WorldWideScience

Sample records for cumulative project production

  1. Electro-cumulation CNF project

    CERN Document Server

    Grishin, V G

    2000-01-01

    bound or free ion current within solid substances; non-plain symmetry; cumulation of the ion interaction. Experimental result: an Ice SuperPolarization. Cold nuclear fusion ? At http://www.shortway.to/to2084 . Keywords: ion, current, solid, symmetry, cumulation, cold nuclear fusion, polarization, depolarization, ionic conductor, superionic conductor, ice, crystal, strain, V-center, V-centre, doped crystal, interstitial impurity, intrinsic color center, high pressure technology, Bridgman, experiment, crowdion, dielectric, proton, layer, defect, lattice, dynamics, electromigration, mobility, muon catalysis, concentration, doping, dopant, conductivity, pycnonuclear reaction, permittivity, dielectric constant, point defects, interstitials, polarizability, imperfection, defect centers, glass, epitaxy, sodium hydroxide, metallic substrate, crystallization, point, tip, susceptibility, ferroelectric, ordering, force, correlation, collective, shift, distortion, coalescence, crowdions, electrolysis.

  2. Cumulative Production Per Township - SaMiRa

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset contains a selected township grid within the Sagebrush Mineral Resource Assessment project (SaMiRa) study area attributed with cumulative oil and gas...

  3. Cumulative pion production via successive collisions in nuclear medium

    CERN Document Server

    Motornenko, A

    2016-01-01

    Production of pions in proton-nucleus (p+A) reactions outside of a kinematical boundary of proton-nucleon collisions, the so-called cumulative effect, is studied. The kinematical restrictions on pions emitted in backward direction in the target rest frame are analyzed. It is shown that cumulative pion production requires a presence of massive baryonic resonances that are produced during successive collisions of projectile with nuclear nucleons. After each successive collision the mass of created resonance may increase and, simultaneously, its longitudinal velocity decreases. Simulations within Ultra relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics model reveals that successive collisions of baryonic resonances with nuclear nucleons plays the dominant role in cumulative pion production in p+A reactions.

  4. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Roegner, Curtis; Thom, Ronald M.; Dawley, Earl M.; Whiting, Allan H.; Johnson, Gary E.; Sobocinski, Kathryn L.; Anderson, Michael G.; Ebberts, Blaine

    2005-12-15

    indicators for detecting a signal in the estuarine system resulting from the multiple projects were also reviewed, i.e. organic matter production, nutrient cycling, sedimentation, food webs, biodiversity, salmon habitat usage, habitat opportunity, and allometry. In subsequent work, this information will be used to calculate the over net effect on the ecosystem. To evaluate the effectiveness of habitat restoration actions in the lower Columbia River and estuary, a priority of this study has been to develop a set of minimum ecosystem monitoring protocols based on metrics important for the CRE. The metrics include a suite of physical measurements designed to evaluate changes in hydrological and topographic features, as well as biological metrics that will quantify vegetation and fish community structure. These basic measurements, intended to be conducted at all restoration sites in the CRE, will be used to (1) evaluate the effectiveness of various restoration procedures on target metrics, and (2) provide the data to determine the cumulative effects of many restoration projects on the overall system. A protocol manual is being developed for managers, professional researchers, and informed volunteers, and is intended to be a practical technical guide for the design and implementation of monitoring for the effects of restoration activities. The guidelines are intended to standardize the collection of data critical for analyzing the anticipated ecological change resulting from restoration treatments. Field studies in 2005 are planned to initiate the testing and evaluation of these monitoring metrics and protocols and initiate the evaluation of higher order metrics for cumulative effects.

  5. Cumulative semantic interference for associative relations in language production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Sebastian Benjamin; Abdel Rahman, Rasha

    2016-07-01

    Associations between conceptual representations and thematic relations play an important role in the organization of semantic memory. However, language production research on semantic context effects shows that associative (e.g., dog and bone) and categorical relations (dog and horse) seem to diverge. While categorical contexts typically induce semantic interference that has traditionally been taken to reflect competitive lexical selection, evidence for comparable associative modulations is rare. In three experiments we tested whether thematic associations between objects induce cumulative interference in the continuous naming paradigm, assuming that this paradigm hampers lexical selection via the activation of highly active lexical cohorts steadily increasing in size. Indeed, naming times increased linearly with each newly named member of thematic contexts irrespective of the pre-activation of associations before the naming task (Experiment 1), and irrespective of whether categorical links were partially included (Experiments 1 and 2) or entirely absent (Experiment 3). These findings demonstrate that different types of semantic relations induce interference.

  6. The Contribution of Project Environmental Assessment to Assessing and Managing Cumulative Effects: Individually and Collectively Insignificant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Bram; Liu, Jialang; Hackett, Paul

    2017-04-01

    This paper explores the opportunities and constraints to project-based environmental assessment as a means to support the assessment and management of cumulative environmental effects. A case study of the hydroelectric sector is used to determine whether sufficient information is available over time through project-by-project assessments to support an adequate understanding of cumulative change. Results show inconsistency from one project to the next in terms of the components and indicators assessed, limited transfer of baseline information between project assessments over time, and the same issues and concerns being raised by review panels-even though the projects reviewed are operating in the same watershed and operated by the same proponent. Project environmental assessments must be managed, and coordinated, as part of a larger system of impact assessment, if project-by-project assessments are to provide a meaningful forum for learning and understanding cumulative change. The paper concludes with recommendations for improved project-based assessment practice in support of cumulative effects assessment and management.

  7. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Borde, Amy B.; Dawley, Earl M.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Putman, Douglas A.; Roegner, G. C.; Russell, Micah; Skalski, John R.; Thom, Ronald M.; Vavrinec, John

    2008-10-01

    The goal of this multi-year study (2004-2010) is to develop a methodology to evaluate the cumulative effects of multiple habitat restoration projects intended to benefit ecosystems supporting juvenile salmonids in the lower Columbia River and estuary. Literature review in 2004 revealed no existing methods for such an evaluation and suggested that cumulative effects could be additive or synergistic. Field research in 2005, 2006, and 2007 involved intensive, comparative studies paired by habitat type (tidal swamp vs. marsh), trajectory (restoration vs. reference site), and restoration action (tide gate vs. culvert vs. dike breach). The field work established two kinds of monitoring indicators for eventual cumulative effects analysis: core and higher-order indicators. Management implications of limitations and applications of site-specific effectiveness monitoring and cumulative effects analysis were identified.

  8. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Borde, Amy B.; Bryson, Amanda J.; Cameron, April; Coleman, Andre M.; Corbett, C.; Dawley, Earl M.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Kauffman, Ronald; Roegner, G. Curtis; Russell, Micah T.; Silva, April; Skalski, John R.; Thom, Ronald M.; Vavrinec, John; Woodruff, Dana L.; Zimmerman, Shon A.

    2010-10-26

    This is the sixth annual report of a seven-year project (2004 through 2010) to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat restoration actions in the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE). The project, called the Cumulative Effects Study, is being conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District (USACE) by the Marine Sciences Laboratory of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), the Pt. Adams Biological Field Station of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST), and the University of Washington. The goal of the Cumulative Effects Study is to develop a methodology to evaluate the cumulative effects of multiple habitat restoration projects intended to benefit ecosystems supporting juvenile salmonids in the 235-km-long LCRE. Literature review in 2004 revealed no existing methods for such an evaluation and suggested that cumulative effects could be additive or synergistic. From 2005 through 2009, annual field research involved intensive, comparative studies paired by habitat type (tidal swamp versus marsh), trajectory (restoration versus reference site), and restoration action (tidegate replacement vs. culvert replacement vs. dike breach).

  9. Projecting Cumulative Benefits of Multiple River Restoration Projects: An Example from the Sacramento-San Joaquin River System in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondolf, G. Mathias; Angermeier, Paul L.; Cummins, Kenneth; Dunne, Thomas; Healey, Michael; Kimmerer, Wim; Moyle, Peter B.; Murphy, Dennis; Patten, Duncan; Railsback, Steve; Reed, Denise J.; Spies, Robert; Twiss, Robert

    2008-12-01

    Despite increasingly large investments, the potential ecological effects of river restoration programs are still small compared to the degree of human alterations to physical and ecological function. Thus, it is rarely possible to “restore” pre-disturbance conditions; rather restoration programs (even large, well-funded ones) will nearly always involve multiple small projects, each of which can make some modest change to selected ecosystem processes and habitats. At present, such projects are typically selected based on their attributes as individual projects (e.g., consistency with programmatic goals of the funders, scientific soundness, and acceptance by local communities), and ease of implementation. Projects are rarely prioritized (at least explicitly) based on how they will cumulatively affect ecosystem function over coming decades. Such projections require an understanding of the form of the restoration response curve, or at least that we assume some plausible relations and estimate cumulative effects based thereon. Drawing on our experience with the CALFED Bay-Delta Ecosystem Restoration Program in California, we consider potential cumulative system-wide benefits of a restoration activity extensively implemented in the region: isolating/filling abandoned floodplain gravel pits captured by rivers to reduce predation of outmigrating juvenile salmon by exotic warmwater species inhabiting the pits. We present a simple spreadsheet model to show how different assumptions about gravel pit bathymetry and predator behavior would affect the cumulative benefits of multiple pit-filling and isolation projects, and how these insights could help managers prioritize which pits to fill.

  10. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Borde, Amy B.; Dawley, Earl; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Putman, Douglas A.; Roegner, G. C.; Thom, Ronald M.; Vavrinec, John; Whiting, Allan H.

    2007-12-06

    This report is the third annual report of a six-year project to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat restoration action in the Columbia River Estuary (CRE). The project is being conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) by the Marine Sciences Laboratory of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the Pt. Adams Biological Field Station of the National Marine Fisheries Service, and the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce. Measurement of the cumulative effects of ecological restoration projects in the Columbia River estuary is a formidable task because of the size and complexity of the estuarine landscape and the meta-populations of salmonids in the Columbia River basin. Despite the challenges presented by this system, developing and implementing appropriate indicators and methods to measure cumulative effects is the best way to enable estuary managers to track the overall effectiveness of investments in estuarine restoration projects. This project is developing methods to quantify the cumulative effects of multiple restoration activities in the CRE. The overall objectives of the 2006 study were to continue to develop techniques to assess cumulative effects, refine the standard monitoring protocols, and initiate development of an adaptive management system for Corps of Engineers’ habitat restoration monitoring efforts in the CRE. (The adaptive management effort will be reported at a later date.) Field studies during 2006 were conducted in tidal freshwater at Kandoll Farm on the lower Grays River and tidal brackish water at Vera Slough on Youngs Bay. Within each of area, we sampled one natural reference site and one restoration site. We addressed the overall objectives with field work in 2006 that, coupled with previous field data, had specific objectives and resulted in some important findings that are summarized here by chapter in this report. Each chapter of the report contains data on particular monitored variables for pre- and post

  11. Evaluation of Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Thom, Ronald M.; Roegner, G. Curtis; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Skalski, John R.; Borde, Amy B.; Dawley, Earl; Coleman, Andre M.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Breithaupt, Stephen A.; Cameron, April; Corbett, C.; Donley, Erin E.; Jay, D. A.; Ke, Yinghai; Leffler, K.; McNeil, C.; Studebaker, Cindy; Tagestad, Jerry D.

    2012-05-01

    This is the seventh and final annual report of a project (2004–2010) addressing evaluation of the cumulative effects of habitat restoration actions in the 235-km-long lower Columbia River and estuary. The project, called the Cumulative Effects (CE) study, was conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District by a collaboration of research agencies led by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. We achieved the primary goal of the CE study to develop a methodology to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat actions in the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program. We delivered 1) standard monitoring protocols and methods to prioritize monitoring activities; 2) the theoretical and empirical basis for a CE methodology using levels-of-evidence; 3) evaluations of cumulative effects using ecological relationships, geo-referenced data, hydrodynamic modeling, and meta-analyses; and 4) an adaptive management process to coordinate and coalesce restoration efforts in the LCRE. A solid foundation has been laid for future comprehensive evaluations of progress made by the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program to understand, conserve, and restore ecosystems in the lower Columbia River and estuary.

  12. Structure functions and particle production in the cumulative region two different exponentials

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, M

    1996-01-01

    In the framework of the recently proposed QCD based parton model for the cumulative phenomena in the interactions with nuclei two mechanisms for particle production, direct and spectator ones, are analysed. It is shown that due to final state interactions the leading terms of the direct mechanism contribution are cancelled and the spectator mechanism is the dominant one. It leads to a smaller slope of the cumulative particle production rates compared to the slope of the nuclear structure function in the cumulative region x>1, in agreement with the recent experimental data.

  13. Cumulative biological impacts framework for solar energy projects in the California Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Frank W.; Kreitler, Jason R.; Soong, Oliver; Stoms, David M.; Dashiell, Stephanie; Hannah, Lee; Wilkinson, Whitney; Dingman, John

    2013-01-01

    This project developed analytical approaches, tools and geospatial data to support conservation planning for renewable energy development in the California deserts. Research focused on geographical analysis to avoid, minimize and mitigate the cumulative biological effects of utility-scale solar energy development. A hierarchical logic model was created to map the compatibility of new solar energy projects with current biological conservation values. The research indicated that the extent of compatible areas is much greater than the estimated land area required to achieve 2040 greenhouse gas reduction goals. Species distribution models were produced for 65 animal and plant species that were of potential conservation significance to the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan process. These models mapped historical and projected future habitat suitability using 270 meter resolution climate grids. The results were integrated into analytical frameworks to locate potential sites for offsetting project impacts and evaluating the cumulative effects of multiple solar energy projects. Examples applying these frameworks in the Western Mojave Desert ecoregion show the potential of these publicly-available tools to assist regional planning efforts. Results also highlight the necessity to explicitly consider projected land use change and climate change when prioritizing areas for conservation and mitigation offsets. Project data, software and model results are all available online.

  14. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Thom, Ronald M.; Borde, Amy B.; Roegner, G. C.; Whiting, Allan H.; Johnson, Gary E.; Dawley, Earl; Skalski, John R.; Vavrinec, John; Ebberts, Blaine D.

    2006-12-20

    This report is the second annual report of a six-year project to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat restoration projects in the Columbia River Estuary, conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Marine Sciences Laboratory, NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service Pt. Adams Biological Field Station, and the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce for the US Army Corps of Engineers. In 2005, baseline data were collected on two restoration sites and two associated reference sites in the Columbia River estuary. The sites represent two habitat types of the estuary--brackish marsh and freshwater swamp--that have sustained substantial losses in area and that may play important roles for salmonids. Baseline data collected included vegetation and elevation surveys, above and below-ground biomass, water depth and temperature, nutrient flux, fish species composition, and channel geometry. Following baseline data collection, three kinds of restoration actions for hydrological reconnection were implemented in several locations on the sites: tidegate replacements (2) at Vera Slough, near the city of Astoria in Oregon State, and culvert replacements (2) and dike breaches (3) at Kandoll Farm in the Grays River watershed in Washington State. Limited post-restoration data were collected: photo points, nutrient flux, water depth and temperature, and channel cross-sections. In subsequent work, this and additional post-restoration data will be used in conjunction with data from other sites to estimate net effects of hydrological reconnection restoration projects throughout the estuary. This project is establishing methods for evaluating the effectiveness of individual projects and a framework for assessing estuary-wide cumulative effects including a protocol manual for monitoring restoration and reference sites.

  15. Cumulative production of pions by heavy baryonic resonances in proton-nucleus collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motornenko, A.; Gorenstein, M. I.

    2017-02-01

    Pion production in proton-nucleus (p+A) collisions outside the kinematical boundary of proton-nucleon (p+N) reactions and the so-called cumulative effect are studied. Restrictions from energy-momentum conservation of the energy of pions emitted in the backward direction in the target rest frame are analyzed. It is assumed that the cumulative pions are produced in p+A reactions by heavy baryonic resonances. The baryonic resonances are first created in p+N reactions. Due to successive collisions with nuclear nucleons, the masses of these resonances may then increase and, simultaneously, their longitudinal velocities decrease. We also use the ultra relativistic quantum molecular dynamics model to reveal the key role of successive collisions of baryonic resonances with nuclear nucleons for cumulative pion production in p+A reactions. Further experimental studies of cumulative hadron production in p+A reactions at high collision energies are needed to search for heavy hadron-like objects and investigate their properties.

  16. Production of high-PT cumulative particles in proton-nuclear interactions at 50 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Ammosov, V V; Viktorov, V A; Gapienko, V A; Gapienko, G S; Gres, V N; Korotkov, V A; Mysnik, A I; Prudkoglyad, A F; Sviridov, Yu M; Semak, A A; Terekhov, V I; Uglekov, V Ya; Ukhanov, M N; Chuiko, B V; Baldin, A A; Shimanskiy, S S

    2014-01-01

    The data on production of cumulative particles in the high transverse momenta domain (up to ~ 3.5 GeV/c) in proton-nuclear interactions are presented for the first time. An indication on the local character of particle production in the cumulative domain is obtained. The observed strong dependence of the particle production cross section on the atomic mass of the target does not fit the A - dependence obtained in the pre-cumulative and cumulative domains for low transverse momenta at constant part of the exponent. The experiment was performed at U70 (IHEP) with the extracted 50 GeV/c proton beam.

  17. Optimization of the cumulative risk assessment of pesticides and biocides using computational techniques: Pilot project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Svava Osk; Reffstrup, Trine Klein; Petersen, Annette

    This pilot project is intended as the first step in developing a computational strategy to assist in refining methods for higher tier cumulative and aggregate risk assessment of exposure to mixture of pesticides and biocides. For this purpose, physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK) models were...... developed for two compounds, tebuconazole and prochloraz, and a binary mixture of these compounds in two species, rat and human. PBTK models can be used to estimate the concentration levels (internal doses) of toxic substances and their metabolites in blood and tissue, by a collection of differential...... the models. Exposure scenarios were constructed based on findings of pesticide residues in food of ordinary consumers, and assessment of dermal exposure of professional workers. PBTK simulations were carried using these scenarios....

  18. Collaboration, Participation and Technology: The San Joaquin Valley Cumulative Health Impacts Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan K. London

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Community-university partnerships have been shown to produce significant value for both sets of partners by providing reciprocal learning opportunities, (rebuilding bonds of trust, and creating unique venues to formulate and apply research that responds to community interests and informs collaborative solutions to community problems. For such partnerships to be mutually empowering, certain design characteristics are necessary. These include mutual respect for different modes and expressions of knowledge, capacity-building for all parties, and an environment that promotes honest and constructive dialogue about the inevitable tensions associated with the interplay of power/knowledge. This article explores an innovative case of community-university partnerships through participatory action research involving a coalition of environmental justice and health advocates, the San Joaquin Valley Cumulative Health Impacts Project, and researchers affiliated with the University of California, Davis. In particular, we examine how participatory GIS and community mapping can promote co-learning and interdependent science. Keywords Community-based participatory research, environmental justice, Public Participation Geographic Information System

  19. The Oklo natural reactor: Cumulative fission yields and retentivity of the symmetric mass region fission products

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Laeter, J. R.; Rosman, K. J. R.; Smith, C. L.

    1980-10-01

    Solid source mass spectrometry has been used to determine the relative cumulative fission yields of five elements in three samples of uranium ore from reactor zones in the Oklo mine site. Eighteen fission chains covering the mass range from 105 ≤ A ≤ 130 have been measured for Pd, Ag, Cd, Sn and Te. These measurements have enabled a number of nuclear parameters to be calculated including the relative proportions of 235U, 238U and 239Pu involved in the fission process. The concentration of the five elements in the Oklo samples have also been measured using the stable isotope dilution technique. These values have then been compared to the estimates of the amount of these elements produced by fission under the conditions that are appropriate to the three samples. This procedure enables the retentivity of the elements in the reactor zones to be evaluated. Our work confirms the fact that Pd and Te are retained almost in their entirety in the samples, whereas the other three elements have been partially lost from the reactor site. Almost all the Cd fission products have been lost, and more than 50% of the Ag and Sn fission-produced material has been removed.

  20. Skin autofluorescence, a measure of cumulative metabolic stress and advanced glycation end products, predicts mortality in hemodialysis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerwaldt, R; Hartog, JWL; Graaff, R; Huisman, RJ; Links, TP; den Hollander, NC; Thorpe, [No Value; Baynes, JW; Navis, G; Gans, ROB; Smit, AJ

    2005-01-01

    Tissue advanced glycation end products (AGE) are a measure of cumulative metabolic stress and trigger cytokines driven inflammatory reactions. AGE are thought to contribute to the chronic complications of diabetes and ESRD. Tissue autofluorescence is related to the accumulation of AGE. Therefore,

  1. Skin autofluorescence, a measure of cumulative metabolic stress and advanced glycation end products, predicts mortality in hemodialysis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerwaldt, R; Hartog, JWL; Graaff, R; Huisman, RJ; Links, TP; den Hollander, NC; Thorpe, [No Value; Baynes, JW; Navis, G; Gans, ROB; Smit, AJ

    2005-01-01

    Tissue advanced glycation end products (AGE) are a measure of cumulative metabolic stress and trigger cytokines driven inflammatory reactions. AGE are thought to contribute to the chronic complications of diabetes and ESRD. Tissue autofluorescence is related to the accumulation of AGE. Therefore, sk

  2. Cumulative toxicity of an environmentally relevant mixture of nine regulated disinfection by-products in a multigenerational rat reproductive bioassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    CUMULATIVE TOXICITY OF AN ENVIRONMENTALLY RELEVANT MIXTURE OF NINE REGULATED DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN A MULTIGENERATIONAL RAT REPRODUCTIVE BIOASSAY J E Simmons, GR. Klinefelter, JM Goldman, AB DeAngelo, DS Best, A McDonald, LF Strader, AS Murr, JD Suarez, MH George, ES Hunte...

  3. The cumulative methane production from dairy cattle slurry can be explained by its volatile solid, temperature and length of storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawamoto, Takuji; Nakamura, Megumi; Nekomoto, Kenji; Hoshiba, Shinji; Minato, Keiko; Nakayama, Motoo; Osada, Takashi

    2016-06-01

    In order to refine the national estimate of methane emission from stored cattle slurry, it is important to comprehend the basic characteristics of methane production. Two dairy cattle slurries were obtained from livestock farms located in Hokkaido (a northern island) and Kyushu (a southern island). The slurries were diluted with water into three levels: undiluted, three times diluted, and 10 times diluted. Three hundred mL of the slurries were put into a bottle with a headspace volume of 2.0 L, which was filled with nitrogen gas and then sealed by butyl rubber. Four levels of temperature were used for incubation: 35, 25, 15 and 5 °C. The time course of the cumulative methane production per volatile solid (VS) was satisfactorily expressed by an asymptotic regression model. The effect of dilution on the methane production per VS was not distinctive, but that of temperature was of primary importance. In particular, higher temperature yields a higher potential production and a shorter time when the cumulative production reaches half of the potential production. The inclusive and simple models obtained in this study indicate that the cumulative methane production from stored cattle slurry can be explained by VS, temperature and length of storage.

  4. Investigation of inconsistent ENDF/B-VII.1 independent and cumulative fission product yields with proposed revisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigni, Marco T [ORNL; Francis, Matthew W [ORNL; Gauld, Ian C [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    A recent implementation of ENDF/B-VII. independent fission product yields and nuclear decay data identified inconsistencies in the data caused by the use of updated nuclear scheme in the decay sub-library that is not reflected in legacy fission product yield data. Recent changes in the decay data sub-library, particularly the delayed neutron branching fractions, result in calculated fission product concentrations that are incompatible with the cumulative fission yields in the library, and also with experimental measurements. A comprehensive set of independent fission product yields was generated for thermal and fission spectrum neutron induced fission for 235,238U and 239,241Pu in order to provide a preliminary assessment of the updated fission product yield data consistency. These updated independent fission product yields were utilized in the ORIGEN code to evaluate the calculated fission product inventories with experimentally measured inventories, with particular attention given to the noble gases. An important outcome of this work is the development of fission product yield covariance data necessary for fission product uncertainty quantification. The evaluation methodology combines a sequential Bayesian method to guarantee consistency between independent and cumulative yields along with the physical constraints on the independent yields. This work was motivated to improve the performance of the ENDF/B-VII.1 library in the case of stable and long-lived cumulative yields due to the inconsistency of ENDF/B-VII.1 fission p;roduct yield and decay data sub-libraries. The revised fission product yields and the new covariance data are proposed as a revision to the fission yield data currently in ENDF/B-VII.1.

  5. Modeling cumulative effects in life cycle assessment: the case of fertilizer in wheat production contributing to the global warming potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laratte, Bertrand; Guillaume, Bertrand; Kim, Junbeum; Birregah, Babiga

    2014-05-15

    This paper aims at presenting a dynamic indicator for life cycle assessment (LCA) measuring cumulative impacts over time of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from fertilizers used for wheat cultivation and production. Our approach offers a dynamic indicator of global warming potential (GWP), one of the most used indicator of environmental impacts (e.g. in the Kyoto Protocol). For a case study, the wheat production in France was selected and considered by using data from official sources about fertilizer consumption and production of wheat. We propose to assess GWP environmental impact based on LCA method. The system boundary is limited to the fertilizer production for 1 ton of wheat produced (functional unit) from 1910 to 2010. As applied to wheat production in France, traditional LCA shows a maximum GWP impact of 500 kg CO2-eq for 1 ton of wheat production, whereas the GWP impact of wheat production over time with our approach to dynamic LCA and its cumulative effects increases to 18,000 kg CO2-eq for 1 ton of wheat production. In this paper, only one substance and one impact assessment indicator are presented. However, the methodology can be generalized and improved by using different substances and indicators.

  6. Project Management in New Product Introduction Projects of a Company

    OpenAIRE

    Joenaho, Ilkka

    2016-01-01

    The success of projects is highly correlated to the way projects are managed. Project management is simply just an application of skills, tools, techniques and knowledge to project activities in a formal and systematic way. The company’s New Product Introduction projects have grown more complex over time and it has become necessary to evaluate current project management practices. The aim of this thesis was to study and evaluate the current state of New Product Introduction proje...

  7. Hydrogen Storage and Production Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, Abhijit [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Biris, A. S. [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Mazumder, M. K. [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Karabacak, T. [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Kannarpady, Ganesh [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Sharma, R. [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2011-07-31

    This is the final technical report. This report is a summary of the project. The goal of our project is to improve solar-to-hydrogen generation efficiency of the PhotoElectroChemical (PEC) conversion process by developing photoanodes with high absorption efficiency in the visible region of the solar radiation spectrum and to increase photo-corrosion resistance of the electrode for generating hydrogen from water. To meet this goal, we synthesized nanostructured heterogeneous semiconducting photoanodes with a higher light absorption efficiency compared to that of TiO2 and used a corrosion protective layer of TiO2. While the advantages of photoelectrochemical (PEC) production of hydrogen have not yet been realized, the recent developments show emergence of new nanostructural designs of photoanodes and choices of materials with significant gains in photoconversion efficiency.

  8. Multidisplinary Engineering, Project, and Production Management

    OpenAIRE

    Chien-Ho Ko

    2012-01-01

    Journal of Engineering, Project, and Production Management (EPPM-Journal) reflect the journal’s multidisciplinary approach to management research and can be categorized as belonging to three general topics: Project Management, Engineering and Project Management, and Project and Production Management.

  9. Multidisplinary Engineering, Project, and Production Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Ho Ko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Journal of Engineering, Project, and Production Management (EPPM-Journal reflect the journal’s multidisciplinary approach to management research and can be categorized as belonging to three general topics: Project Management, Engineering and Project Management, and Project and Production Management.

  10. Activation of Mitochondrial Uncoupling Protein 4 and ATP-Sensitive Potassium Channel Cumulatively Decreases Superoxide Production in Insect Mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocińska, Malgorzata; Rosinski, Grzegorz; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2016-01-01

    It has been evidenced that mitochondrial uncoupling protein 4 (UCP4) and ATP-regulated potassium channel (mKATP channel) of insect Gromphadorhina coqereliana mitochondria decrease superoxide anion production. We elucidated whether the two energy-dissipating systems work together on a modulation of superoxide level in cockroach mitochondria. Our data show that the simultaneous activation of UCP4 by palmitic acid and mKATP channel by pinacidil revealed a cumulative effect on weakening mitochondrial superoxide formation. The inhibition of UCP4 by GTP (and/or ATP) and mKATP channel by ATP elevated superoxide production. These results suggest a functional cooperation of both energy-dissipating systems in protection against oxidative stress in insects.

  11. Graduate Student Project: Operations Management Product Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    An operations management product project is an effective instructional technique that fills a void in current operations management literature in product planning. More than 94.1% of 286 graduates favored the project as a learning tool, and results demonstrate the significant impact the project had in predicting student performance. The author…

  12. Cumulative Semantic Interference Is Blind to Language: Implications for Models of Bilingual Speech Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runnqvist, Elin; Strijkers, Kristof; Alario, F.-Xavier; Costa, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have shown that concepts spread activation to words of both of a bilingual's languages. Therefore, a central issue that needs to be clarified is how a bilingual manages to restrict his speech production to a single language. One influential proposal is that when speaking in one language, the other language is inhibited. An…

  13. Mississippi State Biodiesel Production Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafael Hernandez; Todd French; Sandun Fernando; Tingyu Li; Dwane Braasch; Juan Silva; Brian Baldwin

    2008-03-20

    Biodiesel is a renewable fuel conventionally generated from vegetable oils and animal fats that conforms to ASTM D6751. Depending on the free fatty acid content of the feedstock, biodiesel is produced via transesterification, esterification, or a combination of these processes. Currently the cost of the feedstock accounts for more than 80% of biodiesel production cost. The main goal of this project was to evaluate and develop non-conventional feedstocks and novel processes for producing biodiesel. One of the most novel and promising feedstocks evaluated involves the use of readily available microorganisms as a lipid source. Municipal wastewater treatment facilities (MWWTF) in the USA produce (dry basis) of microbial sludge annually. This sludge is composed of a variety of organisms, which consume organic matter in wastewater. The content of phospholipids in these cells have been estimated at 24% to 25% of dry mass. Since phospholipids can be transesterified they could serve as a ready source of biodiesel. Examination of the various transesterification methods shows that in situ conversion of lipids to FAMEs provides the highest overall yield of biodiesel. If one assumes a 7.0% overall yield of FAMEs from dry sewage sludge on a weight basis, the cost per gallon of extracted lipid would be $3.11. Since the lipid is converted to FAMEs, also known as biodiesel, in the in Situ extraction process, the product can be used as is for renewable fuel. As transesterification efficiency increases the cost per gallon drops quickly, hitting $2.01 at 15.0% overall yield. An overall yield of 10.0% is required to obtain biodiesel at $2.50 per gallon, allowing it to compete with soybean oil in the marketplace. Twelve plant species with potential for oil production were tested at Mississippi State, MS. Of the species tested, canola, rapeseed and birdseed rape appear to have potential in Mississippi as winter annual crops because of yield. Two perennial crops were investigated, Chinese

  14. Mississippi State Biodiesel Production Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafael Hernandez; Todd French; Sandun Fernando; Tingyu Li; Dwane Braasch; Juan Silva; Brian Baldwin

    2008-03-20

    Biodiesel is a renewable fuel conventionally generated from vegetable oils and animal fats that conforms to ASTM D6751. Depending on the free fatty acid content of the feedstock, biodiesel is produced via transesterification, esterification, or a combination of these processes. Currently the cost of the feedstock accounts for more than 80% of biodiesel production cost. The main goal of this project was to evaluate and develop non-conventional feedstocks and novel processes for producing biodiesel. One of the most novel and promising feedstocks evaluated involves the use of readily available microorganisms as a lipid source. Municipal wastewater treatment facilities (MWWTF) in the USA produce (dry basis) of microbial sludge annually. This sludge is composed of a variety of organisms, which consume organic matter in wastewater. The content of phospholipids in these cells have been estimated at 24% to 25% of dry mass. Since phospholipids can be transesterified they could serve as a ready source of biodiesel. Examination of the various transesterification methods shows that in situ conversion of lipids to FAMEs provides the highest overall yield of biodiesel. If one assumes a 7.0% overall yield of FAMEs from dry sewage sludge on a weight basis, the cost per gallon of extracted lipid would be $3.11. Since the lipid is converted to FAMEs, also known as biodiesel, in the in Situ extraction process, the product can be used as is for renewable fuel. As transesterification efficiency increases the cost per gallon drops quickly, hitting $2.01 at 15.0% overall yield. An overall yield of 10.0% is required to obtain biodiesel at $2.50 per gallon, allowing it to compete with soybean oil in the marketplace. Twelve plant species with potential for oil production were tested at Mississippi State, MS. Of the species tested, canola, rapeseed and birdseed rape appear to have potential in Mississippi as winter annual crops because of yield. Two perennial crops were investigated, Chinese

  15. Scheduling in Engineering, Project, and Production Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Ho Ko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This issue presents five papers selected from the 2013 (4th International Conference on Engineering, Project, and Production Management (EPPM2013 held in Bangkok, Thailand. Three of the papers deal with scheduling problems faced in project and production management, while the remaining two focus on engineering management issues.

  16. Determination of radionuclides and pathways contributing to cumulative dose. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project: Dose code recovery activities, Calculation 004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, B.A.

    1992-12-01

    A series of scoping calculations has been undertaken to evaluate the absolute and relative contributions of different radionuclides and exposure pathways to doses that may have been received by individuals living in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. This scoping calculation (Calculation 004) examined the contributions of numerous radionuclides to cumulative dose via environmental exposures and accumulation in foods. Addressed in this calculation were the contributions to organ and effective dose of infants and adults from (1) air submersion and groundshine external dose, (2) inhalation, (3) ingestion of soil by humans, (4) ingestion of leafy vegetables, (5) ingestion of other vegetables and fruits, (6) ingestion of meat, (7) ingestion of eggs, and (8) ingestion of cows` milk from Feeding Regime 1, as described in calculation 002. This calculation specifically addresses cumulative radiation doses to infants and adults resulting from releases occurring over the period 1945 through 1972.

  17. Human Cumulative Irritation Tests of Common Preservatives Used in Personal Care Products: A Retrospective Analysis of Over 45 000 Subjects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walters, Russel M; Khanna, Preeya; Hamilton, Matthew; Mays, David A; Telofski, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    The cumulative irritation test (CIT) is an accepted method used to evaluate the skin irritation potential and safety of individual ingredients and formulas of leave-on skin care and cosmetic compounds...

  18. The Management of Projects and Product Experimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Mark; Frederiksen, Lars

    2005-01-01

    as experimentation. Then, the paper argues that if skills needed for projects are very diverse and projects are complex, there are few internal managerial economies of projects, and the scope for management then transcends the boundaries of firms. In these cases, markets become organized in combinations of people......The paper analyses management of product innovation in project-based industries, offering a view on management not only of firms, but also of markets. It first argues that projects are prominent in industries where the nature of consumer demand means that product innovation takes place......, contracts, and other institutions, in order to facilitate the coordination of market-based projects. While contracts play a role, a continuous, active role of knowledgeable managers (leaders and boundary spanners) is also often necessary. Such managers --- and thus (core parts of) whole industries...

  19. Energy indicators for electricity production : comparing technologies and the nature of the indicators Energy Payback Ratio (EPR), Net Energy Ratio (NER) and Cumulative Energy Demand (CED). [Oestfoldforskning AS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raadal, Hanne Lerche [Ostfold research, Fredrikstad (Norway); Modahl, Ingunn Saur [Ostfold research, Fredrikstad (Norway); Bakken, Tor Haakon [SINTEF Energy, Trondheim (Norway)

    2012-11-01

    CEDREN (Centre for Environmental Design of Renewable Energy) is founded by The Research Council of Norway and energy companies and is one of eight centres that were part of the scheme Centre for Environment-friendly Energy Research (FME) when the scheme was launched in 2009. The main objective of CEDREN is to develop and communicate design solutions for transforming renewable energy sources to the desired energy products, and at the same time address the environmental and societal challenges at local, regional, national and global levels. CEDREN's board initiated in 2011 a pilot project on the topics 'Energy Pay-back Ratio (EPR)', 'Ecosystem services' and 'multi-criteria analysis (MCA)' in order to investigate the possible use of these concepts/indices in the management of regulated river basins and as tools to benchmark strategies for the development of energy projects/resources. The energy indicator part (documented in this report) has aimed at reviewing the applicability of different energy efficiency indicators, as such, in the strategic management and development of energy resources, and to compare and benchmark technologies for production of electricity. The main findings from this pilot study is also reported in a policy memo (in Norwegian), that is available at www.cedren.no. The work carried out in this project will be continued in the succeeding research project EcoManage, which was granted by the Research Council of Norway's RENERGI programme in December 2011. Energy indicators: Several energy indicators for extraction and delivery of an energy product (e.g. transport fuel, heat, electricity etc.) exist today. The main objective of such indicators is to give information about the energy efficiency of the needed extraction and transforming processes throughout the value chain related to the delivered energy product. In this project the indicators Energy Payback Ratio (EPR), Net Energy Ration (NER) and Cumulative

  20. Lean six sigma project for productivity enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    Morais, Valter Rocha; Sousa, Sérgio; Lopes, Isabel da Silva

    2016-01-01

    The competitive market that companies are facing nowadays leads them to introduce frequently new products and, therefore, producing small series. This dynamic environment requires frequent changes in production lines and requires flexibility in the processes, which can cause reductions in the level of quality and productivity. This paper presents a Lean Six Sigma improvement project performed in a production line of the machining sector of a company from the motorcycles components branch. The...

  1. AVLIS Production Plant Project Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-11-15

    The AVLIS Production Plant is designated as a Major System Acquisition (in accordance with DOE Order 4240.IC) to deploy Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) technology at the Oak Ridge, Tennessee site, in support of the US Uranium Enrichment Program. The AVLIS Production Plant Project will deploy AVLIS technology by performing the design, construction, and startup of a production plant that will meet capacity production requirements of the Uranium Enrichment Program. The AVLIS Production Plant Project Management Plan has been developed to outline plans, baselines, and control systems to be employed in managing the AVLIS Production Plant Project and to define the roles and responsibilities of project participants. Participants will develop and maintain detailed procedures for implementing the management and control systems in agreement with this plan. This baseline document defines the system that measures work performed and costs incurred. This plan was developed by the AVLIS Production Plant Project staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in accordance with applicable DOE directives, orders and notices. 38 figures, 19 tables.

  2. Human Cumulative Irritation Tests of Common Preservatives Used in Personal Care Products: A Retrospective Analysis of Over 45 000 Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Russel M; Khanna, Preeya; Hamilton, Matthew; Mays, David A; Telofski, Lorena

    2015-11-01

    The cumulative irritation test (CIT) is an accepted method used to evaluate the skin irritation potential and safety of individual ingredients and formulas of leave-on skin care and cosmetic compounds. Here, we report the results of CITs collected by JOHNSON & JOHNSON Consumer Companies, Inc. (Skillman, NJ), part of an extensive tiered program to evaluate product safety. In the CIT, test formulations were applied to the skin of adults (18-70 years) with no known skin disease or allergies, 3 times per week for 2 weeks using semi-occlusive clinical patches. Preservatives were 1 of up to 16 components of test formulas, and included ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, diazolidinyl urea, 1,3-Bis(hydroxymethyl)-5,5-dimethylimidazolidine-2,4-dione, parabens, isothiazolinone, phenoxyethanol, sorbates, or benzoates. Skin sites were scored after each patch removal using a 5-point scale, with 0 = no visible reaction and 4 = erythema, marked edema, or substantial vesiculation. Scores were reported as percentage of maximal irritation score. Data were analyzed from 1363 CIT studies (over 45 000 subjects). There were no significant differences in percentage of maximal scores between formulas grouped by preservative types (p > .1). Median score across the entire dataset was 0.44, with most formulas showing none or mild irritation. Although seasonal variations were observed, no correlation was noted between score and preservative concentration. In conclusion, in a large, normal subject dataset, preservatives at typical in-use concentrations did not appear to contribute to skin irritation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Skin autofluorescence, a measure of cumulative metabolic stress and advanced glycation end products, predicts mortality in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerwaldt, Robbert; Hartog, Jasper W L; Graaff, Reindert; Huisman, Roel J; Links, Thera P; den Hollander, Nynke C; Thorpe, Susan R; Baynes, John W; Navis, Gerjan; Gans, Rijk O B; Smit, Andries J

    2005-12-01

    Tissue advanced glycation end products (AGE) are a measure of cumulative metabolic stress and trigger cytokines driven inflammatory reactions. AGE are thought to contribute to the chronic complications of diabetes and ESRD. Tissue autofluorescence is related to the accumulation of AGE. Therefore, skin autofluorescence (AF) may provide prognostic information on mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Skin AF was measured noninvasively with an AF reader at baseline in 109 HD patients. Overall and cardiovascular mortality was monitored prospectively during a period of 3 yr. The AF reader was validated against AGE contents in skin biopsies from 29 dialysis patients. Forty-two of the 109 (38.5%) HD patients died. Cox regression analysis showed that AF was an independent predictor of overall and cardiovascular mortality (for overall mortality odds ratio [OR] 3.9), as were pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD; OR 3.1), C-reactive protein (OR 1.1), and serum albumin (OR 0.3). Multivariate analysis revealed that 65% of the variance in AF could be attributed to the independent effects of age, dialysis and renal failure duration, presence of diabetes, triglycerides levels, and C-reactive protein. AF was also independently linked to the presence of CVD at baseline (OR 8.8; P < 0.001). AF correlated with collagen-linked fluorescence (r = 0.71, P < 0.001), pentosidine (r = 0.75, P < 0.001), and carboxy(m)ethyllysine (both r = 0.45, P < 0.01). Skin AF is a strong and independent predictor of mortality in ESRD. This supports a role for AGE as a contributor to mortality and CVD and warrants interventions specifically aimed at AGE accumulation.

  4. CDF II production farm project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranovski, A.; Benjamin, D.; Cooper, G.; Farrington, S.; Genser, K.; Hou, S.; Hsieh, T.; Kotwal, A.; Lipeles, E.; Murat, P.; Norman, M.; /Fermilab /Duke U. /Taiwan,

    2006-12-01

    We describe the architecture and discuss our operational experience in running the off-line reconstruction farm of the CDFII experiment. The Linux PC-based farm performs a wide set of tasks,ranging from producing calibrations and primary event reconstruction to large scale ntuple production.The farm control software uses a standard Condor toolkit and the data handling part is based on SAM (Sequential Access via Metadata)software.During its lifetime,the CDFII experiment will integrate a large amount of data (several petabytes)and the data processing chain is one of the key components of the successful physics program of the experiment.

  5. Product development projects dynamics and emergent complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Schlick, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    This book primarily explores two topics: the representation of simultaneous, cooperative work processes in product development projects with the help of statistical models, and the assessment of their emergent complexity using a metric from theoretical physics (Effective Measure Complexity, EMC). It is intended to promote more effective management of development projects by shifting the focus from the structural complexity of the product being developed to the dynamic complexity of the development processes involved. The book is divided into four main parts, the first of which provides an introduction to vector autoregression models, periodic vector autoregression models and linear dynamical systems for modeling cooperative work in product development projects. The second part presents theoretical approaches for assessing complexity in the product development environment, while the third highlights and explains closed-form solutions for the complexity metric EMC for vector autoregression models and linear dyn...

  6. The Florida citrus soil water atmosphere plant (SWAP) project: final summary of cumulative yields and tree health

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Florida Citrus Soil Water Atmosphere Plant (SWAP) Project at the Fort Pierce had three blocks each of soil tillage treatments of shallow tilled (ST), deep tilled (DT), and deep tilled plus lime (DTL) on a Spodosol (Oldsmar fine sandy loam). Each block had three adjacent submerged subsurface pla...

  7. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Product Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PAJUNEN, A.L.

    2000-01-20

    This document establishes the limits and controls for the significant parameters that could potentially affect the safety and/or quality of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) packaged for processing, transport, and storage. The product specifications in this document cover the SNF packaged in Multi-Canister Overpacks to be transported throughout the SNF Project.

  8. Spent nuclear fuel project product specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PAJUNEN, A.L.

    1999-02-25

    This document establishes the limits and controls for the significant parameters that could potentially affect the safety and/or quality of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) packaged for processing, transport, and storage. The product specifications in this document cover the SNF packaged in Multi-Canister Overpacks to be transported throughout the SNF Project.

  9. Mars Propellant Production with Ionic Liquids Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falker, John; Thompson, Karen; Zeitlin, Nancy; Muscatello, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    This project seeks to develop a single vessel for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and electrolysis for in situ Mars propellant production by eliminating several steps of CO2 processing, two cryocoolers, a high temperature reactor, a recycle pump, and a water condenser; thus greatly reducing mass, volume, and power.

  10. Energy indicators for electricity production : comparing technologies and the nature of the indicators Energy Payback Ratio (EPR), Net Energy Ratio (NER) and Cumulative Energy Demand (CED). [Oestfoldforskning AS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raadal, Hanne Lerche [Ostfold research, Fredrikstad (Norway); Modahl, Ingunn Saur [Ostfold research, Fredrikstad (Norway); Bakken, Tor Haakon [SINTEF Energy, Trondheim (Norway)

    2012-11-01

    CEDREN (Centre for Environmental Design of Renewable Energy) is founded by The Research Council of Norway and energy companies and is one of eight centres that were part of the scheme Centre for Environment-friendly Energy Research (FME) when the scheme was launched in 2009. The main objective of CEDREN is to develop and communicate design solutions for transforming renewable energy sources to the desired energy products, and at the same time address the environmental and societal challenges at local, regional, national and global levels. CEDREN's board initiated in 2011 a pilot project on the topics 'Energy Pay-back Ratio (EPR)', 'Ecosystem services' and 'multi-criteria analysis (MCA)' in order to investigate the possible use of these concepts/indices in the management of regulated river basins and as tools to benchmark strategies for the development of energy projects/resources. The energy indicator part (documented in this report) has aimed at reviewing the applicability of different energy efficiency indicators, as such, in the strategic management and development of energy resources, and to compare and benchmark technologies for production of electricity. The main findings from this pilot study is also reported in a policy memo (in Norwegian), that is available at www.cedren.no. The work carried out in this project will be continued in the succeeding research project EcoManage, which was granted by the Research Council of Norway's RENERGI programme in December 2011. Energy indicators: Several energy indicators for extraction and delivery of an energy product (e.g. transport fuel, heat, electricity etc.) exist today. The main objective of such indicators is to give information about the energy efficiency of the needed extraction and transforming processes throughout the value chain related to the delivered energy product. In this project the indicators Energy Payback Ratio (EPR), Net Energy Ration (NER) and Cumulative

  11. Use of the Maximum Cumulative Ratio As an Approach for Prioritizing Aquatic Coexposure to Plant Protection Products: A Case Study of a Large Surface Water Monitoring Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallotton, Nathalie; Price, Paul S

    2016-05-17

    This paper uses the maximum cumulative ratio (MCR) as part of a tiered approach to evaluate and prioritize the risk of acute ecological effects from combined exposures to the plant protection products (PPPs) measured in 3 099 surface water samples taken from across the United States. Assessments of the reported mixtures performed on a substance-by-substance approach and using a Tier One cumulative assessment based on the lowest acute ecotoxicity benchmark gave the same findings for 92.3% of the mixtures. These mixtures either did not indicate a potential risk for acute effects or included one or more individual PPPs that had concentrations in excess of their benchmarks. A Tier Two assessment using a trophic level approach was applied to evaluate the remaining 7.7% of the mixtures. This assessment reduced the number of mixtures of concern by eliminating the combination of endpoint from multiple trophic levels, identified invertebrates and nonvascular plants as the most susceptible nontarget organisms, and indicated that a only a very limited number of PPPs drove the potential concerns. The combination of the measures of cumulative risk and the MCR enabled the identification of a small subset of mixtures where a potential risk would be missed in substance-by-substance assessments.

  12. Cumulative Timers for Microprocessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battle, John O.

    2007-01-01

    It has been proposed to equip future microprocessors with electronic cumulative timers, for essentially the same reasons for which land vehicles are equipped with odometers (total-distance-traveled meters) and aircraft are equipped with Hobbs meters (total-engine-operating time meters). Heretofore, there has been no way to determine the amount of use to which a microprocessor (or a product containing a microprocessor) has been subjected. The proposed timers would count all microprocessor clock cycles and could only be read by means of microprocessor instructions but, like odometers and Hobbs meters, could never be reset to zero without physically damaging the chip.

  13. Cumulative Vehicle Routing Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Kara, &#;mdat; Kara, Bahar Yeti&#;; Yeti&#;, M. Kadri

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a new objective function and corresponding formulations for the vehicle routing problem. The new cost function defined as the product of the distance of the arc and the flow on that arc. We call a vehicle routing problem with this new objective function as the Cumulative Vehicle Routing Problem (CumVRP). Integer programming formulations with O(n2) binary variables and O(n2) constraints are developed for both collection and delivery cases. We show that the CumVRP is a gener...

  14. The Soft Cumulative Constraint

    CERN Document Server

    Petit, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    This research report presents an extension of Cumulative of Choco constraint solver, which is useful to encode over-constrained cumulative problems. This new global constraint uses sweep and task interval violation-based algorithms.

  15. Spent nuclear fuel project product specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pajunen, A.L.

    1998-01-30

    Product specifications are limits and controls established for each significant parameter that potentially affects safety and/or quality of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) packaged for transport to dry storage. The product specifications in this document cover the spent fuel packaged in MultiCanister Overpacks (MCOs) to be transported throughout the SNF Project. The SNF includes N Reactor fuel and single-pass reactor fuel. The FRS removes the SNF from the storage canisters, cleans it, and places it into baskets. The MCO loading system places the baskets into MCO/Cask assembly packages. These packages are then transferred to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility. After drying at the CVD Facility, the MCO cask packages are transferred to the Canister Storage Building (CSB), where the MCOs are removed from the casks, staged, inspected, sealed (by welding), and stored until a suitable permanent disposal option is implemented. The key criteria necessary to achieve these goals are documented in this specification.

  16. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Product Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PAJUNEN, A.L.

    2000-12-07

    The process for removal of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) from the K Basins has been divided into major sub-systems. The Fuel Retrieval System (FRS) removes fuel from the existing storage canisters, cleans it, and places it into baskets. The multi-canister overpack (MCO) loading system places the baskets into an MCO that has been pre-loaded in a cask. The cask, containing a loaded MCO, is then transferred to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility. After drying at the CVD Facility, the cask, and MCO, are transferred to the Canister Storage Building (CSB), where the MCO is removed from the cask, staged, inspected, sealed (by welding), and stored until a suitable permanent disposal option is implemented. The purpose of this document is to specify the process related characteristics of an MCO at the interface between major process systems. The characteristics are derived from the primary technical documents that form the basis for safety analysis and design calculations. This document translates the calculation assumptions into implementation requirements and describes the method of verifying that the requirement is achieved. These requirements are used to define validation test requirements and describe requirements that influence multiple sub-project safety analysis reports. This product specification establishes limits and controls for each significant process parameter at interfaces between major sub-systems that potentially affect the overall safety and/or quality of the SNF packaged for processing, transport, and interim dry storage. The product specifications in this document cover the SNF packaged in MCOs to be transported throughout the SNF Project. The description of the product specifications are organized in the document as follows: Section 2.0--Summary listing of product specifications at each major sub-system interface. Section 3.0--Summary description providing guidance as to how specifications are complied with by equipment design or processing within a major

  17. Cumulative neurobehavioral and physiological effects of chronic caffeine intake: individual differences and implications for the use of caffeinated energy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaeth, Andrea M; Goel, Namni; Dinges, David F

    2014-10-01

    The use of caffeine-containing energy products has increased worldwide in recent years. All of the top-selling energy drinks contain caffeine, which is likely to be the primary psychoactive ingredient in these products. Research shows that caffeine-containing energy products can improve cognitive and physical performance. Presumably, individuals consume caffeine-containing energy products to counteract feelings of low energy in situations causing tiredness, fatigue, and/or reduced alertness. This review discusses the scientific evidence for sleep loss, circadian phase, sleep inertia, and the time-on-task effect as causes of low energy and summarizes research assessing the efficacy of caffeine to counteract decreased alertness and increased fatigue in such situations. The results of a placebo-controlled experiment in healthy adults who had 3 nights of total sleep deprivation (with or without 2-hour naps every 12 hours) are presented to illustrate the physiological and neurobehavioral effects of sustained low-dose caffeine. Individual differences, including genetic factors, in the response to caffeine and to sleep loss are discussed. The review concludes with future directions for research on this important and evolving topic.

  18. Integration of kerma-area product and cumulative air kerma determination into a skin dose tracking system for fluoroscopic imaging procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayan, Sarath; Shankar, Alok; Rudin, Stephen; Bednarek, Daniel R.

    2016-03-01

    The skin dose tracking system (DTS) that we developed provides a color-coded mapping of the cumulative skin dose distribution on a 3D graphic of the patient during fluoroscopic procedures in real time. The DTS has now been modified to also calculate the kerma area product (KAP) and cumulative air kerma (CAK) for fluoroscopic interventions using data obtained in real-time from the digital bus on a Toshiba Infinix system. KAP is the integral of air kerma over the beam area and is typically measured with a large-area transmission ionization chamber incorporated into the collimator assembly. In this software, KAP is automatically determined for each x-ray pulse as the product of the air kerma/ mAs from a calibration file for the given kVp and beam filtration times the mAs per pulse times the length and width of the beam times a field nonuniformity correction factor. Field nonuniformity is primarily the result of the heel effect and the correction factor was determined from the beam profile measured using radio-chromic film. Dividing the KAP by the beam area at the interventional reference point provides the area averaged CAK. The KAP and CAK per x-ray pulse are summed after each pulse to obtain the total procedure values in real-time. The calculated KAP and CAK were compared to the values displayed by the fluoroscopy machine with excellent agreement. The DTS now is able to automatically calculate both KAP and CAK without the need for measurement by an add-on transmission ionization chamber.

  19. Transgenic oil palm: production and projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveez, G K; Masri, M M; Zainal, A; Majid, N A; Yunus, A M; Fadilah, H H; Rasid, O; Cheah, S C

    2000-12-01

    Oil palm is an important economic crop for Malaysia. Genetic engineering could be applied to produce transgenic oil palms with high value-added fatty acids and novel products to ensure the sustainability of the palm oil industry. Establishment of a reliable transformation and regeneration system is essential for genetic engineering. Biolistic was initially chosen as the method for oil palm transformation as it has been the most successful method for monocotyledons to date. Optimization of physical and biological parameters, including testing of promoters and selective agents, was carried out as a prerequisite for stable transformation. This has resulted in the successful transfer of reporter genes into oil palm and the regeneration of transgenic oil palm, thus making it possible to improve the oil palm through genetic engineering. Besides application of the Biolistics method, studies on transformation mediated by Agrobacterium and utilization of the green fluorescent protein gene as a selectable marker gene have been initiated. Upon the development of a reliable transformation system, a number of useful targets are being projected for oil palm improvement. Among these targets are high-oleate and high-stearate oils, and the production of industrial feedstock such as biodegradable plastics. The efforts in oil palm genetic engineering are thus not targeted as commodity palm oil. Due to the long life cycle of the palm and the time taken to regenerate plants in tissue culture, it is envisaged that commercial planting of transgenic palms will not occur any earlier than the year 2020.

