be moderately likely because the pest can readily be moved with plant material but is limited by climatic conditions. The magnitude of the potential consequences is rated as minor. The Panel evaluated the effectiveness of current EU phytosanitary measures and concluded that the removal of P. nigra from Annex IIAII would not affect its probability of entry, because the importation from Third countries of some host plants regulated for P. nigra (Citrus, Fortunella, Poncirus species and their hybrids is prohibited in Annex III. However, spread could be affected since there would no longer be a requirement to inspect for this pest before issuing a plant passport (Annex V. However, since the regulated Rutaceae species constitute only a very small proportion of the potential host plants of P. nigra,the current phytosanitary measures are mostly ineffective in preventing the further introduction and spread of P. nigra in the EU. The Panel identified surveillance at the production site and treatment of the consignment as the most effective and technically feasible risk reduction options, particularly when in combination.

  14. Scientific Opinion on the risks to plant health posed by Phytophthora fragariae Hickman var. fragariae in the EU territory, with the identification and evaluation of risk reduction options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Panel on Plant Health assessed the risk to plant health from Phytophthora fragariae for the European Union and evaluated the current EU legislation and possible risk reduction options. The pest is present in most areas of Europe except southern Mediterranean regions. Entry through the plants for planting, but not seeds, pathway, is assessed as a major pathway, with the probability of entry rated as unlikely and the uncertainty as high. The probability of establishment is likely in the absence of existing disease control practices with low uncertainty. The probability of spread in the absence of a scheme for the production of certified plants for planting is considered to be very likely. With certification, spread is considered to be unlikely to moderately likely, depending on the inclusion of testing for the pathogen as part of certification. These ratings have medium uncertainty. Potential impact is rated as minor with medium uncertainty. The Panel evaluated the effectiveness of current EU legislation regarding the introduction and spread of P. fragariae. According to the regulation the import of Fragaria plants for planting, other than seeds, is prohibited from specified countries, whereas for import of these plants from other countries and for movement of these plants within the EU special requirements with respect to P. fragariae must be fulfilled. If the current legislation specific to P. fragariae were removed, no major consequences would be expected, unless the industry simultaneously ceased its voluntary certification activity. This is largely because of the important level of protection afforded to the industry by the widely used certification schemes for Fragaria, which significantly reduce the risks of entry, establishment, spread and impact. Certification schemes for the movement of Fragaria plants for planting offer the greatest efficiency and feasibility and the least uncertainty, especially if effective detection is

  15. Scientific Opinion on the risk to plant health posed by Burkholderia caryophylli for the EU territory with the identification and evaluation of risk reduction options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The EFSA Panel on Plant Health conducted a pest risk assessment for Burkholderia caryophylli for the EU territory under the scenario of current EU legislation and identified and evaluated risk reduction options. B. caryophylli is absent from the EU territory. The host range of B. caryophylli includes the genus Dianthus and three other incidental, minor, hosts (statice, lisianthus and gypsophila. Seven entry pathways were identified, with carnation cuttings and cut flowers being the most frequently traded. All pathways were considered unlikely as the pathogen is rarely associated with the pathways at origin mostly because of the high phytosanitary quality of the plant propagation material. The establishment is unlikely because outdoors the environmental conditions are not favourable to the pathogen and alternative hosts are not present, whereas in protected crops the cultural practices are very effective to keep the crop free from this bacterium. Only very short-distance spread within a crop is likely, and spread between different crops is unlikely. Risk reduction options addressing the sanitary status of the propagation material have the best effectiveness and feasibility. Effective control measures are based on healthy propagation materials (cuttings and hygiene practices. With the existing certification scheme of carnation plant propagation material, the probability of spread through infected cuttings is largely reduced. The high effectiveness of current measures is ensured by the absence of B. caryophylli in the EU, as in recent decades no findings of B. caryophylli have been reported.B. caryophylli is reported to be present in some third countries in Asia, where it still causes high crop losses. If the current regulation were to be removed, major consequences or changes in the potential impact of B. caryophylli are expected if no voluntary certification scheme were applied, together with good sanitation standards, along the crop

  16. Decade-long use of the antimicrobial peptide combination tyrothricin does not pose a major risk of acquired resistance with gram-positive bacteria and Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauss-Grabo, M; Atiye, S; Le, T; Kretschmar, M

    2014-11-01

    Tyrothricin, an antimicrobial peptide combination produced by Bacillus brevis consisting of gramicidins and tyrocidins commands broad antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria and some yeasts in vitro. The polypeptide and its components have been used therapeutically for about 60 years in the local treatment of infected skin and infected oro-pharyngeal mucous membranes. Though older studies suggest that resistance development of originally susceptible microorganisms towards tyrothricin is a rare event, data concerning recent state of resistance are lacking. In the present in vitro study the susceptibility to tyrothricin of clinical isolates of bacterial and yeast origin from superficial swabs of the skin and mucous membranes of outpatients and inpatients obtained from clinical material in the second half of the year 2003 was determined. Using a microdilution assay, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and MIC90, defined as the concentration that inhibits at least 90 percent of the tested strains) of 20 strains each of Staphylococcus aureus of the variety MSSA (susceptible to methicillin), Staphylococcus aureus of the variety MRSA (methicillin resistant), Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, Corynebacterium spec., Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis was determined. All of the tested gram-positive bacteria turned out to be highly susceptible to tyrothricin with MICs ≤ 4mg/l. The tested yeast strains were susceptible to the polypeptide antibiotic as well, but (with MICs of 16 mg/l and 32 mg/l, respectively) to a lesser extent. No acquired resistance of the tested strains was determined, indicating that the risk of resistance development against topically applied tyrothricin is only marginal, if there is any at all. Thus, long-term-, i.e. decade-long use of topically applied tyrothricin and its components in the local treatment of infected skin does not pose a major risk with respect to acquired resistance

  17. Exposure to phthalates in 5-6 years old primary school starters in Germany--a human biomonitoring study and a cumulative risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Holger M; Wittassek, Matthias; Brüning, Thomas; Angerer, Jürgen; Heudorf, Ursel

    2011-06-01

    We determined the internal exposure of 111 German primary school starters by analyzing urinary metabolites of six phthalates: butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP), di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP) and di-iso-decylphthalate (DiDP). From the urinary metabolite levels, we calculated daily intakes and related these values to Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) values. By introducing the concept of a relative cumulative Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI(cum)) value, we tried to account for the cumulative exposure to several of the above-mentioned phthalates. The TDI(cum) was derived as follows: the daily intake (DI) calculated from the metabolite level was divided by the TDI for each phthalate; this ratio was multiplied by 100% indicating the TDI percentage for which the DI accounted. Finally the % TDIs of the different phthalates were totalled to get the TDI(cum). A TDI(cum) above 100% is a potential cause for concern. We confirmed the ubiquitous exposure of the children to all phthalates investigated. Exposures were within range of levels previously reported for GerES, albeit slightly lower. Regarding daily intakes, two children exceeded the TDI for DnBP, whereas one child closely approached the TDI for DEHP. 24% of the children exceeded the TDI(cum) for the three most critical phthalates: DEHP, DnBP and DiBP. Furthermore, 54% of the children had total exposures that used up more than 50% the TDI(cum). Therefore, the overall exposure to a number of phthalates, and the knowledge that these phthalates (and other anti-androgens) act in a dose-additive manner, urgently warrants a cumulative risk assessment approach.

  18. Scientific Opinion on the risk to plant health posed by Eutetranychus orientalis Klein in the EU territory, with the identification and evaluation of risk reduction options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Panel on Plant Health conducted a pest risk assessment for Eutetranychus orientalis in the European Union (EU and evaluated the effectiveness of phytosanitary measures in Council Directive 2000/29/EC. Entry through the plants for planting pathway is assessed as very likely, while entry through other pathways is estimated as moderately likely to unlikely owing to the different probability of transfer to a suitable host. Establishment is rated as very likely in Mediterranean areas and from moderately likely to unlikely in non-Mediterranean areas, because of unfavourable environmental conditions. Spread is rated as very likely because of the many ways the pest can spread, its polyphagy and the wide distribution of hosts. Impact is rated as minor, with an expected increase in the damage when populations of natural enemies are severely affected by control measures and/or when environmental conditions are stressful for the host. However, the lack of information resulted in an overall medium level of uncertainty. The Panel evaluated the effectiveness of current EU phytosanitary measures and concluded that the removal of E. orientalis from Annex IIAII would not affect its probability of entry, because the importation from Third countries of some host plants regulated for this pest(Citrus, Fortunella, Poncirus species and their hybrids is prohibited in Annex III. However, spread could be affected since there would no longer be a requirement to inspect for this pest before issuing a plant passport (Annex V. However, since the regulated Rutaceae species constitute an extremely small proportion of the potential host plants of E. orientalis, the current phytosanitary measures are mostly ineffective in preventing further introduction and spread of E. orientalis in the EU. The Panel identified surveillance at the production site and treatment of the consignment as the most effective and technically feasible risk reduction options, particularly when

  19. REDUCING THE RISKS POSED BY DUTCH RETURNEES FROM SYRIA BY TRANSFERRING GERMANY’S EXPERIENCES IN THEIR FIGHT AGAINST THE RADICAL RIGHT TO THE NETHERLANDS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Franssens

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates one aspect of what the Dutch government can do to reduce the risks posed by Dutch jihadists who are currently fighting in Syria. The Dutch government has developed a comprehensive action programme to combat jihadism which outlines measures designed to combat the jihadist movement in the Netherlands. The comprehensive action programme includes plans to develop an exit facility to help people leaving the jihadist movement. Furthermore, a support facility needs to be created, based on the German network model. Of this network the Hayat programme will be analysed in-depth together with the EXIT-Deutschland programme. Hayat is a civil society programme that includes working with relatives of radicalised individuals and tries to de-radicalise these individuals. Hayat’s programme is amongst others based on experiences gained from EXIT-Deutschland, a de-radicalisation programme focusing on de-radicalising individual members of the radical right movement. The exit-facility that the Dutch government wants to create and the support facility are only explained vaguely and have not yet been introduced. This research investigates how and to what extent Hayat’s and EXIT-Deutschland’s elements can successfully be transferred to the Netherlands. This research recommends focusing on disengaging instead of de-radicalisation. The programme should be executed by an NGO with expert witness status. Furthermore, an active approach to contacting returnees is considered best in line with the Dutch government’s objectives. Important elements of the German programme can be transferred to the Netherlands. These elements include using a personal approach, providing returnees with alternatives and family counselling, and generally - apart from the already existing repressive measures - focusing on positive measures. This article also outlines the ways in which such a transfer of best practises can be best achieved.

  20. A prospective study of gynecological cancer risk in relation to adiposity factors: cumulative incidence and association with plasma adipokine levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meei-Maan Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Associations of obesity and obesity-related metabolic factors (adiposity factors with uterine corpus cancer (UCC and ovarian cancer (OVC risk have been described. Still, a cause-effect relationship and the underlying mediators remain unclear, particularly for low-incidence populations. We aimed to prospectively determine whether adiposity factors could predict the development of UCC and OVC in Taiwanese women. To explore the biological mediators linking adiposity factors to cancer risk, we examined the association of two adipokines, leptin and adiponectin, with the gynecological cancers. METHODS: Totally, 11,258 women, aged 30-65, were recruited into the Community-Based Cancer Screening Program (CBCSP study during 1991-1993, and were followed for UCC and OVC cases until December 31, 2011. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs. Adiposity factors and risk covariates were assessed at recruitment. Newly-developed cancer cases were determined from data in the government's National Cancer Registry and Death Certification System. For adipokienes study, a nested case-control study was conducted within the cohort. Baseline plasma samples of 40 incident gynecological cancer cases and 240 age-menopause-matched controls were assayed for adipokines levels. FINDINGS: There were 38 and 30 incident cases of UCC and OVC, respectively, diagnosed during a median 19.9 years of follow-up. Multivariate analysis showed that alcohol intake (HR = 16.00, 95%  = 4.83-53.00, high triglyceride levels (HR = 2.58, 95% = 1.28-5.17, and years of endogenous estrogen exposure per 5-year increment (HR = 1.91, 95%  = 1.08-3.38 were associated with increased UCC risk. High body mass index (BMI ≥ 27 kg/m(2, HR = 2.90, 95%  = 1.30-6.46 was associated with increased OVC risk. Analysis further showed an independent effect of adipokines on UCC and OVC risk after adjustment of the risk covariates. CONCLUSION: We provided evidence

  1. Impact of individual and cumulative coronary risk factors on coronary flow reserve assessed by dobutamine stress echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmari, Saeed A L; Bunch, T Jared; Modesto, Karen; Stussy, Vicky; Dichak, Amy; Seward, James B; Pellikka, Patricia A; Chandrasekaran, Krishnaswamy

    2008-06-15

    Traditional cardiovascular risk factors have been shown to cause microvascular dysfunction. Most studies that have evaluated microcirculation rely on invasive measurement tools. We used dobutamine stress echocardiography, a validated method to measure coronary flow velocity (CFV) and coronary flow reserve (CFR), in a previously unstudied population without known significant coronary artery disease to determine the impact of traditional risk factors on CFR. Consecutive patients who had no evidence of regional wall motion abnormalities at rest or during dobutamine stress echocardiography were studied. Left anterior descending artery CFV was measured at baseline and at peak dobutamine stress and CFR was calculated as the ratio of peak stress CFV to baseline CFV. Fifty-nine consecutive patients (28 men) with mean age of 66.8+/-14.5 years were studied. CFR was lower in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) compared with those without (1.7+/-0.74 vs 2.48+/-0.98, p50 mm Hg), and obesity with a wide pulse pressure. In a multivariate model, DM, obesity, and wide pulse pressure were significantly associated with variation in CFR (p<0.0008). In conclusion, CFR was abnormal in patients with DM, hypertension, and obesity. CFR impairment is exaggerated as the number of risk factors increases. Despite a negative dobutamine stress echocardiographic result, aggressive risk factor assessment and control should be implemented in patients with coronary risk factors due to an underlying abnormal CFR.

  2. Scientific Opinion on the risks to plant health posed by European versus non-European populations of the potato cyst nematodes Globodera pallida and Globodera rostochiensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.

    2012-01-01

    The Panel on Plant Health has delivered a scientific opinion on the different risks posed by European and non-European populations of the potato cyst nematodes (PCN) Globodera pallida and Globodera rostochiensis to solanaceous plants in the EU and on the effectiveness of current control measures....

  3. MTHFR gene A1298C polymorphisms are associated with breast cancer risk among Chinese population: evidence based on an updated cumulative meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yadong; Yang, Haiyan; Duan, Guangcai

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Published studies on the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene A1298C polymorphisms and breast cancer risk among Chinese population have yielded conflicting results. The purpose of this study was to clarify the association between MTHFR gene A1298C polymorphisms and breast cancer risk among Chinese population. Methods: Systematic searches were performed through the database of Medline/PubMed, Science Direct, Elsevier, CNKI and Wanfang Medical Online. Results: Overall, a significantly increased risk of breast cancer was observed among the subjects carrying MTHFR gene A1298C AC+CC genotype (odds ratio [OR]=1.05 with 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-1.10) as compared to those carrying AA genotype among total Chinese population. We did not observe any significant association between MTHFR gene A1298C polymorphisms and the risk of breast cancer under the additional genetic models of AC vs. AA, CC vs. AA and C-allele vs. A-allele (OR=1.00 with 95% CI: 0.97-1.02, OR=1.01 with 95% CI: 1.00-1.02 and OR=1.00 with 95% CI: 0.99-1.02, respectively). The cumulative meta-analysis showed similar results. In subgroup analysis, we observed subjects carrying AC+CC genotype had an increased breast cancer risk compared with those carrying AA genotype among the studies of sample size less than 1000. We did not observe any significant association between MTHFR gene A1298C polymorphisms and breast cancer risk in additional subgroup analyses. Conclusions: Our results suggest that MTHFR gene A1298C AC+CC genotype may be a risk factor for the development of breast cancer among Chinese population. Well-designed studies with a large sample size are needed to further confirm our findings. PMID:26884927

  4. Cumulative Environmental Risk in Substance Abusing Women: Early Intervention, Parenting Stress, Child Abuse Potential and Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Susan J.

    2003-01-01

    A study of 161 substance-abusing mothers assessed 10 maternal risk factors: maternal depression; domestic violence; nondomestic violence; family size; incarceration; no significant other at home; negative life events; psychiatric problems; homelessness; and drug use severity. Parenting stress and child abuse potential was higher for women with…

  5. Quantifying Chronic Stress Exposure for Cumulative Risk Assessment: Lessons Learned from a Case Study of Allostatic Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although multiple methods of quantifying environmental chemical exposures have been validated for use in human health risk assessment, quantifying chronic stress exposure is more challenging. Stress is a consequence of perceiving an “exposure” (e.g., violence, poverty) as more th...

  6. Cumulative Risk, the Mother-Child Relationship, and Social-Emotional Competence in Latino Head Start Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí, Maria; Bonillo, Albert; Jané, Maria Claustre; Fisher, Elisa M.; Duch, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Supportive mother-child interactions promote the development of social-emotional competence. Poverty and other associated psychosocial risk factors have a negative impact on mother-child interaction. In spite of Latino children being disproportionately represented among children living in poverty, research on mother-child…

  7. Cumulative health risk assessment of halogenated and parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with particulate matters in urban air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian-Lin; Jing, Xin; Chang, Wen-Jing; Chen, Zheng-Xia; Zeng, Hui

    2015-03-01

    Halogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HPAHs) have been reported to occur widely in urban air. Nevertheless, knowledge about the human health risk associated with inhalation exposure to HPAHs is scarce so far. In the present study, nine HPAHs and 16 PAHs were determined in atmospheric particulate matter (PM) collected from Shenzhen, China to address this issue. Concentrations of Σ9HPAHs varied from 0.1 to 1.5 ng/m(3) and from 0.09 to 0.4 ng/m(3) in PM10 and PM2.5 samples, respectively. As for individuals, 9-bromoanthracene, 7-bromobenz(a)anthracene, and 9,10-dibromoanthracene were the dominant congeners. Levels of Σ16PAHs in PM10 and PM2.5 samples ranged from 3.2 to 81 ng/m(3) and from 2.8 to 85 ng/m(3), respectively. Among individual PAHs, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene were the main congeners. According to the season, concentrations of HPAHs and PAHs in atmospheric PM10/PM2.5 samples show a similar decreasing trend with an order: winter>autumn>spring>summer. The daily intake (DI) of PM10/PM2.5-bound HPAHs and PAHs were estimated. Our results indicated that children have the highest DI levels via inhalation exposure. The incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) induced by PM10/PM2.5-bound HPAHs and PAHs were calculated. The ILCR values showed a similar decreasing trend with an order: adults>children>seniors>adolescent. Overall, the ILCR values induced by HPAHs and PAHs were far below the priority risk level (10(-4)), indicating no obvious cancer risk. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the human health risk associated with inhalation exposure to PM10/PM2.5-bound HPAHs.

  8. The Soft Cumulative Constraint

    CERN Document Server

    Petit, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    This research report presents an extension of Cumulative of Choco constraint solver, which is useful to encode over-constrained cumulative problems. This new global constraint uses sweep and task interval violation-based algorithms.

  9. Cumulative Risks of Foster Care Placement by Age 18 for U.S. Children, 2000–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildeman, Christopher; Emanuel, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    Foster care placement is among the most tragic events a child can experience because it more often than not implies that a child has experienced or is at very high risk of experiencing abuse or neglect serious enough to warrant state intervention. Yet it is unclear how many children will experience foster care placement at some point between birth and age 18. Using synthetic cohort life tables and data from the Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System (AFCARS), we estimated how many U.S. children were placed in foster care between birth and age 18, finding support for three conclusions. First, up to 5.91% of all U.S. children were ever placed in foster care between their birth and age 18. Second, Native American (up to 15.44%) and Black (up to 11.53%) children were at far higher risk of placement. Foster care is thus quite common in the U.S., especially for historically disadvantaged racial/ethnic groups. Third, differences in foster care placement were minimal between the sexes, indicating that the high risks of foster care placement are shared almost equally by boys and girls. PMID:24671254

  10. Cumulative risks of foster care placement by age 18 for U.S. children, 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildeman, Christopher; Emanuel, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    Foster care placement is among the most tragic events a child can experience because it more often than not implies that a child has experienced or is at very high risk of experiencing abuse or neglect serious enough to warrant state intervention. Yet it is unclear how many children will experience foster care placement at some point between birth and age 18. Using synthetic cohort life tables and data from the Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System (AFCARS), we estimated how many U.S. children were placed in foster care between birth and age 18, finding support for three conclusions. First, up to 5.91% of all U.S. children were ever placed in foster care between their birth and age 18. Second, Native American (up to 15.44%) and Black (up to 11.53%) children were at far higher risk of placement. Foster care is thus quite common in the U.S., especially for historically disadvantaged racial/ethnic groups. Third, differences in foster care placement were minimal between the sexes, indicating that the high risks of foster care placement are shared almost equally by boys and girls.

  11. Cumulative risks of foster care placement by age 18 for U.S. children, 2000-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Wildeman

    Full Text Available Foster care placement is among the most tragic events a child can experience because it more often than not implies that a child has experienced or is at very high risk of experiencing abuse or neglect serious enough to warrant state intervention. Yet it is unclear how many children will experience foster care placement at some point between birth and age 18. Using synthetic cohort life tables and data from the Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System (AFCARS, we estimated how many U.S. children were placed in foster care between birth and age 18, finding support for three conclusions. First, up to 5.91% of all U.S. children were ever placed in foster care between their birth and age 18. Second, Native American (up to 15.44% and Black (up to 11.53% children were at far higher risk of placement. Foster care is thus quite common in the U.S., especially for historically disadvantaged racial/ethnic groups. Third, differences in foster care placement were minimal between the sexes, indicating that the high risks of foster care placement are shared almost equally by boys and girls.

  12. Gaddafi's Death Poses Challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The death of Muammar Gaddafi marks a new era for Libya.It also poses a huge challenge for Libyan authorities dealing with tribal conflicts.He Wenping,a researcher with the Institute of West-Asian and African Studies at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences,believes that Libya is in danger of falling into a period of internal strife and tribal conflict.

  13. Could Testosterone Replacement Therapy in Hypogonadal Men Ameliorate Anemia, a Cardiovascular Risk Factor? An Observational, 54-Week Cumulative Registry Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li Tao; Shin, Yu Seob; Kim, Ji Yong; Park, Jong Kwan

    2016-04-01

    In this study we investigated if testosterone undecanoate attenuates anemia and the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with hypogonadism. A registry study consisted of 58 participants with a subnormal total testosterone level (less than 2.35 ng/ml) and at least mild symptoms of testosterone deficiency. All patients received an injection of 1,000 mg testosterone undecanoate at the initial visit, followed by injection at 6, 18, 30, 42 and 54 weeks. Serum hormones, hemoglobin, hematocrit, anemia risk factors, lipid profiles, whole blood viscosity and anthropometry were measured. Total testosterone (from mean ± SD 1.87 ± 1.09 to 5.52 ± 1.92 ng/ml, p testosterone (from 3.04 ± 2.03 to 7.23 ± 2.90 pg/ml, p testosterone undecanoate therapy. Hemoglobin and hematocrit significantly increased after testosterone undecanoate therapy by an average of 2.46 gm/dl (p testosterone undecanoate therapy (p = 0.047). A reduction in total cholesterol (from 165.89 ± 39.16 to 153.80 ± 154.27 mg/dl, p = 0.002), increased whole blood viscosity and increased hematocrit were observed until 54 weeks compared with baseline. However, whole blood viscosity and hematocrit stabilized after 18 weeks. After 54 weeks testosterone undecanoate decreased the prevalence of anemia and components of the metabolic syndrome. A longer duration of testosterone undecanoate therapy of more than 18 weeks may be effective and safe in reducing blood viscosity and improving anemia. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cumulative effects of bamboo sawdust addition on pyrolysis of sewage sludge: Biochar properties and environmental risk from metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Junwei; Wang, Minyan; Cao, Yucheng; Wu, Shengchun; Liang, Peng; Li, Yanan; Zhang, Jianyun; Zhang, Jin; Wong, Ming Hung; Shan, Shengdao; Christie, Peter

    2017-03-01

    A novel type of biochar was produced by mixing bamboo sawdust with sewage sludge (1:1, w/w) via a co-pyrolysis process at 400-600°C. Changes in physico-chemical properties and the intrinsic speciation of metals were investigated before and after pyrolysis. Co-pyrolysis resulted in a lower biochar yield but a higher C content in the end product compared with use of sludge alone as the raw material. FT-IR analysis indicates that phosphine derivatives containing PH bonds were formed in the co-pyrolyzed biochars. In addition, co-pyrolysis of sludge with bamboo sawdust transformed the potentially toxic metals in the sludge into more stable fractions, leading to a considerable decrease in their direct toxicity and bioavailability in the co-pyrolyzed biochar. In conclusion, the co-pyrolysis technology provides a feasible method for the safe disposal of metal-contaminated sewage sludge in an attempt to minimize the environmental risk from potentially toxic metals after land application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cumulative increased risk of incident type 2 diabetes mellitus with increasing triglyceride glucose index in normal-weight people: The Rural Chinese Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Wang, Bingyuan; Liu, Yu; Sun, Xizhuo; Luo, Xinping; Wang, Chongjian; Li, Linlin; Zhang, Lu; Ren, Yongcheng; Zhao, Yang; Zhou, Junmei; Han, Chengyi; Zhao, Jingzhi; Hu, Dongsheng

    2017-03-01

    Risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increased in metabolically obese but normal-weight people. However, we have limited knowledge of how to prevent T2DM in normal-weight people. We aimed to evaluate the association between triglyceride glucose (TyG) index and incident T2DM among normal-weight people in rural China. We included data from 5706 people with normal body mass index (BMI) (18.5-23.9 kg/m(2)) without baseline T2DM in a rural Chinese cohort followed for a median of 6.0 years. A Cox proportional-hazard model was used to assess the risk of incident T2DM by quartiles of TyG index and difference in TyG index between follow-up and baseline (TyG-D), estimating hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A generalized additive plot was used to show the nonparametric smoothed exposure-response association between risk of T2DM and TyG index as a continuous variable. TyG was calculated as ln [fasting triglyceride level (mg/dl) × fasting plasma glucose level (mg/dl)/2]. Risk of incident T2DM was increased with quartiles 2, 3 and 4 versus quartile 1 of TyG index (adjusted HR [aHR] 2.48 [95% CI 1.20-5.11], 3.77 [1.83-7.79], and 5.30 [2.21-12.71], P trend Risk of incident T2DM was increased with quartile 4 versus quartile 1 of TyG-D (aHR 3.91 [2.22-6.87]). The results were consistent when analyses were restricted to participants without baseline metabolic syndrome and impaired fasting glucose level. The generalized additive plot showed cumulative increased risk of T2DM with increasing TyG index. Risk of incident T2DM is increased with increasing TyG index among rural Chinese people, so the index might be an important indicator for identifying people at high risk of T2DM.

  16. Student-Posed Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Kathleen A.; Etkina, Eugenia

    2002-10-01

    As part of weekly reports,1 structured journals in which students answer three standard questions each week, they respond to the prompt, If I were the instructor, what questions would I ask or problems assign to determine if my students understood the material? An initial analysis of the results shows that some student-generated problems indicate fundamental misunderstandings of basic physical concepts. A further investigation explores the relevance of the problems to the week's material, whether the problems are solvable, and the type of problems (conceptual or calculation-based) written. Also, possible links between various characteristics of the problems and conceptual achievement are being explored. The results of this study spark many more questions for further work. A summary of current findings will be presented, along with its relationship to previous work concerning problem posing.2 1Etkina, E. Weekly Reports;A Two-Way Feedback Tool, Science Education, 84, 594-605 (2000). 2Mestre, J.P., Probing Adults Conceptual Understanding and Transfer of Learning Via Problem Posing, Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 23, 9-50 (2002).

  17. Boneless Pose Editing and Animation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Hansen, Kristian Evers; Erleben, Kenny

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a pose editing and animation method for triangulated surfaces based on a user controlled partitioning of the model into deformable parts and rigid parts which are denoted handles. In our pose editing system, the user can sculpt a set of poses simply by transforming...... the handles for each pose. Using Laplacian editing, the deformable parts are deformed to match the handles. In our animation system the user can constrain one or several handles in order to define a new pose. New poses are interpolated from the examples poses, by solving a small non-linear optimization...... problem in order to obtain the interpolation weights. While the system can be used simply for building poses, it is also an animation system. The user can specify a path for a given constraint and the model is animated correspondingly....

  18. UBIQUITOUS POLLUTANTS FROM CUMULATIVE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPS) as environmental pollutants is a multifaceted issue whose scope continues to become better delineated since the escalation of concerted attention beginning in the 1980s. PPCPs typically occur as trace environmental pollutants (primarily in surface but also in ground waters) as a result of their widespread, continuous, combined usage in a broad range of human and veterinary therapeutic activities and practices. With respect to the risk-assessment paradigm, the growing body of published work has focused primarily on the origin and occurrence of these substances. Comparatively less is known about human and ecological exposure, and even less about the known or even potential hazards associated with exposure to these anthropogenic substances, many of which are highly bioactive. The continually growing, worldwide importance of freshwater resources underscores the need for ensuring that any aggregate or cumulative impacts on water supplies and resultant potential for human or ecological exposure be minimized. This has prompted the more recent investigations on waste treatment processes for one of the major sources of environmental disposition, namely sewage. Despite the paucity of health effects data for long-term, simultaneous exposure to multiple xenobiotics (particularly PPCPS) at low doses (a major toxicological issue that can be described by the

  19. Assessment of microbial infection risks posed by ingestion of water during domestic water use and full-contact recreation in a mid-southern African region

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, M

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A customised Water-related Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (WROMRA) process was used to determine risk of infection to water ingested by users in the south-eastern Free State, South Africa. The WRQMRA consisted of an observed...

  20. Novel reassortant influenza viruses between pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and other influenza viruses pose a risk to public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Weili; Wang, Feibing; Dong, Bin; Ou, Changbo; Meng, Demei; Liu, Jinhua; Fan, Zhen-Chuan

    2015-12-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) is characterized by eight single-stranded, negative sense RNA segments, which allows for gene reassortment among different IAV subtypes when they co-infect a single host cell simultaneously. Genetic reassortment is an important way to favor the evolution of influenza virus. Novel reassortant virus may pose a pandemic among humans. In history, three human pandemic influenza viruses were caused by genetic reassortment between avian, human and swine influenza viruses. Since 2009, pandemic (H1N1) 2009 (pdm/09 H1N1) influenza virus composed of two swine influenza virus genes highlighted the genetic reassortment again. Due to wide host species and high transmission of the pdm/09 H1N1 influenza virus, many different avian, human or swine influenza virus subtypes may reassert with it to generate novel reassortant viruses, which may result in a next pandemic among humans. So, it is necessary to understand the potential threat of current reassortant viruses between the pdm/09 H1N1 and other influenza viruses to public health. This study summarized the status of the reassortant viruses between the pdm/09 H1N1 and other influenza viruses of different species origins in natural and experimental conditions. The aim of this summarization is to facilitate us to further understand the potential threats of novel reassortant influenza viruses to public health and to make effective prevention and control strategies for these pathogens.

  1. The new transgenic Cry1Ab/vip3H rice poses no ecological risks to arthropod communities in rice agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ecological risks to non-target organisms should be rigorously assessed before Bt crops are released. Here, the impacts of a new Cry1Ab/Vip3H rice line on arthropod communities in rice agroecosystems were evaluated across three years. Arthropods collected via vacuum were sorted into five guilds. ...

