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Sample records for cumulative net present

  1. Cumulants of Net-Proton, Net-Kaon and Net-Charge Multiplicity Distributions in Au+Au Collisions at RHIC BES Energies from UrQMD Model

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Ji; Liu, Feng; Luo, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    Fluctuations of conserved quantities are sensitive observables to probe the signature of QCD phase transition and critical point in heavy-ion collisions. With the UrQMD model, we have studied the centrality and energy dependence of various order cumulants and cumulant ratios (up to fourth order) of net-proton,net-charge and net-kaon multiplicity distributions in Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$= 7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27, 39, 62.4, 200 GeV. The model results show that the production mechanism of the particles and anti-particles have significant impacts on the cumulants of net-particles multiplicity distributions and show strong energy dependence. We also made comparisons between model calculations and experimental data measured in the first phase of the beam energy scan (BES) program by the STAR experiment at RHIC. The comparisons indicate that the baryon conservation effect strongly suppress the cumulants of net-proton distributions at low energies and the non-monotonic energy dependence for the net-proton {\\KV...

  2. Fuzzy net present value for engineering analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nazeri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cash flow analysis is one of the most popular methods for investigating the outcome of an economical project. The costs and benefits of a construction project are often involved with uncertainty and it is not possible to find a precise value for a particular project. In this paper, we present a simple method to calculate the net present value of a cash flow when both costs and benefits are given as triangular numbers. The proposed model of this paper uses Delphi method to figure out the fair values of all costs and revenues and then using fizzy programming techniques, it calculates the fuzzy net present value. The implementation of the proposed model is demonstrated using a simple example.

  3. Net present value approaches for drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svennebring, Andreas M; Wikberg, Jarl Es

    2013-12-01

    Three dedicated approaches to the calculation of the risk-adjusted net present value (rNPV) in drug discovery projects under different assumptions are suggested. The probability of finding a candidate drug suitable for clinical development and the time to the initiation of the clinical development is assumed to be flexible in contrast to the previously used models. The rNPV of the post-discovery cash flows is calculated as the probability weighted average of the rNPV at each potential time of initiation of clinical development. Practical considerations how to set probability rates, in particular during the initiation and termination of a project is discussed.

  4. Uncertainty in Forest Net Present Value Estimations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Pietilä

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainty related to inventory data, growth models and timber price fluctuation was investigated in the assessment of forest property net present value (NPV. The degree of uncertainty associated with inventory data was obtained from previous area-based airborne laser scanning (ALS inventory studies. The study was performed, applying the Monte Carlo simulation, using stand-level growth and yield projection models and three alternative rates of interest (3, 4 and 5%. Timber price fluctuation was portrayed with geometric mean-reverting (GMR price models. The analysis was conducted for four alternative forest properties having varying compartment structures: (A a property having an even development class distribution, (B sapling stands, (C young thinning stands, and (D mature stands. Simulations resulted in predicted yield value (predicted NPV distributions at both stand and property levels. Our results showed that ALS inventory errors were the most prominent source of uncertainty, leading to a 5.1–7.5% relative deviation of property-level NPV when an interest rate of 3% was applied. Interestingly, ALS inventory led to significant biases at the property level, ranging from 8.9% to 14.1% (3% interest rate. ALS inventory-based bias was the most significant in mature stand properties. Errors related to the growth predictions led to a relative standard deviation in NPV, varying from 1.5% to 4.1%. Growth model-related uncertainty was most significant in sapling stand properties. Timber price fluctuation caused the relative standard deviations ranged from 3.4% to 6.4% (3% interest rate. The combined relative variation caused by inventory errors, growth model errors and timber price fluctuation varied, depending on the property type and applied rates of interest, from 6.4% to 12.6%. By applying the methodology described here, one may take into account the effects of various uncertainty factors in the prediction of forest yield value and to supply the

  5. On the proportionality between global temperature change and cumulative CO2 emissions during periods of net negative CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zickfeld, Kirsten; MacDougall, Andrew H.; Damon Matthews, H.

    2016-05-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that global mean surface air warming is approximately proportional to cumulative CO2 emissions. This proportional relationship has received considerable attention, as it allows one to calculate the cumulative CO2 emissions (‘carbon budget’) compatible with temperature targets and is a useful measure for model inter-comparison. Here we use an Earth system model to explore whether this relationship persists during periods of net negative CO2 emissions. Negative CO2 emissions are required in the majority of emissions scenarios limiting global warming to 2 °C above pre-industrial, with emissions becoming net negative in the second half of this century in several scenarios. We find that for model simulations with a symmetric 1% per year increase and decrease in atmospheric CO2, the temperature change (ΔT) versus cumulative CO2 emissions (CE) relationship is nonlinear during periods of net negative emissions, owing to the lagged response of the deep ocean to previously increasing atmospheric CO2. When corrected for this lagged response, or if the CO2 decline is applied after the system has equilibrated with the previous CO2 increase, the ΔT versus CE relationship is close to linear during periods of net negative CO2 emissions. A proportionality constant—the transient climate response to cumulative carbon emissions (TCRE)- can therefore be calculated for both positive and net negative CO2 emission periods. We find that in simulations with a symmetric 1% per year increase and decrease in atmospheric CO2 the TCRE is larger on the upward than on the downward CO2 trajectory, suggesting that positive CO2 emissions are more effective at warming than negative emissions are at subsequently cooling. We also find that the cooling effectiveness of negative CO2 emissions decreases if applied at higher atmospheric CO2 concentrations.

  6. Effects of volume corrections and resonance decays on cumulants of net-charge distributions in a Monte Carlo hadron resonance gas model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hao-jie

    2017-02-01

    The effects of volume corrections and resonance decays (the resulting correlations between positive charges and negative charges) on cumulants of net-proton distributions and net-charge distributions are investigated by using a Monte Carlo hadron resonance gas (MCHRG) model. The required volume distributions are generated by a Monte Carlo Glauber (MC-Glb) model. Except the variances of net-charge distributions, the MCHRG model with more realistic simulations of volume corrections, resonance decays and acceptance cuts can reasonably explain the data of cumulants of net-proton distributions and net-charge distributions reported by the STAR collaboration. The MCHRG calculations indicate that both the volume corrections and resonance decays make the cumulant products of net-charge distributions deviate from the Skellam expectations: the deviations of Sσ and κσ2 are dominated by the former effect while the deviations of ω are dominated by the latter one.

  7. Possibilistic Fuzzy Net Present Value Model and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Appadoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The cash flow values and the interest rate in the net present value (NPV model are usually specified by either crisp numbers or random variables. In this paper, we first discuss some of the recent developments in possibility theory and find closed form expressions for fuzzy possibilistic net present value (FNPV. Then, following Carlsson and Fullér (2001, we discuss some of the possibilistic moments related to FNPV model along with an illustrative numerical example. We also give a unified approach to find higher order moments of FNPV by using the moment generating function introduced by Paseka et al. (2011.

  8. Estimating net present value variability for deterministic models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Groenendaal, W.J.H.

    1995-01-01

    For decision makers the variability in the net present value (NPV) of an investment project is an indication of the project's risk. So-called risk analysis is one way to estimate this variability. However, risk analysis requires knowledge about the stochastic character of the inputs. For large, long

  9. Net present biodiversity value and the design of biodiversity offsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Jacob McC; Stephens, R T Theo; Ferrier, Simon

    2013-02-01

    There is an urgent need to develop sound theory and practice for biodiversity offsets to provide a better basis for offset multipliers, to improve accounting for time delays in offset repayments, and to develop a common framework for evaluating in-kind and out-of-kind offsets. Here, we apply concepts and measures from systematic conservation planning and financial accounting to provide a basis for determining equity across type (of biodiversity), space, and time. We introduce net present biodiversity value (NPBV) as a theoretical and practical measure for defining the offset required to achieve no-net-loss. For evaluating equity in type and space we use measures of biodiversity value from systematic conservation planning. Time discount rates are used to address risk of non-repayment, and loss of utility. We illustrate these concepts and measures with two examples of biodiversity impact-offset transactions. Considerable further work is required to understand the characteristics of these approaches.

  10. Targeting Net Zero Energy for Military Installations (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burman, K.

    2012-05-01

    Targeting Net Zero Energy for Military Installations in Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii. A net zero energy installation (NZEI) is one that produces as much energy from on-site renewable sources as it consumes. NZEI assessment provides a systematic approach to energy projects.

  11. Effects of Nuclear Potential on the Cumulants of Net-Proton and Net-Baryon Multiplicity Distributions in Au+Au Collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\text{NN}}} = 5\\,\\text{GeV}$

    CERN Document Server

    He, Shu; Nara, Yasushi; Esumi, ShinIchi; Xu, Nu

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the rapidity and transverse momentum dependence for the cumulants of the net-proton and net-baryon distributions in Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\text{NN}}} = 5\\,\\text{GeV}$ with a microscopic hadronic transport (JAM) model. To study the effects of mean field potential and softening of equation of state (EoS) on the fluctuations of net-proton (baryon) in heavy-ion collisions, the calculations are performed with two different modes. The softening of EoS is realized in the model by implementing the attractive orbit in the two-body scattering to introduce a reduction pressure of the system. By comparing the results from the two modes with the results from default cascade, we find the mean field potential and softening of EoS have strong impacts on the rapidity distributions ($\\text{d}N/\\text{d}y$) and the shape of the net-proton (baryon) multiplicity distributions. The net-proton (baryon) cumulants and their ratios calculated from all of the three modes are with similar trends and show significant s...

  12. Effects of nuclear potential on the cumulants of net-proton and net-baryon multiplicity distributions in Au+Au collisions at √{sNN} = 5GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shu; Luo, Xiaofeng; Nara, Yasushi; Esumi, ShinIchi; Xu, Nu

    2016-11-01

    We analyze the rapidity and transverse momentum dependence for the cumulants of the net-proton and net-baryon distributions in Au+Au collisions at √{sNN} = 5GeV with a microscopic hadronic transport (JAM) model. To study the effects of mean field potential and softening of equation of state (EoS) on the fluctuations of net-proton (baryon) in heavy-ion collisions, the calculations are performed with two different modes. The softening of EoS is realized in the model by implementing the attractive orbit in the two-body scattering to introduce a reduction pressure of the system. By comparing the results from the two modes with the results from default cascade, we find the mean field potential and softening of EoS have strong impacts on the rapidity distributions (d N /d y) and the shape of the net-proton (baryon) multiplicity distributions. The net-proton (baryon) cumulants and their ratios calculated from all of the three modes are with similar trends and show significant suppression with respect to unity, which can be explained by the presence of baryon number conservations. It indicates that the effects of mean field potential and softening of EoS might be not the ingredients that are responsible to the observed strong enhancement in the most central Au+Au collisions at 7.7 GeV measured by the STAR experiment at RHIC.

  13. Measurement of higher cumulants of net-charge multiplicity distributions in Au +Au collisions at √{sN N}=7.7 -200 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adare, A.; Afanasiev, S.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Akimoto, R.; Al-Bataineh, H.; Alexander, J.; Al-Ta'Ani, H.; Angerami, A.; Aoki, K.; Apadula, N.; Aramaki, Y.; Asano, H.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Atomssa, E. T.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmoun, B.; Babintsev, V.; Bai, M.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Bannier, B.; Barish, K. N.; Bassalleck, B.; Basye, A. T.; Bathe, S.; Baublis, V.; Baumann, C.; Baumgart, S.; Bazilevsky, A.; Belikov, S.; Belmont, R.; Bennett, R.; Berdnikov, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Bickley, A. A.; Black, D.; Blau, D. S.; Bok, J. S.; Boyle, K.; Brooks, M. L.; Bryslawskyj, J.; Buesching, H.; Bumazhnov, V.; Bunce, G.; Butsyk, S.; Camacho, C. M.; Campbell, S.; Castera, P.; Chen, C.-H.; Chi, C. Y.; Chiu, M.; Choi, I. J.; Choi, J. B.; Choi, S.; Choudhury, R. K.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, P.; Chvala, O.; Cianciolo, V.; Citron, Z.; Cole, B. A.; Connors, M.; Constantin, P.; Cronin, N.; Crossette, N.; Csanád, M.; Csörgő, T.; Dahms, T.; Dairaku, S.; Danchev, I.; Das, K.; Datta, A.; Daugherity, M. S.; David, G.; Dehmelt, K.; Denisov, A.; Deshpande, A.; Desmond, E. J.; Dharmawardane, K. V.; Dietzsch, O.; Ding, L.; Dion, A.; Do, J. H.; Donadelli, M.; D'Orazio, L.; Drapier, O.; Drees, A.; Drees, K. A.; Durham, J. M.; Durum, A.; Dutta, D.; Edwards, S.; Efremenko, Y. V.; Ellinghaus, F.; Engelmore, T.; Enokizono, A.; En'yo, H.; Esumi, S.; Eyser, K. O.; Fadem, B.; Fields, D. E.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fleuret, F.; Fokin, S. L.; Fraenkel, Z.; Frantz, J. E.; Franz, A.; Frawley, A. D.; Fujiwara, K.; Fukao, Y.; Fusayasu, T.; Gainey, K.; Gal, C.; Garg, P.; Garishvili, A.; Garishvili, I.; Giordano, F.; Glenn, A.; Gong, H.; Gong, X.; Gonin, M.; Goto, Y.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Grau, N.; Greene, S. V.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Gu, Y.; Gunji, T.; Guo, L.; Gustafsson, H.-Å.; Hachiya, T.; Haggerty, J. S.; Hahn, K. I.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamblen, J.; Han, R.; Hanks, J.; Hartouni, E. P.; Hashimoto, K.; Haslum, E.; Hayano, R.; Hayashi, S.; He, X.; Heffner, M.; Hemmick, T. K.; Hester, T.; Hill, J. C.; Hohlmann, M.; Hollis, R. S.; Holzmann, W.; Homma, K.; Hong, B.; Horaguchi, T.; Hori, Y.; Hornback, D.; Huang, S.; Ichihara, T.; Ichimiya, R.; Ide, J.; Iinuma, H.; Ikeda, Y.; Imai, K.; Imazu, Y.; Imrek, J.; Inaba, M.; Iordanova, A.; Isenhower, D.; Ishihara, M.; Isinhue, A.; Isobe, T.; Issah, M.; Isupov, A.; Ivanishchev, D.; Jacak, B. V.; Javani, M.; Jia, J.; Jiang, X.; Jin, J.; Johnson, B. M.; Joo, K. S.; Jouan, D.; Jumper, D. S.; Kajihara, F.; Kametani, S.; Kamihara, N.; Kamin, J.; Kaneti, S.; Kang, B. H.; Kang, J. H.; Kang, J. S.; Kapustinsky, J.; Karatsu, K.; Kasai, M.; Kawall, D.; Kawashima, M.; Kazantsev, A. V.; Kempel, T.; Key, J. A.; Khandai, P. K.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kijima, K. M.; Kim, B. I.; Kim, C.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, E.; Kim, E.-J.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, K.-B.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y.-J.; Kim, Y. K.; Kinney, E.; Kiriluk, K.; Kiss, Á.; Kistenev, E.; Klatsky, J.; Kleinjan, D.; Kline, P.; Kochenda, L.; Komatsu, Y.; Komkov, B.; Konno, M.; Koster, J.; Kotchetkov, D.; Kotov, D.; Kozlov, A.; Král, A.; Kravitz, A.; Krizek, F.; Kunde, G. J.; Kurita, K.; Kurosawa, M.; Kwon, Y.; Kyle, G. S.; Lacey, R.; Lai, Y. S.; Lajoie, J. G.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, B.; Lee, D. M.; Lee, J.; Lee, K.; Lee, K. B.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, S. H.; Lee, S. R.; Leitch, M. J.; Leite, M. A. L.; Leitgab, M.; Leitner, E.; Lenzi, B.; Lewis, B.; Li, X.; Liebing, P.; Lim, S. H.; Linden Levy, L. A.; Liška, T.; Litvinenko, A.; Liu, H.; Liu, M. X.; Love, B.; Luechtenborg, R.; Lynch, D.; Maguire, C. F.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Makek, M.; Malakhov, A.; Malik, M. D.; Manion, A.; Manko, V. I.; Mannel, E.; Mao, Y.; Maruyama, T.; Masui, H.; Masumoto, S.; Matathias, F.; McCumber, M.; McGaughey, P. L.; McGlinchey, D.; McKinney, C.; Means, N.; Meles, A.; Mendoza, M.; Meredith, B.; Miake, Y.; Mibe, T.; Midori, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Mikeš, P.; Miki, K.; Milov, A.; Mishra, D. K.; Mishra, M.; Mitchell, J. T.; Miyachi, Y.; Miyasaka, S.; Mohanty, A. K.; Mohapatra, S.; Moon, H. J.; Morino, Y.; Morreale, A.; Morrison, D. P.; Moskowitz, M.; Motschwiller, S.; Moukhanova, T. V.; Murakami, T.; Murata, J.; Mwai, A.; Nagae, T.; Nagamiya, S.; Nagle, J. L.; Naglis, M.; Nagy, M. I.; Nakagawa, I.; Nakamiya, Y.; Nakamura, K. R.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, K.; Nattrass, C.; Nederlof, A.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Newby, J.; Nguyen, M.; Nihashi, M.; Niida, T.; Nouicer, R.; Novitzky, N.; Nukariya, A.; Nyanin, A. S.; Obayashi, H.; O'Brien, E.; Oda, S. X.; Ogilvie, C. A.; Oka, M.; Okada, K.; Onuki, Y.; Oskarsson, A.; Ouchida, M.; Ozawa, K.; Pak, R.; Pantuev, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Park, B. H.; Park, I. H.; Park, J.; Park, S.; Park, S. K.; Park, W. J.; Pate, S. F.; Patel, L.; Pei, H.; Peng, J.-C.; Pereira, H.; Perepelitsa, D. V.; Peresedov, V.; Peressounko, D. Yu.; Petti, R.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pisani, R. P.; Proissl, M.; Purschke, M. L.; Purwar, A. K.; Qu, H.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ravinovich, I.; Read, K. F.; Reygers, K.; Reynolds, D.; Riabov, V.; Riabov, Y.; Richardson, E.; Riveli, N.; Roach, D.; Roche, G.; Rolnick, S. D.; Rosati, M.; Rosen, C. A.; Rosendahl, S. S. E.; Rosnet, P.; Rukoyatkin, P.; Ružička, P.; Ryu, M. S.; Sahlmueller, B.; Saito, N.; Sakaguchi, T.; Sakashita, K.; Sako, H.; Samsonov, V.; Sano, M.; Sano, S.; Sarsour, M.; Sato, S.; Sato, T.; Sawada, S.; Sedgwick, K.; Seele, J.; Seidl, R.; Semenov, A. Yu.; Sen, A.; Seto, R.; Sett, P.; Sharma, D.; Shein, I.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shigaki, K.; Shimomura, M.; Shoji, K.; Shukla, P.; Sickles, A.; Silva, C. L.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Sim, K. S.; Singh, B. K.; Singh, C. P.; Singh, V.; Skolnik, M.; Slunečka, M.; Solano, S.; Soltz, R. A.; Sondheim, W. E.; Sorensen, S. P.; Sourikova, I. V.; Sparks, N. A.; Stankus, P. W.; Steinberg, P.; Stenlund, E.; Stepanov, M.; Ster, A.; Stoll, S. P.; Sugitate, T.; Sukhanov, A.; Sun, J.; Sziklai, J.; Takagui, E. M.; Takahara, A.; Taketani, A.; Tanabe, R.; Tanaka, Y.; Taneja, S.; Tanida, K.; Tannenbaum, M. J.; Tarafdar, S.; Taranenko, A.; Tarján, P.; Tennant, E.; Themann, H.; Thomas, T. L.; Todoroki, T.; Togawa, M.; Toia, A.; Tomášek, L.; Tomášek, M.; Torii, H.; Towell, R. S.; Tserruya, I.; Tsuchimoto, Y.; Tsuji, T.; Vale, C.; Valle, H.; van Hecke, H. W.; Vargyas, M.; Vazquez-Zambrano, E.; Veicht, A.; Velkovska, J.; Vértesi, R.; Vinogradov, A. A.; Virius, M.; Voas, B.; Vossen, A.; Vrba, V.; Vznuzdaev, E.; Wang, X. R.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Watanabe, Y. S.; Wei, F.; Wei, R.; Wessels, J.; Whitaker, S.; White, S. N.; Winter, D.; Wolin, S.; Wood, J. P.; Woody, C. L.; Wright, R. M.; Wysocki, M.; Xia, B.; Xie, W.; Yamaguchi, Y. L.; Yamaura, K.; Yang, R.; Yanovich, A.; Ying, J.; Yokkaichi, S.; You, Z.; Young, G. R.; Younus, I.; Yushmanov, I. E.; Zajc, W. A.; Zelenski, A.; Zhang, C.; Zhou, S.; Zolin, L.; Phenix Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    We report the measurement of cumulants (Cn,n =1 ,...,4 ) of the net-charge distributions measured within pseudorapidity (|η |<0.35 ) in Au +Au collisions at √{sNN}=7.7 -200 GeV with the PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The ratios of cumulants (e.g., C1/C2 , C3/C1 ) of the net-charge distributions, which can be related to volume independent susceptibility ratios, are studied as a function of centrality and energy. These quantities are important to understand the quantum-chromodynamics phase diagram and possible existence of a critical end point. The measured values are very well described by expectation from negative binomial distributions. We do not observe any nonmonotonic behavior in the ratios of the cumulants as a function of collision energy. The measured values of C1/C2 and C3/C1 can be directly compared to lattice quantum-chromodynamics calculations and thus allow extraction of both the chemical freeze-out temperature and the baryon chemical potential at each center-of-mass energy. The extracted baryon chemical potentials are in excellent agreement with a thermal-statistical analysis model.

  14. Measurement of higher cumulants of net-charge multiplicity distributions in Au$+$Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=7.7-200$ GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adare, A; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Akimoto, R; Al-Bataineh, H; Alexander, J; Al-Ta'ani, H; Angerami, A; Aoki, K; Apadula, N; Aramaki, Y; Asano, H; Aschenauer, E C; Atomssa, E T; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Bai, M; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Bannier, B; Barish, K N; Bassalleck, B; Basye, A T; Bathe, S; Baublis, V; Baumann, C; Baumgart, S; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Belmont, R; Bennett, R; Berdnikov, A; Berdnikov, Y; Bickley, A A; Black, D; Blau, D S; Bok, J S; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Bryslawskyj, J; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Butsyk, S; Camacho, C M; Campbell, S; Castera, P; Chen, C -H; Chi, C Y; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J B; Choi, S; Choudhury, R K; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, P; Chvala, O; Cianciolo, V; Citron, Z; Cole, B A; Connors, M; Constantin, P; Cronin, N; Crossette, N; Csanád, M; Csörgő, T; Dahms, T; Dairaku, S; Danchev, I; Das, K; Datta, A; Daugherity, M S; David, G; Dehmelt, K; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dharmawardane, K V; Dietzsch, O; Ding, L; Dion, A; Do, J H; Donadelli, M; D'Orazio, L; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Durham, J M; Durum, A; Dutta, D; Edwards, S; Efremenko, Y V; Ellinghaus, F; Engelmore, T; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Esumi, S; Eyser, K O; Fadem, B; Fields, D E; Finger, M; Jr., \\,; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fujiwara, K; Fukao, Y; Fusayasu, T; Gainey, K; Gal, C; Garg, P; Garishvili, A; Garishvili, I; Giordano, F; Glenn, A; Gong, H; Gong, X; Gonin, M; Goto, Y; de Cassagnac, R Granier; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Perdekamp, M Grosse; Gu, Y; Gunji, T; Guo, L; Gustafsson, H -Å; Hachiya, T; Haggerty, J S; Hahn, K I; Hamagaki, H; Hamblen, J; Han, R; Hanks, J; Hartouni, E P; Hashimoto, K; Haslum, E; Hayano, R; Hayashi, S; He, X; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; Hill, J C; Hohlmann, M; Hollis, R S; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Horaguchi, T; Hori, Y; Hornback, D; Huang, S; Ichihara, T; Ichimiya, R; Ide, J; Iinuma, H; Ikeda, Y; Imai, K; Imazu, Y; Imrek, J; Inaba, M; Iordanova, A; Isenhower, D; Ishihara, M; Isinhue, A; Isobe, T; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Ivanishchev, D; Jacak, B V; Javani, M; Jia, J; Jiang, X; Jin, J; Johnson, B M; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Jumper, D S; Kajihara, F; Kametani, S; Kamihara, N; Kamin, J; Kaneti, S; Kang, B H; Kang, J H; Kang, J S; Kapustinsky, J; Karatsu, K; Kasai, M; Kawall, D; Kawashima, M; Kazantsev, A V; Kempel, T; Key, J A; Khandai, P K; Khanzadeev, A; Kijima, K M; Kim, B I; Kim, C; Kim, D H; Kim, D J; Kim, E; Kim, E -J; Kim, H J; Kim, K -B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y -J; Kim, Y K; Kinney, E; Kiriluk, K; Kiss, Á; Kistenev, E; Klatsky, J; Kleinjan, D; Kline, P; Kochenda, L; Komatsu, Y; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Koster, J; Kotchetkov, D; Kotov, D; Kozlov, A; Král, A; Kravitz, A; Krizek, F; Kunde, G J; Kurita, K; Kurosawa, M; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lai, Y S; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Lee, B; Lee, D M; Lee, J; Lee, K; Lee, K B; Lee, K S; Lee, S H; Lee, S R; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Leitgab, M; Leitner, E; Lenzi, B; Lewis, B; Li, X; Liebing, P; Lim, S H; Levy, L A Linden; Liška, T; Litvinenko, A; Liu, H; Liu, M X; Love, B; Luechtenborg, R; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Makek, M; Malakhov, A; Malik, M D; Manion, A; Manko, V I; Mannel, E; Mao, Y; Maruyama, T; Masui, H; Masumoto, S; Matathias, F; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; McGlinchey, D; McKinney, C; Means, N; Meles, A; Mendoza, M; Meredith, B; Miake, Y; Mibe, T; Midori, J; Mignerey, A C; Mikeš, P; Miki, K; Milov, A; Mishra, D K; Mishra, M; Mitchell, J T; Miyachi, Y; Miyasaka, S; Mohanty, A K; Mohapatra, S; Moon, H J; Morino, Y; Morreale, A; Morrison, D P; Moskowitz, M; Motschwiller, S; Moukhanova, T V; Murakami, T; Murata, J; Mwai, A; Nagae, T; Nagamiya, S; Nagle, J L; Naglis, M; Nagy, M I; Nakagawa, I; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, K R; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Nattrass, C; Nederlof, A; Netrakanti, P K; Newby, J; Nguyen, M; Nihashi, M; Niida, T; Nouicer, R; Novitzky, N; Nukariya, A; Nyanin, A S; Obayashi, H; O'Brien, E; Oda, S X; Ogilvie, C A; Oka, M; Okada, K; Onuki, Y; Oskarsson, A; Ouchida, M; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, B H; Park, I H; Park, J; Park, S; Park, S K; Park, W J; Pate, S F; Patel, L; Pei, H; Peng, J -C; Pereira, H; Perepelitsa, D V; Peresedov, V; Peressounko, D Yu; Petti, R; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Proissl, M; Purschke, M L; Purwar, A K; Qu, H; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Reygers, K; Reynolds, D; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Richardson, E; Riveli, N; Roach, D; Roche, G; Rolnick, S D; Rosati, M; Rosen, C A; Rosendahl, S S E; Rosnet, P; Rukoyatkin, P; Ružička, P; Ryu, M S; Sahlmueller, B; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakashita, K; Sako, H; Samsonov, V; Sano, M; Sano, S; Sarsour, M; Sato, S; Sato, T; Sawada, S; Sedgwick, K; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Semenov, A Yu; Sen, A; Seto, R; Sett, P; Sharma, D; Shein, I; Shibata, T -A; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shoji, K; Shukla, P; Sickles, A

    2015-01-01

    We report the measurement of cumulants ($C_n, n=1\\ldots4$) of the net-charge distributions measured within pseudorapidity ($|\\eta|<0.35$) in Au$+$Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=7.7-200$ GeV with the PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The ratios of cumulants (e.g. $C_1/C_2$, $C_3/C_1$) of the net-charge distributions, which can be related to volume independent susceptibility ratios, are studied as a function of centrality and energy. These quantities are important to understand the quantum-chromodynamics phase diagram and possible existence of a critical end point. The measured values are very well described by expectation from negative binomial distributions. We do not observe any nonmonotonic behavior in the ratios of the cumulants as a function of collision energy. The measured values of $C_1/C_2 = \\mu/\\sigma^2$ and $C_3/C_1 = S\\sigma^3/\\mu$ can be directly compared to lattice quantum-chromodynamics calculations and thus allow extraction of both the chemical freeze-out temperat...

  15. Measurement of the ratio of the sixth order to the second order cumulant of net-proton multiplicity distributions in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Lizhu; Cui, Fenping; Wu, Yuanfang

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the measurement of the sixth order cumulant and its ratio to the second order cumulant ($C_6/C_2$) in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The influence of statistics and different methods of centrality bin width correction on $C_6/C_2$ of net-proton multiplicity distributions is demonstrated. There is no satisfactory method to extract $C_6/C_2$ with the current statistics recorded at lower energies by STAR at RHIC. With statistics comparable to the expected statistics at the planned future RHIC Beam Energy Scan II (BES II), no energy dependence of $C_6/C_2$ is observed in central collisions using the UrQMD model. We find if the transition signal is as strong as predicted by the PQM model, then it is hopefully observed at the upcoming RHIC BES II.

  16. Measurement of the ratio of the sixth order to the second order cumulant of net-proton multiplicity distributions in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lizhu; Li, Zhiming; Cui, Fenping; Wu, Yuanfang

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the measurement of the sixth order cumulant and its ratio to the second order cumulant (C6 /C2) in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The influence of statistics and different methods of centrality bin width correction on C6 /C2 of net-proton multiplicity distributions is demonstrated. There is no satisfactory method to extract C6 /C2 with the current statistics recorded at lower energies by STAR at RHIC. With statistics comparable to the expected statistics at the planned future RHIC Beam Energy Scan II (BES II), no energy dependence of C6 /C2 is observed in central collisions using the UrQMD model. We find that if the transition signal is as strong as predicted by the PQM model, then it is hopefully observed at the upcoming RHIC BES II.

  17. Automation of Presentation Record Production Based on Rich-Media Technology Using SNT Petri Nets Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martiník, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    Rich-media describes a broad range of digital interactive media that is increasingly used in the Internet and also in the support of education. Last year, a special pilot audiovisual lecture room was built as a part of the MERLINGO (MEdia-rich Repository of LearnING Objects) project solution. It contains all the elements of the modern lecture room determined for the implementation of presentation recordings based on the rich-media technologies and their publication online or on-demand featuring the access of all its elements in the automated mode including automatic editing. Property-preserving Petri net process algebras (PPPA) were designed for the specification and verification of the Petri net processes. PPPA does not need to verify the composition of the Petri net processes because all their algebraic operators preserve the specified set of the properties. These original PPPA are significantly generalized for the newly introduced class of the SNT Petri process and agent nets in this paper. The PLACE-SUBST and ASYNC-PROC algebraic operators are defined for this class of Petri nets and their chosen properties are proved. The SNT Petri process and agent nets theory were significantly applied at the design, verification, and implementation of the programming system ensuring the pilot audiovisual lecture room functionality.

  18. Automation of Presentation Record Production Based on Rich-Media Technology Using SNT Petri Nets Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Martiník

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rich-media describes a broad range of digital interactive media that is increasingly used in the Internet and also in the support of education. Last year, a special pilot audiovisual lecture room was built as a part of the MERLINGO (MEdia-rich Repository of LearnING Objects project solution. It contains all the elements of the modern lecture room determined for the implementation of presentation recordings based on the rich-media technologies and their publication online or on-demand featuring the access of all its elements in the automated mode including automatic editing. Property-preserving Petri net process algebras (PPPA were designed for the specification and verification of the Petri net processes. PPPA does not need to verify the composition of the Petri net processes because all their algebraic operators preserve the specified set of the properties. These original PPPA are significantly generalized for the newly introduced class of the SNT Petri process and agent nets in this paper. The PLACE-SUBST and ASYNC-PROC algebraic operators are defined for this class of Petri nets and their chosen properties are proved. The SNT Petri process and agent nets theory were significantly applied at the design, verification, and implementation of the programming system ensuring the pilot audiovisual lecture room functionality.

  19. Automation of Presentation Record Production Based on Rich-Media Technology Using SNT Petri Nets Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martiník, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    Rich-media describes a broad range of digital interactive media that is increasingly used in the Internet and also in the support of education. Last year, a special pilot audiovisual lecture room was built as a part of the MERLINGO (MEdia-rich Repository of LearnING Objects) project solution. It contains all the elements of the modern lecture room determined for the implementation of presentation recordings based on the rich-media technologies and their publication online or on-demand featuring the access of all its elements in the automated mode including automatic editing. Property-preserving Petri net process algebras (PPPA) were designed for the specification and verification of the Petri net processes. PPPA does not need to verify the composition of the Petri net processes because all their algebraic operators preserve the specified set of the properties. These original PPPA are significantly generalized for the newly introduced class of the SNT Petri process and agent nets in this paper. The PLACE-SUBST and ASYNC-PROC algebraic operators are defined for this class of Petri nets and their chosen properties are proved. The SNT Petri process and agent nets theory were significantly applied at the design, verification, and implementation of the programming system ensuring the pilot audiovisual lecture room functionality. PMID:26258164

  20. MODIFIED NET PRESENT VALUE AS A USEFUL TOOL FOR SYNERGY VALUATION IN BUSINESS COMBINATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth G. McClure

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is a modified net present value, and how it could be a useful tool for synergy valuation in the process of business combination. Every successful acquisition has to result in synergy in the post acquisition value. In the process of valuation each company has three components that must be taken into account for an efficient valuation (assets, earning power and firm uniqueness. The process of analyzing business combination could be divided in three interdependent analyses: (1 An analyst must start by applying traditional capital budgeting analyses; (2 followed by identifying various flexibility options; and finally, (3 an analyst must determinate the present value of other strategic options along with the overall certainty of exercising them, together with the added certainty value of these options on traditional present value of business combination. Traditional capital budgeting analyses of business combination is based on net present value techniques. These techniques result with inadequate present value if the post-acquisition reinvestment rate is different from the post-acquisition cost of capital. In these cases, the analyst can apply modified net present value method.

  1. Simulation of Net Infiltration for Present-Day and Potential Future Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Levitt

    2004-11-09

    The purpose of this model report is to document the infiltration model used to estimate upper-bound, mean, and lower-bound spatially-distributed average annual net infiltration rates for present-day and potential future climates at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Net infiltration is the component of infiltrated precipitation, snowmelt, or surface water run-on that has percolated below the zone of evapotranspiration as defined by the depth of the effective root zone. The estimates of net infiltration are primarily used for defining the upper boundary condition for the site-scale three-dimensional unsaturated zone (UZ) model. The UZ flow model is one of several process models abstracted by the total system performance assessment (TSPA) model used to evaluate performance of the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The net-infiltration model is important for assessing repository-system performance because output from this model provides the upper boundary condition for the UZ flow model used to generate flow fields; water percolating downward from the UZ will be the principal means by which radionuclides are potentially released to the saturated zone (SZ). The SZ is the principal pathway to the biosphere where the reasonably maximally exposed individual (RMEI) is exposed to radionuclides.

  2. Lattice QCD results on cumulant ratios at freeze-out

    CERN Document Server

    Karsch, Frithjof

    2016-01-01

    Ratios of cumulants of net proton-number fluctuations measured by the STAR Collaboration show strong deviations from a skellam distribution, which should describe thermal properties of cumulant ratios, if proton-number fluctuations are generated in equilibrium and a hadron resonance gas (HRG) model would provide a suitable description of thermodynamics at the freeze-out temperature. We present some results on sixth order cumulants entering the calculation of the QCD equation of state at non-zero values of the baryon chemical potential (mu_B) and discuss limitations on the applicability of HRG thermodynamics deduced from a comparison between QCD and HRG model calculations of cumulants of conserved charge fluctuations. We show that basic features of the $\\mu_B$-dependence of skewness and kurtosis ratios of net proton-number fluctuations measured by the STAR Collaboration resemble those expected from a O(mu_B^2) QCD calculation of the corresponding net baryon-number cumulant ratios.

  3. Coordination buyer-supplier in supply chain models from net present value perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Hamontree, Chaowalit

    2014-01-01

    This thesis examines four parts of production and inventory models for buyer-supplier in the supply chain under deterministic conditions. The main objective is to find optimal lot-sizing decisions and inventory policies which derive from the classical inventory and Net Present Value (NPV) framework. Firstly, we study the production and inventory models from the classical framework to identify how to value the holding cost for buyer and supplier in the average profit or cost functions. Secondl...

  4. Single-compound and cumulative risk assessment of mycotoxins present in breakfast cereals consumed by children from Lisbon region, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, Ricardo; Vasco, Elsa; Nunes, Baltazar; Loureiro, Susana; Martins, Carla; Alvito, Paula

    2015-12-01

    Humans can be exposed to multiple chemicals, but current risk assessment is usually carried out on one chemical at a time. Mycotoxins are commonly found in a variety of foods including those intended to consumption by children namely breakfast cereals. The present study aims to perform, the risk assessment of single and multiple mycotoxins present in breakfast cereals consumed by children (1-3 years old) from Lisbon region, Portugal. Daily exposure of children to ochratoxin A, fumonisins and trichothecenes showed no health risks to the children population considering individual mycotoxins, while exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) suggested a potential health concern for the high percentiles of intake (P90, P95 and P99). The combined exposure to fumonisins and trichothecenes are not expected to be of health concern. The combined margin of exposure (MoET) for the aflatoxins group could constitute a potential health concern and AFB1 was the main contributor for MoET. Legal limits and control strategies regarding the presence of multiple mycotoxins in foodstuffs is an urgent need. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time a cumulative risk assessment was performed on multiple mycotoxins present in breakfast cereals consumed by children.

  5. The Soft Cumulative Constraint

    CERN Document Server

    Petit, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    This research report presents an extension of Cumulative of Choco constraint solver, which is useful to encode over-constrained cumulative problems. This new global constraint uses sweep and task interval violation-based algorithms.

  6. Sociolinguistic Analysis of Present Popular Net-speak in Our Cyber Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Cheng-ming

    2013-01-01

      Net-speak bring us great changes in our communication, especially, in our cyber communication. Net-speak make it easier for people to communicate with each other in the internet. This paper, viewed from sociolinguistic theory, uses examples to study how Net-speak are demonstrated in its linguistic form and how Net-speak convey the meanings to the communicators. Mean⁃while, the paper discusses the reasons for the usage of Net-speak. Finally, the paper implies how to benefit Net-speak in our cyber communication.

  7. Energy indicators for electricity production : comparing technologies and the nature of the indicators Energy Payback Ratio (EPR), Net Energy Ratio (NER) and Cumulative Energy Demand (CED). [Oestfoldforskning AS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raadal, Hanne Lerche [Ostfold research, Fredrikstad (Norway); Modahl, Ingunn Saur [Ostfold research, Fredrikstad (Norway); Bakken, Tor Haakon [SINTEF Energy, Trondheim (Norway)

    2012-11-01

    CEDREN (Centre for Environmental Design of Renewable Energy) is founded by The Research Council of Norway and energy companies and is one of eight centres that were part of the scheme Centre for Environment-friendly Energy Research (FME) when the scheme was launched in 2009. The main objective of CEDREN is to develop and communicate design solutions for transforming renewable energy sources to the desired energy products, and at the same time address the environmental and societal challenges at local, regional, national and global levels. CEDREN's board initiated in 2011 a pilot project on the topics 'Energy Pay-back Ratio (EPR)', 'Ecosystem services' and 'multi-criteria analysis (MCA)' in order to investigate the possible use of these concepts/indices in the management of regulated river basins and as tools to benchmark strategies for the development of energy projects/resources. The energy indicator part (documented in this report) has aimed at reviewing the applicability of different energy efficiency indicators, as such, in the strategic management and development of energy resources, and to compare and benchmark technologies for production of electricity. The main findings from this pilot study is also reported in a policy memo (in Norwegian), that is available at www.cedren.no. The work carried out in this project will be continued in the succeeding research project EcoManage, which was granted by the Research Council of Norway's RENERGI programme in December 2011. Energy indicators: Several energy indicators for extraction and delivery of an energy product (e.g. transport fuel, heat, electricity etc.) exist today. The main objective of such indicators is to give information about the energy efficiency of the needed extraction and transforming processes throughout the value chain related to the delivered energy product. In this project the indicators Energy Payback Ratio (EPR), Net Energy Ration (NER) and Cumulative

  8. The economic value of an investment in physiotherapy education: a net present value analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Rivers

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Questions: What is the economic value for an individual to invest in physiotherapy undergraduate education in Australia? How is this affected by increased education costs or decreased wages? Design: A cost-benefit analysis using a net present value (NPV approach was conducted and reported in Australian dollars. In relation to physiotherapy education, the NPV represents future earnings as a physiotherapist minus the direct and indirect costs in obtaining the degree. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to consider varying levels of experience, public versus private sector, and domestic versus international student fees. Comparable calculations were made for educational investments in medicine and nursing/midwifery. Results: Assuming an expected discount rate of 9.675%, investment in education by domestic students with approximately 34 years of average work experience yields a NPV estimated at $784,000 for public sector physiotherapists and $815,000 for private sector therapists. In relation to international students, the NPV results for an investment and career as a physiotherapist is estimated at $705,000 in the public sector and $736,000 in the private sector. Conclusion: With an approximate payback period of 4 years, coupled with strong and positive NPV values, physiotherapy education in Australia is a financially attractive prospect and a viable value proposition for those considering a career in this field. [Rivers G, Foo J, Ilic D, Nicklen P, Reeves S, Walsh K, Maloney S (2015 The economic value of an investment in physiotherapy education: a net present value analysis. Journal of Physiotherapy 61: 148–154

  9. Energy indicators for electricity production : comparing technologies and the nature of the indicators Energy Payback Ratio (EPR), Net Energy Ratio (NER) and Cumulative Energy Demand (CED). [Oestfoldforskning AS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raadal, Hanne Lerche [Ostfold research, Fredrikstad (Norway); Modahl, Ingunn Saur [Ostfold research, Fredrikstad (Norway); Bakken, Tor Haakon [SINTEF Energy, Trondheim (Norway)

    2012-11-01

    CEDREN (Centre for Environmental Design of Renewable Energy) is founded by The Research Council of Norway and energy companies and is one of eight centres that were part of the scheme Centre for Environment-friendly Energy Research (FME) when the scheme was launched in 2009. The main objective of CEDREN is to develop and communicate design solutions for transforming renewable energy sources to the desired energy products, and at the same time address the environmental and societal challenges at local, regional, national and global levels. CEDREN's board initiated in 2011 a pilot project on the topics 'Energy Pay-back Ratio (EPR)', 'Ecosystem services' and 'multi-criteria analysis (MCA)' in order to investigate the possible use of these concepts/indices in the management of regulated river basins and as tools to benchmark strategies for the development of energy projects/resources. The energy indicator part (documented in this report) has aimed at reviewing the applicability of different energy efficiency indicators, as such, in the strategic management and development of energy resources, and to compare and benchmark technologies for production of electricity. The main findings from this pilot study is also reported in a policy memo (in Norwegian), that is available at www.cedren.no. The work carried out in this project will be continued in the succeeding research project EcoManage, which was granted by the Research Council of Norway's RENERGI programme in December 2011. Energy indicators: Several energy indicators for extraction and delivery of an energy product (e.g. transport fuel, heat, electricity etc.) exist today. The main objective of such indicators is to give information about the energy efficiency of the needed extraction and transforming processes throughout the value chain related to the delivered energy product. In this project the indicators Energy Payback Ratio (EPR), Net Energy Ration (NER) and Cumulative

  10. The Net Present Value and Other Economic Implications of a Medical Career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Uwe E

    2017-07-01

    College graduates' career choices are driven by a complex mixture of factors, one of which is economics. The author comments on the report by Marcu and colleagues in this issue, which focuses strictly on the economics of this decision. Specifically, Marcu and colleagues modeled career choices as long-term financial investments in human capital, which consists of the knowledge and clinical skills physicians gain in undergraduate and graduate medical education. They distill the numerous factors that shape the economics of career choice into a commonly used criterion for long-term financial investments of any kind-namely, the so-called net present value (NPV) of the investment. For them, that investment is the decision to pursue a medical career rather than the next best nonmedical, alternative career. This NPV calculation determines the increase or decrease in wealth, relative to that of the next best alternative career, that a college graduate is thought to experience as of the moment she or he enters medical school simply by choosing a medical career rather than the next best alternative. Marcu and colleagues use this human capital model to explore how different plans to finance a medical school education impact the NPV, all other parameters being equal. The author of this Commentary explains in layman's terms how the NPV is calculated and then raises a number of other issues concerning the economics of a medical career, including medical school tuition, residents' salaries, and investments in human capital as tax deductible.

  11. Estimating the value of medical education: a net present value approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Marc J; Nelling, Edward F

    2010-07-01

    Estimating the value of a medical education is a difficult undertaking. As student debt levels rise and the role of managed care in price-setting increases, the financial benefit of an MD degree comes into question. We developed a model using net present value (NPV) analysis for a range of annual costs of medical school attendance. Using this model, we determined the point at which pursuing a medical education is a "break-even" proposition from a financial perspective. The NPV of a medical education was positive for all annual costs of attendance from $10,000 to $100,000 and ranged from approximately $39,000 to $674,000 depending on the discount rate. Assuming a discount rate of 8%, only at an annual cost of attendance of $139,805 was the NPV = $0, which represents the break-even cost of medical education for a prospective student. Medical education is a financially advantageous undertaking for costs of attendance that far exceed even the most expensive schools in the United States. Our analysis suggests that based on economics, the supply of future physicians ought to be secure.

  12. Application of Risk within Net Present Value Calculations for Government Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandl, Paul R.; Youngblood, Alisha D.; Componation, Paul; Gholston, Sampson

    2007-01-01

    In January 2004, President Bush announced a new vision for space exploration. This included retirement of the current Space Shuttle fleet by 2010 and the development of new set of launch vehicles. The President's vision did not include significant increases in the NASA budget, so these development programs need to be cost conscious. Current trade study procedures address factors such as performance, reliability, safety, manufacturing, maintainability, operations, and costs. It would be desirable, however, to have increased insight into the cost factors behind each of the proposed system architectures. This paper reports on a set of component trade studies completed on the upper stage engine for the new launch vehicles. Increased insight into architecture costs was developed by including a Net Present Value (NPV) method and applying a set of associated risks to the base parametric cost data. The use of the NPV method along with the risks was found to add fidelity to the trade study and provide additional information to support the selection of a more robust design architecture.

  13. The economic value of an investment in physiotherapy education: a net present value analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, George; Foo, Jonathan; Ilic, Dragan; Nicklen, Peter; Reeves, Scott; Walsh, Kieran; Maloney, Stephen

    2015-07-01

    What is the economic value for an individual to invest in physiotherapy undergraduate education in Australia? How is this affected by increased education costs or decreased wages? A cost-benefit analysis using a net present value (NPV) approach was conducted and reported in Australian dollars. In relation to physiotherapy education, the NPV represents future earnings as a physiotherapist minus the direct and indirect costs in obtaining the degree. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to consider varying levels of experience, public versus private sector, and domestic versus international student fees. Comparable calculations were made for educational investments in medicine and nursing/midwifery. Assuming an expected discount rate of 9.675%, investment in education by domestic students with approximately 34 years of average work experience yields a NPV estimated at $784,000 for public sector physiotherapists and $815,000 for private sector therapists. In relation to international students, the NPV results for an investment and career as a physiotherapist is estimated at $705,000 in the public sector and $736,000 in the private sector. With an approximate payback period of 4 years, coupled with strong and positive NPV values, physiotherapy education in Australia is a financially attractive prospect and a viable value proposition for those considering a career in this field. Copyright © 2015 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Independent Review of Simulation of Net Infiltration for Present-Day and Potential Future Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Review Panel: Soroosh Sorooshian, Ph.D., Panel Chairperson, University of California, Irvine; Jan M. H. Hendrickx, Ph.D., New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology; Binayak P. Mohanty, Ph.D., Texas A& M University; Scott W. Tyler, Ph.D., University of Nevada, Reno; Tian-Chyi Jim Yeh, Ph.D., University of Arizona -- ORISE Review Facilitators: Robert S. Turner, Ph.D., Technical Review Group Manager, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education; Brian R. Herndon, Project Manager, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education; Russ Manning, Technical Writer/Editor, Haselwood Enterprises, Inc.

    2008-08-30

    The DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) tasked Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) with providing an independent expert review of the documented model and prediction results for net infiltration of water into the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. The specific purpose of the model, as documented in the report MDL-NBS-HS-000023, Rev. 01, is “to provide a spatial representation, including epistemic and aleatory uncertainty, of the predicted mean annual net infiltration at the Yucca Mountain site ...” (p. 1-1) The expert review panel assembled by ORISE concluded that the model report does not provide a technically credible spatial representation of net infiltration at Yucca Mountain. Specifically, the ORISE Review Panel found that: • A critical lack of site-specific meteorological, surface, and subsurface information prevents verification of (i) the net infiltration estimates, (ii) the uncertainty estimates of parameters caused by their spatial variability, and (iii) the assumptions used by the modelers (ranges and distributions) for the characterization of parameters. The paucity of site-specific data used by the modeling team for model implementation and validation is a major deficiency in this effort. • The model does not incorporate at least one potentially important hydrologic process. Subsurface lateral flow is not accounted for by the model, and the assumption that the effect of subsurface lateral flow is negligible is not adequately justified. This issue is especially critical for the wetter climate periods. This omission may be one reason the model results appear to underestimate net infiltration beneath wash environments and therefore imprecisely represent the spatial variability of net infiltration. • While the model uses assumptions consistently, such as uniform soil depths and a constant vegetation rooting depth, such assumptions may not be appropriate for this net infiltration simulation because they

  15. Net Present Value and Payback Period for Building Integrated Photovoltaic Projects in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Hau Thum

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic systems (PV offer a clean, alternative energy source that is very suitable in the Malaysian climate, and consistent with the peak production and high demand in power in Malaysia. However, the application of PV systems in Malaysia is still low. The objective of this research is to determine the total cost, price/kWp system, net present value (NPV, and payback period for PV project in Malaysia. All seven projects were selected and used for the analysis and named as Project 1 to 7. The findings from this research indicate that all seven projects show a negative NPV value and payback period is more than thirty eight years. Four projects even get payback period of more than fifty years. However, an interesting projection on the price reduction shows that a positive NPV is achievable if the price/kWp system reduced to RM11,000 and RM4,000 for government subsidized and non- subsidized projects respectively. The estimation on payback period is between four to eight years with the price reduction of 85% to 50% respectively from the current market price.Global warming, climate change, environment pollution and demand for energy represent critically issues with a wide array of potential environmental disasters affecting people health and safety. These issues are opening up new opportunities for utilization of renewable energy resources like solar photovoltaic system (PV. PV system has been widely applied in many countries such as German, Spain, Japan, US, UK and Australia but interestingly the application is rather low in Malaysia. Al though Malaysia is a tropical country and located in the equator with sunlight all year round, the development of PV is still in small scale and at the beginning stage. This study is designed to find out the capital costs needed to install a PV system in Malaysia, and serve as a guideline for public when considering a PV system.