  20. Cumulative Environmental Management Association : Wood Buffalo Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friesen, B. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    The recently announced oil sands development of the Wood Buffalo Region in Alberta was the focus of this power point presentation. Both mining and in situ development is expected to total $26 billion and 2.6 million barrels per day of bitumen production. This paper described the economic, social and environmental challenges facing the resource development of this region. In addition to the proposed oil sands projects, this region will accommodate the needs of conventional oil and gas production, forestry, building of pipelines and power lines, municipal development, recreation, tourism, mining exploration and open cast mining. The Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA) was inaugurated as a non-profit association in April 2000, and includes 41 members from all sectors. Its major role is to ensure a sustainable ecosystem and to avoid any cumulative impacts on wildlife. Other work underway includes the study of soil and plant species diversity, and the effects of air emissions on human health, wildlife and vegetation. The bioaccumulation of heavy metals and their impacts on surface water and fish is also under consideration to ensure the quality and quantity of surface water and ground water. 3 figs.

  1. Elaboration of a concept for the cumulative environmental exposure assessment of biocides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, Rita; Bunke, Dirk; Moch, Katja [Oeko-Institut e.V. - Institut fuer Angewandte Oekologie e.V., Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Gartiser, Stefan [Hydrotox GmbH, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Article 10(1) of the EU Biocidal Products Directive 98/8/EC (BPD) requires that for the inclusion of an active substance in Annex I, Annex IA or IB, cumulation effects from the use of biocidal products containing the same active substance shall be taken into account, where relevant. The study proves the feasibility of a technical realisation of Article 10(1) of the BPD and elaborates a first concept for the cumulative environmental exposure assessment of biocides. Existing requirements concerning cumulative assessments in other regulatory frameworks have been evaluated and their applicability for biocides has been examined. Technical terms and definitions used in this context were documented with the aim to harmonise terminology with other frameworks and to set up a precise definition within the BPD. Furthermore, application conditions of biocidal products have been analysed to find out for which cumulative exposure assessments may be relevant. Different parameters were identified which might serve as indicators for the relevance of cumulative exposure assessments. These indicators were then integrated in a flow chart by means of which the relevance of cumulative exposure assessments can be checked. Finally, proposals for the technical performance of cumulative exposure assessments within the Review Programme have been elaborated with the aim to bring the results of the project into the upcoming development and harmonization processes on EU level. (orig.)

  2. Extended Model of Managing Risk in New Product Development Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Gošnik

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study new product development (NPDprojects-related risks and the literature in this field, as well as to developa specific extendedmodel of managing risks in npd projects, whichwill consider the nature of NPD projects. Data were collected with thehelp of the developed questionnaire, and project managers with severalyears of experience in the field of NPD projects were included. Thedata and hypotheses were tested with the use of statistical methods. Resultsof the study show that for NPD projects, it seems to be crucial toplan risks in the early stages of the project, especially focused on thedefinition of the technical requirements for the product and the relatedclear project objectives. Poorly defined technical requirements for theproduct present an important risk related with the design uncertaintyof the product. The more imprecise the technical requirements for theproduct before the project starts, the higher is the design uncertaintyof the product after its development. Unclear project objectives havea significant effect on the time-delay of npd projects. The more impreciselythe project objectives are defined before the project starts, thegreater is the time-delay on the NPD project.

  3. Labor productivity, perceived effectiveness, and sustainability of innovative projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makai, P.; Cramm, J.M.; Grotel, M. van; Nieboer, A.P.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess labor productivity, perceived effectiveness, and sustainability of a national quality program that sought to stimulate efficiency gains through increased labor productivity while maintaining quality through implementing small-scale innovation projects. DESIGN: Longitudinal measu

  4. Building Productivity in Virtual Project Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Hamersly

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The steady increase in project failure rates is leaving businesses searching for better integration techniques to virtualize their project environments. Through virtualization, organizations may have positive impacts on communities across geographical boundaries and resource constraints. The focus of this phenomenological study was to explore, via the experiences of successful project management practitioners, best practice strategies for integrating virtual project teams through data analysis. The conceptual framework included von Bertalanffy’s general systems theory, decomposition model of business process and project management frameworks, and the recomposition approach. Twenty-two senior project managers with more than 5 years of experience managing virtual project environments participated in semistructured telephone interviews. The van Kaam process employing normalization and bracketing approaches in data analysis resulted in the emergence of 34 thematic categories. The 10 most common themes culminated in the identification of strategies relevant for virtual project teams. The major themes pertained to 3 broad areas: (a structure that accommodates skills and technology for virtual team success, (b governance leading to efficient virtual project team management, and (c collaboration practices across diverse environments. This study involved the exploration of the experiences of the participants. Using the van Kaam method for normalization of the data and clustering like experiences into thematic statements, the study provided a plethora of new information concentrated on 10 themes that emerged.

  5. UBIQUITOUS POLLUTANTS FROM CUMULATIVE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPS) as environmental pollutants is a multifaceted issue whose scope continues to become better delineated since the escalation of concerted attention beginning in the 1980s. PPCPs typically occur as trace environmental pollutants (primarily in surface but also in ground waters) as a result of their widespread, continuous, combined usage in a broad range of human and veterinary therapeutic activities and practices. With respect to the risk-assessment paradigm, the growing body of published work has focused primarily on the origin and occurrence of these substances. Comparatively less is known about human and ecological exposure, and even less about the known or even potential hazards associated with exposure to these anthropogenic substances, many of which are highly bioactive. The continually growing, worldwide importance of freshwater resources underscores the need for ensuring that any aggregate or cumulative impacts on water supplies and resultant potential for human or ecological exposure be minimized. This has prompted the more recent investigations on waste treatment processes for one of the major sources of environmental disposition, namely sewage. Despite the paucity of health effects data for long-term, simultaneous exposure to multiple xenobiotics (particularly PPCPS) at low doses (a major toxicological issue that can be described by the

  6. Understanding new product project performance : A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Commandeur, H.R.; Pattikawa, L.H.; Verwaal, E.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to summarize the accumulated body of knowledge on the performance of new product projects and provide directions for further research. Design/methodology/approach: Using a refined classification of antecedents of new product project performance the research resu

  7. Understanding new product project performance : A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Commandeur, H.R.; Pattikawa, L.H.; Verwaal, E.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to summarize the accumulated body of knowledge on the performance of new product projects and provide directions for further research. Design/methodology/approach: Using a refined classification of antecedents of new product project performance the research

  8. Long and Short Term Cumulative Structural Priming Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Kaschak, Michael P.; Kutta, Timothy J.; Coyle, Jacqueline M.

    2012-01-01

    We present six experiments that examine cumulative structural priming effects (i.e., structural priming effects that accumulate across many utterances). Of particular interest is whether (1) cumulative priming effects transfer across language production tasks and (2) the transfer of cumulative priming effects across tasks persists over the course of a week. Our data suggest that cumulative structural priming effects do transfer across language production tasks (e.g., from written stem complet...

  9. "Buddha's Light" of Cumulative Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Kopeliovich, Vladimir B; Potashnikova, Irina K

    2014-01-01

    We show analytically that in the cumulative particles production off nuclei multiple interactions lead to a glory-like backward focusing effect. Employing the small phase space method we arrived at a characteristic angular dependence of the production cross section $d\\sigma \\sim 1/ \\sqrt {\\pi - \\theta}$ near the strictly backward direction. This effect takes place for any number $n\\geq 3 $ of interactions of rescattered particle, either elastic or inelastic (with resonance excitations in intermediate states), when the final particle is produced near corresponding kinematical boundary. Such a behaviour of the cross section near the backward direction is in qualitative agreement with some of available data.

  10. Production of Synthetic Lunar Simulants Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Zybek Advanced Products has proven the ability to produce industrial quantities of lunar simulant materials, including glass, agglutinate and melt breccias. These...

  11. Measuring productivity of customer knowledge management in projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanika D. Sofianti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Projects is one of the dominating modes of international business today. Companies interact with their customers in projects for a certain period. To explore the impact of customer knowledge management in such interactions, this paper promotes a measurement framework that can be used to measure the productivity of customer knowledge management. The measures are developed based on previous studies on customer knowledge management and project management. To verify the measures, this study conducted a survey involving 24 projects. The results of the study provide some insights into the impact of customer knowledge management in interactions between companies and their customers through projects.

  12. Cumulative Culture and Future Thinking: Is Mental Time Travel a Prerequisite to Cumulative Cultural Evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, G. L.; Flynn, E. G.; Kendal, R. L.

    2012-01-01

    Cumulative culture denotes the, arguably, human capacity to build on the cultural behaviors of one's predecessors, allowing increases in cultural complexity to occur such that many of our cultural artifacts, products and technologies have progressed beyond what a single individual could invent alone. This process of cumulative cultural evolution…

  13. Impact of water stress and nutrition on Vitis vinifera cv. ‘Albariño’: Soil-plant water relationships, cumulative effects and productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez, E.M.; Rey, B.J.; Fandiño, M.; Cancela, J.J.

    2016-11-01

    The objective of the present study is to apply different systems of fertigation (rainfed, R; surface drip irrigation, DI, and subsurface drip irrigation, SDI) in Vitis vinifera (L.) cv. ‘Albariño’ to evaluate the cumulative effect of water stress (water stress integral) on yield parameters and to establish the relationship between indices and production. The study was conducted over four years (2010-2013) in a commercial vineyard (Galicia, NW Spain). The volumetric soil water content (θ) (with TDR) and predawn (ψp), midday (ψm) and stem (ψstem) leaf-water potential were determined with a water activity meter during the growing stages (flowering-harvest) from 2010-2013. The number of clusters, their weight and yield/vine were determined at harvest. Must composition was studied to evaluate nutrition treatments. Ψp is presented as the best indicator of the water status of the plant, and the sole use of θ is not recommended as a reference. The soil-plant water status variables were strongly correlated, especially between foliar variables (0.91

  14. A Projection of Automated Book Production Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Barisic

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper elaborates on the recommendation of systematic introducing of XML technologies as a standard and integral factor in publishing and graphic business activities and as a further improvement of the existing PostScript graphic production platform. Procedures are proposed for applying norm setting in respect to production processes through related connections organized databases under XML technology in a hierarchical way, as well as a book production norm setting system. The proposal for work processes automation in the domain of printing business control is elaborated under the CIP4-JDF automating system. Operation results are used as guidelines for setting the elements of automated business operations in the book production domain, with integrated elements of new technologies, compatible with global trends.

  15. Mars Integrated Propellant Production System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Integrated Mars In-Situ Propellant Production System (IMISPPS) is an end-to-end system that will produce rocket propellant on Mars from CO2 in the Martian...

  16. Mars Integrated Propellant Production System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Integrated Mars In-Situ Propellant Production System (IMISPPS) is an end-to-end system that will produce rocket propellant on Mars from CO2 in the Martian...

  17. INNOVATION AND SYNERGISTIC PROJECTION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The article describes the innovation development problems; problem consists of innovation projection, modernization and reengineering of the production systems. It is consider the innovation and synergetic projection conception which based on synergetic and system approach and described with such words as complication, fluctuation, etc are the important concepts of production systems management, because they fix condition of the synergetic approach.Aim of the article is the newest approach us...

  18. Risk Management for New Product Development Projects in Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porananond, D.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Project risk management provides a guideline for decision making in new product development (NPD projects, reducing uncertainty and increasing success rate. However, the acceptance of formal risk management applications in industry, especially for NPD projects is still in question. A study of a food conglomerate in Thailand found that only 9% of NPD projects used a systematic approach for managing risk. 61% of the projects realised the importance of risk management, while the remaining 30% did not involve risk management at all. This study aims to develop a risk management model for NPD projects in the food industry. The first section of this paper reviews the literature on risk management theory, including international standards for risk and project management (ISO31000 and ISO21500, publications for the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK, by a professional organisation the Project Management Institute (PMI, and also academic research. 182 academic papers, published between January 2002 and August 2012 were selected. The second part interviews conducted with eight NPD experts from five of the major food manufacturers in Thailand to examine their risk management practices and problems. Conclusions are made on five topics : classification of research method, project type and industrial segment, distribution of articles by region, tools & techniques for risk management and risk factors in projects. Specific requirements of risk management for NPD projects in the food industry are identified. A risk management model and the concept of risk management applications for the food industry are proposed.

  19. Cumulative fatigue damage models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgaw, Michael A.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of calculating expected component life under fatigue loading conditions is complicated by the fact that component loading histories contain, in many cases, cyclic loads of widely varying amplitudes. In such a case a cumulative damage model is required, in addition to a fatigue damage criterion, or life relationship, in order to compute the expected fatigue life. The traditional cumulative damage model used in design is the linear damage rule. This model, while being simple to use, can yield grossly unconservative results under certain loading conditions. Research at the NASA Lewis Research Center has led to the development of a nonlinear cumulative damage model, named the double damage curve approach (DDCA), that has greatly improved predictive capability. This model, which considers the life (or loading) level dependence of damage evolution, was applied successfully to two polycrystalline materials, 316 stainless steel and Haynes 188. The cumulative fatigue behavior of the PWA 1480 single-crystal material is currently being measured to determine the applicability of the DDCA for this material.

  20. The RISKMED project: philosophy, methods and products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartzokas, A.; Azzopardi, J.; Bertotti, L.; Buzzi, A.; Cavaleri, L.; Conte, D.; Davolio, S.; Dietrich, S.; Drago, A.; Drofa, O.; Gkikas, A.; Kotroni, V.; Lagouvardos, K.; Lolis, C. J.; Michaelides, S.; Miglietta, M.; Mugnai, A.; Music, S.; Nikolaides, K.; Porcù, F.; Savvidou, K.; Tsirogianni, M. I.

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents RISKMED, a project targeted to create an Early Warning System (EWS) in case of severe or extreme weather events in the central and eastern Mediterranean and specifically in southern Italy, northwestern Greece, Malta and Cyprus. As severe or extreme weather events are considered, cases when the values of some meteorological parameters (temperature, wind, precipitation) exceed certain thresholds, and/or a severe weather phenomenon (thunderstorm, snowfall) occurs. For an accurate weather forecast, selected meteorological models have been operated daily, based on a nesting strategy using two or three domains, providing detailed forecasts over the above mentioned areas. The forecast results are further exploited for the evaluation and prediction of human discomfort and fire weather indices. Finally, sea wave models have also been operating daily over the central and eastern Mediterranean Sea. In case a severe or extreme weather event is forecasted within the next 48 or 72 h for selected target areas (sub-regions defined by their morphological and population characteristics), the local authorities and the public are informed via a user-friendly graphic system, the so-called RISK MAP. On the web page of the Project ( http://www.riskmed.net ), additional information is provided about the real-time values of some meteorological parameters, the latest satellite picture and the time and space distribution of lightning during the last 24 h. The RISKMED project was financed by the EU and th Ministries of National Economy of Greece, Italy, Malta and Cyprus, in the frame of INTERREG IIIB/ARCHIMED programme.

  1. Power Production Management of Three Gorges Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Cheng

    2010-01-01

    @@ The Three Gorges Hydropower Plant is the one with the largest installed capacity in the world today and has a decisive and important influence upon the security of the national power grids. It has been operated stably and supplied the East China, Central China, South China,Sichuan and Chongqing with clean renewable energy. This paper presents the management of the project's dispatch, operation and maintenance and puts forward new ideas and new methods for the plant management, which may provide valuable references for the operation of oversized hydropower plants.

  2. Economic Analysis of Crop Production under Jibiya Irrigation Project ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    productivity of crop production but will also discourage farmers from farming under the Project. ... lifting water as well as on residual moisture utilization techniques. ... to achieve without proper handling. SRRBDA (2013) ... reservoir with full storage capacity of 142 x 106m3, .... accept challenges and are known to be less.

  3. Projecting LED product life based on application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narendran, Nadarajah; Liu, Yi-wei; Mou, Xi; Thotagamuwa, Dinusha R.; Eshwarage, Oshadhi V. Madihe

    2016-09-01

    LED products have started to displace traditional light sources in many lighting applications. One of the commonly claimed benefits for LED lighting products is their long useful lifetime in applications. Today there are many replacement lamp products using LEDs in the marketplace. Typically, lifetime claims of these replacement lamps are in the 25,000-hour range. According to current industry practice, the time for the LED light output to reach the 70% value is estimated according to IESNA LM-80 and TM-21 procedures and the resulting value is reported as the whole system life. LED products generally experience different thermal environments and switching (on-off cycling) patterns when used in applications. Current industry test methods often do not produce accurate lifetime estimates for LED systems because only one component of the system, namely the LED, is tested under a continuous-on burning condition without switching on and off, and because they estimate for only one failure type, lumen depreciation. The objective of the study presented in this manuscript was to develop a test method that could help predict LED system life in any application by testing the whole LED system, including on-off power cycling with sufficient dwell time, and considering both failure types, catastrophic and parametric. The study results showed for the LED A-lamps tested in this study, both failure types, catastrophic and parametric, exist. The on-off cycling encourages catastrophic failure, and maximum operating temperature influences the lumen depreciation rate and parametric failure time. It was also clear that LED system life is negatively affected by on-off switching, contrary to commonly held belief. In addition, the study results showed that most of the LED systems failed catastrophically much ahead of the LED light output reaching the 70% value. This emphasizes the fact that life testing of LED systems must consider catastrophic failure in addition to lumen depreciation, and

  4. Analyzing the Accuracy of Calculations When Scoping Product Configuration Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonev, Martin; Hvam, Lars

    2012-01-01

    configuration projects is still challenging. Assuming that configurators would naturally solve the existing flaws, both, researchers and professionals typically neglect the need for a making a precise scope for their implementation. Based on this theoretical and practical concern, the present study provides......Product configurators have increasingly been applied in industrial environments. With their help, companies providing customized products have managed to redesign their specification processes and to better handle the growing product variety. But despite the promising benefits, conducting...

  5. Project and Innovation Management in New Product Development Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Leif; Gayretli, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    to product design processes like inefficient project management, increasing product complexity, conflict management, shortfall of existing methods and tools, and high failures in new product introduction. A new approach has been proposed for a system based platform, which consist of a product platform......Although the process of innovation is one of the most important drivers behind the growth and prosperity of today’s global economy, it is one of the least understood. This paper aims to address specific problems in carrying out new product development processes. There are crucial issues related...

  6. Developing Instructional Technology Products Using Effective Project Management Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Stephanie; Hardin, Paul C.

    2008-01-01

    Delivering a successful instructional technology (IT) product depends on more than just having an extremely creative instructional solution or following an instructional systems design (ISD) model. Proper planning, direction, and execution of the project are require, as well. We present a model of management that encompasses the ISD process. Five…

  7. Knowledge Based Product Configuration - a documentatio tool for configuration projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Malis, Martin

    2003-01-01

    How can complex product models be documented in a formalised way that consider both development and maintenance? The need for an effective documentation tool has emerged in order to document the development of product models. The product models have become more and more complex and comprehensive....... with the development of a Lotus Notes application that serves as a knowledge based documentation tool for configuration projects. A prototype has been developed and tested empirically in an industrial case-company. It has proved to be a succes.......How can complex product models be documented in a formalised way that consider both development and maintenance? The need for an effective documentation tool has emerged in order to document the development of product models. The product models have become more and more complex and comprehensive...

  8. Understanding Project Based Production through Socio-technical Modularity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian Langhoff

    to the practices of PBP and other production practices is the goal of balancing the dilemma between creativity and productivity. In response to industrialized production, the concept of modularity gained popularity for addressing this dilemma by exploring product, process and organization structures. However...... with the starting point in system theory and a strong bias towards industrial production, the predominant understanding of modularity faces difficulty in explaining practices of Project Based Production in both social – technical and dynamic – stable aspects. Illustrated by a case the paper addresses this gap......, by offering a reinterpretation of the modularity concept from a socio-technical perspective in general and Actor Network Theory (ANT) in particular. By formulating modularity from an ANT perspective covering social, material and process aspects, the modularity of a socio-technical practice can be understood...

  9. Cumulative environmental effects. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This report presents a compilation of knowledge about the state of the environment and human activity in the Norwegian part of the North Sea and Skagerrak. The report gives an overview of pressures and impacts on the environment from normal activity and in the event of accidents. This is used to assess the cumulative environmental effects, which factors have most impact and where the impacts are greatest, and to indicate which problems are expected to be most serious in the future. The report is intended to provide relevant information that can be used in the management of the marine area in the future. It also provides input for the identification of environmental targets and management measures for the North Sea and Skagerrak.(Author)

  10. Preliminary Design Report for the Yakima/Klickitat Production Project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    US Bonneville Power Administration

    1990-04-01

    A master plan for the Yakima/Klickitat Production Project (YKPP) was developed by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) on October 15, 1987, as a reasonable basis upon which the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) could proceed to fund predesign work on the project. The Council approved the predesign work on the condition that eight preliminary tasks were completed. These tasks are: Task 1. Agreement on a refined statement of project goals. Task 2. Completion of a technical analysis of water supplies. Task 3. Completion of an experimental design plan. Task 4. Development of a harvest management plan. Task 5. Assessment of potential genetic risks. Task 6. Project coordination with all other affected parties. Task 7. Submission of a preliminary design report to the Council. Task 8. Develop a project management structure. The preliminary design report summarizes the work completed on these tasks. It provides a description of the preliminary design, engineering, and construction phases of project development, and gives an estimate of project costs. Also included is a description of other studies that were conducted to support YKPP planning. The results of studies conducted during the last 30 months indicate that hatchery facilities can be built in the Yakima and Klickitat subbasins to provide harvest benefits and to supplement natural production. Planning for the Yakima subbasin is at a more advanced stage of development than for the Klickitat subbasin because of greater availability of basic resource information. The information needed to proceed with final design and construction for the Klickitat subbasin will be available by 1992, as ongoing predesign work continues. This schedule is consistent with the anticipated phased completion of the YKPP by 1997.

  11. Long and Short Term Cumulative Structural Priming Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaschak, Michael P; Kutta, Timothy J; Coyle, Jacqueline M

    We present six experiments that examine cumulative structural priming effects (i.e., structural priming effects that accumulate across many utterances). Of particular interest is whether (1) cumulative priming effects transfer across language production tasks and (2) the transfer of cumulative priming effects across tasks persists over the course of a week. Our data suggest that cumulative structural priming effects do transfer across language production tasks (e.g., from written stem completion to picture description, and from picture description to written stem completion), but only when both tasks are presented in the same experimental session. When cumulative priming effects are established in one task, and the second (changed) task is not presented until a week later, the cumulative priming effects are not observed.

  12. Communication in high technology product development projects:project personnel’s viewpoint for improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Väänänen, M. (Mirja)

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Product development plays a crucial role in the survival of high technology companies. High technology product development projects typically are multi-technical, multicultural, geographically dispersed, inter-connected and organized in a network of companies. These settings pose extra challenges for communication. In this qualitative multiple-case study, communication challenges and possible solutions for developing communication were studied. The empirical data were collect...

  13. Project and Innovation Management in New Product Development Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Leif; Gayretli, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    to product design processes like inefficient project management, increasing product complexity, conflict management, shortfall of existing methods and tools, and high failures in new product introduction. A new approach has been proposed for a system based platform, which consist of a product platform......Although the process of innovation is one of the most important drivers behind the growth and prosperity of today’s global economy, it is one of the least understood. This paper aims to address specific problems in carrying out new product development processes. There are crucial issues related......, a process platform, and a technology platform. Even if there is no single solution to these complex problems the proposed method can offer a more structured way of attacking the issues....

  14. Introduction--the Socially Sustainable Egg Production project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, J C; Mench, J A; Thompson, P B

    2011-01-01

    The social and political pressure to change egg production from conventional cage systems to alternative systems has been largely driven by the desire to provide more behavioral freedom for egg-laying hens. However, a change of this magnitude can affect other components of the production system and may result in unintended outcomes. To understand this issue, a Socially Sustainable Egg Production project was formed to 1) conduct a holistic and integrated systematic review of the current state of knowledge about various aspects of sustainable egg production, and 2) develop a coordinated grant proposal for future extramural funding based on the research priorities identified from the review. Expert study groups were formed to write evidence-based papers in 5 critical sustainability areas: hen health and welfare, economics, food safety and quality, public attitudes, and environmental impacts. These papers were presented as the PSA Emerging Issues Symposium on Social Sustainability of Egg Production at the 2010 Poultry Science Association meeting.

  15. Optimum Production Control and Workforce Scheduling of Machining Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Tian-Syung; Lo, Chih-Yao; Hou, Cheng-I.

    Through the proposed model in this study, the production control with the consideration of workforce scheduling for advanced manufacturing systems becomes realistically and concretely solvable. This study not only meditates the concept of balancing machine productivity and human ability into the objective, but also implements Calculus of Variations to optimize the profit for a deterministic production quantity. In addition, the optimum solutions of dynamic productivity control and workforce scheduling are comprehensively provided. Moreover, the decision criteria for selecting the optimum solution and the sensitivity analysis of the critical variables are fully discussed. This study definitely contributes the applicable strategy to control the productivity and workforce in manufacturing and provides the valuable tool to conclusively optimize the profit of a machining project for operations research in today`s manufacturing industry with profound insight.

  16. Analysis of experimental data on correlations between cumulative particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlasov, A.V.; Doroshkevich, E.A.; Leksin, G.A. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    Experimental data on correlations between cumulative particles are analyzed. A space-time and energy-transfer pattern of hadron-nucleus interaction based on both correlation data and data on the inclusive spectra of cumulative particles is considered. A new variable that is convenient for describing the production of cumulative particles is proposed using the concept of symmetry between the one-particle and multiparticle distributions. 32 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Brokerage by a Project Manager across a New Product Development Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Lisbeth Brøde; Jepsen, Anna Lund; Dietrich, Perttu

    2012-01-01

    that the PM creates in the concept development phase, in fact are created at a later point in time; in the solution development phase. The study is longitudinal and relies on actual communication regarding a project in which communication has taken place primarily on email. Only few studies in this area do......Researchers have suggested that in order to support collaborations across organizational borders in new product development (NPD) projects, companies need to generate, integrate, and coordinate the knowledge of different departments in the organization. This requires support of the communication...... suppliers and customers, but also directly between the external stakeholders, primarily customers and suppliers. Project managers (PMs) are at the core of this process as they can link the various stakeholders of the NPD project and thereby facilitate the knowledge communication between these stakeholders...

  18. A Case Retrieval Projection Pursuit Model for Configuration Design of a Product Family%A Case Retrieval Projection Pursuit Model for Configuration Design of a Product Family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Zi-rong; ZHANG Yi-fei

    2011-01-01

    The paper studies on case-based reasoning of uncertain product attributes in configuration design of a product family. Interval numbers characterize uncertain product attributes. By interpolating a number of certain values randomly to replace interval numbers and making projection pursuit analysis on source cases and target cases of expanded numbers, we can get a projection value in the optimal projection direction. Based on projection value, we can construct a case retrieval model of projection pursuit that can handle coexisting certain and uncertain product attributes. The application examples of chainsaw configuration design show that case retrieval is highly sensitive to reliable results.

  19. Projecting productivity losses for cancer-related mortality 2011 - 2030.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Alison; Bradley, Cathy; Hanly, Paul; O'Neill, Ciaran; Thomas, Audrey Alforque; Molcho, Michal; Sharp, Linda

    2016-10-18

    When individuals stop working due to cancer this represents a loss to society - the loss of productivity. The aim of this analysis was to estimate productivity losses associated with premature mortality from all adult cancers and from the 20 highest mortality adult cancers in Ireland in 2011, and project these losses until 2030. An incidence-based method was used to estimate the cost of cancer deaths between 2011 and 2030 using the Human Capital Approach. National data were used for cancer, population and economic inputs. Both paid work and unpaid household activities were included. Sensitivity analyses estimated the impact of assumptions around future cancer mortality rates, retirement ages, value of unpaid work, wage growth and discounting. The 233,000 projected deaths from all invasive cancers in Ireland between 2011 and 2030 will result in lost productivity valued at €73 billion; €13 billion in paid work and €60 billion in household activities. These losses represent approximately 1.4 % of Ireland's GDP annually. The most costly cancers are lung (€14.4 billion), colorectal and breast cancer (€8.3 billion each). However, when viewed as productivity losses per cancer death, testis (€364,000 per death), cervix (€155,000 per death) and brain cancer (€136,000 per death) are most costly because they affect working age individuals. An annual 1 % reduction in mortality reduces productivity losses due to all invasive cancers by €8.5 billion over 20 years. Society incurs substantial losses in productivity as a result of cancer-related mortality, particularly when household production is included. These estimates provide valuable evidence to inform resource allocation decisions in cancer prevention and control.

  20. Fission-Product Development Laboratory cell-decommissioning project plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myrick, T.E.; Schaich, R.W.; Williams, F.V.

    1983-08-01

    The Fission Product Development Laboratory (FPDL) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was a full-scale processing facility for separating megacurie quantities of /sup 90/Sr, /sup 137/Cs, and /sup 144/Ce for a variety of source applications, operating at full capacity from 1958 to 1975. Since facility shutdown, the inactive portions of the FPDL have been maintained in a protective storage mode as part of the ORNL Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). Due to the significant radio-nuclide inventory remaining in the facility, the high surveillance and maintenance costs necessary to assure radionuclide containment, and the potential for reuse of the facility by other programs, the decommissioning of the inactive portions of the FPDL has been given a high priority by the SFMP. In response to this program direction, plans are being made for initiation of these activities in late FY 1983. This project plan has been prepared to satisfy the program documentation requirements for SFMP project planning. The plan outlines the scope of the proposed effort, describes the proposed methods of project accomplishment, and provides estimates of the project resource needs and schedule.

  1. Technology Uncertainty and Project Managers' Information Sharing - A comparative case study of two new product development projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Lisbeth Brøde; Dietrich, Perttu

    2014-01-01

    uncertainty during various phases of new product development (NPD) projects. In this study, we compare two longitudinal NPD sub-projects that differ in uncertainty within the same large NPD project, in which the data source is the complete email exchange between a project manager and various actors...... (consisting of 3979 emails). The results show high levels of information sharing with the customer in both the early and late phases of high uncertainty. Interestingly, in the low uncertainty project, information sharing with the production department and the supplier is higher during the late phase...... of the NPD project. Unexpectedly, in both sub-projects, the project manager shares information with a wider range of both intra- and inter-organization actors in the early phases of the projects than in the late phases....

  2. PEMEX exploration and production (E and P) projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guevara, H. (PEMEX Exploracion y Produccion, Mexico City (Mexico))

    1999-01-01

    The investment that PEMEX's exploration and production (PEP) has made in Mexico's energy sector was discussed. PEP has invested more than US$7 billion over the last two years. Capital expenditures have been driven by market forces. This will provide opportunities for several companies, particularly those in NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) countries. The implications of Canadian companies doing business in Mexico were also discussed. PEMEX's operating companies were listed along with a PEP ranking for 1997. Crude oil and gas production charts show a gradual increase in production for both, from 1995 to 1998. Capital expenditures have increased from US$ 2.2 billion in 1996 to US$ 4.0 billion in 1998. The megaprojects currently underway in Mexico include the Cantarell, Burgos, and the Delta del Grijalva projects. A comparison in investment for onshore and offshore projects was presented. It was concluded that in order to help Canadian companies invest in the Mexican E and P services sector, it would be helpful to have a transparent bidding process guaranteed by the existing institutional framework. 1 tab., 9 figs.

  3. PEMEX exploration and production (E and P) projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guevara, H. [PEMEX Exploracion y Produccion, Mexico City (Mexico)

    1999-10-01

    The investment that PEMEX`s exploration and production (PEP) has made in Mexico`s energy sector was discussed. PEP has invested more than US$7 billion over the last two years. Capital expenditures have been driven by market forces. This will provide opportunities for several companies, particularly those in NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) countries. The implications of Canadian companies doing business in Mexico were also discussed. PEMEX`s operating companies were listed along with a PEP ranking for 1997. Crude oil and gas production charts show a gradual increase in production for both, from 1995 to 1998. Capital expenditures have increased from US$ 2.2 billion in 1996 to US$ 4.0 billion in 1998. The megaprojects currently underway in Mexico include the Cantarell, Burgos, and the Delta del Grijalva projects. A comparison in investment for onshore and offshore projects was presented. It was concluded that in order to help Canadian companies invest in the Mexican E and P services sector, it would be helpful to have a transparent bidding process guaranteed by the existing institutional framework. 1 tab., 9 figs.

  4. Clean Hydrogen Production. Carbon Dioxide Free Alternatives. Project Phisico2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Fierro, J. L.; Gonzalez, C.; Serrano, D.; Penelas, G.; Romero, M.; Marcos, M. J.; Rodriguez, C.

    2006-07-01

    The main goal of the PHISICO2 project, funded and promoted by Comunidad de Madrid, is the evaluation and optimisation of three different processes for the clean hydrogen production without carbon dioxide emission. Solar energy and associated Technologies are proposed to be jointly employed with the aim of improving the process efficiency and reducing the production costs. As a transition to the non-fossil fuel hydrogen economy, the thermocatalytic CO2-free production of hydrogen from natural gas will be considered. One of the most promising alternatives of this process is to develop a cheap and stable carbon-based catalyst able to efficiently decompose methane into a CO2-free hydrogen stream and solid carbon. Thus, not only pure hydrogen can be obtained through but also carbon with specific properties and commercial value can be produced. Another option to be explored is the splitting of water by means of solar light by means of two different approaches: (i) photodissociation promoted by semiconductor catalysts and (ii) thermochemical cycles in which a specific mixed oxide is first thermally reduced by sunlight and then reoxidized by steam in a second step with the parallel production of hydrogen. Indeed, option (i) implies necessarily the development of semiconductors with appropriate band-gap able to decompose water into hydrogen and oxygen in an efficient manner. Another critical issue will be the development of a strategy/concept that allows efficient separation of hydrogen and oxygen within the cell. In option (ii), the development of stable ferrites which act as the redox element of the cycle is also an important challenge. Finally, a 5 kW prototype solar engine water splitting, based on the mentioned thermochemical cycle, will developed and tested using concentrated solar light as an energy source. Moreover, thermodynamic and kinetic studies, reactor design, process optimisation, economical studies and comparison with conventional hydrogen production systems

  5. New product development processes for ICT-for-development projects

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    McAlister, BN

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available has become a popular system for driving new products to market. The concept of Stage-Gate is briefly outlined, with specific notes on how the system should work, including the structure of both stages and gates. A Stage-Gate process is described... their performance. Each stage is composed of a set of required or recommended best-practice activities needed to progress the project to the next gate or decision point. Gates serve as quality?control checkpoints, "go/kill" and prioritization decisions points...

  6. A generalization of Marstrand's theorem for projections of cartesian products

    CERN Document Server

    López, Jorge Erick

    2011-01-01

    We prove the following variant of Marstrand's theorem about projections of cartesian products of sets: Let $K_1,...,K_n$ Borel subsets of $\\mathbb R^{m_1},... ,\\mathbb R^{m_n}$ respectively, and $\\pi:\\mathbb R^{m_1}\\times...\\times\\mathbb R^{m_n}\\to\\mathbb R^k$ be a surjective linear map. We set $$\\mathfrak{m}:=\\min\\{\\sum_{i\\in I}\\dim_H(K_i) + \\dim\\pi(\\bigoplus_{i\\in I^c}\\mathbb R^{m_i}), I\\subset\\{1,...,n\\}, I\

  7. Biohydrogen production by anaerobic fermentation of waste. Final project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karakashev, D.; Angelidaki, I.

    2009-01-15

    The objective of this project was to investigate and increase dark fermentative hydrogen production from organic wastes by optimizing important process parameters (reactor type, pH, temperature, organic loading, retention time, inoculation strategy, microbial composition). Labscale experiments were carried out at the Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark. A two steps process for hydrogen production in the first step and methane production in the second step in serial connected fully mixed reactors was developed and could successfully convert organic matter to approx. 20-25 % hydrogen and 15-80 % to methane. Sparging with methane produced in the second stage could significantly increase the hydrogen production. Additionally it was shown that upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor system was very promising for high effective biohydrogen production from glucose at 70 deg C. Glucose-fed biofilm reactors filled with plastic carriers demonstrated high efficient extreme thermophilic biohydrogen production with mixed cultures. Repeated batch cultivations via exposure of the cultures to increased concentrations of household solid waste was found to be most useful method to enhance hydrogen production rate and reduce lag phase of extreme thermophilic fermentation process. Low level of pH (5.5) at 3-day HRT was enough to inhibit completely the methanogenesis and resulted in stable extreme thermophilic hydrogen production. Homoacetogenisis was proven to be an alternative competitor to biohydrogen production from organic acids under thermophilic (55 deg. C) conditions. With respect to microbiology, 16S rRNA targeted oligonucleotide probes were designed to monitor the spatial distribution of hydrogen producing bacteria in sludge and granules from anaerobic reactors. An extreme thermophilic (70 deg. C), strict anaerobic, mixed microbial culture with high hydrogen producing potential was enriched from digested household waste. Culture

  8. Projected climate change threatens pollinators and crop production in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, Tereza Cristina; Costa, Wilian França; Cordeiro, Guaraci Duran; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera Lucia; Saraiva, Antonio Mauro; Biesmeijer, Jacobus; Garibaldi, Lucas Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Animal pollination can impact food security since many crops depend on pollinators to produce fruits and seeds. However, the effects of projected climate change on crop pollinators and therefore on crop production are still unclear, especially for wild pollinators and aggregate community responses. Using species distributional modeling, we assessed the effects of climate change on the geographic distribution of 95 pollinator species of 13 Brazilian crops, and we estimated their relative impacts on crop production. We described these effects at the municipality level, and we assessed the crops that were grown, the gross production volume of these crops, the total crop production value, and the number of inhabitants. Overall, considering all crop species, we found that the projected climate change will reduce the probability of pollinator occurrence by almost 0.13 by 2050. Our models predict that almost 90% of the municipalities analyzed will face species loss. Decreases in the pollinator occurrence probability varied from 0.08 (persimmon) to 0.25 (tomato) and will potentially affect 9% (mandarin) to 100% (sunflower) of the municipalities that produce each crop. Municipalities in central and southern Brazil will potentially face relatively large impacts on crop production due to pollinator loss. In contrast, some municipalities in northern Brazil, particularly in the northwestern Amazon, could potentially benefit from climate change because pollinators of some crops may increase. The decline in the probability of pollinator occurrence is found in a large number of municipalities with the lowest GDP and will also likely affect some places where crop production is high (20% to 90% of the GDP) and where the number of inhabitants is also high (more than 6 million people). Our study highlights key municipalities where crops are economically important and where pollinators will potentially face the worst conditions due to climate change. However, pollinators may be able to

  9. Complex New Product Development projects - How the Project Manager’s Information Sharing With Core Actors Changes Over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Lisbeth Brøde

    2013-01-01

    A heavily burdened project manager must ensure effective information sharing with actors inside and outside the organization because this is a necessary condition for a new product development (NPD) project to achieve its objectives. Knowledge, however, on who actually assists a project manager...... and outside the organization to promote the information sharing....

  10. Project Management and Coordination of Distributed Cooperative Product Design in a Virtual Enterprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Yan; ZHANG Ying-jie; ZHAO Ru-jia

    2004-01-01

    The architecture of project management of distributed concurrent product design in a virtual enterprise is put forward. The process of project management and its functions are presented. Product design process coordination is also discussed. First, based on the analysis of traditional project management, project management and coordination of distributed cooperative product design in the virtual enterprise is put forward. Then, aiming at the characteristics of a distributed concurrent product design process, the inherent rules and complex interrelations in product development are studied. Accordingly,the architecture of project management of distributed cooperative product design in a virtual enterprise is presented to adapt to distributed concurrent development of complex products. The main advantages of the architecture are also discussed. Finally, the emphasis is placed on the project management process.Its main functions are set forth, such as project definition, task decomposition and distribution, resource constraints and dynamic resource scheduling, process fusion, task scheduling and monitoring,project plan, cost and quality evaluation, etc.

  11. Comparison of Profitableness between Tobacco and Some Products in Scope of Alternative Product Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sivuk

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco is fairly contributed Turkish economy through mainly export and tax revenues. It has been applied restriction policies of tobacco planting areas with “Tobacco Law” which was passed an act in 2002. Therefore, it has been given promotions to producers who produce loss of production instead of tobacco with Alternative Product Project which has been applied since 2002. It has been saw not enough to be adopted by producers in 11 provinces in 2002-2007. The big number of the producers which used project support by abandoning tobacco production have tended cereal cultivation. In fact, this information is clearly indicator at indecision for producers to product which is chosen instead of tobacco. The project will continue with 3 years by chancing supporting amount and limiting its scope with 9 provinces from 2008. It has been intended with this work to direct to producers which are seeking alternative products instead of tobacco. Therefore, profitableness levels of wheat, aspir and canola which will be alternative for tobacco has been analyzed. It has been used Absolute Profit and Relative Profit at the analyze phase. It has been found that the best alternative for tobacco is canola as a result of the study.

  12. Projection 0f Labor Needs and Productivity to Reduce Unemployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lestari Agusalim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to estimate the amount of labor needs and productivity in Banten Province from 2016 until 2020. By estimating the needs and productivity of the labor, the government can use this information to create the appropriate policies in order to reduce the open unemployment rate (OUR in Banten Province. According to BPS data in 2014, OUR of Banten Province was the highest among other provinces in Java and second highest in Indonesia after Maluku. This study used the quantitative method, which are the exponential and geometric methods to project the labor needs. Other than that, this study used the descriptive method to interpret the quantitative data. The result showed that (1 from 2016 until 2020 there will be an increasing condition of employment, (2 from 2010 until 2014, the highest labor productivity were from electricity, gas and water sector. However from 2016 – 2020, the highest labor productivity will be from financing, insurance, real estate, land, and business services. (3 The number of OUR is expected to decrease annually. Meanwhile OUR in 2016 which is 7.39 percent will decrease to 3.94 percent in 2020.

  13. Impacts of ecological restoration projects on agricultural productivity in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Yuanwei; YAN Huimin; LIU Jiyuan; DONG Jinwei; CHEN Jingqing; XIAO Xiangming

    2013-01-01

    The changes in cropland quantity and quality due to land use are critical concerns to national food security,particularly for China.Despite the significant ecological effects,the ecological restoration program (ERP),started from 1999,has evidently altered the spatial patterns of China's cropland and agricultural productivity.Based on cropland dynamic data from 2000 to 2008 primarily derived from satellite images with a 30-m resolution and satellite-based net primary productivity models,we identified the impacts on agricultural productivity caused by ERP,including "Grain for Green" Program (GFGP) and "Reclaimed Cropland to Lake" (RCTL) Program.Our results indicated that the agricultural productivity lost with a rate of 132.67×104 t/a due to ERP,which accounted for 44.01% of the total loss rate caused by land use changes during 2000-2005.During 2005-2008,the loss rate due to ERP decreased to 77.18×104 t/a,which was equivalent to 58.17% of that in the first five years and 30.22% of the total loss rate caused by land use changes.The agricultural productivity loss from 2000-2008 caused by ERP was more attributed to GFGP (about 70%) than RCTL.Al-though ERP had a certain influence on cropland productivity during 2000-2008,its effect was still much less than that of urbanization; moreover,ERP was already converted from the project implementation phase to the consolidation phase.

  14. Expansive Soil Crack Depth under Cumulative Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei-xiao Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The crack developing depth is a key problem to slope stability of the expansive soil and its project governance and the crack appears under the roles of dry-wet cycle and gradually develops. It is believed from the analysis that, because of its own cohesion, the expansive soil will have a certain amount of deformation under pulling stress but without cracks. The soil body will crack only when the deformation exceeds the ultimate tensile strain that causes cracks. And it is also believed that, due to the combined effect of various environmental factors, particularly changes of the internal water content, the inherent basic physical properties of expansive soil are weakened, and irreversible cumulative damages are eventually formed, resulting in the development of expansive soil cracks in depth. Starting from the perspective of volumetric strain that is caused by water loss, considering the influences of water loss rate and dry-wet cycle on crack developing depth, the crack developing depth calculation model which considers the water loss rate and the cumulative damages is established. Both the proposal of water loss rate and the application of cumulative damage theory to the expansive soil crack development problems try to avoid difficulties in matrix suction measurement, which will surely play a good role in promoting and improving the research of unsaturated expansive soil.

  15. Online Scheduling in Manufacturing A Cumulative Delay Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Suwa, Haruhiko

    2013-01-01

    Online scheduling is recognized as the crucial decision-making process of production control at a phase of “being in production" according to the released shop floor schedule. Online scheduling can be also considered as one of key enablers to realize prompt capable-to-promise as well as available-to-promise to customers along with reducing production lead times under recent globalized competitive markets. Online Scheduling in Manufacturing introduces new approaches to online scheduling based on a concept of cumulative delay. The cumulative delay is regarded as consolidated information of uncertainties under a dynamic environment in manufacturing and can be collected constantly without much effort at any points in time during a schedule execution. In this approach, the cumulative delay of the schedule has the important role of a criterion for making a decision whether or not a schedule revision is carried out. The cumulative delay approach to trigger schedule revisions has the following capabilities for the ...

  16. A variant of Marstrand's theorem for projections of cartesian products

    CERN Document Server

    Velázquez, Jorge Erick López

    2011-01-01

    We prove the following variant of Marstrand's theorem about projections of cartesian products of sets: Consider the space $\\Lambda_m=\\set{(t,O), t\\in\\R, O\\in SO(m)}$ with the natural measure and set $\\Lambda=\\Lambda_{m_1}\\times\\ppp\\times\\Lambda_{m_n}$. For every $\\la=(t_1,O_1,\\ppp,t_n,O_n)\\in\\Lambda$ and every $x=(x^1,\\ppp,x^n)\\in\\R^{m_1}\\times\\ppp\\times\\R^{m_n}$ we define $\\pi_\\la(x)=\\pi(t_1O_1x^1,\\ppp,t_nO_nx^n)$. Suppose that $\\pi$ is surjective and set $$\\mathfrak{m}:=\\min\\set{\\sum_{i\\in I}\\dim_H(K_i) + \\dim\\pi(\\bigoplus_{i\\in I^c}\\R^{m_i}), I\\subset\\set{1,\\ppp,n}, I\

  17. Topological complexity of motion planning in projective product spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, Jesus; Torres-Giese, Enrique; Xicotencatl, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    We study Farber's topological complexity (TC) of Davis' projective product spaces (PPS's). We show that, in many non-trivial instances, the TC of PPS's coming from at least two sphere factors is (much) lower than the dimension of the manifold. This is in high contrast with the known situation for (usual) real projective spaces for which, in fact, the Euclidean immersion dimension and TC are two facets of the same problem. Low TC-values have been observed for infinite families of non-simply connected spaces only for H-spaces, for finite complexes whose fundamental group has cohomological dimension not exceeding 2, and now in this work for infinite families of PPS's. We discuss general bounds for the TC (and the Lusternik-Schnirelmann category) of PPS's, and compute these invariants for specific families of such manifolds. Some of our methods involve the use of an equivariant version of TC. We also give a characterization of the Euclidean immersion dimension of PPS's through generalized concepts of axial maps a...

  18. Project Rio Blanco: additional production testing and reservoir analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballou, L.B.

    1976-11-01

    Additional subsurface investigations of the Rio Blanco detonation region and adjacent reservoir have been underway since the last technical meeting at IAEA. The lowermost explosion cavity has been reentered and a production test from it was performed. A dry gas volume of 7.6 x 10/sup 5/ m/sup 3/ (27 Mmscf) was withdrawn. Chemical and radiochemical analyses of this gas show that (1) the yield of the bottom explosive was 31 +- 2 kt; (2) the cavity/chimney volume was 2.4 x 10/sup 4/ m/sup 3/ (8.4 x 10/sup 5/ ft/sup 3/); (3) about 7 percent of the tritium produced is associated with the gas; and (4) a slight (approximately 0.1 percent) gas contribution from the middle explosion region was noted. The reservoir/chimney model implies an unstimulated reservoir flow capacity of 0.15 mdarcy-m (0.50 md-ft) connected to the bottom chimney region. A cavity radius of 21 +- 3 m (70 +- 10 ft) was deduced. Unstimulated reservoir production parameters were investigated in a well offset 190 m (625 ft) from the emplacement hole. Insufficient productivity was obtained in the Mesaverde formation (in which the bottom explosive was detonated) to evaluate reservoir properties. The productive sandstones in the Fort Union formation adjoining the top detonation region were individually evaluated. Their aggregate flow capacity was determined to be 0.14 +- 0.2 mdarcy-m (0.45 +- 0.08 md-ft). A numerical simulation model which incorporates these data is described. The lack of a high-permeability connection between the three explosion regions remains unexplained. The two chimney reentry wells have been cemented to the surface and abandoned. The offset well has been plugged in a way which preserves the option for additional subsurface investigation in the future. Project facilities have been removed and the site restored to conditions which minimize environmental impact.

  19. Timber products output and timber harvests in Alaska: projections for 1997-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Brooks; Richard W. Haynes

    1997-01-01

    Projections of Alaska timber products output, the derived demand for raw material, and timber harvest by owner are developed from a trend-based analysis. These projections are revisions of projections made in 1990 and again in 1994, and reflect the consequences of recent changes in the Alaska forest sector and long-term trends in markets for Alaska products. With the...

  20. The Cumulative Neurobehavioral and Physiological Effects of Chronic Caffeine Intake: Individual Differences and Implications for the Use of Caffeinated Energy Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaeth, Andrea M; Goel, Namni; Dinges, David F

    2014-01-01

    The use of caffeine-containing energy products (CCEP) has increased worldwide in recent years and research shows that CCEP can improve cognitive and physical performance. All of the top-selling energy drinks contain caffeine, which is likely to be the primary psychoactive ingredient in CCEP. Presumably, individuals consume CCEP to counteract feelings of ‘low-energy’ in situations causing tiredness, fatigue, and/or reduced alertness. This review discusses the scientific evidence for sleep loss, circadian phase, sleep inertia and the time-on-task effect as causes of ‘low energy’ and summarizes research assessing the efficacy of caffeine to counteract decreased alertness and increased fatigue in such situations. The results of a placebo-controlled experiment on healthy adults undergoing three nights of total sleep deprivation (with or without 2 hour naps every 12 hours) are presented to illustrate the physiological and neurobehavioral effects of sustained low-dose caffeine. Individual differences, including genetic factors, in the response to caffeine and to sleep loss are discussed. We conclude with future directions for research on this important and evolving topic. PMID:25293542

  1. Hydrolytic Cleavage Products of Globin Adducts in Urine as Possible Biomarkers of Cumulative Dose: Proof of Concept Using Styrene Oxide as a Model Adduct-Forming Compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mráz, Jaroslav; Hanzlíková, Iveta; Moulisová, Alena; Dušková, Šárka; Hejl, Kamil; Bednářová, Aneta; Dabrowská, Ludmila; Linhart, Igor

    2016-04-18

    A new experimental model was designed to study the fate of globin adducts with styrene 7,8-oxide (SO), a metabolic intermediate of styrene and a model electrophilic compound. Rat erythrocytes were incubated with SO at 7 or 22 °C. Levels of specific amino acid adducts in globin were determined by LC/MS analysis of the globin hydrolysate, and erythrocytes with known adduct content were administered intravenously to recipient rats. The course of adduct elimination from the rat blood was measured over the following 50 days. In the erythrocytes incubated at 22 °C, a rapid decline in the adduct levels on the first day post-transfusion followed by a slow phase of elimination was observed. In contrast, the adduct elimination in erythrocytes incubated at 7 °C was nearly linear, copying elimination of intact erythrocytes. In the urine of recipient rats, regioisomeric SO adducts at cysteine, valine, lysine, and histidine in the form of amino acid adducts and/or their acetylated metabolites as well as SO-dipeptide adducts were identified by LC/MS supported by synthesized reference standards. S-(2-Hydroxy-1-phenylethyl)cysteine and S-(2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl)cysteine, the most abundant globin adducts, were excreted predominantly in the form of the corresponding urinary mercapturic acids (HPEMAs). Massive elimination of HPEMAs via urine occurred within the first day from the erythrocytes incubated at both 7 and 22 °C. However, erythrocytes incubated at 7 °C also showed a slow second phase of elimination such that HPEMAs were detected in urine up to 50 days post-transfusion. These results indicate for the first time that globin adducts can be cleaved in vivo to modified amino acids and dipeptides. The cleavage products and/or their predictable metabolites are excreted in urine over the whole life span of erythrocytes. Some of the urinary adducts may represent a new type of noninvasive biomarker for exposure to adduct-forming chemicals.

  2. Sources of iteration and a risk mitigation methodology in semiconductor new product development projects

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Evan

    2014-01-01

    peer-reviewed Iteration is the major source of risk in semiconductor New Product Development (NPD) projects, occurring in approximately 90% of projects and causing on average approximately 30% schedule slippage. As such, iteration risk in semiconductor NPD projects is a very important issue that needs to be addressed. NPD projects bring specific challenges for a company due to the innate uncertainty involved in producing a new product. One major consequence of the inherent uncertainty invo...

  3. Production of wood derived fuels. Review of research projects; Puupolttoaineiden tuotantotekniikka. Tutkimusalueen katsaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpilahti, A. [Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The research and development work was very active on the area of wood derived fuels during the past year 1996. Totally some 40 projects were going on, and till the end of the year about 15 projects were completed. The projects broadly covered the research area focusing from material flows, productivity studies, basic wood properties to several case studies. When new production methods and machinery was introduced earlier by demonstration projects, now they were investigated by follow up projects. The economical and quality results of logging residue harvesting and comminution seem quite satisfactory, but integrated methods and production chains still need research and development. (orig.)

  4. Systems Engineering and Project Management for Product Development: Optimizing Their Working Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    guide to the project management body of knowledge ( PMBOK (R) GUIDE). Newtown Square, PA: Project Management Institute, Inc. Ulrich, K., & Eppinger, S...activities to meet the project requirements. (Project Management Institute, Inc., 2013, p. 6) The PMBOK states that project management requires a set of...The PMBOK , however, does not address the product processes (i.e., processes required to ensure the project’s deliverable meets the customer’s needs

  5. INSPIA project: European Index for Sustainable and Productive Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triviño-Tarradas, Paula; Jesús González-Sánchez, Emilio; Gómez-Ariza, Manuel; Rass, Gerard; Gardette, Sophie; Whitmore, Gavin; Dyson, Jeremy

    2017-04-01

    Management (IPM). Therefore, the optimised use of agricultural technologies is considered to the extent they help farmers achieve their objectives, particularly their competitiveness. The principal BMPs flagged by CA that ensure biodiversity and environmental protection for a productive agriculture are based on minimum soil disturbance, permanent soil cover, and crop rotations. The project covers over 50 farms in Belgium, Denmark, France and Spain. INSPIA is promoting the uptake of sustainable agricultural practices throughout Europe by: • Raising awareness among EU policy stakeholders, technicians and farmers in favour of sustainable agriculture. • Recognition of farmers needs for helping dissemination of sustainable agriculture • Demonstrating that BMPs help to achieve sustainability in European agriculture. Provide a sustainable output graph based on a set of verifiable indicators; comparatives, evolution in time among others. • Consolidating a farm network in Belgium, Denmark, France and Spain to enable the validation, demonstration and communication of BMPs (first step), and extend this farm network to other countries (second step). Whereas the final objectives are: • Obtain adapted environmental and agricultural policies • Obtain recognition by farmers, decision makers and private sector of Sustainable Agriculture (Conservation Agriculture / ecological intensification with optimization across crop protection solutions) and of their operators (farmers in this system and their organizations / companies supportive)

  6. New product development projects evaluation under time uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Augusto de Oliveira Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The development time is one of the key factors that contribute to the new product development success. In spite of that, the impact of the time uncertainty on the development has been not fully exploited, as far as decision supporting models to evaluate this kind of projects is concerned. In this context, the objective of the present paper is to evaluate the development process of new technologies under time uncertainty. We introduce a model which captures this source of uncertainty and develop an algorithm to evaluate projects that incorporates Monte Carlo Simulation and Dynamic Programming. The novelty in our approach is to thoroughly blend the stochastic time with a formal approach to the problem, which preserves the Markov property. We base our model on the distinction between the decision epoch and the stochastic time. We discuss and illustrate the applicability of our model through an empirical example.O tempo de desenvolvimento é um dos fatores-chave que contribuem para o sucesso do desenvolvimento de novos produtos. Apesar disso, o impacto da incerteza de tempo no desenvolvimento tem sido pouco considerado em modelos de avaliação e valoração deste tipo de projetos. Neste contexto, este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar projetos de desenvolvimento de novas tecnologias mediante o tempo incerto. Introduzimos um modelo capaz de captar esta fonte de incerteza e desenvolvemos um algoritmo para a valoração do projeto que integra Simulação de Monte Carlo e Programação Dinâmica. A novidade neste trabalho é conseguir integrar meticulosamente o tempo estocástico a uma estrutura formal para tomada de decisão que preserva a propriedade de Markov. O principal ponto para viabilizar este fato é distinção entre o momento de revisão e o tempo estocástico. Ilustramos e discutimos a aplicabilidade deste modelo por meio de um exemplo empírico.

