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Sample records for cumulative incidence functions

  1. Flexible parametric modelling of cause-specific hazards to estimate cumulative incidence functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Competing risks are a common occurrence in survival analysis. They arise when a patient is at risk of more than one mutually exclusive event, such as death from different causes, and the occurrence of one of these may prevent any other event from ever happening. Methods There are two main approaches to modelling competing risks: the first is to model the cause-specific hazards and transform these to the cumulative incidence function; the second is to model directly on a transformation of the cumulative incidence function. We focus on the first approach in this paper. This paper advocates the use of the flexible parametric survival model in this competing risk framework. Results An illustrative example on the survival of breast cancer patients has shown that the flexible parametric proportional hazards model has almost perfect agreement with the Cox proportional hazards model. However, the large epidemiological data set used here shows clear evidence of non-proportional hazards. The flexible parametric model is able to adequately account for these through the incorporation of time-dependent effects. Conclusion A key advantage of using this approach is that smooth estimates of both the cause-specific hazard rates and the cumulative incidence functions can be obtained. It is also relatively easy to incorporate time-dependent effects which are commonly seen in epidemiological studies. PMID:23384310

  2. Covariate adjustment of cumulative incidence functions for competing risks data using inverse probability of treatment weighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Anke; Billionnet, Cécile

    2016-06-01

    In observational studies without random assignment of the treatment, the unadjusted comparison between treatment groups may be misleading due to confounding. One method to adjust for measured confounders is inverse probability of treatment weighting. This method can also be used in the analysis of time to event data with competing risks. Competing risks arise if for some individuals the event of interest is precluded by a different type of event occurring before, or if only the earliest of several times to event, corresponding to different event types, is observed or is of interest. In the presence of competing risks, time to event data are often characterized by cumulative incidence functions, one for each event type of interest. We describe the use of inverse probability of treatment weighting to create adjusted cumulative incidence functions. This method is equivalent to direct standardization when the weight model is saturated. No assumptions about the form of the cumulative incidence functions are required. The method allows studying associations between treatment and the different types of event under study, while focusing on the earliest event only. We present a SAS macro implementing this method and we provide a worked example.

  3. Nonparametric Estimation of Cumulative Incidence Functions for Competing Risks Data with Missing Cause of Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Effraimidis, Georgios; Dahl, Christian Møller

    In this paper, we develop a fully nonparametric approach for the estimation of the cumulative incidence function with Missing At Random right-censored competing risks data. We obtain results on the pointwise asymptotic normality as well as the uniform convergence rate of the proposed nonparametric...... estimator. A simulation study that serves two purposes is provided. First, it illustrates in details how to implement our proposed nonparametric estimator. Secondly, it facilitates a comparison of the nonparametric estimator to a parametric counterpart based on the estimator of Lu and Liang (2008...

  4. Constrained parametric model for simultaneous inference of two cumulative incidence functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haiwen; Cheng, Yu; Jeong, Jong-Hyeon

    2013-01-01

    We propose a parametric regression model for the cumulative incidence functions (CIFs) commonly used for competing risks data. The model adopts a modified logistic model as the baseline CIF and a generalized odds-rate model for covariate effects, and it explicitly takes into account the constraint that a subject with any given prognostic factors should eventually fail from one of the causes such that the asymptotes of the CIFs should add up to one. This constraint intrinsically holds in a nonparametric analysis without covariates, but is easily overlooked in a semiparametric or parametric regression setting. We hence model the CIF from the primary cause assuming the generalized odds-rate transformation and the modified logistic function as the baseline CIF. Under the additivity constraint, the covariate effects on the competing cause are modeled by a function of the asymptote of the baseline distribution and the covariate effects on the primary cause. The inference procedure is straightforward by using the standard maximum likelihood theory. We demonstrate desirable finite-sample performance of our model by simulation studies in comparison with existing methods. Its practical utility is illustrated in an analysis of a breast cancer dataset to assess the treatment effect of tamoxifen, adjusting for age and initial pathological tumor size, on breast cancer recurrence that is subject to dependent censoring by second primary cancers and deaths.

  5. Flexible parametric modelling of the cause-specific cumulative incidence function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Paul C; Wilkes, Sally R; Crowther, Michael J

    2016-12-22

    Competing risks arise with time-to-event data when individuals are at risk of more than one type of event and the occurrence of one event precludes the occurrence of all other events. A useful measure with competing risks is the cause-specific cumulative incidence function (CIF), which gives the probability of experiencing a particular event as a function of follow-up time, accounting for the fact that some individuals may have a competing event. When modelling the cause-specific CIF, the most common model is a semi-parametric proportional subhazards model. In this paper, we propose the use of flexible parametric survival models to directly model the cause-specific CIF where the effect of follow-up time is modelled using restricted cubic splines. The models provide smooth estimates of the cause-specific CIF with the important advantage that the approach is easily extended to model time-dependent effects. The models can be fitted using standard survival analysis tools by a combination of data expansion and introducing time-dependent weights. Various link functions are available that allow modelling on different scales and have proportional subhazards, proportional odds and relative absolute risks as particular cases. We conduct a simulation study to evaluate how well the spline functions approximate subhazard functions with complex shapes. The methods are illustrated using data from the European Blood and Marrow Transplantation Registry showing excellent agreement between parametric estimates of the cause-specific CIF and those obtained from a semi-parametric model. We also fit models relaxing the proportional subhazards assumption using alternative link functions and/or including time-dependent effects. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Comparison of competing risks models based on cumulative incidence function in analyzing time to cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianatkhah, Minoo; Rahgozar, Mehdi; Talaei, Mohammad; Karimloua, Masoud; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Oveisgharan, Shahram; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2014-01-01

    Competing risks arise when the subject is exposed to more than one cause of failure. Data consists of the time that the subject failed and an indicator of which risk caused the subject to fail. With three approaches consisting of Fine and Gray, binomial, and pseudo-value, all of which are directly based on cumulative incidence function, cardiovascular disease data of the Isfahan Cohort Study were analyzed. Validity of proportionality assumption for these approaches is the basis for selecting appropriate models. Such as for the Fine and Gray model, establishing proportionality assumption is necessary. In the binomial approach, a parametric, non-parametric, or semi-parametric model was offered according to validity of assumption. However, pseudo-value approaches do not need to establish proportionality. Following fitting the models to data, slight differences in parameters and variances estimates were seen among models. This showed that semi-parametric multiplicative model and the two models based on pseudo-value approach could be used for fitting this kind of data. We would recommend considering the use of competing risk models instead of normal survival methods when subjects are exposed to more than one cause of failure.

  7. Meta-analysis for aggregated survival data with competing risks: a parametric approach using cumulative incidence functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonofiglio, Federico; Beyersmann, Jan; Schumacher, Martin; Koller, Michael; Schwarzer, Guido

    2016-09-01

    Meta-analysis of a survival endpoint is typically based on the pooling of hazard ratios (HRs). If competing risks occur, the HRs may lose translation into changes of survival probability. The cumulative incidence functions (CIFs), the expected proportion of cause-specific events over time, re-connect the cause-specific hazards (CSHs) to the probability of each event type. We use CIF ratios to measure treatment effect on each event type. To retrieve information on aggregated, typically poorly reported, competing risks data, we assume constant CSHs. Next, we develop methods to pool CIF ratios across studies. The procedure computes pooled HRs alongside and checks the influence of follow-up time on the analysis. We apply the method to a medical example, showing that follow-up duration is relevant both for pooled cause-specific HRs and CIF ratios. Moreover, if all-cause hazard and follow-up time are large enough, CIF ratios may reveal additional information about the effect of treatment on the cumulative probability of each event type. Finally, to improve the usefulness of such analysis, better reporting of competing risks data is needed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Predicting Cumulative Incidence Probability by Direct Binomial Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas H.; Zhang, Mei-Jie

    Binomial modelling; cumulative incidence probability; cause-specific hazards; subdistribution hazard......Binomial modelling; cumulative incidence probability; cause-specific hazards; subdistribution hazard...

  9. Cumulative Incidence of Cancer After Solid Organ Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Erin C.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Segev, Dorry L.; Engels, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Solid organ transplantation recipients have elevated cancer incidence. Estimates of absolute cancer risk after transplantation can inform prevention and screening. METHODS The Transplant Cancer Match Study links the US transplantation registry with 14 state/regional cancer registries. The authors used nonparametric competing risk methods to estimate the cumulative incidence of cancer after transplantation for 2 periods (1987–1999 and 2000–2008). For recipients from 2000 to 2008, the 5-year cumulative incidence, stratified by organ, sex, and age at transplantation, was estimated for 6 preventable or screen-detectable cancers. For comparison, the 5-year cumulative incidence was calculated for the same cancers in the general population at representative ages using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data. RESULTS Among 164,156 recipients, 8520 incident cancers were identified. The absolute cancer risk was slightly higher for recipients during the period from 2000 to 2008 than during the period from 1987 to 1999 (5-year cumulative incidence: 4.4% vs 4.2%; P =.006); this difference arose from the decreasing risk of competing events (5-year cumulative incidence of death, graft failure, or retransplantation: 26.6% vs 31.9%; P 50 years; range, 0.36%–2.22%). For recipients aged >50 years, the 5-year cumulative incidence was higher for colorectal cancer (range, 0.33%–1.94%) than for the general population at the recommended screening age (aged 50 years: range, 0.25%–0.33%). For recipients aged >50 years, the 5-year cumulative incidence was high for lung cancer among thoracic organ recipients (range, 1.16%–3.87%) and for kidney cancer among kidney recipients (range, 0.53%–0.84%). The 5-year cumulative incidence for prostate cancer and breast cancer was similar or lower in transplantation recipients than at the recommended ages of screening in the general population. CONCLUSIONS Subgroups of transplantation recipients have a high absolute risk

  10. Cumulative Incidence Association Models for Bivariate Competing Risks Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu; Fine, Jason P

    2012-03-01

    Association models, like frailty and copula models, are frequently used to analyze clustered survival data and evaluate within-cluster associations. The assumption of noninformative censoring is commonly applied to these models, though it may not be true in many situations. In this paper, we consider bivariate competing risk data and focus on association models specified for the bivariate cumulative incidence function (CIF), a nonparametrically identifiable quantity. Copula models are proposed which relate the bivariate CIF to its corresponding univariate CIFs, similarly to independently right censored data, and accommodate frailty models for the bivariate CIF. Two estimating equations are developed to estimate the association parameter, permitting the univariate CIFs to be estimated either parametrically or nonparametrically. Goodness-of-fit tests are presented for formally evaluating the parametric models. Both estimators perform well with moderate sample sizes in simulation studies. The practical use of the methodology is illustrated in an analysis of dementia associations.

  11. The proportional odds cumulative incidence model for competing risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Frank; Li, Jianing; Scheike, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We suggest an estimator for the proportional odds cumulative incidence model for competing risks data. The key advantage of this model is that the regression parameters have the simple and useful odds ratio interpretation. The model has been considered by many authors, but it is rarely used in pr...

  12. County-level cumulative environmental quality associated with cancer incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagai, Jyotsna S; Messer, Lynne C; Rappazzo, Kristen M; Gray, Christine L; Grabich, Shannon C; Lobdell, Danelle T

    2017-08-01

    Individual environmental exposures are associated with cancer development; however, environmental exposures occur simultaneously. The Environmental Quality Index (EQI) is a county-level measure of cumulative environmental exposures that occur in 5 domains. The EQI was linked to county-level annual age-adjusted cancer incidence rates from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program state cancer profiles. All-site cancer and the top 3 site-specific cancers for male and female subjects were considered. Incident rate differences (IRDs; annual rate difference per 100,000 persons) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using fixed-slope, random intercept multilevel linear regression models. Associations were assessed with domain-specific indices and analyses were stratified by rural/urban status. Comparing the highest quintile/poorest environmental quality with the lowest quintile/best environmental quality for overall EQI, all-site county-level cancer incidence rate was positively associated with poor environmental quality overall (IRD, 38.55; 95% CI, 29.57-47.53) and for male (IRD, 32.60; 95% CI, 16.28-48.91) and female (IRD, 30.34; 95% CI, 20.47-40.21) subjects, indicating a potential increase in cancer incidence with decreasing environmental quality. Rural/urban stratified models demonstrated positive associations comparing the highest with the lowest quintiles for all strata, except the thinly populated/rural stratum and in the metropolitan/urbanized stratum. Prostate and breast cancer demonstrated the strongest positive associations with poor environmental quality. We observed strong positive associations between the EQI and all-site cancer incidence rates, and associations differed by rural/urban status and environmental domain. Research focusing on single environmental exposures in cancer development may not address the broader environmental context in which cancers develop, and future research should address cumulative environmental

  13. Cumulative incidence of childhood autism: a total population study of better accuracy and precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hideo; Shimizu, Yasuo; Imai, Miho; Nitto, Yukari

    2005-01-01

    Most studies on the frequency of autism have had methodological problems. Most notable of these have been differences in diagnostic criteria between studies, degree of cases overlooked by the initial screening, and type of measurement. This study aimed to replicate the first report on childhood autism to address cumulative incidence as well as prevalence, as defined in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th revision (ICD-10) Diagnostic Criteria for Research. Here, the same methodological accuracy (exactness of a measurement to the true value) as the first study was used, but population size was four times larger to achieve greater precision (reduction of random error). A community-oriented system of early detection and early intervention for developmental disorders was established in the northern part of Yokohama, Japan. The city's routine health checkup for 18-month-old children served as the initial mass screening, and all facilities that provided child care services aimed to detect all cases of childhood autism and refer them to the Yokohama Rehabilitation Center. Cumulative incidence up to age 5 years was calculated for childhood autism among a birth cohort from four successive years (1988 to 1991). Cumulative incidence of childhood autism was 27.2 per 10000. Cumulative incidences by sex were 38.4 per 10000 in males, and 15.5 per 10000 in females. The male:female ratio was 2.5:1. The proportions of children with high-functioning autism who had Binet IQs of 70 and over and those with Binet IQs of 85 and over were 25.3% and 13.7% respectively. Data on cumulative incidence of childhood autism derived from this study are the first to be drawn from an accurate, as well as precise, screening methodology.

  14. A SAS-macro for estimation of the cumulative incidence using Poisson regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waltoft, Berit Lindum

    2009-01-01

    the hazard rates, and the hazard rates are often estimated by the Cox regression. This procedure may not be suitable for large studies due to limited computer resources. Instead one uses Poisson regression, which approximates the Cox regression. Rosthøj et al. presented a SAS-macro for the estimation...... of the cumulative incidences based on the Cox regression. I present the functional form of the probabilities and variances when using piecewise constant hazard rates and a SAS-macro for the estimation using Poisson regression. The use of the macro is demonstrated through examples and compared to the macro presented...

  15. Cumulative Incidence of Cancer among People with AIDS in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, Edgar P.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Engels, Eric A.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND As people with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) live longer due to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, widely available since 1996), the overall burden of cancer may increase. METHODS A population-based record linkage study identified cancers in 472,378 people with AIDS (1980–2006). Using non-parametric competing risk methods, we estimated cumulative incidence of cancer across 3 calendar periods (AIDS onset in 1980–1989, 1990–1995, and 1996–2006). RESULTS Measured at 5-years after AIDS onset, cumulative incidence of AIDS-defining cancer (ADC) declined sharply across AIDS calendar periods (from 18% in 1980–1989, to 11% in 1990–1995, to 4.2% in 1996–2006 [i.e., HAART era]). Cumulative incidence of Kaposi sarcoma declined from 14.3% during 1980–1989 to 6.7% during 1990–1995 to 1.8% during 1996–2006. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) cumulative incidence declined from 3.8% during 1990–1995 to 2.2% during 1996–2006; during the HAART era, NHL was the commonest (53%) ADC. Cumulative incidence of non-AIDS-defining cancer (NADC) increased from 1.1% to 1.5% with no change thereafter (1.0%, 1996–2006), in part due to declines in competing mortality. However, cumulative incidence increased steadily over time for specific NADCs (anal cancer, Hodgkin lymphoma, and liver cancer). Lung cancer cumulative incidence increased from 0.14% during 1980–1989 to 0.32% during 1990–1995, with no change thereafter. CONCLUSIONS We noted dramatically declining cumulative incidence of 2 major ADCs (Kaposi sarcoma and NHL) and increases in some NADCs (specifically cancers of the anus, liver, and lung, and Hodgkin lymphoma). As HIV/AIDS is increasingly managed as a chronic disease, greater attention should be focused on cancer screening and prevention. PMID:20960504

  16. Two year cumulative incidence of trunk abnormalities in a schoolpopulation in Rotterdam, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A.J.M. Hazebroek-Kampschreur (Alice); A. Hofman (Albert); A. van Dijk (Ad); B. van Linge (Bert)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractWe conducted a study of the 2 year cumulative incidence of trunk abnormalities in a cohort of 3,071 11 year old children (1,621 boys, 1,450 girls). The following data were recorded: height, weight, signs of puberty and menarche. Trunk abnormality was assessed in the erect child

  17. Two year cumulative incidence of trunk abnormalities in a schoolpopulation in Rotterdam, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A.J.M. Hazebroek-Kampschreur (Alice); A. Hofman (Albert); A. van Dijk (Ad); B. van Linge (Bert)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractWe conducted a study of the 2 year cumulative incidence of trunk abnormalities in a cohort of 3,071 11 year old children (1,621 boys, 1,450 girls). The following data were recorded: height, weight, signs of puberty and menarche. Trunk abnormality was assessed in the erect child (asymmetr

  18. Childhood Cumulative Risk Exposure and Adult Amygdala Volume and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gary W; Swain, James E; King, Anthony P; Wang, Xin; Javanbakht, Arash; Ho, S Shaun; Angstadt, Michael; Phan, K Luan; Xie, Hong; Liberzon, Israel

    2016-06-01

    Considerable work indicates that early cumulative risk exposure is aversive to human development, but very little research has examined the neurological underpinnings of these robust findings. This study investigates amygdala volume and reactivity to facial stimuli among adults (mean 23.7 years of age, n = 54) as a function of cumulative risk exposure during childhood (9 and 13 years of age). In addition, we test to determine whether expected cumulative risk elevations in amygdala volume would mediate functional reactivity of the amygdala during socioemotional processing. Risks included substandard housing quality, noise, crowding, family turmoil, child separation from family, and violence. Total and left hemisphere adult amygdala volumes were positively related to cumulative risk exposure during childhood. The links between childhood cumulative risk exposure and elevated amygdala responses to emotionally neutral facial stimuli in adulthood were mediated by the corresponding amygdala volumes. Cumulative risk exposure in later adolescence (17 years of age), however, was unrelated to subsequent adult amygdala volume or function. Physical and socioemotional risk exposures early in life appear to alter amygdala development, rendering adults more reactive to ambiguous stimuli such as neutral faces. These stress-related differences in childhood amygdala development might contribute to the well-documented psychological distress as a function of early risk exposure.

  19. Cumulative incidence and registry validation of groin hernia repair in a 34-year nationwide cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Jakob; Liljekvist, Mads Svane; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to present a nationwide cumulative incidence and an age-specific incidence rate of groin hernia repair as well as to evaluate the validity of inguinal and femoral hernia operation codes in the Danish National Patient Registry (DNPR). METHODS: All persons...... registered with inguinal hernia operations in the DNPR who had been operated for an inguinal hernia was 100% (95% CI: 96-100%) and 91.3% (95% CI: 83-96%) for femoral hernia operations. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence rate of groin hernia operations peaked at the 0-1 year age group in males and at the 3-4-year age...... group in females. Furthermore, the validation of the DNPR showed very high positive predictive values for both inguinal hernia operations and femoral hernia operations. FUNDING: none. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant....

  20. Cumulative incidence and registry validation of groin hernia repair in a 34-year nationwide cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Jakob; Liljekvist, Mads Svane; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to present a nationwide cumulative incidence and an age-specific incidence rate of groin hernia repair as well as to evaluate the validity of inguinal and femoral hernia operation codes in the Danish National Patient Registry (DNPR). METHODS: All persons...... registered with inguinal hernia operations in the DNPR who had been operated for an inguinal hernia was 100% (95% CI: 96-100%) and 91.3% (95% CI: 83-96%) for femoral hernia operations. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence rate of groin hernia operations peaked at the 0-1 year age group in males and at the 3-4-year age...... group in females. Furthermore, the validation of the DNPR showed very high positive predictive values for both inguinal hernia operations and femoral hernia operations. FUNDING: none. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant....

  1. Cumulants and Correlation Functions vs the QCD phase diagram

    CERN Document Server

    Bzdak, Adam; Strodthoff, Nils

    2016-01-01

    In this note we discuss the relation of particle number cumulants and correlation functions related to them. It is argued that measuring couplings of the genuine correlation functions could provide cleaner information on possible non-trivial dynamics in heavy-ion collisions. We extract integrated multi-particle correlation functions from the presently available experimental data on proton cumulants. We find that the STAR data contain significant four-particle correlations, at least at the lower energies, with indication of changing dynamics in central collisions. We also find that these correlations are rather long-ranged in rapidity. Finally based on the signs of genuine correlation functions we provide exclusion plots for the QCD phase diagram.

  2. The dependence of cumulative 238U(n,f) fission yield on incident-neutron energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Na; ZHONG Chunlai; MA Liyong; CHEN Zhongjing; LI Xiangqing; LIU Tingjin; CHEN Jinxiang; FAN Tieshuan

    2009-01-01

    This work is aim at studying the dependence of fission yields on incident neutron energy,so as to produce evaluated yield sets of the energy dependence.Experimental data at different neutron energies for gas fission products 85m,87,88Kr and 138Xe resulting from the 238U(n,f) reaction are processed using codes AVERAGE for weighed average and ZOTT for simultaneous evaluation.Energy dependence of the cumulative fission product yields on the incident neutron is presented.The evaluated curve of product yield is compared with the results calculated by the TALYS-0.64 code.The present evaluation is consistent with other main libraries in error permission.The fit curve of 87,88Kr can be recommended to predict the unmeasured fission yields.Comparisons of the evaluated energy dependence curves with theoretical calculated results show that the predictions using purely theoretical model for the fission process are not sufficiently accurate and reliable for the calculations of the cumulative fission yields for the 238U(n,f).

  3. Cumulative incidence of youth obesity is associated with low cardiorespiratory fitness levels and with maternal overweight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Reis Gaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This longitudinal study evaluated the association between the incidence of youth overweight/obesity (Ow/Ob and low levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF over 4 years and youths' and their parents' demographic and nutritional characteristics. The randomized sample comprised 398 youth, aged 7-17 years at baseline, from a city in southern Brazil. Subjects were classified as being Ow/Ob according to international body mass index (BMI parameters. Parental weight and height were determined by direct questioning. Youth CRF was measured by a 9-minute walk-and-run test. The cumulative incidences of Ow/Ob and of low CRF levels were 25.1% and 20.5%, respectively. Relative to other youth, youth who were classified as "unhealthy" at baseline (with respect to CRF and by the fourth year were more likely to be classified as Ow/Ob (relative risks: 1.12 and 1.10, respectively. Youth whose mothers were categorized as Ow/Ob were at higher risk of being classified as Ow/Ob than youth whose mothers had normal BMIs (relative risks: 1.19 at baseline and 1.20 in the fourth year. The incidence of Ow/Ob among the former youth was associated with low CRF levels and with maternal Ob.

  4. Women's alcohol consumption and cumulative incidence of live birth following in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, L E; Missmer, S A; Thornton, K L; Hacker, M R

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of alcohol consumption on outcomes among women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). This study is a retrospective cohort study. This study was performed in a private academically affiliated IVF center. Patients included women presenting for their first IVF cycle from July 2004 through October 2012. Women completed self-administered questionnaires before their first IVF cycle, which included report of usual alcohol consumption. Women were categorized as non-drinkers, social drinkers, or daily drinkers, as well as by the number of drinks consumed per week. Competing risks analysis was used to calculate the cumulative incidence of live birth after 6 cycles stratified by alcohol consumption. Main outcome measures included spontaneous abortion, clinical pregnancy, and live birth following IVF. There were 591 (27.7%) non-drinkers, 1466 (68.7%) social drinkers, and 77 (3.6%) daily drinkers (total n = 2134). In the first cycle, compared to non-drinkers, daily drinkers had a twofold increased risk of spontaneous abortion (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-4.5) among all cycle starts, and while their risk of live birth was 30% lower (aRR 0.7; 95% CI 0.4-1.3), the sample size was small, and it was not significantly lower. By the end of 6 cycles, social drinkers and daily drinkers did not differ from non-drinkers in their cumulative incidence of live birth (56.1, 50.6, and 52.1%, respectively; both P ≥ 0.28). There was a trend towards lower risk of live birth among daily drinkers. Daily drinkers had an increased risk of spontaneous abortion in the first cycle, but the number of daily drinkers was small.

  5. Ten-year cumulative incidence of diabetic retinopathy. The Beijing Eye Study 2001/2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Xu

    Full Text Available To assess the cumulative 10-year incidence of diabetic retinopathy (DR and its associated factors in a population living in Greater Beijing.The population-based longitudinal Beijing Eye Study, which included 4439 subjects (age in 2001: 40+years in 2001, was repeated in 2011 with 2695 subjects participating (66.4% of the survivors. The study participants underwent a detailed ophthalmic examination. Fundus photographs were examined for the new development of DR.After excluding individuals with DR at baseline (n = 87 or no sufficient fundus photographs in 2011 (n = 6, the study included 2602 subjects with a mean age of 64.6±9.7 years (median: 64.0 years; range: 50 to 93 years. In the 10-year period, 109 subjects (39 men developed new DR with an incidence of 4.2% (95% confidence interval (CI: 3.45,5.03. In multiple logistic regression analysis, incident DR was significantly associated with higher HbA1c value (P<0.001; Odds Ratio (OR: 1.73; 95% Confidence Interval (CI: 1.35,2.21, longer duration of diabetes mellitus (P<0.001; OR: 1.16; 95% CI: 1.10,1.22, higher serum concentration of creatinine (P = 0.02; OR: 1.01; 95% CI: 1.002,1.022, lower educational level (P = 0.049; OR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.55,0.99, higher estimated cerebrospinal fluid pressure (P = 0.038; OR: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.01,1.22, and shorter axial length (P<0.001; OR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.33,0.71.The cumulative 10-year incidence (mean: 4.2% of DR in a North Chinese population was significantly associated with a higher HbA1c value, longer known duration of diabetes mellitus, higher estimated CSFP and shorter axial length (P<0.001. Shorter axial length (or hyperopia and, potentially, higher CSFP may be additional risk factors to be taken into account when counseling and treating patients with diabetes mellitus.

  6. INTERACTIVE VISUALIZATION OF PROBABILITY AND CUMULATIVE DENSITY FUNCTIONS

    KAUST Repository

    Potter, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    The probability density function (PDF), and its corresponding cumulative density function (CDF), provide direct statistical insight into the characterization of a random process or field. Typically displayed as a histogram, one can infer probabilities of the occurrence of particular events. When examining a field over some two-dimensional domain in which at each point a PDF of the function values is available, it is challenging to assess the global (stochastic) features present within the field. In this paper, we present a visualization system that allows the user to examine two-dimensional data sets in which PDF (or CDF) information is available at any position within the domain. The tool provides a contour display showing the normed difference between the PDFs and an ansatz PDF selected by the user and, furthermore, allows the user to interactively examine the PDF at any particular position. Canonical examples of the tool are provided to help guide the reader into the mapping of stochastic information to visual cues along with a description of the use of the tool for examining data generated from an uncertainty quantification exercise accomplished within the field of electrophysiology.

  7. Cumulative Incidence of Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Capitellum in Child and Adolescent Baseball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwame, Toshiyuki; Matsuura, Tetsuya; Suzue, Naoto; Sairyo, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Prevalence of osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the capitellum is high among individuals who have played baseball since childhood. Recently two cross-sectional studies according to prevalence of OCD have been published. In a study of 1040 baseball players aged 10 to 12 years, Matsuura et al found that 2.1% of players had OCD, with no differences in prevalence according to age or player position. Kida et al., in their study of 2433 baseball players aged 12 to 18 years, found OCD in 3.4% of subjects. Furthermore, they found that players with OCD began playing baseball at earlier ages, had played for longer periods, and had experienced more elbow pain. The player’s current baseball position may not be related to the existence of OCD lesions. Together, these findings led us to examine the longitudinal study for examining the risk factors for occurrence of OCD. Our objectives were to determine (1) cumulative incidence rates of OCD in the school child players aged 6-11 years old, (2) the relative risk of OCD by age, beginning age playing baseball, playing period, experimental hours per week, playing position, and elbow pain. Methods: A total of 1,275 players aged 6-11 years (mean, 9.4 years) belonged to youth baseball teams without OCD lesions received examination in the next year and were the subjects of this investigation. Subjects were examined by questionnaire, and ultrasonographic and radiographic examination. Questionnaire items included age, player position, beginning age of playing baseball, playing period of baseball, number of training hours per week and history of elbow pain. Ultrasonography of the lateral aspect of the elbow was performed. An irregularity of the subchondral bone of the capitellum was regarded as an abnormality. Radiographic examination was recommended to players who had an abnormal finding on ultrasonographic examination. We investigated the following risk factors for occurrence of OCD: age, player position, beginning age of

  8. Sensitivity Tests for Cumulative Damage Function (CDF) for the PGSFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chiwoong; Ha, Kwiseok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    A safety analysis including the design basis and beyond design basis events has been conducted using MARS-LMR. Previous safety limits were based on temperature and the duration time. However, the cumulative damage function (CDF) will be used as the safety limit to evaluate the fuel cladding integrity. Recently, a 4S reactor developed by Toshiba used the same approach for a safety analysis. Therefore, the development a CDF is necessary to evaluate the safety limit for the PGSFR safety analyses. The major keys in the CDF model are behavior of fuel and cladding. It is not easy to obtain a metallic fuel database for a CDF model including the cladding materials. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in the United States is the only major leading group for metallic fuel experiments. They conducted various experiments with various facilities and experimental reactors, for example, EBR-II, FFTF, and TREAT. In addition, they have recently been trying to extend their oxide fuel based a severe accident code, SAS4A/SASSYS, to a metallic fuel version using their metallic fuel database. In this study, the preliminary CDF model was supplemented in the MARS-LMR code. The major source was the SAS4A/SASSYS modules related to fuel and cladding transient behaviors.. In addition, a sensitivity test for some parameters in the CDF model was conducted to evaluate the capability of these models and to find the major parameter of fuel failure. The Cumulative Damage Function is a good indicator for a fuel failure. The major parameters for the CDF model are selected including cladding and fuel temperatures, initial pressure and volume in the gas plenum, clad thickness, and fission power in the fuel pin. The most sensitive parameter is the cladding temperature. Also, cladding thickness and gas pressure in the fuel pin are effective parameters on the CDF. During an actual transient, various parameter including sensitivity test parameters in this study will be changed simultaneously. This study can

  9. Cumulative incidence of postoperative severe pain at Hospital Universitario San Jose, Popayan. Preliminar report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Muñoz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Postoperative pain remains as a problem. National studies report incidences of 31% for moderate and 22% for severe pain. Inadequate analgesia is related to dissatisfaction and adverse outcomes. The aim of this study was to describe the incidence and characteristics of the postoperative pain in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU at Hospital Universitario San José of Popayán (HUSJ in patients undergoing general anesthesia during the first postoperative hour. Methods: Cohort study. We recruited patients attending PACU and undergoing procedures using general anesthesia, between 18 and 70 years. Using a standardized collection form medical history, demographic data, medical history, anesthetic management, intraoperative analgesia and postoperative pain assessment by verbal and numerical pain scale (1-10 were recorded. Postoperative outcome data were also collected in the PACU. Results: The incidence of severe postoperative pain at 10 minutes was 12.3% 95%CI [7.1-18.2] (19 patients. Within 30 minutes of assessment 4.5% 95%CI [1.3-8.4] (7 patients and 1.9% 60 minutes 95%CI [0-4.5] (3 patients. 48.7% required rescue analgesic at PACU. Incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV was significantly different in patients requiring rescue analgesic. Conclusion: The incidence of severe postoperative pain in the first postoperative hour at HUSJ is close to 12% and it decreases as time goes by. Patients requiring rescue analgesic have a higher incidence of postoperative complications such as PONV.

  10. Estimation of current cumulative incidence of leukaemia-free patients and current leukaemia-free survival in chronic myeloid leukaemia in the era of modern pharmacotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trněný Marek

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current situation in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML presents a new challenge for attempts to measure the therapeutic results, as the CML patients can experience multiple leukaemia-free periods during the course of their treatment. Traditional measures of treatment efficacy such as leukaemia-free survival and cumulative incidence are unable to cope with multiple events in time, e.g. disease remissions or progressions, and as such are inappropriate for the efficacy assessment of the recent CML treatment. Methods Standard nonparametric statistical methods are used for estimating two principal characteristics of the current CML treatment: the probability of being alive and leukaemia-free in time after CML therapy initiation, denoted as the current cumulative incidence of leukaemia-free patients; and the probability that a patient is alive and in any leukaemia-free period in time after achieving the first leukaemia-free period on the CML treatment, denoted as the current leukaemia-free survival. The validity of the proposed methods is further documented in the data of the Czech CML patients consecutively recorded between July 2003 and July 2009 as well as in simulated data. Results The results have shown a difference between the estimates of the current cumulative incidence function and the common cumulative incidence of leukaemia-free patients, as well as between the estimates of the current leukaemia-free survival and the common leukaemia-free survival. Regarding the currently available follow-up period, both differences have reached the maximum (12.8% and 20.8%, respectively at 3 years after the start of follow-up, i.e. after the CML therapy initiation in the former case and after the first achievement of the disease remission in the latter. Conclusions Two quantities for the evaluation of the efficacy of current CML therapy that may be estimated with standard nonparametric methods have been proposed in

  11. Cumulative Incidence of Graft Infection after Primary Prosthetic Aortic Reconstruction in the Endovascular Era

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berger, P.; Vaartjes, I.; Moll, F. L.; De Borst, G. J.; Blankensteijn, J. D.; Bots, M. L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The introduction of endovascular techniques has had a major impact on the case mix of patients that undergo open aortic reconstruction. Hypothetically, this may also have increased the incidence of aortic graft infection (AGO. The aim of this study was to report on the short and mid-term

  12. TESTING FOR DIFFERENCES BETWEEN CUMULATIVE DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS FROM COMPLEX ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING SURVEYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) employs the cumulative distribution function (cdf) to measure the status of quantitative variables for resources of interest. The ability to compare cdf's for a resource from, say,...

  13. CUMULATIVE DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS FOR THE TEMPERATURE THRESHOLD FOR THE ONSET OF CARBON STEEL CORROSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.G. Mon

    1998-05-15

    The purpose of this calculation is to process the cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) characterizing the temperature threshold for the onset of corrosion provided by expert elicitation and minimize the set of values to 200 points for use in WAPDEG.

  14. Lead-Related Genetic Loci, Cumulative Lead Exposure and Incident Coronary Heart Disease: The Normative Aging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Marc G.; Sparrow, David; Schwartz, Joel; Hu, Howard; Park, Sung Kyun

    2016-01-01

    Background Cumulative exposure to lead is associated with cardiovascular outcomes. Polymorphisms in the δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), hemochromatosis (HFE), heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1), vitamin D receptor (VDR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) supergene family (GSTP1, GSTT1, GSTM1), apolipoprotein E (APOE),angiotensin II receptor-1 (AGTR1) and angiotensinogen (AGT) genes, are believed to alter toxicokinetics and/or toxicodynamics of lead. Objectives We assessed possible effect modification by genetic polymorphisms in ALAD, HFE, HMOX1, VDR, GSTP1, GSTT1, GSTM1, APOE, AGTR1 and AGT individually and as the genetic risk score (GRS) on the association between cumulative lead exposure and incident coronary heart disease (CHD) events. Methods We used K-shell-X-ray fluorescence to measure bone lead levels. GRS was calculated on the basis of 22 lead-related loci. We constructed Cox proportional hazard models to compute adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incident CHD. We applied inverse probability weighting to account for potential selection bias due to recruitment into the bone lead sub-study. Results Significant effect modification was found by VDR, HMOX1, GSTP1, APOE, and AGT genetic polymorphisms when evaluated individually. Further, the bone lead-CHD associations became larger as GRS increases. After adjusting for potential confounders, a HR of CHD was 2.27 (95%CI: 1.50–3.42) with 2-fold increase in patella lead levels, among participants in the top tertile of GRS. We also detected an increasing trend in HRs across tertiles of GRS (p-trend = 0.0063). Conclusions Our findings suggest that lead-related loci as a whole may play an important role in susceptibility to lead-related CHD risk. These findings need to be validated in a separate cohort containing bone lead, lead-related genetic loci and incident CHD data. PMID:27584680

  15. On Interpreting and Extracting Information from the Cumulative Distribution Function Curve: A New Perspective with Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasooriya, Uditha; Li, Jackie; Low, Chan Kee

    2012-01-01

    For any density function (or probability function), there always corresponds a "cumulative distribution function" (cdf). It is a well-known mathematical fact that the cdf is more general than the density function, in the sense that for a given distribution the former may exist without the existence of the latter. Nevertheless, while the density…

  16. Structure functions and particle production in the cumulative region two different exponentials

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, M

    1996-01-01

    In the framework of the recently proposed QCD based parton model for the cumulative phenomena in the interactions with nuclei two mechanisms for particle production, direct and spectator ones, are analysed. It is shown that due to final state interactions the leading terms of the direct mechanism contribution are cancelled and the spectator mechanism is the dominant one. It leads to a smaller slope of the cumulative particle production rates compared to the slope of the nuclear structure function in the cumulative region x>1, in agreement with the recent experimental data.

  17. Comparison of the Postoperative Incidence Rate of Capsular Contracture among Different Breast Implants: A Cumulative Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xing; Zhou, Liang; Pan, Fuqiang; Gao, Yang; Yuan, Xi; Fan, Dongli

    2015-01-01

    Background A large number of clinical studies have reported that the different materials used in breast implants were a possible cause of the different incidence rates of capsular contracture observed in patients after implantation. However, this theory lacks comprehensive support from evidence-based medicine, and considerable controversy remains. Objectives In this study, a cumulative systematic review examined breast augmentation that used implants with textured or smooth surfaces to analyze the effects of these two types of implants on the occurrence of postoperative capsular contracture. Methods We conducted a comprehensive search of literature databases, including PubMed and EMBASE, for clinical reports on the incidence of capsular contracture after the implantation of breast prostheses. We performed a cumulative meta-analysis on the incidence of capsular contracture in order from small to large sample sizes and conducted subgroup analyses according to the prosthetic material used, the implant pocket placement, the incision type and the duration of follow-up. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used as the final pooled statistics. Results This meta-analysis included 16 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and two retrospective studies. The cumulative comparison of textured and smooth breast implants showed statistical significance at 2.13 (95% CI, 1.18-3.86) when the fourth study was entered into the analysis. With the inclusion of more reports, the final results indicated that smooth breast implants were more likely to be associated with capsular contracture, with statistical significance at 3.10 (95% CI, 2.23-4.33). In the subgroup analyses, the subgroups based on implant materials included the silicone implant group and the saline implant group, with significant pooled statistical levels of 4.05 (95% CI, 1.97-8.31) and 3.12 (95% CI, 2.19-4.42), respectively. According to implant pocket placement, a subglandular group and a submuscular

  18. Natural history of malignant bone disease in breast cancer and the use of cumulative mean functions to measure skeletal morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Matthew R

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone metastases are a common cause of skeletal morbidity in patients with advanced cancer. The pattern of skeletal morbidity is complex, and the number of skeletal complications is influenced by the duration of survival. Because many patients with cancer die before trial completion, there is a need for survival-adjusted methods to accurately assess the effects of treatment on skeletal morbidity. Methods Recently, a survival-adjusted cumulative mean function model has been generated that can provide an intuitive graphic representation of skeletal morbidity throughout a study. This model was applied to the placebo-control arm of a pamidronate study in patients with malignant bone disease from breast cancer. Results Analysis by bone lesion location showed that spinal metastases were associated with the highest cumulative mean incidence of skeletal-related events (SREs, followed by chest and pelvic metastases. Metastases located in the extremities were associated with an intermediate incidence of SREs, and those in the skull were associated with the lowest incidence of SREs. Conclusion Application of this model to data from the placebo arm of this trial revealed important insight into the natural history of skeletal morbidity in patients with bone metastases. Based on these observations, treatment for the prevention of SREs is warranted regardless of lesion location except for metastases on the skull.

  19. Prevalence, Cumulative Incidence, Monotherapy and Combination Therapy, and Treatment Duration of Frequently Prescribed Psychoactive Medications in the Netherlands : Retrospective Database Analysis for the Years 2000 to 2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravera, Silvia; Visser, Sipke T.; de Gier, Johan J.; den Berg, Lolkje T. W. de Jong-van

    2010-01-01

    Background: Psychoactive drugs have been reported to impair daily activities (eg, driving), but data regarding the use of such drugs in the Netherlands are lacking. Objective: The aim of this work was to examine the prevalence, cumulative incidence, use of monotherapy and combination therapy, and tr

  20. Exploring the risk factors for differences in the cumulative incidence of coeliac disease in two neighboring countries : the prospective DIABIMMUNE study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simre, Kärt; Uibo, Oivi; Peet, Aleksandr; Tillmann, Vallo; Kool, Pille; Hämäläinen, Anu-Maaria; Härkönen, Taina; Siljander, Heli; Virtanen, Suvi; Ilonen, Jorma; Knip, Mikael; Uibo, Raivo; Harmsen, Hermie J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During the last several decades the prevalence of coeliac disease (CD) has increased worldwide. AIM: To compare the cumulative incidence of CD between Estonian and Finnish children and to identify the risk factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Children were recruited as part of the DIABIMMUNE

  1. Associations between parenting, media use, cumulative risk, and children’s executive functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linebarger, D.L.; Barr, R.; Lapierre, M.A.; Piotrowski, J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to examine how parenting style, media exposure, and cumulative risk were associated with executive functioning (EF) during early childhood. Methods: A nationally representative group of US parents/caregivers (N = 1156) with 1 child between 2 and 8 years

  2. Associations between parenting, media use, cumulative risk, and children’s executive functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.L. Linebarger; R. Barr; M.A. Lapierre; J. Piotrowski

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to examine how parenting style, media exposure, and cumulative risk were associated with executive functioning (EF) during early childhood. Methods: A nationally representative group of US parents/caregivers (N = 1156) with 1 child between 2 and 8 years participate

  3. Detecting spatial patterns with the cumulant function – Part 1: The theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Naveau

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In climate studies, detecting spatial patterns that largely deviate from the sample mean still remains a statistical challenge. Although a Principal Component Analysis (PCA, or equivalently a Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF decomposition, is often applied for this purpose, it provides meaningful results only if the underlying multivariate distribution is Gaussian. Indeed, PCA is based on optimizing second order moments, and the covariance matrix captures the full dependence structure of multivariate Gaussian vectors. Whenever the application at hand can not satisfy this normality hypothesis (e.g. precipitation data, alternatives and/or improvements to PCA have to be developed and studied. To go beyond this second order statistics constraint, that limits the applicability of the PCA, we take advantage of the cumulant function that can produce higher order moments information. The cumulant function, well-known in the statistical literature, allows us to propose a new, simple and fast procedure to identify spatial patterns for non-Gaussian data. Our algorithm consists in maximizing the cumulant function. Three families of multivariate random vectors, for which explicit computations are obtained, are implemented to illustrate our approach. In addition, we show that our algorithm corresponds to selecting the directions along which projected data display the largest spread over the marginal probability density tails.

  4. Thermodynamic formula for the cumulant generating function of time-averaged current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Takahiro; Sasa, Shin-ichi

    2011-12-01

    The cumulant generating function of time-averaged current is studied from an operational viewpoint. Specifically, for interacting Brownian particles under nonequilibrium conditions, we show that the first derivative of the cumulant generating function is equal to the expectation value of the current in a modified system with an extra force added, where the modified system is characterized by a variational principle. The formula reminds us of Einstein's fluctuation theory in equilibrium statistical mechanics. Furthermore, since the formula leads to the fluctuation-dissipation relation when the linear response regime is focused on, it is regarded as an extension of the linear response theory to that valid beyond the linear response regime. The formula is also related to previously known theories such as the Donsker-Varadhan theory, the additivity principle, and the least dissipation principle, but it is not derived from them. Examples of its application are presented for a driven Brownian particle on a ring subject to a periodic potential.

  5. CDFTBL: A statistical program for generating cumulative distribution functions from data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslinger, P.W. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

    1991-06-01

    This document describes the theory underlying the CDFTBL code and gives details for using the code. The CDFTBL code provides an automated tool for generating a statistical cumulative distribution function that describes a set of field data. The cumulative distribution function is written in the form of a table of probabilities, which can be used in a Monte Carlo computer code. A a specific application, CDFTBL can be used to analyze field data collected for parameters required by the PORMC computer code. Section 2.0 discusses the mathematical basis of the code. Section 3.0 discusses the code structure. Section 4.0 describes the free-format input command language, while Section 5.0 describes in detail the commands to run the program. Section 6.0 provides example program runs, and Section 7.0 provides references. The Appendix provides a program source listing. 11 refs., 2 figs., 19 tabs.

  6. Cognitive neuroscience 2.0: building a cumulative science of human brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarkoni, Tal; Poldrack, Russell A; Van Essen, David C; Wager, Tor D

    2010-11-01

    Cognitive neuroscientists increasingly recognize that continued progress in understanding human brain function will require not only the acquisition of new data, but also the synthesis and integration of data across studies and laboratories. Here we review ongoing efforts to develop a more cumulative science of human brain function. We discuss the rationale for an increased focus on formal synthesis of the cognitive neuroscience literature, provide an overview of recently developed tools and platforms designed to facilitate the sharing and integration of neuroimaging data, and conclude with a discussion of several emerging developments that hold even greater promise in advancing the study of human brain function. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Description of quasiparticle and satellite properties via cumulant expansions of the retarded one-particle Green's function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayers, Matthew Z.; Hybertsen, Mark S.; Reichman, David R.

    2016-08-01

    A cumulant-based G W approximation for the retarded one-particle Green's function is proposed, motivated by an exact relation between the improper Dyson self-energy and the cumulant generating function. Qualitative aspects of this method are explored within a simple one-electron independent phonon model, where it is seen that the method preserves the energy moment of the spectral weight while also reproducing the exact Green's function in the weak-coupling limit. For the three-dimensional electron gas, this method predicts multiple satellites at the bottom of the band, albeit with inaccurate peak spacing. However, its quasiparticle properties and correlation energies are more accurate than both previous cumulant methods and standard G0W0 . Our results point to features that may be exploited within the framework of cumulant-based methods and suggest promising directions for future exploration and improvements of cumulant-based G W approaches.

  8. Cumulant generating function formula of heat transfer in ballistic systems with lead-lead coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huanan; Agarwalla, Bijay Kumar; Wang, Jian-Sheng

    2012-10-01

    Based on a two-time observation protocol, we consider heat transfer in a given time interval tM in a lead-junction-lead system taking coupling between the leads into account. In view of the two-time observation, consistency conditions are carefully verified in our specific family of quantum histories. Furthermore, its implication is briefly explored. Then using the nonequilibrium Green's function method, we obtain an exact formula for the cumulant generating function for heat transfer between the two leads, valid in both transient and steady-state regimes. Also, a compact formula for the cumulant generating function in the long-time limit is derived, for which the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation symmetry is explicitly verified. In addition, we briefly discuss Di Ventra's repartitioning trick regarding whether the repartitioning procedure of the total Hamiltonian affects the nonequilibrium steady-state current fluctuation. All kinds of properties of nonequilibrium current fluctuations, such as the fluctuation theorem in different time regimes, could be readily given according to these exact formulas.

  9. Prevalence and cumulative incidence of abnormal cervical cytology among HIV-infected Thai women: a 5.5-year retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamkhantho Manopchai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer is one of the most common AIDS-related malignancies in Thailand. To prevent cervical cancer, The US Public Health Service and The Infectious Disease Society of America have recommended that all HIV-infected women should obtain 2 Pap smears 6 months apart after the initial HIV diagnosis and, if results of both are normal, should undergo annual cytological screening. However, there has been no evidence in supporting whether this guideline is appropriate in all settings - especially in areas where HIV-infected women are living in resource-constrained condition. Methods To determine the appropriate interval of Pap smear screenings for HIV-infected Thai women and risk factors for subsequent abnormal cervical cytology, we assessed the prevalence, cumulative incidence and associated factors of cervical cell abnormalities (atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance or higher grades, ASCUS+ among this group of patients. Results The prevalence of ASCUS+ was 15.4% at the first visit, and the cumulative incidence of ASCUS+ gradually increased to 37% in the first 3.5 years of follow-up appointments (first 7 times, and tended to plateau in the last 2 years. For multivariate correlation analysis, women with a CD4 count P = 0.043. There were no associations of subsequent ASCUS+ with age, pregnancy, contraceptive method, highly active anti-retroviral treatment, assumed duration of infection, or the CD4 count nadir level. Conclusion There are high prevalence and cumulative incidence of ASCUS+ in HIV-infected Thai women. With a high lost-to-follow-up rate, an appropriate interval of Pap smear screening cannot be concluded from the present study. Nevertheless, the HIV-infected Thai women may require more than two normal semi-annual Pap smears before shifting to routinely annual cytologic screening.

  10. Cumulative incidence of infertility in a New Zealand birth cohort to age 38 by sex and the relationship with family formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roode, Thea; Dickson, Nigel Patrick; Righarts, Alida Antoinette; Gillett, Wayne Richard

    2015-04-01

    To estimate the cumulative incidence of infertility for men and women in a population-based sample. Longitudinal study of a birth cohort. Research unit. A population-based birth cohort of 1,037 men and women born in Dunedin, New Zealand, between 1972 and 1973. None. Cumulative incidence of infertility by age 32 and 38, distribution of causes and service use for infertility, live birth subsequent to infertility, and live birth by age 38. The cumulative incidence of infertility by age 38 ranged from 14.4% to 21.8% for men and from 15.2% to 26.0% for women depending on the infertility definition and data used. Infertility, defined as having tried to conceive for 12 months or more or having sought medical help to conceive, was experienced by 21.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 17.7-26.2) of men and 26.0% (95% CI, 21.8-30.6) of women by age 38. For those who experienced infertility, 59.8% (95% CI, 48.3-70.4) of men and 71.8% (95% CI, 62.1-80.3) of women eventually had a live birth. Successful resolution of infertility and entry into parenthood by age 38 were much lower for those who first experienced infertility in their mid to late thirties compared with at a younger age. Comparison of reports from two assessments in this cohort study suggests infertility estimates from a single cross-sectional study may underestimate lifetime infertility. The lower rate of resolution and entry into parenthood for those first experiencing infertility in their mid to late thirties highlights the consequences of postponing parenthood and could result in involuntary childlessness and fewer children than desired. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The cumulative incidence of conventional risk factors of cardiovascular disease and their population attributable risk in an Iranian population: The Isfahan Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Sadeghi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs are the leading cause of death in Iran. The present study evaluated the 7-year incidence of CVD risk factors among the participants of Isfahan cohort study (ICS. Materials and Methods: ICS was a longitudinal study on adults over 35 years of age from the urban and rural areas in three counties in central Iran. Data on clinical examination and blood measurements were collected in 2001. Subjects were followed and similar data were collected in 2007. Cumulative incidence was calculated through dividing new cases of each risk factor by the population free of that risk factor at baseline. Incidence proportion was determined for major CVD risk factors including hypertension (HTN, hypercholesterolemia (HC, hypertriglyceridemia (HTg, obesity, diabetes mellitus (DM, metabolic syndrome (MetS, and smoking. Results: A total number of 6323 adults free of CVDs were recruited. After 7 years of follow-up, 3283 individuals were re-evaluated in 2007. The participants′ age was 49.2 ± 10.3 years in 2001 (mean ± SD. The 7-year cumulative incidence of HTN, HC, HTg, overweight, obesity, DM, MetS, and smoking was 22.8%, 37.4%, 28.0%, 26.3%, 7.4%, 9.5%, 23.9%, and 5.9% in men and 22.2%, 55.4%, 33.5%, 35.0%, 18.8%, 11.3%, 36.1%, and 0.7% in women, respectively. Among those with overweight or obesity, 14.7% of men and 7.9% of women decreased their weight up to the normal level. Conclusions: The present study revealed a high incidence of CVD risk factors especially dyslipidemia, obesity, MetS and HTN. Therefore, the application of life-style modification interventions seems necessary.

  12. Carcinoma in the Remnant Stomach During Long-Term Follow-up After Distal Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer: Analysis of Cumulative Incidence and Associated Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanyu, Takaaki; Wakai, Atsuhiro; Ishikawa, Takashi; Ichikawa, Hiroshi; Kameyama, Hitoshi; Wakai, Toshifumi

    2017-09-18

    The number of patients with remnant gastric cancer following resection of gastric cancer may increase. The aims of this study were to investigate the development of remnant gastric cancer after distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer and to examine its cumulative incidence, clinicopathological characteristics, and risk factors. We examined 437 patients with relapse-free survival for 5 years or more after distal gastrectomy with Billroth I reconstruction for gastric cancer performed between 1985 and 2005. A total of 17 patients suffered from remnant gastric cancer. The cumulative incidence was 3.7% at 10 years and 5.4% at 20 years. The median time until development of remnant gastric cancer was 79 months (range 30-209 months). The presence of synchronous multiple gastric cancers was a significant independent risk factor for remnant gastric cancer (hazard ratio 4.036; 95% confidence interval 1.478-11.02; P = 0.006). Of the 17 patients, the 13 whose remnant gastric cancer was detected via regular endoscopy showed better prognoses than the patients detected by other means (P gastric cancer was 5.4% at 20 years. In particular, patients who had multiple gastric cancers at initial gastrectomy were at higher risk for remnant gastric cancer. Therefore, long-term endoscopic surveillance is important.

  13. Cumulative distribution functions associated with bubble-nucleation processes in cavitation

    KAUST Repository

    Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2010-11-15

    Bubble-nucleation processes of a Lennard-Jones liquid are studied by molecular dynamics simulations. Waiting time, which is the lifetime of a superheated liquid, is determined for several system sizes, and the apparent finite-size effect of the nucleation rate is observed. From the cumulative distribution function of the nucleation events, the bubble-nucleation process is found to be not a simple Poisson process but a Poisson process with an additional relaxation time. The parameters of the exponential distribution associated with the process are determined by taking the relaxation time into account, and the apparent finite-size effect is removed. These results imply that the use of the arithmetic mean of the waiting time until a bubble grows to the critical size leads to an incorrect estimation of the nucleation rate. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

  14. Multifractality of stock markets based on cumulative distribution function and multiscale multifractal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Aijing; Shang, Pengjian

    2016-04-01

    Considering the diverse application of multifractal techniques in natural scientific disciplines, this work underscores the versatility of multiscale multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MMA) method to investigate artificial and real-world data sets. The modified MMA method based on cumulative distribution function is proposed with the objective of quantifying the scaling exponent and multifractality of nonstationary time series. It is demonstrated that our approach can provide a more stable and faithful description of multifractal properties in comprehensive range rather than fixing the window length and slide length. Our analyzes based on CDF-MMA method reveal significant differences in the multifractal characteristics in the temporal dynamics between US and Chinese stock markets, suggesting that these two stock markets might be regulated by very different mechanism. The CDF-MMA method is important for evidencing the stable and fine structure of multiscale and multifractal scaling behaviors and can be useful to deepen and broaden our understanding of scaling exponents and multifractal characteristics.

  15. Second primary tumours after a squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity or oropharynx using the cumulative incidence method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Haring, I. S.; Schaapveld, M. S.; Roodenburg, J. L. N.; de Bock, G. H.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to define the incidence of second primary tumours (SPTs) after treatment of a first primary oral or oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and to define patient groups with an increased or decreased risk of developing SPT with adjustment for competing risks. Cancer reg

  16. Kriging with cumulative distribution function of order statistics for delineation of heavy-metal contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juang, K.W.; Lee, D.Y.; Hsiao, C.K. [National Taiwan Univ., Tapei (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1998-10-01

    Accurate delineation of contaminated soils is essential for risk assessment and remediation. The probability of pollutant concentrations lower than a cutoff value is more important than the best estimate of pollutant concentrations for unsampled locations in delineating contaminated soils. In this study, a new method, kriging with the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of order statistics (CDF kriging), is introduced and compared with indicator kriging. It is used to predict the probability that extractable concentrations of Zn will be less than a cut-off value for soils to be declared hazardous. The 0.1 M HCl-extractable Zn concentrations of topsoil of a paddy field having an area of about 2000 ha located in Taiwan are used. A comparison of the CDF of order statistics and indicator function transformation shows that the variance and the coefficient of variation (CV) of the CDF of order statistics transformed data are smaller than those of the indicator function transformed data. This suggests that the CDF of order statistics transformation possesses less variability than does the indicator function transformation. In addition, based on cross-validation, CDF kriging is found to reduce the mean squared errors of estimations by about 30% and to reduce the mean kriging variances by about 26% compared with indicator kriging.

  17. CDF-XL: computing cumulative distribution functions of reaction time data in Excel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, George; Grange, James A

    2011-12-01

    In experimental psychology, central tendencies of reaction time (RT) distributions are used to compare different experimental conditions. This emphasis on the central tendency ignores additional information that may be derived from the RT distribution itself. One method for analysing RT distributions is to construct cumulative distribution frequency plots (CDFs; Ratcliff, Psychological Bulletin 86:446-461, 1979). However, this method is difficult to implement in widely available software, severely restricting its use. In this report, we present an Excel-based program, CDF-XL, for constructing and analysing CDFs, with the aim of making such techniques more readily accessible to researchers, including students (CDF-XL can be downloaded free of charge from the Psychonomic Society's online archive). CDF-XL functions as an Excel workbook and starts from the raw experimental data, organised into three columns (Subject, Condition, and RT) on an Input Data worksheet (a point-and-click utility is provided for achieving this format from a broader data set). No further preprocessing or sorting of the data is required. With one click of a button, CDF-XL will generate two forms of cumulative analysis: (1) "standard" CDFs, based on percentiles of participant RT distributions (by condition), and (2) a related analysis employing the participant means of rank-ordered RT bins. Both analyses involve partitioning the data in similar ways, but the first uses a "median"-type measure at the participant level, while the latter uses the mean. The results are presented in three formats: (i) by participants, suitable for entry into further statistical analysis; (ii) grand means by condition; and (iii) completed CDF plots in Excel charts.

  18. Effect of vitamin B supplementation on cancer incidence, death due to cancer, and total mortality: A PRISMA-compliant cumulative meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sui-Liang; Chen, Ting-Song; Ma, Chen-Yun; Meng, Yong-Bin; Zhang, Yu-Fei; Chen, Yi-Wei; Zhou, Yu-Hao

    2016-08-01

    Observational studies have suggested that vitamin B supplementation is associated with cancer risk, but this association remains controversial. A pooled data-based meta-analysis was conducted to summarize the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effects of vitamin B supplementation on cancer incidence, death due to cancer, and total mortality. PubMed, EmBase, and the Cochrane Library databases were searched to identify trials to fit our analysis through August 2015. Relative risk (RR) was used to measure the effect of vitamin B supplementation on the risk of cancer incidence, death due to cancer, and total mortality using a random-effect model. Cumulative meta-analysis, sensitivity analysis, subgroup analysis, heterogeneity tests, and tests for publication bias were also conducted. Eighteen RCTs reporting the data on 74,498 individuals were included in the meta-analysis. Sixteen of these trials included 4103 cases of cancer; in 6 trials, 731 cancer-related deaths occurred; and in 15 trials, 7046 deaths occurred. Vitamin B supplementation had little or no effect on the incidence of cancer (RR: 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.98-1.10; P = 0.216), death due to cancer (RR, 1.05; 95% CI: 0.90-1.22; P = 0.521), and total mortality (RR, 1.00; 95% CI: 0.94-1.06; P = 0.952). Upon performing a cumulative meta-analysis for cancer incidence, death due to cancer, and total mortality, the nonsignificance of the effect of vitamin B persisted. With respect to specific types of cancer, vitamin B supplementation significantly reduced the risk of skin melanoma (RR, 0.47; 95% CI: 0.23-0.94; P = 0.032). Vitamin B supplementation does not have an effect on cancer incidence, death due to cancer, or total mortality. It is associated with a lower risk of skin melanoma, but has no effect on other cancers.

  19. The cumulative incidence of atopic dermatitis in the first 12 months among Chinese, Vietnamese, and Caucasian infants born in Melbourne, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar, A; Tam, M; Jolley, D; Marks, R

    1999-04-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD), a disease with both inherited and environmental components determining its clinical expression, has been reported to be more frequent in people of Asian origin. Our purpose was to compare the 12-month cumulative incidence of AD in Caucasian, Chinese, and Vietnamese babies born in Australia. Sixty-two Caucasian, 61 Chinese, and 59 Vietnamese babies born in Melbourne, Australia were examined soon after birth and then followed up for 12 months to assess the frequency of AD. Parental education, employment history, and housing conditions were also recorded. AD developed in 21% of Caucasians, 44% of Chinese, and 17% of Vietnamese infants. Parents of the Chinese and Caucasian infants had similar socioeconomic and housing conditions compared with the parents of the Vietnamese infants, who tended to be of lower socioeconomic status with communal housing and lack of plush-pile carpeting. The high incidence of AD in Chinese compared with Caucasian infants tends to reflect genetic differences between the two populations, whereas the difference in incidence between the Chinese and Vietnamese infants possibly reflects more the environmental contribution to disease expression.