  16. Expected net present value of pure and mixed sexed semen artificial insemination strategies in dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olynk, N J; Wolf, C A

    2007-05-01

    Sexed semen has been a long-anticipated tool for dairy farmers to obtain more heifer calves, but challenges exist for integrating sexed semen into commercial dairy farm reproduction programs. The decreased conception rates (CR) experienced with sexed semen make virgin heifers better suited for insemination with sexed semen than lactating dairy cows. This research sought to identify when various sexed semen breeding strategies provided higher expected net present value (NPV) than conventional artificial insemination (AI) breeding schemes, indicating which breeding scheme is advisable under various scenarios. Budgets were developed to calculate the expected NPV of various AI breeding strategies incorporating conventional (non-sexed) and sexed semen. In the base budgets, heifer and bull calf values were held constant at $500 and $110, respectively. The percentage of heifers expected to be born after breeding with conventional and sexed semen used was 49.2 and 90%, respectively. Breeding costs per AI were held constant at $15.00 per AI for conventional semen and $45.00 per AI for sexed semen of approximately the same genetic value. Conventional semen CR of 58 and 65% were used, and an AI submission rate was set at 100%. Breeding strategies with sexed semen were assessed for breakeven heifer calf values and sexed semen costs to obtain a NPV equal to that achieved with conventional semen. Breakeven heifer calf values for pure sexed semen strategies with a constant 58 and 65% base CR in which sexed semen achieved 53% of the base CR are $732.11 and $664.26, respectively. Breakeven sexed semen costs per AI of $17.16 and $22.39, compared with $45.00 per AI, were obtained to obtain a NPV equal to that obtained with pure conventional semen for base CR of 58 and 65%, respectively. The strategy employing purely sexed semen, with base CR of both 58 and 65%, yielded a lower NPV than purely conventional semen in all but the best-case scenario in which sexed semen provides 90% of

  17. Present and Future of Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net) in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, N.; Nakagawa, S.; Sakai, S.; Honda, R.; Kimura, H.; Panayotopoulos, Y.; Kano, M.

    2015-12-01

    Tokyo and its vicinity are most seismically risky areas in the world. To prepare for the seismic disaster we have started a series of integrated Tokyo Metropolitan projects for disaster mitigation since 2002.The current Tokyo Metropolitan Project (Phase III) has started in 2012 with a new project name as "Special Project for Reducing Vulnerability for Urban Mega-earthquake Disasters" to use MeSO-net data for constructing 3-D velocity and Q structure beneath the greater Tokyo. We aim to collect data for regional characterization to access seismic hazard produced by subduction of Philippine Sea and Pacific plates. The data from MeSO-net are continuously collected at the data management center in the Earthquake Research Institute (ERI), the University of Tokyo, with a sampling rate of 200 Hz. The data are 3-componnent accelerogram with a full scale of +/- 1,500 gal for horizontal and +/-500 gal for vertical component and the effective dynamic range is 135dB at 40Hz. Available frequency range is from 0.05 to 85 Hz, which is good for travel time analysis of body waves to ambient noise analysis for surface waves. We have successfully operated MeSO-net for about 7 years without serious malfunction. We collect more than 150 TB continuous ground motion data with more than 100K earthquakes including the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake and all its aftershocks. The data are used many studies (e.g., Nakagawa et al., 2010,2015; Ishibe et al., 2015; Denolle et al., 2014) and currently prepared for disclosing both in continues and event-by-event format. We are developing a fully automatic earthquake detection/location system for local earthquakes beneath MeSO-net. A numerical system to estimate ground motions at an arbitrary location without MeSO-net station is under developing (Kano et al., 2015).We also install a sensor system in a building for monitoring motion and damages by a large earthquake (Nakashima et al., 2015). Those studies are eventually integrated to develop an advanced

  18. Effect of correlation on cumulants in heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, D K; Netrakanti, P K

    2015-01-01

    We study the effects of correlation on cumulants and their ratios of net-proton multiplicity distribution which have been measured for central (0-5\\%) Au+Au collisions at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This effect has been studied assuming individual proton and anti-proton distributions as Poisson or Negative Binomial Distribution (NBD). In-spite of significantly correlated production due to baryon number, electric charge conservation and kinematical correlations of protons and anti-protons, the measured cumulants of net-proton distribution follow the independent production model. In the present work we demonstrate how the introduction of correlations will affect the cumulants and their ratios for the difference distributions. We have also demonstrated this study using the proton and anti-proton distributions obtained from HIJING event generator.

  19. Net present value analysis to select public R&D programs and valuate expected private sector participation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinman, N.D.; Yancey, M.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    One of the main functions of government is to invest taxpayers dollars in projects, programs, and properties that will result in social benefit. Public programs focused on the development of technology are examples of such opportunities. Selecting these programs requires the same investment analysis approaches that private companies and individuals use. Good use of investment analysis approaches to these programs will minimize our tax costs and maximize public benefit from tax dollars invested. This article describes the use of the net present value (NPV) analysis approach to select public R&D programs and valuate expected private sector participation in the programs. 5 refs.

  20. Specific net present value: an improved method for assessing modularisation costs in water services with growing demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, M

    2009-05-01

    A specific net present value (SNPV) approach is introduced as a criterion in economic engineering decisions. The SNPV expresses average costs, including the growth rate and plant utilisation over the planning horizon, factors that are excluded from a standard net present value approach. The use of SNPV favours alternatives that are cheaper per service unit and are therefore closer to the costs that a user has to cover. It also shows that demand growth has a similar influence on average costs as an economy of scale. In a high growth scenario, solutions providing less idle capacity can have higher present value costs and still be economically favourable. The SNPV approach is applied in two examples to calculate acceptable additional costs for modularisation and comparable costs for on-site treatment (OST) as an extreme form of modularisation. The calculations show that: (i) the SNPV approach is suitable for quantifying the comparable costs of an OST system in a different scenario; (ii) small systems with projected high demand growth rates and high real interest rates are the most probable entry market for OST water treatment systems; (iii) operating expenses are currently the main economic weakness of membrane-based wastewater OST systems; and (iv) when high growth in demand is expected, up to 100% can be additionally invested in modularisation and staging the expansion of a treatment plant.

  1. FY04 IRAD-funded GSFC Lambda Network (L-Net) Web Pages and Related Presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, J. Patrick

    2005-01-01

    This presentation discusses the advances in Networking Technology combining the Global Lambda Integrated Facility (GLIF) cooperation with the National Lambda Rail (NLR) implementation. It also focuses on New NASA science needing Gigbit per second networks (Gbps) with coordinated Earth Observing Program, hurricane predictions, global aerosols, remote viewing and manipulation of large Earth Science Data Sets, integration of laser and radar topographic data with land cover data.

  2. Pro WPF 4.5 in C# Windows Presentation Foundation in .NET 4.5

    CERN Document Server

    MacDonald, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Microsoft's Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF) provides you with a development framework for building high-quality user experiences for the Windows operating system. It blends together rich content from a wide range of sources and allows you unparalleled access to the processing power of your Windows computer. Pro WPF 4.5 in C# provides a thorough, authoritative guide to how WPF really works. Packed with no-nonsense examples and practical advice you'll learn everything you need to know in order to use WPF in a professional setting. The book begins by building a firm foundation of elementary

  3. Bigraphical Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Mackie

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Interaction nets are a graphical model of computation, which has been used to define efficient evaluators for functional calculi, and specifically lambda calculi with patterns. However, the flat structure of interaction nets forces pattern matching and functional behaviour to be encoded at the same level, losing some potential parallelism. In this paper, we introduce bigraphical nets, or binets for short, as a generalisation of interaction nets using ideas from bigraphs and port graphs, and we present a formal notation and operational semantics for binets. We illustrate their expressive power by examples of applications.

  4. Cumulative live birth rates following lVF in 41-to 43-year-old women presenting with favourable ovarian reserve characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Disseldorp, J.; Eijkemans, M. J. C.; Klinkert, E. R.; Velde, E. R. te; Fauser, B. C.; Broekmans, F. J. M.

    For women aged 41-43 years old, success rates in IVF are generally poor. This study aimed to assess cumulative live birth rate related to treatment costs over a maximum of three IVF cycles in selected women who were considered to still have adequate ovarian reserve. Fifty-five patients (38% of the

  5. Research on the Expression of Net Present Value in the Domestic Financial Management Textbooks%财务管理中净现值表达式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    揭志锋

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the expression of net present value (NPV: Net Present Value) and itspremise, scope and deficiency discussed in the present domestic financial management textbooks. By using reference and combining domestic and foreign literatures research on the expression of net present value, the general expression of net present value is finally optimizedto improve people's understanding of it.%针对目前国内财务管理教材中净现值(NPV:Net Present Value)达式的现状.从理论角度出发,深入分析净现值不同表达式使用前提、适用范围及其存在的不足。在此基础上,借鉴并结合国内外文献对净现值表达式的研究,最终在理论上对净现值一般表达式进行完善,力求对净现值一般表达式有更深入的理解和把握。

  6. Changing Health Behaviors to Improve Health Outcomes after Angioplasty: A Randomized Trial of Net Present Value versus Future Value Risk Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlson, M. E.; Peterson, J. C.; Boutin-Foster, C.; Briggs, W. M.; Ogedegbe, G. G.; McCulloch, C. E.; Hollenberg, J.; Wong, C.; Allegrante, J. P.

    2008-01-01

    Patients who have undergone angioplasty experience difficulty modifying at-risk behaviors for subsequent cardiac events. The purpose of this study was to test whether an innovative approach to framing of risk, based on "net present value" economic theory, would be more effective in behavioral intervention than the standard "future value approach"…

  7. The 2007 flood in the Sahel: causes, characteristics and its presentation in the media and FEWS NET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Samimi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available During the rainy season in 2007, reports about exceptional rains and floodings in the Sahel were published in the media, especially in August and September. Institutions and organizations like the World Food Programme (WFP and FEWS NET put the events on the agenda and released alerts and requested help. The partly controversial picture was that most of the Sahel faced a crisis caused by widespread floodings. Our study shows that the rainy season in 2007 was exceptional with regard to rainfall amount and return periods. In many areas the event had a return period between 1 and 50 yr with high spatial heterogeneity, with the exception of the Upper Volta basin, which yielded return periods of up to 1200 yr. Despite the strong rainfall, the interpretation of satellite images show that the floods were mainly confined to lakes and river beds. However, the study also proves the difficulties in assessing the meteorological processes and the demarcation of flooded areas in satellite images without ground truthing. These facts and the somewhat vague and controversial reports in the media and FEWS NET demonstrate that it is crucial to thoroughly analyze such events at a regional and local scale involving the local population.

  8. Energy Dependence of Moments of Net-Proton, Net-Kaon, and Net-Charge Multiplicity Distributions at STAR

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2016-01-01

    One of the main goals of the RHIC Beam Energy Scan (BES) program is to study the QCD phase structure, which includes the search for the QCD critical point, over a wide range of chemical potential. Theoretical calculations predict that fluctuations of conserved quantities, such as baryon number (B), charge (Q), and strangeness (S), are sensitive to the correlation length of the dynamical system. Experimentally, higher moments of multiplicity distributions have been utilized to search for the QCD critical point in heavy-ion collisions. In this paper, we report recent efficiency-corrected cumulants and cumulants ratios of the net- proton, net-kaon, and net-charge multiplicity distributions in Au+Au collisions at 7.7, 11.5, 14.5, 19.6, 27, 39, 62.4, and 200 GeV collected in the years 2010, 2011, and 2014 with STAR at RHIC. The centrality and energy dependence of the cumulants up to the fourth order, as well as their ratios, are presented. Furthermore, the comparisons with baseline calculations (Poisson) and non-c...

  9. Cumulative environmental effects. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This report presents a compilation of knowledge about the state of the environment and human activity in the Norwegian part of the North Sea and Skagerrak. The report gives an overview of pressures and impacts on the environment from normal activity and in the event of accidents. This is used to assess the cumulative environmental effects, which factors have most impact and where the impacts are greatest, and to indicate which problems are expected to be most serious in the future. The report is intended to provide relevant information that can be used in the management of the marine area in the future. It also provides input for the identification of environmental targets and management measures for the North Sea and Skagerrak.(Author)

  10. Net Operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋昌俊; 吴哲辉

    1992-01-01

    Two kinds of net operations.addition and Cartesian production of P/T nets,are introduced.They are defined on the set of underlying net of P/T systems.The conditions for preserving structural properties of Petri net after these operations are discussed.It is shown that the set of P/T nets forms and Abelian group for net addition operation and the inverse net of a P/T net in usual meaning of net theory is exactly the inverse of this P/T net as an element of the P/T net group;and that the set of P/T nets forms an Abelian ring for net addition and Caresian product operations.

  11. Global patterns in human consumption of net primary production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, Marc L.; Bounoua, Lahouari; Ricketts, Taylor; Loucks, Colby; Harriss, Robert; Lawrence, William T.

    2004-06-01

    The human population and its consumption profoundly affect the Earth's ecosystems. A particularly compelling measure of humanity's cumulative impact is the fraction of the planet's net primary production that we appropriate for our own use. Net primary production-the net amount of solar energy converted to plant organic matter through photosynthesis-can be measured in units of elemental carbon and represents the primary food energy source for the world's ecosystems. Human appropriation of net primary production, apart from leaving less for other species to use, alters the composition of the atmosphere, levels of biodiversity, energy flows within food webs and the provision of important ecosystem services. Here we present a global map showing the amount of net primary production required by humans and compare it to the total amount generated on the landscape. We then derive a spatial balance sheet of net primary production `supply' and `demand' for the world. We show that human appropriation of net primary production varies spatially from almost zero to many times the local primary production. These analyses reveal the uneven footprint of human consumption and related environmental impacts, indicate the degree to which human populations depend on net primary production `imports' and suggest policy options for slowing future growth of human appropriation of net primary production.

  12. Importance of volume corrections on the net-charge distributions at the RHIC BES energies

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Hao-jie

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents my recent investigations of volume corrections on the cumulant products of net-charge distributions in statistical model, corresponding to the data reported by the STAR collaboration. The corrected statistical expectations, under simple Poisson approximations, can reasonably explain the data measured in experiment. The results indicate that volume corrections play crucial role in event-by-event multiplicity fluctuation studies.

  13. Cumulative fatigue damage models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgaw, Michael A.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of calculating expected component life under fatigue loading conditions is complicated by the fact that component loading histories contain, in many cases, cyclic loads of widely varying amplitudes. In such a case a cumulative damage model is required, in addition to a fatigue damage criterion, or life relationship, in order to compute the expected fatigue life. The traditional cumulative damage model used in design is the linear damage rule. This model, while being simple to use, can yield grossly unconservative results under certain loading conditions. Research at the NASA Lewis Research Center has led to the development of a nonlinear cumulative damage model, named the double damage curve approach (DDCA), that has greatly improved predictive capability. This model, which considers the life (or loading) level dependence of damage evolution, was applied successfully to two polycrystalline materials, 316 stainless steel and Haynes 188. The cumulative fatigue behavior of the PWA 1480 single-crystal material is currently being measured to determine the applicability of the DDCA for this material.

  14. Long and Short Term Cumulative Structural Priming Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Kaschak, Michael P.; Kutta, Timothy J.; Coyle, Jacqueline M.

    2012-01-01

    We present six experiments that examine cumulative structural priming effects (i.e., structural priming effects that accumulate across many utterances). Of particular interest is whether (1) cumulative priming effects transfer across language production tasks and (2) the transfer of cumulative priming effects across tasks persists over the course of a week. Our data suggest that cumulative structural priming effects do transfer across language production tasks (e.g., from written stem complet...

  15. Cumulative Paired φ-Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo Klein

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A new kind of entropy will be introduced which generalizes both the differential entropy and the cumulative (residual entropy. The generalization is twofold. First, we simultaneously define the entropy for cumulative distribution functions (cdfs and survivor functions (sfs, instead of defining it separately for densities, cdfs, or sfs. Secondly, we consider a general “entropy generating function” φ, the same way Burbea et al. (IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 1982, 28, 489–495 and Liese et al. (Convex Statistical Distances; Teubner-Verlag, 1987 did in the context of φ-divergences. Combining the ideas of φ-entropy and cumulative entropy leads to the new “cumulative paired φ-entropy” ( C P E φ . This new entropy has already been discussed in at least four scientific disciplines, be it with certain modifications or simplifications. In the fuzzy set theory, for example, cumulative paired φ-entropies were defined for membership functions, whereas in uncertainty and reliability theories some variations of C P E φ were recently considered as measures of information. With a single exception, the discussions in the scientific disciplines appear to be held independently of each other. We consider C P E φ for continuous cdfs and show that C P E φ is rather a measure of dispersion than a measure of information. In the first place, this will be demonstrated by deriving an upper bound which is determined by the standard deviation and by solving the maximum entropy problem under the restriction of a fixed variance. Next, this paper specifically shows that C P E φ satisfies the axioms of a dispersion measure. The corresponding dispersion functional can easily be estimated by an L-estimator, containing all its known asymptotic properties. C P E φ is the basis for several related concepts like mutual φ-information, φ-correlation, and φ-regression, which generalize Gini correlation and Gini regression. In addition, linear rank tests for scale that

  16. Comparing oncology clinical programs by use of innovative designs and expected net present value optimization: Which adaptive approach leads to the best result?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parke, Tom; Marchenko, Olga; Anisimov, Vladimir; Ivanova, Anastasia; Jennison, Christopher; Perevozskaya, Inna; Song, Guochen

    2017-01-01

    Designing an oncology clinical program is more challenging than designing a single study. The standard approaches have been proven to be not very successful during the last decade; the failure rate of Phase 2 and Phase 3 trials in oncology remains high. Improving a development strategy by applying innovative statistical methods is one of the major objectives of a drug development process. The oncology sub-team on Adaptive Program under the Drug Information Association Adaptive Design Scientific Working Group (DIA ADSWG) evaluated hypothetical oncology programs with two competing treatments and published the work in the Therapeutic Innovation and Regulatory Science journal in January 2014. Five oncology development programs based on different Phase 2 designs, including adaptive designs and a standard two parallel arm Phase 3 design were simulated and compared in terms of the probability of clinical program success and expected net present value (eNPV). In this article, we consider eight Phase2/Phase3 development programs based on selected combinations of five Phase 2 study designs and three Phase 3 study designs. We again used the probability of program success and eNPV to compare simulated programs. For the development strategies, we considered that the eNPV showed robust improvement for each successive strategy, with the highest being for a three-arm response adaptive randomization design in Phase 2 and a group sequential design with 5 analyses in Phase 3.

  17. A Resource Cost Aware Cumulative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonis, Helmut; Hadzic, Tarik

    We motivate and introduce an extension of the well-known cumulative constraint which deals with time and volume dependent cost of resources. Our research is primarily interested in scheduling problems under time and volume variable electricity costs, but the constraint equally applies to manpower scheduling when hourly rates differ over time and/or extra personnel incur higher hourly rates. We present a number of possible lower bounds on the cost, including a min-cost flow, different LP and MIP models, as well as greedy algorithms, and provide a theoretical and experimental comparison of the different methods.

  18. Net Gains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielker, David

    2008-01-01

    The Easter conference 2008 had several activities which for the author raised the same questions on cube nets in some work with eight-year-olds some time ago. In this article, the author muses on some problems from the Easter conference regarding nets of shapes. (Contains 1 note.)

  19. Cumulative Timers for Microprocessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battle, John O.

    2007-01-01

    It has been proposed to equip future microprocessors with electronic cumulative timers, for essentially the same reasons for which land vehicles are equipped with odometers (total-distance-traveled meters) and aircraft are equipped with Hobbs meters (total-engine-operating time meters). Heretofore, there has been no way to determine the amount of use to which a microprocessor (or a product containing a microprocessor) has been subjected. The proposed timers would count all microprocessor clock cycles and could only be read by means of microprocessor instructions but, like odometers and Hobbs meters, could never be reset to zero without physically damaging the chip.

  20. Cumulative Vehicle Routing Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Kara, &#;mdat; Kara, Bahar Yeti&#;; Yeti&#;, M. Kadri

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a new objective function and corresponding formulations for the vehicle routing problem. The new cost function defined as the product of the distance of the arc and the flow on that arc. We call a vehicle routing problem with this new objective function as the Cumulative Vehicle Routing Problem (CumVRP). Integer programming formulations with O(n2) binary variables and O(n2) constraints are developed for both collection and delivery cases. We show that the CumVRP is a gener...

  1. Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Freire Vieira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This dossier focuses on one of the essential debate topics today about the territorial dimension of the new development strategies concerned with the worsening of the global socioecological crisis, that is: the challenges related to the activation and integration in networks of localized agri-food systems. For its composition, some contributions presented and debated during the VI International Conference on Localized Agri-food System - The LAFS facing the opportunities and challenges of the new global context have been gathered. The event took place in the city of Florianópolis, from May 21th to 25th of 2013. The event was promoted by the Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC and by the Center for the International Cooperation on Agricultural Research for Development (CIRAD. Besides UFSC and CIRAD, EPAGRI, State University of Santa Catarina (UDESC, as well as research institutes and universities from other states (UFMG, IEA/SP, UFS, UFRGS and Mexican and Argentinian partners from the RED SIAL Latino Americana also participated in the organization of lectures, discussion tables and workshops.

  2. Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Vicente

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present edition of Significação – Scientific Journal for Audiovisual Culture and in the others to follow something new is brought: the presence of thematic dossiers which are to be organized by invited scholars. The appointed subject for the very first one of them was Radio and the invited scholar, Eduardo Vicente, professor at the Graduate Course in Audiovisual and at the Postgraduate Program in Audiovisual Media and Processes of the School of Communication and Arts of the University of São Paulo (ECA-USP. Entitled Radio Beyond Borders the dossier gathers six articles and the intention of reuniting works on the perspectives of usage of such media as much as on the new possibilities of aesthetical experimenting being build up for it, especially considering the new digital technologies and technological convergences. It also intends to present works with original theoretical approach and original reflections able to reset the way we look at what is today already a centennial media. Having broadened the meaning of “beyond borders”, four foreign authors were invited to join the dossier. This is the first time they are being published in this country and so, in all cases, the articles where either written or translated into Portuguese.The dossier begins with “Radio is dead…Long live to the sound”, which is the transcription of a thought provoking lecture given by Armand Balsebre (Autonomous University of Barcelona – one of the most influential authors in the world on the Radio study field. It addresses the challenges such media is to face so that it can become “a new sound media, in the context of a new soundscape or sound-sphere, for the new listeners”. Andrew Dubber (Birmingham City University regarding the challenges posed by a Digital Era argues for a theoretical approach in radio studies which can consider a Media Ecology. The author understands the form and discourse of radio as a negotiation of affordances and

  3. Modelling Inteligent Systems with Level Petri Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina BOCĂNEALĂ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Level Petri Nets are formalism for modeling hierarchical multi-agent system. They are a Petri nets extension, allowing tokens to be nets themselves. This paper is inspired by two classes of level Petri nets: object Petri nets and nested Petri nets. We present some concepts from the artificial intelligence field and we use them to illustrate the modeling power of Petri nets with multi levels.

  4. Higher Moments of Net-Particle Multiplicity Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Thäder, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    Studying fluctuations of conserved quantities, such as baryon number, strangeness, and charge, provides insights into the properties of matter created in high-energy nuclear collisions. Lattice QCD calculations suggest that higher moments of these quantities are sensitive to the phase structure of the hot and dense nuclear matter created in such collisions. In this paper, we present first experimental results of volume and temperature independent cumulant ratios of net-charge and net-proton distributions in Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}}\\!=\\!14.5 \\,{\\rm GeV}$ completing the first RHIC Beam Energy Scan (BES-I) program for $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}}\\!=\\!7.7 \\,{\\rm to}\\,200\\,{\\rm GeV}$, together with the first measurement of fully corrected net-kaon results, measured with the STAR detector at RHIC at mid-rapidity and a transverse momentum up to $p_{\\rm T}\\!=\\!2\\,{\\rm GeV/{\\it c}}$. The pseudo-rapidity dependence of the $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}}\\!=\\!14.5 \\,{\\rm GeV}$ net-charge cumulant ratios is discussed. The estimate...

  5. Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Renders

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We present to our esteemed readers the second edition of our journal for 2008. We have chosen the theme “The life and work of Prof. Dr. Jürgen Moltmann” as its special emphasis. It is our way to pay homage to J. Moltmann in the year the Universidade Metodista de São Paulo awards him an honorary Doctor Honoris Causa degree. Sincethe seventies, Moltmann and Latin America have been in dialog. In his emblematic work “A Theology of Liberation”, Gustavo Gutiérrez, the Catholic, discussed with Moltmann, the Reformed, the relationship between eschatology and history (GUTIÉRREZ, Gustavo.Teologia da Libertação. 5ª edição. Petrópolis, RJ: Vozes, 1985, p. 27, 137-139. A dialog held in the premises of IMS, which nowadays is called UMESP, has produced the little book “Passion for life” (MOLTMANN, Jürgen. Paixão pela vida. São Paulo, SP: ASTE - Associaçãode Seminários Teológicos Evangélicos, 1978.In the following years, the wide theological work of J. Moltmann went all the way from debates to congresses and has conquered the classrooms. Most probably, J. Moltmann is nowadays the most widely read European author in Brazilian theological seminaries. Thisrecognition can only be held in unison and the wide response to our request for articles confirms the huge repercussion that Moltmann’s work has been having up to today in Brazil. The ecumenical theologian J. Moltmann is ecumenically read. We believe that thisway we may be better equipped to answer to anyone who asks us for the reason there is hope in us. We have organized the articles on J. Moltmann’s theology according to the original publication date of the books dealt with in each essay. We also communicate that some articles which were originally requested for this edition of the journal will be published in the journal Estudos de Regilião in May 2009.As it is usual with the journal Caminhando, we have, besides this thematic emphasis, yet other contributions in the areas of

  6. 47 CFR 32.1500 - Other jurisdictional assets-net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other jurisdictional assets-net. 32.1500....1500 Other jurisdictional assets—net. This account shall include the cumulative impact on assets of... account shall be recorded net of any applicable income tax effects and shall be supported by...

  7. Net Locality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza e Silva, Adriana Araujo; Gordon, Eric

    Provides an introduction to the new theory of Net Locality and the profound effect on individuals and societies when everything is located or locatable. Describes net locality as an emerging form of location awareness central to all aspects of digital media, from mobile phones, to Google Maps, to...... of emerging technologies, from GeoCities to GPS, Wi-Fi, Wiki Me, and Google Android....

  8. Net Locality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza e Silva, Adriana Araujo; Gordon, Eric

    Provides an introduction to the new theory of Net Locality and the profound effect on individuals and societies when everything is located or locatable. Describes net locality as an emerging form of location awareness central to all aspects of digital media, from mobile phones, to Google Maps, to...... of emerging technologies, from GeoCities to GPS, Wi-Fi, Wiki Me, and Google Android....

  9. Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicanor Lopes

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The Journal Caminhando debuts with a new editorial format: eachmagazine will have a Dossier.In 2010 Christianity celebrated the centenary of Edinburgh. TheWorld Missionary Conference in Edinburgh in 1910 is regarded by manyas missiological watershed in the missionary and ecumenical movement.So the Faculty of Theology of the Methodist Church (FATEO decidedto organize a Wesleyan Week discussing the issue of mission. For anevent of this magnitude FATEO invited the Rev. Dr. Wesley Ariarajah,Methodist pastor and teacher of Sri Lanka with extensive experience inpastoral ministry in local churches and professor of History of Religionsand the New Testament at the Theological College of Lanka, maintainedby the Protestant Churches in Sri Lanka. In 1981 he was invited to jointhe World Council of Churches, where he presided for over ten years theCouncil of Interreligious Dialogue. From 1992 he served as Deputy GeneralSecretary of the WCC.The following texts are not the speeches of the Rev. Dr. WesleyAriarajah, for they will be published separately. Nevertheless, the journaldialogs with the celebrations of the centenary of Edinburgh, parting formthe intriguing theme: "Mission in the 21st century in Brazil". After all, howis it that mission takes place among us in personal, church, and communityactivities?Within the Dossier, as common to the journal, the textos are organizedas follows: Bible, Theology / History and Pastoral Care. Other items thatdo not fit within the Dossier, but, do articulate mission, can be found inthe section Declarations and Documents and Book Reviews.The authors of the Dossier have important considerations in buildinga contemporary missiological concept considering Brazilian reality.Anderson de Oliveira, in the Bible-Section, presents a significantexegeses of Matthew 26.6-13. What does it mean when Jesus is quotedwith the words: "For the poor always ye have with you, but me ye havenot always." Is this declaration challenging the gospels

  10. Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Musall, Eike

    2010-01-01

    and identify possible renewable energy supply options which may be considered in calculations. Finally, the gap between the methodology proposed by each organisation and their respective national building code is assessed; providing an overview of the possible changes building codes will need to undergo......The international cooperation project IEA SHC Task 40 / ECBCS Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, attempts to develop a common understanding and to set up the basis for an international definition framework of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs). The understanding of such buildings...... and how the Net ZEB status should be calculated differs in most countries. This paper presents an overview of Net ZEBs energy calculation methodologies proposed by organisations representing eight different countries: Austria, Canada, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Norway, Switzerland and the USA. The different...

  11. Analysis of Memory Codes and Cumulative Rehearsal in Observational Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, Albert; And Others

    1974-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of memory codes varying in meaningfulness and retrievability and cumulative rehearsal on retention of observationally learned responses over increasing temporal intervals. (Editor)

  12. UBIQUITOUS POLLUTANTS FROM CUMULATIVE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPS) as environmental pollutants is a multifaceted issue whose scope continues to become better delineated since the escalation of concerted attention beginning in the 1980s. PPCPs typically occur as trace environmental pollutants (primarily in surface but also in ground waters) as a result of their widespread, continuous, combined usage in a broad range of human and veterinary therapeutic activities and practices. With respect to the risk-assessment paradigm, the growing body of published work has focused primarily on the origin and occurrence of these substances. Comparatively less is known about human and ecological exposure, and even less about the known or even potential hazards associated with exposure to these anthropogenic substances, many of which are highly bioactive. The continually growing, worldwide importance of freshwater resources underscores the need for ensuring that any aggregate or cumulative impacts on water supplies and resultant potential for human or ecological exposure be minimized. This has prompted the more recent investigations on waste treatment processes for one of the major sources of environmental disposition, namely sewage. Despite the paucity of health effects data for long-term, simultaneous exposure to multiple xenobiotics (particularly PPCPS) at low doses (a major toxicological issue that can be described by the

  13. RESTful NET

    CERN Document Server

    Flanders, Jon

    2008-01-01

    RESTful .NET is the first book that teaches Windows developers to build RESTful web services using the latest Microsoft tools. Written by Windows Communication Foundation (WFC) expert Jon Flanders, this hands-on tutorial demonstrates how you can use WCF and other components of the .NET 3.5 Framework to build, deploy and use REST-based web services in a variety of application scenarios. RESTful architecture offers a simpler approach to building web services than SOAP, SOA, and the cumbersome WS- stack. And WCF has proven to be a flexible technology for building distributed systems not necessa

  14. Long and Short Term Cumulative Structural Priming Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaschak, Michael P; Kutta, Timothy J; Coyle, Jacqueline M

    We present six experiments that examine cumulative structural priming effects (i.e., structural priming effects that accumulate across many utterances). Of particular interest is whether (1) cumulative priming effects transfer across language production tasks and (2) the transfer of cumulative priming effects across tasks persists over the course of a week. Our data suggest that cumulative structural priming effects do transfer across language production tasks (e.g., from written stem completion to picture description, and from picture description to written stem completion), but only when both tasks are presented in the same experimental session. When cumulative priming effects are established in one task, and the second (changed) task is not presented until a week later, the cumulative priming effects are not observed.

  15. 净现值法在医疗设备采购中的应用%Research on the application of Net Present Value method in medical equipment procurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查磊; 蔡军

    2016-01-01

    目的:为加强医疗设备采购管理,提高医疗设备采购管理效率,促进医院设备资源的增值,寻求科学的设备采购方式与方法,建立规范的采购模式,将粗放式经验行为规范成科学的采购方法。方法:运用财务管理学中的净现值法,做好医疗设备采购经济效益分析,结合具体案例和数据分析医疗设备采购中供应商提供的设备采购方案。结果:在假定资金成本率为10%,三种方案均按直线折旧法的情况下,方案一净现值为6966.25万元;方案二净现值为10619.18万元;方案三净现值为5746.08万元;方案二净现值最大,选择第二方案,该方案产生的净现值最大。净现值法为医院做好设备采购和科学投资、改善经营管理提供了重要保证。结论:净现值法在医疗设备采购中的运用表明,在设备采购方案出现多样化,有多种选择的时候,采用净现值法进行量化为决策提供依据。净现值法的运用与传统的采购方案选择相比,对医疗设备采购管理具有规范性和科学性,对数据分析具有准确性和客观性。%Objective:To strengthen the management and improve the efficiency of medical equipment purchasing, promote the growth of hospital equipment resource value, find scientific equipment procurement ways and methods, establish standardized procurement mode, strive to the code of conduct for the extensive experience into the scientific method of procurement. Methods: Using Net Present Value(NPV) method in financial management on medical equipment purchasing economic benefit analysis, and combined with specific cases and data to analyze the procurement of medical equipment suppliers to provide the equipment procurement scheme.Results: On the assumption that the cost of capital rate is 10%, the three schemes are according to the straight line depreciation method, scheme a net present value for 6.96625 million yuan; scheme 2

  16. An Axiomatization of Cumulative Prospect Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, P.P.; Tversky, A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a method for axiomatizing a variety of models for decision making under uncertainty, including Expected Utility and Cumulative Prospect Theory. This method identifies, for each model, the situations that permit consistent inferences about the ordering of value differences. Exampl

  17. Higher Moments of Net-Kaon Multiplicity Distributions at STAR

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2016-01-01

    Fluctuations of conserved quantities such as baryon number (B), electric charge number (Q), and strangeness number (S), are sensitive to the correlation length and can be used to probe non-gaussian fluctuations near the critical point. Experimentally, higher moments of the multiplicity distributions have been used to search for the QCD critical point in heavy-ion collisions. In this paper, we report the efficiency-corrected cumulants and their ratios of mid- rapidity (|y| < 0.5) net-kaon multiplicity distributions in Au+Au collisions at 7.7, 11.5, 14.5, 19.6, 27, 39, 62.4, and 200 GeV collected in 2010, 2011, and 2014 with STAR at RHIC. The centrality and energy dependence of the cumulants and their ratios, are presented. Furthermore, the comparisons with baseline calculations (Poisson) and non-critical-point models (UrQMD) are also discussed.

  18. Why Veterinary Medical Educators Should Embrace Cumulative Final Exams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, Kenneth D

    2017-01-03

    The topic of cumulative final examinations often elicits polarizing opinions from veterinary medical educators. While some faculty prefer cumulative finals, there are many who perceive these types of examinations as problematic. Specifically, faculty often cite cumulative examinations are more likely to cause students' greater stress, which may in turn result in negative student evaluations of teaching. Cumulative finals also restrict the number of items one may present to students on most recent material. While these cited disadvantages may have some merit, the advantages of cumulative examinations far exceed the disadvantages. The purpose of this article is to discuss the advantages of cumulative examinations with respect to learning evidence, grade/score validity, fairness issues, and implications for academic policy.

  19. CUMULANTS OF STOCHASTIC RESPONSE FOR A CLASS OF SPECIAL NONHOLONOMIC SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG MEI; ZHANG YI

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies the response cumulants for a kind of special nonholonomic systems under non-Gaussian, delta- correlated excitations. We present a new methodology for formulating the equations governing the evolution of the response cumulants of the stochastic dynamic systems. The response cumulant differential equations (CDEs) derived can be used to calculate the response cumulants for both linear and nonlinear systems. One example is given to illustrate how to use the CDEs for calculating response cumulants.

  20. Cumulative Effects of Human Activities on Marine Mammal Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Cumulative Effects of Human Activities on Marine Mammal ...marine mammals . OBJECTIVES The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine has convened a volunteer committee that will...Review the present scientific understanding of cumulative effects of anthropogenic stressors on marine mammals with a focus on anthropogenic sound

  1. Pavlovian conditioning and cumulative reinforcement rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Justin A; Patterson, Angela E; Gharaei, Saba

    2015-04-01

    In 5 experiments using delay conditioning of magazine approach with rats, reinforcement rate was varied either by manipulating the mean interval between onset of the conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US) or by manipulating the proportion of CS presentations that ended with the US (trial-based reinforcement rate). Both manipulations influenced the acquisition of responding. In each experiment, a specific comparison was made between 2 CSs that differed in their mean CS-US interval and in their trial-based reinforcement rate, such that the cumulative reinforcement rate-the cumulative duration of the CS between reinforcements-was the same for the 2 CSs. For example, a CS reinforced on 100% of trials with a mean CS-US interval of 60 s was compared with a CS reinforced on 33% of trials and a mean duration of 20 s. Across the 5 experiments, conditioning was virtually identical for the 2 CSs with matched cumulative reinforcement rate. This was true as long as the timing of the US was unpredictable and, thus, response rates were uniform across the length of the CS. We conclude that the effects of CS-US interval and of trial-based reinforcement rate are reducible entirely to their common effect on cumulative reinforcement rate. We discuss the implications of this for rate-based, trial-based, and real-time associative models of conditioning.

  2. NetView technical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This is the Final Technical Report for the NetView Technical Research task. This report is prepared in accordance with Contract Data Requirements List (CDRL) item A002. NetView assistance was provided and details are presented under the following headings: NetView Management Systems (NMS) project tasks; WBAFB IBM 3090; WPAFB AMDAHL; WPAFB IBM 3084; Hill AFB; McClellan AFB AMDAHL; McClellan AFB IBM 3090; and Warner-Robins AFB.

  3. Coloured Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) is a graphical language for modelling and validating concurrent and distributed systems, and other systems in which concurrency plays a major role. This book introduces the constructs of the CPN modelling language and presents the related analysis methods. It provides a comprehensive road map for the practical use of CPN.

  4. Cumulate Fragments in Silicic Ignimbrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, O.; Ellis, B. S.; Wolff, J.

    2014-12-01

    Increasingly, studies are concluding that silicic ignimbrites are the result of the amalgamation of multiple discrete magma batches. Yet the existence of discrete batches presents a conundrum for magma generation and storage; if silicic magma batches are not generated nearly in situ in the upper crust, they must traverse, and reside within, a thermally hostile environment with large temperature gradients, resulting in low survivability in their shallow magmatic hearths. The Snake River Plain (Idaho, USA) is a type example of this 'multi-batch' assembly with ignimbrites containing multiple populations of pyroxene crystals, glass shards, and crystal aggregates. The ubiquitous crystal aggregates hint at a mechanism to facilitate the existence of multiple, relatively small batches of rhyolite in the upper crust. These aggregates contain the same plagioclase, pyroxene, and oxide mineral compositions as single phenocrysts of the same minerals in their host rocks, but they have significantly less silicic bulk compositions and lack quartz and sanidine, which occur as single phenocrysts in the deposits. This implies significant crystallization followed by melt extraction from mushy reservoir margins. The extracted melt then continues to evolve (crystallizing sanidine and quartz) while the melt-depleted margins provide an increasingly rigid and refractory network segregating the crystal-poor batches of magma. The hot, refractory, margins insulate the crystal-poor lenses, allowing (1) extended residence in the upper crust, and (2) preservation of chemical heterogeneities among batches. In contrast, systems that produce cumulates richer in low-temperature phases (quartz, K-feldspars, and/or biotite) favour remelting upon recharge, leading to less segregation of eruptible melt pockets and the formation of gradationally zoned ignimbrites. The occurrence of similar crystal aggregates from a variety of magmatic lineages suggests the generality of this process.

  5. Sharing a quota on cumulative carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raupach, Michael R.; Davis, Steven J.; Peters, Glen P.; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Ciais, Philippe; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Jotzo, Frank; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Le Quéré, Corinne

    2014-10-01

    Any limit on future global warming is associated with a quota on cumulative global CO2 emissions. We translate this global carbon quota to regional and national scales, on a spectrum of sharing principles that extends from continuation of the present distribution of emissions to an equal per-capita distribution of cumulative emissions. A blend of these endpoints emerges as the most viable option. For a carbon quota consistent with a 2 °C warming limit (relative to pre-industrial levels), the necessary long-term mitigation rates are very challenging (typically over 5% per year), both because of strong limits on future emissions from the global carbon quota and also the likely short-term persistence in emissions growth in many regions.

  6. EPA Workshop on Epigenetics and Cumulative Risk ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agenda Download the Workshop Agenda (PDF) The workshop included presentations and discussions by scientific experts pertaining to three topics (i.e., epigenetic changes associated with diverse stressors, key science considerations in understanding epigenetic changes, and practical application of epigenetic tools to address cumulative risks from environmental stressors), to address several questions under each topic, and included an opportunity for attendees to participate in break-out groups, provide comments and ask questions. Workshop Goals The workshop seeks to examine the opportunity for use of aggregate epigenetic change as an indicator in cumulative risk assessment for populations exposed to multiple stressors that affect epigenetic status. Epigenetic changes are specific molecular changes around DNA that alter expression of genes. Epigenetic changes include DNA methylation, formation of histone adducts, and changes in micro RNAs. Research today indicates that epigenetic changes are involved in many chronic diseases (cancer, cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, mental health disorders, and asthma). Research has also linked a wide range of stressors including pollution and social factors with occurrence of epigenetic alterations. Epigenetic changes have the potential to reflect impacts of risk factors across multiple stages of life. Only recently receiving attention is the nexus between the factors of cumulative exposure to environmental

  7. Cumulant expansions for atmospheric flows

    CERN Document Server

    Ait-Chaalal, Farid; Meyer, Bettina; Marston, J B

    2015-01-01

    The equations governing atmospheric flows are nonlinear, and consequently the hierarchy of cumulant equations is not closed. But because atmospheric flows are inhomogeneous and anisotropic, the nonlinearity may manifests itself only weakly through interactions of mean fields with disturbances such as thermals or eddies. In such situations, truncations of the hierarchy of cumulant equations hold promise as a closure strategy. We review how truncations at second order can be used to model and elucidate the dynamics of turbulent atmospheric flows. Two examples are considered. First, we study the growth of a dry convective boundary layer, which is heated from below, leading to turbulent upward energy transport and growth of the boundary layer. We demonstrate that a quasilinear truncation of the equations of motion, in which interactions of disturbances among each other are neglected but interactions with mean fields are taken into account, can successfully capture the growth of the convective boundary layer. Seco...

  8. Electro-cumulation CNF project

    CERN Document Server

    Grishin, V G

    2000-01-01

    bound or free ion current within solid substances; non-plain symmetry; cumulation of the ion interaction. Experimental result: an Ice SuperPolarization. Cold nuclear fusion ? At http://www.shortway.to/to2084 . Keywords: ion, current, solid, symmetry, cumulation, cold nuclear fusion, polarization, depolarization, ionic conductor, superionic conductor, ice, crystal, strain, V-center, V-centre, doped crystal, interstitial impurity, intrinsic color center, high pressure technology, Bridgman, experiment, crowdion, dielectric, proton, layer, defect, lattice, dynamics, electromigration, mobility, muon catalysis, concentration, doping, dopant, conductivity, pycnonuclear reaction, permittivity, dielectric constant, point defects, interstitials, polarizability, imperfection, defect centers, glass, epitaxy, sodium hydroxide, metallic substrate, crystallization, point, tip, susceptibility, ferroelectric, ordering, force, correlation, collective, shift, distortion, coalescence, crowdions, electrolysis.

  9. Process expression of bounded Petri nets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴哲辉

    1996-01-01

    The concept of process expression of bounded Petri nets is presented.Moreover,an algorithm to find the process expression for a bounded Petri net is given.A process expression of a bounded Petri net is a regular expression whose every alphabet symbol represents a basic subprocess of the net.The regular set expressed by the regular expression is the set of all surjective processes of a bounded Petri net.A surjective process of a bounded Petri net is a process of this net in which every s-cut corresponds to a reachable marking of the net.Therefore,all surjective processes of a bounded Petri net can be obtained as long as its process expression and the basic subprocess represented by the alphabet symbols of the process expression are given.

  10. Capturing birds with mist nets: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, B.E.; Grue, C.E.

    1982-01-01

    Herein we have tried to provide a comprehensive review of mist-netting techniques suitable for both novice and experienced netters. General mist-netting procedures and modifications developed by netters for particular bird species and habitats are included. Factors which influence capture success, including site selection, net specifications and placement, weather, and time of day, are discussed. Guidelines are presented for the care of netted birds and the use of mist-net data in the study of bird communities. The advantages of the use of mist nets over other methods of capturing birds are also discussed.

  11. Climate mitigation: sustainable preferences and cumulative carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckle, Simon

    2010-05-01

    We develop a stylized AK growth model with both climate damages to ecosystem goods and services and sustainable preferences that allow trade-offs between present discounted utility and long-run climate damages. The simplicity of the model permits analytical solutions. Concern for the long-term provides a strong driver for mitigation action. One plausible specification of sustainable preferences leads to the result that, for a range of initial parameter values, an optimizing agent would choose a level of cumulative carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions independent of initial production capital endowment and CO2 levels. There is no technological change so, for economies with sufficiently high initial capital and CO2 endowments, optimal mitigation will lead to disinvestment. For lower values of initial capital and/or CO2 levels, positive investment can be optimal, but still within the same overall level of cumulative emissions. One striking aspect of the model is the complexity of possible outcomes, in addition to these optimal solutions. We also identify a resource constrained region and several regions where climate damages exceed resources available for consumption. Other specifications of sustainable preferences are discussed, as is the case of a hard constraint on long-run damages. Scientists are currently highlighting the potential importance of the cumulative carbon emissions concept as a robust yet flexible target for climate policymakers. This paper shows that it also has an ethical interpretation: it embodies an implicit trade off in global welfare between present discounted welfare and long-term climate damages. We hope that further development of the ideas presented here might contribute to the research and policy debate on the critical areas of intra- and intergenerational welfare.

  12. The Algebra of the Cumulative Percent Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Andrew J.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to help students avoid some pervasive reasoning errors in solving cumulative percent problems. Discusses the meaning of ."%+b%." the additive inverse of ."%." and other useful applications. Emphasizes the operational aspect of the cumulative percent concept. (KHR)

  13. Adaptive strategies for cumulative cultural learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehn, Micael; Laland, Kevin

    2012-05-21

    The demographic and ecological success of our species is frequently attributed to our capacity for cumulative culture. However, it is not yet known how humans combine social and asocial learning to generate effective strategies for learning in a cumulative cultural context. Here we explore how cumulative culture influences the relative merits of various pure and conditional learning strategies, including pure asocial and social learning, critical social learning, conditional social learning and individual refiner strategies. We replicate the Rogers' paradox in the cumulative setting. However, our analysis suggests that strategies that resolved Rogers' paradox in a non-cumulative setting may not necessarily evolve in a cumulative setting, thus different strategies will optimize cumulative and non-cumulative cultural learning.

  14. Preserved cumulative semantic interference despite amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Michael Oppenheim

    2015-05-01

    As predicted by Oppenheim et al’s (2010 implicit incremental learning account, WRP’s BCN RTs demonstrated strong (and significant repetition priming and semantic blocking effects (Figure 1. Similar to typical results from neurally intact undergraduates, WRP took longer to name pictures presented in semantically homogeneous blocks than in heterogeneous blocks, an effect that increased with each cycle. This result challenges accounts that ascribe cumulative semantic interference in this task to explicit memory mechanisms, instead suggesting that the effect has the sort of implicit learning bases that are typically spared in hippocampal amnesia.

  15. "Buddha's Light" of Cumulative Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Kopeliovich, Vladimir B; Potashnikova, Irina K

    2014-01-01

    We show analytically that in the cumulative particles production off nuclei multiple interactions lead to a glory-like backward focusing effect. Employing the small phase space method we arrived at a characteristic angular dependence of the production cross section $d\\sigma \\sim 1/ \\sqrt {\\pi - \\theta}$ near the strictly backward direction. This effect takes place for any number $n\\geq 3 $ of interactions of rescattered particle, either elastic or inelastic (with resonance excitations in intermediate states), when the final particle is produced near corresponding kinematical boundary. Such a behaviour of the cross section near the backward direction is in qualitative agreement with some of available data.

  16. Cumulative radiation exposure in children with cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Reilly, R

    2010-02-01

    This retrospective study calculated the cumulative radiation dose for children with cystic fibrosis (CF) attending a tertiary CF centre. Information on 77 children with a mean age of 9.5 years, a follow up time of 658 person years and 1757 studies including 1485 chest radiographs, 215 abdominal radiographs and 57 computed tomography (CT) scans, of which 51 were thoracic CT scans, were analysed. The average cumulative radiation dose was 6.2 (0.04-25) mSv per CF patient. Cumulative radiation dose increased with increasing age and number of CT scans and was greater in children who presented with meconium ileus. No correlation was identified between cumulative radiation dose and either lung function or patient microbiology cultures. Radiation carries a risk of malignancy and children are particularly susceptible. Every effort must be made to avoid unnecessary radiation exposure in these patients whose life expectancy is increasing.