  2. Scientific Opinion on the risk posed by pathogens in food of non-animal origin. Part 2 (Salmonella and Norovirus in berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Berries are a perishable food which can be consumed as fresh or minimally-processed as well as a frozen ingredient added to many foods. Strawberries, raspberries, blackberries and blueberries are the most commonly consumed in the EU. Risk factors for berry contamination by Salmonella and Norovirus were considered in the context of the whole food chain. Available estimates of the prevalence of these pathogens in berries were evaluated together with mitigation options relating to prevention of contamination and the relevance of microbiological criteria. It was concluded that each farm environment represents a unique combination of risk factors that can influence occurrence and persistence of pathogens in berry production. Appropriate implementation of food safety management systems including Good Agricultural Practices (GAP, Good Hygiene Practices (GHP and Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP, should be primary objectives of berry producers. There is currently insufficient evidence to justify the establishment of microbiological criteria for Salmonella for fresh or frozen berries. Outbreaks associated with Norovirus in frozen raspberries and strawberries are an emerging public health risk, although it is not known if in these outbreaks contamination occurred at minimal processing or during primary production. It is currently not possible to assess the suitability of an EU-wide Norovirus Hygiene Criterion at primary production for raspberries and strawberries. Microbiological criteria for Norovirus in berries are useful for validation and verification of food safety management systems, including HACCP-based processes and procedures, and can be used to communicate to food business operators and other stakeholders what is acceptable or unacceptable, however there is insufficient data to provide a risk base for establishing a Process Hygiene and Food Safety Criteria for Norovirus in berries. Collection of appropriate data and subsequent risk

  3. Scientific Opinion on the risks to plant health posed by Bemisia tabaci species complex and viruses it transmits for the EU territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Panel on Plant Health conducted a pest risk assessment for Bemisia tabaci and the viruses it transmits, including an evaluation of risk reduction options and an assessment of the effectiveness of the special requirements linked to B. tabaci and the viruses listed in Council Directive 2000/29/EC. B. tabaci and a large number of viruses transmitted by this polyphagous insect occur in subtropical and tropical climates around the world. Five entry pathways for B. tabaci and associated viruses were identified, with the plants for planting pathway being most significant and rated for entry of insects and viruses as likely and moderately likely, respectively. The most invasive B. tabaci species and several of its associated viruses responsible for severe diseases in major European food crops are established outdoors in coastal Mediterranean regions. Because of similar climate requirements and host plant preferences, B. tabaci and associated viruses currently not present in Europe are likely to establish within the temperature limits set for B. tabaci. Trade between European Member States allows B. tabaci to reach greenhouses in northern Europe, including those in areas with protected zone status. Because of the cool climate, establishment and spread outdoors of B. tabaci is rated unlikely for northern Europe. This situation is likely to continue even under a climatic scenario with an increase in temperature of +2 °C. B. tabaci -transmitted viruses cause severe diseases with major negative impact on crop production when risk reduction measures are not used. Risk reduction options will also apply to B. tabaci and viruses new to Europe. Risk reductions options are evaluated in terms of reducing B. tabaci populations, crop infestations, virus incidence and the impact of diseases. © European Food Safety Authority, 2013

  4. Relative Pesticide and Exposure Route Contribution to Aggregate and Cumulative Dose in Young Farmworker Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa Bradman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Child-Specific Aggregate Cumulative Human Exposure and Dose (CACHED framework integrates micro-level activity time series with mechanistic exposure equations, environmental concentration distributions, and physiologically-based pharmacokinetic components to estimate exposure for multiple routes and chemicals. CACHED was utilized to quantify cumulative and aggregate exposure and dose estimates for a population of young farmworker children and to evaluate the model for chlorpyrifos and diazinon. Micro-activities of farmworker children collected concurrently with residential measurements of pesticides were used in the CACHED framework to simulate 115,000 exposure scenarios and quantify cumulative and aggregate exposure and dose estimates. Modeled metabolite urine concentrations were not statistically different than concentrations measured in the urine of children, indicating that CACHED can provide realistic biomarker estimates. Analysis of the relative contribution of exposure route and pesticide indicates that in general, chlorpyrifos non-dietary ingestion exposure accounts for the largest dose, confirming the importance of the micro-activity approach. The risk metrics computed from the 115,000 simulations, indicate that greater than 95% of these scenarios might pose a risk to children’s health from aggregate chlorpyrifos exposure. The variability observed in the route and pesticide contributions to urine biomarker levels demonstrate the importance of accounting for aggregate and cumulative exposure in establishing pesticide residue tolerances in food.

  5. Energy and Fructose From Beverages Sweetened With Sugar or High-Fructose Corn Syrup Pose a Health Risk for Some People 1 2

    OpenAIRE

    Bray, George A.

    2013-01-01

    Sugar intake in the United States has increased by >40 fold since the American Revolution. The health concerns that have been raised about the amounts of sugar that are in the current diet, primarily as beverages, are the subject of this review. Just less than 50% of the added sugars (sugar and high-fructose corn syrup) are found in soft drinks and fruit drinks. The intake of soft drinks has increased 5-fold between 1950 and 2000. Most meta-analyses have shown that the risk of obesity, diabet...

  6. Contamination of drinking water resources in the Mekong delta floodplains: arsenic and other trace metals pose serious health risks to population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschmann, Johanna; Berg, Michael; Stengel, Caroline; Winkel, Lenny; Sampson, Mickey L; Trang, Pham Thi Kim; Viet, Pham Hung

    2008-08-01

    This study presents a transnational groundwater survey of the 62,000 km(2) Mekong delta floodplain (Southern Vietnam and bordering Cambodia) and assesses human health risks associated with elevated concentrations of dissolved toxic elements. The lower Mekong delta generally features saline groundwater. However, where groundwater salinity is drinking water in replacement of microbially contaminated surface water. In groundwater used as drinking water, arsenic concentrations ranged from 0.1-1340 microg L(-)(1), with 37% of the studied wells exceeding the WHO guidelines of 10 microg L(-)(1) arsenic. In addition, 50% exceeded the manganese WHO guideline of 0.4 mg L(-)(1), with concentrations being particularly high in Vietnam (range 1.0-34 mg L(-)(1)). Other elements of (minor) concern are Ba, Cd, Ni, Se, Pb and U. Our measurements imply that groundwater contamination is of geogenic origin and caused by natural anoxic conditions in the aquifers. Chronic arsenic poisoning is the most serious health risk for the ~2 million people drinking this groundwater without treatment, followed by malfunction in children's development through excessive manganese uptake. Government agencies, water specialists and scientists must get aware of the serious situation. Mitigation measures are urgently needed to protect the unaware people from such health problems.

  7. Improving performance of HVAC systems to reduce exposure to aerosolized infectious agents in buildings; recommendations to reduce risks posed by biological attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchcock, Penny J; Mair, Michael; Inglesby, Thomas V; Gross, Jonathan; Henderson, D A; O'Toole, Tara; Ahern-Seronde, Joa; Bahnfleth, William P; Brennan, Terry; Burroughs, H E Barney; Davidson, Cliff; Delp, William; Ensor, David S; Gomory, Ralph; Olsiewski, Paula; Samet, Jonathan M; Smith, William M; Streifel, Andrew J; White, Ronald H; Woods, James E

    2006-01-01

    The prospect of biological attacks is a growing strategic threat. Covert aerosol attacks inside a building are of particular concern. In the summer of 2005, the Center for Biosecurity of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center convened a Working Group to determine what steps could be taken to reduce the risk of exposure of building occupants after an aerosol release of a biological weapon. The Working Group was composed of subject matter experts in air filtration, building ventilation and pressurization, air conditioning and air distribution, biosecurity, building design and operation, building decontamination and restoration, economics, medicine, public health, and public policy. The group focused on functions of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems in commercial or public buildings that could reduce the risk of exposure to deleterious aerosols following biological attacks. The Working Group's recommendations for building owners are based on the use of currently available, off-the-shelf technologies. These recommendations are modest in expense and could be implemented immediately. It is also the Working Group's judgment that the commitment and stewardship of a lead government agency is essential to secure the necessary financial and human resources and to plan and build a comprehensive, effective program to reduce exposure to aerosolized infectious agents in buildings.

  8. Energy and fructose from beverages sweetened with sugar or high-fructose corn syrup pose a health risk for some people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, George A

    2013-03-01

    Sugar intake in the United States has increased by >40 fold since the American Revolution. The health concerns that have been raised about the amounts of sugar that are in the current diet, primarily as beverages, are the subject of this review. Just less than 50% of the added sugars (sugar and high-fructose corn syrup) are found in soft drinks and fruit drinks. The intake of soft drinks has increased 5-fold between 1950 and 2000. Most meta-analyses have shown that the risk of obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic syndrome are related to consumption of beverages sweetened with sugar or high-fructose corn syrup. Calorically sweetened beverage intake has also been related to the risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and, in men, gout. Calorically sweetened beverages contribute to obesity through their caloric load, and the intake of beverages does not produce a corresponding reduction in the intake of other food, suggesting that beverage calories are "add-on" calories. The increase in plasma triglyceride concentrations by sugar-sweetened beverages can be attributed to fructose rather than glucose in sugar. Several randomized trials of sugar-containing soft drinks versus low-calorie or calorie-free beverages show that either sugar, 50% of which is fructose, or fructose alone increases triglycerides, body weight, visceral adipose tissue, muscle fat, and liver fat. Fructose is metabolized primarily in the liver. When it is taken up by the liver, ATP decreases rapidly as the phosphate is transferred to fructose in a form that makes it easy to convert to lipid precursors. Fructose intake enhances lipogenesis and the production of uric acid. By worsening blood lipids, contributing to obesity, diabetes, fatty liver, and gout, fructose in the amounts currently consumed is hazardous to the health of some people.

  9. Cumulative fatigue damage models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgaw, Michael A.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of calculating expected component life under fatigue loading conditions is complicated by the fact that component loading histories contain, in many cases, cyclic loads of widely varying amplitudes. In such a case a cumulative damage model is required, in addition to a fatigue damage criterion, or life relationship, in order to compute the expected fatigue life. The traditional cumulative damage model used in design is the linear damage rule. This model, while being simple to use, can yield grossly unconservative results under certain loading conditions. Research at the NASA Lewis Research Center has led to the development of a nonlinear cumulative damage model, named the double damage curve approach (DDCA), that has greatly improved predictive capability. This model, which considers the life (or loading) level dependence of damage evolution, was applied successfully to two polycrystalline materials, 316 stainless steel and Haynes 188. The cumulative fatigue behavior of the PWA 1480 single-crystal material is currently being measured to determine the applicability of the DDCA for this material.

  10. Systematic review of potential health risks posed by pharmaceutical, occupational and consumer exposures to metallic and nanoscale aluminum, aluminum oxides, aluminum hydroxide and its soluble salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willhite, Calvin C; Karyakina, Nataliya A; Yokel, Robert A; Yenugadhati, Nagarajkumar; Wisniewski, Thomas M; Arnold, Ian M F; Momoli, Franco; Krewski, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    oxidative damage that leads to intrinsic apoptosis. In contrast, the toxicity of the insoluble Al oxides depends primarily on their behavior as particulates. Aluminum has been held responsible for human morbidity and mortality, but there is no consistent and convincing evidence to associate the Al found in food and drinking water at the doses and chemical forms presently consumed by people living in North America and Western Europe with increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Neither is there clear evidence to show use of Al-containing underarm antiperspirants or cosmetics increases the risk of AD or breast cancer. Metallic Al, its oxides, and common Al salts have not been shown to be either genotoxic or carcinogenic. Aluminum exposures during neonatal and pediatric parenteral nutrition (PN) can impair bone mineralization and delay neurological development. Adverse effects to vaccines with Al adjuvants have occurred; however, recent controlled trials found that the immunologic response to certain vaccines with Al adjuvants was no greater, and in some cases less than, that after identical vaccination without Al adjuvants. The scientific literature on the adverse health effects of Al is extensive. Health risk assessments for Al must take into account individual co-factors (e.g., age, renal function, diet, gastric pH). Conclusions from the current review point to the need for refinement of the PTWI, reduction of Al contamination in PN solutions, justification for routine addition of Al to vaccines, and harmonization of OELs for Al substances.

  11. Assessment of Cumulative Trauma Disorder (CTD) Risk for 3 Different Tasks Constructing and Repairing Multi-Layer Insulation (MLI) Blankets, Preparing the Dough for a Pizza, and Operating the Becton-Dickinson FACSAria Flow Cytometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentzler, Marc; Kline, Martin; Palmer, Andrew; Terrone, Mark

    2007-01-01

    The Cumulative Trauma Disorder (CTD) risks for three different tasks using McCauley-Bell and Badiru's (1993) formula based on task, personal, and organizational factors were examined. For the Multi-Layer Insulation (MLI) blanket task, the results showed that the task, personal, and organizational risks were at about the same level. The personal risk factors for this task were evaluated using a hypothetical female employee age 52. For the pizza dough task, it was shown that the organizational risk was particularly high, with task related factors also at quite dangerous levels. On the other hand, there was a very low level of personal risk factors, based on a female age 17. The flow cytometer task was assessed with three different participants, a11 of whom had quite disparate levels of personal risk, which slightly affected the overall CTD risk. This reveals how individual difference variables certainly need to be considered. The task and organizational risks for this task were rated at about the same moderate level. The overall CTD risk averaged across the three participants was .335, indicating some risk. Compruing across the tasks revealed that the pizza dough task created the greatest overall CTD risk by far (.568), with the MLI (.325) and flow cytometer task (.335) having some risk associated with them. Future research should look into different tasks for more of a comparison

  12. Problem posing reflections and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Stephen I

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the editors' collaborative teaching at Harvard in the late 1960s, they produced a ground-breaking work -- The Art Of Problem Posing -- which related problem posing strategies to the already popular activity of problem solving. It took the concept of problem posing and created strategies for engaging in that activity as a central theme in mathematics education. Based in part upon that work and also upon a number of articles by its authors, other members of the mathematics education community began to apply and expand upon their ideas. This collection of thirty readings is a tes

  13. Characterization of SNPs associated with prostate cancer in men of Ashkenazic descent from the set of GWAS identified SNPs: impact of cancer family history and cumulative SNP risk prediction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilir Agalliu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified multiple SNPs associated with prostate cancer (PrCa. Population isolates may have different sets of risk alleles for PrCa constituting unique population and individual risk profiles. METHODS: To test this hypothesis, associations between 31 GWAS SNPs of PrCa were examined among 979 PrCa cases and 1,251 controls of Ashkenazic descent using logistic regression. We also investigated risks by age at diagnosis, pathological features of PrCa, and family history of cancer. Moreover, we examined associations between cumulative number of risk alleles and PrCa and assessed the utility of risk alleles in PrCa risk prediction by comparing the area under the curve (AUC for different logistic models. RESULTS: Of the 31 genotyped SNPs, 8 were associated with PrCa at p ≤ 0.002 (corrected p-value threshold with odds ratios (ORs ranging from 1.22 to 1.42 per risk allele. Four SNPs were associated with aggressive PrCa, while three other SNPs showed potential interactions for PrCa by family history of PrCa (rs8102476; 19q13, lung cancer (rs17021918; 4q22, and breast cancer (rs10896449; 11q13. Men in the highest vs. lowest quartile of cumulative number of risk alleles had ORs of 3.70 (95% CI 2.76-4.97; 3.76 (95% CI 2.57-5.50, and 5.20 (95% CI 2.94-9.19 for overall PrCa, aggressive cancer and younger age at diagnosis, respectively. The addition of cumulative risk alleles to the model containing age at diagnosis and family history of PrCa yielded a slightly higher AUC (0.69 vs. 0.64. CONCLUSION: These data define a set of risk alleles associated with PrCa in men of Ashkenazic descent and indicate possible genetic differences for PrCa between populations of European and Ashkenazic ancestry. Use of genetic markers might provide an opportunity to identify men at highest risk for younger age of onset PrCa; however, their clinical utility in identifying men at highest risk for aggressive cancer remains

  14. Scientific Opinion on the risk posed by pathogens in food of non-animal origin. Part 2 (Salmonella and Norovirus in leafy greens eaten raw as salads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Leafy greens eaten raw as salads are minimally processed and widely consumed foods. Risk factors for leafy greens contamination by Salmonella spp. and Norovirus were considered in the context of the whole food chain including agricultural production and processing. Available estimates of the prevalence of these pathogens (together with the use of Escherichia coli as an indicator organism in leafy greens were evaluated. Specific mitigation options relating to contamination of leafy greens were considered and qualitatively assessed. It was concluded that each farm environment represents a unique combination of numerous characteristics that can influence occurrence and persistence of pathogens in leafy greens production. Appropriate implementation of food safety management systems, including Good Agricultural Practices (GAP, Good Hygiene Practices (GHP and Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP, should be primary objectives of leafy green producers. The relevance of microbiological criteria applicable to production, processing and at retail/catering were considered. The current legal framework does not include microbiological criteria applicable at primary production which will validate and verify GAP and GHP. It is proposed to define a criterion at primary production of leafy greens which is designated as Hygiene Criterion, and E. coli was identified as suitable for this purpose. A Process Hygiene Criterion for E. coli in leafy green packaging plants or fresh cutting plants was considered and will also give an indication of the degree to which GAP, GHP, GMP or HACCP programs have been implemented. A Food Safety Criterion for Salmonella in leafy greens could be used as a tool to communicate to producers and processors that Salmonella should not be present in the product. Studies on the prevalence and infectivity of Norovirus are limited, and quantitative data on viral load are scarce making establishment of microbiological criteria for Norovirus on

  15. Development of a prediction model and estimation of cumulative risk for upper aerodigestive tract cancer on the basis of the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 genotype and alcohol consumption in a Japanese population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyanagi, Yuriko N.; Ito, Hidemi; Oze, Isao; Hosono, Satoyo; Tanaka, Hideo; Abe, Tetsuya; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Hasegawa, Yasuhisa

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol consumption and the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) polymorphism are associated with the risk of upper aerodigestive tract cancer, and a significant gene–environment interaction between the two has been confirmed in a Japanese population. To aid the development of a personalized prevention strategy, we developed a risk-prediction model and estimated absolute risks stratified by a combination of the ALDH2 genotype and alcohol consumption. We carried out two age-matched and sex-matched case–control studies: one (630 cases and 1260 controls) for model derivation and the second (654 cases and 654 controls) for external validation. On the basis of data from the derivation study, a prediction model was developed by fitting a conditional logistic regression model using the following predictors: age, sex, smoking, drinking, and the ALDH2 genotype. The risk model, including a combination of the ALDH2 genotype and alcohol consumption, provided high discriminatory accuracy and good calibration in both the derivation and the validation studies: C statistics were 0.82 (95% confidence interval 0.80–0.84) and 0.83 (95% confidence interval 0.81–0.85), respectively, and the calibration plots of both studies remained close to the ideal calibration line. Cumulative risks were obtained by combining odds ratios estimated from the risk model with the age-specific incidence rate and population size. For heavy drinkers with a heterozygous genotype, the cumulative risk at age 80 was above 20%. In contrast, risk in the other groups was less than 5%. In conclusion, modification of alcohol consumption according to the ALDH2 genotype will have a major impact on upper aerodigestive tract cancer prevention. These findings represent a simple and practical model for personalized cancer prevention. PMID:26862830

  16. Sleepless Nights Could Pose Heart Risk Dangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... early death," said study lead researcher Julio Fernandez-Mendoza. He is a sleep psychologist at the Sleep ... at Penn State's Milton S. Hershey Medical Center. Fernandez-Mendoza cautioned that the study didn't prove that ...

  17. Do Weekend Deliveries Pose Risks for Moms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the vagina and anus (perineum). In addition, neonatal intensive care unit admissions, neonatal seizures and antibiotic use all ... Dr. Mitchell Kramer, chairman of the department of obstetrics and gynecology at Northwell Health's Huntington Hospital in ...

  18. Seismic risks posed by mine flooding

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Goldbach, OD

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Many South African gold mines will flood when they close, as the groundwater will gradually fill the mining voids. Preliminary investigations have shown that flooding of mines can generate increased levels of seismicity. Examples are given...

  19. Cumulative Timers for Microprocessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battle, John O.

    2007-01-01

    It has been proposed to equip future microprocessors with electronic cumulative timers, for essentially the same reasons for which land vehicles are equipped with odometers (total-distance-traveled meters) and aircraft are equipped with Hobbs meters (total-engine-operating time meters). Heretofore, there has been no way to determine the amount of use to which a microprocessor (or a product containing a microprocessor) has been subjected. The proposed timers would count all microprocessor clock cycles and could only be read by means of microprocessor instructions but, like odometers and Hobbs meters, could never be reset to zero without physically damaging the chip.

  20. Cumulative Vehicle Routing Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Kara, &#;mdat; Kara, Bahar Yeti&#;; Yeti&#;, M. Kadri

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a new objective function and corresponding formulations for the vehicle routing problem. The new cost function defined as the product of the distance of the arc and the flow on that arc. We call a vehicle routing problem with this new objective function as the Cumulative Vehicle Routing Problem (CumVRP). Integer programming formulations with O(n2) binary variables and O(n2) constraints are developed for both collection and delivery cases. We show that the CumVRP is a gener...

  1. Cumulative environmental effects. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This report presents a compilation of knowledge about the state of the environment and human activity in the Norwegian part of the North Sea and Skagerrak. The report gives an overview of pressures and impacts on the environment from normal activity and in the event of accidents. This is used to assess the cumulative environmental effects, which factors have most impact and where the impacts are greatest, and to indicate which problems are expected to be most serious in the future. The report is intended to provide relevant information that can be used in the management of the marine area in the future. It also provides input for the identification of environmental targets and management measures for the North Sea and Skagerrak.(Author)

  2. Refining Visually Detected Object poses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Preben; Petersen, Henrik Gordon

    2010-01-01

    Automated industrial assembly today require that the 3D position and orientation (hereafter ''pose`) of the objects to be assembled are known precisely. Today this precision is mostly established by a dedicated mechanical object alignment system. However, such systems are often dedicated...... that enables direct assembly. Conventional vision systems and laser triangulation systems can locate randomly placed known objects (with 3D CAD models available) with some accuracy, but not necessarily a good enough accuracy. In this paper, we present a novel method for refining the pose accuracy of an object...... that has been located based on the appearance as detected by a monocular camera. We illustrate the quality of our refinement method experimentally....

  3. Refining Visually Detected Object poses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Preben; Petersen, Henrik Gordon

    2010-01-01

    Automated industrial assembly today require that the 3D position and orientation (hereafter ''pose`) of the objects to be assembled are known precisely. Today this precision is mostly established by a dedicated mechanical object alignment system. However, such systems are often dedicated to the p......Automated industrial assembly today require that the 3D position and orientation (hereafter ''pose`) of the objects to be assembled are known precisely. Today this precision is mostly established by a dedicated mechanical object alignment system. However, such systems are often dedicated...... to the particular object and in order to handle the demand for flexibility, there is an increasing demand for avoiding such dedicated mechanical alignment systems. Rather, it would be desirable to automatically locate and grasp randomly placed objects from tables, conveyor belts or even bins with a high accuracy...

  4. Project 6: Cumulative Risk Assessment Methods and ApplicationsTask 6.3: Applying Genetic and Epigenetic Data to Inform Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susceptibility is defined as the capacity to be affected; an individual can be at greater or less risk relative to population median risk because of susceptibility factors such as life stage, sex, genetics, socioeconomic status, prior exposure to chemicals, and non-chemical stres...

  5. Aircraft recognition and pose estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hmam, Hatem; Kim, Jijoong

    2000-05-01

    This work presents a geometry based vision system for aircraft recognition and pose estimation using single images. Pose estimation improves the tracking performance of guided weapons with imaging seekers, and is useful in estimating target manoeuvres and aim-point selection required in the terminal phase of missile engagements. After edge detection and straight-line extraction, a hierarchy of geometric reasoning algorithms is applied to form line clusters (or groupings) for image interpretation. Assuming a scaled orthographic projection and coplanar wings, lateral symmetry inherent in the airframe provides additional constraints to further reject spurious line clusters. Clusters that accidentally pass all previous tests are checked against the original image and are discarded. Valid line clusters are then used to deduce aircraft viewing angles. By observing that the leading edges of wings of a number of aircraft of interest are within 45 to 65 degrees from the symmetry axis, a bounded range of aircraft viewing angles can be found. This generic property offers the advantage of not requiring the storage of complete aircraft models viewed from all aspects, and can handle aircraft with flexible wings (e.g. F111). Several aircraft images associated with various spectral bands (i.e. visible and infra-red) are finally used to evaluate the system's performance.

  6. Tools and Techniques - Statistical. Estimating cumulative incidences in the presence of right-censoring and competing risks : an introduction with illustrations from the COACH study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postmus, Douwe; Demissei, Biniyam G; Hillege, Hans L

    2016-01-01

    In cardiovascular studies, it is common to assess the association between the risk of experiencing an event, such as death or hospitalisation, and one or more exposure variables, such as different treatment regimens when the study under consideration is an intervention study. A frequently applied

  7. Scientific Opinion on the risk to plant health posed by Dothistroma septosporum (Dorog. M. Morelet (Mycosphaerella pini E. Rostrup, syn. Scirrhia pini and Dothistroma pini Hulbary to the EU territory with the identification and evaluation of risk reduction options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Panel on Plant Health conducted a pest risk assessment for Scirrhia pini for the European Union (EU territory, identified risk management options and evaluated their effectiveness. The risk assessment was conducted taking into account current EU legislation. The Panel also provided an opinion on the effectiveness of the present EU requirements against this organism listed in Council Directive 2000/29/EC. Considering that there has been taxonomic confusion over the pest mentioned in the EU plant health legislation, the assessment was carried out for Dothistroma septosporum (the anamorph of S. pini, the latter renamed to Mycosphaerella pini and Dothistroma pini (teleomorph unknown, both of which cause Dothistroma needle blight. Three major pathways for entry were identified: host plants intended for planting/grafting (excluding fruit and seeds, natural means (wind, rain, wind-driven rain, etc., and host plants and plant parts with foliage not intended for planting (e.g., fresh branches, cut Christmas trees, etc.; probability of entry was considered very likely, likely and unlikely, respectively, with high uncertainty. The establishment and further spread were both considered very likely. The current consequences were considered major and they include loss of wood volume, tree mortality, and losses in terms of landscape value, amenity value, recreational uses and tourism. The Panel concluded that introduction and spread of the two pests are not fully prevented by Council Directive 2000/29/EC, mainly because of the possibility to import and trade host plant material other than Pinus plants for planting. In order to prevent the potentially serious impacts in those parts of the risk assessment area where the pathogens are currently not known to occur, additional risk reduction options have been identified, in the form of simultaneous implementation of measures targeted at reducing the movement of infected host plants and the further spread of the

  8. Re: Could Testosterone Replacement Therapy in Hypogonadal Men Ameliorate Anemia, a Cardiovascular Risk Factor? An Observational, 54-week Cumulative Registry Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Bakırcıoğlu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone deficiency syndrome may associate with erectile dysfunction, increased abdominal fat and reduced muscle mass. Low serum testosterone is also related with anemia, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. In this study, the authors investigated if testosterone undecanoate (TU reduces anemia and the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with hypogonadism A total of 58 participants with a total testosterone level of less than 2.35 ng/ml received an injection of 1.000 mg TU 6 times; at initial visit, 6, 18, 30, 42 and 54 weeks. They observed that total testosterone and free testosterone levels were restored by TU. Hemoglobin and hematocrit levels significantly increased while anemia and total cholesterol levels significantly reduced. Although there are some limitations of this study e.g. it is not a randomized controlled and a long-term study, TU treatment in hypogonadal men decreased the prevalence of anemia, improved lipid profiles and lowered the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  9. Scientific Opinion on the risk to plant health posed by Tomato spotted wilt virus to the EU territory with identification and evaluation of risk reduction options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Panel on Plant Health conducted a pest risk assessment for Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV including the identification and evaluation of risk reduction options. The plants for planting pathway is considered the most important one and rated as likely, with medium uncertainty. TSWV, reported in many Member States, has one of the widest host range for plant viruses and has three widely distributed thrips vector species in the risk assessment area. For countries falling under the provisions of 2000/29/EC Annex IIAII legislation, the probability of establishment is rated as very likely, with low uncertainty. For Finland and Sweden, protected zone under the 2000/29/EC Annex IB legislation, the probability of establishment is rated unlikely to moderately likely. Spread can occur through the activity of thrips vectors and through trade of infected hosts. The probability of spread in Member States under Annex IIAII provisions is evaluated as likely, with low uncertainty. In Finland and Sweden, spread is rated as unlikely to moderately likely, with medium uncertainty. Since TSWV may cause both yield and quality losses in a wide range of hosts, a major impact is predictable in the absence of appropriate control measures, with medium uncertainty. The risk reduction options evaluated by the Panel are those addressing either the sanitary status of the propagation material (including the provisions of 2000/29/EC Annex IIAII and Annex IB, statutory certification system and the use of voluntary industry standards or those addressing the control of TSWV epidemic development through actions directed at the virus or at its vectors (including cultural methods to reduce crop infestation and chemical or biological control of thrips vectors. Limitations of the current measures and the potential consequences of repealing the current legislation are discussed.

  10. Statistical Model-Based Face Pose Estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Xinliang; YANG Jie; LI Feng; WANG Huahua

    2007-01-01

    A robust face pose estimation approach is proposed by using face shape statistical model approach and pose parameters are represented by trigonometric functions. The face shape statistical model is firstly built by analyzing the face shapes from different people under varying poses. The shape alignment is vital in the process of building the statistical model. Then, six trigonometric functions are employed to represent the face pose parameters. Lastly, the mapping function is constructed between face image and face pose by linearly relating different parameters. The proposed approach is able to estimate different face poses using a few face training samples. Experimental results are provided to demonstrate its efficiency and accuracy.

  11. Scientific Opinion on the risk to plant health posed by Chrysanthemum stunt viroid for the EU territory, with identification and evaluation of risk reduction options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Panel on Plant Health conducted a pest risk assessment for Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd and identified and evaluated risk reduction options, particularly those listed in Council Directive 2000/29/EC. Three entry pathways were identified, with plants for planting being the most important and rated as moderately likely. CSVd is recorded in some EU Member States with a limited distribution and is regulated on chrysanthemum; host plants are widely cultivated in greenhouses and outdoors. Therefore, establishment is very likely. Short-distance spread within a crop is likely, whereas short-distance spread between different species is unlikely to moderately likely. For vegetatively propagated species, in the absence of an efficient certification system, long-distance spread is very likely and a major impact would be expected on chrysanthemum, with associated yield and quality losses. However, under the existing certification scheme for chrysanthemum plant propagation material, the probability of spread through infected cuttings is largely reduced and the direct consequences of viroid outbreaks are expected to be minor. Minimal impact is predicted for other ornamental hosts and a minor impact for solanaceous vegetable crops. The indirect effects of CSVd are considered to be limited, with the exception of eradication. Risk reduction options addressing the sanitary status of the propagation material are likely to be the most effective and feasible. These include the current EU measures, as well as a statutory certification system with associated statutory import requirements or, failing that, but potentially less effective, the use of voluntary industry standards. It is difficult to disentangle the benefits of the current legislation from those of the industry-developed chrysanthemum certification system. The high efficacy of current measures is supported by the absence or limited presence of CSVd in the EU and by the limited number of

  12. Cumulative Alendronate Dose and the Long-Term Absolute Risk of Subtrochanteric and Diaphyseal Femur Fractures: A Register-Based National Cohort Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Eiken, Pia Agnete; Eastell, Richard

    2010-01-01

    are currently the subject of a U.S. Food and Drug Administration review. Objective: Our objective was to examine the risk of subtrochanteric/diaphyseal femur fractures in long term users of alendronate. Design: We conducted an age- and gender-matched cohort study using national healthcare data. Patients...... fractures occurred at a rate of 13 per 10,000 patient-years in untreated women and 31 per 10,000 patient-years in women receiving alendronate [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.88; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.62-2.17]. Rates for men were six and 31 per 10,000 patient-years, respectively (HR = 3.98; 95% CI...