  20. A prospective study of gynecological cancer risk in relation to adiposity factors: cumulative incidence and association with plasma adipokine levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meei-Maan Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Associations of obesity and obesity-related metabolic factors (adiposity factors with uterine corpus cancer (UCC and ovarian cancer (OVC risk have been described. Still, a cause-effect relationship and the underlying mediators remain unclear, particularly for low-incidence populations. We aimed to prospectively determine whether adiposity factors could predict the development of UCC and OVC in Taiwanese women. To explore the biological mediators linking adiposity factors to cancer risk, we examined the association of two adipokines, leptin and adiponectin, with the gynecological cancers. METHODS: Totally, 11,258 women, aged 30-65, were recruited into the Community-Based Cancer Screening Program (CBCSP study during 1991-1993, and were followed for UCC and OVC cases until December 31, 2011. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs. Adiposity factors and risk covariates were assessed at recruitment. Newly-developed cancer cases were determined from data in the government's National Cancer Registry and Death Certification System. For adipokienes study, a nested case-control study was conducted within the cohort. Baseline plasma samples of 40 incident gynecological cancer cases and 240 age-menopause-matched controls were assayed for adipokines levels. FINDINGS: There were 38 and 30 incident cases of UCC and OVC, respectively, diagnosed during a median 19.9 years of follow-up. Multivariate analysis showed that alcohol intake (HR = 16.00, 95%  = 4.83-53.00, high triglyceride levels (HR = 2.58, 95% = 1.28-5.17, and years of endogenous estrogen exposure per 5-year increment (HR = 1.91, 95%  = 1.08-3.38 were associated with increased UCC risk. High body mass index (BMI ≥ 27 kg/m(2, HR = 2.90, 95%  = 1.30-6.46 was associated with increased OVC risk. Analysis further showed an independent effect of adipokines on UCC and OVC risk after adjustment of the risk covariates. CONCLUSION: We provided evidence

  1. Cumulative incidence for wait-list death in relation to length of queue for coronary-artery bypass grafting: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy Adrian R

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In deciding where to undergo coronary-artery bypass grafting, the length of surgical wait lists is often the only information available to cardiologists and their patients. Our objective was to compare the cumulative incidence for death on the wait list according to the length of wait lists at the time of registration for the operation. Methods The study cohort included 8966 patients who registered to undergo isolated coronary-artery bypass grafting (82.4% men; 71.9% semi-urgent; 22.4% non-urgent. The patients were categorized according to wait-list clearance time at registration: either "1 month or less" or "more than 1 month". Cumulative incidence for wait-list death was compared between the groups, and the significance of difference was tested by means of regression models. Results Urgent patients never registered on a wait list with a clearance time of more than 1 month. Semi-urgent patients registered on shorter wait lists more often than non-urgent patients (79.1% vs. 44.7%. In semi-urgent and non-urgent patients, the observed proportion of wait-list deaths by 52 weeks was lower in category "1 month or less" than in category "more than 1 month" (0.8% [49 deaths] vs. 1.6% [39 deaths], P P Conclusion Long wait lists for coronary-artery bypass grafting are associated with increased probability that a patient dies before surgery. Physicians who advise patients where to undergo cardiac revascularization should consider the risk of pre-surgical death that is associated with the length of a surgical wait list.

  2. On the method of logarithmic cumulants for parametric probability density function estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylov, Vladimir A; Moser, Gabriele; Serpico, Sebastiano B; Zerubia, Josiane

    2013-10-01

    Parameter estimation of probability density functions is one of the major steps in the area of statistical image and signal processing. In this paper we explore several properties and limitations of the recently proposed method of logarithmic cumulants (MoLC) parameter estimation approach which is an alternative to the classical maximum likelihood (ML) and method of moments (MoM) approaches. We derive the general sufficient condition for a strong consistency of the MoLC estimates which represents an important asymptotic property of any statistical estimator. This result enables the demonstration of the strong consistency of MoLC estimates for a selection of widely used distribution families originating from (but not restricted to) synthetic aperture radar image processing. We then derive the analytical conditions of applicability of MoLC to samples for the distribution families in our selection. Finally, we conduct various synthetic and real data experiments to assess the comparative properties, applicability and small sample performance of MoLC notably for the generalized gamma and K families of distributions. Supervised image classification experiments are considered for medical ultrasound and remote-sensing SAR imagery. The obtained results suggest that MoLC is a feasible and computationally fast yet not universally applicable alternative to MoM. MoLC becomes especially useful when the direct ML approach turns out to be unfeasible.

  3. The cumulative load of depressive illness is associated with cognitive function in the remitted state of unipolar depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Jacob; Knorr, U; Hasselbalch, S G;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the cumulative number, duration and subtypes (severity and presence of psychotic features) of previous episodes of depression in patients with unipolar depressive disorder in a remitted state are associated with decreased global cognitive function. METHODS: Via t...

  4. The cumulative load of depressive illness is associated with cognitive function in the remitted state of unipolar depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, BJ; Knorr, U; Hasselbalch, S G

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the cumulative number, duration and subtypes (severity and presence of psychotic features) of previous episodes of depression in patients with unipolar depressive disorder in a remitted state are associated with decreased global cognitive function. METHODS: Via t...

  5. Regression Modeling of Competing Risks Data Based on Pseudovalues of the Cumulative Incidence Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, John P.; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2005-01-01

    Bone marrow transplantation; Generalized estimating equations; Jackknife statistics; Regression models......Bone marrow transplantation; Generalized estimating equations; Jackknife statistics; Regression models...

  6. The cumulative effect of smoking at age 50, 60, and 70 on functional ability at age 75

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støvring, Nina; Avlund, Kirsten; Schultz-Larsen, Kirsten

    2004-01-01

    AIMS: As elderly people form a steadily growing part of the population in most parts of the world we are in need of knowledge of the influence of modifiable lifestyle factors on functional ability late in life. This study aims to examine the cumulative impact of smoking from age 50 to 70...... on functional ability at age 75. METHODS: 387 men and women born in 1914 and living in seven municipalities in the western part of the County of Copenhagen were followed for 25 years with examinations in 1964, 1974, 1984, and 1989. Associations between smoking and functional ability were examined using multiple...... logistic regression analyses with cumulative smoking as determinant and physical activity, sex, basic school education, and household composition as possible confounders. RESULTS: There is an adverse relation between smoking and functional ability regardless of the time of examination or the ways...

  7. Cumulative increased risk of incident type 2 diabetes mellitus with increasing triglyceride glucose index in normal-weight people: The Rural Chinese Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Wang, Bingyuan; Liu, Yu; Sun, Xizhuo; Luo, Xinping; Wang, Chongjian; Li, Linlin; Zhang, Lu; Ren, Yongcheng; Zhao, Yang; Zhou, Junmei; Han, Chengyi; Zhao, Jingzhi; Hu, Dongsheng

    2017-03-01

    Risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increased in metabolically obese but normal-weight people. However, we have limited knowledge of how to prevent T2DM in normal-weight people. We aimed to evaluate the association between triglyceride glucose (TyG) index and incident T2DM among normal-weight people in rural China. We included data from 5706 people with normal body mass index (BMI) (18.5-23.9 kg/m(2)) without baseline T2DM in a rural Chinese cohort followed for a median of 6.0 years. A Cox proportional-hazard model was used to assess the risk of incident T2DM by quartiles of TyG index and difference in TyG index between follow-up and baseline (TyG-D), estimating hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A generalized additive plot was used to show the nonparametric smoothed exposure-response association between risk of T2DM and TyG index as a continuous variable. TyG was calculated as ln [fasting triglyceride level (mg/dl) × fasting plasma glucose level (mg/dl)/2]. Risk of incident T2DM was increased with quartiles 2, 3 and 4 versus quartile 1 of TyG index (adjusted HR [aHR] 2.48 [95% CI 1.20-5.11], 3.77 [1.83-7.79], and 5.30 [2.21-12.71], P trend Risk of incident T2DM was increased with quartile 4 versus quartile 1 of TyG-D (aHR 3.91 [2.22-6.87]). The results were consistent when analyses were restricted to participants without baseline metabolic syndrome and impaired fasting glucose level. The generalized additive plot showed cumulative increased risk of T2DM with increasing TyG index. Risk of incident T2DM is increased with increasing TyG index among rural Chinese people, so the index might be an important indicator for identifying people at high risk of T2DM.

  8. Interactive Contributions of Cumulative Peer Stress and Executive Function Deficits to Depression in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agoston, Anna M.; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to peer stress contributes to adolescent depression, yet not all youth experience these effects. Thus, it is important to identify individual differences that shape the consequences of peer stress. This research investigated the interactive contribution of cumulative peer stress during childhood (second-fifth grades) and executive…

  9. Interactive Contributions of Cumulative Peer Stress and Executive Function Deficits to Depression in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agoston, Anna M.; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to peer stress contributes to adolescent depression, yet not all youth experience these effects. Thus, it is important to identify individual differences that shape the consequences of peer stress. This research investigated the interactive contribution of cumulative peer stress during childhood (second-fifth grades) and executive…

  10. Transfer function characterization of grazing incidence optical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, J E; Moran, E C; Zmek, W P

    1988-04-15

    By using Fourier techniques and linear systems theory we have derived an analytic expression for a generalized transfer function for grazing incidence optical systems operating at ultraviolet and x-ray wavelengths that includes the effects of optical fabrication errors over the entire range of relevant spatial frequencies. The Fourier transform of this transfer function yields the image distribution (or point spread function) from which encircled energy characteristics or other image quality criteria can be obtained. This transfer function characterization of grazing incidence optical systems allows parametric trade studies and sensitivity analyses to be performed as well as the derivation of fabrication tolerances necessary to satisfy a given image quality requirement.

  11. Improving environmental exposure analysis using cumulative distribution functions and individual geocoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakraborty Jayajit

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assessments of environmental exposure and health risks that utilize Geographic Information Systems (GIS often make simplifying assumptions when using: (a one or more discrete buffer distances to define the spatial extent of impacted regions, and (b aggregated demographic data at the level of census enumeration units to derive the characteristics of the potentially exposed population. A case-study of school children in Orange County, Florida, is used to demonstrate how these limitations can be overcome by the application of cumulative distribution functions (CDFs and individual geocoded locations. Exposure potential for 159,923 school children was determined at the childrens' home residences and at school locations by determining the distance to the nearest gasoline station, stationary air pollution source, and industrial facility listed in the Toxic Release Inventory (TRI. Errors and biases introduced by the use of discrete buffer distances and data aggregation were examined. Results The use of discrete buffers distances in proximity-based exposure analysis introduced substantial bias in terms of determining the potentially exposed population, and the results are strongly dependent on the choice of buffer distance(s. Comparisons of exposure potential between home and school locations indicated that different buffer distances yield different results and contradictory conclusions. The use of a CDF provided a much more meaningful representation and is not based on the a-priori assumption that any particular distance is more relevant than another. The use of individual geocoded locations also provided a more accurate characterization of the exposed population and allowed for more reliable comparisons among sub-groups. In the comparison of children's home residences and school locations, the use of data aggregated at the census block group and tract level introduced variability as well as bias, leading to incorrect conclusions as

  12. Cumulant generating function formula of heat transfer in ballistic systems with lead-lead coupling and general nonlinear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huanan

    2013-03-01

    Based on a two-time observation protocol, we consider heat transfer in a given time interval tM in a lead-junction-lead system taking coupling between the leads into account. In view of the two-time observation, consistency conditions are carefully verified in our specific family of quantum histories. Furthermore, its implication is briefly explored. Then using the nonequilibrium Green's function method, we obtain an exact formula for the cumulant generating function for heat transfer between the two leads, valid in both transient and steady-state regimes. Also, a compact formula for the cumulant generating function in the long-time limit is derived, for which the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation symmetry is explicitly verified. In addition, we briefly discuss Di Ventra's repartitioning trick regarding whether the repartitioning procedure of the total Hamiltonian affects the nonequilibrium steady-state current fluctuation. All kinds of properties of nonequilibrium current fluctuations, such as the fluctuation theorem in different time regimes, could be readily given according to these exact formulas. Finally a practical formalism dealing with cumulants of heat transfer across general nonlinear quantum systems is established based on field theoretical/algebraic method.

  13. Diabetes and incidence of functional disability in older women

    OpenAIRE

    Gregg, EW; Mangione, CM; Cauley, JA; Thompson, TJ; Schwartz, AV; Ensrud, KE; Nevitt, MC

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - To examine the relationship between diabetes and the incidence of functional disability and to determine the predictors of functional disability among older women with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - We analyzed data from 8,344 women enrolled in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures, a prospective cohort of women aged ≥65 years. Diabetes (n = 527, 6.3% prevalence) and comorbidities (coronary heart disease, stroke, arthritis, depression, and visual impairment) were assessed b...

  14. Rising tides, cumulative impacts and cascading changes to estuarine ecosystem functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Meara, Theresa A; Hillman, Jenny R; Thrush, Simon F

    2017-08-31

    In coastal ecosystems, climate change affects multiple environmental factors, yet most predictive models are based on simple cause-and-effect relationships. Multiple stressor scenarios are difficult to predict because they can create a ripple effect through networked ecosystem functions. Estuarine ecosystem function relies on an interconnected network of physical and biological processes. Estuarine habitats play critical roles in service provision and represent global hotspots for organic matter processing, nutrient cycling and primary production. Within these systems, we predicted functional changes in the impacts of land-based stressors, mediated by changing light climate and sediment permeability. Our in-situ field experiment manipulated sea level, nutrient supply, and mud content. We used these stressors to determine how interacting environmental stressors influence ecosystem function and compared results with data collected along elevation gradients to substitute space for time. We show non-linear, multi-stressor effects deconstruct networks governing ecosystem function. Sea level rise altered nutrient processing and impacted broader estuarine services ameliorating nutrient and sediment pollution. Our experiment demonstrates how the relationships between nutrient processing and biological/physical controls degrade with environmental stress. Our results emphasise the importance of moving beyond simple physically-forced relationships to assess consequences of climate change in the context of ecosystem interactions and multiple stressors.

  15. Adaptive sampling based on the cumulative distribution function of order statistics to delineate heavy-metal contaminated soils using kriging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Kai-Wei; Lee, Dar-Yuan; Teng, Yun-Lung

    2005-11-01

    Correctly classifying "contaminated" areas in soils, based on the threshold for a contaminated site, is important for determining effective clean-up actions. Pollutant mapping by means of kriging is increasingly being used for the delineation of contaminated soils. However, those areas where the kriged pollutant concentrations are close to the threshold have a high possibility for being misclassified. In order to reduce the misclassification due to the over- or under-estimation from kriging, an adaptive sampling using the cumulative distribution function of order statistics (CDFOS) was developed to draw additional samples for delineating contaminated soils, while kriging. A heavy-metal contaminated site in Hsinchu, Taiwan was used to illustrate this approach. The results showed that compared with random sampling, adaptive sampling using CDFOS reduced the kriging estimation errors and misclassification rates, and thus would appear to be a better choice than random sampling, as additional sampling is required for delineating the "contaminated" areas.

  16. A Cumulative Rainfall Function for Subhourly Design Storm in Mediterranean Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Carbone

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Design storms are very useful in many hydrological and hydraulic practices and are obtained from statistical analysis of precipitation records. However considering design storms, which are often quite unlike the natural rainstorms, may result in designing oversized or undersized drainage facilities. For these reasons, in this study, a two-parameter double exponential function is proposed to parameterize historical storm events. The proposed function has been assessed against the storms selected from 5-year rainfall time series with a 1-minute resolution, measured by three meteorological stations located in Calabria, Italy. In particular, a nonlinear least square optimization has been used to identify parameters. In previous studies, several evaluation methods to measure the goodness of fit have been used with excellent performances. One parameter is related to the centroid of the rain distribution; the second one is related to high values of the standard deviation of the kurtosis for the selected events. Finally, considering the similarity between the proposed function and the Gumbel function, the two parameters have been computed with the method of moments; in this case, the correlation values were lower than those computed with nonlinear least squares optimization but sufficiently accurate for designing purposes.

  17. Toward a cumulative science of functional integration: A meta-analysis of psychophysiological interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David V; Gseir, Mouad; Speer, Megan E; Delgado, Mauricio R

    2016-08-01

    Much of the work in cognitive neuroscience is shifting from a focus on single brain regions to a focus on the connectivity between multiple brain regions. These inter-regional connectivity patterns contribute to a wide range of behaviors and are studied with models of functional integration. The rapid expansion of the literature on functional integration offers an opportunity to scrutinize the consistency and specificity of one of the most popular approaches for quantifying connectivity: psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis. We performed coordinate-based meta-analyses on 284 PPI studies, which allowed us to test (a) whether those studies consistently converge on similar target regions and (b) whether the identified target regions are specific to the chosen seed region and psychological context. Our analyses revealed two key results. First, we found that different types of PPI studies-e.g., those using seeds such as amygdala and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and contexts such as emotion and cognitive control, respectively-each consistently converge on similar target regions, thus supporting the reliability of PPI as a tool for studying functional integration. Second, we also found target regions that were specific to the chosen seed region and psychological context, indicating distinct patterns of brain connectivity. For example, the DLPFC seed reliably contributed to a posterior cingulate cortex target during cognitive control but contributed to an amygdala target in other contexts. Our results point to the robustness of PPI while highlighting common and distinct patterns of functional integration, potentially advancing models of brain connectivity. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2904-2917, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Sensory and Motor Peripheral Nerve Function and Incident Mobility Disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ward, R. E.; Boudreau, R. M.; Caserotti, P.

    2014-01-01

    ObjectivesTo assess the relationship between sensorimotor nerve function and incident mobility disability over 10years. DesignProspective cohort study with longitudinal analysis. SettingTwo U.S. clinical sites. ParticipantsPopulation-based sample of community-dwelling older adults with no mobility...... disability at 2000/01 examination (N=1,680; mean age SD 76.52.9, body mass index 27.14.6; 50.2% female, 36.6% black, 10.7% with diabetes mellitus). MeasurementsMotor nerve conduction amplitude (poor...

  19. Structure, functioning, and cumulative stressors of Mediterranean deep-sea ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecchio, Samuele; Coll, Marta; Sardà, Francisco

    2015-06-01

    Environmental stressors, such as climate fluctuations, and anthropogenic stressors, such as fishing, are of major concern for the management of deep-sea ecosystems. Deep-water habitats are limited by primary productivity and are mainly dependent on the vertical input of organic matter from the surface. Global change over the latest decades is imparting variations in primary productivity levels across oceans, and thus it has an impact on the amount of organic matter landing on the deep seafloor. In addition, anthropogenic impacts are now reaching the deep ocean. The Mediterranean Sea, the largest enclosed basin on the planet, is not an exception. However, ecosystem-level studies of response to varying food input and anthropogenic stressors on deep-sea ecosystems are still scant. We present here a comparative ecological network analysis of three food webs of the deep Mediterranean Sea, with contrasting trophic structure. After modelling the flows of these food webs with the Ecopath with Ecosim approach, we compared indicators of network structure and functioning. We then developed temporal dynamic simulations varying the organic matter input to evaluate its potential effect. Results show that, following the west-to-east gradient in the Mediterranean Sea of marine snow input, organic matter recycling increases, net production decreases to negative values and trophic organisation is overall reduced. The levels of food-web activity followed the gradient of organic matter availability at the seafloor, confirming that deep-water ecosystems directly depend on marine snow and are therefore influenced by variations of energy input, such as climate-driven changes. In addition, simulations of varying marine snow arrival at the seafloor, combined with the hypothesis of a possible fishery expansion on the lower continental slope in the western basin, evidence that the trawling fishery may pose an impact which could be an order of magnitude stronger than a climate

  20. Incidence and functional evolution of traumatic injuries of the spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Alberto Trinidad Ovalle

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence and functional outcome of traumatic injuries of the spine in the period from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2013, at the General Hospital "Dr. Rafael Pascacio Gamboa", state of Chiapas, México. METHODS: A retrospective, cross-sectional, descriptive, observational study, where all patients seeking medical and surgical care in the emergency department and inpatient unit for a traumatic spinal injury were included, regardless of age or sex. RESULTS: A sample of 60 patients, of whom 43 were male (71.7% and 17 females (28.3%, with an average age of 35 was obtained. As for the cause of the injury, falls were the leading cause (61.7% followed by motor vehicle accidents (35% and finally, assaults (3.3%. In this sample, 21% had associated injuries being the most common (7.3% the thoracic trauma. The most common site of injury was the thoracic spine, followed by the lower cervical and finally the thoracolumbar ones. We found that 70% of patients had partial or complete neurological injury, with complete spinal cord transection (Frankel A being the most frequent lesion in 53%. CONCLUSION: The incidence in our series is similar that the reported in developing countries which have sociocultural problems similar to ours. The same applies to the etiology of these lesions, which is closely linked to social and economic activity in each country or region.

  1. Adaptive sampling based on the cumulative distribution function of order statistics to delineate heavy-metal contaminated soils using kriging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juang, K.-W. [Department of Post-Modern Agriculture, MingDao University, Pitou, Changhua, Taiwan (China); Lee, D.-Y. [Graduate Institute of Agricultural Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: dylee@ccms.ntu.edu.tw; Teng, Y.-L. [Graduate Institute of Agricultural Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2005-11-15

    Correctly classifying 'contaminated' areas in soils, based on the threshold for a contaminated site, is important for determining effective clean-up actions. Pollutant mapping by means of kriging is increasingly being used for the delineation of contaminated soils. However, those areas where the kriged pollutant concentrations are close to the threshold have a high possibility for being misclassified. In order to reduce the misclassification due to the over- or under-estimation from kriging, an adaptive sampling using the cumulative distribution function of order statistics (CDFOS) was developed to draw additional samples for delineating contaminated soils, while kriging. A heavy-metal contaminated site in Hsinchu, Taiwan was used to illustrate this approach. The results showed that compared with random sampling, adaptive sampling using CDFOS reduced the kriging estimation errors and misclassification rates, and thus would appear to be a better choice than random sampling, as additional sampling is required for delineating the 'contaminated' areas. - A sampling approach was derived for drawing additional samples while kriging.

  2. Density cumulant functional theory from a unitary transformation: N-representability, three-particle correlation effects, and application to O{sub 4}{sup +}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolov, Alexander Yu., E-mail: asokolov@uga.edu; Schaefer, Henry F. [Center for Computational Quantum Chemistry, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602 (United States); Kutzelnigg, Werner [Lehrstuhl für Theoretische Chemie, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2014-08-21

    A new approach to density cumulant functional theory is developed that derives density cumulant N-representability conditions from an approximate Fock space unitary transformation. We present explicit equations for the third- and fourth-order two-particle cumulant N-representability, as well as the second-order contributions that depend on the connected three-particle density cumulant. These conditions are used to formulate the ODC-13 method and the non-iterative (λ{sub 3}) correction that employ an incomplete description of the fourth-order two-particle cumulant N-representability and the second-order three-particle correlation effects, respectively. We perform an analysis of the ODC-13 N-representability description for the dissociation of H{sub 2} and apply the ODC-13 method and the (λ{sub 3}) correction to diatomic molecules with multiple bond character and the symmetry-breaking tetraoxygen cation (O{sub 4}{sup +}). For the O{sub 4}{sup +} molecule, the vibrational frequencies of the ODC-13(λ{sub 3}) method do not exhibit spatial symmetry breaking and are in a good agreement with the recent infrared photodissociation experiment. We report the O{sub 4}{sup +} equilibrium structure, harmonic frequencies, and dissociation energy computed using ODC-13(λ{sub 3}) with a diffuse, core-correlated aug-cc-pCVTZ basis set.

  3. Detecting spatial patterns with the cumulant function – Part 2: An application to El Niño

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Yiou

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The spatial coherence of a measured variable (e.g. temperature or pressure is often studied to determine the regions of high variability or to find teleconnections, i.e. correlations between specific regions. While usual methods to find spatial patterns, such as Principal Components Analysis (PCA, are constrained by linear symmetries, the dependence of variables such as temperature or pressure at different locations is generally nonlinear. In particular, large deviations from the sample mean are expected to be strongly affected by such nonlinearities. Here we apply a newly developed nonlinear technique (Maxima of Cumulant Function, MCF for detection of typical spatial patterns that largely deviate from the mean. In order to test the technique and to introduce the methodology, we focus on the El Niño/Southern Oscillation and its spatial patterns. We find nonsymmetric temperature patterns corresponding to El Niño and La Niña, and we compare the results of MCF with other techniques, such as the symmetric solutions of PCA, and the nonsymmetric solutions of Nonlinear PCA (NLPCA. We found that MCF solutions are more reliable than the NLPCA fits, and can capture mixtures of principal components. Finally, we apply Extreme Value Theory on the temporal variations extracted from our methodology. We find that the tails of the distribution of extreme temperatures during La Niña episodes is bounded, while the tail during El Niños is less likely to be bounded. This implies that the mean spatial patterns of the two phases are asymmetric, as well as the behaviour of their extremes.

  4. Functional Grammar Analysis in Support of Dialogic Instruction with Text: Scaffolding Purposeful, Cumulative Dialogue with English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingelhofer, Rachel Rennie; Schleppegrell, Mary

    2016-01-01

    For children learning English as an additional language, dialogic teaching supports both learning content and learning language. Engaging language learners in dialogue offers special challenges, however. This article describes an instructional approach that focused on engendering purposeful and cumulative talk, supported by metalanguage from…

  5. Cumulative Vehicle Routing Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Kara, &#;mdat; Kara, Bahar Yeti&#;; Yeti&#;, M. Kadri

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a new objective function and corresponding formulations for the vehicle routing problem. The new cost function defined as the product of the distance of the arc and the flow on that arc. We call a vehicle routing problem with this new objective function as the Cumulative Vehicle Routing Problem (CumVRP). Integer programming formulations with O(n2) binary variables and O(n2) constraints are developed for both collection and delivery cases. We show that the CumVRP is a gener...

  6. Relationship between coronary artery remodeling and cumulative incidence of coronary angiographic lesions with vulnerable characteristics in patients with stable angina pectoris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Ling; L(U) Shu-zheng; JIN Ze-ning; SONG Xian-tao

    2010-01-01

    ackground Development of vulnerable lesions is not limited to the target lesions, but a pan-coronary process. Such lesions are identified by positive remodeling (intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and complex lesions (angiography)). The prevalence of lesions with vulnerable characteristics in patients with stable angina was not well known. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between coronary artery remodeling and incidence of angiographic complex lesions and its calcification in stable angina patients.Methods One hundred and sixty-one stable angina patients (95 males, aged (68±11) years) with 161 de novo target lesions were studied using pre-interventional IVUS. Remodeling index was defined as the lesion divided by reference vessel area; positive remodeling was defined as remodeling index >1.05. Besides the 161 target lesions, there were 613 angiographic lesions with >30% diameter stenoses, classified as complex or smooth. Multiple complexes were defined as more than one complex lesion in one patient. Stenoses of at least 70% were described as tight. Calcium arc area was used as a new method to quantify coronary calcification.Results Fifty-six patients had positive remodeling target lesion, while 105 did not. The overall number of lesions with a diameter stenoses >30% was similar in patients with or without positive remodeling, and the frequency of angiographically complex lesions was higher in positive remodeling patients, especially at non-target site. Calcium arc area was smaller in patients with positive remodeling.Conclusions Positive remodeling on intravascular ultrasound was associated with more complex lesions angiographic findings, especially at non target site. Positive remodeling was found less calcified in patients with stable angina.

  7. Developing the scientific basis for assessing cumulative effects of wetland loss and degradation on landscape functions: Status, perspectives, and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, Barbara L.; Preston, Eric M.

    1988-09-01

    The incongruity between the regional and national scales at which wetland losses are occurring, and the project-specific scale at which wetlands are regulated and studied, has become obvious. This article presents a synthesis of recent efforts by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Ecosystems Research Center at Cornell University to bring wetland science and regulation into alignment with the reality of the cumulative effects of wetland loss and degradation on entire landscapes and regions. The synthesis is drawn from the other articles in this volume, the workshop that initiated them, and the scientific literature. It summarizes the status of our present scientific understanding, discusses means by which to actualize the existing potential for matching the scales of research and regulation with the scales at which effects are observed, and provides guidelines for building a stronger scientific base for landscape-level assessments of cumulative effects. It also provides the outlines for a synoptic and qualitative approach to cumulative effects assessment based on a reexamination of the generic assessment framework we proposed elsewhere in this volume. The primary conclusion to be drawn from the articles and the workshop is that a sound scientific basis for regulation will not come merely from acquiring more information on more variables. It will come from recognizing that a perceptual shift to larger temporal, spatial, and organizational scales is overdue. The shift in scale will dictate different—not necessarily more—variables to be measured in future wetland research and considered in wetland regulation.

  8. The Soft Cumulative Constraint

    CERN Document Server

    Petit, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    This research report presents an extension of Cumulative of Choco constraint solver, which is useful to encode over-constrained cumulative problems. This new global constraint uses sweep and task interval violation-based algorithms.

  9. A Monte Carlo procedure for the construction of complementary cumulative distribution functions for comparison with the EPA release limits for radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helton, J.C.; Shiver, A.W.

    1994-10-01

    A Monte Carlo procedure for the construction of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) for comparison with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) release limits for radioactive waste disposal (40 CFR 191, Subpart B) is described and illustrated with results from a recent performance assessment (PA) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The Monte Carlo procedure produces CCDF estimates similar to those obtained with stratified sampling in several recent PAs for the WIPP. The advantages of the Monte Carlo procedure over stratified sampling include increased resolution in the calculation of probabilities for complex scenarios involving drilling intrusions and better use of the necessarily limited number of mechanistic calculations that underlie CCDF construction.

  10. Dietary patterns and incident functional disability in elderly Japanese: the Ohsaki Cohort 2006 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomata, Yasutake; Watanabe, Takashi; Sugawara, Yumi; Chou, Wan-Ting; Kakizaki, Masako; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2014-07-01

    To date, little is known about the association between dietary pattern and disability in older adults. The present prospective cohort study investigated the association between dietary patterns and incident functional disability. Information on food consumption and other lifestyle factors was collected from Japanese older persons aged ≥65 years via a questionnaire. Three dietary patterns (Japanese pattern, animal food pattern, and high dairy pattern) were derived using principal component analysis of the consumption of 39 food and beverage items. Data on functional disability were retrieved from the public Long-term Care Insurance database, in which participants were followed up for 5 years. The Cox model was used to estimate the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios of incident functional disability. Among 14,260 participants, the 5-year incidence of functional disability was 16.6%. The Japanese pattern score was associated with a lower risk of incident functional disability (hazard ratio of the highest quartile vs the lowest, 0.77; 95% confidence interval: 0.68-0.88; p trend food pattern and a high dairy pattern tended to have a higher risk of incident functional disability, but not to a significant degree. In Japanese older persons, the Japanese dietary pattern is associated with a decreased risk of incident functional disability. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Sense of life worth living (ikigai) and incident functional disability in elderly Japanese: The Tsurugaya Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kentaro; Kaiho, Yu; Tomata, Yasutake; Narita, Mamoru; Tanji, Fumiya; Sugiyama, Kemmyo; Sugawara, Yumi; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2017-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that elderly persons who feel ikigai (a sense of life worth living) have a lower risk of incident functional disability than those who do not. Recent studies have suggested that ikigai impacts on mortality. However, its impact upon disability is unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between ikigai and incident functional disability among elderly persons. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 830 Japanese elderly persons aged ≥70years as a comprehensive geriatric assessment in 2003. Information on ikigai was collected by self-reported questionnaire. Data on functional disability were retrieved from the public Long-term Care Insurance database in which participants were followed up for 12years. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incidence of functional disability were calculated for three groups delineated according to the presence of ikigai ("no", "uncertain" or "yes") using the Cox proportional hazards regression model. The 12-year incidence of functional disability was 53.3% (442 cases). As compared with the "no" group, the multiple-adjusted HR (95% CI) of incident functional disability was 0.61 (0.36-1.02) for the "uncertain" group and 0.50 (0.30-0.84) for the "yes" group. A stronger degree of ikigai is significantly associated with a lower risk of incident functional disability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Filaggrin loss-of-function mutations and incident cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, T; Husemoen, L L N; Thyssen, J P

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Loss-of-function mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG) could have opposing effects on cancer risk, as mutations are associated with both 10% higher serum vitamin D levels, which may protect against cancer, and with impaired skin barrier function, which may lead to higher cancer...... skin cancer (NMSC) (HR 1·05, 95% CI 0·84-1·31), head and neck cancer (HR 1·72, 95% CI 0·71-4·15), colorectal cancer (HR 0·82, 95% CI 0·44-1·52), bronchus and lung cancer (HR 1·34, 95% CI 0·77-2·33), breast cancer (HR 0·58, 95% CI 0·30-1·14), uterine cancer (HR 0·42, 95% CI 0·06-3·10), prostate cancer...... (HR 1·09, 95% CI 0·61-1·94), urinary cancer (HR 1·30, 95% CI 0·51-3·29), malignant melanoma (HR 1·03, 95% CI 0·41-2·58) and NMSC (HR 0·70, 95% CI 0·47-1·05). Among participants aged over 60 years at baseline, we found statistically significant lower risks of all cancers and NMSC among FLG mutation...

  13. A Robust Function to Return the Cumulative Density of Non-Central F Distributions in Microsoft Office Excel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, James Byron

    2016-01-01

    The manuscript presents a Visual Basic[superscript R] for Applications function that operates within Microsoft Office Excel[superscript R] to return the area below the curve for a given F within a specified non-central F distribution. The function will be of use to Excel users without programming experience wherever a non-central F distribution is…

  14. Measurement of the correlation function of cumulative protons in proton-nucleus interactions at 7. 5 GeV/ c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayukov, Y.D.; Vlasov, A.V.; Gavrilov, V.B.; Goryainov, N.A.; Grishuk, Y.G.; Degtyarenko, P.V.; Doroshkevich, E.A.; Efremenko, Y.V.; Kosov, M.V.; Kuznetsov, S.G.; Kuleshov, S.V.; Leksin, G.A.; Smirnitskii, A.V.; Stavinskii, A.V.; Surin, V.P.; Fedorov, V.B.; Shchvartsman, B.B. (Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, State Commission on Use of Atomic Energy (SU))

    1989-09-01

    The correlation function of two protons emitted at angles {theta}{sub lab} near 90{degree} with momenta 315--725 MeV/{ital c} in the reaction {ital pA}{r arrow}{ital ppX} at momentum 7.5 GeV/{ital c} has been investigated as a function of the separation angle and momenta of the secondary protons. The measurements were made in the nuclei C, Ti, and Pb.

  15. Variation in Cancer Incidence among Patients with ESRD during Kidney Function and Nonfunction Intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanik, Elizabeth L; Clarke, Christina A; Snyder, Jon J; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Engels, Eric A

    2016-05-01

    Among patients with ESRD, cancer risk is affected by kidney dysfunction and by immunosuppression after transplant. Assessing patterns across periods of dialysis and kidney transplantation may inform cancer etiology. We evaluated 202,195 kidney transplant candidates and recipients from a linkage between the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients and cancer registries, and compared incidence in kidney function intervals (time with a transplant) with incidence in nonfunction intervals (waitlist or time after transplant failure), adjusting for demographic factors. Incidence of infection-related and immune-related cancer was higher during kidney function intervals than during nonfunction intervals. Incidence was most elevated for Kaposi sarcoma (hazard ratio [HR], 9.1; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 4.7 to 18), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (HR, 3.2; 95% CI, 2.8 to 3.7), Hodgkin's lymphoma (HR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.7 to 5.3), lip cancer (HR, 3.4; 95% CI, 2.0 to 6.0), and nonepithelial skin cancers (HR, 3.8; 95% CI, 2.5 to 5.8). Conversely, ESRD-related cancer incidence was lower during kidney function intervals (kidney cancer: HR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.7 to 0.8 and thyroid cancer: HR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.6 to 0.8). With each successive interval, incidence changed in alternating directions for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, melanoma, and lung, pancreatic, and nonepithelial skin cancers (higher during function intervals), and kidney and thyroid cancers (higher during nonfunction intervals). For many cancers, incidence remained higher than in the general population across all intervals. These data indicate strong short-term effects of kidney dysfunction and immunosuppression on cancer incidence in patients with ESRD, suggesting a need for persistent cancer screening and prevention.

  16. Direct releases to the surface and associated complementary cumulative distribution functions in the 1996 performance assessments for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Direct brine release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STOELZEL,D.M.; O' BRIEN,D.G.; GARNER,J.W.; HELTON,JON CRAIG; JOHNSON,J.D.; SCOTT,L.N.

    2000-05-19

    The following topics related to the treatment of direct brine releases to the surface environment in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are presented (1) mathematical description of models, (2) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results arising from subjective (i.e., epistemic) uncertainty for individual releases, (3) construction of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) arising from stochastic (i.e., aleatory) uncertainty, and (4) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results for CCDFs. The presented analyses indicate that direct brine releases do not constitute a serious threat to the effectiveness of the WIPP as a disposal facility for transuranic waste. Even when the effects of uncertain analysis inputs are taken into account, the CCDFs for direct brine releases fall substantially to the left of the boundary line specified in the US Environmental Protection Agency's standard for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste (4O CFR 191.40 CFR 194).

  17. The cumulative cost of additional wakefulness: dose-response effects on neurobehavioral functions and sleep physiology from chronic sleep restriction and total sleep deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dongen, Hans P A.; Maislin, Greg; Mullington, Janet M.; Dinges, David F.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To inform the debate over whether human sleep can be chronically reduced without consequences, we conducted a dose-response chronic sleep restriction experiment in which waking neurobehavioral and sleep physiological functions were monitored and compared to those for total sleep deprivation. DESIGN: The chronic sleep restriction experiment involved randomization to one of three sleep doses (4 h, 6 h, or 8 h time in bed per night), which were maintained for 14 consecutive days. The total sleep deprivation experiment involved 3 nights without sleep (0 h time in bed). Each study also involved 3 baseline (pre-deprivation) days and 3 recovery days. SETTING: Both experiments were conducted under standardized laboratory conditions with continuous behavioral, physiological and medical monitoring. PARTICIPANTS: A total of n = 48 healthy adults (ages 21-38) participated in the experiments. INTERVENTIONS: Noctumal sleep periods were restricted to 8 h, 6 h or 4 h per day for 14 days, or to 0 h for 3 days. All other sleep was prohibited. RESULTS: Chronic restriction of sleep periods to 4 h or 6 h per night over 14 consecutive days resulted in significant cumulative, dose-dependent deficits in cognitive performance on all tasks. Subjective sleepiness ratings showed an acute response to sleep restriction but only small further increases on subsequent days, and did not significantly differentiate the 6 h and 4 h conditions. Polysomnographic variables and delta power in the non-REM sleep EEG-a putative marker of sleep homeostasis--displayed an acute response to sleep restriction with negligible further changes across the 14 restricted nights. Comparison of chronic sleep restriction to total sleep deprivation showed that the latter resulted in disproportionately large waking neurobehavioral and sleep delta power responses relative to how much sleep was lost. A statistical model revealed that, regardless of the mode of sleep deprivation, lapses in behavioral alertness

  18. Radionuclide and colloid transport in the Culebra Dolomite and associated complementary cumulative distribution functions in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RAMSEY, JAMES L.; BLAINE,R.; GARNER,J.W.; HELTON,JON CRAIG; JOHNSON,J.D.; SMITH,L.N.; WALLACE,M.

    2000-05-22

    The following topics related to radionuclide and colloid transport in the Culebra Dolomite in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are presented: (1) mathematical description of models, (2) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results arising from subjective (i.e., epistemic) uncertainty for individual releases, and (3) construction of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) arising from stochastic (i.e., aleatory) uncertainty. The presented results indicate that radionuclide and colloid transport in the Culebra Dolomite does not constitute a serious threat to the effectiveness of the WIPP as a disposal facility for transuranic waste. Even when the effects of uncertain analysis inputs are taken into account, no radionuclide transport to the boundary with the accessible environment was observed; thus the associated CCDFs for comparison with the boundary line specified in the US Environmental Protection Agency's standard for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste (40 CFR 191, 40 CFR 194) are degenerate in the sense of having a probability of zero of exceeding a release of zero.

  19. Understanding the Relation of Low Income to HPA-Axis Functioning in Preschool Children: Cumulative Family Risk and Parenting As Pathways to Disruptions in Cortisol

    OpenAIRE

    Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J.; Kiff, Cara J.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relation of low income and poverty to cortisol levels, and tested potential pathways from low income to disruptions in cortisol through cumulative family risk and parenting. The sample of 306 mothers and their preschool children included 29 % families at or near poverty, 27 % families below the median income, and the remaining families at middle and upper income. Lower income was related to lower morning cortisol levels, and cumulative risk predicted a flatter diurnal ...

  20. Association of serum bicarbonate with incident functional limitation in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenchek, Robert; Ix, Joachim H; Rifkin, Dena E; Shlipak, Michael G; Sarnak, Mark J; Garcia, Melissa; Patel, Kushang V; Satterfield, Suzanne; Harris, Tamara B; Newman, Anne B; Fried, Linda F

    2014-12-05

    Cross-sectional studies have found that low serum bicarbonate is associated with slower gait speed. Whether bicarbonate levels independently predict the development of functional limitation has not been previously studied. Whether bicarbonate was associated with incident persistent lower extremity functional limitation and whether the relationship differed in individuals with and without CKD were assessed in participants in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study, a prospective study of well functioning older individuals Functional limitation was defined as difficulty in walking 0.25 miles or up 10 stairs on two consecutive reports 6 months apart in the same activity (stairs or walking). Kidney function was measured using eGFR by the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration creatinine equation, and CKD was defined as an eGFRspeed over time. Of 1544 participants, 412 participants developed incident persistent functional limitation events over a median 4.4 years (interquartile range, 3.1 to 4.5). Compared with ≥26 mEq/L, lower serum bicarbonate was associated with functional limitation. After adjustment for demographics, CKD, diabetes, body mass index, smoking, diuretic use, and gait speed, lower serum bicarbonate was significantly associated with functional limitation (hazard ratio, 1.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.08 to 1.68 and hazard ratio, 1.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.12 to 2.22 for bicarbonate levels from 23 to 25.9 and speed. Lower serum bicarbonate was associated with greater risk of incident, persistent functional limitation. This association was present in individuals with and without CKD. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  1. Functional dyspepsia of ulcer-dysmotility type: clinical incidence and therapeutic strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    @@ Functional dyspepsia is a commonly occurring chronic digestive disorder affecting 20%-40% of the general population[1]. It is a syndromic term applied to patients who complain of symptoms presumably arising from the upper abdomen, often in response to meal ingestion, but with absence of organic abnormalities demonstrable by conventional diagnostic tests. Although functional dyspepsia is very common in the community, the classification and the clinical therapy are still uncertain. Therefore this study deals with the clinical incidence and the therapeutic strategy of functional dyspepsia of the ulcer-dysmotility mixed type.

  2. Cumulative Paired φ-Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo Klein

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A new kind of entropy will be introduced which generalizes both the differential entropy and the cumulative (residual entropy. The generalization is twofold. First, we simultaneously define the entropy for cumulative distribution functions (cdfs and survivor functions (sfs, instead of defining it separately for densities, cdfs, or sfs. Secondly, we consider a general “entropy generating function” φ, the same way Burbea et al. (IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 1982, 28, 489–495 and Liese et al. (Convex Statistical Distances; Teubner-Verlag, 1987 did in the context of φ-divergences. Combining the ideas of φ-entropy and cumulative entropy leads to the new “cumulative paired φ-entropy” ( C P E φ . This new entropy has already been discussed in at least four scientific disciplines, be it with certain modifications or simplifications. In the fuzzy set theory, for example, cumulative paired φ-entropies were defined for membership functions, whereas in uncertainty and reliability theories some variations of C P E φ were recently considered as measures of information. With a single exception, the discussions in the scientific disciplines appear to be held independently of each other. We consider C P E φ for continuous cdfs and show that C P E φ is rather a measure of dispersion than a measure of information. In the first place, this will be demonstrated by deriving an upper bound which is determined by the standard deviation and by solving the maximum entropy problem under the restriction of a fixed variance. Next, this paper specifically shows that C P E φ satisfies the axioms of a dispersion measure. The corresponding dispersion functional can easily be estimated by an L-estimator, containing all its known asymptotic properties. C P E φ is the basis for several related concepts like mutual φ-information, φ-correlation, and φ-regression, which generalize Gini correlation and Gini regression. In addition, linear rank tests for scale that

  3. Cumulative fatigue damage models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgaw, Michael A.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of calculating expected component life under fatigue loading conditions is complicated by the fact that component loading histories contain, in many cases, cyclic loads of widely varying amplitudes. In such a case a cumulative damage model is required, in addition to a fatigue damage criterion, or life relationship, in order to compute the expected fatigue life. The traditional cumulative damage model used in design is the linear damage rule. This model, while being simple to use, can yield grossly unconservative results under certain loading conditions. Research at the NASA Lewis Research Center has led to the development of a nonlinear cumulative damage model, named the double damage curve approach (DDCA), that has greatly improved predictive capability. This model, which considers the life (or loading) level dependence of damage evolution, was applied successfully to two polycrystalline materials, 316 stainless steel and Haynes 188. The cumulative fatigue behavior of the PWA 1480 single-crystal material is currently being measured to determine the applicability of the DDCA for this material.

  4. Incidência cumulativa anual de doenças musculoesqueléticas incapacitantes relacionadas ao trabalho em uma área urbana do Brasil Cumulative annual incidence of disabling work-related musculoskeletal disorders in an urban area of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Suely Souto Souza

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Estimou-se a incidência cumulativa anual (ICA das doenças musculoesqueléticas incapacitantes que acometem a região cervical e/ou membros superiores (DMEMS relacionadas ao trabalho, entre trabalhadores do Regime Geral da Previdência Social (RGPS de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil. Trabalhadores que receberam benefícios por incapacidade temporária por DMEMS relacionadas ao trabalho foram considerados casos, em 2008. Os dados provêm dos sistemas administrativos do Instituto Nacional do Seguro Social (INSS e do Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego (MTE. A ICA foi de 15 por dez mil trabalhadores. Mulheres, os de menor renda e aqueles que trabalhavam no ramo de atividades financeiras e indústria de transformação tinham maior ICA-DMEMS do que os seus referentes. Mulheres com o menor rendimento (um salário mínimo: R$ 415,00 tiveram a maior ICA-DMEMS, de 123 casos por dez mil. Isso sugere desigualdade na ocorrência dessas enfermidades, indicando a necessidade de priorizar não só ações de prevenção, com foco na ergonomia e organização do trabalho, como também o diagnóstico precoce, tratamento e reabilitação profissional.This study focused on the annual cumulative incidence (ACI of disabling work-related musculoskeletal disorders affecting the neck and/or upper limbs (ULMSD among workers covered by the National Social Insurance System in the city of Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. Cases were workers who received disability compensation benefits when unable to work due to ULMSD, during the year 2008. The data were obtained from the administrative systems of the National Social Insurance Institute and Ministry of Labor and Employment. ACI was 15 per 10,000 workers. Increased ACI of ULMSD was associated with female gender, lower income, and work in financial activities or manufacturing. Women earning the minimum wage (US$ 64.00 per month or less had the highest ACI of ULMSD (123 per 10,000, suggesting inequalities in the occurrence of these

  5. Global Analysis of a Virus Dynamics Model with General Incidence Function and Cure Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A virus dynamics model with logistic function, general incidence function, and cure rate is considered. By carrying out mathematical analysis, we show that the infection-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable if the basic reproduction number ℛ0≤1. If ℛ0>1, then the infection equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable under some assumptions. Furthermore, we also obtain the conditions for which the model exists an orbitally asymptotically stable periodic solution. Examples are provided to support our analytical conclusions.

  6. Understanding the relation of low income to HPA-axis functioning in preschool children: cumulative family risk and parenting as pathways to disruptions in cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J; Kiff, Cara J; Fisher, Philip A

    2012-12-01

    This study examined the relation of low income and poverty to cortisol levels, and tested potential pathways from low income to disruptions in cortisol through cumulative family risk and parenting. The sample of 306 mothers and their preschool children included 29 % families at or near poverty, 27 % families below the median income, and the remaining families at middle and upper income. Lower income was related to lower morning cortisol levels, and cumulative risk predicted a flatter diurnal slope, with a significant indirect effect through maternal negativity, suggesting that parenting practices might mediate an allostatic effect on stress physiology.

  7. Understanding the Relation of Low Income to HPA-Axis Functioning in Preschool Children: Cumulative Family Risk and Parenting as Pathways to Disruptions in Cortisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J.; Kiff, Cara J.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relation of low income and poverty to cortisol levels, and tested potential pathways from low income to disruptions in cortisol through cumulative family risk and parenting. The sample of 306 mothers and their preschool children included 29 % families at or near poverty, 27 % families below the median income, and the…

  8. Understanding the Relation of Low Income to HPA-Axis Functioning in Preschool Children: Cumulative Family Risk and Parenting as Pathways to Disruptions in Cortisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J.; Kiff, Cara J.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relation of low income and poverty to cortisol levels, and tested potential pathways from low income to disruptions in cortisol through cumulative family risk and parenting. The sample of 306 mothers and their preschool children included 29 % families at or near poverty, 27 % families below the median income, and the…

  9. Association of Kidney Function and Early Kidney Injury With Incident Hypertension in HIV-Infected Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascher, Simon B; Scherzer, Rebecca; Peralta, Carmen A; Tien, Phyllis C; Grunfeld, Carl; Estrella, Michelle M; Abraham, Alison; Gustafson, Deborah R; Nowicki, Marek; Sharma, Anjali; Cohen, Mardge H; Butch, Anthony W; Young, Mary A; Bennett, Michael R; Shlipak, Michael G

    2017-02-01

    Subclinical kidney disease is associated with developing hypertension in the general population, but data are lacking among HIV-infected people. We examined associations of kidney function and injury with incident hypertension in 823 HIV-infected and 267 HIV-uninfected women in the Women's Interagency HIV Study, a multicenter, prospective cohort of HIV-infected and uninfected women in the United States. Baseline kidney biomarkers included estimated glomerular filtration rate using cystatin C, urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio, and 7 urine biomarkers of tubular injury: α-1-microglobulin, interleukin-18, kidney injury molecule-1, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, liver fatty acid-binding protein, N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase, and α1-acid-glycoprotein. We used multivariable Poisson regression to evaluate associations of kidney biomarkers with incident hypertension, defined as 2 consecutive visits of antihypertensive medication use. During a median follow-up of 9.6 years, 288 HIV-infected women (35%) developed hypertension. Among the HIV-infected women, higher urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio was independently associated with incident hypertension (relative risk =1.13 per urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio doubling, 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.20), as was lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (relative risk =1.10 per 10 mL/min/1.73 m(2) lower estimated glomerular filtration rate; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.17). No tubular injury and dysfunction biomarkers were independently associated with incident hypertension in HIV-infected women. In contrast, among the HIV-uninfected women, urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio was not associated with incident hypertension, whereas higher urine interleukin-18, α1-acid-glycoprotein, and N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase levels were significantly associated with incident hypertension. These findings suggest that early glomerular injury and kidney dysfunction may be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension in

  10. Pulmonary function and incident bronchitis and asthma in children: a community-based prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yungling Leo; Hwang, Bing-Fang; Chen, Yu-An; Chen, Jer-Min; Wu, Yi-Fan

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies revealed that reduction of airway caliber in infancy might increase the risks for wheezing and asthma. However, the evidence for the predictive effects of pulmonary function on respiratory health in children was still inconsistent. We conducted a population-based prospective cohort study among children in 14 Taiwanese communities. There were 3,160 children completed pulmonary function tests in 2007 and follow-up questionnaire in 2009. Poisson regression models were performed to estimate the effect of pulmonary function on the development of bronchitis and asthma. After adjustment for potential confounders, pulmonary function indices consistently showed protective effects on respiratory diseases in children. The incidence rate ratios of bronchitis and asthma were 0.86 (95% CI 0.79-0.95) and 0.91 (95% CI 0.82-0.99) for forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV₁). Similar adverse effects of maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMEF) were also observed on bronchitis (RR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.67-0.81) and asthma (RR = 0.85, 95% CI 0.77-0.93). We found significant decreasing trends in categorized FEV₁ (p for trend = 0.02) and categories of MMEF (p for trend = 0.01) for incident bronchitis. Significant modification effects of traffic-related air pollution were noted for FEV₁ and MMEF on bronchitis and also for MMEF on asthma. Children with high pulmonary function would have lower risks on the development of bronchitis and asthma. The protective effect of high pulmonary function would be modified by traffic-related air pollution exposure.

  11. Relative deprivation and incident functional disability among older Japanese women and men: prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, N; Kawachi, I; Hirai, H; Kondo, K; Subramanian, S V; Hanibuchi, T; Yamagata, Z

    2009-06-01

    A prospective observational study was conducted to test the hypothesis that relative deprivation was associated with incident physical or cognitive disability, independent of absolute income. Study subjects consist of 9463 non-disabled people aged 65+ years in the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES), Aichi prefecture, Japan. Baseline mail-in survey in 2003 gathered information on income, educational attainment, lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol consumption and health check-up) and healthcare utilisation. Three-year incidence of disability was assessed through public long-term care insurance databases and resident registry. A total of 7673 subjects (81%) with complete information were analysed. Our measure of relative deprivation was the Yitzhaki index across eight reference groups, which calculates the deprivation suffered by each individual as a function of the aggregate income shortfall for each person relative to everyone else with higher incomes in that person's reference group. Cox regression demonstrated that, after controlling for sociodemographic factors (including absolute income), the hazard ratio (and 95% confidence intervals) of incident physical/cognitive disability per one standard deviation increase in relative deprivation ranged from 1.13 (0.99 to 1.29) to 1.15 (1.01 to 1.31) in men and from 1.11 (0.94 to 1.31) to 1.18 (1.00 to 1.39) in women, depending on the definition of the reference group. Additional adjustment for lifestyle factors attenuated the hazard ratios to statistical non-significance. Relative deprivation may be a mechanism underlying the link between income inequality and disability in older age, at least among men. Lifestyle factors in part explain the association between relative deprivation and incident disability.

  12. Accident Analysis and Barrier Function (AEB) Method. Manual for Incident Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svenson, Ola [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Psychology

    2000-02-01

    The Accident Analysis and Barrier Function (AEB) Method models an accident or incident as a series of interactions between human and technical systems. In the sequence of human and technical errors leading to an accident there is, in principle, a possibility to arrest the development between each two successive errors. This can be done by a barrier function which, for example, can stop an operator from making an error. A barrier function can be performed by one or several barrier function systems. To illustrate, a mechanical system, a computer system or another operator can all perform a given barrier function to stop an operator from making an error. The barrier function analysis consists of analysis of suggested improvements, the effectiveness of the improvements, the costs of implementation, probability of implementation, the cost of maintaining the barrier function, the probability that maintenance will be kept up to standards and the generalizability of the suggested improvement. The AEB method is similar to the US method called HPES, but differs from that method in different ways. To exemplify, the AEB method has more emphasis on technical errors than HPES. In contrast to HPES that describes a series of events, the AEB method models only errors. This gives a more focused analysis making it well suited for checking other HPES-type accident analyses. However, the AEB method is a generic and stand-alone method that has been applied in other fields than nuclear power, such as, in traffic accident analyses.

  13. Cumulative Timers for Microprocessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battle, John O.

    2007-01-01

    It has been proposed to equip future microprocessors with electronic cumulative timers, for essentially the same reasons for which land vehicles are equipped with odometers (total-distance-traveled meters) and aircraft are equipped with Hobbs meters (total-engine-operating time meters). Heretofore, there has been no way to determine the amount of use to which a microprocessor (or a product containing a microprocessor) has been subjected. The proposed timers would count all microprocessor clock cycles and could only be read by means of microprocessor instructions but, like odometers and Hobbs meters, could never be reset to zero without physically damaging the chip.

  14. Incidence of renal carcinoma in non-functioning kidney due to renal pelvic stone disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZENGIN, KURSAD; TANIK, SERHAT; SENER, NEVZAT CAN; ALBAYRAK, SEBAHATTIN; EKICI, MUSA; BOZKURT, IBRAHIM HALIL; BAKIRTAS, HASAN; GURDAL, MESUT; IMAMOGLU, MUHAMMED ABDURRAHIM

    2015-01-01

    The objective of This study was to report our pathological findings in nephrectomy specimens from patients treated for non-functioning hydronephrotic kidney due to renal pelvic stone disease. A total of 97 patients who underwent nephrectomy for non-functioning hydronephrotic kidneys between January, 2011 and June, 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. A non-functioning kidney was defined as one having paper-thin parenchyma on urinary ultrasound or computed tomography, exhibiting no contrast visualization in the collecting duct system on intravenous urography and having a split renal function of <10% on nuclear renal function studies. Following pathological evaluation, 9 patients were diagnosed with xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis, 9 with malignant tumors and 79 with chronic pyelonephritis. Of the patients with chronic pyelonephritis, 2 also had renal adenomas. The malignant tumors included 3 transitional cell carcinomas (TCC), 2 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), 3 renal cell carcinomas (RCC) (1 sarcomatoid, 1 papillary and 1 clear cell RCC), whereas 1 patient had concurrent RCC and TCC. In conclusion, non-functioning kidneys, particularly those with kidney stones, should be managed as possible malignancies, due to the higher incidence of malignant tumors in such patients compared with the normal population. PMID:26171211

  15. PET image reconstruction with system matrix based on point spread function derived from single photon incidence response

    CERN Document Server

    Xin, Fan; Ming-Kai, Yun; Xiao-Li, Sun; Xue-Xiang, Cao; Shuang-Quanm, Liu; Pei, Chai; Dao-Wu, Li; Long, Wei

    2014-01-01

    In positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, statistical iterative reconstruction (IR) techniques appear particularly promising since they can provide accurate physical model and geometric system description. The reconstructed image quality mainly depends on the system matrix model which describes the relationship between image space and projection space for the IR method. The system matrix can contain some physics factors of detection such as geometrical component and blurring component. Point spread function (PSF) is generally used to describe the blurring component. This paper proposes an IR method based on the PSF system matrix, which is derived from the single photon incidence response function. More specifically, the gamma photon incidence on a crystal array is simulated by the Monte Carlo (MC) simulation, and then the single photon incidence response functions are obtained. Subsequently, using the single photon incidence response functions, the coincidence blurring factor is acquired according to the...

  16. Cumulative environmental effects. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This report presents a compilation of knowledge about the state of the environment and human activity in the Norwegian part of the North Sea and Skagerrak. The report gives an overview of pressures and impacts on the environment from normal activity and in the event of accidents. This is used to assess the cumulative environmental effects, which factors have most impact and where the impacts are greatest, and to indicate which problems are expected to be most serious in the future. The report is intended to provide relevant information that can be used in the management of the marine area in the future. It also provides input for the identification of environmental targets and management measures for the North Sea and Skagerrak.(Author)

  17. Clinico-functional study on the incidence of physical deficiencies in teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius NECULĂEȘ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the incidence of static disorders of the spine among teenagers. The study also aims at demonstrating the degree of correlation between functional evaluation of posture – through posturography – and the imagistic evaluation of the spine. The study sample comprised 250 teenagers aged between 12 and 18, who addressed to the medical clinic for a set of tests, including postural evaluation. The investigation comprised 250 teenagers aged between 12 and 18, who addressed the medical clinic for a set of tests, including postural evaluation. From among them, 63.20 % were male and 36.8% female; the age mean of the entire sample was 14.8. The statistical analysis conducted on the sample of posturally assessed subjects has found that the most common deviations are those manifested by vicious attitudes; the first are scoliotic attitudes, with 67.2% of the 84% of vicious attitudes encountered during the investigation.