  17. A paradox of cumulative culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yutaka; Wakano, Joe Yuichiro; Ohtsuki, Hisashi

    2015-08-21

    Culture can grow cumulatively if socially learnt behaviors are improved by individual learning before being passed on to the next generation. Previous authors showed that this kind of learning strategy is unlikely to be evolutionarily stable in the presence of a trade-off between learning and reproduction. This is because culture is a public good that is freely exploited by any member of the population in their model (cultural social dilemma). In this paper, we investigate the effect of vertical transmission (transmission from parents to offspring), which decreases the publicness of culture, on the evolution of cumulative culture in both infinite and finite population models. In the infinite population model, we confirm that culture accumulates largely as long as transmission is purely vertical. It turns out, however, that introduction of even slight oblique transmission drastically reduces the equilibrium level of culture. Even more surprisingly, if the population size is finite, culture hardly accumulates even under purely vertical transmission. This occurs because stochastic extinction due to random genetic drift prevents a learning strategy from accumulating enough culture. Overall, our theoretical results suggest that introducing vertical transmission alone does not really help solve the cultural social dilemma problem. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Proof nets for display logic

    CERN Document Server

    Moot, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores several extensions of proof nets for the Lambek calculus in order to handle the different connectives of display logic in a natural way. The new proof net calculus handles some recent additions to the Lambek vocabulary such as Galois connections and Grishin interactions. It concludes with an exploration of the generative capacity of the Lambek-Grishin calculus, presenting an embedding of lexicalized tree adjoining grammars into the Lambek-Grishin calculus.

  19. Process of Petri Nets Extension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To describe the dynamic semantics for the network computing, the concept on process is presented based on the semantic model with variable, resource and relation. Accordingly, the formal definition of process and the mapping rules from the specification of Petri nets extension to process are discussed in detail respectively. Based on the collective concepts of process, the specification of dynamic semantics also is constructed as a net system. Finally, to illustrate process intuitively, an example is specified completely.

  20. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Rosener, B. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host na-net.ornl.gov'' at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message send index'' to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user's perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  1. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Rosener, B. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host ``na-net.ornl.gov`` at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message ``send index`` to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user`s perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  2. Cumulative Environmental Management Association : Wood Buffalo Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friesen, B. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    The recently announced oil sands development of the Wood Buffalo Region in Alberta was the focus of this power point presentation. Both mining and in situ development is expected to total $26 billion and 2.6 million barrels per day of bitumen production. This paper described the economic, social and environmental challenges facing the resource development of this region. In addition to the proposed oil sands projects, this region will accommodate the needs of conventional oil and gas production, forestry, building of pipelines and power lines, municipal development, recreation, tourism, mining exploration and open cast mining. The Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA) was inaugurated as a non-profit association in April 2000, and includes 41 members from all sectors. Its major role is to ensure a sustainable ecosystem and to avoid any cumulative impacts on wildlife. Other work underway includes the study of soil and plant species diversity, and the effects of air emissions on human health, wildlife and vegetation. The bioaccumulation of heavy metals and their impacts on surface water and fish is also under consideration to ensure the quality and quantity of surface water and ground water. 3 figs.

  3. Cumulative environmental management and the oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    In response to concerns regarding the cumulative environmental impacts of oil sands development within the Athabasca oil sands deposit, the government of Alberta established a Regional Sustainable Development Strategy (RSDS) to balance development with environmental protection. The environmental issues identified through the RSDS were addressed by the Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA). CEMA's boundary is the Wood Buffalo region of northeastern Alberta. It identifies existing and future environmental effects in the region and proposes recommendations to regulatory bodies for reducing environmental impacts associated with oil sands development. This presentation outlined some of the 55 stakeholder representatives of CEMA, including Alberta government departments associated with resource development, oil sand developers within the region, and Aboriginal communities and First Nations. These stakeholders provide input on sector priorities and agree on environmental thresholds. Established working groups also address technical and scientific research issues identified in the RSDS such as sustainable ecosystems; surface waters; trace metals and air contaminants; nitrogen oxides and sulphur dioxides; and land reclamation. To date, CEMA has submitted more than 50 reports and has made 4 major environmental recommendations for trace metal management, ecosystem management tools, a framework for acid deposition management, and a landscape design checklist. tabs., figs.

  4. Higher Order Cumulants in Colorless Partonic Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Cherif, S; Ladrem, M

    2016-01-01

    Any physical system considered to study the QCD deconfinement phase transition certainly has a finite volume, so the finite size effects are inevitably present. This renders the location of the phase transition and the determination of its order as an extremely difficult task, even in the simplest known cases. In order to identify and locate the colorless QCD deconfinement transition point in finite volume $T_{0}(V)$, a new approach based on the finite-size cumulant expansion of the order parameter and the $\\mathscr{L}_{m,n}$-Method is used.We have shown that both cumulants of higher order and their ratios, associated to the thermodynamical fluctuations of the order parameter, in QCD deconfinement phase transition behave in a particular enough way revealing pronounced oscillations in the transition region. The sign structure and the oscillatory behavior of these in the vicinity of the deconfinement phase transition point might be a sensitive probe and may allow one to elucidate their relation to the QCD phase...

  5. Understanding Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salom, Jaume; Widén, Joakim; Candanedo, José

    2011-01-01

    Although several alternative definitions exist, a Net-Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) can be succinctly described as a grid-connected building that generates as much energy as it uses over a year. The “net-zero” balance is attained by applying energy conservation and efficiency measures...... and by incorporating renewable energy systems. While based on annual balances, a complete description of a Net ZEB requires examining the system at smaller time-scales. This assessment should address: (a) the relationship between power generation and building loads and (b) the resulting interaction with the power grid....... This paper presents and categorizes quantitative indicators suitable to describe both aspects of the building’s performance. These indicators, named LMGI - Load Matching and Grid Interaction indicators, are easily quantifiable and could complement the output variables of existing building simulation tools...

  6. Understanding Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salom, Jaume; Widén, Joakim; Candanedo, José

    2011-01-01

    Although several alternative definitions exist, a Net-Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) can be succinctly described as a grid-connected building that generates as much energy as it uses over a year. The “net-zero” balance is attained by applying energy conservation and efficiency measures...... and by incorporating renewable energy systems. While based on annual balances, a complete description of a Net ZEB requires examining the system at smaller time-scales. This assessment should address: (a) the relationship between power generation and building loads and (b) the resulting interaction with the power grid....... This paper presents and categorizes quantitative indicators suitable to describe both aspects of the building’s performance. These indicators, named LMGI - Load Matching and Grid Interaction indicators, are easily quantifiable and could complement the output variables of existing building simulation tools...

  7. Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Net Ecosystem Carbon Flux is defined as the year-over-year change in Total Ecosystem Carbon Stock, or the net rate of carbon exchange between an ecosystem and the...

  8. Ion cumulation by conical cathode electrolysis.

    CERN Document Server

    Grishin, V G

    2002-01-01

    Results of solid-state sodium stearate electrolysis with conical and cylindrical cathodes is presented here. Both electric measurement and conical samples destruction can be explained if a stress developing inside the conical sample is much bigger than in the cylindrical case and there is its unlimited amplification along cone slopes. OTHER KEYWORDS: ion, current, solid, symmetry, cumulation, polarization, depolarization, ionic conductor,superionic conductor, ice, crystal, strain, V-center, V-centre, doped crystal, interstitial impurity, intrinsic color center, high pressure technology, Bridgman, anvil, experiment, crowdion, dielectric, proton, layer, defect, lattice, dynamics, electromigration, mobility, muon catalysis, concentration, doping, dopant, conductivity, pycnonuclear reaction, permittivity, dielectric constant, point defects, interstitials, polarizability, imperfection, defect centers, glass, epitaxy, sodium hydroxide, metallic substrate, crystallization, point, tip, susceptibility, ferroelectric, ...

  9. [Cumulative trauma disorders: work or professional disease?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Marcus Vitor Diniz; Cavalcanti, Francisco Ivo Dantas; Soriano, Evelyne Pessoa; de Miranda, Hênio Ferreira

    2009-06-01

    This study aimed at reviewing the Brazilian legislation applied to occupational health. It refers to the diseases embodied in the Repetition Strain Injury (RSI) and Cumulative Trauma Disorders (CTD) regarded as work or professional diseases. This analysis allowed to perform the historical evolution of legislation concerning the issue, noting that the state of the art of regulation on RSI-CTD is anchored in specific regulation present in the Normative Instruction 98/2003, that establishes the diagnostic criteria and classification of RSI-CTD. It was concluded that according to the existing legislation in Brazil, the pathologies related to RSI-CTD are considered as work diseases and their legal effects are similar to the work-related accidents.

  10. Professional Enterprise NET

    CERN Document Server

    Arking, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Comprehensive coverage to help experienced .NET developers create flexible, extensible enterprise application code If you're an experienced Microsoft .NET developer, you'll find in this book a road map to the latest enterprise development methodologies. It covers the tools you will use in addition to Visual Studio, including Spring.NET and nUnit, and applies to development with ASP.NET, C#, VB, Office (VBA), and database. You will find comprehensive coverage of the tools and practices that professional .NET developers need to master in order to build enterprise more flexible, testable, and ext

  11. Annotating Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Bo; Wells, Lisa Marie

    2002-01-01

    Coloured Petri nets (CP-nets) can be used for several fundamentally different purposes like functional analysis, performance analysis, and visualisation. To be able to use the corresponding tool extensions and libraries it is sometimes necessary to include extra auxiliary information in the CP-ne...... a certain use of the CP-net. We define the semantics of annotations by describing a translation from a CP-net and the corresponding annotation layers to another CP-net where the annotations are an integrated part of the CP-net....... a method which makes it possible to associate auxiliary information, called annotations, with tokens without modifying the colour sets of the CP-net. Annotations are pieces of information that are not essential for determining the behaviour of the system being modelled, but are rather added to support...

  12. Cumulative human impacts on marine predators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maxwell, Sara M; Hazen, Elliott L; Bograd, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Stressors associated with human activities interact in complex ways to affect marine ecosystems, yet we lack spatially explicit assessments of cumulative impacts on ecologically and economically key components such as marine predators. Here we develop a metric of cumulative utilization and impact...

  13. Analysis of sensory ratings data with cumulative link models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen; Brockhoff, Per B.

    2013-01-01

    Examples of categorical rating scales include discrete preference, liking and hedonic rating scales. Data obtained on these scales are often analyzed with normal linear regression methods or with omnibus Pearson chi2 tests. In this paper we propose to use cumulative link models that allow...... for regression methods similar to linear models while respecting the categorical nature of the observations. We describe how cumulative link models are related to the omnibus chi2 tests and how they can lead to more powerful tests in the non-replicated setting. For replicated categorical ratings data we present...... a quasi-likelihood approach and a mixed effects approach both being extensions of cumulative link models. We contrast population-average and subject-specific interpretations based on these models and discuss how different approaches lead to different tests. In replicated settings, naive tests that ignore...

  14. Session: What do we know about cumulative or population impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerlinger, Paul; Manville, Al; Kendall, Bill

    2004-09-01

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of a panel discussion followed by a discussion/question and answer period. The panelists were Paul Kerlinger, Curry and Kerlinger, LLC, Al Manville, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and Bill Kendall, US Geological Service. The panel addressed the potential cumulative impacts of wind turbines on bird and bat populations over time. Panel members gave brief presentations that touched on what is currently known, what laws apply, and the usefulness of population modeling. Topics addressed included which sources of modeling should be included in cumulative impacts, comparison of impacts from different modes of energy generation, as well as what research is still needed regarding cumulative impacts of wind energy development on bird and bat populations.

  15. Modeling of economic systems with Petri nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Valeryevich Skorodumov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Modeling is one of the most important tools to study complex systems. Components of both continuous and discrete nature are present in the behavior of contemporary economic systems. The article uses formalism of nested hybrid Petri nets as a tool to study complex economic systems. The author describes basic approaches of simulation modelling, concepts of classical Petri nets, modified means of nested hybrid Petri nets, benefits of their use for systems modeling. The article presents the concept of a universal system of simulation modeling. On the basis of considered approaches the article proposes to develop a universal system of simulation modeling on the basis of the modified machine Petri nets

  16. Cumulative assessment : Strategic choices to influence students' study effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerdijk, Wouter; Tio, Rene A.; Mulder, B. Florentine; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2013-01-01

    Background: It has been asserted that assessment can and should be used to drive students' learning. In the current study, we present a cumulative assessment program in which test planning, repeated testing and compensation are combined in order to influence study effort. The program is aimed at hel

  17. Sublogarithmic uniform Boolean proof nets

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, Clément

    2012-01-01

    Using a proofs-as-programs correspondence, Terui was able to compare two models of parallel computation: Boolean circuits and proof nets for multiplicative linear logic. Mogbil et. al. gave a logspace translation allowing us to compare their computational power as uniform complexity classes. This paper presents a novel translation in AC0 and focuses on a simpler restricted notion of uniform Boolean proof nets. We can then encode constant-depth circuits and compare complexity classes below logspace, which were out of reach with the previous translations.

  18. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes how Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets) have been developed — from being a promising theoretical model to being a full-fledged language for the design, specification, simulation, validation and implementation of large software systems (and other systems in which human beings and...... use of CP-nets — because it means that the function representation and the translations (which are a bit mathematically complex) no longer are parts of the basic definition of CP-nets. Instead they are parts of the invariant method (which anyway demands considerable mathematical skills...

  19. Programming NET Web Services

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Alex

    2007-01-01

    Web services are poised to become a key technology for a wide range of Internet-enabled applications, spanning everything from straight B2B systems to mobile devices and proprietary in-house software. While there are several tools and platforms that can be used for building web services, developers are finding a powerful tool in Microsoft's .NET Framework and Visual Studio .NET. Designed from scratch to support the development of web services, the .NET Framework simplifies the process--programmers find that tasks that took an hour using the SOAP Toolkit take just minutes. Programming .NET

  20. Game Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of game coloured Petri nets. This allows the modeler to explicitly model what parts of the model comprise the modeled system and what parts are the environment of the modeled system. We give the formal definition of game coloured Petri nets, a means of reachability...... analysis of this net class, and an application of game coloured Petri nets to automatically generate easy-to-understand visualizations of the model by exploiting the knowledge that some parts of the model are not interesting from a visualization perspective (i.e. they are part of the environment...

  1. Petri Nets in Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    A process language for security protocols is presented together with a semantics in terms of sets of events. The denotation of process is a set of events, and as each event specifies a set of pre and postconditions, this denotation can be viewed as a Petri net. By means of an example we illustrat...

  2. Nonlinear cumulative damage model for multiaxial fatigue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG De-guang; SUN Guo-qin; DENG Jing; YAN Chu-liang

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of the continuum fatigue damage theory,a nonlinear uniaxial fatigue cumulative damage model is first proposed.In order to describe multiaxial fatigue damage characteristics,a nonlinear multiaxial fatigue cumulative damage model is developed based on the critical plane approach,The proposed model can consider the multiaxial fatigue limit,mean hydrostatic pressure and the unseparated characteristic for the damage variables and loading parameters.The recurrence formula of fatigue damage model was derived under multilevel loading,which is used to predict multiaxial fatigue life.The results showed that the proposed nonlinear multiaxial fatigue cumulative damage model is better than Miner's rule.

  3. Discrete, Continuous, and Hybrid Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    David, Rene

    2010-01-01

    Petri Nets were introduced and still successfully used to analyze and model discrete event systems especially in engineering and computer sciences such as in automatic control. Recently this discrete Petri Nets formalism was successfully extended to continuous and hybrid systems. This monograph presents a well written and clearly organized introduction in the standard methods of Petri Nets with the aim to reach an accurate understanding of continuous and hybrid Petri Nets, while preserving the consistency of basic concepts throughout the book. The book is a monograph as well as a didactic tool

  4. Towards a Standard for Modular Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart; Petrucci, Laure

    2009-01-01

    When designing complex systems, mechanisms for structuring, composing, and reusing system components are crucial. Today, there are many approaches for equipping Petri nets with such mechanisms. In the context of defining a standard interchange format for Petri nets, modular PNML was defined....... Moreover, we present and discuss some more advanced features of modular Petri nets that could be included in the standard. This way, we provide a formal foundation and a basis for a discussion of features to be included in the upcoming standard of a module concept for Petri nets in general and for high...

  5. Baseline measures for net-proton distributions in high energy heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netrakanti, P. K.; Luo, X. F.; Mishra, D. K.; Mohanty, B.; Mohanty, A.; Xu, N.

    2016-03-01

    We report a systematic comparison of the recently measured cumulants of the net-proton distributions for 0-5% central Au + Au collisions in the first phase of the Beam Energy Scan (BES) Program at the Relativistic Heavy Collider facility to various kinds of possible baseline measures. These baseline measures correspond to an assumption that the proton and anti-proton distributions follow Poisson statistics, Binomial statistics, obtained from a transport model calculation and from a hadron resonance gas model. The higher order cumulant net-proton data for the center of mass energies (√{sNN}) of 19.6 and 27 GeV are observed to deviate from most of the baseline measures studied. The deviations are predominantly due to the difference in shape of the proton distributions between data and those obtained in the baseline measures. We also present a detailed study on the relevance of the independent production approach as a baseline for comparison with the measurements at various beam energies. Our studies point to the need of either more detailed baseline models for the experimental measurements or a description via QCD calculations in order to extract the exact physics process that leads to deviation of the data from the baselines presented.

  6. Cumulative cultural learning: Development and diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legare, Cristine H

    2017-07-24

    The complexity and variability of human culture is unmatched by any other species. Humans live in culturally constructed niches filled with artifacts, skills, beliefs, and practices that have been inherited, accumulated, and modified over generations. A causal account of the complexity of human culture must explain its distinguishing characteristics: It is cumulative and highly variable within and across populations. I propose that the psychological adaptations supporting cumulative cultural transmission are universal but are sufficiently flexible to support the acquisition of highly variable behavioral repertoires. This paper describes variation in the transmission practices (teaching) and acquisition strategies (imitation) that support cumulative cultural learning in childhood. Examining flexibility and variation in caregiver socialization and children's learning extends our understanding of evolution in living systems by providing insight into the psychological foundations of cumulative cultural transmission-the cornerstone of human cultural diversity.

  7. Continuously Cumulating Meta-Analysis and Replicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braver, Sanford L; Thoemmes, Felix J; Rosenthal, Robert

    2014-05-01

    The current crisis in scientific psychology about whether our findings are irreproducible was presaged years ago by Tversky and Kahneman (1971), who noted that even sophisticated researchers believe in the fallacious Law of Small Numbers-erroneous intuitions about how imprecisely sample data reflect population phenomena. Combined with the low power of most current work, this often leads to the use of misleading criteria about whether an effect has replicated. Rosenthal (1990) suggested more appropriate criteria, here labeled the continuously cumulating meta-analytic (CCMA) approach. For example, a CCMA analysis on a replication attempt that does not reach significance might nonetheless provide more, not less, evidence that the effect is real. Alternatively, measures of heterogeneity might show that two studies that differ in whether they are significant might have only trivially different effect sizes. We present a nontechnical introduction to the CCMA framework (referencing relevant software), and then explain how it can be used to address aspects of replicability or more generally to assess quantitative evidence from numerous studies. We then present some examples and simulation results using the CCMA approach that show how the combination of evidence can yield improved results over the consideration of single studies.

  8. A bivariate optimal replacement policy with cumulative repair cost limit under cumulative damage model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MIN-T SAI LAI; SHIH-CHIH CHEN

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a bivariate replacement policy (n, T) for a cumulative shock damage process is presented that included the concept of cumulative repair cost limit. The arrival shocks can be divided into two kinds of shocks. Each type-I shock causes a random amount of damage and these damages are additive. When the total damage exceeds a failure level, the system goes into serious failure. Type-II shock causes the system into minor failure and such a failure can be corrected by minimal repair. When a minor failure occurs, the repaircost will be evaluated and minimal repair is executed if the accumulated repair cost is less than a predetermined limit L. The system is replaced at scheduled time T, at n-th minor failure, or at serious failure. The long-term expected cost per unit time is derived using the expected costs as the optimality criterion. The minimum-cost policy is derived, and existence and uniqueness of the optimal n* and T* are proved. This bivariate optimal replacement policy (n, T) is showed to be better than the optimal T* and the optimal n* policy.

  9. Kunstige neurale net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørning, Annette

    1994-01-01

    Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse.......Artiklen beskæftiger sig med muligheden for at anvende kunstige neurale net i forbindelse med datamatisk procession af naturligt sprog, specielt automatisk talegenkendelse....

  10. SolNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Ulrike; Vajen, Klaus; Bales, Chris;

    2014-01-01

    SolNet, founded in 2006, is the first coordinated International PhD education program on Solar Thermal Engineering. The SolNet network is coordinated by the Institute of Thermal Engineering at Kassel University, Germany. The network offers PhD courses on solar heating and cooling, conference...

  11. Net zero water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lindeque, M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Is it possible to develop a building that uses a net zero amount of water? In recent years it has become evident that it is possible to have buildings that use a net zero amount of electricity. This is possible when the building is taken off...

  12. Calculating Cumulative Binomial-Distribution Probabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuer, Ernest M.; Bowerman, Paul N.

    1989-01-01

    Cumulative-binomial computer program, CUMBIN, one of set of three programs, calculates cumulative binomial probability distributions for arbitrary inputs. CUMBIN, NEWTONP (NPO-17556), and CROSSER (NPO-17557), used independently of one another. Reliabilities and availabilities of k-out-of-n systems analyzed. Used by statisticians and users of statistical procedures, test planners, designers, and numerical analysts. Used for calculations of reliability and availability. Program written in C.

  13. A NET Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thea eLu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils constitute a critical part of innate immunity and are well known for their ability to phagocytose and kill invading microorganisms. The microbicidal processes employed by neutrophils are highly effective at killing most ingested bacteria and fungi. However, an alternative non-phagocytic antimicrobial mechanism of neutrophils has been proposed whereby microorganisms are eliminated by neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs. NETs are comprised of DNA, histones, and antimicrobial proteins extruded by neutrophils during NETosis, a cell death pathway reported to be distinct from apoptosis, phagocytosis-induced cell death, and necrosis. Although multiple laboratories have reported NETs using various stimuli in vitro, the molecular mechanisms involved in this process have yet to be definitively elucidated, and many questions regarding the formation and putative role or function of NETs in innate host defense remain unanswered. It is with these questions in mind that we provide some reflection and perspective on NETs and NETosis.

  14. Cumulative cultural evolution: the role of teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Laureano; Toro, Miguel A

    2014-04-21

    In humans, cultural transmission occurs usually by cumulative inheritance, generating complex adaptive behavioral features. Cumulative culture requires key psychological processes (fundamentally imitation and teaching) that are absent or impoverished in non-human primates. In this paper we analyze the role that teaching has played in human cumulative cultural evolution. We assume that a system of cumulative culture generates increasingly adaptive behaviors, that are also more complex and difficult to imitate. Our thesis is that, as cultural traits become more complex, cumulative cultural transmission requires teaching to ensure accurate transmission from one generation to the next. In an increasingly complex cultural environment, we consider that individuals commit errors in imitation. We develop a model of cumulative cultural evolution in a changing environment and show that these errors hamper the process of cultural accumulation. We also show that a system of teaching between parents and offspring that increases the fidelity of imitation unblocks the accumulation and becomes adaptive whenever the gain in fitness compensates the cost of teaching.

  15. Human cumulative culture: a comparative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Lewis G; Vale, Gill L; Laland, Kevin N; Flynn, Emma; Kendal, Rachel L

    2014-05-01

    Many animals exhibit social learning and behavioural traditions, but human culture exhibits unparalleled complexity and diversity, and is unambiguously cumulative in character. These similarities and differences have spawned a debate over whether animal traditions and human culture are reliant on homologous or analogous psychological processes. Human cumulative culture combines high-fidelity transmission of cultural knowledge with beneficial modifications to generate a 'ratcheting' in technological complexity, leading to the development of traits far more complex than one individual could invent alone. Claims have been made for cumulative culture in several species of animals, including chimpanzees, orangutans and New Caledonian crows, but these remain contentious. Whilst initial work on the topic of cumulative culture was largely theoretical, employing mathematical methods developed by population biologists, in recent years researchers from a wide range of disciplines, including psychology, biology, economics, biological anthropology, linguistics and archaeology, have turned their attention to the experimental investigation of cumulative culture. We review this literature, highlighting advances made in understanding the underlying processes of cumulative culture and emphasising areas of agreement and disagreement amongst investigators in separate fields.

  16. Cumulants of multiplicity distributions in most-central heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hao-jie

    2016-11-01

    I investigate the volume corrections on cumulants of total charge distributions and net proton distributions. The required volume information is generated by an optical Glauber model. I find that the corrected statistical expectations of multiplicity distributions mimic the negative binomial distributions at noncentral collisions, and they tend to approach the Poisson ones at most-central collisions due to the "boundary effects," which suppress the volume corrections. However, net proton distributions and reference multiplicity distributions are sensitive to the external volume fluctuations at most-central collisions, which imply that one has to consider the details of volume distributions in event-by-event multiplicity fluctuation studies.

  17. Cumulative Effect of Depression on Dementia Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Olazarán

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze a potential cumulative effect of life-time depression on dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD, with control of vascular factors (VFs. Methods. This study was a subanalysis of the Neurological Disorders in Central Spain (NEDICES study. Past and present depression, VFs, dementia status, and dementia due to AD were documented at study inception. Dementia status was also documented after three years. Four groups were created according to baseline data: never depression (nD, past depression (pD, present depression (prD, and present and past depression (prpD. Logistic regression was used. Results. Data of 1,807 subjects were investigated at baseline (mean age 74.3, 59.3% women, and 1,376 (81.6% subjects were evaluated after three years. The prevalence of dementia at baseline was 6.7%, and dementia incidence was 6.3%. An effect of depression was observed on dementia prevalence (OR [CI 95%] 1.84 [1.01–3.35] for prD and 2.73 [1.08–6.87] for prpD, and on dementia due to AD (OR 1.98 [0.98–3.99] for prD and OR 3.98 [1.48–10.71] for prpD (fully adjusted models, nD as reference. Depression did not influence dementia incidence. Conclusions. Present depression and, particularly, present and past depression are associated with dementia at old age. Multiple mechanisms, including toxic effect of depression on hippocampal neurons, plausibly explain these associations.

  18. Link-Net : improving railcar fleet management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancini, G.; Partington, M. [Procor Limited, Oakville, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    Information about Link-Net, a new rail car information facility available on Netscape, was presented. Link-Net was developed by Ontario`s Procor Limited. It can be used to find a comprehensive list of data on rail fleet management, down to details about the status of single cars. 6 figs.

  19. Asynchronous stream processing with S-Net

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grelck, C.; Scholz, S.-B.; Shafarenko, A.

    2010-01-01

    We present the rationale and design of S-Net, a coordination language for asynchronous stream processing. The language achieves a near-complete separation between the application code, written in any conventional programming language, and the coordination/communication code written in S-Net. Our app

  20. NASA Net Zero Energy Buildings Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pless, S.; Scheib, J.; Torcellini, P.; Hendron, B.; Slovensky, M.

    2014-10-01

    In preparation for the time-phased net zero energy requirement for new federal buildings starting in 2020, set forth in Executive Order 13514, NASA requested that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a roadmap for NASA's compliance. NASA detailed a Statement of Work that requested information on strategic, organizational, and tactical aspects of net zero energy buildings. In response, this document presents a high-level approach to net zero energy planning, design, construction, and operations, based on NREL's first-hand experience procuring net zero energy construction, and based on NREL and other industry research on net zero energy feasibility. The strategic approach to net zero energy starts with an interpretation of the executive order language relating to net zero energy. Specifically, this roadmap defines a net zero energy acquisition process as one that sets an aggressive energy use intensity goal for the building in project planning, meets the reduced demand goal through energy efficiency strategies and technologies, then adds renewable energy in a prioritized manner, using building-associated, emission- free sources first, to offset the annual energy use required at the building; the net zero energy process extends through the life of the building, requiring a balance of energy use and production in each calendar year.

  1. Variable cultural acquisition costs constrain cumulative cultural evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Mesoudi

    Full Text Available One of the hallmarks of the human species is our capacity for cumulative culture, in which beneficial knowledge and technology is accumulated over successive generations. Yet previous analyses of cumulative cultural change have failed to consider the possibility that as cultural complexity accumulates, it becomes increasingly costly for each new generation to acquire from the previous generation. In principle this may result in an upper limit on the cultural complexity that can be accumulated, at which point accumulated knowledge is so costly and time-consuming to acquire that further innovation is not possible. In this paper I first review existing empirical analyses of the history of science and technology that support the possibility that cultural acquisition costs may constrain cumulative cultural evolution. I then present macroscopic and individual-based models of cumulative cultural evolution that explore the consequences of this assumption of variable cultural acquisition costs, showing that making acquisition costs vary with cultural complexity causes the latter to reach an upper limit above which no further innovation can occur. These models further explore the consequences of different cultural transmission rules (directly biased, indirectly biased and unbiased transmission, population size, and cultural innovations that themselves reduce innovation or acquisition costs.

  2. Pro NET Best Practices

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchie, Stephen D

    2011-01-01

    Pro .NET Best Practices is a practical reference to the best practices that you can apply to your .NET projects today. You will learn standards, techniques, and conventions that are sharply focused, realistic and helpful for achieving results, steering clear of unproven, idealistic, and impractical recommendations. Pro .NET Best Practices covers a broad range of practices and principles that development experts agree are the right ways to develop software, which includes continuous integration, automated testing, automated deployment, and code analysis. Whether the solution is from a free and

  3. Getting to Net Zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-01

    The technology necessary to build net zero energy buildings (NZEBs) is ready and available today, however, building to net zero energy performance levels can be challenging. Energy efficiency measures, onsite energy generation resources, load matching and grid interaction, climatic factors, and local policies vary from location to location and require unique methods of constructing NZEBs. It is recommended that Components start looking into how to construct and operate NZEBs now as there is a learning curve to net zero construction and FY 2020 is just around the corner.

  4. Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Musall, Eike

    2010-01-01

    The international cooperation project IEA SHC Task 40 / ECBCS Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, attempts to develop a common understanding and to set up the basis for an international definition framework of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs). The understanding of such buildings...... and identify possible renewable energy supply options which may be considered in calculations. Finally, the gap between the methodology proposed by each organisation and their respective national building code is assessed; providing an overview of the possible changes building codes will need to undergo...

  5. Predicting Cumulative Incidence Probability by Direct Binomial Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas H.; Zhang, Mei-Jie

    Binomial modelling; cumulative incidence probability; cause-specific hazards; subdistribution hazard......Binomial modelling; cumulative incidence probability; cause-specific hazards; subdistribution hazard...

  6. RadNet Air Data From Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Chicago, IL from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  7. RadNet Air Data From Aurora, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Aurora, IL from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  8. RadNet Air Data From Champaign, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Champaign, ILfrom EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  9. RadNet Air Data From Little Rock, AR

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Little Rock, AR from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  10. RadNet Air Data From Fort Worth, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Fort Worth, TX from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  11. RadNet Air Data From Navajo Lake, NM

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Navajo Lake, NM from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  12. RadNet Air Data From San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for San Diego, CA from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  13. RadNet Air Data From Idaho Falls, ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Idaho Falls, ID from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  14. Cumulative second-harmonic generation of Lamb waves propagating in a two-layered solid plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Yan-Xun; Deng Ming-Xi

    2008-01-01

    The physical process of cumulative second-harmonic generation of Lamb waves propagating in a two-layered solid plate is presented by using the second-order perturbation and the technique of nonlinear reflection of acoustic waves at an interface.In general,the cumulative second-harmonic generation of a dispersive guided wave propagation does not occur.However,the present paper shows that the second-harmonic of Lamb wave propagation arising from the nonlinear interaction of the partial bulk acoustic waves and the restriction of the three boundaries of the solid plates does have a cumulative growth effect if some conditions are satisfied.Through boundary condition and initial condition of excitation,the analytical expression of cumulative second-harmonic of Lamb waves propagation is determined.Numerical results show the cumulative effect of Lamb waves on second-harmonic field patterns.

  15. Expansion Nets and Expansion Processes of Elementary Net Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹存根

    1995-01-01

    Occurrence nets are insufficient to precisely describe executions of elementary net systems with contacts.Traditionally,S-complementation is used for removal of contacts from the systems.Although the main behavior and properties of the original elementary net systems are preserved during S-complementation,their topologies may be changed greatly.This paper introduces a new kind of nets-expansion nets-for representing behavior of elementary net systems.As shown in the paper,expansion nets are natural as well as sufficient for describing the precise behavior of elementary net systems with or without contactks.

  16. PhysioNet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The PhysioNet Resource is intended to stimulate current research and new investigations in the study of complex biomedical and physiologic signals. It offers free...

  17. Global Patterns in Human Consumption of Net Primary Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, Marc L.; Bounoua, Lahouari; Ricketts, Taylor; Loucks, Colby; Harriss, Robert; Lawrence William T.

    2004-01-01

    The human population and its consumption profoundly affect the Earth's ecosystems. A particularly compelling measure of humanity's cumulative impact is the fraction of the planet's net primary production that we appropriate for our Net primary production-the net amount of solar energy converted to plant organic matter through photosynthesis-can be measured in units of elemental carbon and represents the primary food energy source for the world's ecosystems. Human appropriation of net primary production, apart from leaving less for other species to use, alters the composition of the atmosphere, levels of biodiversity, flows within food webs and the provision of important primary production required by humans and compare it to the total amount generated on the landscape. We then derive a spatial ba!mce sheet of net primary production supply and demand for the world. We show that human appropriation of net primary production varies spatially from almost zero to many times the local primary production. These analyses reveal the uneven footprint of human consumption and related environmental impacts, indicate the degree to which human populations depend on net primary production "imports" and suggest policy options for slowing future growth of human appropriation of net primary production.

  18. 农村居民家庭经营纯收入现状及影响因素分析%Analysis of Present Situation and Influencing Factors of Rural Residents'Net Income in Family Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季鹏

    2015-01-01

    This paper takes the rural residents'net income in family management from 1985 to 2012 as explanatory variables and selects 5 relevant explanatory variables to establish time series model using stepwise regression and multiple linear regression .The analysis shows that rural residents 'private investment in fixed assets , family management costs and total power of farm machinery have a significant influence on their net income .And rural residents'private investment in fixed assets and family management costs have positive influence ,while total power of farm machinery has a negative influence on their net income due to its return delay .Accordingly ,the problems of increasing farmers'income are summarized and relevant suggestions are put forward .%以1985-2012年农村居民家庭经营纯收入为被解释变量,选取5个相关解释变量建立时间序列模型,采用逐步回归和多元线性回归方法进行分析。结果显示,农村家庭个人固定资产投资、家庭经营费用和农用机械总动力对其有显著影响,其中农村家庭个人固定资产投资和家庭经营费用呈正向影响,农用机械总动力由于投入后回报时滞呈负向影响。针对这一结果,总结了农民增收存在的问题并提出相关建议。

  19. Programming NET 35

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Bestselling author Jesse Liberty and industry expert Alex Horovitz uncover the common threads that unite the .NET 3.5 technologies, so you can benefit from the best practices and architectural patterns baked into the new Microsoft frameworks. The book offers a Grand Tour" of .NET 3.5 that describes how the principal technologies can be used together, with Ajax, to build modern n-tier and service-oriented applications. "

  20. Game Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of game coloured Petri nets. This allows the modeler to explicitly model what parts of the model comprise the modeled system and what parts are the environment of the modeled system. We give the formal definition of game coloured Petri nets, a means of reachabilit......, and not controllable by the system itself, or they are part of the system itself and therefore we need not worry about them)....

  1. Behavior Relativity of Petri Nets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋昌俊; 王怀清; 廖少毅

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a novel methodology for modelling and analyzing of behav-ior relations of concurrent systems. The set of all firing sequences of a Petri net is an importanttool for describing the dynamic behavior of concurrent systems. In this paper, the behaviorrelativity of two concurrent subsystems in their synchronous composition is presented. Such be-havior relativities, including Controlled Relativity, United Relativity, Interactive Relativity andExclusive Relativity, are defined respectively. The properties of the relativities are discussed indetail. The analysis method for these properties is based on minimum T-invariants, when twosubsystems are live bounded Petri nets. A well-known example has also been analyaed usingthe new methodology to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed methodology.

  2. Cumulative Culture and Future Thinking: Is Mental Time Travel a Prerequisite to Cumulative Cultural Evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, G. L.; Flynn, E. G.; Kendal, R. L.

    2012-01-01

    Cumulative culture denotes the, arguably, human capacity to build on the cultural behaviors of one's predecessors, allowing increases in cultural complexity to occur such that many of our cultural artifacts, products and technologies have progressed beyond what a single individual could invent alone. This process of cumulative cultural evolution…

  3. Net Charge Fluctuation and String Fragmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SABen-Hao; CAIXu; TAIAn; ZHOUDai-Mei

    2004-01-01

    We present the simulation results of the net charge fluctuation in Au+Au collisions at √Snn=130 GeV from a dynamic model, JPCIAE, and its revisions. The simulations are done for the quark-gluon matter, the directly produced pions, the pion matter, and the hadron matter. The simulated net charge fluctuation of the quark-gluon matter is close to the thermal model prediction for the quark-gluon gas. However, the discrepancy exists comparing the simulated net charge fluctuation for directly produced pions and the pion matter with the thermal model prediction for pion gas and the resonance pion gas, respectively. The net charge fluctuation of hadron matter from default JPCIAE simulations is nearly 3.5 times larger than quark-gluon matter. A discussion is given for the net charge fluctuation as an evidence of QGP phase transition.

  4. Global net land carbon sink: Results from the Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntzinger, D. N.; Schwalm, C. R.; Michalak, A. M.; Cook, R. B.; Jacobson, A. R.; Schaefer, K. M.; Dasgupta, A.; Poco, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Multi-scale Synthesis and Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP) is a formal model intercomparison effort focused on improving the diagnosis and attribution of carbon exchange at regional and global scales. Here we present results from the terrestrial biospheric models participating in the MsTMIP effort, focusing on global and regional model estimates of the net land carbon sink. When compared to estimates of the residual net land sink inferred from atmospheric CO2 observations (i.e., fossil fuel emission + land use land cover change - atmospheric increase - ocean uptake), MsTMIP models predict, on average, a weaker global net land uptake of carbon. There is a large spread in MsTMIP estimates of the net land sink (e.g., -2.5 to 5.0 Pg C/yr in 2010, where a negative flux represents a net release to the atmosphere). Some models consistently show the land surface as a net source of carbon to the atmosphere, which is inconsistent with the atmospheric record. In addition, we examine how model estimates of the cumulative global net sink diverge over the period 1900 to 2010, and the degree to which model sensitivity to forcing factors and fundamental differences in model formulation contribute to this divergence. We link differences in estimates of the cumulative land sink back to each model's sensitivity to key forcing factors including climate variability, CO2 fertilization, nitrogen limitation, and land cover / land-use change. For example, the strength of carbon uptake in most models appears to be strongly coupled with atmospheric CO2 concentrations (CO2 fertilization effect). The strength of this relationship, however, varies across models with some models exhibiting a very strong CO2 fertilization effect (e.g., ORCHIDEE), while others not so (e.g., CLM). To inform the comparison across models, structural differences (i.e., which processes are included and how those processes are parameterized) among the participating models are evaluated using hierarchical

  5. Analysis of technologies for natural gas transportation in Brazil: results comparison of the application of payback and NPV (Net Present Value) methods; Analise de tecnologias de transporte de gas natural no Brasil: comparacao dos resultados da aplicacao dos metodos 'payback' e VPL (Valor Presente Liquido)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baioco, Juliana Souza; Santarem, Clarissa Andrade [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo; Bone, Rosemarie Broeker; Ferreira Filho, Virgilio Jose Martins [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Industrial

    2008-07-01

    The increased demand for natural gas leads to global integration of markets, leading to decisions that cover the various technologies of transportation, noting the specific locations. The transport of natural gas considered more traditional (Liquefied Natural Gas and Pipeline) often unviable economically areas of operation due to cost. In this case, there are alternative technologies to reduce those costs. The article is to compare the technologies of transport, using the methodology of the Net Present Value (VPL) to identify one that has more positive VPL, which is the most profitable. Thus, in search of validate the results of SUBERO et al. (2004) for gas transport by Pipelines, Liquefied Natural Gas and Compressed Natural Gas. In addition, they are compared these results with the method of VPL and with the economic analysis presented in using the payback period of CHANG (2001) and SANTAREM et al. (2007). It was found that the results obtained in Brazil were identical to those obtained by CHANG (2001) and SUBERO et al. (2007), saving only some differences in magnitude due to the specific characteristics of the Brazilian economy. In other words, for the Brazilian case, the technology of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) was the most economically viable with the method of VPL, followed by technology, Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), regardless of the interest rates of 10% and 6.5% and periods of 20 and 30 years. The contribution of this work is to show that despite of the method, payback or VPL, the various alternatives for transporting natural gas to Brazil have the same ranking and economic viability. (author)

  6. Is cumulated pyrethroid exposure associated with prediabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Rune; Jørs, Erik; Lander, Flemming;

    2014-01-01

    , cumulative exposure) was assessed from questionnaire data. Participants were asked about symptoms of diabetes. Blood samples were analyzed for glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), a measure of glucose regulation. No association was found between pyrethroid exposure and diabetes symptoms. The prevalence...

  7. Cumulative Disadvantage among the Highly Ambitious.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Katherine

    1990-01-01

    Using a social reproduction theory framework, analyzes the process by which high school seniors aspiring to high-level positions are sorted out after graduation. Analyzes early educational attainments and changes in occupational expectations. Shows a process of cumulative disadvantage in which White males are more likely to achieve their goals.…

  8. Cumulative Disadvantage among the Highly Ambitious.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Katherine

    1990-01-01

    Using a social reproduction theory framework, analyzes the process by which high school seniors aspiring to high-level positions are sorted out after graduation. Analyzes early educational attainments and changes in occupational expectations. Shows a process of cumulative disadvantage in which White males are more likely to achieve their goals.…

  9. Cumulants and Correlation Functions vs the QCD phase diagram

    CERN Document Server

    Bzdak, Adam; Strodthoff, Nils

    2016-01-01

    In this note we discuss the relation of particle number cumulants and correlation functions related to them. It is argued that measuring couplings of the genuine correlation functions could provide cleaner information on possible non-trivial dynamics in heavy-ion collisions. We extract integrated multi-particle correlation functions from the presently available experimental data on proton cumulants. We find that the STAR data contain significant four-particle correlations, at least at the lower energies, with indication of changing dynamics in central collisions. We also find that these correlations are rather long-ranged in rapidity. Finally based on the signs of genuine correlation functions we provide exclusion plots for the QCD phase diagram.

  10. Complexity Metrics for Workflow Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; van der Aalst, Wil M.P.

    2009-01-01

    , etc. It seems obvious that the complexity of the model contributes to design errors and a lack of understanding. It is not easy to measure complexity, however. This paper presents three complexity metrics that have been implemented in the process analysis tool ProM. The metrics are defined...... analysts have difficulties grasping the dynamics implied by a process model. Recent empirical studies show that people make numerous errors when modeling complex business processes, e.g., about 20 percent of the EPCs in the SAP reference model have design flaws resulting in potential deadlocks, livelocks...... for a subclass of Petri nets named Workflow nets, but the results can easily be applied to other languages. To demonstrate the applicability of these metrics, we have applied our approach and tool to 262 relatively complex Protos models made in the context of various student projects. This allows us to validate...

  11. Multiway Filtering Based on Fourth-Order Cumulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Bourennane

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new multiway filtering based on fourth-order cumulants for the denoising of noisy data tensor with correlated Gaussian noise. The classical multiway filtering is based on the TUCKALS3 algorithm that computes a lower-rank tensor approximation. The presented method relies on the statistics of the analyzed multicomponent signal. We first recall how the well-known lower rank-(K1,…,KN tensor approximation processed by TUCKALS3 alternating least square algorithm exploits second-order statistics. Then, we propose to introduce the fourth-order statistics in the TUCKALS3-based method. Indeed, the use of fourth-order cumulants enables to remove the Gaussian components of an additive noise. In the presented method the estimation of the n-mode projector on the n-mode signal subspace are built from the eigenvectors associated with the largest eigenvalues of a fourth-order cumulant slice matrix instead of a covariance matrix. Each projector is applied by means of the n-mode product operator on the n-mode of the data tensor. The qualitative results of the improved multiway TUCKALS3-based filterings are shown for the case of noise reduction in a color image and multicomponent seismic data.

  12. Net Neutrality: Media Discourses and Public Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Quail

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes media and public discourses surrounding net neutrality, with particular attention to public utility philosophy, from a critical perspective. The article suggests that further public education about net neutrality would be beneficial. The first portion of this paper provides a survey of the existing literature surrounding net neutrality, highlighting the contentious debate between market-based and public interest perspectives. In order to contextualize the debate, an overview of public utility philosophy is provided, shedding light on how the Internet can be conceptualized as a public good. Following this discussion, an analysis of mainstream media is presented, exploring how the media represents the issue of net neutrality and whether or not the Internet is discussed through the lens of public utility. To further examine how the net neutrality debate is being addressed, and to see the potential impacts of media discourses on the general public, the results of a focus group are reported and analyzed. Finally, a discussion assesses the implications of the net neutrality debate as presented through media discourses, highlighting the future of net neutrality as an important policy issue.

  13. Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    1991-01-01

    use of CP-nets — because it means that the function representation and the translations (which are a bit mathematically complex) no longer are parts of the basic definition of CP-nets. Instead they are parts of the invariant method (which anyway demands considerable mathematical skills...... the different kinds of analysis. It has, however, turned out that it only is necessary to turn to functions when we deal with invariant analysis, and this means that we now use the expression representation for all purposes — except for the calculation of invariants. This change is important for the practical...

  14. Biological Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Wingender, E

    2011-01-01

    It was suggested some years ago that Petri nets might be well suited to modeling metabolic networks, overcoming some of the limitations encountered by the use of systems employing ODEs (ordinary differential equations). Much work has been done since then which confirms this and demonstrates the usefulness of this concept for systems biology. Petri net technology is not only intuitively understood by scientists trained in the life sciences, it also has a robust mathematical foundation and provides the required degree of flexibility. As a result it appears to be a very promising approach to mode

  15. News from KM3NeT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, Ulrich F., E-mail: katz@physik.uni-erlangen.de [Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics (Germany); Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    KM3NeT is a future research infrastructure in the Mediterranean Sea, hosting a multi-cubic-kilometre neutrino telescope and nodes for Earth and Sea sciences. In this report we shortly summarise the genesis of the KM3NeT project and present key elements of its technical design. The physics objectives of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope and some selected sensitivity estimates are discussed. Finally, some first results from prototype operations and the next steps towards implementation – in particular the first construction phase in 2014/15 – are described.

  16. Application and Theory of Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 13th International Conference onApplication and Theory of Petri Nets, held in Sheffield, England, in June 1992. The aim of the Petri net conferences is to create a forum for discussing progress in the application and theory of Petri nets. Typically, the....... Balbo and W. Reisig, 18 submitted papers, and seven project papers. The submitted papers and project presentations were selectedby the programme committee and a panel of referees from a large number of submissions....

  17. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A cumulative index to the 1980 issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    A cumulative index to the abstracts contained in the Supplements 203 through 214 of Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography is presented. It includes three indexes--subject, personal author, and corporate source.

  18. Hysteretic Behavior of Tubular Steel Braces Having Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Reinforcement Around End Net Sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Haydaroğlu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an experimental investigation into the seismic retrofit of tubular steel braces using carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP members. CFRP retrofitting of net sections for compact tubes are proposed for delaying potential local net section failure. A total of almost full-scale three (TB-1, TB-2, and TB-3 compact steel tubular specimens were designed per AISC specifications, constructed, and cyclically tested to fracture. Retrofitted braces, when compared to the reference specimen, developed fuller hysteretic curves. Increase in cumulative hysteretic energy dissipation and the elongation in fracture life in the specimen retrofitted with CFRP plates and CFRP sheet wraps at net sections are observed during testing. This resulted in a maximum of 82.5% more dissipated energy for compact tube specimens. Also, this retrofit provided a longer experimental fracture life (maximum 59% more. Due to fracture initiation during the last cycles, significant reductions in strength and stiffness have been obtained. No significant change (maximum 10% in the brace stiffness was observed, which could be desirable in seismic retrofit applications. Pushover analysis per FEMA 356 for the bare specimen shows that FEMA does not represent actual brace behavior in the compression side although pushover and experimental results are in good agreement in the tension side.

  19. Cumulative Risk Assessment Toolbox: Methods and Approaches for the Practitioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret M. MacDonell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The historical approach to assessing health risks of environmental chemicals has been to evaluate them one at a time. In fact, we are exposed every day to a wide variety of chemicals and are increasingly aware of potential health implications. Although considerable progress has been made in the science underlying risk assessments for real-world exposures, implementation has lagged because many practitioners are unaware of methods and tools available to support these analyses. To address this issue, the US Environmental Protection Agency developed a toolbox of cumulative risk resources for contaminated sites, as part of a resource document that was published in 2007. This paper highlights information for nearly 80 resources from the toolbox and provides selected updates, with practical notes for cumulative risk applications. Resources are organized according to the main elements of the assessment process: (1 planning, scoping, and problem formulation; (2 environmental fate and transport; (3 exposure analysis extending to human factors; (4 toxicity analysis; and (5 risk and uncertainty characterization, including presentation of results. In addition to providing online access, plans for the toolbox include addressing nonchemical stressors and applications beyond contaminated sites and further strengthening resource accessibility to support evolving analyses for cumulative risk and sustainable communities.

  20. Cumulative Risk Assessment Toolbox: Methods and Approaches for the Practitioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonell, Margaret M.; Haroun, Lynne A.; Teuschler, Linda K.; Rice, Glenn E.; Hertzberg, Richard C.; Butler, James P.; Chang, Young-Soo; Clark, Shanna L.; Johns, Alan P.; Perry, Camarie S.; Garcia, Shannon S.; Jacobi, John H.; Scofield, Marcienne A.