  13. Adaptation to climate change for peace and stability. Strengthening of approaches and instruments as well as promotion of processes to reduce the security risks posed by climate change in the context of climate change adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taenzler, Dennis; Mohns, Till; Ziegenhagen, Katherina [Adelphi Research, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    The findings of the project ''Strengthening of approaches and instruments as well as promotion of processes to reduce the security risks posed by climate change in the context of climate change adaptation'' are summarized in this report. The main objective of the project is to outline the potential contribution of adaptation measures to avoid crisis and conflicts caused or exacerbated by water scarcity, food shortages or extreme weather events. As discussed in the conceptual chapter of the report, adaptation can contribute to peace and stability even in conflict-prone areas given that a conflict-sensitive approach is applied. On the basis of a comprehensive regional analysis, we show that adaptation is not yet a prominent element of regional cooperation. To address this gap, we design three regional adaptation roadmaps for the Andes region, Central and South Asia based on desk review of regional processes and programs as well as expert consultations. To ensure that the results of the projects can be considered in national and international policy processes and to strengthen international governance for adaptation we close with a Memorandum for action outlining major principles to support processes for adaptation and peace. [German] Das Vorhaben ''Entwicklung von Ansaetzen und Instrumenten sowie Foerderung von Prozessen zur Eindaemmung der Sicherheitsrisiken des Klimawandels im Rahmen der Anpassung an den Klimawandel'' untersucht den moeglichen Beitrag, den Massnahmen zur Anpassung an den Klimawandel fuer Frieden und Stabilitaet leisten koennen. Kernanliegen des Vorhabens ist die Vermeidung von durch den Klimawandel erzeugten oder verstaerkten Sicherheitsrisiken wie Wasserknappheit, Nahrungsmittelengpaesse oder extreme Wetterereignisse. Wie die konzeptionelle Eingangsbetrachtung des Endberichts zeigt, koennen Anpassungsprozesse - auch in konfliktgepraegten Gebieten - einen friedensfoerdernden Beitrag leisten, allerdings bedarf

  14. Present and potential security threats posed to civil aviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav SZABO

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft presents ideal object for terrorist attack. Apart from the risks posed by possible terrorist attacks on airborne aircraft, air terrorism includes the threats to general aviation on the ground, including airports and surrounding infrastructure. Air oriented terrorism in all of its forms can undermine public confidence in the safety of air travel, which could result in negative effects for certain airlines and other firms in aviation industry due to decline in passenger travel and cargo shipment. This article is giving an overview about the redoubtable present and potential future threats posed to in-flight security, and possibilities and solutions how to mitigate the risks on acceptable level.

  15. Scientific Opinion on the risks to plant health posed by Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard and Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess in the EU territory, with the identification and evaluation of risk reduction options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Panel on Plant Health conducted a pest risk assessment for Liriomyza huidobrensis and Liriomyza trifolii in the European Union and identified and evaluated the phytosanitary measures listed in Council Directive 2000/29/EC. Entry on the principal pathways (plants for planting, cut flowers and leafy vegetables is assessed as likely as the pests are regularly associated with the pathways at origin, survival during transport or storage is high and only partially affected by current pest management procedures, and transfer to a suitable host is likely as their hosts are so widespread. Establishment is rated as very likely because both species have established populations in most countries of the EU, with transient populations occurring outdoors in non-Mediterranean areas. Spread within the EU is considered to be likely because the pests can readily be moved with plant material. The magnitude of the potential consequences is rated as minor for both species in Mediterranean areas. In non-Mediterranean countries it is moderate for both species in protected crops but, outdoors, impacts are minor for L. huidobrensis and minimal for L. trifolii. The current regulations to prevent entry and spread were found to be only partially effective as interceptions are still being made, cut branches with foliage and leafy vegetables other than celery are excluded, and the methods for inspection and the treatments required to confirm pest free areas, places of production and consignments are not clearly specified. Removal of the legislation would have some advantages and disadvantages but may not have a major effect. The regulations could be tightened by including additional commodities, clearly prescribing the inspection procedures and the appropriate treatments to be used and combining these with other measures, e.g. screening. The application of protected zones to areas where the pests are not yet present can be applied to help prevent further spread.

  16. Ethical quandaries posing as conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottow, Miguel

    2010-06-01

    Conflicts of interest are receiving increased attention in medical research, clinical practice and education. Criticism of, and penalties for, conflicts of interest have been insufficiently discussed and have been applied without adequate conceptual backing. Genuine conflicts of interest are situations in which alternative courses of action are ethically equivalent, decision-making being less a matter of moral deliberation than of personal weighing of interest. In contrast, situations usually thought of as conflicts of interest are mostly temptations to follow an attractive but undue option that causes harm by failing to uphold well-entrenched ethical standards. Examples of moral quandaries that pose as ethically neutral conflicts of interest are healthcare providers enticed to favour certain products; patients being referred to non-therapeutic trials entailing risks and non-optimal healthcare; industry-supported scientists failing to deliver unbiased research results and reports or participating in ghost-writing; and sponsored educators who praise their supporters beyond objective evidence. All these are moral blemishes, where integrity gives way to material incentives at the cost of provoking risky and harm-producing situations, thus constituting false conflicts of interest when they are in fact ethical misdemeanours. Disclosure has been the most widely recommended response to avoid the concealment of conflicting and ethically suspect interests. Regulations regarding disclosure reveal a utilitarian stance that shows more concern for the magnitude of support or sponsorship than for the underlying ethical transgression. Education and oversight should directly address and help correct the moral attitude towards undue influence of inducements and marketing strategies falsely posing as conflicts of interest.

  17. Childhood Cumulative Risk and Later Allostatic Load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doan, Stacey N; Dich, Nadya; Evans, Gary W

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study investigated the long-term impact of exposure to poverty-related stressors during childhood on allostatic load, an index of physiological dysregulation, and the potential mediating role of substance use. Method: Participants (n = 162) were rural children from New York...... in health across the life span and of the mechanisms by which adverse childhood environments impact health as children emerge into early adulthood. This knowledge will have implications for early intervention efforts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)....

  18. Some improperly posed problems of mathematical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Lavrentiev, M M

    1967-01-01

    This monograph deals with the problems of mathematical physics which are improperly posed in the sense of Hadamard. The first part covers various approaches to the formulation of improperly posed problems. These approaches are illustrated by the example of the classical improperly posed Cauchy problem for the Laplace equation. The second part deals with a number of problems of analytic continuations of analytic and harmonic functions. The third part is concerned with the investigation of the so-called inverse problems for differential equations in which it is required to determine a dif­ ferential equation from a certain family of its solutions. Novosibirsk June, 1967 M. M. LAVRENTIEV Table of Contents Chapter I Formu1ation of some Improperly Posed Problems of Mathematic:al Physics § 1 Improperly Posed Problems in Metric Spaces. . . . . . . . . § 2 A Probability Approach to Improperly Posed Problems. . . 8 Chapter II Analytic Continuation § 1 Analytic Continuation of a Function of One Complex Variable fro...

  19. 地方政府过度举债、风险累积和治理对策%Excessive Issuance, Cumulative Risks and Governance Strategies of Local Government Debt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方先明; 张谊浩; 蒋或

    2012-01-01

    Recently, China' s local government has been emerging the phenomenon of excessive issuance of local bonds, showing the characteristics of increasingly complicated forms, largescale expansion, significant growth of balance and relatively unbal anced structure. Factors leading to excessive issuance of local bonds include non supporting after tax system reform, appointment and examination system of local officials, inadequate decision making mechanism, not enough law constraints, and so on. Excessive issuance of local bonds, especially the rapid expansion of financing platform of local government, will lead to a variety of risks, and then slow down the development of local economy. This paper discusses about the scientific and operational governance strategies against the excessive issuance of local bonds and its corresponding cumulative risks.%当前我国地方政府出现了过度举债现象,表现出债务形式日趋复杂,规模大幅扩张,余额增速明显,结构相对失衡的特征。地方政府过度举债的原因在于分税制改革后的不配套、地方干部任命与考核制度、决策机制不完善、法制约束力不够等。地方政府过度举债特别是各级地方政府融资平台的迅速扩张势必诱发各种风险,进而阻碍地方经济发展。为此,文章针对地方政府过度举债及其风险累积,提出兼具科学性及可操作性的治理对策。

  20. Cumulative social disadvantage and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Laurie J; Silver, Ellen J; Stein, Ruth E K

    2006-04-01

    Disparities in child health are a major public health concern. However, it is unclear whether these are predominantly the result of low income, race, or other social risk factors that may contribute to their health disadvantage. Although others have examined the effects of the accumulation of risk factors, this methodology has not been applied to child health. We tested 4 social risk factors (poverty, minority race/ethnicity, low parental education, and not living with both biological parents) to assess whether they have cumulative effects on child health and examined whether access to health care reduced health disparities. We analyzed data on 57,553 children low parental education, and single-parent household) were consistently associated with child health. These were summed, generating the Social Disadvantage Index (range: 0-3). A total of 43.6% of children had no social disadvantages, 30.8% had 1, 15.6% had 2, and 10.0% had all 3. Compared with those with no social disadvantages, the odds ratios (ORs) of being in "good, fair, or poor health" (versus "excellent or very good") were 1.95 for 1 risk, 3.22 for 2 risks, and 4.06 for 3 risks. ORs of having a chronic condition increased from 1.25 (1 risk) to 1.60 (2 risks) to 2.11 (3 risks). ORs for activity limitation were 1.51 (1 risk) to 2.14 (2 risks) and 2.88 (3 risks). Controlling for health insurance did not affect these findings. The accumulation of social disadvantage among children was strongly associated with poorer child health and having insurance did not reduce the observed health disparities.

  1. Dismount Threat Recognition through Automatic Pose Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    camera and joint estimation software of the Kinect for Xbox 360. A threat determination is made based on the pose identified by the network. Ac- curacy...mapping produced by the Kinect sensor [3]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2.5. Test subject and generated model. The subject is...16 3.2. Joint position estimates extracted from Kinect . Example of col- lecting orthogonal poses

  2. Cumulative radiation exposure in children with cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Reilly, R

    2010-02-01

    This retrospective study calculated the cumulative radiation dose for children with cystic fibrosis (CF) attending a tertiary CF centre. Information on 77 children with a mean age of 9.5 years, a follow up time of 658 person years and 1757 studies including 1485 chest radiographs, 215 abdominal radiographs and 57 computed tomography (CT) scans, of which 51 were thoracic CT scans, were analysed. The average cumulative radiation dose was 6.2 (0.04-25) mSv per CF patient. Cumulative radiation dose increased with increasing age and number of CT scans and was greater in children who presented with meconium ileus. No correlation was identified between cumulative radiation dose and either lung function or patient microbiology cultures. Radiation carries a risk of malignancy and children are particularly susceptible. Every effort must be made to avoid unnecessary radiation exposure in these patients whose life expectancy is increasing.

  3. Cumulative Trauma Among Mayas Living in Southeast Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millender, Eugenia I; Lowe, John

    2016-01-04

    Mayas, having experienced genocide, exile, and severe poverty, are at high risk for the consequences of cumulative trauma that continually resurfaces through current fear of an uncertain future. Little is known about the mental health and alcohol use status of this population. This correlational study explored t/he relationship of cumulative trauma as it relates to social determinants of health (years in the United States, education, health insurance status, marital status, and employment), psychological health (depression symptoms), and health behaviors (alcohol use) of 102 Guatemalan Mayas living in Southeast Florida. The results of this study indicated that, as specific social determinants of health and cumulative trauma increased, depression symptoms (particularly among women) and the risk for harmful alcohol use (particularly among men) increased. Identifying risk factors at an early stage before serious disease or problems are manifest provides room for early screening leading to early identification, early treatment, and better outcomes.

  4. Cumulant expansions for atmospheric flows

    CERN Document Server

    Ait-Chaalal, Farid; Meyer, Bettina; Marston, J B

    2015-01-01

    The equations governing atmospheric flows are nonlinear, and consequently the hierarchy of cumulant equations is not closed. But because atmospheric flows are inhomogeneous and anisotropic, the nonlinearity may manifests itself only weakly through interactions of mean fields with disturbances such as thermals or eddies. In such situations, truncations of the hierarchy of cumulant equations hold promise as a closure strategy. We review how truncations at second order can be used to model and elucidate the dynamics of turbulent atmospheric flows. Two examples are considered. First, we study the growth of a dry convective boundary layer, which is heated from below, leading to turbulent upward energy transport and growth of the boundary layer. We demonstrate that a quasilinear truncation of the equations of motion, in which interactions of disturbances among each other are neglected but interactions with mean fields are taken into account, can successfully capture the growth of the convective boundary layer. Seco...

  5. Electro-cumulation CNF project

    CERN Document Server

    Grishin, V G

    2000-01-01

    bound or free ion current within solid substances; non-plain symmetry; cumulation of the ion interaction. Experimental result: an Ice SuperPolarization. Cold nuclear fusion ? At http://www.shortway.to/to2084 . Keywords: ion, current, solid, symmetry, cumulation, cold nuclear fusion, polarization, depolarization, ionic conductor, superionic conductor, ice, crystal, strain, V-center, V-centre, doped crystal, interstitial impurity, intrinsic color center, high pressure technology, Bridgman, experiment, crowdion, dielectric, proton, layer, defect, lattice, dynamics, electromigration, mobility, muon catalysis, concentration, doping, dopant, conductivity, pycnonuclear reaction, permittivity, dielectric constant, point defects, interstitials, polarizability, imperfection, defect centers, glass, epitaxy, sodium hydroxide, metallic substrate, crystallization, point, tip, susceptibility, ferroelectric, ordering, force, correlation, collective, shift, distortion, coalescence, crowdions, electrolysis.

  6. EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the risk posed by pathogens in food of non-animal origin. Part 2 (Salmonella Yersinia, Shigella and Norovirus in bulb and stem vegetables, and carrots)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    types associated with public health risks, i.e. carrots, onion and garlic. It was concluded that each farm environment represents a unique combination of risk factors that can influence the occurrence and persistence of pathogens in the primary production of these vegetables. Appropriate implementation...

  7. Cumulative Paired φ-Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo Klein

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A new kind of entropy will be introduced which generalizes both the differential entropy and the cumulative (residual entropy. The generalization is twofold. First, we simultaneously define the entropy for cumulative distribution functions (cdfs and survivor functions (sfs, instead of defining it separately for densities, cdfs, or sfs. Secondly, we consider a general “entropy generating function” φ, the same way Burbea et al. (IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 1982, 28, 489–495 and Liese et al. (Convex Statistical Distances; Teubner-Verlag, 1987 did in the context of φ-divergences. Combining the ideas of φ-entropy and cumulative entropy leads to the new “cumulative paired φ-entropy” ( C P E φ . This new entropy has already been discussed in at least four scientific disciplines, be it with certain modifications or simplifications. In the fuzzy set theory, for example, cumulative paired φ-entropies were defined for membership functions, whereas in uncertainty and reliability theories some variations of C P E φ were recently considered as measures of information. With a single exception, the discussions in the scientific disciplines appear to be held independently of each other. We consider C P E φ for continuous cdfs and show that C P E φ is rather a measure of dispersion than a measure of information. In the first place, this will be demonstrated by deriving an upper bound which is determined by the standard deviation and by solving the maximum entropy problem under the restriction of a fixed variance. Next, this paper specifically shows that C P E φ satisfies the axioms of a dispersion measure. The corresponding dispersion functional can easily be estimated by an L-estimator, containing all its known asymptotic properties. C P E φ is the basis for several related concepts like mutual φ-information, φ-correlation, and φ-regression, which generalize Gini correlation and Gini regression. In addition, linear rank tests for scale that

  8. Robust pose determination for autonomous docking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goddard, J.S.; Jatko, W.B.; Ferrell, R.K.; Gleason, S.S.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes current work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to develop a robotic vision system capable of recognizing designated objects by their intrinsic geometry. This method, based on single camera vision, combines point features and a model-based technique using geometric feature matching for the pose calculation. In this approach, 2-D point features are connected into higher-order shapes and then matched with corresponding features of the model. Pose estimates are made using a closed-form point solution based on model features of four coplanar points. Rotations are represented by quaternions that simplify the calculations in determining the least squares solution for the coordinate transformation. This pose determination method including image acquisition, feature extraction, feature correspondence, and pose calculation has been implemented on a real-time system using a standard camera and image processing hardware. Experimental results are given for relative error measurements.

  9. CHALLENGES POSED BY RETIRED RUSSIAN NUCLEAR SUBMARINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudolph, Dieter; Kroken, Ingjerd; Latyshev, Eduard; Griffith, Andrew

    2003-02-27

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the challenges posed by retired Russian nuclear submarines, review current U.S. and International efforts and provide an assessment of the success of these efforts.

  10. Learning toward practical head pose estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Gaoli; He, Feixiang; Zhu, Rong; Xuan, Shibin

    2017-08-01

    Head pose is useful information for many face-related tasks, such as face recognition, behavior analysis, human-computer interfaces, etc. Existing head pose estimation methods usually assume that the face images have been well aligned or that sufficient and precise training data are available. In practical applications, however, these assumptions are very likely to be invalid. This paper first investigates the impact of the failure of these assumptions, i.e., misalignment of face images, uncertainty and undersampling of training data, on head pose estimation accuracy of state-of-the-art methods. A learning-based approach is then designed to enhance the robustness of head pose estimation to these factors. To cope with misalignment, instead of using hand-crafted features, it seeks suitable features by learning from a set of training data with a deep convolutional neural network (DCNN), such that the training data can be best classified into the correct head pose categories. To handle uncertainty and undersampling, it employs multivariate labeling distributions (MLDs) with dense sampling intervals to represent the head pose attributes of face images. The correlation between the features and the dense MLD representations of face images is approximated by a maximum entropy model, whose parameters are optimized on the given training data. To estimate the head pose of a face image, its MLD representation is first computed according to the model based on the features extracted from the image by the trained DCNN, and its head pose is then assumed to be the one corresponding to the peak in its MLD. Evaluation experiments on the Pointing'04, FacePix, Multi-PIE, and CASIA-PEAL databases prove the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.

  11. The Algebra of the Cumulative Percent Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Andrew J.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to help students avoid some pervasive reasoning errors in solving cumulative percent problems. Discusses the meaning of ."%+b%." the additive inverse of ."%." and other useful applications. Emphasizes the operational aspect of the cumulative percent concept. (KHR)

  12. Adaptive strategies for cumulative cultural learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehn, Micael; Laland, Kevin

    2012-05-21

    The demographic and ecological success of our species is frequently attributed to our capacity for cumulative culture. However, it is not yet known how humans combine social and asocial learning to generate effective strategies for learning in a cumulative cultural context. Here we explore how cumulative culture influences the relative merits of various pure and conditional learning strategies, including pure asocial and social learning, critical social learning, conditional social learning and individual refiner strategies. We replicate the Rogers' paradox in the cumulative setting. However, our analysis suggests that strategies that resolved Rogers' paradox in a non-cumulative setting may not necessarily evolve in a cumulative setting, thus different strategies will optimize cumulative and non-cumulative cultural learning.

  13. "Buddha's Light" of Cumulative Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Kopeliovich, Vladimir B; Potashnikova, Irina K

    2014-01-01

    We show analytically that in the cumulative particles production off nuclei multiple interactions lead to a glory-like backward focusing effect. Employing the small phase space method we arrived at a characteristic angular dependence of the production cross section $d\\sigma \\sim 1/ \\sqrt {\\pi - \\theta}$ near the strictly backward direction. This effect takes place for any number $n\\geq 3 $ of interactions of rescattered particle, either elastic or inelastic (with resonance excitations in intermediate states), when the final particle is produced near corresponding kinematical boundary. Such a behaviour of the cross section near the backward direction is in qualitative agreement with some of available data.

  14. A Resource Cost Aware Cumulative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonis, Helmut; Hadzic, Tarik

    We motivate and introduce an extension of the well-known cumulative constraint which deals with time and volume dependent cost of resources. Our research is primarily interested in scheduling problems under time and volume variable electricity costs, but the constraint equally applies to manpower scheduling when hourly rates differ over time and/or extra personnel incur higher hourly rates. We present a number of possible lower bounds on the cost, including a min-cost flow, different LP and MIP models, as well as greedy algorithms, and provide a theoretical and experimental comparison of the different methods.

  15. Maintenance hemodialysis patients have high cumulative radiation exposure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kinsella, Sinead M

    2010-10-01

    Hemodialysis is associated with an increased risk of neoplasms which may result, at least in part, from exposure to ionizing radiation associated with frequent radiographic procedures. In order to estimate the average radiation exposure of those on hemodialysis, we conducted a retrospective study of 100 patients in a university-based dialysis unit followed for a median of 3.4 years. The number and type of radiological procedures were obtained from a central radiology database, and the cumulative effective radiation dose was calculated using standardized, procedure-specific radiation levels. The median annual radiation dose was 6.9 millisieverts (mSv) per patient-year. However, 14 patients had an annual cumulative effective radiation dose over 20 mSv, the upper averaged annual limit for occupational exposure. The median total cumulative effective radiation dose per patient over the study period was 21.7 mSv, in which 13 patients had a total cumulative effective radiation dose over 75 mSv, a value reported to be associated with a 7% increased risk of cancer-related mortality. Two-thirds of the total cumulative effective radiation dose was due to CT scanning. The average radiation exposure was significantly associated with the cause of end-stage renal disease, history of ischemic heart disease, transplant waitlist status, number of in-patient hospital days over follow-up, and death during the study period. These results highlight the substantial exposure to ionizing radiation in hemodialysis patients.

  16. A prevalência cumulativa de fatores de risco para doença cardiovascular em adolescentes iranianos: IHHP-HHPC Cumulative prevalence of risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases in Iranian adolescents: IHHP-HHPC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Kelishadi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência cumulativa dos fatores de risco para a doença cardiovascular aterosclerótica numa amostra de adolescentes iranianos. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo transversal com 1000 meninas e 1000 meninos, com idade entre 11 e 18 anos, selecionados através de uma amostragem aleatória multietapas à base de conglomerados das áreas urbana e rural de três cidades iranianas. RESULTADOS: As taxas de prevalência de inatividade física, dislipidemia, tabagismo, pressão arterial alta e obesidade (índice de massa corporal >P95 foram 66,6, 23,7, 8,7, 5,7 e 2,2%, respectivamente. Dentre os indivíduos estudados, 79,1% apresentaram pelo menos um e 24,6% tiveram dois fatores de risco para doença cardiovascular. A prevalência de inatividade física foi significativamente menor entre os meninos que entre as meninas [53,9 contra 79,3%, respectivamente, OR IC95%, 0,44 (0,39-0,51]. A prevalência de tabagismo foi maior nos meninos que nas meninas [13,1 contra 4,2%, respectivamente, OR IC95%, 3,4 (2,4-4,9]. CONCLUSÃO: Considerando a alta prevalência de fatores de risco para doença cardiovascular em adolescentes, deve-se garantir intervenções que sejam adequadas à idade e sensíveis a aspectos culturais para que medidas preventivas possam ser tomadas em tempo hábil.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cumulative prevalence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk factors in a representative sample of Iranian adolescents. METHODS: The subjects of this cross-sectional study were 1,000 girls and 1,000 boys, ages 11-18 years, selected by multi stage-random cluster sampling from urban and rural areas of three cities in Iran. RESULTS: The prevalence of physical inactivity, dyslipidemia, smoking, high blood pressure and obesity (body mass index >95th percentile were 66.6, 23.7, 8.7, 5.7 and 2.2%, respectively. Of subjects studied, 79.1% had at least one and 24.6% had two cardiovascular disease risk factors. The prevalence of physical

  17. Cumulative Incidence of Cancer After Solid Organ Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Erin C.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Segev, Dorry L.; Engels, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Solid organ transplantation recipients have elevated cancer incidence. Estimates of absolute cancer risk after transplantation can inform prevention and screening. METHODS The Transplant Cancer Match Study links the US transplantation registry with 14 state/regional cancer registries. The authors used nonparametric competing risk methods to estimate the cumulative incidence of cancer after transplantation for 2 periods (1987–1999 and 2000–2008). For recipients from 2000 to 2008, the 5-year cumulative incidence, stratified by organ, sex, and age at transplantation, was estimated for 6 preventable or screen-detectable cancers. For comparison, the 5-year cumulative incidence was calculated for the same cancers in the general population at representative ages using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data. RESULTS Among 164,156 recipients, 8520 incident cancers were identified. The absolute cancer risk was slightly higher for recipients during the period from 2000 to 2008 than during the period from 1987 to 1999 (5-year cumulative incidence: 4.4% vs 4.2%; P =.006); this difference arose from the decreasing risk of competing events (5-year cumulative incidence of death, graft failure, or retransplantation: 26.6% vs 31.9%; P 50 years; range, 0.36%–2.22%). For recipients aged >50 years, the 5-year cumulative incidence was higher for colorectal cancer (range, 0.33%–1.94%) than for the general population at the recommended screening age (aged 50 years: range, 0.25%–0.33%). For recipients aged >50 years, the 5-year cumulative incidence was high for lung cancer among thoracic organ recipients (range, 1.16%–3.87%) and for kidney cancer among kidney recipients (range, 0.53%–0.84%). The 5-year cumulative incidence for prostate cancer and breast cancer was similar or lower in transplantation recipients than at the recommended ages of screening in the general population. CONCLUSIONS Subgroups of transplantation recipients have a high absolute risk

  18. Hierarchical Bayesian parameter estimation for cumulative prospect theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nilsson, H.; Rieskamp, J.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.

    2011-01-01

    Cumulative prospect theory (CPT Tversky & Kahneman, 1992) has provided one of the most influential accounts of how people make decisions under risk. CPT is a formal model with parameters that quantify psychological processes such as loss aversion, subjective values of gains and losses, and

  19. Cumulative psychosocial stress, coping resources, and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Sheila W; Kingston, Dawn; Bayrampour, Hamideh; Dolan, Siobhan M; Tough, Suzanne C

    2014-12-01

    Preterm birth constitutes a significant international public health issue, with implications for child and family well-being. High levels of psychosocial stress and negative affect before and during pregnancy are contributing factors to shortened gestation and preterm birth. We developed a cumulative psychosocial stress variable and examined its association with early delivery controlling for known preterm birth risk factors and confounding environmental variables. We further examined this association among subgroups of women with different levels of coping resources. Utilizing the All Our Babies (AOB) study, an ongoing prospective pregnancy cohort study in Alberta, Canada (n = 3,021), multinomial logistic regression was adopted to examine the independent effect of cumulative psychosocial stress and preterm birth subgroups compared to term births. Stratified analyses according to categories of perceived social support and optimism were undertaken to examine differential effects among subgroups of women. Cumulative psychosocial stress was a statistically significant risk factor for late preterm birth (OR = 1.73; 95 % CI = 1.07, 2.81), but not for early preterm birth (OR = 2.44; 95 % CI = 0.95, 6.32), controlling for income, history of preterm birth, pregnancy complications, reproductive history, and smoking in pregnancy. Stratified analyses showed that cumulative psychosocial stress was a significant risk factor for preterm birth at psychosocial stress on the risk for early delivery.

  20. A paradox of cumulative culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yutaka; Wakano, Joe Yuichiro; Ohtsuki, Hisashi

    2015-08-21

    Culture can grow cumulatively if socially learnt behaviors are improved by individual learning before being passed on to the next generation. Previous authors showed that this kind of learning strategy is unlikely to be evolutionarily stable in the presence of a trade-off between learning and reproduction. This is because culture is a public good that is freely exploited by any member of the population in their model (cultural social dilemma). In this paper, we investigate the effect of vertical transmission (transmission from parents to offspring), which decreases the publicness of culture, on the evolution of cumulative culture in both infinite and finite population models. In the infinite population model, we confirm that culture accumulates largely as long as transmission is purely vertical. It turns out, however, that introduction of even slight oblique transmission drastically reduces the equilibrium level of culture. Even more surprisingly, if the population size is finite, culture hardly accumulates even under purely vertical transmission. This occurs because stochastic extinction due to random genetic drift prevents a learning strategy from accumulating enough culture. Overall, our theoretical results suggest that introducing vertical transmission alone does not really help solve the cultural social dilemma problem. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Exemplar-based human action pose correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Deng, Ke; Bai, Xiang; Leyvand, Tommer; Guo, Baining; Tu, Zhuowen

    2014-07-01

    The launch of Xbox Kinect has built a very successful computer vision product and made a big impact on the gaming industry. This sheds lights onto a wide variety of potential applications related to action recognition. The accurate estimation of human poses from the depth image is universally a critical step. However, existing pose estimation systems exhibit failures when facing severe occlusion. In this paper, we propose an exemplar-based method to learn to correct the initially estimated poses. We learn an inhomogeneous systematic bias by leveraging the exemplar information within a specific human action domain. Furthermore, as an extension, we learn a conditional model by incorporation of pose tags to further increase the accuracy of pose correction. In the experiments, significant improvements on both joint-based skeleton correction and tag prediction are observed over the contemporary approaches, including what is delivered by the current Kinect system. Our experiments for the facial landmark correction also illustrate that our algorithm can improve the accuracy of other detection/estimation systems.

  2. Accurate pose estimation for forensic identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merckx, Gert; Hermans, Jeroen; Vandermeulen, Dirk

    2010-04-01

    In forensic authentication, one aims to identify the perpetrator among a series of suspects or distractors. A fundamental problem in any recognition system that aims for identification of subjects in a natural scene is the lack of constrains on viewing and imaging conditions. In forensic applications, identification proves even more challenging, since most surveillance footage is of abysmal quality. In this context, robust methods for pose estimation are paramount. In this paper we will therefore present a new pose estimation strategy for very low quality footage. Our approach uses 3D-2D registration of a textured 3D face model with the surveillance image to obtain accurate far field pose alignment. Starting from an inaccurate initial estimate, the technique uses novel similarity measures based on the monogenic signal to guide a pose optimization process. We will illustrate the descriptive strength of the introduced similarity measures by using them directly as a recognition metric. Through validation, using both real and synthetic surveillance footage, our pose estimation method is shown to be accurate, and robust to lighting changes and image degradation.

  3. EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the risk posed by pathogens in food of non-animal origin. Part 2 (Salmonella and Norovirus in berries)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    base for establishing a Process Hygiene and Food Safety Criteria for Norovirus in berries. Collection of appropriate data and subsequent risk-based development of microbiological criteria to support improved control of Norovirus in frozen raspberries and strawberries should be considered as a priority....

  4. Factoring Algebraic Error for Relative Pose Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindstrom, P; Duchaineau, M

    2009-03-09

    We address the problem of estimating the relative pose, i.e. translation and rotation, of two calibrated cameras from image point correspondences. Our approach is to factor the nonlinear algebraic pose error functional into translational and rotational components, and to optimize translation and rotation independently. This factorization admits subproblems that can be solved using direct methods with practical guarantees on global optimality. That is, for a given translation, the corresponding optimal rotation can directly be determined, and vice versa. We show that these subproblems are equivalent to computing the least eigenvector of second- and fourth-order symmetric tensors. When neither translation or rotation is known, alternating translation and rotation optimization leads to a simple, efficient, and robust algorithm for pose estimation that improves on the well-known 5- and 8-point methods.

  5. Existence of Solutions of a Riccati Differential System from a General Cumulant Control Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley R. Liberty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a system of infinitely many Riccati equations that arise from a cumulant control problem, which is a generalization of regulator problems, risk-sensitive controls, minimal cost variance controls, and k-cumulant controls. We obtain estimates for the existence intervals of solutions of the system. In particular, new existence conditions are derived for solutions on the horizon of the cumulant control problem.