  18. Incidence, risk factors, and the impact of allograft pyelonephritis on renal allograft function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R; Geerlings, S E; Peters-Sengers, H; Idu, M M; Hodiamont, C J; Ten Berge, I J M; Bemelman, F J

    2016-10-01

    The impact of allograft pyelonephritis (AGPN) on renal allograft function is controversial. In this study, we evaluated the incidence, risk factors, and the impact of AGPN on renal allograft function. Retrospective cohort study in adult renal allograft recipients with 1-year follow-up after transplantation (Tx). Renal allograft function was evaluated by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (by Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula) and 24-h urine protein excretion. A total of 431 renal allograft recipients were analyzed; 57 (13.2%) developed AGPN within 1 year after Tx. Median time between Tx and AGPN was 50 days. Risk factors for AGPN were the presence of a urological catheter (odds ratio [OR] = 18.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.00-44.81, P < 0.001) and preceding asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) (OR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.20-3.90, P = 0.009). In 72.7%, the causative microorganism of ASB was identical to that of the succeeding AGPN episode. Multivariable linear regression analysis showed that experiencing AGPN did not decrease the eGFR (P = 0.61) nor did increased proteinuria (P = 0.29) 1 year after Tx. For the eGFR, an interaction was found between AGPN/bacteriuria (BU) and acute rejection (AR): the group experiencing BU preceding AR had significantly (P < 0.001) lower eGFR compared with the group that experienced only AR (21 mL/min/1.73 m(2) vs. 48 mL/min/1.73 m(2) ), as a result of increased prevalence of combined rejections within the BU group. Indwelling urological catheters and preceding ASB are associated with developing AGPN. An incident of AGPN itself does not impair renal allograft function 1 year after Tx. However, a relevant interaction occurs between BU and AR, in which the sequence of occurrence of these 2 events synergistically impairs the eGFR. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. UBIQUITOUS POLLUTANTS FROM CUMULATIVE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPS) as environmental pollutants is a multifaceted issue whose scope continues to become better delineated since the escalation of concerted attention beginning in the 1980s. PPCPs typically occur as trace environmental pollutants (primarily in surface but also in ground waters) as a result of their widespread, continuous, combined usage in a broad range of human and veterinary therapeutic activities and practices. With respect to the risk-assessment paradigm, the growing body of published work has focused primarily on the origin and occurrence of these substances. Comparatively less is known about human and ecological exposure, and even less about the known or even potential hazards associated with exposure to these anthropogenic substances, many of which are highly bioactive. The continually growing, worldwide importance of freshwater resources underscores the need for ensuring that any aggregate or cumulative impacts on water supplies and resultant potential for human or ecological exposure be minimized. This has prompted the more recent investigations on waste treatment processes for one of the major sources of environmental disposition, namely sewage. Despite the paucity of health effects data for long-term, simultaneous exposure to multiple xenobiotics (particularly PPCPS) at low doses (a major toxicological issue that can be described by the

  20. Benzene exposure from the BP refinery flaring incident alters hematological and hepatic functions among smoking subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. D'Andrea

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the health effects of benzene exposure among smoking subjects from a prolonged flaring incident that occurred at the British Petroleum (BP refinery in Texas City, USA. Material and Methods: The study included smoking subjects who had been exposed and unexposed to the benzene release. Using medical charts, clinical data including white blood cell (WBC counts, platelet counts, hemoglobin, hematocrit, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT in the case of smoking subjects exposed to benzene was reviewed and analyzed. Results: A total of 791 tobacco smoking subjects (benzene-exposed: N = 733, unexposed: N = 58 were included. Benzene-exposed subjects had significantly higher levels of WBC (×103/μl counts (8±2.1 vs. 7.5±1.6, p = 0.003 and platelet (×103/μl counts (263.7±69.7 vs. 222.9±44.3, p = 0.000 as compared with the unexposed subjects. The mean hemoglobin, hematocrit, BUN, and creatinine levels did not differ significantly between the benzene-exposed and -unexposed smoking subjects. Serum levels of ALP (IU/l was significantly elevated in the benzene-exposed subjects compared with the unexposed subjects (84.5±16.9 vs. 73.8±15.9, p = 0.002. Similarly, benzene-exposed subjects had significantly higher levels of AST and ALT as compared with those unexposed subjects. Conclusions: Despite a smoking history, residents exposed to benzene from the prolonged BP flaring incident experienced significant alterations in hematological and hepatic functions indicating their vulnerability to the risk of developing hepatic or blood related disorders. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(6:849–860

  1. Rationale and design of BISTRO: a randomized controlled trial to determine whether bioimpedance spectroscopy-guided fluid management maintains residual kidney function in incident haemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Simon J; Caskey, Fergus J; Coyle, David; Lindley, Elizabeth; Macdonald, Jamie; Mitra, Sandip; Wilkie, Martin; Davenport, Andrew; Farrington, Ken; Dasgupta, Indranil; Ormandy, Paula; Andronis, Lazaros; Solis-Trapala, Ivonne; Sim, Julius

    2017-04-26

    Preserved residual kidney function (RKF) and normal fluid status are associated with better patient outcomes in incident haemodialysis patients. The objective of this trial is to determine whether using bioimpedance technology in prescribing the optimal post-dialysis weight can reduce the rate of decline of RKF and potentially improve patient outcomes. 516 pateints commencing haemodialysis, aged >18 with RKF of > 3 ml/min/1.73 m(2) or a urine volume >500 ml per day or per the shorter inter-dialytic period will be consented and enrolled into a pragmatic, open-label, randomized controlled trial. The intervention is incorporation of bioimpedance spectroscopy (BI) determination of normally hydrated weight to set a post-dialysis target weight that limits volume depletion, compared to current standard practice. Clinicians and participants will be blinded to BI measures in the control group and a standardized record capturing management of fluid status will be used in all participants. Primary outcome is preservation of residual kidney function assessed as time to anuria (≤100 ml/day or ≤200 ml urine volume in the short inter-dialytic period). A sample size of 516 was based upon a cumulative incidence of 30% anuria in the control group and 20% in the treatment group and 11% competing risks (death, transplantation) over 10 months, with up to 2 years follow-up. Secondary outcomes include rate of decline in small solute clearance, significant adverse events, hospitalization, loss of vascular access, cardiovascular events and interventions, dialysis efficacy and safety, dialysis-related symptoms and quality of life. Economic evaluation will be carried out to determine the cost-effectiveness of the intervention. Analyses will be adjusted for patient characteristics and dialysis unit practice patterns relevant to fluid management. This trial will establish the added value of undertaking BI measures to support clinical management of fluid status and establish the

  2. Occupation and three-year incidence of respiratory symptoms and lung function decline: the ARIC Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabelli, Maria C; London, Stephanie J; Charles, Luenda E; Pompeii, Lisa A; Wagenknecht, Lynne E

    2012-03-20

    Specific occupations are associated with adverse respiratory health. Inhalation exposures encountered in these jobs may place workers at risk of new-onset respiratory disease. We analyzed data from 8,967 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, a longitudinal cohort study. Participants included in this analysis were free of chronic cough and phlegm, wheezing, asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and other chronic lung conditions at the baseline examination, when they were aged 45-64 years. Using data collected in the baseline and first follow-up examination, we evaluated associations between occupation and the three-year incidence of cough, phlegm, wheezing, and airway obstruction and changes in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) measured by spirometry. All associations were adjusted for age, cigarettes per day, race, smoking status, and study center. During the approximately three-year follow-up, the percentage of participants developing chronic cough was 3%; chronic phlegm, 3%; wheezing, 3%; and airway obstruction, defined as FEV1 < lower limit of normal (LLN) and FEV1/FVC < LLN, 2%. The average annual declines in FEV1 and FVC were 56 mL and 66 mL, respectively, among men and 40 mL and 52 mL, respectively, among women. Relative to a referent category of managerial and administrative support occupations, elevated risks of new-onset chronic cough and chronic phlegm were observed for mechanics and repairers (chronic cough: RR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.02, 3.21; chronic phlegm: RR: 2.10, 95% CI: 1.23, 3.57) and cleaning and building service workers (chronic cough: RR: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.01, 3.37; chronic phlegm: RR: 2.28, 95% CI: 1.27, 4.08). Despite the elevated risk of new-onset symptoms, employment in cleaning and building services was associated with attenuated lung function decline, particularly among men, who averaged annual declines in FEV1 and FVC of 14 mL and 23 mL, respectively, less than the

  3. Occupation and three-year incidence of respiratory symptoms and lung function decline: the ARIC Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirabelli Maria C

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Specific occupations are associated with adverse respiratory health. Inhalation exposures encountered in these jobs may place workers at risk of new-onset respiratory disease. Methods We analyzed data from 8,967 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC study, a longitudinal cohort study. Participants included in this analysis were free of chronic cough and phlegm, wheezing, asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and other chronic lung conditions at the baseline examination, when they were aged 45-64 years. Using data collected in the baseline and first follow-up examination, we evaluated associations between occupation and the three-year incidence of cough, phlegm, wheezing, and airway obstruction and changes in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC measured by spirometry. All associations were adjusted for age, cigarettes per day, race, smoking status, and study center. Results During the approximately three-year follow-up, the percentage of participants developing chronic cough was 3%; chronic phlegm, 3%; wheezing, 3%; and airway obstruction, defined as FEV1 1/FVC 1 and FVC were 56 mL and 66 mL, respectively, among men and 40 mL and 52 mL, respectively, among women. Relative to a referent category of managerial and administrative support occupations, elevated risks of new-onset chronic cough and chronic phlegm were observed for mechanics and repairers (chronic cough: RR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.02, 3.21; chronic phlegm: RR: 2.10, 95% CI: 1.23, 3.57 and cleaning and building service workers (chronic cough: RR: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.01, 3.37; chronic phlegm: RR: 2.28, 95% CI: 1.27, 4.08. Despite the elevated risk of new-onset symptoms, employment in cleaning and building services was associated with attenuated lung function decline, particularly among men, who averaged annual declines in FEV1 and FVC of 14 mL and 23 mL, respectively, less than the declines observed in the

  4. Diet-Induced Obesity Is Associated with an Impaired NK Cell Function and an Increased Colon Cancer Incidence

    OpenAIRE

    Ina Bähr; Vincent Goritz; Henriette Doberstein; Grit Gesine Ruth Hiller; Philip Rosenstock; Janine Jahn; Ole Pörtner; Tobias Berreis; Thomas Mueller; Julia Spielmann; Heike Kielstein

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased colon cancer incidence, but underlying mechanisms remained unclear. Previous studies showed altered Natural killer (NK) cell functions in obese individuals. Therefore, we studied the impact of an impaired NK cell functionality on the increased colon cancer risk in obesity. In vitro investigations demonstrated a decreased IFN-γ secretion and cytotoxicity of human NK cells against colon tumor cells after NK cell preincubation with the adipokine leptin. In...

  5. Response of a CsI/amorphous-Si flat panel detector as function of incident x-ray angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkaczyk, J. Eric; Claus, Bernhard; Trotter, Dinko Gonzalez; Eberhard, J. W.

    2006-03-01

    Two mechanisms for MTF dependence on incident x-ray angle are demonstrated by an experimental technique that separates the two phenomena. The dominant effect is that travel of x-ray photons through the scintillator at non-normal incidence involves an in-plane component. This mechanism leads to a significant but deterministic blurring of the incident image, but has no effect on the noise transfer characteristics of the detector. A secondary effect is that at large angles to the surface normal, x-ray-to-optical conversion occurs at positions in the scintillator further away from the photodiode surface. This leads to a small net decrease in MTF and NPS at angles above 60 degrees. The deterministic character of the angular dependence of gain, MTF and NPS leads to the conclusion that sufficient angular range can be supported by this detector construction. Excellent functionality in the context of tomography is expected.

  6. Incremental Hemodialysis, Residual Kidney Function, and Mortality Risk in Incident Dialysis Patients: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obi, Yoshitsugu; Streja, Elani; Rhee, Connie M; Ravel, Vanessa; Amin, Alpesh N; Cupisti, Adamasco; Chen, Jing; Mathew, Anna T; Kovesdy, Csaba P; Mehrotra, Rajnish; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2016-08-01

    Maintenance hemodialysis is typically prescribed thrice weekly irrespective of a patient's residual kidney function (RKF). We hypothesized that a less frequent schedule at hemodialysis therapy initiation is associated with greater preservation of RKF without compromising survival among patients with substantial RKF. A longitudinal cohort. 23,645 patients who initiated maintenance hemodialysis therapy in a large dialysis organization in the United States (January 2007 to December 2010), had available RKF data during the first 91 days (or quarter) of dialysis, and survived the first year. Incremental (routine twice weekly for >6 continuous weeks during the first 91 days upon transition to dialysis) versus conventional (thrice weekly) hemodialysis regimens during the same time. Changes in renal urea clearance and urine volume during 1 year after the first quarter and survival after the first year. Among 23,645 included patients, 51% had substantial renal urea clearance (≥3.0mL/min/1.73m(2)) at baseline. Compared with 8,068 patients with conventional hemodialysis regimens matched based on baseline renal urea clearance, urine volume, age, sex, diabetes, and central venous catheter use, 351 patients with incremental regimens exhibited 16% (95% CI, 5%-28%) and 15% (95% CI, 2%-30%) more preserved renal urea clearance and urine volume at the second quarter, respectively, which persisted across the following quarters. Incremental regimens showed higher mortality risk in patients with inadequate baseline renal urea clearance (≤3.0mL/min/1.73m(2); HR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.07-2.44), but not in those with higher baseline renal urea clearance (HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.76-1.28). Results were similar in a subgroup defined by baseline urine volume of 600mL/d. Potential selection bias and wide CIs. Among incident hemodialysis patients with substantial RKF, incremental hemodialysis may be a safe treatment regimen and is associated with greater preservation of RKF, whereas higher mortality

  7. Transient Cumulative Processes,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    34 + Ct’SN(t)’ N~t)+l)’ SN~t)<t’SSN(t) I" We require that W(t) be of bounded variation in every finite t interval with probability one and that the random...This function is of bounded variation in every finite interval and thus its Laplace-Stieltjes Transform exists. Lemma 5.6 L{Ee t1L= (s;- Ca-s) [1-F...0, we may write F = X(t) (5.2.18) m(l+t) where X(t) is of bounded variation , tends to :ero as t approaches infinity, and if m a 1, F(t_ belongs

  8. Stability in the cumulative incidence, severity and mortality of 101 cases of invasive mucormycosis in high-risk patients from 1995 to 2011: a comparison of eras immediately before and after the availability of voriconazole and echinocandin-amphotericin combination therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidi, Maheen Z; Sohail, Muhammad R; Cummins, Nathan; Wilhelm, Mark; Wengenack, Nancy; Brumble, Lisa; Shah, Harshal; Jane Hata, Donna; McCullough, Ann; Wendel, Amy; Vikram, Holenarasipur R; Kusne, Shimon; Litzow, Mark; Letendre, Louis; Lahr, Brian D; Poeschla, Eric; Walker, Randall C

    2014-11-01

    As invasive mucormycosis (IM) numbers rise, clinicians suspect prior voriconazole worsens IM incidence and severity, and believe combination anti-fungal therapy improves IM survival. To compare the cumulative incidence (CI), severity and mortality of IM in eras immediately before and after the commercial availability of voriconazole all IM cases from 1995 to 2011 were analysed across four risk-groups (hematologic/oncologic malignancy (H/O), stem cell transplantation (SCT), solid organ transplantation (SOT) and other), and two eras, E1 (1995-2003) and E2, (2004-2011). Of 101 IM cases, (79 proven, 22 probable): 30 were in E1 (3.3/year) and 71 in E2 (8.9/year). Between eras, the proportion with H/O or SCT rose from 47% to 73%, while 'other' dropped from 33% to 11% (P = 0.036). Between eras, the CI of IM did not significantly increase in SCT (P = 0.27) or SOT (P = 0.30), and patterns of anatomic location (P = 0.122) and surgical debridement (P = 0.200) were similar. Significantly more patients received amphotericin-echinocandin combination therapy in E2 (31% vs. 5%, P = 0.01); however, 90-day survival did not improve (54% vs. 59%, P = 0.67). Since 2003, the rise of IM reflects increasing numbers at risk, not prior use of voriconazole. Frequent combination of anti-fungal therapy has not improved survival.

  9. Airflow Obstruction, Lung Function, and Incidence of Atrial Fibrillation: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingjing; Agarwal, Sunil K.; Alonso, Alvaro; Blecker, Saul; Chamberlain, Alanna M.; London, Stephanie J.; Loehr, Laura R.; McNeill, Ann Marie; Poole, Charles; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Heiss, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Background Reduced low forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) is reportedly associated with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF). Extant reports do not provide separate estimates for never smokers, and for African Americans, who incongruously have lower AF incidence than Caucasians. Methods and Results We examined 15,004 middle-aged African Americans and Caucasians enrolled in ARIC cohort study. Standardized spirometry were collected at the baseline examination. Incident AF was identified from the first among the following: ICD codes for AF on hospital discharge records or death certificates or 12-lead ECGs performed during three triennial follow-up visits. Over an average follow-up of 17.5 years, a total of 1,691 (11%) participants developed new onset AF. The rate of incident AF was inversely associated with FEV1 in each of the four race and gender- groups. After multivariable adjustment for traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors and height, hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of AF comparing the lowest with the highest quartile of FEV1 were 1.37 (1.02,1.83) for white women, 1.49 (1.16,1.91) for white men, 1.63 (1.00,2.66) for black women, and 2.36 (1.30,4.29) for black men. The above associations were observed across all smoking status categories. Moderate/severe airflow obstruction (FEV1/FVC<0.70 and FEV1< 80% of predicted value) was also associated with higher AF incidence. Conclusions In this large population-based study with a long term follow-up, reduced FEV1 and obstructive respiratory disease were inversely - associated with a higher AF incidence after adjusting for measured confounders. PMID:24344084

  10. Gender and incidence of functional disability in the elderly: a systematic review Gênero e incidência de incapacidade funcional em idosos: revisão sistemática

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This systematic review aimed to assess the effect of gender on the incidence of functional disability in the elderly. The search for publications in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and ProQuest electronic databases from January 1990 to March 2008 identified 879 publications, from which 21 cohort studies were selected that evaluated gender as an independent variable and incidence of functional disability in elderly as the outcome. Review of the studies found that after adjusting for socioeconomic, health...

  11. Functional Time Series Models to Estimate Future Age-Specific Breast Cancer Incidence Rates for Women in Karachi, Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farah Yasmeen[1; Sidra Zaheer[2

    2014-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is the most common female cancer in Pakistan. The incidence of breast cancer in Pakistan is about 2.5 times higher than that in the neighboring countries India and Iran. In Karachi, the most populated city of Pakistan, the age-standardized rate of breast cancer was 69.1 per 100,000 women during 1998-2002, which is the highest recorded rate in Asia. The carcinoma of breast in Pakistan is an enormous public health concern. In this study, we examined the recent trends of breast cancer incidence rates among the women in Karachi. Methods: We obtained the secondary data of breast cancer incidence from various hospitals. They included Jinnah Hospital, KIRAN (Karachi Institute of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine), and Civil hospital, where the data were available for the years 2004-2011. A total of 5331 new cases of female breast cancer were registered during this period. We analyzed the data in 5-year age groups 15-19, 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39, 40-44, 45-49, 50-54, 55-59, 60-64, 65-69, 70-74, 75+. Nonparametric smoothing were used to obtained age-specific incidence curves, and then the curves are decomposed using principal components analysis to fit FTS (functional time series) model. We then used exponential smoothing statspace models to estimate the forecasts of incidence curve and construct prediction intervals. Results: The breast cancer incidence rates in Karachi increased with age for all available years. The rates increased monotonically and are relatively sharp with the age from 15 years to 50 years and then they show variability after the age of 50 years. 10-year forecasts for the female breast cancer incidence rates in Karachi show that the future rates are expected to remain stable for the age-groups 15-50 years, but they will increase for the females of 50-years and over. Hence in future, the newly diagnosed breast cancer cases in the older women in Karachi are expected to increase. Conclusion: Prediction of age

  12. Improvement of left ventricular function under cardiac resynchronization therapy goes along with a reduced incidence of ventricular arrhythmia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Eickholt

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The beneficial effects of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT are thought to result from favorable left ventricular (LV reverse remodeling, however CRT is only successful in about 70% of patients. Whether response to CRT is associated with a decrease in ventricular arrhythmias (VA is still discussed controversially. Therefore, we investigated the incidence of VA in CRT responders in comparison with non-responders. METHODS: In this nonrandomized, two-center, observational study patients with moderate-to-severe heart failure, LV ejection fraction (LVEF ≤35%, and QRS duration >120 ms undergoing CRT were included. After 6 months patients were classified as CRT responders or non-responders. Incidence of VA was compared between both groups by Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression analysis. ROC analysis was performed to determine the aptitude of LVEF cut-off values to predict VA. RESULTS: In total 126 consecutive patients (64±11 years; 67%male were included, 74 were classified as responders and 52 as non-responders. While the mean LVEF at baseline was comparable in both groups (25±7% vs. 24±8%; P = 0.4583 only the responder group showed an improvement of LVEF (36±6% vs. 24±7; p7% was found to be a predictor of a significantly lower incidence of VA (AUC = 0.606. CONCLUSIONS: Improvement of left ventricular function under cardiac resynchronization therapy goes along with a reduced incidence of ventricular arrhythmia.

  13. Investigation of 234U(n,f) as a Function of Incident Neutron Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Adili, A.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Oberstedt, S.; Pomp, S.

    2011-10-01

    Measurements of the reaction 234U(n,f) have been performed at incident neutron energies from 0.2 MeV to 5 MeV at the 7 MV Van De Graaf accelerator at IRMM. A twin Frisch-grid ionization chamber was used for fission-fragment detection. Parallel digital and analogue data acquisitions were applied in order to compare the two techniques. First results on the angular anisotropy and preliminary mass distributions are presented along with a first comparison between the two techniques.

  14. Entanglement entropy and particle number cumulants of disordered fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmistrov, I. S.; Tikhonov, K. S.; Gornyi, I. V.; Mirlin, A. D.

    2017-08-01

    We study the entanglement entropy and particle number cumulants for a system of disordered noninteracting fermions in d dimensions. We show, both analytically and numerically, that for a weak disorder the entanglement entropy and the second cumulant (particle number variance) are proportional to each other with a universal coefficient. The corresponding expressions are analogous to those in the clean case but with a logarithmic factor regularized by the mean free path rather than by the system size. We also determine the scaling of higher cumulants by analytical (weak disorder) and numerical means. Finally, we predict that the particle number variance and the entanglement entropy are nonanalytic functions of disorder at the Anderson transition.

  15. Renal function and incidence of chronic kidney disease in HIV patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Magnus G.; Engsig, Frederik N; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo;

    2012-01-01

    Impaired renal function is of major concern in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients.......Impaired renal function is of major concern in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients....

  16. Deacetylase inhibition increases regulatory T cell function and decreases incidence and severity of collagen-induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saouaf, Sandra J; Li, Bin; Zhang, Geng; Shen, Yuan; Furuuchi, Narumi; Hancock, Wayne W; Greene, Mark I

    2009-10-01

    Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) is an established mouse model of disease with hallmarks of clinical rheumatoid arthritis. Histone/protein deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are known to inhibit the pathogenesis of CIA and other models of autoimmune disease, although the mechanisms responsible are unclear. Regulatory T cell (Treg) function is defective in rheumatoid arthritis. FOXP3 proteins in Tregs are present in a dynamic protein complex containing histone acetyltransferase and HDAC enzymes, and FOXP3 itself is acetylated on lysine residues. We therefore investigated the effects of HDACi therapy on regulatory T cell function in the CIA model. Administration of an HDACi, valproic acid (VPA), significantly decreased disease incidence (pincreased both the suppressive function of CD4(+)CD25(+) Tregs (pTregs in vivo. Hence, clinically approved HDACi such as VPA may limit autoimmune disease in vivo through effects on the production and function of FOXP3(+) Treg cells.

  17. Cumulative stress and autonomic dysregulation in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Rachel; Tuit, Keri; Hong, Kwang-Ik; Donovan, Theresa; Lee, Forrester; Sinha, Rajita

    2016-05-01

    Whether cumulative stress, including both chronic stress and adverse life events, is associated with decreased heart rate variability (HRV), a non-invasive measure of autonomic status which predicts poor cardiovascular outcomes, is unknown. Healthy community dwelling volunteers (N = 157, mean age 29 years) participated in the Cumulative Stress/Adversity Interview (CAI), a 140-item event interview measuring cumulative adversity including major life events, life trauma, recent life events and chronic stressors, and underwent 24-h ambulatory ECG monitoring. HRV was analyzed in the frequency domain and standard deviation of NN intervals (SDNN) calculated. Initial simple regression analyses revealed that total cumulative stress score, chronic stressors and cumulative adverse life events (CALE) were all inversely associated with ultra low-frequency (ULF), very low-frequency (VLF) and low-frequency (LF) power and SDNN (all p stress and chronic stress each was significantly associated with SDNN and ULF even after the highly significant contributions of age and sex, with no other covariates accounting for additional appreciable variance. For VLF and LF, both total cumulative stress and chronic stress significantly contributed to the variance alone but were not longer significant after adjusting for race and health behaviors. In summary, total cumulative stress, and its components of adverse life events and chronic stress were associated with decreased cardiac autonomic function as measured by HRV. Findings suggest one potential mechanism by which stress may exert adverse effects on mortality in healthy individuals. Primary preventive strategies including stress management may prove beneficial.

  18. Cumulant expansions for atmospheric flows

    CERN Document Server

    Ait-Chaalal, Farid; Meyer, Bettina; Marston, J B

    2015-01-01

    The equations governing atmospheric flows are nonlinear, and consequently the hierarchy of cumulant equations is not closed. But because atmospheric flows are inhomogeneous and anisotropic, the nonlinearity may manifests itself only weakly through interactions of mean fields with disturbances such as thermals or eddies. In such situations, truncations of the hierarchy of cumulant equations hold promise as a closure strategy. We review how truncations at second order can be used to model and elucidate the dynamics of turbulent atmospheric flows. Two examples are considered. First, we study the growth of a dry convective boundary layer, which is heated from below, leading to turbulent upward energy transport and growth of the boundary layer. We demonstrate that a quasilinear truncation of the equations of motion, in which interactions of disturbances among each other are neglected but interactions with mean fields are taken into account, can successfully capture the growth of the convective boundary layer. Seco...

  19. Electro-cumulation CNF project

    CERN Document Server

    Grishin, V G

    2000-01-01

    bound or free ion current within solid substances; non-plain symmetry; cumulation of the ion interaction. Experimental result: an Ice SuperPolarization. Cold nuclear fusion ? At http://www.shortway.to/to2084 . Keywords: ion, current, solid, symmetry, cumulation, cold nuclear fusion, polarization, depolarization, ionic conductor, superionic conductor, ice, crystal, strain, V-center, V-centre, doped crystal, interstitial impurity, intrinsic color center, high pressure technology, Bridgman, experiment, crowdion, dielectric, proton, layer, defect, lattice, dynamics, electromigration, mobility, muon catalysis, concentration, doping, dopant, conductivity, pycnonuclear reaction, permittivity, dielectric constant, point defects, interstitials, polarizability, imperfection, defect centers, glass, epitaxy, sodium hydroxide, metallic substrate, crystallization, point, tip, susceptibility, ferroelectric, ordering, force, correlation, collective, shift, distortion, coalescence, crowdions, electrolysis.

  20. Prospective study on incidence, risk factors, and long-term outcome of osteonecrosis in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, M.L. te; Pieters, R.; Hop, W.C.J.; Groot-Kruseman, H.A. de; Lequin, M.H.; Sluis, I.M. van der; Bokkerink, J.P.M.; Leeuw, J.A. de; Bruin, M.C.; Egeler, R.M.; Veerman, A.J.P.; Heuvel-Eibrink, M.M. van den

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: We studied cumulative incidence, risk factors, therapeutic strategies, and outcome of symptomatic osteonecrosis in pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cumulative incidence of osteonecrosis was assessed prospectively in 694 patients treated with

  1. Prospective Study on Incidence, Risk Factors, and Long-Term Outcome of Osteonecrosis in Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, Mariel L. Te; Pieters, Rob; Hop, Wim C. J.; de Groot-Kruseman, Hester A.; Lequin, Maarten H.; van der Sluis, Inge M.; Bokkerink, Jos P. M.; Leeuw, Jan A.; Bruin, Marrie C. A.; Egeler, R. Maarten; Veerman, Anjo J. P.; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose We studied cumulative incidence, risk factors, therapeutic strategies, and outcome of symptomatic osteonecrosis in pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Patients and Methods Cumulative incidence of osteonecrosis was assessed prospectively in 694 patients treated with th

  2. Lyapunov Functions for a Class of Discrete SIRS Epidemic Models with Nonlinear Incidence Rate and Varying Population Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the dynamical behaviors of a class of discrete SIRS epidemic models with nonlinear incidence rate and varying population sizes. The model is required to possess different death rates for the susceptible, infectious, recovered, and constant recruitment into the susceptible class, infectious class, and recovered class, respectively. By using the inductive method, the positivity and boundedness of all solutions are obtained. Furthermore, by constructing new discrete type Lyapunov functions, the sufficient and necessary conditions on the global asymptotic stability of the disease-free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium are established.

  3. Use of a Cumulative Risk Scale to Predict Poor Intellectual and Academic Outcomes in Childhood Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, Brian C; Scarborough, Vanessa Ramos; Salorio, Cynthia F

    2016-06-01

    Discrete risk factors for poor outcomes in childhood epilepsy have been identified, but it is unclear whether the combined effect of several risk factors better predicts outcome. The Epilepsy Cumulative Risk Scale was developed to quantify cumulative risk for poor outcomes in childhood epilepsy. Participants included 156 clinic-referred children with epilepsy. The Epilepsy Cumulative Risk Scale was developed using variables previously associated with functional outcomes. Scale utility was examined through its association with intellectual and academic functioning. All Epilepsy Cumulative Risk Scale variables were significantly associated with functioning. The Total Score (ie, cumulative effect) was most strongly correlated with cognition and academic skills. A Total Score ≥ 5 had the best sensitivity and specificity for differentiating those at high risk for poor outcomes. The Epilepsy Cumulative Risk Scale shows promise as a practical, data-driven tool for quantification of cumulative risk for poor outcomes in childhood epilepsy and may be helpful in detecting those needing referral for additional services.

  4. Predicting the incidence of planets and debris discs as a function of stellar mass

    CERN Document Server

    Greaves, J S

    2010-01-01

    The mass of solids in a young circumstellar disc may be the key factor in its efficiency in building planetesimals and planetary cores, and dust observed around young T Tauri and Herbig Ae stars can be used as a proxy for this initial solid content. The dust-mass distributions are taken from recent millimetre-wavelength data and fitted using survival analysis to take into account upper limits, and threshold disc-masses for building planets and belts of comets are estimated. Amongst A-stars, 20% gas giant and 55% debris disc systems are predicted, in good agreement with observations. For M-stars, the predicted and observed planet-frequencies agree at ~2-3%, and this low incidence is explained by a lack of massive discs. However, debris is predicted around approx. 14% of M-stars, while only ~2% such systems have so far been found. This suggests that deeper searches such as with Herschel and SCUBA-2 may find a cold disc population previously missed around these low-luminosity stars. Also, an estimate of the effi...

  5. A new formula for sputtering yield as function of ion energies at normal incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grais, Kh. I.; Shaltout, A. A.; Ali, S. S.; Boutros, R. M.; El-behery, K. M.; El-Sayed, Z. A.

    2010-04-01

    The statistical ellipsoidal construction has been reconstructed into the statistical conicoidal construction, to describe the sputtering yield, at normal incidence, for various ion energies. The most important advantage of the new volume is the developing of a simple-single equation to describe the sputtering-energy relationship. Its parameters have been pictorially predicted from the conicoidal representation. A correction term [1-( E th/E i) 1/ Ω] was added to the present new equation to describe the threshold energy ( E th) of sputtering. The developed equation could be applied to all available ion/target combinations, over a broadened range of energy for low and heavy ion-masses. The new equation has been differentiated with respect to energy giving rise to a relation between the threshold energy and maximum energy, at which the maximum sputtering yield occurs. It was found that, the obtained theoretical sputtering data for low and heavy ions satisfactorily approaches the available experimental data and works well at the threshold regime. It should be mentioned that the conicoidal model is not only of interest for analytical glow discharge method but also for ion beam method for the sputtering process, where low and high sputtering values could occur.

  6. Cumulative radiation exposure in children with cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Reilly, R

    2010-02-01

    This retrospective study calculated the cumulative radiation dose for children with cystic fibrosis (CF) attending a tertiary CF centre. Information on 77 children with a mean age of 9.5 years, a follow up time of 658 person years and 1757 studies including 1485 chest radiographs, 215 abdominal radiographs and 57 computed tomography (CT) scans, of which 51 were thoracic CT scans, were analysed. The average cumulative radiation dose was 6.2 (0.04-25) mSv per CF patient. Cumulative radiation dose increased with increasing age and number of CT scans and was greater in children who presented with meconium ileus. No correlation was identified between cumulative radiation dose and either lung function or patient microbiology cultures. Radiation carries a risk of malignancy and children are particularly susceptible. Every effort must be made to avoid unnecessary radiation exposure in these patients whose life expectancy is increasing.

  7. Does social capital affect the incidence of functional disability in older Japanese? A prospective population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aida, Jun; Kondo, Katsunori; Kawachi, Ichiro; Subramanian, S V; Ichida, Yukinobu; Hirai, Hiroshi; Kondo, Naoki; Osaka, Ken; Sheiham, Aubrey; Tsakos, Georgios; Watt, Richard G

    2013-01-01

    Recent increases in numbers of older people have been accompanied by increases in those with functional disability. No study has examined the association between community social capital and the onset of functional disability. The association between community social capital and the onset of functional disability was examined using data from the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study, a prospective cohort established in 2003 in Japan. Perceptions of community social capital (indicators of social cohesion such as trust of others and extent of social participation) in 6953 men and 7636 women aged 65 years or older were surveyed. Multilevel survival analysis using the discrete-time hazard model was applied. During 4-year follow-up, onset of functional disability occurred in 759 men and 1146 women. Women living in communities with higher mistrust had 1.68 (95% CI 1.14 to 2.49) times higher OR of onset of disability, even after adjusting for covariates. Mediators did not substantially change this association. Lack of social participation seemed to affect the health of women, though the effect was marginal (OR for covariates adjusted model =1.12 (95% CI 0.96 to 1.31)). There were no significant ORs among men. Lower community social capital was associated with higher incidence of onset of functional disability among older women but not among men. Community-based interventions to promote social capital may be useful for preventing functional disability of older Japanese women.

  8. Executive function, but not memory, associates with incident coronary heart disease and stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostamian, Somayeh; van Buchem, Mark A; Westendorp, Rudi G J

    2015-01-01

    from the Prospective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER) with Mini-Mental State Examination score ≥24 points. Scores on the Stroop Color-Word Test (selective attention) and the Letter Digit Substitution Test (processing speed) were converted to Z scores and averaged into a composite...... executive function score. Likewise, scores of the Picture Learning Test (immediate and delayed memory) were transformed into a composite memory score. Associations of executive function and memory were longitudinally assessed with risk of coronary heart disease and stroke using multivariable Cox regression...

  9. The Algebra of the Cumulative Percent Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Andrew J.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to help students avoid some pervasive reasoning errors in solving cumulative percent problems. Discusses the meaning of ."%+b%." the additive inverse of ."%." and other useful applications. Emphasizes the operational aspect of the cumulative percent concept. (KHR)

  10. Adaptive strategies for cumulative cultural learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehn, Micael; Laland, Kevin

    2012-05-21

    The demographic and ecological success of our species is frequently attributed to our capacity for cumulative culture. However, it is not yet known how humans combine social and asocial learning to generate effective strategies for learning in a cumulative cultural context. Here we explore how cumulative culture influences the relative merits of various pure and conditional learning strategies, including pure asocial and social learning, critical social learning, conditional social learning and individual refiner strategies. We replicate the Rogers' paradox in the cumulative setting. However, our analysis suggests that strategies that resolved Rogers' paradox in a non-cumulative setting may not necessarily evolve in a cumulative setting, thus different strategies will optimize cumulative and non-cumulative cultural learning.

  11. Improved curvelet thresholding denoising method by the Chi-Squared cumulation distribution function and PDE%融合卡方累积分布函数和PDE的曲波阈值去噪法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔华; 严玍伻

    2014-01-01

    针对硬阈值函数不连续导致视觉失真和软阈值函数存在恒定重构偏差的问题,依据噪声的曲波系数分布特性以及理想阈值函数特性,提出了基于卡方累积分布函数的新阈值函数。为了克服阈值去噪法固有的环绕效应和难以兼顾细节保持与去噪效果的性能缺陷,将偏微分方程去噪图像中包含的有益信息融合进新阈值函数去噪图像中,提出了新去噪方法。理论分析和仿真结果一致表明,较软、硬阈值去噪法,文中采用卡方累积分布函数和偏微分方程改进的曲波阈值去噪方法,可以有效地改善去噪效果和视觉质量。%To circumvent the visual distortion due to the discontinuity of the hard threshold function and the constant reconstruction deviation caused by the soft thresholding function,this paper presents a novel thresholding function based on the Chi-Square cumulative distribution function according to the distribution characteristics of curvelet coefficients of the noise and the ideal properties thehigh effective curvelet threshold functions should have.Further,in order to eliminate the surrounding effect inherent in curvelet threshold denoising methods and achieve a better balance between detail conservation and noise reduction, useful information involved in a denoised image produced by the partial differential equation denoising method is fused with that by the novel curvelet threshold function into the proposed denoising method. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the proposed denoiding method outper forms the soft and hard threshold denoising methods in terms of the denoising effect and visual quality.

  12. "Buddha's Light" of Cumulative Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Kopeliovich, Vladimir B; Potashnikova, Irina K

    2014-01-01

    We show analytically that in the cumulative particles production off nuclei multiple interactions lead to a glory-like backward focusing effect. Employing the small phase space method we arrived at a characteristic angular dependence of the production cross section $d\\sigma \\sim 1/ \\sqrt {\\pi - \\theta}$ near the strictly backward direction. This effect takes place for any number $n\\geq 3 $ of interactions of rescattered particle, either elastic or inelastic (with resonance excitations in intermediate states), when the final particle is produced near corresponding kinematical boundary. Such a behaviour of the cross section near the backward direction is in qualitative agreement with some of available data.

  13. A Resource Cost Aware Cumulative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonis, Helmut; Hadzic, Tarik

    We motivate and introduce an extension of the well-known cumulative constraint which deals with time and volume dependent cost of resources. Our research is primarily interested in scheduling problems under time and volume variable electricity costs, but the constraint equally applies to manpower scheduling when hourly rates differ over time and/or extra personnel incur higher hourly rates. We present a number of possible lower bounds on the cost, including a min-cost flow, different LP and MIP models, as well as greedy algorithms, and provide a theoretical and experimental comparison of the different methods.

  14. Marine bioactives as functional food ingredients: potential to reduce the incidence of chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordan, Sinéad; Ross, R Paul; Stanton, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    The marine environment represents a relatively untapped source of functional ingredients that can be applied to various aspects of food processing, storage, and fortification. Moreover, numerous marine-based compounds have been identified as having diverse biological activities, with some reported to interfere with the pathogenesis of diseases. Bioactive peptides isolated from fish protein hydrolysates as well as algal fucans, galactans and alginates have been shown to possess anticoagulant, anticancer and hypocholesterolemic activities. Additionally, fish oils and marine bacteria are excellent sources of omega-3 fatty acids, while crustaceans and seaweeds contain powerful antioxidants such as carotenoids and phenolic compounds. On the basis of their bioactive properties, this review focuses on the potential use of marine-derived compounds as functional food ingredients for health maintenance and the prevention of chronic diseases.

  15. Marine Bioactives as Functional Food Ingredients: Potential to Reduce the Incidence of Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Stanton

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The marine environment represents a relatively untapped source of functional ingredients that can be applied to various aspects of food processing, storage, and fortification. Moreover, numerous marine-based compounds have been identified as having diverse biological activities, with some reported to interfere with the pathogenesis of diseases. Bioactive peptides isolated from fish protein hydrolysates as well as algal fucans, galactans and alginates have been shown to possess anticoagulant, anticancer and hypocholesterolemic activities. Additionally, fish oils and marine bacteria are excellent sources of omega-3 fatty acids, while crustaceans and seaweeds contain powerful antioxidants such as carotenoids and phenolic compounds. On the basis of their bioactive properties, this review focuses on the potential use of marine-derived compounds as functional food ingredients for health maintenance and the prevention of chronic diseases.

  16. Marine Bioactives as Functional Food Ingredients: Potential to Reduce the Incidence of Chronic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordan, Sinéad; Ross, R. Paul; Stanton, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    The marine environment represents a relatively untapped source of functional ingredients that can be applied to various aspects of food processing, storage, and fortification. Moreover, numerous marine-based compounds have been identified as having diverse biological activities, with some reported to interfere with the pathogenesis of diseases. Bioactive peptides isolated from fish protein hydrolysates as well as algal fucans, galactans and alginates have been shown to possess anticoagulant, anticancer and hypocholesterolemic activities. Additionally, fish oils and marine bacteria are excellent sources of omega-3 fatty acids, while crustaceans and seaweeds contain powerful antioxidants such as carotenoids and phenolic compounds. On the basis of their bioactive properties, this review focuses on the potential use of marine-derived compounds as functional food ingredients for health maintenance and the prevention of chronic diseases. PMID:21747748

  17. Incidence and function of sigma factors in Ralstonia metallidurans and other bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nies, Dietrich H

    2004-04-01

    Bacterial sigma factors are essential for directing the bacterial RNA polymerase to promoter regions during transcription initiation. Genomic sequencing of the highly heavy-metal-resistant beta-proteobacterium Ralstonia metallidurans strain CH34 revealed 17 candidate genes for sigma factors. This review compares the sigma factor machinery of R. metallidurans to that of other bacteria. The sigma factors of 105 bacterial genomes were assigned to sigma factor clusters and families formed around the factors from Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and R. metallidurans. Genes for between 1 and 65 sigma-factor-related proteins were found in these genomes. Although prediction of sigma factor function from sequence comparisons can be misleading, organization of the R. metallidurans sigma factors into clusters and protein families, together with a discussion of the physiological function of members of these clusters, might yield insight into the cellular roles of bacterial sigma factors and the genes that depend on them for their expression.

  18. Increased incidence of rare codon clusters at 5' and 3' gene termini:implications for function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark Patricia L

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The process of translation can be affected by the use of rare versus common codons within the mRNA transcript. Results Here, we show that rare codons are enriched at the 5' and 3' termini of genes from E. coli and other prokaryotes. Genes predicted to be secreted show significant enrichment in 5' rare codon clusters, but not 3' rare codon clusters. Surprisingly, no correlation between 5' mRNA structure and rare codon usage was observed. Conclusions Potential functional roles for the enrichment of rare codons at terminal positions are explored.

  19. A paradox of cumulative culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yutaka; Wakano, Joe Yuichiro; Ohtsuki, Hisashi

    2015-08-21

    Culture can grow cumulatively if socially learnt behaviors are improved by individual learning before being passed on to the next generation. Previous authors showed that this kind of learning strategy is unlikely to be evolutionarily stable in the presence of a trade-off between learning and reproduction. This is because culture is a public good that is freely exploited by any member of the population in their model (cultural social dilemma). In this paper, we investigate the effect of vertical transmission (transmission from parents to offspring), which decreases the publicness of culture, on the evolution of cumulative culture in both infinite and finite population models. In the infinite population model, we confirm that culture accumulates largely as long as transmission is purely vertical. It turns out, however, that introduction of even slight oblique transmission drastically reduces the equilibrium level of culture. Even more surprisingly, if the population size is finite, culture hardly accumulates even under purely vertical transmission. This occurs because stochastic extinction due to random genetic drift prevents a learning strategy from accumulating enough culture. Overall, our theoretical results suggest that introducing vertical transmission alone does not really help solve the cultural social dilemma problem. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Global Stability Analysis of SEIR Model with Holling Type II Incidence Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Safi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A deterministic model for the transmission dynamics of a communicable disease is developed and rigorously analysed. The model, consisting of five mutually exclusive compartments representing the human dynamics, has a globally asymptotically stable disease-free equilibrium (DFE whenever a certain epidemiological threshold, known as the basic reproduction number (ℛ0, is less than unity; in such a case the endemic equilibrium does not exist. On the other hand, when the reproduction number is greater than unity, it is shown, using nonlinear Lyapunov function of Goh-Volterra type, in conjunction with the LaSalle's invariance principle, that the unique endemic equilibrium of the model is globally asymptotically stable under certain conditions. Furthermore, the disease is shown to be uniformly persistent whenever ℛ0>1.

  1. Inspection of 56Fe γ-Ray angular distributions as a function of incident neutron energy using optical model approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhoy, J. R.; Ramirez, A. P.; Alcorn-Dominguez, D. K.; Hicks, S. F.; Peters, E. E.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Yates, S. W.

    2017-09-01

    Neutron inelastic scattering cross sections measured directly through (n,n) or deduced from γ-ray production cross sections following inelastic neutron scattering (n,n'γ) are a focus of basic and applied research at the University of Kentucky Accelerator Laboratory (www.pa.uky.edu/accelerator). For nuclear data applications, angle-integrated cross sections are desired over a wide range of fast neutron energies. Several days of experimental beam time are required for a data set at each incident neutron energy, which limits the number of angular distributions that can be measured in a reasonable amount of time. Approximations can be employed to generate cross sections with a higher energy resolution, since at 125o, the a2P2 term of the Legendre expansion is identically zero and the a4P4 is assumed to be very small. Provided this assumption is true, a single measurement at 125o would produce the γ-ray production cross section. This project tests these assumptions and energy dependences using the codes CINDY/SCAT and TALYS/ECIS06/SCAT. It is found that care must be taken when interpreting γ-ray excitation functions as cross sections when the incident neutron energy is < 1000 keV above threshold or before the onset of feeding.

  2. Diuretics, Limited Ultrafiltration, and Residual Renal Function in Incident Hemodialysis Patients: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjolund, Jessica; Garcia Anton, Desiree; Bayes, Liz Y; Hoekstra, Tiny; Dekker, Friedo W; Munoz Mendoza, Jair

    2016-09-01

    The effect of diuretics on residual renal function expressed as residual GFR (rGFR) and urine volume (rUV) using 24-hour urine collections has not been well examined in hemodialysis (HD) patients. We present a small (seven patient) but provocative case series describing a strikingly low rate of decline in rUV and rGFR (average of creatinine and urea clearances, 24-hour urine collections) in patients treated with increasing doses of furosemide (up to 360 mg/day) during the first 2 years after initiation of HD. Between 6 and 12 months, the mean rUV fell by 1 ml/month, whereas rGFR declined by 0.03 ml/min/1.73 m(2) /month. The mean rate of decline from 12 to 24 months for rUV (33 ml/month) and rGFR (0.02 ml/min/1.73 m(2) /month) were also low. While data are clearly limited and the observation retrospective, they are consistent with the better documented benefit of diuretics observed in end-stage renal disease patients treated with peritoneal dialysis.

  3. Cumulative Effect of Depression on Dementia Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Olazarán

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze a potential cumulative effect of life-time depression on dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD, with control of vascular factors (VFs. Methods. This study was a subanalysis of the Neurological Disorders in Central Spain (NEDICES study. Past and present depression, VFs, dementia status, and dementia due to AD were documented at study inception. Dementia status was also documented after three years. Four groups were created according to baseline data: never depression (nD, past depression (pD, present depression (prD, and present and past depression (prpD. Logistic regression was used. Results. Data of 1,807 subjects were investigated at baseline (mean age 74.3, 59.3% women, and 1,376 (81.6% subjects were evaluated after three years. The prevalence of dementia at baseline was 6.7%, and dementia incidence was 6.3%. An effect of depression was observed on dementia prevalence (OR [CI 95%] 1.84 [1.01–3.35] for prD and 2.73 [1.08–6.87] for prpD, and on dementia due to AD (OR 1.98 [0.98–3.99] for prD and OR 3.98 [1.48–10.71] for prpD (fully adjusted models, nD as reference. Depression did not influence dementia incidence. Conclusions. Present depression and, particularly, present and past depression are associated with dementia at old age. Multiple mechanisms, including toxic effect of depression on hippocampal neurons, plausibly explain these associations.

  4. Diet-Induced Obesity Is Associated with an Impaired NK Cell Function and an Increased Colon Cancer Incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bähr, Ina; Goritz, Vincent; Doberstein, Henriette; Hiller, Grit Gesine Ruth; Rosenstock, Philip; Jahn, Janine; Pörtner, Ole; Berreis, Tobias; Mueller, Thomas; Spielmann, Julia; Kielstein, Heike

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased colon cancer incidence, but underlying mechanisms remained unclear. Previous studies showed altered Natural killer (NK) cell functions in obese individuals. Therefore, we studied the impact of an impaired NK cell functionality on the increased colon cancer risk in obesity. In vitro investigations demonstrated a decreased IFN-γ secretion and cytotoxicity of human NK cells against colon tumor cells after NK cell preincubation with the adipokine leptin. In addition, leptin incubation decreased the expression of activating NK cell receptors. In animal studies, colon cancer growth was induced by injection of azoxymethane (AOM) in normal weight and diet-induced obese rats. Body weight and visceral fat mass were increased in obese animals compared to normal weight rats. AOM-treated obese rats showed an increased quantity, size, and weight of colon tumors compared to the normal weight tumor group. Immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated a decreased number of NK cells in spleen and liver in obesity. Additionally, the expression levels of activating NK cell receptors were lower in spleen and liver of obese rats. The results show for the first time that the decreased number and impaired NK cell function may be one cause for the higher colon cancer risk in obesity.

  5. Diet-Induced Obesity Is Associated with an Impaired NK Cell Function and an Increased Colon Cancer Incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Bähr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with an increased colon cancer incidence, but underlying mechanisms remained unclear. Previous studies showed altered Natural killer (NK cell functions in obese individuals. Therefore, we studied the impact of an impaired NK cell functionality on the increased colon cancer risk in obesity. In vitro investigations demonstrated a decreased IFN-γ secretion and cytotoxicity of human NK cells against colon tumor cells after NK cell preincubation with the adipokine leptin. In addition, leptin incubation decreased the expression of activating NK cell receptors. In animal studies, colon cancer growth was induced by injection of azoxymethane (AOM in normal weight and diet-induced obese rats. Body weight and visceral fat mass were increased in obese animals compared to normal weight rats. AOM-treated obese rats showed an increased quantity, size, and weight of colon tumors compared to the normal weight tumor group. Immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated a decreased number of NK cells in spleen and liver in obesity. Additionally, the expression levels of activating NK cell receptors were lower in spleen and liver of obese rats. The results show for the first time that the decreased number and impaired NK cell function may be one cause for the higher colon cancer risk in obesity.

  6. Urinary biomarkers are associated with incident cardiovascular disease, all-cause mortality and deterioration of kidney function in type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Scholten, Bernt Johan; Reinhard, Henrik; Hansen, Tine W;

    2016-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We evaluated two urinary biomarkers reflecting different aspects of renal pathophysiology as potential determinants of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), all-cause mortality and a reduced estimated GFR (eGFR) in patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria but without...... diabetes and microalbuminuria receiving multifactorial treatment, higher urinary HGF was associated with incident CVD and all-cause mortality, and higher adiponectin was associated with CVD and deterioration in renal function....

  7. Probing the self-assembled nanostructures of functional polymers with synchrotron grazing incidence X-ray scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ree, Moonhor

    2014-05-01

    For advanced functional polymers such as biopolymers, biomimic polymers, brush polymers, star polymers, dendritic polymers, and block copolymers, information about their surface structures, morphologies, and atomic structures is essential for understanding their properties and investigating their potential applications. Grazing incidence X-ray scattering (GIXS) is established for the last 15 years as the most powerful, versatile, and nondestructive tool for determining these structural details when performed with the aid of an advanced third-generation synchrotron radiation source with high flux, high energy resolution, energy tunability, and small beam size. One particular merit of this technique is that GIXS data can be obtained facilely for material specimens of any size, type, or shape. However, GIXS data analysis requires an understanding of GIXS theory and of refraction and reflection effects, and for any given material specimen, the best methods for extracting the form factor and the structure factor from the data need to be established. GIXS theory is reviewed here from the perspective of practical GIXS measurements and quantitative data analysis. In addition, schemes are discussed for the detailed analysis of GIXS data for the various self-assembled nanostructures of functional homopolymers, brush, star, and dendritic polymers, and block copolymers. Moreover, enhancements to the GIXS technique are discussed that can significantly improve its structure analysis by using the new synchrotron radiation sources such as third-generation X-ray sources with picosecond pulses and partial coherence and fourth-generation X-ray laser sources with femtosecond pulses and full coherence.

  8. Incidence of functional bi-temporal connections in the human brain in vivo and their relevance to epilepsy surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Jiménez, Diego; Abete-Rivas, Margely; Martín-López, David; Lacruz, María Elena; Selway, Richard P; Valentín, Antonio; Alarcón, Gonzalo

    2015-04-01

    The incidence of functional connections between human temporal lobes and their latencies were investigated using intracranial EEG responses to electrical stimulation with 1 msec single pulses in 91 patients assessed for surgery for treatment of epilepsy. The areas studied were amygdala, hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, fusiform gyrus, inferior and mid temporal gyrus. Furthermore, we assessed whether the presence of such connections are related to seizure onset extent and postsurgical seizure control. Responses were seen in any region of the contralateral temporal lobe when stimulating temporal regions in 30 patients out of the 91 (32.96%). Bi-hippocampal or bi-amygdalar projections were seen in only 5% of temporal lobes (N = 60) and between both fusiform gyri in 7.1% (N = 126). All other bilateral connections occurred in less than 5% of hemispheres. Depending on the structures, latencies ranged between 20 and 90 msec, with an average value of 60.2 msec. There were no statistical difference in the proportion of patients showing Engel Class I between patients with and without contralateral temporal connections. No difference was found in the proportion of patients showing bilateral or unilateral seizure onset among patients with and without contralateral temporal projections. The present findings corroborate that the functionality of bilateral temporal connections in humans is limited and does not affect the surgical outcome.

  9. A Parametric Cumulative Sum Statistic for Person Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Ronald D.; Shi, Min

    2009-01-01

    This article develops a new cumulative sum (CUSUM) statistic to detect aberrant item response behavior. Shifts in behavior are modeled with quadratic functions and a series of likelihood ratio tests are used to detect aberrancy. The new CUSUM statistic is compared against another CUSUM approach as well as traditional person-fit statistics. A…

  10. A Parametric Cumulative Sum Statistic for Person Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Ronald D.; Shi, Min

    2009-01-01

    This article develops a new cumulative sum (CUSUM) statistic to detect aberrant item response behavior. Shifts in behavior are modeled with quadratic functions and a series of likelihood ratio tests are used to detect aberrancy. The new CUSUM statistic is compared against another CUSUM approach as well as traditional person-fit statistics. A…

  11. Functional limitations and somatic diseases are independent predictors for incident depressive disorders in seniors: Findings from a nationwide longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ya-Ting; Wang, Yao-Hsien; Chiu, Hsien-Tsai; Wu, Chia-Rong; Handa, Yujiro; Liao, Yin-Lin; Hsu, Yi-Hsin Elsa

    2015-01-01

    Few nationwide comprehensive studies analyzed the factors leading to the onset of depression in correlation with medical disease and other related factors concerning geriatric depression. This study examined medical diseases with other factors which lead to depression among the elderly. This Taiwan-based longitudinal study examined a collection of 1467 seniors aged over 65. Subjects who fit this criteria were initially interviewed in 2003, and then four years later. Independent variables included baseline demographics, chronic medical illnesses, and the change of subjects' self-perceived health status, functional limitations including ADL, IADL and mobility limitation factors. The dependent variable was the symptoms of incident depression, as ascertained by the ten-item questionnaire during the later session. The logistic regression analyses were used to examine some of the predictors related to depressive disorders. The findings showed that heart conditions (adjusted OR=1.55, 95% CI: 1.12-2.15, p=0.008) and joint disorders (adjusted OR=1.51, 95% CI: 1.09-2.09, p=0.013), as well as functional limitations, particularly IADL (adjusted OR=1.81, 95% CI: 1.24-2.65, p=0.002) and ADL (adjusted OR=1.77, 95% CI: 1.27-2.47, p=0.001) were independently associated with the onset of depression among the elderly population. These findings indicated that when classifying symptoms of depression in geriatric patients with several underlying medical diseases, keen attention should be directed to the type of medical disorders and the functional deterioration in terms of daily activities and autonomic capabilities. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. Association between diastolic blood pressure and cumulative work time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cordeiro

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Diastolic blood pressure was viewed as a generic indicator of aging, and its association with cumulative work time was studied after controlling for age as a potential confounding factor. The study was conducted among production line workers at a Brazilian tannery in July 1993. The association between diastolic blood pressure and cumulative work time was verified by fitting a second-order linear regression model, where diastolic blood pressure was a function of worker's age and cumulative work time. By fitting the model, one can predict that, in the beginning of working life at the tannery, on average each 1-year period is associated with an increase of about 1.5 mmHg in diastolic blood pressure. The fit obtained highlights one component directly associated with work as part of the rate of pressure increase in the study group. This component is twice as high as that directly associated with age.

  13. Cumulate Fragments in Silicic Ignimbrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, O.; Ellis, B. S.; Wolff, J.

    2014-12-01

    Increasingly, studies are concluding that silicic ignimbrites are the result of the amalgamation of multiple discrete magma batches. Yet the existence of discrete batches presents a conundrum for magma generation and storage; if silicic magma batches are not generated nearly in situ in the upper crust, they must traverse, and reside within, a thermally hostile environment with large temperature gradients, resulting in low survivability in their shallow magmatic hearths. The Snake River Plain (Idaho, USA) is a type example of this 'multi-batch' assembly with ignimbrites containing multiple populations of pyroxene crystals, glass shards, and crystal aggregates. The ubiquitous crystal aggregates hint at a mechanism to facilitate the existence of multiple, relatively small batches of rhyolite in the upper crust. These aggregates contain the same plagioclase, pyroxene, and oxide mineral compositions as single phenocrysts of the same minerals in their host rocks, but they have significantly less silicic bulk compositions and lack quartz and sanidine, which occur as single phenocrysts in the deposits. This implies significant crystallization followed by melt extraction from mushy reservoir margins. The extracted melt then continues to evolve (crystallizing sanidine and quartz) while the melt-depleted margins provide an increasingly rigid and refractory network segregating the crystal-poor batches of magma. The hot, refractory, margins insulate the crystal-poor lenses, allowing (1) extended residence in the upper crust, and (2) preservation of chemical heterogeneities among batches. In contrast, systems that produce cumulates richer in low-temperature phases (quartz, K-feldspars, and/or biotite) favour remelting upon recharge, leading to less segregation of eruptible melt pockets and the formation of gradationally zoned ignimbrites. The occurrence of similar crystal aggregates from a variety of magmatic lineages suggests the generality of this process.

  14. Cumulative human impacts on marine predators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maxwell, Sara M; Hazen, Elliott L; Bograd, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Stressors associated with human activities interact in complex ways to affect marine ecosystems, yet we lack spatially explicit assessments of cumulative impacts on ecologically and economically key components such as marine predators. Here we develop a metric of cumulative utilization and impact...

  15. Longitudinal study on thyroid function in patients with thalassemia major: High incidence of central hypothyroidism by 18 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf T Soliman

    2013-01-01

    was found between ferritin and TSH. Conclusions: Worsening of thyroid function was observed in 35% of the studied thalassemic patients by the age of 18 years. The lack of proper increase of TSH in response to the low circulating levels of FT4 in 13/17 (76% of these patients indicates a relatively high incidence of defective pituitary thyrotrophic function in these patients.

  16. Longitudinal study on thyroid function in patients with thalassemia major: High incidence of central hypothyroidism by 18 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Ashraf T.; Al Yafei, Fawzia; Al-Naimi, Lolwa; Almarri, Noora; Sabt, Aml; Yassin, Mohamed; De Sanctis, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    found between ferritin and TSH. Conclusions: Worsening of thyroid function was observed in 35% of the studied thalassemic patients by the age of 18 years. The lack of proper increase of TSH in response to the low circulating levels of FT4 in 13/17 (76%) of these patients indicates a relatively high incidence of defective pituitary thyrotrophic function in these patients. PMID:24381890

  17. GlycA, a Pro-Inflammatory Glycoprotein Biomarker, and Incident Cardiovascular Disease : Relationship with C-Reactive Protein and Renal Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruppen, Eke G.; Riphagen, Ineke J.; Connelly, Margery A.; Otvos, James D.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective GlycA is a novel nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy-measured biomarker of systemic inflammation. We determined whether GlycA is associated with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) in men and women, examined whether this association with CVD is modified by renal function, and

  18. Cumulants of heat transfer across nonlinear quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huanan; Agarwalla, Bijay Kumar; Li, Baowen; Wang, Jian-Sheng

    2013-12-01

    We consider thermal conduction across a general nonlinear phononic junction. Based on two-time observation protocol and the nonequilibrium Green's function method, heat transfer in steady-state regimes is studied, and practical formulas for the calculation of the cumulant generating function are obtained. As an application, the general formalism is used to study anharmonic effects on fluctuation of steady-state heat transfer across a single-site junction with a quartic nonlinear on-site pinning potential. An explicit nonlinear modification to the cumulant generating function exact up to the first order is given, in which the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation symmetry is found still valid. Numerically a self-consistent procedure is introduced, which works well for strong nonlinearity.

  19. Nonlinear cumulative damage model for multiaxial fatigue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG De-guang; SUN Guo-qin; DENG Jing; YAN Chu-liang

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of the continuum fatigue damage theory,a nonlinear uniaxial fatigue cumulative damage model is first proposed.In order to describe multiaxial fatigue damage characteristics,a nonlinear multiaxial fatigue cumulative damage model is developed based on the critical plane approach,The proposed model can consider the multiaxial fatigue limit,mean hydrostatic pressure and the unseparated characteristic for the damage variables and loading parameters.The recurrence formula of fatigue damage model was derived under multilevel loading,which is used to predict multiaxial fatigue life.The results showed that the proposed nonlinear multiaxial fatigue cumulative damage model is better than Miner's rule.

  20. A cross-sectional study of the relationship between serum liver enzymes level and the incidence of impaired fasting glucose in males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Guangming; Lu, Lihong; Xiao, Yufei; Zhu, Yimiao; Pan, Wensheng; Xu, Xiang; Shen, Shengrong; Das, Undurti N

    2014-07-28

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible correlation between levels of serum liver enzymes and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in Chinese adults and to provide a new perspective for the prevention of pre-diabetes. Serum liver enzymes of the samples including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and g-glutamyl transferase (GGT), as well as plasma glucose, blood lipids, and insulin, were measured. The cumulative incidences of IFG between different quartiles of liver enzymes were compared by the chi-square test. A logistic regression model (binary regression) was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) of IFG with 95% confidence interval (95% CI). The total incidence of IFG was 20.3% and the cumulative incidence of IFG was higher in men compared to women. In both sexes, IFG is more prevalent in higher quartiles of liver enzymes. After adjusting for age, BMI, blood pressure, triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and total cholesterol (TC), the cumulative incidences of IFG were significantly higher in the highest quartiles of liver enzymes than in the lowest quartiles. A significantly higher cumulative incidence of IFG was found in the highest GGT quartile than in the lowest quartile for woman. The results of this study suggest that serum liver enzymes are related to the risk of IFG in Chinese adults. We infer that preserving the hepatic function may be an efficient way to prevent the development of IFG, especially in males.

  1. Cumulative cultural learning: Development and diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legare, Cristine H

    2017-07-24

    The complexity and variability of human culture is unmatched by any other species. Humans live in culturally constructed niches filled with artifacts, skills, beliefs, and practices that have been inherited, accumulated, and modified over generations. A causal account of the complexity of human culture must explain its distinguishing characteristics: It is cumulative and highly variable within and across populations. I propose that the psychological adaptations supporting cumulative cultural transmission are universal but are sufficiently flexible to support the acquisition of highly variable behavioral repertoires. This paper describes variation in the transmission practices (teaching) and acquisition strategies (imitation) that support cumulative cultural learning in childhood. Examining flexibility and variation in caregiver socialization and children's learning extends our understanding of evolution in living systems by providing insight into the psychological foundations of cumulative cultural transmission-the cornerstone of human cultural diversity.

  2. Calculating Cumulative Binomial-Distribution Probabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuer, Ernest M.; Bowerman, Paul N.

    1989-01-01

    Cumulative-binomial computer program, CUMBIN, one of set of three programs, calculates cumulative binomial probability distributions for arbitrary inputs. CUMBIN, NEWTONP (NPO-17556), and CROSSER (NPO-17557), used independently of one another. Reliabilities and availabilities of k-out-of-n systems analyzed. Used by statisticians and users of statistical procedures, test planners, designers, and numerical analysts. Used for calculations of reliability and availability. Program written in C.

  3. The three-year incidence of fracture in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Kyla L; McArthur, Eric; Leslie, William D; Fraser, Lisa-Ann; Jamal, Sophie A; Cadarette, Suzanne M; Pouget, Jennie G; Lok, Charmaine E; Hodsman, Anthony B; Adachi, Jonathan D; Garg, Amit X

    2014-10-01

    Knowing a person's fracture risk according to their kidney function, gender, and age may influence clinical management and decision-making. Using healthcare databases from Ontario, Canada, we conducted a cohort study of 679,114 adults of 40 years and over (mean age 62 years) stratified at cohort entry by estimated glomerular filtration rate ((eGFR) 60 and over, 45-59, 30-44, 15-29, and under 15 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)), gender, and age (40-65 and over 65 years). The primary outcome was the 3-year cumulative incidence of fracture (proportion of adults who fractured (hip, forearm, pelvis, or proximal humerus) at least once within 3-years of follow-up). Additional analyses examined the fracture incidence per 1000 person-years, hip fracture alone, stratification by prior fracture, stratification by eGFR and proteinuria, and 3-year cumulative incidence of falls with hospitalization. The 3-year cumulative incidence of fracture significantly increased in a graded manner in adults with a lower eGFR for both genders and both age groups. The 3-year cumulative incidence of fracture in women over 65 years of age across the 5 eGFR groups were 4.3%, 5.8%, 6.5%, 7.8%, and 9.6%, respectively. Corresponding estimates for men over 65 years were 1.6%, 2.0%, 2.7%, 3.8%, and 5.0%, respectively. Similar graded relationships were found for falls with hospitalization and additional analyses. Thus, many adults with chronic kidney disease will fall and fracture. Results can be used for prognostication and guidance of sample size requirements for fracture prevention trials.

  4. Cumulative cultural evolution: the role of teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Laureano; Toro, Miguel A

    2014-04-21

    In humans, cultural transmission occurs usually by cumulative inheritance, generating complex adaptive behavioral features. Cumulative culture requires key psychological processes (fundamentally imitation and teaching) that are absent or impoverished in non-human primates. In this paper we analyze the role that teaching has played in human cumulative cultural evolution. We assume that a system of cumulative culture generates increasingly adaptive behaviors, that are also more complex and difficult to imitate. Our thesis is that, as cultural traits become more complex, cumulative cultural transmission requires teaching to ensure accurate transmission from one generation to the next. In an increasingly complex cultural environment, we consider that individuals commit errors in imitation. We develop a model of cumulative cultural evolution in a changing environment and show that these errors hamper the process of cultural accumulation. We also show that a system of teaching between parents and offspring that increases the fidelity of imitation unblocks the accumulation and becomes adaptive whenever the gain in fitness compensates the cost of teaching.