    2013-01-01

    The historical approach to assessing health risks of environmental chemicals has been to evaluate them one at a time. In fact, we are exposed every day to a wide variety of chemicals and are increasingly aware of potential health implications. Although considerable progress has been made in the science underlying risk assessments for real-world exposures, implementation has lagged because many practitioners are unaware of methods and tools available to support these analyses. To address this issue, the US Environmental Protection Agency developed a toolbox of cumulative risk resources for contaminated sites, as part of a resource document that was published in 2007. This paper highlights information for nearly 80 resources from the toolbox and provides selected updates, with practical notes for cumulative risk applications. Resources are organized according to the main elements of the assessment process: (1) planning, scoping, and problem formulation; (2) environmental fate and transport; (3) exposure analysis extending to human factors; (4) toxicity analysis; and (5) risk and uncertainty characterization, including presentation of results. In addition to providing online access, plans for the toolbox include addressing nonchemical stressors and applications beyond contaminated sites and further strengthening resource accessibility to support evolving analyses for cumulative risk and sustainable communities. PMID:23762048

  1. 4D Near-Field Source Localization Using Cumulant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Feng

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new cumulant-based algorithm to jointly estimate four-dimensional (4D source parameters of multiple near-field narrowband sources. Firstly, this approach proposes a new cross-array, and constructs five high-dimensional Toeplitz matrices using the fourth-order cumulants of some properly chosen sensor outputs; secondly, it forms a parallel factor (PARAFAC model in the cumulant domain using these matrices, and analyzes the unique low-rank decomposition of this model; thirdly, it jointly estimates the frequency, two-dimensional (2D directions-of-arrival (DOAs, and range of each near-field source from the matrices via the low-rank three-way array (TWA decomposition. In comparison with some available methods, the proposed algorithm, which efficiently makes use of the array aperture, can localize sources using sensors. In addition, it requires neither pairing parameters nor multidimensional search. Simulation results are presented to validate the performance of the proposed method.

  2. 4D Near-Field Source Localization Using Cumulant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junying Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new cumulant-based algorithm to jointly estimate four-dimensional (4D source parameters of multiple near-field narrowband sources. Firstly, this approach proposes a new cross-array, and constructs five high-dimensional Toeplitz matrices using the fourth-order cumulants of some properly chosen sensor outputs; secondly, it forms a parallel factor (PARAFAC model in the cumulant domain using these matrices, and analyzes the unique low-rank decomposition of this model; thirdly, it jointly estimates the frequency, two-dimensional (2D directions-of-arrival (DOAs, and range of each near-field source from the matrices via the low-rank three-way array (TWA decomposition. In comparison with some available methods, the proposed algorithm, which efficiently makes use of the array aperture, can localize N−3 sources using N sensors. In addition, it requires neither pairing parameters nor multidimensional search. Simulation results are presented to validate the performance of the proposed method.

  3. Safety nets or straitjackets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Does regulation of working hours at national and sector level impose straitjackets, or offer safety nets to employees seeking working time flexibility? This article compares legislation and collective agreements in the metal industries of Denmark, Germany and the USA. The industry has historically...

  4. Nonmetro Net Outmigration Stops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromartie, John B.

    1992-01-01

    Annual population losses from net migration for nonmetro areas declined from 0.38-0.20 percent during the period of 1988-91. However, annual inmigration and outmigration flows were consistently above 1.5 million (about 3 percent of nonmetro population). During the three-year period, nonmetro areas consistently lost young adults and those with…

  5. Net4Care platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    , that in turn enables general practitioners and clinical staff to view observations. Use the menus above to explore the site's information resources. To get started, follow the short Hello, World! tutorial. The Net4Care project is funded by The Central Denmark Region and EU via Caretech Innovation....

  6. Mobile robot sense net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konolige, Kurt G.; Gutmann, Steffen; Guzzoni, Didier; Ficklin, Robert W.; Nicewarner, Keith E.

    1999-08-01

    Mobile robot hardware and software is developing to the point where interesting applications for groups of such robots can be contemplated. We envision a set of mobots acting to map and perform surveillance or other task within an indoor environment (the Sense Net). A typical application of the Sense Net would be to detect survivors in buildings damaged by earthquake or other disaster, where human searchers would be put a risk. As a team, the Sense Net could reconnoiter a set of buildings faster, more reliably, and more comprehensibly than an individual mobot. The team, for example, could dynamically form subteams to perform task that cannot be done by individual robots, such as measuring the range to a distant object by forming a long baseline stereo sensor form a pari of mobots. In addition, the team could automatically reconfigure itself to handle contingencies such as disabled mobots. This paper is a report of our current progress in developing the Sense Net, after the first year of a two-year project. In our approach, each mobot has sufficient autonomy to perform several tasks, such as mapping unknown areas, navigating to specific positions, and detecting, tracking, characterizing, and classifying human and vehicular activity. We detail how some of these tasks are accomplished, and how the mobot group is tasked.

  7. Net4Care platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    , that in turn enables general practitioners and clinical staff to view observations. Use the menus above to explore the site's information resources. To get started, follow the short Hello, World! tutorial. The Net4Care project is funded by The Central Denmark Region and EU via Caretech Innovation....

  8. Game Theory .net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Mikhael

    2003-01-01

    States making game theory relevant and accessible to students is challenging. Describes the primary goal of GameTheory.net is to provide interactive teaching tools. Indicates the site strives to unite educators from economics, political and computer science, and ecology by providing a repository of lecture notes and tests for courses using…

  9. Methods for behavior descriptions of structure-complex Petri nets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingtian ZENG; Zhehui WU

    2004-01-01

    Petri net language is a powerful tool for describing dynamic behaviors of physical systems. However, it is not easy to obtain the language expression for a given Petri net especially a structure-complex net. In this paper, we first analyze the behaviors of S-nets, which are structure-simple. With the decomposition method based on a given index function on the place set, a given structure-complex Petri net can be decomposed into a set of structure-simple S-nets. With the language relationships between the original system and the decomposed subnets, an algorithm to obtain the language expression of a given structure-complex net system is presented, which benefits the analysis of physical systems based on the Petri net language.

  10. Net Income of Pharmacy Faculty Compared to Community and Hospital Pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm-Burns, Marie A; Gatwood, Justin; Spivey, Christina A; Dickey, Susan E

    2016-09-25

    Objective. To compare the net cumulative income of community pharmacists, hospital pharmacists, and full-time pharmacy faculty members (residency-trained or with a PhD after obtaining a PharmD) in pharmacy practice, medicinal chemistry, pharmaceutics, pharmacology, and social and administrative sciences. Methods. Markov modeling was conducted to calculate net projected cumulative earnings of career paths by estimating the costs of education, including the costs of obtaining degrees and student loans. Results. The economic model spanned 49 years, from ages 18 to 67 years. Earning a PharmD and pursuing an academic career resulted in projected net cumulative lifetime earnings ranging from approximately $4.7 million to $6.3 million. A pharmacy practice faculty position following public pharmacy school and one year of residency resulted in higher net cumulative income than community pharmacy. Faculty members with postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) training also had higher net income than other faculty and hospital pharmacy career paths, given similar years of prepharmacy education and type of pharmacy school attended. Faculty members with either a PharmD or PhD in the pharmacology discipline may net as much as $5.9 million and outpace all other PhD graduates by at least $75 000 in lifetime earnings. Projected career earnings of postgraduate year 2 (PGY2) trained faculty and PharmD/PhD faculty members were lower than those of community pharmacists. Findings were more variable when comparing pharmacy faculty members and hospital pharmacists. Conclusion. With the exception of PGY1 trained academic pharmacists, faculty projected net cumulative incomes generally lagged behind community pharmacists, likely because of delayed entry into the job market as a result of advanced training/education. However, nonsalary benefits such as greater flexibility and autonomy may enhance the desirability of academic pharmacy as a career path.

  11. Net Income of Pharmacy Faculty Compared to Community and Hospital Pharmacists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatwood, Justin; Spivey, Christina A.; Dickey, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To compare the net cumulative income of community pharmacists, hospital pharmacists, and full-time pharmacy faculty members (residency-trained or with a PhD after obtaining a PharmD) in pharmacy practice, medicinal chemistry, pharmaceutics, pharmacology, and social and administrative sciences. Methods. Markov modeling was conducted to calculate net projected cumulative earnings of career paths by estimating the costs of education, including the costs of obtaining degrees and student loans. Results. The economic model spanned 49 years, from ages 18 to 67 years. Earning a PharmD and pursuing an academic career resulted in projected net cumulative lifetime earnings ranging from approximately $4.7 million to $6.3 million. A pharmacy practice faculty position following public pharmacy school and one year of residency resulted in higher net cumulative income than community pharmacy. Faculty members with postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) training also had higher net income than other faculty and hospital pharmacy career paths, given similar years of prepharmacy education and type of pharmacy school attended. Faculty members with either a PharmD or PhD in the pharmacology discipline may net as much as $5.9 million and outpace all other PhD graduates by at least $75 000 in lifetime earnings. Projected career earnings of postgraduate year 2 (PGY2) trained faculty and PharmD/PhD faculty members were lower than those of community pharmacists. Findings were more variable when comparing pharmacy faculty members and hospital pharmacists. Conclusion. With the exception of PGY1 trained academic pharmacists, faculty projected net cumulative incomes generally lagged behind community pharmacists, likely because of delayed entry into the job market as a result of advanced training/education. However, nonsalary benefits such as greater flexibility and autonomy may enhance the desirability of academic pharmacy as a career path. PMID:27756925

  12. Complexity and demographic explanations of cumulative culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Querbes

    Full Text Available Formal models have linked prehistoric and historical instances of technological change (e.g., the Upper Paleolithic transition, cultural loss in Holocene Tasmania, scientific progress since the late nineteenth century to demographic change. According to these models, cumulation of technological complexity is inhibited by decreasing--while favoured by increasing--population levels. Here we show that these findings are contingent on how complexity is defined: demography plays a much more limited role in sustaining cumulative culture in case formal models deploy Herbert Simon's definition of complexity rather than the particular definitions of complexity hitherto assumed. Given that currently available empirical evidence doesn't afford discriminating proper from improper definitions of complexity, our robustness analyses put into question the force of recent demographic explanations of particular episodes of cultural change.

  13. Avoiding Program-Induced Cumulative Overload (PICO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Robin; Knapik, Joseph J; Pope, Rodney

    2016-01-01

    This article defines the concept of program-induced cumulative overload (PICO), provides examples, and advises ways to mitigate the adverse effects. PICO is the excessive cumulative physical workload that can be imparted to military personnel by a military training program with an embedded physical training component. PICO can be acute (accumulating within a single day) or chronic (accumulating across the entirety of the program) and results in adverse outcomes for affected personnel, including detrimental fatigue, performance degradation, injuries, or illness. Strategies to mitigate PICO include focusing administration and logistic practices during the development and ongoing management of a trainee program and implementing known musculoskeletal injury prevention strategies. More training is not always better, and trainers need to consider the total amount of physical activity that military personnel experience across both operational training and physical training if PICO is to be mitigated.

  14. Structural Vibration Monitoring Using Cumulative Spectral Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Goto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a resonance decay estimation for structural health monitoring in the presence of nonstationary vibrations. In structural health monitoring, the structure's frequency response and resonant decay characteristics are very important for understanding how the structure changes. Cumulative spectral analysis (CSA estimates the frequency decay by using the impulse response. However, measuring the impulse response of buildings is impractical due to the need to shake the building itself. In a previous study, we reported on system damping monitoring using cumulative harmonic analysis (CHA, which is based on CSA. The current study describes scale model experiments on estimating the hidden resonance decay under non-stationary noise conditions by using CSA for structural condition monitoring.

  15. Cumulative carbon emissions and the Green Paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Ploeg, Frederick Van der

    2013-01-01

    The green paradox states that a gradually more ambitious climate policy such as a renewables subsidy or an anticipated carbon tax induces fossil fuel owners to extract more rapidly and accelerate global warming. However, if extraction becomes more costly as reserves are depleted, such policies also shorten the fossil fuel era, induce more fossil fuel to be left in the earth, and thus curb cumulative carbon emissions. These consequences are relevant, as global warming depends primarily on cumu...

  16. Expansive Soil Crack Depth under Cumulative Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei-xiao Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The crack developing depth is a key problem to slope stability of the expansive soil and its project governance and the crack appears under the roles of dry-wet cycle and gradually develops. It is believed from the analysis that, because of its own cohesion, the expansive soil will have a certain amount of deformation under pulling stress but without cracks. The soil body will crack only when the deformation exceeds the ultimate tensile strain that causes cracks. And it is also believed that, due to the combined effect of various environmental factors, particularly changes of the internal water content, the inherent basic physical properties of expansive soil are weakened, and irreversible cumulative damages are eventually formed, resulting in the development of expansive soil cracks in depth. Starting from the perspective of volumetric strain that is caused by water loss, considering the influences of water loss rate and dry-wet cycle on crack developing depth, the crack developing depth calculation model which considers the water loss rate and the cumulative damages is established. Both the proposal of water loss rate and the application of cumulative damage theory to the expansive soil crack development problems try to avoid difficulties in matrix suction measurement, which will surely play a good role in promoting and improving the research of unsaturated expansive soil.

  17. Complexity Metrics for Workflow Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; van der Aalst, Wil M.P.

    2009-01-01

    Process modeling languages such as EPCs, BPMN, flow charts, UML activity diagrams, Petri nets, etc.\\ are used to model business processes and to configure process-aware information systems. It is known that users have problems understanding these diagrams. In fact, even process engineers and system......, etc. It seems obvious that the complexity of the model contributes to design errors and a lack of understanding. It is not easy to measure complexity, however. This paper presents three complexity metrics that have been implemented in the process analysis tool ProM. The metrics are defined...

  18. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Net Zero Waster Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-18

    Colorado • Fort Bliss, Texas These sites served as test beds for the Army’s Net Zero Initiative, specifically, Net Zero Water , and the Army provided...have sustainability, energy efficiency, water conservation, recycling, pollution prevention, and green procurement programs in place that they can...ARMY NET ZERO PROVE OUT Final Net Zero Water Best Practices November 18, 2014 Distribution A Approved for public release

  19. Solving liveness problem for marked nets by exhaustive coverability trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that a coverability tree of a Petri net cannot solve reaehability and liveness problems of the net because using symbol ω (infinity.) may lose some information. A solution to this problem is presented for a special kind of Petri net, marked net. With the combination of o and the increasing/decreasing information of token number, a new kind of coverability tree of marked nets, called exhaustive coverability tree (ECT), is proposed. It is shown with an example that an ECT can be used to detect deadlock.

  20. Coloured Petri Nets: Basic Concepts, Analysis Methods and Practical Use. Vol. 2, Analysis Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt

    This three-volume work presents a coherent description of the theoretical and practical aspects of coloured Petri nets (CP-nets). The second volume contains a detailed presentation of the analysis methods for CP-nets. They allow the modeller to investigate dynamic properties of CP-nets. The main...

  1. Cumulative risks of foster care placement for Danish children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fallesen, Peter; Emanuel, Natalia; Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Although recent research suggests that the cumulative risk of foster care placement is far higher for American children than originally suspected, little is known about the cumulative risk of foster...

  2. Recursive Numerical Evaluation of the Cumulative Bivariate Normal Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Christian

    2010-01-01

    We propose an algorithm for evaluation of the cumulative bivariate normal distribution, building upon Marsaglia's ideas for evaluation of the cumulative univariate normal distribution. The algorithm is mathematically transparent, delivers competitive performance and can easily be extended to arbitrary precision.

  3. Production of high-PT cumulative particles in proton-nuclear interactions at 50 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Ammosov, V V; Viktorov, V A; Gapienko, V A; Gapienko, G S; Gres, V N; Korotkov, V A; Mysnik, A I; Prudkoglyad, A F; Sviridov, Yu M; Semak, A A; Terekhov, V I; Uglekov, V Ya; Ukhanov, M N; Chuiko, B V; Baldin, A A; Shimanskiy, S S

    2014-01-01

    The data on production of cumulative particles in the high transverse momenta domain (up to ~ 3.5 GeV/c) in proton-nuclear interactions are presented for the first time. An indication on the local character of particle production in the cumulative domain is obtained. The observed strong dependence of the particle production cross section on the atomic mass of the target does not fit the A - dependence obtained in the pre-cumulative and cumulative domains for low transverse momenta at constant part of the exponent. The experiment was performed at U70 (IHEP) with the extracted 50 GeV/c proton beam.

  4. Cumulant matching for independent source extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phlypo, Ronald; Zarzoso, Vicente; Comon, Pierre; Lemahieu, Ignace

    2008-01-01

    In this work we show how one can make use of priors on signal statistics under the form of cumulant guesses to extract an independent source from an observed mixture. The advantage of using statistical priors on the signal lies in the fact that no specific knowledge is needed about its temporal behavior, neither about its spatial distribution. We show that these statistics can be obtained either by reasoning on the theoretical values of a supposed waveform, either by using a subset of the observations from which we know that their statistics are merely hindered by interferences. Results on an electro-cardiographic recording confirm the above assumptions.

  5. Net one, net two: the primary care network income statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halley, M D; Little, A W

    1999-10-01

    Although hospital-owned primary care practices have been unprofitable for most hospitals, some hospitals are achieving competitive advantage and sustainable practice operations. A key to the success of some has been a net income reporting tool that separates practice operating expenses from the costs of creating and operating a network of practices to help healthcare organization managers, physicians, and staff to identify opportunities to improve the network's financial performance. This "Net One, Net Two" reporting allows operations leadership to be held accountable for Net One expenses and strategic leadership to be held accountable for Net Two expenses.

  6. Proof nets for lingusitic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moot, R.C.A.

    2002-01-01

    This book investigates the possible linguistic applications of proof nets, redundancy free representations of proofs, which were introduced by Girard for linear logic. We will adapt the notion of proof net to allow the formulation of a proof net calculus which is soundand complete for the multimoda

  7. A Missing Link in the Evolution of the Cumulative Recorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Toshio; Lattal, Kennon A.

    2012-01-01

    A recently recovered cumulative recorder provides a missing link in the evolution of the cumulative recorder from a modified kymograph to a reliably operating, scientifically and commercially successful instrument. The recorder, the only physical evidence of such an early precommercial cumulative recorder yet found, was sent to Keio University in…

  8. Original and cumulative prospect theory: a discussion of empirical differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P. Wakker; H. Fennema

    1997-01-01

    This note discusses differences between prospect theory and cumulative prospect theory. It shows that cumulative prospect theory is not merely a formal correction of some theoretical problems in prospect theory, but it also gives different predictions. Experiments are described that favor cumulative

  9. Cumulative Phenomena through the Quark-Parton Diagram Summation at Thresholds

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, M A

    1998-01-01

    A microscopic treatment of cumulative phenomena based on perturbative QCD calculations of the corresponding quark diagrams near the threshold is presented. To sum all diagrams like these the special technique based on the recurrence relations was developed. The x-behaviour of the nuclear structure function $F_{2}(x)$ in the cumulative region x>1 was found to be roughly exponential, governed by an effective coupling constant, which depends on the QCD coupling constant and quark mass. Two mechanisms for cumulative particle production, direct and spectator ones, were analysed. It was shown that due to final state interactions the leading terms of the direct mechanism contribution are cancelled and the spectator mechanism is the dominant one. It leads to a smaller slope of the particle production rates compared to the slope of the nuclear structure function in the cumulative region, in agreement with the recent experimental data. The slope difference is due to additional multiple interactions between nuclear and ...

  10. Importance of separated efficiencies between positively and negatively charged particles for cumulant calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Nonaka, Toshihiro; Esumi, ShinIchi; Masui, Hiroshi; Luo, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    We show the importance of separated efficiency corrections between positively and negatively charged particles for cumulant calculations by Monte Carlo toy models and analytical calculations. Our results indicate that S{\\sigma} in published net-proton results from the STAR experiment will be suppressed about 5 to 10% in central collisions, and 10 to 20% in peripheral collisions at the beam energy of \\sqrt s_{NN} = 62.4 and 200 GeV if the separated efficiencies are used to efficiency correction.

  11. Innovativeness, population size and cumulative cultural evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yutaka; Aoki, Kenichi

    2012-08-01

    Henrich [Henrich, J., 2004. Demography and cultural evolution: how adaptive cultural processes can produce maladaptive losses-the Tasmanian case. Am. Antiquity 69, 197-214] proposed a model designed to show that larger population size facilitates cumulative cultural evolution toward higher skill levels. In this model, each newborn attempts to imitate the most highly skilled individual of the parental generation by directly-biased social learning, but the skill level he/she acquires deviates probabilistically from that of the exemplar (cultural parent). The probability that the skill level of the imitator exceeds that of the exemplar can be regarded as the innovation rate. After reformulating Henrich's model rigorously, we introduce an overlapping-generations analog based on the Moran model and derive an approximate formula for the expected change per generation of the highest skill level in the population. For large population size, our overlapping-generations model predicts a much larger effect of population size than Henrich's discrete-generations model. We then investigate by way of Monte Carlo simulations the case where each newborn chooses as his/her exemplar the most highly skilled individual from among a limited number of acquaintances. When the number of acquaintances is small relative to the population size, we find that a change in the innovation rate contributes more than a proportional change in population size to the cumulative cultural evolution of skill level.

  12. Boom Booom Net Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Yong, Louisa; Dobie, Ian

    1999-01-01

    of an existing Internet radio station; Boom Booom Net Radio. Whilst necessity dictates some use of technology-related terminology, wherever possible we have endeavoured to keep such jargon to a minimum and to either explain it in the text or to provide further explanation in the appended glossary.......Internet radio is one of the growth areas of the Internet but, as this article will show, is fraught with difficulties and frustration for both the modestly-funded broadcaster (bitcaster) and the listener. The article will illustrate some of these problems by means of a short case study...

  13. Safety nets or straitjackets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Does regulation of working hours at national and sector level impose straitjackets, or offer safety nets to employees seeking working time flexibility? This article compares legislation and collective agreements in the metal industries of Denmark, Germany and the USA. The industry has historically...... been trend-setting for collective bargaining in all three countries, but with very different effects on working time. Organized decentralization seems to pave the way for fewer straitjackets, whereas the opposite seems to be the case with regard to disorganized decentralization....

  14. Master Robotic Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Lipunov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the MASTER-Net project is to produce a unique fast sky survey with all sky observed over a single night down to a limiting magnitude of 19-20. Such a survey will make it possible to address a number of fundamental problems: search for dark energy via the discovery and photometry of supernovae (including SNIa, search for exoplanets, microlensing effects, discovery of minor bodies in the Solar System, and space-junk monitoring. All MASTER telescopes can be guided by alerts, and we plan to observe prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts synchronously in several filters and in several polarization planes.

  15. High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    to their work can be found in the individual papers and in the available bibliographies of Petri nets, e.g., Stefan Dress et. al: Bibliography of Petri Nets. In: G. Rozenberg (ed.): Advances in Petri Nets 1987, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 266, Springer-Verlag 1987, 309-451. Updated versions...... of this bibliography will appear in Advances of Petri Nets with regular intervals. In the preparation of the book the editors have been assisted by an advisory board consisting of the following well-known Petri net researchers: M. Ajmone-Marsan, H.J. Genrich, C. Girault, W. Reisig, M. Silva and P.S. Thiagarajan...

  16. NETS FOR PEACH PROTECTED CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelia Schettini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the radiometric properties of coloured nets used to protect a peach cultivation. The modifications of the solar spectral distribution, mainly in the R and FR wavelength band, influence plant photomorphogenesis by means of the phytochrome and cryptochrome. The phytochrome response is characterized in terms of radiation rate in the red wavelengths (R, 600-700 nm to that in the farred radiation (FR, 700-800 nm, i.e. the R/FR ratio. The effects of the blue radiation (B, 400-500 nm is investigated by the ratio between the blue radiation and the far-red radiation, i.e. the B/FR ratio. A BLUE net, a RED net, a YELLOW net, a PEARL net, a GREY net and a NEUTRAL net were tested in Bari (Italy, latitude 41° 05’ N. Peach trees were located in pots inside the greenhouses and in open field. The growth of the trees cultivated in open field was lower in comparison to the growth of the trees grown under the nets. The RED, PEARL, YELLOW and GREY nets increased the growth of the trees more than the other nets. The nets positively influenced the fruit characteristics, such as fruit weight and flesh firmness.

  17. A HYBRID PETRI-NET MODEL OF GRID WORKFLOW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Yimu; Wang Ruchuan; Ren Xunyi

    2008-01-01

    In order to effectively control the random tasks submitted and executed in grid workflow, a grid workflow model based on hybrid petri-net is presented. This model is composed of random petri-net, colored petri-net and general petri-net. Therein random petri-net declares the relationship between the number of grid users' random tasks and the size of service window and computes the server intensity of grid system. Colored petri-net sets different color for places with grid services and provides the valid interfaces for grid resource allocation and task scheduling. The experiment indicated that the model presented in this letter could compute the valve between the number of users' random tasks and the size of grid service window in grid workflow management system.

  18. Art/Net/Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik; Lindstrøm, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    The seminar Art|Net|Work deals with two important changes in our culture. On one side, the network has become essential in the latest technological development. The Internet has entered a new phase, Web 2.0, including the occurrence of as ‘Wiki’s’, ‘Peer-2-Peer’ distribution, user controlled...... taxonomies (‘Folksonomy’) and ‘Weblogs’. Also, platforms, programming and software are today very often created in open communities – as seen in the ‘Free/Open Source’ movement. On the other side, following the technological development, the network also has become essential in the art sphere. Artists focus...... on the ‘network’ itself as a phenomenon and are often using technological networks as a mean of production and distribution. This changes the artistic practice and the distribution channels of art works – and the traditional notions of ‘work’, ‘origin’ and ‘rights’ are increasingly perceived as limiting...

  19. Boom Booom Net Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Yong, Louisa; Dobie, Ian

    1999-01-01

    Internet radio is one of the growth areas of the Internet but, as this article will show, is fraught with difficulties and frustration for both the modestly-funded broadcaster (bitcaster) and the listener. The article will illustrate some of these problems by means of a short case study of an exi......Internet radio is one of the growth areas of the Internet but, as this article will show, is fraught with difficulties and frustration for both the modestly-funded broadcaster (bitcaster) and the listener. The article will illustrate some of these problems by means of a short case study...... of an existing Internet radio station; Boom Booom Net Radio. Whilst necessity dictates some use of technology-related terminology, wherever possible we have endeavoured to keep such jargon to a minimum and to either explain it in the text or to provide further explanation in the appended glossary....

  20. Cumulative hierarchies and computability over universes of sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Cantone

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Various metamathematical investigations, beginning with Fraenkel’s historical proof of the independence of the axiom of choice, called for suitable definitions of hierarchical universes of sets. This led to the discovery of such important cumulative structures as the one singled out by von Neumann (generally taken as the universe of all sets and Godel’s universe of the so-called constructibles. Variants of those are exploited occasionally in studies concerning the foundations of analysis (according to Abraham Robinson’s approach, or concerning non-well-founded sets. We hence offer a systematic presentation of these many structures, partly motivated by their relevance and pervasiveness in mathematics. As we report, numerous properties of hierarchy-related notions such as rank, have been verified with the assistance of the ÆtnaNova proof-checker.Through SETL and Maple implementations of procedures which effectively handle the Ackermann’s hereditarily finite sets, we illustrate a particularly significant case among those in which the entities which form a universe of sets can be algorithmically constructed and manipulated; hereby, the fruitful bearing on pure mathematics of cumulative set hierarchies ramifies into the realms of theoretical computer science and algorithmics.

  1. Prefiltering and Cumulant Based Harmonic Retrieval in Mixed ARMA Noises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIShenghong; LIJianhua; XUEZhi; CHENLiya

    2005-01-01

    Harmonic retrieval is an important issue in the the field of statistical signal processing. However, in the case of harmonic retrieval in mixed colored Gaussian and Non-Gaussian Autoregressive movingaverage (ARMA) noises, the corresponding existing approaches can not retrieve a harmonic signal either with quadratic phase coupling components, or with cubic phase coupling components, or when the colored non-Gaussian ARMA noise is symmetrically distributed. In this paper, a new general approach is proposed to retrieve a one-dimensional real harmonic signal in the above mixed ARMA noises. A suitable filter is first used to remove all the sharp power spectrum peaks of the noisy observed process, then some kind of fourth-order cumulant is employed to identify the Autoregressive (AR) parameter values of the colored non-Gaussian ARMA noise model. After the real noisy observed data are filtered with the identified AR parameter values again, cumulant based methods can be made use of to retrieve the harmonics. The proposed new approach can be applied to retrieve a one-dimensional real harmonic signal in the above mixed colored Gaussian and non-Gaussian ARMA noises with no restrictions on the phase coupling of the harmonics and the distribution of the colored non-Gaussian ARMA noise. Simulation examples are presented to demonstrate its effectiveness.

  2. Racial/ethnic differences in obesity and comorbidities between safety-net- and non safety-net integrated health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Bijal A; Garcia, Michael P; Corley, Douglas A; Doubeni, Chyke A; Haas, Jennifer S; Kamineni, Aruna; Quinn, Virginia P; Wernli, Karen; Zheng, Yingye; Skinner, Celette Sugg

    2017-03-01

    Previous research shows that patients in integrated health systems experience fewer racial disparities compared with more traditional healthcare systems. Little is known about patterns of racial/ethnic disparities between safety-net and non safety-net integrated health systems.We evaluated racial/ethnic differences in body mass index (BMI) and the Charlson comorbidity index from 3 non safety-net- and 1 safety-net integrated health systems in a cross-sectional study. Multinomial logistic regression modeled comorbidity and BMI on race/ethnicity and health care system type adjusting for age, sex, insurance, and zip-code-level incomeThe study included 1.38 million patients. Higher proportions of safety-net versus non safety-net patients had comorbidity score of 3+ (11.1% vs. 5.0%) and BMI ≥35 (27.7% vs. 15.8%). In both types of systems, blacks and Hispanics were more likely than whites to have higher BMIs. Whites were more likely than blacks or Hispanics to have higher comorbidity scores in a safety net system, but less likely to have higher scores in the non safety-nets. The odds of comorbidity score 3+ and BMI 35+ in blacks relative to whites were significantly lower in safety-net than in non safety-net settings.Racial/ethnic differences were present within both safety-net and non safety-net integrated health systems, but patterns differed. Understanding patterns of racial/ethnic differences in health outcomes in safety-net and non safety-net integrated health systems is important to tailor interventions to eliminate racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care.

  3. MesonNet 2014 International Workshop. Mini-proceedings

    CERN Document Server

    Adlarson, P; Bijnens, J; Balkeståhl, L Caldeira; Cao, B; Colangelo, G; Curciarello, F; De Leo, V; Demmich, K; Eichmann, G; Eidelman, S; Fang, S; Redmer, C F; Fritzsch, C; Gajos, A; Giovannella, S; Gonzàlez-Solís, S; Goudzovski, E; Heijkenskjöld, L; Hoferichter, M; Husek, T; Hüsken, N; Andersson, W I; Kadavý, T; Kamińska, D; Kampf, K; Knecht, M; Kolesár, M; Krusche, B; Kubis, B; Kupsc, A; Mascolo, M; Masjuan, P; Novotný, J; Procura, M; Ramstein, B; Sanchez-Puertas, P; Sarantsev, A; Schott, D; Somov, A; Spieker, K; Stoffer, P; Tulin, S; Wilson, A; Wirzba, A; Żurek, M

    2014-01-01

    The MesonNet International Workshop was held in the Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati from September the 29th to October the 1st, 2014, being the concluding meeting of the MesonNet research network within EU HadronPhysics3 project. MesonNet is a research network focused on light meson physics gathering experimentalist and theoreticians from Europe and abroad. An overview of the research projects related to the scope of the network is presented in these mini-proceedings.

  4. -Net Approach to Sensor -Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusco Giordano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensors rely on battery power, and in many applications it is difficult or prohibitive to replace them. Hence, in order to prolongate the system's lifetime, some sensors can be kept inactive while others perform all the tasks. In this paper, we study the -coverage problem of activating the minimum number of sensors to ensure that every point in the area is covered by at least sensors. This ensures higher fault tolerance, robustness, and improves many operations, among which position detection and intrusion detection. The -coverage problem is trivially NP-complete, and hence we can only provide approximation algorithms. In this paper, we present an algorithm based on an extension of the classical -net technique. This method gives an -approximation, where is the number of sensors in an optimal solution. We do not make any particular assumption on the shape of the areas covered by each sensor, besides that they must be closed, connected, and without holes.

  5. Automating Ontological Annotation with WordNet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Chappell, Alan R.; Whitney, Paul D.; Posse, Christian; Paulson, Patrick R.; Baddeley, Bob L.; Hohimer, Ryan E.; White, Amanda M.

    2006-01-22

    Semantic Web applications require robust and accurate annotation tools that are capable of automating the assignment of ontological classes to words in naturally occurring text (ontological annotation). Most current ontologies do not include rich lexical databases and are therefore not easily integrated with word sense disambiguation algorithms that are needed to automate ontological annotation. WordNet provides a potentially ideal solution to this problem as it offers a highly structured lexical conceptual representation that has been extensively used to develop word sense disambiguation algorithms. However, WordNet has not been designed as an ontology, and while it can be easily turned into one, the result of doing this would present users with serious practical limitations due to the great number of concepts (synonym sets) it contains. Moreover, mapping WordNet to an existing ontology may be difficult and requires substantial labor. We propose to overcome these limitations by developing an analytical platform that (1) provides a WordNet-based ontology offering a manageable and yet comprehensive set of concept classes, (2) leverages the lexical richness of WordNet to give an extensive characterization of concept class in terms of lexical instances, and (3) integrates a class recognition algorithm that automates the assignment of concept classes to words in naturally occurring text. The ensuing framework makes available an ontological annotation platform that can be effectively integrated with intelligence analysis systems to facilitate evidence marshaling and sustain the creation and validation of inference models.

  6. Ontological Annotation with WordNet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Chappell, Alan R.; Whitney, Paul D.; Posse, Christian; Paulson, Patrick R.; Baddeley, Bob; Hohimer, Ryan E.; White, Amanda M.

    2006-06-06

    Semantic Web applications require robust and accurate annotation tools that are capable of automating the assignment of ontological classes to words in naturally occurring text (ontological annotation). Most current ontologies do not include rich lexical databases and are therefore not easily integrated with word sense disambiguation algorithms that are needed to automate ontological annotation. WordNet provides a potentially ideal solution to this problem as it offers a highly structured lexical conceptual representation that has been extensively used to develop word sense disambiguation algorithms. However, WordNet has not been designed as an ontology, and while it can be easily turned into one, the result of doing this would present users with serious practical limitations due to the great number of concepts (synonym sets) it contains. Moreover, mapping WordNet to an existing ontology may be difficult and requires substantial labor. We propose to overcome these limitations by developing an analytical platform that (1) provides a WordNet-based ontology offering a manageable and yet comprehensive set of concept classes, (2) leverages the lexical richness of WordNet to give an extensive characterization of concept class in terms of lexical instances, and (3) integrates a class recognition algorithm that automates the assignment of concept classes to words in naturally occurring text. The ensuing framework makes available an ontological annotation platform that can be effectively integrated with intelligence analysis systems to facilitate evidence marshaling and sustain the creation and validation of inference models.

  7. State Space Methods for Timed Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren; Jensen, Kurt; Mailund, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    We present two recently developed state space methods for timed Petri nets. The two methods reconciles state space methods and time concepts based on the introduction of a global clock and associating time stamps to tokens. The first method is based on an equivalence relation on states which makes...... it possible to condense the usually infinite state space of a timed Petri net into a finite condensed state space without loosing analysis power. The second method supports on-the-fly verification of certain safety properties of timed systems. We discuss the application of the two methods in a number...

  8. Acyclic Solos and Differential Interaction Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Ehrhard, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We present a restriction of the solos calculus which is stable under reduction and expressive enough to contain an encoding of the pi-calculus. As a consequence, it is shown that equalizing names that are already equal is not required by the encoding of the pi-calculus. In particular, the induced solo diagrams bear an acyclicity property that induces a faithful encoding into differential interaction nets. This gives a (new) proof that differential interaction nets are expressive enough to contain an encoding of the pi-calculus. All this is worked out in the case of finitary (replication free) systems without sum, match nor mismatch.

  9. ASP.NET MVC 2

    CERN Document Server

    Chiaretta, Simone

    2010-01-01

    This Wrox Blox is for .NET developers who already have experiencedeveloping web applications with ASP.NET MVC and want to learn thenew features introduced in the new release of ASP.NET MVC. ASP.NETMVC 2 has been built with the goal to increase productivity andmake ASP.NET MVC ready for enterprise development. This Wrox Bloxguides the reader through the new features by explaining how to usedata scaffolding and automatic validation, how to write customvalidators, how to create multi-area projects, and how and when touse async controllers. It also covers the new automatic HTMLEncoding feature int

  10. Teaching Petri Nets Using P3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasevic, Dragan; Devedzic, Vladan

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents Petri net software tool P3 that is developed for training purposes of the Architecture and organization of computers (AOC) course. The P3 has the following features: graphical modeling interface, interactive simulation by single and parallel (with previous conflict resolution) transition firing, two well-known Petri net…

  11. Regular Event Structures and Finite Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M.; Thiagarajan, P.S.

    2002-01-01

    We present the notion of regular event structures and conjecture that they correspond exactly to finite 1-safe Petri nets. We show that the conjecture holds for the conflict-free case. Even in this restricted setting, the proof is non-trivial and involves a natural subclass of regular event...

  12. CEAMF study, volume 2 : cumulative effects indicators, thresholds, and case studies : final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-01

    The four types of cumulative effects on the environment are: alteration, loss, and fragmentation of habitat; disturbance; barriers to movement; and direct and indirect mortality. Defining where and how human activities can be continued without irreversible net harm to the environment is part of cumulative effects management. Various land-use and habitat indicators were tested in the Blueberry and Sukunka study areas of British Columbia, to address the environmental effects associated with oil and gas development. As recommended, a tiered threshold approach was used to allow for flexibility in different land management regimes and ecological settings. Success will depend on defining acceptable change, threshold values, standard public database, standard processes to calculate indicator values using the database, and project-specific and cooperative management actions. A pilot study was suggested to test the candidate thresholds and implementation process. The two areas proposed for consideration were the Jedney Enhanced Resource Development Resource Management Zone in the Fort St. John Forest District, and the Etsho Enhanced Resource Development Resource Management Zone in the Fort Nelson Forest District. Both are of interest to the petroleum and forest sectors, and support the woodland caribou, a species which is extremely sensitive to cumulative effects of habitat fragmentation and disturbance. 117 refs., 11 tabs., 39 figs.

  13. WindNet: Improving the impact assessment of wind power projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Jones

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Growing international demand for renewable energy has led to rapid growth in the wind power sector and wind farms are becoming an increasingly common feature of landscapes and seascapes in many countries. However, as the most appropriate locations within established markets are taken up, and as wind power penetrates new markets, there is an increasing likelihood that proposed projects will encroach on sensitive landscapes and residential areas. This will present challenges for the industry, particularly due to the impact that public opinion can have upon the outcomes of planning decisions about specific projects. This article introduces the four key dimensions of the WindNet programme, which are helping to elucidate some of the socio-technical debates that will likely shape the future of the wind power sector. The article outlines studies investigating (1 public responses to cumulative landscape and visual impacts, (2 the auditory impact of wind power projects on human health, (3 the science of wind farm design and its implications for planning, and (4 the relevance of the democratic deficit explanation of the so-called "social gap" in wind farm siting. The outcomes of the research being conducted by WindNet stand to help reduce uncertainty within the planning process and assist in providing a more comprehensive and fairer assessment of the possible impacts associated with wind power project development.

  14. Cumulative Risk Assessment: An Overview of Methodological Approaches for Evaluating Combined Health Effects from Exposure to Multiple Environmental Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Systematic evaluation of cumulative health risks from the combined effects of multiple environmental stressors is becoming a vital component of risk-based decisions aimed at protecting human populations and communities. This article briefly examines the historical development of cumulative risk assessment as an analytical tool, and discusses current approaches for evaluating cumulative health effects from exposure to both chemical mixtures and combinations of chemical and nonchemical stressors. A comparison of stressor-based and effects-based assessment methods is presented, and the potential value of focusing on viable risk management options to limit the scope of cumulative evaluations is discussed. The ultimate goal of cumulative risk assessment is to provide answers to decision-relevant questions based on organized scientific analysis; even if the answers, at least for the time being, are inexact and uncertain. PMID:22470298

  15. Analysis of experimental data on correlations between cumulative particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlasov, A.V.; Doroshkevich, E.A.; Leksin, G.A. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    Experimental data on correlations between cumulative particles are analyzed. A space-time and energy-transfer pattern of hadron-nucleus interaction based on both correlation data and data on the inclusive spectra of cumulative particles is considered. A new variable that is convenient for describing the production of cumulative particles is proposed using the concept of symmetry between the one-particle and multiparticle distributions. 32 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Criteria for Definition of Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sartori, Igor; Napolitano, Assunta; Marszal, Anna Joanna

    2010-01-01

    and selection of the related options becomes a methodology for elaborating sound Net ZEB definitions in a formal, systematic and comprehensive way, creating the basis for legislations and action plans to effectively achieve the political targets. The common denominator for the different possible Net ZEB......The idea of a Net Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) is understood conceptually, as it is understood that the way a Net ZEB is defined affects significantly the way it is designed in order to achieve the goal. However, little agreement exists on a common definition; the term is used commercially...... without a clear understanding and countries are enacting policies and national targets based on the concept without a clear definition in place. This paper presents a harmonised framework for describing the relevant characteristics of Net ZEBs in a series of criteria. Evaluation of the criteria...

  17. Towards the Methodology for Extending Princeton WordNet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Katarzyna Rudnicka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Towards the Methodology for Extending Princeton WordNet The paper presents the methodology and results of the first, pilot stage of the extension of Princeton WordNet, a huge electronic English language thesaurus and lexico-semantic network based on synsets, ie. sets of synonymous lexical units, or lemma sense pairs. The necessity for such extension arose in the course of mapping plWordNet (Polish WordNet — Słowosieć onto Princeton WordNet, which produced a large number of inter-lingual hyponymy links signalling differences in the structure and lexical coverage of the two networks. The proposed strategy uses I-hyponymy links as pointers to presumed gaps in the lexical coverage of PrincetonWordNet and offers strategies of filling them in with new lexical units and synsets.

  18. Numerical Simulation of Wave Interaction with Moving Net Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Hao; Christensen, Erik Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    Fluid structure interaction is an important issue in designof many engineering systems including offshore fish cages. As a first step to develop a coupled CFD/FEM model, in the present study a moving porous media model has been developed in the open source library Open FOAM. The net structure...... was described as a sheet of porous media with prescribed rigid body motion and mesh motion was incorporated to conform the motion of the net. Free surface wave generation and absorption framework was also introduced to simulate wave interaction with moving net structures. The results showed that mesh motion...... with moving net structures....

  19. DMAH ozone measurement net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pagès

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of the study of tropospheric ozone lies in the fact that it is a secondary pollutant. It is not emitted by a source, instead its concentration in the air depends on other compounds (especially the nitrogen oxides emitted by motor vehicles and the volatile organic compounds emitted by the industry and the vegetation and meteorological factors (especially solar radiation and temperature. The European legislation compells to make measurements of the tropospheric ozone due to its effects on people (fatigue, irritation of the mucous membranes, aggravation of asthma ... and on environment (decrease of the production of cereals, synergy with plagues .... The measuring net in Catalonia belongs to the Department of Environment and Housing (DMAH. It has a pyramidal structure and it allows a surveillance to notify in case of exceeding a certain threshold. From the registered data of last years it is shown that the number of incidences is related to meteorology. They are more frequent during afternoon and the behaviour of this pollutant is different according to the proximity of the point of measurement to the sources of its precursors.

  20. [Recommendations for the analysis of cumulated data in antimicrobial susceptibility in health institutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Due to the great variability in antimicrobial resistance patterns, local reports of cumulative antimicrobial susceptibility data are necessary in every health center. The purpose is to guide clinical decisions and the early detection of patterns that allow preventive measures to avoid dissemination of resistant strains. The main objective of this guide is to provide recommendations for the analysis of antimicrobial susceptibility data and elaboration of a local report. Recommendations provided in this guide are based on the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) document "Analysis and Presentation of Cumulative Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test Data" (3). Key aspects related to information gathering and data processing, analysis and presentation are described.

  1. Net4Care Ecosystem Website

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius; Rasmussen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    The Net4Care platform provides the ability to quickly create quality tele-health applications interfacing with HL7 and IHE/XDS. Net4Care features a modular server- and client-side based on OSGi and aims at providing support for a telemedicine software ecosystem. A typical deployment scenario is a...

  2. Linear Logic on Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn

    This article shows how individual Petri nets form models of Girard's intuitionistic linear logic. It explores questions of expressiveness and completeness of linear logic with respect to this interpretation. An aim is to use Petri nets to give an understanding of linear logic and give some apprai...

  3. Join Bayes Nets: A new type of Bayes net for relational data

    CERN Document Server

    Schulte, Oliver; Moser, Flavia; Ester, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Many databases store data in relational format, with different types of entities and information about links between the entities. The field of statistical-relational learning has developed a number of new statistical models for such data. Instead of introducing a new model class, we propose using a standard model class--Bayes nets--in a new way: Join Bayes nets contain nodes that correspond to the descriptive attributes of the database tables, plus Boolean relationship nodes that indicate the presence of a link. Join Bayes nets are class-level models whose random variables describe attributes of generic individuals (e.g., $\\age(\\P)$ rather than $\\age(\\jack)$ where $\\P$ stands for a randomly selected person). As Join Bayes nets are just a special type of Bayes net, their semantics is standard (edges denote direct associations, d-separation implies probabilistic independence etc.), and Bayes net inference algorithms can be used "as is" to answer probabilistic queries involving relations. We present a dynamic p...

  4. Cumulative Laws,Team Assembling Mechanisms Determining Network Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Bin; LIU Qi; YE Qi

    2008-01-01

    A number of researching works have shed light on the field of complex networks recently.We investigate a wide range of real-world networks and find several interesting phenomena.Firstly,almost all of these networks evolve by overlapping new small graphs on former networks.Secondly,not only the degree sequence of the mature network follows a power-law distribution,but also the distribution of the cumulative occurrence times during the growing process are revealed to have a heavy tail.Existing network evolving models do not provide interpretation to these phenomena.We suggest a model based on the team assembling mechanism,which is extracted from the growing processes of real-world networks and requires simple parameters,and produces networks exhibiting these properties observed in the present study and in previous works.

  5. Cumulative protons in 12C fragmentation at intermediate energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramov B.M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the FRAGM experiment at heavy ion accelerator complex TWAC-ITEP, the proton yields at an angle 3.5° have been measured in fragmentation of carbon ions at T0 = 0.3, 0.6, 0.95 and 2.0 GeV/nucleon on beryllium target. The data are presented as invariant proton yields on cumulative variable x in the range 0.9 < x < 2.4. Proton spectra cover six orders of invariant cross section magnitude. They have been analyzed in the framework of quark cluster fragmentation model. Fragmentation functions of quarkgluon string model are used. The probabilities of the existence of multi-quark clusters in carbon nuclei are estimated to be 8–12% for six-quark clusters and 0.2–0.6% for ninequark clusters.

  6. Cumulative Incidence Association Models for Bivariate Competing Risks Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu; Fine, Jason P

    2012-03-01

    Association models, like frailty and copula models, are frequently used to analyze clustered survival data and evaluate within-cluster associations. The assumption of noninformative censoring is commonly applied to these models, though it may not be true in many situations. In this paper, we consider bivariate competing risk data and focus on association models specified for the bivariate cumulative incidence function (CIF), a nonparametrically identifiable quantity. Copula models are proposed which relate the bivariate CIF to its corresponding univariate CIFs, similarly to independently right censored data, and accommodate frailty models for the bivariate CIF. Two estimating equations are developed to estimate the association parameter, permitting the univariate CIFs to be estimated either parametrically or nonparametrically. Goodness-of-fit tests are presented for formally evaluating the parametric models. Both estimators perform well with moderate sample sizes in simulation studies. The practical use of the methodology is illustrated in an analysis of dementia associations.

  7. A Small Universal Petri Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry A. Zaitsev

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A universal deterministic inhibitor Petri net with 14 places, 29 transitions and 138 arcs was constructed via simulation of Neary and Woods' weakly universal Turing machine with 2 states and 4 symbols; the total time complexity is exponential in the running time of their weak machine. To simulate the blank words of the weakly universal Turing machine, a couple of dedicated transitions insert their codes when reaching edges of the working zone. To complete a chain of a given Petri net encoding to be executed by the universal Petri net, a translation of a bi-tag system into a Turing machine was constructed. The constructed Petri net is universal in the standard sense; a weaker form of universality for Petri nets was not introduced in this work.

  8. Assessing the implications of human land-use change for the transient climate response to cumulative carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, C. T.; Matthews, H. D.

    2016-03-01

    Recent research has shown evidence of a linear climate response to cumulative CO2 emissions, which implies that the source, timing, and amount of emissions does not significantly influence the climate response per unit emission. Furthermore, these analyses have generally assumed that the climate response to land-use CO2 emissions is equivalent to that of fossil fuels under the assumption that, once in the atmosphere, the radiative forcing induced by CO2 is not sensitive to the emissions source. However, land-cover change also affects surface albedo and the strength of terrestrial carbon sinks, both of which have an additional climate effect. In this study, we use a coupled climate-carbon cycle model to assess the climate response to historical and future cumulative land-use CO2 emissions, in order to compare it to the response to fossil fuel CO2. We find that when we isolate the CO2-induced (biogeochemical) temperature changes associated with land-use change, then the climate response to cumulative land-use emissions is equivalent to that of fossil fuel CO2. We show further that the globally-averaged albedo-induced biophysical cooling from land-use change is non-negligible and may be of comparable magnitude to the biogeochemical warming, with the result that the net climate response to land-use change is substantially different from a linear response to cumulative emissions. However, our new simulations suggest that the biophysical cooling from land-use change follows its own independent (negative) linear response to cumulative net land-use CO2 emissions, which may provide a useful scaling factor for certain applications when evaluating the full transient climate response to emissions.

  9. Reachability Trees for High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Jensen, Arne M.; Jepsen, Leif Obel;

    1986-01-01

    the necessary analysis methods. In other papers it is shown how to generalize the concept of place- and transition invariants from place/transition nets to high-level Petri nets. Our present paper contributes to this with a generalization of reachability trees, which is one of the other important analysis...

  10. RadNet Air Data From Salt Lake City, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Salt Lake City, UT from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  11. Cumulative social disadvantage and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Laurie J; Silver, Ellen J; Stein, Ruth E K

    2006-04-01

    Disparities in child health are a major public health concern. However, it is unclear whether these are predominantly the result of low income, race, or other social risk factors that may contribute to their health disadvantage. Although others have examined the effects of the accumulation of risk factors, this methodology has not been applied to child health. We tested 4 social risk factors (poverty, minority race/ethnicity, low parental education, and not living with both biological parents) to assess whether they have cumulative effects on child health and examined whether access to health care reduced health disparities. We analyzed data on 57,553 children low parental education, and single-parent household) were consistently associated with child health. These were summed, generating the Social Disadvantage Index (range: 0-3). A total of 43.6% of children had no social disadvantages, 30.8% had 1, 15.6% had 2, and 10.0% had all 3. Compared with those with no social disadvantages, the odds ratios (ORs) of being in "good, fair, or poor health" (versus "excellent or very good") were 1.95 for 1 risk, 3.22 for 2 risks, and 4.06 for 3 risks. ORs of having a chronic condition increased from 1.25 (1 risk) to 1.60 (2 risks) to 2.11 (3 risks). ORs for activity limitation were 1.51 (1 risk) to 2.14 (2 risks) and 2.88 (3 risks). Controlling for health insurance did not affect these findings. The accumulation of social disadvantage among children was strongly associated with poorer child health and having insurance did not reduce the observed health disparities.