  7. Cumulant expansions for atmospheric flows

    CERN Document Server

    Ait-Chaalal, Farid; Meyer, Bettina; Marston, J B

    2015-01-01

    The equations governing atmospheric flows are nonlinear, and consequently the hierarchy of cumulant equations is not closed. But because atmospheric flows are inhomogeneous and anisotropic, the nonlinearity may manifests itself only weakly through interactions of mean fields with disturbances such as thermals or eddies. In such situations, truncations of the hierarchy of cumulant equations hold promise as a closure strategy. We review how truncations at second order can be used to model and elucidate the dynamics of turbulent atmospheric flows. Two examples are considered. First, we study the growth of a dry convective boundary layer, which is heated from below, leading to turbulent upward energy transport and growth of the boundary layer. We demonstrate that a quasilinear truncation of the equations of motion, in which interactions of disturbances among each other are neglected but interactions with mean fields are taken into account, can successfully capture the growth of the convective boundary layer. Seco...

  8. Production of Working Reference Materials for the Capability Evaluation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillip D. Noll, Jr.; Robert S. Marshall

    1999-03-01

    Nondestructive waste assay (NDA) methods are employed to determine the mass and activity of waste-entrained radionuclides as part of the National TRU (Trans-Uranic) Waste Characterization Program. In support of this program the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Mixed Waste Focus Area developed a plan to acquire capability/performance data on systems proposed for NDA purposes. The Capability Evaluation Project (CEP) was designed to evaluate the NDA systems of commercial contractors by subjecting all participants to identical tests involving 55 gallon drum surrogates containing known quantities and distributions of radioactive materials in the form of sealed-source standards, referred to as working reference materials (WRMs). Although numerous Pu WRMs already exist, the CEP WRM set allows for the evaluation of the capability and performance of systems with respect to waste types/configurations which contain increased amounts of {sup 241}Am relative to weapons grade Pu, waste that is dominantly {sup 241}Am, as well as wastes containing various proportions of depleted uranium. The CEP WRMs consist of a special mixture of PuO{sub 2}/AmO{sub 2} (IAP) and diatomaceous earth (DE) or depleted uranium (DU) oxide and DE and were fabricated at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The IAP WRMS are contained inside a pair of welded inner and outer stainless steel containers. The DU WRMs are singly contained within a stainless steel container equivalent to the outer container of the IAP standards. This report gives a general overview and discussion relating to the production and certification of the CEP WRMs.

  9. Large urban projects and social actors: forces supporting and opposing the production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuenya, B.E.

    2006-01-01

    This research studies, by means of the analysis of a paradigmatic large urban project in Buenos Aires, the production process of a large urban project furthered by the State and directed to create a new centrality. The analysis is focused on the forces supporting and opposition the project that were

  10. A 500 Million Yuan of the Aluminum Production Project in Inner Mongolia has been Made

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>Jarud Banner,Tongliao,Inner Mongolia has recently signed a cooperation agreement on the aluminum hub production project with Zhejiang Jinfei Kaida Wheel Co.,Ltd.The project will be implemented in two phases with a total investment of 500 million yuan,of which 200 million yuan is for the Phase I project to be put

  11. Cumulative Paired φ-Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo Klein

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A new kind of entropy will be introduced which generalizes both the differential entropy and the cumulative (residual entropy. The generalization is twofold. First, we simultaneously define the entropy for cumulative distribution functions (cdfs and survivor functions (sfs, instead of defining it separately for densities, cdfs, or sfs. Secondly, we consider a general “entropy generating function” φ, the same way Burbea et al. (IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 1982, 28, 489–495 and Liese et al. (Convex Statistical Distances; Teubner-Verlag, 1987 did in the context of φ-divergences. Combining the ideas of φ-entropy and cumulative entropy leads to the new “cumulative paired φ-entropy” ( C P E φ . This new entropy has already been discussed in at least four scientific disciplines, be it with certain modifications or simplifications. In the fuzzy set theory, for example, cumulative paired φ-entropies were defined for membership functions, whereas in uncertainty and reliability theories some variations of C P E φ were recently considered as measures of information. With a single exception, the discussions in the scientific disciplines appear to be held independently of each other. We consider C P E φ for continuous cdfs and show that C P E φ is rather a measure of dispersion than a measure of information. In the first place, this will be demonstrated by deriving an upper bound which is determined by the standard deviation and by solving the maximum entropy problem under the restriction of a fixed variance. Next, this paper specifically shows that C P E φ satisfies the axioms of a dispersion measure. The corresponding dispersion functional can easily be estimated by an L-estimator, containing all its known asymptotic properties. C P E φ is the basis for several related concepts like mutual φ-information, φ-correlation, and φ-regression, which generalize Gini correlation and Gini regression. In addition, linear rank tests for scale that

  12. World-class PTA Project of BP Put into Production in Zhuhai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ The first-phase project of Zhuhai BP Chemical Co Ltd - the 350,000-ton PTA production facility - was put into production on September 9 in Zhuhai,Guangdong Province. The letter of intent for this project was signed in 1989, but construction did not start until October 2000. The first phase project,which draws an investment of US$360million, was completed and put into commissioning in January this year.

  13. Implementation of a production Ada project: The GRODY study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Sara; Brophy, Carolyn Elizabeth

    1989-01-01

    The use of the Ada language and design methodologies that encourage full use of its capabilities have a strong impact on all phases of the software development project life cycle. At the National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) conducted an experiment in parallel development of two flight dynamics systems in FORTRAN and Ada. The differences observed during the implementation, unit testing, and integration phases of the two projects are described and the lessons learned during the implementation phase of the Ada development are outlined. Included are recommendations for future Ada development projects.

  14. Climate mitigation: sustainable preferences and cumulative carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckle, Simon

    2010-05-01

    We develop a stylized AK growth model with both climate damages to ecosystem goods and services and sustainable preferences that allow trade-offs between present discounted utility and long-run climate damages. The simplicity of the model permits analytical solutions. Concern for the long-term provides a strong driver for mitigation action. One plausible specification of sustainable preferences leads to the result that, for a range of initial parameter values, an optimizing agent would choose a level of cumulative carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions independent of initial production capital endowment and CO2 levels. There is no technological change so, for economies with sufficiently high initial capital and CO2 endowments, optimal mitigation will lead to disinvestment. For lower values of initial capital and/or CO2 levels, positive investment can be optimal, but still within the same overall level of cumulative emissions. One striking aspect of the model is the complexity of possible outcomes, in addition to these optimal solutions. We also identify a resource constrained region and several regions where climate damages exceed resources available for consumption. Other specifications of sustainable preferences are discussed, as is the case of a hard constraint on long-run damages. Scientists are currently highlighting the potential importance of the cumulative carbon emissions concept as a robust yet flexible target for climate policymakers. This paper shows that it also has an ethical interpretation: it embodies an implicit trade off in global welfare between present discounted welfare and long-term climate damages. We hope that further development of the ideas presented here might contribute to the research and policy debate on the critical areas of intra- and intergenerational welfare.

  15. The Algebra of the Cumulative Percent Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Andrew J.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to help students avoid some pervasive reasoning errors in solving cumulative percent problems. Discusses the meaning of ."%+b%." the additive inverse of ."%." and other useful applications. Emphasizes the operational aspect of the cumulative percent concept. (KHR)

  16. Adaptive strategies for cumulative cultural learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehn, Micael; Laland, Kevin

    2012-05-21

    The demographic and ecological success of our species is frequently attributed to our capacity for cumulative culture. However, it is not yet known how humans combine social and asocial learning to generate effective strategies for learning in a cumulative cultural context. Here we explore how cumulative culture influences the relative merits of various pure and conditional learning strategies, including pure asocial and social learning, critical social learning, conditional social learning and individual refiner strategies. We replicate the Rogers' paradox in the cumulative setting. However, our analysis suggests that strategies that resolved Rogers' paradox in a non-cumulative setting may not necessarily evolve in a cumulative setting, thus different strategies will optimize cumulative and non-cumulative cultural learning.

  17. Linking project-based production and project management temporary systems in multiple contexts: An introduction to the special edition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon AG Oerlemans

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available As organisations in more and more industries look for flexible ways of production in the wake of rapidly changing market environments, project-based organising is becoming an increasingly important mode of organisation (Eisenhardt & Tabrizi, 1995. Whereas project-based organisation was traditionally mainly the domain of industries such as film making (Sorenson & Waguespack, 2006, theatre (Goodman & Goodman, 1976, and construction (Gann & Salter, 2000, a project-based mode of operation has recently pervaded many other sectors in the economy, including software development, advertising, biotechnology, consulting, emergency response, fashion, television and complex products and systems (Grabher, 2004; Hobday, 2000. This increasing prevalence is reflected in an exponentially growing body of research (Bakker, 2010, which has made marked progress in areas such as project-based learning (Prencipe & Tell, 2001, project-based innovation (Eisenhardt & Tabrizi, 1995 and project-based careers (Jones, 1996. As a consequence, research on project organisation has moved from being a narrow specialty domain toward being a broad research paradigm, attending to a broad audience in organisation science and beyond (Sydow et al., 2004. In a fairly recent review paper, Bakker (2010 shows that in the period 1988–2008 scholarly attention, as indicated by publications in books and ISI-indexed journals, grew exponentially (see Figure 1. Comparing the number of publications in the period 1988-1998 with the period 1998–2008, he observed an increase of almost 340%.

  18. Improved Lunar and Martian Regolith Simulant Production Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The technical objective of the Phase II project is to provide a more complete investigation of the long-term needs of the simulant community based on the updated...

  19. impact of projected climate change on agricultural production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    ... 2065) climate data. The climate change projections data from global climate models were downscaled using self-organising maps technique. ... met resistance in favour of maize (Zea mays L.). ..... interest: Report of the Commision for Africa.

  20. A Resource Cost Aware Cumulative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonis, Helmut; Hadzic, Tarik

    We motivate and introduce an extension of the well-known cumulative constraint which deals with time and volume dependent cost of resources. Our research is primarily interested in scheduling problems under time and volume variable electricity costs, but the constraint equally applies to manpower scheduling when hourly rates differ over time and/or extra personnel incur higher hourly rates. We present a number of possible lower bounds on the cost, including a min-cost flow, different LP and MIP models, as well as greedy algorithms, and provide a theoretical and experimental comparison of the different methods.

  1. Investigation of Contemporary Performance Measurement Systems for Production Management of Renovation Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yash Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Renovation projects exhibit complex characteristics due to the presence of constraints that lead to cost and schedule overruns. Numerous researchers have concluded that the performance of renovation projects is typically lower than that of new construction projects. This paper discusses the initial phases of a research conducted at Michigan State University, which focused on developing a framework for production management of renovation projects. The emphasis of this paper is on the findings from literature review and interviews, pertinent to performance measurement in renovation projects that led to the framework development. However, the framework development and the framework itself have not been discussed. This paper primarily addresses two questions: (1 what are the complexities of renovation projects that lead to underperformance in cost, time, and quality? and (2 what are the limitations of state-of-the-art construction performance measurement systems for managing production in renovation projects? Interviews of 10 construction companies were conducted to identify current practices of production management in renovation projects. This research observed a lack of a formal production management process in renovation projects, with a limited use of performance measurement systems. The research identified essential attributes for avoiding schedule and cost overruns on renovation projects.

  2. A paradox of cumulative culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yutaka; Wakano, Joe Yuichiro; Ohtsuki, Hisashi

    2015-08-21

    Culture can grow cumulatively if socially learnt behaviors are improved by individual learning before being passed on to the next generation. Previous authors showed that this kind of learning strategy is unlikely to be evolutionarily stable in the presence of a trade-off between learning and reproduction. This is because culture is a public good that is freely exploited by any member of the population in their model (cultural social dilemma). In this paper, we investigate the effect of vertical transmission (transmission from parents to offspring), which decreases the publicness of culture, on the evolution of cumulative culture in both infinite and finite population models. In the infinite population model, we confirm that culture accumulates largely as long as transmission is purely vertical. It turns out, however, that introduction of even slight oblique transmission drastically reduces the equilibrium level of culture. Even more surprisingly, if the population size is finite, culture hardly accumulates even under purely vertical transmission. This occurs because stochastic extinction due to random genetic drift prevents a learning strategy from accumulating enough culture. Overall, our theoretical results suggest that introducing vertical transmission alone does not really help solve the cultural social dilemma problem. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of correlation on cumulants in heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, D K; Netrakanti, P K

    2015-01-01

    We study the effects of correlation on cumulants and their ratios of net-proton multiplicity distribution which have been measured for central (0-5\\%) Au+Au collisions at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This effect has been studied assuming individual proton and anti-proton distributions as Poisson or Negative Binomial Distribution (NBD). In-spite of significantly correlated production due to baryon number, electric charge conservation and kinematical correlations of protons and anti-protons, the measured cumulants of net-proton distribution follow the independent production model. In the present work we demonstrate how the introduction of correlations will affect the cumulants and their ratios for the difference distributions. We have also demonstrated this study using the proton and anti-proton distributions obtained from HIJING event generator.

  4. Effects of Lean Work Organization and Industrialization on Workflow and Productive Time in Housing Renovation Projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijhoef, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents work aimed at improved organization and performance of production in housing renovation projects. The purpose is to explore and demonstrate the potential of lean work organization and industrialized product technology to improve workflow and productive time. The research included

  5. Energy production forecasting, experiences from Lillgrund. Lillgrund Pilot Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Lasse; Schelander, Peter; Haakansson, Maans; Hansson, Johan (Vattenfall Vindkraft AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-01-15

    Forecasts of energy production at Lillgrund are being made with the prediction tool WPPT. The forecasts are updated every hour with observed wind- and production data. WPPT combines statistical and physical methods and the nature of the model changes with time. In the very short range, the observed data is the dominant factor predicting energy production while the physical methods, e.g. the weather forecasts, gradually are given more weight as we go further away from the production hour. Until recently Vattenfall has relied solely on weather forecasts from one institute, namely DMI (The Danish Meteorological Institute), in predicting the energy produced at Lillgrund. The uncertainty in the forecast has been given some attention but since only one source of information has been available the possibilities of a comprehensive uncertainty analysis has been limited. To meet the growing demand for quality and delivery reliability, Vattenfall has begun to purchase additional weather data from the Swedish supplier WeatherTech Scandinavia. These data will be used together with data from DMI. You get a kind of ensemble forecast approach. The difference in structure, configuration and physical approaches of the models presumably makes the model related forecast errors uncorrelated. This lays the path for quality improvements when the different forecasts are combined optimally. WPPT has been used in forecasting the energy production at Lillgrund since production began in 2007. The average absolute error in the production forecast / turbine is 0.17 MW. If WPPT only relied on a persistence forecast for the next 24 hours the error will become almost three times as high. So far WPPT has a skill score of 86% in the 24-hour forecasts compared to an assumption of persistence. There is a clearly visible pattern that WPPT underestimates production in situations with strong winds and conversely overestimate production when winds are weak. This is also typical for pure persistence

  6. 'Project launch': from research finding to therapeutic product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevc, Gregor

    2014-01-23

    Only 0.1-0.5% of new therapy candidates gains marketing approval; just 10-20% of the approved ones ultimately recoup the ~0.6-0.9$USbn invested into their R&D until marketing authorisation. One reason is the high inherent risk of new therapeutic products development. Further reasons are suboptimal decisions during R&D and, too often, lack of adequate experience. To bridge the latter gap, this article succinctly reviews identification of new product opportunities and their patent protection, the resulting commercial opportunity and portfolio valuation, planning and conduct of the ensuing preclinical and clinical tests, as well as therapeutic product registration and price reimbursement, covering risk management as an aside. The article also clarifies the key terms, identifies the main pit falls, highlights the essential requirements for and the goals of different product development steps, to facilitate communication between researchers and developers. By combining public information with personal experience and recommendations the article aims at informing more broadly those who are familiar mainly with some of the (strictly regulated) activities involved in design, development and launch of new therapeutic products, be it that they are medicinal products or medical devices. Taken together, this should support initiation and evolution of new therapeutic products and assist researchers in finding-and better and more smoothly co-operating with-consultants or partners in development and marketing.

  7. Knowledge Based Product Configuration - a documentatio tool for configuration projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Malis, Martin

    2003-01-01

    How can complex product models be documented in a formalised way that consider both development and maintenance? The need for an effective documentation tool has emerged in order to document the development of product models. The product models have become more and more complex and comprehensive....... A lot of knowledge isput into these systems and many domain experts are involved. This calls for an effective documentation system in order to structure this knowledge in a way that fits to the systems. Standard configuration systems do not support this kind of documentation. The chapter deals...

  8. Projects, Products and Services: Celebrating 75 Years of Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    crest of a wave, and I believe the Omaha District is operating at its historic zenith regarding high energy and delivery of outstanding projects...August 1962. The dam now provides po/lutlorrtree hydropower energy to Nebraska, Minnesota, Montana, and North and south Dakota. closure efforts at Oahe...the District. One River, Three Controls Located in the shadows of the Rocky Mountains and urban skyscrapers of the Denver metropolitan area, the

  9. DOE Project 353: TAMS Prototype and production coupling alignment units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, K.V.

    1996-02-01

    TAMS is an electronic measurement system used to determine the alignment of turbine-generator shafts at the coupling interface. The displacement transducer is a strain gage based sensor mounted in a portable probe. The measurement system was experiencing zero input drift and temperature induced drift. This project endeavored to determine the source of these problems and to revise a unit to be returned to a customer, Baltimore Gas and Electric (BGE), within a period of five weeks.

  10. Daye Nonferrous Metals 300,000t/a copper rod project started production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>In early May,the 300,000 t/a Low Oxidizing Copper Rod Project of Hubei Daye Nonferrous Metals Co.,Ltd("Daye Nonferrous Metals")started production.As the first copper deep processing project independently invested and constructed by Daye Nonferrous Metals,this project can fully utilize its cathode copper raw material advantage to manufacture low oxidizing copper

  11. Improved Combustion Products Monitor for the ISS Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Compound Specific Analyzer – Combustion Products, used on the International Space Station as a warning monitor of smoldering or combustion events, is being...

  12. Propellant and Terrestrial Fuel Production from Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Build and test in a relevant environment a Mars propellant production plant of an appropriate scale for an initial demonstration on Mars. It will produce sufficient...

  13. Improved Combustion Products Monitor for the ISS Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Compound Specific Analyzer - Combustion Products is used on the International Space Station as a warning monitor of smoldering or combustion events and, after...

  14. In Situ Oxygen Production from Lunar and Martian Regolith Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In situ oxygen production is of immense importance to NASA in the support of the NASA initiative to sustain man's permanent presence in space. The oxygen produced...

  15. Improvement of the Biogas Production Process : Explorative project (EP1)

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Anna; Björn, Annika; Sepehr, Shakeri Yekta; Svensson, Bo

    2014-01-01

    There are several ways to improve biogas production in anaerobic digestion processes and a number of strategies may be chosen. Increased organic loading in existing plants will in most cases demand the introduction of new substrate types. However, to substantially increase the Swedish biogas production new, large-scale biogas plants digesting new substrate types need to be established. Better utilization of existing digester volumes can be linked to:  Increase of organic loading rates and/or ...

  16. Separating variability concerns in a product line re-engineering project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubaux, Arnaud; Heymans, Patrick; Unphon, Hataichanok

    2008-01-01

    Feature diagrams have now become common variability models in software product lines engineering literature. Whereas ongoing research keeps improving their expressiveness, formalisation, and automation, open studies of their usage in real projects are still missing. This paper intends to (1...

  17. Green technology foresight of products and materials - some reflections and results from an ongoing Danish project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Pedersen, Thomas Thoning; Falch, Morten

    2005-01-01

    The article presents some methodological and theoretical reflections and some preliminary results from a Danish Green Technology Foresight project about environmental friendly products and materials, where the environmental potentials and risks from three technology areas are analysed: nano- bio...

  18. Polyfire project- an example of an industrial research project promoting safe industrial production of fire-resistant nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero, C.; López de Ipiña, J.; Galarza, N.; Hargreaves, B.; Weager, B.; Breen, C.

    2011-07-01

    New developments based on nanotechnology have to guarantee safe products and processes to be accepted by society. The Polyfire project will develop and scale-up techniques for processing halogen-free, fire-retardant nanocomposite materials and coatings based on unsaturated polyester resins and organoclays. The project includes a work package that will assess the Health and Environmental impacts derived from the manipulation of nanoparticles. This work package includes the following tasks: (1) Identification of Health and Environment Impacts derived from the processes, (2) Experimentation to study specific Nanoparticle Emissions, (3) Development of a Risk Management Methodology for the process, and (4) A Comparison of the Health and Environmental Impact of New and Existing Materials. To date, potential exposure scenarios to nanomaterials have been identified through the development of a Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA) of the new production processes. In the next step, these scenarios will be studied and simulated to evaluate potential emissions of nanomaterials. Polyfire is a collaborative European project, funded by the European Commission 7th Framework Programme (Grant Agreement No 229220). It features 11 partners from 5 countries (5 SMEs, 3 research institutes, 2 large companies, 1 association) and runs for three years (1st September 2009 - 31st August 2012). This project is an example of an industrial research development which aims to introduce to the market new products promoting the safe use of nanomaterials.

  19. Polyfire project- an example of an industrial research project promoting safe industrial production of fire-resistant nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaquero, C; Lopez de Ipina, J; Galarza, N [TECNALIA, Leonardo Da Vinci No 11, 01510 Minano (Alava) (Spain); Hargreaves, B; Weager, B [NetComposites Ltd, 4A Broom Business Park, Chesterfield S41 9QG (United Kingdom); Breen, C, E-mail: celinav@leia.es [Materials and Engineering Research Institute, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield S1 1WB (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-06

    New developments based on nanotechnology have to guarantee safe products and processes to be accepted by society. The Polyfire project will develop and scale-up techniques for processing halogen-free, fire-retardant nanocomposite materials and coatings based on unsaturated polyester resins and organoclays. The project includes a work package that will assess the Health and Environmental impacts derived from the manipulation of nanoparticles. This work package includes the following tasks: (1) Identification of Health and Environment Impacts derived from the processes, (2) Experimentation to study specific Nanoparticle Emissions, (3) Development of a Risk Management Methodology for the process, and (4) A Comparison of the Health and Environmental Impact of New and Existing Materials. To date, potential exposure scenarios to nanomaterials have been identified through the development of a Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA) of the new production processes. In the next step, these scenarios will be studied and simulated to evaluate potential emissions of nanomaterials. Polyfire is a collaborative European project, funded by the European Commission 7th Framework Programme (Grant Agreement No 229220). It features 11 partners from 5 countries (5 SMEs, 3 research institutes, 2 large companies, 1 association) and runs for three years (1st September 2009 - 31st August 2012). This project is an example of an industrial research development which aims to introduce to the market new products promoting the safe use of nanomaterials.

  20. The RIB production target for the SPES project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monetti, Alberto; Andrighetto, Alberto; Petrovich, Carlo; Manzolaro, Mattia; Corradetti, Stefano; Scarpa, Daniele; Rossetto, Francesco; Martinez Dominguez, Fernando; Vasquez, Jesus; Rossignoli, Massimo; Calderolla, Michele; Silingardi, Roberto; Mozzi, Aldo; Borgna, Francesca; Vivian, Gianluca; Boratto, Enrico; Ballan, Michele; Prete, Gianfranco; Meneghetti, Giovanni

    2015-10-01

    Facilities making use of the Isotope Separator On-Line (ISOL) method for the production of Radioactive Ion Beams (RIB) attract interest because they can be used for nuclear structure and reaction studies, astrophysics research and interdisciplinary applications. The ISOL technique is based on the fast release of the nuclear reaction products from the chosen target material together with their ionization into short-lived nuclei beams. Within this context, the SPES (Selective Production of Exotic Species) facility is now under construction in Italy at INFN-LNL (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare — Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro). The SPES facility will produce RIBs mainly from n-rich isotopes obtained by a 40 MeV cyclotron proton beam (200 μA) directly impinging on a uranium carbide multi-foil fission target. The aim of this work is to describe and update, from a comprehensive point of view, the most important results obtained by the analysis of the on-line behavior of the SPES production target assembly. In particular an improved target configuration has been studied by comparing different codes and physics models: the thermal analyses and the isotope production are re-evaluated. Then some consequent radioprotection aspects, which are essential for the installation and operation of the facility, are presented.

  1. The RIB production target for the SPES project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monetti, Alberto [viale dell' Universita 2, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy); University of Padua, Department of Industrial Engineering (DII), Padova (Italy); Andrighetto, Alberto; Manzolaro, Mattia; Corradetti, Stefano; Scarpa, Daniele; Rossetto, Francesco; Vasquez, Jesus; Rossignoli, Massimo; Calderolla, Michele; Silingardi, Roberto; Mozzi, Aldo; Vivian, Gianluca; Boratto, Enrico; Ballan, Michele; Prete, Gianfranco [viale dell' Universita 2, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy); Petrovich, Carlo [ENEA, Bologna (Italy); Martinez Dominguez, Fernando [viale dell' Universita 2, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy); ESS Bilbao, Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, Madrid (Spain); Borgna, Francesca [viale dell' Universita 2, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy); University of Padua, Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, Padova (Italy); Meneghetti, Giovanni [University of Padua, Department of Industrial Engineering (DII), Padova (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Facilities making use of the Isotope Separator On-Line (ISOL) method for the production of Radioactive Ion Beams (RIB) attract interest because they can be used for nuclear structure and reaction studies, astrophysics research and interdisciplinary applications. The ISOL technique is based on the fast release of the nuclear reaction products from the chosen target material together with their ionization into short-lived nuclei beams. Within this context, the SPES (Selective Production of Exotic Species) facility is now under construction in Italy at INFN-LNL (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro). The SPES facility will produce RIBs mainly from n-rich isotopes obtained by a 40 MeV cyclotron proton beam (200 μA) directly impinging on a uranium carbide multi-foil fission target. The aim of this work is to describe and update, from a comprehensive point of view, the most important results obtained by the analysis of the on-line behavior of the SPES production target assembly. In particular an improved target configuration has been studied by comparing different codes and physics models: the thermal analyses and the isotope production are re-evaluated. Then some consequent radioprotection aspects, which are essential for the installation and operation of the facility, are presented. (orig.)

  2. Association between diastolic blood pressure and cumulative work time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cordeiro

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Diastolic blood pressure was viewed as a generic indicator of aging, and its association with cumulative work time was studied after controlling for age as a potential confounding factor. The study was conducted among production line workers at a Brazilian tannery in July 1993. The association between diastolic blood pressure and cumulative work time was verified by fitting a second-order linear regression model, where diastolic blood pressure was a function of worker's age and cumulative work time. By fitting the model, one can predict that, in the beginning of working life at the tannery, on average each 1-year period is associated with an increase of about 1.5 mmHg in diastolic blood pressure. The fit obtained highlights one component directly associated with work as part of the rate of pressure increase in the study group. This component is twice as high as that directly associated with age.

  3. PBMR fuel sphere production facility project Pelindaba, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braehler, G.; Buettner, K.; Froschauer, K.; Kress, W. [NUKEM GmbH, Alzenau (Germany)

    2006-11-15

    Due to the dramatically continuous increasing world wide demand on energy and the efforts in reducing CO{sub 2} emissions nuclear power is again being taken more and more under serious consideration. Here the HTR technology is especially considered due to its unique safety features, based on the modular design and the relatively small reactor core. The high temperature level opens the opportunity to produce hydrogen and to substitute fossil fuels for process heat generation. The development of the modular HTR technology in Germany started in the late 1970ies. Besides the modular reactor design and the small dimensioned reactor core design itself, the major safety features of the HTR technology are based on the fuel element as such. The development of the HTR fuel element in Germany has been systematically performed by NUKEM. Nowadays this technology is again being specially considered and new activities are being undertaken in the further development of this technology in numerous countries, especially in the PBMR project in South Africa. The first criticality of the South African pebble bed modular reactor is planned for 2013. In order to achieve this milestone the following time schedule for the pilot fuel plant in Pelindaba has been established. NUKEM has been involved in the PBMR PFP project form the very beginning. (orig.)

  4. Quality Improvement Project for Shelf Stable Bakery Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Harrington Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey The Center for Advanced Food Technology School of Enviromental and Biological Sciences New...captures attention of many researchers. The consequences of the staling process is the main cause for product rejection and results in huge economic

  5. Projected 21st century decrease in marine productivity: a multi-model analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Steinacher

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Changes in marine net primary productivity and export of particulate organic carbon are projected over the 21st century with three global coupled carbon cycle-climate models. These include representations of marine ecosystems and the carbon cycle of different structure and complexity. All three models show a decrease in global mean marine productivity and export production between 7 and 20% by 2100 relative to preindustrial conditions, for the SRES A2 emission scenario. Two different regimes for productivity changes are consistently identified in all three models. The first chain of mechanisms is dominant in the low- and mid-latitude ocean and in the North Atlantic: reduced input of macro-nutrients into the euphotic zone related to enhanced stratification, reduced mixed layer depth, and slowed circulation causes a decrease in macro-nutrient concentrations and in productivity and export of particulate organic carbon. The second regime is projected for parts of the Southern Ocean: an alleviation of light and/or temperature limitation leads to an increase in primary and export production as productivity is fueled by a sustained nutrient input. A region of disagreement among the models is the Arctic, where two models project an increase in productivity while one model projects a decrease. Projected changes in seasonal and interannual variability are modest in most regions. Regional model skill metrics are proposed to generate multi-model mean fields that show an improved skill in representing observations compared to a simple multi-model average. Model results are compared to recent productivity projections with three different algorithms, usually applied to infer primary production from satellite observations.

  6. Static scheduling in consideration of resource categories in collaborative product development project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingzi Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In collaborative product development project plan phase, a reasonable allocation plan can shorten project duration. Static scheduling is a useful way to obtain the allocation result. Matching degree and resource categories are introduced into the standard model of multi-mode resource-constrained project scheduling problem to reflect the resource characteristics including three aspects: (1 human resource is different from technology resource, (2 different technology resources will influence project duration, and (3 technology resource quantities also influence duration. Aimed at two static scheduling models, simple genetic algorithm and two-layer parthenogenetic algorithm are designed. Finally, a case study was presented to validate the method.

  7. Operations Strategy Development in Project-based Production – a building contractor implements Lean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Friis, Ole Uhrskov

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To study how operations strategy innovation occurs in project-based production and organisation. Design/methodology/approach: A longitudinal case study encompassing the processes at the company headquarters and in two projects using Lean. Findings: The operations strategy development...... commences at a middle level in the organisation, is underpinned and embedded in production projects, and only after several years becomes embedded in the corporate operations strategy. The projects use Lean principles in a differentiated manner. Research limitations/implications: A qualitative case study...... operations strategy development. Originality/value: The present study contributes to the small body of studies of operations strategy development processes by providing insight into how project-based companies renew their operations strategy. Key words: Lean, Construction, Operations Strategy, Political...

  8. Lithium Resources and Production: Critical Assessment and Global Projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve H. Mohr

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper critically assesses if accessible lithium resources are sufficient for expanded demand due to lithium battery electric vehicles. The ultimately recoverable resources (URR of lithium globally were estimated at between 19.3 (Case 1 and 55.0 (Case 3 Mt Li; Best Estimate (BE was 23.6 Mt Li. The Mohr 2010 model was modified to project lithium supply. The Case 1 URR scenario indicates sufficient lithium for a 77% maximum penetration of lithium battery electric vehicles in 2080 whereas supply is adequate to beyond 2200 in the Case 3 URR scenario. Global lithium demand approached a maximum of 857 kt Li/y, with a 100% penetration of lithium vehicles, 3.5 people per car and 10 billion population.

  9. Power plant project success through total productive generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaivola, R.; Tamminen, L.

    1996-11-01

    The Total Productive Generation concept (TPG) defines the lines of action adopted by IVO Generation Services Ltd (IGS) for the operation and maintenance of power plants. The TPG concept is based on procedures tested in practice. The main idea of TPG is continuous development of quality, which is a joint effort of the entire staff. Its objective is to benefit IGS`s own staff and, in particular, the company`s customers. (orig.)

  10. Power plant project success through total productive generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaivola, R.; Tamminen, L.

    1996-11-01

    The Total Productive Generation concept (TPG) defines the lines of action adopted by IVO Generation Services Ltd (IGS) for the operation and maintenance of power plants. The TPG concept is based on procedures tested in practice. The main idea of TPG is continuous development of quality, which is a joint effort of the entire staff. Its objective is to benefit IGS`s own staff and, in particular, the company`s customers. (orig.)

  11. How to Scope a Product Configuration Project in an Engineering Company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafiee, Sara; Hvam, Lars; Bonev, Martin

    2014-01-01

    When implementing a product configuration system in a company making complex and highly engineered products, many decisions need to be made in the early phases of the project. This article presents a framework for supporting the initial scoping process and discusses experiences from applying...

  12. Tránsformation–Flow–Value as a strategic tool in Project Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Sven; Bonke, Sten

    2012-01-01

    The paper investigates the use of the Transformation-Flow-Value theory as a strategic tool in the development of the project production firm. When producing products such as ships, focus on value more than on cost may be the best approach, but in service industries such as construction, focus...

  13. Scoping a Product Configuration Project for Engineer-to-Order Companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafiee, Sara; Hvam, Lars; Bonev, Martin

    2014-01-01

    When implementing a product configuration system in a company making complex and highly engineered products, many decisions need to be made in the early phases of the project. This article presents a framework for supporting the initial scoping process and discusses experiences from applying...

  14. Cumulate Fragments in Silicic Ignimbrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, O.; Ellis, B. S.; Wolff, J.

    2014-12-01

    Increasingly, studies are concluding that silicic ignimbrites are the result of the amalgamation of multiple discrete magma batches. Yet the existence of discrete batches presents a conundrum for magma generation and storage; if silicic magma batches are not generated nearly in situ in the upper crust, they must traverse, and reside within, a thermally hostile environment with large temperature gradients, resulting in low survivability in their shallow magmatic hearths. The Snake River Plain (Idaho, USA) is a type example of this 'multi-batch' assembly with ignimbrites containing multiple populations of pyroxene crystals, glass shards, and crystal aggregates. The ubiquitous crystal aggregates hint at a mechanism to facilitate the existence of multiple, relatively small batches of rhyolite in the upper crust. These aggregates contain the same plagioclase, pyroxene, and oxide mineral compositions as single phenocrysts of the same minerals in their host rocks, but they have significantly less silicic bulk compositions and lack quartz and sanidine, which occur as single phenocrysts in the deposits. This implies significant crystallization followed by melt extraction from mushy reservoir margins. The extracted melt then continues to evolve (crystallizing sanidine and quartz) while the melt-depleted margins provide an increasingly rigid and refractory network segregating the crystal-poor batches of magma. The hot, refractory, margins insulate the crystal-poor lenses, allowing (1) extended residence in the upper crust, and (2) preservation of chemical heterogeneities among batches. In contrast, systems that produce cumulates richer in low-temperature phases (quartz, K-feldspars, and/or biotite) favour remelting upon recharge, leading to less segregation of eruptible melt pockets and the formation of gradationally zoned ignimbrites. The occurrence of similar crystal aggregates from a variety of magmatic lineages suggests the generality of this process.

  15. HULL INSPECTION PRODUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT FOR A NEW SHIPBUILDING PROJECT (CASE STUDY OF BIC 11.02 A NEW SHIPBUILDING PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas Endro W

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hull construction process for a new shipbuilding project usualy consist of a set of stages. Starting from material identification, marking, cutting fabrication, assembly and testing. For many shipyard hull inspection activity and hull production stages are joined to simplify production progress monitoring. A 20% credit given for inspection activity. Inspection activities particulary for hull construction which consist of inspection and repair work. Schedule slip of a new shipbuilding is very potencial. This condition is met when man power allocation and work priority are not set properly. Therefore, a clear parameter which conduct with inspection productivity to production manager should be provided. This parameter could help production manager to determine priority of repair work. In this case, differences parameter between production that is using pane measurement and inspection that is using compartement measurement. These two different parameter could make difficulties, particulary when production manager want to know how much progess has been done. A new method to converting the two different parameter has become a topic of this paper

  16. Characteristic classes of symmetric products of complex quasi-projective varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Cappell, Sylvain E; Schuermann, Joerg; Shaneson, Julius L; Yokura, Shoji

    2010-01-01

    We prove a generating series formula for the characteristic classes of symmetric powers of complexes of mixed Hodge modules on the corresponding symmetric products of a complex quasi-projective variety. As a special case, we obtain a generating series formula for the Brasselet-Schuermann-Yokura (intersection) homology Hirzebruch classes of symmetric products. Moreover, after a suitable re-normalization procedure, we recover as a corollary Ohmoto's generating series formula for the rationalized MacPherson homology Chern classes of symmetric products.

  17. Cumulative human impacts on marine predators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maxwell, Sara M; Hazen, Elliott L; Bograd, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Stressors associated with human activities interact in complex ways to affect marine ecosystems, yet we lack spatially explicit assessments of cumulative impacts on ecologically and economically key components such as marine predators. Here we develop a metric of cumulative utilization and impact...

  18. OPTIMIZATION OF TIMES AND COSTS OF PROJECT OF HORIZONTAL LAMINATOR PRODUCTION USING PERT/CPM TECHNICAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Henrique Lermen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The PERT/CPM is a technique widely used in both the scheduling and in the project feasibility in terms of cost control and time.  In order to optimize time and costs involved in production, the work presented here aims to apply the PERT/CPM technique in the production project of the Horizontal Laminator, a machine used to cut polyurethane foam blocks in the mattresses industries. For the application of PERT/CPM technique in the project of Horizontal Laminator production were identified the activities that compose the project, the dependence between them, the normal and accelerated durations and the normal and accelerated costs. In this study, deterministic estimates for the duration of the activities were considered. The results show that the project can be completed in 520 hours at a total cost of R$7,042.50, when all activities are performed in their normal durations.  When all the activities that compose the critical path are accelerated, the project can be completed in 333.3 hours at a total cost of R$9,263.01. If the activities slacks have been exploited, it can obtain a final total cost of R$6,157.8, without changing the new duration of the project. It is noteworthy that the final total cost of the project if the slacks are used, will be lower than the initial cost. Regarding the initial cost of the project, after the application of the PERT/CPM technique, it presents a decrease of 12.56% of the total project cost.

  19. The ATLAS Fast Monte Carlo Production Chain Project

    CERN Document Server

    Jansky, Roland Wolfgang; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    During the last years ATLAS has successfully deployed a new integrated simulation framework (ISF) which allows a flexible mixture of full and fast detector simulation techniques within the processing of one event. The thereby achieved possible speed-up in detector simulation of up to a factor 100 makes subsequent digitization and reconstruction the dominant contributions to the Monte Carlo (MC) production CPU cost. The slowest components of both digitization and reconstruction are inside the Inner Detector due to the complex signal modeling needed in the emulation of the detector readout and in reconstruction due to the combinatorial nature of the problem to solve, respectively. Alternative fast approaches have been developed for these components: for the silicon based detectors a simpler geometrical clustering approach has been deployed replacing the charge drift emulation in the standard digitization modules, which achieves a very high accuracy in describing the standard output. For the Inner Detector track...

  20. The ATLAS Fast Monte Carlo Production Chain Project

    CERN Document Server

    Jansky, Roland Wolfgang; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    During the last years ATLAS has successfully deployed a new integrated simulation framework (ISF) which allows a flexible mixture of full and fast detector simulation techniques within the processing of one event. With the ISF, the simulation execution speed could be increased up to a factor 100, which makes subsequent digitisation and reconstruction processing the dominant contributions to the MC production CPU cost. The slowest components of both digitisation and reconstruction are within the Inner Detector due to the complex signal modelling needed in the emulation of the detector readout and in reconstruction due to the combinatorial nature of the problem to solve, respectively. Alternative fast approaches have been developed for these components: for the silicon based detectors a simpler geometrical clustering approach has been deployed replacing the charge drift emulation in the standard digitisation modules, and achieves a very high accuracy in describing the standard output. For the Inner Detector tra...

  1. Marginal Productivity Gained Through Prefabrication: Case Studies of Building Projects in Auckland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajiha Shahzad

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have documented benefits of prefabrication system (prefab compared to the traditional building system (TBS. However, the documented benefits have been anecdotal or fragmented with reports of isolated case study projects. Few studies have looked at the objectively quantified benefits from statistical significance point of view and across building types in New Zealand. This study contributes to filling this knowledge gap by analyzing cost and time-savings, and productivity improvement achievable by the use of prefab in place of the TBS. Records of completion times and final contract values of 66 building projects implemented using prefab in Auckland were collected. The building types included commercial, houses, apartments, educational, and community buildings. The project details included final contract sums, completion dates, gross floor areas, and number of floors. Based on these details, the equivalent completion times and the final cost estimates for similar buildings implemented using the TBS were obtained from the Rawlinsons construction data handbook and feedback from some designers and contractors. Marginal productivity outcome for each building project was computed as the product of the cost and time-savings achieved using the prefab. Results showed that the use of prefab in place of TBS resulted in 34% and 19% average reductions in the completion times and costs, respectively. This also translated to overall 7% average improvement in the productivity outcomes in the building projects. Univariate ANOVA-based hypothesis test results showed that ‘building type’ had no significant effects on the cost and productivity improvement outcomes, but had significant effect on the time savings analyzed in the case study projects. The greatest productivity gain of 11% was achieved in house projects. These evidence-based results could guide optimized use of prefab for specific building application. The hypothesis-testing outcome

  2. Analyzing Integrated Cost-Schedule Risk for Complex Product Systems R&D Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of the research efforts in project risk management tend to assess cost risk and schedule risk independently. However, project cost and time are related in reality and the relationship between them should be analyzed directly. We propose an integrated cost and schedule risk assessment model for complex product systems R&D projects. Graphical evaluation review technique (GERT, Monte Carlo simulation, and probability distribution theory are utilized to establish the model. In addition, statistical analysis and regression analysis techniques are employed to analyze simulation outputs. Finally, a complex product systems R&D project as an example is modeled by the proposed approach and the simulation outputs are analyzed to illustrate the effectiveness of the risk assessment model. It seems that integrating cost and schedule risk assessment can provide more reliable risk estimation results.

  3. Guide for prioritizing power plant productivity improvement projects: handbook of availability improvement methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-09-15

    As part of its program to help improve electrical power plant productivity, the Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a methodology for evaluating productivity improvement projects. This handbook presents a simplified version of this methodology called the Availability Improvement Methodology (AIM), which provides a systematic approach for prioritizing plant improvement projects. Also included in this handbook is a description of data taking requirements necessary to support the AIM methodology, benefit/cost analysis, and root cause analysis for tracing persistent power plant problems. In applying the AIM methodology, utility engineers should be mindful that replacement power costs are frequently greater for forced outages than for planned outages. Equivalent availability includes both. A cost-effective ranking of alternative plant improvement projects must discern between those projects which will reduce forced outages and those which might reduce planned outages. As is the case with any analytical procedure, engineering judgement must be exercised with respect to results of purely mathematical calculations.

  4. Linking climate change projections for an Alaskan watershed to future coho salmon production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppi, Jason C; Rinella, Daniel J; Wilson, Ryan R; Loya, Wendy M

    2014-06-01

    Climate change is predicted to dramatically change hydrologic processes across Alaska, but estimates of how these impacts will influence specific watersheds and aquatic species are lacking. Here, we linked climate, hydrology, and habitat models within a coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) population model to assess how projected climate change could affect survival at each freshwater life stage and, in turn, production of coho salmon smolts in three subwatersheds of the Chuitna (Chuit) River watershed, Alaska. Based on future climate scenarios and projections from a three-dimensional hydrology model, we simulated coho smolt production over a 20-year span at the end of the century (2080-2100). The direction (i.e., positive vs. negative) and magnitude of changes in smolt production varied substantially by climate scenario and subwatershed. Projected smolt production decreased in all three subwatersheds under the minimum air temperature and maximum precipitation scenario due to elevated peak flows and a resulting 98% reduction in egg-to-fry survival. In contrast, the maximum air temperature and minimum precipitation scenario led to an increase in smolt production in all three subwatersheds through an increase in fry survival. Other climate change scenarios led to mixed responses, with projected smolt production increasing and decreasing in different subwatersheds. Our analysis highlights the complexity inherent in predicting climate-change-related impacts to salmon populations and demonstrates that population effects may depend on interactions between the relative magnitude of hydrologic and thermal changes and their interactions with features of the local habitat.

  5. A Framework for Sharing Knowledge in Product Development by E-collaboration through Project Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Mohammadjafari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the author has purposed electronic collaboration (E-collaboration through a project manager between different departments in a factory can create a favorable environment to development the projects in terms of time and cost. In fact, the E-collaboration is a tool in hands of project managers. For this concept the author purposes, a conceptual model for sharing knowledge, which support development product. The model uses four factors, namely, design, planning, procurement and production. In addition, these factors consist of several items separately: For design department, there are four categories: (1 standard materials (2 teamwork (3 expected level of production (4 process restrictiveness. For planning department, there are three categories: (1 schedules (2 Inventory control (3 Receive progress reports. For the procurement department, there are three categories: (1 information gathering (2 background review (3 negotiation. For production department, there are two categories: (1 check on the incoming raw materials (2 change volume of production. The performance of the conceptual model tested in terms of some objectives. This test has done by interview with 20 project managers in electronic industry in Iran. The result indicated the model has accuracy for development new products in conditions of time and cost.

  6. The impact of friendship ties on new product development student projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kylindri, Stamatia; Blanas, George; Tanev, Stoyan

    2013-01-01

    The competition between firms for more effective new product development (NPD) capabilities has posed the research question: what possibilities are there to improve traditional and knowledge based project team organisation by analysing the impact of social relationships between team members......? The authors of this article tested the hypothesis that friendships have a positive impact on project team effectiveness using the cohesion social network metric. The methodology involves a combination of qualitative and quantitative methodologies applicable to social network analysis (SNA) research...

  7. Ethanol Production from Biomass: Large Scale Facility Design Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berson, R. Eric [Univ. of Louisville, KY (United States)

    2009-10-29

    High solids processing of biomass slurries provides the following benefits: maximized product concentration in the fermentable sugar stream, reduced water usage, and reduced reactor size. However, high solids processing poses mixing and heat transfer problems above about 15% for pretreated corn stover solids due to their high viscosities. Also, highly viscous slurries require high power consumption in conventional stirred tanks since they must be run at high rotational speeds to maintain proper mixing. An 8 liter scraped surface bio-reactor (SSBR) is employed here that is designed to efficiently handle high solids loadings for enzymatic saccharification of pretreated corn stover (PCS) while maintaining power requirements on the order of low viscous liquids in conventional stirred tanks. Saccharification of biomass exhibit slow reaction rates and incomplete conversion, which may be attributed to enzyme deactivation and loss of activity due to a variety of mechanisms. Enzyme deactivation is classified into two categories here: one, deactivation due to enzyme-substrate interactions and two, deactivation due to all other factors that are grouped together and termed “non-specific” deactivation. A study was conducted to investigate the relative extents of “non-specific” deactivation and deactivation due to “enzyme-substrate interactions” and a model was developed that describes the kinetics of cellulose hydrolysis by considering the observed deactivation effects. Enzyme substrate interactions had a much more significant effect on overall deactivation with a deactivation rate constant about 20X higher than the non-specific deactivation rate constant (0.35 h-1 vs 0.018 h-1). The model is well validated by the experimental data and predicts complete conversion of cellulose within 30 hours in the absence of enzyme substrate interactions.

  8. ULTRA-CLEAN FISCHER-TROPSCH FUELS PRODUCTION AND DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Bergin

    2004-10-18

    The Report Abstract provides summaries of the past year's activities relating to each of the main project objectives. Some of the objectives will be expanded on in greater detail further down in the report. The following objectives have their own addition sections in the report: SFP Construction and Fuel Production, Impact of SFP Fuel on Engine Performance, Fleet Testing at WMATA and Denali National Park, Demonstration of Clean Diesel Fuels in Diesel Electric Generators in Alaska, and Economic Analysis. ICRC provided overall project organization and budget management for the project. ICRC held meetings with various project participants. ICRC presented at the Department of Energy's annual project review meeting. The plant began producing fuel in October 2004. The first delivery of finished fuel was made in March of 2004 after the initial start-up period.

  9. Incorporation of occupational health and safety in cleaner production projects in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2002-01-01

    occupational health and safety into the environmental activities that take place at company level. Two ways of doing so are explored, the main distinction being company size. For large companies, integration of management systems may be attractive. For small companies, integration into a less formal network......The purpose of this research is to reveal ways in which occupational health and safety can be integrated in environmental cleaner production projects. Of particular interest are those cleaner production projects that are run by the Danish government's environmental assistance agency, Danced...

  10. The Impact of Project Work and the Writing Process Method on Writing Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Díaz Ramírez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the outcomes of an investigation whose main goal was to implement the methodology of project work and a process approach in order to improve writing production in an English class of Colombian university students since their diagnostic tests showed that their written production had the lowest score. Based on data collected, four factors were developed in the process of learning to write when project work and the writing process method are implemented: accuracy, fluency, integrative language skills, and a positive perception towards writing.

  11. Experience of cumulative effects assessment in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piper Jake

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Cumulative effects assessment (CEA is a development of environmental impact assessment which attempts to take into account the wider picture of what impacts may affect the environment as a result of either multiple or linear projects, or development plans. CEA is seen as a further valuable tool in promoting sustainable development. The broader canvas upon which the assessment is made leads to a suite of issues such as complexity in methods and assessment of significance, the desirability of co-operation between developers and other parties, new ways of addressing mitigation and monitoring. After outlining the legislative position and the process of CEA, this paper looks at three cases studies in the UK where cumulative assessment has been carried out - the cases concern wind farms, major infrastructure and off-shore developments.

  12. Nonlinear cumulative damage model for multiaxial fatigue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG De-guang; SUN Guo-qin; DENG Jing; YAN Chu-liang

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of the continuum fatigue damage theory,a nonlinear uniaxial fatigue cumulative damage model is first proposed.In order to describe multiaxial fatigue damage characteristics,a nonlinear multiaxial fatigue cumulative damage model is developed based on the critical plane approach,The proposed model can consider the multiaxial fatigue limit,mean hydrostatic pressure and the unseparated characteristic for the damage variables and loading parameters.The recurrence formula of fatigue damage model was derived under multilevel loading,which is used to predict multiaxial fatigue life.The results showed that the proposed nonlinear multiaxial fatigue cumulative damage model is better than Miner's rule.

  13. Distortionary effects of a production-sharing fiscal system in a sequential modular offshore petroleum project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves de Campos, Thiago

    This research examines the distortionary effects of a discovered and undeveloped sequential modular offshore project under five different designs for a production-sharing agreement (PSA). The model differs from previous research by looking at the effect of taxation from the perspective of a host government, where the objective is to maximize government utility over government revenue generated by the project and the non-pecuniary benefits to society. This research uses Modern Asset Pricing (MAP) theory, which is able to provide a good measure of the asset value accruing to various stakeholders in the project combined with the optimal decision rule for the development of the investment opportunity. Monte Carlo simulation was also applied to incorporate into the model the most important sources of risk associated with the project and to account for non-linearity in the cash flows. For a complete evaluation of how the fiscal system affects the project development, an investor's behavioral model was constructed, incorporating three operational decisions: investment timing, capacity size and early abandonment. The model considers four sources of uncertainty that affect the project value and the firm's optimal decision: the long run oil price and short-run deviations from that price, cost escalation and the reservoir recovery rate. The optimizations outcomes show that all fiscal systems evaluated produce distortion over the companies' optimal decisions, and companies adjust their choices to avoid taxation in different ways according to the fiscal system characteristics. Moreover, it is revealed that fiscal systems with tax provisions that try to capture additional project profits based on production profitability measures leads to stronger distortions in the project investment and output profile. It is also shown that a model based on a fixed percentage rate is the system that creates the least distortion. This is because companies will be subjected to the same

  14. Projected 21st century decrease in marine productivity: a multi-model analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Steinacher

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Changes in marine net primary productivity (PP and export of particulate organic carbon (EP are projected over the 21st century with four global coupled carbon cycle-climate models. These include representations of marine ecosystems and the carbon cycle of different structure and complexity. All four models show a decrease in global mean PP and EP between 2 and 20% by 2100 relative to preindustrial conditions, for the SRES A2 emission scenario. Two different regimes for productivity changes are consistently identified in all models. The first chain of mechanisms is dominant in the low- and mid-latitude ocean and in the North Atlantic: reduced input of macro-nutrients into the euphotic zone related to enhanced stratification, reduced mixed layer depth, and slowed circulation causes a decrease in macro-nutrient concentrations and in PP and EP. The second regime is projected for parts of the Southern Ocean: an alleviation of light and/or temperature limitation leads to an increase in PP and EP as productivity is fueled by a sustained nutrient input. A region of disagreement among the models is the Arctic, where three models project an increase in PP while one model projects a decrease. Projected changes in seasonal and interannual variability are modest in most regions. Regional model skill metrics are proposed to generate multi-model mean fields that show an improved skill in representing observation-based estimates compared to a simple multi-model average. Model results are compared to recent productivity projections with three different algorithms, usually applied to infer net primary production from satellite observations.

  15. Using growth and decline factors to project VOC emissions from oil and gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Whitney; Harper, Kiera; Barickman, Patrick; Delaney, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Projecting future-year emission inventories in the oil and gas sector is complicated by the fact that there is a life cycle to the amount of production from individual wells and thus from well fields in aggregate. Here we present a method to account for that fact in support of regulatory policy development. This approach also has application to air quality modeling inventories by adding a second tier of refinement to the projection methodology. Currently, modeling studies account for the future decrease in emissions due to new regulations based on the year those regulations are scheduled to take effect. The addition of a year-by-year accounting of production decline provides a more accurate picture of emissions from older, uncontrolled sources. This proof of concept approach is focused solely on oil production; however, it could be used for the activity and components of natural gas production to compile a complete inventory for a given area.

  16. Towards a multidisciplinary understanding of product innovation: the Synopsis network project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Timothy Charles

    2002-01-01

    The product development research area has evolved from the area of engineering design, based upon the recognition that important aspects such as need, market, business, innovation of the company, technology management, etc. fuse together to form a field of competencies, containing its own...... product development is in need of deeper understanding if we are to support and continue to enjoy world class product development-based industry in Denmark. Not surprisingly, the group of researchers consists of a broad range of professional backgrounds, from mechanical engineering, through manufacturing......, psychology, anthropology, social science and operations management. The group of researchers is formally organised as a research network project, supported and part-funded by the Centre for Industrial Production at Aalborg University. The project, called "Synopsis", has a number of aims and foci...

  17. Cumulative cultural learning: Development and diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legare, Cristine H

    2017-07-24

    The complexity and variability of human culture is unmatched by any other species. Humans live in culturally constructed niches filled with artifacts, skills, beliefs, and practices that have been inherited, accumulated, and modified over generations. A causal account of the complexity of human culture must explain its distinguishing characteristics: It is cumulative and highly variable within and across populations. I propose that the psychological adaptations supporting cumulative cultural transmission are universal but are sufficiently flexible to support the acquisition of highly variable behavioral repertoires. This paper describes variation in the transmission practices (teaching) and acquisition strategies (imitation) that support cumulative cultural learning in childhood. Examining flexibility and variation in caregiver socialization and children's learning extends our understanding of evolution in living systems by providing insight into the psychological foundations of cumulative cultural transmission-the cornerstone of human cultural diversity.

  18. Calculating Cumulative Binomial-Distribution Probabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuer, Ernest M.; Bowerman, Paul N.

    1989-01-01

    Cumulative-binomial computer program, CUMBIN, one of set of three programs, calculates cumulative binomial probability distributions for arbitrary inputs. CUMBIN, NEWTONP (NPO-17556), and CROSSER (NPO-17557), used independently of one another. Reliabilities and availabilities of k-out-of-n systems analyzed. Used by statisticians and users of statistical procedures, test planners, designers, and numerical analysts. Used for calculations of reliability and availability. Program written in C.

  19. Project to Production: Digital Preservation at the Houses of Parliament, 2010–2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Fryer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Parliamentary Archives is responsible for preserving and providing access to the historical records of the UK Parliament, a collection of national, and indeed international, importance which encompasses a wide range of digital content, created and used in an ever changing environment. Since 2010 a staged project has led to the successful implementation of an operational digital repository. The transition from project to production allows the Parliamentary Archives to reflect on the organisation’s progress in digital preservation. However, the deployment of a production digital repository also allows the Parliamentary Archives to outline future goals. The project has demonstrated the viability of implementing digital preservation infrastructure. The challenge remains to embed digital preservation as a business as usual activity.

  20. Towards a multidisciplinary understanding of product innovation: the Synopsis network project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Timothy Charles

    2002-01-01

    The product development research area has evolved from the area of engineering design, based upon the recognition that important aspects such as need, market, business, innovation of the company, technology management, etc. fuse together to form a field of competencies, containing its own......, psychology, anthropology, social science and operations management. The group of researchers is formally organised as a research network project, supported and part-funded by the Centre for Industrial Production at Aalborg University. The project, called "Synopsis", has a number of aims and foci...... a set of "images of innovation" which describe the subject from each our viewpoints. The ultimate goals of the network project are to produce: 1. A framework/reference system describing companies´ innovation activities, based upon national and international research findings 2. A vocabulary with which...

  1. Cumulative cultural evolution: the role of teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Laureano; Toro, Miguel A

    2014-04-21

    In humans, cultural transmission occurs usually by cumulative inheritance, generating complex adaptive behavioral features. Cumulative culture requires key psychological processes (fundamentally imitation and teaching) that are absent or impoverished in non-human primates. In this paper we analyze the role that teaching has played in human cumulative cultural evolution. We assume that a system of cumulative culture generates increasingly adaptive behaviors, that are also more complex and difficult to imitate. Our thesis is that, as cultural traits become more complex, cumulative cultural transmission requires teaching to ensure accurate transmission from one generation to the next. In an increasingly complex cultural environment, we consider that individuals commit errors in imitation. We develop a model of cumulative cultural evolution in a changing environment and show that these errors hamper the process of cultural accumulation. We also show that a system of teaching between parents and offspring that increases the fidelity of imitation unblocks the accumulation and becomes adaptive whenever the gain in fitness compensates the cost of teaching.

  2. Human cumulative culture: a comparative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Lewis G; Vale, Gill L; Laland, Kevin N; Flynn, Emma; Kendal, Rachel L

    2014-05-01

    Many animals exhibit social learning and behavioural traditions, but human culture exhibits unparalleled complexity and diversity, and is unambiguously cumulative in character. These similarities and differences have spawned a debate over whether animal traditions and human culture are reliant on homologous or analogous psychological processes. Human cumulative culture combines high-fidelity transmission of cultural knowledge with beneficial modifications to generate a 'ratcheting' in technological complexity, leading to the development of traits far more complex than one individual could invent alone. Claims have been made for cumulative culture in several species of animals, including chimpanzees, orangutans and New Caledonian crows, but these remain contentious. Whilst initial work on the topic of cumulative culture was largely theoretical, employing mathematical methods developed by population biologists, in recent years researchers from a wide range of disciplines, including psychology, biology, economics, biological anthropology, linguistics and archaeology, have turned their attention to the experimental investigation of cumulative culture. We review this literature, highlighting advances made in understanding the underlying processes of cumulative culture and emphasising areas of agreement and disagreement amongst investigators in separate fields.

  3. Description of historical crop calendar data bases developed to support foreign commodity production forecasting project experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, W. L., III (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The content, format, and storage of data bases developed for the Foreign Commodity Production Forecasting project and used to produce normal crop calendars are described. In addition, the data bases may be used for agricultural meteorology, modeling of stage sequences and planting dates, and as indicators of possible drought and famine.

  4. The lazy project manager how to be twice as productive and still leave the office early

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Peter Taylor reveals how adopting a more focused approach to life, projects and work can make you twice as productive. The lazy project manager illustrates how anyone can apply the simple techniques of lazy project management in their own activities in order to work more effectively and consequently improve work-life balance. This 'productive laziness' approach builds on the Pareto principle that states that for many phenomena, 80 per cent of consequences stem from 20 per cent of the causes. To put it simply, only 20 per cent of the things people do during their working days really matter. Inside this insightful and informative book you'll discover: * The intelligence of laziness - why smart, lazy people have the edge over others; * Why the Jungle Book's 'Bare Necessities' should be the productive lazy theme tune; * How to get the maximum output for a minimised input; * Quick tips to productive lazy heaven. Everyone wants to achieve more without chaining themselves to their desk. By concentrating your project...

  5. Morocco - Oum Er Rbia Irrigated Agricultural Modernization Project : Helping Farmers Increase Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Bucknall, Julia; Lamrani, Hassan

    2011-01-01

    This operation provides a $70m loan for a project that would help participating farmers in the Oum Er Rbia basin increase the productivity of their farming and to promote more sustainable use of irrigation water to overcome current and future water deficits. This would be achieved by providing participating farmers with the level of irrigation service necessary for high efficiency drip irr...

  6. 7 CFR 932.45 - Production research and marketing research and development projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Research and Development § 932.45 Production research and marketing research and development projects. (a) The following activities... necessary to effectively regulate such activity. (b) In recommending marketing research and development...

  7. Productive and Inclusive? How Documentation Concealed Racialising Practices in a Diversity Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Melinda G.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how documentation concealed racialising practices in a diversity project that was seen to be productive and inclusive. Documentation examples are taken from a doctoral study about embedding Indigenous perspectives in early childhood education curricula in two Australian urban childcare centres. In place of reporting examples…

  8. Morocco - Oum Er Rbia Irrigated Agricultural Modernization Project : Helping Farmers Increase Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Bucknall, Julia; Lamrani, Hassan

    2011-01-01

    This operation provides a $70m loan for a project that would help participating farmers in the Oum Er Rbia basin increase the productivity of their farming and to promote more sustainable use of irrigation water to overcome current and future water deficits. This would be achieved by providing participating farmers with the level of irrigation service necessary for high efficiency drip irr...

  9. Nature-inspired design strategies in sustainable product development: A case study of student projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Pauw, I.C.; Karana, E.; Kandachar, P.V.

    2012-01-01

    In design practice, Nature-Inspired Design Strategies (NIDS) can be applied when developing sustainable products. However, knowledge on how this actually helps designers is lacking. This study explores the effects of applying Cradle to Cradle and Biomimicry in student projects, as compared to using

  10. Making a Natural Product Chemistry Course Meaningful with a Mini Project Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Aliefman; Liliasari; Kadarohman, Asep; Syah, Yana Maolana

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses laboratory activities that can improve the meaningfulness of natural product chemistry course. These laboratory activities can be useful for students from many different disciplines including chemistry, pharmacy, and medicine. Students at the third-year undergraduate level of chemistry education undertake the project to…

  11. Nature-inspired design strategies in sustainable product development: A case study of student projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Pauw, I.C.; Karana, E.; Kandachar, P.V.

    2012-01-01

    In design practice, Nature-Inspired Design Strategies (NIDS) can be applied when developing sustainable products. However, knowledge on how this actually helps designers is lacking. This study explores the effects of applying Cradle to Cradle and Biomimicry in student projects, as compared to using

  12. Regulation on the Appraisal Activities of The Products,Techniques and Applications Projects of BIRTV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    I General Provisions 1.The Appraisal Activities of the Products,Techniques andApplications Projects of BIRTV is held for the purpose of strengthen-ing the technical advisory work and pilot role,and providing positiveguidance and effective assistance in the field of new technology

  13. Market-based collaborative control of distributed multiple product development projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yonghan; Kumara, Soundar R. T.

    2000-12-01

    Due to the widespread availability of the Internet large scale distributed projects in manufacturing are becoming popular. We present a distributed, collaborative, and adaptive control approach for distributed multiple product development projects (DMPDP), which is a representative project environment in modern e-enterprises. In DMPDP environment, multiple project groups share and compete for limited resources to achieve their own goals. On the other hand, the shared resource divisions try to utilize their resources efficiently. We suggest that this kind of situation can be well modeled and efficiently solved by using two novel approaches: multiagent based information infrastructure and market-based control mechanism. In this paper, we formalize the DMPDP control problem, and propose a market-based negotiation mechanism called sequential market clearing (SMC) protocol. For clear presentation, some of information system design and implementation issues are also presented.

  14. Mode specificity and product energy disposal in unimolecular reactions: insights from the sudden vector projection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Guo, Hua

    2014-04-03

    A simple model is proposed to predict mode specificity and product energy disposal in unimolecular dissociation reactions. This so-called Sudden Vector Projection (SVP) model quantifies the coupling of a reactant or product mode with the reaction coordinate at the transition state by projecting the corresponding normal mode vector onto the imaginary frequency mode at the saddle point. Due to the sudden assumption, SVP predictions for mode specificity are expected to be valid only when the reactant molecule has weak intermodal coupling. On the other hand, the sudden limit is generally satisfied for its predictions of product energy disposal in unimolecular reactions with a tight barrier. The SVP model is applied to several prototypical systems and the agreement with available experimental and theoretical results is satisfactory.

  15. Technical challenges of heavy wall HFW pipe production for Bord Gais Eireann pipeline project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Dwyer, Paul [Transmission Design Manager, Cork, (Ireland); Boothbym, Peter [MACAW Engineering Ltd., Newcastle, (United Kingdom); Tazedakis, Athanasios [Corinth Pipeworks S.A, Viotia, (Greece)

    2010-07-01

    This paper deals with the pipeline recently constructed by Bord Gais Eireann near the city of Cork in The Irish Republic. The 47.5 km pipeline comprises over 30 km of 9.5 mm and 17 km of 19.1 mm wall thickness for an outside diameter of 610 mm. This paper presents the global engineering approach adopted for the project and describes more in detail the specificities of the project and the challenges faced during production. One of the difficulties encountered was to manufacture a high strength pipeline of 19.1 mm wall thickness for HFW produced pipeline. The chemical composition of the 19.1 mm coil strip had also required new developments to accommodate the demanding drop weight tear test toughness requirement. Several methods were applied to mitigate potential risks such as increase of initial production test frequency, close monitoring during pipe production, identification of potential construction issues and the weldability performance were also tested.

  16. The Umatilla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation Project, 2008 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contor, Craig R.; Harris, Robin; King, Marty [Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation

    2009-06-10

    The Umatilla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation Project (UBNPMEP) is funded by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as directed by section 4(h) of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 (P.L.96-501). This project is in accordance with and pursuant to measures 4.2A, 4.3C.1, 7.1A.2, 7.1C.3, 7.1C.4 and 7.1D.2 of the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NPPC) Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Work was conducted by the Fisheries Program of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR). The UBNPMEP is coordinated with two Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) research projects that also monitor and evaluate the success of the Umatilla Fisheries Restoration Plan. This project deals with the natural production component of the plan, and the ODFW projects evaluate hatchery operations (project No. 1990-005-00, Umatilla Hatchery M & E) and smolt outmigration (project No. 1989-024-01, Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River). Collectively these three projects monitor and evaluate natural and hatchery salmonid production in the Umatilla River Basin. The need for natural production monitoring has been identified in multiple planning documents including Wy-Kan-Ush-Mi Wa-Kish-Wit Volume I, 5b-13 (CRITFC 1996), the Umatilla Hatchery Master Plan (CTUIR & ODFW 1990), the Umatilla Basin Annual Operation Plan, the Umatilla Subbasin Summary (CTUIR & ODFW 2001), the Subbasin Plan (CTUIR & ODFW 2004), and the Comprehensive Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation Plan (CTUIR and ODFW 2006). Natural production monitoring and evaluation is also consistent with Section III, Basinwide Provisions, Strategy 9 of the 2000 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994, NPCC 2004). The Umatilla Basin M&E plan developed along with efforts to restore natural populations of spring and fall Chinook salmon, (Oncorhynchus tshawytsha), coho

  17. Corn Production. A Unit for Teachers of Vocational Agriculture. Production Agriculture Curriculum Materials Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Clyde, Jr.

    Designed to provide instructional materials for use by vocational agriculture teachers, this unit contains nine lessons based upon competencies needed to maximize profits in corn production. The lessons cover opportunities for growing corn; seed selection; seedbed preparation; planting methods and practices; fertilizer rates and application;…

  18. Preliminary Design Report for the Yakima/Klickitat Production Project; Executive Summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    US Bonneville Power Administration.

    1990-03-01

    A master plan for the Yakima/Klickitat Production Project (YKPP) was developed by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) on October 15, 1987, as a reasonable basis upon which the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) could proceed to fund predesign work on the project. The Council approved the predesign work on the condition that eight preliminary tasks were completed. These tasks are: Agreement on a refined statement of project goals. Completion of a technical analysis of water supplies. Completion of an experimental design plan. Development of a harvest management plan. Assessment of potential genetic risks. Project coordination with all other affected parties. Submission of a preliminary design report to the Council. Develop a project management structure. The preliminary design report summarizes the work completed on these tasks. It provides a description of the preliminary design, engineering, and construction phases of project development, and gives an estimate of project costs. Also included is a description of other studies that were conducted to support YKPP planning. The results of studies conducted during the last 30 months indicate that hatchery facilities can be built in the Yakima and Klickitat subbasins to provide harvest benefits and to supplement natural production. Planning for the Yakima subbasin is at a more advanced stage of development than for the Klickitat subbasin because of greater availability of basic resource information. The information needed to proceed with final design and construction for the Klickitat subbasin will be available by 1992, as ongoing predesign work continues. This schedule is consistent with the anticipated phased completion of the YKPP by 1997.

  19. Seasonal climate change patterns due to cumulative CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Leduc, Martin; Damon Matthews, H.

    2017-07-01

    Cumulative CO2 emissions are near linearly related to both global and regional changes in annual-mean surface temperature. These relationships are known as the transient climate response to cumulative CO2 emissions (TCRE) and the regional TCRE (RTCRE), and have been shown to remain approximately constant over a wide range of cumulative emissions. Here, we assessed how well this relationship holds for seasonal patterns of temperature change, as well as for annual-mean and seasonal precipitation patterns. We analyzed an idealized scenario with CO2 concentration growing at an annual rate of 1% using data from 12 Earth system models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Seasonal RTCRE values for temperature varied considerably, with the highest seasonal variation evident in the Arctic, where RTCRE was about 5.5 °C per Tt C for boreal winter and about 2.0 °C per Tt C for boreal summer. Also the precipitation response in the Arctic during boreal winter was stronger than during other seasons. We found that emission-normalized seasonal patterns of temperature change were relatively robust with respect to time, though they were sub-linear with respect to emissions particularly near the Arctic. Moreover, RTCRE patterns for precipitation could not be quantified robustly due to the large internal variability of precipitation. Our results suggest that cumulative CO2 emissions are a useful metric to predict regional and seasonal changes in precipitation and temperature. This extension of the TCRE framework to seasonal and regional climate change is helpful for communicating the link between emissions and climate change to policy-makers and the general public, and is well-suited for impact studies that could make use of estimated regional-scale climate changes that are consistent with the carbon budgets associated with global temperature targets.

  20. Predicting Cumulative Incidence Probability by Direct Binomial Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas H.; Zhang, Mei-Jie

    Binomial modelling; cumulative incidence probability; cause-specific hazards; subdistribution hazard......Binomial modelling; cumulative incidence probability; cause-specific hazards; subdistribution hazard...

  1. Sustainable energy for cashew production chain using innovative clean technology project developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pannir Selvam, P.V.; Nandenha, Julio; Santiago, Brunno Henrique de Souza; Silva, Rosalia Tatiane da [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (GPEC/DEQ/UFRN), Lagoa Nova, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica. Grupo de Pesquisa em Engenharia de Custos e Processos], e-mail: pannirbr@gmail.com

    2006-07-01

    The main objective is to develop a new process synthesis based on the residual biomass waste for the energy production applied to the fruit processing plant with co-production of hot, cold thermal energy using biogas from the wood biomass and animal wastes. After carried out the bibliographical research about the current state of art technology, an engineering project had been developed with the use of the software Super Pro Designer V 4.9. Some simulations of processes of the fast pyrolysis, gasification, bio digestion, generation of energy have been realized including the system integration of energy production as innovation of the present work. Three cases study have been developed: first, the current process of conventional energy using combustion, another one using combined pyrolysis and gasification, and the last one with bio digestion for combined power, heat and chilling. The results about the project investment and the cost analysis, economic viability and cash balance were obtained using software Orc 2004. Several techno-economic parameters of the selected cases study involving process innovation were obtained and compared, where a better energy and materials utilization were observed in relation to conventional process. This project which is still in development phase, involves small scale energy integrated system design. The energy and the process integration cashew fruit production chain, based on the clean technology process design, has enable significant improvement in terms of economic and environmental using optimal system configurations with viability and sustainability. (author)

  2. The GHG-CCI Project of ESA's Climate Change Initiative: Data Products and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwitz, M.; Reuter, M.; Schneising, O.; Boesch, H.; Aben, I.; Alexe, M.; Bergamaschi, P.; Bovensmann, H.; Brunner, D.; Buchmann, B.; Burrows, J. P.; Butz, A.; Chevallier, F.; Crevoisier, C. D.; De Maziere, M.; De Wachter, E.; Detmers, R.; Dils, B.; Feng, L.; Frankenberg, C.; Hasekamp, O. P.; Hewson, W.; Heymann, J.; Houweling, S.; Kaminski, T.; Laeng, A.; Leeuwen, T. T. v.; Lichtenberg, G.; Marshall, J.; Noel, S.; Notholt, J.; Palmer, P. I.; Parker, R.; Sundstrom, A.-M.; Scholze, M.; Stiller, G.; Warneke, T.; Zehner, C.

    2016-08-01

    The goal of the GHG-CCI project (http://www.esa-ghg- cci.org/) of ESA's Climate Change Initiative (CCI) is to generate global atmospheric satellite-derived carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) data sets as needed to improve our understanding of the regional sources and sinks of these important greenhouse gases (GHG). Here we present an overview about the latest data set called Climate Research Data Package No. 3 (CRDP3). We focus on the GHG-CCI project core data products, which are near-surface-sensitive column-averaged dry air mole fractions of CO2 and CH4, denoted XCO2 (in ppm) and XCH4 (in ppb) retrieved from SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT (2002-2012) and TANSO-FTS/GOSAT (2009-today) nadir mode radiance observations in the near- infrared/shortwave-infrared spectral region. The GHG- CCI products are primarily individual sensor Level 2 products. However, we also generate merged Level 2 products ("EMMA products"). Here we also present a first GHG-CCI Level 3 product, namely XCO2 and XCH4 in Obs4MIPs format (monthly, 5°x5°).

  3. The 17,000 t/a Bible Paper Project of Mudanjiang Hengfeng Paper Put into Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On June 6, 2012, the 27,000 t/a Bible paper project (PM17) of Mudanjiang Hengfeng Paper Co., Ltd. was put into production. The project will increase 20,000 tons production and RMB 90 million sales income in 2012.

  4. 77 FR 46764 - Clinical Studies of Safety and Effectiveness of Orphan Products Research Project Grant (R01)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ... Products Research Project Grant (R01) AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... substantially contribute to, market approval of these products. Applicants must include in the application's... either help support product approval or provide essential data needed for product development....

  5. Efeitos da adição de propilenoglicol ou monensina à silagem de milho sobre a cinética de degradação dos carboidratos e produção cumulativa de gases in vitro Effects of adding propylene glycol or monensin to corn silage on the degradation kinetics of carbohydrates and in vitro cumulative gas production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.N. Faria

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos dos aditivos propilenoglicol e/ou monensina sobre a degradabilidade média e efetiva dos carboidratos totais, pH e produção cumulativa de gases da silagem de milho por meio da técnica in vitro semi-automática de produção de gases. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de silagem de milho (SM; SM associada ao propilenoglicol (SM+PG; SM associada à monensina (SM+MO; SM associada ao propilenoglicol e à monensina (SM+PG+MO avaliados com duas, quatro, seis, 12, 24, 48 e 96 horas. A adição de monensina ou monensina associada ao propilenoglicol aumentou (PThe effects of the additives propylene glycol and/or monensin on the degradation of total carbohydrates, pH, and cumulative gas production of corn silage by the semi-automated in vitro gas production technique were evaluated. The treatments were corn silage (CS; CS plus propylene glycol (CS+PG; CS plus monensin (CS+MO, and CS plus propylene glycol and monensin (CS+PG+MO, which were evaluated at two, four, six, 12, 24, 48, and 96 hours. The addition of monensin or monensin plus propylene glycol increased (P<0.05 the degradation of total carbohydrates at 2h. The effective degradations of total carbohydrates for CS+MO treatment (55.2; 42.7; and 36.5% were the highest in all passage rates. The use of monensin reduced cumulative gas production from 12 to 96h. CS+MO treatment had the lowest potential of gas production (221ml/g total carbohydrates, and the lowest Lag phase (1.08h, as compared to CS and CS+PG treatment (1.58 and 1.49h, respectively. Cumulative gas production and degradation of total carbohydrates were highly correlated (94 to 97%; P<0.01. The pH was inversely correlated to degradability of total carbohydrates (r= -0.79; P<0.01. Thus, monensin may be used for improving the ruminal degradability of corn silage.

  6. Network Insights for Partner Selection in Inter-Organisational New Product Development Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz, Pedro Parraguez; Maier, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Selecting partners for new product development (NPD) is an important yet under-supported task. Thispaper focuses on decision-making support for the NPD collaboration stages of partner exploration andsearch. We provide a conceptual framework for a network-based platform to identify potential......: technologicalcloseness, relational closeness, geographical closeness and a set of organisational variables. In order toidentify a subset of new product development partners and aid the selection process, three characteristicsof NPD projects are considered as mediators of those success factors: the desired degree...... and illustrate with examples the networkbasedplatform to explore NPD partners. The developed framework and platform are part of Net-Sights,an ongoing research project to develop open-source decision-support tools for network insights. Thefirst version of this tool will soon be available as an online platform...

  7. Economic tools for realization of methane production project on Kuzbass coal deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharf, I.; Sokolova, M.; Kochetkova, O.; Dmitrieva, N.

    2016-09-01

    Environmental issues and, above all, issues related to the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, such as coal bed methane, actualize the challenge of searching a variety of options for its disposal. The difference in the macroeconomic, industrial, geological and infrastructural features determine the need to choose the most cost-effective option for using of methane emitted from the coal deposits. Various economic ways to improve the profitability of production are viewed on the basis of the analysis of methane production project from Kuzbass coal deposits, Kemerovo region, Russia.

  8. Tránsformation–Flow–Value as a strategic tool in Project Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Sven; Bonke, Sten

    2012-01-01

    The paper investigates the use of the Transformation-Flow-Value theory as a strategic tool in the development of the project production firm. When producing products such as ships, focus on value more than on cost may be the best approach, but in service industries such as construction, focus...... on flow may often be a far better approach than just looking at the costs. The paper presents a simple, general financial model to support this argument and not least to assist the reader in conducting similar analyses in his own company....

  9. Environmental Impacts of the Production and Application of Biochar - EuroChar Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rack, Mireille; Woods, Jeremy

    2014-05-01

    One of the potential benefits of biochar is carbon sequestration. To determine the overall net sequestration potential it is important to analyse the full supply chain, assessing both the direct and indirect emissions associated with the production and application of biochar. However, it is essential to also incorporate additional environmental impact categories to ensure the assessment of a more complete environmental impact profile. This paper uses a full life-cycle assessment (LCA) methodology to evaluate the results from the EuroChar, 'biochar for carbon sequestration and large-scale removal of GHG from the atmosphere', project. This EU Seventh Framework Programme project aims to investigate and reduce uncertainties around the impacts of, and opportunities for, biochar, and in particular explore possible pathways for its introduction into modern agricultural systems in Europe. The LCA methodology, according to the ISO standards, is applied to the project-specific supply chains to analyse the environmental impacts of biochar production and application. Two conversion technologies for the production of biochar are assessed, gasification and hydrothermal carbonization (HTC), in order to provide conversion efficiencies and emission factors for the biochar production component of the supply chain. The selected feedstocks include those derived from waste residues and dedicated crops. For the end use stage, various forms and methods for biochar application are considered. In addition to the Global Warming Potential category, other environmental impact categories are also included in the analysis. The resulting 'feedstock * conversion technology' matrix provides nine pathways for the production and application of biochar, which are applied as a representative basis for the scenario modelling. These scenarios have been developed in order to assess the feedstock and land availability in Europe for the production and application of biochar and to give an order of

  10. Map Design and Production Issues for the Utah Gap Analysis Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, J.A.; Wittmann, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    The cartographic preparation and printing of four maps for the Utah GAP Project presented a wide range of challenges in cartographic design and production. In meeting these challenges, the map designers had to balance the purpose of the maps together with their legibility and utility against both the researchers' desire to show as much detail as possible and the technical limitations inherent in the printing process. This article describes seven design and production issues in order to illustrate the challenges of making maps from a merger of satellite data and GIS databases, and to point toward future investigation and development.

  11. An innovative artificial fog production device improved in the European project “FOG”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomb, M.; Hirech, K.; André, P.; Boreux, J. J.; Lacôte, P.; Dufour, J.

    2008-03-01

    Transport safety is a major goal in the European Union. Low visibility conditions, especially due to fog, increase the risk of major accidents (chain collision). Innovative products have been developed by the automotive industry, including equipment manufacturers, to increase the level of safety of car passengers and drivers. Testing of these products requires the simulation or artificial reproduction of low visibility (fog) conditions with good stability and reproducibility characteristics. We report on the results of the European Union funded "FOG" project to improve road transport safety through fog production in an experimental test chamber located at the Clermont-Ferrand laboratory for research on road safety and visibility. The project developed a prototype of a small-scale climatic chamber, an improved fog production spraying device, a laser-based visibility measurement device, a reduced scale transmissometer, and a combined indoor climate-fog production simulation software. The ability of the fog chamber to test for driver reaction was also investigated. Recent developments include a device able to produce stable visibility levels and homogeneous fog, representative of various types of natural water droplet distribution. The fog characteristics were determined and compared to natural fog. Results are presented for a selection of conditions including stabilized visibility levels for dense fog and two kinds of droplet distributions.

  12. TMS reveals a direct influence of spinal projections from human SMAp on precise force production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entakli, Jonathan; Bonnard, Mireille; Chen, Sophie; Berton, Eric; De Graaf, Jozina B

    2014-01-01

    The corticospinal (CS) system plays an important role in fine motor control, especially in precision grip tasks. Although the primary motor cortex (M1) is the main source of the CS projections, other projections have been found, especially from the supplementary motor area proper (SMAp). To study the characteristics of these CS projections from SMAp, we compared muscle responses of an intrinsic hand muscle (FDI) evoked by stimulation of human M1 and SMAp during an isometric static low-force control task. Subjects were instructed to maintain a small cursor on a target force curve by applying a pressure with their right precision grip on a force sensor. Neuronavigated transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to stimulate either left M1 or left SMAp with equal induced electric field values at the defined cortical targets. The results show that the SMAp stimulation evokes reproducible muscle responses with similar latencies and amplitudes as M1 stimulation, and with a clear and significant shorter silent period. These results suggest that (i) CS projections from human SMAp are as rapid and efficient as those from M1, (ii) CS projections from SMAp are directly involved in control of the excitability of spinal motoneurons and (iii) SMAp has a different intracortical inhibitory circuitry. We conclude that human SMAp and M1 both have direct influence on force production during fine manual motor tasks. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Multiway Filtering Based on Fourth-Order Cumulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Bourennane

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new multiway filtering based on fourth-order cumulants for the denoising of noisy data tensor with correlated Gaussian noise. The classical multiway filtering is based on the TUCKALS3 algorithm that computes a lower-rank tensor approximation. The presented method relies on the statistics of the analyzed multicomponent signal. We first recall how the well-known lower rank-(K1,…,KN tensor approximation processed by TUCKALS3 alternating least square algorithm exploits second-order statistics. Then, we propose to introduce the fourth-order statistics in the TUCKALS3-based method. Indeed, the use of fourth-order cumulants enables to remove the Gaussian components of an additive noise. In the presented method the estimation of the n-mode projector on the n-mode signal subspace are built from the eigenvectors associated with the largest eigenvalues of a fourth-order cumulant slice matrix instead of a covariance matrix. Each projector is applied by means of the n-mode product operator on the n-mode of the data tensor. The qualitative results of the improved multiway TUCKALS3-based filterings are shown for the case of noise reduction in a color image and multicomponent seismic data.

  14. Life Cycle Thinking and Integrated Product Deliveries in renovation projects: Extending the concept of Integrated Product Deliveries with Product Service Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schipull Kauschen, Jan

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The term “Integrated product deliveries (IPD)” encompasses complex building solutions, that not only include building materials and components but also different necessary services linked directly to them, as design and planning tasks, production, assembly, delivery and construction...... work. Furthermore, IPDs are produced in an industrial context, allowing higher quality products at competitive costs. Expanding the term to also include services during the components use phase and continued responsibility for the end-of-life, offers new possibilities for enhancing the sustainability...... on renovation projects from Denmark, using different forms of IPDs for façade renovation and discusses the different stakeholder’s perspectives on life cycle thinking and their interests and values regarding sustainable building. Furthermore is the concept of Product Service Systems (PSS) as a valuable...

  15. Cumulative Phenomena through the Quark-Parton Diagram Summation at Thresholds

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, M A

    1998-01-01

    A microscopic treatment of cumulative phenomena based on perturbative QCD calculations of the corresponding quark diagrams near the threshold is presented. To sum all diagrams like these the special technique based on the recurrence relations was developed. The x-behaviour of the nuclear structure function $F_{2}(x)$ in the cumulative region x>1 was found to be roughly exponential, governed by an effective coupling constant, which depends on the QCD coupling constant and quark mass. Two mechanisms for cumulative particle production, direct and spectator ones, were analysed. It was shown that due to final state interactions the leading terms of the direct mechanism contribution are cancelled and the spectator mechanism is the dominant one. It leads to a smaller slope of the particle production rates compared to the slope of the nuclear structure function in the cumulative region, in agreement with the recent experimental data. The slope difference is due to additional multiple interactions between nuclear and ...

  16. Yakima/Klickitat Production Project Preliminary Design Report, Appendix A: Refined Project Goals and Harvest Managment Plan : Experimental Design Plan : Genetic Risk Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakima Indian Nation; Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Washington Department of Fisheries

    1990-03-01

    The purpose of the project as stated by the Northwest Power Planning Council is 'to test the assumption that new artificial production in the Yakima and Klickitat subbasins can be used to increase harvest and enhance natural production while maintaining genetic resources.'

  17. Experiencing CMT in Software Production of Large and Complex Projects Issues in the Scalability of Software Production Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChristianArnault; BrunoMansoux; 等

    2001-01-01

    The configuration management tool CMT has been used since several years now,and in quits different projects(Virgo,GLAST,LHCb,Auger,Atlas,etc).The features of the tool have continuously evolved according to the growing needs of the developers and to follow the increasing complexity of the software bases it has to service,However the original concepts:readability,simplicity,flexibility,completeness have been preserved and the syntan of the core element of the system-the requirements file-has been always ketp backward compatible.More and more project specific conventions and needs have founr their expression using CMT,and simultaneously the focuese to CMT features have evolved accordingly,progressively raising importance towards language customisation,new document generators production of patterns,package organization and software distribution.The basic properties of the CMT toolkit will be shortly presented but the focus of the discussion will be set to the CMT toolkit will be shortly presented but the focus of the discussion will be set top these recent evolutions,throught some typical examples obtained from actual projects showing specific definitions or conventions.The discussion is then extended towards the generalized question of the scalability in software production and management in the context of e.g. Grid technologies.The impact of using generic and high level tools such as CMT,which already offers several solutions,RPM or the Grid technologies,in this respect will be presented.In particular,the role of formal specifications for the software configuration appears to be critical for query mechanisms required in management operations or in remote actions.

  18. Is cumulated pyrethroid exposure associated with prediabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Rune; Jørs, Erik; Lander, Flemming;

    2014-01-01

    , cumulative exposure) was assessed from questionnaire data. Participants were asked about symptoms of diabetes. Blood samples were analyzed for glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), a measure of glucose regulation. No association was found between pyrethroid exposure and diabetes symptoms. The prevalence...

  19. Cumulative Disadvantage among the Highly Ambitious.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Katherine

    1990-01-01

    Using a social reproduction theory framework, analyzes the process by which high school seniors aspiring to high-level positions are sorted out after graduation. Analyzes early educational attainments and changes in occupational expectations. Shows a process of cumulative disadvantage in which White males are more likely to achieve their goals.…

  20. Pavlovian conditioning and cumulative reinforcement rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Justin A; Patterson, Angela E; Gharaei, Saba

    2015-04-01

    In 5 experiments using delay conditioning of magazine approach with rats, reinforcement rate was varied either by manipulating the mean interval between onset of the conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US) or by manipulating the proportion of CS presentations that ended with the US (trial-based reinforcement rate). Both manipulations influenced the acquisition of responding. In each experiment, a specific comparison was made between 2 CSs that differed in their mean CS-US interval and in their trial-based reinforcement rate, such that the cumulative reinforcement rate-the cumulative duration of the CS between reinforcements-was the same for the 2 CSs. For example, a CS reinforced on 100% of trials with a mean CS-US interval of 60 s was compared with a CS reinforced on 33% of trials and a mean duration of 20 s. Across the 5 experiments, conditioning was virtually identical for the 2 CSs with matched cumulative reinforcement rate. This was true as long as the timing of the US was unpredictable and, thus, response rates were uniform across the length of the CS. We conclude that the effects of CS-US interval and of trial-based reinforcement rate are reducible entirely to their common effect on cumulative reinforcement rate. We discuss the implications of this for rate-based, trial-based, and real-time associative models of conditioning.

  1. An Axiomatization of Cumulative Prospect Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, P.P.; Tversky, A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a method for axiomatizing a variety of models for decision making under uncertainty, including Expected Utility and Cumulative Prospect Theory. This method identifies, for each model, the situations that permit consistent inferences about the ordering of value differences. Exampl

  2. Cumulative Disadvantage among the Highly Ambitious.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Katherine

    1990-01-01

    Using a social reproduction theory framework, analyzes the process by which high school seniors aspiring to high-level positions are sorted out after graduation. Analyzes early educational attainments and changes in occupational expectations. Shows a process of cumulative disadvantage in which White males are more likely to achieve their goals.…

  3. Power Production Analysis of the OE Buoy WEC for the CORES Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavelle, John; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    This report describes the analysis performed on the OE Buoy for the CORES project by the wave energy group at Aalborg University, Denmark. OE Buoy is a type of Oscillating Water Column (OWC) wave energy converter as part of the CORES project. This type of device is one of the most developed to ex...... meant that it was not possible to fully implement the method, as the efficiency data was too sparsely distributed as a function of Tz and Hs, but the method used here is based on the Equimar protocol to give an approximate estimate of the yearly power production....... which a total of 39 hours of power production data was collected. A data acquisition system was used to sample the sensors on board and the generator shaft power time-series data was used in the analysis here. A wave-rider buoy, located at the site of OE Buoy and operated by the Marine Institute Ireland....... This may then be used to estimate the yearly power production of the device at the test site location or another location, by using the long-term wave statistics for the given site. Additionally, the power production for a given scale of device may be estimated by applying the appropriate scaling...

  4. A Hybrid MCDM Approach for Strategic Project Portfolio Selection of Agro By-Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Animesh Debnath

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing size of the population, society faces several challenges for sustainable and adequate agricultural production, quality, distribution, and food safety in the strategic project portfolio selection (SPPS. The initial adaptation of strategic portfolio management of genetically modified (GM Agro by-products (Ab-Ps is a huge challenge in terms of processing the agro food product supply-chain practices in an environmentally nonthreatening way. As a solution to the challenges, the socio-economic characteristics for SPPS of GM food purchasing scenarios are studied. Evaluation and selection of the GM agro portfolio management are the dynamic issues due to physical and immaterial criteria involving a hybrid multiple criteria decision making (MCDM approach, combining modified grey Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL, Multi-Attributive Border Approximation area Comparison (MABAC and sensitivity analysis. Evaluation criteria are grouped into social, differential and beneficial clusters, and the modified DEMATEL procedure is used to derive the criteria weights. The MABAC method is applied to rank the strategic project portfolios according to the aggregated preferences of decision makers (DMs. The usefulness of the proposed research framework is validated with a case study. The GM by-products are found to be the best portfolio. Moreover, this framework can unify the policies of agro technological improvement, corporate social responsibility (CSR and agro export promotion.

  5. Large-scale decontamination and decommissioning technology demonstration project at a former uranium metal production facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martineit, R.A.; Borgman, T.D.; Peters, M.S.; Stebbins, L.L. [and others

    1997-03-05

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Science and Technology Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Focus Area, led by the Federal Energy Technology Center, has been charged with improving upon baseline D&D technologies with the goal of demonstrating and validating more cost-effective and safer technologies to characterize, deactivate, survey, decontaminate, dismantle, and dispose of surplus structures, buildings, and their contents at DOE sites. The D&D Focus Area`s approach to verifying the benefits of the improved D&D technologies is to use them in large-scale technology demonstration (LSTD) projects at several DOE sites. The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) was selected to host one of the first three LSTD`s awarded by the D&D Focus Area. The FEMP is a DOE facility near Cincinnati, Ohio, that was formerly engaged in the production of high quality uranium metal. The FEMP is a Superfund site which has completed its RUFS process and is currently undergoing environmental restoration. With the FEMP`s selection to host an LSTD, the FEMP was immediately faced with some challenges. The primary challenge was that this LSTD was to be integrated into the FEMP`s Plant 1 D&D Project which was an ongoing D&D Project for which a firm fixed price contract had been issued to the D&D Contractor. Thus, interferences with the baseline D&D project could have significant financial implications. Other challenges include defining and selecting meaningful technology demonstrations, finding/selecting technology providers, and integrating the technology into the baseline D&D project. To date, twelve technologies have been selected, and six have been demonstrated. The technology demonstrations have yielded a high proportion of {open_quotes}winners.{close_quotes} All demonstrated, technologies will be evaluated for incorporation into the FEMP`s baseline D&D strategy.

  6. Comparison and Validation of Four Arctic Sea Ice Thickness Products of the EC POLAR ICE Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melsheimer, C.; Makynen, M.; Rasmussen, T. S.; Rudjord, Ø.; Simila, M.; Solberg, R.; Walker, N. P.

    2016-08-01

    Sea ice thickness (SIT) is an important parameter for monitoring Arctic change, modelling and predicting weather and climate, and for navigation and offshore operations. However, SIT is still not very well monitored operationally. In the European Commission (EC) FP7 project "POLAR ICE", three novel SIT products based on different satellite data as well as SIT from a state-of-the- art ocean and sea ice model are fed into a common data handling and distribution system for end users. Each SIT product has different scopes and limitations as to, e.g., spatial and temporal resolution, ice thickness range and geographical domain. The aim of this study is to compare the four different SIT products with each other and with SIT in-situ measurements in order to better understand the differences and limitations, and possibly give recommendations on how to best profit from the synergy of the different data.

  7. SEE HYDROPOWER Project, targeted to improve water resource management for a growing renewable energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peviani, Maximo; Alterach, Julio; Danelli, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    The three years SEE HYDROPOWER project started on June 2009, financed by the South-East Transnational Cooperation Programme (EU), aims to a sustainable exploitation of water concerning hydropower production in SEE countries, looking up to renewable energy sources development, preserving environmental quality and preventing flood risk. Hydropower is the most important renewable resource for energy production in the SEE countries but creates ecological impacts on a local scale. If on one hand, hydroelectric production has to be maintained and likely increased following the demand trend and RES-e Directive, on the other hand, hydropower utilisation often involves severe hydrological changes, damages the connectivity of water bodies and injures river ecosystems. The project gives a strong contribution to the integration between the Water Frame and the RES-e Directives in the involved countries. The SEE HYDROPOWER project promotes the optimal use of water, as multiple natural resources, in order to face the increasing regional electrical-energy demand. Furthermore, SEE HYDROPOWER defines specific needs and test methodologies & tools, in order to help public bodies to take decisions about planning and management of water and hydropower concessions, considering all multi-purposes uses, taking into account the environmental sustainability of natural resources and flooding risks. Investigations is carried on to define common strategies & methods for preserving river with particular concerns to aquatic ecosystems, considering the required Minimum Environmental Flow, macro-habitat quality, migratory fishes and related environmental issues. Other problem addressed by the Project is the contrast between Public Administration and Environmental associations on one side and the Hydropower producers on the other side, for the exploitation of water bodies. Competition between water users (for drinking, irrigation, industrial processes, power generation, etc.) is becoming a serious

  8. Tree Productivity and Water Potential Productivity in Returning Farmland to Forest Project in Datong County, Qinghai Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Jing; Liu Chenfeng; Zhao Wanqi; He Kangning

    2004-01-01

    From 2002 to 2003, based on the investigation of sample plots and stem analysis of remained plantation communities in the areas of returning farmland to forest in the 1980s in Datong County, Qinghai Province, this paper studies tree productivity and moisture potential productivity of six types of plantations on the land of returning farmland to forest, such as green poplar (Populus cathayana Rehd.) and shrub mixed forest, Asia white birch (Betula platyphylla) and China spruce (Picea asperata) mixed forest, Dahurian larch (Larix gmelinii) pure forest, China spruce pure forest and Asia white birch pure forest and so on. The results show that: in sub-humid region of Loess Plateau, 3 000 trees per hm2 is a proper standard of planting density. Under current condition, the productivity index of green poplar and shrub mixed forest, Asia white birch pure forest, China spruce pure forest, and Asia white birch and China spruce mixed forest with the density of 2 100-3 333 trees per hm2 can serve as potential productivity standard of actual biomass of arbor established forest. In sub-humid area, Thornthwaite Model is adopted to estimate plant climate potential productivity, which is about 8 462 kg·hm-2·a-1. The actual potential water productive efficiency of Purplecone spruce (Picea purpurea) and Asia white birch pure established forest are 17.22 and 22.14 kg·mm-1·hm-2·a-1 respectively, and that of green poplar and shrub mixed established forest, and Asia white birch and China spruce mixed established forest are 21.14 and 19.09 kg·mm-1·hm-2·a-1 respectively. The potential productivity of green poplar and shrub mixed forest, Asia white birch and China spruce mixed forest, China spruce pure forest and Asia white birch pure forest which have grown into forest with the density of 3 000 trees per hm2 have attained or been close to that of local climax community, which is local maximum tree productivity at present. These types of forestation models are the developing

  9. 75 FR 47602 - Clinical Studies of Safety and Effectiveness of Orphan Products Research Project Grant (R01)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... Products Research Project Grant (R01) AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... substantially contribute to, market approval of these products. Applicants must include in the application's... proposed study will either help support product approval or provide essential data needed for...

  10. Generation of renewable energy integrated with food production in Brazil GERIPA project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardi, Geraldo; Corsini, Romeu [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia]. E-mails: lombardi@sc.usp.br; corsiniromeu@ig.com.br; Ramos, Pedro A.R. [Instituto Superior Politecnico Jose Antonio Echeverria (CUJAE), Ciudad de La Habana (Cuba). Facultad Ingenieria Mecanica]. E-mail: pedro@economia.cujae.edu.cu

    2008-07-01

    This paper reports on a study of the economic viability of a Socio-Agroindustrial Ecological Organism for the Generation of Renewable Energy Integrated with Food Production-GERIPA Project. With a minimum production of 125,000 liters of alcohol per day, it has low energy costs in both cogeneration of electricity and alcohol, and in diversified food production with a pay back time of 5.66 years due exclusively to the integrated procedure. The GERIPA meets the basic needs of a city with a population of 53,000, and is characterized as an autonomous development center, with social and environmental high quality, based on the Kyoto Protocol and the premises of Sustainable Development. Attesting the importance of the integration concept, two calculation models are presented: 1- Basic Model, to which ethanol has credited all investments and inherent expenses to its production, as usual; and 2- Integrated Model, where the integration concept implies the co-responsibility of its products in proportion to the total income, basis of the GERIPA economical success. The cost of ethanol production in this model is 38% lower than that of actual alcohol mills-0.640 R$/L. (1 US$=R$2.01-12/2007). (author)

  11. Organising Sustainable Transition: Understanding the Product, Project and Service Domain of the Built Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian; Koch-Ørvad, Nina; Maslesa, Esmir

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable transition of the built environment con struction industry is challenging the existing construction practices and business models. This article presents a framework for understanding and facilitating sustainable transition in the built environment. The framework was developed through...... a four years innovation project based on theories on sectorial and business model i nnovation and ten detailed case studies of different types of companies and their experimentation with different management and sustainability concepts. The framework interprets the construction industry as a collection...... of three generic domains - the Project, Product and Service domain - with widely different markets, companies, business models and regulation. Besides identifying the characteristics of the different domains, the findings show that these domains are interdependent, but largely live their own lives...

  12. CACAO: A project for a laboratory for the production and characterization of thin radioactive layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacri, C.O., E-mail: bacri@ipno.in2p3.f [Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay, 91406 Orsay Cedex, CNRS (UMR8608-IN2P3), Universite Paris-Sud (Paris XI) (France); Petitbon, V.; Pierre, S. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay, 91406 Orsay Cedex, CNRS (UMR8608-IN2P3), Universite Paris-Sud (Paris XI) (France)

    2010-02-11

    CACAO, Chimie des Actinides et Cibles radioActives a Orsay (actinide chemistry and radioactive targets at Orsay), is a project under construction that consists of the installation of a hot laboratory dedicated to the production and characterization of thin radioactive layers. The project aims to be a joint CNRS-CEA national laboratory to overcome difficulties related mainly to safety issues and to the lack of knowledge and potential manpower. The first goal is to fulfill, at least, the needs of the whole French community, and to be able to coordinate the different activities related to radioactive targets. For this purpose, itis important to be complementary to already existing international installations. Inside this framework, it will of course be possible to produce and/or characterize targets for other users.

  13. CACAO: A project for a laboratory for the production and characterization of thin radioactive layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacri, C. O.; Petitbon, V.; Pierre, S.; Cacao Group

    2010-02-01

    CACAO, Chimie des Actinides et Cibles radioActives à Orsay (actinide chemistry and radioactive targets at Orsay), is a project under construction that consists of the installation of a hot laboratory dedicated to the production and characterization of thin radioactive layers. The project aims to be a joint CNRS-CEA national laboratory to overcome difficulties related mainly to safety issues and to the lack of knowledge and potential manpower. The first goal is to fulfill, at least, the needs of the whole French community, and to be able to coordinate the different activities related to radioactive targets. For this purpose, itis important to be complementary to already existing international installations. Inside this framework, it will of course be possible to produce and/or characterize targets for other users.

  14. PEDAGOGICAL MANAGEMENT AND INTEGRATION OF PRODUCTIVE EDUCATION PROJECTS IN RURAL SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Margarita Mendoza Monzant

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is make an analysis of the Pedagogical Management and Integration of Educational Projects in Rural Schools by exposing valuable theoretical elements for configuring its systematization. This research is analytical, supported within the positivist paradigm, with a field, not experimental design, reason of why it is used a quantitative statistical study for data processing obtained through the application of the instruments. The population consisted of 10 Directors, 72 teachers and 36 Representatives of three (3 Rural Campus of the Miranda Municipality. A questionnaire, Likert type with 39 items was designed. The statistical treatment to analyze the results was by descriptive statistics, using central tendency as the arithmetic mean. It was concluded that the process of pedagogical management in the integration of productive educational projects is almost always done fairly effectively.

  15. Projected changes in the future distribution and production of sessile oak forests near the xeric limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulyás, Krisztina; Berki, Imre; Veperdi, Gábor

    2017-04-01

    As a result of regional climate change, most European countries are experiencing an increase in mean annual temperature and CO2 concentration and a decrease in mean annual precipitation. In low-elevation areas in Southeast Europe, where precipitation is a limiting factor, the projected climate change threatens the health, production, and potential distribution of forest ecosystems. The intensive summer droughts and commonly occurring extreme weather events create negative influences that cause health declines, changes in yield potential, and tree mortality. Due to the observed damages, attention has been focused on these problems. The impacts of climatic extremes cause difficulties in forest management; these difficulties occur more frequently in Hungary, which is a region that is the most sensitive to climatic extremes. Regional climate model simulations project that the frequency of extremely high temperatures and long-term dry periods will increase; both of these factors have negative effects on future tree species distribution and production. Thus, the aim of our study is to utilize the sessile oak (Quercus petraea) as a climate indicator tree species to investigate potential future distribution and estimate changes in growth trends. For future spatial distribution, we used the Fuzzy membership distribution model in a new Decision Support System (DSS) which was developed for the Hungarian forestry and agricultural sectors. Through study techniques we can employ DSS, which contains various environmental layers (topography, vegetation, past and projected future climate, soils, and hydrology), to create probability distribution maps. The results, based on 12 regional climate model simulations (www.ensembles-eu.org), show that the area of sessile oak forests is shrinking continuously and will continue to do so to the end of the 21st century. For future production estimations, we analysed intensive long-term growth monitoring network plots that were established in

  16. The ESA WACMOS-ET project: advancing in the production of evapotranspiration from satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Carlos

    2014-05-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is an essential component of the water and energy cycles. It is highly variable in both space and time, across climates and ecosystems, and difficult to estimate as it does not produce either absorption or emission of electromagnetic signals, which precludes a direct estimation from remote sensing techniques. Therefore global observations related to atmospheric and surface parameters have to be combined with an interpretive model to derive an observational ET product at the global scale. Recent comparisons of satellite-based ET products (e.g., within the LandFlux initiative of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment, GEWEX) have been very useful in providing a first measure of product differences, but not very conclusive in terms of understanding the sources of uncertainty. To further advance in this direction a systematic ET inter-comparison is needed whereby the different ET algorithms are run using (to the greatest possible extent) the same driving data and model protocols. In response to this need, ESA has initiated the WACMOS-ET project, a follow on of the first WACMOS project. While the first WACMOS addressed several components of the water and energy cycle, WACMOS- ET focuses on ET production by different methodologies, and it is aimed at advancing towards the development of ET estimates at global and regional scales. The main objectives are to develop a Reference Input Data Set (RIDS) to derive and validate ET estimates, and to perform a cross-comparison, error characterization, and validation exercise of a group of selected ET algorithms driven by the RIDS. Compared with previous efforts primarily based on combining off-the-shelf input products, the preparation of the RIDS with a large degree of internal consistency is considered essential to (1) evaluate the skill of present algorithms in producing ET, (2) facilitate the attribution of the observed differences to model and driving data limitations, and (3) set up a solid

  17. SCHOOL MANAGEMENT FOR THE PROMOTION OF PRODUCTIVE PROJECTS IN THE RURAL SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maigre Indira Acurero

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The intention of the study consisted of describing the process of joint that characterizes the school management in the rural schools to design limits under the approach of strategic management that productive projects allow to promote in the Municipality Elevated place condition Zulia, under the positivist paradigm with approach proyectivo and a not experimental design. Between the theoretical contributions one presents Piñero (2008, Egg (2005, the Offer of Curriculum development Bolivariano (2009 between others. The population was shaped by 03 executives, 76 teachers and 40 parents and representatives to whom there applied a questionnaire of triple version with a rkk = 0,968. Since conclusions describe findings that recount discrepancy between the aptitude demonstrated by the educational managers to realize processes of joint of school management and the perception of teachers, parents and representatives who brought under level of integration to reach a pedagogic labor and organizational work in the management of productive projects for which it was necessary to present a limit named the productive school in the educational community

  18. PROBLEMS OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMICAL ASSESSMENT OF INVESTMENT PROJECTS ON PROCESSING WASTES INTO CONSTRUCTION PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tskhovrebov Eduard Stanislavovich

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Social and economical development, investing activities, and ensuring environmental safety are the main strategic components of sustainable development of the Russian Federation. Considering that any economic activities are related to using natural resources, and environmental impact, the economically and ecologically effective investments in modern competitive resources- and energy-saving, environment-safe industrial and other innovative technologies are the integral conditions of ensuring favorable conditions for life activities, achieving balance of the ecological-economic system of the country However, there is a number of environmental and business factors, which prevent full-scale implementation of modern resource-saving and environmental protection technologies in production, ensuring, on the one hand, achievement of pay-back of investments in the shortest times (economic result in the form of profit, and on the other hand, observation of all environmental, sanitary-and-hygienic, technical norms, demands and rules set forth by the legislation. At the stage of business planning, all the possible future environmental costs and environmental and financial damages caused by the manufacturing activities during implementation and post-implementation periods are not taken into account as a practice of assessment of environmental efficiency and practicality of investment projects. This article covers methodical and scientific methodological approaches to the solution of the given problem within the limits of development of recommendations on environmental and economic assessment of investment projects that would ensure environmental safety and economic efficiency of the investments. Results of own researches in the field, including the developed software for environmental and economic assessment of investment projects in the building industry, in the waste processing into secondary raw materials and products, which allows to analyze efficiency of

  19. Complexity and demographic explanations of cumulative culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Querbes

    Full Text Available Formal models have linked prehistoric and historical instances of technological change (e.g., the Upper Paleolithic transition, cultural loss in Holocene Tasmania, scientific progress since the late nineteenth century to demographic change. According to these models, cumulation of technological complexity is inhibited by decreasing--while favoured by increasing--population levels. Here we show that these findings are contingent on how complexity is defined: demography plays a much more limited role in sustaining cumulative culture in case formal models deploy Herbert Simon's definition of complexity rather than the particular definitions of complexity hitherto assumed. Given that currently available empirical evidence doesn't afford discriminating proper from improper definitions of complexity, our robustness analyses put into question the force of recent demographic explanations of particular episodes of cultural change.

  20. Avoiding Program-Induced Cumulative Overload (PICO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Robin; Knapik, Joseph J; Pope, Rodney

    2016-01-01

    This article defines the concept of program-induced cumulative overload (PICO), provides examples, and advises ways to mitigate the adverse effects. PICO is the excessive cumulative physical workload that can be imparted to military personnel by a military training program with an embedded physical training component. PICO can be acute (accumulating within a single day) or chronic (accumulating across the entirety of the program) and results in adverse outcomes for affected personnel, including detrimental fatigue, performance degradation, injuries, or illness. Strategies to mitigate PICO include focusing administration and logistic practices during the development and ongoing management of a trainee program and implementing known musculoskeletal injury prevention strategies. More training is not always better, and trainers need to consider the total amount of physical activity that military personnel experience across both operational training and physical training if PICO is to be mitigated.

  1. Sharing a quota on cumulative carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raupach, Michael R.; Davis, Steven J.; Peters, Glen P.; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Ciais, Philippe; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Jotzo, Frank; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Le Quéré, Corinne

    2014-10-01

    Any limit on future global warming is associated with a quota on cumulative global CO2 emissions. We translate this global carbon quota to regional and national scales, on a spectrum of sharing principles that extends from continuation of the present distribution of emissions to an equal per-capita distribution of cumulative emissions. A blend of these endpoints emerges as the most viable option. For a carbon quota consistent with a 2 °C warming limit (relative to pre-industrial levels), the necessary long-term mitigation rates are very challenging (typically over 5% per year), both because of strong limits on future emissions from the global carbon quota and also the likely short-term persistence in emissions growth in many regions.

  2. Structural Vibration Monitoring Using Cumulative Spectral Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Goto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a resonance decay estimation for structural health monitoring in the presence of nonstationary vibrations. In structural health monitoring, the structure's frequency response and resonant decay characteristics are very important for understanding how the structure changes. Cumulative spectral analysis (CSA estimates the frequency decay by using the impulse response. However, measuring the impulse response of buildings is impractical due to the need to shake the building itself. In a previous study, we reported on system damping monitoring using cumulative harmonic analysis (CHA, which is based on CSA. The current study describes scale model experiments on estimating the hidden resonance decay under non-stationary noise conditions by using CSA for structural condition monitoring.

  3. Assessing the cumulative impact of disturbance on canopy structure and chemistry in Appalachian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deel, Lindsay N.

    Eastern forests experience a range of disturbance events over time, from stand-replacing disturbances, such as clear cuts, to ephemeral disturbances, such as insect outbreaks. By understanding the cumulative impact of disturbances on canopy structure and chemistry, we can gain insight into management strategies, assess a variety of ecosystem services, and even contribute to a larger body of knowledge on global climate change. I transformed a series of Landsat images spanning approximately 25 years into cumulative disturbance maps covering Green Ridge State Forest and Savage River State Forest in western Maryland. Intensive field surveys collected during the summer of 2009 provided measurements of canopy N and estimates of canopy cover, understory cover, and leaf cover. I used AVIRIS imagery flown concurrently with field data collection to map canopy nitrogen across both forests. Through this project, I tested the impact of cumulative disturbance on forest canopy cover and canopy nitrogen. I found that increased values of cumulative disturbance had a measurable negative impact on forest canopy structure and canopy nitrogen. Moreover, by testing varying methods of summing cumulative disturbance, I found that past disturbances diminish over time in importance, yet still influence the current canopy structure and canopy N of a forest. Thus, my study suggests that Landsat time series data can be synthesized into cumulative metrics incorporating multiple disturbance types, which help explain important disturbance-mediated changes in ecosystem functions.

  4. Cumulative carbon emissions and the Green Paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Ploeg, Frederick Van der

    2013-01-01

    The green paradox states that a gradually more ambitious climate policy such as a renewables subsidy or an anticipated carbon tax induces fossil fuel owners to extract more rapidly and accelerate global warming. However, if extraction becomes more costly as reserves are depleted, such policies also shorten the fossil fuel era, induce more fossil fuel to be left in the earth, and thus curb cumulative carbon emissions. These consequences are relevant, as global warming depends primarily on cumu...

  5. EPA Workshop on Epigenetics and Cumulative Risk ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agenda Download the Workshop Agenda (PDF) The workshop included presentations and discussions by scientific experts pertaining to three topics (i.e., epigenetic changes associated with diverse stressors, key science considerations in understanding epigenetic changes, and practical application of epigenetic tools to address cumulative risks from environmental stressors), to address several questions under each topic, and included an opportunity for attendees to participate in break-out groups, provide comments and ask questions. Workshop Goals The workshop seeks to examine the opportunity for use of aggregate epigenetic change as an indicator in cumulative risk assessment for populations exposed to multiple stressors that affect epigenetic status. Epigenetic changes are specific molecular changes around DNA that alter expression of genes. Epigenetic changes include DNA methylation, formation of histone adducts, and changes in micro RNAs. Research today indicates that epigenetic changes are involved in many chronic diseases (cancer, cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, mental health disorders, and asthma). Research has also linked a wide range of stressors including pollution and social factors with occurrence of epigenetic alterations. Epigenetic changes have the potential to reflect impacts of risk factors across multiple stages of life. Only recently receiving attention is the nexus between the factors of cumulative exposure to environmental

  6. A practical introduction to tensor networks: Matrix product states and projected entangled pair states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orús, Román

    2014-10-01

    This is a partly non-technical introduction to selected topics on tensor network methods, based on several lectures and introductory seminars given on the subject. It should be a good place for newcomers to get familiarized with some of the key ideas in the field, specially regarding the numerics. After a very general introduction we motivate the concept of tensor network and provide several examples. We then move on to explain some basics about Matrix Product States (MPS) and Projected Entangled Pair States (PEPS). Selected details on some of the associated numerical methods for 1d and 2d quantum lattice systems are also discussed.

  7. Actions to reduce the impact of construction products on indoor air: Outcomes of the European Project HealthyAir

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bluyssen, P.M.; Richemont, S.de; Crump, D.; Maupetit, F.; Witterseh, T.; Gajdos, P.

    2010-01-01

    The European project - HealthyAir is a network project involving six institutions in Europe on actions and activities that address the effects of construction products on indoor air. Different ways to improve indoor air quality were reviewed, ranging from source control to education of occupants on

  8. TECHNIQUE OF THE ASSESSMENT ЩА INVESTMENT APPEAL OF INNOVATIVE PRO-JECTS IN GRAIN PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorpinchenko K. N.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We have presented a technique of evaluation of in-vestment appeal of innovative projects in grain pro-duction in a way of innovative development of the meso-level, on the basis of the calculation of the inte-gral and the reference levels, and the assessment of innovation and investment projects, using a multicrite-rion approach

  9. Longhi Games, Internal Reservoirs, and Cumulate Porosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, S. A.

    2009-05-01

    values less than 6 %. Hence all the many rocks below that value are perfect adcumulates with zero residual porosity. Two great surprises emerge from the data. First, there is an abrupt spike from a residual porosity of about 2 to 8 % at 90 PCS, attributed to the great over-production and recovery of Augite and Fe-Ti oxides arising from varied interaction with the internal reservoir of the large magma chamber (Morse, 1979 and 2008 JPet). Second, the Fo range of olivine dramatically shows the same pattern, with Fo range up to 6%; the disparately located grains of olivine have not equilibrated with each other at above 1,000 degrees C and for many thousands of years. This demonstrates the lack of interconnected trapped liquid, hence no mushy zone. Application to meager An-range data in the Skaergaard intrusion shows a similar V-shaped decline to zero porosity (at about 70 PCS) followed by a rise to high values at the Sandwich Horizon. In both intrusions, the late rise signifies increasing cooling by conduction and increasing dominance of feldspar networks that retain increasingly large volumes of trapped liquid. The hard ground of maximum adcumulus growth occurs near the top of the Skaergaard Middle Zone, probably explaining why the sulfide-related Au-PGE ores accumulated there. Quantification of INITIAL porosity in natural rocks is seldom if ever achieved, but can plausibly be mapped from the upper limit of the An range for the Kiglapait intrusion. This parameter must apparently also reach zero at 99 PCS, implying a packing fraction of 1.0 at a minimum rate of accumulation. Hence we may now learn the whole route from initial to final porosity for a large array of cumulate rocks. The results will constrain our hypotheses about accumulation, solidification, and mushy zones for a long time to come.

  10. Productivity improvement in engineering-procure-construct projects through a value stream based scope change management system

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Ing. (Engineering Management) This dissertation provides a study of productivity improvement to project Scope Change Management (SCM) processes in the Engineer-Procure-Construct (EPC) project environment using lean techniques. The motivation for carrying out this study was, to optimise the typical scope change management systems to improve efficiency and most importantly the process productivity. It aims to present a conceptual approach to reduce bottom line impact brought about by the m...

  11. Project Maghreb - Europe: Solar Production of Hydrogen. Phase I: Feasibility and opportunity study of the project; Projet Maghreb - Europe: Production d'hydrogene solaire. Phase I: Etude d'opportunite et de faisabilite du projet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmah, Bouziane; Belhamel, Maiouf; Chader, Samira; M' Raoui, Abdelhamid; Harouadi, Farid; Etievant, Claude; Lechevalier, Steve; Cherigui, Abdel-Nasser

    2007-07-01

    During the 16th World Hydrogen Energy Conference which held on June 13-16, 2006, in Lyon (France), an important project appeared, the Maghreb-Europe Project for production and export of solar hydrogen, proposed in the Algiers Declaration of the hydrogen of origin renewable and directed by the researchers efforts of the Renewable Energies Development Center of Algiers (CDER) and members of the European company of Hydrogen Technologies (CETH). The present introductory communication exposes a scientific study on the appropriateness and the feasibility of the Project, as well as the objectives, missions and the fundamental elements for a scientific and technique accompaniment of this important project. (auth)

  12. Design and mass production of the optical modules for KM3NeT-Italia project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonora Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The KM3NeT European project aims at constructing a km3 underwater neutrino telescope in the depths of the Mediterranean Sea. The first phase that is under construction will comprise eight tower-like detection structures (KM3NeT-Italia, which will form the internal core of a km3-scale detector. The detection element of KM3NeT-Italia, the optical module, is made of a 13-inch pressure-resistant glass-vessel that contains a single 10-inch photomultiplier and the relative electronics. The design of the whole optical module, the main results obtained from the massive photomultipliers measurements, and the foremost phases of the mass production procedure performed at the production site of Catania are also presented.

  13. Design and mass production of the optical modules for KM3NeT-Italia project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonora, Emanuele; Aiello, Sebastiano; Giordano, Valentina

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT European project aims at constructing a km3 underwater neutrino telescope in the depths of the Mediterranean Sea. The first phase that is under construction will comprise eight tower-like detection structures (KM3NeT-Italia), which will form the internal core of a km3-scale detector. The detection element of KM3NeT-Italia, the optical module, is made of a 13-inch pressure-resistant glass-vessel that contains a single 10-inch photomultiplier and the relative electronics. The design of the whole optical module, the main results obtained from the massive photomultipliers measurements, and the foremost phases of the mass production procedure performed at the production site of Catania are also presented.

  14. Supplier integration in product development: A matter of designing the project structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Danilovic

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In product development close collaboration between systems integrators and suppliers is important. The purpose of this article is to investigate the impact of the work breakdown structure (WBS and work packages (WPs in product development on the possibility of carrying through the strategy of supplier involvement into collaborative practice and to investigate how supplier involvement can be improved by altering the design of collaborative WBS and WP structures. Dependence Structure Matrix (DSM is introduced in order to analyse, visualise and manage interdependencies, in terms of information exchange between the systems integrator and supplier. This article shows how DSM can support the alternative design of integrated and collaborative WBS and integrated WPs following the logic of dependencies and the flow of information in order to support a strategy focusing on integration of suppliers on project and team level.

  15. Photo-fission for the production of radioactive beams ALTO project

    CERN Document Server

    Essabaa, S; Ausset, P; Bajeat, O; Baronick, J P; Clapier, F; Coacolo, J L; Donzaud, C; Ducourtieux, M; Galas, S; Gardes, D; Grialou, D; Hosni, F; Guillemaud-Müller, D; Ibrahim, F; Junquera, T; Lau, C; Le Blanc, F; Lefort, H; Le Scornet, J C; Lesrel, J; Müller, A C; Obert, J; Perru, O; Potier, J C; Proust, J; Pougheon, F; Roussière, B; Rouvière, N; Sauvage, J; Sorlin, O; Tkatchenko, A; Verney, D; Waast, B; Rinolfi, Louis; Rossat, G; Forkel-Wirth, Doris; Müller, A; Bienvenu, G; Bourdon, J C; Garvey, Terence; Jacquemard, B; Omeich, M

    2003-01-01

    In order to probe neutron rich radioactive noble gases produced by photo-fission, a PARRNe-1 experiment (Production d'Atomes Radioactifs Riches en Neutrons) has been carried out at CERN. The incident electron beam of 50 MeV was delivered by the LIL machine: LEP Injector Linac. The experiment allowed us to compare under the same conditions two production methods of radioactive noble gases: fission induced by fast neutrons and photo-fission. The obtained results show that the use of the electrons is a promising mode to get intense neutron rich ion beams. After the success of this photo-fission experiment, a conceptual design for the installation at IPN Orsay of a 50 MeV electron accelerator close to the PARRNe-2 device has been worked out: ALTO Project. This work has started within a collaboration between IPNO, LAL (Laboratoire de l'Accelerateur Lineaire) and CERN groups.

  16. Photo-fission for the production of radioactive beams ALTO project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essabaa, S. E-mail: essabaa@ipno.in2p3.fr; Arianer, J.; Ausset, P.; Bajeat, O.; Baronick, J.P.; Clapier, F.; Coacolo, L.; Donzaud, C.; Ducourtieux, M.; Gales, S.; Gardes, D.; Grialou, D.; Hosni, F.; Guillemaud-Mueller, D.; Ibrahim, F.; Junquera, T.; Lau, C.; Le Blanc, F.; Lefort, H.; Le Scornet, J.C.; Lesrel, J.; Mueller, A.C.; Obert, J.; Perru, O.; Potier, J.C.; Proust, J.; Pougheon, F.; Roussiere, B.; Rouviere, N.; Sauvage, J.; Sorlin, O.; Tkatchenko, A.; Verney, D.; Waast, B.; Rinolfi, L.; Rossat, G.; Forkel-Wirth, D.; Muller, A.; Bienvenu, G.; Bourdon, J.-C.; Garvey, T.; Jacquemard, B.; Omeich, M

    2003-05-01

    In order to probe neutron rich radioactive noble gases produced by photo-fission, a PARRNe-1 experiment (Production d'Atomes Radioactifs Riches en Neutrons) has been carried out at CERN. The incident electron beam of 50 MeV was delivered by the LIL machine: LEP Injector Linac. The experiment allowed us to compare under the same conditions two production methods of radioactive noble gases: fission induced by fast neutrons and photo-fission. The obtained results show that the use of the electrons is a promising mode to get intense neutron rich ion beams. After the success of this photo-fission experiment, a conceptual design for the installation at IPN Orsay of a 50 MeV electron accelerator close to the PARRNe-2 device has been worked out: ALTO Project. This work has started within a collaboration between IPNO, LAL (Laboratoire de l'Accelerateur Lineaire) and CERN groups.

  17. Performance of the CELSS Antarctic Analog Project (CAAP) crop production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, D. L.; Schlick, G.; Wilson, D.; Bates, M.

    2003-01-01

    Regenerative life support systems potentially offer a level of self-sufficiency and a decrease in logistics and associated costs in support of space exploration and habitation missions. Current state-of-the-art in plant-based, regenerative life support requires resources in excess of allocation proposed for candidate mission scenarios. Feasibility thresholds have been identified for candidate exploration missions. The goal of this paper is to review recent advances in performance achieved in the CELSS Antarctic Analog Project (CAAP) in light of the likely resource constraints. A prototype CAAP crop production chamber has been constructed and operated at the Ames Research Center. The chamber includes a number of unique hardware and software components focused on attempts to increase production efficiency, increase energy efficiency, and control the flow of energy and mass through the system. Both single crop, batch production and continuous cultivation of mixed crops production studies have been completed. The crop productivity as well as engineering performance of the chamber are described. For each scenario, energy required and partitioned for lighting, cooling, pumping, fans, etc. is quantified. Crop production and the resulting lighting efficiency and energy conversion efficiencies are presented. In the mixed-crop scenario, with 27 different crops under cultivation, 17 m2 of crop area provided a mean of 515 g edible biomass per day (85% of the approximate 620 g required for one person). Enhanced engineering and crop production performance achieved with the CAAP chamber, compared with current state-of-the-art, places plant-based life support systems at the threshold of feasibility. c2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  18. Performance of the CELSS Antarctic Analog Project (CAAP) crop production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, D L; Schlick, G; Wilson, D; Bates, M

    2003-01-01

    Regenerative life support systems potentially offer a level of self-sufficiency and a decrease in logistics and associated costs in support of space exploration and habitation missions. Current state-of-the-art in plant-based, regenerative life support requires resources in excess of allocation proposed for candidate mission scenarios. Feasibility thresholds have been identified for candidate exploration missions. The goal of this paper is to review recent advances in performance achieved in the CELSS Antarctic Analog Project (CAAP) in light of the likely resource constraints. A prototype CAAP crop production chamber has been constructed and operated at the Ames Research Center. The chamber includes a number of unique hardware and software components focused on attempts to increase production efficiency, increase energy efficiency, and control the flow of energy and mass through the system. Both single crop, batch production and continuous cultivation of mixed crops production studies have been completed. The crop productivity as well as engineering performance of the chamber are described. For each scenario, energy required and partitioned for lighting, cooling, pumping, fans, etc. is quantified. Crop production and the resulting lighting efficiency and energy conversion efficiencies are presented. In the mixed-crop scenario, with 27 different crops under cultivation, 17 m2 of crop area provided a mean of 515 g edible biomass per day (85% of the approximate 620 g required for one person). Enhanced engineering and crop production performance achieved with the CAAP chamber, compared with current state-of-the-art, places plant-based life support systems at the threshold of feasibility. c2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  19. Methodologies for Assessing the Cumulative Environmental Effects of Hydroelectric Development of Fish and Wildlife in the Columbia River Basin, Volume 1, Recommendations, 1987 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stull, Elizabeth Ann

    1987-07-01

    This volume is the first of a two-part set addressing methods for assessing the cumulative effects of hydropower development on fish and wildlife in the Columbia River Basin. Species and habitats potentially affected by cumulative impacts are identified for the basin, and the most significant effects of hydropower development are presented. Then, current methods for measuring and assessing single-project effects are reviewed, followed by a review of methodologies with potential for use in assessing the cumulative effects associated with multiple projects. Finally, two new approaches for cumulative effects assessment are discussed in detail. Overall, this report identifies and reviews the concepts, factors, and methods necessary for understanding and conducting a cumulative effects assessment in the Columbia River Basin. Volume 2 will present a detailed procedural handbook for performing a cumulative assessment using the integrated tabular methodology introduced in this volume. 308 refs., 18 figs., 10 tabs.

  20. Projective analysis of staple food crop productivity in adaptation to future climate change in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Wen; Li, Tingting; Sun, Wenjuan; Yu, Yongqiang; Wang, Guocheng

    2017-02-01

    Climate change continually affects our capabilities to feed the increasing population. Rising temperatures have the potential to shorten the crop growth duration and therefore reduce crop yields. In the past decades, China has successfully improved crop cultivars to stabilize, and even lengthen, the crop growth duration to make use of increasing heat resources. However, because of the complex cropping systems in the different regions of China, the possibility and the effectiveness of regulating crop growth duration to reduce the negative impacts of future climate change remain questionable. Here, we performed a projective analysis of the staple food crop productivity in double-rice, wheat-rice, wheat-maize, single-rice, and single-maize cropping systems in China using modeling approaches. The results indicated that from the present to the 2040s, the warming climate would shorten the growth duration of the current rice, wheat, and maize cultivars by 2-24, 11-13, and 9-29 days, respectively. The most significant shortening of the crop growth duration would be in Northeast China, where single-rice and single-maize cropping dominates the croplands. The shortened crop growth duration would consequently reduce crop productivity. The most significant decreases would be 27-31, 6-20, and 7-22% for the late crop in the double-rice rotation, wheat in the winter wheat-rice rotation, and single maize, respectively. However, our projection analysis also showed that the negative effects of the warming climate could be compensated for by stabilizing the growth duration of the crops via improvement in crop cultivars. In this case, the productivity of rice, wheat, and maize in the 2040s would increase by 4-16, 31-38, and 11-12%, respectively. Our modeling results implied that the possibility of securing future food production exists by adopting proper adaptation options in China.

  1. Projective analysis of staple food crop productivity in adaptation to future climate change in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Wen; Li, Tingting; Sun, Wenjuan; Yu, Yongqiang; Wang, Guocheng

    2017-08-01

    Climate change continually affects our capabilities to feed the increasing population. Rising temperatures have the potential to shorten the crop growth duration and therefore reduce crop yields. In the past decades, China has successfully improved crop cultivars to stabilize, and even lengthen, the crop growth duration to make use of increasing heat resources. However, because of the complex cropping systems in the different regions of China, the possibility and the effectiveness of regulating crop growth duration to reduce the negative impacts of future climate change remain questionable. Here, we performed a projective analysis of the staple food crop productivity in double-rice, wheat-rice, wheat-maize, single-rice, and single-maize cropping systems in China using modeling approaches. The results indicated that from the present to the 2040s, the warming climate would shorten the growth duration of the current rice, wheat, and maize cultivars by 2-24, 11-13, and 9-29 days, respectively. The most significant shortening of the crop growth duration would be in Northeast China, where single-rice and single-maize cropping dominates the croplands. The shortened crop growth duration would consequently reduce crop productivity. The most significant decreases would be 27-31, 6-20, and 7-22% for the late crop in the double-rice rotation, wheat in the winter wheat-rice rotation, and single maize, respectively. However, our projection analysis also showed that the negative effects of the warming climate could be compensated for by stabilizing the growth duration of the crops via improvement in crop cultivars. In this case, the productivity of rice, wheat, and maize in the 2040s would increase by 4-16, 31-38, and 11-12%, respectively. Our modeling results implied that the possibility of securing future food production exists by adopting proper adaptation options in China.

  2. COIN Project: Towards a zero-waste technology for concrete aggregate production in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepuritis, Rolands; Willy Danielsen, Svein

    2014-05-01

    COIN Project: Towards a zero-waste technology for concrete aggregate production in Norway Rolands Cepuritis, Norcem/NTNU and Svein Willy Danielsen, SINTEF Aggregate production is a mining operation where no purification of the "ore" is necessary. Still it is extremely rare that an aggregate production plant is operating on the basis of zero-waste concept. This is since historically the fine crushed aggregate (particles with a size of less than 2, 4 or sometimes 8 mm) has been regarded as a by-product or waste of the more valuable coarse aggregate production. The reason is that the crushed coarse aggregates can easily replace coarse rounded natural stones in almost any concrete composition; while, the situation with the sand is different. The production of coarse aggregate normally yields fine fractions with rough surface texture, flaky or elongated particles an inadequate gradation. When such a material replaces smooth and rounded natural sand grains in a concrete mix, the result is usually poor and much more water and cement has to be used to achieve adequate concrete flow. The consequences are huge stockpiles of the crushed fine fractions that can't be sold (mass balance problems) for the aggregate producers, sustainability problems for the whole industry and environmental issues for society due to dumping and storing of the fine co-generated material. There have been attempts of utilising the material in concrete before; however, they have mostly ended up in failure. There have been attempts to adjust the crushed sand to the properties of the natural sand, which would still give a lot of waste, especially if the grading would have to be adjusted and the high amounts of fines abundantly present in the crushed sand would have to be removed. Another fundamental reason for failure has been that historically such attempts have mainly ended up in a research carried out by people (both industrial and academic) with aggregate background (= parties willing to find market

  3. DSM/DMM-based Methodology for Handling Changes in Product Development Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Xin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the growing complexity of the business context, companies are confronting more challenging Product Development (PD projects because of the potential risks externally brought by the partners’ participation and internally accumulated through the activities’ execution. In this paper, we formulate and decompose a PD project in a hierarchical way, and the obtained end elements perceived as objects are built into a number of Design Structure Matrices (DSMs and Domain Mapping Matrices (DMMs. We also propose a conceptual model of change occurring and change propagation, base on which the potential change propagating channels are discovered through observing and tracking change occurring and change propagation in DSMs and DMMs. Associated with the depth-first and breath-first search methods executed in matrices the critical objects during change propagation are discovered and the implicit change propagating channels cross multiple fields are identified. As the exploratory results, the critical objects taking account of change propagation are highlighted as the contribution to change management in PD project.

  4. Project-based production and project management: Findings and trends in research on temporary systems in multiple contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinus Pretorius

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation is challenging almost every aspect of the political, economic, social and technological environment. Organisations, whether public or private, have to adapt their strategies and operations to stay competitive and efficient. Historically, organisations adopted project-based operations as a mode to stay competitive, although the applications tended to be the oneoff type of operations such as construction and system development projects (Edum-Fotwe & McCaffer, 2000. As the world changed from an industrially driven to a more knowledge driven economy and the pace of continuous change became more intense, organisations adopted a project-based mode of operations on a broader scale. The knowledge economy lead to the creation of many service orientated industries. Organisations started facing portfolios of projects where the nature of these projects differed in technological complexity, urgency, customer value and social impact (Gutjahr & Froeschl, 2013. Based on their experience with more technically orientated projects, organisations focused their attention more intensely on new project management methods, tools and processes and not necessarily on the human and organisational interfaces. This paradigm changed however, especially since the 1980s and more and more organisations adopted temporary organisational forms (Bakker, 2010 in order to improve their competitiveness. The contributions in this special edition of the South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences have a common focus on the importance of the human and organisational interface of project-based operations on project success. The purpose of this concluding article is to analyse the findings and recommendations in these papers and to detect trends and future research opportunities in the field of project-based operations.

  5. Climate change projections of heat stress in Europe: From meteorological variables to impacts on productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanueva, Ana; Kotlarski, Sven; Liniger, Mark A.

    2017-04-01

    Future climate change is likely to have important impacts in many socio-economic sectors. In particular, higher summer temperatures or more prolonged heat waves may be responsible for health problems and productivity losses related to heat stress, especially affecting people exposed to such situations (e.g. working under outside settings or in non-acclimatized workplaces). Heat stress on the body under work load and consequently their productivity loss can be described through heat stress indices that are based on multiple meteorological parameters such as temperature, humidity, wind and radiation. Exploring the changes of these variables under a warmer climate is of prime importance for the Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability communities. In particular, the H2020 project HEAT-SHIELD aims at analyzing the impact of climate change on heat stress in strategic industries in Europe (manufacturing, construction, transportation, tourism and agriculture) within an inter-sectoral framework (climate scientists, biometeorologists, physiologists and stakeholders). In the present work we explore present and future heat stress over Europe using an ensemble of the state-of-the-art RCMs from the EURO-CORDEX initiative. Since RCMs cannot be directly used in impact studies due to their partly substantial biases, a standard bias correction method (empirical quantile mapping) is applied to correct the individual variables that are then used to derive heat stress indices. The objectives of this study are twofold, 1) to test the ability of the separately bias corrected variables to reproduce the main characteristics of heat stress indices in present climate conditions and 2) to explore climate change projections of heat stress indices. We use the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) as primary heat stress index, considering two different versions for indoor (or in the shade, based on temperature and humidity conditions) and outdoor settings (including also wind and radiation). The WBGT

  6. Carbon footprint and environmental impacts of print products from cradle to grave. Results from the LEADER project (part 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pihkola, H.; Nors, M.; Kujanpaeae, M.; Helin, T.; Kariniemi, M.; Pajula, T. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)); Dahlbo, H.; Koskela, S. (Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland))

    2010-12-15

    The report presents the main results of the LEADER project that was ongoing in Finland between the years 2007-2010. The aim of the project was to study the environmental impacts occurring during the life cycle of print products. The scope of the project was focused on printed media products. In the study, life cycle assessments and carbon footprints were calculated for five case products: heatset offset printed magazine, coldset offset printed newspaper, sheetfed offset printed book, electrophotography printed photobook and rotogravure printed advertisement. The environmentally extended input-output model ENVIMAT was applied to provide an estimate of the environmental impacts related to the production and consumption of print products in Finland. Additionally, the development of environmental performance within different printing methods is evaluated and the environmental indicators specific for the printing phase are discussed. (orig.)

  7. Climate impacts on agricultural biomass production in the CORDEX.be project context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, Anne; Van Schaeybroeck, Bert; Termonia, Piet; Willems, Patrick; Van Lipzig, Nicole; Marbaix, Philippe; van Ypersele, Jean-Pascal; Fettweis, Xavier; De Ridder, Koen; Stavrakou, Trissevgeni; Luyten, Patrick; Pottiaux, Eric

    2016-04-01

    The most important coordinated international effort to translate the IPCC-AR5 outcomes to regional climate modelling is the so-called "COordinated Regional climate Downscaling EXperiment" (CORDEX, http://wcrp-cordex.ipsl.jussieu.fr/). CORDEX.be is a national initiative that aims at combining the Belgian climate and impact modelling research into a single network. The climate network structure is naturally imposed by the top-down data flow, from the four participating upper-air Regional Climate Modelling groups towards seven Local Impact Models (LIMs). In addition to the production of regional climate projections following the CORDEX guidelines, very high-resolution results are provided at convection-permitting resolutions of about 4 km across Belgium. These results are coupled to seven local-impact models with severity indices as output. A multi-model approach is taken that allows uncertainty estimation, a crucial aspect of climate projections for policy-making purposes. The down-scaled scenarios at 4 km resolution allow for impact assessment in different Belgian agro-ecological zones. Climate impacts on arable agriculture are quantified using REGCROP which is a regional dynamic agri-meteorological model geared towards modelling climate impact on biomass production of arable crops (Gobin, 2010, 2012). Results from previous work show that heat stress and water shortages lead to reduced crop growth, whereas increased CO2-concentrations and a prolonged growing season have a positive effect on crop yields. The interaction between these effects depend on the crop type and the field conditions. Root crops such as potato will experience increased drought stress particularly when the probability rises that sensitive crop stages coincide with dry spells. This may be aggravated when wet springs cause water logging in the field and delay planting dates. Despite lower summer precipitation projections for future climate in Belgium, winter cereal yield reductions due to drought

  8. The Walla Walla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation Project : Progress Report, 1999-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contor, Craig R.; Sexton, Amy D.

    2003-06-02

    The Walla Walla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation Project (WWNPME) was funded by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as directed by section 4(h) of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 (P. L. 96-501). This project is in accordance with and pursuant to measures 4.2A, 4.3C.1, 7.1A.2, 7.1C.3, 7.1C.4 and 7.1D.2 of the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NPPC) Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Work was conducted by the Fisheries Program of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) under the Walla Walla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation Project (WWNPME). Chapter One provides an overview of the entire report and how the objectives of each statement of work from 1999, 2000, 2001, and 2002 contract years are organized and reported. Chapter One also provides background information relevant to the aquatic resources of the Walla Walla River Basin. Objectives are outlined below for the statements of work for the 1999, 2000, 2001 and 2002 contract years. The same objectives were sometimes given different numbers in different years. Because this document is a synthesis of four years of reporting, we gave objectives letter designations and listed the objective number associated with the statement of work for each year. Some objectives were in all four work statements, while other objectives were in only one or two work statements. Each objective is discussed in a chapter. The chapter that reports activities and findings of each objective are listed with the objective below. Because data is often interrelated, aspects of some findings may be reported or discussed in more than one chapter. Specifics related to tasks, approaches, methods, results and discussion are addressed in the individual chapters.

  9. Control of cost heftiness of castings production with improvement of PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kafka

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The Specialized Commission for Economy of Czech Foundrymen Society in the Czech Republic systematically follows a solution of particular phases of castings production from iron and non-ferrous metals already for eighth years. These separate studies are uniformly aimed at cost analysis of chosen phases of castings production. The analysis of cost heftiness and recommendations for concrete remedies for particular foundries are the results. The contribution is aimed at transparent description of topics of the PROJECTS I – VII. Further on it describes in more details the PROJECT VIII, especially the costs of preparation of moulding mixtures. The team solving this problem gathers the results of costs comparison of preparation of fifteen moulding mixtures in five Czech foundries in this project. The inquiry topics are bentonite moulding mixtures (unit, pattern, and heap, further on the self-setting mixtures (with waterglass and furane. The inquiry is closed with Cold-Box-Amine core mixture. The evaluation is aimed both at own cost comparison, and at prediction of moulding mixture costs resulting from knowledge of their structure. Further on it deals with the future growth of waste costs. Subsequently, the possibilities of costs specification concerning to power consumption are viewed. Very interesting results are described for studying the relations of costs of moulding mixtures and particular castings. Questions of determining the price of used return moulding mixture are remarkable too. The way to achieve another costs reduction is also the investigation of costs changeableness for mixing the mixtures.The work ends with summary suggestion of next progress.

  10. Greater Green River Basin production improvement project, Phase 1: Site characterization report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeJarnett, B.B.; Krystinik, L.F.; Mead, R.H.; Poe, S.C.

    1996-05-01

    Several tight, naturally-fractured, gas-productive formations in the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) in Wyoming have been exploited using conventional vertical well technology. Typically, hydraulic fracture treatments must be performed in completing these wells to increase gas production rates to economic levels. However, with the maturation of horizontal drilling technology hydraulic fracture treatments may not be the most effective method for improving gas production from these tight reservoirs. Two of the most prolific tight gas reservoirs in the Green River Basin, the Frontier and the Mesaverde, are candidates for the application of horizontal well completion technology. The objective of the proposed project is to apply the DOE`s technical concept to the Second Frontier Formation on the western flank of the Rock Springs Uplift. Previous industry attempts to produce in commercial quantities from the Second Frontier Formation have been hampered by lack of understanding of both the in-situ natural fracture system and lack of adequate stimulation treatments. The proposed technical approach involves drilling a vertical characterization well to the Second Frontier Formation at a depth of approximately 16,000 ft. from a site located about 18 miles northwest of Rock Springs, Wyoming. Logging, coring, and well testing information from the vertical well will be used to design a hydraulic fracturing treatment and to assess the resulting production performance. Data from the vertical drilling phase will be used to design a 2,500 to 3,000-ft lateral wellbore which will be kicked off from the vertical hole and extend into the blanket marine sandstone bench of the Second Frontier Formation. The trajectory of this wellbore will be designed to intersect the maximum number of natural fractures to maximize production rates. Production testing of the resulting completion will provide an assessment of reserve potential related to horizontal lateral completions.

  11. Sustainable biomass products development and evaluation, Hamakua project. Final draft report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The PICHTR Sustainable Biomass Energy Program was developed to evaluate the potential to cultivate crops for energy production as an alternative use of lands made available by the closing of large sugar plantations. In particular, the closing of the Hamakua Sugar Company on the island of Hawaii brought a great deal of attention to the future of agriculture in this region and in the state. Many options were proposed. Several promising alternatives had been proposed for cane lands. These included dedicated feedstock supply systems (DFSS) for electrical energy production, cultivation of sugarcane to produce ethanol and related by-products, and the production of feed and crops to support animal agriculture. Implementation of some of the options might require preservation of large tracts of land and maintenance of the sugar mills and sugar infrastructure. An analysis of the technical, financial, and other issues necessary to reach conclusions regarding the optimal use of these lands was required. At the request of the Office of State Planning and Senator Akaka`s office, the Pacific International Center for High Technology Research (PICHTR) established and coordinated a working group composed of state, county, federal, and private sector representatives to identify sustainable energy options for the use of idle sugar lands on the island of Hawaii. The Sustainable Biomass Energy Program`s Hamakua Project was established to complete a comprehensive evaluation of the most viable alternatives and assess the options to grow crops as a source of raw materials for the production of transportation fuel and/or electricity on the island of Hawaii. The motivation for evaluating biomass to energy conversion embraced the considerations that Hawaii`s energy security would be improved by diversifying the fuels used for transportation and reducing dependency on imported fossil fuels. The use of waste products as feedstocks could divert wastes from landfills.

  12. Projecting changes in the distribution and productivity of living marine resources: A critical review of the suite of modelling approaches used in the large European project VECTORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peck, Myron A.; Arvanitidis, Christos; Butenschön, Momme; Canu, Donata Melaku; Chatzinikolaou, Eva; Cucco, Andrea; Domenici, Paolo; Fernandes, Jose A.; Gasche, Loic; Huebert, Klaus B.; Hufnagl, Marc; Jones, Miranda C.; Kempf, Alexander; Keyl, Friedemann; Maar, Marie; Mahévas, Stéphanie; Marchal, Paul; Nicolas, Delphine; Pinnegar, John K.; Rivot, Etienne; Rochette, Sébastien; Sell, Anne F.; Sinerchia, Matteo; Solidoro, Cosimo; Somerfield, Paul J.; Teal, Lorna R.; Travers-trolet, Morgan; De Wolfshaar, Van Karen E.

    2016-01-01

    We review and compare four broad categories of spatially-explicit modelling approaches currently used to understand and project changes in the distribution and productivity of living marine resources including: 1) statistical species distribution models, 2) physiology-based, biophysical models of si

  13. Projecting changes in the distribution and productivity of living marine resources: A critical review of the suite of modelling approaches used in the large European project VECTORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peck, Myron A.; Arvanitidis, Christos; Butenschön, Momme; Canu, Donata Melaku; Chatzinikolaou, Eva; Cucco, Andrea; Domenici, Paolo; Fernandes, Jose A.; Gasche, Loic; Huebert, Klaus B.; Hufnagl, Marc; Jones, Miranda C.; Kempf, Alexander; Keyl, Friedemann; Maar, Marie; Mahévas, Stéphanie; Marchal, Paul; Nicolas, Delphine; Pinnegar, John K.; Rivot, Etienne; Rochette, Sébastien; Sell, Anne F.; Sinerchia, Matteo; Solidoro, Cosimo; Somerfield, Paul J.; Teal, Lorna R.; Travers-trolet, Morgan; De Wolfshaar, Van Karen E.

    2016-01-01

    We review and compare four broad categories of spatially-explicit modelling approaches currently used to understand and project changes in the distribution and productivity of living marine resources including: 1) statistical species distribution models, 2) physiology-based, biophysical models of

  14. Cumulative risks of foster care placement for Danish children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fallesen, Peter; Emanuel, Natalia; Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Although recent research suggests that the cumulative risk of foster care placement is far higher for American children than originally suspected, little is known about the cumulative risk of foster...

  15. Recursive Numerical Evaluation of the Cumulative Bivariate Normal Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Christian

    2010-01-01

    We propose an algorithm for evaluation of the cumulative bivariate normal distribution, building upon Marsaglia's ideas for evaluation of the cumulative univariate normal distribution. The algorithm is mathematically transparent, delivers competitive performance and can easily be extended to arbitrary precision.

  16. Ratcheting up the ratchet: on the evolution of cumulative culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennie, Claudio; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2009-08-27

    Some researchers have claimed that chimpanzee and human culture rest on homologous cognitive and learning mechanisms. While clearly there are some homologous mechanisms, we argue here that there are some different mechanisms at work as well. Chimpanzee cultural traditions represent behavioural biases of different populations, all within the species' existing cognitive repertoire (what we call the 'zone of latent solutions') that are generated by founder effects, individual learning and mostly product-oriented (rather than process-oriented) copying. Human culture, in contrast, has the distinctive characteristic that it accumulates modifications over time (what we call the 'ratchet effect'). This difference results from the facts that (i) human social learning is more oriented towards process than product and (ii) unique forms of human cooperation lead to active teaching, social motivations for conformity and normative sanctions against non-conformity. Together, these unique processes of social learning and cooperation lead to humans' unique form of cumulative cultural evolution.

  17. Behavior and finite-size effects of the sixth order cumulant in the three-dimensional Ising universality class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xue; Chen, Li-Zhu; Wu, Yuan-Fang

    2016-09-01

    The high-order cumulants of conserved charges are suggested to be sensitive observables to search for the critical point of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). This has been calculated to the sixth order in experiments. Corresponding theoretical studies on the sixth order cumulant are necessary. Based on the universality of the critical behavior, we study the temperature dependence of the sixth order cumulant of the order parameter using the parametric representation of the three-dimensional Ising model, which is expected to be in the same universality class as QCD. The density plot of the sign of the sixth order cumulant is shown on the temperature and external magnetic field plane. We found that at non-zero external magnetic field, when the critical point is approached from the crossover side, the sixth order cumulant has a negative valley. The width of the negative valley narrows with decreasing external field. Qualitatively, the trend is similar to the result of Monte Carlo simulation on a finite-size system. Quantitatively, the temperature of the sign change is different. Through Monte Carlo simulation of the Ising model, we calculated the sixth order cumulant of different sizes of systems. We discuss the finite-size effects on the temperature at which the cumulant changes sign. Supported by Fund Project of Sichuan Provincial Department of Education (16ZB0339), Fund Project of Chengdu Technological University for Doctor (2016RC004), Major State Basic Research Development Program of China (2014CB845402) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (11405088, 11221504)

  18. Project-based production and project management : Findings and trends in research on temporary systems in multiple contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pretorius, M.W.; Oerlemans, L.A.G.

    2014-01-01

    Globalisation is challenging almost every aspect of the political, economic, social and technological environment. Organisations, whether public or private, have to adapt their strategies and operations to stay competitive and efficient. Historically, organisations adopted project-based operations

  19. Preserved cumulative semantic interference despite amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Michael Oppenheim

    2015-05-01

    As predicted by Oppenheim et al’s (2010 implicit incremental learning account, WRP’s BCN RTs demonstrated strong (and significant repetition priming and semantic blocking effects (Figure 1. Similar to typical results from neurally intact undergraduates, WRP took longer to name pictures presented in semantically homogeneous blocks than in heterogeneous blocks, an effect that increased with each cycle. This result challenges accounts that ascribe cumulative semantic interference in this task to explicit memory mechanisms, instead suggesting that the effect has the sort of implicit learning bases that are typically spared in hippocampal amnesia.

  20. Cumulant matching for independent source extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phlypo, Ronald; Zarzoso, Vicente; Comon, Pierre; Lemahieu, Ignace

    2008-01-01

    In this work we show how one can make use of priors on signal statistics under the form of cumulant guesses to extract an independent source from an observed mixture. The advantage of using statistical priors on the signal lies in the fact that no specific knowledge is needed about its temporal behavior, neither about its spatial distribution. We show that these statistics can be obtained either by reasoning on the theoretical values of a supposed waveform, either by using a subset of the observations from which we know that their statistics are merely hindered by interferences. Results on an electro-cardiographic recording confirm the above assumptions.

  1. Knowledge production connected to the social construction of the Urgent Project System in Sharp Co. : Revisiting social constructionism

    OpenAIRE

    Kanai, Toshihiro; Matsushima, Noboru; Urano, Mitsuhiro

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we propose that the scientific knowledge has a public nature. Our knowledge production, therefore, is inevitably connected to the realities socially constructed. We discuss how our knowledge production is connected to the management practices, according to our field research of the urgent project system in Sharp Co..

  2. A Missing Link in the Evolution of the Cumulative Recorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Toshio; Lattal, Kennon A.

    2012-01-01

    A recently recovered cumulative recorder provides a missing link in the evolution of the cumulative recorder from a modified kymograph to a reliably operating, scientifically and commercially successful instrument. The recorder, the only physical evidence of such an early precommercial cumulative recorder yet found, was sent to Keio University in…

  3. Original and cumulative prospect theory: a discussion of empirical differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P. Wakker; H. Fennema

    1997-01-01

    This note discusses differences between prospect theory and cumulative prospect theory. It shows that cumulative prospect theory is not merely a formal correction of some theoretical problems in prospect theory, but it also gives different predictions. Experiments are described that favor cumulative

  4. The 90,000 t/a Pulp Project of Yunjing Forest & Pulp in Production Trail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On May 28, Yunjing Forest & Pulp Co., Ltd. held a ceremony to celebrate the start of production trial for its 90,000 t/a pulp rebuilding project. After the completion of the project, the annual production capacity and annual output value of the company can be increased from 110,000 tons to 250,000 tons and from RMB 600 million to RMB 3. billion, respectively, which will lay a solid foundation for the construction of a new 30,000 tons household paper production line.

  5. Ultra-clean Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Fuels Production and Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen P. Bergin

    2006-06-30

    The objective of the DOE-NETL Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Production and Demonstration Program was to produce and evaluate F-T fuel derived from domestic natural gas. The project had two primary phases: (1) fuel production of ultra-clean diesel transportation fuels from domestic fossil resources; and (2) demonstration and performance testing of these fuels in engines. The project also included a well-to-wheels economic analysis and a feasibility study of small-footprint F-T plants (SFPs) for remote locations such as rural Alaska. During the fuel production phase, ICRC partnered and cost-shared with Syntroleum Corporation to complete the mechanical design, construction, and operation of a modular SFP that converts natural gas, via F-T and hydro-processing reactions, into hydrogensaturated diesel fuel. Construction of the Tulsa, Oklahoma plant started in August 2002 and culminated in the production of over 100,000 gallons of F-T diesel fuel (S-2) through 2004, specifically for this project. That fuel formed the basis of extensive demonstrations and evaluations that followed. The ultra-clean F-T fuels produced had virtually no sulfur (less than 1 ppm) and were of the highest quality in terms of ignition quality, saturation content, backend volatility, etc. Lubricity concerns were investigated to verify that commercially available lubricity additive treatment would be adequate to protect fuel injection system components. In the fuel demonstration and testing phase, two separate bus fleets were utilized. The Washington DC Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) and Denali National Park bus fleets were used because they represented nearly opposite ends of several spectra, including: climate, topography, engine load factor, mean distance between stops, and composition of normally used conventional diesel fuel. Fuel evaluations in addition to bus fleet demonstrations included: bus fleet emission measurements; F-T fuel cold weather performance; controlled engine dynamometer

  6. Cumulative environmental management and the oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    In response to concerns regarding the cumulative environmental impacts of oil sands development within the Athabasca oil sands deposit, the government of Alberta established a Regional Sustainable Development Strategy (RSDS) to balance development with environmental protection. The environmental issues identified through the RSDS were addressed by the Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA). CEMA's boundary is the Wood Buffalo region of northeastern Alberta. It identifies existing and future environmental effects in the region and proposes recommendations to regulatory bodies for reducing environmental impacts associated with oil sands development. This presentation outlined some of the 55 stakeholder representatives of CEMA, including Alberta government departments associated with resource development, oil sand developers within the region, and Aboriginal communities and First Nations. These stakeholders provide input on sector priorities and agree on environmental thresholds. Established working groups also address technical and scientific research issues identified in the RSDS such as sustainable ecosystems; surface waters; trace metals and air contaminants; nitrogen oxides and sulphur dioxides; and land reclamation. To date, CEMA has submitted more than 50 reports and has made 4 major environmental recommendations for trace metal management, ecosystem management tools, a framework for acid deposition management, and a landscape design checklist. tabs., figs.

  7. Higher Order Cumulants in Colorless Partonic Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Cherif, S; Ladrem, M

    2016-01-01

    Any physical system considered to study the QCD deconfinement phase transition certainly has a finite volume, so the finite size effects are inevitably present. This renders the location of the phase transition and the determination of its order as an extremely difficult task, even in the simplest known cases. In order to identify and locate the colorless QCD deconfinement transition point in finite volume $T_{0}(V)$, a new approach based on the finite-size cumulant expansion of the order parameter and the $\\mathscr{L}_{m,n}$-Method is used.We have shown that both cumulants of higher order and their ratios, associated to the thermodynamical fluctuations of the order parameter, in QCD deconfinement phase transition behave in a particular enough way revealing pronounced oscillations in the transition region. The sign structure and the oscillatory behavior of these in the vicinity of the deconfinement phase transition point might be a sensitive probe and may allow one to elucidate their relation to the QCD phase...

  8. Innovativeness, population size and cumulative cultural evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yutaka; Aoki, Kenichi

    2012-08-01

    Henrich [Henrich, J., 2004. Demography and cultural evolution: how adaptive cultural processes can produce maladaptive losses-the Tasmanian case. Am. Antiquity 69, 197-214] proposed a model designed to show that larger population size facilitates cumulative cultural evolution toward higher skill levels. In this model, each newborn attempts to imitate the most highly skilled individual of the parental generation by directly-biased social learning, but the skill level he/she acquires deviates probabilistically from that of the exemplar (cultural parent). The probability that the skill level of the imitator exceeds that of the exemplar can be regarded as the innovation rate. After reformulating Henrich's model rigorously, we introduce an overlapping-generations analog based on the Moran model and derive an approximate formula for the expected change per generation of the highest skill level in the population. For large population size, our overlapping-generations model predicts a much larger effect of population size than Henrich's discrete-generations model. We then investigate by way of Monte Carlo simulations the case where each newborn chooses as his/her exemplar the most highly skilled individual from among a limited number of acquaintances. When the number of acquaintances is small relative to the population size, we find that a change in the innovation rate contributes more than a proportional change in population size to the cumulative cultural evolution of skill level.

  9. Circumpolar arctic tundra biomass and productivity dynamics in response to projected climate change and herbivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qin; Epstein, Howard; Engstrom, Ryan; Walker, Donald

    2017-09-01

    Satellite remote sensing data have indicated a general 'greening' trend in the arctic tundra biome. However, the observed changes based on remote sensing are the result of multiple environmental drivers, and the effects of individual controls such as warming, herbivory, and other disturbances on changes in vegetation biomass, community structure, and ecosystem function remain unclear. We apply ArcVeg, an arctic tundra vegetation dynamics model, to estimate potential changes in vegetation biomass and net primary production (NPP) at the plant community and functional type levels. ArcVeg is driven by soil nitrogen output from the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model, existing densities of Rangifer populations, and projected summer temperature changes by the NCAR CCSM4.0 general circulation model across the Arctic. We quantified the changes in aboveground biomass and NPP resulting from (i) observed herbivory only; (ii) projected climate change only; and (iii) coupled effects of projected climate change and herbivory. We evaluated model outputs of the absolute and relative differences in biomass and NPP by country, bioclimate subzone, and floristic province. Estimated potential biomass increases resulting from temperature increase only are approximately 5% greater than the biomass modeled due to coupled warming and herbivory. Such potential increases are greater in areas currently occupied by large or dense Rangifer herds such as the Nenets-occupied regions in Russia (27% greater vegetation increase without herbivores). In addition, herbivory modulates shifts in plant community structure caused by warming. Plant functional types such as shrubs and mosses were affected to a greater degree than other functional types by either warming or herbivory or coupled effects of the two. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. A practical introduction to tensor networks: Matrix product states and projected entangled pair states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orús, Román, E-mail: roman.orus@uni-mainz.de

    2014-10-15

    This is a partly non-technical introduction to selected topics on tensor network methods, based on several lectures and introductory seminars given on the subject. It should be a good place for newcomers to get familiarized with some of the key ideas in the field, specially regarding the numerics. After a very general introduction we motivate the concept of tensor network and provide several examples. We then move on to explain some basics about Matrix Product States (MPS) and Projected Entangled Pair States (PEPS). Selected details on some of the associated numerical methods for 1d and 2d quantum lattice systems are also discussed. - Highlights: • A practical introduction to selected aspects of tensor network methods is presented. • We provide analytical examples of MPS and 2d PEPS. • We provide basic aspects on several numerical methods for MPS and 2d PEPS. • We discuss a number of applications of tensor network methods from a broad perspective.

  11. Product platform considerations on a project that develops sustainable low-cost housing for townships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wörösch, Michael; Bonev, Martin; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    by INCOSE. 1) to 3) have been studied using action research on a case project. The case company´s success in their endeavor contributes to people currently living without decent housing getting insulated low-cost houses based on the latest technology. The fact that those low-cost houses are solid gives......Construction companies in Denmark are often working with profit margins as little as 1-3% in situations where they deliver high-end buildings to the local market. Even though customers are willing to pay a premium price for high quality, construction companies earn very little on their products....... Consequently one Danish company took the decision to produce sustainable low-cost houses and to sell them to development countries that have township housing programs. Why does this company believe in still making profit in the low-cost housing segment abroad, when there is almost no profit in the high...

  12. Projecting hydropower production under future climates: a review of modelling challenges and open questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefli, Bettina

    2015-04-01

    Hydropower is a pillar for renewable electricity production in almost all world regions. The planning horizon of major hydropower infrastructure projects stretches over several decades and consideration of evolving climatic conditions plays an ever increasing role. This review of model-based climate change impact assessments provides a synthesis of the wealth of underlying modelling assumptions, highlights the importance of local factors and attempts to identify the most urgent open questions. Based on existing case studies, it critically discusses whether current hydro-climatic modelling frameworks are likely to provide narrow enough water scenario ranges to be included into economic analyses for end-to-end climate change impact assessments including electricity market models. This will be completed with an overview of not or indirectly climate-related boundary conditions, such as economic growth, legal constraints, national subsidy frameworks or growing competition for water, which might locally largely outweigh any climate change impacts.

  13. Crop Production for Advanced Life Support Systems - Observations From the Kennedy Space Center Breadboard Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Sager, J. C.; Prince, R. P.; Knott, W. M.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Stutte, G. W.; Yorio, N. C.; Ruffe, L. M.; Peterson, B. V.; Goins, G. D.

    2003-01-01

    The use of plants for bioregenerative life support for space missions was first studied by the US Air Force in the 1950s and 1960s. Extensive testing was also conducted from the 1960s through the 1980s by Russian researchers located at the Institute of Biophysics in Krasnoyarsk, Siberia, and the Institute for Biomedical Problems in Moscow. NASA initiated bioregenerative research in the 1960s (e.g., Hydrogenomonas) but this research did not include testing with plants until about 1980, with the start of the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Program. The NASA CELSS research was carried out at universities, private corporations, and NASA field centers, including Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The project at KSC began in 1985 and was called the CELSS Breadboard Project to indicate the capability for plugging in and testing various life support technologies; this name has since been dropped but bioregenerative testing at KSC has continued to the present under the NASA s Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. A primary objective of the KSC testing was to conduct pre-integration tests with plants (crops) in a large, atmospherically closed test chamber called the Biomass Production Chamber (BPC). Test protocols for the BPC were based on observations and growing procedures developed by university investigators, as well as procedures developed in plant growth chamber studies at KSC. Growth chamber studies to support BPC testing focused on plant responses to different carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, different spectral qualities from various electric lamps, and nutrient film hydroponic culture techniques.

  14. Discussion after implementation of possible ergonomics contributions in production lines automation project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Adriano Canton

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the issue of work spaces designed based on Activity-Centered Ergonomics. The aim was to reflect on the role of Ergonomics in the design of productive situations in order to anticipate and mitigate the emergence of new constraints. This study was developed using a case study from the packaging industry, where an automated line was implemented to mitigate the injuries suffered as result of the manual system. This article was based on the results of an Ergonomic Work Analysis of the solution implemented, and the subsequent analysis of this design process. It was found that the adopted solution does not have enough leeway for dealing with variations inherent to the process, requiring constant interventions in the operation, by the operators in order to free the line to continue work. It was evident that the adopted solution did not involve the participation of important agents such as the operators and the maintenance crew, giving the project a technical vision that was concerned with eliminating the human factor. The conclusion of this study was that the Ergonomics integrated into the project development favors the collective construction of analysis of the research, and consequently, the development of more effective solutions.

  15. Orchestrating Information Sharing among Intra- And Inter-Organisational Core Actors in a Large New Product Development Project - The Particular Role of The Project Manager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Lisbeth Brøde

    The success of NPD projects of high-cost, engineering-intensive, and customized development products is largely dependent on information sharing with actors from customers regarding their specific requirements (Von Hippel, 1986). But information sharing is also necessary among actors from different...... in the early phases of the NPD project. These core external actors act as intermediaries who can guide and promote the information sharing to other core actors within their organisation. This behaviour enables a better interaction among intra- and inter-organisational actors and ensures a successful...

  16. The effects of climatic change on crop production. Results of a five-year research project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mela, T.; Carter, T.; Hakala, K.; Kaukoranta, T.; Laurila, H.; Niemi, K.; Saarikko, R.; Tiilikkala, K. [Agricultural Research Centre of Finland, Jokioinen (Finland); Hannukkala, A. [Agricultural Research Centre, Rovaniemi (Finland). Lapland Research Station

    1996-12-31

    The aim of this research project, funded jointly by SILMU and by the Agricultural Research Centre of Finland, was to evaluate the possible effects of changes in climate and carbon dioxide concentration on the growth, development and yield of field crops and on crop pests and diseases in Finland. The study focused on two cereal crops (spring wheat and spring barley), a grass species (meadow fescue), some common pathogens of cereals and potato, insect pests of small fruits and nematode risk of potato and sugar beet. The results of this study indicate the following effects on crop production of the `best guess` climate change anticipated for Finland by 2050: A lengthening of the potential growing season of 3-5 weeks. A northward expansion of about 250-500 km in suitability for cereal production. Increased yields of adapted spring cereals. New, longer-season cultivars would benefit from both higher temperatures and elevated CO{sub 2}. Improved potential for the cultivation of higher-yielding winter sown cereals. Increased grass yields due to a lengthening growing season and increased growth rates, assuming that water and nutrient limitations are minor. However, there is a possibility of reduced winter hardening under higher autumn temperatures and an increased risk of winter damage. Potential for the successful cultivation of new crops like maize in southern Finland. Increased potential for yield losses due to crop pests and diseases under climatic warming. The range of many species is expected to expand northwards, additional generations of some species would develop successfully, and new species may become established in Finland. The research is continuing as part of a new European Community project, and will explore a wider range of crop types, focusing on the effects of climate change on agricultural risk at national scale

  17. ERGONOMIC ASPECTS IN THE PLANNING AND EXECUTION OF PROJECTS: A TEXTILE PRODUCTS DISTRIBUTION CENTER PROJECT CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Lourenço da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The planning and execution phases of a distribution center project of a large textile industry was made, evaluating the ergonomic aspects related to the operations to be performed in the facility and staff anthropometric data. The ergonomic collaborative analysis of the tasks associated with the method of movement plotting, guided the planning of the picking, manual induction and order consolidation areas from the distribution center. Using this methodology, it was possible to obtain a proper ergonomically project planning and execution of the three studied areas.

  18. New process modeling [sic], design, and control strategies for energy efficiency, high product quality, and improved productivity in the process industries. Final project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, W. Harmon

    2002-06-05

    This project was concerned with the development of process design and control strategies for improving energy efficiency, product quality, and productivity in the process industries. In particular, (i) the resilient design and control of chemical reactors, and (ii) the operation of complex processing systems, was investigated. Specific topics studied included new process modeling procedures, nonlinear controller designs, and control strategies for multiunit integrated processes. Both fundamental and immediately applicable results were obtained. The new design and operation results from this project were incorporated into computer-aided design software and disseminated to industry. The principles and design procedures have found their way into industrial practice.

  19. The EUMETSAT ocean and sea ice SAF (OSI SAF) : Overview on the project and the products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevel, Guenole

    The EUMETSAT OSI SAF (www.osi-saf.org) was created in 1997 as an answer to requirements for a comprehensive information derived from meteorological satellites at the ocean-atmosphere interface. The OSI SAF consortium is constituted of Météo-France as leading entity, and Met.no (Norske ee Meteorologiske Institutt), DMI (Danish Meteorological Institute), SMHI (Swedish Meteorolog-ical and Hydrological Institute), KNMI (Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut) and IFREMER (Institut Français de Recherche pour l'Exploitation de la MER) as co-operating c entities. The two previous phases of the EUMETSAT Ocean and Sea Ice Satellite Application Facility (OSI SAF), the Development phase (1997-2002) and the IOP (initial Operations Phase, 2002-2007) met the main target which was to develop, validate and then produce operationally quality controlled satellite-derived products related to four key parameters of the sea surface (Sea Surface Temperature, Radiative Fluxes, Sea Ice, Wind) over various geographical coverage from regional to global. These products are currently available in near real time both through EUMETCAST and local FTP servers, and off line from local archive. Archiving at EUMETSAT Data Center is also being implemented. The current phase of the EUMETSAT OSI SAF, the CDOP (Continuous Development and Operations Phase, 2007-2012) has taken into account new requirements expressed in particular in the context of GODAE, GHRSST and GCOS at international level, and GMES (through MyOcean) at European level, with in particular a strong need for increasing the temporal and geographical resolution of the products and user friendly interfaces allowing access to high level allowing flexible extraction An overview on the OSI SAF project and its current and future production in the time frame of the CDOP will be presented, as well as first glance on the following phase, the CDOP-2, that will cover 2012 to 2017.

  20. A method proposal for cumulative environmental impact assessment based on the landscape vulnerability evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlickova, Katarina; Vyskupova, Monika, E-mail: vyskupova@fns.uniba.sk

    2015-01-15

    Cumulative environmental impact assessment deals with the occasional use in practical application of environmental impact assessment process. The main reasons are the difficulty of cumulative impact identification caused by lack of data, inability to measure the intensity and spatial effect of all types of impacts and the uncertainty of their future evolution. This work presents a method proposal to predict cumulative impacts on the basis of landscape vulnerability evaluation. For this purpose, qualitative assessment of landscape ecological stability is conducted and major vulnerability indicators of environmental and socio-economic receptors are specified and valuated. Potential cumulative impacts and the overall impact significance are predicted quantitatively in modified Argonne multiple matrixes while considering the vulnerability of affected landscape receptors and the significance of impacts identified individually. The method was employed in the concrete environmental impact assessment process conducted in Slovakia. The results obtained in this case study reflect that this methodology is simple to apply, valid for all types of impacts and projects, inexpensive and not time-consuming. The objectivity of the partial methods used in this procedure is improved by quantitative landscape ecological stability evaluation, assignment of weights to vulnerability indicators based on the detailed characteristics of affected factors, and grading impact significance. - Highlights: • This paper suggests a method proposal for cumulative impact prediction. • The method includes landscape vulnerability evaluation. • The vulnerability of affected receptors is determined by their sensitivity. • This method can increase the objectivity of impact prediction in the EIA process.

  1. Solar fuels production as a sustainable alternative for substituting fossil fuels: COSOLπ project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando Romero-Paredes, R.; Alvarado-Gil, Juan José; Arancibia-Bulnes, Camilo Alberto; Ramos-Sánchez, Víctor Hugo; Villafán-Vidales, Heidi Isabel; Espinosa-Paredes, Gilberto; Abanades, Stéphane

    2017-06-01

    This article presents, in summary form, the characteristics of COSOLπ development project and some of the results obtained to date. The benefits of the work of this project will include the generation of a not polluting transportable energy feedstock from a free, abundant and available primary energy source, in an efficient method with no greenhouse gas emission. This will help to ensure energy surety to a future transportation/energy infrastructure, without any fuel import. Further technological development of thermochemical production of clean fuels, together with solar reactors and also with the possibility of determining the optical and thermal properties of the materials involved a milestone in the search for new processes for industrialization. With the above in mind, important national academic institutions: UAM, UNAM, CINVESTAV, UACH, UNISON among others, have been promoting research in solar energy technologies. The Goals and objectives are to conduct research and technological development driving high-temperature thermochemical processes using concentrated solar radiation as thermal energy source for the future sustainable development of industrial processes. It focuses on the production of clean fuels such as H2, syngas, biofuels, without excluding the re-value of materials used in the industry. This project conducts theoretical and experimental studies for the identification, characterization, and optimization of the most promising thermochemical cycles, and for the thorough investigation of the reactive chemical systems. It applies material science and nano-engineering to improve chemicals properties and stability upon cycling. The characterization of materials will serve to measure the chemical composition and purity (MOX fraction-1) of each of the samples. The characterizations also focus on the solid particle morphology (shape, size, state of aggregation, homogeneity, specific surface) images obtained from SEM / TEM and BET measurements. Likewise

  2. Comparative and Cumulative Energetic Costs of Odontocete Responses to Anthropogenic Disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    predictive bioenergetic model of the metabolic costs of sound production across several cetacean species from the determination of the mass of sound...click sound production and the cost of sound production bioenergetic model will be completed, the estimates of cumulative impacts will be initiated...Consulting, Inc., and Maureen (Moe) Flannery at the California Academy of Sciences. These data will then be incorporated into a bioenergetic model

  3. Ion cumulation by conical cathode electrolysis.

    CERN Document Server

    Grishin, V G

    2002-01-01

    Results of solid-state sodium stearate electrolysis with conical and cylindrical cathodes is presented here. Both electric measurement and conical samples destruction can be explained if a stress developing inside the conical sample is much bigger than in the cylindrical case and there is its unlimited amplification along cone slopes. OTHER KEYWORDS: ion, current, solid, symmetry, cumulation, polarization, depolarization, ionic conductor,superionic conductor, ice, crystal, strain, V-center, V-centre, doped crystal, interstitial impurity, intrinsic color center, high pressure technology, Bridgman, anvil, experiment, crowdion, dielectric, proton, layer, defect, lattice, dynamics, electromigration, mobility, muon catalysis, concentration, doping, dopant, conductivity, pycnonuclear reaction, permittivity, dielectric constant, point defects, interstitials, polarizability, imperfection, defect centers, glass, epitaxy, sodium hydroxide, metallic substrate, crystallization, point, tip, susceptibility, ferroelectric, ...

  4. [Cumulative trauma disorders: work or professional disease?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Marcus Vitor Diniz; Cavalcanti, Francisco Ivo Dantas; Soriano, Evelyne Pessoa; de Miranda, Hênio Ferreira

    2009-06-01

    This study aimed at reviewing the Brazilian legislation applied to occupational health. It refers to the diseases embodied in the Repetition Strain Injury (RSI) and Cumulative Trauma Disorders (CTD) regarded as work or professional diseases. This analysis allowed to perform the historical evolution of legislation concerning the issue, noting that the state of the art of regulation on RSI-CTD is anchored in specific regulation present in the Normative Instruction 98/2003, that establishes the diagnostic criteria and classification of RSI-CTD. It was concluded that according to the existing legislation in Brazil, the pathologies related to RSI-CTD are considered as work diseases and their legal effects are similar to the work-related accidents.

  5. Analysis of Irrigation Water Quality at Kadawa Irrigation Project for Improved Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Sanda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the face of water scarcity and the several negative consequences, such as water wastage, flooding, water logging, soil losses and production losses, conserving the finite amount of fresh water is a must. The quality of irrigation water must therefore be ascertained. The chemical quality of three sources of irrigation water from canal and drainage water, namely drainage water, fresh irrigation water from canal, and drainage/irrigation water mixture, were analyzed from Kadawa irrigation Project for year 2013 and 2014 cropping seasons, with the view to evaluating the potential risks associated with their use in irrigation and hence their suitability or otherwise for irrigation purposes. The analysis revealed that the use of drainage water alone for irrigation may result in problems associated with salinity, while a blend of drainage/irrigation water in the ratio of 1:1 is a viable means of water conservation and a good means of crop production. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i3.11082 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3 2014: 235-240

  6. Projections of Biofuel Growth Patterns Reveal the Potential Importance of Nitrogen Fixation for Miscanthus Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S. C.; Parton, W. J.; Dohleman, F. G.; Gottel, N. R.; Smith, C. M.; Kent, A. D.; Delucia, E. H.

    2008-12-01

    Demand for liquid biofuels is increasing because of the disparity between fuel demand and supply. Relative to grain crops, the more intensive harvest required for second generation liquid biofuel production leads to the removal of significantly more carbon and nitrogen from the soil. These elements are conventionally litter products of crops that are returned to the soil and can accumulate over time. This loss of organic matter represents a management challenge because the energy cost associated with fertilizers or external sources of organic matter reduce the net energy value of the biofuel crops. Plants that have exceptional strategies for exploiting nutrients may be the most viable options for sustainable biofuel yields because of low management and energy cost. Miscanthus x giganteus has high N retranslocation rates, maintains high photosynthetic rates over a large temperature range, exploits a longer-than-average growing season, and yields at least twice the biomass of other candidate biofuel grass crops (i.e. switchgrass). We employed the DAYCENT model to project potential productivity of Miscanthus, corn, switchgrass, and mixed prairie communities based on our current knowledge of these species. Ecosystem process descriptions that have been validated for many crop species did not accurately predict Miscanthus yields and lead to new hypotheses about unknown N cycling mechanisms for this species. We tested the hypothesis that Miscanthus hosts N-fixing bacteria in several ways. First, we used enrichment culture and molecular methods to detect N-fixing bacteria in Miscanthus. Then, we demonstrated the plant-growth promoting effect of diazotrophs isolated from Miscanthus rhizomes on a model grass. And finally, we applied 15N2 to the soil and rooting zone of field grown Miscanthus plants to determine if atmospheric N2 was incorporated into plant tissue, a process that requires N-fixation. These experiments are the first tests of N-fixation in Miscanthus x

  7. A probabilistic analysis of cumulative carbon emissions and long-term planetary warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyke, Jeremy; Damon Matthews, H.

    2015-11-01

    Efforts to mitigate and adapt to long-term climate change could benefit greatly from probabilistic estimates of cumulative carbon emissions due to fossil fuel burning and resulting CO2-induced planetary warming. Here we demonstrate the use of a reduced-form model to project these variables. We performed simulations using a large-ensemble framework with parametric uncertainty sampled to produce distributions of future cumulative emissions and consequent planetary warming. A hind-cast ensemble of simulations captured 1980-2012 historical CO2 emissions trends and an ensemble of future projection simulations generated a distribution of emission scenarios that qualitatively resembled the suite of Representative and Extended Concentration Pathways. The resulting cumulative carbon emission and temperature change distributions are characterized by 5-95th percentile ranges of 0.96-4.9 teratonnes C (Tt C) and 1.4 °C-8.5 °C, respectively, with 50th percentiles at 3.1 Tt C and 4.7 °C. Within the wide range of policy-related parameter combinations that produced these distributions, we found that low-emission simulations were characterized by both high carbon prices and low costs of non-fossil fuel energy sources, suggesting the importance of these two policy levers in particular for avoiding dangerous levels of climate warming. With this analysis we demonstrate a probabilistic approach to the challenge of identifying strategies for limiting cumulative carbon emissions and assessing likelihoods of surpassing dangerous temperature thresholds.

  8. ESA DUE GlobTemperature project: Infrared-based LST Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermida, Sofia; Pires, Ana; Ghent, Darren; Trigo, Isabel; DaCamara, Carlos; Remedios, John

    2016-04-01

    One of the purposes of the GlobTemperature project is to provide a product of global Land Surface Temperature (LST) based on Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) and Low Earth polar Orbit (LEO) satellite data. The objective is to use existing LST products, which are obtained from different sensors/platforms, combining them into a harmonized product for a reference view angle. In a first approach, only infra-red based retrievals are considered, and LEO LSTs will be used as a common denominator among geostationary sensors. LST data is provided by a wide range of sensors to optimize spatial coverage, namely: (i) 2 LEO sensors - the Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) series of instruments on-board ESA's Envisat, and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on-board NASA's TERRA and AQUA; and (ii) 3 GEO sensors - the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) on-board EUMETSAT's Meteosat Second Generation (MSG), the Japanese Meteorological Imager (JAMI) on-board the Japanese Meteorological Association (JMA) Multifunction Transport SATellite (MTSAT-2), and NASA's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES). The merged LST product is generated in two steps: 1) calibration between each LEO and each GEO that consists in the removal of systematic differences (associated to sensor type and LST algorithms, including calibration, atmospheric and surface emissivity corrections, amongst others) represented by linear regressions; 2) angular correction that consists in bringing all LST data to reference (nadir) view. Angular effects on LST are estimated by means of a kernel model of the surface thermal emission, which describes the angular dependence of LST as function of viewing and illumination geometry. The model is adjusted to MODIS and SEVIRI/MSG LST estimates and validated against LST retrievals from those sensors obtained for other years (not used in the calibration). It is shown that the model leads to a reduction of LST

  9. Worksheet of Exogenous Variables that Impact the Success of Validation Stage of Product Delivery of a Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altino José Mentzingen de Moraes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the theory presented by PMBoK© - Project Management Book of Knowledge the Project Management [1] features - among others - the Disciplines of Scope and Quality. The Discipline of Scope, to become effective, must provide the execution of a hypothetical step (not defined in its text but perceived by the present author of this paper that can be termed as Planning Stage of Project Result. The Discipline of Quality, to become effective, must provide the execution of an also hypothetical step (also not defined in its text but also perceived by the same present author of this paper that can be termed as Validation Stage of Product Delivery.In the theory presented by PMBoK© - Project Management Book of Knowledge the Project Management [1] features - among others - the Disciplines of Scope and Quality. The Discipline of Scope, to become effective, must provide the execution of a hypothetical step (not defined in its text but perceived by the present author of this paper that can be termed as Planning Stage of Project Result. The Discipline of Quality, to become effective, must provide the execution of an also hypothetical step (also not defined in its text but also perceived by the same present author of this paper that can be termed as Validation Stage of Product Delivery.In the theory presented by PMBoK© - Project Management Book of Knowledge the Project Management [1] features - among others - the Disciplines of Scope and Quality. The Discipline of Scope, to become effective, must provide the execution of a hypothetical step (not defined in its text but perceived by the present author of this paper that can be termed as Planning Stage of Project Result. The Discipline of Quality, to become effective, must provide the execution of an also hypothetical step (also not defined in its text but also perceived by the same present author of this paper that can be termed as Validation Stage of Product Delivery. The importance of both Stages is crucial to

  10. New approaches to uncertainty analysis for use in aggregate and cumulative risk assessment of pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kennedy, M.C.; Voet, van der H.; Roelofs, V.J.; Roelofs, W.; Glass, C.R.; Boer, de W.J.; Kruisselbrink, J.W.; Hart, A.D.M.

    2015-01-01

    Risk assessments for human exposures to plant protection products (PPPs) have traditionally focussed on single routes of exposure and single compounds. Extensions to estimate aggregate (multi-source) and cumulative (multi-compound) exposure from PPPs present many new challenges and additional uncert

  11. Product acceptance of a certified Class C low-level waste form at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenti, P.J. [West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc., NY (United States); Maestas, E.; Yeazel, J.A. [Dept. of Energy, West Valley, NY (United States). West Valley Project Office; McIntosh, T.W. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Remedial Action and Waste Technology

    1989-11-01

    The Department of Energy, is charged with the solidification of high-level liquid waste (HLW) remaining from nuclear fuel reprocessing activities, which were conducted at West Valley, New York between 1966 and 1972. One important aspect of the West Valley Demonstration Project`s fully integrated waste program is the treatment and conditioning of low-level wastes which result from processing liquid high-level waste. The treatment takes place in the project`s Integrated Radwaste Treatment System which removes Cesium-137 from the liquid or supernatant phase of the HLW by utilizing an ion exchange technique. The resulting decontaminated and conditioned liquid waste stream is solidified into a Class C low-level cement waste form that meets the waste form criteria specified in NRC 10 CFR 61. The waste matrix is placed in 71-gallon square drums, remotely handled and stored on site until determination of final disposition. This paper discusses the programs in place at West Valley to ensure production of an acceptable cement-based product. Topics include the short and long term test programs to predict product storage and disposal performance, description of the Process Control Plan utilized to control and maintain cement waste form product specifications and finally discuss the operational performance characteristics of the Integrated Radwaste Treatment System. Operational data and product statistics are provided.

  12. Joint Industry-Funded R and D Projects in Exploration and Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerillot, D.; Eschard, R.; Malla, M.; Van Buchem, F.; Baghbani, D.; Granjeon, D.; Wolf, S.; Callot, J.P.; Jardin, A.; Kirkwood, D.; Rodriguez, S.; Abadi, A.; Roure, F.; Ghandriche, F.; Prinzhofer, A.; Moretti, I.; Le Melinaire, P.; Vizika, O.; Bekri, S.; Zinszner, B.; Lucet, N.; Rasologosaon, P.; Duquet, B.; Tonellot, T.; Nivlet, P.; Le Ravalec, M.; Bennis, C.; Barroux, C.; Hu, L.Y.; Doligez, B.; Vidal-Gilbert, S.; Zabalza-Mezghani, I.; Caillabet, Y.; Sarda, S.; Ricois, O.; Mouchel, R.; Behar, E.; Nabzar, L.; Zaitoun, A.; Audibert-Hayet, A.; Sauvant, V.; Chauchot, P.; Ropital, F.; Sinquin, A.; Decarre, S.; Larsen, R.; Biolley, F.; Brucy, F.; Charron, Y.; Averbuch, D.; Perrin, G.; Falcimaigne, J.; Roux, P.; Paen, D.; Broutin, P.; Renard, G.; Egermann, P.; Lombard, J.M.; Le Thiez, P.; Fries, G.

    2005-07-01

    IFP, the French Institute of Petroleum, spends more than 40% of its R and D budget on Exploration and Production. Part of this program is open to participation in the form of Joint Industry-Funded Projects (JIPs). This gives companies an opportunity to take part in the latest advances in research sponsoring the projects with others. They can steer their programs according to their needs and evaluate the practical contribution of these new technologies improving exploration and production. This document gathers the transparencies of the presentations given at the 2005 JIP seminar. Content: Opening Address; Session 1: Exploration and Petroleum System Evaluation: Berkine Gas with Sonatrach: an Evaluation of the Gas Potential of the Berkine Basin (Algeria), MEC with National Iran Oil Company: Middle East Cretaceous Sequence Stratigraphy Study, Dionisos: 3D Multi-lithological Stratigraphic Modeling for Basin and Reservoir, Scopes: Southern Cordillera Petroleum System Appraisal, Gaspe with Laval University (Quebec): Integrated Geophysical and Geological Study of the Gaspe Fold and Thrust Belt (Canada), Deep Sirt with the Petroleum Research Center (Libya): Deep Seismic Investigation in the Sirt Basin, Tell-offshore with Sonatrach: Petroleum Re-appraisal of North Algeria, Gong: Isotope Geochemistry of Natural Gases, Industrial JIP: Kine 3D Industrial with Earth Decision System: Putting Structural Geology Back into Structure Modeling; - Session 2: Petro-physics and Reservoir Characterization: PNM Car: Pore Scale Network Modeling for Carbonate Rocks, Pacs: Petro-acoustics of Carbonate Rocks for 4D Seismic Feasibility Studies, Safe: Seismic Analysis of Fracture Networks, Borneo 4D: 4D Time Lapse Seismic Modeling, Presti: Pre-stack Stratigraphic Inversion, Paris: Pseudo-Wells Applied to Reservoir Oriented Interpretation of Seismic Data, Muscat: Multi-scale Reservoir Description on Flexible Grids with Up-scaling and Down-scaling Techniques; - Session 3, Reservoir Engineering

  13. Joint Industry-Funded R and D Projects in Exploration and Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerillot, D.; Eschard, R.; Malla, M.; Van Buchem, F.; Baghbani, D.; Granjeon, D.; Wolf, S.; Callot, J.P.; Jardin, A.; Kirkwood, D.; Rodriguez, S.; Abadi, A.; Roure, F.; Ghandriche, F.; Prinzhofer, A.; Moretti, I.; Le Melinaire, P.; Vizika, O.; Bekri, S.; Zinszner, B.; Lucet, N.; Rasologosaon, P.; Duquet, B.; Tonellot, T.; Nivlet, P.; Le Ravalec, M.; Bennis, C.; Barroux, C.; Hu, L.Y.; Doligez, B.; Vidal-Gilbert, S.; Zabalza-Mezghani, I.; Caillabet, Y.; Sarda, S.; Ricois, O.; Mouchel, R.; Behar, E.; Nabzar, L.; Zaitoun, A.; Audibert-Hayet, A.; Sauvant, V.; Chauchot, P.; Ropital, F.; Sinquin, A.; Decarre, S.; Larsen, R.; Biolley, F.; Brucy, F.; Charron, Y.; Averbuch, D.; Perrin, G.; Falcimaigne, J.; Roux, P.; Paen, D.; Broutin, P.; Renard, G.; Egermann, P.; Lombard, J.M.; Le Thiez, P.; Fries, G.

    2005-07-01

    IFP, the French Institute of Petroleum, spends more than 40% of its R and D budget on Exploration and Production. Part of this program is open to participation in the form of Joint Industry-Funded Projects (JIPs). This gives companies an opportunity to take part in the latest advances in research sponsoring the projects with others. They can steer their programs according to their needs and evaluate the practical contribution of these new technologies improving exploration and production. This document gathers the transparencies of the presentations given at the 2005 JIP seminar. Content: Opening Address; Session 1: Exploration and Petroleum System Evaluation: Berkine Gas with Sonatrach: an Evaluation of the Gas Potential of the Berkine Basin (Algeria), MEC with National Iran Oil Company: Middle East Cretaceous Sequence Stratigraphy Study, Dionisos: 3D Multi-lithological Stratigraphic Modeling for Basin and Reservoir, Scopes: Southern Cordillera Petroleum System Appraisal, Gaspe with Laval University (Quebec): Integrated Geophysical and Geological Study of the Gaspe Fold and Thrust Belt (Canada), Deep Sirt with the Petroleum Research Center (Libya): Deep Seismic Investigation in the Sirt Basin, Tell-offshore with Sonatrach: Petroleum Re-appraisal of North Algeria, Gong: Isotope Geochemistry of Natural Gases, Industrial JIP: Kine 3D Industrial with Earth Decision System: Putting Structural Geology Back into Structure Modeling; - Session 2: Petro-physics and Reservoir Characterization: PNM Car: Pore Scale Network Modeling for Carbonate Rocks, Pacs: Petro-acoustics of Carbonate Rocks for 4D Seismic Feasibility Studies, Safe: Seismic Analysis of Fracture Networks, Borneo 4D: 4D Time Lapse Seismic Modeling, Presti: Pre-stack Stratigraphic Inversion, Paris: Pseudo-Wells Applied to Reservoir Oriented Interpretation of Seismic Data, Muscat: Multi-scale Reservoir Description on Flexible Grids with Up-scaling and Down-scaling Techniques; - Session 3, Reservoir Engineering

  14. Soil nutrient budgets following projected corn stover harvest for biofuel production in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhengxi; Liu, Shuguang

    2015-01-01

    Increasing demand for food and biofuel feedstocks may substantially affect soil nutrient budgets, especially in the United States where there is great potential for corn (Zea mays L) stover as a biofuel feedstock. This study was designed to evaluate impacts of projected stover harvest scenarios on budgets of soil nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) currently and in the future across the conterminous United States. The required and removed N, P, and K amounts under each scenario were estimated on the basis of both their average contents in grain and stover and from an empirical model. Our analyses indicate a small depletion of soil N (−4 ± 35 kg ha−1) and K (−6 ± 36 kg ha−1) and a moderate surplus of P (37 ± 21 kg ha−1) currently on the national average, but with a noticeable variation from state to state. After harvesting both grain and projected stover, the deficits of soil N, P, and K were estimated at 114–127, 26–27, and 36–53 kg ha−1 yr−1, respectively, in 2006–2010; 131–173, 29–32, and 41–96 kg ha−1 yr−1, respectively, in 2020; and 161–207, 35–39, and 51–111 kg ha−1 yr−1, respectively, in 2050. This study indicates that the harvestable stover amount derived from the minimum stover requirement for maintaining soil organic carbon level scenarios under current fertilization rates can be sustainable for soil nutrient supply and corn production at present, but the deficit of P and K at the national scale would become larger in the future.

  15. Marine Data Management within the EMODNet Chemistry project: data aggregation, quality control and products preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iona, Athanasia Sissy; Karagevrekis, Pelopidas; Balopoulou, Stavroula; Giorgetti, Alessandra; Schaap, Dick

    2015-04-01

    graphics of station time series. Quality control and quality assurance guidelines have been created and followed by all regional groups in order to ensure that the data and their derived products are of uniform quality and reliability. The Hellenic National Oceanographic Data Centre (HNODC) is the Regional Coordinator for the Mediterranean Sea products preparation. During the first one and a half year of the project, almost 90000 chemical datasets covering the four Mediterranean MSFD regions were harvested, processed, quality controlled, validated and analyzed. In this presentation, the work carried out by HNODC and the first data products will be described.

  16. Tapping unsustainable groundwater stores for agricultural production in the High Plains Aquifer of Kansas, projections to 2110

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward, David R.; Bruss, Paul J.; Yang, Xiaoying; Staggenborg, Scott A.; Welch, Stephen M.; Apley, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater provides a reliable tap to sustain agricultural production, yet persistent aquifer depletion threatens future sustainability. The High Plains Aquifer supplies 30% of the nation’s irrigated groundwater, and the Kansas portion supports the congressional district with the highest market value for agriculture in the nation. We project groundwater declines to assess when the study area might run out of water, and comprehensively forecast the impacts of reduced pumping on corn and cattle production. So far, 30% of the groundwater has been pumped and another 39% will be depleted over the next 50 y given existing trends. Recharge supplies 15% of current pumping and would take an average of 500–1,300 y to completely refill a depleted aquifer. Significant declines in the region’s pumping rates will occur over the next 15–20 y given current trends, yet irrigated agricultural production might increase through 2040 because of projected increases in water use efficiencies in corn production. Water use reductions of 20% today would cut agricultural production to the levels of 15–20 y ago, the time of peak agricultural production would extend to the 2070s, and production beyond 2070 would significantly exceed that projected without reduced pumping. Scenarios evaluate incremental reductions of current pumping by 20–80%, the latter rate approaching natural recharge. Findings substantiate that saving more water today would result in increased net production due to projected future increases in crop water use efficiencies. Society has an opportunity now to make changes with tremendous implications for future sustainability and livability. PMID:23980153

  17. Assessment of primary production and optical variability in shelf and slope waters near Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. Final project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redalje, Donald G.; Lohrenz, Stevern E.

    2001-02-12

    In this project we determined primary production and optical variability in the shelf and slope waters off of Cape Hatteras, N.C. These processes were addressed in conjunction with other Ocean Margins Program investigators, during the Spring Transition period and during Summer. We found that there were significant differences in measured parameters between Spring and Summer, enabling us to develop seasonally specific carbon production and ecosystem models as well as seasonal and regional algorithm improvements for use in remote sensing applications.

  18. he 300,000 t/a Coated White Board Project of uaqiao Fenghuang Group Put into Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On March 21, Huaqiao Fenghuang Group held a ceremony to celebrate the production start-up of its 300,000 t/a coated white board project. The main equipment of the production line is all provided by top suppliers of the world such as KBC, Rockwell, Andritz, Siemens, Nasim, and Honeywell. At the same time, in order to meet the policy requirements for the paper industry, a 15MW supporting generator of CHP was also constructed.

  19. Why Veterinary Medical Educators Should Embrace Cumulative Final Exams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, Kenneth D

    2017-01-03

    The topic of cumulative final examinations often elicits polarizing opinions from veterinary medical educators. While some faculty prefer cumulative finals, there are many who perceive these types of examinations as problematic. Specifically, faculty often cite cumulative examinations are more likely to cause students' greater stress, which may in turn result in negative student evaluations of teaching. Cumulative finals also restrict the number of items one may present to students on most recent material. While these cited disadvantages may have some merit, the advantages of cumulative examinations far exceed the disadvantages. The purpose of this article is to discuss the advantages of cumulative examinations with respect to learning evidence, grade/score validity, fairness issues, and implications for academic policy.

  20. Mapping of the cumulative β-ray dose on the ground surface surrounding the Fukushima area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Satoru; Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Kenichi; Nguyen, Thanh T.; Hayashi, Gohei; Imanaka, Tetsuji

    2015-01-01

    A large amount of the fission products released by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident on 11 March 2011 was deposited in a wide area from Tohoku to northern Kanto. A map of the estimated cumulative β-ray dose (70 μm dose equivalent) on the soil surface for one year after the FDNPP accident has been prepared using previously reported calculation methods and the 2-km mesh survey data by MEXT. From this map of estimated dose, areas with a high cumulative β-ray dose on the soil surface for one year after the FDNPP accident were found to be located in the Akogi-Teshichiro to Akogi-Kunugidaira region in Namie Town, and in the southern Futaba Town to the northern Tomioka Town region. The highest estimated cumulative β-ray dose was 710 mSv for one year at Akogi-Teshichiro, Namie Town. PMID:26519736

  1. Quasi-gaussian fixed points and factorial cumulants in nuclear multifragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Lacroix, D

    1996-01-01

    We re-analyze the conditions for the phenomenon of intermittency (self-similar fluctuations) to occur in models of multifragmentation. Analyzing two different mechanisms, the bond-percolation and the ERW (Elattari, Richert and Wagner) statistical fragmentation models, we point out a common quasi-gaussian shape of the total multiplicity distribution in the critical range. The fixed-point property is also observed for the multiplicity of the second bin. Fluctuations are studied using scaled factorial cumulants instead of scaled factorial moments. The second-order cumulant displays the intermittency signal while higher order cumulants are equal to zero, revealing a large information redundancy in scaled factorial moments. A practical criterion is proposed to identify the gaussian feature of light-fragment production, distinguishing between a self-similarity mechanism (ERW) and the superposition of independent sources (percolation).

  2. Designing a Model for Measuring Manpower Productivity in the Project-based Service Organizations (Electricity Company as Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyed Mohammad Reza Davoodi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Manpower productivity index is one of the most important productivity measures. This index is the ratio of added-value to number of the employees (or the employee’s salaries. Regarding this fact that manpower cost, annual depreciation, and annual profit is almost fixed and isn’t indicative of the organizations actual performance, therefore measuring added-value in the common methods is fixed and unrealistic and is not function of the organizational performance. Therefore, with respect to the project-based nature of such organizations, a large amount of their budget is spent for the projects in progress and hence measuring the added-value through the common formula and without considering projects means that large amount of the organizations capital and manpower, which are involved in the project implementation, are not considered in measuring added-value. Therefore, in order to measure the actual performance of the organization, the added-value that is gained from the projects future exploitation should be added to its added-value.In the designed model, added-value is calculated so that all of the organizations outputs include current activities and also the investments that will be exploited in the future. As a result, the calculated value is overall reflects of the organizations performance and also manpower productivity is calculated actually.

  3. Poverty and Gender Perspective in Productive Projects for Rural Women in Mexico: Impact Evaluation of a Pilot Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquieta-Salomon, Jose E.; Tepichin-Valle, Ana Maria; Tellez-Rojo, Martha Maria

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of a pilot study that promoted productive and capacity-building activities among deprived rural women of Mexico. The evaluation design is observational; 1,278 women are interviewed, and the comparison group is estimated by propensity score matching. The results show a positive impact on the…

  4. Poverty and Gender Perspective in Productive Projects for Rural Women in Mexico: Impact Evaluation of a Pilot Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquieta-Salomon, Jose E.; Tepichin-Valle, Ana Maria; Tellez-Rojo, Martha Maria

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of a pilot study that promoted productive and capacity-building activities among deprived rural women of Mexico. The evaluation design is observational; 1,278 women are interviewed, and the comparison group is estimated by propensity score matching. The results show a positive impact on the…

  5. Infinite matrix product states versus infinite projected entangled-pair states on the cylinder: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio Iregui, Juan; Troyer, Matthias; Corboz, Philippe

    2017-09-01

    In spite of their intrinsic one-dimensional nature, matrix product states have been systematically used to obtain remarkably accurate results for two-dimensional systems. Motivated by basic entropic arguments favoring projected entangled-pair states as the method of choice, we assess the relative performance of infinite matrix product states and infinite projected entangled-pair states on cylindrical geometries. By considering the Heisenberg and half-filled Hubbard models on the square lattice as our benchmark cases, we evaluate their variational energies as a function of both bond dimension and cylinder width. In both examples, we find crossovers at moderate cylinder widths, i.e., for the largest bond dimensions considered, we find an improvement on the variational energies for the Heisenberg model by using projected entangled-pair states at a width of about eleven sites, whereas for the half-filled Hubbard model, this crossover occurs at about seven sites.

  6. Project Independence: Construction of an Integrated Biorefinery for Production of Renewable Biofuels at an Existing Pulp and Paper Mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, Douglas

    2012-06-01

    Project Independence proposed to construct a demonstration biomass-to-liquids (BTL) biorefinery in Wisconsin Rapids, isconsin. The biorefinery was to be co-located at the existing pulp and paper mill, NewPage Wisconsin System Incorporated’s Wisconsin Rapids Mill, and when in full operation would both generate renewable energy for Wisconsin Rapids Mill and produce liquid fuels from abundant and renewable lignocellulosic biomass. The biorefinery would serve to validate the thermochemical pathway and economic models for BTL production using forest residuals and wood waste, providing a basis for proliferating BTL conversion technologies throughout the United States. It was a project goal to create a compelling new business model for the pulp and paper industry, and support the nation’s goal for increasing renewable fuels production and reducing its dependence on foreign oil. NewPage Corporation planned to replicate this facility at other NewPage Corporation mills after this first demonstration scale plant was operational and had proven technical and economic feasibility. An overview of the process begins with biomass being harvested, sized, conditioned and fed into a ThermoChem Recovery International (TRI) steam reformer where it is converted to high quality synthetic gas (syngas). The syngas is then cleaned, compressed, scrubbed, polished and fed into the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalytic reactors where the gas is converted into two, sulfur-free, clean crude products which will be marketed as revenue generating streams. Additionally, the Fischer-Tropsch products could be upgraded for use in automotive, aviation and chemical industries as valuable products, if desired. As the Project Independence project set out to prove forest products could be used to commercially produce biofuels, they planned to address and mitigate issues as they arose. In the early days of the Project Independence project, the plant was sized to process 500 dry tons of biomass per day but would

  7. Transparent thermal insulation. Products, projects, planning aids; Transparente Waermedaemmung (TWD). Produkte, Projekte, Planungshinweise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerschberger, A. [R und K Forschung, Planung, Beratung, Projektsteuerung, Stuttgart (Germany); Platzer, W. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Weidlich, B. [Assmann Beraten und Planen GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    After a fundamental introduction on transparent thermal insulation engineering 25 projects are presented by illustration and text in detail and connection between architecture, energy concepts and construction are shown. An overview about materials, products and systems of transparent insulation with reference numbers gives readers important hints for planning and construction. Supplementary components like daylighting and shadowing, positive environmental influences and economics of thermal insulation fassades are further topics in some chapters. Hints on planning and construction, a cheklist to assess the qualification of this materials, as an adress part and a listing of sponsor possibilities are further important aids to enable planners a useful application of this futural technology.(GL) [Deutsch] Nach einer grundsaetzlichen Einfuehrung in die Technik der transparenten Waermedaemmung werden 25 Projekte in Wort und Bild ausfuehrlich vorgestellt und die Zusammenhaenge zwischen Architektur, Energiekonzepten und Konstruktion aufgezeigt. Eine Uebersicht ueber TWD-Materialien, -Produkte und -Systeme mit Kenndaten gibt dem Leser wichtige Planungs- und Bauhinweise. Ergaenzende Komponenten wie Tageslichtnutzung und Verschattung, die positiven Umweltauswirkungen und die Wirtschaftlichkeit von TWD-Fassaden sind Gegenstaende weiterer Kapitel. Hinweise fuer die Planungs- und Baupraxis, eine Checkliste zur Beurteilung der TWD-Eignung eines Bauvorhabens, ein Adressenteil und eine Auflistung von Foerdermoeglichkeiten sind weitere wichtige Hilfen, die dem Planer die sinnvolle Anwendung dieser Zukunftstechnologie ermoeglichen. (orig./GL)

  8. Aviation System Capacity Program Terminal Area Productivity Project: Ground and Airborne Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giulianetti, Demo J.

    2001-01-01

    Ground and airborne technologies were developed in the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) project for increasing throughput at major airports by safely maintaining good-weather operating capacity during bad weather. Methods were demonstrated for accurately predicting vortices to prevent wake-turbulence encounters and to reduce in-trail separation requirements for aircraft approaching the same runway for landing. Technology was demonstrated that safely enabled independent simultaneous approaches in poor weather conditions to parallel runways spaced less than 3,400 ft apart. Guidance, control, and situation-awareness systems were developed to reduce congestion in airport surface operations resulting from the increased throughput, particularly during night and instrument meteorological conditions (IMC). These systems decreased runway occupancy time by safely and smoothly decelerating the aircraft, increasing taxi speed, and safely steering the aircraft off the runway. Simulations were performed in which optimal trajectories were determined by air traffic control (ATC) and communicated to flight crews by means of Center TRACON Automation System/Flight Management System (CTASFMS) automation to reduce flight delays, increase throughput, and ensure flight safety.

  9. Analysis of Memory Codes and Cumulative Rehearsal in Observational Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, Albert; And Others

    1974-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of memory codes varying in meaningfulness and retrievability and cumulative rehearsal on retention of observationally learned responses over increasing temporal intervals. (Editor)

  10. Yingtan Hi-tech Zone 220,000 t/a Copper Product Processing Project Finished AgreementSigning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The day March 27 witnessed the agreement signing ceremony of 220,000 t/a copper product processing project between Yingtan Hi-tech Zone and Shenghua Group.As a top 500 enterprise in China’s manufacture industry,Shenghua Group is one of the biggest manufacturers in China’s wire and cable

  11. A Tutorial Worksheet to Help Students Develop the Ability to Interpret the Dot Product as a Projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barniol, Pablo; Zavala, Genaro

    2016-01-01

    When we administered the Test of Understanding of Vectors (TUV) to students who were completing a physics university remedial course (which covers subjects of a traditional high school physics course), we observed that they had considerable difficulties in interpreting the dot product as a projection. As a result of this, we decided to design a…

  12. Making Episodes, Making Connections: A Reading Comprehension Assessment Tool. The REL's Pacific CHILD Project, Year One Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Marylin

    The reading comprehension assessment tool is a product developed for the Regional Educational Laboratory's (REL) initiative, Pacific Communities with High performance In Literacy Development, herein named the Pacific CHILD. This research project is focused on school improvement, especially as it relates to the teaching and learning of early…

  13. Toward successful joint knowledge production for climate change adaptation: lessons from six regional projects in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegger, D.L.T.; Dieperink, C.

    2014-01-01

    In the domain of climate change adaptation, joint knowledge production (JKP) through intensive cooperation between scientists, policy-makers, and other actors is often proposed as a means to reconcile supply and demand for knowledge. Regional adaptation projects in the Netherlands form prominent exa

  14. Continuously Cumulating Meta-Analysis and Replicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braver, Sanford L; Thoemmes, Felix J; Rosenthal, Robert

    2014-05-01

    The current crisis in scientific psychology about whether our findings are irreproducible was presaged years ago by Tversky and Kahneman (1971), who noted that even sophisticated researchers believe in the fallacious Law of Small Numbers-erroneous intuitions about how imprecisely sample data reflect population phenomena. Combined with the low power of most current work, this often leads to the use of misleading criteria about whether an effect has replicated. Rosenthal (1990) suggested more appropriate criteria, here labeled the continuously cumulating meta-analytic (CCMA) approach. For example, a CCMA analysis on a replication attempt that does not reach significance might nonetheless provide more, not less, evidence that the effect is real. Alternatively, measures of heterogeneity might show that two studies that differ in whether they are significant might have only trivially different effect sizes. We present a nontechnical introduction to the CCMA framework (referencing relevant software), and then explain how it can be used to address aspects of replicability or more generally to assess quantitative evidence from numerous studies. We then present some examples and simulation results using the CCMA approach that show how the combination of evidence can yield improved results over the consideration of single studies.

  15. The almost sure behavior of the oscillation modulus for PL-process and cumulative hazard process under random censorship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周勇[1; 孙六全[2; Paul; S.F.YIP[3

    1999-01-01

    The local behavior of oscillation modulus of the product-limit (PL) process and the cumulative hazard process is investigated when the data are subjected to random censoring. Laws of the iterated logarithm of local oscillation modulus for the PL-process and the cumulative hazard process are established. Some of these results are applied to obtain the almost sure best rates of convergence for various types of density estimators as well as the Bahadur-Kiefer type process.

  16. Toward successful joint knowledge production for climate change adaptation: lessons from six regional projects in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dries Hegger

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the domain of climate change adaptation, joint knowledge production (JKP through intensive cooperation between scientists, policy-makers, and other actors is often proposed as a means to reconcile supply and demand for knowledge. Regional adaptation projects in the Netherlands form prominent examples of this. However, there is a lack of systematic empirical studies on how JKP can be done successfully. Here, we take the next step toward generating design principles for JKP. We do so by carrying out a comparative analysis of six Dutch adaptation projects using a previously developed assessment framework. Project documents were studied, and 30 semi-structured interviews were held with researchers, policy-makers, and financiers in the projects. Based on project comparisons, we derive and elaborate on two design principles for JKP. First, the most successful projects managed to create what we term a protected space for knowledge development while establishing connections with ongoing policy processes. Successful JKP seems to be more likely in cases in which actors make a conscious decision for the institutional location of the project on the research–policy nexus, whereby the coordinating entity has some characteristics of a boundary organization. Second, specific resources, including facilities, boundary objects, and specific competencies increase the chance for success.

  17. Hydrological information products for the Off-Project Water Program of the Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Daniel T.; Risley, John C.; Haynes, Jonathan V.

    2012-01-01

    The Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement (KBRA) was developed by a diverse group of stakeholders, Federal and State resource management agencies, Tribal representatives, and interest groups to provide a comprehensive solution to ecological and water-supply issues in the Klamath Basin. The Off-Project Water Program (OPWP), one component of the KBRA, has as one of its purposes to permanently provide an additional 30,000 acre-feet of water per year on an average annual basis to Upper Klamath Lake through "voluntary retirement of water rights or water uses or other means as agreed to by the Klamath Tribes, to improve fisheries habitat and also provide for stability of irrigation water deliveries." The geographic area where the water rights could be retired encompasses approximately 1,900 square miles. The OPWP area is defined as including the Sprague River drainage, the Sycan River drainage downstream of Sycan Marsh, the Wood River drainage, and the Williamson River drainage from Kirk Reef at the southern end of Klamath Marsh downstream to the confluence with the Sprague River. Extensive, broad, flat, poorly drained uplands, valleys, and wetlands characterize much of the study area. Irrigation is almost entirely used for pasture. To assist parties involved with decisionmaking and implementation of the OPWP, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Klamath Tribes and other stakeholders, created five hydrological information products. These products include GIS digital maps and datasets containing spatial information on evapotranspiration, subirrigation indicators, water rights, subbasin streamflow statistics, and return-flow indicators. The evapotranspiration (ET) datasets were created under contract for this study by Evapotranspiration, Plus, LLC, of Twin Falls, Idaho. A high-resolution remote sensing technique known as Mapping Evapotranspiration at High Resolution and Internalized Calibration (METRIC) was used to create estimates of the spatial

  18. Smith Newton Vehicle Performance Evaluation - Cumulative (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-08-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is evaluating and documenting the performance of electric and plug-in hybrid electric drive systems in medium-duty trucks across the nation. U.S. companies participating in this evaluation project received funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to cover part of the cost of purchasing these vehicles. Through this project, Smith Electric Vehicles is building and deploying 500 all-electric medium-duty trucks that will be deployed by a variety of companies in diverse climates across the country.

  19. Orchestrating Information Sharing among Intra- And Inter-Organisational Core Actors in a Large New Product Development Project - The Particular Role of The Project Manager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Lisbeth Brøde

    The success of NPD projects of high-cost, engineering-intensive, and customized development products is largely dependent on information sharing with actors from customers regarding their specific requirements (Von Hippel, 1986). But information sharing is also necessary among actors from different...... expertise and critical information are integrated in a timely fashion into the development process (Edmondson and Nembhard, 2009). However, prior research has not simultaneously studied and addressed the differences in intra- and inter-organisational information sharing during the various phases of the NPD...... and the role of technology uncertainty whereas Jepsen et al. (2012) investigate the project manager’s brokerage of information sharing between actors inside and outside of the developer company. Research has shown that heavily burdened PMs require assistance in the information sharing process not only from...

  20. Procedure for matching synfuel users with potential suppliers. Appendix B. Proposed and ongoing synthetic fuel production projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-08-07

    To assist the Department of Energy, Office of Fuels Conversion (OFC), in implementing the synthetic fuel exemption under the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act (FUA) of 1978, Resource Consulting Group, Inc. (RCG), has developed a procedure for matching prospective users and producers of synthetic fuel. The matching procedure, which involves a hierarchical screening process, is designed to assist OFC in: locating a supplier for a firm that wishes to obtain a synthetic fuel exemption; determining whether the fuel supplier proposed by a petitioner is technically and economically capable of meeting the petitioner's needs; and assisting the Synthetic Fuels Corporation or a synthetic fuel supplier in evaluating potential markets for synthetic fuel production. A data base is provided in this appendix on proposed and ongoing synthetic fuel production projects to be used in applying the screening procedure. The data base encompasses a total of 212 projects in the seven production technologies.

  1. Cumulative Effect of Depression on Dementia Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Olazarán

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze a potential cumulative effect of life-time depression on dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD, with control of vascular factors (VFs. Methods. This study was a subanalysis of the Neurological Disorders in Central Spain (NEDICES study. Past and present depression, VFs, dementia status, and dementia due to AD were documented at study inception. Dementia status was also documented after three years. Four groups were created according to baseline data: never depression (nD, past depression (pD, present depression (prD, and present and past depression (prpD. Logistic regression was used. Results. Data of 1,807 subjects were investigated at baseline (mean age 74.3, 59.3% women, and 1,376 (81.6% subjects were evaluated after three years. The prevalence of dementia at baseline was 6.7%, and dementia incidence was 6.3%. An effect of depression was observed on dementia prevalence (OR [CI 95%] 1.84 [1.01–3.35] for prD and 2.73 [1.08–6.87] for prpD, and on dementia due to AD (OR 1.98 [0.98–3.99] for prD and OR 3.98 [1.48–10.71] for prpD (fully adjusted models, nD as reference. Depression did not influence dementia incidence. Conclusions. Present depression and, particularly, present and past depression are associated with dementia at old age. Multiple mechanisms, including toxic effect of depression on hippocampal neurons, plausibly explain these associations.

  2. Cumulative social disadvantage and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Laurie J; Silver, Ellen J; Stein, Ruth E K

    2006-04-01

    Disparities in child health are a major public health concern. However, it is unclear whether these are predominantly the result of low income, race, or other social risk factors that may contribute to their health disadvantage. Although others have examined the effects of the accumulation of risk factors, this methodology has not been applied to child health. We tested 4 social risk factors (poverty, minority race/ethnicity, low parental education, and not living with both biological parents) to assess whether they have cumulative effects on child health and examined whether access to health care reduced health disparities. We analyzed data on 57,553 children low parental education, and single-parent household) were consistently associated with child health. These were summed, generating the Social Disadvantage Index (range: 0-3). A total of 43.6% of children had no social disadvantages, 30.8% had 1, 15.6% had 2, and 10.0% had all 3. Compared with those with no social disadvantages, the odds ratios (ORs) of being in "good, fair, or poor health" (versus "excellent or very good") were 1.95 for 1 risk, 3.22 for 2 risks, and 4.06 for 3 risks. ORs of having a chronic condition increased from 1.25 (1 risk) to 1.60 (2 risks) to 2.11 (3 risks). ORs for activity limitation were 1.51 (1 risk) to 2.14 (2 risks) and 2.88 (3 risks). Controlling for health insurance did not affect these findings. The accumulation of social disadvantage among children was strongly associated with poorer child health and having insurance did not reduce the observed health disparities.

  3. Impacto del nivel de producción, estación de parto y el tipo de servicio sobre la tasa de preñez acumulada a 100 días en vacas lecheras en la Argentina Impact of the production level, calving season and type of service on the 100-day cumulative pregnancy rate of dairy cows in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Piccardi

    2011-12-01

    -management. This software has a production estimator called 305 mature equivalent to standardize records from different lactation numbers. The analyzed variables in the model were statistically significant. Cows of lower milk production have more chances to get pregnant than those with higher milk production. Cows that calves in colder seasons have more probabilities to get pregnant than those calves in hottest seasons. The relation was quadratic between the probability of getting pregnant at 100 days in milk and the number of lactation. The cumulative pregnancy rate at 100 days was greater with natural service, compared to AI but, the AI was related with greater levels of milk production. Therefore, the results suggest that new reproductive management designs specifically developed for given productive levels could increase the overall reproductive efficiency.

  4. Projected Climate Impacts to South African Maize and Wheat Production in 2055: A Comparison of Empirical and Mechanistic Modeling Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Lyndon D.; Beukes, Hein; Bradley, Bethany A.; Debats, Stephanie R.; Oppenheimer, Michael; Ruane, Alex C.; Schulze, Roland; Tadross, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Crop model-specific biases are a key uncertainty affecting our understanding of climate change impacts to agriculture. There is increasing research focus on intermodel variation, but comparisons between mechanistic (MMs) and empirical models (EMs) are rare despite both being used widely in this field. We combined MMs and EMs to project future (2055) changes in the potential distribution (suitability) and productivity of maize and spring wheat in South Africa under 18 downscaled climate scenarios (9 models run under 2 emissions scenarios). EMs projected larger yield losses or smaller gains than MMs. The EMs' median-projected maize and wheat yield changes were 3.6% and 6.2%, respectively, compared to 6.5% and 15.2% for the MM. The EM projected a 10% reduction in the potential maize growing area, where the MM projected a 9% gain. Both models showed increases in the potential spring wheat production region (EM = 48%, MM = 20%), but these results were more equivocal because both models (particularly the EM) substantially overestimated the extent of current suitability. The substantial water-use efficiency gains simulated by the MMs under elevated CO2 accounted for much of the EMMM difference, but EMs may have more accurately represented crop temperature sensitivities. Our results align with earlier studies showing that EMs may show larger climate change losses than MMs. Crop forecasting efforts should expand to include EMMM comparisons to provide a fuller picture of crop-climate response uncertainties.

  5. A validation of a posture matching approach for the determination of 3D cumulative back loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Chad A; Albert, Wayne J; Wrigley, Allan T; Callaghan, Jack P

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this project was to investigate the amount of error in calculating cumulative lumbar spine kinetics using a posture matching approach (3DMatch) compared to a 3D coordinate electromagnetic tracking approach (FASTRAK). Six subjects were required to perform five repeats each of two symmetrical and two asymmetrical lifts while being simultaneously recorded from 4 camera views at viewing angles of 0 degrees , 45 degrees , 60 degrees and 90 degrees to the sagittal plane while wearing eight FASTRAK sensors to define an 8 segment rigid link model (RLM) of the head, arms, and trunk. Four hundred and eighty lifts (6 subjects x20 lifts x4 camera views) were analyzed using the 3DMatch posture-matching program to calculate the following cumulative loads at the L4/L5 joint: compression, anterior shear, posterior shear, reaction shear and extension moment. The errors in cumulative load calculation were determined as the difference between the values calculated for the same lifts using a 3D RLM that used electromagnetic motion tracking sensors (FASTRAK) positioned at the segment center of masses as model inputs. No significant difference (pposture matching by trained users can provide reasonable 3D data to calculate cumulative low back loads with a biomechanical model.

  6. Cumulative Causation, Market Transition, and Emigration from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zai; Chunyu, Miao David; Zhuang, Guotu; Ye, Wenzhen

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we report findings from a recent survey of international migration from China's Fujian province to the United States. We take advantage of the ethnosurvey approach as used in the Mexican Migration Project. Surveys were done in migrant-sending communities in China as well as in destination communities of New York City. We derive hypotheses from two strands of recent studies-the international migration literature and the market transition debate. Our results are in general consistent with hypotheses derived from cumulative causation of migration. However, because of the geographical location of China as compared to Mexico, there are some differences between the two countries in terms of particular migration patterns to the United States. As expected, at the community level, migration prevalence ratio (measuring migration networks) increases the propensity of migration for other members in the community. In contrast, having a household member migrated previously does not increase the propensity of migration of other household members until debt for previous migration is paid off. Our research clearly demonstrates the value of bringing the case of China into the comparative study of international migration. With respect to market transition theory, we find that political power continues to be an important factor in the order of social stratification in the coastal Fujian province. PMID:19569396

  7. A Framework for Treating Cumulative Trauma with Art Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naff, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Cumulative trauma is relatively undocumented in art therapy practice, although there is growing evidence that art therapy provides distinct benefits for resolving various traumas. This qualitative study proposes an art therapy treatment framework for cumulative trauma derived from semi-structured interviews with three art therapists and artistic…

  8. Cumulative Effects of Human Activities on Marine Mammal Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Cumulative Effects of Human Activities on Marine Mammal ...marine mammals . OBJECTIVES The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine has convened a volunteer committee that will...Review the present scientific understanding of cumulative effects of anthropogenic stressors on marine mammals with a focus on anthropogenic sound

  9. A Framework for Treating Cumulative Trauma with Art Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naff, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Cumulative trauma is relatively undocumented in art therapy practice, although there is growing evidence that art therapy provides distinct benefits for resolving various traumas. This qualitative study proposes an art therapy treatment framework for cumulative trauma derived from semi-structured interviews with three art therapists and artistic…

  10. Cumulative Estrogen Exposure and Prospective Memory in Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesson, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    This study looked at cumulative lifetime estrogen exposure, as estimated with a mathematical index (Index of Cumulative Estrogen Exposure (ICEE)) that included variables (length of time on estrogen therapy, age at menarche and menopause, postmenopausal body mass index, time since menopause, nulliparity and duration of breastfeeding) known to…

  11. SEABIOPLAS project Seaweed co-products as micro-additives in fish feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Dias Peixoto

    2014-05-01

    The role of the CIIMAR team in the project is to study the use of seaweeds and their extracts in fish nutrition. Several variables, such as zootecnical parameters, metabolic and digestive enzymes, as well as stress and immune response parameters will be used as indicators of growth performance, fish health and welfare conditions. To do so, several feeding trials will be carried out under controlled rearing conditions, where biotic and abiotic factors will be used as stressors to determine the protective effects of seaweed supplementation in fish diets. Juvenile European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax, will be used as the fish model, in a fast growing stage (IBW: 15-50 g. Each dietary treatment (control diet vs. experimental diets will be fed in triplicate groups for approximately 90 days, twice a day to apparent satiety. Fish will be individually marked with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT tag prior to the beginning of the trials for monitoring individual fish performance. During the trials, samplings will be carried out at different times for determination the effects of treatment duration on the results. Growth performance will be determined by means of growth rate (% body weight/day; feed conversion ratio (FCR; voluntary fed intake (VFI, % body weight/day; protein efficiency ratio (PER; nutrient retention efficiency (%. To evaluate fish health and welfare condition, several stress biomarkers will be determine, such as glutathione-S-transferase (GST, catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, lipid peroxidation (LP, oxidized protein (POx; Acetylcholinesterase (AChE, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx. In addition, gross morphometric indices: such as the condition factor (K and hepato-somatic index (HSI will be calculated as auxiliary indicators of health status and liver condition of fish. For immune parameters, plasma for humoral analyses parameters will be used (peroxidase, lysozyme activity, alternative complement activity and superoxide anion production.

  12. A global ocean reanalysis product in the China Ocean Reanalysis (CORA) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guijun; Fu, Hongli; Zhang, Xuefeng; Li, Wei; Wu, Xinrong; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Lianxin

    2013-11-01

    The first version of a global ocean reanalysis over multiple decades (1979-2008) has been completed by the National Marine Data and Information Service within the China Ocean Reanalysis (CORA) project. The global ocean model employed is based upon the ocean general circulation model of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. A sequential data assimilation scheme within the framework of 3D variational (3DVar) analysis, called multi-grid 3DVar, is implemented in 3D space for retrieving multiple-scale observational information. Assimilated oceanic observations include sea level anomalies (SLAs) from multi-altimeters, sea surface temperatures (SSTs) from remote sensing satellites, and in-situ temperature/salinity profiles. Evaluation showed that compared to the model simulation, the annual mean heat content of the global reanalysis is significantly approaching that of World Ocean Atlas 2009 (WOA09) data. The quality of the global temperature climatology was found to be comparable with the product of Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA), and the major ENSO events were reconstructed. The global and Atlantic meridional overturning circulations showed some similarity as SODA, although significant differences were found to exist. The analysis of temperature and salinity in the current version has relatively larger errors at high latitudes and improvements are ongoing in an updated version. CORA was found to provide a simulation of the subsurface current in the equatorial Pacific with a correlation coefficient beyond about 0.6 compared with the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) mooring data. The mean difference of SLAs between altimetry data and CORA was less than 0.1 m in most years.

  13. Risk Management Capability Maturity and Performance of Complex Product and System (CoPS Projects with an Asian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren, Y.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Complex Products and Systems (CoPS are high value, technology and engineering-intensive capital goods. The motivation of this study is the persistent high failure rate of CoPS projects, Asian CoPS provider’s weak capability and lack of specific research on CoPS risk management. This paper evaluates risk management maturity level of CoPS projects against a general CoPS risk management capability maturity model (RM-CMM developed by the authors. An Asian based survey was conducted to investigate the value of RM to project performance, and Asian (non-Japanese CoPS implementers’ perceived application of RM practices, their strengths and weaknesses. The survey result shows that higher RM maturity level leads to higher CoPS project performance. It also shows project complexity and uncertainty moderates the relationship between some RM practices and project performance, which implies that a contingency approach should be adopted to manage CoPS risks effectively. In addition, it shows that Asian CoPS implementers are weak in RM process and there are also rooms for improvement in the softer aspects of organizational capabilities and robustness.

  14. Lattice QCD results on cumulant ratios at freeze-out

    CERN Document Server

    Karsch, Frithjof

    2016-01-01

    Ratios of cumulants of net proton-number fluctuations measured by the STAR Collaboration show strong deviations from a skellam distribution, which should describe thermal properties of cumulant ratios, if proton-number fluctuations are generated in equilibrium and a hadron resonance gas (HRG) model would provide a suitable description of thermodynamics at the freeze-out temperature. We present some results on sixth order cumulants entering the calculation of the QCD equation of state at non-zero values of the baryon chemical potential (mu_B) and discuss limitations on the applicability of HRG thermodynamics deduced from a comparison between QCD and HRG model calculations of cumulants of conserved charge fluctuations. We show that basic features of the $\\mu_B$-dependence of skewness and kurtosis ratios of net proton-number fluctuations measured by the STAR Collaboration resemble those expected from a O(mu_B^2) QCD calculation of the corresponding net baryon-number cumulant ratios.

  15. A new family of cumulative indexes for measuring scientific performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Kozak

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a new family of cumulative indexes for measuring scientific performance which can be applied to many metrics, including h index and its variants (here we apply it to the h index, h(2 index and Google Scholar's i10 index. These indexes follow the general principle of repeating the index calculation for the same publication set. Using bibliometric data and reviewer scores for accepted and rejected fellowship applicants we examine how valid the cumulative variant is compared to the original variant. These analyses showed that the cumulative indexes result in higher correlations with the reviewer scores than their original variants. Thus, the cumulative indexes better reflect the assessments by peers than the original variants and are useful extensions of the original indexes. In contrast to many other measures of scientific performance proposed up to now, the cumulative indexes seem not only to be effective, but they are also easy to understand and calculate.

  16. Guangxi Pingguo Aluminum Alumina 3rd Phase Project to Put Into Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>In April,the handover ceremony was held for the first completed sub-project of the 3rd phase of 900,000-ton alumina project of China Alu- minum Guangxi Company (Pingguo Aluminum in short),standing for the commencement of

  17. Compressed Air Project Improves Efficiency and Production at Harland Publishing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-05-01

    Case study describing a project which configured a printing machine so that it consumes less compressed air and required lower pressure to operate effectively. Project replicated throughout the company, leading to energy cost savings of $200,000 per year, or 2.9 million kilowatt-hours.

  18. Projections for the Production of Bulk Volume Bio-Based Polymers in Europe and Environmental Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patel, M.K.; Crank, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we provide an overview of the most important emerging groups of bio-based polymers for bulk volume applications and we discuss market projections for these types of bio-based polymers in the EU, thereby distinguishing between three scenarios. Bio-based polymers are projected to reach a

  19. Modeling the world heroin market : Assessing the consequences of changes in Afghanistan production (project summary)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paoli, L.; Reuter, P.; Greenfield, V.

    2006-01-01

    This document (16 pages) describes the project objectives and methods and summarizes its key findings. A book presenting in detail the project findings is published in 2009 by Oxford University Press. The information in this summary must be considered preliminary.

  20. Site Productivity and Forest Carbon Stocks in the United States: Analysis and Implications for Forest Offset Project Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E. Smith

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The documented role of United States forests in sequestering carbon, the relatively low cost of forest-based mitigation, and the many co-benefits of increasing forest carbon stocks all contribute to the ongoing trend in the establishment of forest-based carbon offset projects. We present a broad analysis of forest inventory data using site quality indicators to provide guidance to managers planning land acquisition for forest-based greenhouse gas mitigation projects. Specifically, we summarize two condition class indicators of site productivity within the FIA forest inventory database—physclcd and siteclcd—as they relate to current aboveground live tree carbon stocks. Average carbon density is higher on more productive sites, but compared to the overall variability among sites, the differences are relatively small for all but the highest and lowest site classes. Some minor differences in eastern- versus western-forests were apparent in terms of how carbon on the least productive sites differed from most other forest land over time. Overall results suggest that xeric sites in most regions as well as sites that correspond to the lowest, non-productive classifications of forest land should preferentially not be used forestry-based greenhouse gas mitigation projects, but all other forest areas appear to be suitable.

  1. The Controlled Ecological Life Support System Antarctic Analog Project: Prototype Crop Production and Water Treatment System Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Flynn, Michael T.; Bates, Maynard; Schlick, Greg; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Antarctic Analog Project (CAAP), is a joint endeavor between the National Science Foundation, Office of Polar Programs (NSF-OPP) and the NASA. The fundamental objective is to develop, deploy, and operate a testbed of advanced life support technologies at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station that enable the objectives of both the NSF and NASA. The functions of food production, water purification, and waste treatment, recycle and reduction provided by CAAP will improve the quality of life for the South Pole inhabitants, reduce logistics dependence, enhance safety and minimize environmental impacts associated with human presence on the polar plateau. Because of the analogous technical, scientific, and mission features with Planetary missions such as a mission to Mars, CAAP provides NASA with a method for validating technologies and overall approaches to supporting humans. Prototype systems for sewage treatment, water recycle and crop production are being evaluated at Ames Research Center. The product water from sewage treatment using a Wiped-Film Rotating Disk is suitable for input to the crop production system. The crop production system has provided an enhanced level of performance compared with projected performance for plant-based life support: an approximate 50% increase in productivity per unit area, more than a 65% decrease in power for plant lighting, and more than a 75% decrease in the total power requirement to produce an equivalent mass of edible biomass.

  2. The Controlled Ecological Life Support System Antarctic Analog Project: Prototype Crop Production and Water Treatment System Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Flynn, Michael T.; Bates, Maynard; Schlick, Greg; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Antarctic Analog Project (CAAP), is a joint endeavor between the National Science Foundation, Office of Polar Programs (NSF-OPP) and the NASA. The fundamental objective is to develop, deploy, and operate a testbed of advanced life support technologies at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station that enable the objectives of both the NSF and NASA. The functions of food production, water purification, and waste treatment, recycle and reduction provided by CAAP will improve the quality of life for the South Pole inhabitants, reduce logistics dependence, enhance safety and minimize environmental impacts associated with human presence on the polar plateau. Because of the analogous technical, scientific, and mission features with Planetary missions such as a mission to Mars, CAAP provides NASA with a method for validating technologies and overall approaches to supporting humans. Prototype systems for sewage treatment, water recycle and crop production are being evaluated at Ames Research Center. The product water from sewage treatment using a Wiped-Film Rotating Disk is suitable for input to the crop production system. The crop production system has provided an enhanced level of performance compared with projected performance for plant-based life support: an approximate 50% increase in productivity per unit area, more than a 65% decrease in power for plant lighting, and more than a 75% decrease in the total power requirement to produce an equivalent mass of edible biomass.

  3. A Framework of Combining Case-Based Reasoning with a Work Breakdown Structure for Estimating the Cost of Online Course Production Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wu

    2014-01-01

    Currently, a work breakdown structure (WBS) approach is used as the most common cost estimation approach for online course production projects. To improve the practice of cost estimation, this paper proposes a novel framework to estimate the cost for online course production projects using a case-based reasoning (CBR) technique and a WBS. A…

  4. Carbon stored in harvested wood products in Turkey and projections for 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Bouyer

    2016-01-01

    -2013 UNECE data series for sawnwood and wood-based panels production taking into account for each year the percentage of anomaly. However, from 1976 to 1982, the anomalies are much reduced (-1% in average, which allow using the UNECE data series from 1964 to 1975. We estimated the average share of each HWP over the last ten years: 48% for sawnwood and 38% for wood-based panels. The 14% of other HWP are not considered in the analysis, either because they are short-lived products or marginal or difficult to estimate. A projection of HWP has been done until 2020 based on 2 alternative scenarios based on OGM strategy documents: intensive harvesting and extensive harvesting. For each scenario, intensive vs extensive, we disaggregated the 2013-2020 volume of industrial roundwood into the two HWPs, using the calculated percentages. The results of our analysis revealed that the HWP pool can add 3.14 Gg CO2 eq yr-1 additional removal to LULUCF sector in the GHG inventory of Turkey for 2013 compared to 1990. The amount of contribution is estimated to rise up to 13.70 Mt CO2 eq yr-1, and 10.99 Mt CO2 eq yr-1 for intensive and extensive scenarios that are developed based on OGM strategic plans in 2020.

  5. A bivariate optimal replacement policy with cumulative repair cost limit under cumulative damage model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MIN-T SAI LAI; SHIH-CHIH CHEN

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a bivariate replacement policy (n, T) for a cumulative shock damage process is presented that included the concept of cumulative repair cost limit. The arrival shocks can be divided into two kinds of shocks. Each type-I shock causes a random amount of damage and these damages are additive. When the total damage exceeds a failure level, the system goes into serious failure. Type-II shock causes the system into minor failure and such a failure can be corrected by minimal repair. When a minor failure occurs, the repaircost will be evaluated and minimal repair is executed if the accumulated repair cost is less than a predetermined limit L. The system is replaced at scheduled time T, at n-th minor failure, or at serious failure. The long-term expected cost per unit time is derived using the expected costs as the optimality criterion. The minimum-cost policy is derived, and existence and uniqueness of the optimal n* and T* are proved. This bivariate optimal replacement policy (n, T) is showed to be better than the optimal T* and the optimal n* policy.

  6. The Interacting Axes of Environmental, Health, and Social Justice Cumulative Impacts: A Case Study of the Blueberry River First Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gislason, Maya K; Andersen, Holly K

    2016-10-18

    We consider the case of intensive resource extractive projects in the Blueberry River First Nations in Northern British Columbia, Canada, as a case study. Drawing on the parallels between concepts of cumulative environmental and cumulative health impacts, we highlight three axes along which to gauge the effects of intensive extraction projects. These are environmental, health, and social justice axes. Using an intersectional analysis highlights the way in which using individual indicators to measure impact, rather than considering cumulative effects, hides the full extent by which the affected First Nations communities are impacted by intensive extraction projects. We use the case study to contemplate several mechanisms at the intersection of these axes whereby the negative effects of each not only add but also amplify through their interactions. For example, direct impact along the environmental axis indirectly amplifies other health and social justice impacts separately from the direct impacts on those axes. We conclude there is significant work still to be done to use cumulative indicators to study the impacts of extractive industry projects-like liquefied natural gas-on peoples, environments, and health.

  7. Mechanisms and risk of cumulative impacts to coastal ecosystem services: An expert elicitation approach

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Gerald G.

    2017-05-23

    Coastal environments are some of the most populated on Earth, with greater pressures projected in the future. Managing coastal systems requires the consideration of multiple uses, which both benefit from and threaten multiple ecosystem services. Thus understanding the cumulative impacts of human activities on coastal ecosystem services would seem fundamental to management, yet there is no widely accepted approach for assessing these. This study trials an approach for understanding the cumulative impacts of anthropogenic change, focusing on Tasman and Golden Bays, New Zealand. Using an expert elicitation procedure, we collected information on three aspects of cumulative impacts: the importance and magnitude of impacts by various activities and stressors on ecosystem services, and the causal processes of impact on ecosystem services. We assessed impacts to four ecosystem service benefits — fisheries, shellfish aquaculture, marine recreation and existence value of biodiversity—addressing three main research questions: (1) how severe are cumulative impacts on ecosystem services (correspondingly, what potential is there for restoration)?; (2) are threats evenly distributed across activities and stressors, or do a few threats dominate?; (3) do prominent activities mainly operate through direct stressors, or do they often exacerbate other impacts? We found (1) that despite high uncertainty in the threat posed by individual stressors and impacts, total cumulative impact is consistently severe for all four ecosystem services. (2) A subset of drivers and stressors pose important threats across the ecosystem services explored, including climate change, commercial fishing, sedimentation and pollution. (3) Climate change and commercial fishing contribute to prominent indirect impacts across ecosystem services by exacerbating regional impacts, namely sedimentation and pollution. The prevalence and magnitude of these indirect, networked impacts highlights the need for

  8. The ``Nordic`` HBV model. Description and documentation of the model version developed for the project Climate Change and Energy Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saelthun, N.R.

    1996-12-31

    The model described in this report is a version of the HBV model developed for the project Climate Change and Energy Production. This was a Nordic project aimed at evaluating the impacts of the Scandinavian countries including Greenland with emphasis on hydropower production. The model incorporates many of the features found in individual versions of the HBV model in use in the Nordic countries, and some new ones. It has catchment subdivision in altitude intervals, a simple vegetation parametrization including interception, temperature based evapotranspiration calculation, lake evaporation, lake routing, glacier mass balance simulation, special functions for climate change simulations etc. The user interface is very basic, and the model is primarily intended for research and educational purposes. Commercial versions of the model should be used for operational implementations. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  9. SOTACARBO R&D project for hydrogen and clean fuels production from coal gasification and CO{sub 2} removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlo Amorino; Enrico Maggio, Alessandro Orsini; Francesco Repetto; Maria Luisa Pelizza; Federica Pratola; Giuseppe Girardi; Antonio Calabro; Giorgio Cau; Daniele Cocco [Sotacarbo SpA - Centro servizi Consorzio NISI, Portoscuso (Italy)

    2005-07-01

    Sotacarbo in co-operation with Ansaldo Ricerche, ENEA and the University of Cagliari - Department of Mechanical Engineering, has developed a research project for design, construction and testing on a pilot plant for hydrogen and other environmental value fuel gas production, from Sulcis coal gasification. The project has been funded by Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR). The test facilities will be located in the Sotacarbo Research Centre, which is under construction in Carbonia, South East Sardinia (Italy). The test facility is designed to increase the environmental value of coal through the integration of gasification and suitable downstream syngas treatment sections for power and hydrogen enriched stream production which is employable as an energy carrier itself or into an internal combustion engine or potentially into fuel cells. 2 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Cumulative stress and autonomic dysregulation in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Rachel; Tuit, Keri; Hong, Kwang-Ik; Donovan, Theresa; Lee, Forrester; Sinha, Rajita

    2016-05-01

    Whether cumulative stress, including both chronic stress and adverse life events, is associated with decreased heart rate variability (HRV), a non-invasive measure of autonomic status which predicts poor cardiovascular outcomes, is unknown. Healthy community dwelling volunteers (N = 157, mean age 29 years) participated in the Cumulative Stress/Adversity Interview (CAI), a 140-item event interview measuring cumulative adversity including major life events, life trauma, recent life events and chronic stressors, and underwent 24-h ambulatory ECG monitoring. HRV was analyzed in the frequency domain and standard deviation of NN intervals (SDNN) calculated. Initial simple regression analyses revealed that total cumulative stress score, chronic stressors and cumulative adverse life events (CALE) were all inversely associated with ultra low-frequency (ULF), very low-frequency (VLF) and low-frequency (LF) power and SDNN (all p stress and chronic stress each was significantly associated with SDNN and ULF even after the highly significant contributions of age and sex, with no other covariates accounting for additional appreciable variance. For VLF and LF, both total cumulative stress and chronic stress significantly contributed to the variance alone but were not longer significant after adjusting for race and health behaviors. In summary, total cumulative stress, and its components of adverse life events and chronic stress were associated with decreased cardiac autonomic function as measured by HRV. Findings suggest one potential mechanism by which stress may exert adverse effects on mortality in healthy individuals. Primary preventive strategies including stress management may prove beneficial.

  11. The Perceived Impact of the Agile Development and Project Management Method Scrum on Information Systems and Software Development Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kautz, Karlheinz; Johansen, Thomas Heide; Uldahl, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    This research contributes to the body of knowledge in information systems development (ISD) with an empirical investigation in form of a case study that demonstrates the positive impact of the agile development and project management method Scrum on information systems and software development...... productivity and it provides a useful operationalization of the concept through seven identified indicators for productivity. Despite the fact that the case unit had challenges with the use of Scrum, the indicators identified the areas where the company had managed to exploit the potential of Scrum and its...

  12. The charge breeder beam line for the selective production of exotic species project at INFN-Legnaro National Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galatà, A.; Comunian, M.; Maggiore, M.; Manzolaro, M.; Angot, J.; Lamy, T.

    2014-02-01

    SPES (Selective Production of Exotic Species) is an INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare) project with the aim at producing and post-accelerating exotic beams to perform forefront research in nuclear physics. To allow post-acceleration of the radioactive ions, an ECR-based Charge Breeder (CB) developed on the basis of the Phoenix booster was chosen. The design of the complete beam line for the SPES-CB will be described: a system for stable 1+ beams production was included; special attention was paid to the medium resolution mass spectrometer after the CB to limit possible superposition of the exotic beams with the impurities present in the ECR plasma.

  13. Heat Pipe Solar Receiver for Oxygen Production of Lunar Regolith Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovative Research project by Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT) will develop an advanced high temperature heat pipe solar receiver that...

  14. Solid-Solid Vacuum Regolith Heat-Exchanger for Oxygen Production Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase-1 project will demonstrate the feasibility of using a novel coaxial counterflow solid-solid heat exchanger to recover heat energy from spent regolith...

  15. Restoration of degraded arid farmland at Project Wadi Attir: Impact of conservation on biological productivity and soil organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor-Mussery, Amir; Helman, David; Ben Eli, Michael; Leu, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    The Israeli Negev Desert, as most Mediterranean drylands, is profoundly degraded. We have been documenting degradation and successful rehabilitation approaches in recent research, aiming at maximizing environmental and economic benefits while restoring healthy dryland soils and perennial vegetation to act as carbon sinks. These methods have been implemented for rehabilitation of Project Wadi Attir's. 50 hectares of heavily degraded farmland suffering from intensive soil erosion (expressed in dense gullies net and massive overland flow). Project Wadi Attir is a groundbreaking initiative of the Bedouin community in the Negev, for establishing a model sustainable agricultural operation. The project was initiated by the US-based Sustainability Laboratory and the Hura Municipal Council. The project is designed to demonstrate implementation of holistic sustainability principles developed by The Lab. The project's ecosystem restoration component involves site development, erosion control, soil conservation and improvement, planting of native and agroforestry trees, together with conservation and protection of biodiversity hotspots and avoiding grazing have, within three years, revealed the high biodiversity and productivity potential of this arid/semi-arid landscape. A number of shrublands and loess plots were subject to strict conservation, avoiding tilling and grazing. Soil fertility, productivity and biodiversity of these conserved plots inside the farm boundaries was compared to similar unprotected plots outside the farm fences by sampling in the field and by using satellite imaging. Our findings indicate a gradual improvement of SOM content specifically in the conserved shrubland area. Water infiltration, herbaceous biomass productivity and ants' activity of the protected plots also significantly increased within 3 years compared to the unprotected control areas. Starting from similar soil organic matter content in 2013 (3.3%) in the rocky slopes, in 2016 1% higher

  16. Origins and implications of the relationship between warming and cumulative carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raupach, M. R.; Davis, S. J.; Peters, G. P.; Andrew, R. M.; Canadell, J.; Le Quere, C.

    2014-12-01

    A near-linear relationship between warming (T) and cumulative carbon emissions (Q) is a robust finding from numerous studies. This finding opens biophysical questions concerning (1) its theoretical basis, (2) the treatment of non-CO2 forcings, and (3) uncertainty specifications. Beyond these biophysical issues, a profound global policy question is raised: (4) how can a quota on cumulative emissions be shared? Here, an integrated survey of all four issues is attempted. (1) Proportionality between T and Q is an emergent property of a linear carbon-climate system forced by exponentially increasing CO2 emissions. This idealisation broadly explains past but not future near-proportionality between T and Q: in future, the roles of non-CO2 forcings and carbon-climate nonlinearities become important, and trajectory dependence becomes stronger. (2) The warming effects of short-lived non-CO2 forcers depend on instantaneous rather than cumulative fluxes. However, inertia in emissions trajectories reinstates some of the benefits of a cumulative emissions approach, with residual trajectory dependence comparable to that for CO2. (3) Uncertainties arise from several sources: climate projections, carbon-climate feedbacks, and residual trajectory dependencies in CO2 and other emissions. All of these can in principle be combined into a probability distribution P(T|Q) for the warming T from given cumulative CO2 emissions Q. Present knowledge of P(T|Q) allows quantification of the tradeoff between mitigation ambition and climate risk. (4) Cumulative emissions consistent with a given warming target and climate risk are a finite common resource that will inevitably be shared, creating a tragedy-of-the-commons dilemma. Sharing options range from "inertia" (present distribution of emissions is maintained) to "equity" (cumulative emissions are distributed equally per-capita). Both extreme options lead to emissions distributions that are unrealisable in practice, but a blend of the two

  17. Hydrological information products for the Off-Project Water Program of the Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Daniel T.; Risley, John C.; Haynes, Jonathan V.

    2012-01-01

    The Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement (KBRA) was developed by a diverse group of stakeholders, Federal and State resource management agencies, Tribal representatives, and interest groups to provide a comprehensive solution to ecological and water-supply issues in the Klamath Basin. The Off-Project Water Program (OPWP), one component of the KBRA, has as one of its purposes to permanently provide an additional 30,000 acre-feet of water per year on an average annual basis to Upper Klamath Lake through "voluntary retirement of water rights or water uses or other means as agreed to by the Klamath Tribes, to improve fisheries habitat and also provide for stability of irrigation water deliveries." The geographic area where the water rights could be retired encompasses approximately 1,900 square miles. The OPWP area is defined as including the Sprague River drainage, the Sycan River drainage downstream of Sycan Marsh, the Wood River drainage, and the Williamson River drainage from Kirk Reef at the southern end of Klamath Marsh downstream to the confluence with the Sprague River. Extensive, broad, flat, poorly drained uplands, valleys, and wetlands characterize much of the study area. Irrigation is almost entirely used for pasture. To assist parties involved with decisionmaking and implementation of the OPWP, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Klamath Tribes and other stakeholders, created five hydrological information products. These products include GIS digital maps and datasets containing spatial information on evapotranspiration, subirrigation indicators, water rights, subbasin streamflow statistics, and return-flow indicators. The evapotranspiration (ET) datasets were created under contract for this study by Evapotranspiration, Plus, LLC, of Twin Falls, Idaho. A high-resolution remote sensing technique known as Mapping Evapotranspiration at High Resolution and Internalized Calibration (METRIC) was used to create estimates of the spatial

  18. Entanglement entropy and particle number cumulants of disordered fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmistrov, I. S.; Tikhonov, K. S.; Gornyi, I. V.; Mirlin, A. D.

    2017-08-01

    We study the entanglement entropy and particle number cumulants for a system of disordered noninteracting fermions in d dimensions. We show, both analytically and numerically, that for a weak disorder the entanglement entropy and the second cumulant (particle number variance) are proportional to each other with a universal coefficient. The corresponding expressions are analogous to those in the clean case but with a logarithmic factor regularized by the mean free path rather than by the system size. We also determine the scaling of higher cumulants by analytical (weak disorder) and numerical means. Finally, we predict that the particle number variance and the entanglement entropy are nonanalytic functions of disorder at the Anderson transition.

  19. The Impact of Learning on Cumulative Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santiago, Leonardo; Couto, Julia; Joglekar, Nitin

    The ability to continuously innovate is a key asset to maintain a competitive advantage. A sequence of successful innovations can render a company not only a new product or technique but also a platform which could be used in future. This work investigates how knowledge is accumulated over time a...

  20. Improving the quality of pork and pork products (EU-project)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Bonneau, M.

    . The European Unions self-sufficiency and leading position in the global market for pork and pork products is challenged by a number of non-European countries. Therefore, there is a need for developing innovative, integrated, and sustainable food production chains of high quality pork products matching consumer...... impact. Q-PorkChains is composed of six research modules (consumer and citizen demands, pig production, product development, pork chain management, molecular quality control and knowledge synthesis) and two horizontal modules focusing on implementation of obtained knowledge in pilot and demonstration...

  1. Cumulative phase delay imaging - A new contrast enhanced ultrasound modality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demi, Libertario, E-mail: l.demi@tue.nl; Sloun, Ruud J. G. van; Mischi, Massimo [Lab. of Biomedical Diagnostics, Dept. of Electrical Eng., Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Wijkstra, Hessel [Lab. of Biomedical Diagnostics, Dept. of Electrical Eng., Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Academic Medical Center, Urology Dept., University of Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-10-28

    Recently, a new acoustic marker for ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) has been introduced. A cumulative phase delay (CPD) between the second harmonic and fundamental pressure wave field components is in fact observable for ultrasound propagating through UCAs. This phenomenon is absent in the case of tissue nonlinearity and is dependent on insonating pressure and frequency, UCA concentration, and propagation path length through UCAs. In this paper, ultrasound images based on this marker are presented. The ULA-OP research platform, in combination with a LA332 linear array probe (Esaote, Firenze Italy), were used to image a gelatin phantom containing a PVC plate (used as a reflector) and a cylindrical cavity measuring 7 mm in diameter (placed in between the observation point and the PVC plate). The cavity contained a 240 µL/L SonoVueO{sup ®} UCA concentration. Two insonating frequencies (3 MHz and 2.5 MHz) were used to scan the gelatine phantom. A mechanical index MI = 0.07, measured in water at the cavity location with a HGL-0400 hydrophone (Onda, Sunnyvale, CA), was utilized. Processing the ultrasound signals backscattered from the plate, ultrasound images were generated in a tomographic fashion using the filtered back-projection method. As already observed in previous studies, significantly higher CPD values are measured when imaging at a frequency of 2.5 MHz, as compared to imaging at 3 MHz. In conclusion, these results confirm the applicability of the discussed CPD as a marker for contrast imaging. Comparison with standard contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging modalities will be the focus of future work.

  2. Cumulative Risks of Foster Care Placement for Danish Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallesen, Peter; Emanuel, Natalia; Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Although recent research suggests that the cumulative risk of foster care placement is far higher for American children than originally suspected, little is known about the cumulative risk of foster care placement in other countries, which makes it difficult to gauge the degree to which factor...... is for Danish children. Results suggest that at the beginning of the study period (in 1998) the cumulative risk of foster care placement for Danish children was roughly in line with the risk for American children. Yet, by the end of the study period (2010), the risk had declined to half the risk for American...... foster care placement is salient in other contexts. In this article, we provide companion estimates to those provided in recent work on the US by using Danish registry data and synthetic cohort life tables to show how high and unequally distributed the cumulative risk of foster care placement...

  3. Mapping cumulative human impacts in the eastern North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stock, A.; Andersen, Jesper; Heinänen, S.

    of the MSFD; and 3) to deepen the understanding of how errors in expert judgment affect the resulting cumulative human impact maps by means of Monte Carlo simulations. We combined existing data sets on the spatial distribution of 33 anthropogenic stressors (linked to the MSFD pressures) and 28 key habitats....... In contrast, the predicted impacts for much of the Norwegian EEZ and areas far offshore were lower. The Monte Carlo simulations confirmed earlier findings that mapping cumulative impacts is generally "robust", but also showed that specific combinations of errors can seriously change local and regional...... on marine ecosystems have only recently been developed. The aims of our study were: 1) to develop a map of cumulative human impacts for the Danish, Swedish, Norwegian and German parts of the Greater North Sea; 2) to adjust the existing methods for mapping cumulative human impacts to fit the requirements...

  4. Cumulative radiation exposure in children with cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Reilly, R

    2010-02-01

    This retrospective study calculated the cumulative radiation dose for children with cystic fibrosis (CF) attending a tertiary CF centre. Information on 77 children with a mean age of 9.5 years, a follow up time of 658 person years and 1757 studies including 1485 chest radiographs, 215 abdominal radiographs and 57 computed tomography (CT) scans, of which 51 were thoracic CT scans, were analysed. The average cumulative radiation dose was 6.2 (0.04-25) mSv per CF patient. Cumulative radiation dose increased with increasing age and number of CT scans and was greater in children who presented with meconium ileus. No correlation was identified between cumulative radiation dose and either lung function or patient microbiology cultures. Radiation carries a risk of malignancy and children are particularly susceptible. Every effort must be made to avoid unnecessary radiation exposure in these patients whose life expectancy is increasing.

  5. Macroscopic cumulative fatigue damage of material under nonsymmetrical cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盖秉政

    2002-01-01

    Hashin's macroscopic theory of fatigue damage is further discussed and a new method has been proposed for prediction of cumulative fatigue damage of material and its lifetime under nonsymmetrical cyclic loading.

  6. Translation-Invariant Representation for Cumulative Foot Pressure Images

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Shuai; Tan, Tieniu

    2010-01-01

    Human can be distinguished by different limb movements and unique ground reaction force. Cumulative foot pressure image is a 2-D cumulative ground reaction force during one gait cycle. Although it contains pressure spatial distribution information and pressure temporal distribution information, it suffers from several problems including different shoes and noise, when putting it into practice as a new biometric for pedestrian identification. In this paper, we propose a hierarchical translation-invariant representation for cumulative foot pressure images, inspired by the success of Convolutional deep belief network for digital classification. Key contribution in our approach is discriminative hierarchical sparse coding scheme which helps to learn useful discriminative high-level visual features. Based on the feature representation of cumulative foot pressure images, we develop a pedestrian recognition system which is invariant to three different shoes and slight local shape change. Experiments are conducted on...

  7. The Interacting Axes of Environmental, Health, and Social Justice Cumulative Impacts: A Case Study of the Blueberry River First Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya K Gislason

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We consider the case of intensive resource extractive projects in the Blueberry River First Nations in Northern British Columbia, Canada, as a case study. Drawing on the parallels between concepts of cumulative environmental and cumulative health impacts, we highlight three axes along which to gauge the effects of intensive extraction projects. These are environmental, health, and social justice axes. Using an intersectional analysis highlights the way in which using individual indicators to measure impact, rather than considering cumulative effects, hides the full extent by which the affected First Nations communities are impacted by intensive extraction projects. We use the case study to contemplate several mechanisms at the intersection of these axes whereby the negative effects of each not only add but also amplify through their interactions. For example, direct impact along the environmental axis indirectly amplifies other health and social justice impacts separately from the direct impacts on those axes. We conclude there is significant work still to be done to use cumulative indicators to study the impacts of extractive industry projects—like liquefied natural gas—on peoples, environments, and health.

  8. The no-project alternative analysis: An early product of the Tahoe Decision Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsing, David L.; Hessenflow, Mark L.; Wein, Anne

    2005-01-01

    We report on the development of a No-project alternative analysis (NPAA) or “business as usual” scenario with respect to a 20-year projection of 21 indicators of environmental and socioeconomic conditions in the Lake Tahoe Basin for the Tahoe Regional Planning Agency (TRPA). Our effort was inspired by earlier work that investigated the tradeoffs between an environmental and an economic objective. The NPAA study has implications for a longer term goal of building a Tahoe Decision Support System (TDSS) to assist the TRPA and other Basin agencies in assessing the outcomes of management strategies. The NPAA assumes no major deviations from current management practices or from recent environmental or societal trends and planned Environmental Improvement Program (EIP) projects. Quantitative “scenario generation” tools were constructed to simulate site-specific land uses, various population categories, and associated vehicle miles traveled. Projections of each indicator’s attainment status were made by building visual conceptual models of the relevant natural and social processes, extrapolating trends, and using available models, research, and expert opinion. We present results of the NPAA, projected indicator status, key factors affecting the indicators, indicator functionality, and knowledge gaps. One important result is that current management practices may slow the loss or degradation of environmental qualities but not halt or reverse it. Our analysis also predicts an increase in recreation and commuting into and within the basin, primarily in private vehicles. Private vehicles, which are a critical mechanism by which the Basin population affects the surrounding environment, are a key determinant of air-quality indicators, a source of particulate matter affecting Secchi depth, a source of noise, and a factor in recreational and scenic quality, largely owing to congestion. Key uncertainties in the NPAA include climate change, EIP project effectiveness, and

  9. Some Characterization Results on Dynamic Cumulative Residual Tsallis Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madan Mohan Sati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a generalized cumulative residual information measure based on Tsallis entropy and its dynamic version. We study the characterizations of the proposed information measure and define new classes of life distributions based on this measure. Some applications are provided in relation to weighted and equilibrium probability models. Finally the empirical cumulative Tsallis entropy is proposed to estimate the new information measure.

  10. Steps and pips in the history of the cumulative recorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Lattal, Kennon A.

    2004-01-01

    From its inception in the 1930s until very recent times, the cumulative recorder was the most widely used measurement instrument in the experimental analysis of behavior. It was an essential instrument in the discovery and analysis of schedules of reinforcement, providing the first real-time analysis of operant response rates and patterns. This review traces the evolution of the cumulative recorder from Skinner's early modified kymographs through various models developed by Skinner and his co...

  11. The Perceived Impact of the Agile Development and Project Management Method Scrum on Information Systems and Software Development Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlheinz Kautz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This research contributes to the body of knowledge in information systems development (ISD with an empirical investigation in form of a case study that demonstrates the positive impact of the agile development and project management method Scrum on information systems and software development productivity and it provides a useful operationalization of the concept through seven identified indicators for productivity. Despite the fact that the case unit had challenges with the use of Scrum, the indicators identified the areas where the company had managed to exploit the potential of Scrum and its practices with regard to increasing productivity. The research results are discussed both with regard to the existing Scrum literature as well as to complex adaptive systems (CAS as a foundation for ISD and agile development.

  12. Childhood Cumulative Risk Exposure and Adult Amygdala Volume and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gary W; Swain, James E; King, Anthony P; Wang, Xin; Javanbakht, Arash; Ho, S Shaun; Angstadt, Michael; Phan, K Luan; Xie, Hong; Liberzon, Israel

    2016-06-01

    Considerable work indicates that early cumulative risk exposure is aversive to human development, but very little research has examined the neurological underpinnings of these robust findings. This study investigates amygdala volume and reactivity to facial stimuli among adults (mean 23.7 years of age, n = 54) as a function of cumulative risk exposure during childhood (9 and 13 years of age). In addition, we test to determine whether expected cumulative risk elevations in amygdala volume would mediate functional reactivity of the amygdala during socioemotional processing. Risks included substandard housing quality, noise, crowding, family turmoil, child separation from family, and violence. Total and left hemisphere adult amygdala volumes were positively related to cumulative risk exposure during childhood. The links between childhood cumulative risk exposure and elevated amygdala responses to emotionally neutral facial stimuli in adulthood were mediated by the corresponding amygdala volumes. Cumulative risk exposure in later adolescence (17 years of age), however, was unrelated to subsequent adult amygdala volume or function. Physical and socioemotional risk exposures early in life appear to alter amygdala development, rendering adults more reactive to ambiguous stimuli such as neutral faces. These stress-related differences in childhood amygdala development might contribute to the well-documented psychological distress as a function of early risk exposure.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF A SYSTEMATIC ANALYSIS FOR THE CHARACTERIZATION OF SPANISH PRODUCTIVE SME PERFORMING PROJECTS R&D&I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEREZ MOLINA Ana Isabel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Innovation in SMEs is a key to competitiveness and economic growth pillar. Currently, in Spain, the most important policy to support innovation is tax incentives for R&D&I, based on the issuance of Motivated Binding reports of the Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness. This work offers SMEs a quantitative and qualitative model of analysis, and enterprise-level projects, which aims to help them get a favorable structure for innovation. Specifically, a systematic analysis is proposed for Spanish SMEs that perform productive R&D&I, based on factors of company, projects and on both of them, and based on an interview for SMEs, on an analysis of the projects based Motivated Binding a Report and on a review of key data presented in the Mercantile Register. The method developed has been endorsed by a panel of experts in the field: managers related to innovation, researchers from the University, Agents involved in Institutions binding Motivated management Reports, Managers of innovative SMEs, Business Associations, etc. By providing a systematic analysis, it will be able to make a quantitative and qualitative empirical study of a representative sample of companies, based on the application of this method. With all this, we will achieve the characterization and modeling of the Spanish productive SMEs performing R&D&I, obtaining, a model able to assist Spanish companies to achieve including the R&D&I, in its business strategy, which will generate new possibilities for improving competitiveness.

  14. The Complexities of Digital Storytelling: Factors Affecting Performance, Production, and Project Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobel, Peter; Kano, Makimi

    2016-01-01

    Digital storytelling projects provide a variety of opportunities for learning in the language classroom, but along with these opportunities come a number of challenges for both pedagogy and technology. This presentation describes an ongoing multi-method study into factors involved in task-based learning using digital storytelling. Using intact…

  15. Benchmark calculations on residue production within the EURISOL DS project; Part I: thin targets

    CERN Document Server

    David, J.C; Boudard, A; Doré, D; Leray, S; Rapp, B; Ridikas, D; Thiollière, N

    Report on benchmark calculations on residue production in thin targets. Calculations were performed using MCNPX 2.5.0 coupled to a selection of reaction models. The results were compared to nuclide production cross-sections measured in GSI in inverse kinematics

  16. Biomass production by fescue and switchgrass alone and in mixed swards with legumes. Final project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, M. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Univ. of Agronomy

    1994-06-01

    In assessing the role of biomass in alleviating potential global warming, the absence of information on the sustainability of biomass production on soils of limited agricultural potential is cited as a major constraint to the assessment of the role of biomass. Research on the sustainability of yields, recycling of nutrients, and emphasis on reduced inputs of agricultural chemicals in the production of biomass are among the critical research needs to clarify optimum cropping practice in biomass production. Two field experiments were conducted between 1989 and 1993. One study evaluated biomass production and composition of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) grown alone and with bigflower vetch (Vicia grandiflora L.) and the other assessed biomass productivity and composition of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) grown alone and with perennial legumes. Switchgrass received 0, 75 or 150 kg ha{sup {minus}1} of N annually as NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} or was interseeded with vetch. Tall fescue received 0, 75, 150 or 225 kg ha{sup {minus}1} of N annually or was interseeded with alfalfa (Medicago L.) or birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.). It is hoped that production systems can be designed to produce high yields of biomass with minimal inputs of fertilizer N. Achievement of this goal would reduce the potential for movement of NO{sub 3} and other undesirable N forms outside the biomass production system into the environment. In addition, management systems involving legumes could reduce the cost of biomass production.

  17. Market projections of cellulose nanomaterial-enabled products- Part 1: Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo Anne Shatkin; Theodore H. Wegner; E.M. (Ted) Bilek; John Cowie

    2014-01-01

    Nanocellulose provides a new materials platform for the sustainable production of high-performance nano-enabled products in an array of applications. In this paper, potential applications for cellulose nanomaterials are identified as the first step toward estimating market volume. The overall study, presented in two parts, estimates market volume on the basis of...

  18. Projecte Delorean

    OpenAIRE

    Rigual Martínez, Jaume

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of my project is to draw up a Business Plan to set up an audiovisual production company in partnership with my University Tecnocampus Mataró-Maresme. A production company which is intended for the formation of new professionals as well as the continued development of quality audiovisual projects. I want to make a feasibility project to show that this production company can be created and be a useful element for my University, particularly for students.

  19. Projected Crop Production under Regional Climate Change Using Scenario Data and Modeling: Sensitivity to Chosen Sowing Date and Cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulin Tao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A sensitivity analysis of the responses of crops to the chosen production adaptation options under regional climate change was conducted in this study. Projections of winter wheat production for different sowing dates and cultivars were estimated for a major economic and agricultural province of China from 2021 to 2080 using the World Food Study model (WOFOST under representative concentration pathways (RCPs scenarios. A modeling chain was established and a correction method was proposed to reduce the bias of the resulting model-simulated climate data. The results indicated that adjusting the sowing dates and cultivars could mitigate the influences of climate change on winter wheat production in Jinagsu. The yield gains were projected from the chosen sowing date and cultivar. The following actions are recommended to ensure high and stable yields under future climate changes: (i advance the latest sowing date in some areas of northern Jiangsu; and (ii use heat-tolerant or heat-tolerant and drought-resistant varieties in most areas of Jiangsu rather than the currently used cultivar. Fewer of the common negative effects of using a single climate model occurred when using the sensitivity analysis because our bias correction method was effective for scenario data and because the WOFOST performed well for Jiangsu after calibration.

  20. Implementation of modern technology for high-viscosity oil production on Sakhalin Island, Russia: issues and replies at the first stage of the pilot project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuryev, Dmitry [RN - Sakhalin NIP Imorneft (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-01

    On Sakhalin Island In Russia, oil production fields are now facing a decrease in production. Heavy oil, oil with high viscosity, is a significant part of the remaining resources and its use is thus essential to maintain and increase oil production. The aim of this paper is to present the results of the first stage of a project testing modern technology to recover heavy oil. This pilot project is located in the Katangli Uiglekuty fields and is conducted using shallow horizontal well drilling, steam injection expansion and improvement and well completion optimization. Results of the first stage of the project allowed technical and economical indices to be updated, leading to assessment of further project optimization and implementation. This paper presented a project to recover heavy oil on Sakhalin Island with modern technologies and its first stage results.

  1. CEAMF study, volume 2 : cumulative effects indicators, thresholds, and case studies : final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-01

    The four types of cumulative effects on the environment are: alteration, loss, and fragmentation of habitat; disturbance; barriers to movement; and direct and indirect mortality. Defining where and how human activities can be continued without irreversible net harm to the environment is part of cumulative effects management. Various land-use and habitat indicators were tested in the Blueberry and Sukunka study areas of British Columbia, to address the environmental effects associated with oil and gas development. As recommended, a tiered threshold approach was used to allow for flexibility in different land management regimes and ecological settings. Success will depend on defining acceptable change, threshold values, standard public database, standard processes to calculate indicator values using the database, and project-specific and cooperative management actions. A pilot study was suggested to test the candidate thresholds and implementation process. The two areas proposed for consideration were the Jedney Enhanced Resource Development Resource Management Zone in the Fort St. John Forest District, and the Etsho Enhanced Resource Development Resource Management Zone in the Fort Nelson Forest District. Both are of interest to the petroleum and forest sectors, and support the woodland caribou, a species which is extremely sensitive to cumulative effects of habitat fragmentation and disturbance. 117 refs., 11 tabs., 39 figs.

  2. Detecting spatial patterns with the cumulant function – Part 1: The theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Naveau

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In climate studies, detecting spatial patterns that largely deviate from the sample mean still remains a statistical challenge. Although a Principal Component Analysis (PCA, or equivalently a Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF decomposition, is often applied for this purpose, it provides meaningful results only if the underlying multivariate distribution is Gaussian. Indeed, PCA is based on optimizing second order moments, and the covariance matrix captures the full dependence structure of multivariate Gaussian vectors. Whenever the application at hand can not satisfy this normality hypothesis (e.g. precipitation data, alternatives and/or improvements to PCA have to be developed and studied. To go beyond this second order statistics constraint, that limits the applicability of the PCA, we take advantage of the cumulant function that can produce higher order moments information. The cumulant function, well-known in the statistical literature, allows us to propose a new, simple and fast procedure to identify spatial patterns for non-Gaussian data. Our algorithm consists in maximizing the cumulant function. Three families of multivariate random vectors, for which explicit computations are obtained, are implemented to illustrate our approach. In addition, we show that our algorithm corresponds to selecting the directions along which projected data display the largest spread over the marginal probability density tails.

  3. Current industrial practice of managing risks in product development project portfolios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weng, R.; Oehmen, Josef; Ben-Daya, M.

    2013-01-01

    Managing portfolios of development and engineering projects currently presents significant challenges to companies. This is even more the case in the management of portfolio risks, where both industry and academia currently lack a clear conceptual understanding of what portfolio risks are and what...... influences them. The objective of this paper is two-fold: First, based on a literature review and industry focus group discussions, we introduce a new model for describing portfolio-level risks. It consists of three types of risks (escalated risks, common cause risks, and cascading risks) based on 9 types...... of interdependencies in PD project portfolios (Technology, Budget, Objectives and Requirements, Infrastructure and Equipment, Skillset and Human Resources, Process and Schedule, Supplier, Legal and Regulatory, and finally Market and Customer). Second, we investigate how risk management on the portfolio level...

  4. System testing of a production Ada (trademark) project: The GRODY study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seigle, Jeffrey; Esker, Linda; Shi, Ying-Liang

    1990-01-01

    The use of the Ada language and design methodologies that utilize its features has a strong impact on all phases of the software development project lifecycle. At the National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) conducted an experiment in parallel development of two flight dynamics systems in FORTRAN and Ada. The teams found some qualitative differences between the system test phases of the two projects. Although planning for system testing and conducting of tests were not generally affected by the use of Ada, the solving of problems found in system testing was generally facilitated by Ada constructs and design methodology. Most problems found in system testing were not due to difficulty with the language or methodology but to lack of experience with the application.

  5. Incorporating benthic community changes into hydrochemical-based projections of coral reef calcium carbonate production under ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Emily C.; Hamylton, Sarah M.; Phinn, Stuart R.

    2016-06-01

    The existence of coral reefs is dependent on the production and maintenance of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) framework that is produced through calcification. The net production of CaCO3 will likely decline in the future, from both declining net calcification rates (decreasing calcification and increasing dissolution) and shifts in benthic community composition from calcifying organisms to non-calcifying organisms. Here, we present a framework for hydrochemical studies that allows both declining net calcification rates and changes in benthic community composition to be incorporated into projections of coral reef CaCO3 production. The framework involves upscaling net calcification rates for each benthic community type using mapped proportional cover of the benthic communities. This upscaling process was applied to the reef flats at One Tree and Lady Elliot reefs (Great Barrier Reef) and Shiraho Reef (Okinawa), and compared to existing data. Future CaCO3 budgets were projected for Lady Elliot Reef, predicting a decline of 53 % from the present value by end-century (800 ppm CO2) without any changes to benthic community composition. A further 5.7 % decline in net CaCO3 production is expected for each 10 % decline in calcifier cover, and net dissolution is predicted by end-century if calcifier cover drops below 18 % of the present extent. These results show the combined negative effect of both declining net calcification rates and changing benthic community composition on reefs and the importance of considering both processes for determining future reef CaCO3 production.

  6. Projecting future grassland productivity to assess the sustainability of potential biofuel feedstock areas in the Greater Platte River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yingxin; Wylie, Bruce K.; Boyte, Stephen; Phyual, Khem

    2014-01-01

    This study projects future (e.g., 2050 and 2099) grassland productivities in the Greater Platte River Basin (GPRB) using ecosystem performance (EP, a surrogate for measuring ecosystem productivity) models and future climate projections. The EP models developed from a previous study were based on the satellite vegetation index, site geophysical and biophysical features, and weather and climate drivers. The future climate data used in this study were derived from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate System Model 3.0 ‘SRES A1B’ (a ‘middle’ emissions path). The main objective of this study is to assess the future sustainability of the potential biofuel feedstock areas identified in a previous study. Results show that the potential biofuel feedstock areas (the more mesic eastern part of the GPRB) will remain productive (i.e., aboveground grassland biomass productivity >2750 kg ha−1 year−1) with a slight increasing trend in the future. The spatially averaged EPs for these areas are 3519, 3432, 3557, 3605, 3752, and 3583 kg ha−1 year−1 for current site potential (2000–2008 average), 2020, 2030, 2040, 2050, and 2099, respectively. Therefore, the identified potential biofuel feedstock areas will likely continue to be sustainable for future biofuel development. On the other hand, grasslands identified as having no biofuel potential in the drier western part of the GPRB would be expected to stay unproductive in the future (spatially averaged EPs are 1822, 1691, 1896, 2306, 1994, and 2169 kg ha−1 year−1 for site potential, 2020, 2030, 2040, 2050, and 2099). These areas should continue to be unsuitable for biofuel feedstock development in the future. These future grassland productivity estimation maps can help land managers to understand and adapt to the expected changes in future EP in the GPRB and to assess the future sustainability and feasibility of potential biofuel feedstock areas.

  7. A layout technique for class diagrams to be used in product configuration projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haug, Anders; Hvam, Lars; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2010-01-01

    . On the other hand, the requirements for the design language are more focused on having a formalised and rich language. For this task class diagrams are often applied. To avoid the use of different modelling languages in the analysis and design phase, this paper proposes and tests a layout technique......For several companies the use of product configurators has produced a range of benefits such as minimising the use of resources and shortening the lead times in product specification processes. When developing a product configurator, two kinds of models are often created, namely analysis and design...

  8. Shared voices, different worlds: Process and product in the Food Dignity action research project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine M. Porter

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of perspective makes for greater depth when painting a portrait of community life. But embracing the idea of representing true diversity in a formal research project is a whole lot easier than putting it into practice. The three dozen members of the Food Dignity action research team, now entering the fourth year of a five-year project, are intimately familiar with this challenge. In this article, four of the collaborators explore the intricacies of navigating what it means to bring together a genuine cross-section of community-based activists and academics in an effort to draw on one another’s professional and personal strengths to collect and disseminate research findings that represent the truth of a community’s experiences, and are ultimately disseminated in a way that brings tangible benefit to the heart and soul of that community. The authors include Food Dignity’s principal investigator (Porter and three community organisers (Marshall, Herrera and Woodsum in organisations that have partnered with Food Dignity. Two of the organisers (Herrera and Woodsum also serve project-wide roles. These collaborators share their personal and professional hopes, struggles, concerns, successes and failures as participants in this cutting-edge effort to equalise community and university partnerships in research. Keywords: community-based participatory research (CBPR, food justice, equitable community-campus partnerships, food sovereignty, case study, action research

  9. Multi-Use Solar Thermal System for Oxygen Production from Lunar Regolith [7227-570] Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop an innovative solar thermal system for oxygen production from lunar regolith. In this system solar radiation is collected by the concentrator...

  10. Advanced Product Water Removal and Management (APWR) Fuel Cell System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a passive, self-regulating, gravity-independent Advanced Product Water Removal (APWR) system for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM)...

  11. Advanced Product Water Removal and Management (APWR) Fuel Cell System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a passive, self-regulating, gravity-independent Advanced Product Water Removal and management (APWR) system for incorporation into Polymer...

  12. Integration of full-spectrum metrology and polishing for rapid production of large aspheres Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Integration of three proven, non-contact, optical metrology techniques with an emerging new polishing approach in a single machine will enable the rapid production...

  13. Modular Power System Configured with Standard Product Hybrid DC-DC Converters Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — VPT proposes an innovative concept whereby complex, multiple-output, DC-DC converter systems can be configured through use of only 2 standard product hybrid DC-DC...

  14. Synchronizing new product development projects and supply chain retrofitting for financial sustainability in the pharmaceutical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Lainez Aguirre, José Miguel; Puigjaner Corbella, Lluís; Reklaitis, Gintaras V.

    2009-01-01

    In today's highly competitive marketplace, supply chain and product development activities should be coordinated and synchronized so that market demand, product release and capacity requirements are matched in a financially sustainable fashion. In this work an integrated model is developed which incorporates simultaneous treatment of supply chain design-planning and R&D decisions in the pharmaceutical industry. Moreover, the aforementioned cross-functional model embeds a capita...

  15. Synchronizing new product development projects and supply chain retrofitting for financial sustainability in the pharmaceutical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Lainez Aguirre, José Miguel; Puigjaner Corbella, Lluís; Reklaitis, Gintaras V

    2009-01-01

    In today's highly competitive marketplace, supply chain and product development activities should be coordinated and synchronized so that market demand, product release and capacity requirements are matched in a financially sustainable fashion. In this work an integrated model is developed which incorporates simultaneous treatment of supply chain design-planning and R&D decisions in the pharmaceutical industry. Moreover, the aforementioned cross-functional model embeds a capita...

  16. IAEA coordinated research project on nuclear data for charged-particle monitor reactions and medical isotope production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capote, Roberto; Nichols, Alan L.; Nortier, Francois Meiring; Carlson, Brett V.; Engle, Jonathan W.; Hermanne, Alex; Hussain, Mazhar; Ignatyuk, Anatoly V.; Kellett, Mark A.; Kibédi, Tibor; Kim, Guinyun; Kondev, Filip G.; Lebeda, Ondrej; Luca, Aurelian; Naik, Haladhara; Nagai, Yasuki; Spahn, Ingo; Suryanarayana, Saraswatula V.; Tárkányi, Ferenc T.; Verpelli, Marco

    2017-09-01

    An IAEA coordinated research project was launched in December 2012 to establish and improve the nuclear data required to characterise charged-particle monitor reactions and extend data for medical radionuclide production. An international team was assembled to undertake work addressing the requirements for more accurate cross-section data over a wide range of targets and projectiles, undertaken in conjunction with a limited number of measurements and more extensive evaluations of the decay data of specific radionuclides. These studies are nearing completion, and are briefly described below.

  17. TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN PROJECTS OF NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY ON RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT INTEGRATION AMONG UNITS OF A MULTINATIONAL COMPANY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniel Jugend; Sérgio Luis da Silva

    2012-01-01

    ... & D centers around the world in development projects of new products. Focusing on the perception of the Brazilian unit, this paper aims to present and analyze integration practices among subsidiaries, headquarters...

  18. Technological Innovation In Projects Of New Product Development: An Exploratory Study On Relationship Management Integration Among Units Of A Multinational Company

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniel Jugend; Sérgio Luis da Silva

    2012-01-01

    ... & D centers around the world in development projects of new products. Focusing on the perception of the Brazilian unit, this paper aims to present and analyze integration practices among subsidiaries, headquarters and...

  19. The Global Ocean Data Analysis Project version 2 (GLODAPv2) - an internally consistent data product for the world ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Are; Key, Robert M.; van Heuven, Steven; Lauvset, Siv K.; Velo, Anton; Lin, Xiaohua; Schirnick, Carsten; Kozyr, Alex; Tanhua, Toste; Hoppema, Mario; Jutterström, Sara; Steinfeldt, Reiner; Jeansson, Emil; Ishii, Masao; Pérez, Fiz F.; Suzuki, Toru

    2016-08-01

    Version 2 of the Global Ocean Data Analysis Project (GLODAPv2) data product is composed of data from 724 scientific cruises covering the global ocean. It includes data assembled during the previous efforts GLODAPv1.1 (Global Ocean Data Analysis Project version 1.1) in 2004, CARINA (CARbon IN the Atlantic) in 2009/2010, and PACIFICA (PACIFic ocean Interior CArbon) in 2013, as well as data from an additional 168 cruises. Data for 12 core variables (salinity, oxygen, nitrate, silicate, phosphate, dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, and CCl4) have been subjected to extensive quality control, including systematic evaluation of bias. The data are available in two formats: (i) as submitted but updated to WOCE exchange format and (ii) as a merged and internally consistent data product. In the latter, adjustments have been applied to remove significant biases, respecting occurrences of any known or likely time trends or variations. Adjustments applied by previous efforts were re-evaluated. Hence, GLODAPv2 is not a simple merging of previous products with some new data added but a unique, internally consistent data product. This compiled and adjusted data product is believed to be consistent to better than 0.005 in salinity, 1 % in oxygen, 2 % in nitrate, 2 % in silicate, 2 % in phosphate, 4 µmol kg-1 in dissolved inorganic carbon, 6 µmol kg-1 in total alkalinity, 0.005 in pH, and 5 % for the halogenated transient tracers.The original data and their documentation and doi codes are available at the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (http://cdiac.ornl.gov/oceans/GLODAPv2/). This site also provides access to the calibrated data product, which is provided as a single global file or four regional ones - the Arctic, Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific oceans - under the doi:10.3334/CDIAC/OTG.NDP093_GLODAPv2. The product files also include significant ancillary and approximated data. These were obtained by interpolation of, or calculation

  20. Predicting Cumulative Watershed Effects using Spatially Explicit Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, L. H.; Litschert, S.

    2004-12-01

    Cumulative watershed effects /(CWEs/) result from the combined effects of land disturbances distributed over both space and time. They are of concern because changes in flow and sediment yields can adversely affect aquatic habitat, channel morphology, water yields, and water quality. The assessment procedures currently used by agencies such as the U.S. Forest Service generally rely on a lumped approach to quantify disturbance, despite the widespread recognition that site conditions and location do matter! The overall goal of our work is to develop spatially-explicit models to quantify changes in flow and sediment yields. Key objectives include: use of readily available GIS data; ease of use for resource managers with minimal GIS experience; modularity so that models can be added or updated; and allowing users to select the models and values for key parameters. The DeltaQ model calculates changes in peak, median, and low flows due to forest management activities and fires. Inputs include GIS data with disturbance polygons, an initial change in flow rate, and the time to recovery. Data from paired watershed studies are provided to help guide the user. The initial version of FORest Erosion Simulation Tools /(FOREST/) calculates sediment production from forest harvest, fires, and unpaved roads. Additional modules are being developed to deliver this sediment to the stream channel and route it to downstream locations. In accordance with our objectives, the user can predict sediment production rates using different empirical equations, assign an initial sediment production rate and a specified linear recovery period, or develop a look-up table based on local knowledge, published values, or data from other models such as WEPP. The required GIS layers vary according to the model/(s/) selected, but generally include past disturbances /(e.g., fires and timber harvest/), roads, and elevation. Outputs include GIS layers and text files that can be subjected to additional

  1. Project Economic Stew: A Study of Poultry and Rice. A Third-grade Economics Project [and] A Bird's Eye View of an Economic Stew: A Study of Poultry and Rice Production in Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Penny

    An economics project for third grade children is described and lessons for teaching basic economic concepts are provided. In the first semester, students studied basic economic concepts; in the second semester, they learned about the origin, production, and distribution of rice and poultry and how these products affect the local and state…

  2. Life Cycle Thinking and Integrated Product Deliveries in renovation projects: Extending the concept of Integrated Product Deliveries with Product Service Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schipull Kauschen, Jan

    2012-01-01

    material-focused approach in product development in the construction sector, as building materials usually have relatively low values and - in general – seem not to be dependent on yet-scarce resources. Sustainable IPDs can be categorized into two main streams – “sustainable by design” and “sustainable......INTRODUCTION The term “Integrated product deliveries (IPD)” encompasses complex building solutions, that not only include building materials and components but also different necessary services linked directly to them, as design and planning tasks, production, assembly, delivery and construction...... work. Furthermore, IPDs are produced in an industrial context, allowing higher quality products at competitive costs. Expanding the term to also include services during the components use phase and continued responsibility for the end-of-life, offers new possibilities for enhancing the sustainability...

  3. Cumulative risks of foster care placement for Danish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallesen, Peter; Emanuel, Natalia; Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Although recent research suggests that the cumulative risk of foster care placement is far higher for American children than originally suspected, little is known about the cumulative risk of foster care placement in other countries, which makes it difficult to gauge the degree to which factor foster care placement is salient in other contexts. In this article, we provide companion estimates to those provided in recent work on the US by using Danish registry data and synthetic cohort life tables to show how high and unequally distributed the cumulative risk of foster care placement is for Danish children. Results suggest that at the beginning of the study period (in 1998) the cumulative risk of foster care placement for Danish children was roughly in line with the risk for American children. Yet, by the end of the study period (2010), the risk had declined to half the risk for American children. Our results also show some variations by parental ethnicity and sex, but these differences are small. Indeed, they appear quite muted relative to racial/ethnic differences in these risks in the United States. Last, though cumulative risks are similar between Danish and American children (especially at the beginning of the study period), the age-specific risk profiles are markedly different, with higher risks for older Danish children than for older American children.

  4. Latino Mothers' Cumulative Food Insecurity Exposure and Child Body Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Daphne C

    2016-01-01

    To document whether an intergenerational transmission of food insecurity is occurring by assessing low-income foreign-born Latino mothers' experiences with food insecurity as none, once (either childhood or adulthood) or twice (during both childhood and adulthood). Also the association between maternal cumulative food insecurity and children's body composition was examined. Maternal self-reported surveys on retrospective measures of food insecurity during childhood, current measures of food insecurity, and demographics were collected from Houston-area community centers (N = 96). Children's body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were directly assessed. Covariate-adjusted logistic regression models analyzed the association between cumulative food insecurity experiences and children's body composition. Fifty-eight percent of mothers experienced food insecurity both as a child and as an adult and 31% of the mothers experienced food insecurity either as a child or adult. Maternal cumulative exposure to food insecurity was unrelated to BMI but was negatively related to elevated WC. Although an intergenerational transmission of food insecurity does exist, maternal cumulative exposure to food insecurity does not impact children's body composition negatively in the short term. Studying the long-term effects of cumulative food insecurity exposure can provide information for the development and timing of obesity interventions.

  5. USING CUMULATIVE NUMBER DENSITIES TO COMPARE GALAXIES ACROSS COSMIC TIME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behroozi, Peter S.; Wechsler, Risa H. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Marchesini, Danilo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Muzzin, Adam [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Papovich, Casey [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Stefanon, Mauro [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Comparing galaxies across redshifts at fixed cumulative number density is a popular way to estimate the evolution of specific galaxy populations. This method ignores scatter in mass accretion histories and galaxy-galaxy mergers, which can lead to errors when comparing galaxies over large redshift ranges (Δz > 1). We use abundance matching in the ΛCDM paradigm to estimate the median change in cumulative number density with redshift and provide a simple fit (+0.16 dex per unit Δz) for progenitors of z = 0 galaxies. We find that galaxy descendants do not evolve in the same way as galaxy progenitors, largely due to scatter in mass accretion histories. We also provide estimates for the 1σ range of cumulative number densities corresponding to galaxy progenitors and descendants. Finally, we discuss some limits on cumulative number density comparisons, which arise due to difficulties measuring physical quantities (e.g., stellar mass) consistently across redshifts. A public tool to calculate cumulative number density evolution for galaxies, as well as approximate halo masses, is available online.

  6. Maintenance hemodialysis patients have high cumulative radiation exposure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kinsella, Sinead M

    2010-10-01

    Hemodialysis is associated with an increased risk of neoplasms which may result, at least in part, from exposure to ionizing radiation associated with frequent radiographic procedures. In order to estimate the average radiation exposure of those on hemodialysis, we conducted a retrospective study of 100 patients in a university-based dialysis unit followed for a median of 3.4 years. The number and type of radiological procedures were obtained from a central radiology database, and the cumulative effective radiation dose was calculated using standardized, procedure-specific radiation levels. The median annual radiation dose was 6.9 millisieverts (mSv) per patient-year. However, 14 patients had an annual cumulative effective radiation dose over 20 mSv, the upper averaged annual limit for occupational exposure. The median total cumulative effective radiation dose per patient over the study period was 21.7 mSv, in which 13 patients had a total cumulative effective radiation dose over 75 mSv, a value reported to be associated with a 7% increased risk of cancer-related mortality. Two-thirds of the total cumulative effective radiation dose was due to CT scanning. The average radiation exposure was significantly associated with the cause of end-stage renal disease, history of ischemic heart disease, transplant waitlist status, number of in-patient hospital days over follow-up, and death during the study period. These results highlight the substantial exposure to ionizing radiation in hemodialysis patients.

  7. Projection of productivity of cultivated crops in rain-fed areas in Egypt under climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ouda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rain-fed agriculture exists in North Sinai and Marsa Matrouh in Egypt. The objective of this paper was to close the gap in our understanding on how climate would affect agricultural sustainability in rain-fed area. To implement that, integrated modeling approach was used. BISm and Yield–Stress models were used to simulate the effect of climate change on crops productivity in 2030. Furthermore, the effect of manure application to these crops was done to explore its effect on improving productivity under drought conditions. The simulation results revealed that productivity of barley and wheat will severely reduce in 2030, whereas the productivity of fruit trees will reduce with lower magnitude. Simulation of the additive effect of manure application revealed that yield losses in all the studied crops were reduced. Potential barley yield losses were reduced from 48 and 85% in North Sinai and Marsa Matrouh, respectively, to 12 and 71%. Wheat yield losses will be reduced from 62 and 90% in North Sinai and Marsa Matrouh, respectively, to 38 and 82%. Therefore, a production package should be implemented in these areas to increase its resilience to face rain fall variability in the future.

  8. Ultra-Clean Fischer-Tropsch Fuels Production and Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Bergin

    2005-10-14

    The Report Abstract provides summaries of the past year's activities relating to each of the main project objectives. Some of the objectives will be expanded on in greater detail further down in the report. The following objectives have their own addition sections in the report: Dynamometer Durability Testing, the Denali Bus Fleet Demonstration, Bus Fleet Demonstrations Emissions Analysis, Impact of SFP Fuel on Engine Performance, Emissions Analysis, Feasibility Study of SFPs for Rural Alaska, and Cold Weather Testing of Ultra Clean Fuel.

  9. ARTI/MCRL Project Report products of motor burnout (Second quarter report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawley-Fedder, R.

    1995-01-15

    The OSP (Operating Safety Procedure) required for performance of electrical arc testing of CFC replacement fluids was renewed. Electrical breakdown tests at one (1) atmosphere pressure have been performed for R-22, R-134a, and R-125/R-143a (50:50 blend; AZ-50), and breakdown products identified. No differences in HCFC breakdown products are seen in the presence or absence of lubricant oils. The design of the high pressure-high temperature test stand has been finalized, and construction initiated during this quarter. Three motor stators and rotors were received from Tecumseh Products Company for use in motor burnout tests. A test plan for the motor breakdown tests is in preparation.

  10. Cost-effective production of biogas from manure – retrogas project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado, Esperanza; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Rohold, Lars

    2010-01-01

    fractions of the manure could be used to centralized biogas plants for methane production and as fertilizer on the farm, respectively. Unfortunately, the manure transportation systems today are designed for handling of liquid material and are useless for solid material transportation. A solution......, this is the main reason for the poor economic performance of biogas plants in Denmark. The idea of increasing the methane productivity of the manure has triggered the development of new separation technologies for being applied before the anaerobic digestion of the swine manure. Thus, the solid and liquid...

  11. Electric power and desalinated water co-production from Sulcis coal gasification project - Sardinia, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manca, E.; Utzeri, B.; Figus, M. (IST Engineers and Contractors, Cagliari (Italy))

    1991-01-01

    Because of environmental constraints, coal gasification is the only process which can be used to process Sulcis coal. Pilot plant IGCC tests have shown that high carbon conversion rates are possible, minimum emissions are achievable, and chemically and physically inert slag can be produced. Studies have also been undertaken of a co-production plant with the capability of recovering the discharged thermal energy into water cooling condensers feeding a desalination plant for production of industrial water from sea water. 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  12. North American landscape characterization project: The production of a continental scale three‐decade Landsat data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohl, Terry L.; Dwyer, John L.

    1998-01-01

    The North American Landscape Characterization (NALC) project is a component of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Landsat Pathfinder program. Pathfinder projects are focused on the investigation of global change utilizing current remote sensing technologies. The NALC project is a cooperative effort between the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and NASA to make Landsat data available to the widest possible user community for scientific research and general public interest. The NALC project is principally funded by the EPA Office of Research and Development and the USGS's Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center (EDC).The objectives of the NALC project are to produce standardized remote sensing data sets, develop standardized analysis methods, and derive standardized land cover change products for a large portion of the North American continent (the conterminous United States and Mexico) (Lunetta and Sturdevant, 1993). The standard product is the NALC “triplicate”;, consisting of co‐registered Landsat multispectral scanner data for the years 1973, 1986, and 1991 (plus or minus one year), plus co‐registered 3 arcsecond digital terrain elevation data. Processing began with the 1986 scene, which was precision corrected (with full terrain correction) to a 60 meter Universal Transverse Mercator base. Automated cross‐correlation procedures were used to co‐register the 1970's and 1990's data to the 1980's base, and independent verifications of registration quality were performed on all triplicate components. The pertinent metadata were compiled in a relational database, which includes WRS2 path/rows, scene ID's, image dates, solar azimuth and elevation, verification RMSE's, and the number of verification control points. NALC triplicate data sets are being used for a number of applications, including the analysis of urbanization patterns, dynamics of climatic fluctuations

  13. Testing of a cumulative and aggregate exposure model using biomonitoring studies and dietary records for Italian vineyard spray operators.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kennedy, M.C.; Glass, C.R.; Fustinoni, S.; Moretto, A.; Mandic-Rajcevic, S.; Riso, P.; Turrini, A.; Voet, van der H.; Hetmanski, M.T.; Fussel, R.J.; Klaveren, van J.D.

    2015-01-01

    The need for improved tools to estimate the cumulative and aggregate exposure to compounds such as plant protection products (PPPs) is recognised in the EU Regulation 1107/2009. A new model has been developed to estimate the exposure within a population to single compounds or compounds within a Cumu

  14. Inequality in the Scientific Community: The Effects of Cumulative Advantage among Social Scientists and Humanities Scholars in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Keuntae; Kim, Jong-Kil

    2017-01-01

    The primary goal of this paper is to provide a balanced perspective for understanding inequality in research productivity among Korean scholars in humanities and social sciences. Specifically, we examine cumulative advantage over the careers of a sample of Korean social scientists and humanities scholars (N = 8933). Descriptive analyses indicated…

  15. Final report on LDRD project : biodiesel production from vegetable oils using slit-channel reactors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalu, E. Eric (FAMU-FSU College of Engineering, Tallahassee, FL); Chen, Ken Shuang

    2008-01-01

    This report documents work done for a late-start LDRD project, which was carried out during the last quarter of FY07. The objective of this project was to experimentally explore the feasibility of converting vegetable (e.g., soybean) oils to biodiesel by employing slit-channel reactors and solid catalysts. We first designed and fabricated several slit-channel reactors with varying channel depths, and employed them to investigate the improved performance of slit-channel reactors over traditional batch reactors using a NaOH liquid catalyst. We then evaluated the effectiveness of several solid catalysts, including CaO, ZnO, MgO, ZrO{sub 2}, calcium gluconate, and heteropolyacid or HPA (Cs{sub 2.5}H{sub 0.5}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}), for catalyzing the soybean oil-to-biodiesel transesterification reaction. We found that the slit-channel reactor performance improves as channel depth decreases, as expected; and the conversion efficiency of a slit-channel reactor is significantly higher when its channel is very shallow. We further confirmed CaO as having the highest catalytic activity among the solid catalysts tested, and we demonstrated for the first time calcium gluconate as a promising solid catalyst for converting soybean oil to biodiesel, based on our preliminary batch-mode conversion experiments.

  16. General Electric Company Hanford Works, Project C-431-A Production Facility-Section A, design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colburn, R.T.

    1951-03-29

    The 100-C project is to be located adjacent to the present 100-B Area. It is planned to build an addition to the present 181-B river pump house using the same elevations for pump settings, intakes, and floors as for the present pump house, thus maintaining the same suction conditions and flood protection as B Area. The 105 Building will be located on higher ground than B Area and therefore, protection against possible flood damage is assured. This report is divided into the following sections: (1) general description of project; (2) addition to existing river pump house; (3) raw water lines from 181-B addition to 183-C lead house; (4) the 183-C filter plant; (5) 190-C process pump house; (6) power house addition; (7) high tanks; (8) retention basins; (9) outside streamlines; (10) primary substation; (11) outside underground lines; (12) outside electric lines; (13) roads, railroads, walks, fences; (14) structural design of all buildings; and (15) architectural design of all buildings.

  17. Cumulative Trauma Among Mayas Living in Southeast Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millender, Eugenia I; Lowe, John

    2016-01-04

    Mayas, having experienced genocide, exile, and severe poverty, are at high risk for the consequences of cumulative trauma that continually resurfaces through current fear of an uncertain future. Little is known about the mental health and alcohol use status of this population. This correlational study explored t/he relationship of cumulative trauma as it relates to social determinants of health (years in the United States, education, health insurance status, marital status, and employment), psychological health (depression symptoms), and health behaviors (alcohol use) of 102 Guatemalan Mayas living in Southeast Florida. The results of this study indicated that, as specific social determinants of health and cumulative trauma increased, depression symptoms (particularly among women) and the risk for harmful alcohol use (particularly among men) increased. Identifying risk factors at an early stage before serious disease or problems are manifest provides room for early screening leading to early identification, early treatment, and better outcomes.

  18. Analysis of sensory ratings data with cumulative link models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen; Brockhoff, Per B.

    2013-01-01

    Examples of categorical rating scales include discrete preference, liking and hedonic rating scales. Data obtained on these scales are often analyzed with normal linear regression methods or with omnibus Pearson chi2 tests. In this paper we propose to use cumulative link models that allow...... for regression methods similar to linear models while respecting the categorical nature of the observations. We describe how cumulative link models are related to the omnibus chi2 tests and how they can lead to more powerful tests in the non-replicated setting. For replicated categorical ratings data we present...... a quasi-likelihood approach and a mixed effects approach both being extensions of cumulative link models. We contrast population-average and subject-specific interpretations based on these models and discuss how different approaches lead to different tests. In replicated settings, naive tests that ignore...

  19. Solid-state electro-cumulation effect numerical simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Grishin, V G

    2001-01-01

    It is an attempt to simulate as really as possible a crystal's interatomic interaction under conditions of "Solid-state electro-cumulation (super-polarization) effect". Some theoretical and experimental reasons to believe that within solid substances an interparticles interaction could concentrate from the surface to a centre were given formerly. Now, numerical results show the conditions that could make the cumulation more effective. Another keywords: ion, current, solid, symmetry, cumulation, polarization, depolarization, ionic conductor,superionic conductor, ice, crystal, strain, V-center, V-centre, doped crystal, interstitial impurity, intrinsic color center, high pressure technology, Bridgman, anvil, experiment, crowdion, dielectric, proton, layer, defect, lattice, dynamics, electromigration, mobility, muon catalysis, concentration, doping, dopant, conductivity, pycnonuclear reaction, permittivity, dielectric constant, point defects, interstitials, polarizability, imperfection, defect centers, glass, epi...

  20. Baltic Sea biodiversity status vs. cumulative human pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper H.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Korpinen, Samuli

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Many studies have tried to explain spatial and temporal variations in biodiversity status of marine areas from a single-issue perspective, such as fishing pressure or coastal pollution, yet most continental seas experience a wide range of human pressures. Cumulative impact assessments have...... been developed to capture the consequences of multiple stressors for biodiversity, but the ability of these assessments to accurately predict biodiversity status has never been tested or ground-truthed. This relationship has similarly been assumed for the Baltic Sea, especially in areas with impaired...... status, but has also never been documented. Here we provide a first tentative indication that cumulative human impacts relate to ecosystem condition, i.e. biodiversity status, in the Baltic Sea. Thus, cumulative impact assessments offer a promising tool for informed marine spatial planning, designation...

  1. Session: What do we know about cumulative or population impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerlinger, Paul; Manville, Al; Kendall, Bill

    2004-09-01

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of a panel discussion followed by a discussion/question and answer period. The panelists were Paul Kerlinger, Curry and Kerlinger, LLC, Al Manville, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and Bill Kendall, US Geological Service. The panel addressed the potential cumulative impacts of wind turbines on bird and bat populations over time. Panel members gave brief presentations that touched on what is currently known, what laws apply, and the usefulness of population modeling. Topics addressed included which sources of modeling should be included in cumulative impacts, comparison of impacts from different modes of energy generation, as well as what research is still needed regarding cumulative impacts of wind energy development on bird and bat populations.

  2. Cumulant dynamics in a finite population linkage equilibrium theory

    CERN Document Server

    Rattray, M; Rattray, Magnus; Shapiro, Jonathan L.

    1999-01-01

    The evolution of a finite population at linkage equilibrium is described in terms of the dynamics of phenotype distribution cumulants. This provides a powerful method for describing evolutionary transients and we elucidate the relationship between the cumulant dynamics and the diffusion approximation. A separation of time-scales between the first and higher cumulants for low mutation rates is demonstrated in the diffusion limit and provides a significant simplification of the dynamical system. However, the diffusion limit may not be appropriate for strong selection as the standard Fisher-Wright model of genetic drift can break down in this case. Two novel examples of this effect are considered: we shown that the dynamics may depend on the number of loci under strong directional selection and that environmental variance results in a reduced effective population size. We also consider a simple model of a changing environment which cannot be described by a diffusion equation and we derive the optimal mutation ra...

  3. Benchmark calculations on residue production within the EURISOL DS project; Part II: thick targets

    CERN Document Server

    David, J.-C; Boudard, A; Doré, D; Leray, S; Rapp, B; Ridikas, D; Thiollière, N

    Benchmark calculations on residue production using MCNPX 2.5.0. Calculations were compared to mass-distribution data for 5 different elements measured at ISOLDE, and to specific activities of 28 radionuclides in different places along the thick target measured in Dubna.

  4. Market projections of cellulose nanomaterial-enabled products-- Part 2: Volume estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Cowie; E.M. (Ted) Bilek; Theodore H. Wegner; Jo Anne Shatkin

    2014-01-01

    Nanocellulose has enormous potential to provide an important materials platform in numerous product sectors. This study builds on previous work by the same authors in which likely high-volume, low-volume, and novel applications for cellulosic nanomaterials were identified. In particular, this study creates a transparent methodology and estimates the potential annual...

  5. Nuclear data project in Korea and resonance parameter evaluation of fission products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jonghwa; Oh, Soo-Youl [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yusong, Taejon (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    Nuclear data activities in the fields of evaluation, processing, measurement, and service in Korea are presented in this paper. As one of the current activities, the neutron resonance parameters for stable or long-lived nineteen fission products have been evaluated and the results are presented here. (author)

  6. The Laywell project: welfare implications of changes in production systems for laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokhuis, H.J.; Fiks, T.G.C.M.; Bessei, W.; Elson, H.A.; Guémené, D.; Kjaer, J.B.; Maria Levrino, G.A.; Nicol, C.J.; Tauson, R.K.; Weeks, C.A.; Weerd, v.d. H.A.

    2007-01-01

    The conditions under which laying hens are kept remain a major animal welfare concern. It is one of the most intensive forms of animal production and the number of animals involved is very high. Widespread public debate has stimulated the call for more animal friendly, alternative systems to barren

  7. Toward design principles for joint knowledge production projects: lessons from the deepest polder of The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegger, D.L.T.; Zeijl-Rozema, A. van; Dieperink, C.

    2012-01-01

    In various countries, actors try to reconcile climate science and policy through joint knowledge production (JNP). While many conceptual analyses of JNP exist, empirical studies that actually try to assess JNP processes are rare. This paper aims to fill this gap through an empirical analysis of the

  8. Consumer decision-making with regard to organic food products: Results from the CONDOR project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    Based on a survey in eight European countries, a model of consumer decision making and behaviour with regard to organic food is presented as well as comparative results. It is found that the reasons given and the reasoning behind choosing organic products are quite similar across countries...

  9. Projected refined product balances in key Latin American countries: A preliminary examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    Over the years, the East-West Center (EWC) has developed considerable expertise in refinery modeling, especially in the area of forecasting product balances for countries, given planned capacity changes, changes in product demand, changes in crude slates, and changes in product specifications. This expertise has been applied on an ongoing basis to the major refiners in the Middle East and the Asia-Pacific region, along with the US West Coast as region in its own right. Refinery modeling in these three areas has been ongoing for nearly 15 years at the Center, and the tools and information sources are now well developed. To date, the EWC has not applied these tools to Latin America. Although research on Latin America has been an ongoing area of concern at the Center in recent years, the information gathered to date is still not of the level of detail nor quality available for other areas. The modeling efforts undertaken in this report are of a ``baseline`` nature, designed to outline the major issues, attempt a first cut at emerging product balances, and, above all, to elicit commentary from those directly involved in the oil industry in the key countries modeled. Our experience in other regions has shown that it takes a few years dialogue with refiners and government planner in individual countries to develop a reliable database, as well as the insights into operational constraints and practices that make accurate modeling possible. This report is no more than a first step down the road.

  10. Consumer decision-making with regard to organic food products: Results from the CONDOR project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    Based on a survey in eight European countries, a model of consumer decision making and behaviour with regard to organic food is presented as well as comparative results. It is found that the reasons given and the reasoning behind choosing organic products are quite similar across countries...

  11. School Enterprises: Combining Vocational Learning with Production. International Project on Technical and Vocational Education (UNEVOC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Madhu

    Trends in combining learning and production were examined through case studies of school enterprises in 11 countries: China, India, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Germany, Botswana, Kenya, Ghana, Algeria, Cuba, and Costa Rica. The study focused on the following: types and structures of school enterprises; organization of learning; competency…

  12. A Lean Framework for Production Control in Complex and Constrained Construction Projects (PC4P)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhard, Søren Munch; Wandahl, Søren

    2014-01-01

    of several companies. Thirdly, highly interdependent activities have to be conducted at limited space, with multiple components, a lack of standardization, and with many trades and subcontractors represented on site. This interrelation results in a production where different contractors perform interacting...

  13. Micro-scale Plasma Arc Gasification for Waste Treatment and Energy Production Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraccio, Anne

    2015-01-01

    As NASA continues to develop technology for spaceflight beyond low earth orbit, we must develop the right systems for sustaining human life on a long duration or planetary mission. Plasma arc gasification (PAG) is an energy efficient mechanism of waste management for power generation and synthetic gas(syngas) production.

  14. A case study on variability management in software product lines: identifying why real-life projects fail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Huysegoms

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Economies of scale can be seen as some kind of “holy grail” in state of the art literature on the development of sets of related software systems. Software product line methods are often mentioned in this context, due to the variability management aspects they propose, in order to deal with sets of related software systems. They realize the sought-after reusability. Both variability management and software product lines already have a strong presence in theoretical research, but in real-life software product line projects trying to obtain economies of scale still tend to fall short of target. The objective of this paper is to study this gap between theory and reality through a case study in order to see why such gap exists, and to find a way to bridge this gap. Through analysis of the causes of failure identified by the stakeholders in the case study, the underlying problem, which is found to be located in the requirements engineering phase, is crystallized. The identification of a framework describing the problems will provide practitioners with a better focus for future endeavors in the field of software product lines, so that economies of scale can be achieved.

  15. US Food Security and Climate Change: Mid-Century Projections of Commodity Crop Production by the IMPACT Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takle, E. S.; Gustafson, D. I.; Beachy, R.; Nelson, G. C.; Mason-D'Croz, D.; Palazzo, A.

    2013-12-01

    Agreement is developing among agricultural scientists on the emerging inability of agriculture to meet growing global food demands. The lack of additional arable land and availability of freshwater have long been constraints on agriculture. Changes in trends of weather conditions that challenge physiological limits of crops, as projected by global climate models, are expected to exacerbate the global food challenge toward the middle of the 21st century. These climate- and constraint-driven crop production challenges are interconnected within a complex global economy, where diverse factors add to price volatility and food scarcity. We use the DSSAT crop modeling suite, together with mid-century projections of four AR4 global models, as input to the International Food Policy Research Institute IMPACT model to project the impact of climate change on food security through the year 2050 for internationally traded crops. IMPACT is an iterative model that responds to endogenous and exogenous drivers to dynamically solve for the world prices that ensure global supply equals global demand. The modeling methodology reconciles the limited spatial resolution of macro-level economic models that operate through equilibrium-driven relationships at a national level with detailed models of biophysical processes at high spatial resolution. The analysis presented here suggests that climate change in the first half of the 21st century does not represent a near-term threat to food security in the US due to the availability of adaptation strategies (e.g., loss of current growing regions is balanced by gain of new growing regions). However, as climate continues to trend away from 20th century norms current adaptation measures will not be sufficient to enable agriculture to meet growing food demand. Climate scenarios from higher-level carbon emissions exacerbate the food shortfall, although uncertainty in climate model projections (particularly precipitation) is a limitation to impact

  16. System Dynamics and Modified Cumulant Neglect Closure Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köylüoglu, H. Ugur; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    Dealing with multipeaked problems, the goal of the paper is to improve the quality of the approximations for the expectations appearing in the differential equations written for the statistical moments of the state vector, guided by insight in the system dynamics. For systems with polynomial non......-linearities, modifications in the cumulant neglect closure scheme are suggested. The methodology is illustrated using the two wells oscillator. An error analysis is performed to compare the modified and ordinary cumulant neglect closure schemes applied at the second and fourth order levels with the exact results available....

  17. Baltic Sea biodiversity status vs. cumulative human pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper H.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Korpinen, Samuli

    2015-01-01

    been developed to capture the consequences of multiple stressors for biodiversity, but the ability of these assessments to accurately predict biodiversity status has never been tested or ground-truthed. This relationship has similarly been assumed for the Baltic Sea, especially in areas with impaired...... status, but has also never been documented. Here we provide a first tentative indication that cumulative human impacts relate to ecosystem condition, i.e. biodiversity status, in the Baltic Sea. Thus, cumulative impact assessments offer a promising tool for informed marine spatial planning, designation...

  18. Aspect of cumulative fatigue damage under multiaxial strain cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamrik, S. Y.; Tang, P. Y.

    1972-01-01

    The concept of order of loading and its effect on cumulative fatigue damage under multiaxial strain cyclings was investigated. The effect is illustrated through nonlinear relationships between biaxial fatigue damage and cycle-ratio diagrams. Uniaxial theories such as Miner's method, the convergence method, and the double linear damage rule in its special and generalized form, were examined and extended to the biaxial case through the octahedral shear strain theory. The generalized double linear damage rule was found more applicable to biaxial cumulative fatigue damage.

  19. Cumulative Incidence of Cancer After Solid Organ Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Erin C.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Segev, Dorry L.; Engels, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Solid organ transplantation recipients have elevated cancer incidence. Estimates of absolute cancer risk after transplantation can inform prevention and screening. METHODS The Transplant Cancer Match Study links the US transplantation registry with 14 state/regional cancer registries. The authors used nonparametric competing risk methods to estimate the cumulative incidence of cancer after transplantation for 2 periods (1987–1999 and 2000–2008). For recipients from 2000 to 2008, the 5-year cumulative incidence, stratified by organ, sex, and age at transplantation, was estimated for 6 preventable or screen-detectable cancers. For comparison, the 5-year cumulative incidence was calculated for the same cancers in the general population at representative ages using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data. RESULTS Among 164,156 recipients, 8520 incident cancers were identified. The absolute cancer risk was slightly higher for recipients during the period from 2000 to 2008 than during the period from 1987 to 1999 (5-year cumulative incidence: 4.4% vs 4.2%; P =.006); this difference arose from the decreasing risk of competing events (5-year cumulative incidence of death, graft failure, or retransplantation: 26.6% vs 31.9%; P 50 years; range, 0.36%–2.22%). For recipients aged >50 years, the 5-year cumulative incidence was higher for colorectal cancer (range, 0.33%–1.94%) than for the general population at the recommended screening age (aged 50 years: range, 0.25%–0.33%). For recipients aged >50 years, the 5-year cumulative incidence was high for lung cancer among thoracic organ recipients (range, 1.16%–3.87%) and for kidney cancer among kidney recipients (range, 0.53%–0.84%). The 5-year cumulative incidence for prostate cancer and breast cancer was similar or lower in transplantation recipients than at the recommended ages of screening in the general population. CONCLUSIONS Subgroups of transplantation recipients have a high absolute risk

  20. A study of cumulative fatigue damage in AISI 4130 steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeelani, S.; Musial, M.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental data were obtained using AISI 4130 steel under stress ratios of -1 and 0. A study of cumulative fatigue damage using Miner's and Kramer's equations for stress ratios of -1 and 0 for low-high, low-high-mixed, high-low, and high-low-mixed stress sequences has revealed that there is a close agreement between the theoretical and experimental values of fatigue damage and fatigue life. Kramer's equation predicts less conservative and more realistic cumulative fatigue damage than the popularly used Miner's rule does.

  1. Linear Projective Program Syntax

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Bethke, I.

    2004-01-01

    Based on an extremely simple program notation more advanced program features can be developed in linear projective program syntax such as conditional statements, while loops, recursion, use of an evaluation stack, object classes, method calls etc. Taking care of a cumulative and bottom up

  2. Production and use of regional climate model projections - A Swedish perspective on building climate services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellström, Erik; Bärring, Lars; Nikulin, Grigory; Nilsson, Carin; Persson, Gunn; Strandberg, Gustav

    2016-09-01

    We describe the process of building a climate service centred on regional climate model results from the Rossby Centre regional climate model RCA4. The climate service has as its central facility a web service provided by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute where users can get an idea of various aspects of climate change from a suite of maps, diagrams, explaining texts and user guides. Here we present the contents of the web service and how this has been designed and developed in collaboration with users of the service in a dialogue reaching over more than a decade. We also present the ensemble of climate projections with RCA4 that provides the fundamental climate information presented at the web service. In this context, RCA4 has been used to downscale nine different coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) from the 5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) to 0.44° (c. 50 km) horizontal resolution over Europe. Further, we investigate how this ensemble relates to the CMIP5 ensemble. We find that the iterative approach involving the users of the climate service has been successful as the service is widely used and is an important source of information for work on climate adaptation in Sweden. The RCA4 ensemble samples a large degree of the spread in the CMIP5 ensemble implying that it can be used to illustrate uncertainties and robustness in future climate change in Sweden. The results also show that RCA4 changes results compared to the underlying AOGCMs, sometimes in a systematic way.

  3. Graphical representation of projective analysis of the requirements used in the process design of assistive products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Luis Smythe Jr.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Graphic representation is a little explored technique in the development of assistive products, despite being helpful in the visualization of conceptual aspects, which are then made tangible. This improves the understanding of the process phases by the whole team, which includes practitioners from different areas. Thus, the characterization of graphic symbols used in assistive technology development processes are presented. A literature review was carried out to select: graphic symbols and pictorial images used in health care area; and the design of new proposed methods for assistive products that had some graphic representantion of its processes. From this point the authors developed a preliminar hybrid characterization model based on symbolization of graphical representations (verbal, schematic, and pictorial and approaches for pictogram design (geons, silhouettes and observation. The results of the characterization were discussed using as reference the hybrid model and the gaps. The assessment showed low use of graphic symbols for design processes representations, even when the authors were designers.

  4. Graphical representation of projective analysis of the requirements used in the process design of assistive products

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Luis Smythe Jr.; Gheysa Caroline Prado; Kelli Cristine Assis da Silva Smythe

    2016-01-01

    Graphic representation is a little explored technique in the development of assistive products, despite being helpful in the visualization of conceptual aspects, which are then made tangible. This improves the understanding of the process phases by the whole team, which includes practitioners from different areas. Thus, the characterization of graphic symbols used in assistive technology development processes are presented. A literature review was carried out to select: graphic symbols and p...

  5. Benefits of integrates management approach for production enhancement projects: Casabe Field alliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rueda, Carlos Fernando [Ecopetrol S.A., Putumayo (Colombia); Saldano, Roberto [Schlumberger Servicos de Petroleo Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the successful achievements in a mature field through an innovative gain-share business model implemented in the Casabe Field, between Eco petrol and Schlumberger. It was determined by both parties that the field risk rehabilitation could be better managed by a long term sharing association, whereby the strengths of both organizations could be brought to bear, Eco petrol having the asset knowledge and experience, remaining as field operator and owner of reserves, and Schlumberger possessing new technologies and practices to allow identification and exploitation of production enhancement opportunities. Furthermore, the investment that both partners made in the alliance are recovered by the revenue generated from incremental production. As a result of the Casabe mature field rehabilitation the oil production that was declining over the last 10 years, was incremented from 5.240 bopd to 11.008 bopd, the recovery factor climbed by 5 % and the annual reserve replacement ratio in excess of 2 over the last four years. Those challenges have been achieved thanks to both organizations that could successfully work together in an environment of trust, innovation and timing up. (author)

  6. User Requirements from the Climate Modelling Community for Next Generation Global Products from Land Cover CCI Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooistra, Lammert; van Groenestijn, Annemarie; Kalogirou, Vasileios; Arino, Olivier; Herold, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Land Cover has been selected as one of 11 Essential Climate Variables which will be elaborated during the first phase of the ESA Climate Change Initiative (2010- 2013). In the first stage of the Land Cover CCI project, an user requirements analysis has been carried out on the basis of which the detailed specifications of a global land cover product can be defined which match the requirements from the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) and the climate modelling community. As part of the requirements analysis, an user consultation mechanism was set-up to actively involve different climate modelling groups by setting out surveys to different type of users within the climate modelling community and the broad land cover data user community. The evolution of requirements from current models to future new modelling approaches was specifically taken into account. In addition, requirements from the GCOS Implementation Plan 2004 and 2010 and associated strategic earth observation documents for land cover were assessed and a detailed literature review was carried out. The outcome of the user requirements assessment shows that although the range of requirements coming from the climate modelling community is broad, there is a good match among the requirements coming from different user groups and the broader requirements derived from GCOS, CMUG and other relevant international panels. More specific requirements highlight that future land cover datasets should be both stable and have a dynamic component; deal with the consistency in relationships between land cover classes and land surface parameters; should provide flexibility to serve different scales and purposes; and should provide transparency of product quality. As a next step within the Land Cover CCI project, the outcome of this user requirements analysis will be used as input for the product specification of the next generation Global Land Cover datasets.

  7. Chalco’s 150,000-ton Aluminum Plate and Strip Project to Be Put into Production In the Second Half of This Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>According to Guiyang Municipal Government Office,with an investment of 712 million yuan,Chalco’s aluminum plate and strip project with an annual production capacity of 150,000 tons will be completed and put into production in the second half of this year.

  8. Project AProWa: a national view on managing trade-offs between agricultural production and conservation of aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietzel, Anne; Rahn, Eric; Stamm, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Swiss agriculture is legally committed to fulfill several, partially conflicting goals such as agricultural production on the one hand and the conservation of natural resources on the other hand. In the context of the research project AProWa ("Agricultural Production and Water"), the relationships between the production aspect and the conservation of aquatic ecosystems is analyzed with a holistic approach. Agricultural production and the protection of water resources have high potential for conflicts: Farmers use ground and surface water to irrigate their fields. On the other hand, drainage systems enable the production on otherwise unfavorably wet soils. These in turn often affect ground water recharge and divert precipitation directly into surface waters, which changes their hydrological regime. Typically, drainage systems also elevate the input of nutrients and pesticides into the water bodies. In general, applied fertilizers, plant protection products, veterinary drugs and phytohormones of cultivated plants are introduced into the ground and surface waters through different processes such as drift, leaching, runoff, preferential flow or erosion. They influence the nutrient cycles and ecological health of aquatic systems. The nutrient and pesticide loss processes themselves can be altered by tillage operations and other agricultural practices. Furthermore, the competition for space can lead to additional conflicts between agriculture and the protection of aquatic ecosystems. For example, channelized or otherwise morphologically changed rivers do not have a natural discharge pattern and are often not suitable for the local flora and fauna; but naturally meandering rivers need space that cannot be used for agriculture. In a highly industrialized and densely populated country like Switzerland, all these potential conflicts are of importance. Although it is typically seen as a water-rich country, local and seasonal overexploitation of rivers through water extraction

  9. Public service impacts of geothermal development: cumulative impacts study of the Geysers KGRA. Final staff report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, K.M.

    1983-07-01

    The number of workers currently involved in the various aspects of geothermal development in the Geysers are identified. Using two different development scenarios, projections are made for the number of power plants needed to reach the electrical generation capacity of the steam resource in the Geysers. The report also projects the cumulative number of workers needed to develop the steam field and to construct, operate, and maintain these power plants. Although the number of construction workers fluctuates, most are not likely to become new, permanent residents of the KGRA counties. The administrative and public service costs of geothermal development to local jurisdications are examined, and these costs are compared to geothermal revenues accruing to the local governments. Revenues do not cover the immediate fiscal needs resulting from increases in local road maintenance and school enrollment attributable to geothermal development. Several mitigation options are discussed and a framework presented for calculating mitigation costs for school and road impacts.

  10. Solar Tyrol project: using climate data for energy production estimation. The good practice of Tyrol in conceptualizing climate services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitta, Marcello; Wagner, Jochen; Costa, Armin; Monsorno, Roberto; Innerebner, Markus; Moser, David; Zebisch, Marc

    2014-05-01

    The scientific community in the last years is largely discussing the concept of "Climate services". Several definitions have been used, but it still remains a rather open concept. We used climate data from analysis and reanalysis to create a daily and hourly model of atmospheric turbidity in order to account the effect of the atmosphere on incoming solar radiation with the final aim of estimating electric production from Photovoltaic (PV) Modules in the Alps. Renewable Energy production in the Alpine Region is dominated by hydroelectricity, but the potential for photovoltaic energy production is gaining momentum. Especially the southern part of the Alps and inner Alpine regions offer good conditions for PV energy production. The combination of high irradiance values and cold air temperature in mountainous regions is well suited for solar cells. To enable more widespread currency of PV plants, PV has to become an important part in regional planning. To provide regional authorities and also private stakeholders with high quality PV energy yield climatology in the provinces of Bolzano/Bozen South Tirol (Italy) and Tyrol (Austria), the research project Solar Tyrol was inaugurated in 2012. Several methods are used to calculate very high resolution maps of solar radiation. Most of these approaches use climatological values. In this project we reconstructed the last 10 years of atmospheric turbidity using reanalysis and operational data in order to better estimate incoming solar radiation in the alpine region. Our method is divided into three steps: i) clear sky radiation: to estimate the atmospheric effect on solar radiation we calculated Linke Turbidity factor using aerosols optical depth (AOD), surface albedo, atmospheric pressure, and total water content from ECMWF and MACC analysis. ii) shadows: we calculated shadows of mountains and buildings using a 2 meter-resolution digital elevation model of the area and GIS module r.sun modified to fit our specific needs. iii

  11. Projections of NH3 emissions from manure generated by livestock production in China to 2030 under six mitigation scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Koloutsou-Vakakis, Sotiria; Rood, Mark J; Luan, Shengji

    2017-07-05

    China's rapid urbanization, large population, and increasing consumption of calorie-and meat-intensive diets, have resulted in China becoming the world's largest source of ammonia (NH3) emissions from livestock production. This is the first study to use provincial, condition-specific emission factors based on most recently available studies on Chinese manure management and environmental conditions. The estimated NH3 emission temporal trends and spatial patterns are interpreted in relation to government policies affecting livestock production. Scenario analysis is used to project emissions and estimate mitigation potential of NH3 emissions, to year 2030. We produce a 1km×1km gridded NH3 emission inventory for 2008 based on county-level activity data, which can help identify locations of highest NH3 emissions. The total NH3 emissions from manure generated by livestock production in 2008 were 7.3TgNH3·yr(-1) (interquartile range from 6.1 to 8.6TgNH3·yr(-1)), and the major sources were poultry (29.9%), pigs (28.4%), other cattle (27.9%), and dairy cattle (7.0%), while sheep and goats (3.6%), donkeys (1.3%), horses (1.2%), and mules (0.7%) had smaller contributions. From 1978 to 2008, annual NH3 emissions fluctuated with two peaks (1996 and 2006), and total emissions increased from 2.2 to 7.3Tg·yr(-1) increasing on average 4.4%·yr(-1). Under a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario, NH3 emissions in 2030 are expected to be 13.9TgNH3·yr(-1) (11.5-16.3TgNH3·yr(-1)). Under mitigation scenarios, the projected emissions could be reduced by 18.9-37.3% compared to 2030 BAU emissions. This study improves our understanding of NH3 emissions from livestock production, which is needed to guide stakeholders and policymakers to make well informed mitigation decisions for NH3 emissions from livestock production at the country and regional levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A Parametric Cumulative Sum Statistic for Person Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Ronald D.; Shi, Min

    2009-01-01

    This article develops a new cumulative sum (CUSUM) statistic to detect aberrant item response behavior. Shifts in behavior are modeled with quadratic functions and a series of likelihood ratio tests are used to detect aberrancy. The new CUSUM statistic is compared against another CUSUM approach as well as traditional person-fit statistics. A…

  13. RECURSIVE CLASSIFICATION OF MQAM SIGNALS BASED ON HIGHER ORDER CUMULANTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Weidong; Yang Shaoquan

    2002-01-01

    A new feature based on higher order cumulants is proposed for classification of MQAM signals. Theoretical analysis justify that the new feature is invariant with respect to translation (shift), scale and rotation transform of signal constellations, and can suppress color or white additive Gaussian noise. Computer simulation shows that the proposed recursive orderreduction based classification algorithm can classify MQAM signals with any order.

  14. Hierarchical Bayesian parameter estimation for cumulative prospect theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nilsson, H.; Rieskamp, J.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.

    2011-01-01

    Cumulative prospect theory (CPT Tversky & Kahneman, 1992) has provided one of the most influential accounts of how people make decisions under risk. CPT is a formal model with parameters that quantify psychological processes such as loss aversion, subjective values of gains and losses, and

  15. Cumulative psychosocial stress, coping resources, and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Sheila W; Kingston, Dawn; Bayrampour, Hamideh; Dolan, Siobhan M; Tough, Suzanne C

    2014-12-01

    Preterm birth constitutes a significant international public health issue, with implications for child and family well-being. High levels of psychosocial stress and negative affect before and during pregnancy are contributing factors to shortened gestation and preterm birth. We developed a cumulative psychosocial stress variable and examined its association with early delivery controlling for known preterm birth risk factors and confounding environmental variables. We further examined this association among subgroups of women with different levels of coping resources. Utilizing the All Our Babies (AOB) study, an ongoing prospective pregnancy cohort study in Alberta, Canada (n = 3,021), multinomial logistic regression was adopted to examine the independent effect of cumulative psychosocial stress and preterm birth subgroups compared to term births. Stratified analyses according to categories of perceived social support and optimism were undertaken to examine differential effects among subgroups of women. Cumulative psychosocial stress was a statistically significant risk factor for late preterm birth (OR = 1.73; 95 % CI = 1.07, 2.81), but not for early preterm birth (OR = 2.44; 95 % CI = 0.95, 6.32), controlling for income, history of preterm birth, pregnancy complications, reproductive history, and smoking in pregnancy. Stratified analyses showed that cumulative psychosocial stress was a significant risk factor for preterm birth at psychosocial stress on the risk for early delivery.

  16. The proportional odds cumulative incidence model for competing risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Frank; Li, Jianing; Scheike, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We suggest an estimator for the proportional odds cumulative incidence model for competing risks data. The key advantage of this model is that the regression parameters have the simple and useful odds ratio interpretation. The model has been considered by many authors, but it is rarely used in pr...

  17. Is learning in problem-based learning cumulative?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.H.J. Yew (Elaine); E. Chng (Esther); H.G. Schmidt (Henk)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractProblem-based learning (PBL) is generally organized in three phases, involving collaborative and self-directed learning processes. The hypothesis tested here is whether learning in the different phases of PBL is cumulative, with learning in each phase depending on that of the previous ph

  18. Cumulative assessment : Strategic choices to influence students' study effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerdijk, Wouter; Tio, Rene A.; Mulder, B. Florentine; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2013-01-01

    Background: It has been asserted that assessment can and should be used to drive students' learning. In the current study, we present a cumulative assessment program in which test planning, repeated testing and compensation are combined in order to influence study effort. The program is aimed at hel

  19. Repeated mild injury causes cumulative damage to hippocampal cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. Matser (Amy); C.I. de Zeeuw (Chris); J.T. Weber (John)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractAn interesting hypothesis in the study of neurotrauma is that repeated traumatic brain injury may result in cumulative damage to cells of the brain. However, post-injury sequelae are difficult to address at the cellular level in vivo. Therefore, it is necessary to compl

  20. The effects of cumulative practice on mathematics problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, Kristin H; Chase, Philip N

    2002-01-01

    This study compared three different methods of teaching five basic algebra rules to college students. All methods used the same procedures to teach the rules and included four 50-question review sessions interspersed among the training of the individual rules. The differences among methods involved the kinds of practice provided during the four review sessions. Participants who received cumulative practice answered 50 questions covering a mix of the rules learned prior to each review session. Participants who received a simple review answered 50 questions on one previously trained rule. Participants who received extra practice answered 50 extra questions on the rule they had just learned. Tests administered after each review included new questions for applying each rule (application items) and problems that required novel combinations of the rules (problem-solving items). On the final test, the cumulative group outscored the other groups on application and problem-solving items. In addition, the cumulative group solved the problem-solving items significantly faster than the other groups. These results suggest that cumulative practice of component skills is an effective method of training problem solving.