  5. Human cumulative culture: a comparative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Lewis G; Vale, Gill L; Laland, Kevin N; Flynn, Emma; Kendal, Rachel L

    2014-05-01

    Many animals exhibit social learning and behavioural traditions, but human culture exhibits unparalleled complexity and diversity, and is unambiguously cumulative in character. These similarities and differences have spawned a debate over whether animal traditions and human culture are reliant on homologous or analogous psychological processes. Human cumulative culture combines high-fidelity transmission of cultural knowledge with beneficial modifications to generate a 'ratcheting' in technological complexity, leading to the development of traits far more complex than one individual could invent alone. Claims have been made for cumulative culture in several species of animals, including chimpanzees, orangutans and New Caledonian crows, but these remain contentious. Whilst initial work on the topic of cumulative culture was largely theoretical, employing mathematical methods developed by population biologists, in recent years researchers from a wide range of disciplines, including psychology, biology, economics, biological anthropology, linguistics and archaeology, have turned their attention to the experimental investigation of cumulative culture. We review this literature, highlighting advances made in understanding the underlying processes of cumulative culture and emphasising areas of agreement and disagreement amongst investigators in separate fields.

  6. Serum uric acid to creatinine ratio: A predictor of incident chronic kidney disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with preserved kidney function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Liubao; Huang, Liji; Wu, Haidi; Lou, Qinglin; Bian, Rongwen

    2017-05-01

    Serum uric acid has shown to be a predictor of renal disease progression in most but not all studies. This study aims to test whether renal function-normalized serum uric acid is superior to serum uric acid as the predictor of incident chronic kidney disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. In this study, 1339 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate ⩾60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and normouricemia were included. Renal function-normalized serum uric acid was calculated using serum uric acid/creatinine. Cox regression analysis was used to estimate the association between serum uric acid, renal function-normalized serum uric acid and incident chronic kidney disease. In total, 74 (5.53%) patients developed to chronic kidney disease 3 or greater during a median follow-up of 4 years, with older ages, longer diabetes duration and lower estimated glomerular filtration rate at baseline. The decline rate of estimated glomerular filtration rate was positively correlated with serum uric acid/creatinine ( r = 0.219, p uric acid ( r = 0.005, p = 0.858). Moreover, multivariate analysis revealed that serum uric acid was not an independent risk factor for incident chronic kidney disease ( p = 0.055), whereas serum uric acid to creatinine ratio was significantly associated with incident chronic kidney disease independently of potential confounders including baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate. serum uric acid to creatinine ratio might be a better predictor of incident chronic kidney disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

  7. Association of Rare Loss-Of-Function Alleles in HAL, Serum Histidine: Levels and Incident Coronary Heart Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Yu (Bing); A.H. Li (Alexander H.); D. Muzny (Donna); N. Veeraraghavan (Narayanan); P.S. de Vries (Paul); J.C. Bis (Joshua); S. Musani (Solomon); D. Alexander (Danny); A.C. Morrison (Alanna); O.H. Franco (Oscar); A.G. Uitterlinden (Andre G.); A. Hofman (Albert); A. Dehghan (Abbas); J.G. Wilson (James); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); R. Gibbs (Richard); P. Wei (Peng); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground-Histidine is a semiessential amino acid with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Few data are available on the associations between genetic variants, histidine levels, and incident coronary heart disease (CHD) in a population-based sample. Methods and Results-By cond

  8. The incidence of eating disorders in a Danish register study: Associations with suicide risk and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zerwas, Stephanie; Tidselbak Larsen, Janne; Petersen, Liselotte

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to characterize the incidence rates and cumulative incidence of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS), and examine associations among eating disorder diagnoses, suicide attempts, and mortality. Individuals born in Denmark...

  9. In-ambulance abciximab administration in STEMI patients prior to primary PCI is associated with smaller infarct size, improved LV function and lower incidence of heart failure: results from the Leiden MISSION! acute myocardial infarction treatment optimization program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ayman K M; Liem, Su San; van der Kley, Frank; Bergheanu, Sandrin C; Wolterbeek, Ron; Bosch, Jan; Bootsma, Marianne; Zeppenfeld, Katja; van der Laarse, Arnoud; Atsma, Douwe E; Jukema, J Wouter; Schalij, Martin J

    2009-08-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the effects of early abciximab administration in the ambulance on immediate, short, and long term outcomes. Early abciximab administration before primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is recommended in practice guidelines. However, optimal timing of administration remains indistinct. Within a fixed protocol for PPCI, December 2006 was the cut-off point for this prospective study. A total of 179 consecutive patients with STEMI were enrolled, 90 patients received abciximab bolus in the hospital (in-hospital group), and 89 patients received abciximab bolus in the ambulance (in-ambulance group). The two groups were comparable for baseline and angiographic characteristics. The in-ambulance group received abciximab within the golden period (median 63 min). The infarct related artery (IRA) patency at onset of the PCI was four times higher in the in-ambulance group compared to in-hospital group (odds ratio = 4.9, 95% CI 2.4-10.1). Enzymatic infarct size was smaller in the in-ambulance group (cumulative 48-h CK release 8011 vs. 11267 U/L, P = 0.004). This was associated with higher left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) at 90 days post-PPCI measured by myocardial scintigraphy (59% vs. 54%, P = 0.01), and lower incidence of heart failure through a median of 210 days of clinical follow-up (3% vs.11%, P = 0.04). Early abciximab administration in the ambulance significantly improves early reperfusion in STEMI patients treated with PPCI. Moreover this is associated with a smaller infarct size, improved LV function and a lower risk of heart failure on clinical follow-up. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. The incidence of burnout or compassion fatigue in medical dosimetrists as a function of various stress and psychologic factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, Michelle, E-mail: Mhoward24601@yahoo.com [University of Wisconsin—La Crosse, WI 54601 (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ABSTRACT: Burnout and compassion fatigue (CF) adversely affect medical professionals, including those employed in radiation oncology. Previously conducted research acknowledged the presence of burnout in populations of radiation therapists, radiation oncologists, and oncology nursing staff. The aim of the following research was to measure the incidence of burnout or CF in the specific population of medical dosimetrists surveyed. As professional members of the radiation oncology team, this group had not been included in published research data to date. The hypothesis of the subsequent study stated that a comparable incidence of burnout would be observed among medical dosimetrists as had been reported by earlier researchers for a population of radiation therapists. A survey tool based on the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and distributed to full members of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists (AAMD) was utilized as the research measurement method. Results obtained indicated an incidence rates of burnout or CF for medical dosimetrists were less than the rates previously measured for radiation therapists (53% vs 11% for emotional exhaustion [EE] and 45% vs 27% for depersonalization [DP]). The incidence of burnout was based on the Burnout Inventory (BI) developed for the research project. Each of the subscales, EE, DP, and decreased personal accomplishment (PA), was considered and analyzed independently. Although not as prevalent among medical dosimetrists as a variety of additional radiation oncology professionals, a significant portion of the population demonstrated signs of burnout or CF. Future concerns abound for the population of medical dosimetrists as a large number of members scored positive for intermediate risk of burnout and CF. Additionally, a large portion of the population was found to be rapidly approaching retirement.

  11. Origin of path independence between cumulative CO2 emissions and global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadri, Ashwin K.

    2017-02-01

    Observations and GCMs exhibit approximate proportionality between cumulative carbon dioxide (CO2 ) emissions and global warming. Here we identify sufficient conditions for the relationship between cumulative CO2 emissions and global warming to be independent of the path of CO2 emissions; referred to as "path independence". Our starting point is a closed form expression for global warming in a two-box energy balance model (EBM), which depends explicitly on cumulative emissions, airborne fraction and time. Path independence requires that this function can be approximated as depending on cumulative emissions alone. We show that path independence arises from weak constraints, occurring if the timescale for changes in cumulative emissions (equal to ratio between cumulative emissions and emissions rate) is small compared to the timescale for changes in airborne fraction (which depends on CO2 uptake), and also small relative to a derived climate model parameter called the damping-timescale, which is related to the rate at which deep-ocean warming affects global warming. Effects of uncertainties in the climate model and carbon cycle are examined. Large deep-ocean heat capacity in the Earth system is not necessary for path independence, which appears resilient to climate modeling uncertainties. However long time-constants in the Earth system carbon cycle are essential, ensuring that airborne fraction changes slowly with timescale much longer than the timescale for changes in cumulative emissions. Therefore path independence between cumulative emissions and warming cannot arise for short-lived greenhouse gases.

  12. Cumulative Culture and Future Thinking: Is Mental Time Travel a Prerequisite to Cumulative Cultural Evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, G. L.; Flynn, E. G.; Kendal, R. L.

    2012-01-01

    Cumulative culture denotes the, arguably, human capacity to build on the cultural behaviors of one's predecessors, allowing increases in cultural complexity to occur such that many of our cultural artifacts, products and technologies have progressed beyond what a single individual could invent alone. This process of cumulative cultural evolution…

  13. Barrier function and natural moisturizing factor levels after cumulative exposure to a fruit-derived organic acid and a detergent: different outcomes in atopic and healthy skin and relevance for occupational contact dermatitis in the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelova-Fischer, Irena; Hoek, Anne-Karin; Dapic, Irena; Jakasa, Ivone; Kezic, Sanja; Fischer, Tobias W; Zillikens, Detlef

    2015-12-01

    Fruit-derived organic compounds and detergents are relevant exposure factors for occupational contact dermatitis in the food industry. Although individuals with atopic dermatitis (AD) are at risk for development of occupational contact dermatitis, there have been no controlled studies on the effects of repeated exposure to multiple irritants, relevant for the food industry, in atopic skin. The aim of the study was to investigate the outcomes of repeated exposure to a fruit-derived organic acid and a detergent in AD compared to healthy volunteers. The volunteers were exposed to 2.0% acetic acid (AcA) and/or 0.5% sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) in controlled tandem repeated irritation test. The outcomes were assessed by measurements of erythema, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and natural moisturizing factor (NMF) levels. In the AD volunteers, repeated AcA exposure led to barrier disruption and significant TEWL increase; no significant differences after the same exposure in the healthy controls were found. Repeated exposure to SLS and the irritant tandems enhanced the reactions and resulted in a significantly higher increase in TEWL in the AD compared to the control group. Cumulative irritant exposure reduced the NMF levels in both groups. Differences in the severity of irritant-induced barrier impairment in atopic individuals contribute to the risk for occupational contact dermatitis in result of multiple exposures to food-derived irritants and detergents. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Integral particle reflection coefficient for oblique incidence of photons as universal function in the domain of initial energies up to 300 keV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubenov Vladan L.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the results of calculations and analyses of the integral particle reflection coefficient of photons for oblique photon incidence on planar targets, in the domain of initial photon energies from 100 keV to 300 keV. The results are based on the Monte Carlo simulations of the photon reflection from water, concrete, aluminum, iron, and copper materials, performed by the MCNP code. It has been observed that the integral particle reflection coefficient as a function of the ratio of total cross-section of photons and effective atomic number of target material shows universal behavior for all the analyzed shielding materials in the selected energy domain. Analytical formulas for different angles of photon incidence have been proposed, which describe the reflection of photons for all the materials and energies analyzed.

  15. Activation energy of etching for CR-39 as a function of linear energy transfer of the incident particles

    CERN Document Server

    Awad, E M

    1999-01-01

    In this work, we have studied the effect of the radiation damage caused by the incident particles on the activation energy of etching for CR-39 samples. The damage produced by the incident particle is expressed in terms of the linear energy transfer (LET). CR-39 samples from American Acrylic were irradiated to three different LET particles. These are N (LET sub 2 sub 0 sub 0 = 20 KeV/mu m) as a light particle, Fe (LET sub 2 sub 0 sub 0 = 110 KeV/mu m) as a medium particle and fission fragments (ff) from a sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf source as heavy particles. In general the bulk etch rate was calculated using the weight difference method and the track etch rate was determined using the track geometry at various temperatures (50-90 deg. C) and concentrations (4-9 N) of the NaOH etchant. The average activation energy E sub b related to the bulk etch rate v sub b was calculated from 1n v sub b vs. 1/T. The average activation energy E sub t related to the track etch rate v sub t was estimated from 1n v sub t vs. 1/T. It...

  16. Is cumulated pyrethroid exposure associated with prediabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Rune; Jørs, Erik; Lander, Flemming;

    2014-01-01

    , cumulative exposure) was assessed from questionnaire data. Participants were asked about symptoms of diabetes. Blood samples were analyzed for glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), a measure of glucose regulation. No association was found between pyrethroid exposure and diabetes symptoms. The prevalence...

  17. Cumulative Disadvantage among the Highly Ambitious.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Katherine

    1990-01-01

    Using a social reproduction theory framework, analyzes the process by which high school seniors aspiring to high-level positions are sorted out after graduation. Analyzes early educational attainments and changes in occupational expectations. Shows a process of cumulative disadvantage in which White males are more likely to achieve their goals.…

  18. Pavlovian conditioning and cumulative reinforcement rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Justin A; Patterson, Angela E; Gharaei, Saba

    2015-04-01

    In 5 experiments using delay conditioning of magazine approach with rats, reinforcement rate was varied either by manipulating the mean interval between onset of the conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US) or by manipulating the proportion of CS presentations that ended with the US (trial-based reinforcement rate). Both manipulations influenced the acquisition of responding. In each experiment, a specific comparison was made between 2 CSs that differed in their mean CS-US interval and in their trial-based reinforcement rate, such that the cumulative reinforcement rate-the cumulative duration of the CS between reinforcements-was the same for the 2 CSs. For example, a CS reinforced on 100% of trials with a mean CS-US interval of 60 s was compared with a CS reinforced on 33% of trials and a mean duration of 20 s. Across the 5 experiments, conditioning was virtually identical for the 2 CSs with matched cumulative reinforcement rate. This was true as long as the timing of the US was unpredictable and, thus, response rates were uniform across the length of the CS. We conclude that the effects of CS-US interval and of trial-based reinforcement rate are reducible entirely to their common effect on cumulative reinforcement rate. We discuss the implications of this for rate-based, trial-based, and real-time associative models of conditioning.

  19. An Axiomatization of Cumulative Prospect Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, P.P.; Tversky, A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a method for axiomatizing a variety of models for decision making under uncertainty, including Expected Utility and Cumulative Prospect Theory. This method identifies, for each model, the situations that permit consistent inferences about the ordering of value differences. Exampl

  20. Cumulative Disadvantage among the Highly Ambitious.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Katherine

    1990-01-01

    Using a social reproduction theory framework, analyzes the process by which high school seniors aspiring to high-level positions are sorted out after graduation. Analyzes early educational attainments and changes in occupational expectations. Shows a process of cumulative disadvantage in which White males are more likely to achieve their goals.…

  1. Practical management of cumulative anthropogenic impacts with working marine examples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyhn, Line Anker; Wright, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    for petroleum. Human disturbances, including the noise almost ubiquitously associated with human activity, are likely to increase the incidence, magnitude, and duration of adverse effects on marine life, including stress responses. Stress responses have the potential to induce fitness consequences...... for individuals, which add to more obvious directed takes (e.g., hunting or fishing) to increase the overall population-level impact. To meet the requirements of marine spatial planning and ecosystem-based management, many efforts are ongoing to quantify the cumulative impacts of all human actions on marine...... species or populations. Meanwhile, regulators face the challenge of managing these accumulating and interacting impacts with limited scientific guidance. We believe there is scientific support for capping the level of impact for (at a minimum) populations in decline or with unknown statuses. This cap...

  2. GlycA, a Pro-Inflammatory Glycoprotein Biomarker, and Incident Cardiovascular Disease: Relationship with C-Reactive Protein and Renal Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruppen, Eke G; Riphagen, Ineke J; Connelly, Margery A; Otvos, James D; Bakker, Stephan J L; Dullaart, Robin P F

    2015-01-01

    GlycA is a novel nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy-measured biomarker of systemic inflammation. We determined whether GlycA is associated with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) in men and women, examined whether this association with CVD is modified by renal function, and compared this association with high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). A prospective cohort study was performed among 4,759 subjects (PREVEND study) without a history of CVD and cancer. Incident CVD was defined as the combined endpoint of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Cox regression analyses were used to examine associations of baseline GlycA and hsCRP with CVD. 298 first CVD events occurred during a median follow-up of 8.5 years. After adjustment for clinical and lipid measures the hazard ratio (HR) for CVD risk in the highest GlycA quartile was 1.58 (95% CI, 1.05-2.37, P for trend = 0.004). This association was similar after further adjustment for renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate and urinary albumin excretion). After additional adjustment for hsCRP, GlycA was still associated with incident CVD (HR: 1.16 per SD change (95% CI, 1.01-1.33), P = 0.04). Similar results were obtained for hsCRP (HR per SD change after adjustment for GlycA: 1.17 (95% CI 1.17 (95% CI, 1.01-3.60), P = 0.04). CVD risk was highest in subjects with simultaneously higher GlycA and hsCRP (fully adjusted HR: 1.79 (95% CI, 1.31-2.46), Pfunction. The association of GlycA with incident CVD is as strong as that of hsCRP.

  3. Incidence and factors associated with delayed graft function in renal transplantation at Carlos Van Buren Hospital, January 2000 to June 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáinz, M M; Toro, J C; Poblete, H B; Perez, L F; Nicovani, V H; Carrera, M G

    2009-01-01

    Delayed graft function (DGF) is defined as the need for dialysis within the first week after renal transplantation, and slow graft function as persistence of serum creatinine concentration of at least 3 mg/dL on day 5 after the procedure. In the present study, we analyzed the incidence and risk factors for DGF at our center. This retrospective study included 106 patients who underwent renal transplantation between January 2000 and June 2008. Of these, 11 patients were excluded. Two of the remaining 95 patients received organs from living donors, and 93 received cadaver organs. Variables analyzed included donor age, cause of death, cause of chronic renal failure, recipient age, method and time of long-term renal replacement therapy, residual diuresis, panel of reactive antibodies (PRA), HLA mismatch, sex compatibility, cold and warm ischemia times, biopsy-confirmed episodes of acute rejection, urine output in the operating room and in the first 24 hours after the procedure, and intraoperative induction therapy. Data were analyzed using the chi(2) and Fisher exact tests and analysis of variance, and are given as mean (SD) and frequency. Variables associated with DGF at univariate analysis (P < .05) were divided between risk factors and predictors of DGF for inclusion in logistic regression models. The incidence of DGF was 32.6%; slow graft function, 16.8%; and immediate graft function, 50.5%. Cold ischemia time longer than 20 hours (P = .02) and donor age (P = .008) were directly associated with DGF. Twenty-four-hour urine output was a strong predictor of DGF. Patients with DGF demonstrated a 25% incidence of an episode of acute rejection before discharge from the hospital. No difference in DGF was observed for use of intraoperative induction therapy.

  4. Finite Volume Cumulant Expansion in QCD-Colorless Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Ladrem, M; Al-Full, Z; Cherif, S

    2015-01-01

    Due to the finite size effects, the localisation of the phase transition in finite systems and the determination of its order, become an extremely difficult task, even in the simplest known cases. In order to identify and locate the finite volume transition point $T_{0}(V)$ of the QCD deconfinement phase transition to a Colorless QGP, we have developed a new approach using the finite size cumulant expansion of the order parameter and the $L_{mn}$-method. The first six cumulants $C_{1,2,3,4,5,6}$ with the corresponding under-normalized ratios(skewness $\\Sigma$, kurtosis $\\kappa$ ,pentosis $\\Pi_{\\pm}$ and hexosis $\\mathcal{H}_{1,2,3}$) and three unnormalized combinations of them ($\\mathcal{O}={\\mathcal{\\sigma }^{2} \\mathcal{\\kappa } }{\\mathbf{\\Sigma }^{-1} }$, $\\mathcal{U} ={\\mathcal{\\sigma }^{-2} \\mathbf{\\Sigma }^{-1} }$, $\\mathcal{N} = \\mathcal{\\sigma }^{2} \\mathcal{\\kappa }$) are calculated and studied as functions of $(T,V)$. A new approach, unifying in a clear and consistent way the definitions of cumulant...

  5. Finite-volume cumulant expansion in QCD-colorless plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladrem, M. [Taibah University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Madinah, Al-Munawwarah (Saudi Arabia); Physics Department, Algiers (Algeria); ENS-Vieux Kouba (Bachir El-Ibrahimi), Laboratoire de Physique et de Mathematiques Appliquees (LPMA), Algiers (Algeria); Ahmed, M.A.A. [Taibah University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Madinah, Al-Munawwarah (Saudi Arabia); ENS-Vieux Kouba (Bachir El-Ibrahimi), Laboratoire de Physique et de Mathematiques Appliquees (LPMA), Algiers (Algeria); Taiz University in Turba, Physics Department, Taiz (Yemen); Alfull, Z.Z. [Taibah University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Madinah, Al-Munawwarah (Saudi Arabia); Cherif, S. [ENS-Vieux Kouba (Bachir El-Ibrahimi), Laboratoire de Physique et de Mathematiques Appliquees (LPMA), Algiers (Algeria); Ghardaia University, Sciences and Technologies Department, Ghardaia (Algeria)

    2015-09-15

    Due to the finite-size effects, the localization of the phase transition in finite systems and the determination of its order, become an extremely difficult task, even in the simplest known cases. In order to identify and locate the finite-volume transition point T{sub 0}(V) of the QCD deconfinement phase transition to a colorless QGP, we have developed a new approach using the finite-size cumulant expansion of the order parameter and the L{sub mn}-method. The first six cumulants C{sub 1,2,3,4,5,6} with the corresponding under-normalized ratios (skewness Σ, kurtosis κ, pentosis Π{sub ±}, and hexosis H{sub 1,2,3}) and three unnormalized combinations of them, (O = σ{sup 2}κΣ{sup -1},U = σ{sup -2}Σ{sup -1},N = σ{sup 2}κ) are calculated and studied as functions of (T, V). A new approach, unifying in a clear and consistent way the definitions of cumulant ratios, is proposed.Anumerical FSS analysis of the obtained results has allowed us to locate accurately the finite-volume transition point. The extracted transition temperature value T{sub 0}(V) agrees with that expected T{sub 0}{sup N}(V) from the order parameter and the thermal susceptibility χ{sub T} (T, V), according to the standard procedure of localization to within about 2%. In addition to this, a very good correlation factor is obtained proving the validity of our cumulants method. The agreement of our results with those obtained by means of other models is remarkable. (orig.)

  6. Cumulative Phenomena through the Quark-Parton Diagram Summation at Thresholds

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, M A

    1998-01-01

    A microscopic treatment of cumulative phenomena based on perturbative QCD calculations of the corresponding quark diagrams near the threshold is presented. To sum all diagrams like these the special technique based on the recurrence relations was developed. The x-behaviour of the nuclear structure function $F_{2}(x)$ in the cumulative region x>1 was found to be roughly exponential, governed by an effective coupling constant, which depends on the QCD coupling constant and quark mass. Two mechanisms for cumulative particle production, direct and spectator ones, were analysed. It was shown that due to final state interactions the leading terms of the direct mechanism contribution are cancelled and the spectator mechanism is the dominant one. It leads to a smaller slope of the particle production rates compared to the slope of the nuclear structure function in the cumulative region, in agreement with the recent experimental data. The slope difference is due to additional multiple interactions between nuclear and ...

  7. Education predicts incidence of preclinical mobility disability in initially high-functioning older women. The Women's Health and Aging Study II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Patricia C; Szanton, Sarah L; Xue, Qian-Li; Tian, Jing; Thorpe, Roland J; Fried, Linda P

    2011-05-01

    To examine the impact of educational attainment on the incidence of preclinical mobility disability (PCD). The Women's Health and Aging II Study is a prospective observational cohort study of 436 initially high-functioning community-dwelling women aged 70-79 years at baseline in Baltimore, Maryland. We measured the association of highest attained education level with preclinical mobility disability (PCD) over an 11-year period. PCD is defined as self-reported modification in any of four tasks without reporting difficulty in those tasks. The tasks were walking ½ mile, climbing up steps, doing heavy housework, and getting in/out of bed or chair. Participants with less than 9 years of education were more likely to acquire incident PCD (hazard ratio: 3.1, 95% confidence interval = 1.2-7.7) than their counterparts with more education after adjusting for income, marital status, number of diseases, and high self-efficacy. Lower education level is an independent predictor of incident preclinical mobility disability. This association has important implications for primary and secondary prevention and can be easily assessed in clinical encounters.

  8. Education Predicts Incidence of Preclinical Mobility Disability in Initially High-Functioning Older Women. The Women’s Health and Aging Study II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Patricia C.; Xue, Qian-Li; Tian, Jing; Thorpe, Roland J.; Fried, Linda P.

    2011-01-01

    Background. To examine the impact of educational attainment on the incidence of preclinical mobility disability (PCD). Methods. The Women's Health and Aging II Study is a prospective observational cohort study of 436 initially high-functioning community-dwelling women aged 70–79 years at baseline in Baltimore, Maryland. We measured the association of highest attained education level with preclinical mobility disability (PCD) over an 11-year period. PCD is defined as self-reported modification in any of four tasks without reporting difficulty in those tasks. The tasks were walking ½ mile, climbing up steps, doing heavy housework, and getting in/out of bed or chair. Results. Participants with less than 9 years of education were more likely to acquire incident PCD (hazard ratio: 3.1, 95% confidence interval = 1.2–7.7) than their counterparts with more education after adjusting for income, marital status, number of diseases, and high self-efficacy. Conclusions. Lower education level is an independent predictor of incident preclinical mobility disability. This association has important implications for primary and secondary prevention and can be easily assessed in clinical encounters. PMID:21382883

  9. Complexity and demographic explanations of cumulative culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Querbes

    Full Text Available Formal models have linked prehistoric and historical instances of technological change (e.g., the Upper Paleolithic transition, cultural loss in Holocene Tasmania, scientific progress since the late nineteenth century to demographic change. According to these models, cumulation of technological complexity is inhibited by decreasing--while favoured by increasing--population levels. Here we show that these findings are contingent on how complexity is defined: demography plays a much more limited role in sustaining cumulative culture in case formal models deploy Herbert Simon's definition of complexity rather than the particular definitions of complexity hitherto assumed. Given that currently available empirical evidence doesn't afford discriminating proper from improper definitions of complexity, our robustness analyses put into question the force of recent demographic explanations of particular episodes of cultural change.

  10. Avoiding Program-Induced Cumulative Overload (PICO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Robin; Knapik, Joseph J; Pope, Rodney

    2016-01-01

    This article defines the concept of program-induced cumulative overload (PICO), provides examples, and advises ways to mitigate the adverse effects. PICO is the excessive cumulative physical workload that can be imparted to military personnel by a military training program with an embedded physical training component. PICO can be acute (accumulating within a single day) or chronic (accumulating across the entirety of the program) and results in adverse outcomes for affected personnel, including detrimental fatigue, performance degradation, injuries, or illness. Strategies to mitigate PICO include focusing administration and logistic practices during the development and ongoing management of a trainee program and implementing known musculoskeletal injury prevention strategies. More training is not always better, and trainers need to consider the total amount of physical activity that military personnel experience across both operational training and physical training if PICO is to be mitigated.

  11. Sharing a quota on cumulative carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raupach, Michael R.; Davis, Steven J.; Peters, Glen P.; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Ciais, Philippe; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Jotzo, Frank; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Le Quéré, Corinne

    2014-10-01

    Any limit on future global warming is associated with a quota on cumulative global CO2 emissions. We translate this global carbon quota to regional and national scales, on a spectrum of sharing principles that extends from continuation of the present distribution of emissions to an equal per-capita distribution of cumulative emissions. A blend of these endpoints emerges as the most viable option. For a carbon quota consistent with a 2 °C warming limit (relative to pre-industrial levels), the necessary long-term mitigation rates are very challenging (typically over 5% per year), both because of strong limits on future emissions from the global carbon quota and also the likely short-term persistence in emissions growth in many regions.

  12. Structural Vibration Monitoring Using Cumulative Spectral Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Goto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a resonance decay estimation for structural health monitoring in the presence of nonstationary vibrations. In structural health monitoring, the structure's frequency response and resonant decay characteristics are very important for understanding how the structure changes. Cumulative spectral analysis (CSA estimates the frequency decay by using the impulse response. However, measuring the impulse response of buildings is impractical due to the need to shake the building itself. In a previous study, we reported on system damping monitoring using cumulative harmonic analysis (CHA, which is based on CSA. The current study describes scale model experiments on estimating the hidden resonance decay under non-stationary noise conditions by using CSA for structural condition monitoring.

  13. Cumulative carbon emissions and the Green Paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Ploeg, Frederick Van der

    2013-01-01

    The green paradox states that a gradually more ambitious climate policy such as a renewables subsidy or an anticipated carbon tax induces fossil fuel owners to extract more rapidly and accelerate global warming. However, if extraction becomes more costly as reserves are depleted, such policies also shorten the fossil fuel era, induce more fossil fuel to be left in the earth, and thus curb cumulative carbon emissions. These consequences are relevant, as global warming depends primarily on cumu...

  14. Expansive Soil Crack Depth under Cumulative Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei-xiao Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The crack developing depth is a key problem to slope stability of the expansive soil and its project governance and the crack appears under the roles of dry-wet cycle and gradually develops. It is believed from the analysis that, because of its own cohesion, the expansive soil will have a certain amount of deformation under pulling stress but without cracks. The soil body will crack only when the deformation exceeds the ultimate tensile strain that causes cracks. And it is also believed that, due to the combined effect of various environmental factors, particularly changes of the internal water content, the inherent basic physical properties of expansive soil are weakened, and irreversible cumulative damages are eventually formed, resulting in the development of expansive soil cracks in depth. Starting from the perspective of volumetric strain that is caused by water loss, considering the influences of water loss rate and dry-wet cycle on crack developing depth, the crack developing depth calculation model which considers the water loss rate and the cumulative damages is established. Both the proposal of water loss rate and the application of cumulative damage theory to the expansive soil crack development problems try to avoid difficulties in matrix suction measurement, which will surely play a good role in promoting and improving the research of unsaturated expansive soil.

  15. EPA Workshop on Epigenetics and Cumulative Risk ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agenda Download the Workshop Agenda (PDF) The workshop included presentations and discussions by scientific experts pertaining to three topics (i.e., epigenetic changes associated with diverse stressors, key science considerations in understanding epigenetic changes, and practical application of epigenetic tools to address cumulative risks from environmental stressors), to address several questions under each topic, and included an opportunity for attendees to participate in break-out groups, provide comments and ask questions. Workshop Goals The workshop seeks to examine the opportunity for use of aggregate epigenetic change as an indicator in cumulative risk assessment for populations exposed to multiple stressors that affect epigenetic status. Epigenetic changes are specific molecular changes around DNA that alter expression of genes. Epigenetic changes include DNA methylation, formation of histone adducts, and changes in micro RNAs. Research today indicates that epigenetic changes are involved in many chronic diseases (cancer, cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, mental health disorders, and asthma). Research has also linked a wide range of stressors including pollution and social factors with occurrence of epigenetic alterations. Epigenetic changes have the potential to reflect impacts of risk factors across multiple stages of life. Only recently receiving attention is the nexus between the factors of cumulative exposure to environmental

  16. Functional membrane androgen receptors in colon tumors trigger pro-apoptotic responses in vitro and reduce drastically tumor incidence in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Föller Michael

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Membrane androgen receptors (mAR have been implicated in the regulation of cell growth, motility and apoptosis in prostate and breast cancer. Here we analyzed mAR expression and function in colon cancer. Results Using fluorescent mAR ligands we showed specific membrane staining in colon cell lines and mouse xenograft tumor tissues, while membrane staining was undetectable in healthy mouse colon tissues and non-transformed intestinal cells. Saturation/displacement assays revealed time- and concentration-dependent specific binding for testosterone with a KD of 2.9 nM. Stimulation of colon mAR by testosterone albumin conjugates induced rapid cytoskeleton reorganization and apoptotic responses, even in the presence of anti-androgens. The actin cytoskeleton drug cytochalasin B effectively inhibited the pro-apoptotic responses and caspase-3 activation. Interestingly, in vivo studies revealed that mAR activation resulted in a 65% reduction of tumor incidence in chemically induced Balb/c mice colon tumors. Conclusion Our results demonstrate for the first time that functional mARs are predominantly expressed in colon tumors and that their activation results in induction of anti-tumor responses in vitro and extensive reduction of tumor incidence in vivo.

  17. Relationship between cumulative BMI and symptomatic, psychosocial, and medical outcomes in patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenburg, Frances R; Zanarini, Mary C

    2011-08-01

    We examined the relationship between cumulative body mass index (BMI) and symptomatic, psychosocial, and medical outcomes in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Two hundred female borderline patients were weighed and measured during their index admission. They were subsequently interviewed at six-, eight-, and 10-year intervals. Over 10 years of prospective follow-up, increases in cumulative BMI were significantly associated with self-mutilation and dissociation (but not suicide attempts). Increases in cumulative BMI were also significantly associated with having no life partner, a poor work or school history, being on disability, being rated with a GAF score in the fair or poor range, and having a low income. In addition, increases in BMI were related to having two or more other medical conditions and using costly forms of health care. Increases in cumulative BMI may be a marker for adverse symptomatic, functional, and medical outcomes in patients with BPD.

  18. Longitudinal study on thyroid function in patients with thalassemia major: High incidence of central hypothyroidism by 18 years

    OpenAIRE

    Soliman, Ashraf T.; Fawzia Al Yafei; Lolwa Al-Naimi; Noora Almarri; Aml Sabt; Mohamed Yassin; Vincenzo De Sanctis

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Primary hypothyroidism is one of the most frequent complications observed in-patients suffering from thalassemia. We investigated and reviewed the thyroid function in all thalassemic patients attending the Pediatric Endocrine Clinic of Hamad Medical Center, Doha, Qatar during the last 10 years of follow-up. Patients and Methods: A total of 48 patients with ί-thalassemia major between 5 years and 18 years of age. Thyroid dysfunction was defined as follows: Overt hypothyroidism (l...

  19. Substantiated Reports of Child Maltreatment From the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect 2008: Examining Child and Household Characteristics and Child Functional Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O; Taillieu, Tamara; Cheung, Kristene; Katz, Laurence Y; Tonmyr, Lil; Sareen, Jitender

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Identifying child and household characteristics that are associated with specific child maltreatment types and child functional impairment are important for informing prevention and intervention efforts. Our objectives were to examine the distribution of several child and household characteristics among substantiated child maltreatment types in Canada; to determine if a specific child maltreatment type relative to all other types was associated with increased odds of child functional impairment; and to determine which child and household characteristics were associated with child functional impairment. Method: Data were from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (collection 2008) from 112 child welfare sites across Canada (n = 6163 children). Results: Physical abuse, sexual abuse, and emotional maltreatment were highly prevalent among children aged 10 to 15 years. For single types of child maltreatment, the highest prevalence of single-parent homes (50.6%), social assistance (43.0%), running out of money regularly (30.7%), and unsafe housing (30.9%) were reported for substantiated cases of neglect. Being male, older age, living in a single-parent home, household running out of money, moving 2 or more times in the past year, and household overcrowding were associated with increased odds of child functional impairment. Conclusions: More work is warranted to determine if providing particular resources for single-parent families, financial counselling, and facilitating adequate and stable housing for families with child maltreatment histories or at risk for child maltreatment could be effective for improving child functional outcomes. PMID:26175390

  20. Cumulative Doses of T-Cell Depleting Antibody and Cancer Risk after Kidney Transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny H C Chen

    Full Text Available T-cell depleting antibody is associated with an increased risk of cancer after kidney transplantation, but a dose-dependent relationship has not been established. This study aimed to determine the association between cumulative doses of T-cell depleting antibody and the risk of cancer after kidney transplantation. Using data from the Australian and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry between 1997-2012, we assessed the risk of incident cancer and cumulative doses of T-cell depleting antibody using adjusted Cox regression models. Of the 503 kidney transplant recipients with 2835 person-years of follow-up, 276 (55%, 209 (41% and 18 (4% patients received T-cell depleting antibody for induction, rejection or induction and rejection respectively. The overall cancer incidence rate was 1,118 cancers per 100,000 patient-years, with 975, 1093 and 1377 cancers per 100,000 patient-years among those who had received 1-5 doses, 6-10 doses and >10 doses, respectively. There was no association between cumulative doses of T cell depleting antibody and risk of incident cancer (1-5: referent, 6-10: adjusted hazard ratio (HR 1.19, 95%CI 0.48-2.95, >10: HR 1.42, 95%CI 0.50-4.02, p = 0.801. This lack of association is contradictory to our hypothesis and is likely attributed to the low event rates resulting in insufficient power to detect significant differences.

  1. Cumulative risks of foster care placement for Danish children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fallesen, Peter; Emanuel, Natalia; Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Although recent research suggests that the cumulative risk of foster care placement is far higher for American children than originally suspected, little is known about the cumulative risk of foster...

  2. Recursive Numerical Evaluation of the Cumulative Bivariate Normal Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Christian

    2010-01-01

    We propose an algorithm for evaluation of the cumulative bivariate normal distribution, building upon Marsaglia's ideas for evaluation of the cumulative univariate normal distribution. The algorithm is mathematically transparent, delivers competitive performance and can easily be extended to arbitrary precision.

  3. Climate mitigation: sustainable preferences and cumulative carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckle, Simon

    2010-05-01

    We develop a stylized AK growth model with both climate damages to ecosystem goods and services and sustainable preferences that allow trade-offs between present discounted utility and long-run climate damages. The simplicity of the model permits analytical solutions. Concern for the long-term provides a strong driver for mitigation action. One plausible specification of sustainable preferences leads to the result that, for a range of initial parameter values, an optimizing agent would choose a level of cumulative carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions independent of initial production capital endowment and CO2 levels. There is no technological change so, for economies with sufficiently high initial capital and CO2 endowments, optimal mitigation will lead to disinvestment. For lower values of initial capital and/or CO2 levels, positive investment can be optimal, but still within the same overall level of cumulative emissions. One striking aspect of the model is the complexity of possible outcomes, in addition to these optimal solutions. We also identify a resource constrained region and several regions where climate damages exceed resources available for consumption. Other specifications of sustainable preferences are discussed, as is the case of a hard constraint on long-run damages. Scientists are currently highlighting the potential importance of the cumulative carbon emissions concept as a robust yet flexible target for climate policymakers. This paper shows that it also has an ethical interpretation: it embodies an implicit trade off in global welfare between present discounted welfare and long-term climate damages. We hope that further development of the ideas presented here might contribute to the research and policy debate on the critical areas of intra- and intergenerational welfare.

  4. [Critical incidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidegger, D

    2005-03-01

    In medicine real severe mishaps are rare. On the other hand critical incidents are frequent. Anonymous critical incident reporting systems allow us to learn from these mishaps. This learning process will make our daily clinical work safer Unfortunately, before these systems can be used efficiently our professional culture has to be changed. Everyone in medicine has to admit that errors do occur to see the need for an open discussion. If we really want to learn from errors, we cannot punish the individual, who reported his or her mistake. The interest is primarily in what has happened and why it has happened and not who has committed this mistake. The cause for critical incidents in medicine is in over 80% the human factor Poor communication, work under enormous stress, conflicts and hierarchies are the main cause. This has been known for many years, therefore have already 15 years ago high-tech industries, like e.g. aviation, started to invest in special courses on team training. Medicine is a typical profession were until now only the individual performance decided about the professional career Communication, conflict management, stress management, decision making, risk management, team and team resource management were subjects that have never been taught during our preor postgraduate education. These points are the most important ones for an optimal teamwork. A multimodular course designed together with Swissair (Human Aspect Development medical, HADmedical) helps to cover, as in aviation, the soft factor and behavioural education in medicine and to prepare professionals in health care to work as a real team.

  5. Long and Short Term Cumulative Structural Priming Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Kaschak, Michael P.; Kutta, Timothy J.; Coyle, Jacqueline M.

    2012-01-01

    We present six experiments that examine cumulative structural priming effects (i.e., structural priming effects that accumulate across many utterances). Of particular interest is whether (1) cumulative priming effects transfer across language production tasks and (2) the transfer of cumulative priming effects across tasks persists over the course of a week. Our data suggest that cumulative structural priming effects do transfer across language production tasks (e.g., from written stem complet...

  6. Cumulative Stress and Cortisol Disruption among Black and Hispanic Pregnant Women in an Urban Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suglia, Shakira Franco; Staudenmayer, John; Cohen, Sheldon; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2010-01-01

    While adult hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis functioning is thought to be altered by traumatic experiences, little data exist on the effects of cumulative stress on HPA functioning among pregnant women or among specific racial and ethnic groups. Individuals may be increasingly vulnerable to physiological alterations when experiencing cumulative effects of multiple stressors. These effects may be particularly relevant in urban poor communities where exposure to multiple stressors is more prevalent. The goal of this study was to explore the effects of multiple social stressors on HPA axis functioning in a sample of urban Black (n = 68) and Hispanic (n = 132) pregnant women enrolled in the Asthma Coalition on Community, Environment, and Social Stress (ACCESS). Pregnant women were administered the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (R-CTS) survey to assess interpersonal violence, the Experiences of Discrimination (EOD) survey, the Crisis in Family Systems-Revised (CRISYS-R) negative life events survey, and the My Exposure to Violence (ETV) survey, which ascertains exposure to community violence. A cumulative stress measure was derived from these instruments. Salivary cortisol samples were collected five times per day over three days to assess area under the curve (AUC), morning change, and basal awakening response in order to characterize diurnal salivary cortisol patterns. Repeated measures mixed models, stratified by race/ethnicity, were performed adjusting for education level, age, smoking status, body mass index and weeks pregnant at time of cortisol sampling. The majority of Hispanic participants (57%) had low cumulative stress exposure, while the majority of Black participants had intermediate (35%) or high (41%) cumulative stress exposure. Results showed that among Black but not Hispanic women, cumulative stress was associated with lower morning cortisol levels, including a flatter waking to bedtime rhythm. These analyses suggest that the combined

  7. Cumulative Stress and Cortisol Disruption among Black and Hispanic Pregnant Women in an Urban Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suglia, Shakira Franco; Staudenmayer, John; Cohen, Sheldon; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Wright, Rosalind J

    2010-12-01

    While adult hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis functioning is thought to be altered by traumatic experiences, little data exist on the effects of cumulative stress on HPA functioning among pregnant women or among specific racial and ethnic groups. Individuals may be increasingly vulnerable to physiological alterations when experiencing cumulative effects of multiple stressors. These effects may be particularly relevant in urban poor communities where exposure to multiple stressors is more prevalent. The goal of this study was to explore the effects of multiple social stressors on HPA axis functioning in a sample of urban Black (n = 68) and Hispanic (n = 132) pregnant women enrolled in the Asthma Coalition on Community, Environment, and Social Stress (ACCESS). Pregnant women were administered the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (R-CTS) survey to assess interpersonal violence, the Experiences of Discrimination (EOD) survey, the Crisis in Family Systems-Revised (CRISYS-R) negative life events survey, and the My Exposure to Violence (ETV) survey, which ascertains exposure to community violence. A cumulative stress measure was derived from these instruments. Salivary cortisol samples were collected five times per day over three days to assess area under the curve (AUC), morning change, and basal awakening response in order to characterize diurnal salivary cortisol patterns. Repeated measures mixed models, stratified by race/ethnicity, were performed adjusting for education level, age, smoking status, body mass index and weeks pregnant at time of cortisol sampling. The majority of Hispanic participants (57%) had low cumulative stress exposure, while the majority of Black participants had intermediate (35%) or high (41%) cumulative stress exposure. Results showed that among Black but not Hispanic women, cumulative stress was associated with lower morning cortisol levels, including a flatter waking to bedtime rhythm. These analyses suggest that the combined

  8. Preserved cumulative semantic interference despite amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Michael Oppenheim

    2015-05-01

    As predicted by Oppenheim et al’s (2010 implicit incremental learning account, WRP’s BCN RTs demonstrated strong (and significant repetition priming and semantic blocking effects (Figure 1. Similar to typical results from neurally intact undergraduates, WRP took longer to name pictures presented in semantically homogeneous blocks than in heterogeneous blocks, an effect that increased with each cycle. This result challenges accounts that ascribe cumulative semantic interference in this task to explicit memory mechanisms, instead suggesting that the effect has the sort of implicit learning bases that are typically spared in hippocampal amnesia.

  9. Cumulant matching for independent source extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phlypo, Ronald; Zarzoso, Vicente; Comon, Pierre; Lemahieu, Ignace

    2008-01-01

    In this work we show how one can make use of priors on signal statistics under the form of cumulant guesses to extract an independent source from an observed mixture. The advantage of using statistical priors on the signal lies in the fact that no specific knowledge is needed about its temporal behavior, neither about its spatial distribution. We show that these statistics can be obtained either by reasoning on the theoretical values of a supposed waveform, either by using a subset of the observations from which we know that their statistics are merely hindered by interferences. Results on an electro-cardiographic recording confirm the above assumptions.

  10. A Missing Link in the Evolution of the Cumulative Recorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Toshio; Lattal, Kennon A.

    2012-01-01

    A recently recovered cumulative recorder provides a missing link in the evolution of the cumulative recorder from a modified kymograph to a reliably operating, scientifically and commercially successful instrument. The recorder, the only physical evidence of such an early precommercial cumulative recorder yet found, was sent to Keio University in…

  11. Original and cumulative prospect theory: a discussion of empirical differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P. Wakker; H. Fennema

    1997-01-01

    This note discusses differences between prospect theory and cumulative prospect theory. It shows that cumulative prospect theory is not merely a formal correction of some theoretical problems in prospect theory, but it also gives different predictions. Experiments are described that favor cumulative

  12. Cumulative Environmental Management Association : Wood Buffalo Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friesen, B. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    The recently announced oil sands development of the Wood Buffalo Region in Alberta was the focus of this power point presentation. Both mining and in situ development is expected to total $26 billion and 2.6 million barrels per day of bitumen production. This paper described the economic, social and environmental challenges facing the resource development of this region. In addition to the proposed oil sands projects, this region will accommodate the needs of conventional oil and gas production, forestry, building of pipelines and power lines, municipal development, recreation, tourism, mining exploration and open cast mining. The Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA) was inaugurated as a non-profit association in April 2000, and includes 41 members from all sectors. Its major role is to ensure a sustainable ecosystem and to avoid any cumulative impacts on wildlife. Other work underway includes the study of soil and plant species diversity, and the effects of air emissions on human health, wildlife and vegetation. The bioaccumulation of heavy metals and their impacts on surface water and fish is also under consideration to ensure the quality and quantity of surface water and ground water. 3 figs.

  13. Cumulative environmental management and the oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    In response to concerns regarding the cumulative environmental impacts of oil sands development within the Athabasca oil sands deposit, the government of Alberta established a Regional Sustainable Development Strategy (RSDS) to balance development with environmental protection. The environmental issues identified through the RSDS were addressed by the Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA). CEMA's boundary is the Wood Buffalo region of northeastern Alberta. It identifies existing and future environmental effects in the region and proposes recommendations to regulatory bodies for reducing environmental impacts associated with oil sands development. This presentation outlined some of the 55 stakeholder representatives of CEMA, including Alberta government departments associated with resource development, oil sand developers within the region, and Aboriginal communities and First Nations. These stakeholders provide input on sector priorities and agree on environmental thresholds. Established working groups also address technical and scientific research issues identified in the RSDS such as sustainable ecosystems; surface waters; trace metals and air contaminants; nitrogen oxides and sulphur dioxides; and land reclamation. To date, CEMA has submitted more than 50 reports and has made 4 major environmental recommendations for trace metal management, ecosystem management tools, a framework for acid deposition management, and a landscape design checklist. tabs., figs.

  14. Higher Order Cumulants in Colorless Partonic Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Cherif, S; Ladrem, M

    2016-01-01

    Any physical system considered to study the QCD deconfinement phase transition certainly has a finite volume, so the finite size effects are inevitably present. This renders the location of the phase transition and the determination of its order as an extremely difficult task, even in the simplest known cases. In order to identify and locate the colorless QCD deconfinement transition point in finite volume $T_{0}(V)$, a new approach based on the finite-size cumulant expansion of the order parameter and the $\\mathscr{L}_{m,n}$-Method is used.We have shown that both cumulants of higher order and their ratios, associated to the thermodynamical fluctuations of the order parameter, in QCD deconfinement phase transition behave in a particular enough way revealing pronounced oscillations in the transition region. The sign structure and the oscillatory behavior of these in the vicinity of the deconfinement phase transition point might be a sensitive probe and may allow one to elucidate their relation to the QCD phase...

  15. Innovativeness, population size and cumulative cultural evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yutaka; Aoki, Kenichi

    2012-08-01

    Henrich [Henrich, J., 2004. Demography and cultural evolution: how adaptive cultural processes can produce maladaptive losses-the Tasmanian case. Am. Antiquity 69, 197-214] proposed a model designed to show that larger population size facilitates cumulative cultural evolution toward higher skill levels. In this model, each newborn attempts to imitate the most highly skilled individual of the parental generation by directly-biased social learning, but the skill level he/she acquires deviates probabilistically from that of the exemplar (cultural parent). The probability that the skill level of the imitator exceeds that of the exemplar can be regarded as the innovation rate. After reformulating Henrich's model rigorously, we introduce an overlapping-generations analog based on the Moran model and derive an approximate formula for the expected change per generation of the highest skill level in the population. For large population size, our overlapping-generations model predicts a much larger effect of population size than Henrich's discrete-generations model. We then investigate by way of Monte Carlo simulations the case where each newborn chooses as his/her exemplar the most highly skilled individual from among a limited number of acquaintances. When the number of acquaintances is small relative to the population size, we find that a change in the innovation rate contributes more than a proportional change in population size to the cumulative cultural evolution of skill level.

  16. The Challenge of Developing Social Indicators for Cumulative Effects Assessment and Land Use Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Parkins

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a synopsis on social indicators as relevant to cumulative effects assessment and land use planning. Although much has been done to better understand the social dimensions of environmental assessment, empirical work has been lacking on social indicators that could be used either as measurable inputs or outputs for cumulative effects assessment and land use planning in different kinds of communities and regions. Cumulative effects models currently in practice often fail to address deeper issues of community and regional well-being. Against this gap, social scientists are being asked to make reliable generalizations about functional, measurable relationships between certain social indicators and land use change or scenarios. To address this challenge, the Alberta Research Council held a two-day workshop in 2005 with social scientists. The workshop resulted in a list of prioritized social indicators that could be included in cumulative effects modeling/assessments and land use planning. The top five social indicators included population growth rate, education attainment, self-assessed quality of life, equity, i.e., distribution of benefits, and locus of control. Although consensus on social indicators and social thresholds for cumulative effects models was not reached, the insight gained from the workshop will help inform future cumulative effects assessment and land use planning.

  17. Assessing the cumulative impact of disturbance on canopy structure and chemistry in Appalachian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deel, Lindsay N.

    Eastern forests experience a range of disturbance events over time, from stand-replacing disturbances, such as clear cuts, to ephemeral disturbances, such as insect outbreaks. By understanding the cumulative impact of disturbances on canopy structure and chemistry, we can gain insight into management strategies, assess a variety of ecosystem services, and even contribute to a larger body of knowledge on global climate change. I transformed a series of Landsat images spanning approximately 25 years into cumulative disturbance maps covering Green Ridge State Forest and Savage River State Forest in western Maryland. Intensive field surveys collected during the summer of 2009 provided measurements of canopy N and estimates of canopy cover, understory cover, and leaf cover. I used AVIRIS imagery flown concurrently with field data collection to map canopy nitrogen across both forests. Through this project, I tested the impact of cumulative disturbance on forest canopy cover and canopy nitrogen. I found that increased values of cumulative disturbance had a measurable negative impact on forest canopy structure and canopy nitrogen. Moreover, by testing varying methods of summing cumulative disturbance, I found that past disturbances diminish over time in importance, yet still influence the current canopy structure and canopy N of a forest. Thus, my study suggests that Landsat time series data can be synthesized into cumulative metrics incorporating multiple disturbance types, which help explain important disturbance-mediated changes in ecosystem functions.

  18. The bacterial colonization in tunneled cuffed dialysis catheter and its effects on residual renal function in incident hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jin Suk; Jang, Hee Ryeong; Lee, Jeong Eun; Park, Young Joo; Rhee, Harin; Seong, Eun Young; Kwak, Ihm Soo; Kim, Il Young; Lee, Dong Won; Lee, Soo Bong; Song, Sang Heon

    2016-04-01

    The bacterial colonization of hemodialysis catheter occurs frequently and reaches to the catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs). We hypothesized bacterial colonization promotes inflammation and that might be associated with renal outcome. The aim of this study was to investigate the colonization status for tunneled cuffed dialysis catheter (TCC) and the factors for contributing to the catheter colonization and explore whether bacterial colonization would be related with declining of residual renal function (RRF). 115 patients who received TCC removal operation and underwent catheter tip culture from January 2005 to June 2014 were enrolled. The follow-up data such as urine output (UO), time to anuria and patients' survival were collected from the patients or their family members by telephone in June, 2014. There were nineteen patients (16.5 %, 19/115) with positive tip culture (colonization group). In the analysis of demographic and biochemical parameters, there were no significant differences between both groups. Fifty of all the subjects responded to the telephone survey and ten patients (20.0 %, 10/50) belonged to colonization group. The monthly decreasing rate of UO was significantly more rapid in colonization group (p = 0.001). The survival analysis showed that colonization group had worse estimated anuria-free survival than non-colonization group (p < 0.001). In multivariate cox regression, bacterial colonization of TCC was an independent factor influencing the loss of RRF (HR 4.29, 95 % CI: 1.905-9.683, p ≤ 0.001). Bacterial colonization of TCC was associated with rapid loss of RRF.

  19. Neutron source capability assessment for cumulative fission yields measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Descalle, M A; Dekin, W; Kenneally, J

    2011-04-06

    A recent analysis of high-quality cumulative fission yields data for Pu-239 published in the peer-reviewed literature showed that the quoted experimental uncertainties do not allow a clear statement on how the fission yields vary as a function of energy. [Prussin2009] To make such a statement requires a set of experiments with well 'controlled' and understood sources of experimental errors to reduce uncertainties as low as possible, ideally in the 1 to 2% range. The Inter Laboratory Working Group (ILWOG) determined that Directed Stockpile Work (DSW) would benefit from an experimental program with the stated goal to reduce the measurement uncertainties significantly in order to make a definitive statement of the relationship of energy dependence to the cumulative fission yields. Following recent discussions between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), there is a renewed interest in developing a concerted experimental program to measure fission yields in a neutron energy range from thermal energy (0.025 eV) to 14 MeV with an emphasis on discrete energies from 0.5 to 4 MeV. Ideally, fission yields would be measured at single energies, however, in practice there are only 'quasi-monoenergetic' neutrons sources of finite width. This report outlines a capability assessment as of June 2011 of available neutron sources that could be used as part of a concerted experimental program to measure cumulative fission yields. In a framework of international collaborations, capabilities available in the United States, at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) in the United Kingdom and at the Commissariat Energie Atomique (CEA) in France are listed. There is a need to develop an experimental program that will reduce the measurement uncertainties significantly in order to make a definitive statement of the relationship of energy dependence to the cumulative fission yields. Fission and monoenergetic neutron sources

  20. Cumulative human threats on fish biodiversity components in Tunisian waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. BEN RAIS LASRAM

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Human activities are increasingly impacting biodiversity. To improve conservation planning measures in an ecosystem-based management context, we need to explore how the effects of these activities interact with different biodiversity components. In this study, we used a semi-quantitative method to assess the cumulative impacts of human activities on three biodiversity components (species richness, phylogenetic diversity, and functional diversity in Tunisia’s exclusive economic zone. For each of the nine activities considered, we developed an understanding of their effects from local studies and the expert opinion of stakeholders with country-specific experience. We mapped the cumulative effects and the three biodiversity components and then assessed the degree to which these elements overlapped using an overlap index. This is the first time such an assessment has been made for Tunisia’s marine ecosystems and our assessment highlight the inappropriateness of current conservation measures. The results of this study have specific application for the prioritization of future management actions.

  1. Cumulative human threats on fish biodiversity components in Tunisian waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. BEN RAIS LASRAM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Human activities are increasingly impacting biodiversity. To improve conservation planning measures in an ecosystem-based management context, we need to explore how the effects of these activities interact with different biodiversity components. In this study, we used a semi-quantitative method to assess the cumulative impacts of human activities on three biodiversity components (species richness, phylogenetic diversity, and functional diversity in Tunisia’s exclusive economic zone. For each of the nine activities considered, we developed an understanding of their effects from local studies and the expert opinion of stakeholders with country-specific experience. We mapped the cumulative effects and the three biodiversity components and then assessed the degree to which these elements overlapped using an overlap index. This is the first time such an assessment has been made for Tunisia’s marine ecosystems and our assessment highlight the inappropriateness of current conservation measures. The results of this study have specific application for the prioritization of future management actions.

  2. Prediction of postoperative morbidity, mortality and rehabilitation in hip fracture patients: the cumulated ambulation score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Bang; Kristensen, Morten Tange; Kehlet, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    fracture patients with an independent walking function admitted from their own home. Rehabilitation followed a well-defined multimodal rehabilitation regimen and discharge criteria. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Admission tests with a new mobility score to assess prefracture functional mobility and a short mental...... score for cognitive dysfunction were performed. On the first three postoperative days patients were assessed with the cumulated ambulation score consisting of a cumulated assessment of simple ambulation characteristics with a score from 0 to 18 (fully mobile). The three assessments were correlated...

  3. Ion cumulation by conical cathode electrolysis.

    CERN Document Server

    Grishin, V G

    2002-01-01

    Results of solid-state sodium stearate electrolysis with conical and cylindrical cathodes is presented here. Both electric measurement and conical samples destruction can be explained if a stress developing inside the conical sample is much bigger than in the cylindrical case and there is its unlimited amplification along cone slopes. OTHER KEYWORDS: ion, current, solid, symmetry, cumulation, polarization, depolarization, ionic conductor,superionic conductor, ice, crystal, strain, V-center, V-centre, doped crystal, interstitial impurity, intrinsic color center, high pressure technology, Bridgman, anvil, experiment, crowdion, dielectric, proton, layer, defect, lattice, dynamics, electromigration, mobility, muon catalysis, concentration, doping, dopant, conductivity, pycnonuclear reaction, permittivity, dielectric constant, point defects, interstitials, polarizability, imperfection, defect centers, glass, epitaxy, sodium hydroxide, metallic substrate, crystallization, point, tip, susceptibility, ferroelectric, ...

  4. [Cumulative trauma disorders: work or professional disease?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Marcus Vitor Diniz; Cavalcanti, Francisco Ivo Dantas; Soriano, Evelyne Pessoa; de Miranda, Hênio Ferreira

    2009-06-01

    This study aimed at reviewing the Brazilian legislation applied to occupational health. It refers to the diseases embodied in the Repetition Strain Injury (RSI) and Cumulative Trauma Disorders (CTD) regarded as work or professional diseases. This analysis allowed to perform the historical evolution of legislation concerning the issue, noting that the state of the art of regulation on RSI-CTD is anchored in specific regulation present in the Normative Instruction 98/2003, that establishes the diagnostic criteria and classification of RSI-CTD. It was concluded that according to the existing legislation in Brazil, the pathologies related to RSI-CTD are considered as work diseases and their legal effects are similar to the work-related accidents.

  5. Cumulative protons in 12C fragmentation at intermediate energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramov B.M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the FRAGM experiment at heavy ion accelerator complex TWAC-ITEP, the proton yields at an angle 3.5° have been measured in fragmentation of carbon ions at T0 = 0.3, 0.6, 0.95 and 2.0 GeV/nucleon on beryllium target. The data are presented as invariant proton yields on cumulative variable x in the range 0.9 < x < 2.4. Proton spectra cover six orders of invariant cross section magnitude. They have been analyzed in the framework of quark cluster fragmentation model. Fragmentation functions of quarkgluon string model are used. The probabilities of the existence of multi-quark clusters in carbon nuclei are estimated to be 8–12% for six-quark clusters and 0.2–0.6% for ninequark clusters.

  6. Cumulative overlap distribution function in realistic spin glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billoire, A.; Maiorano, A.; Marinari, E.; Martin-Mayor, V.; Yllanes, D.

    2014-09-01

    We use a sample-dependent analysis, based on medians and quantiles, to analyze the behavior of the overlap probability distribution of the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick and 3D Edwards-Anderson models of Ising spin glasses. We find that this approach is an effective tool to distinguish between replica symmetry breaking-like and droplet-like behavior of the spin-glass phase. Our results are in agreement with a replica symmetry breaking-like behavior for the 3D Edwards-Anderson model.

  7. 经纬网格与流域计算的地形指数累积分布函数及其均值差异分析%Analyses on Differences Between Cumulative Distribution Functions and Means of Topographic Indexes for Grid Cell and Individual Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖燕; 邓慧平; 孙菽芬

    2012-01-01

    To improve simulations of hydrological processes,the topographic-index hydrological model(TOPMODEL)has been applied to land surface models.The simplified scheme which applies TOPMODEL to grid cells of Global Climate Model(GCM)can simplify application of TOPMODEL in land surface models.The 2°×2°grid cell located in mountainous region of Changjiang basin and the other located in relatively flat region of Amazon basin are selected.The topographic indexes are calculated and statistical properties of topographic indexes for two grid cells are extracted using the data from digital elevation model of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission.River basins and drainage network are extracted using the same dataset and statistics are extracted for each basin.The difference between the cumulative distribution functions and means of topographic index for whole grid cell and for individual basin are analyzed.the cumulative distribution functions for whole grid cell and individual basin are fitted by exponential function.The main conclusions are summarized as follows:(1)Although there are differences between the cumulative distribution functions and means for whole grid cell and individual basin but the differences are not significant.It may be a reasonable simplification to apply TOPMODEL directly to grid cell of GCM;(2)The exponential function can fit the cumulative distribution functions well.These results provide helpful information for designing a TOPMODEL based and simplified hydrological model for use in land surface model.%为了改进陆面模式对水文过程的模拟,地形指数水文模型(Topographic-index hydrologicalmodel,TOPMODEL)已被应用于陆面模式(Land Surface Models,LSMs)。当前直接将TOPMODEL应用于全球气候模式(Global Climate Model,GCM)的网格单元的方案,简化了TOPMODEL在陆面模式中的应用。按GCM网格单元统计与按流域单元统计的地形指数分布函数之间的差异大小进行分析,可为研

  8. Clopidogrel Resistance by P2Y12 Platelet Function Testing in Patients Undergoing Neuroendovascular Procedures: Incidence of Ischemic and Hemorrhagic Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordeen, Jerah D; Patel, Alden V; Darracott, Robert M; Johns, Gretchen S; Taussky, Philipp; Tawk, Rabih G; Miller, David A; Freeman, William D; Hanel, Ricardo A

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess clopidogrel resistance and whether "intensified" antiplatelet therapy guided by platelet inhibition tests during neuroendovascular procedures would reduce ischemic complications. We conducted a retrospective review of patients at Mayo Clinic in Jacksonville, Florida, who underwent neuroendovascular (NV) procedures and had P2Y12 platelet function testing from October 1, 2009, to September 30, 2010. The primary end-point was to determine P2Y12 resistance to antiplatelet therapy in patients who underwent NV procedures. Secondary objectives included incidence of hemorrhagic and ischemic events and a correlation between resistance and genetic CYP2C19 testing. 160 patients underwent P2Y12 platelet function tests. Eighty-one patients (81/160, 50.6%) met inclusion criteria. Platelet function tests identified 64 patients (79%) as non-resistant (≥20% P2Y12 inhibition) and 17 (21%) as resistant (Pharmaceuticals, Princeton, NJ, USA) VerifyNow® (Accumetrics Inc., San Diego, CA, USA) Ticlopidine (Ticlid®) (Roche Laboratories, Basel, Switzerland) Prasugrel (Effient®) (Eli Lilly & Co., Indianapolis, IN, USA) Eptifibatide (Integrilin®) (Merck & Co., Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA) Abciximab (Reopro®) (Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Titusville, NJ, USA) Tirofiban (Aggrastat®) (MGI Pharma, Inc., Bloomington, MN, USA) Pantoprazole (Protonix®) (Pfizer Inc., New York, NY, USA) Omeprazole (Prilosec®) (Procter and Gamble Pharmaceuticals, Mason, OH, USA) Famotidine (Pepcid®) (McNeil Consumer & Specialty Pharmaceuticals, Fort Washington, PA, USA) Ticagrelor (Brilinta®) (AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals, Wilmington, NC, USA).