  12. Translating Colored Control Flow Nets into Readable Java via Annotated Java Workflow Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; Tjell, Simon

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method for developing Java applications from Colored Control Flow Nets (CCFNs), which is a special kind of Colored Petri Nets (CPNs) that we introduce. CCFN makes an explicit distinction between the representation of: The system, the environment of the system, and the ......In this paper, we present a method for developing Java applications from Colored Control Flow Nets (CCFNs), which is a special kind of Colored Petri Nets (CPNs) that we introduce. CCFN makes an explicit distinction between the representation of: The system, the environment of the system......, and the interface between the system and the environment. Our translation maps CCFNs into Anno- tated Java Workflow Nets (AJWNs) as an intermediate step, and these AJWNs are finally mapped to Java. CCFN is intended to enforce the modeler to describe the system in an imperative manner which makes the subsequent...... translation to Java easier to define. The translation to Java preserves data dependencies and control-flow aspects of the source CCFN. This paper contributes to the model-driven software development paradigm, by showing how to model a system, environment, and their interface, as a CCFN and presenting a fully...

  13. MediaNet: a multimedia information network for knowledge representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, Ana B.; Smith, John R.; Chang, Shih-Fu

    2000-10-01

    In this paper, we present MediaNet, which is a knowledge representation framework that uses multimedia content for representing semantic and perceptual information. The main components of MediaNet include conceptual entities, which correspond to real world objects, and relationships among concepts. MediaNet allows the concepts and relationships to be defined or exemplified by multimedia content such as images, video, audio, graphics, and text. MediaNet models the traditional relationship types such as generalization and aggregation but adds additional functionality by modeling perceptual relationships based on feature similarity. For example, MediaNet allows a concept such as car to be defined as a type of a transportation vehicle, but which is further defined and illustrated through example images, videos and sounds of cars. In constructing the MediaNet framework, we have built on the basic principles of semiotics and semantic networks in addition to utilizing the audio-visual content description framework being developed as part of the MPEG-7 multimedia content description standard. By integrating both conceptual and perceptual representations of knowledge, MediaNet has potential to impact a broad range of applications that deal with multimedia content at the semantic and perceptual levels. In particular, we have found that MediaNet can improve the performance of multimedia retrieval applications by using query expansion, refinement and translation across multiple content modalities. In this paper, we report on experiments that use MediaNet in searching for images. We construct the MediaNet knowledge base using both WordNet and an image network built from multiple example images and extracted color and texture descriptors. Initial experimental results demonstrate improved retrieval effectiveness using MediaNet in a content-based retrieval system.

  14. A Framework for Treating Cumulative Trauma with Art Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naff, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Cumulative trauma is relatively undocumented in art therapy practice, although there is growing evidence that art therapy provides distinct benefits for resolving various traumas. This qualitative study proposes an art therapy treatment framework for cumulative trauma derived from semi-structured interviews with three art therapists and artistic…

  15. A Framework for Treating Cumulative Trauma with Art Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naff, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Cumulative trauma is relatively undocumented in art therapy practice, although there is growing evidence that art therapy provides distinct benefits for resolving various traumas. This qualitative study proposes an art therapy treatment framework for cumulative trauma derived from semi-structured interviews with three art therapists and artistic…

  16. Cumulative Estrogen Exposure and Prospective Memory in Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesson, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    This study looked at cumulative lifetime estrogen exposure, as estimated with a mathematical index (Index of Cumulative Estrogen Exposure (ICEE)) that included variables (length of time on estrogen therapy, age at menarche and menopause, postmenopausal body mass index, time since menopause, nulliparity and duration of breastfeeding) known to…

  17. A method proposal for cumulative environmental impact assessment based on the landscape vulnerability evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlickova, Katarina; Vyskupova, Monika, E-mail: vyskupova@fns.uniba.sk

    2015-01-15

    Cumulative environmental impact assessment deals with the occasional use in practical application of environmental impact assessment process. The main reasons are the difficulty of cumulative impact identification caused by lack of data, inability to measure the intensity and spatial effect of all types of impacts and the uncertainty of their future evolution. This work presents a method proposal to predict cumulative impacts on the basis of landscape vulnerability evaluation. For this purpose, qualitative assessment of landscape ecological stability is conducted and major vulnerability indicators of environmental and socio-economic receptors are specified and valuated. Potential cumulative impacts and the overall impact significance are predicted quantitatively in modified Argonne multiple matrixes while considering the vulnerability of affected landscape receptors and the significance of impacts identified individually. The method was employed in the concrete environmental impact assessment process conducted in Slovakia. The results obtained in this case study reflect that this methodology is simple to apply, valid for all types of impacts and projects, inexpensive and not time-consuming. The objectivity of the partial methods used in this procedure is improved by quantitative landscape ecological stability evaluation, assignment of weights to vulnerability indicators based on the detailed characteristics of affected factors, and grading impact significance. - Highlights: • This paper suggests a method proposal for cumulative impact prediction. • The method includes landscape vulnerability evaluation. • The vulnerability of affected receptors is determined by their sensitivity. • This method can increase the objectivity of impact prediction in the EIA process.

  18. A new family of cumulative indexes for measuring scientific performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Kozak

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a new family of cumulative indexes for measuring scientific performance which can be applied to many metrics, including h index and its variants (here we apply it to the h index, h(2 index and Google Scholar's i10 index. These indexes follow the general principle of repeating the index calculation for the same publication set. Using bibliometric data and reviewer scores for accepted and rejected fellowship applicants we examine how valid the cumulative variant is compared to the original variant. These analyses showed that the cumulative indexes result in higher correlations with the reviewer scores than their original variants. Thus, the cumulative indexes better reflect the assessments by peers than the original variants and are useful extensions of the original indexes. In contrast to many other measures of scientific performance proposed up to now, the cumulative indexes seem not only to be effective, but they are also easy to understand and calculate.

  19. Economic and policy implications of the cumulative carbon budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M. R.; Otto, F. E. L.; Otto, A.; Hepburn, C.

    2014-12-01

    The importance of cumulative carbon emissions in determining long-term risks of climate change presents considerable challenges to policy makers. The traditional notion of "total CO2-equivalent emissions", which forms the backbone of agreements such as the Kyoto Protocol and the European Emissions Trading System, is fundamentally flawed. Measures to reduce short-lived climate pollutants benefit the current generation, while measures to reduce long-lived climate pollutants benefit future generations, so there is no sense in which they can ever be considered equivalent. Debates over the correct metric used to compute CO2-equivalence are thus entirely moot: both long-lived and short-lived emissions will need to be addressed if all generations are to be protected from dangerous climate change. As far as long-lived climate pollutants are concerned, the latest IPCC report highlights the overwhelming importance of carbon capture and storage in determining the cost of meeting the goal of limiting anthropogenic warming to two degrees. We will show that this importance arises directly from the cumulative carbon budget and the role of CCS as the technology of last resort before economic activity needs to be restricted to meet ambitious climate targets. It highlights the need to increase the rate of CCS deployment by orders of magnitude if the option of avoiding two degrees is to be retained. The difficulty of achieving this speed of deployment through conventional incentives and carbon-pricing mechanisms suggests a need for a much more direct mandatory approach. Despite their theoretical economic inefficiency, the success of recent regulatory measures in achieving greenhouse gas emissions reductions in jurisdictions such as the United States suggests an extension of the regulatory approach could be a more effective and politically acceptable means of achieving adequately rapid CCS deployment than conventional carbon taxes or cap-and-trade systems.

  20. General solution of cumulative second harmonic by Lamb wave propagation in a solid plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Mingxi

    2008-01-01

    A straightforward approach has been developed for the general solution of cumulative second harmonic by Lamb wave propagation in a solid plate. The present analyses of second-harmonic generation by Lamb waves focus on the cases where the phase velocity of the fundamental Lamb wave is exactly or approximately equal to that of the double frequency Lamb wave (DFLW). Based on the general solution obtained, the numerical analyses show that the cumulative second-harmonic fields are associated with the position of excitation source and the difference between the phase velocity of the fundamental Lamb wave and that of the dominant DFLW component.

  1. Robust user equilibrium model based on cumulative prospect theory under distribution-free travel time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 孙会君; 吴建军

    2015-01-01

    The assumption widely used in the user equilibrium model for stochastic network was that the probability distributions of the travel time were known explicitly by travelers. However, this distribution may be unavailable in reality. By relaxing the restrictive assumption, a robust user equilibrium model based on cumulative prospect theory under distribution-free travel time was presented. In the absence of the cumulative distribution function of the travel time, the exact cumulative prospect value (CPV) for each route cannot be obtained. However, the upper and lower bounds on the CPV can be calculated by probability inequalities. Travelers were assumed to choose the routes with the best worst-case CPVs. The proposed model was formulated as a variational inequality problem and solved via a heuristic solution algorithm. A numerical example was also provided to illustrate the application of the proposed model and the efficiency of the solution algorithm.

  2. Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André

    2017-03-01

    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  3. Pro asynchronous programming with .NET

    CERN Document Server

    Blewett, Richard; Ltd, Rock Solid Knowledge

    2014-01-01

    Pro Asynchronous Programming with .NET teaches the essential skill of asynchronous programming in .NET. It answers critical questions in .NET application development, such as: how do I keep my program responding at all times to keep my users happy how do I make the most of the available hardware how can I improve performanceIn the modern world, users expect more and more from their applications and devices, and multi-core hardware has the potential to provide it. But it takes carefully crafted code to turn that potential into responsive, scalable applications.With Pro Asynchronous Programming

  4. Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André

    2017-08-01

    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  5. Petri Nets and Semantics of System Descriptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten

    1982-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of Petri nets as a semantic tool in the design of languages and in the construction and analysis of system descriptions. The topics treated are: Languages based on nets. The problem of time in nets. Nets and related models. Nets and formal semantics. Parallel program...

  6. Optimizing sampling design to deal with mist-net avoidance in Amazonian birds and bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Tiago Marques

    Full Text Available Mist netting is a widely used technique to sample bird and bat assemblages. However, captures often decline with time because animals learn and avoid the locations of nets. This avoidance or net shyness can substantially decrease sampling efficiency. We quantified the day-to-day decline in captures of Amazonian birds and bats with mist nets set at the same location for four consecutive days. We also evaluated how net avoidance influences the efficiency of surveys under different logistic scenarios using re-sampling techniques. Net avoidance caused substantial declines in bird and bat captures, although more accentuated in the latter. Most of the decline occurred between the first and second days of netting: 28% in birds and 47% in bats. Captures of commoner species were more affected. The numbers of species detected also declined. Moving nets daily to minimize the avoidance effect increased captures by 30% in birds and 70% in bats. However, moving the location of nets may cause a reduction in netting time and captures. When moving the nets caused the loss of one netting day it was no longer advantageous to move the nets frequently. In bird surveys that could even decrease the number of individuals captured and species detected. Net avoidance can greatly affect sampling efficiency but adjustments in survey design can minimize this. Whenever nets can be moved without losing netting time and the objective is to capture many individuals, they should be moved daily. If the main objective is to survey species present then nets should still be moved for bats, but not for birds. However, if relocating nets causes a significant loss of netting time, moving them to reduce effects of shyness will not improve sampling efficiency in either group. Overall, our findings can improve the design of mist netting sampling strategies in other tropical areas.

  7. Optimizing sampling design to deal with mist-net avoidance in Amazonian birds and bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, João Tiago; Ramos Pereira, Maria J; Marques, Tiago A; Santos, Carlos David; Santana, Joana; Beja, Pedro; Palmeirim, Jorge M

    2013-01-01

    Mist netting is a widely used technique to sample bird and bat assemblages. However, captures often decline with time because animals learn and avoid the locations of nets. This avoidance or net shyness can substantially decrease sampling efficiency. We quantified the day-to-day decline in captures of Amazonian birds and bats with mist nets set at the same location for four consecutive days. We also evaluated how net avoidance influences the efficiency of surveys under different logistic scenarios using re-sampling techniques. Net avoidance caused substantial declines in bird and bat captures, although more accentuated in the latter. Most of the decline occurred between the first and second days of netting: 28% in birds and 47% in bats. Captures of commoner species were more affected. The numbers of species detected also declined. Moving nets daily to minimize the avoidance effect increased captures by 30% in birds and 70% in bats. However, moving the location of nets may cause a reduction in netting time and captures. When moving the nets caused the loss of one netting day it was no longer advantageous to move the nets frequently. In bird surveys that could even decrease the number of individuals captured and species detected. Net avoidance can greatly affect sampling efficiency but adjustments in survey design can minimize this. Whenever nets can be moved without losing netting time and the objective is to capture many individuals, they should be moved daily. If the main objective is to survey species present then nets should still be moved for bats, but not for birds. However, if relocating nets causes a significant loss of netting time, moving them to reduce effects of shyness will not improve sampling efficiency in either group. Overall, our findings can improve the design of mist netting sampling strategies in other tropical areas.

  8. Methodologies for Assessing the Cumulative Environmental Effects of Hydroelectric Development of Fish and Wildlife in the Columbia River Basin, Volume 1, Recommendations, 1987 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stull, Elizabeth Ann

    1987-07-01

    This volume is the first of a two-part set addressing methods for assessing the cumulative effects of hydropower development on fish and wildlife in the Columbia River Basin. Species and habitats potentially affected by cumulative impacts are identified for the basin, and the most significant effects of hydropower development are presented. Then, current methods for measuring and assessing single-project effects are reviewed, followed by a review of methodologies with potential for use in assessing the cumulative effects associated with multiple projects. Finally, two new approaches for cumulative effects assessment are discussed in detail. Overall, this report identifies and reviews the concepts, factors, and methods necessary for understanding and conducting a cumulative effects assessment in the Columbia River Basin. Volume 2 will present a detailed procedural handbook for performing a cumulative assessment using the integrated tabular methodology introduced in this volume. 308 refs., 18 figs., 10 tabs.

  9. AdaNET prototype library administration manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Lionel

    1989-01-01

    The functions of the AdaNET Prototype Library of Reusable Software Parts is described. Adopted from the Navy Research Laboratory's Reusability Guidebook (V.5.0), this is a working document, customized for use the the AdaNET Project. Within this document, the term part is used to denote the smallest unit controlled by a library and retrievable from it. A part may have several constituents, which may not be individually tracked. Presented are the types of parts which may be stored in the library and the relationships among those parts; a concept of trust indicators which provide measures of confidence that a user of a previously developed part may reasonably apply to a part for a new application; search and retrieval, configuration management, and communications among those who interact with the AdaNET Prototype Library; and the AdaNET Prototype, described from the perspective of its three major users: the part reuser and retriever, the part submitter, and the librarian and/or administrator.

  10. Impact of Olyset® Nets on malaria transmission in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Sreehari, R.K. Razdan, P.K. Mittal, M.A. Ansari, M.M.A. Rizvi & A.P. Dash

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Efficacy of Olyset nets, long-lasting insecticidal nets were tested fromAugust 2003 to August 2006 against Anopheles culicifacies, the vector which transmits 60% of allmalaria cases in rural India.Methods: Three villages in District Gautam Budh Nagar (Uttar Pradesh, India were selected for thetrial and Olyset nets were distributed in one village, in another village untreated nets were distributedand the third village was kept as control where nets were not used. Entomological, and epidemiologicaldata were collected using standard methods.Results: The use of Olyset nets reduced the indoor resting density of An. culicifacies and also reducedmosquito entry into the structures where Olyset nets were used. No mosquitoes were caught landingon the Olyset nets. There was a reduction in the parity rate of An. culicifacies in the Olyset net villageas compared with untreated net and no net villages. The impact of Olyset nets was observed on malariaincidence and only one case of Plasmodium falciparum malaria was reported in the Olyset net villagebut these continued to be found in the village with untreated nets and the control.Conclusion: Results of the present study confirmed that Olyset nets are highly effective in reducingthe indoor resting density of mosquitoes, man-vector contact and malaria incidence.

  11. New approaches to uncertainty analysis for use in aggregate and cumulative risk assessment of pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kennedy, M.C.; Voet, van der H.; Roelofs, V.J.; Roelofs, W.; Glass, C.R.; Boer, de W.J.; Kruisselbrink, J.W.; Hart, A.D.M.

    2015-01-01

    Risk assessments for human exposures to plant protection products (PPPs) have traditionally focussed on single routes of exposure and single compounds. Extensions to estimate aggregate (multi-source) and cumulative (multi-compound) exposure from PPPs present many new challenges and additional uncert

  12. Cumulative and Segmented Learning: Exploring the Role of Curriculum Structures in Knowledge-Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maton, Karl

    2009-01-01

    The present article extends Basil Bernstein's theorisation of "discourses" and "knowledge structures" to explore the potential of educational knowledge structures to enable or constrain cumulative learning, where students can transfer knowledge across contexts and build knowledge over time. It offers a means of overcoming…

  13. Probabilistic cumulative risk assessment of anti-androgenic pesticides in food.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, A.K.; Bosgra, S.; Boon, P.E.; van der Voet, H.; Nielsen, E.; Ladefoged, O.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a cumulative risk assessment of three anti-androgenic pesticides (vinclozolin, procymidone and prochloraz) using the relative potency factor (RPF) approach and an integrated probabilistic risk assessment (IPRA) model. RPFs for each substance were estimated for three reprodu

  14. Probabilistic cumulative risk assessment of anti-androgenic pesticides in food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, A.K.; Bosgra, S.; Boon, P.E.; Voet, van der H.; Nielsen, E.; Ladefoged, O.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a cumulative risk assessment of three anti-androgenic pesticides (vinclozolin, procymidone and prochloraz) using the relative potency factor (RPF) approach and an integrated probabilistic risk assessment (IPRA) model. RPFs for each substance were estimated for three reprodu

  15. Multiplicity dependent and non-binomial efficiency corrections for particle number cumulants

    CERN Document Server

    Bzdak, Adam; Koch, Volker

    2016-01-01

    In this note we extend previous work on efficiency corrections for cumulant measurements [1,2]. We will discuss the limitations of the methods presented in these papers. Specifically we will consider multiplicity dependent efficiencies as well as a non-binomial efficiency distributions. We will discuss the most simple and straightforward methods to implement those corrections.

  16. Longhi Games, Internal Reservoirs, and Cumulate Porosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, S. A.

    2009-05-01

    Fe in plagioclase at an early age, T-rollers (or not) on the Di-Trid boundary in Fo-Di-Sil, the mantle solidus, origins of anorthosites, esoteric uses of Schreinemakers rules and many more topics are all fresh and pleasant memories of John Longhi's prolific and creative work. The Fram-Longhi experimental effect of pressure on plagioclase partitioning with liquid in mafic rocks became essential to an understanding of multiphase Rayleigh fractionation of plagioclase in big layered intrusions. Only by using the pressure effect could I find a good equation through the data for the Kiglapait intrusion, and that result among others required the existence with probability 1.0 of an internal reservoir (Morse, JPet 2008). Knowledge of cumulate porosity is a crucial key to the understanding of layered igneous rocks. We seek both the initial (inverse packing fraction) and residual porosity to find the time and process path from sedimentation to solidification. In the Kiglapait Lower Zone we have a robust estimate of mean residual porosity from the modes of the excluded phases augite, oxides, sulfide, and apatite. To this we apply the maximum variance of plagioclase composition (the An range) to find an algorithm that extends through the Upper Zone and to other intrusions. Of great importance is that all these measurements were made in grain mounts concentrated from typically about 200 g of core or hand specimen, hence the represented sample volume is thousands of times greater than for a thin section. The resulting distribution and scatter of the An range is novel and remarkable. It is V-shaped in the logarithmic representation of stratigraphic height, running from about 20 mole % at both ends (base to top of the Layered Series) to near-zero at 99 PCS. The intercept of the porosity-An range relation gives An range = 3.5 % at zero residual porosity. Petrographic analysis reveals that for PCS less than 95 and greater than 99.9, the An range is intrinsic, i.e. pre-cumulus, for

  17. KM3NeT

    CERN Multimedia

    KM3NeT is a large scale next-generation neutrino telescope located in the deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea, optimized for the discovery of galactic neutrino sources emitting in the TeV energy region.

  18. PolicyNet Publication System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The PolicyNet Publication System project will merge the Oracle-based Policy Repository (POMS) and the SQL-Server CAMP system (MSOM) into a new system with an Oracle...

  19. The Net Reclassification Index (NRI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pepe, Margaret S.; Fan, Jing; Feng, Ziding;

    2015-01-01

    The Net Reclassification Index (NRI) is a very popular measure for evaluating the improvement in prediction performance gained by adding a marker to a set of baseline predictors. However, the statistical properties of this novel measure have not been explored in depth. We demonstrate the alarming...... performance improvement, such as measures derived from the receiver operating characteristic curve, the net benefit function, and the Brier score, cannot be large due to poorly fitting risk functions....

  20. Petri Net Tool Overview 1986

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Feldbrugge, Frits

    1987-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the characteristics of all currently available net based tools. It is a compilation of information provided by tool authors or contact persons. A concise one page overview is provided as well.......This paper provides an overview of the characteristics of all currently available net based tools. It is a compilation of information provided by tool authors or contact persons. A concise one page overview is provided as well....

  1. Cumulative stress and autonomic dysregulation in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Rachel; Tuit, Keri; Hong, Kwang-Ik; Donovan, Theresa; Lee, Forrester; Sinha, Rajita

    2016-05-01

    Whether cumulative stress, including both chronic stress and adverse life events, is associated with decreased heart rate variability (HRV), a non-invasive measure of autonomic status which predicts poor cardiovascular outcomes, is unknown. Healthy community dwelling volunteers (N = 157, mean age 29 years) participated in the Cumulative Stress/Adversity Interview (CAI), a 140-item event interview measuring cumulative adversity including major life events, life trauma, recent life events and chronic stressors, and underwent 24-h ambulatory ECG monitoring. HRV was analyzed in the frequency domain and standard deviation of NN intervals (SDNN) calculated. Initial simple regression analyses revealed that total cumulative stress score, chronic stressors and cumulative adverse life events (CALE) were all inversely associated with ultra low-frequency (ULF), very low-frequency (VLF) and low-frequency (LF) power and SDNN (all p stress and chronic stress each was significantly associated with SDNN and ULF even after the highly significant contributions of age and sex, with no other covariates accounting for additional appreciable variance. For VLF and LF, both total cumulative stress and chronic stress significantly contributed to the variance alone but were not longer significant after adjusting for race and health behaviors. In summary, total cumulative stress, and its components of adverse life events and chronic stress were associated with decreased cardiac autonomic function as measured by HRV. Findings suggest one potential mechanism by which stress may exert adverse effects on mortality in healthy individuals. Primary preventive strategies including stress management may prove beneficial.

  2. Modeling and analysis using hybrid Petri nets

    CERN Document Server

    Ghomri, Latéfa

    2007-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the use of hybrid Petri nets (PNs) for modeling and control of hybrid dynamic systems (HDS). Modeling, analysis and control of HDS attract ever more of researchers' attention and several works have been devoted to these topics. We consider in this paper the extensions of the PN formalism (initially conceived for modeling and analysis of discrete event systems) in the direction of hybrid modeling. We present, first, the continuous PN models. These models are obtained from discrete PNs by the fluidification of the markings. They constitute the first steps in the extension of PNs toward hybrid modeling. Then, we present two hybrid PN models, which differ in the class of HDS they can deal with. The first one is used for deterministic HDS modeling, whereas the second one can deal with HDS with nondeterministic behavior. Keywords: Hybrid dynamic systems; D-elementary hybrid Petri nets; Hybrid automata; Controller synthesis

  3. Interactive Model Visualization for NET-VISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, H. A.; Arora, N. S.

    2013-12-01

    NET-VISA is a probabilistic system developed for seismic network processing of data measured on the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO). NET-VISA is composed of a Generative Model (GM) and an Inference Algorithm (IA). The GM is an explicit mathematical description of the relationships between various factors in seismic network analysis. Some of the relationships inside the GM are deterministic and some are statistical. Statistical relationships are described by probability distributions, the exact parameters of which (such as mean and standard deviation) are found by training NET-VISA using recent data. The IA uses the GM to evaluate the probability of various events and associations, searching for the seismic bulletin which has the highest overall probability and is consistent with a given set of measured arrivals. An Interactive Model Visualization tool (IMV) has been developed which makes 'peeking into' the GM simple and intuitive through a web-based interfaced. For example, it is now possible to access the probability distributions for attributes of events and arrivals such as the detection rate for each station for each of 14 phases. It also clarifies the assumptions and prior knowledge that are incorporated into NET-VISA's event determination. When NET-VISA is retrained, the IMV will be a visual tool for quality control both as a means of testing that the training has been accomplished correctly and that the IMS network has not changed unexpectedly. A preview of the IMV will be shown at this poster presentation. Homepage for the IMV IMV shows current model file and reference image.

  4. NetCDF-U - Uncertainty conventions for netCDF datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigagli, Lorenzo; Nativi, Stefano; Domenico, Ben

    2013-04-01

    To facilitate the automated processing of uncertain data (e.g. uncertainty propagation in modeling applications), we have proposed a set of conventions for expressing uncertainty information within the netCDF data model and format: the NetCDF Uncertainty Conventions (NetCDF-U). From a theoretical perspective, it can be said that no dataset is a perfect representation of the reality it purports to represent. Inevitably, errors arise from the observation process, including the sensor system and subsequent processing, differences in scales of phenomena and the spatial support of the observation mechanism, lack of knowledge about the detailed conversion between the measured quantity and the target variable. This means that, in principle, all data should be treated as uncertain. The most natural representation of an uncertain quantity is in terms of random variables, with a probabilistic approach. However, it must be acknowledged that almost all existing data resources are not treated in this way. Most datasets come simply as a series of values, often without any uncertainty information. If uncertainty information is present, then it is typically within the metadata, as a data quality element. This is typically a global (dataset wide) representation of uncertainty, often derived through some form of validation process. Typically, it is a statistical measure of spread, for example the standard deviation of the residuals. The introduction of a mechanism by which such descriptions of uncertainty can be integrated into existing geospatial applications is considered a practical step towards a more accurate modeling of our uncertain understanding of any natural process. Given the generality and flexibility of the netCDF data model, conventions on naming, syntax, and semantics have been adopted by several communities of practice, as a means of improving data interoperability. Some of the existing conventions include provisions on uncertain elements and concepts, but, to our

  5. Entanglement entropy and particle number cumulants of disordered fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmistrov, I. S.; Tikhonov, K. S.; Gornyi, I. V.; Mirlin, A. D.

    2017-08-01

    We study the entanglement entropy and particle number cumulants for a system of disordered noninteracting fermions in d dimensions. We show, both analytically and numerically, that for a weak disorder the entanglement entropy and the second cumulant (particle number variance) are proportional to each other with a universal coefficient. The corresponding expressions are analogous to those in the clean case but with a logarithmic factor regularized by the mean free path rather than by the system size. We also determine the scaling of higher cumulants by analytical (weak disorder) and numerical means. Finally, we predict that the particle number variance and the entanglement entropy are nonanalytic functions of disorder at the Anderson transition.

  6. Cumulative asbestos exposure for US automobile mechanics involved in brake repair (circa 1950s-2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Brent L; Richter, Richard O; Mowat, Fionna S; Mlynarek, Steve; Paustenbach, Dennis J; Warmerdam, John M; Sheehan, Patrick J

    2007-11-01

    We analyzed cumulative lifetime exposure to chrysotile asbestos experienced by brake mechanics in the US during the period 1950-2000. Using Monte Carlo methods, cumulative exposures were calculated using the distribution of 8-h time-weighted average exposure concentrations for brake mechanics and the distribution of job tenure data for automobile mechanics. The median estimated cumulative exposures for these mechanics, as predicted by three probabilistic models, ranged from 0.16 to 0.41 fibers per cubic centimeter (f/cm(3)) year for facilities with no dust-control procedures (1970s), and from 0.010 to 0.012 f/cm(3) year for those employing engineering controls (1980s). Upper-bound (95%) estimates for the 1970s and 1980s were 1.96 to 2.79 and 0.07-0.10 f/cm(3) year, respectively. These estimates for US brake mechanics are consistent with, but generally slightly lower than, those reported for European mechanics. The values are all substantially lower than the cumulative exposure of 4.5 f/cm(3) year associated with occupational exposure to 0.1 f/cm(3) of asbestos for 45 years that is currently permitted under the current occupational exposure limits in the US. Cumulative exposures were usually about 100- to 1,000-fold less than those of other occupational groups with asbestos exposure for similar time periods. The cumulative lifetime exposure estimates presented here, combined with the negative epidemiology data for brake mechanics, could be used to refine the risk assessments for chrysotile-exposed populations.

  7. Research and Construction the Net Monitor System

    OpenAIRE

    Ruining Huang; Lei Li; Yunjiang Lou

    2012-01-01

    A Net Monitor system is presented in this paper. The system is based on STMicroelectronics board FLTK3D, which provides hardware platform for TV functions--3D film, IPTV, 3D game, cable television and so on. The whole system includes the Linux Operating System (OS), embedded web browser, Media player, clouding applications, video conference and 3D game. It utilizes the reference model of the CLFS (Cross Linux From Scratches) principle to construct the embedded Linux OS. Cloud applications are...

  8. AREVA net income: 649 million euros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-03-15

    This document presents the financial statements for 2006 of Areva group: net income: 649 million euros; backlog up by 24.6% to 25.6 billion euros; steady growth of sales revenue: + 7.3%1 to 10.863 billion euros; operating income of 407 million euros: excellent divisional performance and constitution of a significant provision for the OL3 project in Finland; dividend proposed to Annual General Meeting of Shareholders: 8.46 euros per share.

  9. Deployment dynamics of tethered-net for space debris removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Minghe; Guo, Jian; Gill, Eberhard

    2017-03-01

    A tethered-net is a promising method for space debris capturing. However, its deployment dynamics is complex because of the flexibility, and its dependency of the deployment parameters is insufficiently understood. To investigate the deployment dynamics of tethered-net, four critical deployment parameters, namely maximum net area, deployment time, traveling distance and effective period are identified in this paper, and the influence of initial deployment conditions on these four parameters is investigated. Besides, a comprehensive study on a model for the tethered-net based on absolute nodal coordinates formulation (ANCF) is provided. Simulations show that the results based on the ANCF modeling method present a good agreement with that based on the conventional mass-spring modeling method. Moreover, ANCF model is capable of describing the flexibility between two nodes on the net. However, it is more computationally expensive.

  10. 29 CFR 4204.13 - Net income and net tangible assets tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Net income and net tangible assets tests. 4204.13 Section....13 Net income and net tangible assets tests. (a) General. The criteria under this section are that either— (1) Net income test. The purchaser's average net income after taxes for its three most...

  11. Robots arm motion representation in Petri NETS using sequent calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Uzair Ahmad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There are many sort of motion in robots structure. Such as the robot locomotion robot jumps robots picking and so on but all are presented through Petri NETS. The one motion which is also the important one and most worthy motion of the robots is the robots arm motion. Which till yet not represented through Petri NETS. In this paper we are going to represent the motion of the robot arm in different angles and different aspect, such as up, down, circular, back and front moment of the robot arm, through Petri net we can present the complex form of motions into simplex paths.

  12. PNet: A Python Library for Petri Net Modeling and Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu En Chay

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Petri Net is a formalism to describe changes between 2 or more states across discrete time and has been used to model many systems. We present PNet – a pure Python library for Petri Net modeling and simulation in Python programming language. The design of PNet focuses on reducing the learning curve needed to define a Petri Net by using a text-based language rather than programming constructs to define transition rules. Complex transition rules can be refined as regular Python functions. To demonstrate the simplicity of PNet, we present 2 examples – bread baking, and epidemiological models.

  13. Petri nets SM-cover-based on heuristic coloring algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkacz, Jacek; Doligalski, Michał

    2015-09-01

    In the paper, coloring heuristic algorithm of interpreted Petri nets is presented. Coloring is used to determine the State Machines (SM) subnets. The present algorithm reduces the Petri net in order to reduce the computational complexity and finds one of its possible State Machines cover. The proposed algorithm uses elements of interpretation of Petri nets. The obtained result may not be the best, but it is sufficient for use in rapid prototyping of logic controllers. Found SM-cover will be also used in the development of algorithms for decomposition, and modular synthesis and implementation of parallel logic controllers. Correctness developed heuristic algorithm was verified using Gentzen formal reasoning system.

  14. Net Operations (Ⅱ)——The Iterated Addition Operation of Petri Nets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋昌俊

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the iterated addition operation of Petri nets and discusses its application in analysis and synthesis of cycle type systems and star type systems.A group of necessary and sufficient conditions for analysis of structural properties is obtained.In addition sufficient conditions for general systems are obtained.

  15. Document analysis with neural net circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Hans Peter

    1994-01-01

    Document analysis is one of the main applications of machine vision today and offers great opportunities for neural net circuits. Despite more and more data processing with computers, the number of paper documents is still increasing rapidly. A fast translation of data from paper into electronic format is needed almost everywhere, and when done manually, this is a time consuming process. Markets range from small scanners for personal use to high-volume document analysis systems, such as address readers for the postal service or check processing systems for banks. A major concern with present systems is the accuracy of the automatic interpretation. Today's algorithms fail miserably when noise is present, when print quality is poor, or when the layout is complex. A common approach to circumvent these problems is to restrict the variations of the documents handled by a system. In our laboratory, we had the best luck with circuits implementing basic functions, such as convolutions, that can be used in many different algorithms. To illustrate the flexibility of this approach, three applications of the NET32K circuit are described in this short viewgraph presentation: locating address blocks, cleaning document images by removing noise, and locating areas of interest in personal checks to improve image compression. Several of the ideas realized in this circuit that were inspired by neural nets, such as analog computation with a low resolution, resulted in a chip that is well suited for real-world document analysis applications and that compares favorably with alternative, 'conventional' circuits.

  16. Neural Net Safety Monitor Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Richard R.

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) at the Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) has been conducting flight-test research using an F-15 aircraft (figure 1). This aircraft has been specially modified to interface a neural net (NN) controller as part of a single-string Airborne Research Test System (ARTS) computer with the existing quad-redundant flight control system (FCC) shown in figure 2. The NN commands are passed to FCC channels 2 and 4 and are cross channel data linked (CCDL) to the other computers as shown. Numerous types of fault-detection monitors exist in the FCC when the NN mode is engaged; these monitors would cause an automatic disengagement of the NN in the event of a triggering fault. Unfortunately, these monitors still may not prevent a possible NN hard-over command from coming through to the control laws. Therefore, an additional and unique safety monitor was designed for a single-string source that allows authority at maximum actuator rates but protects the pilot and structural loads against excessive g-limits in the case of a NN hard-over command input. This additional monitor resides in the FCCs and is executed before the control laws are computed. This presentation describes a floating limiter (FL) concept1 that was developed and successfully test-flown for this program (figure 3). The FL computes the rate of change of the NN commands that are input to the FCC from the ARTS. A window is created with upper and lower boundaries, which is constantly floating and trying to stay centered as the NN command rates are changing. The limiter works by only allowing the window to move at a much slower rate than those of the NN commands. Anywhere within the window, however, full rates are allowed. If a rate persists in one direction, it will eventually hit the boundary and be rate-limited to the floating limiter rate. When this happens, a persistent counter begins and after a limit is reached, a NN disengage command is generated. The

  17. Knotting the Net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revellino, Silvana; Mouritsen, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Research on megaprojects points out the crucial role of politics in managing major infrastructure projects. Politics is often here presented as misrepresentation by the project maker who manipulates everyone else. This is where power is concentrated in the hands of the few. However, this approach...

  18. Flames From the Net

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RobertW.Lucky

    2005-01-01

    It was a boring business meeting. Fortunately, my laptop was open and connected wirelessly to the Web. The urge to leave the meeting mentally was irresistible. After all, I rationalized, I would still be physically present, and that should count for something.

  19. Correcting Detector Efficiency Effects in Event-by-Event Net-Proton Fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of fluctuations of conserved quantities give valuable information on the susceptibilities of the nuclear matter produced in a heavy-ion collision, and could in principle be used to distinguish QGP from hadronic matter. However, measurements of the cumulants of conserved-quantity distributions are affected by the detector efficiency, which must be accounted for in order to ensure accuracy. Following the development of a toy model that simulates detector efficiency effects on net-proton number, various correction methods, including those developed by A. Bzdak and V. Koch, were implemented and tested in a wide range of conditions. We find that the first four cumulants of net-proton-number distribution can be accurately reproduced by the Koch-Bzdak corrections with reasonable input statistics. Various methods of correcting for $p_T$ dependence of detector efficiency are also explored.

  20. Online Scheduling in Manufacturing A Cumulative Delay Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Suwa, Haruhiko

    2013-01-01

    Online scheduling is recognized as the crucial decision-making process of production control at a phase of “being in production" according to the released shop floor schedule. Online scheduling can be also considered as one of key enablers to realize prompt capable-to-promise as well as available-to-promise to customers along with reducing production lead times under recent globalized competitive markets. Online Scheduling in Manufacturing introduces new approaches to online scheduling based on a concept of cumulative delay. The cumulative delay is regarded as consolidated information of uncertainties under a dynamic environment in manufacturing and can be collected constantly without much effort at any points in time during a schedule execution. In this approach, the cumulative delay of the schedule has the important role of a criterion for making a decision whether or not a schedule revision is carried out. The cumulative delay approach to trigger schedule revisions has the following capabilities for the ...

  1. Cumulative Risks of Foster Care Placement for Danish Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallesen, Peter; Emanuel, Natalia; Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Although recent research suggests that the cumulative risk of foster care placement is far higher for American children than originally suspected, little is known about the cumulative risk of foster care placement in other countries, which makes it difficult to gauge the degree to which factor...... is for Danish children. Results suggest that at the beginning of the study period (in 1998) the cumulative risk of foster care placement for Danish children was roughly in line with the risk for American children. Yet, by the end of the study period (2010), the risk had declined to half the risk for American...... foster care placement is salient in other contexts. In this article, we provide companion estimates to those provided in recent work on the US by using Danish registry data and synthetic cohort life tables to show how high and unequally distributed the cumulative risk of foster care placement...

  2. Mapping cumulative human impacts in the eastern North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stock, A.; Andersen, Jesper; Heinänen, S.

    of the MSFD; and 3) to deepen the understanding of how errors in expert judgment affect the resulting cumulative human impact maps by means of Monte Carlo simulations. We combined existing data sets on the spatial distribution of 33 anthropogenic stressors (linked to the MSFD pressures) and 28 key habitats....... In contrast, the predicted impacts for much of the Norwegian EEZ and areas far offshore were lower. The Monte Carlo simulations confirmed earlier findings that mapping cumulative impacts is generally "robust", but also showed that specific combinations of errors can seriously change local and regional...... on marine ecosystems have only recently been developed. The aims of our study were: 1) to develop a map of cumulative human impacts for the Danish, Swedish, Norwegian and German parts of the Greater North Sea; 2) to adjust the existing methods for mapping cumulative human impacts to fit the requirements...

  3. Cumulative Production Per Township - SaMiRa

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset contains a selected township grid within the Sagebrush Mineral Resource Assessment project (SaMiRa) study area attributed with cumulative oil and gas...

  4. Macroscopic cumulative fatigue damage of material under nonsymmetrical cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盖秉政

    2002-01-01

    Hashin's macroscopic theory of fatigue damage is further discussed and a new method has been proposed for prediction of cumulative fatigue damage of material and its lifetime under nonsymmetrical cyclic loading.

  5. Translation-Invariant Representation for Cumulative Foot Pressure Images

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Shuai; Tan, Tieniu

    2010-01-01

    Human can be distinguished by different limb movements and unique ground reaction force. Cumulative foot pressure image is a 2-D cumulative ground reaction force during one gait cycle. Although it contains pressure spatial distribution information and pressure temporal distribution information, it suffers from several problems including different shoes and noise, when putting it into practice as a new biometric for pedestrian identification. In this paper, we propose a hierarchical translation-invariant representation for cumulative foot pressure images, inspired by the success of Convolutional deep belief network for digital classification. Key contribution in our approach is discriminative hierarchical sparse coding scheme which helps to learn useful discriminative high-level visual features. Based on the feature representation of cumulative foot pressure images, we develop a pedestrian recognition system which is invariant to three different shoes and slight local shape change. Experiments are conducted on...

  6. INTERACTIVE VISUALIZATION OF PROBABILITY AND CUMULATIVE DENSITY FUNCTIONS

    KAUST Repository

    Potter, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    The probability density function (PDF), and its corresponding cumulative density function (CDF), provide direct statistical insight into the characterization of a random process or field. Typically displayed as a histogram, one can infer probabilities of the occurrence of particular events. When examining a field over some two-dimensional domain in which at each point a PDF of the function values is available, it is challenging to assess the global (stochastic) features present within the field. In this paper, we present a visualization system that allows the user to examine two-dimensional data sets in which PDF (or CDF) information is available at any position within the domain. The tool provides a contour display showing the normed difference between the PDFs and an ansatz PDF selected by the user and, furthermore, allows the user to interactively examine the PDF at any particular position. Canonical examples of the tool are provided to help guide the reader into the mapping of stochastic information to visual cues along with a description of the use of the tool for examining data generated from an uncertainty quantification exercise accomplished within the field of electrophysiology.

  7. Enhanced cumulative sum charts for monitoring process dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abujiya, Mu'azu Ramat; Riaz, Muhammad; Lee, Muhammad Hisyam

    2015-01-01

    The cumulative sum (CUSUM) control chart is widely used in industry for the detection of small and moderate shifts in process location and dispersion. For efficient monitoring of process variability, we present several CUSUM control charts for monitoring changes in standard deviation of a normal process. The newly developed control charts based on well-structured sampling techniques - extreme ranked set sampling, extreme double ranked set sampling and double extreme ranked set sampling, have significantly enhanced CUSUM chart ability to detect a wide range of shifts in process variability. The relative performances of the proposed CUSUM scale charts are evaluated in terms of the average run length (ARL) and standard deviation of run length, for point shift in variability. Moreover, for overall performance, we implore the use of the average ratio ARL and average extra quadratic loss. A comparison of the proposed CUSUM control charts with the classical CUSUM R chart, the classical CUSUM S chart, the fast initial response (FIR) CUSUM R chart, the FIR CUSUM S chart, the ranked set sampling (RSS) based CUSUM R chart and the RSS based CUSUM S chart, among others, are presented. An illustrative example using real dataset is given to demonstrate the practicability of the application of the proposed schemes.

  8. High-level Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of some of the most important papers on the application and theory of high-level Petri nets. In this way it makes the relevant literature more available. It is our hope that the book will be a useful source of information and that, e.g., it can be used in the organization of Petri net courses. To make...... there is only one kind of token and this means that the state of a place is described by an integer (and in many cases even by a boolean). In high-level nets each token can carry a complex information/data - which, e.g., may describe the entire state of a process or a data base. Today most practical...... by other papers. Thus, e.g., none of the original papers introducing the first versions of high-level Petri nets have been included. The introductions to the individual sections mention a number of researchers who have contributed to the development of high-level Petri nets. Detailed references...

  9. Some Characterization Results on Dynamic Cumulative Residual Tsallis Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madan Mohan Sati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a generalized cumulative residual information measure based on Tsallis entropy and its dynamic version. We study the characterizations of the proposed information measure and define new classes of life distributions based on this measure. Some applications are provided in relation to weighted and equilibrium probability models. Finally the empirical cumulative Tsallis entropy is proposed to estimate the new information measure.

  10. Steps and pips in the history of the cumulative recorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Lattal, Kennon A.

    2004-01-01

    From its inception in the 1930s until very recent times, the cumulative recorder was the most widely used measurement instrument in the experimental analysis of behavior. It was an essential instrument in the discovery and analysis of schedules of reinforcement, providing the first real-time analysis of operant response rates and patterns. This review traces the evolution of the cumulative recorder from Skinner's early modified kymographs through various models developed by Skinner and his co...

  11. Childhood Cumulative Risk Exposure and Adult Amygdala Volume and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gary W; Swain, James E; King, Anthony P; Wang, Xin; Javanbakht, Arash; Ho, S Shaun; Angstadt, Michael; Phan, K Luan; Xie, Hong; Liberzon, Israel

    2016-06-01

    Considerable work indicates that early cumulative risk exposure is aversive to human development, but very little research has examined the neurological underpinnings of these robust findings. This study investigates amygdala volume and reactivity to facial stimuli among adults (mean 23.7 years of age, n = 54) as a function of cumulative risk exposure during childhood (9 and 13 years of age). In addition, we test to determine whether expected cumulative risk elevations in amygdala volume would mediate functional reactivity of the amygdala during socioemotional processing. Risks included substandard housing quality, noise, crowding, family turmoil, child separation from family, and violence. Total and left hemisphere adult amygdala volumes were positively related to cumulative risk exposure during childhood. The links between childhood cumulative risk exposure and elevated amygdala responses to emotionally neutral facial stimuli in adulthood were mediated by the corresponding amygdala volumes. Cumulative risk exposure in later adolescence (17 years of age), however, was unrelated to subsequent adult amygdala volume or function. Physical and socioemotional risk exposures early in life appear to alter amygdala development, rendering adults more reactive to ambiguous stimuli such as neutral faces. These stress-related differences in childhood amygdala development might contribute to the well-documented psychological distress as a function of early risk exposure.

  12. Net Neutrality and Quality of Service

    CERN Document Server

    Altman, Eitan; Wong, Sulan; Xu, Manjesh Kumar Hanawal 'and' Yuedong

    2011-01-01

    2010 has witnessed many public consultations around the world concerning Net neutrality. A second legislative phase that may follow, could involve various structural changes in the Internet. The status that the Internet access has in Europe as a universal service evolves as the level of quality of service (QoS) to be offered improves. If guarantees on QoS are to be imposed, as requested by several economic actors, it would require introducing new indicators of quality of services, as well as regulation legislation and monitoring of the offered levels of QoS. This tendency in Europe may change the nature of the Internet from a best effort network to, perhaps, a more expensive one, that offers guaranteed performance. This paper presents an overview of the above issues as well as an overview of recent research on net-neutrality, with an emphasis on game theoretical approaches.

  13. Multi-net optimization of VLSI interconnect

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseev, Konstantin; Wimer, Shmuel

    2015-01-01

    This book covers layout design and layout migration methodologies for optimizing multi-net wire structures in advanced VLSI interconnects. Scaling-dependent models for interconnect power, interconnect delay and crosstalk noise are covered in depth, and several design optimization problems are addressed, such as minimization of interconnect power under delay constraints, or design for minimal delay in wire bundles within a given routing area. A handy reference or a guide for design methodologies and layout automation techniques, this book provides a foundation for physical design challenges of interconnect in advanced integrated circuits.  • Describes the evolution of interconnect scaling and provides new techniques for layout migration and optimization, focusing on multi-net optimization; • Presents research results that provide a level of design optimization which does not exist in commercially-available design automation software tools; • Includes mathematical properties and conditions for optimal...

  14. Modeling workflow using XML and Petri net

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨东; 温泉; 张申生

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays an increasing number of workflow products and research prototypes begin to adopt XML for representing workflow models owing to its easy use and well understanding for people and machines. However, most of workflow products and research prototypes provide the few supports for the verification of XML-based workflow model, such as free-deadlock properties, which is essential to successful application of workflow technology. In this paper, we tackle this problem by mapping the XML-based workflow model into Petri-net, a kind of well-known formalism for modeling,analyzing and verifying system. As a result, the XML-based workflow model can be automatically verified with the help of general Petri-net tools, such as DANAMICS. The presented approach not only enables end users to represent workflow model with XML-based modeling language, but also the correctness of model can be ensured, thus satisfying the needs of business processes.

  15. AstroNet-II International Final Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Masdemont, Josep

    2016-01-01

    These are the proceedings of the "AstroNet-II International Final Conference". This conference was one of the last milestones of the Marie-Curie Research Training Network on Astrodynamics "AstroNet-II", that has been funded by the European Commission under the Seventh Framework Programme. The aim of the conference, and thus this book, is to communicate work on astrodynamics problems to an international and specialised audience. The results are presented by both members of the network and invited specialists. The topics include: trajectory design and control, attitude control, structural flexibility of spacecraft and formation flying. The book addresses a readership across the traditional boundaries between mathematics, engineering and industry by offering an interdisciplinary and multisectorial overview of the field.

  16. Template learning in morphological neural nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Jennifer L.; Sun, K.

    1991-07-01

    This paper presents an application of morphology neural networks to a template learning problem. Morphology neural networks are a nonlinear version of the familiar artificial neural networks. Typically, an artificial neural net is used to solve pattern classification problems One useful characterization of many neural network algorithms is the ability to 'learn' to respond correctly to new data based only on a selection of known data responses. For example, in the multilayer perceptron model, the 'learning' is a procedure whereby parameters are fed back from output to input neurons and the weights changed to give a better response. The morphological neural net in this paper solves a different type of image processing problem. Specifically, given an input image and an output image which corresponds to a dilated version of the input, one would like to determine what template produced the output. The problem corresponds to teaching the network to solve for the weights in a morphological net, as the weights are the template's values. A reasonable method has been investigated for the boolean case; in this paper results are presented for gray scale images. Image algebra has been shown to provide a succinct expression of neural networks algorithms and also to allow a generalization of neural networks, and thus the authors describe the algorithm in image algebra. The remainder of the paper gives a brief discussion of image algebra, the relationship of image algebra and neural networks, a recap of the dilation morphology neural network boolean for boolean images, and the generalization to grayscale data.