  6. Yoga Poses Increase Subjective Energy and State Self-Esteem in Comparison to 'Power Poses'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golec de Zavala, Agnieszka; Lantos, Dorottya; Bowden, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Research on beneficial consequences of yoga focuses on the effects of yogic breathing and meditation. Less is known about the psychological effects of performing yoga postures. The present study investigated the effects of yoga poses on subjective sense of energy and self-esteem. The effects of yoga postures were compared to the effects of 'power poses,' which arguably increase the sense of power and self-confidence due to their association with interpersonal dominance (Carney et al., 2010). The study tested the novel prediction that yoga poses, which are not associated with interpersonal dominance but increase bodily energy, would increase the subjective feeling of energy and therefore increase self-esteem compared to 'high power' and 'low power' poses. A two factorial, between participants design was employed. Participants performed either two standing yoga poses with open front of the body (n = 19), two standing yoga poses with covered front of the body (n = 22), two expansive, high power poses (n = 21), or two constrictive, low power poses (n = 20) for 1-min each. The results showed that yoga poses in comparison to 'power poses' increased self-esteem. This effect was mediated by an increased subjective sense of energy and was observed when baseline trait self-esteem was controlled for. These results suggest that the effects of performing open, expansive body postures may be driven by processes other than the poses' association with interpersonal power and dominance. This study demonstrates that positive effects of yoga practice can occur after performing yoga poses for only 2 min.

  7. EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the risk posed by pathogens in food of non-animal origin. Part 2 (Salmonella and Norovirus in tomatoes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    the suitability of an EU-wide E. coli Process Hygiene Criterion. There are Food Safety Criteria for the absence of Salmonella in 25 g samples of ready-to-eat pre-cut tomatoes as well as in unpasteurised tomato juice placed on the market during their shelf life. A Food Safety Criterion for Salmonella in whole...... consumption between 2007 and 2012. Risk factors for tomato contamination by Salmonella and Norovirus were considered in the context of the whole food chain. Available estimates of the Salmonella and Norovirus occurrence in tomatoes were evaluated together with mitigation options relating to prevention...... of contamination and the relevance of microbiological criteria. It was concluded that each farm environment represents a unique combination of risk factors that can influence occurrence and persistence of pathogens in tomato production. Appropriate implementation of food safety management systems including Good...

  8. Non-standard and improperly posed problems

    CERN Document Server

    Straughan, Brian; Ames, William F

    1997-01-01

    Written by two international experts in the field, this book is the first unified survey of the advances made in the last 15 years on key non-standard and improperly posed problems for partial differential equations.This reference for mathematicians, scientists, and engineers provides an overview of the methodology typically used to study improperly posed problems. It focuses on structural stability--the continuous dependence of solutions on the initial conditions and the modeling equations--and on problems for which data are only prescribed on part of the boundary.The book addresses continuou

  9. The nucleolus is well-posed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragnelli, Vito; Patrone, Fioravante; Torre, Anna

    2006-02-01

    The lexicographic order is not representable by a real-valued function, contrary to many other orders or preorders. So, standard tools and results for well-posed minimum problems cannot be used. We prove that under suitable hypotheses it is however possible to guarantee the well-posedness of a lexicographic minimum over a compact or convex set. This result allows us to prove that some game theoretical solution concepts, based on lexicographic order are well-posed: in particular, this is true for the nucleolus.

  10. Flexible Polyhedral Surfaces with Two Flat Poses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellmuth Stachel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We present three types of polyhedral surfaces, which are continuously flexible and have not only an initial pose, where all faces are coplanar, but pass during their self-motion through another pose with coplanar faces (“flat pose”. These surfaces are examples of so-called rigid origami, since we only admit exact flexions, i.e., each face remains rigid during the motion; only the dihedral angles vary. We analyze the geometry behind Miura-ori and address Kokotsakis’ example of a flexible tessellation with the particular case of a cyclic quadrangle. Finally, we recall Bricard’s octahedra of Type 3 and their relation to strophoids.

  11. Response to Bagavathiannan and Van Acker's "Transgenes and national boundaries - The need for international regulations": Biotechnology developers and regulators already consider transgene movement across national boundaries and the environmental risks posed by adventitious presence of unapproved events are overstated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickson, Thomas E; Raybould, Alan F

    2009-01-01

    Bagavathiannan and Van Acker propose greater international cooperation and information sharing in risk assessment for biotechnology-derived crops because pollen- and seed-mediated gene flow across political boundaries may lead to the adventitious presence of unapproved transgenes at sites along the borders of neighboring countries. However, they fail to convince us that something is wrong with the current situation and provide no details of how it could be improved.

  12. EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the risk posed by pathogens in food of non-animal origin. Part 2 (Salmonella and Norovirus in tomatoes)

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Tomatoes may be minimally processed to obtain ready-to-eat products, and these steps include selection, washing, cleaning, stem removal, cutting, packaging and storage. Epidemiological data from the EU have identified one salmonellosis outbreak and one Norovirus outbreak associated with tomato consumption between 2007 and 2012. Risk factors for tomato contamination by Salmonella and Norovirus were considered in the context of the whole food chain. Available estimates of the Salmonella and Nor...

  13. Head Pose Estimation from Passive Stereo Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenstein, Michael D.; Jensen, Jeppe; Høilund, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    function. Our algorithm incorporates 2D and 3D cues to make the system robust to low-quality range images acquired by passive stereo systems. It handles large pose variations (of ±90 ° yaw and ±45 ° pitch rotation) and facial variations due to expressions or accessories. For a maximally allowed error of 30...

  14. On a Monotone Ill-posed Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nguyen BUONG

    2005-01-01

    A class of a posteriori parameter choice strategies for the operator version of Tikhonovregularization (including variants of Morozov's and Arcangeli's methods) is proposed and used in investigating the rate of convergence of the regularized solution for ill-posed nonlinear equation involving a monotone operator in Banach space.

  15. What question would Turing pose today?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grosz, Barbara J

    2012-01-01

    ... well" in a game he defines and calls "the imitation game," and which we know as the Turing test. The Turing test poses the challenge of constructing a computer system able to carry on a dialogue with a person, potentially ranging over any subject matter and many subject matters, well enough to be indistinguishable from a person. Turing conject...

  16. Pose measurement method based on geometrical constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zimiao Zhang; Changku Sun; Pengfei Sun; Peng Wang

    2011-01-01

    @@ The pose estimation method based on geometric constraints is studied.The coordinates of the five feature points in the camera coordinate system are calculated to obtain the pose of an object on the basis of the geometric constraints formed by the connective lines of the feature points and the coordinates of the feature points on the CCD image plane; during the solution process,the scaling and orthography projection model is used to approximate the perspective projection model.%The pose estimation method based on geometric constraints is studied. The coordinates of the five feature points in the camera coordinate system are calculated to obtain the pose of an object on the basis of the geometric constraints formed by the connective lines of the feature points and the coordinates of the feature points on the CCD image plane; during the solution process, the scaling and orthography projection model is used to approximate the perspective projection model. The initial values of the coordinates of the five feature points in the camera coordinate system are obtained to ensure the accuracy and convergence rate of the non-linear algorithm. In accordance with the perspective projection characteristics of the circular feature landmarks, we propose an approach that enables the iterative acquisition of accurate target poses through the correction of the perspective projection coordinates of the circular feature landmark centers. Experimental results show that the translation positioning accuracy reaches ±0.05 mm in the measurement range of 0-40 mm, and the rotation positioning accuracy reaches ±0.06° in the measurement range of 4°-60°.

  17. EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the risk posed by pathogens in food of non-animal origin. Part 2 (Salmonella and Norovirus in leafy greens eaten raw as salads)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    and GHP. It is proposed to define a criterion at primary production of leafy greens which is designated as Hygiene Criterion, and E. coli was identified as suitable for this purpose. A Process Hygiene Criterion for E. coli in leafy green packaging plants or fresh cutting plants was considered......Leafy greens eaten raw as salads are minimally processed and widely consumed foods. Risk factors for leafy greens contamination by Salmonella spp. and Norovirus were considered in the context of the whole food chain including agricultural production and processing. Available estimates...... of the prevalence of these pathogens (together with the use of Escherichia coli as an indicator organism) in leafy greens were evaluated. Specific mitigation options relating to contamination of leafy greens were considered and qualitatively assessed. It was concluded that each farm environment represents a unique...

  18. EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the risk posed by pathogens in food of non-animal origin. Part 2 (Salmonella in melons)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    to indicate the degree to which GAP, GHP, GMP or Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) programmes have been implemented. There are Food Safety Criteria for the absence of Salmonella in 25g samples placed on the market during their shelf life of ready-to-eat pre-cut melon and watermelon......Melons and watermelons are ready-to-eat foods, with an internal pH of 5.1 to 6.7 and can be consumed whole, as fresh-cut products or as fresh juices. Epidemiological data from the EU identified one salmonellosis outbreak associated with consumption of both pre-cut and whole melon between 2007...... and 2012. Risk factors for melon and watermelon contamination by Salmonella were considered in the context of the whole food chain, together with available estimates of Salmonella occurrence and mitigation options relating to prevention of contamination and the relevance of microbiological criteria...

  19. Direct solution to the minimal generalized pose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miraldo, Pedro; Araujo, Helder

    2015-03-01

    Pose estimation is a relevant problem for imaging systems whose applications range from augmented reality to robotics. In this paper we propose a novel solution for the minimal pose problem, within the framework of generalized camera models and using a planar homography. Within this framework and considering only the geometric elements of the generalized camera models, an imaging system can be modeled by a set of mappings associating image pixels to 3-D straight lines. This mapping is defined in a 3-D world coordinate system. Pose estimation performs the computation of the rigid transformation between the original 3-D world coordinate system and the one in which the camera was calibrated. Using synthetic data, we compare the proposed minimal-based method with the state-of-the-art methods in terms of numerical errors, number of solutions and processing time. From the experiments, we conclude that the proposed method performs better, especially because there is a smaller variation in numerical errors, while results are similar in terms of number of solutions and computation time. To further evaluate the proposed approach we tested our method with real data. One of the relevant contributions of this paper is theoretical. When compared to the state-of-the-art approaches, we propose a completely new parametrization of the problem that can be solved in four simple steps. In addition, our approach does not require any predefined transformation of the dataset, which yields a simpler solution for the problem.

  20. Driver head pose tracking with thermal camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bole, S.; Fournier, C.; Lavergne, C.; Druart, G.; Lépine, T.

    2016-09-01

    Head pose can be seen as a coarse estimation of gaze direction. In automotive industry, knowledge about gaze direction could optimize Human-Machine Interface (HMI) and Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). Pose estimation systems are often based on camera when applications have to be contactless. In this paper, we explore uncooled thermal imagery (8-14μm) for its intrinsic night vision capabilities and for its invariance versus lighting variations. Two methods are implemented and compared, both are aided by a 3D model of the head. The 3D model, mapped with thermal texture, allows to synthesize a base of 2D projected models, differently oriented and labeled in yaw and pitch. The first method is based on keypoints. Keypoints of models are matched with those of the query image. These sets of matchings, aided with the 3D shape of the model, allow to estimate 3D pose. The second method is a global appearance approach. Among all 2D models of the base, algorithm searches the one which is the closest to the query image thanks to a weighted least squares difference.

  1. Cumulate Fragments in Silicic Ignimbrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, O.; Ellis, B. S.; Wolff, J.

    2014-12-01

    Increasingly, studies are concluding that silicic ignimbrites are the result of the amalgamation of multiple discrete magma batches. Yet the existence of discrete batches presents a conundrum for magma generation and storage; if silicic magma batches are not generated nearly in situ in the upper crust, they must traverse, and reside within, a thermally hostile environment with large temperature gradients, resulting in low survivability in their shallow magmatic hearths. The Snake River Plain (Idaho, USA) is a type example of this 'multi-batch' assembly with ignimbrites containing multiple populations of pyroxene crystals, glass shards, and crystal aggregates. The ubiquitous crystal aggregates hint at a mechanism to facilitate the existence of multiple, relatively small batches of rhyolite in the upper crust. These aggregates contain the same plagioclase, pyroxene, and oxide mineral compositions as single phenocrysts of the same minerals in their host rocks, but they have significantly less silicic bulk compositions and lack quartz and sanidine, which occur as single phenocrysts in the deposits. This implies significant crystallization followed by melt extraction from mushy reservoir margins. The extracted melt then continues to evolve (crystallizing sanidine and quartz) while the melt-depleted margins provide an increasingly rigid and refractory network segregating the crystal-poor batches of magma. The hot, refractory, margins insulate the crystal-poor lenses, allowing (1) extended residence in the upper crust, and (2) preservation of chemical heterogeneities among batches. In contrast, systems that produce cumulates richer in low-temperature phases (quartz, K-feldspars, and/or biotite) favour remelting upon recharge, leading to less segregation of eruptible melt pockets and the formation of gradationally zoned ignimbrites. The occurrence of similar crystal aggregates from a variety of magmatic lineages suggests the generality of this process.

  2. Cumulative human impacts on marine predators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maxwell, Sara M; Hazen, Elliott L; Bograd, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Stressors associated with human activities interact in complex ways to affect marine ecosystems, yet we lack spatially explicit assessments of cumulative impacts on ecologically and economically key components such as marine predators. Here we develop a metric of cumulative utilization and impact...

  3. Cumulative dietary exposure of the population of Denmark to pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Nielsen, Elsa

    2015-01-01

    We used the Hazard Index (HI) method to carry out a cumulative risk assessment after chronic dietary exposure to all monitored pesticides in fruit, vegetables and cereals for various consumer groups in Denmark. Residue data for all the pesticides were obtained from the Danish monitoring programme...... that included processing factors and set non-detects to ½ LOR, but limited the correction (Model 3), gave the most realistic exposure estimate. With Model 3 the HI was calculated to be 0.44 for children and 0.18 for adults, indicating that there is no risk of adverse health effects following chronic cumulative...... exposure to the pesticides found in fruit, vegetables and cereals on the Danish market. The HI was below 1 even for consumers who eat more than 550 g of fruit and vegetables per day, corresponding to 1/3 of the population. Choosing Danish-produced commodities whenever possible could reduce the HI...

  4. Tabu search for human pose recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyce, W.; Rodriguez, N.; Lange, B.; Andary, S.; Seilles, A.

    2014-03-01

    The use of computer vision techniques to build hands-free input devices has long been a topic of interest to researchers in the field of natural interaction. In recent years Microsoft's Kinect has brought these technologies to the layman, but the most commonly used libraries for Kinect human pose recognition are closed-source. There is not yet an accepted, effective open-source alternative upon which highly specific applications can be based. We propose a novel technique for extracting the appendage configurations of users from the Kinect camera's depth feed, based on stochastic local search techniques rather than per-pixel classification.

  5. Skill Levels of Prospective Physics Teachers on Problem Posing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cildir, Sema; Sezen, Nazan

    2011-01-01

    Problem posing is one of the topics which the educators thoroughly accentuate. Problem posing skill is defined as an introvert activity of a student's learning. In this study, skill levels of prospective physics teachers on problem posing were determined and their views on problem posing were evaluated. To this end, prospective teachers were given…

  6. Ocean Urea Fertilization for Carbon Credits Poses High Ecological Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glibert, Patricia M.; Azanza, Rhodora; Burford, Michele; Furuya, Ken; Abal, Eva; Al-Azri, Adnan; Al-Yamani, Faiza; Andersen, Per; Beardall, John; Berg, G. Mine; Brand, Larry; Bronk, Deborah; Brookes, Justin; Burkholder, JoAnn M.; Cembella, Allan; Cochlan, William P.; Collier, Jackie; Collos, Yves; Diaz, Robert; Doblin, Martina; Drennen, Thomas; Dyhrman, Sonya; Fukuyo, Yasuwo; Furnas, Miles; Galloway, James; Granéli, Edna; Ha, Dao Viet; Hallegraeff, Gustaaf; Harrison, John; Harrison, Paul J.; Heil, Cynthia A.; Heimann, Kirsten; Howarth, Robert; Jauzein, Cécile; Kana, Austin A.; Kana, Todd M.; Kim, Hakgyoon; Kudela, Raphael; Legrand, Catherine; Mallin, Michael; Mulholland, Margaret; Murray, Shauna; O’Neil, Judith; Pitcher, Grant; Qi, Yuzao; Rabalais, Nancy; Raine, Robin; Seitzinger, Sybil; Solomon, Caroline; Stoecker, Diane K.; Usup, Gires; Wilson, Joanne; Yin, Kedong; Zhou, Mingjiang; Zhu, Mingyuan

    2017-01-01

    The proposed plan for enrichment of the Sulu Sea, Philippines, a region of rich marine biodiversity, with thousands of tonnes of urea in order to stimulate algal blooms and sequester carbon is flawed for multiple reasons. Urea is preferentially used as a nitrogen source by some cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates, many of which are neutrally or positively buoyant. Biological pumps to the deep sea are classically leaky, and the inefficient burial of new biomass makes the estimation of a net loss of carbon from the atmosphere questionable at best. The potential for growth of toxic dinoflagellates is also high, as many grow well on urea and some even increase their toxicity when grown on urea. Many toxic dinoflagellates form cysts which can settle to the sediment and germinate in subsequent years, forming new blooms even without further fertilization. If large-scale blooms do occur, it is likely that they will contribute to hypoxia in the bottom waters upon decomposition. Lastly, urea production requires fossil fuel usage, further limiting the potential for net carbon sequestration. The environmental and economic impacts are potentially great and need to be rigorously assessed. PMID:18439628

  7. The Risks that Foreign Labor Poses to UAE National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    the data available from Arabic to English . After compiling the research, the researcher will develop the thesis by answering the primary question and...children being raised by foreign household nannies imitate their nanny’s accent , and communicate with her via some sort of hybrid language. Further...of their faith–a bad habit that could only get worse. In short, as the use of Arabic in UAE society diminishes and dialects arise, Arab identity

  8. Ocean urea fertilization for carbon credits poses high ecological risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glibert, Patricia M; Azanza, Rhodora; Burford, Michele; Furuya, Ken; Abal, Eva; Al-Azri, Adnan; Al-Yamani, Faiza; Andersen, Per; Anderson, Donald M; Beardall, John; Berg, G Mine; Brand, Larry; Bronk, Deborah; Brookes, Justin; Burkholder, Joann M; Cembella, Allan; Cochlan, William P; Collier, Jackie L; Collos, Yves; Diaz, Robert; Doblin, Martina; Drennen, Thomas; Dyhrman, Sonya; Fukuyo, Yasuwo; Furnas, Miles; Galloway, James; Granéli, Edna; Ha, Dao Viet; Hallegraeff, Gustaaf; Harrison, John; Harrison, Paul J; Heil, Cynthia A; Heimann, Kirsten; Howarth, Robert; Jauzein, Cécile; Kana, Austin A; Kana, Todd M; Kim, Hakgyoon; Kudela, Raphael; Legrand, Catherine; Mallin, Michael; Mulholland, Margaret; Murray, Shauna; O'Neil, Judith; Pitcher, Grant; Qi, Yuzao; Rabalais, Nancy; Raine, Robin; Seitzinger, Sybil; Salomon, Paulo S; Solomon, Caroline; Stoecker, Diane K; Usup, Gires; Wilson, Joanne; Yin, Kedong; Zhou, Mingjiang; Zhu, Mingyuan

    2008-06-01

    The proposed plan for enrichment of the Sulu Sea, Philippines, a region of rich marine biodiversity, with thousands of tonnes of urea in order to stimulate algal blooms and sequester carbon is flawed for multiple reasons. Urea is preferentially used as a nitrogen source by some cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates, many of which are neutrally or positively buoyant. Biological pumps to the deep sea are classically leaky, and the inefficient burial of new biomass makes the estimation of a net loss of carbon from the atmosphere questionable at best. The potential for growth of toxic dinoflagellates is also high, as many grow well on urea and some even increase their toxicity when grown on urea. Many toxic dinoflagellates form cysts which can settle to the sediment and germinate in subsequent years, forming new blooms even without further fertilization. If large-scale blooms do occur, it is likely that they will contribute to hypoxia in the bottom waters upon decomposition. Lastly, urea production requires fossil fuel usage, further limiting the potential for net carbon sequestration. The environmental and economic impacts are potentially great and need to be rigorously assessed.

  9. Nonlinear cumulative damage model for multiaxial fatigue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG De-guang; SUN Guo-qin; DENG Jing; YAN Chu-liang

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of the continuum fatigue damage theory,a nonlinear uniaxial fatigue cumulative damage model is first proposed.In order to describe multiaxial fatigue damage characteristics,a nonlinear multiaxial fatigue cumulative damage model is developed based on the critical plane approach,The proposed model can consider the multiaxial fatigue limit,mean hydrostatic pressure and the unseparated characteristic for the damage variables and loading parameters.The recurrence formula of fatigue damage model was derived under multilevel loading,which is used to predict multiaxial fatigue life.The results showed that the proposed nonlinear multiaxial fatigue cumulative damage model is better than Miner's rule.

  10. Relative Pose Estimation Algorithm with Gyroscope Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Wei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel vision and inertial fusion algorithm S2fM (Simplified Structure from Motion for camera relative pose estimation. Different from current existing algorithms, our algorithm estimates rotation parameter and translation parameter separately. S2fM employs gyroscopes to estimate camera rotation parameter, which is later fused with the image data to estimate camera translation parameter. Our contributions are in two aspects. (1 Under the circumstance that no inertial sensor can estimate accurately enough translation parameter, we propose a translation estimation algorithm by fusing gyroscope sensor and image data. (2 Our S2fM algorithm is efficient and suitable for smart devices. Experimental results validate efficiency of the proposed S2fM algorithm.

  11. Cumulative cultural learning: Development and diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legare, Cristine H

    2017-07-24

    The complexity and variability of human culture is unmatched by any other species. Humans live in culturally constructed niches filled with artifacts, skills, beliefs, and practices that have been inherited, accumulated, and modified over generations. A causal account of the complexity of human culture must explain its distinguishing characteristics: It is cumulative and highly variable within and across populations. I propose that the psychological adaptations supporting cumulative cultural transmission are universal but are sufficiently flexible to support the acquisition of highly variable behavioral repertoires. This paper describes variation in the transmission practices (teaching) and acquisition strategies (imitation) that support cumulative cultural learning in childhood. Examining flexibility and variation in caregiver socialization and children's learning extends our understanding of evolution in living systems by providing insight into the psychological foundations of cumulative cultural transmission-the cornerstone of human cultural diversity.

  12. Calculating Cumulative Binomial-Distribution Probabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuer, Ernest M.; Bowerman, Paul N.

    1989-01-01

    Cumulative-binomial computer program, CUMBIN, one of set of three programs, calculates cumulative binomial probability distributions for arbitrary inputs. CUMBIN, NEWTONP (NPO-17556), and CROSSER (NPO-17557), used independently of one another. Reliabilities and availabilities of k-out-of-n systems analyzed. Used by statisticians and users of statistical procedures, test planners, designers, and numerical analysts. Used for calculations of reliability and availability. Program written in C.

  13. Cumulative cultural evolution: the role of teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Laureano; Toro, Miguel A

    2014-04-21

    In humans, cultural transmission occurs usually by cumulative inheritance, generating complex adaptive behavioral features. Cumulative culture requires key psychological processes (fundamentally imitation and teaching) that are absent or impoverished in non-human primates. In this paper we analyze the role that teaching has played in human cumulative cultural evolution. We assume that a system of cumulative culture generates increasingly adaptive behaviors, that are also more complex and difficult to imitate. Our thesis is that, as cultural traits become more complex, cumulative cultural transmission requires teaching to ensure accurate transmission from one generation to the next. In an increasingly complex cultural environment, we consider that individuals commit errors in imitation. We develop a model of cumulative cultural evolution in a changing environment and show that these errors hamper the process of cultural accumulation. We also show that a system of teaching between parents and offspring that increases the fidelity of imitation unblocks the accumulation and becomes adaptive whenever the gain in fitness compensates the cost of teaching.

  14. Human cumulative culture: a comparative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Lewis G; Vale, Gill L; Laland, Kevin N; Flynn, Emma; Kendal, Rachel L

    2014-05-01

    Many animals exhibit social learning and behavioural traditions, but human culture exhibits unparalleled complexity and diversity, and is unambiguously cumulative in character. These similarities and differences have spawned a debate over whether animal traditions and human culture are reliant on homologous or analogous psychological processes. Human cumulative culture combines high-fidelity transmission of cultural knowledge with beneficial modifications to generate a 'ratcheting' in technological complexity, leading to the development of traits far more complex than one individual could invent alone. Claims have been made for cumulative culture in several species of animals, including chimpanzees, orangutans and New Caledonian crows, but these remain contentious. Whilst initial work on the topic of cumulative culture was largely theoretical, employing mathematical methods developed by population biologists, in recent years researchers from a wide range of disciplines, including psychology, biology, economics, biological anthropology, linguistics and archaeology, have turned their attention to the experimental investigation of cumulative culture. We review this literature, highlighting advances made in understanding the underlying processes of cumulative culture and emphasising areas of agreement and disagreement amongst investigators in separate fields.

  15. Cumulative effects of planned industrial development and climate change on marine ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathryn Clarke Murray

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available With increasing human population, large scale climate changes, and the interaction of multiple stressors, understanding cumulative effects on marine ecosystems is increasingly important. Two major drivers of change in coastal and marine ecosystems are industrial developments with acute impacts on local ecosystems, and global climate change stressors with widespread impacts. We conducted a cumulative effects mapping analysis of the marine waters of British Columbia, Canada, under different scenarios: climate change and planned developments. At the coast-wide scale, climate change drove the largest change in cumulative effects with both widespread impacts and high vulnerability scores. Where the impacts of planned developments occur, planned industrial and pipeline activities had high cumulative effects, but the footprint of these effects was comparatively localized. Nearshore habitats were at greatest risk from planned industrial and pipeline activities; in particular, the impacts of planned pipelines on rocky intertidal habitats were predicted to cause the highest change in cumulative effects. This method of incorporating planned industrial development in cumulative effects mapping allows explicit comparison of different scenarios with the potential to be used in environmental impact assessments at various scales. Its use allows resource managers to consider cumulative effect hotspots when making decisions regarding industrial developments and avoid unacceptable cumulative effects. Management needs to consider both global and local stressors in managing marine ecosystems for the protection of biodiversity and the provisioning of ecosystem services.

  16. Ground-Truthing Validation to Assess the Effect of Facility Locational Error on Cumulative Impacts Screening Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Sadd, J. L.; Hall, E. S.; Pastor, M.; Morello-Frosch, R. A.; D. Lowe-Liang; Hayes, J.; Swanson, C

    2015-01-01

    Researchers and government regulators have developed numerous tools to screen areas and populations for cumulative impacts and vulnerability to environmental hazards and risk. These tools all rely on secondary data maintained by government agencies as part of the regulatory and permitting process. Stakeholders interested in cumulative impacts screening results have consistently questioned the accuracy and completeness of some of these datasets. In this study, three cumulative impacts screenin...

  17. Human pose tracking by parametric annealing

    CERN Document Server

    Kaliamoorthi, Prabhu

    2012-01-01

    Model based methods to marker-free motion capture have a very high computational overhead that make them unattractive. In this paper we describe a method that improves on existing global optimization techniques to tracking articulated objects. Our method improves on the state-of-the-art Annealed Particle Filter (APF) by reusing samples across annealing layers and by using an adaptive parametric density for diffusion. We compare the proposed method with APF on a scalable problem and study how the two methods scale with the dimensionality, multi-modality and the range of search. Then we perform sensitivity analysis on the parameters of our algorithm and show that it tolerates a wide range of parameter settings. We also show results on tracking human pose from the widely-used Human Eva I dataset. Our results show that the proposed method reduces the tracking error despite using less than 50% of the computational resources as APF. The tracked output also shows a significant qualitative improvement over APF as dem...

  18. Logo Detection Using Pose Clustering and Momentums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hadi Karimi Tafti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, logo and arm detection with growing variety and number of arms in companies and countries is one of the significant topics in image processing. For logo detection there are many image processing algorithms which can be used for this purpose regard to features of the logo. In the most of recent works, images are exactly the logos, but in general, the logo can be one portion of another image or even can transform (rotate, skew, shift, … and have more complexity. In this paper we will select Iran logo as a sample, because it has not any regular geometric form and has special complexity. In a bank of images we will try to find this logo and its position with its transformation. Images bank includes images that has not Iran logo or has Iran logo with affine transform within another pictures. Approaches that will be discussed here are pose clustering and momentum clustering. Simulation results show that this approach can be used as a suitable way for finding the existence and position of arm in this field.

  19. Optimal Control of Non-well-posed Heat Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geng Sheng WANG

    2005-01-01

    This work is concerned with Pontryagin's maximum principle of optimal control problems governed by some non-well-posed semilinear heat equations. A type of approach to the non-well-posed optimal control problem is given.

  20. Predicting Cumulative Incidence Probability by Direct Binomial Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas H.; Zhang, Mei-Jie

    Binomial modelling; cumulative incidence probability; cause-specific hazards; subdistribution hazard......Binomial modelling; cumulative incidence probability; cause-specific hazards; subdistribution hazard...

  1. Effects of Dressing Poses on Clothing Thermal Insulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊; 刘岩; 张渭源

    2004-01-01

    With a thermal manikin, the effects of dressing poses on clothing thermal insulation are studied. It is found that the thermal insulation of still air layer over human body has not been influenced by the dressing poses, but the dressing poses have effects on the thermal insulation of clothing system.

  2. 2D Methods for pose invariant face recognition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokoena, Ntabiseng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability to recognise face images under random pose is a task that is done effortlessly by human beings. However, for a computer system, recognising face images under varying poses still remains an open research area. Face recognition across pose...

  3. Unseen head pose prediction using dense multivariate label distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao-li SANG; Hu CHEN; Ge HUANG; Qi-jun ZHAO

    2016-01-01

    Accurate head poses are useful for many face-related tasks such as face recognition, gaze estimation, and emotion analysis. Most existing methods estimate head poses that are included in the training data (i.e., previously seen head poses). To predict head poses that are not seen in the training data, some regression-based methods have been proposed. However, they focus on estimating continuous head pose angles, and thus do not systematically evaluate the performance on predicting unseen head poses. In this paper, we use a dense multivariate label distribution (MLD) to represent the pose angle of a face image. By incorporating both seen and unseen pose angles into MLD, the head pose predictor can estimate unseen head poses with an accuracy comparable to that of estimating seen head poses. On the Pointing’04 database, the mean absolute errors of results for yaw and pitch are 4.01◦ and 2.13◦, respectively. In addition, experiments on the CAS-PEAL and CMU Multi-PIE databases show that the proposed dense MLD-based head pose estimation method can obtain the state-of-the-art performance when compared to some existing methods.

  4. Transfer between Pose and Illumination Training in Face Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang Hong; Bhuiyan, Md. Al-Amin; Ward, James; Sui, Jie

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between pose and illumination learning in face recognition was examined in a yes-no recognition paradigm. The authors assessed whether pose training can transfer to a new illumination or vice versa. Results show that an extensive level of pose training through a face-name association task was able to generalize to a new…

  5. Genetic variant SLC2A2 [corrected] Is associated with risk of cardiovascular disease – assessing the individual and cumulative effect of 46 type 2 diabetes related genetic variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Borglykke

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess the individual and combined effect of 46 type 2 diabetes related risk alleles on incidence of a composite CVD endpoint. METHODS: Data from the first Danish MONICA study (N = 3523 and the Inter99 study (N = 6049 was used. Using Cox proportional hazard regression the individual effect of each risk allele on incident CVD was analyzed. Risk was presented as hazard ratios (HR per risk allele. RESULTS: During 80,859 person years 1441 incident cases of CVD (fatal and non-fatal occurred in the MONICA study. In Inter99 942 incident cases were observed during 61,239 person years. In the Danish MONICA study four gene variants were significantly associated with incident CVD independently of known diabetes status at baseline; SLC2A2 rs11920090 (HR 1.147, 95% CI 1.027-1.283 , P = 0.0154, C2CD4A rs7172432 (1.112, 1.027-1.205 , P = 0.0089, GCKR rs780094 (1.094, 1.007-1.188 , P = 0.0335 and C2CD4B rs11071657 (1.092, 1.007-1.183 , P = 0.0323. The genetic score was significantly associated with increased risk of CVD (1.025, 1.010-1.041, P = 0.0016. In Inter99 two gene variants were associated with risk of CVD independently of diabetes; SLC2A2 (HR 1.180, 95% CI 1.038-1.341 P = 0.0116 and FTO (0.909, 0.827-0.998, P = 0.0463. Analysing the two populations together we found SLC2A2 rs11920090 (HR 1.164, 95% CI 1.070-1.267, P = 0.0004 meeting the Bonferroni corrected threshold for significance. GCKR rs780094 (1.076, 1.010-1.146, P = 0.0229, C2CD4B rs11071657 (1.067, 1.003-1.135, P = 0.0385 and NOTCH2 rs10923931 (1.104 (1.001 ; 1.217 , P = 0.0481 were found associated with CVD without meeting the corrected threshold. The genetic score was significantly associated with increased risk of CVD (1.018, 1.006-1.031, P = 0.0043. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that out of the 46 genetic variants examined only the minor risk allele of SLC2A2 rs11920090 was significantly (P = 0.0005 associated with a composite endpoint of incident CVD below the threshold for

  6. Cumulative Culture and Future Thinking: Is Mental Time Travel a Prerequisite to Cumulative Cultural Evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, G. L.; Flynn, E. G.; Kendal, R. L.

    2012-01-01

    Cumulative culture denotes the, arguably, human capacity to build on the cultural behaviors of one's predecessors, allowing increases in cultural complexity to occur such that many of our cultural artifacts, products and technologies have progressed beyond what a single individual could invent alone. This process of cumulative cultural evolution…

  7. Identification and Quantification of Cumulative Factors that Increase Environmental Exposures and Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluating the combined adverse effects of multiple stressors upon human health is an imperative component of cumulative risk assessment (CRA)1. In addition to chemical stressors, other non-chemical factors are also considered. For examples, smoking will elevate the risks of havi...

  8. Is cumulated pyrethroid exposure associated with prediabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Rune; Jørs, Erik; Lander, Flemming;

    2014-01-01

    , cumulative exposure) was assessed from questionnaire data. Participants were asked about symptoms of diabetes. Blood samples were analyzed for glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), a measure of glucose regulation. No association was found between pyrethroid exposure and diabetes symptoms. The prevalence...

  9. Cumulative Disadvantage among the Highly Ambitious.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Katherine

    1990-01-01

    Using a social reproduction theory framework, analyzes the process by which high school seniors aspiring to high-level positions are sorted out after graduation. Analyzes early educational attainments and changes in occupational expectations. Shows a process of cumulative disadvantage in which White males are more likely to achieve their goals.…

  10. Pavlovian conditioning and cumulative reinforcement rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Justin A; Patterson, Angela E; Gharaei, Saba

    2015-04-01

    In 5 experiments using delay conditioning of magazine approach with rats, reinforcement rate was varied either by manipulating the mean interval between onset of the conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US) or by manipulating the proportion of CS presentations that ended with the US (trial-based reinforcement rate). Both manipulations influenced the acquisition of responding. In each experiment, a specific comparison was made between 2 CSs that differed in their mean CS-US interval and in their trial-based reinforcement rate, such that the cumulative reinforcement rate-the cumulative duration of the CS between reinforcements-was the same for the 2 CSs. For example, a CS reinforced on 100% of trials with a mean CS-US interval of 60 s was compared with a CS reinforced on 33% of trials and a mean duration of 20 s. Across the 5 experiments, conditioning was virtually identical for the 2 CSs with matched cumulative reinforcement rate. This was true as long as the timing of the US was unpredictable and, thus, response rates were uniform across the length of the CS. We conclude that the effects of CS-US interval and of trial-based reinforcement rate are reducible entirely to their common effect on cumulative reinforcement rate. We discuss the implications of this for rate-based, trial-based, and real-time associative models of conditioning.

  11. An Axiomatization of Cumulative Prospect Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, P.P.; Tversky, A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a method for axiomatizing a variety of models for decision making under uncertainty, including Expected Utility and Cumulative Prospect Theory. This method identifies, for each model, the situations that permit consistent inferences about the ordering of value differences. Exampl

  12. Cumulative Disadvantage among the Highly Ambitious.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Katherine

    1990-01-01

    Using a social reproduction theory framework, analyzes the process by which high school seniors aspiring to high-level positions are sorted out after graduation. Analyzes early educational attainments and changes in occupational expectations. Shows a process of cumulative disadvantage in which White males are more likely to achieve their goals.…

  13. Pose Estimation with a Kinect for Ergonomic Studies: Evaluation of the Accuracy Using a Virtual Mannequin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Plantard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing human poses with a Kinect is a promising method to evaluate potentials risks of musculoskeletal disorders at workstations. In ecological situations, complex 3D poses and constraints imposed by the environment make it difficult to obtain reliable kinematic information. Thus, being able to predict the potential accuracy of the measurement for such complex 3D poses and sensor placements is challenging in classical experimental setups. To tackle this problem, we propose a new evaluation method based on a virtual mannequin. In this study, we apply this method to the evaluation of joint positions (shoulder, elbow, and wrist, joint angles (shoulder and elbow, and the corresponding RULA (a popular ergonomics assessment grid upper-limb score for a large set of poses and sensor placements. Thanks to this evaluation method, more than 500,000 configurations have been automatically tested, which would be almost impossible to evaluate with classical protocols. The results show that the kinematic information obtained by the Kinect software is generally accurate enough to fill in ergonomic assessment grids. However inaccuracy strongly increases for some specific poses and sensor positions. Using this evaluation method enabled us to report configurations that could lead to these high inaccuracies. As a supplementary material, we provide a software tool to help designers to evaluate the expected accuracy of this sensor for a set of upper-limb configurations. Results obtained with the virtual mannequin are in accordance with those obtained from a real subject for a limited set of poses and sensor placements.

  14. Foreign-funded M&A Poses No Threatto China’s Economic Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志乐

    2007-01-01

    Foreign funded M■A(Mergers ■ Acquisitions) activity is becoming increasingly common in China.In this article Wang Zhile assesses the effects and risks associated with M■A,finding that foreign funded M■A activity is immensely beneficial to China and poses no threat to economic security.

  15. To Strike a Pose: No Stereotype Backlash for Power Posing Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Rennung

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Power posing, the adoption of open and powerful postures, has effects that parallel those of actual social power. This study explored the social evaluation of adopting powerful versus powerless body postures in men and women regarding perceived warmth, competence, and the likelihood of eliciting admiration, envy, pity, and contempt. Previous findings suggest that the display of power by women may have side effects due to gender stereotyping, namely reduced warmth ratings and negative emotional reactions. An experiment (N = 2,473 asked participants to rate pictures of men and women who adopted high-power or low-power body postures. High-power posers were rated higher on competence, admiration, envy, and contempt compared to low-power posers, whereas the opposite was true for pity. There was no impact of power posing on perceived warmth. Contrary to expectations, the poser’s gender did not moderate any of the effects. These findings suggest that nonverbal displays of power do influence fundamental dimensions of social perception and their accompanying emotional reactions but result in comparably positive and negative evaluations for both genders.

  16. To Strike a Pose: No Stereotype Backlash for Power Posing Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennung, Miriam; Blum, Johannes; Göritz, Anja S

    2016-01-01

    Power posing, the adoption of open and powerful postures, has effects that parallel those of actual social power. This study explored the social evaluation of adopting powerful vs. powerless body postures in men and women regarding perceived warmth, competence, and the likelihood of eliciting admiration, envy, pity, and contempt. Previous findings suggest that the display of power by women may have side effects due to gender stereotyping, namely reduced warmth ratings and negative emotional reactions. An experiment (N = 2,473) asked participants to rate pictures of men and women who adopted high-power or low-power body postures. High-power posers were rated higher on competence, admiration, envy, and contempt compared to low-power posers, whereas the opposite was true for pity. There was no impact of power posing on perceived warmth. Contrary to expectations, the poser's gender did not moderate any of the effects. These findings suggest that non-verbal displays of power do influence fundamental dimensions of social perception and their accompanying emotional reactions but result in comparably positive and negative evaluations for both genders.

  17. To Strike a Pose: No Stereotype Backlash for Power Posing Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennung, Miriam; Blum, Johannes; Göritz, Anja S.

    2016-01-01

    Power posing, the adoption of open and powerful postures, has effects that parallel those of actual social power. This study explored the social evaluation of adopting powerful vs. powerless body postures in men and women regarding perceived warmth, competence, and the likelihood of eliciting admiration, envy, pity, and contempt. Previous findings suggest that the display of power by women may have side effects due to gender stereotyping, namely reduced warmth ratings and negative emotional reactions. An experiment (N = 2,473) asked participants to rate pictures of men and women who adopted high-power or low-power body postures. High-power posers were rated higher on competence, admiration, envy, and contempt compared to low-power posers, whereas the opposite was true for pity. There was no impact of power posing on perceived warmth. Contrary to expectations, the poser’s gender did not moderate any of the effects. These findings suggest that non-verbal displays of power do influence fundamental dimensions of social perception and their accompanying emotional reactions but result in comparably positive and negative evaluations for both genders. PMID:27729887

  18. Local Feature Learning for Face Recognition under Varying Poses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duan, Xiaodong; Tan, Zheng-Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a local feature learning method for face recognition to deal with varying poses. As opposed to the commonly used approaches of recovering frontal face images from profile views, the proposed method extracts the subject related part from a local feature by removing the pose...... related part in it on the basis of a pose feature. The method has a closed-form solution, hence being time efficient. For performance evaluation, cross pose face recognition experiments are conducted on two public face recognition databases FERET and FEI. The proposed method shows a significant...... recognition improvement under varying poses over general local feature approaches and outperforms or is comparable with related state-of-the-art pose invariant face recognition approaches. Copyright ©2015 by IEEE....

  19. Cumulative dietary exposure of the population of Denmark to pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Nielsen, Elsa; Christensen, Tue; Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Andersen, Jens Hinge

    2015-09-01

    We used the Hazard Index (HI) method to carry out a cumulative risk assessment after chronic dietary exposure to all monitored pesticides in fruit, vegetables and cereals for various consumer groups in Denmark. Residue data for all the pesticides were obtained from the Danish monitoring programme during the period 2004-2011. Food consumption data were obtained from DANSDA (the DAnish National Survey of Diet and physical Activity) for the period 2005-2008. The calculations were made using three different models to cope with residues below the limit of reporting (LOR). We concluded that a model that included processing factors and set non-detects to ½ LOR, but limited the correction (Model 3), gave the most realistic exposure estimate. With Model 3 the HI was calculated to be 0.44 for children and 0.18 for adults, indicating that there is no risk of adverse health effects following chronic cumulative exposure to the pesticides found in fruit, vegetables and cereals on the Danish market. The HI was below 1 even for consumers who eat more than 550 g of fruit and vegetables per day, corresponding to 1/3 of the population. Choosing Danish-produced commodities whenever possible could reduce the HI by a factor of 2.

  20. Complexity and demographic explanations of cumulative culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Querbes

    Full Text Available Formal models have linked prehistoric and historical instances of technological change (e.g., the Upper Paleolithic transition, cultural loss in Holocene Tasmania, scientific progress since the late nineteenth century to demographic change. According to these models, cumulation of technological complexity is inhibited by decreasing--while favoured by increasing--population levels. Here we show that these findings are contingent on how complexity is defined: demography plays a much more limited role in sustaining cumulative culture in case formal models deploy Herbert Simon's definition of complexity rather than the particular definitions of complexity hitherto assumed. Given that currently available empirical evidence doesn't afford discriminating proper from improper definitions of complexity, our robustness analyses put into question the force of recent demographic explanations of particular episodes of cultural change.

  1. Avoiding Program-Induced Cumulative Overload (PICO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Robin; Knapik, Joseph J; Pope, Rodney

    2016-01-01

    This article defines the concept of program-induced cumulative overload (PICO), provides examples, and advises ways to mitigate the adverse effects. PICO is the excessive cumulative physical workload that can be imparted to military personnel by a military training program with an embedded physical training component. PICO can be acute (accumulating within a single day) or chronic (accumulating across the entirety of the program) and results in adverse outcomes for affected personnel, including detrimental fatigue, performance degradation, injuries, or illness. Strategies to mitigate PICO include focusing administration and logistic practices during the development and ongoing management of a trainee program and implementing known musculoskeletal injury prevention strategies. More training is not always better, and trainers need to consider the total amount of physical activity that military personnel experience across both operational training and physical training if PICO is to be mitigated.

  2. Sharing a quota on cumulative carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raupach, Michael R.; Davis, Steven J.; Peters, Glen P.; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Ciais, Philippe; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Jotzo, Frank; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Le Quéré, Corinne

    2014-10-01

    Any limit on future global warming is associated with a quota on cumulative global CO2 emissions. We translate this global carbon quota to regional and national scales, on a spectrum of sharing principles that extends from continuation of the present distribution of emissions to an equal per-capita distribution of cumulative emissions. A blend of these endpoints emerges as the most viable option. For a carbon quota consistent with a 2 °C warming limit (relative to pre-industrial levels), the necessary long-term mitigation rates are very challenging (typically over 5% per year), both because of strong limits on future emissions from the global carbon quota and also the likely short-term persistence in emissions growth in many regions.

  3. Structural Vibration Monitoring Using Cumulative Spectral Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Goto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a resonance decay estimation for structural health monitoring in the presence of nonstationary vibrations. In structural health monitoring, the structure's frequency response and resonant decay characteristics are very important for understanding how the structure changes. Cumulative spectral analysis (CSA estimates the frequency decay by using the impulse response. However, measuring the impulse response of buildings is impractical due to the need to shake the building itself. In a previous study, we reported on system damping monitoring using cumulative harmonic analysis (CHA, which is based on CSA. The current study describes scale model experiments on estimating the hidden resonance decay under non-stationary noise conditions by using CSA for structural condition monitoring.

  4. Cumulative carbon emissions and the Green Paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Ploeg, Frederick Van der

    2013-01-01

    The green paradox states that a gradually more ambitious climate policy such as a renewables subsidy or an anticipated carbon tax induces fossil fuel owners to extract more rapidly and accelerate global warming. However, if extraction becomes more costly as reserves are depleted, such policies also shorten the fossil fuel era, induce more fossil fuel to be left in the earth, and thus curb cumulative carbon emissions. These consequences are relevant, as global warming depends primarily on cumu...

  5. Expansive Soil Crack Depth under Cumulative Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei-xiao Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The crack developing depth is a key problem to slope stability of the expansive soil and its project governance and the crack appears under the roles of dry-wet cycle and gradually develops. It is believed from the analysis that, because of its own cohesion, the expansive soil will have a certain amount of deformation under pulling stress but without cracks. The soil body will crack only when the deformation exceeds the ultimate tensile strain that causes cracks. And it is also believed that, due to the combined effect of various environmental factors, particularly changes of the internal water content, the inherent basic physical properties of expansive soil are weakened, and irreversible cumulative damages are eventually formed, resulting in the development of expansive soil cracks in depth. Starting from the perspective of volumetric strain that is caused by water loss, considering the influences of water loss rate and dry-wet cycle on crack developing depth, the crack developing depth calculation model which considers the water loss rate and the cumulative damages is established. Both the proposal of water loss rate and the application of cumulative damage theory to the expansive soil crack development problems try to avoid difficulties in matrix suction measurement, which will surely play a good role in promoting and improving the research of unsaturated expansive soil.

  6. Comparison of the hazards posed to amphibians by the glyphosate spray control program versus the chemical and physical activities of coca production in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain, Richard A; Solomon, Keith R

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the cumulative multifactorial physical and chemical impacts resulting from coca production on amphibian populations in comparison with the potential impacts produced by the herbicide glyphosate (Glyphos), which, mixed with the surfactant Cosmo-Flux, is used in the spray control program for illicit crops in Colombia. Using similar worst-case assumptions for exposure, several other pesticides used for coca production, including mancozeb, lambda cyhalothrin, endosulfan, diazinon, malathion, and chlorpyrifos, were up to 10- to 100-fold more toxic to frogs than the Glyphos-Cosmo-Flux mixture. Comparing hazard quotients based on application rates, several of these compounds demonstrated hazards 3-383 times that of formulated glyphosate. Secondary effects, particularly of insecticides, are also a concern, as these agents selectively target the primary food source of amphibians, which may indirectly impact growth and development. Although the potential chemical impacts by other pesticides are considerable, physical activities associated with coca production, particularly deforestation of primary forests for new coca plots, portend the greatest hazard to amphibian populations. The entire production cycle of cocaine has been linked to ecosystem degradation. The clearing of pristine forests for coca propagation in Colombia is well documented, and some of these regions coincide with those that contain exceptional amphibian biodiversity. This is particularly problematic as coca production encroaches more deeply into more remote areas of tropical rain forest. Transportation of disease, including the chitrid fungus, to these remote regions via human intrusion may also adversely affect amphibian populations. Therefore, the cumulative impacts of coca production, through habitat destruction, application of agrochemicals, and potential transmission of disease, are judged to pose greater risks to amphibian populations in coca-growing regions than the glyphosate

  7. Combining head pose and eye location information for gaze estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valenti, R.; Sebe, N.; Gevers, T.

    2012-01-01

    Head pose and eye location for gaze estimation have been separately studied in numerous works in the literature. Previous research shows that satisfactory accuracy in head pose and eye location estimation can be achieved in constrained settings. However, in the presence of nonfrontal faces, eye

  8. Motor biases do not influence posing orientation in selfies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindell, Annukka K

    2017-01-01

    When posing for portraits people tend to offer their left cheek. This bias is also evident in selfies: informal photographic self-portraits taken with a smartphone. Mechanical biases have been argued to influence selfie posing orientation (predicting that using the left hand favours a stronger left cheek bias), however this hypothesis has not been directly tested. The present study was thus designed to determine whether motor biases influence selfie pose orientation. Three hundred and twenty participants (F = 159, M = 161) were asked to pose for a selfie "as you really are," and completed a handedness measure; hand used to take the selfie and selfie pose orientation were recorded. Ordinal logistic regression confirmed that neither participant handedness nor hand used to capture the selfie predicted selfie pose orientation. Regardless of sex, handedness, or hand used, participants were more likely to present a midline (49.75%) than a left (26.53%) or right (26.72%) cheek pose. Though handedness was a strong predictor of hand used to capture the selfie (left handers favour the left, and right handers the right, hand), it did not predict posing orientation. These results confirm that selfie cheek biases are not simply a residual effect of the mechanics of taking selfies.

  9. Eyes Do Not Lie: Spontaneous Versus Posed Smiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dibeklioğlu, H.; Valenti, R.; Salah, A.A.; Gevers, T.

    2010-01-01

    Automatic detection of spontaneous versus posed facial expressions received a lot of attention in recent years. However, almost all published work in this area use complex facial features or multiple modalities, such as head pose and body movements with facial features. Besides, the results of these

  10. Face pose tracking using the four-point algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Ho Yin; Wong, Kin Hong; Yu, Ying Kin; Tsui, Kwan Pang; Kam, Ho Chuen

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we have developed an algorithm to track the pose of a human face robustly and efficiently. Face pose estimation is very useful in many applications such as building virtual reality systems and creating an alternative input method for the disabled. Firstly, we have modified a face detection toolbox called DLib for the detection of a face in front of a camera. The detected face features are passed to a pose estimation method, known as the four-point algorithm, for pose computation. The theory applied and the technical problems encountered during system development are discussed in the paper. It is demonstrated that the system is able to track the pose of a face in real time using a consumer grade laptop computer.

  11. Pose estimation for mobile robots working on turbine blade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, X.D.; Chen, Q.; Liu, J.J.; Sun, Z.G.; Zhang, W.Z. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology, Ministry of Education, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-03-11

    This paper discussed a features point detection and matching task technique for mobile robots used in wind turbine blade applications. The vision-based scheme used visual information from the robot's surrounding environment to match successive image frames. An improved pose estimation algorithm based on a scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) was developed to consider the characteristics of local images of turbine blades, pose estimation problems, and conditions. The method included a pre-subsampling technique for reducing computation and bidirectional matching for improving precision. A random sample consensus (RANSAC) method was used to estimate the robot's pose. Pose estimation conditions included a wide pose range; the distance between neighbouring blades; and mechanical, electromagnetic, and optical disturbances. An experimental platform was used to demonstrate the validity of the proposed algorithm. 20 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Person-Independent Head Pose Estimation Using Biased Manifold Embedding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sethuraman Panchanathan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Head pose estimation has been an integral problem in the study of face recognition systems and human-computer interfaces, as part of biometric applications. A fine estimate of the head pose angle is necessary and useful for several face analysis applications. To determine the head pose, face images with varying pose angles can be considered to be lying on a smooth low-dimensional manifold in high-dimensional image feature space. However, when there are face images of multiple individuals with varying pose angles, manifold learning techniques often do not give accurate results. In this work, we propose a framework for a supervised form of manifold learning called Biased Manifold Embedding to obtain improved performance in head pose angle estimation. This framework goes beyond pose estimation, and can be applied to all regression applications. This framework, although formulated for a regression scenario, unifies other supervised approaches to manifold learning that have been proposed so far. Detailed studies of the proposed method are carried out on the FacePix database, which contains 181 face images each of 30 individuals with pose angle variations at a granularity of 1∘. Since biometric applications in the real world may not contain this level of granularity in training data, an analysis of the methodology is performed on sparsely sampled data to validate its effectiveness. We obtained up to 2∘ average pose angle estimation error in the results from our experiments, which matched the best results obtained for head pose estimation using related approaches.

  13. Cumulative Incidence of Cancer among People with AIDS in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, Edgar P.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Engels, Eric A.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND As people with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) live longer due to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, widely available since 1996), the overall burden of cancer may increase. METHODS A population-based record linkage study identified cancers in 472,378 people with AIDS (1980–2006). Using non-parametric competing risk methods, we estimated cumulative incidence of cancer across 3 calendar periods (AIDS onset in 1980–1989, 1990–1995, and 1996–2006). RESULTS Measured at 5-years after AIDS onset, cumulative incidence of AIDS-defining cancer (ADC) declined sharply across AIDS calendar periods (from 18% in 1980–1989, to 11% in 1990–1995, to 4.2% in 1996–2006 [i.e., HAART era]). Cumulative incidence of Kaposi sarcoma declined from 14.3% during 1980–1989 to 6.7% during 1990–1995 to 1.8% during 1996–2006. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) cumulative incidence declined from 3.8% during 1990–1995 to 2.2% during 1996–2006; during the HAART era, NHL was the commonest (53%) ADC. Cumulative incidence of non-AIDS-defining cancer (NADC) increased from 1.1% to 1.5% with no change thereafter (1.0%, 1996–2006), in part due to declines in competing mortality. However, cumulative incidence increased steadily over time for specific NADCs (anal cancer, Hodgkin lymphoma, and liver cancer). Lung cancer cumulative incidence increased from 0.14% during 1980–1989 to 0.32% during 1990–1995, with no change thereafter. CONCLUSIONS We noted dramatically declining cumulative incidence of 2 major ADCs (Kaposi sarcoma and NHL) and increases in some NADCs (specifically cancers of the anus, liver, and lung, and Hodgkin lymphoma). As HIV/AIDS is increasingly managed as a chronic disease, greater attention should be focused on cancer screening and prevention. PMID:20960504

  14. Recursive Numerical Evaluation of the Cumulative Bivariate Normal Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Christian

    2010-01-01

    We propose an algorithm for evaluation of the cumulative bivariate normal distribution, building upon Marsaglia's ideas for evaluation of the cumulative univariate normal distribution. The algorithm is mathematically transparent, delivers competitive performance and can easily be extended to arbitrary precision.

  15. Climate mitigation: sustainable preferences and cumulative carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckle, Simon

    2010-05-01

    We develop a stylized AK growth model with both climate damages to ecosystem goods and services and sustainable preferences that allow trade-offs between present discounted utility and long-run climate damages. The simplicity of the model permits analytical solutions. Concern for the long-term provides a strong driver for mitigation action. One plausible specification of sustainable preferences leads to the result that, for a range of initial parameter values, an optimizing agent would choose a level of cumulative carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions independent of initial production capital endowment and CO2 levels. There is no technological change so, for economies with sufficiently high initial capital and CO2 endowments, optimal mitigation will lead to disinvestment. For lower values of initial capital and/or CO2 levels, positive investment can be optimal, but still within the same overall level of cumulative emissions. One striking aspect of the model is the complexity of possible outcomes, in addition to these optimal solutions. We also identify a resource constrained region and several regions where climate damages exceed resources available for consumption. Other specifications of sustainable preferences are discussed, as is the case of a hard constraint on long-run damages. Scientists are currently highlighting the potential importance of the cumulative carbon emissions concept as a robust yet flexible target for climate policymakers. This paper shows that it also has an ethical interpretation: it embodies an implicit trade off in global welfare between present discounted welfare and long-term climate damages. We hope that further development of the ideas presented here might contribute to the research and policy debate on the critical areas of intra- and intergenerational welfare.

  16. Long and Short Term Cumulative Structural Priming Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Kaschak, Michael P.; Kutta, Timothy J.; Coyle, Jacqueline M.

    2012-01-01

    We present six experiments that examine cumulative structural priming effects (i.e., structural priming effects that accumulate across many utterances). Of particular interest is whether (1) cumulative priming effects transfer across language production tasks and (2) the transfer of cumulative priming effects across tasks persists over the course of a week. Our data suggest that cumulative structural priming effects do transfer across language production tasks (e.g., from written stem complet...

  17. Preserved cumulative semantic interference despite amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Michael Oppenheim

    2015-05-01

    As predicted by Oppenheim et al’s (2010 implicit incremental learning account, WRP’s BCN RTs demonstrated strong (and significant repetition priming and semantic blocking effects (Figure 1. Similar to typical results from neurally intact undergraduates, WRP took longer to name pictures presented in semantically homogeneous blocks than in heterogeneous blocks, an effect that increased with each cycle. This result challenges accounts that ascribe cumulative semantic interference in this task to explicit memory mechanisms, instead suggesting that the effect has the sort of implicit learning bases that are typically spared in hippocampal amnesia.

  18. Cumulant matching for independent source extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phlypo, Ronald; Zarzoso, Vicente; Comon, Pierre; Lemahieu, Ignace

    2008-01-01

    In this work we show how one can make use of priors on signal statistics under the form of cumulant guesses to extract an independent source from an observed mixture. The advantage of using statistical priors on the signal lies in the fact that no specific knowledge is needed about its temporal behavior, neither about its spatial distribution. We show that these statistics can be obtained either by reasoning on the theoretical values of a supposed waveform, either by using a subset of the observations from which we know that their statistics are merely hindered by interferences. Results on an electro-cardiographic recording confirm the above assumptions.

  19. Methods of RVD object pose estimation and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yang; He, Yan; Wang, Weihua; Yu, Qifeng

    2007-11-01

    Methods of measuring a RVD (rendezvous and docking) cooperative object's pose from monocular and binocular images respectively are presented. The methods solve the initial values first and optimize the object pose parameters by bundle adjustment. In the disturbance-rejecting binocular method, chosen measurement system parameters of one camera's exterior parameters are modified simultaneously. The methods need three or more cooperative target points to measure the object's pose accurately. Experimental data show that the methods converge quickly and stably, provide accurate results and do not need accurate initial values. Even when the chosen measurement system parameters are subjected to some amount of disturbance, the binocular method manages to provide fairly accurate results.

  20. Pose estimation based on human detection and segmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Qiang; ZHENG EnLiang; LIU YunCai

    2009-01-01

    We address the problem of 3D human pose estimation in a single real scene image. Normally, 3D pose estimation from real Image needs background subtraction to extract the appropriate features. We do not make such assumption. In this paper, a two-step approach is proposed, first, Instead of applying background subtraction to get the segmentation of human, we combine the segmentation with human detection using an ISM-based detector. Then, silhouette feature can be extracted and 3D pose estimation Is solved as a regression problem. RVMs and ridge regression method are applied to solve this problem. The results show the robustness and accuracy of our method.

  1. Quaternion epipolar decomposition for camera pose identification and animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarbek, W.; Tomaszewski, M.

    2013-03-01

    In the literature of computer vision, computer graphics and robotics, the use of quaternions is exclusively related to 3D rotation representation and interpolation. In this research we found how epipoles in multi-camera systems can be used to represent camera poses in the quaternion domain. The rotational quaternion is decomposed in two epipole rotational quaternions and one z axis rotational quaternion. Quadratic form of the essential matrix is also related to quaternion factors. Thus, five pose parameters are distributed into three independent rotational quaternions resulting in measurement error separation at camera pose identification and greater flexibility at virtual camera animation. The experimental results refer to the design of free viewpoint television.

  2. A Missing Link in the Evolution of the Cumulative Recorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Toshio; Lattal, Kennon A.

    2012-01-01

    A recently recovered cumulative recorder provides a missing link in the evolution of the cumulative recorder from a modified kymograph to a reliably operating, scientifically and commercially successful instrument. The recorder, the only physical evidence of such an early precommercial cumulative recorder yet found, was sent to Keio University in…

  3. Original and cumulative prospect theory: a discussion of empirical differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P. Wakker; H. Fennema

    1997-01-01

    This note discusses differences between prospect theory and cumulative prospect theory. It shows that cumulative prospect theory is not merely a formal correction of some theoretical problems in prospect theory, but it also gives different predictions. Experiments are described that favor cumulative

  4. Cumulative versus end-of-course assessment : effects on self-study time and test performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerdijk, Wouter; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Mulder, B. Florentine; Muntinghe, Friso L. H.; Tio, Rene A.

    2015-01-01

    ContextStudents tend to postpone preparation for a test until the test is imminent, which raises various risks associated with cramming' behaviours, including that for suboptimal learning. Cumulative assessment utilises spaced testing to stimulate students to study more frequently and to prevent pro

  5. Stability in the cumulative incidence, severity and mortality of 101 cases of invasive mucormycosis in high-risk patients from 1995 to 2011: a comparison of eras immediately before and after the availability of voriconazole and echinocandin-amphotericin combination therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidi, Maheen Z; Sohail, Muhammad R; Cummins, Nathan; Wilhelm, Mark; Wengenack, Nancy; Brumble, Lisa; Shah, Harshal; Jane Hata, Donna; McCullough, Ann; Wendel, Amy; Vikram, Holenarasipur R; Kusne, Shimon; Litzow, Mark; Letendre, Louis; Lahr, Brian D; Poeschla, Eric; Walker, Randall C

    2014-11-01

    As invasive mucormycosis (IM) numbers rise, clinicians suspect prior voriconazole worsens IM incidence and severity, and believe combination anti-fungal therapy improves IM survival. To compare the cumulative incidence (CI), severity and mortality of IM in eras immediately before and after the commercial availability of voriconazole all IM cases from 1995 to 2011 were analysed across four risk-groups (hematologic/oncologic malignancy (H/O), stem cell transplantation (SCT), solid organ transplantation (SOT) and other), and two eras, E1 (1995-2003) and E2, (2004-2011). Of 101 IM cases, (79 proven, 22 probable): 30 were in E1 (3.3/year) and 71 in E2 (8.9/year). Between eras, the proportion with H/O or SCT rose from 47% to 73%, while 'other' dropped from 33% to 11% (P = 0.036). Between eras, the CI of IM did not significantly increase in SCT (P = 0.27) or SOT (P = 0.30), and patterns of anatomic location (P = 0.122) and surgical debridement (P = 0.200) were similar. Significantly more patients received amphotericin-echinocandin combination therapy in E2 (31% vs. 5%, P = 0.01); however, 90-day survival did not improve (54% vs. 59%, P = 0.67). Since 2003, the rise of IM reflects increasing numbers at risk, not prior use of voriconazole. Frequent combination of anti-fungal therapy has not improved survival.

  6. Cumulative Environmental Management Association : Wood Buffalo Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friesen, B. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    The recently announced oil sands development of the Wood Buffalo Region in Alberta was the focus of this power point presentation. Both mining and in situ development is expected to total $26 billion and 2.6 million barrels per day of bitumen production. This paper described the economic, social and environmental challenges facing the resource development of this region. In addition to the proposed oil sands projects, this region will accommodate the needs of conventional oil and gas production, forestry, building of pipelines and power lines, municipal development, recreation, tourism, mining exploration and open cast mining. The Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA) was inaugurated as a non-profit association in April 2000, and includes 41 members from all sectors. Its major role is to ensure a sustainable ecosystem and to avoid any cumulative impacts on wildlife. Other work underway includes the study of soil and plant species diversity, and the effects of air emissions on human health, wildlife and vegetation. The bioaccumulation of heavy metals and their impacts on surface water and fish is also under consideration to ensure the quality and quantity of surface water and ground water. 3 figs.

  7. Cumulative environmental management and the oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    In response to concerns regarding the cumulative environmental impacts of oil sands development within the Athabasca oil sands deposit, the government of Alberta established a Regional Sustainable Development Strategy (RSDS) to balance development with environmental protection. The environmental issues identified through the RSDS were addressed by the Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA). CEMA's boundary is the Wood Buffalo region of northeastern Alberta. It identifies existing and future environmental effects in the region and proposes recommendations to regulatory bodies for reducing environmental impacts associated with oil sands development. This presentation outlined some of the 55 stakeholder representatives of CEMA, including Alberta government departments associated with resource development, oil sand developers within the region, and Aboriginal communities and First Nations. These stakeholders provide input on sector priorities and agree on environmental thresholds. Established working groups also address technical and scientific research issues identified in the RSDS such as sustainable ecosystems; surface waters; trace metals and air contaminants; nitrogen oxides and sulphur dioxides; and land reclamation. To date, CEMA has submitted more than 50 reports and has made 4 major environmental recommendations for trace metal management, ecosystem management tools, a framework for acid deposition management, and a landscape design checklist. tabs., figs.

  8. Higher Order Cumulants in Colorless Partonic Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Cherif, S; Ladrem, M

    2016-01-01

    Any physical system considered to study the QCD deconfinement phase transition certainly has a finite volume, so the finite size effects are inevitably present. This renders the location of the phase transition and the determination of its order as an extremely difficult task, even in the simplest known cases. In order to identify and locate the colorless QCD deconfinement transition point in finite volume $T_{0}(V)$, a new approach based on the finite-size cumulant expansion of the order parameter and the $\\mathscr{L}_{m,n}$-Method is used.We have shown that both cumulants of higher order and their ratios, associated to the thermodynamical fluctuations of the order parameter, in QCD deconfinement phase transition behave in a particular enough way revealing pronounced oscillations in the transition region. The sign structure and the oscillatory behavior of these in the vicinity of the deconfinement phase transition point might be a sensitive probe and may allow one to elucidate their relation to the QCD phase...

  9. Innovativeness, population size and cumulative cultural evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yutaka; Aoki, Kenichi

    2012-08-01

    Henrich [Henrich, J., 2004. Demography and cultural evolution: how adaptive cultural processes can produce maladaptive losses-the Tasmanian case. Am. Antiquity 69, 197-214] proposed a model designed to show that larger population size facilitates cumulative cultural evolution toward higher skill levels. In this model, each newborn attempts to imitate the most highly skilled individual of the parental generation by directly-biased social learning, but the skill level he/she acquires deviates probabilistically from that of the exemplar (cultural parent). The probability that the skill level of the imitator exceeds that of the exemplar can be regarded as the innovation rate. After reformulating Henrich's model rigorously, we introduce an overlapping-generations analog based on the Moran model and derive an approximate formula for the expected change per generation of the highest skill level in the population. For large population size, our overlapping-generations model predicts a much larger effect of population size than Henrich's discrete-generations model. We then investigate by way of Monte Carlo simulations the case where each newborn chooses as his/her exemplar the most highly skilled individual from among a limited number of acquaintances. When the number of acquaintances is small relative to the population size, we find that a change in the innovation rate contributes more than a proportional change in population size to the cumulative cultural evolution of skill level.

  10. Integrated risk analysis for acute and chronic exposure to toxic chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurjar, B.R.; Mohan, Manju

    2003-10-01

    The traditional practice to assess and evaluate different types of risk in isolation to each other are liable to give erroneous results. Integrated risk assessment is an answer to overcome this problem. This paper presents the cumulative or integrated assessment of acute risk posed by accidental release of hazardous chemical (e.g. chlorine) and chronic risk induced by toxic chemicals (e.g. cadmium, chromium and nickel) present in the ambient environment. The present study has been carried out in a most simplified way to demonstrate and appreciate the broader context of integrated risk analysis (IRA). It has been observed that the inclusion of background risk factors (BRF) in individual risk factors (IRF) related to an industry may significantly alter the siting and planning strategies of that industry.

  11. Space vehicle pose estimation via optical correlation and nonlinear estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakoczy, John M.; Herren, Kenneth A.

    2008-03-01

    A technique for 6-degree-of-freedom (6DOF) pose estimation of space vehicles is being developed. This technique draws upon recent developments in implementing optical correlation measurements in a nonlinear estimator, which relates the optical correlation measurements to the pose states (orientation and position). For the optical correlator, the use of both conjugate filters and binary, phase-only filters in the design of synthetic discriminant function (SDF) filters is explored. A static neural network is trained a priori and used as the nonlinear estimator. New commercial animation and image rendering software is exploited to design the SDF filters and to generate a large filter set with which to train the neural network. The technique is applied to pose estimation for rendezvous and docking of free-flying spacecraft and to terrestrial surface mobility systems for NASA's Vision for Space Exploration. Quantitative pose estimation performance will be reported. Advantages and disadvantages of the implementation of this technique are discussed.

  12. Health Issues: Do Cell Phones Pose a Health Hazard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Procedures Home, Business, and Entertainment Products Cell Phones Health Issues Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... it Email Print Do cell phones pose a health hazard? Many people are concerned that cell phone ...

  13. Hold That Pose: Yoga May Ease Tough Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Hold That Pose: Yoga May Ease Tough Depression Study finds weekly sessions, plus deep breathing, helped ... the doctor ordered when it comes to beating depression, new research suggests. Researchers found that weekly sessions ...

  14. Fringe inverse videogrammetry based on global pose estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yong-Liang; Su, Xianyu; Chen, Wenjing

    2011-10-10

    Fringe inverse videogrammetry based on global pose estimation is presented to measure a three-dimensional (3D) coordinate. The main components involve an LCD screen, a tactile probe equipped with a microcamera, and a portable personal computer. The LCD is utilized to display fringes, a microcamera is installed on the tactile probe, and the 3D coordinate of the center of the probe tip can be calculated through the microcamera's pose. Fourier fringe analysis is exploited to complete subpixel location of reference points. A convex-relaxation optimization algorithm is employed to estimate the global camera pose, which guarantees global convergence compared with bundle adjustment, a local pose estimation algorithm. The experiments demonstrate that fringe inverse videogrammetry can measure the 3D coordinate precisely. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  15. MULTILEVEL ITERATION METHODS FOR SOLVING LINEAR ILL-POSED PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we develop multilevel iteration methods for solving linear systems resulting from the Galerkin method and Tikhonov regularization for ill-posed problems. The algorithm and its convergence analysis are presented in an abstract framework.

  16. RELATIVE CAMERA POSE ESTIMATION METHOD USING OPTIMIZATION ON THE MANIFOLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cheng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problem of relative camera pose estimation, a method using optimization with respect to the manifold is proposed. Firstly from maximum-a-posteriori (MAP model to nonlinear least squares (NLS model, the general state estimation model using optimization is derived. Then the camera pose estimation model is applied to the general state estimation model, while the parameterization of rigid body transformation is represented by Lie group/algebra. The jacobian of point-pose model with respect to Lie group/algebra is derived in detail and thus the optimization model of rigid body transformation is established. Experimental results show that compared with the original algorithms, the approaches with optimization can obtain higher accuracy both in rotation and translation, while avoiding the singularity of Euler angle parameterization of rotation. Thus the proposed method can estimate relative camera pose with high accuracy and robustness.

  17. A Restarted Conjugate Gradient Method for Ill-posed Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-fei Wang

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a restarted conjugate gradient iterative algorithm for solving ill-posed problems.The damped Morozov's discrepancy principle is used as a stopping rule. Numerical experiments are given to illustrate the efficiency of the method.

  18. ESPRIT: Exercise Sensing and Pose Recovery Inference Tool Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop ESPRIT: an Exercise Sensing and Pose Recovery Inference Tool, in support of NASA's effort in developing crew exercise technologies for...

  19. Mathematical Thinking and Creativity through Mathematical Problem Posing and Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María F. Ayllón

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This work shows the relationship between the development of mathematical thinking and creativity with mathematical problem posing and solving. Creativity and mathematics are disciplines that do not usually appear together. Both concepts constitute complex processes sharing elements, such as fluency (number of ideas, flexibility (range of ideas, novelty (unique idea and elaboration (idea development. These factors contribute, among others, to the fact that schoolchildren are competent in mathematics. The problem solving and posing are a very powerful evaluation tool that shows the mathematical reasoning and creative level of a person. Creativity is part of the mathematics education and is a necessary ingredient to perform mathematical assignments. This contribution presents some important research works about problem posing and solving related to the development of mathematical knowledge and creativity. To that end, it is based on various beliefs reflected in the literature with respect to notions of creativity, problem solving and posing.

  20. An Inertial and Optical Sensor Fusion Approach for Six Degree-of-Freedom Pose Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Changyu; Kazanzides, Peter; Sen, Hasan Tutkun; Kim, Sungmin; Liu, Yue

    2015-07-08

    Optical tracking provides relatively high accuracy over a large workspace but requires line-of-sight between the camera and the markers, which may be difficult to maintain in actual applications. In contrast, inertial sensing does not require line-of-sight but is subject to drift, which may cause large cumulative errors, especially during the measurement of position. To handle cases where some or all of the markers are occluded, this paper proposes an inertial and optical sensor fusion approach in which the bias of the inertial sensors is estimated when the optical tracker provides full six degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) pose information. As long as the position of at least one marker can be tracked by the optical system, the 3-DOF position can be combined with the orientation estimated from the inertial measurements to recover the full 6-DOF pose information. When all the markers are occluded, the position tracking relies on the inertial sensors that are bias-corrected by the optical tracking system. Experiments are performed with an augmented reality head-mounted display (ARHMD) that integrates an optical tracking system (OTS) and inertial measurement unit (IMU). Experimental results show that under partial occlusion conditions, the root mean square errors (RMSE) of orientation and position are 0.04° and 0.134 mm, and under total occlusion conditions for 1 s, the orientation and position RMSE are 0.022° and 0.22 mm, respectively. Thus, the proposed sensor fusion approach can provide reliable 6-DOF pose under long-term partial occlusion and short-term total occlusion conditions.

  1. An Inertial and Optical Sensor Fusion Approach for Six Degree-of-Freedom Pose Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changyu He

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Optical tracking provides relatively high accuracy over a large workspace but requires line-of-sight between the camera and the markers, which may be difficult to maintain in actual applications. In contrast, inertial sensing does not require line-of-sight but is subject to drift, which may cause large cumulative errors, especially during the measurement of position. To handle cases where some or all of the markers are occluded, this paper proposes an inertial and optical sensor fusion approach in which the bias of the inertial sensors is estimated when the optical tracker provides full six degree-of-freedom (6-DOF pose information. As long as the position of at least one marker can be tracked by the optical system, the 3-DOF position can be combined with the orientation estimated from the inertial measurements to recover the full 6-DOF pose information. When all the markers are occluded, the position tracking relies on the inertial sensors that are bias-corrected by the optical tracking system. Experiments are performed with an augmented reality head-mounted display (ARHMD that integrates an optical tracking system (OTS and inertial measurement unit (IMU. Experimental results show that under partial occlusion conditions, the root mean square errors (RMSE of orientation and position are 0.04° and 0.134 mm, and under total occlusion conditions for 1 s, the orientation and position RMSE are 0.022° and 0.22 mm, respectively. Thus, the proposed sensor fusion approach can provide reliable 6-DOF pose under long-term partial occlusion and short-term total occlusion conditions.

  2. Robust head pose estimation via supervised manifold learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Song, Xubo

    2014-05-01

    Head poses can be automatically estimated using manifold learning algorithms, with the assumption that with the pose being the only variable, the face images should lie in a smooth and low-dimensional manifold. However, this estimation approach is challenging due to other appearance variations related to identity, head location in image, background clutter, facial expression, and illumination. To address the problem, we propose to incorporate supervised information (pose angles of training samples) into the process of manifold learning. The process has three stages: neighborhood construction, graph weight computation and projection learning. For the first two stages, we redefine inter-point distance for neighborhood construction as well as graph weight by constraining them with the pose angle information. For Stage 3, we present a supervised neighborhood-based linear feature transformation algorithm to keep the data points with similar pose angles close together but the data points with dissimilar pose angles far apart. The experimental results show that our method has higher estimation accuracy than the other state-of-art algorithms and is robust to identity and illumination variations.

  3. Perspective projection for variance pose face recognition from camera calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhir, M. M.; Woo, W. L.; Chambers, J. A.; Dlay, S. S.

    2016-04-01

    Variance pose is an important research topic in face recognition. The alteration of distance parameters across variance pose face features is a challenging. We provide a solution for this problem using perspective projection for variance pose face recognition. Our method infers intrinsic camera parameters of the image which enable the projection of the image plane into 3D. After this, face box tracking and centre of eyes detection can be identified using our novel technique to verify the virtual face feature measurements. The coordinate system of the perspective projection for face tracking allows the holistic dimensions for the face to be fixed in different orientations. The training of frontal images and the rest of the poses on FERET database determine the distance from the centre of eyes to the corner of box face. The recognition system compares the gallery of images against different poses. The system initially utilises information on position of both eyes then focuses principally on closest eye in order to gather data with greater reliability. Differentiation between the distances and position of the right and left eyes is a unique feature of our work with our algorithm outperforming other state of the art algorithms thus enabling stable measurement in variance pose for each individual.

  4. Ion cumulation by conical cathode electrolysis.

    CERN Document Server

    Grishin, V G

    2002-01-01

    Results of solid-state sodium stearate electrolysis with conical and cylindrical cathodes is presented here. Both electric measurement and conical samples destruction can be explained if a stress developing inside the conical sample is much bigger than in the cylindrical case and there is its unlimited amplification along cone slopes. OTHER KEYWORDS: ion, current, solid, symmetry, cumulation, polarization, depolarization, ionic conductor,superionic conductor, ice, crystal, strain, V-center, V-centre, doped crystal, interstitial impurity, intrinsic color center, high pressure technology, Bridgman, anvil, experiment, crowdion, dielectric, proton, layer, defect, lattice, dynamics, electromigration, mobility, muon catalysis, concentration, doping, dopant, conductivity, pycnonuclear reaction, permittivity, dielectric constant, point defects, interstitials, polarizability, imperfection, defect centers, glass, epitaxy, sodium hydroxide, metallic substrate, crystallization, point, tip, susceptibility, ferroelectric, ...

  5. [Cumulative trauma disorders: work or professional disease?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Marcus Vitor Diniz; Cavalcanti, Francisco Ivo Dantas; Soriano, Evelyne Pessoa; de Miranda, Hênio Ferreira

    2009-06-01

    This study aimed at reviewing the Brazilian legislation applied to occupational health. It refers to the diseases embodied in the Repetition Strain Injury (RSI) and Cumulative Trauma Disorders (CTD) regarded as work or professional diseases. This analysis allowed to perform the historical evolution of legislation concerning the issue, noting that the state of the art of regulation on RSI-CTD is anchored in specific regulation present in the Normative Instruction 98/2003, that establishes the diagnostic criteria and classification of RSI-CTD. It was concluded that according to the existing legislation in Brazil, the pathologies related to RSI-CTD are considered as work diseases and their legal effects are similar to the work-related accidents.

  6. Optimal accelerometer placement on a robot arm for pose estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayasinghe, Indika B.; Sanford, Joseph D.; Abubakar, Shamsudeen; Saadatzi, Mohammad Nasser; Das, Sumit K.; Popa, Dan O.

    2017-05-01

    The performance of robots to carry out tasks depends in part on the sensor information they can utilize. Usually, robots are fitted with angle joint encoders that are used to estimate the position and orientation (or the pose) of its end-effector. However, there are numerous situations, such as in legged locomotion, mobile manipulation, or prosthetics, where such joint sensors may not be present at every, or any joint. In this paper we study the use of inertial sensors, in particular accelerometers, placed on the robot that can be used to estimate the robot pose. Studying accelerometer placement on a robot involves many parameters that affect the performance of the intended positioning task. Parameters such as the number of accelerometers, their size, geometric placement and Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) are included in our study of their effects for robot pose estimation. Due to the ubiquitous availability of inexpensive accelerometers, we investigated pose estimation gains resulting from using increasingly large numbers of sensors. Monte-Carlo simulations are performed with a two-link robot arm to obtain the expected value of an estimation error metric for different accelerometer configurations, which are then compared for optimization. Results show that, with a fixed SNR model, the pose estimation error decreases with increasing number of accelerometers, whereas for a SNR model that scales inversely to the accelerometer footprint, the pose estimation error increases with the number of accelerometers. It is also shown that the optimal placement of the accelerometers depends on the method used for pose estimation. The findings suggest that an integration-based method favors placement of accelerometers at the extremities of the robot links, whereas a kinematic-constraints-based method favors a more uniformly distributed placement along the robot links.

  7. Preparatory power posing affects nonverbal presence and job interview performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddy, Amy J C; Wilmuth, Caroline A; Yap, Andy J; Carney, Dana R

    2015-07-01

    The authors tested whether engaging in expansive (vs. contractive) "power poses" before a stressful job interview--preparatory power posing--would enhance performance during the interview. Participants adopted high-power (i.e., expansive, open) poses or low-power (i.e., contractive, closed) poses, and then prepared and delivered a speech to 2 evaluators as part of a mock job interview. All interview speeches were videotaped and coded for overall performance and hireability and for 2 potential mediators: verbal content (e.g., structure, content) and nonverbal presence (e.g., captivating, enthusiastic). As predicted, those who prepared for the job interview with high- (vs. low-) power poses performed better and were more likely to be chosen for hire; this relation was mediated by nonverbal presence, but not by verbal content. Although previous research has focused on how a nonverbal behavior that is enacted during interactions and observed by perceivers affects how those perceivers evaluate and respond to the actor, this experiment focused on how a nonverbal behavior that is enacted before the interaction and unobserved by perceivers affects the actor's performance, which, in turn, affects how perceivers evaluate and respond to the actor. This experiment reveals a theoretically novel and practically informative result that demonstrates the causal relation between preparatory nonverbal behavior and subsequent performance and outcomes.

  8. Human Pose Estimation from Monocular Images: A Comprehensive Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjuan Gong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Human pose estimation refers to the estimation of the location of body parts and how they are connected in an image. Human pose estimation from monocular images has wide applications (e.g., image indexing. Several surveys on human pose estimation can be found in the literature, but they focus on a certain category; for example, model-based approaches or human motion analysis, etc. As far as we know, an overall review of this problem domain has yet to be provided. Furthermore, recent advancements based on deep learning have brought novel algorithms for this problem. In this paper, a comprehensive survey of human pose estimation from monocular images is carried out including milestone works and recent advancements. Based on one standard pipeline for the solution of computer vision problems, this survey splits the problem into several modules: feature extraction and description, human body models, and modeling methods. Problem modeling methods are approached based on two means of categorization in this survey. One way to categorize includes top-down and bottom-up methods, and another way includes generative and discriminative methods. Considering the fact that one direct application of human pose estimation is to provide initialization for automatic video surveillance, there are additional sections for motion-related methods in all modules: motion features, motion models, and motion-based methods. Finally, the paper also collects 26 publicly available data sets for validation and provides error measurement methods that are frequently used.

  9. Economic and policy implications of the cumulative carbon budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M. R.; Otto, F. E. L.; Otto, A.; Hepburn, C.

    2014-12-01

    The importance of cumulative carbon emissions in determining long-term risks of climate change presents considerable challenges to policy makers. The traditional notion of "total CO2-equivalent emissions", which forms the backbone of agreements such as the Kyoto Protocol and the European Emissions Trading System, is fundamentally flawed. Measures to reduce short-lived climate pollutants benefit the current generation, while measures to reduce long-lived climate pollutants benefit future generations, so there is no sense in which they can ever be considered equivalent. Debates over the correct metric used to compute CO2-equivalence are thus entirely moot: both long-lived and short-lived emissions will need to be addressed if all generations are to be protected from dangerous climate change. As far as long-lived climate pollutants are concerned, the latest IPCC report highlights the overwhelming importance of carbon capture and storage in determining the cost of meeting the goal of limiting anthropogenic warming to two degrees. We will show that this importance arises directly from the cumulative carbon budget and the role of CCS as the technology of last resort before economic activity needs to be restricted to meet ambitious climate targets. It highlights the need to increase the rate of CCS deployment by orders of magnitude if the option of avoiding two degrees is to be retained. The difficulty of achieving this speed of deployment through conventional incentives and carbon-pricing mechanisms suggests a need for a much more direct mandatory approach. Despite their theoretical economic inefficiency, the success of recent regulatory measures in achieving greenhouse gas emissions reductions in jurisdictions such as the United States suggests an extension of the regulatory approach could be a more effective and politically acceptable means of achieving adequately rapid CCS deployment than conventional carbon taxes or cap-and-trade systems.

  10. Robust Head Pose Estimation Using a 3D Morphable Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Cai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Head pose estimation from single 2D images has been considered as an important and challenging research task in computer vision. This paper presents a novel head pose estimation method which utilizes the shape model of the Basel face model and five fiducial points in faces. It adjusts shape deformation according to Laplace distribution to afford the shape variation across different persons. A new matching method based on PSO (particle swarm optimization algorithm is applied both to reduce the time cost of shape reconstruction and to achieve higher accuracy than traditional optimization methods. In order to objectively evaluate accuracy, we proposed a new way to compute the pose estimation errors. Experiments on the BFM-synthetic database, the BU-3DFE database, the CUbiC FacePix database, the CMU PIE face database, and the CAS-PEAL-R1 database show that the proposed method is robust, accurate, and computationally efficient.

  11. Vision based object pose estimation for mobile robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Annie; Bidlack, Clint; Katkere, Arun; Feague, Roy; Weymouth, Terry

    1994-01-01

    Mobile robot navigation using visual sensors requires that a robot be able to detect landmarks and obtain pose information from a camera image. This paper presents a vision system for finding man-made markers of known size and calculating the pose of these markers. The algorithm detects and identifies the markers using a weighted pattern matching template. Geometric constraints are then used to calculate the position of the markers relative to the robot. The selection of geometric constraints comes from the typical pose of most man-made signs, such as the sign standing vertical and the dimensions of known size. This system has been tested successfully on a wide range of real images. Marker detection is reliable, even in cluttered environments, and under certain marker orientations, estimation of the orientation has proven accurate to within 2 degrees, and distance estimation to within 0.3 meters.

  12. Pose-Invariant Face Recognition via RGB-D Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaoli Sang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D face models can intrinsically handle large pose face recognition problem. In this paper, we propose a novel pose-invariant face recognition method via RGB-D images. By employing depth, our method is able to handle self-occlusion and deformation, both of which are challenging problems in two-dimensional (2D face recognition. Texture images in the gallery can be rendered to the same view as the probe via depth. Meanwhile, depth is also used for similarity measure via frontalization and symmetric filling. Finally, both texture and depth contribute to the final identity estimation. Experiments on Bosphorus, CurtinFaces, Eurecom, and Kiwi databases demonstrate that the additional depth information has improved the performance of face recognition with large pose variations and under even more challenging conditions.

  13. Viewpoint and pose in body-form adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekunova, Alla; Black, Michael; Parkinson, Laura; Barton, Jason J S

    2013-01-01

    Faces and bodies are complex structures, perception of which can play important roles in person identification and inference of emotional state. Face representations have been explored using behavioural adaptation: in particular, studies have shown that face aftereffects show relatively broad tuning for viewpoint, consistent with origin in a high-level structural descriptor far removed from the retinal image. Our goals were to determine first, if body aftereffects also showed a degree of viewpoint invariance, and second if they also showed pose invariance, given that changes in pose create even more dramatic changes in the 2-D retinal image. We used a 3-D model of the human body to generate headless body images, whose parameters could be varied to generate different body forms, viewpoints, and poses. In the first experiment, subjects adapted to varying viewpoints of either slim or heavy bodies in a neutral stance, followed by test stimuli that were all front-facing. In the second experiment, we used the same front-facing bodies in neutral stance as test stimuli, but compared adaptation from bodies in the same neutral stance to adaptation with the same bodies in different poses. We found that body aftereffects were obtained over substantial viewpoint changes, with no significant decline in aftereffect magnitude with increasing viewpoint difference between adapting and test images. Aftereffects also showed transfer across one change in pose but not across another. We conclude that body representations may have more viewpoint invariance than faces, and demonstrate at least some transfer across pose, consistent with a high-level structural description.

  14. Long and Short Term Cumulative Structural Priming Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaschak, Michael P; Kutta, Timothy J; Coyle, Jacqueline M

    We present six experiments that examine cumulative structural priming effects (i.e., structural priming effects that accumulate across many utterances). Of particular interest is whether (1) cumulative priming effects transfer across language production tasks and (2) the transfer of cumulative priming effects across tasks persists over the course of a week. Our data suggest that cumulative structural priming effects do transfer across language production tasks (e.g., from written stem completion to picture description, and from picture description to written stem completion), but only when both tasks are presented in the same experimental session. When cumulative priming effects are established in one task, and the second (changed) task is not presented until a week later, the cumulative priming effects are not observed.

  15. Why Veterinary Medical Educators Should Embrace Cumulative Final Exams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, Kenneth D

    2017-01-03

    The topic of cumulative final examinations often elicits polarizing opinions from veterinary medical educators. While some faculty prefer cumulative finals, there are many who perceive these types of examinations as problematic. Specifically, faculty often cite cumulative examinations are more likely to cause students' greater stress, which may in turn result in negative student evaluations of teaching. Cumulative finals also restrict the number of items one may present to students on most recent material. While these cited disadvantages may have some merit, the advantages of cumulative examinations far exceed the disadvantages. The purpose of this article is to discuss the advantages of cumulative examinations with respect to learning evidence, grade/score validity, fairness issues, and implications for academic policy.

  16. Pose Estimation of Interacting People using Pictorial Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2010-01-01

    Pose estimation of people have had great progress in recent years but so far research has dealt with single persons. In this paper we address some of the challenges that arise when doing pose estimation of interacting people. We build on the pictorial structures framework and make important...... contributions by combining color-based appearance and edge information using a measure of the local quality of the appearance feature. In this way we not only combine the two types of features but dynamically find the optimal weighting of them. We further enable the method to handle occlusions by searching...

  17. Analysis of experimental data on correlations between cumulative particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlasov, A.V.; Doroshkevich, E.A.; Leksin, G.A. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    Experimental data on correlations between cumulative particles are analyzed. A space-time and energy-transfer pattern of hadron-nucleus interaction based on both correlation data and data on the inclusive spectra of cumulative particles is considered. A new variable that is convenient for describing the production of cumulative particles is proposed using the concept of symmetry between the one-particle and multiparticle distributions. 32 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Analysis of Memory Codes and Cumulative Rehearsal in Observational Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, Albert; And Others

    1974-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of memory codes varying in meaningfulness and retrievability and cumulative rehearsal on retention of observationally learned responses over increasing temporal intervals. (Editor)

  19. Continuously Cumulating Meta-Analysis and Replicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braver, Sanford L; Thoemmes, Felix J; Rosenthal, Robert

    2014-05-01

    The current crisis in scientific psychology about whether our findings are irreproducible was presaged years ago by Tversky and Kahneman (1971), who noted that even sophisticated researchers believe in the fallacious Law of Small Numbers-erroneous intuitions about how imprecisely sample data reflect population phenomena. Combined with the low power of most current work, this often leads to the use of misleading criteria about whether an effect has replicated. Rosenthal (1990) suggested more appropriate criteria, here labeled the continuously cumulating meta-analytic (CCMA) approach. For example, a CCMA analysis on a replication attempt that does not reach significance might nonetheless provide more, not less, evidence that the effect is real. Alternatively, measures of heterogeneity might show that two studies that differ in whether they are significant might have only trivially different effect sizes. We present a nontechnical introduction to the CCMA framework (referencing relevant software), and then explain how it can be used to address aspects of replicability or more generally to assess quantitative evidence from numerous studies. We then present some examples and simulation results using the CCMA approach that show how the combination of evidence can yield improved results over the consideration of single studies.

  20. Effects of pose and image resolution on automatic face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmood, Zahid; Ali, Tauseef; Khan, Samee U.

    The popularity of face recognition systems have increased due to their use in widespread applications. Driven by the enormous number of potential application domains, several algorithms have been proposed for face recognition. Face pose and image resolutions are among the two important factors that

  1. Full Body Pose Estimation During Occlusion using Multiple Cameras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben; Cosar, Serhan

    people is a very challenging problem for methods based on pictorials structure as for any other monocular pose estimation method. In this report we present work on a multi-view approach based on pictorial structures that integrate low level information from multiple calibrated cameras to improve the 2D...

  2. Robustifying eye center localization by head pose cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valenti, R.; Yücel, Z.; Gevers, T.

    2009-01-01

    Head pose and eye location estimation are two closely related issues which refer to similar application areas. In recent years, these problems have been studied individually in numerous works in the literature. Previous research shows that cylindrical head models and isophote based schemes provide

  3. Example-Based Human Pose Recovery under Predicted Partial Occlusions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppe, Ronald; Babuska, Robert; Groen, Frans C A.

    2010-01-01

    For human pose recovery, the presence of occlusions due to objects or other persons in the scene remains a difficult problem to cope with. However, recent advances in the area of human detection allow for simultaneous segmentation of humans and the prediction of occluded regions. In this chapter, we

  4. Hidden information in ill-posed inverse problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kahrobaei, S.; Mansoori, M.; Joosten, G.J.P.; Van den Hof, P.M.J.; Jansen, J.D.

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that parameter updating of large-scale numerical reservoir flow models (a.k.a. ‘computer assisted history matching’) is an ill-posed inverse problem. Typically the number of uncertain parameters in a reservoir flow model is very large whereas the available information for estimating

  5. New Riccati equations for well-posed linear systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opmeer, MR; Curtain, RF

    2004-01-01

    We consider the classic problem of minimizing a quadratic cost functional for well-posed linear systems over the class of inputs that are square integrable and that produce a square integrable output. As is well-known, the minimum cost can be expressed in terms of a bounded nonnegative self-adjoint

  6. Fast Multilevel Methods for Solving Ill-posed Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈仲英; 宋丽红; 马富明

    2005-01-01

    Many industrial and engineering applications require numerically solving ill-posed problems. Regularization methods are employed to find approximate solutions of these problems. The choice of regularization parameters by numerical algorithms is one of the most important issues for the success of regularization methods. When we use some discrepancy principles to determine the regularization parameter,

  7. Hidden information in ill-posed inverse problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kahrobaei, S.; Mansoori, M.; Joosten, G.J.P.; Van den Hof, P.M.J.; Jansen, J.D.

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that parameter updating of large-scale numerical reservoir flow models (a.k.a. ‘computer assisted history matching’) is an ill-posed inverse problem. Typically the number of uncertain parameters in a reservoir flow model is very large whereas the available information for estimating

  8. Pose Reconstruction of Flexible Instruments from Endoscopic Images using Markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reilink, Rob; Stramigioli, Stefano; Misra, Sarthak

    2012-01-01

    A system is developed that can reconstruct the pose of flexible endoscopic instruments that are used in ad- vanced flexible endoscopes using solely the endoscopic images. Four markers are placed on the instrument, whose positions are measured in the image. These measurements are compared to a

  9. Dynamical System Method for Solving Ill-Posed Operator Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xingjun Luo; Suhua Yang

    2007-01-01

    Two dynamical system methods are studied for solving linear ill-posed problems with both operator and right-hand nonexact. The methods solve a Cauchy problem for a linear operator equation which possesses a global solution. The limit of the global solution at infinity solves the original linear equation. Moreover,we also present a convergent iterativeprocess for solving the Cauchy problem.

  10. Fiducial Marker Detection and Pose Estimation From LIDAR Range Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Markers .................................................26 E. APPLICATIONS OF 3D POINT CLOUDS ................................................27 F...in the environment and produces 3D coordinates or range and bearing values. The raw data can be easily represented by point clouds , with each point...registration and pose estimation include cylinders, spheres, and orthogonal planes (Gao, 2007; Haas, 2005). E. APPLICATIONS OF LIDAR 3D POINT CLOUDS Robotics

  11. Mathematical Thinking and Creativity through Mathematical Problem Posing and Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayllón, María F.; Gómez, Isabel A.; Ballesta-Claver, Julio

    2016-01-01

    This work shows the relationship between the development of mathematical thinking and creativity with mathematical problem posing and solving. Creativity and mathematics are disciplines that do not usually appear together. Both concepts constitute complex processes sharing elements, such as fluency (number of ideas), flexibility (range of ideas),…

  12. Enhancing Students' Communication Skills through Problem Posing and Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugito; E. S., Sri Mulyani; Hartono; Supartono

    2017-01-01

    This study was to explore how enhance communication skill through problem posing and presentation method. The subjects of this research were the seven grade students Junior High School, including 20 male and 14 female. This research was conducted in two cycles and each cycle consisted of four steps, they were: planning, action, observation, and…

  13. Effects of pose and image resolution on automatic face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmood, Zahid; Ali, Tauseef; Khan, Samee U.

    2015-01-01

    The popularity of face recognition systems have increased due to their use in widespread applications. Driven by the enormous number of potential application domains, several algorithms have been proposed for face recognition. Face pose and image resolutions are among the two important factors that

  14. Cumulative asbestos exposure for US automobile mechanics involved in brake repair (circa 1950s-2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Brent L; Richter, Richard O; Mowat, Fionna S; Mlynarek, Steve; Paustenbach, Dennis J; Warmerdam, John M; Sheehan, Patrick J

    2007-11-01

    We analyzed cumulative lifetime exposure to chrysotile asbestos experienced by brake mechanics in the US during the period 1950-2000. Using Monte Carlo methods, cumulative exposures were calculated using the distribution of 8-h time-weighted average exposure concentrations for brake mechanics and the distribution of job tenure data for automobile mechanics. The median estimated cumulative exposures for these mechanics, as predicted by three probabilistic models, ranged from 0.16 to 0.41 fibers per cubic centimeter (f/cm(3)) year for facilities with no dust-control procedures (1970s), and from 0.010 to 0.012 f/cm(3) year for those employing engineering controls (1980s). Upper-bound (95%) estimates for the 1970s and 1980s were 1.96 to 2.79 and 0.07-0.10 f/cm(3) year, respectively. These estimates for US brake mechanics are consistent with, but generally slightly lower than, those reported for European mechanics. The values are all substantially lower than the cumulative exposure of 4.5 f/cm(3) year associated with occupational exposure to 0.1 f/cm(3) of asbestos for 45 years that is currently permitted under the current occupational exposure limits in the US. Cumulative exposures were usually about 100- to 1,000-fold less than those of other occupational groups with asbestos exposure for similar time periods. The cumulative lifetime exposure estimates presented here, combined with the negative epidemiology data for brake mechanics, could be used to refine the risk assessments for chrysotile-exposed populations.

  15. Multi—pose Color Face Recognition in a Complex Background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUChangren; WANGRunsheng

    2003-01-01

    Face recognition has wider application fields. In recurrent references, most of the algorithms that deal with the face recognition in the static images are with simple background, and only used for ID picture recogni-tion. It is necessary to study the whole process of multi-pose face recognition in a clutter background. In this pa-per an automatic multi-pose face recognition system with multi-feature is proposed. It consists of several steps: face detection, detection and location of the face organs, feature extraction for recognition, recognition decision. In face de-tection the combination of skin-color and multi-verification which consists of the analysis of the shape, local organ fea-tures and head model is applied to improve the perfor-mance. In detection and location of the face organ feature points, with the analysis of multiple features and their pro-jections, the combination of an iterative search with a con-fidence function and template matching at the candidate points is adopted to improve the performance of accuracy and speed. In feature extraction for recognition, geome-try normalization based on three-point afflne transform is adopted to conserve the information to a maximum con-tent before the feature extraction of principal component analysis (PCA). In recognition decision, a hierarchical face model with the division of the face poses is introduced to reduce its retrieval space and thus to cut its time consump-tion. In addition, a fusion decision is applied to improve the face recognition performance. Also, pose recognition result can be got simultaneously. The new approach is ap-plied to 420 color images which consist of multi-pose faces with two visible eyes in a complex background, and the results are satisfactory.

  16. Flexible parametric modelling of cause-specific hazards to estimate cumulative incidence functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Competing risks are a common occurrence in survival analysis. They arise when a patient is at risk of more than one mutually exclusive event, such as death from different causes, and the occurrence of one of these may prevent any other event from ever happening. Methods There are two main approaches to modelling competing risks: the first is to model the cause-specific hazards and transform these to the cumulative incidence function; the second is to model directly on a transformation of the cumulative incidence function. We focus on the first approach in this paper. This paper advocates the use of the flexible parametric survival model in this competing risk framework. Results An illustrative example on the survival of breast cancer patients has shown that the flexible parametric proportional hazards model has almost perfect agreement with the Cox proportional hazards model. However, the large epidemiological data set used here shows clear evidence of non-proportional hazards. The flexible parametric model is able to adequately account for these through the incorporation of time-dependent effects. Conclusion A key advantage of using this approach is that smooth estimates of both the cause-specific hazard rates and the cumulative incidence functions can be obtained. It is also relatively easy to incorporate time-dependent effects which are commonly seen in epidemiological studies. PMID:23384310

  17. Acrylamide in Romanian food using HPLC-UV and a health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oroian, Mircea; Amariei, Sonia; Gutt, Gheorghe

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the level of acrylamide from coffee, potato chips and French fries in Romanian food. According to the European Food Safety Authority, coffee beans, potato chips and French fries have the highest levels of acrylamide. For this survey, 50 samples of coffee beans, 50 samples of potato chips and 25 samples of French fries were purchased from different producers from the Romanian market. Acrylamide levels have been quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method, using water as mobile phase. Health risk assessment was achieved by computing the average daily intake, hazard quotient, cumulative risk, carcinogenic risk and cancer risk. For coffee, potato chips and French fries, acrylamide was not shown to pose a health risk in Romanian food.

  18. A Framework for Treating Cumulative Trauma with Art Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naff, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Cumulative trauma is relatively undocumented in art therapy practice, although there is growing evidence that art therapy provides distinct benefits for resolving various traumas. This qualitative study proposes an art therapy treatment framework for cumulative trauma derived from semi-structured interviews with three art therapists and artistic…

  19. Cumulative Effects of Human Activities on Marine Mammal Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Cumulative Effects of Human Activities on Marine Mammal ...marine mammals . OBJECTIVES The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine has convened a volunteer committee that will...Review the present scientific understanding of cumulative effects of anthropogenic stressors on marine mammals with a focus on anthropogenic sound

  20. A Framework for Treating Cumulative Trauma with Art Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naff, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Cumulative trauma is relatively undocumented in art therapy practice, although there is growing evidence that art therapy provides distinct benefits for resolving various traumas. This qualitative study proposes an art therapy treatment framework for cumulative trauma derived from semi-structured interviews with three art therapists and artistic…

  1. Cumulative Estrogen Exposure and Prospective Memory in Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesson, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    This study looked at cumulative lifetime estrogen exposure, as estimated with a mathematical index (Index of Cumulative Estrogen Exposure (ICEE)) that included variables (length of time on estrogen therapy, age at menarche and menopause, postmenopausal body mass index, time since menopause, nulliparity and duration of breastfeeding) known to…

  2. Trunk postures and peak and cumulative low back kinetics during upright posture sheep shearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Diane E; Laughton, Carla; Carman, Allan; Milosavljevic, Stephan; Callaghan, Jack P

    2009-12-01

    Sheep shearing is the most demanding occupation in the wool harvesting industry and is known to have a high prevalence of low back pain. While use of a commercially available trunk harness reduces load on the low back, the extreme trunk flexion associated with shearing still remains. A novel, upright posture shearing technique has been designed to allow a more neutral spine posture. This study assessed this upright technique and found significant reductions in both trunk flexion and cumulative low back loading when compared to either the traditional method or the use of the trunk harness. Moments about the shoulder tended to be higher while using the upright shearing technique and further investigation of shoulder kinetics will be required to assess whether this creates injury risk to the upper extremity. Despite increased shoulder moments, the reduction in flexion and cumulative loading with the use of the upright technique has the potential to reduce risk of low back pain among shearers.

  3. Lattice QCD results on cumulant ratios at freeze-out

    CERN Document Server

    Karsch, Frithjof

    2016-01-01

    Ratios of cumulants of net proton-number fluctuations measured by the STAR Collaboration show strong deviations from a skellam distribution, which should describe thermal properties of cumulant ratios, if proton-number fluctuations are generated in equilibrium and a hadron resonance gas (HRG) model would provide a suitable description of thermodynamics at the freeze-out temperature. We present some results on sixth order cumulants entering the calculation of the QCD equation of state at non-zero values of the baryon chemical potential (mu_B) and discuss limitations on the applicability of HRG thermodynamics deduced from a comparison between QCD and HRG model calculations of cumulants of conserved charge fluctuations. We show that basic features of the $\\mu_B$-dependence of skewness and kurtosis ratios of net proton-number fluctuations measured by the STAR Collaboration resemble those expected from a O(mu_B^2) QCD calculation of the corresponding net baryon-number cumulant ratios.

  4. A new family of cumulative indexes for measuring scientific performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Kozak

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a new family of cumulative indexes for measuring scientific performance which can be applied to many metrics, including h index and its variants (here we apply it to the h index, h(2 index and Google Scholar's i10 index. These indexes follow the general principle of repeating the index calculation for the same publication set. Using bibliometric data and reviewer scores for accepted and rejected fellowship applicants we examine how valid the cumulative variant is compared to the original variant. These analyses showed that the cumulative indexes result in higher correlations with the reviewer scores than their original variants. Thus, the cumulative indexes better reflect the assessments by peers than the original variants and are useful extensions of the original indexes. In contrast to many other measures of scientific performance proposed up to now, the cumulative indexes seem not only to be effective, but they are also easy to understand and calculate.

  5. The Effect of Lifting Speed on Cumulative and Peak Biomechanical Loading for Symmetric Lifting Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasey O. Greenland

    2013-06-01

    Conclusion: Based on peak values, BCF is highest for fast speeds, but the BCF cumulative loading is highest for slow speeds, with the largest difference between fast and slow lifts. This may imply that a slow lifting speed is at least as hazardous as a fast lifting speed. It is important to consider the duration of lift when determining risks for back and shoulder injuries due to lifting and that peak values alone are likely not sufficient.

  6. A New Full Pose Measurement Method for Robot Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Jun Kang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Identification of robot kinematic errors during the calibration process often requires accurate full pose measurements (position and orientation of robot end-effectors in Cartesian space. This paper proposes a new method of full pose measurement of robot end-effectors for calibration. This method is based on an analysis of the features of a set of target points (placed on a rotating end-effector on a circular trajectory. The accurate measurement is validated by computational simulation results from the Puma robot. Moreover, experimental calibration and validation results for the Hyundai HA-06 robot prove the effectiveness, correctness, and reliability of the proposed method. This method can be applied to robots that have entirely revolute joints or to robots for which only the last joint is revolute.

  7. Pose Estimation of Interacting People using Pictorial Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2010-01-01

    Pose estimation of people have had great progress in recent years but so far research has dealt with single persons. In this paper we address some of the challenges that arise when doing pose estimation of interacting people. We build on the pictorial structures framework and make important...... contributions by combining color-based appearance and edge information using a measure of the local quality of the appearance feature. In this way we not only combine the two types of features but dynamically find the optimal weighting of them. We further enable the method to handle occlusions by searching...... a foreground mask for possible occluded body parts and then applying extra strong kinematic constraints to find the true occluded body parts. The effect of applying our two contributions are show through both qualitative and quantitative tests and show a clear improvement on the ability to correctly localize...

  8. Pose tracking for augmented reality applications in outdoor archaeological sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Georges; Asmar, Daniel; Elhajj, Imad; Al-Harithy, Howayda

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, agencies around the world have invested huge amounts of effort toward digitizing many aspects of the world's cultural heritage. Of particular importance is the digitization of outdoor archaeological sites. In the spirit of valorization of this digital information, many groups have developed virtual or augmented reality (AR) computer applications themed around a particular archaeological object. The problem of pose tracking in outdoor AR applications is addressed. Different positional systems are analyzed, resulting in the selection of a monocular camera-based user tracker. The limitations that challenge this technique from map generation, scale, anchoring, to lighting conditions are analyzed and systematically addressed. Finally, as a case study, our pose tracking system is implemented within an AR experience in the Byblos Roman theater in Lebanon.

  9. Pose estimation using time-resolved inversion of diffuse light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raviv, Dan; Barsi, Christopher; Naik, Nikhil; Feigin, Micha; Raskar, Ramesh

    2014-08-25

    We present a novel approach for evaluation of position and orientation of geometric shapes from scattered time-resolved data. Traditionally, imaging systems treat scattering as unwanted and are designed to mitigate the effects. Instead, we show here that scattering can be exploited by implementing a system based on a femtosecond laser and a streak camera. The result is accurate estimation of object pose, which is a fundamental tool in analysis of complex scenarios and plays an important role in our understanding of physical phenomena. Here, we experimentally show that for a given geometry, a single incident illumination point yields enough information for pose estimation and tracking after multiple scattering events. Our technique can be used for single-shot imaging behind walls or through turbid media.

  10. Wheel pose measurement based on cross structure light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiancheng; Ding, Xun; Wang, Xian; Zhao, Yafeng

    2016-01-01

    It's necessary for automobile to detect and adjust four-wheel alignment parameters regularly, due to the significant effect on improving stability, enhancing security and reducing tire wear of automobiles. In order to measure the parameters that determined by relative position and posture of four wheels to the automobile cab, this paper proposes a method which applies monocular vision of linear structure light to wheel pose measurement. Firstly, space coordinates of feature point cloud are calculated out from the principle of structured light. Then, an algorithm is designed to determine the normal vector of wheel tangent plane and measure the wheel pose. Finally, actual experiments that by evaluation of adjusted wheel angle measurement are carried out to verify the system accuracy. The corresponding studies can be applied in designing and developing 3D four-wheel alignment system that based on structured light.

  11. Robust feature tracking for endoscopic pose estimation and structure recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speidel, S.; Krappe, S.; Röhl, S.; Bodenstedt, S.; Müller-Stich, B.; Dillmann, R.

    2013-03-01

    Minimally invasive surgery is a highly complex medical discipline with several difficulties for the surgeon. To alleviate these difficulties, augmented reality can be used for intraoperative assistance. For visualization, the endoscope pose must be known which can be acquired with a SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) approach using the endoscopic images. In this paper we focus on feature tracking for SLAM in minimally invasive surgery. Robust feature tracking and minimization of false correspondences is crucial for localizing the endoscope. As sensory input we use a stereo endoscope and evaluate different feature types in a developed SLAM framework. The accuracy of the endoscope pose estimation is validated with synthetic and ex vivo data. Furthermore we test the approach with in vivo image sequences from da Vinci interventions.

  12. Origins and implications of the relationship between warming and cumulative carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raupach, M. R.; Davis, S. J.; Peters, G. P.; Andrew, R. M.; Canadell, J.; Le Quere, C.

    2014-12-01

    A near-linear relationship between warming (T) and cumulative carbon emissions (Q) is a robust finding from numerous studies. This finding opens biophysical questions concerning (1) its theoretical basis, (2) the treatment of non-CO2 forcings, and (3) uncertainty specifications. Beyond these biophysical issues, a profound global policy question is raised: (4) how can a quota on cumulative emissions be shared? Here, an integrated survey of all four issues is attempted. (1) Proportionality between T and Q is an emergent property of a linear carbon-climate system forced by exponentially increasing CO2 emissions. This idealisation broadly explains past but not future near-proportionality between T and Q: in future, the roles of non-CO2 forcings and carbon-climate nonlinearities become important, and trajectory dependence becomes stronger. (2) The warming effects of short-lived non-CO2 forcers depend on instantaneous rather than cumulative fluxes. However, inertia in emissions trajectories reinstates some of the benefits of a cumulative emissions approach, with residual trajectory dependence comparable to that for CO2. (3) Uncertainties arise from several sources: climate projections, carbon-climate feedbacks, and residual trajectory dependencies in CO2 and other emissions. All of these can in principle be combined into a probability distribution P(T|Q) for the warming T from given cumulative CO2 emissions Q. Present knowledge of P(T|Q) allows quantification of the tradeoff between mitigation ambition and climate risk. (4) Cumulative emissions consistent with a given warming target and climate risk are a finite common resource that will inevitably be shared, creating a tragedy-of-the-commons dilemma. Sharing options range from "inertia" (present distribution of emissions is maintained) to "equity" (cumulative emissions are distributed equally per-capita). Both extreme options lead to emissions distributions that are unrealisable in practice, but a blend of the two

  13. Well posed reduced systems for the Einstein equations

    CERN Document Server

    Choquet-Bruhat, Y

    1996-01-01

    We review some well posed formulations of the evolution part of the Cauchy problem of General Relativity that we have recently obtained. We include also a new first order symmetric hyperbolic system based directly on the Riemann tensor and the full Bianchi identities. It has only physical characteristics and matter sources can be included. It is completely equivalent to our other system with these properties.

  14. Pose Estimation for Augmented Reality: A Hands-On Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Marchand, Éric; Uchiyama, Hideaki; Spindler, Fabien

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Augmented reality (AR) allows to seamlessly insert virtual objects in an image sequence. In order to accomplish this goal, it is important that synthetic elements are rendered and aligned in the scene in an accurate and visually acceptable way. The solution of this problem can be related to a pose estimation or, equivalently, a camera localization process. This paper aims at presenting a brief but almost self-contented introduction to the most important approaches dedi...

  15. Temporally Scalable Visual SLAM using a Reduced Pose Graph

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    generated from Kinect data for illustration purposes. II. RELATED WORK The pose graph optimization approach to SLAM was first introduced by Lu and Milios [19...such as the Microsoft Kinect ) and results for both camera types are presented in Section V. Additionally, our approach can incorporate IMU (roll and...camera, a Kinect sensor and a Microstrain IMU among other sensors. The data was collected in a large building over a period of six months. There were

  16. Frozen Landweber Iteration for Nonlinear Ill-Posed Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.Xu; B.Han; L.Li

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we propose a modification of the Landweber iteration termed frozen Landweber iteration for nonlinear ill-posed problems.A convergence analysis for this iteration is presented.The numerical performance of this frozen Landweber iteration for a nonlinear Hammerstein integral equation is compared with that of the Landweber iteration.We obtain a shorter running time of the frozen Landweber iteration based on the same convergence accuracy.

  17. Highly Specific Pose Estimation with a Catadioptric Omnidirectional Camera

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    International audience; This article presents a new method for estimating the pose of para-catadioptric vision systems. It is based on the estimation of vanishing points associated with vertical edges of the environment. However, unlike classical approaches no feature (line, circle) extraction and/or identification is needed. A sampled domain of possible vanishing points is tested and histograms are build to characterize the soundness of these points. A specificity index allows to find the mo...

  18. Sensing Strategies for Disambiguating among Multiple Objects in Known Poses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    ELEMENT. PROIECT. TASK Artificial Inteligence Laboratory AE OKUI UBR 545 Technology Square Cambridge, MA 021.39 11. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12...AD-Ali65 912 SENSING STRATEGIES FOR DISAMBIGURTING MONG MULTIPLE 1/1 OBJECTS IN KNOWN POSES(U) MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE ARTIFICIAL ...or Dist Special 1 ’ MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LABORATORY A. I. Memo 855 August, 1985 Sensing Strategies for

  19. Iterative regularization methods for nonlinear ill-posed problems

    CERN Document Server

    Scherzer, Otmar; Kaltenbacher, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Nonlinear inverse problems appear in many applications, and typically they lead to mathematical models that are ill-posed, i.e., they are unstable under data perturbations. Those problems require a regularization, i.e., a special numerical treatment. This book presents regularization schemes which are based on iteration methods, e.g., nonlinear Landweber iteration, level set methods, multilevel methods and Newton type methods.

  20. Activity Recognition Using Biomechanical Model Based Pose Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Reiss, Attila; Hendeby, Gustaf; Bleser, Gabriele; Stricker, Didier

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a novel activity recognition method based on signal-oriented and model-based features is presented. The model-based features are calculated from shoulder and elbow joint angles and torso orientation, provided by upper-body pose estimation based on a biomechanical body model. The recognition performance of signal-oriented and model-based features is compared within this paper, and the potential of improving recognition accuracy by combining the two approaches is proved: the accu...

  1. A bivariate optimal replacement policy with cumulative repair cost limit under cumulative damage model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MIN-T SAI LAI; SHIH-CHIH CHEN

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a bivariate replacement policy (n, T) for a cumulative shock damage process is presented that included the concept of cumulative repair cost limit. The arrival shocks can be divided into two kinds of shocks. Each type-I shock causes a random amount of damage and these damages are additive. When the total damage exceeds a failure level, the system goes into serious failure. Type-II shock causes the system into minor failure and such a failure can be corrected by minimal repair. When a minor failure occurs, the repaircost will be evaluated and minimal repair is executed if the accumulated repair cost is less than a predetermined limit L. The system is replaced at scheduled time T, at n-th minor failure, or at serious failure. The long-term expected cost per unit time is derived using the expected costs as the optimality criterion. The minimum-cost policy is derived, and existence and uniqueness of the optimal n* and T* are proved. This bivariate optimal replacement policy (n, T) is showed to be better than the optimal T* and the optimal n* policy.

  2. Gender disparities among the association between cumulative family-level stress & adolescent weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Daphne C; Pressler, Emily

    2015-04-01

    To investigate precursors to gender-related obesity disparities by examining multiple family-level stress indices. Analyses was based on adolescents born between 1975 and 1991 to women from the 1979 National Longitudinal Study of Youth data set (N=4762). Three types of family-level stressors were captured from birth to age 15: family disruption and conflict, financial strain, and maternal risky health behaviors, along with a total cumulative risk index. Body mass index was constructed on reference criteria for children outlined by the Centers for Disease Control. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted for the three types of family stressors and for the total cumulative index. The accumulation of family disruption and conflict and financial stress was positively related to female adolescents being overweight/obese. Childhood exposure to maternal risky health behaviors was positively associated with higher weight status for male adolescents. Total cumulative stress was related to overweight/obesity for females, but not males. Different family-level stress indices are associated with the weight status of female and male adolescents. Combining types of family-level stress into one cumulative index appears to mask these differences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cumulative violence exposure, emotional nonacceptance, and mental health symptoms in a community sample of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundermann, Jane M; Chu, Ann T; DePrince, Anne P

    2013-01-01

    Women exposed to more types of violence (e.g., emotional, physical, or sexual violence)--referred to here as cumulative violence exposure--are at risk for more severe mental health symptoms compared to women who are exposed to a single type of violence or no violence. Women exposed to violence may also experience greater emotional nonacceptance compared to women with no exposure to violence. Emotional nonacceptance refers to an unwillingness to experience emotional states, including cognitive and behavioral attempts to avoid experiences of emotion. Given the links between cumulative violence exposure, emotional nonacceptance, and mental health symptoms among female victims of violence, the current study tested victims' emotional nonacceptance as a partial mediator between cumulative violence exposure and the severity of 3 types of symptoms central to complex trauma responses: depression, dissociation, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. A non-treatment-seeking community sample of women (N = 89; M age = 30.70 years) completed self-report questionnaires and interviews. Bootstrap procedures were then used to test 3 mediation models for the separate predictions of depression, dissociation, and PTSD symptoms. Results supported our hypotheses that emotional nonacceptance would mediate the relationship between women's cumulative violence exposure and severity for all symptom types. The current findings highlight the role that emotional nonacceptance may play in the development of mental health symptoms for chronically victimized women and point to the need for longitudinal research in such populations.

  4. Cumulative sum quality control for calibrated breast density measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heine, John J.; Cao Ke; Beam, Craig [Cancer Prevention and Control Division, Moffitt Cancer Center, 12902 Magnolia Drive, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States); Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1603 W. Taylor St., Chicago, Illinois 60612 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Purpose: Breast density is a significant breast cancer risk factor. Although various methods are used to estimate breast density, there is no standard measurement for this important factor. The authors are developing a breast density standardization method for use in full field digital mammography (FFDM). The approach calibrates for interpatient acquisition technique differences. The calibration produces a normalized breast density pixel value scale. The method relies on first generating a baseline (BL) calibration dataset, which required extensive phantom imaging. Standardizing prospective mammograms with calibration data generated in the past could introduce unanticipated error in the standardized output if the calibration dataset is no longer valid. Methods: Sample points from the BL calibration dataset were imaged approximately biweekly over an extended timeframe. These serial samples were used to evaluate the BL dataset reproducibility and quantify the serial calibration accuracy. The cumulative sum (Cusum) quality control method was used to evaluate the serial sampling. Results: There is considerable drift in the serial sample points from the BL calibration dataset that is x-ray beam dependent. Systematic deviation from the BL dataset caused significant calibration errors. This system drift was not captured with routine system quality control measures. Cusum analysis indicated that the drift is a sign of system wear and eventual x-ray tube failure. Conclusions: The BL calibration dataset must be monitored and periodically updated, when necessary, to account for sustained system variations to maintain the calibration accuracy.

  5. Cumulative life course impairment in melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piaserico, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Patients with skin cancer remain at risk for disease progression or relapse for many years. Therefore, skin cancer may be considered a chronic, life-threatening disease. It could impact on patients lifestyles and social and professional activities. Although no direct study of cumulative life course impairment (CLCI) in skin cancer patients has been carried out, a few studies suggest that skin cancer may strongly impair quality of life and eventually determine a significant CLCI (melanoma more than nonmelanoma skin cancer). Obviously, the life course of patients with melanoma at an advanced stage of the disease may change considerably. A number of cancer-associated problems may determine a CLCI, including familial or professional changes and a reduction of life expectancy may eventually lead to social withdrawal and depressive disorders. Even patients with a low stage disease may experience an important impairment of quality of life and in some cases a CLCI. Some skin cancer patients may have physical and psychological after effects from their cancer surgery. Several patients complain about lymphedema, discomfort experienced from wearing surgical stockings, and diminished range of physical motion postsurgery. A few are concerned about their body image due to surgical scars, and they may consider changing their job position because of the supposed negative impact of scars in visible sites on their ability to perform their job. Some female melanoma survivors may have a reduced desire of having children in the future.

  6. Hazards posed by distal ash transport and sedimentation from extreme volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahagian, D. L.; Proussevitch, A. A.; White, C. M.; Klewicki, J.

    2016-12-01

    Volcanic ash injected into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere poses a significant hazard to aviation and human security as a result of extreme, explosive eruptions. These have occurred in the recent geologic past, and are expected to occur again, now that modern society and its infrastructure is far more vulnerable than ever before. Atmospheric transport, dispersion, and sedimentation of Ash particles is controlled by fundamentally different processes than control other particles normally transported in the atmosphere due to their complex internal and external morphology. It is thus necessary to elucidate the fundamental processes of particle-fluid interactions in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, where most air traffic resides, and thereby enhance the capability of volcanic ash transport models to predict the ash concentration in distal regions that pose aviation and other hazards. Current Volcanic Ash Transport and Dispersion (VATD) models use simplistic stokes settling velocities for larger ash particles, and treat smaller ash particles (that are a large part of the hazard) merely as passive tracers. By incorporating the dynamics of fine ash particle-atmosphere interactions into existing VATD models provides the foundation for a much more accurate assessment framework applied to the hazard posed by specific future extreme eruptions, and thus dramatically reduce both the risk to air traffic and the cost of airport and flight closures, in addition to human health, water quality, agricultural, infrastructure hazards, as well as ice cap albedo and short term climate impacts.

  7. Pose Estimation and Segmentation of Multiple People in Stereoscopic Movies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguin, Guillaume; Alahari, Karteek; Sivic, Josef; Laptev, Ivan

    2015-08-01

    We describe a method to obtain a pixel-wise segmentation and pose estimation of multiple people in stereoscopic videos. This task involves challenges such as dealing with unconstrained stereoscopic video, non-stationary cameras, and complex indoor and outdoor dynamic scenes with multiple people. We cast the problem as a discrete labelling task involving multiple person labels, devise a suitable cost function, and optimize it efficiently. The contributions of our work are two-fold: First, we develop a segmentation model incorporating person detections and learnt articulated pose segmentation masks, as well as colour, motion, and stereo disparity cues. The model also explicitly represents depth ordering and occlusion. Second, we introduce a stereoscopic dataset with frames extracted from feature-length movies "StreetDance 3D" and "Pina". The dataset contains 587 annotated human poses, 1,158 bounding box annotations and 686 pixel-wise segmentations of people. The dataset is composed of indoor and outdoor scenes depicting multiple people with frequent occlusions. We demonstrate results on our new challenging dataset, as well as on the H2view dataset from (Sheasby et al. ACCV 2012).

  8. Teaching Human Poses Interactively to a Social Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Salichs

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main activity of social robots is to interact with people. In order to do that, the robot must be able to understand what the user is saying or doing. Typically, this capability consists of pre-programmed behaviors or is acquired through controlled learning processes, which are executed before the social interaction begins. This paper presents a software architecture that enables a robot to learn poses in a similar way as people do. That is, hearing its teacher’s explanations and acquiring new knowledge in real time. The architecture leans on two main components: an RGB-D (Red-, Green-, Blue- Depth -based visual system, which gathers the user examples, and an Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR system, which processes the speech describing those examples. The robot is able to naturally learn the poses the teacher is showing to it by maintaining a natural interaction with the teacher. We evaluate our system with 24 users who teach the robot a predetermined set of poses. The experimental results show that, with a few training examples, the system reaches high accuracy and robustness. This method shows how to combine data from the visual and auditory systems for the acquisition of new knowledge in a natural manner. Such a natural way of training enables robots to learn from users, even if they are not experts in robotics.

  9. Synergy-based Hand Pose Sensing: Reconstruction Enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchi, Matteo; Bicchi, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Low-cost sensing gloves for reconstruction posture provide measurements which are limited under several regards. They are generated through an imperfectly known model, are subject to noise, and may be less than the number of Degrees of Freedom (DoFs) of the hand. Under these conditions, direct reconstruction of the hand posture is an ill-posed problem, and performance can be very poor. This paper examines the problem of estimating the posture of a human hand using(low-cost) sensing gloves, and how to improve their performance by exploiting the knowledge on how humans most frequently use their hands. To increase the accuracy of pose reconstruction without modifying the glove hardware - hence basically at no extra cost - we propose to collect, organize, and exploit information on the probabilistic distribution of human hand poses in common tasks. We discuss how a database of such an a priori information can be built, represented in a hierarchy of correlation patterns or postural synergies, and fused with glove ...

  10. Teaching Human Poses Interactively to a Social Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Pacheco, Victor; Malfaz, Maria; Fernandez, Fernando; Salichs, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    The main activity of social robots is to interact with people. In order to do that, the robot must be able to understand what the user is saying or doing. Typically, this capability consists of pre-programmed behaviors or is acquired through controlled learning processes, which are executed before the social interaction begins. This paper presents a software architecture that enables a robot to learn poses in a similar way as people do. That is, hearing its teacher's explanations and acquiring new knowledge in real time. The architecture leans on two main components: an RGB-D (Red-, Green-, Blue- Depth) -based visual system, which gathers the user examples, and an Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) system, which processes the speech describing those examples. The robot is able to naturally learn the poses the teacher is showing to it by maintaining a natural interaction with the teacher. We evaluate our system with 24 users who teach the robot a predetermined set of poses. The experimental results show that, with a few training examples, the system reaches high accuracy and robustness. This method shows how to combine data from the visual and auditory systems for the acquisition of new knowledge in a natural manner. Such a natural way of training enables robots to learn from users, even if they are not experts in robotics. PMID:24048336

  11. Shape recognition and pose estimation for mobile Augmented Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagbi, Nate; Bergig, Oriel; El-Sana, Jihad; Billinghurst, Mark

    2011-10-01

    Nestor is a real-time recognition and camera pose estimation system for planar shapes. The system allows shapes that carry contextual meanings for humans to be used as Augmented Reality (AR) tracking targets. The user can teach the system new shapes in real time. New shapes can be shown to the system frontally, or they can be automatically rectified according to previously learned shapes. Shapes can be automatically assigned virtual content by classification according to a shape class library. Nestor performs shape recognition by analyzing contour structures and generating projective-invariant signatures from their concavities. The concavities are further used to extract features for pose estimation and tracking. Pose refinement is carried out by minimizing the reprojection error between sample points on each image contour and its library counterpart. Sample points are matched by evolving an active contour in real time. Our experiments show that the system provides stable and accurate registration, and runs at interactive frame rates on a Nokia N95 mobile phone. © 2011 IEEE

  12. LEVELING STUDENTS’ CREATIVE THINKING IN SOLVING AND POSING MATHEMATICAL PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatag Yuli Eko Siswono

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers assume that people are creative, but their degree ofcreativity is different. The notion of creative thinking level has beendiscussed .by experts. The perspective of mathematics creative thinkingrefers to a combination of logical and divergent thinking which is basedon intuition but has a conscious aim. The divergent thinking is focusedon flexibility, fluency, and novelty in mathematical problem solving andproblem posing. As students have various backgrounds and differentabilities, they possess different potential in thinking patterns,imagination, fantasy and performance; therefore, students have differentlevels of creative thinking. A research study was conducted in order todevelop a framework for students’ levels of creative thinking inmathematics. This research used a qualitative approach to describe thecharacteristics of the levels of creative thinking. Task-based interviewswere conducted to collect data with ten 8thgrade junior secondary schoolstudents. The results distinguished five levels of creative thinking,namely level 0 to level 4 with different characteristics in each level.These differences are based on fluency, flexibility, and novelty inmathematical problem solving and problem posing.Keywords: student’s creative thinking, problem posing, flexibility,fluency, novelty DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.1.1.794.17-40

  13. Braden Scale cumulative score versus subscale scores: are we missing opportunities for pressure ulcer prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadd, Molly M

    2014-01-01

    Hospital-acquired pressure ulcer incidence rates continue to rise in the United States in the acute care setting despite efforts to extinguish them, and pressure ulcers are a nursing-sensitive quality indicator. The Braden Scale for Predicting Pressure Sore Risk instrument has been shown to be a valid and reliable instrument for assessing pressure ulcer risk. This case study represented 1 patient out of a chart audit that reviewed 20 patients with confirmed hospital-acquired pressure ulcers. The goal of the audit was to determine whether these ulcers might be avoided if preventive interventions based on Braden subscale scores versus the cumulative score were implemented. This case study describes a patient who, deemed at low risk for pressure ulcer development based on cumulative Braden Scale, may have benefited from interventions based on the subscale scores of sensory perception, activity, and mobility. Further research is needed to determine whether interventions based on subscales may be effective for preventing pressure ulcers when compared to a protocol based exclusively on the cumulative score.

  14. Longhi Games, Internal Reservoirs, and Cumulate Porosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, S. A.

    2009-05-01

    Fe in plagioclase at an early age, T-rollers (or not) on the Di-Trid boundary in Fo-Di-Sil, the mantle solidus, origins of anorthosites, esoteric uses of Schreinemakers rules and many more topics are all fresh and pleasant memories of John Longhi's prolific and creative work. The Fram-Longhi experimental effect of pressure on plagioclase partitioning with liquid in mafic rocks became essential to an understanding of multiphase Rayleigh fractionation of plagioclase in big layered intrusions. Only by using the pressure effect could I find a good equation through the data for the Kiglapait intrusion, and that result among others required the existence with probability 1.0 of an internal reservoir (Morse, JPet 2008). Knowledge of cumulate porosity is a crucial key to the understanding of layered igneous rocks. We seek both the initial (inverse packing fraction) and residual porosity to find the time and process path from sedimentation to solidification. In the Kiglapait Lower Zone we have a robust estimate of mean residual porosity from the modes of the excluded phases augite, oxides, sulfide, and apatite. To this we apply the maximum variance of plagioclase composition (the An range) to find an algorithm that extends through the Upper Zone and to other intrusions. Of great importance is that all these measurements were made in grain mounts concentrated from typically about 200 g of core or hand specimen, hence the represented sample volume is thousands of times greater than for a thin section. The resulting distribution and scatter of the An range is novel and remarkable. It is V-shaped in the logarithmic representation of stratigraphic height, running from about 20 mole % at both ends (base to top of the Layered Series) to near-zero at 99 PCS. The intercept of the porosity-An range relation gives An range = 3.5 % at zero residual porosity. Petrographic analysis reveals that for PCS less than 95 and greater than 99.9, the An range is intrinsic, i.e. pre-cumulus, for

  15. Pteropods on the edge: Cumulative effects of ocean acidification, warming, and deoxygenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednaršek, Nina; Harvey, Chris J.; Kaplan, Isaac C.; Feely, Richard A.; Možina, Jasna

    2016-06-01

    We review the state of knowledge of the individual and community responses of euthecosome (shelled) pteropods in the context of global environmental change. In particular, we focus on their responses to ocean acidification, in combination with ocean warming and ocean deoxygenation, as inferred from a growing body of empirical literature, and their relatively nascent place in ecosystem-scale models. Our objectives are: (1) to summarize the threats that these stressors pose to pteropod populations; (2) to demonstrate that pteropods are strong candidate indicators for cumulative effects of OA, warming, and deoxygenation in marine ecosystems; and (3) to provide insight on incorporating pteropods into population and ecosystem models, which will help inform ecosystem-based management of marine resources under future environmental regimes.

  16. Cumulative stress and autonomic dysregulation in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Rachel; Tuit, Keri; Hong, Kwang-Ik; Donovan, Theresa; Lee, Forrester; Sinha, Rajita

    2016-05-01

    Whether cumulative stress, including both chronic stress and adverse life events, is associated with decreased heart rate variability (HRV), a non-invasive measure of autonomic status which predicts poor cardiovascular outcomes, is unknown. Healthy community dwelling volunteers (N = 157, mean age 29 years) participated in the Cumulative Stress/Adversity Interview (CAI), a 140-item event interview measuring cumulative adversity including major life events, life trauma, recent life events and chronic stressors, and underwent 24-h ambulatory ECG monitoring. HRV was analyzed in the frequency domain and standard deviation of NN intervals (SDNN) calculated. Initial simple regression analyses revealed that total cumulative stress score, chronic stressors and cumulative adverse life events (CALE) were all inversely associated with ultra low-frequency (ULF), very low-frequency (VLF) and low-frequency (LF) power and SDNN (all p stress and chronic stress each was significantly associated with SDNN and ULF even after the highly significant contributions of age and sex, with no other covariates accounting for additional appreciable variance. For VLF and LF, both total cumulative stress and chronic stress significantly contributed to the variance alone but were not longer significant after adjusting for race and health behaviors. In summary, total cumulative stress, and its components of adverse life events and chronic stress were associated with decreased cardiac autonomic function as measured by HRV. Findings suggest one potential mechanism by which stress may exert adverse effects on mortality in healthy individuals. Primary preventive strategies including stress management may prove beneficial.

  17. Epigenome: A Biomarker or Screening Tool to Evaluate Health Impact of Cumulative Exposure to Chemical and Non-Chemical Stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olden, Kenneth; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Bussard, David

    2016-06-01

    Current risk assessment practices and toxicity information are hard to utilize for assessing the health impact of combined or cumulative exposure to multiple chemical and non-chemical stressors encountered in the "real world" environment. Non-chemical stressors such as heat, radiation, noise, humidity, bacterial and viral agents, and social factors, like stress related to violence and socioeconomic position generally cannot be currently incorporated into the risk assessment paradigm. The Science and Decisions report released by the National Research Council (NRC) in 2009 emphasized the need to characterize the effects of multiple stressors, both chemical and non-chemical exposures. One impediment to developing information relating such non-chemical stressors to health effects and incorporating them into cumulative assessment has been the lack of analytical tools to easily and quantitatively monitor the cumulative exposure to combined effects of stressors over the life course.

  18. Entanglement entropy and particle number cumulants of disordered fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmistrov, I. S.; Tikhonov, K. S.; Gornyi, I. V.; Mirlin, A. D.

    2017-08-01

    We study the entanglement entropy and particle number cumulants for a system of disordered noninteracting fermions in d dimensions. We show, both analytically and numerically, that for a weak disorder the entanglement entropy and the second cumulant (particle number variance) are proportional to each other with a universal coefficient. The corresponding expressions are analogous to those in the clean case but with a logarithmic factor regularized by the mean free path rather than by the system size. We also determine the scaling of higher cumulants by analytical (weak disorder) and numerical means. Finally, we predict that the particle number variance and the entanglement entropy are nonanalytic functions of disorder at the Anderson transition.

  19. Antibiotics as CECs: An Overview of the Hazards Posed by Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Ivan Scott

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTMonitoring programs have traditionally monitored legacy contaminants but are shifting focus to Contaminants of Emerging Concern (CECs. CECs present many challenges for monitoring and assessment, because measurement methods don't always exist nor have toxicological studies been fully conducted to place results in proper context. Also some CECs affect metabolic pathways to produce adverse outcomes that are not assessed through traditional toxicological evaluations. Antibiotics are CECs that pose significant environmental risks including development of both toxic effects at high doses and antibiotic resistance at doses well below the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC which kill bacteria and have been found in nearly half of all sites monitored in the US. Antimicrobial resistance has generally been attributed to the use of antibiotics in medicine for humans and livestock as well as aquaculture operations. The objective of this study was to assess the extent and magnitude of antibiotics in the environment and estimate their potential hazards in the environment. Antibiotics concentrations were measured in a number of monitoring studies which included Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTP effluent, surface waters, sediments and biota. A number of studies reported levels of Antibiotic Resistant Microbes (ARM in surface waters and some studies found specific ARM genes (e.g. the blaM-1 gene in E. coli which may pose additional environmental risk. High levels of this gene were found to survive WWTP disinfection and accumulated in sediment at levels 100-1000 times higher than in the sewerage effluent, posing potential risks for gene transfer to other bacteria.in aquatic and marine ecosystems. Antibiotic risk assessment approaches were developed based on the use of MICs and MIC Ratios [High (Antibiotic Resistant/Low (Antibiotic Sensitive MIC] for each antibiotic indicating the range of bacterial adaptability to each antibiotic to help define the No

  20. More Versus Less Intensive Blood Pressure-Lowering Strategy: Cumulative Evidence and Trial Sequential Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdecchia, Paolo; Angeli, Fabio; Gentile, Giorgio; Reboldi, Gianpaolo

    2016-09-01

    Several randomized trials compared a more versus less intensive blood pressure-lowering strategy on the risk of major cardiovascular events and death. Cumulative meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses can establish whether and when firm evidence favoring a specific intervention has been reached from accrued literature. Therefore, we conducted a cumulative trial sequential analysis of 18 trials that randomly allocated 53 405 patients to a more or less intensive blood pressure-lowering strategy. We sought to ascertain the extent to which trial evidence added to previously accrued data. Outcome measures were stroke, myocardial infarction, heart failure, cardiovascular death, and all-cause death. Achieved blood pressure was 7.6/4.5 mm Hg lower with the more intensive than the less intensive blood pressure-lowering strategy. For stroke and myocardial infarction, the cumulative Z curve crossed the efficacy monitoring boundary solely after the SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial) study, thereby providing firm evidence of superiority of a more intensive over a less intensive blood pressure-lowering strategy. For cardiovascular death and heart failure, the cumulative Z curve crossed the conventional significance boundary, but not the sequential monitoring boundary, after SPRINT. For all-cause death, the SPRINT trial pushed the cumulative Z curve away from the futility area, without reaching the conventional significance boundary. We conclude that evidence accrued to date strongly supports the superiority of a more intensive versus a less intensive blood pressure-lowering strategy for prevention of stroke and myocardial infarction. Cardiovascular death and heart failure are likely to be reduced by a more intensive blood pressure-lowering strategy, but evidence is not yet conclusive.

  1. ONKALO POSE experiment. Phase 3: execution and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valli, J. [Poeyry Finland Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Hakala, M. [KMS-Hakala Oy, Nokia (Finland); Wanne, T. [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Kantia, P. [Geofcon Oy, Rovaniemi (Finland); Siren, T.

    2014-01-15

    In-depth knowledge of the in situ stress state at the Olkiluoto site is critical for stability assessment both prior to and after deposition of spent nuclear fuel in order to understand and avoid potential damage to the rock at the site. Posiva's Olkiluoto Spalling Experiment (POSE) was designed specifically for this purpose with three primary goals: establish the in situ spalling/damage strength of Olkiluoto migmatitic gneiss, establish the state of in situ stress at the -345 m depth level and act as a Prediction-Outcome (P-O) exercise. Phases 1 and 2 of POSE are outlined in WR 2012-60. The objectives of the third phase of the POSE experiment are the same as the original objectives outlined above. This report outlines the execution and results of the third phase of the POSE experiment. The third phase of the experiment involved internally heating the third experimental hole (ONK-EH3) of the POSE niche in order to cause a symmetrical thermal stress increase around the hole due to the thermal expansion of rock. This thermomechanically induced stress increase, coupled with the estimated existing in situ stress state, should cause the maximum principal stress around the hole to exceed the predicted spalling strength of the rock around the hole. ONK-EH3 is located almost completely in pegmatitic granite. Four fractures near the top of the hole were mapped after boring ONK-EH3, and a tensile failure located at the contact between mica-rich gneiss and pegmatitic granite was observed 18 months after boring, prior to the experiment. Based on predictive calculations and the estimated in situ state of stress, the maximum principal stress magnitude should reach ca. 100 MPa when the temperature was just below 100 deg C after 12 weeks of heating. There were problems with the heater control unit at the beginning of the experiment, after which heating proceeded according to plan. The crack damage threshold of pegmatitic granite has been determined to be 85 ±17 MPa at

  2. Macrobend optical sensing for pose measurement in soft robot arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sareh, Sina; Noh, Yohan; Li, Min; Ranzani, Tommaso; Liu, Hongbin; Althoefer, Kaspar

    2015-12-01

    This paper introduces a pose-sensing system for soft robot arms integrating a set of macrobend stretch sensors. The macrobend sensory design in this study consists of optical fibres and is based on the notion that bending an optical fibre modulates the intensity of the light transmitted through the fibre. This sensing method is capable of measuring bending, elongation and compression in soft continuum robots and is also applicable to wearable sensing technologies, e.g. pose sensing in the wrist joint of a human hand. In our arrangement, applied to a cylindrical soft robot arm, the optical fibres for macrobend sensing originate from the base, extend to the tip of the arm, and then loop back to the base. The connectors that link the fibres to the necessary opto-electronics are all placed at the base of the arm, resulting in a simplified overall design. The ability of this custom macrobend stretch sensor to flexibly adapt its configuration allows preserving the inherent softness and compliance of the robot which it is installed on. The macrobend sensing system is immune to electrical noise and magnetic fields, is safe (because no electricity is needed at the sensing site), and is suitable for modular implementation in multi-link soft continuum robotic arms. The measurable light outputs of the proposed stretch sensor vary due to bend-induced light attenuation (macrobend loss), which is a function of the fibre bend radius as well as the number of repeated turns. The experimental study conducted as part of this research revealed that the chosen bend radius has a far greater impact on the measured light intensity values than the number of turns (if greater than five). Taking into account that the bend radius is the only significantly influencing design parameter, the macrobend stretch sensors were developed to create a practical solution to the pose sensing in soft continuum robot arms. Henceforward, the proposed sensing design was benchmarked against an electromagnetic

  3. Regularization theory for ill-posed problems selected topics

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Shuai

    2013-01-01

    Thismonograph is a valuable contribution to thehighly topical and extremly productive field ofregularisationmethods for inverse and ill-posed problems. The author is an internationally outstanding and acceptedmathematicianin this field. In his book he offers a well-balanced mixtureof basic and innovative aspects.He demonstrates new,differentiatedviewpoints, and important examples for applications. The bookdemontrates thecurrent developments inthe field of regularization theory,such as multiparameter regularization and regularization in learning theory. The book is written for graduate and PhDs

  4. Compensating Pose Uncertainties Through Appropriate Gripper Finger Cutouts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolniakowski, Adam; Gams, Andrej; Kiforenko, Lilita

    The gripper finger design is a recurring problem in many robotic grasping platforms used in industry. The task of switching the gripper configuration to accommodate for a new batch of objects typically requires engineering expertise, and is a lengthy and costly iterative trial-and-error process....... One of the open challenges is the need for the gripper to compensate for uncertainties inherent to the workcell, e.g. due to errors in calibration, inaccurate pose estimation from the vision system, or object deformation. In this paper, we present an analysis of gripper uncertainty compensating...

  5. Compensating Pose Uncertainties Through Appropriate Gripper Finger Cutouts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolniakowski, Adam; Gams, Andrej; Kiforenko, Lilita

    2017-01-01

    The gripper finger design is a recurring problem in many robotic grasping platforms used in industry. The task of switching the gripper configuration to accommodate for a new batch of objects typically requires engineering expertise, and is a lengthy and costly iterative trial-and-error process....... One of the open challenges is the need for the gripper to compensate for uncertainties inherent to the workcell, e.g. due to errors in calibration, inaccurate pose estimation from the vision system, or object deformation. In this paper, we present an analysis of gripper uncertainty compensating...

  6. Iterative Methods for Ill-Posed Problems An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Bakushinsky, Anatoly B; Smirnova, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Ill-posed problems are encountered in countless areas of real world science and technology. A variety of processes in science and engineering is commonly modeled by algebraic, differential, integral and other equations. In a more difficult case, it can be systems of equations combined with the associated initial and boundary conditions. Frequently, the study of applied optimization problems is also reduced to solving the corresponding equations. These equations, encountered both in theoretical and applied areas, may naturally be classified as operator equations. The current tex

  7. Online Scheduling in Manufacturing A Cumulative Delay Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Suwa, Haruhiko

    2013-01-01

    Online scheduling is recognized as the crucial decision-making process of production control at a phase of “being in production" according to the released shop floor schedule. Online scheduling can be also considered as one of key enablers to realize prompt capable-to-promise as well as available-to-promise to customers along with reducing production lead times under recent globalized competitive markets. Online Scheduling in Manufacturing introduces new approaches to online scheduling based on a concept of cumulative delay. The cumulative delay is regarded as consolidated information of uncertainties under a dynamic environment in manufacturing and can be collected constantly without much effort at any points in time during a schedule execution. In this approach, the cumulative delay of the schedule has the important role of a criterion for making a decision whether or not a schedule revision is carried out. The cumulative delay approach to trigger schedule revisions has the following capabilities for the ...

  8. Mapping cumulative human impacts in the eastern North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stock, A.; Andersen, Jesper; Heinänen, S.

    of the MSFD; and 3) to deepen the understanding of how errors in expert judgment affect the resulting cumulative human impact maps by means of Monte Carlo simulations. We combined existing data sets on the spatial distribution of 33 anthropogenic stressors (linked to the MSFD pressures) and 28 key habitats....... In contrast, the predicted impacts for much of the Norwegian EEZ and areas far offshore were lower. The Monte Carlo simulations confirmed earlier findings that mapping cumulative impacts is generally "robust", but also showed that specific combinations of errors can seriously change local and regional...... on marine ecosystems have only recently been developed. The aims of our study were: 1) to develop a map of cumulative human impacts for the Danish, Swedish, Norwegian and German parts of the Greater North Sea; 2) to adjust the existing methods for mapping cumulative human impacts to fit the requirements...

  9. Cumulative Production Per Township - SaMiRa

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset contains a selected township grid within the Sagebrush Mineral Resource Assessment project (SaMiRa) study area attributed with cumulative oil and gas...

  10. Macroscopic cumulative fatigue damage of material under nonsymmetrical cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盖秉政

    2002-01-01

    Hashin's macroscopic theory of fatigue damage is further discussed and a new method has been proposed for prediction of cumulative fatigue damage of material and its lifetime under nonsymmetrical cyclic loading.

  11. Translation-Invariant Representation for Cumulative Foot Pressure Images

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Shuai; Tan, Tieniu

    2010-01-01

    Human can be distinguished by different limb movements and unique ground reaction force. Cumulative foot pressure image is a 2-D cumulative ground reaction force during one gait cycle. Although it contains pressure spatial distribution information and pressure temporal distribution information, it suffers from several problems including different shoes and noise, when putting it into practice as a new biometric for pedestrian identification. In this paper, we propose a hierarchical translation-invariant representation for cumulative foot pressure images, inspired by the success of Convolutional deep belief network for digital classification. Key contribution in our approach is discriminative hierarchical sparse coding scheme which helps to learn useful discriminative high-level visual features. Based on the feature representation of cumulative foot pressure images, we develop a pedestrian recognition system which is invariant to three different shoes and slight local shape change. Experiments are conducted on...

  12. Some Characterization Results on Dynamic Cumulative Residual Tsallis Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madan Mohan Sati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a generalized cumulative residual information measure based on Tsallis entropy and its dynamic version. We study the characterizations of the proposed information measure and define new classes of life distributions based on this measure. Some applications are provided in relation to weighted and equilibrium probability models. Finally the empirical cumulative Tsallis entropy is proposed to estimate the new information measure.

  13. Steps and pips in the history of the cumulative recorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Lattal, Kennon A.

    2004-01-01

    From its inception in the 1930s until very recent times, the cumulative recorder was the most widely used measurement instrument in the experimental analysis of behavior. It was an essential instrument in the discovery and analysis of schedules of reinforcement, providing the first real-time analysis of operant response rates and patterns. This review traces the evolution of the cumulative recorder from Skinner's early modified kymographs through various models developed by Skinner and his co...

  14. Cumulative glycemia and microangiopathy in subjects with impaired glucose regulation in the Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Inger Christine; Larsen, Michael; Kessel, Line

    2011-01-01

    participants. RESULTS: Lens fluorescence, a quantitative index of life-long cumulative glycemia, was increased by 7.5% (CI(95) 0.37-15.1%) in subjects with impaired fasting glucose, by 13.0% (CI(95) 5.5-21%) in subjects with combined impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance (IFG+IGT), and by 11......AIMS: To assess cumulative glycemia, microvascular characteristics, and associated risk factors for diabetes in subjects with impaired glucose regulation. METHODS: Cross-sectional, population-based study comprising systemic characteristics in 6487 participants and ocular characteristics in 970.......8% (CI(95) 6.8-17.1%) in subjects with screen-detected diabetes compared to normoglycemic subjects, adjusted for age, sex, and smoking. The prevalences of microalbuminuria and retinopathy were significantly increased in subjects with screen-detected diabetes after adjusting for age, sex and systolic...

  15. Socioeconomic status and cumulative disadvantage processes across the life course: implications for health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabrook, Jamie A; Avison, William R

    2012-02-01

    Given the complexity surrounding various interactions among health determinants and the challenge of being able to adequately describe the dynamic processes through which health determinants have their effects, the purpose of this paper is to provide a conceptual overview demonstrating the effects of socioeconomic status and cumulative disadvantage on producing health disparities across the life course. The idea underlying cumulative disadvantage is that socioeconomic-based health inequalities will increase across the life course, mostly because of differential exposure to risk factors and access to protective resources. The advantage of life course sociology is its consideration of early life experiences, and the social and historical context of their occurrences, as important contingencies in producing these systematic socioeconomic differences in health gradients.

  16. Gaussian particle filter based pose and motion estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Determination of relative three-dimensional (3D) position, orientation, and relative motion between two reference frames is an important problem in robotic guidance, manipulation, and assembly as well as in other fields such as photogrammetry.A solution to pose and motion estimation problem that uses two-dimensional (2D) intensity images from a single camera is desirable for real-time applications. The difficulty in performing this measurement is that the process of projecting 3D object features to 2D images is a nonlinear transformation. In this paper, the 3D transformation is modeled as a nonlinear stochastic system with the state estimation providing six degrees-of-freedom motion and position values, using line features in image plane as measuring inputs and dual quaternion to represent both rotation and translation in a unified notation. A filtering method called the Gaussian particle filter (GPF) based on the particle filtering concept is presented for 3D pose and motion estimation of a moving target from monocular image sequences. The method has been implemented with simulated data, and simulation results are provided along with comparisons to the extended Kalman filter (EKF) and the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) to show the relative advantages of the GPF. Simulation results showed that GPF is a superior alternative to EKF and UKF.

  17. SIFT algorithm-based 3D pose estimation of femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuehe; Zhu, Yanhe; Li, Changle; Zhao, Jie; Li, Ge

    2014-01-01

    To address the lack of 3D space information in the digital radiography of a patient femur, a pose estimation method based on 2D-3D rigid registration is proposed in this study. The method uses two digital radiography images to realize the preoperative 3D visualization of a fractured femur. Compared with the pure Digital Radiography or Computed Tomography imaging diagnostic methods, the proposed method has the advantages of low cost, high precision, and minimal harmful radiation. First, stable matching point pairs in the frontal and lateral images of the patient femur and the universal femur are obtained by using the Scale Invariant Feature Transform method. Then, the 3D pose estimation registration parameters of the femur are calculated by using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. Finally, based on the deviation between the six degrees freedom parameter calculated by the proposed method, preset posture parameters are calculated to evaluate registration accuracy. After registration, the rotation error is less than l.5°, and the translation error is less than 1.2 mm, which indicate that the proposed method has high precision and robustness. The proposed method provides 3D image information for effective preoperative orthopedic diagnosis and surgery planning.

  18. Cumulative ionizing radiation exposure in patients with end stage kidney disease: a 6-year retrospective analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coyle, Joe

    2011-08-13

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify cumulative exposure to ionizing radiation in patients with end stage kidney disease (ESKD). To investigate factors which may be independently associated with risk of high cumulative effective dose (CED). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study had local institutional review board ethical approval. We conducted a retrospective study of 394 period prevalent ESKD patients attending a single tertiary referral centre between 2004 and 2009. Patient demographics were obtained from case records. Details of radiological investigations were obtained from the institutional radiology computerized database. CED was calculated using standard procedure specific radiation levels. High exposure was defined as CED > 50 mSv, an exposure which has been reported to increase cancer mortality by 5%. Data were compared using Pearson χ(2) and Mann-Whitney U test or Kruskal-Wallis tests. RESULTS: 394 patients were followed for a median of 4 years (1518 patient years follow-up). Of these 63% were male. Seventeen percent of patients had a CED of >50 mSv. Computed tomography (CT) accounted for 9% of total radiological studies\\/procedures while contributing 61.4% of total study dose. Median cumulative dose and median dose per patient year were significantly higher in the hemodialysis (HD) group (15.13 and 5.79 mSv, respectively) compared to the post-transplant group (2.9 and 0.52 mSv, respectively) (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: ESKD patients are at risk of cumulative exposure to significant levels of diagnostic radiation. The majority of this exposure is imparted as a result of CT examinations to patients in the HD group.

  19. ONKALO POSE experiment. Phase 1 and 2: execution and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, E. [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Siren, T. [Posiva Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Hakala, M. [KMS-Hakala Oy, Nokia (Finland); Kantia, P. [Geofcon Oy, Rovaniemi (Finland)

    2014-02-15

    Posiva has conducted in the ONKALO rock characterisation facility during 2010 - 2011 an in situ experiment named POSE (Posiva's Olkiluoto Spalling Experiment). The POSE experiment had three objectives: to establish the in situ spalling/damage strength of Olkiluoto migmatitic gneiss, to establish the state of in situ stress at the -345 m depth level, and to act as a Prediction-Outcome (P-O) exercise. The POSE experiment consisted of drilling with full-face boring machine two near fullscale deposition holes, diameter 1.52 m (compared to 1.75 m for the actual deposition holes), to a depth of 7.2 m, leaving a 0.9 m pillar between the holes. The holes were planned to be located in such way that maximum excavation-induced stresses could act in the pillar and damage could then take place. Boring of the two holes in 2010 was called Phase 1 (Pillar test). This was followed in 2011 by Phase 2 (Pillar heating test) where four heaters with a length of 7.5 m heated the test area to increase the stresses around the experimental holes. In the heating phase the other hole was back-filled with sand. The test was extensively monitored during the execution using temperature monitoring, strain gauge monitoring, video monitoring, microseismic monitoring and pressure monitoring. In addition, the holes were after the test measured using ground penetration radar (GPR) and 3D photogrammetry for detailed modelling. The outcomes from the test showed that no damage, except for three opened/sheared fractures, was noticed during the boring of the holes (Phase 1). Surface damage was, though, induced by heating (Phase 2). The damage was well localized around the holes and controlled by the foliation (mica rich layers) and rock type contacts which were known to be relatively weak. Surface type failures were not observed in the gneiss, but it was noticed in limited areas in the pegmatite-granite. The depths of the damaged areas due to heating were less than 100 mm. The depths and sizes of the

  20. To what effect? A comparison of cumulative wildlife effects from wind and other major electricity generation types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, C.; Denny, C.; Colverson, P.; Marynowski, S.; Hill, K. [Pandion Systems Inc., Gainesville, FL (United States); Newman, J. [Pandion Systems Inc., Gainsville, FL (United States)]|[Environmental Bioindicators Foundation EBIF Inc., Fort Pierce, FL (United States); Zillioux, E. [Environmental Bioindicators Foundation EBIF Inc., Fort Pierce, FL (United States); Warren-Hicks, W. [Eco-Stat Inc., Highland City, FL (United States); Watson, M. [New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, Albany, NY (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) report was designed to compare the relative risks of different methods of energy generation. Risks were assessed from resource extraction through to decommissioning in order to assess relative risk at all life-cycles. Generation sources included coal; oil; natural gas; nuclear; hydro; and wind power. The ecological risk assessment framework was designed to consider stressors and receptors as well as to characterize risks to wildlife from electricity generation. Exposure and effects ranged from large-scale injury or mortality to low risks with no population effects. The study showed that risks from energy generation include climatic change, acid deposition, mercury, and bioaccumulation. Impacts also include physical injury and mortality to wildlife, disruption of normal behaviour, and destruction of habitat. It was concluded that the resource extraction and fuel transportation phases of both hydro and wind power pose no risk to wildlife. Power generation, transmission, and delivery of wind energy pose a medium risk to wildlife. It was concluded that coal-derived energy poses the highest risk to wildlife out of all the examined energy sources. tabs., figs.