  9. Lung function and incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease after improved cooking fuels and kitchen ventilation: a 9-year prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumin Zhou

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biomass smoke is associated with the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, but few studies have elaborated approaches to reduce the risk of COPD from biomass burning. The purpose of this study was to determine whether improved cooking fuels and ventilation have effects on pulmonary function and the incidence of COPD. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A 9-y prospective cohort study was conducted among 996 eligible participants aged at least 40 y from November 1, 2002, through November 30, 2011, in 12 villages in southern China. Interventions were implemented starting in 2002 to improve kitchen ventilation (by providing support and instruction for improving biomass stoves or installing exhaust fans and to promote the use of clean fuels (i.e., biogas instead of biomass for cooking (by providing support and instruction for installing household biogas digesters; questionnaire interviews and spirometry tests were performed in 2005, 2008, and 2011. That the interventions improved air quality was confirmed via measurements of indoor air pollutants (i.e., SO₂, CO, CO₂, NO₂, and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 µm or less in a randomly selected subset of the participants' homes. Annual declines in lung function and COPD incidence were compared between those who took up one, both, or neither of the interventions. Use of clean fuels and improved ventilation were associated with a reduced decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV₁: decline in FEV₁ was reduced by 12 ml/y (95% CI, 4 to 20 ml/y and 13 ml/y (95% CI, 4 to 23 ml/y in those who used clean fuels and improved ventilation, respectively, compared to those who took up neither intervention, after adjustment for confounders. The combined improvements of use of clean fuels and improved ventilation had the greatest favorable effects on the decline in FEV₁, with a slowing of 16 ml/y (95% CI, 9 to 23 ml/y. The longer the duration of improved fuel use and

  10. Long and Short Term Cumulative Structural Priming Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaschak, Michael P; Kutta, Timothy J; Coyle, Jacqueline M

    We present six experiments that examine cumulative structural priming effects (i.e., structural priming effects that accumulate across many utterances). Of particular interest is whether (1) cumulative priming effects transfer across language production tasks and (2) the transfer of cumulative priming effects across tasks persists over the course of a week. Our data suggest that cumulative structural priming effects do transfer across language production tasks (e.g., from written stem completion to picture description, and from picture description to written stem completion), but only when both tasks are presented in the same experimental session. When cumulative priming effects are established in one task, and the second (changed) task is not presented until a week later, the cumulative priming effects are not observed.

  11. Why Veterinary Medical Educators Should Embrace Cumulative Final Exams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, Kenneth D

    2017-01-03

    The topic of cumulative final examinations often elicits polarizing opinions from veterinary medical educators. While some faculty prefer cumulative finals, there are many who perceive these types of examinations as problematic. Specifically, faculty often cite cumulative examinations are more likely to cause students' greater stress, which may in turn result in negative student evaluations of teaching. Cumulative finals also restrict the number of items one may present to students on most recent material. While these cited disadvantages may have some merit, the advantages of cumulative examinations far exceed the disadvantages. The purpose of this article is to discuss the advantages of cumulative examinations with respect to learning evidence, grade/score validity, fairness issues, and implications for academic policy.

  12. Cumulative Incidence of Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Capitellum in Child and Adolescent Baseball Players

    OpenAIRE

    Iwame, Toshiyuki; Matsuura, Tetsuya; Suzue, Naoto; Sairyo, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Prevalence of osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the capitellum is high among individuals who have played baseball since childhood. Recently two cross-sectional studies according to prevalence of OCD have been published. In a study of 1040 baseball players aged 10 to 12 years, Matsuura et al found that 2.1% of players had OCD, with no differences in prevalence according to age or player position. Kida et al., in their study of 2433 baseball players aged 12 to 18 years, found OCD i...

  13. Stagewise pseudo-value regression for time-varying effects on the cumulative incidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zöller, Daniela; Schmidtmann, Irene; Weinmann, Arndt

    2016-01-01

    using a pseudo-value approach. For a grid of time points, the possibly unobserved binary event status is replaced by a jackknife pseudo-value based on the Aalen-Johansen method. We combine a stagewise regression technique with the pseudo-value approach to provide variable selection while allowing...

  14. Analysis of experimental data on correlations between cumulative particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlasov, A.V.; Doroshkevich, E.A.; Leksin, G.A. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    Experimental data on correlations between cumulative particles are analyzed. A space-time and energy-transfer pattern of hadron-nucleus interaction based on both correlation data and data on the inclusive spectra of cumulative particles is considered. A new variable that is convenient for describing the production of cumulative particles is proposed using the concept of symmetry between the one-particle and multiparticle distributions. 32 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Analysis of Memory Codes and Cumulative Rehearsal in Observational Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, Albert; And Others

    1974-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of memory codes varying in meaningfulness and retrievability and cumulative rehearsal on retention of observationally learned responses over increasing temporal intervals. (Editor)

  16. Continuously Cumulating Meta-Analysis and Replicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braver, Sanford L; Thoemmes, Felix J; Rosenthal, Robert

    2014-05-01

    The current crisis in scientific psychology about whether our findings are irreproducible was presaged years ago by Tversky and Kahneman (1971), who noted that even sophisticated researchers believe in the fallacious Law of Small Numbers-erroneous intuitions about how imprecisely sample data reflect population phenomena. Combined with the low power of most current work, this often leads to the use of misleading criteria about whether an effect has replicated. Rosenthal (1990) suggested more appropriate criteria, here labeled the continuously cumulating meta-analytic (CCMA) approach. For example, a CCMA analysis on a replication attempt that does not reach significance might nonetheless provide more, not less, evidence that the effect is real. Alternatively, measures of heterogeneity might show that two studies that differ in whether they are significant might have only trivially different effect sizes. We present a nontechnical introduction to the CCMA framework (referencing relevant software), and then explain how it can be used to address aspects of replicability or more generally to assess quantitative evidence from numerous studies. We then present some examples and simulation results using the CCMA approach that show how the combination of evidence can yield improved results over the consideration of single studies.

  17. Cross-cultural validation of the Italian version of the Cumulated Ambulation Score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grana, Elisa; Verzellotti, Simone; Grassi, Federico A;

    2016-01-01

    Hip fractures are common in elderly patients, and walking impairment is a frequent complication. The Cumulated Ambulation Score (CAS) is a validated functional scale used to monitor easily three basic mobility activities in patients with hip fracture. The aim of this study was to translate, cross...

  18. Effect of cumulative strain on texture characteristics during wire drawing of eutectoid steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, F. [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallic Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, NanJing, 211189 (China)], E-mail: yangfan.hit@gmail.com; Ma, C.; Jiang, J.Q. [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallic Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, NanJing, 211189 (China); Feng, H.P.; Zhai, S.Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2008-10-15

    The texture characteristics associated with plastic deformation of Fe-C steels near-eutectoid composition during a continuous cold drawing process were thoroughly investigated by orientation distribution function analysis based on X-ray diffraction. The effect of cumulative drawing strains on the <1 1 0> fiber texture in drawn hypereutectoid and hypoeutectoid steel wires was discussed.

  19. Cumulative risk and asthma outcomes in inner-city African-American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josie, Katherine Leigh; Greenley, Rachel Neff; Drotar, Dennis

    2007-09-01

    A cumulative risk framework was used to examine the impact of the presence of multiple risk factors on key asthma outcomes (i.e., health-related quality of life [HRQoL], severity) for a sample of 149 inner-city African-American youth with asthma. The presence of a greater number of risk factors was associated with lower HRQoL and greater severity, regardless of age or gender. Cumulative risk methodology, in combination with selection of risk factors based on theoretical and empirical work, is a viable option for researchers and clinicians who are interested in examining the impact of multiple risk factors on disease functioning and status.

  20. Universal Off-Equilibrium Scaling of Critical Cumulants in the QCD Phase Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Swagato; Venugopalan, Raju; Yin, Yi

    2016-11-01

    Exploiting the universality between the QCD critical point and the three-dimensional Ising model, closed form expressions derived for nonequilibrium critical cumulants on the crossover side of the critical point reveal that they can differ in both magnitude and sign from equilibrium expectations. We demonstrate here that key elements of the Kibble-Zurek framework of nonequilibrium phase transitions can be employed to describe the dynamics of these critical cumulants. Our results suggest that observables sensitive to critical dynamics in heavy-ion collisions should be expressible as universal scaling functions, thereby providing powerful model-independent guidance in searches for the QCD critical point.

  1. Cumulant expansion and analytic continuation in Monte Carlo simulation of classical Lennard-Jones clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunikeev, Sharif D; Kim, Kwang S

    2012-11-01

    The Monte Carlo (MC) estimates of thermal averages are usually functions of system control parameters λ, such as temperature, volume, and interaction couplings. Given the MC average at a set of prescribed control parameters λ{0}, the problem of analytic continuation of the MC data to λ values in the neighborhood of λ{0} is considered in both classic and quantum domains. The key result is the theorem that links the differential properties of thermal averages to the higher order cumulants. The theorem and analytic continuation formulas expressed via higher order cumulants are numerically tested on the classical Lennard-Jones cluster system of N=13, 55, and 147 neon particles.

  2. Investigation of the cumulative diminution process using the Fibonacci method and fractional calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyukkilic, F.; Ok Bayrakdar, Z.; Demirhan, D.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we investigate the cumulative diminution phenomenon for a physical quantity and a diminution process with a constant acquisition quantity in each step in a viscous medium. We analyze the existence of a dynamical mechanism that underlies the success of fractional calculus ​compared with standard mathematics for describing stochastic processes by ​proposing a Fibonacci approach, where we assume that the complex processes evolves cumulatively in fractal space and discrete time. ​Thus, when the differential-integral order α is attained, this indicates the ​involvement of the viscosity of the medium ​in the evolving process. The future value of the diminishing physical quantity is obtained in terms of the Mittag-Leffler function (MLF) and two rheological laws ​are inferred from the asymptotic limits. Thus, we conclude that the differential-integral calculus of fractional mathematics implicitly embodies the cumulative diminution mechanism ​that occurs in a viscous medium.

  3. Robust user equilibrium model based on cumulative prospect theory under distribution-free travel time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 孙会君; 吴建军

    2015-01-01

    The assumption widely used in the user equilibrium model for stochastic network was that the probability distributions of the travel time were known explicitly by travelers. However, this distribution may be unavailable in reality. By relaxing the restrictive assumption, a robust user equilibrium model based on cumulative prospect theory under distribution-free travel time was presented. In the absence of the cumulative distribution function of the travel time, the exact cumulative prospect value (CPV) for each route cannot be obtained. However, the upper and lower bounds on the CPV can be calculated by probability inequalities. Travelers were assumed to choose the routes with the best worst-case CPVs. The proposed model was formulated as a variational inequality problem and solved via a heuristic solution algorithm. A numerical example was also provided to illustrate the application of the proposed model and the efficiency of the solution algorithm.

  4. Cancer incidence in pulmonary vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zycinska, Katarzyna; Kostrzewa-Janicka, Jolanta; Nitsch-Osuch, Aneta; Wardyn, Kazimierz

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary vasculitis is a potentially lethal autoimmune disease characterized by granulomatous inflammation of respiratory tract, necrotizing vasculitis affecting small-to medium-size vessels and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies elevation. Typical therapy involves high-dose glucocorticosteroids combined with cyclophosphamide in a dose 1-2 mg/kg/per day. A high relapse rate in pulmonary vasculitis means prolonged courses of cyclophosphamide in some patients. Carcinogenic effects of cyclophosphamide, especially its toxic metabolite acrolein that is excreted into the urine, are responsible for the development of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and bladder cancer. These and other malignancies are cyclophosphamide dose-depended. The aim of the present study was to assess the incidence of cancer in patients with pulmonary vasculitis in comparison with the incidence of cancer in the general population. Analyses were done according to the cumulative dose of cyclophosphamide, subdivided into low (≤35 g) and high (>35 g). During the observation period 15 cancers occurred. A significantly increased standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was observed for non-melanoma skin cancers (SIR 5.2; 95 % Cl 2.3-8.7), AML (SIR 4.3; 95 % Cl 2.1-11.2), and bladder cancer (SIR 3.4; 95 % Cl 1.6-5.2). Induction remission treatment and relapse treatment with cyclophosphamide involves a substantial risk of late appearing malignances in patients with pulmonary vasculitis. Monitoring and prophylactic management in pulmonary vasculitis after cessation of cyclophosphamide therapy is crucial.

  5. Cholesteatoma in Danish children - A national study of changes in the incidence rate over 34 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djurhuus, Bjarki Ditlev; Skytthe, Axel; Christensen, Kaare;

    2015-01-01

    was examined using Poisson regression analysis, while the cumulative incidence proportion was estimated using life-tables. RESULTS: A total of 5850 cases of surgically treated middle ear cholesteatoma distributed among 3874 children aged 0-15 years were identified. From 1977 to 2002 the age...... of 5.4% (95% CI 3.2-7.5%). Age-specific incidence rates were at maximum around the age of 9 years during the whole period. The estimated cumulative incidence proportion at age 16 years based on the 2010 age-specific incidence rates was 0.16% (95% CI 0.09-0.32%) compared with 0.20% (95% CI 0...

  6. Cumulative social disadvantage and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Laurie J; Silver, Ellen J; Stein, Ruth E K

    2006-04-01

    Disparities in child health are a major public health concern. However, it is unclear whether these are predominantly the result of low income, race, or other social risk factors that may contribute to their health disadvantage. Although others have examined the effects of the accumulation of risk factors, this methodology has not been applied to child health. We tested 4 social risk factors (poverty, minority race/ethnicity, low parental education, and not living with both biological parents) to assess whether they have cumulative effects on child health and examined whether access to health care reduced health disparities. We analyzed data on 57,553 children low parental education, and single-parent household) were consistently associated with child health. These were summed, generating the Social Disadvantage Index (range: 0-3). A total of 43.6% of children had no social disadvantages, 30.8% had 1, 15.6% had 2, and 10.0% had all 3. Compared with those with no social disadvantages, the odds ratios (ORs) of being in "good, fair, or poor health" (versus "excellent or very good") were 1.95 for 1 risk, 3.22 for 2 risks, and 4.06 for 3 risks. ORs of having a chronic condition increased from 1.25 (1 risk) to 1.60 (2 risks) to 2.11 (3 risks). ORs for activity limitation were 1.51 (1 risk) to 2.14 (2 risks) and 2.88 (3 risks). Controlling for health insurance did not affect these findings. The accumulation of social disadvantage among children was strongly associated with poorer child health and having insurance did not reduce the observed health disparities.

  7. A New Tool for Seismology--the Cumulative Spectral Power

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, Randall D

    2007-01-01

    The power spectral density (PSD) function is commonly used to specify seismometer performance. It is derived from the FFT of acceleration and correction is made for the transfer function of the instrument that generated the data. As with any such spectrum of density (`per Hz') type, the noise inherent to a PSD is large. This article illustrates the value of a function that is derived from the PSD and for which the influence of noise is significantly reduced. Called the cumulative spectral power (CSP), it is obtained from the PSD through the noise-reducing process of integration. The maximum of the CSP (corresponding to the longest graphed value of the period) provides a means for estimating the total vibrational power of the earth. The present author has significantly simplified the process of PSD generation. Thus routine graphing is straightforwared-of first the FFT, followed by the generation of both a PSD and its associated CSP. The unique properties of the CSP make it valuable for the study of a variety o...

  8. Decreasing incidence of severe diabetic microangiopathy in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovind, Peter; Tarnow, Lise; Rossing, Kasper

    2003-01-01

    ); group B, 1970-1974 (n = 130); group C, 1975-1979 (n = 113); and group D, 1979-1984 (n = 244). Group A, B, and C are prevalence cohorts identified in 1984; group D is an inception cohort. RESULTS: In patients followed for >/=20 years, the cumulative incidence (95% CI) of diabetic nephropathy after 20...... incidence of diabetic microangiopathy in type 1 diabetes over the past 35 years. Improved glycemic control, lower blood pressure (in part due to early aggressive antihypertensive treatment), and reduced prevalence of smoking rates were associated with the improved prognosis.......OBJECTIVE: Conflicting evidence of a decline in incidence of microvascular complications in type 1 diabetes during the last decades has been reported. To assess recent trends in the cumulative incidence of diabetic microangiopathy in type 1 diabetes, we analyzed data from long-term prospective...

  9. A Framework for Treating Cumulative Trauma with Art Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naff, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Cumulative trauma is relatively undocumented in art therapy practice, although there is growing evidence that art therapy provides distinct benefits for resolving various traumas. This qualitative study proposes an art therapy treatment framework for cumulative trauma derived from semi-structured interviews with three art therapists and artistic…

  10. Cumulative Effects of Human Activities on Marine Mammal Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Cumulative Effects of Human Activities on Marine Mammal ...marine mammals . OBJECTIVES The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine has convened a volunteer committee that will...Review the present scientific understanding of cumulative effects of anthropogenic stressors on marine mammals with a focus on anthropogenic sound

  11. A Framework for Treating Cumulative Trauma with Art Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naff, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Cumulative trauma is relatively undocumented in art therapy practice, although there is growing evidence that art therapy provides distinct benefits for resolving various traumas. This qualitative study proposes an art therapy treatment framework for cumulative trauma derived from semi-structured interviews with three art therapists and artistic…

  12. Cumulative Estrogen Exposure and Prospective Memory in Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesson, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    This study looked at cumulative lifetime estrogen exposure, as estimated with a mathematical index (Index of Cumulative Estrogen Exposure (ICEE)) that included variables (length of time on estrogen therapy, age at menarche and menopause, postmenopausal body mass index, time since menopause, nulliparity and duration of breastfeeding) known to…

  13. Lattice QCD results on cumulant ratios at freeze-out

    CERN Document Server

    Karsch, Frithjof

    2016-01-01

    Ratios of cumulants of net proton-number fluctuations measured by the STAR Collaboration show strong deviations from a skellam distribution, which should describe thermal properties of cumulant ratios, if proton-number fluctuations are generated in equilibrium and a hadron resonance gas (HRG) model would provide a suitable description of thermodynamics at the freeze-out temperature. We present some results on sixth order cumulants entering the calculation of the QCD equation of state at non-zero values of the baryon chemical potential (mu_B) and discuss limitations on the applicability of HRG thermodynamics deduced from a comparison between QCD and HRG model calculations of cumulants of conserved charge fluctuations. We show that basic features of the $\\mu_B$-dependence of skewness and kurtosis ratios of net proton-number fluctuations measured by the STAR Collaboration resemble those expected from a O(mu_B^2) QCD calculation of the corresponding net baryon-number cumulant ratios.

  14. A new family of cumulative indexes for measuring scientific performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Kozak

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a new family of cumulative indexes for measuring scientific performance which can be applied to many metrics, including h index and its variants (here we apply it to the h index, h(2 index and Google Scholar's i10 index. These indexes follow the general principle of repeating the index calculation for the same publication set. Using bibliometric data and reviewer scores for accepted and rejected fellowship applicants we examine how valid the cumulative variant is compared to the original variant. These analyses showed that the cumulative indexes result in higher correlations with the reviewer scores than their original variants. Thus, the cumulative indexes better reflect the assessments by peers than the original variants and are useful extensions of the original indexes. In contrast to many other measures of scientific performance proposed up to now, the cumulative indexes seem not only to be effective, but they are also easy to understand and calculate.

  15. Direct effect of aerosol on incident solar radiation at the surface as a function of aerosol mixtures measured in the center of Rome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanelli, M.; Bassani, C.; Cacciani, M.; Siani, A. M.; Perrino, C.; Canepari, S.; Di Sarra, A.; Salzano, R.; Casasanta, G. P.; Tirelli, C.; Estelles, V.

    2012-04-01

    Aerosols determine a radiative effect in the atmosphere by affecting the amount of solar radiation reaching the surface and then acting on the temperature of both the layer where they are located and the surface. The presence of very absorbent particles typical of the urban environment, is therefore dangerous not only for human health but also because they are able to increase the temperature of the atmospheric layer in which they are located interacting with the "heath island" phenomenon. The resulting variation of both surface temperature and temperature vertical profile influences the dilution of atmospheric pollutants and needs to be studied in more detail, particularly in the summer period when heat waves are more frequent. Chemical analysis of surface particulate matter performed at the urban site of Rome (Perrino et al. 2009) showed that sea salt, locally produced urban aerosol and desert dust can be recognized depending on the intensity of the episodes transporting different particles types. As a result: i) the direct effect of aerosol at the surface change as a function of aerosol mixtures; ii) the variation of incident solar radiation affects the local convective air motion modifying the low level circulation and having an effect on the particles deposition and hence on the chemical characterization of the mixture. On the base of above issues a day-time intensive field campaign was held in Rome (Italy) in June and July 2011 at the University of Rome, La Sapienza, located in the city center (lat 41.9°N, long 12.5 °E). Chemical analysis of the aerosol particles was performed on particulate collected by PM10 collectors. Columnar aerosol optical and physical properties in clear sky were retrieved by using a PREDE sun-sky radiometer, part of ESR/SKYNET network. Vertical profiles of aerosol were obtained by a Lidar and incoming total solar radiation was measured by a Black and White Pyranometer . A Brewer spectrophotometer, a Sodar, and a MFRSR provided

  16. Visual Function in Older Eyes in Normal Macular Health: Association with Incident Early Age-Related Macular Degeneration 3 Years Later

    OpenAIRE

    Owsley, Cynthia; Clark, Mark E.; Carrie E. Huisingh; Curcio, Christine A.; McGwin, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In older eyes in normal macular health, we examined associations between impaired photopic acuity, mesopic acuity, spatial contrast sensitivity, light sensitivity, and the presence of low luminance deficit (difference between photopic and mesopic acuity) at baseline and incident AMD 3 years later. Associations were compared with an association between delayed rod-mediated dark adaptation and incident AMD, previously reported for this cohort. Methods Enrollees were 60 years or older. E...

  17. A bivariate optimal replacement policy with cumulative repair cost limit under cumulative damage model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MIN-T SAI LAI; SHIH-CHIH CHEN

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a bivariate replacement policy (n, T) for a cumulative shock damage process is presented that included the concept of cumulative repair cost limit. The arrival shocks can be divided into two kinds of shocks. Each type-I shock causes a random amount of damage and these damages are additive. When the total damage exceeds a failure level, the system goes into serious failure. Type-II shock causes the system into minor failure and such a failure can be corrected by minimal repair. When a minor failure occurs, the repaircost will be evaluated and minimal repair is executed if the accumulated repair cost is less than a predetermined limit L. The system is replaced at scheduled time T, at n-th minor failure, or at serious failure. The long-term expected cost per unit time is derived using the expected costs as the optimality criterion. The minimum-cost policy is derived, and existence and uniqueness of the optimal n* and T* are proved. This bivariate optimal replacement policy (n, T) is showed to be better than the optimal T* and the optimal n* policy.

  18. Longhi Games, Internal Reservoirs, and Cumulate Porosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, S. A.

    2009-05-01

    Fe in plagioclase at an early age, T-rollers (or not) on the Di-Trid boundary in Fo-Di-Sil, the mantle solidus, origins of anorthosites, esoteric uses of Schreinemakers rules and many more topics are all fresh and pleasant memories of John Longhi's prolific and creative work. The Fram-Longhi experimental effect of pressure on plagioclase partitioning with liquid in mafic rocks became essential to an understanding of multiphase Rayleigh fractionation of plagioclase in big layered intrusions. Only by using the pressure effect could I find a good equation through the data for the Kiglapait intrusion, and that result among others required the existence with probability 1.0 of an internal reservoir (Morse, JPet 2008). Knowledge of cumulate porosity is a crucial key to the understanding of layered igneous rocks. We seek both the initial (inverse packing fraction) and residual porosity to find the time and process path from sedimentation to solidification. In the Kiglapait Lower Zone we have a robust estimate of mean residual porosity from the modes of the excluded phases augite, oxides, sulfide, and apatite. To this we apply the maximum variance of plagioclase composition (the An range) to find an algorithm that extends through the Upper Zone and to other intrusions. Of great importance is that all these measurements were made in grain mounts concentrated from typically about 200 g of core or hand specimen, hence the represented sample volume is thousands of times greater than for a thin section. The resulting distribution and scatter of the An range is novel and remarkable. It is V-shaped in the logarithmic representation of stratigraphic height, running from about 20 mole % at both ends (base to top of the Layered Series) to near-zero at 99 PCS. The intercept of the porosity-An range relation gives An range = 3.5 % at zero residual porosity. Petrographic analysis reveals that for PCS less than 95 and greater than 99.9, the An range is intrinsic, i.e. pre-cumulus, for

  19. Model-checking techniques based on cumulative residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, D Y; Wei, L J; Ying, Z

    2002-03-01

    Residuals have long been used for graphical and numerical examinations of the adequacy of regression models. Conventional residual analysis based on the plots of raw residuals or their smoothed curves is highly subjective, whereas most numerical goodness-of-fit tests provide little information about the nature of model misspecification. In this paper, we develop objective and informative model-checking techniques by taking the cumulative sums of residuals over certain coordinates (e.g., covariates or fitted values) or by considering some related aggregates of residuals, such as moving sums and moving averages. For a variety of statistical models and data structures, including generalized linear models with independent or dependent observations, the distributions of these stochastic processes tinder the assumed model can be approximated by the distributions of certain zero-mean Gaussian processes whose realizations can be easily generated by computer simulation. Each observed process can then be compared, both graphically and numerically, with a number of realizations from the Gaussian process. Such comparisons enable one to assess objectively whether a trend seen in a residual plot reflects model misspecification or natural variation. The proposed techniques are particularly useful in checking the functional form of a covariate and the link function. Illustrations with several medical studies are provided.

  20. Carotid plaque, intima-media thickness, and incident aortic stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsson, Andreas; Östling, Gerd; Persson, Margaretha

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Aortic stenosis (AS) shares risk factors with atherosclerotic vascular disease. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque may reflect the cumulative damage from exposure to different atherosclerotic risk factors. We examined the relationship of carotid IMT and plaque with incident...

  1. Non-Gaussian wave packet dynamics in anharmonic potential: Cumulant expansion treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutounji, Mohamad

    2015-03-01

    This manuscript utilizes cumulant expansion as an alternative algebraic approach to evaluating integrals and solving a system of nonlinear differential equations for probing anharmonic dynamics in condensed phase systems using Morse oscillator. These integrals and differential equations become harder to solve as the anharmonicity of the system goes beyond that of Morse oscillator description. This algebraic approach becomes critically important in case of Morse oscillator as it tends to exhibit divergent dynamics and numerical uncertainties at low temperatures. The autocorrelation function is calculated algebraically and compared to the exact one for they match perfectly. It is also compared to the approximate autocorrelation function using the differential equations technique reported in Toutounji (2014) for weak and strong electron-phonon coupling cases. It is found that the present cumulant method is more efficient, and easier to use, than the exact expression. Deviation between the approximate autocorrelation function and the exact autocorrelation function starts to arise as the electron-phonon coupling strength increases. The autocorrelation function obtained using cumulants identically matches the exact autocorrelation function, thereby surpassing the approach presented in Toutounji (2014). The advantage of the present methodology is its applicability to various types of electron-phonon coupling cases. Additionally, the herein approach only uses algebraic techniques, thereby avoiding both the divergence integral and solving a set of linear first- and second-order partial differential equations as was done in previous work. Model calculations are presented to demonstrate the accuracy of the herein work.

  2. Analysis of grain boundary dynamics using event detection and cumulative averaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautam, A.; Ophus, C. [National Center for Electron Microscopy, LBNL, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Lançon, F. [Laboratoire de Simulation Atomistique L-Sim, SP2M, INAC, CEA, 38054 Grenoble (France); Denes, P. [National Center for Electron Microscopy, LBNL, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Dahmen, U., E-mail: udahmen@lbl.gov [National Center for Electron Microscopy, LBNL, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    To analyze extended time series of high resolution images, we have employed automated frame-by-frame comparisons that are able to detect dynamic changes in the structure of a grain boundary in Au. Using cumulative averaging of images between events allowed high resolution measurements of the atomic relaxation in the interface with sufficient accuracy for comparison with atomistic models. Cumulative averaging was also used to observe the structural rearrangement of atomic columns at a moving step in the grain boundary. The technique of analyzing changing features in high resolution images by averaging between incidents can be used to deconvolute stochastic events that occur at random intervals and on time scales well beyond that accessible to single-shot imaging. - Highlights: • We have observed dynamic structural changes in extended time series of atomic resolution images. • Application of edge detection in the time domain isolates stochastic events in dynamic observations. • Splitting time series at stochastic events highlights changes in local atomic structure. • Cumulative averaging between events generates precise atomic resolution structural images.

  3. Braden Scale cumulative score versus subscale scores: are we missing opportunities for pressure ulcer prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadd, Molly M

    2014-01-01

    Hospital-acquired pressure ulcer incidence rates continue to rise in the United States in the acute care setting despite efforts to extinguish them, and pressure ulcers are a nursing-sensitive quality indicator. The Braden Scale for Predicting Pressure Sore Risk instrument has been shown to be a valid and reliable instrument for assessing pressure ulcer risk. This case study represented 1 patient out of a chart audit that reviewed 20 patients with confirmed hospital-acquired pressure ulcers. The goal of the audit was to determine whether these ulcers might be avoided if preventive interventions based on Braden subscale scores versus the cumulative score were implemented. This case study describes a patient who, deemed at low risk for pressure ulcer development based on cumulative Braden Scale, may have benefited from interventions based on the subscale scores of sensory perception, activity, and mobility. Further research is needed to determine whether interventions based on subscales may be effective for preventing pressure ulcers when compared to a protocol based exclusively on the cumulative score.

  4. Cancer incidence among Nordic airline cabin crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukkala, Eero; Helminen, Mika; Haldorsen, Tor; Hammar, Niklas; Kojo, Katja; Linnersjö, Anette; Rafnsson, Vilhjálmur; Tulinius, Hrafn; Tveten, Ulf; Auvinen, Anssi

    2012-12-15

    Airline cabin crew are occupationally exposed to cosmic radiation and jet lag with potential disruption of circadian rhythms. This study assesses the influence of work-related factors in cancer incidence of cabin crew members. A cohort of 8,507 female and 1,559 male airline cabin attendants from Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden was followed for cancer incidence for a mean follow-up time of 23.6 years through the national cancer registries. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were defined as ratios of observed and expected numbers of cases. A case-control study nested in the cohort (excluding Norway) was conducted to assess the relation between the estimated cumulative cosmic radiation dose and cumulative number of flights crossing six time zones (indicator of circadian disruption) and cancer risk. Analysis of breast cancer was adjusted for parity and age at first live birth. Among female cabin crew, a significantly increased incidence was observed for breast cancer [SIR 1.50, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.32-1.69], leukemia (1.89, 95% CI 1.03-3.17) and skin melanoma (1.85, 95% CI 1.41-2.38). Among men, significant excesses in skin melanoma (3.00, 95% CI 1.78-4.74), nonmelanoma skin cancer (2.47, 95% CI 1.18-4.53), Kaposi sarcoma (86.0, 95% CI 41.2-158) and alcohol-related cancers (combined SIR 3.12, 95% CI 1.95-4.72) were found. This large study with complete follow-up and comprehensive cancer incidence data shows an increased incidence of several cancers, but according to the case-control analysis, excesses appear not to be related to the cosmic radiation or circadian disruptions from crossing multiple time zones. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  5. Online Scheduling in Manufacturing A Cumulative Delay Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Suwa, Haruhiko

    2013-01-01

    Online scheduling is recognized as the crucial decision-making process of production control at a phase of “being in production" according to the released shop floor schedule. Online scheduling can be also considered as one of key enablers to realize prompt capable-to-promise as well as available-to-promise to customers along with reducing production lead times under recent globalized competitive markets. Online Scheduling in Manufacturing introduces new approaches to online scheduling based on a concept of cumulative delay. The cumulative delay is regarded as consolidated information of uncertainties under a dynamic environment in manufacturing and can be collected constantly without much effort at any points in time during a schedule execution. In this approach, the cumulative delay of the schedule has the important role of a criterion for making a decision whether or not a schedule revision is carried out. The cumulative delay approach to trigger schedule revisions has the following capabilities for the ...

  6. Cumulative Risks of Foster Care Placement for Danish Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallesen, Peter; Emanuel, Natalia; Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Although recent research suggests that the cumulative risk of foster care placement is far higher for American children than originally suspected, little is known about the cumulative risk of foster care placement in other countries, which makes it difficult to gauge the degree to which factor...... is for Danish children. Results suggest that at the beginning of the study period (in 1998) the cumulative risk of foster care placement for Danish children was roughly in line with the risk for American children. Yet, by the end of the study period (2010), the risk had declined to half the risk for American...... foster care placement is salient in other contexts. In this article, we provide companion estimates to those provided in recent work on the US by using Danish registry data and synthetic cohort life tables to show how high and unequally distributed the cumulative risk of foster care placement...

  7. Mapping cumulative human impacts in the eastern North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stock, A.; Andersen, Jesper; Heinänen, S.

    of the MSFD; and 3) to deepen the understanding of how errors in expert judgment affect the resulting cumulative human impact maps by means of Monte Carlo simulations. We combined existing data sets on the spatial distribution of 33 anthropogenic stressors (linked to the MSFD pressures) and 28 key habitats....... In contrast, the predicted impacts for much of the Norwegian EEZ and areas far offshore were lower. The Monte Carlo simulations confirmed earlier findings that mapping cumulative impacts is generally "robust", but also showed that specific combinations of errors can seriously change local and regional...... on marine ecosystems have only recently been developed. The aims of our study were: 1) to develop a map of cumulative human impacts for the Danish, Swedish, Norwegian and German parts of the Greater North Sea; 2) to adjust the existing methods for mapping cumulative human impacts to fit the requirements...

  8. Cumulative Production Per Township - SaMiRa

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset contains a selected township grid within the Sagebrush Mineral Resource Assessment project (SaMiRa) study area attributed with cumulative oil and gas...

  9. Macroscopic cumulative fatigue damage of material under nonsymmetrical cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盖秉政

    2002-01-01

    Hashin's macroscopic theory of fatigue damage is further discussed and a new method has been proposed for prediction of cumulative fatigue damage of material and its lifetime under nonsymmetrical cyclic loading.

  10. Translation-Invariant Representation for Cumulative Foot Pressure Images

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Shuai; Tan, Tieniu

    2010-01-01

    Human can be distinguished by different limb movements and unique ground reaction force. Cumulative foot pressure image is a 2-D cumulative ground reaction force during one gait cycle. Although it contains pressure spatial distribution information and pressure temporal distribution information, it suffers from several problems including different shoes and noise, when putting it into practice as a new biometric for pedestrian identification. In this paper, we propose a hierarchical translation-invariant representation for cumulative foot pressure images, inspired by the success of Convolutional deep belief network for digital classification. Key contribution in our approach is discriminative hierarchical sparse coding scheme which helps to learn useful discriminative high-level visual features. Based on the feature representation of cumulative foot pressure images, we develop a pedestrian recognition system which is invariant to three different shoes and slight local shape change. Experiments are conducted on...

  11. Markov Chain Analysis of Cumulative Step-Size Adaptation on a Linear Constrained Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotard, Alexandre; Auger, Anne; Hansen, Nikolaus

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes a (1, λ)-Evolution Strategy, a randomized comparison-based adaptive search algorithm optimizing a linear function with a linear constraint. The algorithm uses resampling to handle the constraint. Two cases are investigated: first, the case where the step-size is constant, and second, the case where the step-size is adapted using cumulative step-size adaptation. We exhibit for each case a Markov chain describing the behavior of the algorithm. Stability of the chain implies, by applying a law of large numbers, either convergence or divergence of the algorithm. Divergence is the desired behavior. In the constant step-size case, we show stability of the Markov chain and prove the divergence of the algorithm. In the cumulative step-size adaptation case, we prove stability of the Markov chain in the simplified case where the cumulation parameter equals 1, and discuss steps to obtain similar results for the full (default) algorithm where the cumulation parameter is smaller than 1. The stability of the Markov chain allows us to deduce geometric divergence or convergence, depending on the dimension, constraint angle, population size, and damping parameter, at a rate that we estimate. Our results complement previous studies where stability was assumed.

  12. Nonsymbolic number and cumulative area representations contribute shared and unique variance to symbolic math competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenco, Stella F; Bonny, Justin W; Fernandez, Edmund P; Rao, Sonia

    2012-11-13

    Humans and nonhuman animals share the capacity to estimate, without counting, the number of objects in a set by relying on an approximate number system (ANS). Only humans, however, learn the concepts and operations of symbolic mathematics. Despite vast differences between these two systems of quantification, neural and behavioral findings suggest functional connections. Another line of research suggests that the ANS is part of a larger, more general system of magnitude representation. Reports of cognitive interactions and common neural coding for number and other magnitudes such as spatial extent led us to ask whether, and how, nonnumerical magnitude interfaces with mathematical competence. On two magnitude comparison tasks, college students estimated (without counting or explicit calculation) which of two arrays was greater in number or cumulative area. They also completed a battery of standardized math tests. Individual differences in both number and cumulative area precision (measured by accuracy on the magnitude comparison tasks) correlated with interindividual variability in math competence, particularly advanced arithmetic and geometry, even after accounting for general aspects of intelligence. Moreover, analyses revealed that whereas number precision contributed unique variance to advanced arithmetic, cumulative area precision contributed unique variance to geometry. Taken together, these results provide evidence for shared and unique contributions of nonsymbolic number and cumulative area representations to formally taught mathematics. More broadly, they suggest that uniquely human branches of mathematics interface with an evolutionarily primitive general magnitude system, which includes partially overlapping representations of numerical and nonnumerical magnitude.

  13. Prediction of the 20-year incidence of diabetes in older Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangtong; Fine, Jason Peter; Chen, Zhenghong; Liu, Long; Li, Xia; Wang, Anxin; Guo, Jin; Tao, Lixin; Mahara, Gehendra; Tang, Zhe; Guo, Xiuhua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The competing risk method has become more acceptable for time-to-event data analysis because of its advantage over the standard Cox model in accounting for competing events in the risk set. This study aimed to construct a prediction model for diabetes using a subdistribution hazards model. We prospectively followed 1857 community residents who were aged ≥ 55 years, free of diabetes at baseline examination from August 1992 to December 2012. Diabetes was defined as a self-reported history of diabetes diagnosis, taking antidiabetic medicine, or having fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥ 7.0 mmol/L. A questionnaire was used to measure diabetes risk factors, including dietary habits, lifestyle, psychological factors, cognitive function, and physical condition. Gray test and a subdistribution hazards model were used to construct a prediction algorithm for 20-year risk of diabetes. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, bootstrap cross-validated Wolber concordance index (C-index) statistics, and calibration plots were used to assess model performance. During the 20-year follow-up period, 144 cases were documented for diabetes incidence with a median follow-up of 10.9 years (interquartile range: 8.0–15.3 years). The cumulative incidence function of 20-year diabetes incidence was 11.60% after adjusting for the competing risk of nondiabetes death. Gray test showed that body mass index, FPG, self-rated heath status, and physical activity were associated with the cumulative incidence function of diabetes after adjusting for age. Finally, 5 standard risk factors (poor self-rated health status [subdistribution hazard ratio (SHR) = 1.73, P = 0.005], less physical activity [SHR = 1.39, P = 0.047], 55–65 years old [SHR = 4.37, P < 0.001], overweight [SHR = 2.15, P < 0.001] or obesity [SHR = 1.96, P = 0.003], and impaired fasting glucose [IFG] [SHR = 1.99, P < 0.001]) were significantly associated with incident

  14. High incidence of functional ion-channel abnormalities in a consecutive Long QT cohort with novel missense genetic variants of unknown significance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Annette Buur; Refaat, Marwan M; David, Jens-Peter

    2015-01-01

    The Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a disorder characterized by a prolongation of the QT interval and a propensity to ventricular tachyarrhythmias, which may lead to syncope, cardiac arrest, or sudden death. Our objective was to (1) determine the incidence of variants with unknown significance (VUS) i...

  15. Some Characterization Results on Dynamic Cumulative Residual Tsallis Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madan Mohan Sati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a generalized cumulative residual information measure based on Tsallis entropy and its dynamic version. We study the characterizations of the proposed information measure and define new classes of life distributions based on this measure. Some applications are provided in relation to weighted and equilibrium probability models. Finally the empirical cumulative Tsallis entropy is proposed to estimate the new information measure.

  16. Steps and pips in the history of the cumulative recorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Lattal, Kennon A.

    2004-01-01

    From its inception in the 1930s until very recent times, the cumulative recorder was the most widely used measurement instrument in the experimental analysis of behavior. It was an essential instrument in the discovery and analysis of schedules of reinforcement, providing the first real-time analysis of operant response rates and patterns. This review traces the evolution of the cumulative recorder from Skinner's early modified kymographs through various models developed by Skinner and his co...

  17. Cumulative Damage Model for Advanced Composite Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    ultimately used an exponential in the present example for added simplicity) and we norma - lize the function so that it becomes the modifier that determines...Testing and Design (Second Conference), ASTM STP 497, ASTM (1972) pp. 170-188. 5. Halpin, J. C., et al., "Characterization of Composites for the...Graphite Epoxy Composites," Proc. Symposium on Composite Materials: Testing and Design, ASTM , (Ma’rch 20, 1978) New Orleans, LA. 18. Hashin, Z. and Rotem

  18. Prediction of postoperative morbidity, mortality and rehabilitation in hip fracture patients: the cumulated ambulation score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Bang; Kristensen, Morten Tange; Kehlet, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    to short-term outcome parameters. RESULTS: The cumulated ambulation score was a highly significant predictor for length of hospitalization, time to discharge status, 30-day mortality and postoperative medical complications (P ...OBJECTIVE: To validate the cumulated ambulation score as an early postoperative predictor of short-term outcome in hip fracture patients. DESIGN: Prospective, descriptive study. SETTING: An orthopaedic hip fracture unit in a university hospital. PATIENTS: Four hundred and twenty-six consecutive hip...... fracture patients with an independent walking function admitted from their own home. Rehabilitation followed a well-defined multimodal rehabilitation regimen and discharge criteria. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Admission tests with a new mobility score to assess prefracture functional mobility and a short mental...

  19. The "RTR" medical response system for nuclear and radiological mass-casualty incidents: a functional TRiage-TReatment-TRansport medical response model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrdina, Chad M; Coleman, C Norman; Bogucki, Sandy; Bader, Judith L; Hayhurst, Robert E; Forsha, Joseph D; Marcozzi, David; Yeskey, Kevin; Knebel, Ann R

    2009-01-01

    Developing a mass-casualty medical response to the detonation of an improvised nuclear device (IND) or large radiological dispersal device (RDD) requires unique advanced planning due to the potential magnitude of the event, lack of warning, and radiation hazards. In order for medical care and resources to be collocated and matched to the requirements, a [US] Federal interagency medical response-planning group has developed a conceptual approach for responding to such nuclear and radiological incidents. The "RTR" system (comprising Radiation-specific TRiage, TReatment, TRansport sites) is designed to support medical care following a nuclear incident. Its purpose is to characterize, organize, and efficiently deploy appropriate materiel and personnel assets as close as physically possible to various categories of victims while preserving the safety of responders. The RTR system is not a medical triage system for individual patients. After an incident is characterized and safe perimeters are established, RTR sites should be determined in real-time that are based on the extent of destruction, environmental factors, residual radiation, available infrastructure, and transportation routes. Such RTR sites are divided into three types depending on their physical/situational relationship to the incident. The RTR1 sites are near the epicenter with residual radiation and include victims with blast injuries and other major traumatic injuries including radiation exposure; RTR2 sites are situated in relationship to the plume with varying amounts of residual radiation present, with most victims being ambulatory; and RTR3 sites are collection and transport sites with minimal or no radiation present or exposure risk and a victim population with a potential variety of injuries or radiation exposures. Medical Care sites are predetermined sites at which definitive medical care is given to those in immediate need of care. They include local/regional hospitals, medical centers, other

  20. Universal cumulants of the current in diffusive systems on a ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appert-Rolland, C.; Derrida, B.; Lecomte, V.; van Wijland, F.

    2008-08-01

    We calculate exactly the first cumulants of the integrated current and of the activity (which is the total number of changes of configurations) of the symmetric simple exclusion process on a ring with periodic boundary conditions. Our results indicate that for large system sizes the large deviation functions of the current and of the activity take a universal scaling form, with the same scaling function for both quantities. This scaling function can be understood either by an analysis of Bethe ansatz equations or in terms of a theory based on fluctuating hydrodynamics or on the macroscopic fluctuation theory of Bertini, De Sole, Gabrielli, Jona-Lasinio, and Landim.

  1. Impact of Incidents on Traffic Congestion in Dar es Salaam City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mfinanga

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Poorly managed traffic incidents have largely contributed to congestion and delay in the city of Dar es Salaam. A thorough understanding of travel delays caused by incidents is therefore essential for effective countermeasures against the increasing congestion. The method used to determine delays in this research is based on the deterministic queuing theory. Information on incidents was obtained from traffic surveys, traffic police and road users. Counting of the number of vehicles passing the incident location was done on incident and incident-free days. The cumulative traffic counts on incident and incident-free days were then calculated and used to plot the queuing diagram used to determine incident induced delay. This method turned out to be a useful tool for estimating incident induced delay in areas with less sophisticated equipment i.e. where there are no sensors, CCTV cameras, etc. The method provided good estimates of incident induced delay which may help planners and transportation officials in better understanding incident related congestion and in selecting more effective countermeasures against incident related traffic congestion in the city. It was found out that the effects of incidents were different for the different zones, types of incidents and the periods the incident occurred. In addition to the incident duration and the number of vehicles affected, the impact of incidents also depended on availability of alternative routes, number of lanes on the road, discipline of the driver in manoeuvring at incident location and traffic control at the scene.

  2. Cumulative risks of foster care placement for Danish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallesen, Peter; Emanuel, Natalia; Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Although recent research suggests that the cumulative risk of foster care placement is far higher for American children than originally suspected, little is known about the cumulative risk of foster care placement in other countries, which makes it difficult to gauge the degree to which factor foster care placement is salient in other contexts. In this article, we provide companion estimates to those provided in recent work on the US by using Danish registry data and synthetic cohort life tables to show how high and unequally distributed the cumulative risk of foster care placement is for Danish children. Results suggest that at the beginning of the study period (in 1998) the cumulative risk of foster care placement for Danish children was roughly in line with the risk for American children. Yet, by the end of the study period (2010), the risk had declined to half the risk for American children. Our results also show some variations by parental ethnicity and sex, but these differences are small. Indeed, they appear quite muted relative to racial/ethnic differences in these risks in the United States. Last, though cumulative risks are similar between Danish and American children (especially at the beginning of the study period), the age-specific risk profiles are markedly different, with higher risks for older Danish children than for older American children.

  3. Latino Mothers' Cumulative Food Insecurity Exposure and Child Body Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Daphne C

    2016-01-01

    To document whether an intergenerational transmission of food insecurity is occurring by assessing low-income foreign-born Latino mothers' experiences with food insecurity as none, once (either childhood or adulthood) or twice (during both childhood and adulthood). Also the association between maternal cumulative food insecurity and children's body composition was examined. Maternal self-reported surveys on retrospective measures of food insecurity during childhood, current measures of food insecurity, and demographics were collected from Houston-area community centers (N = 96). Children's body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were directly assessed. Covariate-adjusted logistic regression models analyzed the association between cumulative food insecurity experiences and children's body composition. Fifty-eight percent of mothers experienced food insecurity both as a child and as an adult and 31% of the mothers experienced food insecurity either as a child or adult. Maternal cumulative exposure to food insecurity was unrelated to BMI but was negatively related to elevated WC. Although an intergenerational transmission of food insecurity does exist, maternal cumulative exposure to food insecurity does not impact children's body composition negatively in the short term. Studying the long-term effects of cumulative food insecurity exposure can provide information for the development and timing of obesity interventions.

  4. USING CUMULATIVE NUMBER DENSITIES TO COMPARE GALAXIES ACROSS COSMIC TIME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behroozi, Peter S.; Wechsler, Risa H. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Marchesini, Danilo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Muzzin, Adam [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Papovich, Casey [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Stefanon, Mauro [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Comparing galaxies across redshifts at fixed cumulative number density is a popular way to estimate the evolution of specific galaxy populations. This method ignores scatter in mass accretion histories and galaxy-galaxy mergers, which can lead to errors when comparing galaxies over large redshift ranges (Δz > 1). We use abundance matching in the ΛCDM paradigm to estimate the median change in cumulative number density with redshift and provide a simple fit (+0.16 dex per unit Δz) for progenitors of z = 0 galaxies. We find that galaxy descendants do not evolve in the same way as galaxy progenitors, largely due to scatter in mass accretion histories. We also provide estimates for the 1σ range of cumulative number densities corresponding to galaxy progenitors and descendants. Finally, we discuss some limits on cumulative number density comparisons, which arise due to difficulties measuring physical quantities (e.g., stellar mass) consistently across redshifts. A public tool to calculate cumulative number density evolution for galaxies, as well as approximate halo masses, is available online.

  5. Maintenance hemodialysis patients have high cumulative radiation exposure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kinsella, Sinead M

    2010-10-01

    Hemodialysis is associated with an increased risk of neoplasms which may result, at least in part, from exposure to ionizing radiation associated with frequent radiographic procedures. In order to estimate the average radiation exposure of those on hemodialysis, we conducted a retrospective study of 100 patients in a university-based dialysis unit followed for a median of 3.4 years. The number and type of radiological procedures were obtained from a central radiology database, and the cumulative effective radiation dose was calculated using standardized, procedure-specific radiation levels. The median annual radiation dose was 6.9 millisieverts (mSv) per patient-year. However, 14 patients had an annual cumulative effective radiation dose over 20 mSv, the upper averaged annual limit for occupational exposure. The median total cumulative effective radiation dose per patient over the study period was 21.7 mSv, in which 13 patients had a total cumulative effective radiation dose over 75 mSv, a value reported to be associated with a 7% increased risk of cancer-related mortality. Two-thirds of the total cumulative effective radiation dose was due to CT scanning. The average radiation exposure was significantly associated with the cause of end-stage renal disease, history of ischemic heart disease, transplant waitlist status, number of in-patient hospital days over follow-up, and death during the study period. These results highlight the substantial exposure to ionizing radiation in hemodialysis patients.

  6. Critical incident reporting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Jag; Marriott, Lin

    2005-02-01

    Approximately 10% of all hospital admissions are complicated by critical incidents in which harm is caused to the patient - this amounts to more than 850,000 incidents annually. Critical incident reporting (CIR) systems refer to the structured reporting, collation and analysis of such incidents. This article describes the attributes required for an effective CIR system. Example neonatal trigger events and a management pathway for handling a critical incident report are described. The benefits and limitations of CIR systems, reactive and prospective approaches to the analysis of actual or potential critical incidents and the assessment of risk are also reviewed. Individual human error is but one contributor in the majority of critical incidents. Recognition of this and the fostering of an organisational culture that views critical incident reports as an opportunity to learn and to improve future patient care is vital if CIR systems are to be effective.

  7. A semiparametric censoring bias model for estimating the cumulative risk of a false-positive screening test under dependent censoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Rebecca A; Miglioretti, Diana L

    2013-03-01

    False-positive test results are among the most common harms of screening tests and may lead to more invasive and expensive diagnostic testing procedures. Estimating the cumulative risk of a false-positive screening test result after repeat screening rounds is, therefore, important for evaluating potential screening regimens. Existing estimators of the cumulative false-positive risk are limited by strong assumptions about censoring mechanisms and parametric assumptions about variation in risk across screening rounds. To address these limitations, we propose a semiparametric censoring bias model for cumulative false-positive risk that allows for dependent censoring without specifying a fixed functional form for variation in risk across screening rounds. Simulation studies demonstrated that the censoring bias model performs similarly to existing models under independent censoring and can largely eliminate bias under dependent censoring. We used the existing and newly proposed models to estimate the cumulative false-positive risk and variation in risk as a function of baseline age and family history of breast cancer after 10 years of annual screening mammography using data from the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium. Ignoring potential dependent censoring in this context leads to underestimation of the cumulative risk of false-positive results. Models that provide accurate estimates under dependent censoring are critical for providing appropriate information for evaluating screening tests.

  8. Cumulative Trauma Among Mayas Living in Southeast Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millender, Eugenia I; Lowe, John

    2016-01-04

    Mayas, having experienced genocide, exile, and severe poverty, are at high risk for the consequences of cumulative trauma that continually resurfaces through current fear of an uncertain future. Little is known about the mental health and alcohol use status of this population. This correlational study explored t/he relationship of cumulative trauma as it relates to social determinants of health (years in the United States, education, health insurance status, marital status, and employment), psychological health (depression symptoms), and health behaviors (alcohol use) of 102 Guatemalan Mayas living in Southeast Florida. The results of this study indicated that, as specific social determinants of health and cumulative trauma increased, depression symptoms (particularly among women) and the risk for harmful alcohol use (particularly among men) increased. Identifying risk factors at an early stage before serious disease or problems are manifest provides room for early screening leading to early identification, early treatment, and better outcomes.

  9. Analysis of sensory ratings data with cumulative link models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen; Brockhoff, Per B.

    2013-01-01

    Examples of categorical rating scales include discrete preference, liking and hedonic rating scales. Data obtained on these scales are often analyzed with normal linear regression methods or with omnibus Pearson chi2 tests. In this paper we propose to use cumulative link models that allow...... for regression methods similar to linear models while respecting the categorical nature of the observations. We describe how cumulative link models are related to the omnibus chi2 tests and how they can lead to more powerful tests in the non-replicated setting. For replicated categorical ratings data we present...... a quasi-likelihood approach and a mixed effects approach both being extensions of cumulative link models. We contrast population-average and subject-specific interpretations based on these models and discuss how different approaches lead to different tests. In replicated settings, naive tests that ignore...

  10. Cumulative pion production via successive collisions in nuclear medium

    CERN Document Server

    Motornenko, A

    2016-01-01

    Production of pions in proton-nucleus (p+A) reactions outside of a kinematical boundary of proton-nucleon collisions, the so-called cumulative effect, is studied. The kinematical restrictions on pions emitted in backward direction in the target rest frame are analyzed. It is shown that cumulative pion production requires a presence of massive baryonic resonances that are produced during successive collisions of projectile with nuclear nucleons. After each successive collision the mass of created resonance may increase and, simultaneously, its longitudinal velocity decreases. Simulations within Ultra relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics model reveals that successive collisions of baryonic resonances with nuclear nucleons plays the dominant role in cumulative pion production in p+A reactions.

  11. Solid-state electro-cumulation effect numerical simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Grishin, V G

    2001-01-01

    It is an attempt to simulate as really as possible a crystal's interatomic interaction under conditions of "Solid-state electro-cumulation (super-polarization) effect". Some theoretical and experimental reasons to believe that within solid substances an interparticles interaction could concentrate from the surface to a centre were given formerly. Now, numerical results show the conditions that could make the cumulation more effective. Another keywords: ion, current, solid, symmetry, cumulation, polarization, depolarization, ionic conductor,superionic conductor, ice, crystal, strain, V-center, V-centre, doped crystal, interstitial impurity, intrinsic color center, high pressure technology, Bridgman, anvil, experiment, crowdion, dielectric, proton, layer, defect, lattice, dynamics, electromigration, mobility, muon catalysis, concentration, doping, dopant, conductivity, pycnonuclear reaction, permittivity, dielectric constant, point defects, interstitials, polarizability, imperfection, defect centers, glass, epi...

  12. Baltic Sea biodiversity status vs. cumulative human pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper H.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Korpinen, Samuli

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Many studies have tried to explain spatial and temporal variations in biodiversity status of marine areas from a single-issue perspective, such as fishing pressure or coastal pollution, yet most continental seas experience a wide range of human pressures. Cumulative impact assessments have...... been developed to capture the consequences of multiple stressors for biodiversity, but the ability of these assessments to accurately predict biodiversity status has never been tested or ground-truthed. This relationship has similarly been assumed for the Baltic Sea, especially in areas with impaired...... status, but has also never been documented. Here we provide a first tentative indication that cumulative human impacts relate to ecosystem condition, i.e. biodiversity status, in the Baltic Sea. Thus, cumulative impact assessments offer a promising tool for informed marine spatial planning, designation...

  13. Session: What do we know about cumulative or population impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerlinger, Paul; Manville, Al; Kendall, Bill

    2004-09-01

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of a panel discussion followed by a discussion/question and answer period. The panelists were Paul Kerlinger, Curry and Kerlinger, LLC, Al Manville, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and Bill Kendall, US Geological Service. The panel addressed the potential cumulative impacts of wind turbines on bird and bat populations over time. Panel members gave brief presentations that touched on what is currently known, what laws apply, and the usefulness of population modeling. Topics addressed included which sources of modeling should be included in cumulative impacts, comparison of impacts from different modes of energy generation, as well as what research is still needed regarding cumulative impacts of wind energy development on bird and bat populations.

  14. Cumulant dynamics in a finite population linkage equilibrium theory

    CERN Document Server

    Rattray, M; Rattray, Magnus; Shapiro, Jonathan L.

    1999-01-01

    The evolution of a finite population at linkage equilibrium is described in terms of the dynamics of phenotype distribution cumulants. This provides a powerful method for describing evolutionary transients and we elucidate the relationship between the cumulant dynamics and the diffusion approximation. A separation of time-scales between the first and higher cumulants for low mutation rates is demonstrated in the diffusion limit and provides a significant simplification of the dynamical system. However, the diffusion limit may not be appropriate for strong selection as the standard Fisher-Wright model of genetic drift can break down in this case. Two novel examples of this effect are considered: we shown that the dynamics may depend on the number of loci under strong directional selection and that environmental variance results in a reduced effective population size. We also consider a simple model of a changing environment which cannot be described by a diffusion equation and we derive the optimal mutation ra...

  15. Effect of correlation on cumulants in heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, D K; Netrakanti, P K

    2015-01-01

    We study the effects of correlation on cumulants and their ratios of net-proton multiplicity distribution which have been measured for central (0-5\\%) Au+Au collisions at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This effect has been studied assuming individual proton and anti-proton distributions as Poisson or Negative Binomial Distribution (NBD). In-spite of significantly correlated production due to baryon number, electric charge conservation and kinematical correlations of protons and anti-protons, the measured cumulants of net-proton distribution follow the independent production model. In the present work we demonstrate how the introduction of correlations will affect the cumulants and their ratios for the difference distributions. We have also demonstrated this study using the proton and anti-proton distributions obtained from HIJING event generator.

  16. Cyber Incidents Involving Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert J. Turk

    2005-10-01

    The Analysis Function of the US-CERT Control Systems Security Center (CSSC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has prepared this report to document cyber security incidents for use by the CSSC. The description and analysis of incidents reported herein support three CSSC tasks: establishing a business case; increasing security awareness and private and corporate participation related to enhanced cyber security of control systems; and providing informational material to support model development and prioritize activities for CSSC. The stated mission of CSSC is to reduce vulnerability of critical infrastructure to cyber attack on control systems. As stated in the Incident Management Tool Requirements (August 2005) ''Vulnerability reduction is promoted by risk analysis that tracks actual risk, emphasizes high risk, determines risk reduction as a function of countermeasures, tracks increase of risk due to external influence, and measures success of the vulnerability reduction program''. Process control and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, with their reliance on proprietary networks and hardware, have long been considered immune to the network attacks that have wreaked so much havoc on corporate information systems. New research indicates this confidence is misplaced--the move to open standards such as Ethernet, Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, and Web technologies is allowing hackers to take advantage of the control industry's unawareness. Much of the available information about cyber incidents represents a characterization as opposed to an analysis of events. The lack of good analyses reflects an overall weakness in reporting requirements as well as the fact that to date there have been very few serious cyber attacks on control systems. Most companies prefer not to share cyber attack incident data because of potential financial repercussions. Uniform reporting requirements will do much to make this

  17. Incident Information Management Tool

    CERN Document Server

    Pejovic, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Flaws of\tcurrent incident information management at CMS and CERN\tare discussed. A new data\tmodel for future incident database is\tproposed and briefly described. Recently developed draft version of GIS-­‐based tool for incident tracking is presented.

  18. Universal off-equilibrium scaling of critical cumulants in the QCD phase diagram

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Swagato; Yin, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Exploiting the universality between the QCD critical point and the three dimensional Ising model, closed form expressions derived (arXiv:1506.00645 ) for non-equilibrium critical cumulants on the crossover side of the critical point reveal that they can differ both in magnitude and sign from equilibrium expectations. We demonstrate here that key elements of the Kibble-Zurek framework of non-equilibrium phase transitions can be employed to describe the dynamics of these critical cumulants. Our results suggest that observables sensitive to critical dynamics in heavy-ion collisions should be expressible as universal scaling functions, thereby providing powerful model independent guidance in searches for the QCD critical point.

  19. [Rate of incidence of divorce in birth cohorts classified by age difference between married couples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajita, E; Iki, M; Fukui, M; Ogata, A; Takayama, S; Yamazaki, K; Ooida, T; Yajima, T

    1990-08-01

    We examined the situation concerning divorce in Japan from the view-point of age difference between married couples using vital statistics from the year 1952 to 1985. Annual and cumulative divorce rates were introduced as rate of incidence of divorce. We studied these indices by age difference between couples in birth cohorts of husbands. Our conclusions were as follows: 1) The cumulative divorce rate was lower in early birth cohorts than in late birth cohorts. 2) The cumulative divorce rate for young adult couples (aged 20-30) was higher than that for middle-aged couples (aged more than 30) in every cohort. 3) The cumulative divorce rate was lowest when husbands were 1 to 4 years older than wives. This tendency was quite similar in different ages and cohorts. 4) The same conclusions were reached when the annual divorce rate was substituted for the cumulative divorce rate.