  17. "When I sleep under the net, nothing bothers me; I sleep well and I'm happy": Senegal's culture of net use and how inconveniences to net use do not translate to net abandonment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthe, Sara; Loll, Dana; Faye, Sylvain L; Wone, Issa; Koenker, Hannah; Arnold, Bethany; Weber, Rachel

    2014-09-12

    Despite recent advances in the fight against the disease, malaria remains a serious threat to the health and well-being of populations in endemic countries. The use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) reduces contact between the vector and humans, thereby reducing transmission of the disease. LLINs have become an essential component of malaria control programmes worldwide. The Culture of Net Use study used qualitative and quantitative methods in a longitudinal and iterative design over two phases, in order to capture changes in net use over a year and a half period and covering both dry and rainy seasons. Data were collected from a total of 56 households in eight regions to understand variations due to geographical, cultural, and universal coverage differences. At the time of the data collection, the universal coverage campaign had been completed in six of the eight regions (Dakar and Thies excluded). Perceived barriers to use were primarily related to the characteristics of the net itself, include shape, insecticide, and a variety of minority responses, such as perceived lack of mosquito density and being unaccustomed to using nets. Insecticide-related complaints found that insecticide did not present a significant barrier to use, but was cited as a nuisance. Feelings of suffocation continued to be the most commonly cited nuisance. Respondents who favoured the use of insecticide on nets appeared to be more aware of the health and malaria prevention benefits of the insecticide than those who perceived it negatively. Despite prior evidence that barriers such as heat, shape, insecticide and perceived mosquito density contribute to non-use of LLINs in other countries, this study has shown that these factors are considered more as nuisances and that they do not consistently prevent the use of nets among respondents in Senegal. Of those who cited inconveniences with their nets, few were moved to stop using a net. Respondents from this study overcame these barriers

  18. MATT: Multi Agents Testing Tool Based Nets within Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Kerraoui

    2016-12-01

    As part of this effort, we propose a model based testing approach for multi agent systems based on such a model called Reference net, where a tool, which aims to providing a uniform and automated approach is developed. The feasibility and the advantage of the proposed approach are shown through a short case study.

  19. Implementing NetScaler VPX

    CERN Document Server

    Sandbu, Marius

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-follow guide with detailed step-by step-instructions on how to implement the different key components in NetScaler, with real-world examples and sample scenarios.If you are a Citrix or network administrator who needs to implement NetScaler in your virtual environment to gain an insight on its functionality, this book is ideal for you. A basic understanding of networking and familiarity with some of the different Citrix products such as XenApp or XenDesktop is a prerequisite.

  20. Net4Care PHMR Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the SimpleClinicalDocument......The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the Simple...

  1. Cumulative Psychosocial and Medical Risk as Predictors of Early Infant Development and Parenting Stress in an African-American Preterm Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candelaria, Margo A.; O'Connell, Melissa A.; Teti, Douglas M.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined predictive linkages between cumulative psychosocial and medical risk, assessed neonatally, and infant development and parenting stress at 4 months of infant corrected age. Predominantly low-income, African-American mothers and their preterm infants served as participants. Cumulative psychosocial risk predicted early…

  2. Determinants of Net Interstate Migration, 2000-2004

    OpenAIRE

    Richard J. Cebula; Alexander, Gigi M.

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigates the impact on net state in-migration over the 2000-2004 period of a variety of economic and non-economic factors. The empirical estimates indicate that the net state in-migration rate was an increasing function of median family income and the previous-period employment growth rate on the one hand and a decreasing function of the cost of living. In addition, net state in-migration was an increasing function of the warmer temperatures, while being a decreasing fun...

  3. Regional estimates of the transient climate response to cumulative CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Martin; Matthews, H. Damon; de Elía, Ramón

    2016-05-01

    The Transient Climate Response to cumulative carbon Emissions (TCRE) measures the response of global temperatures to cumulative CO2 emissions. Although the TCRE is a global quantity, climate impacts manifest predominantly in response to local climate changes. Here we quantify the link between CO2 emissions and regional temperature change, showing that regional temperatures also respond approximately linearly to cumulative CO2 emissions. Using an ensemble of twelve Earth system models, we present a novel application of pattern scaling to define the regional pattern of temperature change per emission of CO2. Ensemble mean regional TCRE values range from less than 1 °C per TtC for some ocean regions, to more than 5 °C per TtC in the Arctic, with a pattern of higher values over land and at high northern latitudes. We find also that high-latitude ocean regions deviate more strongly from linearity as compared to land and lower-latitude oceans. This suggests that ice-albedo and ocean circulation feedbacks are important contributors to the overall negative deviation from linearity of the global temperature response to high levels of cumulative emissions. The strong linearity of the regional climate response over most land regions provides a robust way to quantitatively link anthropogenic CO2 emissions to local-scale climate impacts.

  4. Cumulative effects of early poverty on cortisol in young children: moderation by autonomic nervous system activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Clancy; Berry, Daniel; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Granger, Douglas

    2013-11-01

    The relation of the cumulative experience of poverty in infancy and early childhood to child cortisol at age 48 months was examined in a prospective longitudinal sample of children and families (N=1292) in predominantly low-income and rural communities in two distinct regions of the United States. Families were seen in the home for data collection and cumulative experience of poverty was indexed by parent reported income-to-need ratio and household chaos measures collected between child ages 2 months and 48 months. For the analysis presented here, three saliva samples were also collected over an approximate 90 min interval at child age 48 months and were assayed for cortisol. ECG data were also collected during a resting period and during the administration of a mildly challenging battery of cognitive tasks. Mixed model analysis indicated that child cortisol at 48 months decreased significantly over the sampling time period and that cumulative time in poverty (number of years income-to-need less than or equal to 1) and cumulative household chaos were significantly related to a flatter trajectory for cortisol change and to an overall higher level of cortisol, respectively. Findings also indicated that respiratory sinus arrhythmia derived from the ECG data moderated the association between household chaos and child cortisol and that increase in respiratory sinus arrhythmia during the cognitive task was associated with an overall lower level of cortisol at 48 months.

  5. Estimation of cumulative cadmium intake causing Itai-itai disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Takeya; Kobayashi, Etsuko; Suwazono, Yasushi; Uetani, Mirei; Oishi, Mitsuhiro; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Nogawa, Koji

    2005-11-15

    This study was undertaken to estimate the amount of cadmium (Cd) exposure needed for the development of Itai-itai disease. The investigated subjects comprised 82 Itai-itai disease patients and 11 persons requiring observation who were admitted in 1977 and 1978 for medical testing. With the period when the Itai-itai disease patients started to perceive leg/back pain defined as the 'mild disease onset', and the period when they experienced the most severe manifestations such as ambulatory disturbance and bone fractures defined as 'severe disease onset'. Relative cumulative person number distribution according to life time cadmium intake (LCD) at mild disease onset, severe disease onset, and time of death was depicted as an sigmoid curve and the establishment of probit regression lines was demonstrated between them. LCD at the time when mild disease onset and severe disease onset were recognized in half of the Itai-itai disease patients was 3.1 and 3.8 g, respectively. Furthermore, LCD at the time when mild disease onset and severe disease onset were recognized in 5% of the Itai-itai disease patients was calculated to be 2.6 and 3.3 g, respectively. The present results clarify that Itai-itai disease, the most severe stage of chronic Cd poisoning, occurs at levels of Cd consumption amounting to approximately three-fold of those currently seen in Japan.

  6. A New Tool for Seismology--the Cumulative Spectral Power

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, Randall D

    2007-01-01

    The power spectral density (PSD) function is commonly used to specify seismometer performance. It is derived from the FFT of acceleration and correction is made for the transfer function of the instrument that generated the data. As with any such spectrum of density (`per Hz') type, the noise inherent to a PSD is large. This article illustrates the value of a function that is derived from the PSD and for which the influence of noise is significantly reduced. Called the cumulative spectral power (CSP), it is obtained from the PSD through the noise-reducing process of integration. The maximum of the CSP (corresponding to the longest graphed value of the period) provides a means for estimating the total vibrational power of the earth. The present author has significantly simplified the process of PSD generation. Thus routine graphing is straightforwared-of first the FFT, followed by the generation of both a PSD and its associated CSP. The unique properties of the CSP make it valuable for the study of a variety o...

  7. New tests of cumulative prospect theory and the priority heuristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Birnbaum

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous tests of cumulative prospect theory (CPT and of the priority heuristic (PH found evidence contradicting these two models of risky decision making. However, those tests were criticized because they had characteristics that might ``trigger'' use of other heuristics. This paper presents new tests that avoid those characteristics. Expected values of the gambles are nearly equal in each choice. In addition, if a person followed expected value (EV, expected utility (EU, CPT, or PH in these tests, she would shift her preferences in the same direction as shifts in EV or EU. In contrast, the transfer of attention exchange model (TAX and a similarity model predict that people will reverse preferences in the opposite direction. Results contradict the PH, even when PH is modified to include a preliminary similarity evaluation using the PH parameters. New tests of probability-consequence interaction were also conducted. Strong interactions were observed, contrary to PH. These results add to the growing bodies of evidence showing that neither CPT nor PH is an accurate description of risky decision making.

  8. Cumulative biological impacts of The Geysers geothermal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brownell, J.A.

    1981-10-01

    The cumulative nature of current and potential future biological impacts from full geothermal development in the steam-dominated portion of The Geysers-Calistoga KGRA are identified by the California Energy Commission staff. Vegetation, wildlife, and aquatic resources information have been reviewed and evaluated. Impacts and their significance are discussed and staff recommendations presented. Development of 3000 MW of electrical energy will result in direct vegetation losses of 2790 acres, based on an estimate of 11.5% loss per lease-hold of 0.93 acres/MW. If unmitigated, losses will be greater. Indirect vegetation losses and damage occur from steam emissions which contain elements (particularly boron) toxic to vegetation. Other potential impacts include chronic low-level boron exposure, acid rain, local climate modification, and mechanical damage. A potential exists for significant reduction and changes in wildlife from direct habitat loss and development influences. Highly erosive soils create the potential for significant reduction of aquatic resources, particularly game fish. Toxic spills have caused some temporary losses of aquatic species. Staff recommends monitoring and implementation of mitigation measures at all geothermal development stages.

  9. Identification of Cumulative Assessment Groups of Pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Elsa; Nørhede, Pia; Boberg, Julie

    The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). In accordance with Article 36 of Regulation (EC) No 178/2002, this task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a grant agreement between the European Food Safety Authority ...

  10. Origins and implications of the relationship between warming and cumulative carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raupach, M. R.; Davis, S. J.; Peters, G. P.; Andrew, R. M.; Canadell, J.; Le Quere, C.

    2014-12-01

    A near-linear relationship between warming (T) and cumulative carbon emissions (Q) is a robust finding from numerous studies. This finding opens biophysical questions concerning (1) its theoretical basis, (2) the treatment of non-CO2 forcings, and (3) uncertainty specifications. Beyond these biophysical issues, a profound global policy question is raised: (4) how can a quota on cumulative emissions be shared? Here, an integrated survey of all four issues is attempted. (1) Proportionality between T and Q is an emergent property of a linear carbon-climate system forced by exponentially increasing CO2 emissions. This idealisation broadly explains past but not future near-proportionality between T and Q: in future, the roles of non-CO2 forcings and carbon-climate nonlinearities become important, and trajectory dependence becomes stronger. (2) The warming effects of short-lived non-CO2 forcers depend on instantaneous rather than cumulative fluxes. However, inertia in emissions trajectories reinstates some of the benefits of a cumulative emissions approach, with residual trajectory dependence comparable to that for CO2. (3) Uncertainties arise from several sources: climate projections, carbon-climate feedbacks, and residual trajectory dependencies in CO2 and other emissions. All of these can in principle be combined into a probability distribution P(T|Q) for the warming T from given cumulative CO2 emissions Q. Present knowledge of P(T|Q) allows quantification of the tradeoff between mitigation ambition and climate risk. (4) Cumulative emissions consistent with a given warming target and climate risk are a finite common resource that will inevitably be shared, creating a tragedy-of-the-commons dilemma. Sharing options range from "inertia" (present distribution of emissions is maintained) to "equity" (cumulative emissions are distributed equally per-capita). Both extreme options lead to emissions distributions that are unrealisable in practice, but a blend of the two

  11. Net effects of multiple stressors in freshwater ecosystems: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Michelle C; Loewen, Charlie J G; Vinebrooke, Rolf D; Chimimba, Christian T

    2016-01-01

    The accelerating rate of global change has focused attention on the cumulative impacts of novel and extreme environmental changes (i.e. stressors), especially in marine ecosystems. As integrators of local catchment and regional processes, freshwater ecosystems are also ranked highly sensitive to the net effects of multiple stressors, yet there has not been a large-scale quantitative synthesis. We analysed data from 88 papers including 286 responses of freshwater ecosystems to paired stressors and discovered that overall, their cumulative mean effect size was less than the sum of their single effects (i.e. an antagonistic interaction). Net effects of dual stressors on diversity and functional performance response metrics were additive and antagonistic, respectively. Across individual studies, a simple vote-counting method revealed that the net effects of stressor pairs were frequently more antagonistic (41%) than synergistic (28%), additive (16%) or reversed (15%). Here, we define a reversal as occurring when the net impact of two stressors is in the opposite direction (negative or positive) from that of the sum of their single effects. While warming paired with nutrification resulted in additive net effects, the overall mean net effect of warming combined with a second stressor was antagonistic. Most importantly, the mean net effects across all stressor pairs and response metrics were consistently antagonistic or additive, contrasting the greater prevalence of reported synergies in marine systems. Here, a possible explanation for more antagonistic responses by freshwater biota to stressors is that the inherent greater environmental variability of smaller aquatic ecosystems fosters greater potential for acclimation and co-adaptation to multiple stressors.

  12. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Roegner, Curtis; Thom, Ronald M.; Dawley, Earl M.; Whiting, Allan H.; Johnson, Gary E.; Sobocinski, Kathryn L.; Anderson, Michael G.; Ebberts, Blaine

    2005-12-15

    indicators for detecting a signal in the estuarine system resulting from the multiple projects were also reviewed, i.e. organic matter production, nutrient cycling, sedimentation, food webs, biodiversity, salmon habitat usage, habitat opportunity, and allometry. In subsequent work, this information will be used to calculate the over net effect on the ecosystem. To evaluate the effectiveness of habitat restoration actions in the lower Columbia River and estuary, a priority of this study has been to develop a set of minimum ecosystem monitoring protocols based on metrics important for the CRE. The metrics include a suite of physical measurements designed to evaluate changes in hydrological and topographic features, as well as biological metrics that will quantify vegetation and fish community structure. These basic measurements, intended to be conducted at all restoration sites in the CRE, will be used to (1) evaluate the effectiveness of various restoration procedures on target metrics, and (2) provide the data to determine the cumulative effects of many restoration projects on the overall system. A protocol manual is being developed for managers, professional researchers, and informed volunteers, and is intended to be a practical technical guide for the design and implementation of monitoring for the effects of restoration activities. The guidelines are intended to standardize the collection of data critical for analyzing the anticipated ecological change resulting from restoration treatments. Field studies in 2005 are planned to initiate the testing and evaluation of these monitoring metrics and protocols and initiate the evaluation of higher order metrics for cumulative effects.

  13. Cumulative Damage Model for Advanced Composite Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    ultimately used an exponential in the present example for added simplicity) and we norma - lize the function so that it becomes the modifier that determines...Testing and Design (Second Conference), ASTM STP 497, ASTM (1972) pp. 170-188. 5. Halpin, J. C., et al., "Characterization of Composites for the...Graphite Epoxy Composites," Proc. Symposium on Composite Materials: Testing and Design, ASTM , (Ma’rch 20, 1978) New Orleans, LA. 18. Hashin, Z. and Rotem

  14. Km3Net Italy - Seafloor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaleo, Riccardo

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT European project aims to construct a large volume underwater neutrino telescope in the depths of the Mediterranean Sea. INFN and KM3NeT collaboration, thanks to a dedicated funding of 21.000.000 € (PON 2007-2013), are committed to build and deploy the Phase 1 of the telescope, composed of a network of detection units: 8 towers, equipped with single photomultiplier optical modules, and 24 strings, equipped with multi-photomultipliers optical modules. All the towers and strings are connected to the main electro optical cable by means of a network of junction boxes and electro optical interlink cables. Each junction box is an active node able to provide all the necessary power to the detection units and to guarantee the data transmission between the detector and the on-shore control station. The KM3NeT Italia project foresees the realization and the installation of the first part of the deep sea network, composed of three junction boxes, one for the towers and two for the strings. In July 2015, two junction boxes have been deployed and connected to the new cable termination frame installed during the same sea campaign. The third and last one will be installed in November 2015. The status of the deep sea network is presented together with technical details of the project.

  15. REGIONAL CHANGES IN THE DISTRIBUTION OF NET VALUE ADDED IN U.S. AGRICULTURE, 1960-2002

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, Kenneth W.; Blank, Steven C.; Charles B. Moss; Mishra, Ashok K.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of structural changes on the distribution of net value added and the difference between net value added and agricultural income over time. We present and discuss the changes in the distribution of net value added (land, labor, capital, and farm operator income) over time. Net value added by U.S. agriculture grew significantly from $18 billion to 1960 to $95 billion in 1996. We examine regional differences in net value added using the Theil entropy measure. The ...

  16. Energy performance of windows based on the net energy gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Svend; Kragh, Jesper; Laustsen, Jacob Birck

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a new method to set up energy performance requirements and energy classes for windows of all dimensions and configurations. The net energy gain of windows is the solar gain minus the heat loss integrated over the heating season. The net energy gain can be calculated for one...... orientation or averaged over different orientations. The averaged value may be used for energy labeling of windows of standard size. Requirements in building codes may also be based on the net energy gain instead of the thermal transmittance of the window. The size and the configuration of the window, i.......e. number of glazing units, have a very large effect on the net energy gain. Therefore the energy labeling or the requirements based on the standard size may not give valid information on the energy performance of windows of non-standard size. The paper presents a method to set up requirements and classes...

  17. Experimental assessment of cumulative temperature and UV-B radiation effects on Mediterranean plankton metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara S. eGarcia-Corral

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean Sea is a vulnerable region for climate change, warming at higher rates compare to the global ocean. Warming leads to increased stratification of the water column and enhanced the oligotrophic nature of the Mediterranean Sea. The oligotrophic waters are already highly transparent, however, exposure of Mediterranean plankton to ultraviolet radiation (UV-B and UV-A may increase further if the waters become more oligotrophic, thereby, allowing a deeper UV radiation penetration and likely enhancing impacts to biota.Here we experimentally elucidate the cumulative effects of warming and natural UV-B radiation on the net community production (NCP of plankton communities. We conducted five experiments at monthly intervals, from June to October 2013, and evaluated the responses of NCP to ambient UV-B radiation and warming (+3ºC, alone and in combination, in a coastal area of the northwest Mediterranean Sea. UV-B radiation and warming lead to reduced net community production and resulted in a heterotrophic (NCP<0 metabolic balance. Both UV-B radiation and temperature, showed a significant individual effect in NCP across treatments and time. However, their joint effect showed to be synergistic as the interaction between them (UV x Temp was statistically significant in most of the experiments performed. Our results showed that both drivers, would affect the gas exchange of CO2-O2 from and to the atmosphere and the role of plankton communities in the Mediterranean carbon cycle

  18. Surgery for GEP-NETs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, Ulrich; Hansen, Carsten Palnæs

    2012-01-01

    Surgery is the only treatment that may cure the patient with gastroentero-pancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumours (NET) and neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC) and should always be considered as first line treatment if R0/R1 resection can be achieved. The surgical and interventional procedures for GEP...

  19. The Net Generation Cheating Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliron, Valerie; Sandoe, Kent

    2008-01-01

    Integral to higher education, academic integrity stands as a cornerstone of academic life. However, compelling evidence of widespread academic dishonesty among Net-Generation students threatens to undermine both the environment of trust that nourishes integrity and the safeguards that help ensure it. Working from their experience with widespread…

  20. Reference Guide Microsoft.NET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee M van der; Verspaij GJ; Rosbergen S; IMP; NMD

    2003-01-01

    Met behulp van het rapport kunnen ontwikkelaars, beheerders en betrokken managers bij ICT projecten meer inzicht krijgen in de .NET technologie en een goede keuze maken in de inzetbaarheid van deze technologie. Het rapport geeft de bevindingen en conclusies van een verkennende studie naar het nu

  1. Reference Guide Microsoft.NET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee M van der; Verspaij GJ; Rosbergen S; IMP; NMD

    2003-01-01

    Met behulp van het rapport kunnen ontwikkelaars, beheerders en betrokken managers bij ICT projecten meer inzicht krijgen in de .NET technologie en een goede keuze maken in de inzetbaarheid van deze technologie. Het rapport geeft de bevindingen en conclusies van een verkennende studie naar het

  2. Reference Guide Microsoft.NET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee M van der; Verspaij GJ; Rosbergen S; IMP; NMD

    2003-01-01

    Met behulp van het rapport kunnen ontwikkelaars, beheerders en betrokken managers bij ICT projecten meer inzicht krijgen in de .NET technologie en een goede keuze maken in de inzetbaarheid van deze technologie. Het rapport geeft de bevindingen en conclusies van een verkennende studie naar het nu

  3. Communicating with the Net Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    narcissistic ―me‖ generation to a perceived lack of respect for authority. The Net Generation displays high self-esteem and confidence but appear much more...by our adversaries, especially by terrorist organizations that continually look for vulnerabilities to exploit. Location- based social networking

  4. Cumulative effect of Forbush decreases in the heliospheric modulation during the present solar cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, S. P.; Mishra, B. L.; Jain, A. K.

    1985-01-01

    A monthly Forbush decrease index (Fd-I) is generated and it is compared with the observed long term chnges in the cosmic ray intensity near earth at energies greater than or equal to 1 Gev over 1976-83. Significant correlation is observed between the two except for 1978. Such an effect is also seen in the correlation plot between the solar flare index (SFI) and Fd-I.

  5. Childhood Cumulative Risk and Later Allostatic Load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doan, Stacey N; Dich, Nadya; Evans, Gary W

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study investigated the long-term impact of exposure to poverty-related stressors during childhood on allostatic load, an index of physiological dysregulation, and the potential mediating role of substance use. Method: Participants (n = 162) were rural children from New York...... in health across the life span and of the mechanisms by which adverse childhood environments impact health as children emerge into early adulthood. This knowledge will have implications for early intervention efforts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)....

  6. Net ecosystem production in a Little Ice Age moraine: the role of plant functional traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varolo, E.; Zanotelli, D.; Tagliavini, M.; Zerbe, S.; Montagnani, L.

    2015-07-01

    Current glacier retreat allows vast mountain ranges available for vegetation establishment and growth. Little is known about the effective carbon (C) budget of these new ecosystems and how the presence of different vegetation communities, characterized by their specific physiology and life forms influences C fluxes. In this study, using a comparative analysis of the C fluxes of two contrasting vegetation types, we intend to evaluate if the different physiologies of the main species have an effect on Ecosystem Respiration (Reco), Gross Primary Production (GPP), annual cumulated Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE), and long-term carbon accumulation in soil. The NEE of two plant communities present on a Little Ice Age moraine in the Matsch glacier forefield (Alps, Italy) was measured over two growing seasons. They are a typical C3 grassland, dominated by Festuca halleri All. and a community dominated by CAM rosettes Sempervivum montanum L. on rocky soils. Using transparent and opaque chambers, we extrapolated the ecophysiological responses to the main environmental drivers and performed the partition of NEE into Reco and GPP. Soil samples were collected from the same site to measure long-term C accumulation in the ecosystem. The two communities showed contrasting GPP but similar Reco patterns and as a result significantly different in NEE. The grassland acted mainly as a carbon sink with a total cumulated value of -46.4 ± 35.5 g C m-2 NEE while the plots dominated by the CAM rosettes acted as a source with 31.9 ± 22.4 g C m-2. In spite of the NEE being different in the two plant communities, soil analysis did not reveal significant differences in carbon accumulation. Grasslands showed 1.76 ± 0.12 kg C m-2, while CAM rosettes showed 2.06 ± 0.23 kg C m-2. This study demonstrates that carbon dynamics of two vegetation communities can be distinct even though the growing environment is similar. The physiological traits of the dominant species determine large differences in

  7. Net ecosystem production in a Little Ice Age moraine: the role of plant functional traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Varolo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Current glacier retreat allows vast mountain ranges available for vegetation establishment and growth. Little is known about the effective carbon (C budget of these new ecosystems and how the presence of different vegetation communities, characterized by their specific physiology and life forms influences C fluxes. In this study, using a comparative analysis of the C fluxes of two contrasting vegetation types, we intend to evaluate if the different physiologies of the main species have an effect on Ecosystem Respiration (Reco, Gross Primary Production (GPP, annual cumulated Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE, and long-term carbon accumulation in soil. The NEE of two plant communities present on a Little Ice Age moraine in the Matsch glacier forefield (Alps, Italy was measured over two growing seasons. They are a typical C3 grassland, dominated by Festuca halleri All. and a community dominated by CAM rosettes Sempervivum montanum L. on rocky soils. Using transparent and opaque chambers, we extrapolated the ecophysiological responses to the main environmental drivers and performed the partition of NEE into Reco and GPP. Soil samples were collected from the same site to measure long-term C accumulation in the ecosystem. The two communities showed contrasting GPP but similar Reco patterns and as a result significantly different in NEE. The grassland acted mainly as a carbon sink with a total cumulated value of −46.4 ± 35.5 g C m−2 NEE while the plots dominated by the CAM rosettes acted as a source with 31.9 ± 22.4 g C m−2. In spite of the NEE being different in the two plant communities, soil analysis did not reveal significant differences in carbon accumulation. Grasslands showed 1.76 ± 0.12 kg C m−2, while CAM rosettes showed 2.06 ± 0.23 kg C m−2. This study demonstrates that carbon dynamics of two vegetation communities can be distinct even though the growing environment is similar. The physiological traits of the dominant species

  8. MesonNet 2013 International Workshop : Mini-proceedings

    CERN Document Server

    Kupsc, A; Masjuan, P

    2013-01-01

    The mini-proceedings of the MesonNet 2013 International Workshop held in Prague from June 17th to 19th, 2013, are presented. MesonNet is a research network within EU HadronPhysics3 project (1/2012 -- 12/2014). The web page of the conference, which contains all talks, can be found at http://ipnp.mff.cuni.cz/mesonnet13.

  9. UniNet Description of Dining Philosopher Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Zhuomin; HE Yanxiang; ZHOU Guofu

    2007-01-01

    The UniNet specification of Dining Philosopher Problem we presents not only is graphic and intuitionistic but also explicitly indicates the static semantics and the dynamic semantics.In the specification, the static properties are the recorder of the dynamic properties, and the dynamic properties are the track of the static properties change. Accordingly, Dining Philosopher Problem is formally verified by UniNet. Furthermore, the procedure of properties' verification is implemented through the graphic-related computing style.

  10. 26 CFR 1.172-4 - Net operating loss carrybacks and net operating loss carryovers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net operating loss carrybacks and net operating... Corporations (continued) § 1.172-4 Net operating loss carrybacks and net operating loss carryovers. (a) General provisions—(1) Years to which loss may be carried—(i) In general. In order to compute the net operating...

  11. Cumulative risks of foster care placement for Danish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallesen, Peter; Emanuel, Natalia; Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Although recent research suggests that the cumulative risk of foster care placement is far higher for American children than originally suspected, little is known about the cumulative risk of foster care placement in other countries, which makes it difficult to gauge the degree to which factor foster care placement is salient in other contexts. In this article, we provide companion estimates to those provided in recent work on the US by using Danish registry data and synthetic cohort life tables to show how high and unequally distributed the cumulative risk of foster care placement is for Danish children. Results suggest that at the beginning of the study period (in 1998) the cumulative risk of foster care placement for Danish children was roughly in line with the risk for American children. Yet, by the end of the study period (2010), the risk had declined to half the risk for American children. Our results also show some variations by parental ethnicity and sex, but these differences are small. Indeed, they appear quite muted relative to racial/ethnic differences in these risks in the United States. Last, though cumulative risks are similar between Danish and American children (especially at the beginning of the study period), the age-specific risk profiles are markedly different, with higher risks for older Danish children than for older American children.

  12. Latino Mothers' Cumulative Food Insecurity Exposure and Child Body Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Daphne C

    2016-01-01

    To document whether an intergenerational transmission of food insecurity is occurring by assessing low-income foreign-born Latino mothers' experiences with food insecurity as none, once (either childhood or adulthood) or twice (during both childhood and adulthood). Also the association between maternal cumulative food insecurity and children's body composition was examined. Maternal self-reported surveys on retrospective measures of food insecurity during childhood, current measures of food insecurity, and demographics were collected from Houston-area community centers (N = 96). Children's body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were directly assessed. Covariate-adjusted logistic regression models analyzed the association between cumulative food insecurity experiences and children's body composition. Fifty-eight percent of mothers experienced food insecurity both as a child and as an adult and 31% of the mothers experienced food insecurity either as a child or adult. Maternal cumulative exposure to food insecurity was unrelated to BMI but was negatively related to elevated WC. Although an intergenerational transmission of food insecurity does exist, maternal cumulative exposure to food insecurity does not impact children's body composition negatively in the short term. Studying the long-term effects of cumulative food insecurity exposure can provide information for the development and timing of obesity interventions.

  13. USING CUMULATIVE NUMBER DENSITIES TO COMPARE GALAXIES ACROSS COSMIC TIME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behroozi, Peter S.; Wechsler, Risa H. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Marchesini, Danilo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Muzzin, Adam [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Papovich, Casey [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Stefanon, Mauro [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Comparing galaxies across redshifts at fixed cumulative number density is a popular way to estimate the evolution of specific galaxy populations. This method ignores scatter in mass accretion histories and galaxy-galaxy mergers, which can lead to errors when comparing galaxies over large redshift ranges (Δz > 1). We use abundance matching in the ΛCDM paradigm to estimate the median change in cumulative number density with redshift and provide a simple fit (+0.16 dex per unit Δz) for progenitors of z = 0 galaxies. We find that galaxy descendants do not evolve in the same way as galaxy progenitors, largely due to scatter in mass accretion histories. We also provide estimates for the 1σ range of cumulative number densities corresponding to galaxy progenitors and descendants. Finally, we discuss some limits on cumulative number density comparisons, which arise due to difficulties measuring physical quantities (e.g., stellar mass) consistently across redshifts. A public tool to calculate cumulative number density evolution for galaxies, as well as approximate halo masses, is available online.

  14. Maintenance hemodialysis patients have high cumulative radiation exposure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kinsella, Sinead M

    2010-10-01

    Hemodialysis is associated with an increased risk of neoplasms which may result, at least in part, from exposure to ionizing radiation associated with frequent radiographic procedures. In order to estimate the average radiation exposure of those on hemodialysis, we conducted a retrospective study of 100 patients in a university-based dialysis unit followed for a median of 3.4 years. The number and type of radiological procedures were obtained from a central radiology database, and the cumulative effective radiation dose was calculated using standardized, procedure-specific radiation levels. The median annual radiation dose was 6.9 millisieverts (mSv) per patient-year. However, 14 patients had an annual cumulative effective radiation dose over 20 mSv, the upper averaged annual limit for occupational exposure. The median total cumulative effective radiation dose per patient over the study period was 21.7 mSv, in which 13 patients had a total cumulative effective radiation dose over 75 mSv, a value reported to be associated with a 7% increased risk of cancer-related mortality. Two-thirds of the total cumulative effective radiation dose was due to CT scanning. The average radiation exposure was significantly associated with the cause of end-stage renal disease, history of ischemic heart disease, transplant waitlist status, number of in-patient hospital days over follow-up, and death during the study period. These results highlight the substantial exposure to ionizing radiation in hemodialysis patients.

  15. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Borde, Amy B.; Dawley, Earl; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Putman, Douglas A.; Roegner, G. C.; Thom, Ronald M.; Vavrinec, John; Whiting, Allan H.

    2007-12-06

    This report is the third annual report of a six-year project to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat restoration action in the Columbia River Estuary (CRE). The project is being conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) by the Marine Sciences Laboratory of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the Pt. Adams Biological Field Station of the National Marine Fisheries Service, and the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce. Measurement of the cumulative effects of ecological restoration projects in the Columbia River estuary is a formidable task because of the size and complexity of the estuarine landscape and the meta-populations of salmonids in the Columbia River basin. Despite the challenges presented by this system, developing and implementing appropriate indicators and methods to measure cumulative effects is the best way to enable estuary managers to track the overall effectiveness of investments in estuarine restoration projects. This project is developing methods to quantify the cumulative effects of multiple restoration activities in the CRE. The overall objectives of the 2006 study were to continue to develop techniques to assess cumulative effects, refine the standard monitoring protocols, and initiate development of an adaptive management system for Corps of Engineers’ habitat restoration monitoring efforts in the CRE. (The adaptive management effort will be reported at a later date.) Field studies during 2006 were conducted in tidal freshwater at Kandoll Farm on the lower Grays River and tidal brackish water at Vera Slough on Youngs Bay. Within each of area, we sampled one natural reference site and one restoration site. We addressed the overall objectives with field work in 2006 that, coupled with previous field data, had specific objectives and resulted in some important findings that are summarized here by chapter in this report. Each chapter of the report contains data on particular monitored variables for pre- and post

  16. Caught in the Net: Perineuronal Nets and Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Slaker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to drugs of abuse induces plasticity in the brain and creates persistent drug-related memories. These changes in plasticity and persistent drug memories are believed to produce aberrant motivation and reinforcement contributing to addiction. Most studies have explored the effect drugs of abuse have on pre- and postsynaptic cells and astrocytes; however, more recently, attention has shifted to explore the effect these drugs have on the extracellular matrix (ECM. Within the ECM are unique structures arranged in a net-like manner, surrounding a subset of neurons called perineuronal nets (PNNs. This review focuses on drug-induced changes in PNNs, the molecules that regulate PNNs, and the expression of PNNs within brain circuitry mediating motivation, reward, and reinforcement as it pertains to addiction.

  17. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Army Net Zero Training Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-20

    reclaim system does not enable Fort Carson to achieve its net zero water goal, which is to reclaim water through the WWTP equal to or greater than the...Class A Recycled Water Plant WWTP rapid infiltration basin #1 (of 4) 426,000 gal water supply storage reservoir Primary Lagoon for WWTP 6 7...cost of water = Longer time to payback  Double charged for incoming and outgoing  Army owned WWTP – true cost of water = water/sewer rates It

  18. Army Net Zero Prove Out. Integrated Net Zero Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-18

    Program Office (Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Army for Installations and Environment) 5850 21st Street, Building 211, Second Floor Fort...of energy, water, and waste to capture and commercialize the resource value and/or enhance the ecological productivity of land, water, and air. A...water, and waste to capture and commercialize the resource value and/or enhance the ecological productivity of land, water, and air. A Net Zero

  19. Non-Gaussian wave packet dynamics in anharmonic potential: Cumulant expansion treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutounji, Mohamad

    2015-03-01

    This manuscript utilizes cumulant expansion as an alternative algebraic approach to evaluating integrals and solving a system of nonlinear differential equations for probing anharmonic dynamics in condensed phase systems using Morse oscillator. These integrals and differential equations become harder to solve as the anharmonicity of the system goes beyond that of Morse oscillator description. This algebraic approach becomes critically important in case of Morse oscillator as it tends to exhibit divergent dynamics and numerical uncertainties at low temperatures. The autocorrelation function is calculated algebraically and compared to the exact one for they match perfectly. It is also compared to the approximate autocorrelation function using the differential equations technique reported in Toutounji (2014) for weak and strong electron-phonon coupling cases. It is found that the present cumulant method is more efficient, and easier to use, than the exact expression. Deviation between the approximate autocorrelation function and the exact autocorrelation function starts to arise as the electron-phonon coupling strength increases. The autocorrelation function obtained using cumulants identically matches the exact autocorrelation function, thereby surpassing the approach presented in Toutounji (2014). The advantage of the present methodology is its applicability to various types of electron-phonon coupling cases. Additionally, the herein approach only uses algebraic techniques, thereby avoiding both the divergence integral and solving a set of linear first- and second-order partial differential equations as was done in previous work. Model calculations are presented to demonstrate the accuracy of the herein work.

  20. Single-word predictions of upcoming language during comprehension: Evidence from the cumulative semantic interference task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Daniel; Runnqvist, Elin; Ferreira, Victor S

    2015-06-01

    Comprehenders predict upcoming speech and text on the basis of linguistic input. How many predictions do comprehenders make for an upcoming word? If a listener strongly expects to hear the word "sock", is the word "shirt" partially expected as well, is it actively inhibited, or is it ignored? The present research addressed these questions by measuring the "downstream" effects of prediction on the processing of subsequently presented stimuli using the cumulative semantic interference paradigm. In three experiments, subjects named pictures (sock) that were presented either in isolation or after strongly constraining sentence frames ("After doing his laundry, Mark always seemed to be missing one…"). Naming sock slowed the subsequent naming of the picture shirt - the standard cumulative semantic interference effect. However, although picture naming was much faster after sentence frames, the interference effect was not modulated by the context (bare vs. sentence) in which either picture was presented. According to the only model of cumulative semantic interference that can account for such a pattern of data, this indicates that comprehenders pre-activated and maintained the pre-activation of best sentence completions (sock) but did not maintain the pre-activation of less likely completions (shirt). Thus, comprehenders predicted only the most probable completion for each sentence.

  1. Cumulative Trauma Among Mayas Living in Southeast Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millender, Eugenia I; Lowe, John

    2016-01-04

    Mayas, having experienced genocide, exile, and severe poverty, are at high risk for the consequences of cumulative trauma that continually resurfaces through current fear of an uncertain future. Little is known about the mental health and alcohol use status of this population. This correlational study explored t/he relationship of cumulative trauma as it relates to social determinants of health (years in the United States, education, health insurance status, marital status, and employment), psychological health (depression symptoms), and health behaviors (alcohol use) of 102 Guatemalan Mayas living in Southeast Florida. The results of this study indicated that, as specific social determinants of health and cumulative trauma increased, depression symptoms (particularly among women) and the risk for harmful alcohol use (particularly among men) increased. Identifying risk factors at an early stage before serious disease or problems are manifest provides room for early screening leading to early identification, early treatment, and better outcomes.

  2. Cumulative pion production via successive collisions in nuclear medium

    CERN Document Server

    Motornenko, A

    2016-01-01

    Production of pions in proton-nucleus (p+A) reactions outside of a kinematical boundary of proton-nucleon collisions, the so-called cumulative effect, is studied. The kinematical restrictions on pions emitted in backward direction in the target rest frame are analyzed. It is shown that cumulative pion production requires a presence of massive baryonic resonances that are produced during successive collisions of projectile with nuclear nucleons. After each successive collision the mass of created resonance may increase and, simultaneously, its longitudinal velocity decreases. Simulations within Ultra relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics model reveals that successive collisions of baryonic resonances with nuclear nucleons plays the dominant role in cumulative pion production in p+A reactions.

  3. Solid-state electro-cumulation effect numerical simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Grishin, V G

    2001-01-01

    It is an attempt to simulate as really as possible a crystal's interatomic interaction under conditions of "Solid-state electro-cumulation (super-polarization) effect". Some theoretical and experimental reasons to believe that within solid substances an interparticles interaction could concentrate from the surface to a centre were given formerly. Now, numerical results show the conditions that could make the cumulation more effective. Another keywords: ion, current, solid, symmetry, cumulation, polarization, depolarization, ionic conductor,superionic conductor, ice, crystal, strain, V-center, V-centre, doped crystal, interstitial impurity, intrinsic color center, high pressure technology, Bridgman, anvil, experiment, crowdion, dielectric, proton, layer, defect, lattice, dynamics, electromigration, mobility, muon catalysis, concentration, doping, dopant, conductivity, pycnonuclear reaction, permittivity, dielectric constant, point defects, interstitials, polarizability, imperfection, defect centers, glass, epi...

  4. Association between diastolic blood pressure and cumulative work time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cordeiro

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Diastolic blood pressure was viewed as a generic indicator of aging, and its association with cumulative work time was studied after controlling for age as a potential confounding factor. The study was conducted among production line workers at a Brazilian tannery in July 1993. The association between diastolic blood pressure and cumulative work time was verified by fitting a second-order linear regression model, where diastolic blood pressure was a function of worker's age and cumulative work time. By fitting the model, one can predict that, in the beginning of working life at the tannery, on average each 1-year period is associated with an increase of about 1.5 mmHg in diastolic blood pressure. The fit obtained highlights one component directly associated with work as part of the rate of pressure increase in the study group. This component is twice as high as that directly associated with age.

  5. Baltic Sea biodiversity status vs. cumulative human pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper H.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Korpinen, Samuli

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Many studies have tried to explain spatial and temporal variations in biodiversity status of marine areas from a single-issue perspective, such as fishing pressure or coastal pollution, yet most continental seas experience a wide range of human pressures. Cumulative impact assessments have...... been developed to capture the consequences of multiple stressors for biodiversity, but the ability of these assessments to accurately predict biodiversity status has never been tested or ground-truthed. This relationship has similarly been assumed for the Baltic Sea, especially in areas with impaired...... status, but has also never been documented. Here we provide a first tentative indication that cumulative human impacts relate to ecosystem condition, i.e. biodiversity status, in the Baltic Sea. Thus, cumulative impact assessments offer a promising tool for informed marine spatial planning, designation...

  6. Cumulant dynamics in a finite population linkage equilibrium theory

    CERN Document Server

    Rattray, M; Rattray, Magnus; Shapiro, Jonathan L.

    1999-01-01

    The evolution of a finite population at linkage equilibrium is described in terms of the dynamics of phenotype distribution cumulants. This provides a powerful method for describing evolutionary transients and we elucidate the relationship between the cumulant dynamics and the diffusion approximation. A separation of time-scales between the first and higher cumulants for low mutation rates is demonstrated in the diffusion limit and provides a significant simplification of the dynamical system. However, the diffusion limit may not be appropriate for strong selection as the standard Fisher-Wright model of genetic drift can break down in this case. Two novel examples of this effect are considered: we shown that the dynamics may depend on the number of loci under strong directional selection and that environmental variance results in a reduced effective population size. We also consider a simple model of a changing environment which cannot be described by a diffusion equation and we derive the optimal mutation ra...

  7. An Analysis Method of Petri Nets Based on Linear Logic%一种基于线性逻辑的Petri网分析方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高梅梅; 吴智铭

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents a translation from Petri nets to linear logic with the objective ot enhancing the analysis ability of Petri nets. The definition of Petri nets is described by defining the translations in Petri nets using the connectives in linear logic,and the behavior of Petri nets is constructed using the rules we defined. The behavior of Petri nets can be described precisely and clearly using this method.

  8. System Dynamics and Modified Cumulant Neglect Closure Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köylüoglu, H. Ugur; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    Dealing with multipeaked problems, the goal of the paper is to improve the quality of the approximations for the expectations appearing in the differential equations written for the statistical moments of the state vector, guided by insight in the system dynamics. For systems with polynomial non......-linearities, modifications in the cumulant neglect closure scheme are suggested. The methodology is illustrated using the two wells oscillator. An error analysis is performed to compare the modified and ordinary cumulant neglect closure schemes applied at the second and fourth order levels with the exact results available....

  9. Baltic Sea biodiversity status vs. cumulative human pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper H.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Korpinen, Samuli

    2015-01-01

    been developed to capture the consequences of multiple stressors for biodiversity, but the ability of these assessments to accurately predict biodiversity status has never been tested or ground-truthed. This relationship has similarly been assumed for the Baltic Sea, especially in areas with impaired...... status, but has also never been documented. Here we provide a first tentative indication that cumulative human impacts relate to ecosystem condition, i.e. biodiversity status, in the Baltic Sea. Thus, cumulative impact assessments offer a promising tool for informed marine spatial planning, designation...

  10. Aspect of cumulative fatigue damage under multiaxial strain cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamrik, S. Y.; Tang, P. Y.

    1972-01-01

    The concept of order of loading and its effect on cumulative fatigue damage under multiaxial strain cyclings was investigated. The effect is illustrated through nonlinear relationships between biaxial fatigue damage and cycle-ratio diagrams. Uniaxial theories such as Miner's method, the convergence method, and the double linear damage rule in its special and generalized form, were examined and extended to the biaxial case through the octahedral shear strain theory. The generalized double linear damage rule was found more applicable to biaxial cumulative fatigue damage.

  11. Cumulative Incidence of Cancer After Solid Organ Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Erin C.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Segev, Dorry L.; Engels, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Solid organ transplantation recipients have elevated cancer incidence. Estimates of absolute cancer risk after transplantation can inform prevention and screening. METHODS The Transplant Cancer Match Study links the US transplantation registry with 14 state/regional cancer registries. The authors used nonparametric competing risk methods to estimate the cumulative incidence of cancer after transplantation for 2 periods (1987–1999 and 2000–2008). For recipients from 2000 to 2008, the 5-year cumulative incidence, stratified by organ, sex, and age at transplantation, was estimated for 6 preventable or screen-detectable cancers. For comparison, the 5-year cumulative incidence was calculated for the same cancers in the general population at representative ages using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data. RESULTS Among 164,156 recipients, 8520 incident cancers were identified. The absolute cancer risk was slightly higher for recipients during the period from 2000 to 2008 than during the period from 1987 to 1999 (5-year cumulative incidence: 4.4% vs 4.2%; P =.006); this difference arose from the decreasing risk of competing events (5-year cumulative incidence of death, graft failure, or retransplantation: 26.6% vs 31.9%; P 50 years; range, 0.36%–2.22%). For recipients aged >50 years, the 5-year cumulative incidence was higher for colorectal cancer (range, 0.33%–1.94%) than for the general population at the recommended screening age (aged 50 years: range, 0.25%–0.33%). For recipients aged >50 years, the 5-year cumulative incidence was high for lung cancer among thoracic organ recipients (range, 1.16%–3.87%) and for kidney cancer among kidney recipients (range, 0.53%–0.84%). The 5-year cumulative incidence for prostate cancer and breast cancer was similar or lower in transplantation recipients than at the recommended ages of screening in the general population. CONCLUSIONS Subgroups of transplantation recipients have a high absolute risk

  12. A study of cumulative fatigue damage in AISI 4130 steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeelani, S.; Musial, M.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental data were obtained using AISI 4130 steel under stress ratios of -1 and 0. A study of cumulative fatigue damage using Miner's and Kramer's equations for stress ratios of -1 and 0 for low-high, low-high-mixed, high-low, and high-low-mixed stress sequences has revealed that there is a close agreement between the theoretical and experimental values of fatigue damage and fatigue life. Kramer's equation predicts less conservative and more realistic cumulative fatigue damage than the popularly used Miner's rule does.

  13. A branch-and-cut-and-price algorithm for the cumulative capacitated vehicle routing problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wøhlk, Sanne; Lysgaard, Jens

    2014-01-01

    The paper considers the Cumulative Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem (CCVRP), which is a variation of the well-known Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem (CVRP). In this problem, the traditional objective of minimizing total distance or time traveled by the vehicles is replaced by minimizing the...... the sum of arrival times at the customers. A branch-and-cut-and-price algorithm for obtaining optimal solutions to the problem is proposed. Computational results based on a set of standard CVRP benchmarks are presented....

  14. ROBUST MODULATION CLASSIFIER BASED ON CUMULANTS FOR MDPSK WITH FREQUENCY OFFSET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Gang; Li Jiandong; Chen Chen

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an improved algorithm for classification of M-Differential Phase-Shift Keying(MDPSK) signals based on cumulant. The feature proposed in the algorithm is invariant with respect to constellation scale, rotation, the shift and the carrier frequency offset between transmitter and receiver. The invariant property is proved theoretically. Through computer simulation the performance is evaluated and the results show that the improved classification algorithm is better and valuable in practice.

  15. Beginning DotNetNuke Skinning and Design

    CERN Document Server

    Hay, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    DotNetNuke is an open source framework built on top of the ASP.Net platform. While this system offers an impressive set of out-of-the-box features for public and private sites, it also includes a compelling story for folks who want to present a unique look and feel to visitors. The skinning engine inside of DotNetNuke has strengthened over the course of several years and hundreds of thousands of registered users. The success of its skin and module developer community is another key indicator of the depth and breadth of this technology. The Core Team responsible for the DotNetNuke brand has gon

  16. Three-dimensional active net for volume extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takanashi, Ikuko; Muraki, Shigeru; Doi, Akio; Kaufman, Arie E.

    1998-05-01

    3D Active Net, which is a 3D extension of Snakes, is an energy-minimizing surface model which can extract a volume of interest from 3D volume data. It is deformable and evolves in 3D space to be attracted to salient features, according to its internal and image energy. The net can be fitted to the contour of a target object by defining the image energy suitable for the contour property. We present testing results of the extraction of a muscle from the Visible Human Data by two methods: manual segmentation and the application of 3D Active Net. We apply principal component analysis, which utilizes the color information of the 3D volume data to emphasize an ill-defined contour of the muscle, and then apply 3D Active Net. We recognize that the extracted object has a smooth and natural contour in contrast with a comparable manual segmentation, proving an advantage of our approach.

  17. Error analysis for matrix elastic-net regularization algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Chen, Na; Li, Luoqing

    2012-05-01

    Elastic-net regularization is a successful approach in statistical modeling. It can avoid large variations which occur in estimating complex models. In this paper, elastic-net regularization is extended to a more general setting, the matrix recovery (matrix completion) setting. Based on a combination of the nuclear-norm minimization and the Frobenius-norm minimization, we consider the matrix elastic-net (MEN) regularization algorithm, which is an analog to the elastic-net regularization scheme from compressive sensing. Some properties of the estimator are characterized by the singular value shrinkage operator. We estimate the error bounds of the MEN regularization algorithm in the framework of statistical learning theory. We compute the learning rate by estimates of the Hilbert-Schmidt operators. In addition, an adaptive scheme for selecting the regularization parameter is presented. Numerical experiments demonstrate the superiority of the MEN regularization algorithm.

  18. Programming in the Sleptsov net language for systems control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Zaitsev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the principles of programming in the Sleptsov net language are further developed with respect to the restrictions on the control flow and its composition with data. The conditions of correctness of Sleptsov net programs are formulated in the form of additional restrictions on copying parameters of modules and using global variables. Flags are added for correct manipulation by shared data. In the general case without restrictions on the program composition rules, the problem is reduced to the soundness of workflow nets with shared resources; there are several useful particular cases when the algorithm complexity is polynomial. Examples of Sleptsov net programs for the fast solution of production control tasks are presented.

  19. Galileo Net Flux Radiometer Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sromovsky, Lawrence A.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes analysis of the Galileo Net Flux Radiometer (NFR), an instrument mounted on the Galileo probe, a spacecraft designed for entry into and direct measurements of Jupiter's atmosphere. The grant period for NAG2-1028 began on 1 April 1996, nearly four months after Jupiter atmospheric entry on 7 December 1995, and at which time the probe data were fully recovered and quick look analysis completed. This grant supported the detailed data analysis, resulting in a preliminary paper in Science in May 1996 and a final paper in the journal of Geophysical Research in .September 1998, with conference papers presented within this period.

  20. Stochastic petri nets for wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lei, Lei; Zhong, Zhangdui

    2015-01-01

    This SpringerBrief presents research in the application of Stochastic Petri Nets (SPN) to the performance evaluation of wireless networks under bursty traffic. It covers typical Quality-of-Service performance metrics such as mean throughput, average delay and packet dropping probability. Along with an introduction of SPN basics, the authors introduce the key motivation and challenges of using SPN to analyze the resource sharing performance in wireless networks. The authors explain two powerful modeling techniques that treat the well-known state space explosion problem: model decomposition and

  1. Net4Care PHMR Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the SimpleClinicalDocument......The Net4Care PHMR library contains a) A GreenCDA approach for constructing a data object representing a PHMR document: SimpleClinicalDocument, and b) A Builder which can produce a XML document representing a valid Danish PHMR (following the MedCom profile) document from the Simple......ClinicalDocument object. This software component is adopted by several Danish companies as PHMR engine for telemedical applications, and is used in the process of writing the Danish PHMR standard....

  2. Prosocial behavior on the Net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproull, Lee

    2011-01-01

    Volunteers and charitable organizations contribute significantly to community welfare through their prosocial behavior: that is, discretionary behavior such as assisting, comforting, sharing, and cooperating intended to help worthy beneficiaries. This essay focuses on prosocial behavior on the Internet. It describes how offline charitable organizations are using the Net to become more efficient and effective. It also considers entirely new models of Net-based volunteer behavior directed at creating socially beneficial information goods and services. After exploring the scope and diversity of online prosocial behavior, the essay focuses on ways to encourage this kind of behavior through appropriate task and social structures, motivational signals, and trust indicators. It concludes by asking how local offline communities ultimately could be diminished or strengthened as prosocial behavior increases online.

  3. Net sustainable buildings: Approaching future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojić, Milorad

    2012-11-01

    For a net sustainable building (NSB), the paper develops its definition, and gives its characteristics. The NSB should provide the maximum thermal comfort were its energy consumption is totally covered by energy of renewable origin during its life cycle. The covered energy consumption should be operational and embodied. The used renewable energy may be that of sun and of anergy. The building may be furthermore evaluated regarding its status with regard to the mismatch, primary energy, emergy, exergy, fossil energy, carbon and dissemination.

  4. 1990 Joint Military Net Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    the Office of Net Assessment 6 Deputy Director for Theater Assessments and Planning, Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Program Analysis ...countermeasures electronic countermeasures European Economic Community electronic warfare -F- FOFA FY follow-on-forces attack fiscal year -G... analysis of current and projected capabilities of US forces, assisted by allies where appropriate, to deter war and, if deterrence fails, to terminate the

  5. Effects of kinematic cuts on net-electric charge fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Karsch, Frithjof; Redlich, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    The effects of kinematic cuts on electric charge fluctuations in a gas of charged particles are discussed. We consider a very transparent example of an ideal pion gas with quantum statistics, which can be viewed as a multi-component gas of Boltzmann particles with different charges and masses. Cumulants of net-electric charge fluctuations $\\chi_n^Q$ are calculated in a static and expanding medium with flow parameters adjusted to the experimental data. We show that the transverse momentum cut, $p_{t_\\text{min}}\\leq p_t\\leq p_{t_\\text{max}}$, weakens the effects of Bose statistics, i.e. contributions of effectively multi-charged states to higher order moments. Consequently, cuts in $p_t$ modify the experimentally measured cumulants and their ratios. We discuss the influence of kinematic cuts on the ratio of mean and variance of electric charge fluctuations in a hadron resonance gas, in the light of recent data of the STAR and PHENIX Collaborations. We find that the different momentum cuts of $p_{t_\\text{min}}=0...

  6. Advanced Near Net Shape Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, John

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the Advanced Near Net Shape Technology (ANNST) project is to radically improve near net shape manufacturing methods from the current Technology/ Manufacturing Readiness Levels (TRL/MRL 3-4) to the point where they are viable candidates (TRL/ MRL-6) for shortening the time and cost for insertion of new aluminum alloys and revolutionary manufacturing methods into the development/improvement of space structures. Conventional cyrotank manufacturing processes require fabrication of multiple pieces welded together to form a complete tank. A variety of near net shape manufacturing processes has demonstrated excellent potential for enabling single-piece construction of components such as domes, barrels, and ring frames. Utilization of such processes can dramatically reduce the extent of welding and joining needed to construct cryogenic tanks and other aerospace structures. The specific focus of this project is to successfully mature the integrally stiffened cylinder (ISC) process in which a single-piece cylinder with integral stiffeners is formed in one spin/flow forming process. Structural launch vehicle components, like cryogenic fuel tanks (e.g., space shuttle external tank), are currently fabricated via multipiece assembly of parts produced through subtractive manufacturing techniques. Stiffened structural panels are heavily machined from thick plate, which results in excessive scrap rates. Multipiece construction requires welds to assemble the structure, which increases the risk for defects and catastrophic failures.

  7. On the duration and intensity of cumulative advantage competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bo; Sun, Liyuan; Figueiredo, Daniel R.; Ribeiro, Bruno; Towsley, Don

    2015-11-01

    Network growth can be framed as a competition for edges among nodes in the network. As with various other social and physical systems, skill (fitness) and luck (random chance) act as fundamental forces driving competition dynamics. In the context of networks, cumulative advantage (CA)—the rich-get-richer effect—is seen as a driving principle governing the edge accumulation process. However, competitions coupled with CA exhibit non-trivial behavior and little is formally known about duration and intensity of CA competitions. By isolating two nodes in an ideal CA competition, we provide a mathematical understanding of how CA exacerbates the role of luck in detriment of skill. We show, for instance, that when nodes start with few edges, an early stroke of luck can place the less skilled in the lead for an extremely long period of time, a phenomenon we call ‘struggle of the fittest’. We prove that duration of a simple skill and luck competition model exhibit power-law tails when CA is present, regardless of skill difference, which is in sharp contrast to the exponential tails when fitness is distinct but CA is absent. We also prove that competition intensity is always upper bounded by an exponential tail, irrespective of CA and skills. Thus, CA competitions can be extremely long (infinite mean, depending on fitness ratio) but almost never very intense. The theoretical results are corroborated by extensive numerical simulations. Our findings have important implications to competitions not only among nodes in networks but also in contexts that leverage socio-physical models embodying CA competitions.

  8. Cumulative phase delay imaging - A new contrast enhanced ultrasound modality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demi, Libertario, E-mail: l.demi@tue.nl; Sloun, Ruud J. G. van; Mischi, Massimo [Lab. of Biomedical Diagnostics, Dept. of Electrical Eng., Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Wijkstra, Hessel [Lab. of Biomedical Diagnostics, Dept. of Electrical Eng., Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Academic Medical Center, Urology Dept., University of Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-10-28

    Recently, a new acoustic marker for ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) has been introduced. A cumulative phase delay (CPD) between the second harmonic and fundamental pressure wave field components is in fact observable for ultrasound propagating through UCAs. This phenomenon is absent in the case of tissue nonlinearity and is dependent on insonating pressure and frequency, UCA concentration, and propagation path length through UCAs. In this paper, ultrasound images based on this marker are presented. The ULA-OP research platform, in combination with a LA332 linear array probe (Esaote, Firenze Italy), were used to image a gelatin phantom containing a PVC plate (used as a reflector) and a cylindrical cavity measuring 7 mm in diameter (placed in between the observation point and the PVC plate). The cavity contained a 240 µL/L SonoVueO{sup ®} UCA concentration. Two insonating frequencies (3 MHz and 2.5 MHz) were used to scan the gelatine phantom. A mechanical index MI = 0.07, measured in water at the cavity location with a HGL-0400 hydrophone (Onda, Sunnyvale, CA), was utilized. Processing the ultrasound signals backscattered from the plate, ultrasound images were generated in a tomographic fashion using the filtered back-projection method. As already observed in previous studies, significantly higher CPD values are measured when imaging at a frequency of 2.5 MHz, as compared to imaging at 3 MHz. In conclusion, these results confirm the applicability of the discussed CPD as a marker for contrast imaging. Comparison with standard contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging modalities will be the focus of future work.

  9. CUMULATIVE IMPACT OF YOGA PRACTICE ON QUALITY OF LI FE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Rani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted with two main objec tives. First it aims to experiment whether the ancient system of yoga can bring about change in the quality of life of its practitioners. The second objective was to study the cumulative im pact of yoga practice on Quality of Life. The study was conducted on four independent groups of y oga practitioners that varied in their length of experience in yoga practice. The first group compri sed of 76 subjects (49 male and 27 female with a mean age of 39 years (SD=9.8. All the participan ts in this group are novice practitioners. They have participated in the study immediately after th eir admission into yoga class. The second group comprised of 23 subjects (14 male and 9 female wit h a mean age of 34.2 years (SD= 11.07. Their length of experience in yoga practice is 3 months. The third group comprised of 18 subjects (11male and 7 female with a mean age of 33.83 year s (SD=9.33. Their length of experience in yoga practice is six months. The fourth group comprised of 17 subjects (11 male and 6 female with a mean age of 32.8 years (SD=9.5. Their length exper ience is 12 months. All the four independent groups were administered a questionnaire on Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF. The results on QOL gave scores on to tal quality of life and separate scores on Domain 1 (dealing with physical health Domain 2 (d ealing with psychological aspects, Domain 3 (dealing with social relationships and Domain 4 (d ealing with environmental aspects.

  10. Measuring a fair and ambitious climate agreement using cumulative emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Glen P.; Andrew, Robbie M.; Solomon, Susan; Friedlingstein, Pierre

    2015-10-01

    Policy makers have called for a ‘fair and ambitious’ global climate agreement. Scientific constraints, such as the allowable carbon emissions to avoid exceeding a 2 °C global warming limit with 66% probability, can help define ambitious approaches to climate targets. However, fairly sharing the mitigation challenge to meet a global target involves human values rather than just scientific facts. We develop a framework based on cumulative emissions of carbon dioxide to compare the consistency of countries’ current emission pledges to the ambition of keeping global temperatures below 2 °C, and, further, compare two alternative methods of sharing the remaining emission allowance. We focus on the recent pledges and other official statements of the EU, USA, and China. The EU and US pledges are close to a 2 °C level of ambition only if the remaining emission allowance is distributed based on current emission shares, which is unlikely to be viewed as ‘fair and ambitious’ by others who presently emit less. China’s stated emissions target also differs from measures of global fairness, owing to emissions that continue to grow into the 2020s. We find that, combined, the EU, US, and Chinese pledges leave little room for other countries to emit CO2 if a 2 °C limit is the objective, essentially requiring all other countries to move towards per capita emissions 7 to 14 times lower than the EU, USA, or China by 2030. We argue that a fair and ambitious agreement for a 2 °C limit that would be globally inclusive and effective in the long term will require stronger mitigation than the goals currently proposed. Given such necessary and unprecedented mitigation and the current lack of availability of some key technologies, we suggest a new diplomatic effort directed at ensuring that the necessary technologies become available in the near future.

  11. Long Term RadNet Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This RadNet Quality Data Asset includes all data since initiation and when ERAMS was expanded to become RadNet, name changed to reflect new mission. This includes...

  12. Introduktion til udvikling af bayesianske net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Morten

    2007-01-01

    Bogen introducerer på let og uformelt de centrale grundbegreber i bayesianske net og introducerer til en udviklingsmetode for software, som inkluderer bayesianske net. Metoden kaldes BNAD og inkluderer aktiviteterne preprojekt, kvalitativ modellering, kvantitativ modellering samt...

  13. Special Section on Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    Special section on coloured Petri nets, their basic concepts, analysis methods, tool support and industrial applications.......Special section on coloured Petri nets, their basic concepts, analysis methods, tool support and industrial applications....

  14. RadNet Databases and Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s RadNet data are available for viewing in a searchable database or as PDF reports. Historical and current RadNet monitoring data are used to estimate long-term trends in environmental radiation levels.

  15. A Parametric Cumulative Sum Statistic for Person Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Ronald D.; Shi, Min

    2009-01-01

    This article develops a new cumulative sum (CUSUM) statistic to detect aberrant item response behavior. Shifts in behavior are modeled with quadratic functions and a series of likelihood ratio tests are used to detect aberrancy. The new CUSUM statistic is compared against another CUSUM approach as well as traditional person-fit statistics. A…

  16. RECURSIVE CLASSIFICATION OF MQAM SIGNALS BASED ON HIGHER ORDER CUMULANTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Weidong; Yang Shaoquan

    2002-01-01

    A new feature based on higher order cumulants is proposed for classification of MQAM signals. Theoretical analysis justify that the new feature is invariant with respect to translation (shift), scale and rotation transform of signal constellations, and can suppress color or white additive Gaussian noise. Computer simulation shows that the proposed recursive orderreduction based classification algorithm can classify MQAM signals with any order.

  17. Hierarchical Bayesian parameter estimation for cumulative prospect theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nilsson, H.; Rieskamp, J.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.

    2011-01-01

    Cumulative prospect theory (CPT Tversky & Kahneman, 1992) has provided one of the most influential accounts of how people make decisions under risk. CPT is a formal model with parameters that quantify psychological processes such as loss aversion, subjective values of gains and losses, and

  18. Cumulative psychosocial stress, coping resources, and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Sheila W; Kingston, Dawn; Bayrampour, Hamideh; Dolan, Siobhan M; Tough, Suzanne C

    2014-12-01

    Preterm birth constitutes a significant international public health issue, with implications for child and family well-being. High levels of psychosocial stress and negative affect before and during pregnancy are contributing factors to shortened gestation and preterm birth. We developed a cumulative psychosocial stress variable and examined its association with early delivery controlling for known preterm birth risk factors and confounding environmental variables. We further examined this association among subgroups of women with different levels of coping resources. Utilizing the All Our Babies (AOB) study, an ongoing prospective pregnancy cohort study in Alberta, Canada (n = 3,021), multinomial logistic regression was adopted to examine the independent effect of cumulative psychosocial stress and preterm birth subgroups compared to term births. Stratified analyses according to categories of perceived social support and optimism were undertaken to examine differential effects among subgroups of women. Cumulative psychosocial stress was a statistically significant risk factor for late preterm birth (OR = 1.73; 95 % CI = 1.07, 2.81), but not for early preterm birth (OR = 2.44; 95 % CI = 0.95, 6.32), controlling for income, history of preterm birth, pregnancy complications, reproductive history, and smoking in pregnancy. Stratified analyses showed that cumulative psychosocial stress was a significant risk factor for preterm birth at psychosocial stress on the risk for early delivery.

  19. The proportional odds cumulative incidence model for competing risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Frank; Li, Jianing; Scheike, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We suggest an estimator for the proportional odds cumulative incidence model for competing risks data. The key advantage of this model is that the regression parameters have the simple and useful odds ratio interpretation. The model has been considered by many authors, but it is rarely used in pr...

  20. Is learning in problem-based learning cumulative?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.H.J. Yew (Elaine); E. Chng (Esther); H.G. Schmidt (Henk)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractProblem-based learning (PBL) is generally organized in three phases, involving collaborative and self-directed learning processes. The hypothesis tested here is whether learning in the different phases of PBL is cumulative, with learning in each phase depending on that of the previous ph

  1. Repeated mild injury causes cumulative damage to hippocampal cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. Matser (Amy); C.I. de Zeeuw (Chris); J.T. Weber (John)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractAn interesting hypothesis in the study of neurotrauma is that repeated traumatic brain injury may result in cumulative damage to cells of the brain. However, post-injury sequelae are difficult to address at the cellular level in vivo. Therefore, it is necessary to compl

  2. The effects of cumulative practice on mathematics problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, Kristin H; Chase, Philip N

    2002-01-01

    This study compared three different methods of teaching five basic algebra rules to college students. All methods used the same procedures to teach the rules and included four 50-question review sessions interspersed among the training of the individual rules. The differences among methods involved the kinds of practice provided during the four review sessions. Participants who received cumulative practice answered 50 questions covering a mix of the rules learned prior to each review session. Participants who received a simple review answered 50 questions on one previously trained rule. Participants who received extra practice answered 50 extra questions on the rule they had just learned. Tests administered after each review included new questions for applying each rule (application items) and problems that required novel combinations of the rules (problem-solving items). On the final test, the cumulative group outscored the other groups on application and problem-solving items. In addition, the cumulative group solved the problem-solving items significantly faster than the other groups. These results suggest that cumulative practice of component skills is an effective method of training problem solving.

  3. A Parametric Cumulative Sum Statistic for Person Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Ronald D.; Shi, Min

    2009-01-01

    This article develops a new cumulative sum (CUSUM) statistic to detect aberrant item response behavior. Shifts in behavior are modeled with quadratic functions and a series of likelihood ratio tests are used to detect aberrancy. The new CUSUM statistic is compared against another CUSUM approach as well as traditional person-fit statistics. A…

  4. Cumulative index 1981-1985, Volumes 138-157.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    This cumulative index also includes listings of all major papers from the American Journal of Neuroradiology, American Journal of Roentgenology, Clinics in Diagnostic Ultrasound, Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography, Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine, RadioGraphics, Radiologic Clinics of North America, Seminars in Nuclear Medicine, Seminars in Roentgenology, and Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MR.

  5. Cumulative index 1981-1985, Volumes 138-157

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    This cumulative index also includes listings of all major papers from the American Journal of Neuroradiology, American Journal of Roentgenology, Clinics in Diagnostic Ultrasound, Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography, Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine, RadioGraphics, Radiologic Clinics of North America, Seminars in Nuclear Medicine, Seminars in Roentgenology, and Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MR.

  6. Thermodynamic formula for the cumulant generating function of time-averaged current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Takahiro; Sasa, Shin-ichi

    2011-12-01

    The cumulant generating function of time-averaged current is studied from an operational viewpoint. Specifically, for interacting Brownian particles under nonequilibrium conditions, we show that the first derivative of the cumulant generating function is equal to the expectation value of the current in a modified system with an extra force added, where the modified system is characterized by a variational principle. The formula reminds us of Einstein's fluctuation theory in equilibrium statistical mechanics. Furthermore, since the formula leads to the fluctuation-dissipation relation when the linear response regime is focused on, it is regarded as an extension of the linear response theory to that valid beyond the linear response regime. The formula is also related to previously known theories such as the Donsker-Varadhan theory, the additivity principle, and the least dissipation principle, but it is not derived from them. Examples of its application are presented for a driven Brownian particle on a ring subject to a periodic potential.

  7. Probabilistic assessment of the cumulative dietary exposure of the population of Denmark to endocrine disrupting pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Christiansen, Sofie

    2013-01-01

    The four pesticides epoxiconazole, prochloraz, procymidone and tebuconazole, are commonly used pesticides, all suspected of acting as endocrine disrupters. In the present study, we assessed the acute cumulative dietary exposure to the women of child bearing age and the general population of Denmark...... to these pesticides from the intake of fruit and vegetables. The assessment was carried out using the probabilistic approach combined with the relative potency factor (RPF) approach. Residue data for prochloraz, procymidone, and tebuconazole were obtained from the Danish monitoring programme 2006–2009, while residue....... Prochloraz was used as the index compound. All four pesticides increased nipple retention in male offspring, and epoxiconazole, prochloraz, and tebuconazole also increased the gestation period in pregnant rat dams. For women of childbearing age, the high-end cumulative exposure (99.9th percentile...

  8. Humanoid infers Archimedes' principle: understanding physical relations and object affordances through cumulative learning experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Ajaz Ahmad; Mohan, Vishwanathan; Sandini, Giulio; Morasso, Pietro

    2016-07-01

    Emerging studies indicate that several species such as corvids, apes and children solve 'The Crow and the Pitcher' task (from Aesop's Fables) in diverse conditions. Hidden beneath this fascinating paradigm is a fundamental question: by cumulatively interacting with different objects, how can an agent abstract the underlying cause-effect relations to predict and creatively exploit potential affordances of novel objects in the context of sought goals? Re-enacting this Aesop's Fable task on a humanoid within an open-ended 'learning-prediction-abstraction' loop, we address this problem and (i) present a brain-guided neural framework that emulates rapid one-shot encoding of ongoing experiences into a long-term memory and (ii) propose four task-agnostic learning rules (elimination, growth, uncertainty and status quo) that correlate predictions from remembered past experiences with the unfolding present situation to gradually abstract the underlying causal relations. Driven by the proposed architecture, the ensuing robot behaviours illustrated causal learning and anticipation similar to natural agents. Results further demonstrate that by cumulatively interacting with few objects, the predictions of the robot in case of novel objects converge close to the physical law, i.e. the Archimedes principle: this being independent of both the objects explored during learning and the order of their cumulative exploration.

  9. NetBeans IDE 8 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Salter, David

    2014-01-01

    If you're a Java developer of any level using NetBeans and want to learn how to get the most out of NetBeans, then this book is for you. Learning how to utilize NetBeans will provide a firm foundation for your Java application development.

  10. Net analyte signal calculation for multivariate calibration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferre, J.; Faber, N.M.

    2003-01-01

    A unifying framework for calibration and prediction in multivariate calibration is shown based on the concept of the net analyte signal (NAS). From this perspective, the calibration step can be regarded as the calculation of a net sensitivity vector, whose length is the amount of net signal when the

  11. 78 FR 72451 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BL74 Net Investment Income Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service...). These regulations provide guidance on the computation of net investment income. The regulations affect... lesser of: (A) The individual's net investment income for such taxable year, or (B) the excess (if...

  12. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net investment. 69.302 Section 69.302... Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B Rural...) Investment in Accounts 2002, 2003 and to the extent such inclusions are allowed by this Commission,...

  13. No such thing as the Net Generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. H.M.M. van Vliet

    2009-01-01

    The propagandization of a Net Generation adds nothing to our understanding of the digital behaviour of young people. Indeed, it is becoming increasingly obvious that the whole concept of a Net Generation rests on incorrect assumptions. Hence, arguments based on a Net Generation are not only irreleva

  14. 10 CFR 436.20 - Net savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.20 Net savings. For a retrofit project, net savings may be found by subtracting life cycle costs based on the proposed project from life cycle costs based on not having it. For a new building design, net savings is the difference between the life cycle costs of an...

  15. Nets, tiles, and metal-organic frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael O’Keeffe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An account is given of the basic nets that are important in the description and design of metal-organic framework (MOF structures. These are generally of minimal transitivity, a concept which is explained. Derived nets are defined and the advantages of using derived nets to describe the topology of MOF frameworks with multiple branch points are emphasized.

  16. NetMOD Version 2.0 Mathematical Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merchant, Bion J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Young, Christopher J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chael, Eric P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    NetMOD ( Net work M onitoring for O ptimal D etection) is a Java-based software package for conducting simulation of seismic, hydroacoustic and infrasonic networks. Network simulations have long been used to study network resilience to station outages and to determine where additional stations are needed to reduce monitoring thresholds. NetMOD makes use of geophysical models to determine the source characteristics, signal attenuation along the path between the source and station, and the performance and noise properties of the station. These geophysical models are combined to simulate the relative amplitudes of signal and noise that are observed at each of the stations. From these signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), the probabilities of signal detection at each station and event detection across the network of stations can be computed given a detection threshold. The purpose of this document is to clearly and comprehensively present the mathematical framework used by NetMOD, the software package developed by Sandia National Laboratories to assess the monitoring capability of ground-based sensor networks. Many of the NetMOD equations used for simulations are inherited from the NetSim network capability assessment package developed in the late 1980s by SAIC (Sereno et al., 1990).

  17. A SAS-macro for estimation of the cumulative incidence using Poisson regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waltoft, Berit Lindum

    2009-01-01

    the hazard rates, and the hazard rates are often estimated by the Cox regression. This procedure may not be suitable for large studies due to limited computer resources. Instead one uses Poisson regression, which approximates the Cox regression. Rosthøj et al. presented a SAS-macro for the estimation...... of the cumulative incidences based on the Cox regression. I present the functional form of the probabilities and variances when using piecewise constant hazard rates and a SAS-macro for the estimation using Poisson regression. The use of the macro is demonstrated through examples and compared to the macro presented...

  18. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Thom, Ronald M.; Borde, Amy B.; Roegner, G. C.; Whiting, Allan H.; Johnson, Gary E.; Dawley, Earl; Skalski, John R.; Vavrinec, John; Ebberts, Blaine D.

    2006-12-20

    This report is the second annual report of a six-year project to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat restoration projects in the Columbia River Estuary, conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Marine Sciences Laboratory, NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service Pt. Adams Biological Field Station, and the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce for the US Army Corps of Engineers. In 2005, baseline data were collected on two restoration sites and two associated reference sites in the Columbia River estuary. The sites represent two habitat types of the estuary--brackish marsh and freshwater swamp--that have sustained substantial losses in area and that may play important roles for salmonids. Baseline data collected included vegetation and elevation surveys, above and below-ground biomass, water depth and temperature, nutrient flux, fish species composition, and channel geometry. Following baseline data collection, three kinds of restoration actions for hydrological reconnection were implemented in several locations on the sites: tidegate replacements (2) at Vera Slough, near the city of Astoria in Oregon State, and culvert replacements (2) and dike breaches (3) at Kandoll Farm in the Grays River watershed in Washington State. Limited post-restoration data were collected: photo points, nutrient flux, water depth and temperature, and channel cross-sections. In subsequent work, this and additional post-restoration data will be used in conjunction with data from other sites to estimate net effects of hydrological reconnection restoration projects throughout the estuary. This project is establishing methods for evaluating the effectiveness of individual projects and a framework for assessing estuary-wide cumulative effects including a protocol manual for monitoring restoration and reference sites.

  19. NET 40 Generics Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Sudipta

    2012-01-01

    This is a concise, practical guide that will help you learn Generics in .NET, with lots of real world and fun-to-build examples and clear explanations. It is packed with screenshots to aid your understanding of the process. This book is aimed at beginners in Generics. It assumes some working knowledge of C# , but it isn't mandatory. The following would get the most use out of the book: Newbie C# developers struggling with Generics. Experienced C++ and Java Programmers who are migrating to C# and looking for an alternative to other generic frameworks like STL and JCF would find this book handy.

  20. Mapping PUNITY to UniNet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU GuoFu(周国富); YUAN ChongYi(袁崇义)

    2003-01-01

    To solve the problems of the interleaving assumption and the single resource inPUNITY (Petri net and UNITY) and Petri net respectively, this paper proposes a set of mappingrules from PUNITY to UniNet. Based on these rules, problems of one field can be transformed toproblems of the other field and powerful tools of Petri net and UNITY can be used. The papergives a sketch of the mapping rules and applies the rules to an example. Meanwhile, the mappingrules can help computer to translate PUNITY to UniNet easily.

  1. Petri nets semantics ofπ-calculus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenhua YU; Yuanli CAI; Haiping XU

    2008-01-01

    As π-calculus based on the interleaving semantics cannot depict the true concurrency and has few supporting tools,it is translated into Petri nets.π-calculus is divided into basic elements,sequence,concurrency,choice and recursive modules.These modules are translated into Petri nets to construct a complicated system.Petri nets semantics for π-calculus visualize system structure as well as system behaviors.The structural analysis techniques allow direct qualitative analysis of the system properties on the structure of the nets.Finally,Petri nets semantics for π-calculus are illustrated by applying them to mobile telephone systems.

  2. Towards a Standard for Modular Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart; Petrucci, Laure

    2009-01-01

    as a mechanism for modules in Petri nets that is independent from a particular version of Petri nets and that can mimic many composition mechanisms by a simple import and export concept. Due to its generality, the semantics of modular PNML was only informally defined. Moreover, modular PNML did not define which...... concepts could or should be subject to import and export in high-level Petri nets. In this paper, we formalise a minimal version of modular high-level Petri nets, which is based on the concepts of modular PNML. This shows that modular PNML can be formalised once a specific version of Petri net is fixed...

  3. Delta Semantics Defined By Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    This report is identical to an earlier version of May 1978 except that Chapter 5 has been revised. A new paper: "A Petri Net Definition of a System Description Language", DAIMI, April 1979, 20 pages, extends the Petri net model to include a data state representing the program variables. Delta...... and the possibility of using predicates to specify state changes. In this paper a formal semantics for Delta is defined and analysed using Petri nets. Petri nets was chosen because the ideas behind Petri nets and Delta concide on several points. A number of proposals for changes in Delta, which resulted from...

  4. Verifying Time Petri Nets by Linear Programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宣东

    2001-01-01

    The paper proposes an approach to solving some verification problems of time Petri nets using linear programming. The approach is based on the observation that for loop-closed time Petri nets, it is only necessary to investigate a finite prefix of an untimed run of the underlying Petri net. Using the technique the paper gives solutions to reachability and bounded delay timing analysis problems. For both problems algorithms are given, that are decision procedures for loop-closed time Petri nets, and semi-decision procedures for general time Petri nets.

  5. A Science Cloud: OneSpaceNet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Y.; Murata, K. T.; Watari, S.; Kato, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Inoue, S.; Tsubouchi, K.; Fukazawa, K.; Kimura, E.; Tatebe, O.; Shimojo, S.

    2010-12-01

    system performs as one disk). There are three supercomputers allocated on the cloud, one from Tokyo, one from Osaka and the other from Nagoya. One's simulation job data on any supercomputers are saved on the cloud data storage (same directory); it is a kind of virtual computing environment. The tiled display wall has 36 panels acting as one display; the pixel (resolution) size of it is as large as 18000x4300. This size is enough to preview or analyze the large-scale computer simulation data. It also allows us to take a look of multiple (e.g., 100 pictures) on one screen together with many researchers. In our talk we also present a brief report of the initial results using the OneSpaceNet for Global MHD simulations as an example of successful use of our science cloud; (i) Ultra-high time resolution visualization of Global MHD simulations on the large-scale storage and parallel processing system on the cloud, (ii) Database of real-time Global MHD simulation and statistic analyses of the data, and (iii) 3D Web service of Global MHD simulations.

  6. High Throughput Measurement of Extracellular DNA Release and Quantitative NET Formation in Human Neutrophils In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sil, Payel; Yoo, Dae-Goon; Floyd, Madison; Gingerich, Aaron; Rada, Balazs

    2016-06-18

    Neutrophil granulocytes are the most abundant leukocytes in the human blood. Neutrophils are the first to arrive at the site of infection. Neutrophils developed several antimicrobial mechanisms including phagocytosis, degranulation and formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETs consist of a DNA scaffold decorated with histones and several granule markers including myeloperoxidase (MPO) and human neutrophil elastase (HNE). NET release is an active process involving characteristic morphological changes of neutrophils leading to expulsion of their DNA into the extracellular space. NETs are essential to fight microbes, but uncontrolled release of NETs has been associated with several disorders. To learn more about the clinical relevance and the mechanism of NET formation, there is a need to have reliable tools capable of NET quantitation. Here three methods are presented that can assess NET release from human neutrophils in vitro. The first one is a high throughput assay to measure extracellular DNA release from human neutrophils using a membrane impermeable DNA-binding dye. In addition, two other methods are described capable of quantitating NET formation by measuring levels of NET-specific MPO-DNA and HNE-DNA complexes. These microplate-based methods in combination provide great tools to efficiently study the mechanism and regulation of NET formation of human neutrophils.

  7. Cumulative childhood trauma and psychological maladjustment of sexually abused children in Korea: mediating effects of emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Young; Oh, Kyung Ja

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the mediating effects of emotion regulation on the association between cumulative childhood trauma and behavior problems in sexually abused children in Korea, using structural equation modeling (SEM). Data were collected on 171 children (ages 6-13 years) referred to a public counseling center for sexual abuse in Seoul, Korea. Cumulative childhood traumas were defined on the basis of number of traumas (physical abuse, witnessing domestic violence, neglect, traumatic separation from parent, and sexual abuse) and the severity and duration of traumas. Children were evaluated by their parents on emotion regulation using the Emotion Regulation Checklist and internalizing and externalizing behavior problems using the Korean-Child Behavior Checklist. SEM analyses confirmed the complete mediation model, in which emotion dysregulation fully mediates the relationship between cumulative childhood traumas and internalizing/externalizing behavior problems. These findings indicate that emotion regulation is an important mechanism that can explain the negative effects of cumulative childhood traumas and that there is a need to focus on emotion regulation in sexually abused children exposed to cumulative trauma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Experimental observation of cumulative second-harmonic generation of lamb waves propagating in long bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenggang; Liu, Dan; Deng, Mingxi; Ta, Dean; Wang, Weiqi

    2014-07-01

    The experimental observation of cumulative second-harmonic generation of fundamental Lamb waves in long bones is reported. Based on the modal expansion approach to waveguide excitation and the dispersion characteristics of Lamb waves in long bones, the mechanism underlying the generation and accumulation of second harmonics by propagation of the fundamental Lamb waves was investigated. An experimental setup was established to detect the second-harmonic signals of Lamb wave propagation in long bones in vitro. Through analysis of the group velocities of the received signals, the appropriate fundamental Lamb wave modes and the duration of the second-harmonic signals could be identified. The integrated amplitude of the time-domain second-harmonic signal was introduced and used to characterize the efficiency of second-harmonic generation by fundamental Lamb wave propagation. The results indicate that the second-harmonic signal generated by fundamental Lamb waves propagating in long bones can be observed clearly, and the effect was cumulative with propagation distance when the fundamental Lamb wave mode and the double-frequency Lamb wave mode had the same phase velocities. The present results may be important in the development of a new method to evaluate the status of long bones using the cumulative second harmonic of ultrasonic Lamb waves.

  9. Covariate adjustment of cumulative incidence functions for competing risks data using inverse probability of treatment weighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Anke; Billionnet, Cécile

    2016-06-01

    In observational studies without random assignment of the treatment, the unadjusted comparison between treatment groups may be misleading due to confounding. One method to adjust for measured confounders is inverse probability of treatment weighting. This method can also be used in the analysis of time to event data with competing risks. Competing risks arise if for some individuals the event of interest is precluded by a different type of event occurring before, or if only the earliest of several times to event, corresponding to different event types, is observed or is of interest. In the presence of competing risks, time to event data are often characterized by cumulative incidence functions, one for each event type of interest. We describe the use of inverse probability of treatment weighting to create adjusted cumulative incidence functions. This method is equivalent to direct standardization when the weight model is saturated. No assumptions about the form of the cumulative incidence functions are required. The method allows studying associations between treatment and the different types of event under study, while focusing on the earliest event only. We present a SAS macro implementing this method and we provide a worked example.

  10. A prospective study of cumulative job stress in relation to mental health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Isabelle; Kittel, France; Coppieters, Yves; Siegrist, Johannes

    2005-01-01

    Background This study tests associations between psychosocial stress at work measured by the effort-reward imbalance model in a dynamic perspective, and multiple indicators of poor mental health, in a prospective design. Methods 1986 male and female employees from four Belgian enterprises were followed-up over one year within the framework of the Somstress study. Based on two consecutive measurements, an index of cumulative job stress was constructed and its associations with five indicators of mental health were studied, excluding caseness at entry (for depression, anxiety, somatisation, chronic fatigue and psychotropic drug consumption respectively). Taking into account the longitudinal design, four categories of job stress are defined: 1) employees free from stress at both measures, 2) job stress present at first measure but not at the second one, 3) recent onset of job stress as evidenced by second measure 4) workers exposed to stress at both measures. Multivariate logistic regression with appropriate adjustments was applied. Results In bivariate analysis, a clear graded association of cumulative job stress with all five mental health indicators is observed, both in men and women. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, recent onset of stress is strongly associated with poor mental health among men (odds ratios ranging from 1.8 to 4.6), while cumulative stress shows strongest effects on mental health in women (odds ratios ranging from 1.4 to 7.1). Conclusion Cumulative experience and recent onset of job stress in terms of high effort spent and low reward received is associated with elevated risk of all five indicators of poor mental health at follow-up in a large cohort of employees. PMID:15958170

  11. A prospective study of cumulative job stress in relation to mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coppieters Yves

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study tests associations between psychosocial stress at work measured by the effort-reward imbalance model in a dynamic perspective, and multiple indicators of poor mental health, in a prospective design. Methods 1986 male and female employees from four Belgian enterprises were followed-up over one year within the framework of the Somstress study. Based on two consecutive measurements, an index of cumulative job stress was constructed and its associations with five indicators of mental health were studied, excluding caseness at entry (for depression, anxiety, somatisation, chronic fatigue and psychotropic drug consumption respectively. Taking into account the longitudinal design, four categories of job stress are defined: 1 employees free from stress at both measures, 2 job stress present at first measure but not at the second one, 3 recent onset of job stress as evidenced by second measure 4 workers exposed to stress at both measures. Multivariate logistic regression with appropriate adjustments was applied. Results In bivariate analysis, a clear graded association of cumulative job stress with all five mental health indicators is observed, both in men and women. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, recent onset of stress is strongly associated with poor mental health among men (odds ratios ranging from 1.8 to 4.6, while cumulative stress shows strongest effects on mental health in women (odds ratios ranging from 1.4 to 7.1. Conclusion Cumulative experience and recent onset of job stress in terms of high effort spent and low reward received is associated with elevated risk of all five indicators of poor mental health at follow-up in a large cohort of employees.

  12. Greenhouse Modeling Using Continuous Timed Petri Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Tovany

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a continuous timed Petri nets (ContPNs based greenhouse modeling methodology. The presented methodology is based on the definition of elementary ContPN modules which are designed to capture the components of a general energy and mass balance differential equation, like parts that are reducing or increasing variables, such as heat, CO2 concentration, and humidity. The semantics of ContPN is also extended in order to deal with variables depending on external greenhouse variables, such as solar radiation. Each external variable is represented by a place whose marking depends on an a priori known function, for instance, the solar radiation function of the greenhouse site, which can be obtained statistically. The modeling methodology is illustrated with a greenhouse modeling example.

  13. Research and Construction the Net Monitor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruining Huang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A Net Monitor system is presented in this paper. The system is based on STMicroelectronics board FLTK3D, which provides hardware platform for TV functions--3D film, IPTV, 3D game, cable television and so on. The whole system includes the Linux Operating System (OS, embedded web browser, Media player, clouding applications, video conference and 3D game. It utilizes the reference model of the CLFS (Cross Linux From Scratches principle to construct the embedded Linux OS. Cloud applications are focused on remote control and access to the cloud data center. The ESX/view client provides this function for its secure access to the data center and maintainability. With the development of IPTV technology, light cross-platform web browser, media player and video conference are implemented. The Net Monitor can integrate cloud applications, web browser, media player, video conference and so on in just one platform with lower cost than other platforms on buying extra hardware and software, so it will brings convenient and benefit to people.

  14. Expansion of the Glauber equation of motion in terms of cumulants powers. Statistical properties of the Glauber equation of motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bury, T.

    2012-01-01

    We present an expansion of the Glauber equation of motion in terms of cumulants of the effective fields. We show that we recover a part of the fluctuations with a simple third order expansion. We illustrate the method with an application to the 2D square lattice Ising model with nearest neighbors. For the special case of perturbed non gaussian effective fields, we show that only the first cumulants are significative. Furthermore it can be shown that the resulting distribution is closer to the normal distribution than the unperturbed fields one. It leads to the conclusion that we can consistently truncate the expansion of the exact Glauber equation of motion.

  15. A cumulative entropy method for distribution recognition of model error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yingjie; Chen, Wen

    2015-02-01

    This paper develops a cumulative entropy method (CEM) to recognize the most suitable distribution for model error. In terms of the CEM, the Lévy stable distribution is employed to capture the statistical properties of model error. The strategies are tested on 250 experiments of axially loaded CFT steel stub columns in conjunction with the four national building codes of Japan (AIJ, 1997), China (DL/T, 1999), the Eurocode 4 (EU4, 2004), and United States (AISC, 2005). The cumulative entropy method is validated as more computationally efficient than the Shannon entropy method. Compared with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and root mean square deviation, the CEM provides alternative and powerful model selection criterion to recognize the most suitable distribution for the model error.

  16. Experience of cumulative effects assessment in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piper Jake

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Cumulative effects assessment (CEA is a development of environmental impact assessment which attempts to take into account the wider picture of what impacts may affect the environment as a result of either multiple or linear projects, or development plans. CEA is seen as a further valuable tool in promoting sustainable development. The broader canvas upon which the assessment is made leads to a suite of issues such as complexity in methods and assessment of significance, the desirability of co-operation between developers and other parties, new ways of addressing mitigation and monitoring. After outlining the legislative position and the process of CEA, this paper looks at three cases studies in the UK where cumulative assessment has been carried out - the cases concern wind farms, major infrastructure and off-shore developments.

  17. Petrogenesis of the nakhlite meteorites - Evidence from cumulate mineral zoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Ralph P.; Mcsween, Harry Y., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to a simple igneous petrogenesis for the meteorite Nakhla, which was previously called into question because Mg/Fe ratios in olivine indicate substantial disequilibrium between the predominant cumulus minerals (olivine and augite). Comparative analyses of simulated diffusive zoning and the observed cumulus mineral zoning for all three nakhlites (Nakhla, Governador Valadares, and Lafayette) show that their current compositions do not necessarily reflect parental magma compositions. Diffusion has altered primary cumulus compositions to varying degrees, Nakhla being the least affected, and Lafayette being almost completely reequilibrated. Since mineral zoning in each meteorite is strongly concentric around mesostasis areas, it is inferred that reaction with intercumulus liquid has controlled the observed zoning. It is argued that the nakhlites appear to be a series of relatively simple cumulate rocks which have undergone various amounts of late-magmatic and subsolidus diffusion, possibly reflecting their relative positions in a cooling cumulate pile.

  18. Cumulative dietary exposure of the population of Denmark to pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Nielsen, Elsa

    2015-01-01

    We used the Hazard Index (HI) method to carry out a cumulative risk assessment after chronic dietary exposure to all monitored pesticides in fruit, vegetables and cereals for various consumer groups in Denmark. Residue data for all the pesticides were obtained from the Danish monitoring programme...... that included processing factors and set non-detects to ½ LOR, but limited the correction (Model 3), gave the most realistic exposure estimate. With Model 3 the HI was calculated to be 0.44 for children and 0.18 for adults, indicating that there is no risk of adverse health effects following chronic cumulative...... exposure to the pesticides found in fruit, vegetables and cereals on the Danish market. The HI was below 1 even for consumers who eat more than 550 g of fruit and vegetables per day, corresponding to 1/3 of the population. Choosing Danish-produced commodities whenever possible could reduce the HI...

  19. Determination of radionuclides and pathways contributing to cumulative dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, B.A.

    1992-12-01

    A series of scoping calculations has been undertaken to evaluate the absolute and relative contributions of different radionuclides and exposure pathways to doses that may have been received by individuals living in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. This scoping calculation (Calculation 004) examined the contributions of numerous radionuclides to cumulative dose via environmental exposures and accumulation in foods. Addressed in this calculation were the contributions to organ and effective dose of infants and adults from (1) air submersion and groundshine external dose, (2) inhalation, (3) ingestion of soil by humans, (4) ingestion of leafy vegetables, (5) ingestion of other vegetables and fruits, (6) ingestion of meat, (7) ingestion of eggs, and (8) ingestion of cows' milk from Feeding Regime 1, as described in calculation 002. This calculation specifically addresses cumulative radiation doses to infants and adults resulting from releases occurring over the period 1945 through 1972.

  20. Cumulative impacts of oil fields on northern alaskan landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D A; Webber, P J; Binnian, E F; Everett, K R; Lederer, N D; Nordstrand, E A; Walker, M D

    1987-11-06

    Proposed further developments on Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain raise questions about cumulative effects on arctic tundra ecosystems of development of multiple large oil fields. Maps of historical changes to the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field show indirect impacts can lag behind planned developments by many years and the total area eventually disturbed can greatly exceed the planned area of construction. For example, in the wettest parts of the oil field (flat thaw-lake plains), flooding and thermokarst covered more than twice the area directly affected by roads and other construction activities. Protecting critical wildlife habitat is the central issue for cumulative impact analysis in northern Alaska. Comprehensive landscape planning with the use of geographic information system technology and detailed geobotanical maps can help identify and protect areas of high wildlife use.

  1. Effective Carrier Sensing in CSMA Networks under Cumulative Interference

    CERN Document Server

    Fu, Liqun; Huang, Jianwei

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes and investigates the concept of a safe carrier-sensing range that can guarantee interference safe (also termed hidden-node-free) transmissions in CSMA networks under the cumulative interference model. Compared with the safe carrier-sensing range under the commonly assumed but less realistic pairwise interference model, we show that the safe carrier-sensing range required under the cumulative interference model is larger by a constant multiplicative factor. The concept of a safe carrier-sensing range, although amenable to elegant analytical results, is inherently not compatible with the conventional power threshold carrier-sensing mechanism (e.g., that used in IEEE 802.11). Specifically, the absolute power sensed by a node in the conventional mechanism does not contain enough information for it to derive its distances from other concurrent transmitter nodes. We show that, fortunately, a carrier-sensing mechanism called Incremental-Power Carrier-Sensing (IPCS) can realize the carrier-sensing...

  2. Cumulants of heat transfer across nonlinear quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huanan; Agarwalla, Bijay Kumar; Li, Baowen; Wang, Jian-Sheng

    2013-12-01

    We consider thermal conduction across a general nonlinear phononic junction. Based on two-time observation protocol and the nonequilibrium Green's function method, heat transfer in steady-state regimes is studied, and practical formulas for the calculation of the cumulant generating function are obtained. As an application, the general formalism is used to study anharmonic effects on fluctuation of steady-state heat transfer across a single-site junction with a quartic nonlinear on-site pinning potential. An explicit nonlinear modification to the cumulant generating function exact up to the first order is given, in which the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation symmetry is found still valid. Numerically a self-consistent procedure is introduced, which works well for strong nonlinearity.

  3. A Scheduling Algorithm Based on Petri Nets and Simulated Annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachida H. Ghoul

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at presenting a hybrid Flexible Manufacturing System "HFMS" short-term scheduling problem. Based on the art state of general scheduling algorithms, we present the meta-heuristic, we have decided to apply for a given example of HFMS. That was the study of Simulated Annealing Algorithm SA. The HFMS model based on hierarchical Petri nets, was used to represent static and dynamic behavior of the HFMS and design scheduling solutions. Hierarchical Petri nets model was regarded as being made up a set of single timed colored Petri nets models. Each single model represents one process which was composed of many operations and tasks. The complex scheduling problem was decomposed in simple sub-problems. Scheduling algorithm was applied on each sub model in order to resolve conflicts on shared production resources.

  4. Appropriate Determination of Net Working Capital in Corporate Financial Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Motlíček

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquidity and working capital management belongs to one of the fundamental tasks of short-term financial management. However, in the context of net working capital, the issue of management of current assets and liabilities significantly overlaps with long-term financial management, in which the effects of various decisions have long-term consequences, with considerable inertia and possibility of high losses. The present study is therefore focused on the determination of appropriate amount of working capital, as an important part of financial decision making process in the company. The paper presents an empirical research aiming to identify the appropriate approach to accurate calculations of net working capital and determining its needs. The main contribution of the study can be found in the verification of calculation method of net working capital needs, which, according to the authors, may be beneficial both for business practice and teaching of financial management at universities.

  5. Seasonal climate change patterns due to cumulative CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Leduc, Martin; Damon Matthews, H.

    2017-07-01

    Cumulative CO2 emissions are near linearly related to both global and regional changes in annual-mean surface temperature. These relationships are known as the transient climate response to cumulative CO2 emissions (TCRE) and the regional TCRE (RTCRE), and have been shown to remain approximately constant over a wide range of cumulative emissions. Here, we assessed how well this relationship holds for seasonal patterns of temperature change, as well as for annual-mean and seasonal precipitation patterns. We analyzed an idealized scenario with CO2 concentration growing at an annual rate of 1% using data from 12 Earth system models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Seasonal RTCRE values for temperature varied considerably, with the highest seasonal variation evident in the Arctic, where RTCRE was about 5.5 °C per Tt C for boreal winter and about 2.0 °C per Tt C for boreal summer. Also the precipitation response in the Arctic during boreal winter was stronger than during other seasons. We found that emission-normalized seasonal patterns of temperature change were relatively robust with respect to time, though they were sub-linear with respect to emissions particularly near the Arctic. Moreover, RTCRE patterns for precipitation could not be quantified robustly due to the large internal variability of precipitation. Our results suggest that cumulative CO2 emissions are a useful metric to predict regional and seasonal changes in precipitation and temperature. This extension of the TCRE framework to seasonal and regional climate change is helpful for communicating the link between emissions and climate change to policy-makers and the general public, and is well-suited for impact studies that could make use of estimated regional-scale climate changes that are consistent with the carbon budgets associated with global temperature targets.

  6. Heavy metal cumulation in crops after the sewage sludge application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gondová Andrea

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available During 1995 - 1996 the crops samples after the sewage sludge application were collected. The heavy metals cumulation in investigated crops from Bardejov increased in order: Zn > Cu > Pb > Ni > Cr > Cd and Banská Bystrica : Zn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Pb > Cd. Heavy metals contents after the sewage sludge application were increased in comparison with the highest admissible concentration in eatable part of crops. The sewage sludge application were not recommended in soils for the growth of vegetables

  7. Finite-volume cumulant expansion in QCD-colorless plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladrem, M. [Taibah University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Madinah, Al-Munawwarah (Saudi Arabia); Physics Department, Algiers (Algeria); ENS-Vieux Kouba (Bachir El-Ibrahimi), Laboratoire de Physique et de Mathematiques Appliquees (LPMA), Algiers (Algeria); Ahmed, M.A.A. [Taibah University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Madinah, Al-Munawwarah (Saudi Arabia); ENS-Vieux Kouba (Bachir El-Ibrahimi), Laboratoire de Physique et de Mathematiques Appliquees (LPMA), Algiers (Algeria); Taiz University in Turba, Physics Department, Taiz (Yemen); Alfull, Z.Z. [Taibah University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Madinah, Al-Munawwarah (Saudi Arabia); Cherif, S. [ENS-Vieux Kouba (Bachir El-Ibrahimi), Laboratoire de Physique et de Mathematiques Appliquees (LPMA), Algiers (Algeria); Ghardaia University, Sciences and Technologies Department, Ghardaia (Algeria)

    2015-09-15

    Due to the finite-size effects, the localization of the phase transition in finite systems and the determination of its order, become an extremely difficult task, even in the simplest known cases. In order to identify and locate the finite-volume transition point T{sub 0}(V) of the QCD deconfinement phase transition to a colorless QGP, we have developed a new approach using the finite-size cumulant expansion of the order parameter and the L{sub mn}-method. The first six cumulants C{sub 1,2,3,4,5,6} with the corresponding under-normalized ratios (skewness Σ, kurtosis κ, pentosis Π{sub ±}, and hexosis H{sub 1,2,3}) and three unnormalized combinations of them, (O = σ{sup 2}κΣ{sup -1},U = σ{sup -2}Σ{sup -1},N = σ{sup 2}κ) are calculated and studied as functions of (T, V). A new approach, unifying in a clear and consistent way the definitions of cumulant ratios, is proposed.Anumerical FSS analysis of the obtained results has allowed us to locate accurately the finite-volume transition point. The extracted transition temperature value T{sub 0}(V) agrees with that expected T{sub 0}{sup N}(V) from the order parameter and the thermal susceptibility χ{sub T} (T, V), according to the standard procedure of localization to within about 2%. In addition to this, a very good correlation factor is obtained proving the validity of our cumulants method. The agreement of our results with those obtained by means of other models is remarkable. (orig.)