  20. System Dynamics and Modified Cumulant Neglect Closure Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köylüoglu, H. Ugur; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    Dealing with multipeaked problems, the goal of the paper is to improve the quality of the approximations for the expectations appearing in the differential equations written for the statistical moments of the state vector, guided by insight in the system dynamics. For systems with polynomial non......-linearities, modifications in the cumulant neglect closure scheme are suggested. The methodology is illustrated using the two wells oscillator. An error analysis is performed to compare the modified and ordinary cumulant neglect closure schemes applied at the second and fourth order levels with the exact results available....

  1. Baltic Sea biodiversity status vs. cumulative human pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper H.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Korpinen, Samuli

    2015-01-01

    been developed to capture the consequences of multiple stressors for biodiversity, but the ability of these assessments to accurately predict biodiversity status has never been tested or ground-truthed. This relationship has similarly been assumed for the Baltic Sea, especially in areas with impaired...... status, but has also never been documented. Here we provide a first tentative indication that cumulative human impacts relate to ecosystem condition, i.e. biodiversity status, in the Baltic Sea. Thus, cumulative impact assessments offer a promising tool for informed marine spatial planning, designation...

  2. Aspect of cumulative fatigue damage under multiaxial strain cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamrik, S. Y.; Tang, P. Y.

    1972-01-01

    The concept of order of loading and its effect on cumulative fatigue damage under multiaxial strain cyclings was investigated. The effect is illustrated through nonlinear relationships between biaxial fatigue damage and cycle-ratio diagrams. Uniaxial theories such as Miner's method, the convergence method, and the double linear damage rule in its special and generalized form, were examined and extended to the biaxial case through the octahedral shear strain theory. The generalized double linear damage rule was found more applicable to biaxial cumulative fatigue damage.

  3. A study of cumulative fatigue damage in AISI 4130 steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeelani, S.; Musial, M.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental data were obtained using AISI 4130 steel under stress ratios of -1 and 0. A study of cumulative fatigue damage using Miner's and Kramer's equations for stress ratios of -1 and 0 for low-high, low-high-mixed, high-low, and high-low-mixed stress sequences has revealed that there is a close agreement between the theoretical and experimental values of fatigue damage and fatigue life. Kramer's equation predicts less conservative and more realistic cumulative fatigue damage than the popularly used Miner's rule does.

  4. Monitoring of nosocomial invasive aspergillosis and early evidence of an outbreak using cumulative sum tests (CUSUM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menotti, J; Porcher, R; Ribaud, P; Lacroix, C; Jolivet, V; Hamane, S; Derouin, F

    2010-09-01

    In order to provide a statistically based evaluation of the incidence of invasive aspergillosis (IA) over time, we applied the cumulative sums (CUSUM) methodology, which was developed for quality control and has already been applied for the surveillance of hospital-acquired infections. Cases of IA were recorded during a 5-year period. Incidence rates of cases assumed to be hospital-acquired, i.e. nosocomial IA (NIA), were analysed using CUSUM tests. Relationships between NIA, fungal contamination and construction or renovation work were tested using time-series methods. Between January 2002 and December 2006, 81 cases of NIA were recorded. CUSUM analysis of NIA incidence showed no significant deviation from the expected monthly number of cases until August 2005, and then the CUSUM crossed the decision limit, i.e. identified a significant increase in NIA as compared with the reference period (January 2002 to December 2004). Up to April 2006, the learning-curve CUSUM stayed over its limit, supporting an ongoing outbreak involving 24 patients, and then it significantly decreased in May 2006. Follow-up after May 2006 indicated no out-of-control situation, supporting a return to the baseline situation. In haematology wards, significant links were found between NIA incidence and fungal contamination of several sites at each ward (mainly unprotected common sites). An environmental source of contamination could be suspected, but no significant relationship was found between NIA incidence and ongoing construction or renovation. In conclusion, the CUSUM test proved to be well suited for real-time monitoring of NIA and for early identification and follow-up of an outbreak.

  5. Incidence densities in a competing events analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grambauer, Nadine; Schumacher, Martin; Dettenkofer, Markus; Beyersmann, Jan

    2010-11-01

    Epidemiologists often study the incidence density (ID; also known as incidence rate), which is the number of observed events divided by population-time at risk. Its computational simplicity makes it attractive in applications, but a common concern is that the ID is misleading if the underlying hazard is not constant in time. Another difficulty arises if competing events are present, which seems to have attracted less attention in the literature. However, there are situations in which the presence of competing events obscures the analysis more than nonconstant hazards do. The authors illustrate such a situation using data on infectious complications in patients receiving stem cell transplants, showing that a certain transplant type reduces the infection ID but eventually increases the cumulative infection probability because of its effect on the competing event. The authors investigate the extent to which IDs allow for a reasonable analysis of competing events. They suggest a simple multistate-type graphic based on IDs, which immediately displays the competing event situation. The authors also suggest a more formal summary analysis in terms of a best approximating effect on the cumulative event probability, considering another data example of US women infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Competing events and even more complex event patterns may be adequately addressed with the suggested methodology.

  6. Longitudinal lung function decline and wood dust exposure in the furniture industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, G; Schlünssen, V; Schaumburg, I; Taudorf, E; Sigsgaard, T

    2008-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between change in lung function and cumulative exposure to wood dust. In total, 1,112 woodworkers (927 males, 185 females) and 235 reference workers (104 males, 185 females) participated in a 6-yr longitudinal study. Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)), forced vital capacity (FVC), height and weight were measured, and questionnaire data on respiratory symptoms, wood dust exposure and smoking habits were collected. Cumulative inhalable wood dust exposure was assessed using a study-specific job exposure matrix and exposure time. The median (range) for cumulative wood dust exposure was 3.75 (0-7.55) mg x year x m(-3). A dose-response relationship between cumulative wood dust exposure and percent annual decrease in FEV(1) was suggested for female workers. This was confirmed in a linear regression model adjusted for confounders, including smoking, height and age. An additional difference of -14.50 mL x yr(-1) and -27.97 mL x yr(-1) was revealed for females exposed to 3.75-4.71 mg x yr x m(-3) or to >4.71 mg x yr x m(-3), respectively, compared with non-/low-exposed females. For females, a positive trend between wood dust exposure and the cumulative incidence proportion of FEV(1)/FVC lung function, which may be clinically relevant.

  7. RECURSIVE CLASSIFICATION OF MQAM SIGNALS BASED ON HIGHER ORDER CUMULANTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Weidong; Yang Shaoquan

    2002-01-01

    A new feature based on higher order cumulants is proposed for classification of MQAM signals. Theoretical analysis justify that the new feature is invariant with respect to translation (shift), scale and rotation transform of signal constellations, and can suppress color or white additive Gaussian noise. Computer simulation shows that the proposed recursive orderreduction based classification algorithm can classify MQAM signals with any order.

  8. Hierarchical Bayesian parameter estimation for cumulative prospect theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nilsson, H.; Rieskamp, J.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.

    2011-01-01

    Cumulative prospect theory (CPT Tversky & Kahneman, 1992) has provided one of the most influential accounts of how people make decisions under risk. CPT is a formal model with parameters that quantify psychological processes such as loss aversion, subjective values of gains and losses, and

  9. Cumulative psychosocial stress, coping resources, and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Sheila W; Kingston, Dawn; Bayrampour, Hamideh; Dolan, Siobhan M; Tough, Suzanne C

    2014-12-01

    Preterm birth constitutes a significant international public health issue, with implications for child and family well-being. High levels of psychosocial stress and negative affect before and during pregnancy are contributing factors to shortened gestation and preterm birth. We developed a cumulative psychosocial stress variable and examined its association with early delivery controlling for known preterm birth risk factors and confounding environmental variables. We further examined this association among subgroups of women with different levels of coping resources. Utilizing the All Our Babies (AOB) study, an ongoing prospective pregnancy cohort study in Alberta, Canada (n = 3,021), multinomial logistic regression was adopted to examine the independent effect of cumulative psychosocial stress and preterm birth subgroups compared to term births. Stratified analyses according to categories of perceived social support and optimism were undertaken to examine differential effects among subgroups of women. Cumulative psychosocial stress was a statistically significant risk factor for late preterm birth (OR = 1.73; 95 % CI = 1.07, 2.81), but not for early preterm birth (OR = 2.44; 95 % CI = 0.95, 6.32), controlling for income, history of preterm birth, pregnancy complications, reproductive history, and smoking in pregnancy. Stratified analyses showed that cumulative psychosocial stress was a significant risk factor for preterm birth at psychosocial stress on the risk for early delivery.

  10. Is learning in problem-based learning cumulative?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.H.J. Yew (Elaine); E. Chng (Esther); H.G. Schmidt (Henk)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractProblem-based learning (PBL) is generally organized in three phases, involving collaborative and self-directed learning processes. The hypothesis tested here is whether learning in the different phases of PBL is cumulative, with learning in each phase depending on that of the previous ph

  11. Cumulative assessment : Strategic choices to influence students' study effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerdijk, Wouter; Tio, Rene A.; Mulder, B. Florentine; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2013-01-01

    Background: It has been asserted that assessment can and should be used to drive students' learning. In the current study, we present a cumulative assessment program in which test planning, repeated testing and compensation are combined in order to influence study effort. The program is aimed at hel

  12. Repeated mild injury causes cumulative damage to hippocampal cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. Matser (Amy); C.I. de Zeeuw (Chris); J.T. Weber (John)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractAn interesting hypothesis in the study of neurotrauma is that repeated traumatic brain injury may result in cumulative damage to cells of the brain. However, post-injury sequelae are difficult to address at the cellular level in vivo. Therefore, it is necessary to compl

  13. The effects of cumulative practice on mathematics problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, Kristin H; Chase, Philip N

    2002-01-01

    This study compared three different methods of teaching five basic algebra rules to college students. All methods used the same procedures to teach the rules and included four 50-question review sessions interspersed among the training of the individual rules. The differences among methods involved the kinds of practice provided during the four review sessions. Participants who received cumulative practice answered 50 questions covering a mix of the rules learned prior to each review session. Participants who received a simple review answered 50 questions on one previously trained rule. Participants who received extra practice answered 50 extra questions on the rule they had just learned. Tests administered after each review included new questions for applying each rule (application items) and problems that required novel combinations of the rules (problem-solving items). On the final test, the cumulative group outscored the other groups on application and problem-solving items. In addition, the cumulative group solved the problem-solving items significantly faster than the other groups. These results suggest that cumulative practice of component skills is an effective method of training problem solving.

  14. Variable cultural acquisition costs constrain cumulative cultural evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Mesoudi

    Full Text Available One of the hallmarks of the human species is our capacity for cumulative culture, in which beneficial knowledge and technology is accumulated over successive generations. Yet previous analyses of cumulative cultural change have failed to consider the possibility that as cultural complexity accumulates, it becomes increasingly costly for each new generation to acquire from the previous generation. In principle this may result in an upper limit on the cultural complexity that can be accumulated, at which point accumulated knowledge is so costly and time-consuming to acquire that further innovation is not possible. In this paper I first review existing empirical analyses of the history of science and technology that support the possibility that cultural acquisition costs may constrain cumulative cultural evolution. I then present macroscopic and individual-based models of cumulative cultural evolution that explore the consequences of this assumption of variable cultural acquisition costs, showing that making acquisition costs vary with cultural complexity causes the latter to reach an upper limit above which no further innovation can occur. These models further explore the consequences of different cultural transmission rules (directly biased, indirectly biased and unbiased transmission, population size, and cultural innovations that themselves reduce innovation or acquisition costs.

  15. Cumulative index 1981-1985, Volumes 138-157.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    This cumulative index also includes listings of all major papers from the American Journal of Neuroradiology, American Journal of Roentgenology, Clinics in Diagnostic Ultrasound, Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography, Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine, RadioGraphics, Radiologic Clinics of North America, Seminars in Nuclear Medicine, Seminars in Roentgenology, and Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MR.

  16. Cumulative index 1981-1985, Volumes 138-157

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    This cumulative index also includes listings of all major papers from the American Journal of Neuroradiology, American Journal of Roentgenology, Clinics in Diagnostic Ultrasound, Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography, Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine, RadioGraphics, Radiologic Clinics of North America, Seminars in Nuclear Medicine, Seminars in Roentgenology, and Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MR.

  17. Benchmarking PARTISN with Analog Monte Carlo: Moments of the Neutron Number and the Cumulative Fission Number Probability Distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Rourke, Patrick Francis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-10-27

    The purpose of this report is to provide the reader with an understanding of how a Monte Carlo neutron transport code was written, developed, and evolved to calculate the probability distribution functions (PDFs) and their moments for the neutron number at a final time as well as the cumulative fission number, along with introducing several basic Monte Carlo concepts.

  18. Predicting Academic Achievement from Cumulative Home Risk: The Mediating Roles of Effortful Control, Academic Relationships, and School Avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Jodi; Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Components of the home environment are associated with children's academic functioning. The accumulation of risks in the home are expected to prove more detrimental to achievement than any one risk alone, but the processes accounting for this relation are unclear. Using an index of cumulative home risk (CHR) inclusive of protective factors, as…

  19. Particle sizing by dynamic light scattering: non-linear cumulant analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailer, Alastair G; Clegg, Paul S; Pusey, Peter N

    2015-04-15

    We revisit the method of cumulants for analysing dynamic light scattering data in particle sizing applications. Here the data, in the form of the time correlation function of scattered light, is written as a series involving the first few cumulants (or moments) of the distribution of particle diffusion constants. Frisken (2001 Appl. Opt. 40 4087) has pointed out that, despite greater computational complexity, a non-linear, iterative, analysis of the data has advantages over the linear least-squares analysis used originally. In order to explore further the potential and limitations of cumulant methods we analyse, by both linear and non-linear methods, computer-generated data with realistic 'noise', where the parameters of the distribution can be set explicitly. We find that, with modern computers, non-linear analysis is straightforward and robust. The mean and variance of the distribution of diffusion constants can be obtained quite accurately for distributions of width (standard deviation/mean) up to about 0.6, but there appears to be little prospect of obtaining meaningful higher moments.

  20. Cumulative stress in childhood is associated with blunted reward-related brain activity in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jamie L; Albert, Dustin; Iselin, Anne-Marie R; Carré, Justin M; Dodge, Kenneth A; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2016-03-01

    Early life stress (ELS) is strongly associated with negative outcomes in adulthood, including reduced motivation and increased negative mood. The mechanisms mediating these relations, however, are poorly understood. We examined the relation between exposure to ELS and reward-related brain activity, which is known to predict motivation and mood, at age 26, in a sample followed since kindergarten with annual assessments. Using functional neuroimaging, we assayed individual differences in the activity of the ventral striatum (VS) during the processing of monetary rewards associated with a simple card-guessing task, in a sample of 72 male participants. We examined associations between a cumulative measure of ELS exposure and VS activity in adulthood. We found that greater levels of cumulative stress during childhood and adolescence predicted lower reward-related VS activity in adulthood. Extending this general developmental pattern, we found that exposure to stress early in development (between kindergarten and grade 3) was significantly associated with variability in adult VS activity. Our results provide an important demonstration that cumulative life stress, especially during this childhood period, is associated with blunted reward-related VS activity in adulthood. These differences suggest neurobiological pathways through which a history of ELS may contribute to reduced motivation and increased negative mood. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Evaluation of cumulative lead dose and longitudinal changes in structural MRI in former organolead workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Brian S.; Caffo, Brian; Stewart, Walter F.; Hedlin, Haley; James, Bryan D.; Yousem, David; Davatzikos, Christos

    2010-01-01

    Objective We evaluated whether tibia lead was associated with longitudinal change in brain volumes and white matter lesions in male former lead workers and population-based controls in whom we have previously reported on the cognitive and structural consequences of cumulative lead dose. Methods We used linear regression to identify predictors of change in brain volumes and white matter lesion grade scores, using two MRIs an average of five years apart. Results On average, total brain volume declined almost 30 cm3, predominantly in gray matter. Increasing age at the first MRI was strongly associated with larger declines in volumes and greater increases in white matter lesion scores. Tibia lead was not associated with change in brain volumes or white matter lesion scores. Conclusions In former lead workers in whom cumulative lead dose was associated with progressive declines in cognitive function decades after occupational exposure had ended, cumulative lead dose was associated with earlier persistent effects on brain structure, but not with additional worsening over five years. PMID:20357679

  2. Incidence of osteonecrosis after renal transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Metselaar (Herold); van Steenberge, J.P. (J. P.); A.B. Bijnen (Bart); J. Jeekel (Hans); B. van Linge (Bert); W. Weimar (Willem)

    1985-01-01

    textabstractThe incidence of osteonecrosis was 24% in 248 patients who had received 262 kidney transplants 1971-1982. However, based only on patients at risk, i.e. alive with functioning transplants, the incidence at 1, 3 and 6 years was found to be 13, 27 and 36%; after six years no new cases were

  3. CUMULANTS OF STOCHASTIC RESPONSE FOR A CLASS OF SPECIAL NONHOLONOMIC SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG MEI; ZHANG YI

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies the response cumulants for a kind of special nonholonomic systems under non-Gaussian, delta- correlated excitations. We present a new methodology for formulating the equations governing the evolution of the response cumulants of the stochastic dynamic systems. The response cumulant differential equations (CDEs) derived can be used to calculate the response cumulants for both linear and nonlinear systems. One example is given to illustrate how to use the CDEs for calculating response cumulants.

  4. 儿保门诊婴幼儿吐乳症915例发病调查及疗效研究%Incidence investigation and efficacy study on infant functional vomiting in 915 infants of child health care outpatient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩海琼; 陈伟斌

    2013-01-01

    目的:了解上海市虹口区婴幼儿吐乳症发病情况及治疗疗效观察。方法通过门诊915例婴幼儿常规查体检出吐乳症患儿,并通过“董氏指压法”治疗,间隔1周重复1次,3次1个疗程。结果发病578例,发病率为63.17%,男女发病率相近,无显著差异,主要表现为溢乳和呕吐,占93.08%。治疗后痊愈347例,占60.03%;显效130例,占22.49%;有效85例,占14.71%;无效16例,占2.77%。治疗总有效率达97.23%。结论吐乳症在婴幼儿十分普遍,运用董氏指压法治疗,预后良好。%Objective To understand and observe the incidence and efficacy on infant functional vomiting in hongkou district of Shanghai city. Methods The infants with functional vomiting were examined in outpatient routine examination for 915 infants,and the infants with functional vomiting were treated with "Dong acupressure"every other week,three times was a period of treatment. Results There were 578 infants with functional vomiting and the incidence rate was 63.17%.The incidence rate of men was similar to women,the difference was not significant.The main symptoms of patients were galactorrhea and vomiting,which accounted for 93.08%.There were cure in 347 cases(60.03%), markedly effective in 130 cases(22.49%),effective in 85 cases(14.71%),invalid in 16 cases(2.77%). The total effective rate was 97.23%. Conclusion Infant functional vomiting is widespread,which treated with "Dong acupressure"has good prognosis.

  5. [Assessment on the ecological suitability in Zhuhai City, Guangdong, China, based on minimum cumulative resistance model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-fei; Li, Lin; Guo, Luo; Du, Shi-hong

    2016-01-01

    Urban landscape has the characteristics of spatial heterogeneity. Because the expansion process of urban constructive or ecological land has different resistance values, the land unit stimulates and promotes the expansion of ecological land with different intensity. To compare the effect of promoting and hindering functions in the same land unit, we firstly compared the minimum cumulative resistance value of promoting and hindering functions, and then looked for the balance of two landscape processes under the same standard. According to the ecology principle of minimum limit factor, taking the minimum cumulative resistance analysis method under two expansion processes as the evaluation method of urban land ecological suitability, this research took Zhuhai City as the study area to estimate urban ecological suitability by relative evaluation method with remote sensing image, field survey, and statistics data. With the support of ArcGIS, five types of indicators on landscape types, ecological value, soil erosion sensitivity, sensitivity of geological disasters, and ecological function were selected as input parameters in the minimum cumulative resistance model to compute urban ecological suitability. The results showed that the ecological suitability of the whole Zhuhai City was divided into five levels: constructive expansion prohibited zone (10.1%), constructive expansion restricted zone (32.9%), key construction zone (36.3%), priority development zone (2.3%), and basic cropland (18.4%). Ecological suitability of the central area of Zhuhai City was divided into four levels: constructive expansion prohibited zone (11.6%), constructive expansion restricted zone (25.6%), key construction zone (52.4%), priority development zone (10.4%). Finally, we put forward the sustainable development framework of Zhuhai City according to the research conclusion. On one hand, the government should strictly control the development of the urban center area. On the other hand, the

  6. Functional outcome and incidence of avascular necrosis after two years in four part proximal humeral fractures treated by proximal humerus internal locking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshdeep Singh Bawa

    2016-11-01

    Conclusions: The importance of early mobilization of the shoulder joint cannot be underestimated in the final outcome of these fractures. We observed better functional outcome in the patients who started early physiotherapy and continued it at home. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(11.000: 4979-4984

  7. Cancer incidence among waiters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reijula, Jere; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2015-01-01

    INCIDENCE IN SOME CANCER SITES CAN LIKELY BE EXPLAINED BY HIGHER ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION, THE PREVALENCE OF SMOKING AND OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO TOBACCO SMOKE HOPEFULLY, THE INCIDENCE OF CANCER AMONG WAITERS WILL DECREASE IN THE FUTURE, DUE TO THE BANNING OF TOBACCO SMOKING IN RESTAURANTS AND BARS IN THE NORDIC...

  8. A cumulative entropy method for distribution recognition of model error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yingjie; Chen, Wen

    2015-02-01

    This paper develops a cumulative entropy method (CEM) to recognize the most suitable distribution for model error. In terms of the CEM, the Lévy stable distribution is employed to capture the statistical properties of model error. The strategies are tested on 250 experiments of axially loaded CFT steel stub columns in conjunction with the four national building codes of Japan (AIJ, 1997), China (DL/T, 1999), the Eurocode 4 (EU4, 2004), and United States (AISC, 2005). The cumulative entropy method is validated as more computationally efficient than the Shannon entropy method. Compared with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and root mean square deviation, the CEM provides alternative and powerful model selection criterion to recognize the most suitable distribution for the model error.

  9. Experience of cumulative effects assessment in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piper Jake

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Cumulative effects assessment (CEA is a development of environmental impact assessment which attempts to take into account the wider picture of what impacts may affect the environment as a result of either multiple or linear projects, or development plans. CEA is seen as a further valuable tool in promoting sustainable development. The broader canvas upon which the assessment is made leads to a suite of issues such as complexity in methods and assessment of significance, the desirability of co-operation between developers and other parties, new ways of addressing mitigation and monitoring. After outlining the legislative position and the process of CEA, this paper looks at three cases studies in the UK where cumulative assessment has been carried out - the cases concern wind farms, major infrastructure and off-shore developments.

  10. Petrogenesis of the nakhlite meteorites - Evidence from cumulate mineral zoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Ralph P.; Mcsween, Harry Y., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to a simple igneous petrogenesis for the meteorite Nakhla, which was previously called into question because Mg/Fe ratios in olivine indicate substantial disequilibrium between the predominant cumulus minerals (olivine and augite). Comparative analyses of simulated diffusive zoning and the observed cumulus mineral zoning for all three nakhlites (Nakhla, Governador Valadares, and Lafayette) show that their current compositions do not necessarily reflect parental magma compositions. Diffusion has altered primary cumulus compositions to varying degrees, Nakhla being the least affected, and Lafayette being almost completely reequilibrated. Since mineral zoning in each meteorite is strongly concentric around mesostasis areas, it is inferred that reaction with intercumulus liquid has controlled the observed zoning. It is argued that the nakhlites appear to be a series of relatively simple cumulate rocks which have undergone various amounts of late-magmatic and subsolidus diffusion, possibly reflecting their relative positions in a cooling cumulate pile.

  11. Cumulative dietary exposure of the population of Denmark to pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Nielsen, Elsa

    2015-01-01

    We used the Hazard Index (HI) method to carry out a cumulative risk assessment after chronic dietary exposure to all monitored pesticides in fruit, vegetables and cereals for various consumer groups in Denmark. Residue data for all the pesticides were obtained from the Danish monitoring programme...... that included processing factors and set non-detects to ½ LOR, but limited the correction (Model 3), gave the most realistic exposure estimate. With Model 3 the HI was calculated to be 0.44 for children and 0.18 for adults, indicating that there is no risk of adverse health effects following chronic cumulative...... exposure to the pesticides found in fruit, vegetables and cereals on the Danish market. The HI was below 1 even for consumers who eat more than 550 g of fruit and vegetables per day, corresponding to 1/3 of the population. Choosing Danish-produced commodities whenever possible could reduce the HI...

  12. Determination of radionuclides and pathways contributing to cumulative dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, B.A.

    1992-12-01

    A series of scoping calculations has been undertaken to evaluate the absolute and relative contributions of different radionuclides and exposure pathways to doses that may have been received by individuals living in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. This scoping calculation (Calculation 004) examined the contributions of numerous radionuclides to cumulative dose via environmental exposures and accumulation in foods. Addressed in this calculation were the contributions to organ and effective dose of infants and adults from (1) air submersion and groundshine external dose, (2) inhalation, (3) ingestion of soil by humans, (4) ingestion of leafy vegetables, (5) ingestion of other vegetables and fruits, (6) ingestion of meat, (7) ingestion of eggs, and (8) ingestion of cows' milk from Feeding Regime 1, as described in calculation 002. This calculation specifically addresses cumulative radiation doses to infants and adults resulting from releases occurring over the period 1945 through 1972.

  13. Cumulative impacts of oil fields on northern alaskan landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D A; Webber, P J; Binnian, E F; Everett, K R; Lederer, N D; Nordstrand, E A; Walker, M D

    1987-11-06

    Proposed further developments on Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain raise questions about cumulative effects on arctic tundra ecosystems of development of multiple large oil fields. Maps of historical changes to the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field show indirect impacts can lag behind planned developments by many years and the total area eventually disturbed can greatly exceed the planned area of construction. For example, in the wettest parts of the oil field (flat thaw-lake plains), flooding and thermokarst covered more than twice the area directly affected by roads and other construction activities. Protecting critical wildlife habitat is the central issue for cumulative impact analysis in northern Alaska. Comprehensive landscape planning with the use of geographic information system technology and detailed geobotanical maps can help identify and protect areas of high wildlife use.

  14. Effective Carrier Sensing in CSMA Networks under Cumulative Interference

    CERN Document Server

    Fu, Liqun; Huang, Jianwei

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes and investigates the concept of a safe carrier-sensing range that can guarantee interference safe (also termed hidden-node-free) transmissions in CSMA networks under the cumulative interference model. Compared with the safe carrier-sensing range under the commonly assumed but less realistic pairwise interference model, we show that the safe carrier-sensing range required under the cumulative interference model is larger by a constant multiplicative factor. The concept of a safe carrier-sensing range, although amenable to elegant analytical results, is inherently not compatible with the conventional power threshold carrier-sensing mechanism (e.g., that used in IEEE 802.11). Specifically, the absolute power sensed by a node in the conventional mechanism does not contain enough information for it to derive its distances from other concurrent transmitter nodes. We show that, fortunately, a carrier-sensing mechanism called Incremental-Power Carrier-Sensing (IPCS) can realize the carrier-sensing...

  15. Validity of the National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology-Functional Assessment Tool and Mini-Mental State Examination for detecting the incidence of dementia in older Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Hiroyuki; Makizako, Hyuma; Park, Hyuntae; Doi, Takehiko; Lee, Sangyoon

    2017-06-16

    Numerous neuropsychological tests are implemented in the clinical setting. However, a readily available cognitive test is required to detect the risk of dementia in the community setting. A total of 4151 persons aged ≥65 years participated in the present prospective cohort study. We assessed cognitive performance using the Mini-Mental State Examination and the National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology-Functional Assessment Tool. The National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology-Functional Assessment Tool includes tests of story and word list memory, attention and executive function, processing speed, and visuospatial skill to screen for cognitive impairment. All measurements were transformed to Z-scores to compare among the cognitive tests. The incidence of dementia was determined using data collected by the Japanese Health Insurance System over 36 months. After an average of 43 months, 180 (4.3%) participants were diagnosed with dementia. Survival analyses showed that the probability of dementia was significantly associated with all cognitive tests, except for visuospatial skill. The processing speed test showed the highest hazard ratios for the incidence of dementia (Z-score: hazard ratio 0.61, 95% confidence interval 0.50-0.75, P Gerontology-Functional Assessment Tool, as well as the Mini-Mental State Examination, play an important role in detecting the risk of dementia in the community setting. Further analysis is required to identify the risk of dementia in older people without global cognitive impairment. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; ••: ••-••. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  16. Seasonal climate change patterns due to cumulative CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Leduc, Martin; Damon Matthews, H.

    2017-07-01

    Cumulative CO2 emissions are near linearly related to both global and regional changes in annual-mean surface temperature. These relationships are known as the transient climate response to cumulative CO2 emissions (TCRE) and the regional TCRE (RTCRE), and have been shown to remain approximately constant over a wide range of cumulative emissions. Here, we assessed how well this relationship holds for seasonal patterns of temperature change, as well as for annual-mean and seasonal precipitation patterns. We analyzed an idealized scenario with CO2 concentration growing at an annual rate of 1% using data from 12 Earth system models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Seasonal RTCRE values for temperature varied considerably, with the highest seasonal variation evident in the Arctic, where RTCRE was about 5.5 °C per Tt C for boreal winter and about 2.0 °C per Tt C for boreal summer. Also the precipitation response in the Arctic during boreal winter was stronger than during other seasons. We found that emission-normalized seasonal patterns of temperature change were relatively robust with respect to time, though they were sub-linear with respect to emissions particularly near the Arctic. Moreover, RTCRE patterns for precipitation could not be quantified robustly due to the large internal variability of precipitation. Our results suggest that cumulative CO2 emissions are a useful metric to predict regional and seasonal changes in precipitation and temperature. This extension of the TCRE framework to seasonal and regional climate change is helpful for communicating the link between emissions and climate change to policy-makers and the general public, and is well-suited for impact studies that could make use of estimated regional-scale climate changes that are consistent with the carbon budgets associated with global temperature targets.

  17. Heavy metal cumulation in crops after the sewage sludge application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gondová Andrea

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available During 1995 - 1996 the crops samples after the sewage sludge application were collected. The heavy metals cumulation in investigated crops from Bardejov increased in order: Zn > Cu > Pb > Ni > Cr > Cd and Banská Bystrica : Zn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Pb > Cd. Heavy metals contents after the sewage sludge application were increased in comparison with the highest admissible concentration in eatable part of crops. The sewage sludge application were not recommended in soils for the growth of vegetables

  18. The cumulation of methylmercury in fish (Poecilia reticulata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stary, J.; Kratzer, K.; Havlik, B.; Prasilova, J.; Hanusova, J.

    1980-01-01

    Methylmercury labelled with mercury-203 was used for the investigation of the uptake and the release of methylmercury in fish. It has been found that methylmercury compounds adsorbed on fish food remain completely in fish and that they are released with the biological half-time of 110 days. The cumulation of methylmercury from water is very rapid. Equations for the calculation of the concentration of methylmercury in fish were derived and compared with the uptake of phenylmercury and inorganic mercury.

  19. Erupted cumulate fragments in rhyolites from Lipari (Aeolian Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forni, Francesca; Ellis, Ben S.; Bachmann, Olivier; Lucchi, Federico; Tranne, Claudio A.; Agostini, Samuele; Dallai, Luigi

    2015-12-01

    Over the last ~267 ky, the island of Lipari has erupted magmas ranging in compositions from basaltic andesites to rhyolites, with a notable compositional gap in the dacite field. Bulk geochemical and isotopic compositions of the volcanic succession, in conjunction with major and trace elemental compositions of minerals, indicate that the rhyolites were dominantly generated via crystal fractionation processes, with subordinate assimilation. Radiogenic (Sr, Nd, and Pb) and stable (O) isotopes independently suggest ≤30 % of crustal contamination with the majority of it occurring in mafic compositions, likely relatively deep in the system. Within the rhyolites, crystal-rich, K2O-rich enclaves are common. In contrast to previous interpretations, we suggest that these enclaves represent partial melting, remobilization and eruption of cumulate fragments left-over from rhyolite melt extraction. Cumulate melting and remobilization is supported by the presence of (1) resorbed, low-temperature minerals (biotite and sanidine), providing the potassic signature to these clasts, (2) reacted Fo-rich olivine, marking the presence of mafic recharge, (3) An38-21 plagioclase, filling the gap in feldspar composition between the andesites and the rhyolites and (4) strong enrichment in Sr and Ba in plagioclase and sanidine, suggesting crystallization from a locally enriched melt. Based on Sr-melt partitioning, the high-Sr plagioclase would require ~2300 ppm Sr in the melt, a value far in excess of Sr contents in Lipari and Vulcano magmas (50-1532 ppm) but consistent with melting of a feldspar-rich cumulate. Due to the presence of similar crystal-rich enclaves within the rhyolites from Vulcano, we propose that the eruption of remobilized cumulates associated with high-SiO2 rhyolites may be a common process at the Aeolian volcanoes, as already attested for a variety of volcanic systems around the world.

  20. [Cumulative effect of Coriolis acceleration on coronary hemodynamics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapaev, E V; Bednenko, V S

    1985-01-01

    Time-course variations in coronary circulation and cardiac output were measured in 29 healthy test subjects who performed tests with a continuous cumulation of Coriolis accelerations and in 12 healthy test subjects who were exposed to Coriolis accelerations combined with acute hypoxia. Adaptive changes in coronary circulation were seen. It is recommended to monitor coronary circulation during vestibulometric tests as part of medical expertise of the flying personnel.

  1. Checking Fine and Gray subdistribution hazards model with cumulative sums of residuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jianing; Scheike, Thomas; Zhang, Mei Jie

    2015-01-01

    Recently, Fine and Gray (J Am Stat Assoc 94:496–509, 1999) proposed a semi-parametric proportional regression model for the subdistribution hazard function which has been used extensively for analyzing competing risks data. However, failure of model adequacy could lead to severe bias in parameter...... estimation, and only a limited contribution has been made to check the model assumptions. In this paper, we present a class of analytical methods and graphical approaches for checking the assumptions of Fine and Gray’s model. The proposed goodness-of-fit test procedures are based on the cumulative sums...

  2. Dutch perfusion incident survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenenberg, Ingrid; Weerwind, Patrick W; Everts, Peter A M; Maessen, Jos G

    2010-09-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass procedures remain complex, involving many potential risks. Therefore, a nationwide retrospective study was conducted to gain insight into the number of incidents and accidents in Dutch adult perfusion practice. An anonymous postal survey (85 questions about hardware, disposables, fluids and medication, air emboli, anticoagulation, practice, and safety measures) was sent to all Dutch perfusionists involved in adult cardiovascular perfusion during 2006 and 2007. To guarantee complete anonymity, respondents were asked to return the survey to a notary who discarded personal information. The net response rate was 72% and covered 23,500 perfusions. Individual respondents performed 240 ± 103 perfusions during the 2-year study period and had 13.8 ± 8.7 years of practical experience. The incident rate was 1 per 15.6 perfusions and the adverse event rate was 1 per 1,236 perfusions. The three most reported incidents were: (1) persistent inability to raise the activated coagulation time above 400s during perfusion (184 incidents); (2) an allergic or anaphylactic reaction to drugs, fluids, or blood products (114 incidents); and (3) clotting formation in the extracorporeal circuit (74 incidents). Furthermore, pre-bypass safety measures showed no statistically significant association with the reported incidents. In comparison with data from the recent literature, the reported number of incidents is high. Nevertheless, the adverse outcome rate is well matched to other published surveys. The relatively high response rate conveys the impression that the Dutch perfusionist is vigilant and willing to report incidents. Hence, a web-based Dutch perfusion incident registration system is recommended.

  3. Cumulative Risk Assessment Toolbox: Methods and Approaches for the Practitioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret M. MacDonell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The historical approach to assessing health risks of environmental chemicals has been to evaluate them one at a time. In fact, we are exposed every day to a wide variety of chemicals and are increasingly aware of potential health implications. Although considerable progress has been made in the science underlying risk assessments for real-world exposures, implementation has lagged because many practitioners are unaware of methods and tools available to support these analyses. To address this issue, the US Environmental Protection Agency developed a toolbox of cumulative risk resources for contaminated sites, as part of a resource document that was published in 2007. This paper highlights information for nearly 80 resources from the toolbox and provides selected updates, with practical notes for cumulative risk applications. Resources are organized according to the main elements of the assessment process: (1 planning, scoping, and problem formulation; (2 environmental fate and transport; (3 exposure analysis extending to human factors; (4 toxicity analysis; and (5 risk and uncertainty characterization, including presentation of results. In addition to providing online access, plans for the toolbox include addressing nonchemical stressors and applications beyond contaminated sites and further strengthening resource accessibility to support evolving analyses for cumulative risk and sustainable communities.

  4. Cumulative Risk Assessment Toolbox: Methods and Approaches for the Practitioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonell, Margaret M.; Haroun, Lynne A.; Teuschler, Linda K.; Rice, Glenn E.; Hertzberg, Richard C.; Butler, James P.; Chang, Young-Soo; Clark, Shanna L.; Johns, Alan P.; Perry, Camarie S.; Garcia, Shannon S.; Jacobi, John H.; Scofield, Marcienne A.

    2013-01-01

    The historical approach to assessing health risks of environmental chemicals has been to evaluate them one at a time. In fact, we are exposed every day to a wide variety of chemicals and are increasingly aware of potential health implications. Although considerable progress has been made in the science underlying risk assessments for real-world exposures, implementation has lagged because many practitioners are unaware of methods and tools available to support these analyses. To address this issue, the US Environmental Protection Agency developed a toolbox of cumulative risk resources for contaminated sites, as part of a resource document that was published in 2007. This paper highlights information for nearly 80 resources from the toolbox and provides selected updates, with practical notes for cumulative risk applications. Resources are organized according to the main elements of the assessment process: (1) planning, scoping, and problem formulation; (2) environmental fate and transport; (3) exposure analysis extending to human factors; (4) toxicity analysis; and (5) risk and uncertainty characterization, including presentation of results. In addition to providing online access, plans for the toolbox include addressing nonchemical stressors and applications beyond contaminated sites and further strengthening resource accessibility to support evolving analyses for cumulative risk and sustainable communities. PMID:23762048

  5. 4D Near-Field Source Localization Using Cumulant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Feng

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new cumulant-based algorithm to jointly estimate four-dimensional (4D source parameters of multiple near-field narrowband sources. Firstly, this approach proposes a new cross-array, and constructs five high-dimensional Toeplitz matrices using the fourth-order cumulants of some properly chosen sensor outputs; secondly, it forms a parallel factor (PARAFAC model in the cumulant domain using these matrices, and analyzes the unique low-rank decomposition of this model; thirdly, it jointly estimates the frequency, two-dimensional (2D directions-of-arrival (DOAs, and range of each near-field source from the matrices via the low-rank three-way array (TWA decomposition. In comparison with some available methods, the proposed algorithm, which efficiently makes use of the array aperture, can localize sources using sensors. In addition, it requires neither pairing parameters nor multidimensional search. Simulation results are presented to validate the performance of the proposed method.

  6. 4D Near-Field Source Localization Using Cumulant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junying Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new cumulant-based algorithm to jointly estimate four-dimensional (4D source parameters of multiple near-field narrowband sources. Firstly, this approach proposes a new cross-array, and constructs five high-dimensional Toeplitz matrices using the fourth-order cumulants of some properly chosen sensor outputs; secondly, it forms a parallel factor (PARAFAC model in the cumulant domain using these matrices, and analyzes the unique low-rank decomposition of this model; thirdly, it jointly estimates the frequency, two-dimensional (2D directions-of-arrival (DOAs, and range of each near-field source from the matrices via the low-rank three-way array (TWA decomposition. In comparison with some available methods, the proposed algorithm, which efficiently makes use of the array aperture, can localize N−3 sources using N sensors. In addition, it requires neither pairing parameters nor multidimensional search. Simulation results are presented to validate the performance of the proposed method.

  7. Cumulative risk: toxicity and interactions of physical and chemical stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, Cynthia V; Boekelheide, Kim; Catlin, Natasha; Gordon, Christopher J; Morata, Thais; Selgrade, Maryjane K; Sexton, Kenneth; Simmons, Jane Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Recent efforts to update cumulative risk assessment procedures to incorporate nonchemical stressors ranging from physical to psychosocial reflect increased interest in consideration of the totality of variables affecting human health and the growing desire to develop community-based risk assessment methods. A key roadblock is the uncertainty as to how nonchemical stressors behave in relationship to chemical stressors. Physical stressors offer a reasonable starting place for measuring the effects of nonchemical stressors and their modulation of chemical effects (and vice versa), as they clearly differ from chemical stressors; and "doses" of many physical stressors are more easily quantifiable than those of psychosocial stressors. There is a commonly held belief that virtually nothing is known about the impact of nonchemical stressors on chemically mediated toxicity or the joint impact of coexposure to chemical and nonchemical stressors. Although this is generally true, there are several instances where a substantial body of evidence exists. A workshop titled "Cumulative Risk: Toxicity and Interactions of Physical and Chemical Stressors" held at the 2013 Society of Toxicology Annual Meeting provided a forum for discussion of research addressing the toxicity of physical stressors and what is known about their interactions with chemical stressors, both in terms of exposure and effects. Physical stressors including sunlight, heat, radiation, infectious disease, and noise were discussed in reference to identifying pathways of interaction with chemical stressors, data gaps, and suggestions for future incorporation into cumulative risk assessments.

  8. Childhood poverty and health: cumulative risk exposure and stress dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gary W; Kim, Pilyoung

    2007-11-01

    A massive literature documents the inverse association between poverty or low socioeconomic status and health, but little is known about the mechanisms underlying this robust relation. We examined longitudinal relations between duration of poverty exposure since birth, cumulative risk exposure, and physiological stress in two hundred seven 13-year-olds. Chronic stress was assessed by basal blood pressure and overnight cortisol levels; stress regulation was assessed by cardiovascular reactivity to a standard acute stressor and recovery after exposure to this stressor. Cumulative risk exposure was measured by multiple physical (e.g., substandard housing) and social (e.g., family turmoil) risk factors. The greater the number of years spent living in poverty, the more elevated was overnight cortisol and the more dysregulated was the cardiovascular response (i.e., muted reactivity). Cardiovascular recovery was not affected by duration of poverty exposure. Unlike the duration of poverty exposure, concurrent poverty (i.e., during adolescence) did not affect these physiological stress outcomes. The effects of childhood poverty on stress dysregulation are largely explained by cumulative risk exposure accompanying childhood poverty.

  9. Multiway Filtering Based on Fourth-Order Cumulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Bourennane

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new multiway filtering based on fourth-order cumulants for the denoising of noisy data tensor with correlated Gaussian noise. The classical multiway filtering is based on the TUCKALS3 algorithm that computes a lower-rank tensor approximation. The presented method relies on the statistics of the analyzed multicomponent signal. We first recall how the well-known lower rank-(K1,…,KN tensor approximation processed by TUCKALS3 alternating least square algorithm exploits second-order statistics. Then, we propose to introduce the fourth-order statistics in the TUCKALS3-based method. Indeed, the use of fourth-order cumulants enables to remove the Gaussian components of an additive noise. In the presented method the estimation of the n-mode projector on the n-mode signal subspace are built from the eigenvectors associated with the largest eigenvalues of a fourth-order cumulant slice matrix instead of a covariance matrix. Each projector is applied by means of the n-mode product operator on the n-mode of the data tensor. The qualitative results of the improved multiway TUCKALS3-based filterings are shown for the case of noise reduction in a color image and multicomponent seismic data.

  10. Cumulative risk hypothesis: Predicting and preventing child maltreatment recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, David; Åsberg, Kia; Peer, Samuel; Prince, Gwendolyn

    2016-08-01

    Although Child Protective Services (CPS) and other child welfare agencies aim to prevent further maltreatment in cases of child abuse and neglect, recidivism is common. Having a better understanding of recidivism predictors could aid in preventing additional instances of maltreatment. A previous study identified two CPS interventions that predicted recidivism: psychotherapy for the parent, which was related to a reduced risk of recidivism, and temporary removal of the child from the parent's custody, which was related to an increased recidivism risk. However, counter to expectations, this previous study did not identify any other specific risk factors related to maltreatment recidivism. For the current study, it was hypothesized that (a) cumulative risk (i.e., the total number of risk factors) would significantly predict maltreatment recidivism above and beyond intervention variables in a sample of CPS case files and that (b) therapy for the parent would be related to a reduced likelihood of recidivism. Because it was believed that the relation between temporary removal of a child from the parent's custody and maltreatment recidivism is explained by cumulative risk, the study also hypothesized that that the relation between temporary removal of the child from the parent's custody and recidivism would be mediated by cumulative risk. After performing a hierarchical logistic regression analysis, the first two hypotheses were supported, and an additional predictor, psychotherapy for the child, also was related to reduced chances of recidivism. However, Hypothesis 3 was not supported, as risk did not significantly mediate the relation between temporary removal and recidivism.

  11. Projecting Cumulative Benefits of Multiple River Restoration Projects: An Example from the Sacramento-San Joaquin River System in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondolf, G. Mathias; Angermeier, Paul L.; Cummins, Kenneth; Dunne, Thomas; Healey, Michael; Kimmerer, Wim; Moyle, Peter B.; Murphy, Dennis; Patten, Duncan; Railsback, Steve; Reed, Denise J.; Spies, Robert; Twiss, Robert

    2008-12-01

    Despite increasingly large investments, the potential ecological effects of river restoration programs are still small compared to the degree of human alterations to physical and ecological function. Thus, it is rarely possible to “restore” pre-disturbance conditions; rather restoration programs (even large, well-funded ones) will nearly always involve multiple small projects, each of which can make some modest change to selected ecosystem processes and habitats. At present, such projects are typically selected based on their attributes as individual projects (e.g., consistency with programmatic goals of the funders, scientific soundness, and acceptance by local communities), and ease of implementation. Projects are rarely prioritized (at least explicitly) based on how they will cumulatively affect ecosystem function over coming decades. Such projections require an understanding of the form of the restoration response curve, or at least that we assume some plausible relations and estimate cumulative effects based thereon. Drawing on our experience with the CALFED Bay-Delta Ecosystem Restoration Program in California, we consider potential cumulative system-wide benefits of a restoration activity extensively implemented in the region: isolating/filling abandoned floodplain gravel pits captured by rivers to reduce predation of outmigrating juvenile salmon by exotic warmwater species inhabiting the pits. We present a simple spreadsheet model to show how different assumptions about gravel pit bathymetry and predator behavior would affect the cumulative benefits of multiple pit-filling and isolation projects, and how these insights could help managers prioritize which pits to fill.

  12. Cumulative Measurement Errors for Dynamic Testing of Space Flight Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnitoy, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Located at the NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX, the Six-Degree-of-Freedom Dynamic Test System (SDTS) is a real-time, six degree-of-freedom, short range motion base simulator originally designed to simulate the relative dynamics of two bodies in space mating together (i.e., docking or berthing). The SDTS has the capability to test full scale docking and berthing systems utilizing a two body dynamic docking simulation for docking operations and a Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) simulation for berthing operations. The SDTS can also be used for nonmating applications such as sensors and instruments evaluations requiring proximity or short range motion operations. The motion base is a hydraulic powered Stewart platform, capable of supporting a 3,500 lb payload with a positional accuracy of 0.03 inches. The SDTS is currently being used for the NASA Docking System testing and has been also used by other government agencies. The SDTS is also under consideration for use by commercial companies. Examples of tests include the verification of on-orbit robotic inspection systems, space vehicle assembly procedures and docking/berthing systems. The facility integrates a dynamic simulation of on-orbit spacecraft mating or de-mating using flight-like mechanical interface hardware. A force moment sensor is used for input during the contact phase, thus simulating the contact dynamics. While the verification of flight hardware presents unique challenges, one particular area of interest involves the use of external measurement systems to ensure accurate feedback of dynamic contact. The measurement systems for the test facility have two separate functions. The first is to take static measurements of facility and test hardware to determine both the static and moving frames used in the simulation and control system. The test hardware must be measured after each configuration change to determine both sets of reference frames. The second function is to take dynamic

  13. El Carreto o Cumulá - Aspidosperma Dugandii Standl El Carreto o Cumulá - Aspidosperma Dugandii Standl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugand Armando

    1944-03-01

    Full Text Available Nombres vulgares: Carreto (Atlántico, Bolívar, Magdalena; Cumulá, Cumulá (Cundinamarca, ToIima. Según el Dr. Emilio Robledo (Lecciones de Bot. ed. 3, 2: 544. 1939 el nombre Carreto también es empleado en Puerto Berrío (Antioquia. El mismo autor (loc. cit. da el nombre Comulá para una especie indeterminada de Viburnum en Mariquita (Tolima y J. M. Duque, refiriendose a la misma planta y localidad (en Bot. Gen. Colomb. 340, 356. 1943 atribuye este nombre vulgar al Aspidosperma ellipticum Rusby.  Sin embargo, las muestras de madera de Cumulá o Comulá que yo he examinado, procedentes de la región de Mariquita -una de las cuales me fue recientemente enviada por el distinguido ictiólogo Sr. Cecil Miles- pertenecen sin duda alguna al A. Dugandii StandI. Por otra parte, Santiago Cortés (FI. Colomb. 206. 1898; ed, 2: 239. 1912 cita el Cumulá "de Anapoima y otros lugares del (rio Magdalena" diciendo que pertenece a las Leguminosas, pero la brevísima descripción que este autor hace de la madera "naranjada y notable por densidad, dureza y resistencia a la humedad", me induce a creer que se trata del mismo Cumula coleccionado recientemente en Tocaima, ya que esta población esta situada a pocos kilómetros de Anapoima. Nombres vulgares: Carreto (Atlántico, Bolívar, Magdalena; Cumulá, Cumulá (Cundinamarca, ToIima. Según el Dr. Emilio Robledo (Lecciones de Bot. ed. 3, 2: 544. 1939 el nombre Carreto también es empleado en Puerto Berrío (Antioquia. El mismo autor (loc. cit. da el nombre Comulá para una especie indeterminada de Viburnum en Mariquita (Tolima y J. M. Duque, refiriendose a la misma planta y localidad (en Bot. Gen. Colomb. 340, 356. 1943 atribuye este nombre vulgar al Aspidosperma ellipticum Rusby.  Sin embargo, las muestras de madera de Cumulá o Comulá que yo he examinado, procedentes de la región de Mariquita -una de las cuales me fue recientemente enviada por el distinguido ictiólogo Sr. Cecil Miles- pertenecen sin

  14. The Mass Incidents ’Social Function and Positive Guidance in China--Discussion on the Localization of Coser ’s Social Conflict Theory%中国群体性事件的社会功能及其正向引导--对科塞社会冲突论本土化的辩证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓虎

    2015-01-01

    借鉴西方理论研究中国问题,为加强中外学术交流交融、分析解决现实问题提供了重要助力。但受地域、人文、传统差异的限制,外来理论实现“本土化”是实现正确借鉴的重要前提。当前,在国内群体性事件时有发生的大背景下,在刘易斯·科塞的社会冲突理论引介于中国实践研究过程中,必须加以辩证,既要认识到其“正功能论”前提假设多、过于注重权力要素、理论体系不完备、部分命题有失偏颇的不足,还要看到对冲突原因的多维分析、冲突类型的科学划分、冲突突破底线的警示等重要现实启示。进而辨析当前我国群体性事件具有避免社会矛盾激化、畅通民意表达渠道、推进社会制度变革和产生社会治安问题、形成不良示范效应、累积社会负面心理的正负双重功能。对此,要在推进制度化管理、把握矛盾焦点、注重多措并举等几个方面消解社会冲突负功能,加强正向功能引导。%Applying western theory to research problems in China is helpful to strengthen the Chinese and foreign academic exchanges and to solve practical problems. But because of geographical , cultural and traditional differences ,localization of foreign theory is the important premise. At present ,in the context of that domestic mass incidents occur frequently ,Lewis Coser ’s social conflict theory must be analyzed when being introduced into China ’s practice. It is necessary to recognize the positive features: excessive assumptions ,overmuch emphasis on the power ,non-perfect of the theoretical system and some propositions beneath less biased. The multi-dimensional analysis of the causes of conflict ,the dipartition of conflict types , the alerts of breakthrough conflict ’s bottom line are very important and helpful. The mass incidents have dual function of positive and negative ,such as avoiding social conflicts ,smoothing channels

  15. Increasing incidence of coeliac disease in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascher, H; Krantz, I; Kristiansson, B

    1991-01-01

    Changes in the incidence of coelic disease was studied among children born in Göteborg, Sweden, between 1970 and 1988. A total of 188 patients with coeliac disease were found. Of these, 83% were less than 2 years old at the time of their first duodenal biopsy and 74% of them have so far been verified according to the criteria of the European Society for Gastroenterology and Nutrition (ESPGAN). The cumulative incidence at 2 years of age/1000 liveborn infants increased significantly from 0.31 in the first birth cohort to 2.93 in the last. This increase could only partly be explained by improvements in detection. Weight for age at diagnosis was generally considerably below the reference value, but was slightly less affected towards the end of the period. The increase in incidence of coeliac disease is the first reported since the middle 1970s and makes the disease one of the most common chronic diseases among Swedish children. PMID:2039251

  16. Incidence of cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer in women living with HIV in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Ladelund, Steen; Jensen-Fangel, Søren

    2014-01-01

    in Denmark. METHODS: We studied a nationwide cohort of WLWH and a cohort of age-matched females from the general population in the period 1999-2010. Pathology samples were obtained from The Danish Pathology Data Bank containing nationwide records of all pathology specimens. The cumulative incidence...... with normal baseline cytology, incidences of CIN1+ and CIN2+ were higher in WLWH. However, incidences were comparable between WLWH and controls adherent to the National ICC screening program. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, WLWH develop more cervical disease than controls. However, incidences of CIN are comparable...

  17. Cancer incidence in Swedish sterilant workers exposed to ethylene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmar, L; Mikoczy, Z; Welinder, H

    1995-03-01

    To assess the risk of cancer, especially leukaemia, in a cohort of sterilant workers exposed to ethylene oxide (EtO). A cohort of 2170 workers employed for at least one year in two plants that produce disposable medical equipment sterilised with EtO has previously been established. The results of an update with four more years of observation are presented. The cancer incidence was assessed for the periods 1976 to 1990 and 1972 to 1990 and cause specific standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated. Individual cumulative exposure to EtO, expressed as ppm-years, was estimated and used in exposure-response analyses. Six lymphohaematopoietic tumours were observed (SIR 1.78, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.65-3.88), of which two were leukaemias (SIR 2.44; 95% CI 0.30-8.81). When those with cumulative exposures to EtO below the median value (0.13 ppm-years) were excluded, and a minimum of 10 years induction latency period was applied, the incidence ratio for leukaemia increased further (SIR 7.14, 95% CI 0.87-25.8), but was still not significantly enhanced. The risk estimate for leukaemia increased, but non-significantly, with time since start of exposure, and with cumulative exposures to EtO above the median value. The subjects with leukaemia had, however, only slightly higher cumulative exposure estimates for EtO than the average cohort member. Nevertheless, the present results may add some minor evidence for an association between EtO and an increased risk of leukaemia.

  18. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Roegner, Curtis; Thom, Ronald M.; Dawley, Earl M.; Whiting, Allan H.; Johnson, Gary E.; Sobocinski, Kathryn L.; Anderson, Michael G.; Ebberts, Blaine

    2005-12-15

    The restoration of wetland salmon habitat in the tidal portion of the Columbia River is occurring at an accelerating pace and is anticipated to improve habitat quality and effect hydrological reconnection between existing and restored habitats. Currently multiple groups are applying a variety of restoration strategies in an attempt to emulate historic estuarine processes. However, the region lacks both a standardized means of evaluating the effectiveness of individual projects as well as methods for determining the cumulative effects of all restoration projects on a regional scale. This project is working to establish a framework to evaluate individual and cumulative ecosystem responses to restoration activities in order to validate the effectiveness of habitat restoration activities designed to benefit salmon through improvements to habitat quality and habitat opportunity (i.e. access) in the Columbia River from Bonneville Dam to the ocean. The review and synthesis of approaches to measure the cumulative effects of multiple restoration projects focused on defining methods and metrics of relevance to the CRE, and, in particular, juvenile salmon use of this system. An extensive literature review found no previous study assessing the cumulative effects of multiple restoration projects on the fundamental processes and functions of a large estuarine system, although studies are underway in other large land-margin ecosystems including the Florida Everglades and the Louisiana coastal wetlands. Literature from a variety of scientific disciplines was consulted to identify the ways that effects can accumulate (e.g., delayed effects, cross-boundary effects, compounding effects, indirect effects, triggers and thresholds) as well as standard and innovative tools and methods utilized in cumulative effects analyses: conceptual models, matrices, checklists, modeling, trends analysis, geographic information systems, carrying capacity analysis, and ecosystem analysis. Potential

  19. Large whale incident database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Large whale stranding, death, ship strike and entanglement incidents are all recorded to monitor the health of each population and track anthropogenic factors that...

  20. Drug related critical incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, F A; Hoda, M Q

    2005-01-01

    Drug related incidents are a common form of reported medical errors. This paper reviews the critical incidents related to drug errors reported from the main operating theatre suite in a teaching hospital in a developing country from January 1997 to December 2002. Each report was evaluated individually by two reviewers using a structured process. During this period, 44 874 anaesthetics were administered; 768 critical incidents were reported, 165 (21%) of which were related to drug errors. Underdosage, side-effect/drug reaction and syringe swap were the most common. A total of 76% were classified as preventable; 56% due to human error and 19% due to system error. High risk incidents accounted for 10% of all drug errors and most of these were related to the use of neuromuscular blocking drugs. This analysis has been found useful in addressing some issues about priorities.

  1. Police Incident Blotter (Archive)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Police Blotter Archive contains crime incident data after it has been validated and processed to meet Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) standards, published on a...

  2. Incident Report - Legacy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Incident Report is a mandatory post trip legal document observers fill out to report any enforcement related situations they have encountered on an observed trip...

  3. Stable incidence of atopic dermatitis among children in Denmark during the 1990s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anne Braae; Bang, Karen; Juul, Svend

    2005-01-01

    incidence of AD in 1993 and 1998. Further, we studied the severity and management of AD among children. Two samples of children born in Denmark were drawn from the Danish Medical Birth Register. In the 1993 and 1998 studies a mailed questionnaire with identical questions concerning AD was sent out....... In the 1998 follow-up study the questionnaire included a severity score and questions concerning management of AD. In the 1993 study the cumulative incidence of AD at age 7 was 18.9% and in 1998 it was 19.6%. There was no difference in the age-adjusted AD incidence in the 5-year observation period......An increase in the prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) has been reported since the 1960s. The increase could be due to many factors including a genuine increase of incidence or duration of AD. We decided to study if the increasing trend persisted during the 1990s by comparing the cumulative...

  4. Incidence of cervical cancer after several negative smear results by age 50: prospective observational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of cervical cancer after several negative cervical smear tests at different ages. DESIGN: Prospective observational study of incidence of cervical cancer after the third consecutive negative result based on individual level data in a national registry...... of histopathology and cytopathology (PALGA). SETTING: Netherlands, national data. Population 218,847 women aged 45-54 and 445,382 aged 30-44 at the time of the third negative smear test. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: 10 year cumulative incidence of interval cervical cancer. RESULTS: 105 women developed cervical cancer...... within 2 595,964 woman years at risk after the third negative result at age 30-44 and 42 within 1,278,532 woman years at risk after age 45-54. During follow-up, both age groups had similar levels of screening. After 10 years of follow-up, the cumulative incidence rate of cervical cancer was similar: 41...

  5. Interaction between GPR120 p.R270H loss-of-function variant and dietary fat intake on incident type 2 diabetes risk in the D.E.S.I.R. study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamri, A; Bonnefond, A; Meyre, D; Balkau, B; Roussel, R; Marre, M; Froguel, P; Fumeron, F

    2016-10-01

    GPR120 (encoded by FFAR4) is a lipid sensor that plays an important role in the control of energy balance. GPR120 is activated by long chain fatty acids (FAs) including omega-3 FAs. In humans, the loss of function p.R270H variant of the gene FFAR4 has been associated with a lower protein activity, an increased risk of obesity and higher fasting plasma glucose levels. The aim of this study was to investigate whether p.R270H interacts with dietary fat intake to modulate the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D, 198 incident; 368 prevalent cases) and overweight (787 incident and 2891 prevalent cases) in the prospective D.E.S.I.R. study (n = 5,212, 9 years follow-up). The association of p.R270H with dietary fat and total calories was assessed by linear mixed models. The interaction between p.R270H and dietary fat on T2D and overweight was assessed by logistic regression analysis. The p.R270H variant had a minor allele frequency of 1.45% and was not significantly associated with total calories intake, fat intake or the total calories derived from fat (%). However, there was a significant interaction between p.R270H and dietary fat modulating the incidence of T2D (Pinteraction = 0.02) where the H-carriers had a higher risk of T2D than RR homozygotes in the low fat intake category only. The interaction between p.R270H and fat intake modulating the incidence and prevalence of overweight was not significant. The p.R270H variant of GPR120 modulates the risk of T2D in interaction with dietary fat intake in the D.E.S.I.R. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Mismatch or cumulative stress : Toward an integrated hypothesis of programming effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhof, Esther; Schmidt, Mathias V.

    2012-01-01

    This paper integrates the cumulative stress hypothesis with the mismatch hypothesis, taking into account individual differences in sensitivity to programming. According to the cumulative stress hypothesis, individuals are more likely to suffer from disease as adversity accumulates. According to the

  7. Effects of long-term feeding of a diet supplemented with clinoptilolite to dairy cows on the incidence of ketosis, milk yield and liver function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsoulos, P D; Panousis, N; Roubies, N; Christaki, E; Arsenos, G; Karatzias, H

    2006-09-23

    Fifty-two clinically healthy Holstein cows were randomly assigned to one of three groups according to their age and parity. The first group (A) consisted of 17 cows that were fed a concentrate ration supplemented with 1.25 per cent clinoptilolite, the second group (B) consisted of 17 cows fed a ration supplemented with 2.5 per cent clinoptilolite, and the third group (C) consisted of 18 cows, which were fed the basal ration containing no clinoptilolite. The rations were fed from four weeks before the cows' expected parturition dates until the beginning of the next dry period. Blood samples were collected from each animal at the start of the experiment, on the day of calving and then monthly, and analysed for serum glucose, ketone bodies, liver enzymes, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and total proteins. The milk yield of each cow was recorded monthly. The cows in group B had significantly fewer cases of clinical ketosis during the first month after calving and a higher total milk yield. Feeding the cows with clinoptilolite for a long period had no apparent adverse effects on their liver function, and did not significantly affect the concentrations of glucose, ketone bodies, BUN and total proteins in their serum.

  8. Retrospective study of cumulative diagnostic radiation exposure during childhood in patients with spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smookler, Gregory; Deavenport-Saman, Alexis

    2015-10-01

    The Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation Committee of the National Academy of Sciences in 2005 and other expert panels have warned that risk of cancer increases with higher doses of radiation. Children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus have far greater exposure to radiation than the average person, starting almost directly after birth and continuing throughout their lifetimes. The purpose of this study was to estimate the amount of ionizing radiation that patients with spina bifida and hydrocephalus are exposed to during childhood from diagnostic imaging. Thirty patients, ages 18 years or older, with spina bifida and hydrocephalus were randomly selected from a spina bifida clinic and their radiology records were reviewed. Descriptive analyses were conducted. The total radiation exposure was then calculated for the study group, and the mean effective dose per patient was determined. In the study group, during their first 18 years, each patient had a mean of 55.1 studies and a median of 45 radiologic studies, a mean of 9.6 brain CT scans, and a mean cumulative effective dose of 81.9 mSv (2.6 mSv/patient/year over 18 years) and a median cumulative effective dose of 77.2 mSV of accumulated radiation exposure (4.5 mSv/patient/year over 18 years). Clinicians should recognize that increased radiation exposure puts patients with spina bifida and hydrocephalus at higher risk for cancer. The population of children and adults with spina bifida and hydrocephalus should be surveyed for incidence of cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Measurement error correction for the cumulative average model in the survival analysis of nutritional data: application to Nurses' Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Weiliang; Rosner, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    The use of the cumulative average model to investigate the association between disease incidence and repeated measurements of exposures in medical follow-up studies can be dated back to the 1960s (Kahn and Dawber, J Chron Dis 19:611-620, 1966). This model takes advantage of all prior data and thus should provide a statistically more powerful test of disease-exposure associations. Measurement error in covariates is common for medical follow-up studies. Many methods have been proposed to correct for measurement error. To the best of our knowledge, no methods have been proposed yet to correct for measurement error in the cumulative average model. In this article, we propose a regression calibration approach to correct relative risk estimates for measurement error. The approach is illustrated with data from the Nurses' Health Study relating incident breast cancer between 1980 and 2002 to time-dependent measures of calorie-adjusted saturated fat intake, controlling for total caloric intake, alcohol intake, and baseline age.

  10. Mapping cumulative noise from shipping to inform marine spatial planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbe, Christine; MacGillivray, Alexander; Williams, Rob

    2012-11-01

    Including ocean noise in marine spatial planning requires predictions of noise levels on large spatiotemporal scales. Based on a simple sound transmission model and ship track data (Automatic Identification System, AIS), cumulative underwater acoustic energy from shipping was mapped throughout 2008 in the west Canadian Exclusive Economic Zone, showing high noise levels in critical habitats for endangered resident killer whales, exceeding limits of "good conservation status" under the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Error analysis proved that rough calculations of noise occurrence and propagation can form a basis for management processes, because spending resources on unnecessary detail is wasteful and delays remedial action.

  11. The Carvedilol Prospective Randomized Cumulative Survival (COPERNICUS) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, Eric J; Bristow, Michael R

    2001-01-01

    Previous trials (Metoprolol CR/XL Randomised Intervention Trial in Congestive Heart Failure [MERIT-HF], Cardiac Insufficiency Bisoprolol Study [CIBIS] II) have demonstrated a mortality benefit of beta-adrenergic blockade in patients with mild to moderate heart failure. The recent Carvedilol Prospective Randomized Cumulative Survival (COPERNICUS) trial has extended these results to a more advanced patient population. This trial did not, however, include patients who could not reach compensation, patients with far advanced heart failure symptoms, or a significant number of black patients. Future studies of beta-blockade may focus on these patients or patients with asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction.

  12. The Carvedilol Prospective Randomized Cumulative Survival (COPERNICUS trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bristow Michael R

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Previous trials (Metoprolol CR/XL Randomised Intervention Trial in Congestive Heart Failure [MERIT-HF], Cardiac Insufficiency Bisoprolol Study [CIBIS] II have demonstrated a mortality benefit of β-adrenergic blockade in patients with mild to moderate heart failure. The recent Carvedilol Prospective Randomized Cumulative Survival (COPERNICUS trial has extended these results to a more advanced patient population. This trial did not, however, include patients who could not reach compensation, patients with far advanced heart failure symptoms, or a significant number of black patients. Future studies of β-blockade may focus on these patients or patients with asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction.

  13. Generalized Cumulative Residual Entropy for Distributions with Unrestricted Supports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noomane Drissi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the cumulative residual entropy (CRE a recently introduced measure of entropy. While in previous works distributions with positive support are considered, we generalize the definition of CRE to the case of distributions with general support. We show that several interesting properties of the earlier CRE remain valid and supply further properties and insight to problems such as maximum CRE power moment problems. In addition, we show that this generalized CRE can be used as an alternative to differential entropy to derive information-based optimization criteria for system identification purpose.

  14. Increasing incidence of hip fracture in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongtriratanachai, Prasit; Luevitoonvechkij, Sirichai; Songpatanasilp, Thawee; Sribunditkul, Siripoj; Leerapun, Taninnit; Phadungkiat, Sompant; Rojanasthien, Sattaya

    2013-01-01

    Hip fracture is a major health problem in Thailand. This study attempted to examine the incidence, related factors, and trends of hip fracture in Chiang Mai, Thailand. All hip fracture data among patients aged 50 yr or older were collected from hospitals in Chiang Mai, Thailand from August 1, 2006 to July 3, 2007. Data from the 1997 Chiang Mai hip fracture study were used for comparison. In the study period, 690 hip fractures were reported: 203 males and 487 females (male to female ratio was 1 to 2.4), with a mean age of 76.7 yr. The estimated cumulative incidence was 181.0 per 100,000, and the adjusted incidence was 253.3 (males: 135.9; females: 367.9). A simple fall was the most common mechanism (79%) of fracture, and 80% of the hip fractures occurred in patients aged 70 yr or older. The highest incidence of hip fracture was observed in patients older than 85 yr (1239). At 6 mo postfracture, most patients (61%) used a walking aid. Compared with the 1997 data, hip fracture incidence had increased by an average of 2% per yr, and the incidence of hip fracture had increased significantly from August 1, 2006 to July 31, 2007, especially in patients older than 75 yr. In patients older than 84 yr, the incidence increased by a factor of 2. Urgent strategies for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, and hence hip fracture, are needed.

  15. Predictive Value of Cumulative Blood Pressure for All-Cause Mortality and Cardiovascular Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan Xiu; Song, Lu; Xing, Ai Jun; Gao, Ming; Zhao, Hai Yan; Li, Chun Hui; Zhao, Hua Ling; Chen, Shuo Hua; Lu, Cheng Zhi; Wu, Shou Ling

    2017-02-01

    The predictive value of cumulative blood pressure (BP) on all-cause mortality and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (CCE) has hardly been studied. In this prospective cohort study including 52,385 participants from the Kailuan Group who attended three medical examinations and without CCE, the impact of cumulative systolic BP (cumSBP) and cumulative diastolic BP (cumDBP) on all-cause mortality and CCEs was investigated. For the study population, the mean (standard deviation) age was 48.82 (11.77) years of which 40,141 (76.6%) were male. The follow-up for all-cause mortality and CCEs was 3.96 (0.48) and 2.98 (0.41) years, respectively. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis showed that for every 10 mm Hg·year increase in cumSBP and 5 mm Hg·year increase in cumDBP, the hazard ratio for all-cause mortality were 1.013 (1.006, 1.021) and 1.012 (1.006, 1.018); for CCEs, 1.018 (1.010, 1.027) and 1.017 (1.010, 1.024); for stroke, 1.021 (1.011, 1.031) and 1.018 (1.010, 1.026); and for MI, 1.013 (0.996, 1.030) and 1.015 (1.000, 1.029). Using natural spline function analysis, cumSBP and cumDBP showed a J-curve relationship with CCEs; and a U-curve relationship with stroke (ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke). Therefore, increases in cumSBP and cumDBP were predictive for all-cause mortality, CCEs, and stroke.

  16. Cumulative effects of noise and odour annoyances on environmental and health related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oiamo, Tor H; Luginaah, Isaac N; Baxter, Jamie

    2015-12-01

    Noise and odour annoyances are important considerations in research on health effects of air pollution and traffic noise. Cumulative exposures can occur via several chemical hazards or a combination of chemical and stressor-based hazards, and related health outcomes can be generalized as manifestations of physiological and/or psychological stress responses. A major research challenge in this field is to understand the combined health effects of physiological and psychological responses to exposure. The SF-12 Health Survey is a health related quality of life (HRQoL) instrument designed for the assessment of functional mental and physical health in clinical practice and therefore well suited to research on physiological health outcomes of exposure. However, previous research has not assessed its sensitivity to psychological stress as measured by noise annoyance and odour annoyance. The current study validated and tested this application of the SF-12 Health Survey in a cross-sectional study (n = 603) that included exposure assessment for traffic noise and air pollution in Windsor, Ontario, Canada. The results indicated that SF-12 scores in Windsor were lower than Canadian normative data. A structural equation model demonstrated that this was partially due to noise and odour annoyances, which were associated with covarying exposures to ambient nitrogen dioxide and traffic noise. More specifically, noise annoyance had a significant and negative effect on both mental and physical health factors of the SF-12 and there was a significant covariance between noise annoyance and odour annoyance. The study confirmed a significant effect of psychological responses to cumulative exposures on HRQoL. The SF-12 Health Survey shows promise with respect to assessing the cumulative health effects of outdoor air pollution and traffic noise.

  17. Determining source cumulants in femtoscopy with Gram-Charlier and Edgeworth series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eggers, H. C.; De Kock, M. B.; Schmiegel, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Lowest-order cumulants provide important information on the shape of the emission source in femtoscopy. For the simple case of noninteracting identical particles, we show how the fourth-order source cumulant can be determined from measured cumulants in momentum space. The textbook Gram–Charlier s...

  18. High-resolution harmonic retrieval using the full fourth-order cumulant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, S.H.J.A.; Naus, H.W.L.; Zwamborn, A.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    The harmonic retrieval (HR) problem concerns the estimation of the frequencies in a sum of real or complex harmonics. Both correlation and cumulant-based approaches are used for this purpose. Cumulant-based HR algorithms use a single 1-D slice of the fourth-order cumulant that is estimated directly

  19. 75 FR 69662 - Workshop: Cumulative Mixtures Risk of Six Selected Phthalates in Support of Summary Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... AGENCY Workshop: Cumulative Mixtures Risk of Six Selected Phthalates in Support of Summary Information on...: Notice of Peer Consultation Workshop on the Cumulative Mixtures Risk of Six Selected Phthalates; Request... phthalates as set forth in the National Academies of Science (NAS) report ``Phthalates and Cumulative...

  20. A model for a statewide critical incident stress (CIS) debriefing program for emergency services personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, K W; Spitzer, W J

    1997-01-01

    Emergency services personnel are highly vulnerable to acute and cumulative critical incident stress (CIS) that can manifest as anger, guilt, depression, and impaired decision-making, and, in certain instances, job loss. Interventions designed to identify such distress and restore psychological functioning becomes imperative. A statewide debriefing team was formed in 1988 through a collaborative effort between an academic department of emergency medicine and a social work department of a teaching hospital, and a metropolitan area fire department and ambulance service. Using an existing CIS debriefing model, 84 prescreened, mental health professionals and emergency services personnel were provided with 16 hours of training and were grouped into regional teams. Debriefing requests are received through a central number answered by a communicator in a 24-hour communications center located within the emergency department. Debriefings are conducted 48-72 hours after the event for specific types of incidents. Follow-up telephone calls are made by the debriefing team leader two to three weeks following a debriefing. The teams rely on donations to pay for travel and meals. One hundred sixty-eight debriefings were conducted during the first four years. Rural agencies accounted for 116 (69%) requests. During this period, 1,514 individuals were debriefed: 744 (49%) firefighters, 460 (30%) EMTs, and 310 (21%) police officers, dispatchers, and other responders. Deaths of children, extraordinary events, and incidents involving victims known to the responders (35%, 14%, and 14% respectively) were the most common reasons for requesting debriefings. Feedback was received from 48 (28%) of the agencies that requested the debriefing. All of those who responded felt that the debriefing had a beneficial effect on its personnel. Specific individuals identified by agency representatives as having the greatest difficulty were observed to be returned to their pre-incident state. CIS

  1. incidence and characteristics of m yasthenia gra vis in dar es ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2001-09-09

    Sep 9, 2001 ... Design: Prospective cumulative registration at a major urban hospital of all patients with ... of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics and incidence of MG in ... A detailed general, systems and neurological assessment were performed on ..... the laboratory tests in myasthenia "gravis. Muscle ...

  2. Incidence of Otitis Media in a Contemporary Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Todbjerg, Tanja; Koch, Anders; Andersson, Mikael;

    2014-01-01

    was ability to understand and speak Danish. METHODS: Information of OM and ventilation tubes (VT) was collected through three maternal interviews at 6-month, 18-month and 7-years of age and based on this age-specific and cumulative incidence of OM was calculated. As different numbers of the total population...

  3. The seven-year cumulative survival rate of Osstem implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Kyun; Kim, Bum-Su; Yun, Pil-Young; Mun, Sang-Un; Yi, Yang-Jin; Jeong, Kyung-In

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study was performed to analyze the cumulative survival rate of Osstem implants (Osstem Implant Co., Ltd.) over a seven-year period. Materials and Methods A total of 105 patients who had 467 Osstem implants that were placed at the Section of Dentistry, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital (Seongnam, Korea) from June 2003 through December 2005 were analyzed. The life table method and a cross-tubulation analysis, log rank test were used to evaluate the survival curve and the influence that the prognostic factors. The prognostic factors, i.e., age and gender of patients, diameter and length, type of implants, bone graft history and loading time were determined with a Cox proportional hazard model based on logistic regression analysis. Results The seven-year cumulative survival rate of Osstem implants was 95.37%. The Cox proportional hazard model revealed that the following factors had a significant influence on survival rate; increased diameter, reduced prosthetic loading period and performance of bone grafting. Conclusion The osstem implants showed satisfactory results over the seven-year study period. PMID:24868503

  4. Cumulative dietary exposure of the population of Denmark to pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Nielsen, Elsa; Christensen, Tue; Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Andersen, Jens Hinge

    2015-09-01

    We used the Hazard Index (HI) method to carry out a cumulative risk assessment after chronic dietary exposure to all monitored pesticides in fruit, vegetables and cereals for various consumer groups in Denmark. Residue data for all the pesticides were obtained from the Danish monitoring programme during the period 2004-2011. Food consumption data were obtained from DANSDA (the DAnish National Survey of Diet and physical Activity) for the period 2005-2008. The calculations were made using three different models to cope with residues below the limit of reporting (LOR). We concluded that a model that included processing factors and set non-detects to ½ LOR, but limited the correction (Model 3), gave the most realistic exposure estimate. With Model 3 the HI was calculated to be 0.44 for children and 0.18 for adults, indicating that there is no risk of adverse health effects following chronic cumulative exposure to the pesticides found in fruit, vegetables and cereals on the Danish market. The HI was below 1 even for consumers who eat more than 550 g of fruit and vegetables per day, corresponding to 1/3 of the population. Choosing Danish-produced commodities whenever possible could reduce the HI by a factor of 2.

  5. Extraction of Facial Feature Points Using Cumulative Histogram

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, Sushil Kumar; Bouakaz, Saida

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel adaptive algorithm to extract facial feature points automatically such as eyebrows corners, eyes corners, nostrils, nose tip, and mouth corners in frontal view faces, which is based on cumulative histogram approach by varying different threshold values. At first, the method adopts the Viola-Jones face detector to detect the location of face and also crops the face region in an image. From the concept of the human face structure, the six relevant regions such as right eyebrow, left eyebrow, right eye, left eye, nose, and mouth areas are cropped in a face image. Then the histogram of each cropped relevant region is computed and its cumulative histogram value is employed by varying different threshold values to create a new filtering image in an adaptive way. The connected component of interested area for each relevant filtering image is indicated our respective feature region. A simple linear search algorithm for eyebrows, eyes and mouth filtering images and contour algorithm for nos...

  6. A Cumulant-based Analysis of Nonlinear Magnetospheric Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay R. Johnson; Simon Wing

    2004-01-28

    Understanding magnetospheric dynamics and predicting future behavior of the magnetosphere is of great practical interest because it could potentially help to avert catastrophic loss of power and communications. In order to build good predictive models it is necessary to understand the most critical nonlinear dependencies among observed plasma and electromagnetic field variables in the coupled solar wind/magnetosphere system. In this work, we apply a cumulant-based information dynamical measure to characterize the nonlinear dynamics underlying the time evolution of the Dst and Kp geomagnetic indices, given solar wind magnetic field and plasma input. We examine the underlying dynamics of the system, the temporal statistical dependencies, the degree of nonlinearity, and the rate of information loss. We find a significant solar cycle dependence in the underlying dynamics of the system with greater nonlinearity for solar minimum. The cumulant-based approach also has the advantage that it is reliable even in the case of small data sets and therefore it is possible to avoid the assumption of stationarity, which allows for a measure of predictability even when the underlying system dynamics may change character. Evaluations of several leading Kp prediction models indicate that their performances are sub-optimal during active times. We discuss possible improvements of these models based on this nonparametric approach.

  7. Cumulative Effects Assessment: Linking Social, Ecological, and Governance Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Weber

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Setting social, economic, and ecological objectives is ultimately a process of social choice informed by science. In this special feature we provide a multidisciplinary framework for the use of cumulative effects assessment in land use planning. Forest ecosystems are facing considerable challenges driven by population growth and increasing demands for resources. In a suite of case studies that span the boreal forest of Western Canada to the interior Atlantic forest of Paraguay we show how transparent and defensible methods for scenario analysis can be applied in data-limited regions and how social dimensions of land use change can be incorporated in these methods, particularly in aboriginal communities that have lived in these ecosystems for generations. The case studies explore how scenario analysis can be used to evaluate various land use options and highlight specific challenges with identifying social and ecological responses, determining thresholds and targets for land use, and integrating local and traditional knowledge in land use planning. Given that land use planning is ultimately a value-laden and often politically charged process we also provide some perspective on various collective and expert-based processes for identifying cumulative impacts and thresholds. The need for good science to inform and be informed by culturally appropriate democratic processes calls for well-planned and multifaceted approaches both to achieve an informed understanding of both residents and governments of the interactive and additive changes caused by development, and to design action agendas to influence such change at the ecological and social level.

  8. Cumulative hierarchies and computability over universes of sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Cantone

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Various metamathematical investigations, beginning with Fraenkel’s historical proof of the independence of the axiom of choice, called for suitable definitions of hierarchical universes of sets. This led to the discovery of such important cumulative structures as the one singled out by von Neumann (generally taken as the universe of all sets and Godel’s universe of the so-called constructibles. Variants of those are exploited occasionally in studies concerning the foundations of analysis (according to Abraham Robinson’s approach, or concerning non-well-founded sets. We hence offer a systematic presentation of these many structures, partly motivated by their relevance and pervasiveness in mathematics. As we report, numerous properties of hierarchy-related notions such as rank, have been verified with the assistance of the ÆtnaNova proof-checker.Through SETL and Maple implementations of procedures which effectively handle the Ackermann’s hereditarily finite sets, we illustrate a particularly significant case among those in which the entities which form a universe of sets can be algorithmically constructed and manipulated; hereby, the fruitful bearing on pure mathematics of cumulative set hierarchies ramifies into the realms of theoretical computer science and algorithmics.

  9. Prefiltering and Cumulant Based Harmonic Retrieval in Mixed ARMA Noises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIShenghong; LIJianhua; XUEZhi; CHENLiya

    2005-01-01

    Harmonic retrieval is an important issue in the the field of statistical signal processing. However, in the case of harmonic retrieval in mixed colored Gaussian and Non-Gaussian Autoregressive movingaverage (ARMA) noises, the corresponding existing approaches can not retrieve a harmonic signal either with quadratic phase coupling components, or with cubic phase coupling components, or when the colored non-Gaussian ARMA noise is symmetrically distributed. In this paper, a new general approach is proposed to retrieve a one-dimensional real harmonic signal in the above mixed ARMA noises. A suitable filter is first used to remove all the sharp power spectrum peaks of the noisy observed process, then some kind of fourth-order cumulant is employed to identify the Autoregressive (AR) parameter values of the colored non-Gaussian ARMA noise model. After the real noisy observed data are filtered with the identified AR parameter values again, cumulant based methods can be made use of to retrieve the harmonics. The proposed new approach can be applied to retrieve a one-dimensional real harmonic signal in the above mixed colored Gaussian and non-Gaussian ARMA noises with no restrictions on the phase coupling of the harmonics and the distribution of the colored non-Gaussian ARMA noise. Simulation examples are presented to demonstrate its effectiveness.

  10. Petrogenesis of the nakhlite meteorites: Evidence from cumulate mineral zoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, R.P.; McSween, H.Y. Jr. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States))

    1992-04-01

    A simple igneous petrogenesis for the meteorite Nakhla has previously been called into question because Mg/Fe ratios in olivine indicate substantial disequilibrium between the predominant cumulus minerals (olivine and augite). Comparative analyses of simulated diffusive zoning and the observed cumulus mineral zoning for all three nakhlites (Nakhla, Governador Valadares, and Lafayette) show that their current compositions do not necessarily reflect parental magma compositions. Instead, diffusion has altered primary cumulus compositions to varying degrees, Nakhla being the least affected, and Lafayette being almost completely re-equilibrated. Only the cores of augite grains in Nakhla and Governador Valadares appear to have preserved their original compositions. Mineral zoning in each meteorite is strongly concentric around mesostasis areas, suggesting that reaction with intercumulus liquid has controlled the observed zoning. The presence of pigeonite and orthopyroxene overgrowths in Nakhla and Governador Valadares, and of poikilitic orthopyroxene enclosing olivine relicts in Lafayette, indicate substantial late-magmatic reactions. Two-pyroxene geothermometry for Lafayette indicates temperatures around 95C, suggesting subsolidus equilibration as well. The nakhlites appear to be a series of relatively simple cumulate rocks which have undergone various amounts of late-magmatic and subsolidus diffusion, possibly reflecting their relative positions in a cooling cumulate pile.

  11. Early identification and management of critical incident stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Randy M; Ter-Bagdasarian, Levon

    2003-02-01

    Everyone experiences stress. That stress may be related to work (internal), community (external), or family; it may be cumulative or related to a particular critical incident. The cost related to treating acute stress is staggering, both to individuals and to organizations. Critical care nurses are well educated in the physiological responses to the stress of acute illness. Recognizing the emotional impact of stress and the techniques to manage it in themselves and in those with whom they work is equally as important. CISD is widely advocated as an intervention after critical incidents. Although debriefing in and of itself is effective, a single-session semistructured crisis intervention will not prevent posttraumatic stress; thus, the use of CISD as part of a comprehensive multifaceted approach to the management of acute stress related to a critical incident is recommended.

  12. The Effect of Total Cumulative Dose, Number of Treatment Cycles, Interval between Injections, and Length of Treatment on the Frequency of Occurrence of Antibodies to Botulinum Toxin Type A in the Treatment of Muscle Spasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakheit, Abdel Magid O.; Liptrot, Anthea; Newton, Rachel; Pickett, Andrew M.

    2012-01-01

    A large cumulative dose of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A), frequent injections, a short interval between treatment cycles, and a long duration of treatment have all been suggested, but not confirmed, to be associated with a high incidence of neutralizing antibodies to the neurotoxin. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these…

  13. Radiation incidents in dentistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovelock, D.J. [Dental Hospital and School, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom). Dept. of Radiology

    1996-12-31

    Most dental practitioners act as their own radiographer and radiologist, unlike their medical colleagues. Virtually all dental surgeons have a dental X-ray machine for intraoral radiography available to them and 40% of dental practices have equipment for dental panoramic tomography. Because of the low energy of X-ray equipment used in dentistry, radiation incidents tend to be less serious than those associated with other aspects of patient care. Details of 47 known incidents are given. The advent of the 1985 and 1988 Ionising Radiation Regulations has made dental surgeons more aware of the hazards of radiation. These regulations, and general health and safety legislation, have led to a few dental surgeons facing legal action. Because of the publicity associated with these court cases, it is expected that there will be a decrease in radiation incidents arising from the practice of dentistry. (author).

  14. Modeling the cumulative genetic risk for multiple sclerosis from genome-wide association data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Joanne H; Pappas, Derek; De Jager, Philip L; Pelletier, Daniel; de Bakker, Paul Iw; Kappos, Ludwig; Polman, Chris H; Chibnik, Lori B; Hafler, David A; Matthews, Paul M; Hauser, Stephen L; Baranzini, Sergio E; Oksenberg, Jorge R

    2011-01-18

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common cause of chronic neurologic disability beginning in early to middle adult life. Results from recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have substantially lengthened the list of disease loci and provide convincing evidence supporting a multifactorial and polygenic model of inheritance. Nevertheless, the knowledge of MS genetics remains incomplete, with many risk alleles still to be revealed. We used a discovery GWAS dataset (8,844 samples, 2,124 cases and 6,720 controls) and a multi-step logistic regression protocol to identify novel genetic associations. The emerging genetic profile included 350 independent markers and was used to calculate and estimate the cumulative genetic risk in an independent validation dataset (3,606 samples). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was implemented to compare clinical characteristics of individuals with various degrees of genetic risk. Gene ontology and pathway enrichment analysis was done using the DAVID functional annotation tool, the GO Tree Machine, and the Pathway-Express profiling tool. In the discovery dataset, the median cumulative genetic risk (P-Hat) was 0.903 and 0.007 in the case and control groups, respectively, together with 79.9% classification sensitivity and 95.8% specificity. The identified profile shows a significant enrichment of genes involved in the immune response, cell adhesion, cell communication/signaling, nervous system development, and neuronal signaling, including ionotropic glutamate receptors, which have been implicated in the pathological mechanism driving neurodegeneration. In the validation dataset, the median cumulative genetic risk was 0.59 and 0.32 in the case and control groups, respectively, with classification sensitivity 62.3% and specificity 75.9%. No differences in disease progression or T2-lesion volumes were observed among four levels of predicted genetic risk groups (high, medium, low, misclassified). On the other hand, a significant

  15. Geostatistical analysis of microrelief of an oxisol as a function of tillage and cumulative rainfall Análise geoestatística do microrrelevo de um Latossolo em função do preparo do solo e da precipitação acumulada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Vidal Vázquez

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Surface roughness can be influenced by type and intensity of soil tillage among other factors. In tilled soils microrelief may decay considerably as rain progresses. Geostatistics provides some tools that may be useful to study the dynamics of soil surface variability. The objective of this study was to show how it is possible to apply geostatistics to analyze soil microrelief variability. Data were taken at an Oxisol over six tillage treatments, namely, disk harrow, disk plow, chisel plow, disk harrow + disk level, disk plow + disk level and chisel plow + disk level. Measurements were made initially just after tillage and subsequently after cumulative natural rainfall events. Duplicated measurements were taken in each one of the treatments and dates of samplings, yielding a total of 48 experimental surfaces. A pin microrelief meter was used for the surface roughness measurements. The plot area was 1.35 × 1.35 m and the sample spacing was 25 mm, yielding a total of 3,025 data points per measurement. Before geostatistical analysis, trend was removed from the experimental data by two methods for comparison. Models were fitted to the semivariograms of each surface and the model parameters were analyzed. The trend removing method affected the geostatistical results. The geostatistical parameter dependence ratio showed that spatial dependence improved for most of the surfaces as the amount of cumulative rainfall increased.A rugosidade da superfície pode ser influenciada pelo tipo e pela intensidade do preparo do solo, entre outros fatores. Em solos preparados o microrrelevo é aplanado consideravelmente com o acúmulo da chuva. A Geoestatística promove algumas ferramentas que podem ser úteis no estudo da dinâmica da variabilidade da superfície do solo. O objetivo desse estudo foi verificar se é possível aplicar geoestatística na análise da variação do microrrelevo do solo. Os resultados foram obtidos num Latossolo sob seis tratamentos de

  16. [Incidence and trend analysis of esophageal cancer in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, T T; Zheng, R S; Zeng, H M; Zhang, S W; Chen, W Q; He, J

    2016-09-23

    Incidence data retrieved from population-based cancer registration were used to analyze the esophageal cancer incidence and trend in China. The results can provide basic information for prevention and control of esophageal cancer. Esophageal cancer incidence data in 2012 were retrieved from the National Central Cancer Registry, nationwide new esophageal cancer cases were estimated using age-specific rate by urban or rural and gender and national population in 2012. Esophageal cancer incidence data from 22 cancer registries were used to analyze the trend during 2000-2011. The estimates of new cases of esophageal cancer were about 286.7 thousand in 2012 in China. The incidence rate was 21.17/10(5,) the age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population and by world population were 14.73/10(5) and 14.93/10(5,) respectively, and the cumulative incidence rate was 1.91%.There was a decreasing trend of incidence rate of esophageal cancer in registration areas of China during 2000-2011 with an average annual percentage change (AAPC) of 0.9% (95%CI: -1.6% to -0.1%), no significant differences were observed in urban area and an increasing trend with AAPC of 1.3% (95%CI: 0.2% to 2.5%) in rural area. After age standardization, the incidence rate was significantly decreased, with AAPC of -4.0% (95%CI: -5.5% to -2.6%) overall, -3.8% (95%CI: -4.9% to -2.7%) in urban and -1.7% (95%CI: -3.0% to -0.4%) in rural areas. Esophageal cancer is one of the most common cancers in China and is an emphasis for cancer control. After effective control of risk factors and development of esophageal cancer screening techniques in high-risk areas for years, esophageal cancer incidence appears to have a significant decreasing trend.

  17. Linking turbine collision risks with population models to assess cumulative impacts of multiple wind farms on threatened birds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smales, Ian; Muir, Stuart; Meredith, Charles; Baird, Robert

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Assessment of the effects on birds of wind turbine collisions has generally been focussed on the number of individuals that might be killed at a particular facility. However, this measure, of itself, may have little relevance to evaluating the potential or real effects on conservation status of threatened species. Determination of the overall effect any such mortality may have on the functioning of these populations will provide a better basis for decisions that have a strong foundation in ecology. For species with sufficient demographic information, we have developed and applied an approach combining collision risk modelling for all wind farms within the range of a threatened species with population modelling. This permits population-level evaluation of potential cumulative impacts of multiple wind farms. In Australia, regulatory authorities are increasingly interested in the cumulative risk to threatened species that may be posed by multiple wind energy facilities within a species. range. The approach outlined here has been applied in the pre-construction approval stage using collision risk modelling, and can be applied to operational facilities using data on actual mortalities. Cumulative modelling of risk posed by multiple wind farms requires different approaches for sedentary and migratory species. For sedentary species the cumulative effect will be the sum of the impact experienced by those parts of the population whose range intersects with wind farms. Cumulative impact is derived for migratory species by assessing the probability of birds surviving encounters with one wind farm after another on the migratory route and is thus the product of their survivorship rates for the relevant wind farms. The collision risk modelling used will be outlined along with the method in which it is integrated with a population model. Case studies for a crane (Brolga Grus rubicundus) and a parrot (orange- bellied parrot Neophema chrysogaster) species will be

  18. The epidemic research about the incidence of functional constipation in navy and the control measures%海军某部官兵功能性便秘的流行病学调查与防治措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔立红; 王晓辉; 杨云生

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the incidence of functional constipation ( FC ) in navy and to analyze relevant factors, drawing up pro - cautionary measure to control FC scientifically and finally ensure the battle effectiveness of navy units. Methods During December 2009 to December 2010, 12032 servicemen in an navy unit were investigated by Muti - stage stratified random cluster sampling survey with questionnaire. We chose the Rome IH Standard epidemiological survey ( Rome IH - MQ) and did some life quality evaluation with the SF - 36 life quality scale ( HRQOL) . We also analyzed the dangerous factors of FC by muti factor LOGISTIC regression analysis. Results A total of 11895 valid questionnaires were received. The incidence rate of FC in that unit was group FC incidence for 12. 51%. By muti factor LOGISTIC regression analysis, we found that the pathogenic facors of FC included eating spicy food, drinking alcohol, oftenly restraining defecate, lack of vegetable and fruits, anxiety, poor physical activity, which value OR were all > 1. Conclusions The incidence rate of FC in navy was significantly high with considerably much dangerous factors. Scientific and effective therapeutic intervention measures would be very important to ensure the physical and mental health of navy soldiers and to finally improve the battle effectiveness.%目的 调查海军某部官兵功能性便秘(functional constipation,FC)的发病状况,分析相关因素并制定相应防治措施.方法 2009年12月-2010年12月以调查问卷的形式多级分层随机整群抽样调查海军现役军人12 032例.问卷采用罗马Ⅲ标准流行病学调查问卷(RomeⅢ-MQ),参照SF-36生活质量量表(HRQOL)进行生活质量评判.并采用多因素的Logistic 回归分析法分析FC的危险因素.结果 共回收11 895份有效问卷,海军某部官兵FC发病率为12.51%,Logistic回归分析表明,吃辛辣食品、饮酒、心情焦虑、经常克制排便、吃水果蔬菜少、运动少等

  19. A framework for adaptive monitoring of the cumulative effects of human footprint on biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, A Cole; Huggard, David; Bayne, Erin; Schieck, Jim; Sólymos, Péter; Muhly, Tyler; Farr, Dan; Boutin, Stan

    2014-06-01

    Effective ecological monitoring is imperative in a human-dominated world, as our ability to manage functioning ecosystems will depend on understanding biodiversity responses to anthropogenic impacts. Yet, most monitoring efforts have either been narrowly focused on particular sites, species and stressors - thus inadequately considering the cumulative effects of multiple, interacting impacts at scales of management relevance - or too unfocused to provide specific guidance. We propose a cumulative effects monitoring framework that integrates multi-scaled surveillance of trends in biodiversity and land cover with targeted evaluation of hypothesized drivers of change. The framework is grounded in a flexible conceptual model and uses monitoring to generate and test empirical models that relate the status of diverse taxonomic groups to the nature and extent of human "footprint" and other landscape attributes. An adaptive cycle of standardized sampling, model development, and model evaluation provides a means to learn about the system and guide management. Additional benefits of the framework include standardized data on status and trend for a wide variety of biodiversity elements, spatially explicit models for regional planning and scenario evaluation, and identification of knowledge gaps for complementary research. We describe efforts to implement the framework in Alberta, Canada, through the Alberta Biodiversity Monitoring Institute, and identify key challenges to be addressed.

  20. Towards a framework for assessment and management of cumulative human impacts on marine food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giakoumi, Sylvaine; Halpern, Benjamin S; Michel, Loïc N; Gobert, Sylvie; Sini, Maria; Boudouresque, Charles-François; Gambi, Maria-Cristina; Katsanevakis, Stelios; Lejeune, Pierre; Montefalcone, Monica; Pergent, Gerard; Pergent-Martini, Christine; Sanchez-Jerez, Pablo; Velimirov, Branko; Vizzini, Salvatrice; Abadie, Arnaud; Coll, Marta; Guidetti, Paolo; Micheli, Fiorenza; Possingham, Hugh P

    2015-08-01

    Effective ecosystem-based management requires understanding ecosystem responses to multiple human threats, rather than focusing on single threats. To understand ecosystem responses to anthropogenic threats holistically, it is necessary to know how threats affect different components within ecosystems and ultimately alter ecosystem functioning. We used a case study of a Mediterranean seagrass (Posidonia oceanica) food web and expert knowledge elicitation in an application of the initial steps of a framework for assessment of cumulative human impacts on food webs. We produced a conceptual seagrass food web model, determined the main trophic relationships, identified the main threats to the food web components, and assessed the components' vulnerability to those threats. Some threats had high (e.g., coastal infrastructure) or low impacts (e.g., agricultural runoff) on all food web components, whereas others (e.g., introduced carnivores) had very different impacts on each component. Partitioning the ecosystem into its components enabled us to identify threats previously overlooked and to reevaluate the importance of threats commonly perceived as major. By incorporating this understanding of system vulnerability with data on changes in the state of each threat (e.g., decreasing domestic pollution and increasing fishing) into a food web model, managers may be better able to estimate and predict cumulative human impacts on ecosystems and to prioritize conservation actions. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  1. Cumulative effects, creeping enclosure, and the marine commons of New Jersey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Murray

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In response to declining fish stocks and increased societal concern, the marine ‘commons’ of New Jersey is no longer freely available to commercial and recreational fisheries. We discuss the concept of ‘creeping’ enclosure in relation to New Jersey’s marine fisheries and suggest that reduced access can be a cumulative process and function of multiple events and processes and need not be the result of a single regulatory moment. We begin with a short review of the ‘expected’ effects of enclosure, including loss of flexibility, erosion of community, proletarianization of fishermen, and corporatization of the fishery. We then present some findings of our research and discuss how the signs of enclosure are visible in fisheries that do not feature explicitly privatized property or access rights. We rely on an oral history approach and the rich detail that emerges from attention to the lived experiences of fish harvesters to provide a framework for understanding the range of cumulative effects that have resulted from this process of creeping enclosure. We conclude with a discussion of how the gradual process of enclosure has affected the flows of information between the bio-physical environment and fish harvesters, managers and scientists by reducing both participation in fisheries and the accumulation of knowledge itself.

  2. Social organization and the evolution of cumulative technology in apes and hominins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Gauri R; Tennie, Claudio; van Schaik, Carel P

    2012-07-01

    Culturally supported accumulation (or ratcheting) of technological complexity is widely seen as characterizing hominin technology relative to that of the extant great apes, and thus as representing a threshold in cultural evolution. To explain this divide, we modeled the process of cultural accumulation of technology, which we defined as adding new actions to existing ones to create new functional combinations, based on a model for great ape tool use. The model shows that intraspecific and interspecific variation in the presence of simple and cumulative technology among extant orangutans and chimpanzees is largely due to variation in sociability, and hence opportunities for social learning. The model also suggests that the adoption of extensive allomaternal care (cooperative breeding) in early Pleistocene Homo, which led to an increase in sociability and to teaching, and hence increased efficiency of social learning, was enough to facilitate technological ratcheting. Hence, socioecological changes, rather than advances in cognitive abilities, can account for the cumulative cultural changes seen until the origin of the Acheulean. The consequent increase in the reliance on technology could have served as the pacemaker for increased cognitive abilities. Our results also suggest that a more important watershed in cultural evolution was the rise of donated culture (technology or concepts), in which technology or concepts was transferred to naïve individuals, allowing them to skip many learning steps, and specialization arose, which allowed individuals to learn only a subset of the population's skills. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cloud mask via cumulative discriminant analysis applied to satellite infrared observations: scientific basis and initial evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Amato

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a classification method (Cumulative Discriminant Analysis of the Discriminant Analysis type to discriminate between cloudy and clear sky satellite observations in the thermal infrared. The tool is intended for the high spectral resolution infrared sounder (IRS planned for the geostationary METEOSAT (Meteorological Satellite Third Generation platform and uses IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer data as a proxy. The Cumulative Discriminant Analysis does not introduce biases intrinsic with the approximation of the probability density functions and is flexible enough to adapt to different strategies to optimize the cloud mask. The methodology is based on nine statistics computed from IASI spectral radiances, which exploit the high spectral resolution of the instrument and which effectively summarize information contained within the IASI spectrum. A Principal Component Analysis prior step is also introduced which makes the problem more consistent with the statistical assumptions of the methodology. An initial assessment of the scheme is performed based on global and regional IASI real data sets and cloud masks obtained from AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer and SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager imagers. The agreement with these independent cloud masks is generally well above 80%, except at high latitudes in their winter seasons.

  4. Cloud mask via cumulative discriminant analysis applied to satellite infrared observations: scientific basis and initial evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, U.; Lavanant, L.; Liuzzi, G.; Masiello, G.; Serio, C.; Stuhlmann, R.; Tjemkes, S. A.

    2014-10-01

    We introduce a classification method (cumulative discriminant analysis) of the discriminant analysis type to discriminate between cloudy and clear-sky satellite observations in the thermal infrared. The tool is intended for the high-spectral-resolution infrared sounder (IRS) planned for the geostationary METEOSAT (Meteorological Satellite) Third Generation platform and uses IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) data as a proxy. The cumulative discriminant analysis does not introduce biases intrinsic with the approximation of the probability density functions and is flexible enough to adapt to different strategies to optimize the cloud mask. The methodology is based on nine statistics computed from IASI spectral radiances, which exploit the high spectral resolution of the instrument and which effectively summarize information contained within the IASI spectrum. A principal component analysis prior step is also introduced, which makes the problem more consistent with the statistical assumptions of the methodology. An initial assessment of the scheme is performed based on global and regional IASI real data sets and cloud masks obtained from AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) and SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager) imagers. The agreement with these independent cloud masks is generally well above 80 %, except at high latitudes in the winter seasons.

  5. Brains striving for coherence: Long-term cumulative plot formation in the default mode network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylén, K; Christensen, P; Roepstorff, A; Lund, T; Østergaard, S; Donald, M

    2015-11-01

    Many everyday activities, such as engaging in conversation or listening to a story, require us to sustain attention over a prolonged period of time while integrating and synthesizing complex episodic content into a coherent mental model. Humans are remarkably capable of navigating and keeping track of all the parallel social activities of everyday life even when confronted with interruptions or changes in the environment. However, the underlying cognitive and neurocognitive mechanisms of such long-term integration and profiling of information remain a challenge to neuroscience. While brain activity is generally traceable within the short time frame of working memory (milliseconds to seconds), these integrative processes last for minutes, hours or even days. Here we report two experiments on story comprehension. Experiment I establishes a cognitive dissociation between our comprehension of plot and incidental facts in narratives: when episodic material allows for long-term integration in a coherent plot, we recall fewer factual details. However, when plot formation is challenged, we pay more attention to incidental facts. Experiment II investigates the neural underpinnings of plot formation. Results suggest a central role for the brain's default mode network related to comprehension of coherent narratives while incoherent episodes rather activate the frontoparietal control network. Moreover, an analysis of cortical activity as a function of the cumulative integration of narrative material into a coherent story reveals to linear modulations of right hemisphere posterior temporal and parietal regions. Together these findings point to key neural mechanisms involved in the fundamental human capacity for cumulative plot formation.

  6. Estimating the Cumulative Ecological Effect of Local Scale Landscape Changes in South Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Dianna M.; Labiosa, William; Pearlstine, Leonard; Hallac, David; Strong, David; Hearn, Paul; Bernknopf, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Ecosystem restoration in south Florida is a state and national priority centered on the Everglades wetlands. However, urban development pressures affect the restoration potential and remaining habitat functions of the natural undeveloped areas. Land use (LU) planning often focuses at the local level, but a better understanding of the cumulative effects of small projects at the landscape level is needed to support ecosystem restoration and preservation. The South Florida Ecosystem Portfolio Model (SFL EPM) is a regional LU planning tool developed to help stakeholders visualize LU scenario evaluation and improve communication about regional effects of LU decisions. One component of the SFL EPM is ecological value (EV), which is evaluated through modeled ecological criteria related to ecosystem services using metrics for (1) biodiversity potential, (2) threatened and endangered species, (3) rare and unique habitats, (4) landscape pattern and fragmentation, (5) water quality buffer potential, and (6) ecological restoration potential. In this article, we demonstrate the calculation of EV using two case studies: (1) assessing altered EV in the Biscayne Gateway area by comparing 2004 LU to potential LU in 2025 and 2050, and (2) the cumulative impact of adding limestone mines south of Miami. Our analyses spatially convey changing regional EV resulting from conversion of local natural and agricultural areas to urban, industrial, or extractive use. Different simulated local LU scenarios may result in different alterations in calculated regional EV. These case studies demonstrate methods that may facilitate evaluation of potential future LU patterns and incorporate EV into decision making.

  7. Benefits of a continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) technique with one icodextrin-containing and two biocompatible glucose-containing dialysates for preservation of residual renal function and biocompatibility in incident CAPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hye Eun; Chang, Yoon Kyung; Shin, Seok Joon; Choi, Bum Soon; Kim, Byung Soo; Park, Cheol Whee; Song, Ho Cheol; Yoon, Sun Ae; Jin, Dong Chan; Kim, Yong-Soo

    2014-09-01

    In a prospective randomized controlled study, the efficacy and safety of a continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) technique has been evaluated using one icodextrin-containing and two glucose-containing dialysates a day. Eighty incident CAPD patients were randomized to two groups; GLU group continuously using four glucose-containing dialysates (n=39) and ICO group using one icodextrin-containing and two glucose-containing dialysates (n=41). Variables related to residual renal function (RRF), metabolic and fluid control, dialysis adequacy, and dialysate effluent cancer antigen 125 (CA125) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels were measured. The GLU group showed a significant decrease in mean renal urea and creatinine clearance (-Δ1.2 ± 2.9 mL/min/1.73 m(2), P=0.027) and urine volume (-Δ363.6 ± 543.0 mL/day, P=0.001) during 12 months, but the ICO group did not (-Δ0.5 ± 2.7 mL/min/1.73 m(2), P=0.266; -Δ108.6 ± 543.3 mL/day, P=0.246). Peritoneal glucose absorption and dialysate calorie load were significantly lower in the ICO group than the GLU group. The dialysate CA125 and IL-6 levels were significantly higher in the ICO group than the GLU group. Dialysis adequacy, β2-microglobulin clearance and blood pressure did not differ between the two groups. The CAPD technique using one icodextrin-containing and two glucose-containing dialysates tends to better preserve RRF and is more biocompatible, with similar dialysis adequacy compared to that using four glucose-containing dialysates in incident CAPD patients. [Clincal Trial Registry, ISRCTN23727549].

  8. 慢性心力衰竭患者合并肾功能异常的发生情况分析%Analysis for the incidence of abnormal renal function in patients with chronic heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟丽娜; 张俊岭

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand the incidence of abnormal renal function in patients with chronic heart failure ( CHF) ,and to explore the correlation between cardiac function and renal function .Methods The data of 308 patients with chronic heart failure ( CHF group ) and 125 healthy subjects ( control group ) were retrospectively analyzed .According to the glomerular filtration rate,whether (eGFR) 0.05).Conclusion The patients with chronic heart failure are often complicated by abnormal renal function at different degrees .The cardiac function in patients with cardiorenal syndrome is obviously decreased ,as compared with that in patients with simple chronic heart failure .With the decline of cardiac function , the incidence of abnormal renal function is increased significantly .%目的:了解慢性心力衰竭患者肾功能异常的发生情况,探讨心肾功能的相互关系。方法选择308例慢性心衰患者(心衰组)和125例心功能正常者(对照组)进行回顾性分析,根据肾小球滤过率( GFR )是否<90 ml・ min-1・1,.73 m-2将心衰组分为单纯心衰组( n =219)和心肾综合征组( n =89)。对3组研究对象一般资料、基础疾病、化验指标、超声心动图等进行比较分析。结果心衰组患者发生肾功能异常的比率高于对照组,差异有统计学意义( P <0.05)。心肾综合征组肾功能不全分期多为肾功能代偿期和失代偿期。 NYHAⅣ级组伴发肾功能不全的比例明显高于NYHAⅡ、Ⅲ级组,差异有统计学意义( P <0.05),而Ⅱ、Ⅲ级组之间差异无统计学意义( P >0.05)。结论慢性心衰患者常合并不同程度的肾功能异常。心肾综合征患者心功能较单纯慢性心衰患者明显减低。随着心功能的减退,肾功能异常发生率明显上升。

  9. Lightning incidents in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myagmar Doljinsuren

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This is one of the first studies that has been conducted in Mongolia on the distribution of lightning incidents. The study covers a 10-year period from 2004 to 2013. The country records a human death rate of 15.4 deaths per 10 million people per year, which is much higher than that of many countries with similar isokeraunic level. The reason may be the low-grown vegetation observed in most rural areas of Mongolia, a surface topography, typical to steppe climate. We suggest modifications to Gomes–Kadir equation for such countries, as it predicts a much lower annual death rate for Mongolia. The lightning incidents spread over the period from May to August with the peak of the number of incidents occurring in July. The worst lightning affected region in the country is the central part. Compared with impacts of other convective disasters such as squalls, thunderstorms and hail, lightning stands as the second highest in the number of incidents, human deaths and animal deaths. Economic losses due to lightning is only about 1% of the total losses due to the four extreme weather phenomena. However, unless precautionary measures are not promoted among the public, this figure of losses may significantly increase with time as the country is undergoing rapid industrialization at present.

  10. Social disorganization of neighborhoods and incidence of psychotic disorders: a 7-year first-contact incidence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veling, W; Susser, E; Selten, J-P; Hoek, H W

    2015-07-01

    Environmental factors such as urban birth and ethnic minority position have been related to risk for psychotic disorders. There is some evidence that not only individual, but also neighborhood characteristics influence this risk. The aim of this study was to investigate social disorganization of neighborhoods and incidence of psychotic disorders. The research was a 7-year first-contact incidence study of psychotic disorders in The Hague. Neighborhood characteristics included continuous, dichotomous and cumulative measures of socio-economic level, residential mobility, ethnic diversity, proportion of single person households, voter turnout, population density and crime level. Using multilevel Poisson regression analysis, incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of psychotic disorders were calculated for the indicators of neighborhood social disorganization. A total of 618 incident cases were identified. Neighborhood socio-economic level and residential mobility had the strongest association with incidence of psychotic disorders [individual-level adjusted Wald χ2 1 = 13.03 (p = 0.0003) and 5.51 (p = 0.02), respectively]. All but one (proportion of single person households) of the dichotomous neighborhood indicators were significantly associated with a higher IRR. The cumulative degree of neighborhood social disorganization was strongly and linearly associated with the incidence of psychotic disorders (trend test, Wald χ2 5 = 25.76, p = 0.0001). The IRR in neighborhoods with the highest degree of social disorganization was 1.95 (95% CI 1.38-2.75) compared with the lowest disorganization category. The findings suggest that the risk for developing a psychotic disorder is higher for people living in socially disorganized environments. Longitudinal studies are needed to investigate causality.

  11. Head impact exposure in youth football: high school ages 14 to 18 years and cumulative impact analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Jillian E; Davenport, Elizabeth M; Golman, Adam J; Maldjian, Joseph A; Whitlow, Christopher T; Powers, Alexander K; Stitzel, Joel D

    2013-12-01

    Sports-related concussion is the most common athletic head injury with football having the highest rate among high school athletes. Traditionally, research on the biomechanics of football-related head impact has been focused at the collegiate level. Less research has been performed at the high school level, despite the incidence of concussion among high school football players. The objective of this study is to twofold: to quantify the head impact exposure in high school football, and to develop a cumulative impact analysis method. Head impact exposure was measured by instrumenting the helmets of 40 high school football players with helmet mounted accelerometer arrays to measure linear and rotational acceleration. A total of 16,502 head impacts were collected over the course of the season. Biomechanical data were analyzed by team and by player. The median impact for each player ranged from 15.2 to 27.0 g with an average value of 21.7 (±2.4) g. The 95th percentile impact for each player ranged from 38.8 to 72.9 g with an average value of 56.4 (±10.5) g. Next, an impact exposure metric utilizing concussion injury risk curves was created to quantify cumulative exposure for each participating player over the course of the season. Impacts were weighted according to the associated risk due to linear acceleration and rotational acceleration alone, as well as the combined probability (CP) of injury associated with both. These risks were summed over the course of a season to generate risk weighted cumulative exposure. The impact frequency was found to be greater during games compared to practices with an average number of impacts per session of 15.5 and 9.4, respectively. However, the median cumulative risk weighted exposure based on combined probability was found to be greater for practices vs. games. These data will provide a metric that may be used to better understand the cumulative effects of repetitive head impacts, injury mechanisms, and head impact exposure of

  12. Mathematical modeling of detonation initiation via flow cumulation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, I.; Utkin, P.; Akhmedyanov, I.

    2016-07-01

    The paper concerns two problems connected with the idea of gaseous detonation initiation via flow cumulation effects and convergence of relatively weak shock waves (SW). The first one is the three-dimensional (3D) numerical investigation of shock-to-detonation transition (SDT) in methane-air mixture in a tube with parabolic contraction followed by the tube section of narrow diameter and conical expansion. The second problem is the numerical study of the start-up of the model small-scale hydrogen electrochemical pulse detonation engine with the use of electrical discharge generating the toroidal SW. The investigation is performed by means of numerical simulation with the use of modern high-performance computing systems.

  13. Effects of Surface Emitting and Cumulative Collisions on Elliptic Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-Li; WU Feng-Juan; ZHANG Jing-Bo; TANG Gui-Xin; HUO Lei

    2008-01-01

    @@ The integral and differential elliptic flow of partons is calculated using the multiphase transport model for Au+Au collisions at centre-of-mass energy √SNN=200 GeV.It is shown that elliptic flow of partons freezing out at early time,which is affected mainly by surface emittance,decreases with time and elliptic flow of partons freezing out at late time,which is dominated by cumulative collisions,increases with time.The elliptic flow of partons freezing out early has a large contribution to the flatting of curve of final differential elliptic flow at large transverse momentum.It is argued that the effect of surface emittance is not neglectable.

  14. Modelling the evolution and diversity of cumulative culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enquist, Magnus; Ghirlanda, Stefano; Eriksson, Kimmo

    2011-01-01

    Previous work on mathematical models of cultural evolution has mainly focused on the diffusion of simple cultural elements. However, a characteristic feature of human cultural evolution is the seemingly limitless appearance of new and increasingly complex cultural elements. Here, we develop a general modelling framework to study such cumulative processes, in which we assume that the appearance and disappearance of cultural elements are stochastic events that depend on the current state of culture. Five scenarios are explored: evolution of independent cultural elements, stepwise modification of elements, differentiation or combination of elements and systems of cultural elements. As one application of our framework, we study the evolution of cultural diversity (in time as well as between groups). PMID:21199845

  15. Ratcheting up the ratchet: on the evolution of cumulative culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennie, Claudio; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2009-08-27

    Some researchers have claimed that chimpanzee and human culture rest on homologous cognitive and learning mechanisms. While clearly there are some homologous mechanisms, we argue here that there are some different mechanisms at work as well. Chimpanzee cultural traditions represent behavioural biases of different populations, all within the species' existing cognitive repertoire (what we call the 'zone of latent solutions') that are generated by founder effects, individual learning and mostly product-oriented (rather than process-oriented) copying. Human culture, in contrast, has the distinctive characteristic that it accumulates modifications over time (what we call the 'ratchet effect'). This difference results from the facts that (i) human social learning is more oriented towards process than product and (ii) unique forms of human cooperation lead to active teaching, social motivations for conformity and normative sanctions against non-conformity. Together, these unique processes of social learning and cooperation lead to humans' unique form of cumulative cultural evolution.

  16. Cumulative Laws,Team Assembling Mechanisms Determining Network Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Bin; LIU Qi; YE Qi

    2008-01-01

    A number of researching works have shed light on the field of complex networks recently.We investigate a wide range of real-world networks and find several interesting phenomena.Firstly,almost all of these networks evolve by overlapping new small graphs on former networks.Secondly,not only the degree sequence of the mature network follows a power-law distribution,but also the distribution of the cumulative occurrence times during the growing process are revealed to have a heavy tail.Existing network evolving models do not provide interpretation to these phenomena.We suggest a model based on the team assembling mechanism,which is extracted from the growing processes of real-world networks and requires simple parameters,and produces networks exhibiting these properties observed in the present study and in previous works.

  17. Modelling the evolution and diversity of cumulative culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enquist, Magnus; Ghirlanda, Stefano; Eriksson, Kimmo

    2011-02-12

    Previous work on mathematical models of cultural evolution has mainly focused on the diffusion of simple cultural elements. However, a characteristic feature of human cultural evolution is the seemingly limitless appearance of new and increasingly complex cultural elements. Here, we develop a general modelling framework to study such cumulative processes, in which we assume that the appearance and disappearance of cultural elements are stochastic events that depend on the current state of culture. Five scenarios are explored: evolution of independent cultural elements, stepwise modification of elements, differentiation or combination of elements and systems of cultural elements. As one application of our framework, we study the evolution of cultural diversity (in time as well as between groups).

  18. Cumulative early life adversity predicts longevity in wild baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Jenny; Archie, Elizabeth A; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C

    2016-04-19

    In humans and other animals, harsh circumstances in early life predict morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Multiple adverse conditions are thought to be especially toxic, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested in a prospective, longitudinal framework, especially in long-lived mammals. Here we use prospective data on 196 wild female baboons to show that cumulative early adversity predicts natural adult lifespan. Females who experience ≥3 sources of early adversity die a median of 10 years earlier than females who experience ≤1 adverse circumstances (median lifespan is 18.5 years). Females who experience the most adversity are also socially isolated in adulthood, suggesting that social processes partially explain the link between early adversity and adult survival. Our results provide powerful evidence for the developmental origins of health and disease and indicate that close ties between early adversity and survival arise even in the absence of health habit and health care-related explanations.

  19. The cumulative effect of risk compensation on infection preventive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxin, Daniel; Sega, Laurentiu; Eaton, Lisa

    2016-12-01

    We study several epidemic models (with and without gender structure) that incorporate risk compensation behavior in response to a lower chance of acquiring the infection as a result of preventive measures that are only partially effective. We show that the cumulative risk compensation that occurs between a high risk susceptible and infectious individual may play an important role in whether the implementation of these measures is successful in lowering the epidemic reproductive number. In addition, we show that certain levels of risk compensation may cancel the benefit of the low infection risk practiced by diagnosed infectious individuals when the goal is a reduction of the epidemic reproductive number. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cumulative semantic interference for associative relations in language production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Sebastian Benjamin; Abdel Rahman, Rasha

    2016-07-01

    Associations between conceptual representations and thematic relations play an important role in the organization of semantic memory. However, language production research on semantic context effects shows that associative (e.g., dog and bone) and categorical relations (dog and horse) seem to diverge. While categorical contexts typically induce semantic interference that has traditionally been taken to reflect competitive lexical selection, evidence for comparable associative modulations is rare. In three experiments we tested whether thematic associations between objects induce cumulative interference in the continuous naming paradigm, assuming that this paradigm hampers lexical selection via the activation of highly active lexical cohorts steadily increasing in size. Indeed, naming times increased linearly with each newly named member of thematic contexts irrespective of the pre-activation of associations before the naming task (Experiment 1), and irrespective of whether categorical links were partially included (Experiments 1 and 2) or entirely absent (Experiment 3). These findings demonstrate that different types of semantic relations induce interference.

  1. EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION OF CUMULATIVE SURFACE LOCATION ERROR FOR TURNING PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam K. Kiss

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to create a mechanical model which is suitable to investigate the surface quality in turning processes, based on the Cumulative Surface Location Error (CSLE, which describes the series of the consecutive Surface Location Errors (SLE in roughing operations. In the established model, the investigated CSLE depends on the currently and the previously resulted SLE by means of the variation of the width of cut. The phenomenon of the system can be described as an implicit discrete map. The stationary Surface Location Error and its bifurcations were analysed and flip-type bifurcation was observed for CSLE. Experimental verification of the theoretical results was carried out.

  2. The modified cumulant expansion for two-dimensional isotropic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi, T.; Yanase, S.

    1981-09-01

    The two-dimensional isotropic turbulence in an incompressible fluid is investigated using the modified zero fourth-order cumulant approximation. The dynamical equation for the energy spectrum obtained under this approximation is solved numerically and the similarity laws governing the solution in the energy-containing and enstrophy-dissipation ranges are derived analytically. At large Reynolds numbers the numerical solutions yield the k to the -3rd power inertial subrange spectrum which was predicted by Kraichnan (1967), Leith (1968) and Batchelor (1969), assuming a finite enstrophy dissipation in the inviscid limit. The energy-containing range is found to satisfy an inviscid similarity while the enstrophy-dissipation range is governed by the quasi-equilibrium similarity with respect to the enstrophy dissipation as proposed by Batchelor (1969). There exists a critical time which separates the initial period and the similarity period in which the enstrophy dissipation vanishes and remains non-zero respectively in the inviscid limit.

  3. Is uveitis associated with topiramate use? A cumulative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldberg JL

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey L Goldberg,1 Amy G Lau,2 Bo Fan,2 Lisa Ford,3 Howard E Greenberg3 1Byers Eye Institute, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, 2Janssen Research & Development, LLC, Horsham, PA, 3Janssen Research & Development, LLC, Titusville, NJ, USA Abstract: Occasional reports of uveitis following topiramate use necessitated an investigation of relevant cases from safety databases and published biomedical literature. Data mining of the Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System and cumulative review of cases from the global safety database (sponsor database and published literature were conducted to assess association between topiramate use and uveitis. The Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System search identified disproportional reporting of uveitis (n=23 and related terms (choroidal detachment, n=25; iridocyclitis, n=17. The postmarketing reporting frequency of uveitis and related events from the global safety database and based on an estimated topiramate exposure of 11,185,740 person-years from launch to April 2015 was 0.38 per 100,000 person-years and assigned as very rare. A total of 14 potential uveitis cases were identified from the cumulative review. Seven of these 14 cases were complicated by inadequate documentation, appearance of uveitic signs following drug withdrawal, or concurrent use of other sulfonamides. In acute angle-closure glaucoma and uveal effusions cases, insufficient evidence for underlying inflammation suggested that uveitis was not a component. Only seven of 14 cases were well documented, potentially topiramate-associated uveitis cases. Uveitis may occur in the setting of topiramate use only in very rare instances. Current evidence did not reveal a dose- or duration-dependent relationship between uveitis and topiramate use. Keywords: topiramate, uveitis, acute angle-closure glaucoma, drug safety, Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System, postmarketing 

  4. Economic and policy implications of the cumulative carbon budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M. R.; Otto, F. E. L.; Otto, A.; Hepburn, C.

    2014-12-01

    The importance of cumulative carbon emissions in determining long-term risks of climate change presents considerable challenges to policy makers. The traditional notion of "total CO2-equivalent emissions", which forms the backbone of agreements such as the Kyoto Protocol and the European Emissions Trading System, is fundamentally flawed. Measures to reduce short-lived climate pollutants benefit the current generation, while measures to reduce long-lived climate pollutants benefit future generations, so there is no sense in which they can ever be considered equivalent. Debates over the correct metric used to compute CO2-equivalence are thus entirely moot: both long-lived and short-lived emissions will need to be addressed if all generations are to be protected from dangerous climate change. As far as long-lived climate pollutants are concerned, the latest IPCC report highlights the overwhelming importance of carbon capture and storage in determining the cost of meeting the goal of limiting anthropogenic warming to two degrees. We will show that this importance arises directly from the cumulative carbon budget and the role of CCS as the technology of last resort before economic activity needs to be restricted to meet ambitious climate targets. It highlights the need to increase the rate of CCS deployment by orders of magnitude if the option of avoiding two degrees is to be retained. The difficulty of achieving this speed of deployment through conventional incentives and carbon-pricing mechanisms suggests a need for a much more direct mandatory approach. Despite their theoretical economic inefficiency, the success of recent regulatory measures in achieving greenhouse gas emissions reductions in jurisdictions such as the United States suggests an extension of the regulatory approach could be a more effective and politically acceptable means of achieving adequately rapid CCS deployment than conventional carbon taxes or cap-and-trade systems.

  5. Cumulative Cardiovascular Polypharmacy Is Associated With the Risk of Acute Kidney Injury in Elderly Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Chia-Ter; Tsai, Hung-Bin; Wu, Chia-Yi; Lin, Yu-Feng; Hsu, Nin-Chieh; Chen, Jin-Shin; Hung, Kuan-Yu

    2015-08-01

    Polypharmacy is common in the elderly due to multimorbidity and interventions. However, the temporal association between polypharmacy and renal outcomes is rarely addressed and recognized. We investigated the association between cardiovascular (CV) polypharmacy and the risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) in elderly patients.We used the Taiwan National Health Insurance PharmaCloud system to investigate the relationship between cumulative CV medications in the 3 months before admission and risk of AKI in the elderly at their admission to general medical wards in a single center. Community-dwelling elderly patients (>60 years) were prospectively enrolled and classified according to the number of preadmission CV medications. CV polypharmacy was defined as use of 2 or more CV medications.We enrolled 152 patients, 48% with AKI (based upon Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes [KDIGO] classification) and 64% with CV polypharmacy. The incidence of AKI was higher in patients taking more CV medications (0 drugs: 33%; 1 drug: 50%; 2 drugs: 57%; 3 or more drugs: 60%; P = 0.05) before admission. Patients with higher KDIGO grades also took more preadmission CV medications (P = 0.04). Multiple regression analysis showed that patients who used 1 or more CV medications before admission had increased risk of AKI at admission (1 drug: odds ratio [OR] = 1.63, P = 0.2; 2 drugs: OR = 4.74, P = 0.03; 3 or more drugs: OR = 5.92, P = 0.02), and that CV polypharmacy is associated with higher risk of AKI (OR 2.58; P = 0.02). Each additional CV medication increased the risk for AKI by 30%.We found that elderly patients taking more CV medications are associated with risk of adverse renal events. Further study to evaluate whether interventions that reduce polypharmacy could reduce the incidence of geriatric AKI is urgently needed.

  6. Incidence, progression and intensity of Bud Rot in Elaeis guineensis Jacq. in San Lorenzo, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Rivas Figueroa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BUD rot (BR is the most serious disease of oil palm in Latin America; in Equator has caused more than 150 million USD of losses. The aim of this work was to determine the incidence, progression and disease intensity of BR in E. guineensis. Incidence and disease progression was determined from data of oil palm enterprises: Palesema, PDA, Palpailón, Energy & Palma y Alespalma during 2006-2013. Disease intensity was determined at 2013. Incidence was 66.75 % and disease intensity was 46 %. Based on projections of accumulative incidence a polynomial equation was built that predicted 78.30 % of cumulative incidence for 2014, indicating exponential growth of BR from 2009 to 2013. Magnitude of damages based on incidence, disease progression and infection index indicated the occurrence of a lethal form of BR in San Lorenzo, province of Esmeraldas, Equator.

  7. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent shunt formedically refractory hepatic hydrothorax: A systematicreview and cumulative meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    AIM To assess the effectiveness of transjugularintrahepatic portosystemic stent shunt (TIPSS) inrefractory hepatic hydrothorax (RHH) in a systematicreview and cumulative meta-analysis.METHODS: A comprehensive literature searchwas conducted on MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PubMedcovering the period from January 1970 to August 2014.Two authors independently selected and abstracteddata from eligible studies. Data were summarized usinga random-effects model. Heterogeneity was assessedusing the I 2 test.RESULTS: Six studies involving a total of 198 patientswere included in the analysis. The mean (SD) age ofpatients was 56 (1.8) years. Most patients (56.9%) hadChild-Turcott-Pugh class C disease. The mean duration offollow-up was 10 mo (range, 5.7-16 mo). Response toTIPSS was complete in 55.8% (95%CI: 44.7%-66.9%),partial in 17.6% (95%CI: 10.9%-24.2%), and absentin 21.2% (95%CI: 14.2%-28.3%). The mean change inhepatic venous pressure gradient post-TIPSS was 12.7mmHg. The incidence of TIPSS-related encephalopathywas 11.7% (95%CI: 6.3%-17.2%), and the 45-dmortality was 17.7% (95%CI: 11.34%-24.13%).CONCLUSION: TIPSS is associated with a clinicallyrelevant response in RHH. TIPSS should be consideredearly in these patients, given its poor prognosis.

  8. Incidence of and survival after subsequent cancers in carriers of pathogenic MMR variants with previous cancer:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Pål; Seppälä, Toni; Bernstein, Inge

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Today most patients with Lynch syndrome (LS) survive their first cancer. There is limited information on the incidences and outcome of subsequent cancers. The present study addresses three questions: (i) what is the cumulative incidence of a subsequent cancer; (ii) in which organs do...... subsequent cancers occur; and (iii) what is the survival following these cancers? DESIGN: Information was collated on prospectively organised surveillance and prospectively observed outcomes in patients with LS who had cancer prior to inclusion and analysed by age, gender and genetic variants. RESULTS: 1273...... patients with LS from 10 countries were followed up for 7753 observation years. 318 patients (25.7%) developed 341 first subsequent cancers, including colorectal (n=147, 43%), upper GI, pancreas or bile duct (n=37, 11%) and urinary tract (n=32, 10%). The cumulative incidences for any subsequent cancer from...

  9. Cumulative Interarrival Time Distributions of Freeway Entrance Ramp Traffic for Traffic Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdinç Öner

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cumulative interarrival time (IAT distributions for signalized and non-signalized freeway entrance ramps were developed to be used in digital computer traffic simulation models. The data from four different non-signalized entrance ramps (three ramps with a single lane, one ramp with two lanes and two different signalized entrance ramps (both with a single lane were used for developing the cumulative IAT distributions. The cumulative IAT distributions for the signalized and non-signalized entrance ramps were compared with each other and with the cumulative IAT distributions of the lanes for freeways. The comparative results showed that the cumulative IAT distributions for non-signalized entrance ramps are very close to the leftmost lane of a 3-lane freeway where the maximum absolute difference between the cumulative IAT distribution of the leftmost lane of a 3-lane freeway and the entrance ramps cumulative IAT distribution was 3%. The cumulative IAT distribution for the signalized entrance ramps was found to be different from the non-signalized entrance ramp cumulative IAT distribution. The approximated cumulative IAT distributions for signalized and non-signalized entrance ramp traffic for any hourly traffic volume from a few vehicles/hour up to 2,500 vehicles/hour can be obtained at http://www.ohio.edu/orite/research/uitds.cfm.

  10. 创伤事件及家庭功能对空军飞行员心理健康的影响%Impact of Traumatic Incidents and Family Functions on Mental Health in Air-force Pilots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白菁; 汪永光; 胡珊; 李娜; 马香琰; 邹惠娟

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of traumatic incidents and family functions on mental health of air-force pilots. Methods Totally 342 air-force pilots were enrolled using convenience sampling method. A multivariate analysis was conducted with the dependent variable of post-traumatic stress symptomatology (PTSS) ,and the score of 20-item self-report questionnaire(SRQ-20)and with the independent variables of the frequencies of objective reaction to traumatic events,frequencies of subjective reaction to traumatic events and family functioning assessment. Results The total number of subjective experience of traumatic events and emotional response factors, emotional intervention factors and general functional factors were positively associated with the PTSS positive screening. Frequencies of subjective reaction to traumatic incidents, emotional intervention factors and general functional factors were positively associated with the SRQ-20 positive screening. Conclusion For air-force pilots, the competency to properly deal with the traumatic events is crucial in the development of post-traumatic stress disorder. For air-force pilots,timely intervention,strengthened family functions after the traumatic events and improved mental health for the families play an vital role in promoting the mental health of air-force pilot.%目的 探讨创伤事件及家庭功能对空军飞行员心理健康的影响.方法 采用便利抽样的方法选取342名空军飞行员进行问卷调查,以创伤后应激障碍症状(post-traumatic stress symptomatology,PTSS)及心理健康自评问卷(20-item self-report questionnaire,SRQ-20)得分为因变量,客观经历创伤事件总数、主观经历创伤事件总数和家庭功能评定为自变量,进行多因素分析.结果 PTSS筛查阳性的影响因素有主观经历创伤事件总数及家庭功能中的情感反应因子、情感介入因子、总的功能因子,SRQ-20筛查阳性的影响因素有主观经历创伤事件总数

  11. Measles incidence, vaccine efficacy, and mortality in two urban African areas with high vaccination coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Knudsen, K; Jensen, T G

    1990-01-01

    Measles incidence, vaccine efficacy, and mortality were examined prospectively in two districts in Bissau where vaccine coverage for children aged 12-23 months was 81% (Bandim 1) and 61% (Bandim 2). There was little difference in cumulative measles incidence before 9 months of age (6.1% and 7.......6%, respectively). Between 9 months and 2 years of age, however, 6.1% contracted measles in Bandim 1 and 13.7% in Bandim 2. Even adjusting for vaccination status, incidence was significantly higher in Bandim 2 (relative risk 1.6, P = .04). Even though 95% of the children had measles antibodies after vaccination...

  12. Cancer incidence and mortality from exposure to radon progeny among Ontario uranium miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaranjan, Garthika; Berriault, Colin; Do, Minh; Villeneuve, Paul J; Demers, Paul A

    2016-12-01

    The study objectives were to extend the follow-up of the Ontario uranium miners cohort, one of the largest cohorts of uranium miners with low cumulative exposures, to examine the relationship between radon exposure and lung cancer mortality and, for the first time incidence, and address gaps in the literature, including dose-response relationship between radon exposure and other cancer sites, and non-cancer mortality. The cohort of mine and mill workers was created using data from Canada's National Dose Registry and the Ontario Mining Master File. The follow-up for the cohort was recently extended for mortality (1954-2007) and for the first time includes cancer incidence (1969-2005). The Poisson regression was used to estimate relative risks (RR) and excess relative risks (ERR) and their 95% CIs with levels of cumulative radon exposure. The cohort consisted of 28 546 male miners with a mean cumulative radon exposure of 21.0 working level months (WLM). An increased risk of lung cancer and a dose-response relationship was observed with cumulative radon exposure. Miners exposed to >100 WLM demonstrated a twofold increase in the risk of lung cancer incidence (RR=1.89, CI 1.43 to 2.50) compared with the non-exposed group, and a linear ERR of 0.64/100 WLM (CI 0.43 to 0.85), with similar results observed for mortality. No association was observed for other cancer sites (stomach, leukaemia, kidney and extrathoracic airways) or non-cancer sites (cardiovascular diseases) with increasing cumulative exposure to radon. These findings suggest no increased risk of cancer sites other than lung or non-cancer mortality from relatively low cumulative exposure to radon. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Fast and accurate calculations for cumulative first-passage time distributions in Wiener diffusion models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blurton, Steven Paul; Kesselmeier, M.; Gondan, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    related work on the density of first-passage times [Navarro, D.J., Fuss, I.G. (2009). Fast and accurate calculations for first-passage times in Wiener diffusion models. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 53, 222-230]. Two representations exist for the distribution, both including infinite series. We......We propose an improved method for calculating the cumulative first-passage time distribution in Wiener diffusion models with two absorbing barriers. This distribution function is frequently used to describe responses and error probabilities in choice reaction time tasks. The present work extends...... derive upper bounds for the approximation error resulting from finite truncation of the series, and we determine the number of iterations required to limit the error below a pre-specified tolerance. For a given set of parameters, the representation can then be chosen which requires the least...

  14. Exact Stochastic Unraveling of an Optical Coherence Dynamics by Cumulant Expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Olsina, Jan; Kreisbeck, Christoph; Mancal, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    A numerically exact Monte Carlo scheme for calculation of open quantum system dynamics is proposed and implemented. Time evolution of an optically excited Frenkel exciton dimer representing a molecular aggregate interacting with its environment is investigated. The method is based on a Monte-Carlo summation of a perturbation expansion with respect to the resonance coupling between the excited states of the molecules which is mapped on a sum over trajectories in Liouville space of the system. The trajectories are weighted by a complex decoherence factors based on second cumulant expansion of the environmental evolution. The method can be used with an arbitrary environment characterized by a general correlation function, and it is exact for Gaussian environments. We calculate the evolution of the optical coherences and linear absorption spectrum, and compare them with the predictions of the standard simulation methods.

  15. Cumulant-Based Coherent Signal Subspace Method for Bearing and Range Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourennane Salah

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method for simultaneous range and bearing estimation for buried objects in the presence of an unknown Gaussian noise is proposed. This method uses the MUSIC algorithm with noise subspace estimated by using the slice fourth-order cumulant matrix of the received data. The higher-order statistics aim at the removal of the additive unknown Gaussian noise. The bilinear focusing operator is used to decorrelate the received signals and to estimate the coherent signal subspace. A new source steering vector is proposed including the acoustic scattering model at each sensor. Range and bearing of the objects at each sensor are expressed as a function of those at the first sensor. This leads to the improvement of object localization anywhere, in the near-field or in the far-field zone of the sensor array. Finally, the performances of the proposed method are validated on data recorded during experiments in a water tank.

  16. Quark cluster contribution to cumulative proton emission in fragmentation of carbon ions

    CERN Document Server

    Abramov, B M; Borodin, Yu A; Bulychjov, S A; Dukhovskoy, I A; Khanov, A I; Krutenkova, A P; Kulikov, V V; Martemyanov, M A; Matsyuk, M A; Turdakina, E N

    2013-01-01

    In the FRAGM experiment at heavy ion accelerator complex TWAC-ITEP, the proton yields at an angle 3.5$^\\circ$ have been measured at fragmentation of carbon ions at $T_0 = $ 0.6, 0.95 and 2.0 GeV/nucleon on beryllium target. The data are presented as invariant proton yields on cumulative variable $x$ in the range 0.9 < $x$ < 2.4. Proton spectra cover six orders of invariant cross section magnitude. They have been analyzed in the framework of quark cluster fragmentation model. Fragmentation functions of quark-gluon string model are used. The probabilities of the existence of multi-quark clusters in carbon nuclei are estimated to be 8--12% for six-quark clusters and 0.2--0.6% for nine-quark clusters.

  17. The incidences and mortalities of major cancers in China, 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan-Qing Chen; Rong-Shou Zheng; Si-Wei Zhang; Hong-Mei Zeng; Xiao-Nong Zou

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the cancer incidences and mortalities in China in 2010, the National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR) of China evaluated data for the year of 2010 from 145 qualified cancer registries covering 158,403,248 people (92,433,739 in urban areas and 65,969,509 in rural areas). The estimates of new cancer cases and cancer deaths were 3,093,039 and 1,956,622 in 2010, respectively. The percentage of morphologically verified cases were 67.11%; 2.99% of incident cases were identified through death certification only, with the mortality to incidence ratio of 0.61. The crude incidence was 235.23/100,000 (268.65/100,000 in males and 200.21/100,000 in females). The age-standardized rates by Chinese standard population (ASR China) and by world standard population (ASR world) were 184.58/100,000 and 181.49/100,000, respectively, with a cumulative incidence (0-74 years old) of 21.11%. The crude cancer mortality was 148.81/100,000 (186.37/100,000 in males and 109.42/100,000 in females). The ASR China and ASR world were 113.92/100,000 and 112.86/100,000, respectively, with a cumulative mortality of 12.78%. Lung, breast, gastric, liver, esophageal, colorectal, and cervical cancers were the most common cancers. Lung, liver, gastric, esophageal, colorectal, breast, and pancreatic cancers were the leading causes of cancer deaths. The coverage of cancer registration has rapidly increased in China in recent years and may reflect more accurate cancer burdens among populations living in different areas. Given the increasing cancer burden in the past decades, China should strengthen its cancer prevention and control.

  18. Incidence and predictors for delirium in hospitalized elderly patients: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isfandiaty, Ratih; Harimurti, Kuntjoro; Setiati, Siti; Roosheroe, Arya G

    2012-10-01

    to determine the incidence and predictors for delirium and to develop a prediction model for delirium in hospitalized elderly patient in Indonesia. a retrospective cohort study was conducted in elderly patients (aged 60 years and older) who were hospitalized in Internal Medicine Ward and Acute Geriatric Ward Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital from January 2008 until December 2010. Patients were not delirious on admission. Twelve predefined predictors for development of delirium during hospitalization were identified on admission. Independent predictors for delirium were identified by Cox's proportional hazard regression analysis and each independent predictor was quantified to develop delirium prediction model. The calibration performance of the model was tested by Hosmer-Lameshow test and its discrimination ability was determined by calculating area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). subjects consist of 457 patients, predominantly male (52.5%) and were in 60-69 age group (55.8%), with mean age of 69.6 (SD 7.09) years old. Delirium developed in 86 patients (cumulative incidence 18.8%, incidence density 0.021 per person-days) during first fourteen-days of hospitalization. Three independent predictors for delirium were identified, including: infection (without sepsis, adjusted HR1.83 (95% CI 0.82-4.10); with sepsis, adjusted HR 4.86, 95% CI 2.14-11.04), cognitive impairment (adjusted HR 3.12; 95%CI 1.89-5.13) and decrease of functional status (adjusted HR 1.74; 95% CI 1.07-2.82). Predictive model was performed using the final model of multivariate analysis and stratified into three levels: low- (rate of delirium 4.4%), intermediate- (32.8%), and high-risk (54.7%) groups.The Hosmer-Lemeshow test revealed good precision (p-value 0,066) and the AUC showed good discrimination ability (0.82, 95% CI 0.78-0.88). incidence of delirium is 18.8% in hospitalized elderly patients, with incidence density of 0.021 per person days. Infections, cognitive impairment

  19. A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Examining the Impact of Incident Postoperative Delirium on Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Gavin M; Wheeler, Kathleen; Di Michele, Joseph; Lalu, Manoj M; McIsaac, Daniel I

    2017-07-01

    Delirium is an acute and reversible geriatric syndrome that represents a decompensation of cerebral function. Delirium is associated with adverse postoperative outcomes, but controversy exists regarding whether delirium is an independent predictor of mortality. Thus, we assessed the association between incident postoperative delirium and mortality in adult noncardiac surgery patients. A systematic search was conducted using Cochrane, MEDLINE/PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Embase. Screening and data extraction were conducted by two independent reviewers. Pooled-effect estimates calculated with a random-effects model were expressed as odds ratios with 95% CIs. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool for Non-Randomized Studies. A total of 34 of 4,968 screened citations met inclusion criteria. Risk of bias ranged from moderate to critical. Pooled analysis of unadjusted event rates (5,545 patients) suggested that delirium was associated with a four-fold increase in the odds of death (odds ratio = 4.12 [95% CI, 3.29 to 5.17]; I = 24.9%). A formal pooled analysis of adjusted outcomes was not possible due to heterogeneity of effect measures reported. However, in studies that controlled for prespecified confounders, none found a statistically significant association between incident postoperative delirium and mortality (two studies in hip fractures; n = 729) after an average follow-up of 21 months. Overall, as study risk of bias decreased, the association between delirium and mortality decreased. Few high-quality studies are available to estimate the impact of incident postoperative delirium on mortality. Studies that controlled for prespecified confounders did not demonstrate significant independent associations of delirium with mortality.

  20. Existence of Solutions of a Riccati Differential System from a General Cumulant Control Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley R. Liberty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a system of infinitely many Riccati equations that arise from a cumulant control problem, which is a generalization of regulator problems, risk-sensitive controls, minimal cost variance controls, and k-cumulant controls. We obtain estimates for the existence intervals of solutions of the system. In particular, new existence conditions are derived for solutions on the horizon of the cumulant control problem.

  1. Medication incidents reported to an online incident reporting system.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Alrwisan, Adel

    2011-01-15

    AIMS: Approximately 20% of deaths from adverse events are related to medication incidents, costing the NHS an additional £500 million annually. Less than 5% of adverse events are reported. This study aims to assess the reporting rate of medication incidents in NHS facilities in the north east of Scotland, and to describe the types and outcomes of reported incidents among different services. Furthermore, we wished to quantify the proportion of reported incidents according to the reporters\\' profession. METHODS: A retrospective description was made of medication incidents reported to an online reporting system (DATIX) over a 46-month-period (July 2005 to April 2009). Reports originated from acute and community hospitals, mental health, and primary care facilities. RESULTS: Over the study period there were 2,666 incidents reported with a mean monthly reporting rate of 78.2\\/month (SD±16.9). 6.1% of all incidents resulted in harm, with insulin being the most commonly implicated medication. Nearly three-quarters (74.2%, n=1,978) of total incidents originated from acute hospitals. Administration incidents were implicated in the majority of the reported medication incidents (59%), followed by prescribing (10.8%) and dispensing (9.9%), while the nondescript "other medication incidents" accounted for 20.3% of total incidents. The majority of reports were made by nursing and midwifery staff (80%), with medical and dental professionals reporting the lowest number of incidents (n=56, 2%). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of medication incidents in this study were reported by nursing and midwifery staff, and were due to administration incidents. There is a clear need to elucidate the reasons for the limited contribution of the medical and dental professionals to reporting medication incidents.

  2. Scenario dependency of the transient climate response to cumulative emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Katherine; Williams, Ric; Oschlies, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    The transient climate response to emissions (TCRE), in relating surface temperature changes to cumulative carbon emissions, provides a means of estimating carbon budgets from global warming benchmarks. Current Earth System Model results indicate that the TCRE is linear and scenario-independent. We explore the sensitivity of the TCRE to scenario and model parameter uncertainties using 8 configurations of the UVic Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity, forced by 2 twenty-first-century emissions scenarios (RCP 4.5 and 8.5). We find that the TCRE is higher under RCP 4.5 than 8.5 by 0.3-0.8 K/1000 Pg C and shows opposing nonlinear tendencies in these scenarios: an increase of 0.15-0.5 K/1000 Pg C over RCP 4.5 and a decrease of 0-0.7 K/1000 Pg C over RCP 8.5. These differences are robust across model configurations with perturbed land and ocean parametrizations and are the result of the decreased efficiency of heat transport into the deep ocean under decelerating emissions.

  3. High selection pressure promotes increase in cumulative adaptive culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Vegvari

    Full Text Available The evolution of cumulative adaptive culture has received widespread interest in recent years, especially the factors promoting its occurrence. Current evolutionary models suggest that an increase in population size may lead to an increase in cultural complexity via a higher rate of cultural transmission and innovation. However, relatively little attention has been paid to the role of natural selection in the evolution of cultural complexity. Here we use an agent-based simulation model to demonstrate that high selection pressure in the form of resource pressure promotes the accumulation of adaptive culture in spite of small population sizes and high innovation costs. We argue that the interaction of demography and selection is important, and that neither can be considered in isolation. We predict that an increase in cultural complexity is most likely to occur under conditions of population pressure relative to resource availability. Our model may help to explain why culture change can occur without major environmental change. We suggest that understanding the interaction between shifting selective pressures and demography is essential for explaining the evolution of cultural complexity.

  4. Microcanonical thermostatistics analysis without histograms: cumulative distribution and Bayesian approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Alves, Nelson A; Rizzi, Leandro G

    2015-01-01

    Microcanonical thermostatistics analysis has become an important tool to reveal essential aspects of phase transitions in complex systems. An efficient way to estimate the microcanonical inverse temperature $\\beta(E)$ and the microcanonical entropy $S(E)$ is achieved with the statistical temperature weighted histogram analysis method (ST-WHAM). The strength of this method lies on its flexibility, as it can be used to analyse data produced by algorithms with generalised sampling weights. However, for any sampling weight, ST-WHAM requires the calculation of derivatives of energy histograms $H(E)$, which leads to non-trivial and tedious binning tasks for models with continuous energy spectrum such as those for biomolecular and colloidal systems. Here, we discuss two alternative methods that avoid the need for such energy binning to obtain continuous estimates for $H(E)$ in order to evaluate $\\beta(E)$ by using ST-WHAM: (i) a series expansion to estimate probability densities from the empirical cumulative distrib...

  5. Cumulative sum quality control for calibrated breast density measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heine, John J.; Cao Ke; Beam, Craig [Cancer Prevention and Control Division, Moffitt Cancer Center, 12902 Magnolia Drive, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States); Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1603 W. Taylor St., Chicago, Illinois 60612 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Purpose: Breast density is a significant breast cancer risk factor. Although various methods are used to estimate breast density, there is no standard measurement for this important factor. The authors are developing a breast density standardization method for use in full field digital mammography (FFDM). The approach calibrates for interpatient acquisition technique differences. The calibration produces a normalized breast density pixel value scale. The method relies on first generating a baseline (BL) calibration dataset, which required extensive phantom imaging. Standardizing prospective mammograms with calibration data generated in the past could introduce unanticipated error in the standardized output if the calibration dataset is no longer valid. Methods: Sample points from the BL calibration dataset were imaged approximately biweekly over an extended timeframe. These serial samples were used to evaluate the BL dataset reproducibility and quantify the serial calibration accuracy. The cumulative sum (Cusum) quality control method was used to evaluate the serial sampling. Results: There is considerable drift in the serial sample points from the BL calibration dataset that is x-ray beam dependent. Systematic deviation from the BL dataset caused significant calibration errors. This system drift was not captured with routine system quality control measures. Cusum analysis indicated that the drift is a sign of system wear and eventual x-ray tube failure. Conclusions: The BL calibration dataset must be monitored and periodically updated, when necessary, to account for sustained system variations to maintain the calibration accuracy.

  6. Enhanced cumulative sum charts for monitoring process dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abujiya, Mu'azu Ramat; Riaz, Muhammad; Lee, Muhammad Hisyam

    2015-01-01

    The cumulative sum (CUSUM) control chart is widely used in industry for the detection of small and moderate shifts in process location and dispersion. For efficient monitoring of process variability, we present several CUSUM control charts for monitoring changes in standard deviation of a normal process. The newly developed control charts based on well-structured sampling techniques - extreme ranked set sampling, extreme double ranked set sampling and double extreme ranked set sampling, have significantly enhanced CUSUM chart ability to detect a wide range of shifts in process variability. The relative performances of the proposed CUSUM scale charts are evaluated in terms of the average run length (ARL) and standard deviation of run length, for point shift in variability. Moreover, for overall performance, we implore the use of the average ratio ARL and average extra quadratic loss. A comparison of the proposed CUSUM control charts with the classical CUSUM R chart, the classical CUSUM S chart, the fast initial response (FIR) CUSUM R chart, the FIR CUSUM S chart, the ranked set sampling (RSS) based CUSUM R chart and the RSS based CUSUM S chart, among others, are presented. An illustrative example using real dataset is given to demonstrate the practicability of the application of the proposed schemes.

  7. Detection of abrupt baseline length changes using cumulative sums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Volker

    2009-06-01

    Dynamic processes are usually monitored by collecting a time series of observations, which is then analysed in order to detect any motion or non-standard behaviour. Geodetic examples include the monitoring of dams, bridges, high-rise buildings, landslides, volcanoes and tectonic motion. The cumulative sum (CUSUM) test is recognised as a popular means to detect changes in the mean and/or the standard deviation of a time series and has been applied to various monitoring tasks. This paper briefly describes the CUSUM technique and how it can be utilised for the detection of small baseline length changes by differencing two perpendicular baselines sharing a common site. A simulation is carried out in order to investigate the expected behaviour of the resulting CUSUM charts for a variety of typical deformation monitoring scenarios. This simulation shows that using first differences (between successive epochs) as input, rather than the original baseline lengths, produces clear peaks or jumps in the differenced CUSUM time series when a sudden change in baseline length occurs. These findings are validated by analysing several GPS baseline pairs of a network deployed to monitor the propagation of an active ice shelf rift on the Amery Ice Shelf, East Antarctica.

  8. Estimation of cumulative cadmium intake causing Itai-itai disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Takeya; Kobayashi, Etsuko; Suwazono, Yasushi; Uetani, Mirei; Oishi, Mitsuhiro; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Nogawa, Koji

    2005-11-15

    This study was undertaken to estimate the amount of cadmium (Cd) exposure needed for the development of Itai-itai disease. The investigated subjects comprised 82 Itai-itai disease patients and 11 persons requiring observation who were admitted in 1977 and 1978 for medical testing. With the period when the Itai-itai disease patients started to perceive leg/back pain defined as the 'mild disease onset', and the period when they experienced the most severe manifestations such as ambulatory disturbance and bone fractures defined as 'severe disease onset'. Relative cumulative person number distribution according to life time cadmium intake (LCD) at mild disease onset, severe disease onset, and time of death was depicted as an sigmoid curve and the establishment of probit regression lines was demonstrated between them. LCD at the time when mild disease onset and severe disease onset were recognized in half of the Itai-itai disease patients was 3.1 and 3.8 g, respectively. Furthermore, LCD at the time when mild disease onset and severe disease onset were recognized in 5% of the Itai-itai disease patients was calculated to be 2.6 and 3.3 g, respectively. The present results clarify that Itai-itai disease, the most severe stage of chronic Cd poisoning, occurs at levels of Cd consumption amounting to approximately three-fold of those currently seen in Japan.

  9. LINGUISTIC DETERMINISM, CUMULATIVE EVOLUTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhoverkhov A. V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to examine how language and its historically inherited content and structure allows accumulating knowledge and determines the development of the individuals, culture and science. The article shows the theoretical drawbacks of modern "pragmatic turn" in which language is depicted only as a derivate of natural, cultural and cognitive systems. Instead, it is stated that language, in addition to all of the above, have to be considered also as a relatively independent basis and one of the causes that determine individual and social development. For that reason, the study examines the system nature of language, thought and culture, their environmental and social "embeddiness", a close relationship with other sign systems and with various forms of social activities. From that point, theoretical reduction of multiple relations and varying causes in complex ecological and social systems only to bilateral relations of language-thought, language-culture are revised. Particular attention is paid to the role of language in the accumulation and systematization of scientific knowledge and the transmission of cultural traditions. In that context, language is seen as part of the non-genetic inheritance systems, "social a priori" that determines the content and creates conditions for cumulative social evolution. Therefore, it is maintained that the comprehensive studies of language and its significance for culture and science have to embrace within a systems approach both the linguistic and pragmatic "turns"

  10. Simulation of the cumulative hydrological response to green infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avellaneda, P. M.; Jefferson, A. J.; Grieser, J. M.; Bush, S. A.

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we evaluated the cumulative hydrologic performance of green infrastructure in a residential area of the city of Parma, Ohio, draining to a tributary of the Cuyahoga River. Green infrastructure included the following spatially distributed devices: 16 street-side bioretention cells, 7 rain gardens, and 37 rain barrels. Data consisted of rainfall and outfall flow records for a wide range of storm events, including pretreatment and treatment periods. The Stormwater Management Model was calibrated and validated to predict the hydrologic response of green infrastructure. The calibrated model was used to quantify annual water budget alterations and discharge frequency over a 6 year simulation period. For the study catchment, we observed a treatment effect with increases of 1.4% in evaporation, 7.6% in infiltration, and a 9.0% reduction in surface runoff. The hydrologic performance of green infrastructure was evaluated by comparing the flow duration curve for pretreatment and treatment outfall flow scenarios. The flow duration curve shifted downward for the green infrastructure scenario. Discharges with a 0.5, 1, 2, and 5 year return period were reduced by an average of 29%. Parameter and predictive uncertainties were inspected by implementing a Bayesian statistical approach.

  11. A shock process with a non-cumulative damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkelstein, M.S.; Zarudnij, V.I

    2001-01-01

    Two types of non-cumulative damage shock models are considered. Based on the distribution of damage, caused by a shock effecting a system, the intervals with small, intermediate and large damage are introduced. The initial homogeneous Poisson shock process is split into three homogeneous Poisson processes and studied independently. Several criteria of failure are considered, based on the assumption that shocks with a small level of damage are harmless for a system, shocks with a large level of damage results in the system's failure and shocks with an intermediate level of damage can result in the system's failure only with some probability. The second model is based on an assumption that shocks with a small level of damage are harmless to a system, if they are not too close to each other. The probability of the system's failure-free performance in [0,t) is derived explicitly. Simple asymptotic exponential approximations are obtained The accuracy of this method is analyzed. Possible generalizations are discussed.

  12. Cumulative signal transmission in nonlinear reaction-diffusion networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego A Oyarzún

    Full Text Available Quantifying signal transmission in biochemical systems is key to uncover the mechanisms that cells use to control their responses to environmental stimuli. In this work we use the time-integral of chemical species as a measure of a network's ability to cumulatively transmit signals encoded in spatiotemporal concentrations. We identify a class of nonlinear reaction-diffusion networks in which the time-integrals of some species can be computed analytically. The derived time-integrals do not require knowledge of the solution of the reaction-diffusion equation, and we provide a simple graphical test to check if a given network belongs to the proposed class. The formulae for the time-integrals reveal how the kinetic parameters shape signal transmission in a network under spatiotemporal stimuli. We use these to show that a canonical complex-formation mechanism behaves as a spatial low-pass filter, the bandwidth of which is inversely proportional to the diffusion length of the ligand.

  13. New tests of cumulative prospect theory and the priority heuristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Birnbaum

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous tests of cumulative prospect theory (CPT and of the priority heuristic (PH found evidence contradicting these two models of risky decision making. However, those tests were criticized because they had characteristics that might ``trigger'' use of other heuristics. This paper presents new tests that avoid those characteristics. Expected values of the gambles are nearly equal in each choice. In addition, if a person followed expected value (EV, expected utility (EU, CPT, or PH in these tests, she would shift her preferences in the same direction as shifts in EV or EU. In contrast, the transfer of attention exchange model (TAX and a similarity model predict that people will reverse preferences in the opposite direction. Results contradict the PH, even when PH is modified to include a preliminary similarity evaluation using the PH parameters. New tests of probability-consequence interaction were also conducted. Strong interactions were observed, contrary to PH. These results add to the growing bodies of evidence showing that neither CPT nor PH is an accurate description of risky decision making.

  14. Cumulative creep fatigue damage in 316 stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgaw, Michael A.

    1989-01-01

    The cumulative creep-fatigue damage behavior of 316 stainless steel at 1500 F was experimentally established for the two-level loading cases of fatigue followed by fatigue, creep fatigue followed by fatigue, and fatigue followed by creep fatigue. The two-level loadings were conducted such that the lower life (high strain) cycling was applied first for a controlled number of cycles and the higher life (low strain) cycling was conducted as the second level to failure. The target life levels in this study were 100 cycles to failure for both the fatigue and creep-fatigue lowlife loading, 5000 cycles to failure for the higher life fatigue loading and 10,000 cycles to failure for the higher life creep-fatigue loading. The failed specimens are being examined both fractographically and metallographically to ascertain the nature of the damaging mechanisms that produced failure. Models of creep-fatigue damage accumulation are being evaluated and knowledge of the various damaging mechanisms is necessary to ensure that predictive capability is instilled in the final failure model.

  15. Cumulative biological impacts of The Geysers geothermal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brownell, J.A.

    1981-10-01

    The cumulative nature of current and potential future biological impacts from full geothermal development in the steam-dominated portion of The Geysers-Calistoga KGRA are identified by the California Energy Commission staff. Vegetation, wildlife, and aquatic resources information have been reviewed and evaluated. Impacts and their significance are discussed and staff recommendations presented. Development of 3000 MW of electrical energy will result in direct vegetation losses of 2790 acres, based on an estimate of 11.5% loss per lease-hold of 0.93 acres/MW. If unmitigated, losses will be greater. Indirect vegetation losses and damage occur from steam emissions which contain elements (particularly boron) toxic to vegetation. Other potential impacts include chronic low-level boron exposure, acid rain, local climate modification, and mechanical damage. A potential exists for significant reduction and changes in wildlife from direct habitat loss and development influences. Highly erosive soils create the potential for significant reduction of aquatic resources, particularly game fish. Toxic spills have caused some temporary losses of aquatic species. Staff recommends monitoring and implementation of mitigation measures at all geothermal development stages.

  16. Cumulative Causation, Market Transition, and Emigration from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zai; Chunyu, Miao David; Zhuang, Guotu; Ye, Wenzhen

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we report findings from a recent survey of international migration from China's Fujian province to the United States. We take advantage of the ethnosurvey approach as used in the Mexican Migration Project. Surveys were done in migrant-sending communities in China as well as in destination communities of New York City. We derive hypotheses from two strands of recent studies-the international migration literature and the market transition debate. Our results are in general consistent with hypotheses derived from cumulative causation of migration. However, because of the geographical location of China as compared to Mexico, there are some differences between the two countries in terms of particular migration patterns to the United States. As expected, at the community level, migration prevalence ratio (measuring migration networks) increases the propensity of migration for other members in the community. In contrast, having a household member migrated previously does not increase the propensity of migration of other household members until debt for previous migration is paid off. Our research clearly demonstrates the value of bringing the case of China into the comparative study of international migration. With respect to market transition theory, we find that political power continues to be an important factor in the order of social stratification in the coastal Fujian province. PMID:19569396

  17. The cumulative energy effect for improved ignition timing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markhotok, A., E-mail: amarhotk@phys.washington.edu [Physics Department, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    A technique capable of improving timing in ignition applications is proposed. It is based on the use of shock waves propagating in a specific medium that allows achieving extremely high speeds and energies. The model uses the energy cumulation effect in the presence of the shock wave refraction on an interface with plasma. The problem was solved analytically and the effects were demonstrated for a cylindrically symmetrical geometry. Numerical results show very quick and uneven acceleration of different portions of the shock front. Its strong distortions lead to formation of a sharply focused jet near the axis of symmetry. The ability of the shock to achieve extremely high speeds and energies can be useful in design of efficient combustors for hypersonic systems, and possibly offers an alternative way of construction of a nuclear fusion reactor. Recommendations are given in terms of adjustment parameters and can be applied at any problem scale and for various combinations of the strengths of the effects involved in the problem.

  18. Cumulative life course impairment in melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piaserico, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Patients with skin cancer remain at risk for disease progression or relapse for many years. Therefore, skin cancer may be considered a chronic, life-threatening disease. It could impact on patients lifestyles and social and professional activities. Although no direct study of cumulative life course impairment (CLCI) in skin cancer patients has been carried out, a few studies suggest that skin cancer may strongly impair quality of life and eventually determine a significant CLCI (melanoma more than nonmelanoma skin cancer). Obviously, the life course of patients with melanoma at an advanced stage of the disease may change considerably. A number of cancer-associated problems may determine a CLCI, including familial or professional changes and a reduction of life expectancy may eventually lead to social withdrawal and depressive disorders. Even patients with a low stage disease may experience an important impairment of quality of life and in some cases a CLCI. Some skin cancer patients may have physical and psychological after effects from their cancer surgery. Several patients complain about lymphedema, discomfort experienced from wearing surgical stockings, and diminished range of physical motion postsurgery. A few are concerned about their body image due to surgical scars, and they may consider changing their job position because of the supposed negative impact of scars in visible sites on their ability to perform their job. Some female melanoma survivors may have a reduced desire of having children in the future.

  19. Use of medical insurance claims for surveillance of occupational disease. An analysis of cumulative trauma in the auto industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, R M; Nelson, N A; Silverstein, M A; Mirer, F E

    1992-07-01

    Medical insurance claims, linked with work histories for a large automotive manufacturer over a 3-year period, identified large numbers of cases of potentially work-related diseases, including 30,600 episodes of probable cumulative trauma disorders (CTD). CTD incidence rates were calculated within five plants, and high-risk areas identified, however, unknown differences in medical insurance coverage by exposure group limited interpretation. Case-control analyses, with controls also identified by insurance claims, addressed coverage and produced age-adjusted and sex-adjusted estimates of risks. All five plants had departments with statistically significant, elevated risks for one or more of the diagnoses carpal tunnel syndrome, CTD of other upper extremities, rotator cuff syndrome, CTD of the neck and of the lower back. Medical insurance claim data linked with work history provide the basis for practical and comprehensive surveillance for CTD and potentially a variety of other occupational diseases.

  20. Congestion with incidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the impact of random delays during a repeatedly occurring demand peak in a congested facility, such as an airport or an urban road. Congestion is described in the form of a dynamic queue using the Vickrey bottleneck model and assuming Nash equilibrium in departure times. Every...... period an incident may occur at a random time, temporarily reducing the bottleneck capacity to zero. The paper gives some properties of Nash equilibrium and the social optimum as well as a pretty good welfare improving tolling scheme....

  1. Incident users of antipsychotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Kruse, Marie

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: In Denmark, as well as in many other countries, consumption of antipsychotics is on the rise, partly due to increasing off-label use. The aim of this study was to analyze and quantify the extent of off-label use and polypharmacy in incident users of antipsychotic medication, and to examine...... polypharmacy (HR 1.38; 95 % CI 1.32-1.45), whereas antipsychotic discontinuation was associated with decreased hospitalization risk in most off-label conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The brief duration of most antipsychotic prescriptions suggests that antipsychotics are prescribed more liberally than recommended...

  2. Incidence and potential risk factors of obesity among Tehranian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpanah, Farhad; Mirbolouk, Mohammadhassan; Mossadeghkhah, Ali; Barzin, Maryam; Serahati, Sara; Delshad, Hossein; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-01-01

    Evaluating the incidence of obesity and its risk factors among Tehranian adults. In this population-based cohort, non-obese participants, aged ≥20years, were followed for development of obesity (Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥30). Incidence density and cumulative incidence rates of obesity were calculated for each sex. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to determine the association of potential obesity risk factors including: age, BMI, metabolic syndrome, waist circumference (WC), smoking, marital status, education, and physical activity. A total of 7257 participants (3536 men) were followed for a median of 8years. At baseline, mean age, BMI and WC were 41.3±14.6years, 25.1±2.9kg/m(2) (24.9±3kg/m(2) men and 25.2±3kg/m(2) women), and 84.8±9.8cm (87.06±9.2cm men and 82.6±9.9cm women) respectively. During the follow-up, 1345 participants (876 women) developed obesity contributing to cumulative incidences of 31.3% (CI: 29.9%-32.7%), 38.1% (CI: 36.2%-40.1%), and 23.4% (CI: 21.6%-25.3%) for the whole population, women, and men, respectively. Corresponding incidence density rates per 1000 person-year were 25.9 (CI: 24.5-27.3), 33.67 (CI: 31.5-36.0), and 18.0 (CI: 16.5-19.7), respectively. Highest incidence rates were observed during their 40s and 20s for women and men, respectively. Participants with metabolic syndrome, lower educational level, higher BMI and WC, were at higher risk of obesity development in both sexes. High incidence of obesity was observed among Tehranian adults with higher incidence of obesity in women. Different modifiable variables may act as risk factors for obesity development which should be targeted to control the epidemic of obesity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cumulated activities determined from biodistribution data in pregnant rats ranging from 13 to 21 days gestation. I. Tc-/sup 99m/ pertechnetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegst, A.V.; Goin, J.E.; Robinson, R.G.

    Cumulated activity estimates for Tc-/sup 99m/ pertechnetate were determined using biodistribution data from pregnant and nonpregnant rats. The pregnant rats were studied at 13, 15, 17, 19, and 21 days gestation. The results indicate that maternal organ cumulated activities are not a simple function of gestational age. The organs into which Tc-/sup 99m/ pertechnetate enters through passive diffusion follow the pattern established by the blood, generally resulting in an increase from the 13th through the 17th day with a decrease on the 19th and 21st day. The organs dominated by active transport follow unique and different patterns. The fetal cumulated activity estimates increased exponentially with gestational age and the placental estimates increased linearly.

  4. Cumulated activities determined from biodistribution data in pregnant rats ranging from 13 to 21 days gestation. I. Tc-99m pertechnetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegst, A V; Goin, J E; Robinson, R G

    1983-01-01

    Cumulated activity estimates for Tc-99m pertechnetate were determined using biodistribution data from pregnant and nonpregnant rats. The pregnant rats were studied at 13, 15, 17, 19, and 21 days gestation. The results indicate that maternal organ cumulated activities are not a simple function of gestational age. The organs into which Tc-99m pertechnetate enters through passive diffusion follow the pattern established by the blood, generally resulting in an increase from the 13th through the 17th day with a decrease on the 19th and 21st day. The organs dominated by active transport follow unique and different patterns. The fetal cumulated activity estimates increased exponentially with gestational age and the placental estimates increased linearly.

  5. Report of Incidence and Mortality in China Cancer Registries, 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan-qing Chen; Rong-shou Zheng; Si-wei Zhang; Ni Li; Ping Zhao; Guang-lin Li; Liang-you Wu; Jie He

    2012-01-01

    Objective:Annual cancer incidence and mortality in 2008 were provided by National Central Cancer Registry in China,which data were collected from population-based cancer registries in 2011.Methods:There were 56 registries submitted their data in 2008.After checking and evaluating the data quality,total 41 registries' data were accepted and pooled for analysis.Incidence and mortality rates by area (urban or rural areas) were assessed,as well as the age-and sex-specific rates,age-standardized rates,proportions and cumulative rate.Results:The coverage population of the 41 registries was 66,138,784 with 52,158,495 in urban areas and 13,980,289 in rural areas.There were 197,833 new cancer cases and 122,136 deaths in cancer with mortality to incidence ratio of 0.62.The morphological verified rate was 69.33%,and 2.23% of cases were identified by death certificate only.The crude cancer incidence rate in all areas was 299.12/100,000 (330.16/100,000 in male and 267.56/100,000 in female) and the age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and world standard population (ASIRW) were 148.75/100,000 and 194.99/100,000,respectively.The cumulative incidence rate (0-74 years old) was of 22.27%.The crude incidence rate in urban areas was higher than that in rural areas.However,after adjusted by age,the incidence rate in urban was lower than that in rural.The crude cancer mortality was 184.67/100,000 (228.14/100,000 in male and 140.48/100,000 in female),and the age-standardized mortality rates by Chinese standard population (ASMRC) and by world population were 84.36/100,000 and 114.32/100,000,respectively.The cumulative mortality rate (0-74 years old) was of 12.89%.Age-adjusted mortality rates in urban areas were lower than that in rural areas.The most common cancer sites were lung,stomach,colon-rectum,liver,esophagus,pancreas,brain,lymphoma,breast and cervix which accounted for 75% of all cancer incidence.Lung cancer was the leading cause of

  6. Evaluation of Inference Adequacy in Cumulative Logistic Regression Models: An Empirical Validation of ISWRidge Relationships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-Wu CHEN; Hsien-Chueh Peter YANG; Chen-Yuan CHEN; Alex Kung-Hsiung CHANG; Tsung-Hao CHEN

    2008-01-01

    Internal solitary wave propagation over a submarine ridge results in energy dissipation, in which the hydrodynamic interaction between a wave and ridge affects marine environment. This study analyzes the effects of ridge height and potential energy during wave-ridge interaction with a binary and cumulative logistic regression model. In testing the Global Null Hypothesis, all values are p<0.001, with three statistical methods, such as Likelihood Ratio, Score, and Wald. While comparing with two kinds of models, tests values obtained by cumulative logistic regression models are better than those by binary logistic regression models. Although this study employed cumulative logistic regression model, three probability functions 1, 2 and 3, are utilized for investigating the weighted influence of factors on wave reflection. Deviance and Pearson tests are applied to check the goodness-of-fit of the proposed model. The analytical results demonstrated that both ridge height (X1) and potential energy (X2) significantly impact (p<0.0001) the amplitude-based reflected rate; the P-values for the deviance and Pearson are all >0.05 (0.2839, 0.3438, respectively). That is, the goodness-of-fit between ridge height (X1) and potential energy (X2) can further predict parameters under the scenario of the best parsimonious model.Investigation of 6 predictive powers (R2, Max-rescaled R2, Somers'D, Gamma, Tau-a, and c, respectively) indicate that these predictive estimates of the proposed model have better predictive ability than ridge height alone, and are very similar to the interaction of ridge height and potential energy. It can be concluded that the goodness-of-fit and prediction ability of the cumulative logistic regression model are better than that of the binary logistic regression model.

  7. Critical Incidents in Internal Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Voima, Päivi

    2000-01-01

    Critical incidents have had an important role in service quality and service management research. The focus of critical-incident studies has gradually shifted from separate acts and episodes towards relationships, and even switching from one relationship to another. The Critical Incident Technique has mainly been used when studying the service sector, concentrating on the customer's perception of critical incidents. Although some studies have considered the perceptions of employees important,...

  8. Knowledge-Sharing Networks in Hunter-Gatherers and the Evolution of Cumulative Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salali, Gul Deniz; Chaudhary, Nikhil; Thompson, James; Grace, Olwen Megan; van der Burgt, Xander M; Dyble, Mark; Page, Abigail E; Smith, Daniel; Lewis, Jerome; Mace, Ruth; Vinicius, Lucio; Migliano, Andrea Bamberg

    2016-09-26

    Humans possess the unique ability for cumulative culture [1, 2]. It has been argued that hunter-gatherer's complex social structure [3-9] has facilitated the evolution of cumulative culture by allowing information exchange among large pools of individuals [10-13]. However, empirical evidence for the interaction between social structure and cultural transmission is scant [14]. Here we examine the reported co-occurrence of plant uses between individuals in dyads (which we define as their "shared knowledge" of plant uses) in BaYaka Pygmies from Congo. We studied reported uses of 33 plants of 219 individuals from four camps. We show that (1) plant uses by BaYaka fall into three main domains: medicinal, foraging, and social norms/beliefs; (2) most medicinal plants have known bioactive properties, and some are positively associated with children's BMI, suggesting that their use is adaptive; (3) knowledge of medicinal plants is mainly shared between spouses and biological and affinal kin; and (4) knowledge of plant uses associated with foraging and social norms is shared more widely among campmates, regardless of relatedness, and is important for camp-wide activities that require cooperation. Our results show the interdependence between social structure and knowledge sharing. We propose that long-term pair bonds, affinal kin recognition, exogamy, and multi-locality create ties between unrelated families, facilitating the transmission of medicinal knowledge and its fitness implications. Additionally, multi-family camps with low inter-relatedness between camp members provide a framework for the exchange of functional information related to cooperative activities beyond the family unit, such as foraging and regulation of social life.

  9. Incident Management: Process into Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Gayle; Moore, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Tornados, shootings, fires--these are emergencies that require fast action by school district personnel, but they are not the only incidents that require risk management. The authors have introduced the National Incident Management System (NIMS) and the Incident Command System (ICS) and assured that these systems can help educators plan for and…

  10. On the duration and intensity of cumulative advantage competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bo; Sun, Liyuan; Figueiredo, Daniel R.; Ribeiro, Bruno; Towsley, Don

    2015-11-01

    Network growth can be framed as a competition for edges among nodes in the network. As with various other social and physical systems, skill (fitness) and luck (random chance) act as fundamental forces driving competition dynamics. In the context of networks, cumulative advantage (CA)—the rich-get-richer effect—is seen as a driving principle governing the edge accumulation process. However, competitions coupled with CA exhibit non-trivial behavior and little is formally known about duration and intensity of CA competitions. By isolating two nodes in an ideal CA competition, we provide a mathematical understanding of how CA exacerbates the role of luck in detriment of skill. We show, for instance, that when nodes start with few edges, an early stroke of luck can place the less skilled in the lead for an extremely long period of time, a phenomenon we call ‘struggle of the fittest’. We prove that duration of a simple skill and luck competition model exhibit power-law tails when CA is present, regardless of skill difference, which is in sharp contrast to the exponential tails when fitness is distinct but CA is absent. We also prove that competition intensity is always upper bounded by an exponential tail, irrespective of CA and skills. Thus, CA competitions can be extremely long (infinite mean, depending on fitness ratio) but almost never very intense. The theoretical results are corroborated by extensive numerical simulations. Our findings have important implications to competitions not only among nodes in networks but also in contexts that leverage socio-physical models embodying CA competitions.

  11. Cumulative phase delay imaging - A new contrast enhanced ultrasound modality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demi, Libertario, E-mail: l.demi@tue.nl; Sloun, Ruud J. G. van; Mischi, Massimo [Lab. of Biomedical Diagnostics, Dept. of Electrical Eng., Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Wijkstra, Hessel [Lab. of Biomedical Diagnostics, Dept. of Electrical Eng., Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Academic Medical Center, Urology Dept., University of Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-10-28

    Recently, a new acoustic marker for ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) has been introduced. A cumulative phase delay (CPD) between the second harmonic and fundamental pressure wave field components is in fact observable for ultrasound propagating through UCAs. This phenomenon is absent in the case of tissue nonlinearity and is dependent on insonating pressure and frequency, UCA concentration, and propagation path length through UCAs. In this paper, ultrasound images based on this marker are presented. The ULA-OP research platform, in combination with a LA332 linear array probe (Esaote, Firenze Italy), were used to image a gelatin phantom containing a PVC plate (used as a reflector) and a cylindrical cavity measuring 7 mm in diameter (placed in between the observation point and the PVC plate). The cavity contained a 240 µL/L SonoVueO{sup ®} UCA concentration. Two insonating frequencies (3 MHz and 2.5 MHz) were used to scan the gelatine phantom. A mechanical index MI = 0.07, measured in water at the cavity location with a HGL-0400 hydrophone (Onda, Sunnyvale, CA), was utilized. Processing the ultrasound signals backscattered from the plate, ultrasound images were generated in a tomographic fashion using the filtered back-projection method. As already observed in previous studies, significantly higher CPD values are measured when imaging at a frequency of 2.5 MHz, as compared to imaging at 3 MHz. In conclusion, these results confirm the applicability of the discussed CPD as a marker for contrast imaging. Comparison with standard contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging modalities will be the focus of future work.

  12. CUMULATIVE IMPACT OF YOGA PRACTICE ON QUALITY OF LI FE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Rani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted with two main objec tives. First it aims to experiment whether the ancient system of yoga can bring about change in the quality of life of its practitioners. The second objective was to study the cumulative im pact of yoga practice on Quality of Life. The study was conducted on four independent groups of y oga practitioners that varied in their length of experience in yoga practice. The first group compri sed of 76 subjects (49 male and 27 female with a mean age of 39 years (SD=9.8. All the participan ts in this group are novice practitioners. They have participated in the study immediately after th eir admission into yoga class. The second group comprised of 23 subjects (14 male and 9 female wit h a mean age of 34.2 years (SD= 11.07. Their length of experience in yoga practice is 3 months. The third group comprised of 18 subjects (11male and 7 female with a mean age of 33.83 year s (SD=9.33. Their length of experience in yoga practice is six months. The fourth group comprised of 17 subjects (11 male and 6 female with a mean age of 32.8 years (SD=9.5. Their length exper ience is 12 months. All the four independent groups were administered a questionnaire on Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF. The results on QOL gave scores on to tal quality of life and separate scores on Domain 1 (dealing with physical health Domain 2 (d ealing with psychological aspects, Domain 3 (dealing with social relationships and Domain 4 (d ealing with environmental aspects.

  13. Measuring a fair and ambitious climate agreement using cumulative emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Glen P.; Andrew, Robbie M.; Solomon, Susan; Friedlingstein, Pierre

    2015-10-01

    Policy makers have called for a ‘fair and ambitious’ global climate agreement. Scientific constraints, such as the allowable carbon emissions to avoid exceeding a 2 °C global warming limit with 66% probability, can help define ambitious approaches to climate targets. However, fairly sharing the mitigation challenge to meet a global target involves human values rather than just scientific facts. We develop a framework based on cumulative emissions of carbon dioxide to compare the consistency of countries’ current emission pledges to the ambition of keeping global temperatures below 2 °C, and, further, compare two alternative methods of sharing the remaining emission allowance. We focus on the recent pledges and other official statements of the EU, USA, and China. The EU and US pledges are close to a 2 °C level of ambition only if the remaining emission allowance is distributed based on current emission shares, which is unlikely to be viewed as ‘fair and ambitious’ by others who presently emit less. China’s stated emissions target also differs from measures of global fairness, owing to emissions that continue to grow into the 2020s. We find that, combined, the EU, US, and Chinese pledges leave little room for other countries to emit CO2 if a 2 °C limit is the objective, essentially requiring all other countries to move towards per capita emissions 7 to 14 times lower than the EU, USA, or China by 2030. We argue that a fair and ambitious agreement for a 2 °C limit that would be globally inclusive and effective in the long term will require stronger mitigation than the goals currently proposed. Given such necessary and unprecedented mitigation and the current lack of availability of some key technologies, we suggest a new diplomatic effort directed at ensuring that the necessary technologies become available in the near future.

  14. Cumulative Effects of Barriers on the Movements of Forest Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Bélisle

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there is a consensus of opinion that habitat fragmentation has deleterious effects on animal populations, primarily by inhibiting dispersal among remaining patches, there have been few explicit demonstrations of the ways by which degraded habitats actually constrain individual movement. Two impediments are primarily responsible for this paucity: it is difficult to separate the effects of habitat fragmentation (configuration from habitat loss (composition, and conventional measures of fragmented habitats are assumed to be, but probably are not, isotropic. We addressed these limitations by standardizing differences in forest cover in a clearly anisotropic configuration of habitat fragmentation by conducting a homing experiment with three species of forest birds in the Bow Valley of Banff National Park, Canada. Birds were translocated (1.2-3.5  km either parallel or perpendicular to four/five parallel barriers that are assumed to impede the cross-valley travel of forest-dependent animals. Taken together, individuals exhibited longer return times when they were translocated across these barriers, but differences among species suggest a more complex interpretation. A long-distance migrant (Yellow-rumped Warbler, Dendroica coronata behaved as predicted, but a short-distance migrant (Golden-crowned Kinglet, Regulus satrapa was indifferent to barrier configuration. A resident (Red-breasted Nuthatch, Sitta canadensis exhibited longer return times when it was translocated parallel to the barriers. Our results suggest that an anisotropic arrangement of small, open areas in fragmented landscapes can have a cumulative barrier effect on the movement of forest animals, but that both modelers and managers will have to acknowledge potentially counterintuitive differences among species to predict the effect that these may have on individual movement and, ultimately, dispersal.

  15. Liver function test alterations associated with parenteral nutrition in hospitalized adult patients: incidence and risk factors Alteraciones de los parámetros hepáticos asociados con la administración de nutrición parenteral en pacientes adultos hospitalizados: incidencia y factores de riesgo

    OpenAIRE

    M.ª B. Badia-Tahull; E. Leiva-Badosa; J. Llop-Talaverón; A. Figueras-Suriol; A. Quirante-Cremades; M.ª Tubau-Molas; R. Jódar-Masanés

    2012-01-01

    Background: Parenteral nutrition-associated liver dysfunction can be progressive and irreversible, particularly in children and patients with long-term treatment. This study has assessed the incidence of abnormal liver function tests in hospitalized adults during short term parenteral nutrition (PN) and has investigated risk factors for developing alterations of each parameter. Methods: A prospective cohort study of parenteral nutrition treated patients with preserved liver function at baseli...

  16. Report of incidence and mortality in China cancer registries, 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanqing Chen; Rongshou Zheng; Siwei Zhang; Ping Zhao; Guanglin Li; Lingyou Wu; Jie He

    2013-01-01

    The National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR) collected cancer registration data in 2009 from local cancer registries in 2012,and analyzed to describe cancer incidence and mortality in China.Methods.:On basis of the criteria of data quality from NCCR,data subrnitted from 104 registries were checked and evaluated.There were 72 registries' data qualified and accepted for cancer registry annual report in 2012.Descriptive analysis included incidence and mortality stratified by area (urban/rural),sex,age group and cancer site.The top 10 common cancers in different groups,proportion and cumulative rates were also calculated.Chinese population census in 1982 and Segi's population were used for age-standardized incidence/mortality rates.Results:All 72 cancer registries covered a total of 85,470,522 population (57,489,009 in urban and 27,981,513 in rural areas).The total new cancer incident cases and cancer deaths were 244,366 and 154,310,respectively.The morphology verified cases accounted for 67.23%,and 3.14% of incident cases only had information from death certifications.The crude incidence rate in Chinese cancer registration areas was 285.91/100,000(males 317.97/100,000,females 253.09/100,000),age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and by world standard population (ASIRW) were 146.87/100,000 and 191.72/100,000 with the cumulative incidence rate (0-74 age years old) of 22.08%.The cancer incidence and ASIRC were 303.39/100,000 and 150.31/100,000 in urban areas whereas in rural areas,they were 249.98/100,000 and 139.68/100,000,respectively.The cancer mortality in Chinese cancer regist-ation areas was 180.54/100,000 (224.20/100,000 in males and 135.85/100,000 in females),age-standardized umortality rates by Chinese standard population (ASMRC) and by world standard population (ASMRW) were 85.06/100,000 and 115.65/100,000,and the cumulative incidence rate (0-74 age years old) was 12.94%.The cancer mortality and ASMRC were 181

  17. Grazing incidence beam expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkapeddi, P.R.; Glenn, P.; Fuschetto, A.; Appert, Q.; Viswanathan, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    A Grazing Incidence Beam Expander (GIBE) telescope is being designed and fabricated to be used as an equivalent end mirror in a long laser resonator cavity. The design requirements for this GIBE flow down from a generic Free Electron Laser (FEL) resonator. The nature of the FEL gain volume (a thin, pencil-like, on-axis region) dictates that the output beam be very small. Such a thin beam with the high power levels characteristic of FELs would have to travel perhaps hundreds of meters or more before expanding enough to allow reflection from cooled mirrors. A GIBE, on the other hand, would allow placing these optics closer to the gain region and thus reduces the cavity lengths substantially. Results are presented relating to optical and mechanical design, alignment sensitivity analysis, radius of curvature analysis, laser cavity stability analysis of a linear stable concentric laser cavity with a GIBE. Fabrication details of the GIBE are also given.

  18. Use of Cumulative Examinations at U.S. Schools of Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Gina J.; Nykamp, Diane

    2000-01-01

    Surveyed department of pharmacy chairs at 77 schools of pharmacy about current use of cumulative exams. Found that more than 80 percent do not administer cumulative exams and that the primary rationale for such exams is to encourage students to review material prior to advancement; they are rarely used to determine advancement. (EV)

  19. The Scarring Effects of Bankruptcy: Cumulative Disadvantage across Credit and Labor Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroto, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    As the recent economic crisis has demonstrated, inequality often spans credit and labor markets, supporting a system of cumulative disadvantage. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this research draws on stigma, cumulative disadvantage and status characteristics theories to examine whether credit and labor markets intersect…

  20. Radiologic imaging in cystic fibrosis: cumulative effective dose and changing trends over 2 decades.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, Oisin J

    2012-06-01

    With the increasing life expectancy for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), and a known predisposition to certain cancers, cumulative radiation exposure from radiologic imaging is of increasing significance. This study explores the estimated cumulative effective radiation dose over a 17-year period from radiologic procedures and changing trends of imaging modalities over this period.