  8. The cumulation of methylmercury in fish (Poecilia reticulata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stary, J.; Kratzer, K.; Havlik, B.; Prasilova, J.; Hanusova, J.

    1980-01-01

    Methylmercury labelled with mercury-203 was used for the investigation of the uptake and the release of methylmercury in fish. It has been found that methylmercury compounds adsorbed on fish food remain completely in fish and that they are released with the biological half-time of 110 days. The cumulation of methylmercury from water is very rapid. Equations for the calculation of the concentration of methylmercury in fish were derived and compared with the uptake of phenylmercury and inorganic mercury.

  9. Erupted cumulate fragments in rhyolites from Lipari (Aeolian Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forni, Francesca; Ellis, Ben S.; Bachmann, Olivier; Lucchi, Federico; Tranne, Claudio A.; Agostini, Samuele; Dallai, Luigi

    2015-12-01

    Over the last ~267 ky, the island of Lipari has erupted magmas ranging in compositions from basaltic andesites to rhyolites, with a notable compositional gap in the dacite field. Bulk geochemical and isotopic compositions of the volcanic succession, in conjunction with major and trace elemental compositions of minerals, indicate that the rhyolites were dominantly generated via crystal fractionation processes, with subordinate assimilation. Radiogenic (Sr, Nd, and Pb) and stable (O) isotopes independently suggest ≤30 % of crustal contamination with the majority of it occurring in mafic compositions, likely relatively deep in the system. Within the rhyolites, crystal-rich, K2O-rich enclaves are common. In contrast to previous interpretations, we suggest that these enclaves represent partial melting, remobilization and eruption of cumulate fragments left-over from rhyolite melt extraction. Cumulate melting and remobilization is supported by the presence of (1) resorbed, low-temperature minerals (biotite and sanidine), providing the potassic signature to these clasts, (2) reacted Fo-rich olivine, marking the presence of mafic recharge, (3) An38-21 plagioclase, filling the gap in feldspar composition between the andesites and the rhyolites and (4) strong enrichment in Sr and Ba in plagioclase and sanidine, suggesting crystallization from a locally enriched melt. Based on Sr-melt partitioning, the high-Sr plagioclase would require ~2300 ppm Sr in the melt, a value far in excess of Sr contents in Lipari and Vulcano magmas (50-1532 ppm) but consistent with melting of a feldspar-rich cumulate. Due to the presence of similar crystal-rich enclaves within the rhyolites from Vulcano, we propose that the eruption of remobilized cumulates associated with high-SiO2 rhyolites may be a common process at the Aeolian volcanoes, as already attested for a variety of volcanic systems around the world.

  10. [Cumulative effect of Coriolis acceleration on coronary hemodynamics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapaev, E V; Bednenko, V S

    1985-01-01

    Time-course variations in coronary circulation and cardiac output were measured in 29 healthy test subjects who performed tests with a continuous cumulation of Coriolis accelerations and in 12 healthy test subjects who were exposed to Coriolis accelerations combined with acute hypoxia. Adaptive changes in coronary circulation were seen. It is recommended to monitor coronary circulation during vestibulometric tests as part of medical expertise of the flying personnel.

  11. Joint estimation of DOA, frequency, and polarization based on cumulants and UCA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Jiacai; Shi Yaowu; Tao Jianwu

    2007-01-01

    A joint estimation algorithm of direction of arrival (DOA), frequency, and polarization, based on fourth-order cumulants and uniform circular array (UCA) of trimmed vector sensors is presented for narrowband non-Gaussian signals. The proposed approach, which is suitable for applications in arbitrary Gaussian noise environments, gives a closed-form representation of the estimated parameters, without spectral peak searching. An efficient method is also provided for elimination of cyclic phase ambiguities. Simulations are presented to show the performance of the algorithm.

  12. PollyNET: a network of multiwavelength polarization Raman lidars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althausen, Dietrich; Engelmann, Ronny; Baars, Holger; Heese, Birgit; Kanitz, Thomas; Komppula, Mika; Giannakaki, Eleni; Pfüller, Anne; Silva, Ana Maria; Preißler, Jana; Wagner, Frank; Rascado, Juan Luis; Pereira, Sergio; Lim, Jae-Hyun; Ahn, Joon Young; Tesche, Matthias; Stachlewska, Iwona S.

    2013-10-01

    PollyNET is a growing global network of automatized multiwavelength polarization Raman lidars of type Polly (Althausen et al., 2009). The goal of this network is to conduct advanced remote measurements of aerosol profiles and clouds by the same type of instrument. Since 2006 this network assists the controlling and adjustment activities of Polly systems. A central facility receives the data from the Polly measurements. The observational data are displayed in terms of quicklooks at http://polly:tropos.de in near real time. In this way, the network serves as a central information platform for inquisitive scientists. PollyNET comprises permanent stations at Leipzig (Germany), Kuopio (Finland), Evora (Portugal), Baengnyeong Island (South Korea), Stockholm (Sweden), and Warsaw (Poland). Non-permanent stations have been used during several field experiments under both urban and very remote conditions - like the Amazon rainforest. These non-permanent stations were lasting from several weeks up to one year and have been located in Brazil, India, China, South Africa, Chile, and also aboard the German research vessels Polarstern and Meteor across the Atlantic. Within PollyNET the interaction and knowledge exchange is encouraged between the Polly operators. This includes maintenance support in system calibration procedures and distribution of latest hardware and software improvements. This presentation introduces the PollyNET. Main features of the Polly systems will be presented as well as recent instrumental developments. Some measurement highlights achieved within PollyNET are depicted.

  13. Finite Volume Cumulant Expansion in QCD-Colorless Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Ladrem, M; Al-Full, Z; Cherif, S

    2015-01-01

    Due to the finite size effects, the localisation of the phase transition in finite systems and the determination of its order, become an extremely difficult task, even in the simplest known cases. In order to identify and locate the finite volume transition point $T_{0}(V)$ of the QCD deconfinement phase transition to a Colorless QGP, we have developed a new approach using the finite size cumulant expansion of the order parameter and the $L_{mn}$-method. The first six cumulants $C_{1,2,3,4,5,6}$ with the corresponding under-normalized ratios(skewness $\\Sigma$, kurtosis $\\kappa$ ,pentosis $\\Pi_{\\pm}$ and hexosis $\\mathcal{H}_{1,2,3}$) and three unnormalized combinations of them ($\\mathcal{O}={\\mathcal{\\sigma }^{2} \\mathcal{\\kappa } }{\\mathbf{\\Sigma }^{-1} }$, $\\mathcal{U} ={\\mathcal{\\sigma }^{-2} \\mathbf{\\Sigma }^{-1} }$, $\\mathcal{N} = \\mathcal{\\sigma }^{2} \\mathcal{\\kappa }$) are calculated and studied as functions of $(T,V)$. A new approach, unifying in a clear and consistent way the definitions of cumulant...

  14. Cumulative risk: toxicity and interactions of physical and chemical stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, Cynthia V; Boekelheide, Kim; Catlin, Natasha; Gordon, Christopher J; Morata, Thais; Selgrade, Maryjane K; Sexton, Kenneth; Simmons, Jane Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Recent efforts to update cumulative risk assessment procedures to incorporate nonchemical stressors ranging from physical to psychosocial reflect increased interest in consideration of the totality of variables affecting human health and the growing desire to develop community-based risk assessment methods. A key roadblock is the uncertainty as to how nonchemical stressors behave in relationship to chemical stressors. Physical stressors offer a reasonable starting place for measuring the effects of nonchemical stressors and their modulation of chemical effects (and vice versa), as they clearly differ from chemical stressors; and "doses" of many physical stressors are more easily quantifiable than those of psychosocial stressors. There is a commonly held belief that virtually nothing is known about the impact of nonchemical stressors on chemically mediated toxicity or the joint impact of coexposure to chemical and nonchemical stressors. Although this is generally true, there are several instances where a substantial body of evidence exists. A workshop titled "Cumulative Risk: Toxicity and Interactions of Physical and Chemical Stressors" held at the 2013 Society of Toxicology Annual Meeting provided a forum for discussion of research addressing the toxicity of physical stressors and what is known about their interactions with chemical stressors, both in terms of exposure and effects. Physical stressors including sunlight, heat, radiation, infectious disease, and noise were discussed in reference to identifying pathways of interaction with chemical stressors, data gaps, and suggestions for future incorporation into cumulative risk assessments.

  15. Childhood poverty and health: cumulative risk exposure and stress dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gary W; Kim, Pilyoung

    2007-11-01

    A massive literature documents the inverse association between poverty or low socioeconomic status and health, but little is known about the mechanisms underlying this robust relation. We examined longitudinal relations between duration of poverty exposure since birth, cumulative risk exposure, and physiological stress in two hundred seven 13-year-olds. Chronic stress was assessed by basal blood pressure and overnight cortisol levels; stress regulation was assessed by cardiovascular reactivity to a standard acute stressor and recovery after exposure to this stressor. Cumulative risk exposure was measured by multiple physical (e.g., substandard housing) and social (e.g., family turmoil) risk factors. The greater the number of years spent living in poverty, the more elevated was overnight cortisol and the more dysregulated was the cardiovascular response (i.e., muted reactivity). Cardiovascular recovery was not affected by duration of poverty exposure. Unlike the duration of poverty exposure, concurrent poverty (i.e., during adolescence) did not affect these physiological stress outcomes. The effects of childhood poverty on stress dysregulation are largely explained by cumulative risk exposure accompanying childhood poverty.

  16. Cumulative risk hypothesis: Predicting and preventing child maltreatment recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, David; Åsberg, Kia; Peer, Samuel; Prince, Gwendolyn

    2016-08-01

    Although Child Protective Services (CPS) and other child welfare agencies aim to prevent further maltreatment in cases of child abuse and neglect, recidivism is common. Having a better understanding of recidivism predictors could aid in preventing additional instances of maltreatment. A previous study identified two CPS interventions that predicted recidivism: psychotherapy for the parent, which was related to a reduced risk of recidivism, and temporary removal of the child from the parent's custody, which was related to an increased recidivism risk. However, counter to expectations, this previous study did not identify any other specific risk factors related to maltreatment recidivism. For the current study, it was hypothesized that (a) cumulative risk (i.e., the total number of risk factors) would significantly predict maltreatment recidivism above and beyond intervention variables in a sample of CPS case files and that (b) therapy for the parent would be related to a reduced likelihood of recidivism. Because it was believed that the relation between temporary removal of a child from the parent's custody and maltreatment recidivism is explained by cumulative risk, the study also hypothesized that that the relation between temporary removal of the child from the parent's custody and recidivism would be mediated by cumulative risk. After performing a hierarchical logistic regression analysis, the first two hypotheses were supported, and an additional predictor, psychotherapy for the child, also was related to reduced chances of recidivism. However, Hypothesis 3 was not supported, as risk did not significantly mediate the relation between temporary removal and recidivism.

  17. Experimental modelling of transverse oscillations in aquaculture netting parallel to the flow — Sounds baffling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew; Balash, Cheslav

    2015-06-01

    Numerous studies have been undertaken to improve the viability, durability and suitability of materials and methods used for aquaculture enclosures. While many of the previous studies considered macro-deformation of nets, there is a paucity of information on netting micro-deformation. When aquaculture pens are towed, industry operators have observed the motion described as "baffling" — the transverse oscillation of the net planes parallel and near parallel to the flow. The difficulty to observe and assess baffling motion in a controlled experimental environment is to sufficiently reproduce netting boundary conditions and the flow environment experienced at sea. The focus of the present study was to develop and assess experimental methods for visualisation and quantification of these transverse oscillations. Four net-rig configurations with varied boundary conditions and model-netting properties were tested in a flume tank. While the Reynolds number was not equivalent to full-scale, usage of the pliable and fine mesh model netting that enabled baffling to develop at low flow velocities was deemed to be of a larger relevance to this initial study. Baffling was observed in the testing frame that constrained the net sheet on the leading edge, similarly to a flag attachment onto a pole. Baffling motion increased the hydrodynamic drag of the net by 35%-58% when compared to the previously developed formula for taut net sheets aligned parallel to the flow. Furthermore, it was found that the drag due to baffling decreased with the increasing velocity over the studied Reynolds numbers (below 200); and the drag coefficient was non-linear for Reynolds numbers below 120. It is hypothesised that baffling motion is initially propagated by vortex shedding of the netting twine which causes the netting to oscillate; there after the restoring force causes unstable pressure differences on each side of the netting which excites the amplitude of the netting oscillations.

  18. The QuarkNet Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzberger, A.

    2003-12-01

    QuarkNet is a long-term high school education project, supported by NSF and DOE and carried out by a collaboration of university and laboratory research groups. These research groups are part of major international particle physics experiments, including those at CERN in Switzerland, Fermilab in Illinois, and SLAC in California. Goals and Objectives: A major goal is to engage students and teachers in authentic scientific research; they gain a first-hand understanding of research and its application in the inquiry method of learning. Teachers enhance their content knowledge, increase their abilities to solve science-related problems, engage students in scientific inquiry, and develop responsibility for their own professional development. Students learn fundamental physics and are motivated by current research questions as they analyze real data. A second goal is to engage particle physicists with current issues in science education, including their understanding of the National Science Education Standards and local science education needs and what constitutes age-appropriate content. Project Design: Working with physicists nationwide, we have established a project framework with three program areas-teacher research experience, teacher development programs, and online resources and inquiry-based activities. Eight-week research appointments allow teachers to experience scientific research first-hand. In teacher institutes the next summer these teachers and scientists lead a group of teachers through a short research scenario lasting two to three weeks and assist them in creating similar scenarios for their students. When fully implemented QuarkNet will support centers associated with 60 particle physics research groups at universities and laboratories in the U. S. The QuarkNet website provides: - Experimental data for use in inquiry-based activities. - Opportunities for communication and collaboration among physicists, teachers and students. - A place for students to

  19. The Effect of a Summarization-Based Cumulative Retelling Strategy on Listening Comprehension of College Students with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncer, A. Tuba; Altunay, Banu

    2006-01-01

    Because students with visual impairments need auditory materials in order to access information, listening comprehension skills are important to their academic success. The present study investigated the effectiveness of summarization-based cumulative retelling strategy on the listening comprehension of four visually impaired college students. An…

  20. Cumulative Risk and Adolescent's Internalizing and Externalizing Problems: The Mediating Roles of Maternal Responsiveness and Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Stacey N.; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E.; Evans, Gary W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine longitudinal associations among maternal responsiveness, self-regulation, and behavioral adjustment in adolescents. The authors used structural equation modeling to test a model that demonstrates that the effects of early cumulative risk on behavioral problems is mediated by maternal responsiveness…

  1. Bound states in string nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Marc Daniel; Dusuel, Sébastien; Vidal, Julien

    2016-11-01

    We discuss the emergence of bound states in the low-energy spectrum of the string-net Hamiltonian in the presence of a string tension. In the ladder geometry, we show that a single bound state arises either for a finite tension or in the zero-tension limit depending on the theory considered. In the latter case, we perturbatively compute the binding energy as a function of the total quantum dimension. We also address this issue in the honeycomb lattice where the number of bound states in the topological phase depends on the total quantum dimension. Finally, the internal structure of these bound states is analyzed in the zero-tension limit.

  2. Bound states in string nets

    CERN Document Server

    Schulz, M D; Vidal, J

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the emergence of bound states in the low-energy spectrum of the string-net Hamiltonian in the presence of a string tension. In the ladder geometry, we show that a single bound state arises either for a finite tension or in the zero-tension limit depending on the theory considered. In the latter case, we perturbatively compute the binding energy as a function of the total quantum dimension. We also address this issue in the honeycomb lattice where the number of bound states in the topological phase depends on the total quantum dimension. Finally, the internal structure of these bound states is analyzed in the zero-tension limit.

  3. El Carreto o Cumulá - Aspidosperma Dugandii Standl El Carreto o Cumulá - Aspidosperma Dugandii Standl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugand Armando

    1944-03-01

    Full Text Available Nombres vulgares: Carreto (Atlántico, Bolívar, Magdalena; Cumulá, Cumulá (Cundinamarca, ToIima. Según el Dr. Emilio Robledo (Lecciones de Bot. ed. 3, 2: 544. 1939 el nombre Carreto también es empleado en Puerto Berrío (Antioquia. El mismo autor (loc. cit. da el nombre Comulá para una especie indeterminada de Viburnum en Mariquita (Tolima y J. M. Duque, refiriendose a la misma planta y localidad (en Bot. Gen. Colomb. 340, 356. 1943 atribuye este nombre vulgar al Aspidosperma ellipticum Rusby.  Sin embargo, las muestras de madera de Cumulá o Comulá que yo he examinado, procedentes de la región de Mariquita -una de las cuales me fue recientemente enviada por el distinguido ictiólogo Sr. Cecil Miles- pertenecen sin duda alguna al A. Dugandii StandI. Por otra parte, Santiago Cortés (FI. Colomb. 206. 1898; ed, 2: 239. 1912 cita el Cumulá "de Anapoima y otros lugares del (rio Magdalena" diciendo que pertenece a las Leguminosas, pero la brevísima descripción que este autor hace de la madera "naranjada y notable por densidad, dureza y resistencia a la humedad", me induce a creer que se trata del mismo Cumula coleccionado recientemente en Tocaima, ya que esta población esta situada a pocos kilómetros de Anapoima. Nombres vulgares: Carreto (Atlántico, Bolívar, Magdalena; Cumulá, Cumulá (Cundinamarca, ToIima. Según el Dr. Emilio Robledo (Lecciones de Bot. ed. 3, 2: 544. 1939 el nombre Carreto también es empleado en Puerto Berrío (Antioquia. El mismo autor (loc. cit. da el nombre Comulá para una especie indeterminada de Viburnum en Mariquita (Tolima y J. M. Duque, refiriendose a la misma planta y localidad (en Bot. Gen. Colomb. 340, 356. 1943 atribuye este nombre vulgar al Aspidosperma ellipticum Rusby.  Sin embargo, las muestras de madera de Cumulá o Comulá que yo he examinado, procedentes de la región de Mariquita -una de las cuales me fue recientemente enviada por el distinguido ictiólogo Sr. Cecil Miles- pertenecen sin

  4. NETS - Danish participation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsen, S. (Grontmij - Carl Bro, Glostrup (Denmark)); Theel, C. (Baltic Sea Solutions, Holeby (Denmark))

    2008-12-15

    Within the NICe-funded project 'Nordic Environmental Technology Solutions (NETS)' a new type of networking at the Nordic level was organized in order to jointly exploit the rapidly growing market potential in the environmental technology sector. The project aimed at increased and professionalized commercialization of Nordic Cleantech in energy and water business segments through 1) closer cooperation and joint marketing activities, 2) a website, 3) cleantech product information via brochures and publications 4) and participating in relevant trade fairs and other industry events. Facilitating business-to-business activities was another core task for the NETS project partners from Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark with the aim to encourage total solutions for combined Cleantech system offers. The project has achieved to establish a Cleantech register of 600 Nordic Cleantech companies, a network of 86 member enterprises, produced several publications and brochures for direct technology promotion and a website for direct access to company profiles and contact data. The project partners have attended 14 relevant international Cleantech trade fairs and conferences and facilitated business-to-business contacts added by capacity building offers through two company workshops. The future challenge for the project partners and Nordic Cleantech will be to coordinate the numerous efforts within the Nordic countries in order to reach concerted action and binding of member companies for reliable services, an improved visibility and knowledge exchange. With Cleantech's growing market influence and public awareness, the need to develop total solutions is increasing likewise. Marketing efforts should be encouraged cross-sectional and cross-border among the various levels of involved actors from both the public and the private sector. (au)

  5. Experimental assessment of cumulative temperature and UV-B radiation effects on Mediterranean plankton metabolism

    KAUST Repository

    Garcia-Corral, Lara S.

    2015-07-07

    The Mediterranean Sea is a vulnerable region for climate change, warming at higher rates compare to the global ocean. Warming leads to increased stratification of the water column and enhanced the oligotrophic nature of the Mediterranean Sea. The oligotrophic waters are already highly transparent, however, exposure of Mediterranean plankton to ultraviolet radiation (UV-B and UV-A) may increase further if the waters become more oligotrophic, thereby, allowing a deeper UV radiation penetration and likely enhancing impacts to biota. Here we experimentally elucidate the cumulative effects of warming and natural UV-B radiation on the net community production (NCP) of plankton communities. We conducted five experiments at monthly intervals, from June to October 2013, and evaluated the responses of NCP to ambient UV-B radiation and warming (+3°C), alone and in combination, in a coastal area of the northwest Mediterranean Sea. UV-B radiation and warming lead to reduced NCP and resulted in a heterotrophic (NCP < 0) metabolic balance. Both UV-B radiation and temperature, showed a significant individual effect in NCP across treatments and time. However, their joint effect showed to be synergistic as the interaction between them (UV × Temp) was statistically significant in most of the experiments performed. Our results showed that both drivers, would affect the gas exchange of CO2−O2 from and to the atmosphere and the role of plankton communities in the Mediterranean carbon cycle.

  6. Petri Nets for Biologically Motivated Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kleijn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Petri nets are a general and well-established model of concurrent and distributed computation and behaviour, including that taking place in biological systems. In this survey paper, we are concerned with intrinsic relationships between Petri nets and two formal models inspired by aspects of the functioning of the living cell: membrane systems and reaction systems. In particular, we are interested in the benefits that can result from establishing strong semantical links between Petri nets and membrane systems and reaction systems. We first discuss Petri nets with localities reflecting the compartmentalisation modelled in membrane systems. Then special attention is given to set-nets, a new Petri net model for reaction systems and their qualitative approach to the investigation of the processes carried out by biochemical reactions taking place in the living cell.

  7. Scale Impacts in Net Ecosystem Productivity Estimations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalhais, N.; Myneni, R.

    2004-12-01

    Net ecosystem production (NEP) estimations play a key role in the terrestrial carbon cycle assessment, both at regional and global scales studies. The emergence of remote sensing greatly improved NEP estimation methods and analysis domain. Yet, spatial and temporal resolution of sensors and remote sensing products often imply adjustments to NEP calculation methods. The Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach (CASA) terrestrial biogeochemical model (Potter et al., 1993; Friedlingstein et al., 1999) simulates plant and soil processes allowing the estimation of NEP through the difference between net primary productivity and soil respiration. CASA inputs include climatic data: precipitation, temperature and solar radiation; soil texture; vegetation type and percentage cover; as well as leaf area index (LAI), fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by vegetation (FPAR) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). With a research interest in regional vegetation dynamics in the Iberian Peninsula (IP), estimations of NEP were compared with local measurements over a Quercus ilex and Quercus suber with perennial grassland ecosystem, representing a region characteristic land cover. The CASA calibration process aimed the tuning of efficiency scalars directly related to net primary productivity and soil respiration calculations, maximum light use efficiency (å*) and temperature effect on soil fluxes (Q10). To this end local weather station data was used as climatic inputs, with remotely sensed LAI, FPAR and NDVI products from MODIS sensor. In a first approach the NEP calculations were performed at a finer spatial and temporal resolution of 1 km and 8 days, respectively, for the periods of 2002 and 2003 (years of available NEP measurements). A confident correlation is found, although local extremes tend to differ and affect the annual balance concordance between estimations and measurements of NEP. Consequently, calibrated å* and Q10 values were used at coarser

  8. Neural net approach to predictive vector quantization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsenian, Nader; Nasrabadi, Nasser M.

    1992-11-01

    A new predictive vector quantization (PVQ) technique, capable of exploring the nonlinear dependencies in addition to the linear dependencies that exist between adjacent blocks of pixels, is introduced. Two different classes of neural nets form the components of the PVQ scheme. A multi-layer perceptron is embedded in the predictive component of the compression system. This neural network, using the non-linearity condition associated with its processing units, can perform as a non-linear vector predictor. The second component of the PVQ scheme vector quantizes (VQ) the residual vector that is formed by subtracting the output of the perceptron from the original wave-pattern. Kohonen Self-Organizing Feature Map (KSOFM) was utilized as a neural network clustering algorithm to design the codebook for the VQ technique. Coding results are presented for monochrome 'still' images.

  9. Access Nets: Modeling Access to Physical Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohardt, Robert; Chang, Bor-Yuh Evan; Sankaranarayanan, Sriram

    Electronic, software-managed mechanisms using, for example, radio-frequency identification (RFID) cards, enable great flexibility in specifying access control policies to physical spaces. For example, access rights may vary based on time of day or could differ in normal versus emergency situations. With such fine-grained control, understanding and reasoning about what a policy permits becomes surprisingly difficult requiring knowledge of permission levels, spatial layout, and time. In this paper, we present a formal modeling framework, called AccessNets, suitable for describing a combination of access permissions, physical spaces, and temporal constraints. Furthermore, we provide evidence that model checking techniques are effective in reasoning about physical access control policies. We describe our results from a tool that uses reachability analysis to validate security policies.

  10. Factors associated with mosquito net use by individuals in households owning nets in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graves Patricia M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ownership of insecticidal mosquito nets has dramatically increased in Ethiopia since 2006, but the proportion of persons with access to such nets who use them has declined. It is important to understand individual level net use factors in the context of the home to modify programmes so as to maximize net use. Methods Generalized linear latent and mixed models (GLLAMM were used to investigate net use using individual level data from people living in net-owning households from two surveys in Ethiopia: baseline 2006 included 12,678 individuals from 2,468 households and a sub-sample of the Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS in 2007 included 14,663 individuals from 3,353 households. Individual factors (age, sex, pregnancy; net factors (condition, age, net density; household factors (number of rooms [2006] or sleeping spaces [2007], IRS, women's knowledge and school attendance [2007 only], wealth, altitude; and cluster level factors (rural or urban were investigated in univariate and multi-variable models for each survey. Results In 2006, increased net use was associated with: age 25-49 years (adjusted (a OR = 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.2-1.7 compared to children U5; female gender (aOR = 1.4; 95% CI 1.2-1.5; fewer nets with holes (Ptrend = 0.002; and increasing net density (Ptrend [all nets in HH good] = 1.6; 95% CI 1.2-2.1; increasing net density (Ptrend [per additional space] = 0.6, 95% CI 0.5-0.7; more old nets (aOR [all nets in HH older than 12 months] = 0.5; 95% CI 0.3-0.7; and increasing household altitude (Ptrend Conclusion In both surveys, net use was more likely by women, if nets had fewer holes and were at higher net per person density within households. School-age children and young adults were much less likely to use a net. Increasing availability of nets within households (i.e. increasing net density, and improving net condition while focusing on education and promotion of net use, especially in school-age children

  11. Entamoeba histolytica induces human neutrophils to form NETs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura-Juarez, J; Campos-Esparza, Mr; Pacheco-Yepez, J; López-Blanco, J A; Adabache-Ortíz, A; Silva-Briano, M; Campos-Rodríguez, R

    2016-08-01

    Entamoeba histolytica invades the intestine and other organs during the pathogenesis of amoebiasis. In the early stages, the host organism responds with an inflammatory infiltrate composed mostly of neutrophils. It has been reported that these immune cells, activated by E. histolytica, exert a protective role by releasing proteolytic enzymes and generating reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) and antimicrobial peptides. It is now known that neutrophils also produce neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which are able to damage and kill pathogens. Studies have shown that intracellular protozoan pathogens, including Toxoplasma gondi, Plasmodium falciparum and Leishmania spp, induce neutrophils to release NETs and are damaged by them. However, the action of this mechanism has not been explored in relation to E. histolytica trophozoites. Through scanning electron, epifluorescence microscopy and viability assays, we show for first time that during in vitro interaction with E. histolytica trophozoites, human neutrophils released NETs that covered amoebas and reduced amoebic viability. These NETs presented histones, myeloperoxidase and decondensed chromatin. The results suggest that NETs participate in the elimination of the parasite.

  12. Demonstration of Collaborative Features of Remote Laboratory NetLab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Nedic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this presentation we would like to demonstrate collaborative aspects the remote laboratory NetLab. Many universities worldwide have developed remote laboratories that are now common part of laboratory component used by their students. NetLab is one of them, and is used by undergraduate students to perform experiments on electrical circuits. Unlike majority of other laboratories NetLab is from the beginning designed as an interactive collaborative environment where a number of students can access the equipment remotely from different places in the world and collaboratively wire circuits, connect and set up instruments and perform measurements. All users that are logged on concurrently have the full control of the system. Because NetLab is an interactive learning environment students are required to coordinate their actions. Unlike in a real laboratory where students see what everyone is doing, collaboration in remote laboratory is not a trivial task. To enable this collaboration NetLab has a number of features to support interactive collaborative work. In the proposed session these features will be demonstrated.

  13. The Role of Anode Manufacturing Processes in Net Carbon Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Khaji

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbon anodes are consumed in electrolysis cells during aluminum production. Carbon consumption in pre-bake anode cells is 400–450 kg C/t Al, considerably higher than the theoretical consumption of 334 kg C/t Al. This excess carbon consumption is partly due to the anode manufacturing processes. Net carbon consumption over the last three years at Emirates Aluminium (EMAL, also known as Emirates Global Aluminium (EGA Al Taweelah was analyzed with respect to anode manufacturing processes/parameters. The analysis indicates a relationship between net carbon consumption and many manufacturing processes, including anode desulfurization during anode baking. Anode desulfurization appears to increase the reaction surface area, thereby helping the Boudouard reaction between carbon and carbon dioxide in the electrolysis zone, as well as reducing the presence of sulfur which could inhibit this reaction. This paper presents correlations noted between anode manufacturing parameters and baked anode properties, and their impact on the net carbon consumption in electrolytic pots. Anode reactivities affect the carbon consumption in the pots during the electrolysis of alumina. Pitch content in anodes, impurities in anodes, and anode desulfurization during baking were studied to find their influence on anode reactivities. The understanding gained through this analysis helped reduce net carbon consumption by adjusting manufacturing processes. For an aluminum smelter producing one million tonnes of aluminum per year, the annual savings could be as much as US $0.45 million for every kg reduction in net carbon consumption.

  14. Net greenhouse gas emissions at Eastmain-1 reservoir, Quebec, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremblay, Alain; Bastien, Julie; Bonneville, Marie-Claude; del Giorgio, Paul; Demarty, Maud; Garneau, Michelle; Helie, Jean-Francois; Pelletier, Luc; Prairie, Yves; Roulet, Nigel; Strachan, Ian; Teodoru, Cristian

    2010-09-15

    The growing concern regarding the long-term contribution of freshwater reservoirs to atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHG), led Hydro-Quebec, to study net GHG emissions from Eastmain 1 reservoir, which are the emissions related to the creation of a reservoir minus those that would have been emitted or absorbed by the natural systems over a 100-year period. This large study was realized in collaboration with University du Quebec a Montreal, McGill University and Environnement IIlimite Inc. This is a world premiere and the net GHG emissions of EM-1 will be presented in details.

  15. Net ecosystem services value of wetland: Environmental economic account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z. M.; Chen, G. Q.; Chen, B.; Zhou, J. B.; Yang, Z. F.; Zhou, Y.

    2009-06-01

    For decision making in terms of environmental economics for wetland construction, restoration and preservation, net ecosystem services values of constructed, human-interfered and natural wetlands are explored in the present work as a comparative study. The ecosystem services values of a pilot constructed wetland in Beijing, China in different discount rates and time horizons are accounted and compared with those of the natural wetlands all over the world as a mean and of a typical human-interfered wetland in Wenzhou, China. Results show that in both finite and infinite time horizons considered, the constructed wetland has the largest net services value in a reasonable discount rate.

  16. Modelling, design, and optimization of net-zero energy buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Athienitis, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Building energy design is currently going through a period of major changes. One key factor of this is the adoption of net-zero energy as a long term goal for new buildings in most developed countries. To achieve this goal a lot of research is needed to accumulate knowledge and to utilize it in practical applications. In this book, accomplished international experts present advanced modeling techniques as well as in-depth case studies in order to aid designers in optimally using simulation tools for net-zero energy building design. The strategies and technologies discussed in this book are, ho

  17. Squaroglitter: A 3,4-Connected Carbon Net

    KAUST Repository

    Prasad, Dasari L. V. K.

    2013-08-13

    Theoretical calculations are presented on a new hypothetical 3,4-connected carbon net (called squaroglitter) incorporating 1,4 cyclohexadiene units. The structure has tetragonal space group P4/mmm (No. 123) symmetry. The optimized geometry shows normal distances, except for some elongated bonds in the cyclobutane ring substructures in the network. Squaroglitter has an indirect bandgap of about 1.0 eV. The hypothetical lattice, whose density is close to graphite, is more stable than other 3,4-connected carbon nets. A relationship to a (4,4)nanotube is explored, as is a potential threading of the lattice with metal needles. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  18. Net Locality Why Location Matters in a Networked World

    CERN Document Server

    Gordon, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The first book to provide an introduction to the new theory of Net Locality and the profound effect on individuals and societies when everything is located or locatable. Describes net locality as an emerging form of location awareness central to all aspects of digital media, from mobile phones, to Google Maps, to location-based social networks and games, such as Foursquare and facebook.Warns of the threats these technologies, such as data surveillance, present to our sense of privacy, while also outlining the opportunities for pro-social developments.Provides a theory of the web in the context

  19. A Petri net-based approach for supporting aspect-oriented modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lianwei GUAN; Xingyu LI; Hao HU; Jian LU

    2008-01-01

    The concept of aspect-orientation allows for modularizing crosscutting concerns as aspect modules. Aspect-orientation originally emerged at the program-ming level, and has stretched over other development phases now. Among them aspect-oriented modeling (AOM) is a hot topic, and there are many approaches supporting it. Petri net is a good formalism which can provide the foundations for modeling software and simulating its execution, but fails to resolve the prob-lem of crosscutting concerns to support AOM. So, this paper presents an approach which extends the Petri net so as to support the AOM. In this paper, the basic functions of the system are modeled as base net by Petri net, and the crosscutting concerns are modeled as aspect nets. In order to analyze the whole system, woven mechanism is proposed to compose the aspect nets and base net together. The problems about aspect-aspect conflict and conflict relations may exist among the aspect nets matching the shared join point, thus this paper propose solutions to resolve them. The Object Petri net which is an extension of traditional Petri net is also extended so as to support aspect-oriented mod-eling here.

  20. Pro Agile NET Development with Scrum

    CERN Document Server

    Blankenship, Jerrel; Millett, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Pro Agile .NET Development with SCRUM guides you through a real-world ASP.NET project and shows how agile methodology is put into practice. There is plenty of literature on the theory behind agile methodologies, but no book on the market takes the concepts of agile practices and applies these in a practical manner to an end-to-end ASP.NET project, especially the estimating, requirements and management aspects of a project. Pro Agile .NET Development with SCRUM takes you through the initial stages of a project - gathering requirements and setting up an environment - through to the development a

  1. Professional Visual Basic 2010 and .NET 4

    CERN Document Server

    Sheldon, Bill; Sharkey, Kent

    2010-01-01

    Intermediate and advanced coverage of Visual Basic 2010 and .NET 4 for professional developers. If you've already covered the basics and want to dive deep into VB and .NET topics that professional programmers use most, this is your book. You'll find a quick review of introductory topics-always helpful-before the author team of experts moves you quickly into such topics as data access with ADO.NET, Language Integrated Query (LINQ), security, ASP.NET web programming with Visual Basic, Windows workflow, threading, and more. You'll explore all the new features of Visual Basic 2010 as well as all t

  2. Pro ASP.NET MVC 4

    CERN Document Server

    Freeman, Adam

    2012-01-01

    The ASP.NET MVC 4 Framework is the latest evolution of Microsoft's ASP.NET web platform. It provides a high-productivity programming model that promotes cleaner code architecture, test-driven development, and powerful extensibility, combined with all the benefits of ASP.NET. ASP.NET MVC 4 contains a number of significant advances over previous versions. New mobile and desktop templates (employing adaptive rendering) are included together with support for jQuery Mobile for the first time. New display modes allow your application to select views based on the browser that's making the request whi

  3. Visualization and Data Analysis in the MS .NET Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Török, C

    2003-01-01

    The .NET Framework is an integral Windows component for building and running the next generation of software applications. It provides a new computing model that enables a standard and rapid way of building applications and their connection. The paper presents a .NET component named \\verb|LinAlg| that makes visualization, signal and data analysis in .NET simpler. The main concept in \\verb|LinAlg| is vectorization that enables one to write vector/matrix expressions and visualize data in an object-oriented manner. At the center of \\verb|LinAlg| lie vector and matrix classes. The paper describes diverse ways of their creating and modification and illustrates how their methods support gaining information about data, their statistical, numerical, and graphical analysis.

  4. An Algorithm to Construct Concurrent Reachability Graph of Petri Nets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金泉; 倪丽娜; 蒋昌俊

    2004-01-01

    Reachability graph is a very important tool to analyze the dynamic properties of Petri nets, but the concurrent relation of transitions in Petri nets cannot be represented by reachability graph. Petri net is a concurrent system, while reachability graph is a serial one. However, concurrency is a kind of property which is not only very significant but also difficult to be analyzed and controlled. This paper presents the concepts of concurrent reachable marking and concurrent reachable graph in order to represent and analyze the concurrent system. The algorithm constructing concurrent reachable marking set and concurrent reachability graph is also shown so that we can study the response problems among services in a network computing environment and analyze the throughput of the system. The Dining Philosophers Problem, which is a classic problem of describing the management of concurrent resources, is given as an example to illustrate the significance of concurrent reachability graph.

  5. Net Metering and Interconnection Procedures-- Incorporating Best Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason Keyes, Kevin Fox, Joseph Wiedman, Staff at North Carolina Solar Center

    2009-04-01

    State utility commissions and utilities themselves are actively developing and revising their procedures for the interconnection and net metering of distributed generation. However, the procedures most often used by regulators and utilities as models have not been updated in the past three years, in which time most of the distributed solar facilities in the United States have been installed. In that period, the Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC) has been a participant in more than thirty state utility commission rulemakings regarding interconnection and net metering of distributed generation. With the knowledge gained from this experience, IREC has updated its model procedures to incorporate current best practices. This paper presents the most significant changes made to IREC’s model interconnection and net metering procedures.

  6. Virtual Mobility in Higher Education. The UNED Campus Net Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguado, Teresa; Monge, Fernando; Del Olmo, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    We present the UNED Virtual Mobility Campus Net Program, implemented since 2012 in collaboration with European and Latin American universities. Program's objectives, participating institutions, procedures, and evaluation are exposed. Virtual mobility is understood as a meaningful strategy for intercultural learning by studying an undergraduate or…

  7. A Petri Net Definition of a System Description Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    1979-01-01

    This paper introduces a language for the description of systems with concurrency, and presents a formal definition of its semantics. The language is based on Delta and the semantic model is an extension of Petri nets with a data part and with expressions attached to transitions and to places....

  8. Fluid Survival Tool: A Model Checker for Hybrid Petri Nets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postema, Björn; Remke, Anne; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.; Ghasemieh, Hamed

    2014-01-01

    Recently, algorithms for model checking Stochastic Time Logic (STL) on Hybrid Petri nets with a single general one-shot transition (HPNG) have been introduced. This paper presents a tool for model checking HPNG models against STL formulas. A graphical user interface (GUI) not only helps to demonstra

  9. A neural framework for organization and flexible utilization of episodic memory in cumulatively learning baby humanoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Vishwanathan; Sandini, Giulio; Morasso, Pietro

    2014-12-01

    Cumulatively developing robots offer a unique opportunity to reenact the constant interplay between neural mechanisms related to learning, memory, prospection, and abstraction from the perspective of an integrated system that acts, learns, remembers, reasons, and makes mistakes. Situated within such interplay lie some of the computationally elusive and fundamental aspects of cognitive behavior: the ability to recall and flexibly exploit diverse experiences of one's past in the context of the present to realize goals, simulate the future, and keep learning further. This article is an adventurous exploration in this direction using a simple engaging scenario of how the humanoid iCub learns to construct the tallest possible stack given an arbitrary set of objects to play with. The learning takes place cumulatively, with the robot interacting with different objects (some previously experienced, some novel) in an open-ended fashion. Since the solution itself depends on what objects are available in the "now," multiple episodes of past experiences have to be remembered and creatively integrated in the context of the present to be successful. Starting from zero, where the robot knows nothing, we explore the computational basis of organization episodic memory in a cumulatively learning humanoid and address (1) how relevant past experiences can be reconstructed based on the present context, (2) how multiple stored episodic memories compete to survive in the neural space and not be forgotten, (3) how remembered past experiences can be combined with explorative actions to learn something new, and (4) how multiple remembered experiences can be recombined to generate novel behaviors (without exploration). Through the resulting behaviors of the robot as it builds, breaks, learns, and remembers, we emphasize that mechanisms of episodic memory are fundamental design features necessary to enable the survival of autonomous robots in a real world where neither everything can be known

  10. Mismatch or cumulative stress : Toward an integrated hypothesis of programming effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhof, Esther; Schmidt, Mathias V.

    2012-01-01

    This paper integrates the cumulative stress hypothesis with the mismatch hypothesis, taking into account individual differences in sensitivity to programming. According to the cumulative stress hypothesis, individuals are more likely to suffer from disease as adversity accumulates. According to the

  11. Checking Fine and Gray subdistribution hazards model with cumulative sums of residuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jianing; Scheike, Thomas; Zhang, Mei Jie

    2015-01-01

    Recently, Fine and Gray (J Am Stat Assoc 94:496–509, 1999) proposed a semi-parametric proportional regression model for the subdistribution hazard function which has been used extensively for analyzing competing risks data. However, failure of model adequacy could lead to severe bias in parameter...... estimation, and only a limited contribution has been made to check the model assumptions. In this paper, we present a class of analytical methods and graphical approaches for checking the assumptions of Fine and Gray’s model. The proposed goodness-of-fit test procedures are based on the cumulative sums...

  12. Multiplicity-dependent and nonbinomial efficiency corrections for particle number cumulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzdak, Adam; Holzmann, Romain; Koch, Volker

    2016-12-01

    In this article we extend previous work on efficiency corrections for cumulant measurements [Bzdak and Koch, Phys. Rev. C 86, 044904 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevC.86.044904; Phys. Rev. C 91, 027901 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevC.91.027901]. We will discuss the limitations of the methods presented in these papers. Specifically we will consider multiplicity dependent efficiencies as well as nonbinomial efficiency distributions. We will discuss the most simple and straightforward methods to implement those corrections.

  13. RTA beam dynamics experiments: Limiting cumulative transverse instability growth in a linear periodic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, Tim; Lidia, Steve; Westenskow, Glen

    2001-05-01

    A critical issue for a Two-Beam accelerator based upon extended relativistic klystrons is controlling the cumulative dipole instability growth. We describe a theoretical scheme to reduce the growth from an exponential to a more manageable linear rate, and a new experiment to test this concept. The experiment utilizes a 1-MeV, 600-Amp, 200-ns electron beam and a short beamline of periodically spaced RF dipole pillbox cavities and solenoid magnets for transport. Descriptions of the RTA injector and the planned beamline are presented, followed by theoretical studies of the beam transport and dipole mode growth.

  14. SupportNet for Frontline Behavioral Health Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    and Coping. Accepted for publication. 5 Conference presentations completed (in chronological order; Objectives 2 & 3): d) Poster presented at APA ...adherence. The current study sought to standardize the eHealth readiness scale, implemented to examine individual characteristics assessing participant...increase dissemination of our findings. d) Attended five conferences to present SupportNet findings (Objective 3): APA (August 2014), Medicine 2.0

  15. Sufficient and Necessary Condition to Decide Compatibility for a Class of Interorganizational Workflow Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanjun Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Interorganizational Workflow nets (IWF-nets can well model many concurrent systems such as web service composition, in which multiple processes interact via sending/receiving messages. Compatibility of IWF-nets is a crucial criterion for the correctness of these systems. It guarantees that a system has no deadlock, livelock, or dead tasks. In our previous work we proved that the compatibility problem is PSPACE-complete for safe IWF-nets. This paper defines a subclass of IWF-nets that can model many cases about interactions. Necessary and sufficient condition is presented to decide their compatibility, and it depends on the net structures only. Finally, an algorithm is developed based on the condition.

  16. Cumulative Risk Assessment and Environmental Equity in Air Permitting: Interpretation, Methods, Community Participation and Implementation of a Unique Statute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory C. Pratt

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2008, the statute authorizing the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA to issue air permits was amended to include a unique requirement to analyze and consider “cumulative levels and effects of past and current environmental pollution from all sources on the environment and residents of the geographic area within which the facility's emissions are likely to be deposited.” Data describing the Statute Area suggest it is challenged by environmental and socioeconomic concerns, i.e., concerns which are often described by the phrase ‘environmental equity’. With input from diverse stakeholders, the MPCA developed a methodology for implementing a cumulative levels and effects analysis when issuing air permits in the designated geographic area. A Process Document was created defining explicit steps a project proposer must complete in the analysis. An accompanying Reference Document compiles all available environmental health data relevant to the Statute Area that could be identified. The final cumulative levels and effects methodology is organized by health endpoint and identifies hazard, exposure and health indices that require further evaluation. The resulting assessment is summarized and presented to decision makers for consideration in the regulatory permitting process. We present a description of the methodology followed by a case study summary of the first air permit processed through the “cumulative levels and effects analysis”.

  17. Cumulative risk assessment and environmental equity in air permitting: interpretation, methods, community participation and implementation of a unique statute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellickson, Kristie M; Sevcik, Sarah M; Burman, Shelley; Pak, Steven; Kohlasch, Frank; Pratt, Gregory C

    2011-11-01

    In 2008, the statute authorizing the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) to issue air permits was amended to include a unique requirement to analyze and consider "cumulative levels and effects of past and current environmental pollution from all sources on the environment and residents of the geographic area within which the facility's emissions are likely to be deposited." Data describing the Statute Area suggest it is challenged by environmental and socioeconomic concerns, i.e., concerns which are often described by the phrase 'environmental equity'. With input from diverse stakeholders, the MPCA developed a methodology for implementing a cumulative levels and effects analysis when issuing air permits in the designated geographic area. A Process Document was created defining explicit steps a project proposer must complete in the analysis. An accompanying Reference Document compiles all available environmental health data relevant to the Statute Area that could be identified. The final cumulative levels and effects methodology is organized by health endpoint and identifies hazard, exposure and health indices that require further evaluation. The resulting assessment is summarized and presented to decision makers for consideration in the regulatory permitting process. We present a description of the methodology followed by a case study summary of the first air permit processed through the "cumulative levels and effects analysis".

  18. Projecting Cumulative Benefits of Multiple River Restoration Projects: An Example from the Sacramento-San Joaquin River System in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondolf, G. Mathias; Angermeier, Paul L.; Cummins, Kenneth; Dunne, Thomas; Healey, Michael; Kimmerer, Wim; Moyle, Peter B.; Murphy, Dennis; Patten, Duncan; Railsback, Steve; Reed, Denise J.; Spies, Robert; Twiss, Robert

    2008-12-01

    Despite increasingly large investments, the potential ecological effects of river restoration programs are still small compared to the degree of human alterations to physical and ecological function. Thus, it is rarely possible to “restore” pre-disturbance conditions; rather restoration programs (even large, well-funded ones) will nearly always involve multiple small projects, each of which can make some modest change to selected ecosystem processes and habitats. At present, such projects are typically selected based on their attributes as individual projects (e.g., consistency with programmatic goals of the funders, scientific soundness, and acceptance by local communities), and ease of implementation. Projects are rarely prioritized (at least explicitly) based on how they will cumulatively affect ecosystem function over coming decades. Such projections require an understanding of the form of the restoration response curve, or at least that we assume some plausible relations and estimate cumulative effects based thereon. Drawing on our experience with the CALFED Bay-Delta Ecosystem Restoration Program in California, we consider potential cumulative system-wide benefits of a restoration activity extensively implemented in the region: isolating/filling abandoned floodplain gravel pits captured by rivers to reduce predation of outmigrating juvenile salmon by exotic warmwater species inhabiting the pits. We present a simple spreadsheet model to show how different assumptions about gravel pit bathymetry and predator behavior would affect the cumulative benefits of multiple pit-filling and isolation projects, and how these insights could help managers prioritize which pits to fill.

  19. Mapping cumulative noise from shipping to inform marine spatial planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbe, Christine; MacGillivray, Alexander; Williams, Rob

    2012-11-01

    Including ocean noise in marine spatial planning requires predictions of noise levels on large spatiotemporal scales. Based on a simple sound transmission model and ship track data (Automatic Identification System, AIS), cumulative underwater acoustic energy from shipping was mapped throughout 2008 in the west Canadian Exclusive Economic Zone, showing high noise levels in critical habitats for endangered resident killer whales, exceeding limits of "good conservation status" under the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Error analysis proved that rough calculations of noise occurrence and propagation can form a basis for management processes, because spending resources on unnecessary detail is wasteful and delays remedial action.

  20. The Carvedilol Prospective Randomized Cumulative Survival (COPERNICUS) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, Eric J; Bristow, Michael R

    2001-01-01

    Previous trials (Metoprolol CR/XL Randomised Intervention Trial in Congestive Heart Failure [MERIT-HF], Cardiac Insufficiency Bisoprolol Study [CIBIS] II) have demonstrated a mortality benefit of beta-adrenergic blockade in patients with mild to moderate heart failure. The recent Carvedilol Prospective Randomized Cumulative Survival (COPERNICUS) trial has extended these results to a more advanced patient population. This trial did not, however, include patients who could not reach compensation, patients with far advanced heart failure symptoms, or a significant number of black patients. Future studies of beta-blockade may focus on these patients or patients with asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction.