WorldWideScience

Sample records for cumulative exposure project

  1. Is cumulated pyrethroid exposure associated with prediabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Rune; Jørs, Erik; Lander, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    was to investigate an association between exposure to pyrethroids and abnormal glucose regulation (prediabetes or diabetes). A cross-sectional study was performed among 116 pesticide sprayers from public vector control programs in Bolivia and 92 nonexposed controls. Pesticide exposure (duration, intensity...... pyrethroids, a significant positive trend was observed between cumulative pesticide exposure (total number of hours sprayed) and adjusted OR of abnormal glucose regulation, with OR 14.7 [0.9-235] in the third exposure quintile. The study found a severely increased prevalence of prediabetes among Bolivian...

  2. Stakeholder attitudes towards cumulative and aggregate exposure assessment of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, Wim; Van Loo, Ellen J; Vanhonacker, Filiep; Delcour, Ilse; Spanoghe, Pieter; van Klaveren, Jacob D

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluates the attitudes and perspectives of different stakeholder groups (agricultural producers, pesticide manufacturers, trading companies, retailers, regulators, food safety authorities, scientists and NGOs) towards the concepts of cumulative and aggregate exposure assessment of pesticides by means of qualitative in-depth interviews (n = 15) and a quantitative stakeholder survey (n = 65). The stakeholders involved generally agreed that the use of chemical pesticides is needed, primarily for meeting the need of feeding the growing world population, while clearly acknowledging the problematic nature of human exposure to pesticide residues. Current monitoring was generally perceived to be adequate, but the timeliness and consistency of monitoring practices across countries were questioned. The concept of cumulative exposure assessment was better understood by stakeholders than the concept of aggregate exposure assessment. Identified pitfalls were data availability, data limitations, sources and ways of dealing with uncertainties, as well as information and training needs. Regulators and food safety authorities were perceived as the stakeholder groups for whom cumulative and aggregate pesticide exposure assessment methods and tools would be most useful and acceptable. Insights obtained from this exploratory study have been integrated in the development of targeted and stakeholder-tailored dissemination and training programmes that were implemented within the EU-FP7 project ACROPOLIS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Maintenance hemodialysis patients have high cumulative radiation exposure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kinsella, Sinead M

    2010-10-01

    Hemodialysis is associated with an increased risk of neoplasms which may result, at least in part, from exposure to ionizing radiation associated with frequent radiographic procedures. In order to estimate the average radiation exposure of those on hemodialysis, we conducted a retrospective study of 100 patients in a university-based dialysis unit followed for a median of 3.4 years. The number and type of radiological procedures were obtained from a central radiology database, and the cumulative effective radiation dose was calculated using standardized, procedure-specific radiation levels. The median annual radiation dose was 6.9 millisieverts (mSv) per patient-year. However, 14 patients had an annual cumulative effective radiation dose over 20 mSv, the upper averaged annual limit for occupational exposure. The median total cumulative effective radiation dose per patient over the study period was 21.7 mSv, in which 13 patients had a total cumulative effective radiation dose over 75 mSv, a value reported to be associated with a 7% increased risk of cancer-related mortality. Two-thirds of the total cumulative effective radiation dose was due to CT scanning. The average radiation exposure was significantly associated with the cause of end-stage renal disease, history of ischemic heart disease, transplant waitlist status, number of in-patient hospital days over follow-up, and death during the study period. These results highlight the substantial exposure to ionizing radiation in hemodialysis patients.

  4. Elaboration of a concept for the cumulative environmental exposure assessment of biocides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, Rita; Bunke, Dirk; Moch, Katja [Oeko-Institut e.V. - Institut fuer Angewandte Oekologie e.V., Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Gartiser, Stefan [Hydrotox GmbH, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Article 10(1) of the EU Biocidal Products Directive 98/8/EC (BPD) requires that for the inclusion of an active substance in Annex I, Annex IA or IB, cumulation effects from the use of biocidal products containing the same active substance shall be taken into account, where relevant. The study proves the feasibility of a technical realisation of Article 10(1) of the BPD and elaborates a first concept for the cumulative environmental exposure assessment of biocides. Existing requirements concerning cumulative assessments in other regulatory frameworks have been evaluated and their applicability for biocides has been examined. Technical terms and definitions used in this context were documented with the aim to harmonise terminology with other frameworks and to set up a precise definition within the BPD. Furthermore, application conditions of biocidal products have been analysed to find out for which cumulative exposure assessments may be relevant. Different parameters were identified which might serve as indicators for the relevance of cumulative exposure assessments. These indicators were then integrated in a flow chart by means of which the relevance of cumulative exposure assessments can be checked. Finally, proposals for the technical performance of cumulative exposure assessments within the Review Programme have been elaborated with the aim to bring the results of the project into the upcoming development and harmonization processes on EU level. (orig.)

  5. Cumulative radiation exposure in children with cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Reilly, R

    2010-02-01

    This retrospective study calculated the cumulative radiation dose for children with cystic fibrosis (CF) attending a tertiary CF centre. Information on 77 children with a mean age of 9.5 years, a follow up time of 658 person years and 1757 studies including 1485 chest radiographs, 215 abdominal radiographs and 57 computed tomography (CT) scans, of which 51 were thoracic CT scans, were analysed. The average cumulative radiation dose was 6.2 (0.04-25) mSv per CF patient. Cumulative radiation dose increased with increasing age and number of CT scans and was greater in children who presented with meconium ileus. No correlation was identified between cumulative radiation dose and either lung function or patient microbiology cultures. Radiation carries a risk of malignancy and children are particularly susceptible. Every effort must be made to avoid unnecessary radiation exposure in these patients whose life expectancy is increasing.

  6. Cumulative exposure to phthalates from phthalate-containing drug products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ennis, Zandra Nymand; Broe, Anne; Pottegård, Anton

    2018-01-01

    European regulatory limit of exposure ranging between 380-1710 mg/year throughout the study period. Lithium-products constituted the majority of dibutyl phthalate exposure. Diethyl phthalate exposure, mainly caused by erythromycin, theophylline and diclofenac products, did not exceed the EMA regulatory...... to quantify annual cumulated phthalate exposure from drug products among users of phthalate-containing oral medications in Denmark throughout the period of 2004-2016. METHODS: We conducted a Danish nationwide cohort study using The Danish National Prescription Registry and an internal database held...

  7. Optimization of the cumulative risk assessment of pesticides and biocides using computational techniques: Pilot project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Svava Osk; Reffstrup, Trine Klein; Petersen, Annette

    This pilot project is intended as the first step in developing a computational strategy to assist in refining methods for higher tier cumulative and aggregate risk assessment of exposure to mixture of pesticides and biocides. For this purpose, physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK) models were...

  8. Cumulative exposure to carbon monoxide during the day

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joumard, R. (INRETS, 69 - Bron (FR))

    The carbon monoxide, CO, has the advantage of being very easily and accurately measured under various conditions. In addition, it allows the translation of CO concentrations into their biological effects. The cumulative CO exposure should be considered according to current environment conditions during a given period of life, e.g. the day. In addition, the translation of concentrations and exposure times of CO fixed on blood haemoglobine (carboxyhaemoglobine) depends on physiological factors such as age, size, sex, or physical activity. This paper gives some examples of CO exposure translated into curves of carboxyhaemoglobine: case of 92 persons whose schedule was studied in details, of customs officers whose exposure was measured during one week, or other theoretical cases. In all the cases studied, smoking is by far the first factor of pollution by carbon monoxide. If not considering this case, the CO contents observed are preoccupying for sensitive subjects (in particular children) only in very rare cases. Furthermore, this approach allows the assessment of maximal allowable concentrations during specific exposures (work, e.g. in a tunnel) by integrating them into normal life conditions and population current exposure.

  9. Evaluation of cumulative PCB exposure estimated by a job exposure matrix versus PCB serum concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruder, Avima M.; Succop, Paul; Waters, Martha A.

    2015-01-01

    Although polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been banned in many countries for more than three decades, exposures to PCBs continue to be of concern due to their long half-lives and carcinogenic effects. In National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health studies, we are using semiquantitative plant-specific job exposure matrices (JEMs) to estimate historical PCB exposures for workers (n=24,865) exposed to PCBs from 1938 to 1978 at three capacitor manufacturing plants. A subcohort of these workers (n=410) employed in two of these plants had serum PCB concentrations measured at up to four times between 1976 and 1989. Our objectives were to evaluate the strength of association between an individual worker’s measured serum PCB levels and the same worker’s cumulative exposure estimated through 1977 with the (1) JEM and (2) duration of employment, and to calculate the explained variance the JEM provides for serum PCB levels using (3) simple linear regression. Consistent strong and statistically significant associations were observed between the cumulative exposures estimated with the JEM and serum PCB concentrations for all years. The strength of association between duration of employment and serum PCBs was good for highly chlorinated (Aroclor 1254/HPCB) but not less chlorinated (Aroclor 1242/LPCB) PCBs. In the simple regression models, cumulative occupational exposure estimated using the JEMs explained 14–24 % of the variance of the Aroclor 1242/LPCB and 22–39 % for Aroclor 1254/HPCB serum concentrations. We regard the cumulative exposure estimated with the JEM as a better estimate of PCB body burdens than serum concentrations quantified as Aroclor 1242/LPCB and Aroclor 1254/HPCB. PMID:23475397

  10. Does the acute pulmonary response to ozone depend on the cumulative exposure?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    In experimental conditions, repeated ozone exposure induces adaptive phenomena that attenuate lung function and inflammatory responses. But this study did not find that lifetime cumulative exposure had a protective effect; indeed, it found the contrary. (author)

  11. Framework for Multi-Pathway Cumulative Exposure for Comparative Assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKone, Tom; Fantke, Peter

    2016-01-01

    in comparative risk assessment, life-cycle assessment (LCA), and chemical alternatives assessment (CAA), multimedia fate and exposure models synthesize information about partitioning, reaction, and intermedia-transport properties of chemicals in a representative (local to regional) or generic (continental...

  12. Cumulative dietary exposure of the population of Denmark to pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Nielsen, Elsa

    2015-01-01

    exposure to the pesticides found in fruit, vegetables and cereals on the Danish market. The HI was below 1 even for consumers who eat more than 550 g of fruit and vegetables per day, corresponding to 1/3 of the population. Choosing Danish-produced commodities whenever possible could reduce the HI...

  13. Cumulative occupational shoulder exposures and surgery for subacromial impingement syndrome: a nationwide Danish cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbøge, Annett; Frost, Poul; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff

    2014-11-01

    The primary aim was to examine exposure-response relationships between cumulative occupational shoulder exposures and surgery for subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS), and to compare sex-specific exposure-response relationships. The secondary aim was to examine the time window of relevant exposures. We conducted a nationwide register study of all persons born in Denmark (1933-1977), who had at least 5 years of full-time employment. In the follow-up period (2003-2008), we identified first-time events of surgery for SIS. Cumulative exposure estimates for a 10-year exposure time window with a 1-year lag time were obtained by linking occupational codes with a job exposure matrix. The exposure estimates were expressed as, for example, arm-elevation-years in accordance with the pack-year concept of tobacco consumption. We used a multivariable logistic regression technique equivalent to discrete survival analysis. The adjusted OR (ORadj) increased to a maximum of 2.1 for arm-elevation-years, repetition-years and force-years, and to 1.5 for hand-arm-vibration-years. Sex-specific exposure-response relationships were similar for men and women, when assessed using a relative risk scale. The ORadj increased gradually with the number of years contributing to the cumulative exposure estimates. The excess fraction was 24%. Cumulative occupational shoulder exposures carried an increase in risk of surgery for SIS with similar exposure-response curves for men and women. The risk of surgery for SIS increased gradually, when the period of exposure assessment was extended. In the general working population, a substantial fraction of all first-time operations for SIS could be related to occupational exposures. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. The EPA's human exposure research program for assessing cumulative risk in communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zartarian, Valerie G; Schultz, Bradley D

    2010-06-01

    Communities are faced with challenges in identifying and prioritizing environmental issues, taking actions to reduce their exposures, and determining their effectiveness for reducing human health risks. Additional challenges include determining what scientific tools are available and most relevant, and understanding how to use those tools; given these barriers, community groups tend to rely more on risk perception than science. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Research and Development, National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) and collaborators are developing and applying tools (models, data, methods) for enhancing cumulative risk assessments. The NERL's "Cumulative Communities Research Program" focuses on key science questions: (1) How to systematically identify and prioritize key chemical stressors within a given community?; (2) How to develop estimates of exposure to multiple stressors for individuals in epidemiologic studies?; and (3) What tools can be used to assess community-level distributions of exposures for the development and evaluation of the effectiveness of risk reduction strategies? This paper provides community partners and scientific researchers with an understanding of the NERL research program and other efforts to address cumulative community risks; and key research needs and opportunities. Some initial findings include the following: (1) Many useful tools exist for components of risk assessment, but need to be developed collaboratively with end users and made more comprehensive and user-friendly for practical application; (2) Tools for quantifying cumulative risks and impact of community risk reduction activities are also needed; (3) More data are needed to assess community- and individual-level exposures, and to link exposure-related information with health effects; and (4) Additional research is needed to incorporate risk-modifying factors ("non-chemical stressors") into cumulative risk assessments. The products of this

  15. Mapping cumulative environmental risks: examples from the EU NoMiracle project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pistocchi, A.; Groenwold, J.; Lahr, J.; Loos, M.; Mujica, M.; Ragas, A.M.J.; Rallo, R.; Sala, S.; Schlink, U.; Strebel, K.; Vighi, M.; Vizcaino, P.

    2011-01-01

    We present examples of cumulative chemical risk mapping methods developed within the NoMiracle project. The different examples illustrate the application of the concentration addition (CA) approach to pesticides at different scale, the integration in space of cumulative risks to individual organisms

  16. Cumulative occupational mechanical exposures during working life and risk of sickness absence and disability pension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Hansen, Åse Marie; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2017-01-01

    and Midlife Biobank with a job exposure matrix and a national register containing information on social transfer payment. By coding individual job histories from the Danish version of ISCO-codes (International Standard Classification of Occupations), we calculated cumulative occupational mechanical exposures......-regression analyses estimated the relative risk of register-based long-term sickness absence (LTSA) and disability pension with cumulative occupational mechanical exposures throughout working life. Analyses were censored for competing events and adjusted for multiple confounders. Results: During the follow-up period......, 970 persons (19.3%) had ≥1 episode of LTSA and 85 persons (1.7%) were granted a disability pension. Number of ton-, lifting- and kneeling-years showed an exposure-response association with increased risk of LTSA (P

  17. Cumulative Effects of Exposure to Violence on Posttraumatic Stress in Palestinian and Israeli Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubow, Eric F.; Boxer, Paul; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Landau, Simha; Dvir, Shira; Shikaki, Khalil; Ginges, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    We examine cumulative and prospective effects of exposure to conflict and violence across four contexts (ethnic-political, community, family, school) on posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms in Palestinian and Israeli youth. Interviews were conducted with 600 Palestinian and 901 Israeli (Jewish and Arab) children (ages 8, 11, and 14) and their…

  18. Quantitative assessment of cumulative damage from repetitive exposures to suberythemogenic doses of UVA in human skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavker, R.M.; Kaidbey, K.H.

    1995-01-01

    Daily exposures to relatively small suberythemogenic fluences of UVA (50-200 kJ/m 2 ) for 8 days resulted in cumulative morphological skin alterations indicative of early tissue injury. Histologically, irradiated skin revealed epidermal hyperplasia, inflammation and deposition of lysozyme along the dermal elastic fiber network. Sunburn cells were also present within the epidermis. These changes were quantified by image analysis and were found to be related to the cumulative UVA fluence. A long UVA waveband (UVAI, 340-400 nm) was as effective as a broad UVA band (320-400 nm), suggesting that these changes are induced by longer UVA wavelengths. (author)

  19. Cumulative exposure to dust and gases as determinants of lung function decline in tunnel construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakke, B; Ulvestad, B; Stewart, P; Eduard, W

    2004-03-01

    To study the relation between lung function decrease and cumulative exposure to dust and gases in tunnel construction workers. A total of 651 male construction workers (drill and blast workers, tunnel concrete workers, shotcreting operators, and tunnel boring machine workers) were followed up by spirometric measurements in 1989-2002 for an average of six years. Outdoor concrete workers, foremen, and engineers served as a low exposed referent population. The between worker component of variability was considerably reduced within the job groups compared to the whole population, suggesting that the workers within job groups had similar exposure levels. The annual decrease in FEV1 in low-exposed non-smoking workers was 21 ml and 24 ml in low-exposed ever smokers. The annual decrease in FEV1 in tunnel construction workers was 20-31 ml higher than the low exposed workers depending on job group for both non-smokers and ever smokers. After adjustment for age and observation time, cumulative exposure to nitrogen dioxide showed the strongest association with a decrease in FEV1 in both non-smokers, and ever smokers. Cumulative exposure to nitrogen dioxide appeared to be a major risk factor for lung function decreases in these tunnel construction workers, although other agents may have contributed to the observed effect. Contact with blasting fumes should be avoided, diesel exhaust emissions should be reduced, and respiratory devices should be used to protect workers against dust and nitrogen dioxide exposure.

  20. Cumulative risk assessment of phthalate exposure of Danish children and adolescents using the hazard index approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søeborg, T; Frederiksen, H; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2012-01-01

    Human risk assessment of chemicals is traditionally presented as the ratio between the actual level of exposure and an acceptable level of exposure, with the acceptable level of exposure most often being estimated by appropriate authorities. This approach is generally sound when assessing the risk...... of individual chemicals. However, several chemicals may concurrently target the same receptor, work through the same mechanism or in other ways induce the same effect(s) in the body. In these cases, cumulative risk assessment should be applied. The present study uses biomonitoring data from 129 Danish children...... and adolescents and resulting estimated daily intakes of four different phthalates. These daily intake estimates are used for a cumulative risk assessment with anti-androgenic effects as the endpoint using Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) values determined by the European Food Safety Authorities (EFSA) or Reference...

  1. The Contribution of Project Environmental Assessment to Assessing and Managing Cumulative Effects: Individually and Collectively Insignificant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Bram; Liu, Jialang; Hackett, Paul

    2017-04-01

    This paper explores the opportunities and constraints to project-based environmental assessment as a means to support the assessment and management of cumulative environmental effects. A case study of the hydroelectric sector is used to determine whether sufficient information is available over time through project-by-project assessments to support an adequate understanding of cumulative change. Results show inconsistency from one project to the next in terms of the components and indicators assessed, limited transfer of baseline information between project assessments over time, and the same issues and concerns being raised by review panels-even though the projects reviewed are operating in the same watershed and operated by the same proponent. Project environmental assessments must be managed, and coordinated, as part of a larger system of impact assessment, if project-by-project assessments are to provide a meaningful forum for learning and understanding cumulative change. The paper concludes with recommendations for improved project-based assessment practice in support of cumulative effects assessment and management.

  2. Aggregate Exposure and Cumulative Risk Assessment--Integrating Occupational and Non-occupational Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, T J; Dotson, G S; Williams, P R D; Maier, A; Gadagbui, B; Pandalai, S P; Lamba, A; Hearl, F; Mumtaz, M

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure limits have traditionally focused on preventing morbidity and mortality arising from inhalation exposures to individual chemical stressors in the workplace. While central to occupational risk assessment, occupational exposure limits have limited application as a refined disease prevention tool because they do not account for all of the complexities of the work and non-occupational environments and are based on varying health endpoints. To be of greater utility, occupational exposure limits and other risk management tools could integrate broader consideration of risks from multiple exposure pathways and routes (aggregate risk) as well as the combined risk from exposure to both chemical and non-chemical stressors, within and beyond the workplace, including the possibility that such exposures may cause interactions or modify the toxic effects observed (cumulative risk). Although still at a rudimentary stage in many cases, a variety of methods and tools have been developed or are being used in allied risk assessment fields to incorporate such considerations in the risk assessment process. These approaches, which are collectively referred to as cumulative risk assessment, have potential to be adapted or modified for occupational scenarios and provide a tangible path forward for occupational risk assessment. Accounting for complex exposures in the workplace and the broader risks faced by the individual also requires a more complete consideration of the composite effects of occupational and non-occupational risk factors to fully assess and manage worker health problems. Barriers to integrating these different factors remain, but new and ongoing community-based and worker health-related initiatives may provide mechanisms for identifying and integrating risk from aggregate exposures and cumulative risks from all relevant sources, be they occupational or non-occupational.

  3. Cumulative ionizing radiation exposure in patients with end stage kidney disease: a 6-year retrospective analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coyle, Joe

    2011-08-13

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify cumulative exposure to ionizing radiation in patients with end stage kidney disease (ESKD). To investigate factors which may be independently associated with risk of high cumulative effective dose (CED). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study had local institutional review board ethical approval. We conducted a retrospective study of 394 period prevalent ESKD patients attending a single tertiary referral centre between 2004 and 2009. Patient demographics were obtained from case records. Details of radiological investigations were obtained from the institutional radiology computerized database. CED was calculated using standard procedure specific radiation levels. High exposure was defined as CED > 50 mSv, an exposure which has been reported to increase cancer mortality by 5%. Data were compared using Pearson χ(2) and Mann-Whitney U test or Kruskal-Wallis tests. RESULTS: 394 patients were followed for a median of 4 years (1518 patient years follow-up). Of these 63% were male. Seventeen percent of patients had a CED of >50 mSv. Computed tomography (CT) accounted for 9% of total radiological studies\\/procedures while contributing 61.4% of total study dose. Median cumulative dose and median dose per patient year were significantly higher in the hemodialysis (HD) group (15.13 and 5.79 mSv, respectively) compared to the post-transplant group (2.9 and 0.52 mSv, respectively) (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: ESKD patients are at risk of cumulative exposure to significant levels of diagnostic radiation. The majority of this exposure is imparted as a result of CT examinations to patients in the HD group.

  4. Cumulative occupational mechanical exposures during working life and risk of sickness absence and disability pension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Hansen, Åse Marie; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2017-01-01

    -regression analyses estimated the relative risk of register-based long-term sickness absence (LTSA) and disability pension with cumulative occupational mechanical exposures throughout working life. Analyses were censored for competing events and adjusted for multiple confounders. Results: During the follow-up period......Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prospective association of cumulative mechanical exposure during working life with health-related labor market outcomes. Methods: This prospective cohort study combines data from 5076 older workers (age 49-63 years) from the Copenhagen Aging...... from a JEM for ton-years (lifting 1000 kg each day in one year), lifting-years (lifting loads weighing ≥20 kg >10 times each day in one year), kneeling-years (kneeling for one hour each day in one year) and vibration-years (whole-body vibration for one hour each day in one year). Cox...

  5. Cumulative effects of repeated exposure to pO2 = 200 kPa (2 atm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shykoff, Barbara E

    2014-01-01

    Even asymptomatic exposures to elevated oxygen partial pressure (pO2) can influence subsequent exposures. Dry chamber dives of three hours' duration at pO2 of 200 kPa were conducted to examine cumulative effects. Experiments were single (n = 27), or paired exposures with surface intervals (SIs) 15 to 17 hours (n = 30), six hours (n = 33), or three hours (n = 36). Flow-volume loops, diffusing capacity, and symptoms were recorded before and after exposures. Immediately after surfacing from second exposures, some significant (p < 0.05) mean changes from baseline in pulmonary function indices occurred for all SIs and persisted for two days for three-hour SIs and for one day for 15-hour SIs. Incidences of symptoms were 15% immediately after one exposure and 28%, 38% and 31% immediately after a second exposure following 15-, six- , or three-hour SIs, respectively. Incidences of changes in pulmonary function indices (deltaPF) were 5%, 11%, 12% and 14% for single exposures or two with 15-, six-, or three-hour SIs, respectively. Two days following the second exposure, resolution of symptoms was incomplete after six- or 15-hour SIs, as was resolution of deltaPF after 15-hour SIs. The incidences indicate non-linear superposition of effects of a first and second exposure, and are not readily explained by delayed-onset injury.

  6. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Borde, Amy B.; Dawley, Earl M.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Putman, Douglas A.; Roegner, G. C.; Russell, Micah; Skalski, John R.; Thom, Ronald M.; Vavrinec, John

    2008-10-01

    The goal of this multi-year study (2004-2010) is to develop a methodology to evaluate the cumulative effects of multiple habitat restoration projects intended to benefit ecosystems supporting juvenile salmonids in the lower Columbia River and estuary. Literature review in 2004 revealed no existing methods for such an evaluation and suggested that cumulative effects could be additive or synergistic. Field research in 2005, 2006, and 2007 involved intensive, comparative studies paired by habitat type (tidal swamp vs. marsh), trajectory (restoration vs. reference site), and restoration action (tide gate vs. culvert vs. dike breach). The field work established two kinds of monitoring indicators for eventual cumulative effects analysis: core and higher-order indicators. Management implications of limitations and applications of site-specific effectiveness monitoring and cumulative effects analysis were identified.

  7. Cumulative exposure to prior collective trauma and acute stress responses to the Boston marathon bombings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfin, Dana Rose; Holman, E Alison; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2015-06-01

    The role of repeated exposure to collective trauma in explaining response to subsequent community-wide trauma is poorly understood. We examined the relationship between acute stress response to the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings and prior direct and indirect media-based exposure to three collective traumatic events: the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks, Superstorm Sandy, and the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting. Representative samples of residents of metropolitan Boston (n = 846) and New York City (n = 941) completed Internet-based surveys shortly after the Boston Marathon bombings. Cumulative direct exposure and indirect exposure to prior community trauma and acute stress symptoms were assessed. Acute stress levels did not differ between Boston and New York metropolitan residents. Cumulative direct and indirect, live-media-based exposure to 9/11, Superstorm Sandy, and the Sandy Hook shooting were positively associated with acute stress responses in the covariate-adjusted model. People who experience multiple community-based traumas may be sensitized to the negative impact of subsequent events, especially in communities previously exposed to similar disasters. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Borde, Amy B.; Bryson, Amanda J.; Cameron, April; Coleman, Andre M.; Corbett, C.; Dawley, Earl M.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Kauffman, Ronald; Roegner, G. Curtis; Russell, Micah T.; Silva, April; Skalski, John R.; Thom, Ronald M.; Vavrinec, John; Woodruff, Dana L.; Zimmerman, Shon A.

    2010-10-26

    This is the sixth annual report of a seven-year project (2004 through 2010) to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat restoration actions in the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE). The project, called the Cumulative Effects Study, is being conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District (USACE) by the Marine Sciences Laboratory of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), the Pt. Adams Biological Field Station of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST), and the University of Washington. The goal of the Cumulative Effects Study is to develop a methodology to evaluate the cumulative effects of multiple habitat restoration projects intended to benefit ecosystems supporting juvenile salmonids in the 235-km-long LCRE. Literature review in 2004 revealed no existing methods for such an evaluation and suggested that cumulative effects could be additive or synergistic. From 2005 through 2009, annual field research involved intensive, comparative studies paired by habitat type (tidal swamp versus marsh), trajectory (restoration versus reference site), and restoration action (tidegate replacement vs. culvert replacement vs. dike breach).

  9. Cumulative health risk assessment: integrated approaches for multiple contaminants, exposures, and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, Glenn; Teuschler, Linda; MacDonel, Margaret; Butler, Jim; Finster, Molly; Hertzberg, Rick; Harou, Lynne

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: As information about environmental contamination has increased in recent years, so has public interest in the combined effects of multiple contaminants. This interest has been highlighted by recent tragedies such as the World Trade Center disaster and hurricane Katrina. In fact, assessing multiple contaminants, exposures, and effects has long been an issue for contaminated sites, including U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) legacy waste sites. Local citizens have explicitly asked the federal government to account for cumulative risks, with contaminants moving offsite via groundwater flow, surface runoff, and air dispersal being a common emphasis. Multiple exposures range from ingestion and inhalation to dermal absorption and external gamma irradiation. Three types of concerns can lead to cumulative assessments: (1) specific sources or releases - e.g., industrial facilities or accidental discharges; (2) contaminant levels - in environmental media or human tissues; and (3) elevated rates of disease - e.g., asthma or cancer. The specific initiator frames the assessment strategy, including a determination of appropriate models to be used. Approaches are being developed to better integrate a variety of data, extending from environmental to internal co-location of contaminants and combined effects, to support more practical assessments of cumulative health risks. (authors)

  10. The injury and cumulative effects on human skin by UV exposure from artificial fluorescence emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yan; Liu, Wei; Niu, TianHui; Dai, CaiHong; Li, Xiaoxin; Cui, Caijuan; Zhao, Xinyan; E, Yaping; Lu, Hui

    2014-01-01

    The injury and cumulative effects of UV emission from fluorescence lamp were studied. UV intensity from fluorescence lamp was measured, and human skin samples (hips, 10 volunteers) were exposed to low-dose UV irradiation (three times per week for 13 consecutive weeks). Three groups were examined: control group without UV radiation; low-dose group with a cumulative dose of 50 J cm(-2) which was equivalent to irradiation of the face during indoor work for 1.5 years; and high-dose group with 1000 J cm(-2) cumulative dose equivalent to irradiation of the face during outdoor activities for 1 year. Specific indicators were measured before and after UVA irradiation. The findings showed that extending the low-dose UVA exposure decreased the skin moisture content and increased the transepidermal water loss as well as induced skin color changes (decreased L* value, increased M index). Furthermore, irradiated skin showed an increased thickness of cuticle and epidermis, skin edema, light color and unclear staining collagen fibers in the dermis, and elastic fiber fragmentation. In addition, MMP-1, p53 and SIRT1 expression was also increased. Long-term exposure of low-dose UVA radiation enhanced skin photoaging. The safety of the fluorescent lamp needs our attention. © 2014 The American Society of Photobiology.

  11. Estimating the distribution of lifetime cumulative radon exposures for California residents: a brief summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, K.-S.; Chang, Y.-L.; Hayward, S.B.; Gadgil, A.J.; Nero, A.V.

    1992-01-01

    Data on residential radon concentrations in California, together with information on California residents' moving houses and time-activity patterns, have been used to estimate the distribution of lifetime cumulative exposures to 222 Rn. This distribution was constructed using Monte Carlo techniques to simulate the lifetime occupancy histories and associated radon exposures of 10,000 California residents. For standard male and female lifespans, the simulation sampled from transition probability matrices representing changes of residence within and between six regions of California, as well as into and out of the other United States, and then sampled from the appropriate regional (or national) distribution of indoor concentrations. The resulting distribution of lifetime cumulative exposures has a significantly narrower relative width than the distribution of California indoor concentrations, with only a small fraction (less than 0.2%) of the population having lifetime exposures equivalent to living their lifetimes in a single home with a radon concentration of 148 Bq.m -3 or more. (author)

  12. In vivo measurements of lead-210 for assessing cumulative radon exposure in uranium miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilmette, R.A.; Laurer, G.R. [New York Univ. Inst. of Environmental Medicine, Tuxedo, NY (United States); Lambert, W.E.; Gilliland, F.D. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    It has long been recognized that a major contributor to the uncertainty in risk analysis of lung cancer in uranium and other hard rock miners is the estimation of total radon progeny exposure of individual miners under study. These uncertainties arise from the fact that only a limited number of measurements of airborne {sup 222}Rn progeny concentrations were made in the mines during the times that the miners were being exposed, and that dosimeters capable of integrating the Rn progeny exposures of the miners did not exist. Historically, the cumulative exposures for individual uranium and other hard rock miners have been calculated by combining the employee`s work history, which may or may not have included time spent at different jobs within the mines and at different locations within the mines, with whatever periodic measurements of Rn and Rn progeny were available. The amount and quality of the measurement data varied enormously from mine to mine and from population to population. Because the quality of the exposure data collected during the period of active mining in the United STates cannot now be altered substantially, significant improvement in individual miner exposure estimates is only likely to be achieved if a new cumulative exposure metric is developed and implemented. The decay chain of Rn includes the production of {sup 210}Pb, which can accumulate in the skeleton in amounts proportional to the intake of Rn progeny. We hypothesize that the in vivo measurement of {sup 210}Pb in the skulls of miners will provide such a metric. In summary, the primary purpose of this pilot study to demonstrate the feasibility of measuring {sup 210}Pb in the heads of former uranium miners has been accomplished.

  13. In vivo measurements of lead-210 for assessing cumulative radon exposure in uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilmette, R.A.; Laurer, G.R.; Lambert, W.E.; Gilliland, F.D.

    1995-01-01

    It has long been recognized that a major contributor to the uncertainty in risk analysis of lung cancer in uranium and other hard rock miners is the estimation of total radon progeny exposure of individual miners under study. These uncertainties arise from the fact that only a limited number of measurements of airborne 222 Rn progeny concentrations were made in the mines during the times that the miners were being exposed, and that dosimeters capable of integrating the Rn progeny exposures of the miners did not exist. Historically, the cumulative exposures for individual uranium and other hard rock miners have been calculated by combining the employee's work history, which may or may not have included time spent at different jobs within the mines and at different locations within the mines, with whatever periodic measurements of Rn and Rn progeny were available. The amount and quality of the measurement data varied enormously from mine to mine and from population to population. Because the quality of the exposure data collected during the period of active mining in the United STates cannot now be altered substantially, significant improvement in individual miner exposure estimates is only likely to be achieved if a new cumulative exposure metric is developed and implemented. The decay chain of Rn includes the production of 210 Pb, which can accumulate in the skeleton in amounts proportional to the intake of Rn progeny. We hypothesize that the in vivo measurement of 210 Pb in the skulls of miners will provide such a metric. In summary, the primary purpose of this pilot study to demonstrate the feasibility of measuring 210 Pb in the heads of former uranium miners has been accomplished

  14. Cumulative exposure to shift work and sickness absence: associations in a five-year historic cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Drongelen, Alwin; Boot, Cécile R L; Hlobil, Hynek; van der Beek, Allard J; Smid, Tjabe

    2017-01-11

    Exposure to shift work has been associated with negative health consequences, although the association between shift work and sickness absence remains unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate associations between cumulative exposure to shift work and sickness absence among ground staff employees of an airline company. This study used data from the MORE (Monitoring Occupational Health Risks in Employees) cohort, which is a 5-year historic cohort. The population of the present study consisted of 7562 ground staff employees. For each employee, work schedules and sickness absence days between 2005 and 2009 were obtained from company records. For the exposure to different shift schedule types and to the cumulative number of night shifts, the association with long-term sickness absence (>7 consecutive sickness absence days) and the number of sickness absence episodes during 2009, was calculated using logistic and Poisson regression analyses. Socio-demographic variables, work-related variables, job classification variables, and previous sickness absence days were regarded as confounders. After adjusting for previous sickness absence and job classification variables, only the group of employees that switched into working in a three-shift schedule, showed a significantly increased risk for long-term sickness absence (OR = 1.31, 95%CI 1.02-1.69). Night shift exposure was not significantly associated with long-term sickness absence. Exposure to shift work was negatively associated with more sickness absence episodes. Employees who were exposed to more than 46 night shifts also showed a lower risk for more sickness absence episodes. Subgroup analyses showed that single employees and employees without children had an increased risk for long-term sickness absence when exposed to a three-shift schedule, and when they had changed between shift schedule types. Cumulative exposure to shift work proved to be negatively associated with more sickness absence episodes, and

  15. Cumulative exposure to shift work and sickness absence: associations in a five-year historic cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alwin van Drongelen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to shift work has been associated with negative health consequences, although the association between shift work and sickness absence remains unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate associations between cumulative exposure to shift work and sickness absence among ground staff employees of an airline company. Methods This study used data from the MORE (Monitoring Occupational Health Risks in Employees cohort, which is a 5-year historic cohort. The population of the present study consisted of 7562 ground staff employees. For each employee, work schedules and sickness absence days between 2005 and 2009 were obtained from company records. For the exposure to different shift schedule types and to the cumulative number of night shifts, the association with long-term sickness absence (>7 consecutive sickness absence days and the number of sickness absence episodes during 2009, was calculated using logistic and Poisson regression analyses. Socio-demographic variables, work-related variables, job classification variables, and previous sickness absence days were regarded as confounders. Results After adjusting for previous sickness absence and job classification variables, only the group of employees that switched into working in a three-shift schedule, showed a significantly increased risk for long-term sickness absence (OR = 1.31, 95%CI 1.02–1.69. Night shift exposure was not significantly associated with long-term sickness absence. Exposure to shift work was negatively associated with more sickness absence episodes. Employees who were exposed to more than 46 night shifts also showed a lower risk for more sickness absence episodes. Subgroup analyses showed that single employees and employees without children had an increased risk for long-term sickness absence when exposed to a three-shift schedule, and when they had changed between shift schedule types. Conclusions Cumulative exposure to shift work proved to

  16. Psychobiology of cumulative trauma: hair cortisol as a risk marker for stress exposure in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Matthew C; Abelson, James L; Mielock, Alyssa S; Rao, Uma

    2017-07-01

    Childhood trauma (CT) is associated with long-lasting alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and elevated risk for stress exposure in adulthood. Although HPA alterations are present in the early aftermath of trauma, it remains unclear how initial HPA activity is associated with subsequent stress exposure and whether CT exposure influences the strength and direction of this association. The present study examined prospective associations between hair cortisol content (HCC) and stress exposure from baseline to 3-month follow-up in young adult women with recent (i.e. past 3 months) exposure to interpersonal violence (IPV; i.e. physical or sexual assault) and non-traumatized controls. History of significant CT abuse or neglect was determined based on clinical cutoffs for a self-report CT measure: 12 women had abuse or neglect and recent IPV exposure (CT + IPV); 7 women had abuse or neglect but no IPV exposure (CT); 15 women had no history of trauma (NTC). HCC was computed for 3 cm sections reflecting cortisol secretion during the 3 months preceding the baseline assessment. The interaction of cumulative trauma and HCC predicted stress exposure over 3-month follow-up, controlling for baseline stress exposure and depressive symptoms. Simple slopes analyses revealed that lower baseline HCC predicted greater stress exposure in the CT + IPV group compared to the CT group; HCC was not associated with stress exposure in the NTC group. The present findings highlight the potential utility of HCC as a predictor of stress exposure for women with a history of childhood abuse or neglect, particularly in the context of recent IPV. Lay summary Adults with a history of CT show long-lasting alterations in major stress response systems, including the HPA axis. They are also more likely to experience stressful life events in adulthood. However, it is not clear how altered HPA activity influences risk for stress exposure and whether CT affects their

  17. Evaluation of Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Thom, Ronald M.; Roegner, G. Curtis; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Skalski, John R.; Borde, Amy B.; Dawley, Earl; Coleman, Andre M.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Breithaupt, Stephen A.; Cameron, April; Corbett, C.; Donley, Erin E.; Jay, D. A.; Ke, Yinghai; Leffler, K.; McNeil, C.; Studebaker, Cindy; Tagestad, Jerry D.

    2012-05-01

    This is the seventh and final annual report of a project (2004–2010) addressing evaluation of the cumulative effects of habitat restoration actions in the 235-km-long lower Columbia River and estuary. The project, called the Cumulative Effects (CE) study, was conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District by a collaboration of research agencies led by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. We achieved the primary goal of the CE study to develop a methodology to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat actions in the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program. We delivered 1) standard monitoring protocols and methods to prioritize monitoring activities; 2) the theoretical and empirical basis for a CE methodology using levels-of-evidence; 3) evaluations of cumulative effects using ecological relationships, geo-referenced data, hydrodynamic modeling, and meta-analyses; and 4) an adaptive management process to coordinate and coalesce restoration efforts in the LCRE. A solid foundation has been laid for future comprehensive evaluations of progress made by the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program to understand, conserve, and restore ecosystems in the lower Columbia River and estuary.

  18. Ozone pollution and ozone biomonitoring in European cities. Part I: Ozone concentrations and cumulative exposure indices at urban and suburban sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpp, A.; Ansel, W.; Klumpp, G.

    2006-01-01

    In the frame of a European research project on air quality in urban agglomerations, data on ozone concentrations from 23 automated urban and suburban monitoring stations in 11 cities from seven countries were analysed and evaluated. Daily and summer mean and maximum concentrations were computed...... based on hourly mean values, and cumulative ozone exposure indices (Accumulated exposure Over a Threshold of 40 ppb (AOT40), AOT20) were calculated. The diurnal profiles showed a characteristic pattern in most city centres, with minimum values in the early morning hours, a strong rise during the morning......, by contrast, maximum values were lower and diurnal variation was much smaller. Based on ozone concentrations as well as on cumulative exposure indices, a clear north-south gradient in ozone pollution, with increasing levels from northern and northwestern sites to central and southern European sites...

  19. Cumulative biological impacts framework for solar energy projects in the California Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Frank W.; Kreitler, Jason R.; Soong, Oliver; Stoms, David M.; Dashiell, Stephanie; Hannah, Lee; Wilkinson, Whitney; Dingman, John

    2013-01-01

    This project developed analytical approaches, tools and geospatial data to support conservation planning for renewable energy development in the California deserts. Research focused on geographical analysis to avoid, minimize and mitigate the cumulative biological effects of utility-scale solar energy development. A hierarchical logic model was created to map the compatibility of new solar energy projects with current biological conservation values. The research indicated that the extent of compatible areas is much greater than the estimated land area required to achieve 2040 greenhouse gas reduction goals. Species distribution models were produced for 65 animal and plant species that were of potential conservation significance to the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan process. These models mapped historical and projected future habitat suitability using 270 meter resolution climate grids. The results were integrated into analytical frameworks to locate potential sites for offsetting project impacts and evaluating the cumulative effects of multiple solar energy projects. Examples applying these frameworks in the Western Mojave Desert ecoregion show the potential of these publicly-available tools to assist regional planning efforts. Results also highlight the necessity to explicitly consider projected land use change and climate change when prioritizing areas for conservation and mitigation offsets. Project data, software and model results are all available online.

  20. Cumulative toxicity of neonicotinoid insecticide mixtures to Chironomus dilutus under acute exposure scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Erin M; Morrissey, Christy A; Headley, John V; Peru, Kerry M; Liber, Karsten

    2017-11-01

    Extensive agricultural use of neonicotinoid insecticide products has resulted in the presence of neonicotinoid mixtures in surface waters worldwide. Although many aquatic insect species are known to be sensitive to neonicotinoids, the impact of neonicotinoid mixtures is poorly understood. In the present study, the cumulative toxicities of binary and ternary mixtures of select neonicotinoids (imidacloprid, clothianidin, and thiamethoxam) were characterized under acute (96-h) exposure scenarios using the larval midge Chironomus dilutus as a representative aquatic insect species. Using the MIXTOX approach, predictive parametric models were fitted and statistically compared with observed toxicity in subsequent mixture tests. Single-compound toxicity tests yielded median lethal concentration (LC50) values of 4.63, 5.93, and 55.34 μg/L for imidacloprid, clothianidin, and thiamethoxam, respectively. Because of the similar modes of action of neonicotinoids, concentration-additive cumulative mixture toxicity was the predicted model. However, we found that imidacloprid-clothianidin mixtures demonstrated response-additive dose-level-dependent synergism, clothianidin-thiamethoxam mixtures demonstrated concentration-additive synergism, and imidacloprid-thiamethoxam mixtures demonstrated response-additive dose-ratio-dependent synergism, with toxicity shifting from antagonism to synergism as the relative concentration of thiamethoxam increased. Imidacloprid-clothianidin-thiamethoxam ternary mixtures demonstrated response-additive synergism. These results indicate that, under acute exposure scenarios, the toxicity of neonicotinoid mixtures to C. dilutus cannot be predicted using the common assumption of additive joint activity. Indeed, the overarching trend of synergistic deviation emphasizes the need for further research into the ecotoxicological effects of neonicotinoid insecticide mixtures in field settings, the development of better toxicity models for neonicotinoid mixture

  1. Skin barrier integrity and natural moisturising factor levels after cumulative dermal exposure to alkaline agents in atopic dermatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelova-Fischer, Irena; Dapic, Irena; Hoek, Anne-Karin; Jakasa, Ivone; Fischer, Tobias W.; Zillikens, Detlef; Kezic, Sanja

    2014-01-01

    Dermal exposure to alkaline agents may lead to skin barrier damage and irritant contact dermatitis. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of cumulative exposure to 0.5% sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) and 0.15% NaOH on the barrier function and natural moisturising factor (NMF)

  2. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Roegner, Curtis; Thom, Ronald M.; Dawley, Earl M.; Whiting, Allan H.; Johnson, Gary E.; Sobocinski, Kathryn L.; Anderson, Michael G.; Ebberts, Blaine

    2005-12-15

    The restoration of wetland salmon habitat in the tidal portion of the Columbia River is occurring at an accelerating pace and is anticipated to improve habitat quality and effect hydrological reconnection between existing and restored habitats. Currently multiple groups are applying a variety of restoration strategies in an attempt to emulate historic estuarine processes. However, the region lacks both a standardized means of evaluating the effectiveness of individual projects as well as methods for determining the cumulative effects of all restoration projects on a regional scale. This project is working to establish a framework to evaluate individual and cumulative ecosystem responses to restoration activities in order to validate the effectiveness of habitat restoration activities designed to benefit salmon through improvements to habitat quality and habitat opportunity (i.e. access) in the Columbia River from Bonneville Dam to the ocean. The review and synthesis of approaches to measure the cumulative effects of multiple restoration projects focused on defining methods and metrics of relevance to the CRE, and, in particular, juvenile salmon use of this system. An extensive literature review found no previous study assessing the cumulative effects of multiple restoration projects on the fundamental processes and functions of a large estuarine system, although studies are underway in other large land-margin ecosystems including the Florida Everglades and the Louisiana coastal wetlands. Literature from a variety of scientific disciplines was consulted to identify the ways that effects can accumulate (e.g., delayed effects, cross-boundary effects, compounding effects, indirect effects, triggers and thresholds) as well as standard and innovative tools and methods utilized in cumulative effects analyses: conceptual models, matrices, checklists, modeling, trends analysis, geographic information systems, carrying capacity analysis, and ecosystem analysis. Potential

  3. Cumulative exposure to childhood stressors and subsequent psychological distress. An analysis of US panel data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkenstam, Emma; Burström, Bo; Brännström, Lars; Vinnerljung, Bo; Björkenstam, Charlotte; Pebley, Anne R

    2015-10-01

    Research has shown that childhood stress increases the risk of poor mental health later in life. We examined the effect of childhood stressors on psychological distress and self-reported depression in young adulthood. Data were obtained from the Child Development Supplement (CDS) to the national Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), a survey of US families that incorporates data from parents and their children. In 2005 and 2007, the Panel Study of Income Dynamics was supplemented with two waves of Transition into Adulthood (TA) data drawn from a national sample of young adults, 18-23 years old. This study included data from participants in the CDS and the TA (n = 2128), children aged 4-13 at baseline. Data on current psychological distress was used as an outcome variable in logistic regressions, calculated as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Latent Class Analyses were used to identify clusters based on the different childhood stressors. Associations were observed between cumulative exposure to childhood stressors and both psychological distress and self-reported depression. Individuals being exposed to three or more stressors had the highest risk (crude OR for psychological distress: 2.49 (95% CI: 1.16-5.33), crude OR for self-reported depression: 2.07 (95% CI: 1.15-3.71). However, a large part was explained by adolescent depressive symptoms. Findings support the long-term negative impact of cumulative exposure to childhood stress on psychological distress. The important role of adolescent depression in this association also needs to be taken into consideration in future studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Family Income, Cumulative Risk Exposure, and White Matter Structure in Middle Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J. Dufford

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Family income is associated with gray matter morphometry in children, but little is known about the relationship between family income and white matter structure. In this paper, using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics, a whole brain, voxel-wise approach, we examined the relationship between family income (assessed by income-to-needs ratio and white matter organization in middle childhood (N = 27, M = 8.66 years. Results from a non-parametric, voxel-wise, multiple regression (threshold-free cluster enhancement, p < 0.05 FWE corrected indicated that lower family income was associated with lower white matter organization [assessed by fractional anisotropy (FA] for several clusters in white matter tracts involved in cognitive and emotional functions including fronto-limbic circuitry (uncinate fasciculus and cingulum bundle, association fibers (inferior longitudinal fasciculus, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and corticospinal tracts. Further, we examined the possibility that cumulative risk (CR exposure might function as one of the potential pathways by which family income influences neural outcomes. Using multiple regressions, we found lower FA in portions of these tracts, including those found in the left cingulum bundle and left superior longitudinal fasciculus, was significantly related to greater exposure to CR (β = -0.47, p < 0.05 and β = -0.45, p < 0.05.

  5. Modeling the Cumulative Effects of Social Exposures on Health: Moving beyond Disease-Specific Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather L. White

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The traditional explanatory models used in epidemiology are “disease specific”, identifying risk factors for specific health conditions. Yet social exposures lead to a generalized, cumulative health impact which may not be specific to one illness. Disease-specific models may therefore misestimate social factors’ effects on health. Using data from the Canadian Community Health Survey and Canada 2001 Census we construct and compare “disease-specific” and “generalized health impact” (GHI models to gauge the negative health effects of one social exposure: socioeconomic position (SEP. We use logistic and multinomial multilevel modeling with neighbourhood-level material deprivation, individual-level education and household income to compare and contrast the two approaches. In disease-specific models, the social determinants under study were each associated with the health conditions of interest. However, larger effect sizes were apparent when outcomes were modeled as compound health problems (0, 1, 2, or 3+ conditions using the GHI approach. To more accurately estimate social exposures’ impacts on population health, researchers should consider a GHI framework.

  6. A Conceptual Framework for the Assessment of Cumulative Exposure to Air Pollution at a Fine Spatial Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kihal-Talantikite Wahida

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Many epidemiological studies examining long-term health effects of exposure to air pollutants have characterized exposure by the outdoor air concentrations at sites that may be distant to subjects’ residences at different points in time. The temporal and spatial mobility of subjects and the spatial scale of exposure assessment could thus lead to misclassification in the cumulative exposure estimation. This paper attempts to fill the gap regarding cumulative exposure assessment to air pollution at a fine spatial scale in epidemiological studies investigating long-term health effects. We propose a conceptual framework showing how major difficulties in cumulative long-term exposure assessment could be surmounted. We then illustrate this conceptual model on the case of exposure to NO2 following two steps: (i retrospective reconstitution of NO2 concentrations at a fine spatial scale; and (ii a novel approach to assigning the time-relevant exposure estimates at the census block level, using all available data on residential mobility throughout a 10- to 20-year period prior to that for which the health events are to be detected. Our conceptual framework is both flexible and convenient for the needs of different epidemiological study designs.

  7. A Conceptual Framework for the Assessment of Cumulative Exposure to Air Pollution at a Fine Spatial Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahida, Kihal-Talantikite; Padilla, Cindy M.; Denis, Zmirou-Navier; Olivier, Blanchard; Géraldine, Le Nir; Philippe, Quenel; Séverine, Deguen

    2016-01-01

    Many epidemiological studies examining long-term health effects of exposure to air pollutants have characterized exposure by the outdoor air concentrations at sites that may be distant to subjects’ residences at different points in time. The temporal and spatial mobility of subjects and the spatial scale of exposure assessment could thus lead to misclassification in the cumulative exposure estimation. This paper attempts to fill the gap regarding cumulative exposure assessment to air pollution at a fine spatial scale in epidemiological studies investigating long-term health effects. We propose a conceptual framework showing how major difficulties in cumulative long-term exposure assessment could be surmounted. We then illustrate this conceptual model on the case of exposure to NO2 following two steps: (i) retrospective reconstitution of NO2 concentrations at a fine spatial scale; and (ii) a novel approach to assigning the time-relevant exposure estimates at the census block level, using all available data on residential mobility throughout a 10- to 20-year period prior to that for which the health events are to be detected. Our conceptual framework is both flexible and convenient for the needs of different epidemiological study designs. PMID:26999170

  8. A Psychoneuroimmunologic Examination of Cumulative Perinatal Steroid Exposures and Preterm Infant Behavioral Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, Isabell B.; Smith, Lynne; Wiley, Dorothy; Badr, Lina

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study’s aim was to explore relationships between preterm infant behavioral outcomes and maternal/infant glucocorticoid (dexamethasone [DEX]) treatments using a psychoneuroimmunologic approach. Research questions were (a) do relationships exist between infant cumulative perinatal steroid (PNS) exposure and child behavioral problems? and (b) do maternal/infant characteristics (e.g., immune markers and biophysiologic stressors) influence these relationships? Methods The convenience sample comprised 45 mother–child dyads in which the children (mean age 8 years ± 2.3) had been born at a mean postconceptional age of 28 weeks (± 4.2). We used the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) to assess behavior, the Clinical Risk Index for Babies (CRIB) to score stress at birth, and retrospective record review to identify additional perinatal factors (PNS dosage, sepsis, and maternal and infant complete blood counts near delivery). Results Children were dichotomized into high (> 0.2mg/kg; n = 20) versus low–no (≤ 0.2 mg/kg; n = 25) PNS exposure groups. Significant relationships existed between CBCL Total Problems score and sepsis, PNS exposure, timing of initial PNS, and infant length percentile at discharge. Competence problems were significantly associated with PNS, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) infant length percentile, CRIB score, sepsis, retinopathy of prematurity, hearing deficit, and immunity markers (i.e., maternal lymphocyte percentage and infant band/seg ratio). Children in the higher PNS group exhibited more behavioral problems (e.g., withdrawn, attention, conduct, social, and rule breaking problems), but there were no significant differences. The findings are reassuring regarding long-term effects of this PNS dose on preterm infant behavioral outcomes. PMID:21900308

  9. Use of significance thresholds to integrate cumulative effects into project-level socio-economic impact assessment in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Chris; Zeeg, Taylor; Angus, David; Usborne, Anna; Mutrie, Erin

    2017-01-01

    A longstanding critique of project-level environmental assessment is that it is weak at addressing cumulative effects, and because of this many argue that cumulative effects are best managed at a regional scale. However, in the absence of regional management it is important that project-level assessment supports cumulative effects management as best as possible. In this paper we present case study socio-economic impact assessments of liquefied natural gas development on Aboriginal groups on Canada's west coast. The case studies use an analytical structure modified from typical Canadian practice including unambiguous and non-arbitrary significance thresholds grounded in stakeholder values to focus baselines, impact assessment, and significance determination on cumulative effects. This approach is found to be more capable of informing decision-makers on cumulative effects as well as more rigorous and transparent than typical assessments. Much of this approach is not conceptually new, but at least in western Canada such an approach is not typically used or meaningfully implemented by practitioners. As such, the case studies serve to illustrate how practice can bolster project-level assessment. - Highlights: •Typical project assessment is weak with respect to cumulative effects. •Modified analysis structure and thresholds enable a focus on cumulative effects. •Clear, value-based thresholds make analysis rigorous, transparent, and democratic.

  10. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Thom, Ronald M.; Borde, Amy B.; Roegner, G. C.; Whiting, Allan H.; Johnson, Gary E.; Dawley, Earl; Skalski, John R.; Vavrinec, John; Ebberts, Blaine D.

    2006-12-20

    This report is the second annual report of a six-year project to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat restoration projects in the Columbia River Estuary, conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Marine Sciences Laboratory, NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service Pt. Adams Biological Field Station, and the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce for the US Army Corps of Engineers. In 2005, baseline data were collected on two restoration sites and two associated reference sites in the Columbia River estuary. The sites represent two habitat types of the estuary--brackish marsh and freshwater swamp--that have sustained substantial losses in area and that may play important roles for salmonids. Baseline data collected included vegetation and elevation surveys, above and below-ground biomass, water depth and temperature, nutrient flux, fish species composition, and channel geometry. Following baseline data collection, three kinds of restoration actions for hydrological reconnection were implemented in several locations on the sites: tidegate replacements (2) at Vera Slough, near the city of Astoria in Oregon State, and culvert replacements (2) and dike breaches (3) at Kandoll Farm in the Grays River watershed in Washington State. Limited post-restoration data were collected: photo points, nutrient flux, water depth and temperature, and channel cross-sections. In subsequent work, this and additional post-restoration data will be used in conjunction with data from other sites to estimate net effects of hydrological reconnection restoration projects throughout the estuary. This project is establishing methods for evaluating the effectiveness of individual projects and a framework for assessing estuary-wide cumulative effects including a protocol manual for monitoring restoration and reference sites.

  11. Cumulative risk exposure moderates the association between parasympathetic reactivity and inhibitory control in preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Ryan J; Roos, Leslie E; Farrar, Jessica D; Skowron, Elizabeth A

    2018-04-01

    A child's cumulative risk for early exposure to stress has been linked to alterations of self-regulation outcomes, including neurobiological correlates of inhibitory control (IC). We examined whether children's ability to engage the parasympathetic nervous system impacts how risk affects IC. Children ages 3-5 years completed two laboratory measures of IC while respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was measured, indexing parasympathetic activity. Children with greater risk demonstrated lower IC; risk also moderated associations between RSA reactivity and IC. For children with less risk, greater RSA withdrawal during IC tasks was associated with better IC. In contrast, greater risk was associated with poor IC, regardless of RSA withdrawal. Effects of risk were more pronounced for cumulative than individual measures. Results suggest that cumulative risk exposure disrupts connectivity between physiological and behavioral components of self-regulation in early childhood. Parasympathetic withdrawal to cognitive tasks may be less relevant for performance in developmental samples experiencing greater life stress. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Cumulative Risk Exposure and Mental Health Symptoms among Maltreated Youth Placed in Out-of-Home Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raviv, Tali; Taussig, Heather N.; Culhane, Sara E.; Garrido, Edward F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Maltreated children placed in out-of-home care are at high risk for exhibiting symptoms of psychopathology by virtue of their exposure to numerous risk factors. Research examining cumulative risk has consistently found that the accumulation of risk factors increases the likelihood of mental health problems. The goal of the current study…

  13. Human biomonitoring of phthalate exposure in Austrian children and adults and cumulative risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Christina; Uhl, Maria; Weiss, Stefan; Koch, Holger M; Scharf, Sigrid; König, Jürgen

    2015-07-01

    children. The execution of a cumulative risk assessment based on Hazard Indices showed cause for concern mainly for children, as well as in rare cases for adults. Although phthalate exposure seems to have decreased in previous years, the wide distribution and existing exceedances of acceptable levels indicate that phthalate exposure should be further monitored in order to identify exposure sources and enable appropriate minimisation measures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Cumulative occupational mechanical exposures during working life and risk of sickness absence and disability pension: prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Hansen, Åse Marie; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Poulsen, Otto Melchior; Clausen, Thomas; Rugulies, Reiner; Møller, Anne; Andersen, Lars L

    2017-09-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the prospective association of cumulative mechanical exposure during working life with health-related labor market outcomes. Methods This prospective cohort study combines data from 5076 older workers (age 49-63 years) from the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank with a job exposure matrix and a national register containing information on social transfer payment. By coding individual job histories from the Danish version of ISCO-codes (International Standard Classification of Occupations), we calculated cumulative occupational mechanical exposures from a JEM for ton-years (lifting 1000 kg each day in one year), lifting-years (lifting loads weighing ≥20 kg >10 times each day in one year), kneeling-years (kneeling for one hour each day in one year) and vibration-years (whole-body vibration for one hour each day in one year). Cox-regression analyses estimated the relative risk of register-based long-term sickness absence (LTSA) and disability pension with cumulative occupational mechanical exposures throughout working life. Analyses were censored for competing events and adjusted for multiple confounders. Results During the follow-up period, 970 persons (19.3%) had ≥1 episode of LTSA and 85 persons (1.7%) were granted a disability pension. Number of ton-, lifting- and kneeling-years showed an exposure-response association with increased risk of LTSA (Ppension (HR 1.75 95% CI 1.01-3.04). Conclusions Cumulative occupational mechanical exposures during working life - such as lifting and kneeling work - increased the risk of LTSA. Importantly, being exposed to lifting increased the risk of disability pension.

  15. Cumulative Radiation Exposure during Follow-Up after Curative Surgery for Gastric Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yeo Jin; Chung, Yong Eun; Lim, Joon Seok; Kim, Joo Hee; Kim, Young Jin; Lee, Hye Jeong; Kim, Myeong Jin; Kim, Ki Whang; You, Je Sung

    2012-01-01

    To quantify the cumulative effective dose (cED) of radiation due to repeated CT and PET/CT examinations after curative resection of gastric cancer and to assess the lifetime attributable risk (LAR) estimates based on Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation VII models. Patients who underwent a curative resection for gastric cancer between January 2006 and December 2006 and were followed-up until May 2010 were included in this study. The cED was calculated by using the dose-length product values and conversion factors for quantitative risk assessment of radiation exposure. cED and LAR were compared between early and advanced gastric cancer patients and among American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM stage groups (stage I, II, and III). The nonparametric Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests, followed by a post-hoc analysis with Bonferroni adjustment, were employed as part of the statistical analysis. The overall median cED was 57.8 mSv (interquartile range [IQR], 43.9-74.7). The cED was significantly higher in the advanced (median, 67.0; IQR, 49.1-102.3) than in the early gastric cancer group (median, 52.3; IQR, 41.5-67.9) (p < 0.001), and increased as the TNM stage increased. For radiation exposure, 62% of all patients received an estimated cED of over 50 mSv, while 11% of patients received over 100 mSv. The median LAR of cancer incidence was 0.28% (IQR, 0.20-0.40) and there were significant differences between the early gastric cancer and advanced gastric cancer group (p < 0.001) as well as among the three TNM stage groups (p = 0.015). The LAR of cancer incidence exceeded 1% in 2.4% of the patients. The cED increases proportionally along with tumor stage and, even in early gastric cancer or stage I patients, cED is much higher than that found among the general population. Considering the very good prognosis of early gastric cancer after curative surgery, the cED should be considered when designing a postoperative follow-up CT protocol.

  16. Assessment of cumulative exposure to UVA through study of asymmetric facial skin damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Mac-Mary1

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Sophie Mac-Mary1, Jean-Marie Sainthillier1, Adeline Jeudy3, Christelle Sladen2, Cara Williams2, Mike Bell2, Philippe Humbert31Skinexigence SAS, Saint-Jacques University Hospital, Besançon, France; 2The Boots Company, Nottingham, United Kingdom; 3Research and Studies Center on the Integument, Department of Dermatology, Saint-Jacques University Hospital, University of Franche-Comté, Besançon, FranceBackground: Published studies assessing whether asymmetric facial ultraviolet light exposure leads to underlying differences in skin physiology and morphology are only observational. The aim of this study was to assess the visual impact on the skin of repeated ultraviolet-A (UVA exposure through a window.Methods: Eight women and two men presenting with asymmetric signs of photoaging due to overexposure of one side of their face to the sun through a window over a long period of time were enrolled in the study. Split-face biometrologic assessments were performed (clinical scoring, hydration with Corneometer®, mechanical properties with a Cutometer®, transepidermal water loss with AquaFlux®, skin relief with fringe projection, photography, stripping, and then lipid peroxidation analyses.Results: Significant differences were observed in clinical scores for wrinkles, skin roughness assessed by fringe projection on the cheek, and skin heterogeneity assessed with spectrocolorimetry on the cheekbone. Other differences were observed for skin hydration, as well as skin laxity, which tended towards significance.Discussion: This study suggests the potential benefit of daily UVA protection during nondeliberate exposure indoors as well as outside.Keywords: UVA, asymmetry, photodamage, face

  17. Probabilistic assessment of the cumulative dietary acute exposure of the population of Denmark to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Christensen, Tue

    2009-01-01

    and methamidophos. RPF values derived from the literature were used in the calculations. We calculated the cumulative acute exposure to 1.8% and 0.8% of the acute reference dose (ARfD) of 100 mu g kg(-1) body weight (bw) day(-1) of chlorpyrifos as an index compound at the 99.9th percentile (P99.5) for children...

  18. Psychotic-spectrum symptoms, cumulative adversity exposure and substance use among high-risk girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, Amy E; Plante, Wendy Y; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Golshan, Shahrokh; Beck, Audrey N

    2018-02-01

    Psychotic-spectrum symptoms are linked to trauma, substance/alcohol use (SAU), criminality/violence and poor functional outcomes, supporting the need for early detection in vulnerable populations. To better understand high-risk girls' mental health, we assessed: (1) psychotic-spectrum symptoms; (2) cumulative trauma, adversity and loss exposures (C-TALE) and adversity-indicators (symptoms, maladaptive coping, stressor-reactivity); and SAU risk-factors; and (3) relationships among psychotic-spectrum symptoms, adversity-indicators and SAU risk-factors. We administered the Structured Clinical Interviews for Psychotic Spectrum, and Trauma and Loss Spectrum to 158 adolescent delinquent girls. Girls' psychotic-spectrum profiles were similar to previously reported adult psychotic patients and characterized by typical symptoms (hallucinations/delusions, reported largely SAU-independent), interpersonal sensitivity, schizoid traits and paranoia (over-interpretation, anger over-reactivity, hypervigilance). Auditory/visual hallucinations (55.7%), delusions (92.4%), ideas of reference (96.8%) and adversity (90.0% ≥10/24 C-TALE-types) were common. Mean loss (4) and trauma (8) onset-age occurred before SAU-onset (12). Significant positive correlations were found among psychotic-spectrum symptoms, stressor-reactivity, C-TALE, adversity-indicators; and number of SAU-types; and a negative correlation occurred between psychotic-spectrum symptoms and earlier alcohol use onset. After controlling for number of SAU-types, stressor-reactivity and adversity-related numbing individually had the largest associations with total psychotic-spectrum symptoms (b = 2.6-4.3). Girls averaged more than 4 maladaptive coping strategies (e.g., 24.8% attempted suicide) in response to adversity, amplifying potential health-disparities. No racial/ethnic differences emerged on psychotic-spectrum symptoms. This symptom constellation during adolescence likely interferes with social and academic

  19. In-vivo measurements of Pb-210 to determine cumulative exposure to radon daughters: A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurer, G.R.; Cohen, N.; Stark, A.; Ju, C.

    1991-05-01

    The objective of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of estimating cumulative exposure of individuals to low concentrations of radon by measuring the amount of Pb-A-10 in their skeletons. This report presents progress to date establishing the validity of an vivo technique to measure skeletal burdens of Pb-210, accumulated from exposure to radon and radon progeny. With the skeletal content of Pb--210 and a model for Pb metabolism, cumulative exposure to radon and its short-lived daughters (radon/daughters) may be calculated for use in deriving a dose-response relationship between lung cancer and exposure to radon/daughters. Data are presented for 29 subjects exposed to ''above-average'' radon concentrations in their homes, showing the correlation between measured Pb--210 burdens, and measured pCi/l and WLM exposure estimates. Their results are compared to measurements of a population of 24 subject's presumed exposed to average concentrations. Measurements of a Pennsylvania family exposed for a year in a home with an extremely high radon content are also presented. Update of results of an ongoing study of the biological half-time of Pb--210 in man involving measurements, of a retired radiation worker with a 40 year old skeletal burden of Pb-210

  20. High cumulative insulin exposure: a risk factor of atherosclerosis in type 1 diabetes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muis, Marian J.; Bots, Michiel L.; Bilo, Henk J. G.; Hoogma, Roel P. L. M.; Hoekstra, Joost B. L.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Stolk, Ronald P.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Since insulin therapy might have an atherogenic effect, we studied the relationship between cumulative insulin dose and atherosclerosis in type 1 diabetes. We have focused on patients with type 1 diabetes instead of type 2 diabetes to minimise the effect of insulin resistance as a

  1. High cumulative insulin exposure : a risk factor of atherosclerosis in type 1 diabetes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muis, MJ; Bots, ML; Bilo, HJG; Hoogma, RPLM; Hoekstra, JBL; Grobbee, DE; Stolk, RP

    Background: Since insulin therapy might have an atherogenic effect, we studied the relationship between cumulative insulin dose and atherosclerosis in type 1 diabetes. We have focused on patients with type 1 diabetes instead of type 2 diabetes to minimise the effect of insulin resistance as a

  2. Collaboration, Participation and Technology: The San Joaquin Valley Cumulative Health Impacts Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan K. London

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Community-university partnerships have been shown to produce significant value for both sets of partners by providing reciprocal learning opportunities, (rebuilding bonds of trust, and creating unique venues to formulate and apply research that responds to community interests and informs collaborative solutions to community problems. For such partnerships to be mutually empowering, certain design characteristics are necessary. These include mutual respect for different modes and expressions of knowledge, capacity-building for all parties, and an environment that promotes honest and constructive dialogue about the inevitable tensions associated with the interplay of power/knowledge. This article explores an innovative case of community-university partnerships through participatory action research involving a coalition of environmental justice and health advocates, the San Joaquin Valley Cumulative Health Impacts Project, and researchers affiliated with the University of California, Davis. In particular, we examine how participatory GIS and community mapping can promote co-learning and interdependent science. Keywords Community-based participatory research, environmental justice, Public Participation Geographic Information System

  3. Examining cumulative victimization, community violence exposure, and stigma as contributors to PTSD symptoms among high-risk young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Angie C; Bybee, Deborah; Greeson, Megan R

    2014-05-01

    This study examines patterns of lifetime victimization within the family, community violence exposure, and stigma as contributors to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms within a sample of 198 high-risk young women who are pregnant or parenting. We used cluster analysis to identify 5 profiles of cumulative victimization, based on participants' levels of witnessing intimate partner violence (IPV), physical abuse by an adult caregiver, and sexual victimization, all beginning by age 12. Hierarchical regression was used to examine these 5 clusters (ranging from a High All Victimization cluster characterized by high levels of all 3 forms of violence, to a Low All Victimization cluster characterized by low levels of all 3 forms), along with community violence exposure and stigma, as predictors of PTSD symptoms. We found that 3 of the cumulative victimization clusters, in comparison with Low All Victimization, were significant predictors of PTSD symptoms, as was stigma, while community violence exposure was not a significant predictor. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  4. Current and historical individual data about exposure of workers in the rayon industry to carbon disulfide and their validity in calculating the cumulative dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göen, Thomas; Schramm, Axel; Baumeister, Thomas; Uter, Wolfgang; Drexler, Hans

    2014-08-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate how exposure to carbon disulfide (CS2) in a rayon-manufacturing plant has changed within two decades and whether it is possible to calculate valid data for the individual cumulative exposure. The data for CS2 concentration in air and biological exposure monitoring (2-thio-1,3-thiaxolidine-4-carboxylic acid (TTCA) in urine) from two cross-sectional studies, performed in 1992 (n = 362) and 2009 (n = 212) in a German rayon-manufacturing plant, were compared to data obtained from company-internal measurements between the studies. Using the data from the cross-sectional studies and company-internal data, cumulative external exposure and the cumulative internal exposure were calculated for each worker. External and internal CS2 exposure of the employees decreased from 1992 (medians 4.0 ppm and 1.63 mgTTCA/g creatinine) to 2009 (medians 2.5 ppm and 0.86 mg/g). However, company-internal CS2 data do not show a straight trend for this period. The annual medians of the company-internal measurement of external exposure to CS2 have varied between 2.7 and 8.4 ppm, in which median values exceeded 5 ppm generally since 2000. The annual medians for the company-internal biomonitoring assessment ranged between 1.2 and 2.8 mg/g creatinine. The cumulative CS2 exposure ranged from 8.5 to 869.5 ppm years for external exposure and between 1.30 and 176.2 mg/g creatinine years for the internal exposure. Significant correlations were found between the current air pollution and the internal exposure in 2009 but also between the cumulative external and internal CS2 exposure. Current exposure data, usually collected in cross-sectional studies, rarely allow a reliable statement on the cumulative dose, because of higher exposure in the past and of fluctuating courses of exposure. On the other hand, company-internal exposure data may be affected by non-representative measurement strategies. Some verification of the reliability of

  5. Radiation exposure modeling and project schedule visualization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaquish, W.R.; Enderlin, V.R.

    1995-10-01

    This paper discusses two applications using IGRIP (Interactive Graphical Robot Instruction Program) to assist environmental remediation efforts at the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. In the first application, IGRIP is used to calculate the estimated radiation exposure to workers conducting tasks in radiation environments. In the second, IGRIP is used as a configuration management tool to detect interferences between equipment and personnel work areas for multiple projects occurring simultaneously in one area. Both of these applications have the capability to reduce environmental remediation costs by reducing personnel radiation exposure and by providing a method to effectively manage multiple projects in a single facility

  6. EPA's SHEDS-multimedia model: children's cumulative pyrethroid exposure estimates and evaluation against NHANES biomarker data

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's SHEDS-Multimedia model was applied to enhance the understanding of children's exposures and doses to multiple pyrethroid pesticides, including major contributing chemicals and pathways. This paper presents combined dietary and residential exposure estimates and cum...

  7. Radiotherapy verification film for estimating cumulative entrance skin exposure for fluoroscopic examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geise, R.A.; Ansel, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    Measurement of skin entrance exposures during fluoroscopic procedures is complicated by the use of automatic exposure control devices and the presence of contrast media. Due to variability in positioning spot films from patient to patient, standard dosimeters, such as thermoluminescent, cannot be properly placed on the skin prior to examination. Prepackaged film of the type used for portal verification in radiation therapy held next to the patient's skin in a specially modified patient examination gown was found to be useful for determining the entrance skin exposure from both fluoroscopy and spot films during air contrast barium enema exams. The usable sensitivity range of this film has been found satisfactory for exposure measurements at exposures and kVps typically used for gastrointestinal fluoroscopic procedures. Errors in exposure estimates due to changes in film speed and contrast with kVp are less than 5% for the range of kVps used. Errors from variations in beam quality due to the adjacency of scattering material are approximately 5%. Entrance exposures determined with film agreed with those determined from TLD measurements to within 21%, with an average difference of 9%

  8. Cumulative Exposure to Prior Collective Trauma and Acute Stress Responses to the Boston Marathon Bombings

    OpenAIRE

    Garfin, DR; Holman, EA; Silver, RC

    2015-01-01

    © The Author(s) 2015 The role of repeated exposure to collective trauma in explaining response to subsequent community-wide trauma is poorly understood. We examined the relationship between acute stress response to the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings and prior direct and indirect media-based exposure to three collective traumatic events: the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks, Superstorm Sandy, and the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting. Representative samples of residents of metrop...

  9. Dose-Response Relationship between Cumulative Occupational Lead Exposure and the Associated Health Damages: A 20-Year Cohort Study of a Smelter in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yue; Gu, Jun-Ming; Huang, Yun; Duan, Yan-Ying; Huang, Rui-Xue; Hu, Jian-An

    2016-03-16

    Long-term airborne lead exposure, even below official occupational limits, has been found to cause lead poisoning at higher frequencies than expected, which suggests that China's existing occupational exposure limits should be reexamined. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 1832 smelting workers from 1988 to 2008 in China. These were individuals who entered the plant and came into continuous contact with lead at work for longer than 3 months. The dose-response relationship between occupational cumulative lead exposure and lead poisoning, abnormal blood lead, urinary lead and erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) were analyzed and the benchmark dose lower bound confidence limits (BMDLs) were calculated. Statistically significant positive correlations were found between cumulative lead dust and lead fumes exposures and workplace seniority, blood lead, urinary lead and ZPP values. A dose-response relationship was observed between cumulative lead dust or lead fumes exposure and lead poisoning (p lead dust and fumes doses were 0.68 mg-year/m³ and 0.30 mg-year/m³ for lead poisoning, respectively. The BMDLs of workplace airborne lead concentrations associated with lead poisoning were 0.02 mg/m³ and 0.01 mg/m³ for occupational exposure lead dust and lead fume, respectively. In conclusion, BMDLs for airborne lead were lower than occupational exposure limits, suggesting that the occupational lead exposure limits need re-examination and adjustment. Occupational cumulative exposure limits (OCELs) should be established to better prevent occupational lead poisoning.

  10. Multiple procedures and cumulative individual radiation exposure in interventional cardiology: A long-term retrospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weltermann, Birgitta M.; Rock, Thomas; Berndt, Peter; Viehmann, Anja; Reinders, Sabrina; Gesenhues, Stefan [University of Duisburg-Essen, Institute for General Medicine, University Hospital, Essen (Germany); Brix, Gunnar; Schegerer, Alexander [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Department of Radiation Protection and Health, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    Various studies address discrepancies between guideline recommendations for coronary angiographies and clinical practice. While the issue of the appropriateness of recurrent angiographies was studied focusing on the role of the cardiologist, little is known about individual patients' histories and the associated radiation exposures. We analyzed all patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) in an academic teaching practice who underwent at least one angiography with or without intervention between 2004 and 2009. All performed angiographies in these patients were analyzed and rated by three physicians for appropriateness levels according to cardiology guidelines. Typical exposure data from the medical literature were used to estimate individual radiation exposure. In the cohort of 147 patients, a total of 441 procedures were analyzed: between 1981 and 2009, three procedures were performed per patient (range 1-19) on average. Appropriateness ratings were 'high/intermediate' in 71 %, 'low/no' in 27.6 % and data were insufficient for ratings in 1.4 %. Procedures with 'low/no' ratings were associated with potentially avoidable exposures of up to 186 mSv for single patients. Using retrospective data, we exemplify the potential benefit of guideline adherence to decrease patients' radiation exposures. (orig.)

  11. Instrumental variables estimation of exposure effects on a time-to-event endpoint using structural cumulative survival models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinussen, Torben; Vansteelandt, Stijn; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J; Zucker, David M

    2017-12-01

    The use of instrumental variables for estimating the effect of an exposure on an outcome is popular in econometrics, and increasingly so in epidemiology. This increasing popularity may be attributed to the natural occurrence of instrumental variables in observational studies that incorporate elements of randomization, either by design or by nature (e.g., random inheritance of genes). Instrumental variables estimation of exposure effects is well established for continuous outcomes and to some extent for binary outcomes. It is, however, largely lacking for time-to-event outcomes because of complications due to censoring and survivorship bias. In this article, we make a novel proposal under a class of structural cumulative survival models which parameterize time-varying effects of a point exposure directly on the scale of the survival function; these models are essentially equivalent with a semi-parametric variant of the instrumental variables additive hazards model. We propose a class of recursive instrumental variable estimators for these exposure effects, and derive their large sample properties along with inferential tools. We examine the performance of the proposed method in simulation studies and illustrate it in a Mendelian randomization study to evaluate the effect of diabetes on mortality using data from the Health and Retirement Study. We further use the proposed method to investigate potential benefit from breast cancer screening on subsequent breast cancer mortality based on the HIP-study. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.

  12. Community Engaged Cumulative Risk Assessment of Exposure to Inorganic Well Water Contaminants, Crow Reservation, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, John T.; Lefthand, Myra J.; Young, Sara L.; Kindness, Larry; Other Medicine, Roberta; Ford, Timothy E.; Dietrich, Eric; Parker, Albert E.; Hoover, Joseph H.; Camper, Anne K.

    2018-01-01

    An estimated 11 million people in the US have home wells with unsafe levels of hazardous metals and nitrate. The national scope of the health risk from consuming this water has not been assessed as home wells are largely unregulated and data on well water treatment and consumption are lacking. Here, we assessed health risks from consumption of contaminated well water on the Crow Reservation by conducting a community-engaged, cumulative risk assessment. Well water testing, surveys and interviews were used to collect data on contaminant concentrations, water treatment methods, well water consumption, and well and septic system protection and maintenance practices. Additive Hazard Index calculations show that the water in more than 39% of wells is unsafe due to uranium, manganese, nitrate, zinc and/or arsenic. Most families’ financial resources are limited, and 95% of participants do not employ water treatment technologies. Despite widespread high total dissolved solids, poor taste and odor, 80% of families consume their well water. Lack of environmental health literacy about well water safety, pre-existing health conditions and limited environmental enforcement also contribute to vulnerability. Ensuring access to safe drinking water and providing accompanying education are urgent public health priorities for Crow and other rural US families with low environmental health literacy and limited financial resources. PMID:29304032

  13. BWR radiation exposure--experience and projection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, C.F.; Wilkinson, C.D.; Hollander, W.R.

    1979-01-01

    The BWR/6 Mark III radiation exposures are projected to be about half of those of current average operating experience of 725 man-rem. These projections are said to be realistic and based on current achievements and not on promises of future development. The several BWRs operating with low primary system radiation levels are positive evidence that radiation sources can be reduced. Improvements have been made in reducing the maintenance times for the BWR/6, and further improvements can be made by further attention to cost-effective plant arrangement and layout during detail design to improve accessibility and maintainability of each system and component

  14. Weighted cumulative exposure models helped identify an association between early knee-pain consultations and future knee OA diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dahai; Peat, George; Bedson, John; Edwards, John J; Turkiewicz, Aleksandra; Jordan, Kelvin P

    2016-08-01

    To establish the association between prior knee-pain consultations and early diagnosis of knee osteoarthritis (OA) by weighted cumulative exposure (WCE) models. Data were from an electronic health care record (EHR) database (Consultations in Primary Care Archive). WCE functions for modeling the cumulative effect of time-varying knee-pain consultations weighted by recency were derived as a predictive tool in a population-based case-control sample and validated in a prospective cohort sample. Two WCE functions ([i] weighting of the importance of past consultations determined a priori; [ii] flexible spline-based estimation) were comprehensively compared with two simpler models ([iii] time since most recent consultation; total number of past consultations) on model goodness of fit, discrimination, and calibration both in derivation and validation phases. People with the most recent and most frequent knee-pain consultations were more likely to have high WCE scores that were associated with increased risk of knee OA diagnosis both in derivation and validation phases. Better model goodness of fit, discrimination, and calibration were observed for flexible spline-based WCE models. WCE functions can be used to model prediagnostic symptoms within routine EHR data and provide novel low-cost predictive tools contributing to early diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. CUMEX: a cumulative hazard index for assessing limiting exposures to environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, P.J.; Killough, G.G.; Parzyck, D.C.; Rohwer, P.S.; Rupp, e.M.; Whitfield, B.L.; Booth, R.S.; Raridon, R.J.

    1977-04-01

    A hazard index methodology called CUMEX has been developed for limiting human exposure to environmental pollutants. Hazard index is defined as Q/Q/sub L/ where Q is exposure or dose to total-body, organ or tissue from all environmental pathways and Q/sub L/ is a limit which should not be exceeded because of health risk to humans. Mathematical formulations for hazard indices are developed for each sampling medium corresponding to each effluent type. These hazard indices are accumulated into composite indices such that total human intake or dose would not exceed the health risk limit. Mathematical formulation for composite hazard indices or CUMEX indices for multiple pollutants are presented. An example CUMEX application to cadmium release from a smelter complex in East Helena, Montana demonstrates details of the methodology for a single pollutant where human intake occurs through inhalation and ingestion

  16. Cumulative exposure to disadvantage and the intergenerational transmission of neighbourhood effects

    OpenAIRE

    Hedman, L.; Manley, D.; Van Ham, M.; Östh, J.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of neighbourhood effects typically investigate the instantaneous effect of point-in-time measures of neighbourhood poverty on individual outcomes. It has been suggested that it is not solely the current neighbourhood, but also the neigh-bourhood history of an individual that is important in determining an individual’s outcomes. The effect of long-term exposure to poverty neighbourhoods on adults has largely been ignored in the empirical literature, partly due to a lack of suitable dat...

  17. Childhood Violence Exposure: Cumulative and Specific Effects on Adult Mental Health

    OpenAIRE

    Hooven, Carole; Nurius, Paula S.; Logan-Greene, Patricia; Thompson, Elaine A.

    2012-01-01

    Childhood exposure to violence and victimization is a significant public health problem, with potentially long-lasting, deleterious effects on adult mental health. Using a longitudinal study design, 123 young adults—identified in adolescence as at-risk for high school dropout—were examined for the effects of multi-domain childhood victimization on emotional distress and suicide risk, net of adolescent risk and protective factors, including family dysfunction. The hypothesis that higher levels...

  18. Lead-Related Genetic Loci, Cumulative Lead Exposure and Incident Coronary Heart Disease: The Normative Aging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Marc G.; Sparrow, David; Schwartz, Joel; Hu, Howard; Park, Sung Kyun

    2016-01-01

    Background Cumulative exposure to lead is associated with cardiovascular outcomes. Polymorphisms in the δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), hemochromatosis (HFE), heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1), vitamin D receptor (VDR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) supergene family (GSTP1, GSTT1, GSTM1), apolipoprotein E (APOE),angiotensin II receptor-1 (AGTR1) and angiotensinogen (AGT) genes, are believed to alter toxicokinetics and/or toxicodynamics of lead. Objectives We assessed possible effect modification by genetic polymorphisms in ALAD, HFE, HMOX1, VDR, GSTP1, GSTT1, GSTM1, APOE, AGTR1 and AGT individually and as the genetic risk score (GRS) on the association between cumulative lead exposure and incident coronary heart disease (CHD) events. Methods We used K-shell-X-ray fluorescence to measure bone lead levels. GRS was calculated on the basis of 22 lead-related loci. We constructed Cox proportional hazard models to compute adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incident CHD. We applied inverse probability weighting to account for potential selection bias due to recruitment into the bone lead sub-study. Results Significant effect modification was found by VDR, HMOX1, GSTP1, APOE, and AGT genetic polymorphisms when evaluated individually. Further, the bone lead-CHD associations became larger as GRS increases. After adjusting for potential confounders, a HR of CHD was 2.27 (95%CI: 1.50–3.42) with 2-fold increase in patella lead levels, among participants in the top tertile of GRS. We also detected an increasing trend in HRs across tertiles of GRS (p-trend = 0.0063). Conclusions Our findings suggest that lead-related loci as a whole may play an important role in susceptibility to lead-related CHD risk. These findings need to be validated in a separate cohort containing bone lead, lead-related genetic loci and incident CHD data. PMID:27584680

  19. Probabilistic acute risk assessment of cumulative exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides from dietary vegetables and fruits in Shanghai populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fan; Yuan, Yaqun; Meng, Pai; Wu, Min; Li, Shuguang; Chen, Bo

    2017-05-01

    Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) and carbamate pesticides (CPs) are among the most widely used pesticides in China, playing a major role in protecting agricultural commodities. In this study, we determined the cumulative acute exposure to OPs and CPs of Shanghai residents from vegetables and fruits (VFs). The food consumption data were obtained from the Shanghai Food Consumption Survey (SHFCS) of 2012-14 including a total of 1973 participants aged 2-90 years. The pesticide residue data were obtained from the Shanghai monitoring programme during 2008-11 with 34 organophosphates and 11 carbamates analysed in a total of 5335 samples of VFs. A probabilistic approach was performed as recommended by the EFSA, using the optimistic model with non-detects set as zero and with processing factors (PFs) being used and the pessimistic model with non-detects replaced by limit of detection (LOD) and without PFs. We used the relative potency factor (RPF) method to normalise the various pesticides to the index compound (IC) of methamidophos and chlorpyrifos separately. Only in the pessimistic model using methamidophos as the IC was there was small risk of exposure exceeding the ARfD (3 µg kg - 1 bw day - 1 ) in the populations of preschool children (0.029%), school-age children (0.022%) and adults (0.002%). There were no risk of exposure exceeding the ARfD of methamidophos in the optimistic model and of chlorpyrifos (100 µg kg - 1 bw day - 1 ) in both optimistic and pessimistic models in all three populations. Considering the Chinese habits of overwhelmingly eating processed food (vegetables being cooked, and fruits being washed or peeled), we conclude that little acute risk was found for the exposure to VF-sourced OPs and CPs in Shanghai.

  20. Dietary sources of cumulative phthalates exposure among the U.S. general population in NHANES 2005-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshavsky, Julia R; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Woodruff, Tracey J; Zota, Ami R

    2018-06-01

    Anti-androgenic phthalates are reproductive toxicants that may have additive effects on male development. Diet is the primary exposure source for most phthalates, which contaminate the food supply through food contact materials and industrialized production. To compare dietary sources of cumulative phthalates exposure between "food at home" (e.g. food consumed from a grocery store) and "food away from home" (e.g. food consumed from fast food/restaurants and cafeterias) in the U.S. general population. We estimated cumulative phthalates exposure by calculating daily intake from metabolite concentrations in urinary spot samples for 10,253 participants (≥6 years old) using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 2005-2014) data. We constructed a biologically relevant metric of phthalates daily intake (∑androgen-disruptor, μg/kg/day) by converting phthalates into anti-androgen equivalent terms prior to their summation. Particular foods and the percent of total energy intake (TEI) consumed from multiple dining out sources were ascertained from 24-h recall surveys. Associations with ∑androgen-disruptor levels were estimated for children, adolescents, and adults using multivariable linear regression. We observed a consistent positive association between dining out and Σandrogen-disruptor levels across the study population (p-trend consumers of foods outside the home had 55% (95% CI: 35%, 78%) higher Σandrogen-disruptor levels compared to those who only consumed food at home. The contribution of specific dining out sources to Σandrogen-disruptor levels varied by age group. For example, cafeteria food was associated with 15% (95% CI: 4.0%, 28%) and 64% (95% CI: 40%, 92%) higher Σandrogen-disruptor levels in children and adults, respectively. Particular foods, especially sandwiches (i.e. cheeseburgers), were associated with increased Σandrogen-disruptor levels only if they were purchased away from home (p food supply in addition to the

  1. How to quantify exposure to traumatic stress? Reliability and predictive validity of measures for cumulative trauma exposure in a post-conflict population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilker, Sarah; Pfeiffer, Anett; Kolassa, Stephan; Koslowski, Daniela; Elbert, Thomas; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    While studies with survivors of single traumatic experiences highlight individual response variation following trauma, research from conflict regions shows that almost everyone develops posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) if trauma exposure reaches extreme levels. Therefore, evaluating the effects of cumulative trauma exposure is of utmost importance in studies investigating risk factors for PTSD. Yet, little research has been devoted to evaluate how this important environmental risk factor can be best quantified. We investigated the retest reliability and predictive validity of different trauma measures in a sample of 227 Ugandan rebel war survivors. Trauma exposure was modeled as the number of traumatic event types experienced or as a score considering traumatic event frequencies. In addition, we investigated whether age at trauma exposure can be reliably measured and improves PTSD risk prediction. All trauma measures showed good reliability. While prediction of lifetime PTSD was most accurate from the number of different traumatic event types experienced, inclusion of event frequencies slightly improved the prediction of current PTSD. As assessing the number of traumatic events experienced is the least stressful and time-consuming assessment and leads to the best prediction of lifetime PTSD, we recommend this measure for research on PTSD etiology.

  2. How to quantify exposure to traumatic stress? Reliability and predictive validity of measures for cumulative trauma exposure in a post-conflict population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Wilker

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: While studies with survivors of single traumatic experiences highlight individual response variation following trauma, research from conflict regions shows that almost everyone develops posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD if trauma exposure reaches extreme levels. Therefore, evaluating the effects of cumulative trauma exposure is of utmost importance in studies investigating risk factors for PTSD. Yet, little research has been devoted to evaluate how this important environmental risk factor can be best quantified. Methods: We investigated the retest reliability and predictive validity of different trauma measures in a sample of 227 Ugandan rebel war survivors. Trauma exposure was modeled as the number of traumatic event types experienced or as a score considering traumatic event frequencies. In addition, we investigated whether age at trauma exposure can be reliably measured and improves PTSD risk prediction. Results: All trauma measures showed good reliability. While prediction of lifetime PTSD was most accurate from the number of different traumatic event types experienced, inclusion of event frequencies slightly improved the prediction of current PTSD. Conclusions: As assessing the number of traumatic events experienced is the least stressful and time-consuming assessment and leads to the best prediction of lifetime PTSD, we recommend this measure for research on PTSD etiology.

  3. An Integrated Modeling Framework Forecasting Ecosystem Exposure-- A Systems Approach to the Cumulative Impacts of Multiple Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Freshwater habitats provide fishable, swimmable and drinkable resources and are a nexus of geophysical and biological processes. These processes in turn influence the persistence and sustainability of populations, communities and ecosystems. Climate change and landuse change encompass numerous stressors of potential exposure, including the introduction of toxic contaminants, invasive species, and disease in addition to physical drivers such as temperature and hydrologic regime. A systems approach that includes the scientific and technologic basis of assessing the health of ecosystems is needed to effectively protect human health and the environment. The Integrated Environmental Modeling Framework 'iemWatersheds' has been developed as a consistent and coherent means of forecasting the cumulative impact of co-occurring stressors. The Framework consists of three facilitating technologies: Data for Environmental Modeling (D4EM) that automates the collection and standardization of input data; the Framework for Risk Assessment of Multimedia Environmental Systems (FRAMES) that manages the flow of information between linked models; and the Supercomputer for Model Uncertainty and Sensitivity Evaluation (SuperMUSE) that provides post-processing and analysis of model outputs, including uncertainty and sensitivity analysis. Five models are linked within the Framework to provide multimedia simulation capabilities for hydrology and water quality processes: the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) predicts surface water and sediment runoff and associated contaminants; the Watershed Mercury Model (WMM) predicts mercury runoff and loading to streams; the Water quality Analysis and Simulation Program (WASP) predicts water quality within the stream channel; the Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model scores physicochemical habitat quality for individual fish species; and the Bioaccumulation and Aquatic System Simulator (BASS) predicts fish growth, population dynamics and bioaccumulation

  4. Workplace discrimination and cumulative trauma disorders: the national EEOC ADA research project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Amy J; McMahon, Brian T; West, Steven L; Lewis, Allen

    2005-01-01

    Employment discrimination of persons with cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs) was explored using the Integrated Mission System dataset of the US Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. Demographic characteristics and merit resolutions of the Charging Parties (persons with CTD) were compared to individuals experiencing other physical, sensory and neurological impairments. Factors compared also included industry designation, geographic region, and size of Respondents against which allegations were filed. Persons with CTD had proportionately greater allegations among large Respondents (greater than 500 workers) engaged in manufacturing, utilities, transportation, finance insurance and real estate. The types of discrimination Issues that were proportionately greater in the CTD group included layoff, failure to reinstate, and failure to provide reasonable accommodation. The CTD group was significantly less likely than the comparison group to be involved in discrimination Issues such as assignment to less desirable duty, shift or work location; demotion; termination, or failure to hire or provide training. Persons with CTD had higher proportions of merit Resolutions where allegations were voluntarily withdrawn by the Charging Party with benefits.

  5. Evaluation of gamma radiation cumulative exposure monitoring system in the Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN) with thermoluminescent dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingues, Danieli S.; Barreto, Alberto A.; Siqueira, Gessilane M.; Oliveira, Eugênio M.; Silva, Robson L.; Belo, Luiz Cláudio M., E-mail: danielisilva@ymail.com, E-mail: aab@cdtn.br, E-mail: gessilane.siqueira@cdtn.br, E-mail: emo@cdtn.br, E-mail: rls@cdtn.br, E-mail: lcmb@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Cumulative exposure to gamma radiation is monitored at the Nuclear Technology Development Center - CDTN, located on the campus of the Federal University of Minas Gerais in Belo Horizonte - MG, since 1986. This monitoring is part of the Institution's Environmental Monitoring Program. The measurement is carried out through the use of thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD's), which are placed in the perimeter of the CDTN property, distanced approximately 50 m each other, and at the air sampling stations, totaling 36 sampling points. The TLDs are positioned one meter from the ground, inside a PVC pipe where they remain exposed for a period of approximately three months. The objective of this work is to present and evaluate the results of this monitoring by investigating the dose values of gamma radiation (Dose Equivalent to Photons) obtained. Another important issue presented is about some failures identified in certain periods. There were problems with the sampling methodology and changes were proposed in the shelters to avoid contact of TLDs with excess moisture, which can compromise the results and the equipment of measurement of the thermoluminescence of crystals. The change was made at a sampling point and the results were compared with the historical data in the last 30 years. (author)

  6. Evaluation of gamma radiation cumulative exposure monitoring system in the Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN) with thermoluminescent dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domingues, Danieli S.; Barreto, Alberto A.; Siqueira, Gessilane M.; Oliveira, Eugênio M.; Silva, Robson L.; Belo, Luiz Cláudio M.

    2017-01-01

    Cumulative exposure to gamma radiation is monitored at the Nuclear Technology Development Center - CDTN, located on the campus of the Federal University of Minas Gerais in Belo Horizonte - MG, since 1986. This monitoring is part of the Institution's Environmental Monitoring Program. The measurement is carried out through the use of thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD's), which are placed in the perimeter of the CDTN property, distanced approximately 50 m each other, and at the air sampling stations, totaling 36 sampling points. The TLDs are positioned one meter from the ground, inside a PVC pipe where they remain exposed for a period of approximately three months. The objective of this work is to present and evaluate the results of this monitoring by investigating the dose values of gamma radiation (Dose Equivalent to Photons) obtained. Another important issue presented is about some failures identified in certain periods. There were problems with the sampling methodology and changes were proposed in the shelters to avoid contact of TLDs with excess moisture, which can compromise the results and the equipment of measurement of the thermoluminescence of crystals. The change was made at a sampling point and the results were compared with the historical data in the last 30 years. (author)

  7. The Use of the Kurtosis-Adjusted Cumulative Noise Exposure Metric in Evaluating the Hearing Loss Risk for Complex Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hong-Wei; Qiu, Wei; Heyer, Nicholas J; Zhang, Mei-Bian; Zhang, Peng; Zhao, Yi-Ming; Hamernik, Roger P

    2016-01-01

    To test a kurtosis-adjusted cumulative noise exposure (CNE) metric for use in evaluating the risk of hearing loss among workers exposed to industrial noises. Specifically, to evaluate whether the kurtosis-adjusted CNE (1) provides a better association with observed industrial noise-induced hearing loss, and (2) provides a single metric applicable to both complex (non-Gaussian [non-G]) and continuous or steady state (Gaussian [G]) noise exposures for predicting noise-induced hearing loss (dose-response curves). Audiometric and noise exposure data were acquired on a population of screened workers (N = 341) from two steel manufacturing plants located in Zhejiang province and a textile manufacturing plant located in Henan province, China. All the subjects from the two steel manufacturing plants (N = 178) were exposed to complex noise, whereas the subjects from textile manufacturing plant (N = 163) were exposed to a G continuous noise. Each subject was given an otologic examination to determine their pure-tone HTL and had their personal 8-hr equivalent A-weighted noise exposure (LAeq) and full-shift noise kurtosis statistic (which is sensitive to the peaks and temporal characteristics of noise exposures) measured. For each subject, an unadjusted and kurtosis-adjusted CNE index for the years worked was created. Multiple linear regression analysis controlling for age was used to determine the relationship between CNE (unadjusted and kurtosis adjusted) and the mean HTL at 3, 4, and 6 kHz (HTL346) among the complex noise-exposed group. In addition, each subject's HTLs from 0.5 to 8.0 kHz were age and sex adjusted using Annex A (ISO-1999) to determine whether they had adjusted high-frequency noise-induced hearing loss (AHFNIHL), defined as an adjusted HTL shift of 30 dB or greater at 3.0, 4.0, or 6.0 kHz in either ear. Dose-response curves for AHFNIHL were developed separately for workers exposed to G and non-G noise using both unadjusted and adjusted CNE as the exposure

  8. Cumulative trauma and midlife well-being in American women who served in Vietnam: effects of combat exposure and postdeployment social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Crystal L; Wachen, Jennifer Schuster; Kaiser, Anica Pless; Mager Stellman, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    Research increasingly demonstrates that trauma exposure can have cumulative effects, yet much remains to be learned about effects of cumulative trauma, particularly regarding longer term adjustment. One such trauma, combat exposure, is insufficiently understood, especially for women, who are increasingly engaged in professional combat activities. The study comprised a cross-sectional survey assessing multiple aspects of current well-being in women approximately 25 years after their service in Vietnam during the Vietnam War. Participants were 1374 women (78% military and 22% nonmilitary; mean age = 59.7). This study investigated the relations between three separate categories of trauma exposure (childhood, adulthood, and combat) and well-being and examined whether perceived social support at return from Vietnam moderated the association between combat exposure and well-being. While both childhood and adulthood trauma exposure related to midlife well-being, combat exposure still uniquely predicted outcomes. Further, postdeployment perceived social support moderated the association of combat and well-being: recollected higher perceived social support at homecoming buffered participants from the links between combat exposure and well-being. These results may have important implications for interventions to reduce the impact of traumatic experiences, particularly in light of the increasing exposure of women to direct combat events.

  9. Cumulative Retrospective Exposure Assessment (REA) as a predictor of amphibole asbestos lung burden: validation procedures and results for industrial hygiene and pathology estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmuson, James O; Roggli, Victor L; Boelter, Fred W; Rasmuson, Eric J; Redinger, Charles F

    2014-01-01

    A detailed evaluation of the correlation and linearity of industrial hygiene retrospective exposure assessment (REA) for cumulative asbestos exposure with asbestos lung burden analysis (LBA) has not been previously performed, but both methods are utilized for case-control and cohort studies and other applications such as setting occupational exposure limits. (a) To correlate REA with asbestos LBA for a large number of cases from varied industries and exposure scenarios; (b) to evaluate the linearity, precision, and applicability of both industrial hygiene exposure reconstruction and LBA; and (c) to demonstrate validation methods for REA. A panel of four experienced industrial hygiene raters independently estimated the cumulative asbestos exposure for 363 cases with limited exposure details in which asbestos LBA had been independently determined. LBA for asbestos bodies was performed by a pathologist by both light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and free asbestos fibers by SEM. Precision, reliability, correlation and linearity were evaluated via intraclass correlation, regression analysis and analysis of covariance. Plaintiff's answers to interrogatories, work history sheets, work summaries or plaintiff's discovery depositions that were obtained in court cases involving asbestos were utilized by the pathologist to provide a summarized brief asbestos exposure and work history for each of the 363 cases. Linear relationships between REA and LBA were found when adjustment was made for asbestos fiber-type exposure differences. Significant correlation between REA and LBA was found with amphibole asbestos lung burden and mixed fiber-types, but not with chrysotile. The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for the precision of the industrial hygiene rater cumulative asbestos exposure estimates and the precision of repeated laboratory analysis were found to be in the excellent range. The ICC estimates were performed independent of specific asbestos

  10. Cumulative Head Impact Exposure Predicts Later-Life Depression, Apathy, Executive Dysfunction, and Cognitive Impairment in Former High School and College Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenigro, Philip H; Alosco, Michael L; Martin, Brett M; Daneshvar, Daniel H; Mez, Jesse; Chaisson, Christine E; Nowinski, Christopher J; Au, Rhoda; McKee, Ann C; Cantu, Robert C; McClean, Michael D; Stern, Robert A; Tripodis, Yorghos

    2017-01-15

    The term "repetitive head impacts" (RHI) refers to the cumulative exposure to concussive and subconcussive events. Although RHI are believed to increase risk for later-life neurological consequences (including chronic traumatic encephalopathy), quantitative analysis of this relationship has not yet been examined because of the lack of validated tools to quantify lifetime RHI exposure. The objectives of this study were: 1) to develop a metric to quantify cumulative RHI exposure from football, which we term the "cumulative head impact index" (CHII); 2) to use the CHII to examine the association between RHI exposure and long-term clinical outcomes; and 3) to evaluate its predictive properties relative to other exposure metrics (i.e., duration of play, age of first exposure, concussion history). Participants included 93 former high school and collegiate football players who completed objective cognitive and self-reported behavioral/mood tests as part of a larger ongoing longitudinal study. Using established cutoff scores, we transformed continuous outcomes into dichotomous variables (normal vs. impaired). The CHII was computed for each participant and derived from a combination of self-reported athletic history (i.e., number of seasons, position[s], levels played), and impact frequencies reported in helmet accelerometer studies. A bivariate probit, instrumental variable model revealed a threshold dose-response relationship between the CHII and risk for later-life cognitive impairment (p < 0.0001), self-reported executive dysfunction (p < 0.0001), depression (p < 0.0001), apathy (p = 0.0161), and behavioral dysregulation (p < 0.0001). Ultimately, the CHII demonstrated greater predictive validity than other individual exposure metrics.

  11. Consumption of fruits and vegetables and probabilistic assessment of the cumulative acute exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides of schoolchildren in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaznik, Urška; Yngve, Agneta; Eržen, Ivan; Hlastan Ribič, Cirila

    2016-02-01

    Adequate consumption of fruits and vegetables is a part of recommendations for a healthy diet. The aim of the present study was to assess acute cumulative dietary exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides via fruit and vegetable consumption by the population of schoolchildren aged 11-12 years and the level of risk for their health. Cumulative probabilistic risk assessment methodology with the index compound approach was applied. Slovenia, primary schools. Schoolchildren (n 1145) from thirty-one primary schools in Slovenia. Children were part of the PRO GREENS study 2009/10 which assessed 11-year-olds' consumption of fruit and vegetables in ten European countries. The cumulative acute exposure amounted to 8.3 (95% CI 7.7, 10.6) % of the acute reference dose (ARfD) for acephate as index compound (100 µg/kg body weight per d) at the 99.9th percentile for daily intake and to 4.5 (95% CI 3.5, 4.7) % of the ARfD at the 99.9th percentile for intakes during school time and at lunch. Apples, bananas, oranges and lettuce contributed most to the total acute pesticides intake. The estimations showed that acute dietary exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides is not a health concern for schoolchildren with the assessed dietary patterns of fruit and vegetable consumption.

  12. Repeated exposure to high-frequency spanking and child externalizing behavior across the first decade: a moderating role for cumulative risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Michael J; Nicklas, Eric; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Waldfogel, Jane

    2014-12-01

    This study used the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study to examine the effects of repeated exposure to harsh parenting on child externalizing behavior across the first decade of life, and a moderating role for cumulative ecological risk. Maternal report of harsh parenting, defined as high frequency spanking, was assessed at age 1, 3, 5, and 9, along with child externalizing at age 9 (N=2,768). Controlling for gender, race, maternal nativity, and city of residence, we found a cumulative risk index to significantly moderate the effects of repeated harsh parenting on child behavior, with the effects of repeated high-frequency spanking being amplified for those experiencing greater levels of cumulative risk. Harsh parenting, in the form of high frequency spanking, remains a too common experience for children, and results demonstrate that the effects of repeated exposure to harsh parenting across the first decade are amplified for those children already facing the most burden. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. An exposure-based framework for grouping pollutants for a cumulative risk assessment approach: case study of indoor semi-volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Kevin; Glorennec, Philippe; Bonvallot, Nathalie

    2014-04-01

    Humans are exposed to a large number of contaminants, many of which may have similar health effects. This paper presents a framework for identifying pollutants to be included in a cumulative risk assessment approach. To account for the possibility of simultaneous exposure to chemicals with common toxic modes of action, the first step of the traditional risk assessment process, i.e. hazard identification, is structured in three sub-steps: (1a) Identification of pollutants people are exposed to, (1b) identification of effects and mechanisms of action of these pollutants, (1c) grouping of pollutants according to similarity of their mechanism of action and health effects. Based on this exposure-based grouping we can derive "multi-pollutant" toxicity reference values, in the "dose-response assessment" step. The approach proposed in this work is original in that it is based on real exposures instead of a limited number of pollutants from a unique chemical family, as traditionally performed. This framework is illustrated by the case study of semi-volatile organic compounds in French dwellings, providing insights into practical considerations regarding the accuracy of the available toxicological information. This case study illustrates the value of the exposure-based approach as opposed to the traditional cumulative framework, in which chemicals with similar health effects were not always included in the same chemical class. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Children's phthalate intakes and resultant cumulative exposures estimated from urine compared with estimates from dust ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption in their homes and daycare centers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Bekö

    Full Text Available Total daily intakes of diethyl phthalate (DEP, di(n-butyl phthalate (DnBP, di(isobutyl phthalate (DiBP, butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP and di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP were calculated from phthalate metabolite levels measured in the urine of 431 Danish children between 3 and 6 years of age. For each child the intake attributable to exposures in the indoor environment via dust ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption were estimated from the phthalate levels in the dust collected from the child's home and daycare center. Based on the urine samples, DEHP had the highest total daily intake (median: 4.42 µg/d/kg-bw and BBzP the lowest (median: 0.49 µg/d/kg-bw. For DEP, DnBP and DiBP, exposures to air and dust in the indoor environment accounted for approximately 100%, 15% and 50% of the total intake, respectively, with dermal absorption from the gas-phase being the major exposure pathway. More than 90% of the total intake of BBzP and DEHP came from sources other than indoor air and dust. Daily intake of DnBP and DiBP from all exposure pathways, based on levels of metabolites in urine samples, exceeded the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI for 22 and 23 children, respectively. Indoor exposures resulted in an average daily DiBP intake that exceeded the TDI for 14 children. Using the concept of relative cumulative Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI(cum, which is applicable for phthalates that have established TDIs based on the same health endpoint, we examined the cumulative total exposure to DnBP, DiBP and DEHP from all pathways; it exceeded the tolerable levels for 30% of the children. From the three indoor pathways alone, several children had a cumulative intake that exceeded TDI(cum. Exposures to phthalates present in the air and dust indoors meaningfully contribute to a child's total intake of certain phthalates. Such exposures, by themselves, may lead to intakes exceeding current limit values.

  15. Children’s Phthalate Intakes and Resultant Cumulative Exposures Estimated from Urine Compared with Estimates from Dust Ingestion, Inhalation and Dermal Absorption in Their Homes and Daycare Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Weschler, Charles J.; Langer, Sarka; Callesen, Michael; Toftum, Jørn; Clausen, Geo

    2013-01-01

    Total daily intakes of diethyl phthalate (DEP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP), di(isobutyl) phthalate (DiBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were calculated from phthalate metabolite levels measured in the urine of 431 Danish children between 3 and 6 years of age. For each child the intake attributable to exposures in the indoor environment via dust ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption were estimated from the phthalate levels in the dust collected from the child’s home and daycare center. Based on the urine samples, DEHP had the highest total daily intake (median: 4.42 µg/d/kg-bw) and BBzP the lowest (median: 0.49 µg/d/kg-bw). For DEP, DnBP and DiBP, exposures to air and dust in the indoor environment accounted for approximately 100%, 15% and 50% of the total intake, respectively, with dermal absorption from the gas-phase being the major exposure pathway. More than 90% of the total intake of BBzP and DEHP came from sources other than indoor air and dust. Daily intake of DnBP and DiBP from all exposure pathways, based on levels of metabolites in urine samples, exceeded the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) for 22 and 23 children, respectively. Indoor exposures resulted in an average daily DiBP intake that exceeded the TDI for 14 children. Using the concept of relative cumulative Tolerable Daily Intake (TDIcum), which is applicable for phthalates that have established TDIs based on the same health endpoint, we examined the cumulative total exposure to DnBP, DiBP and DEHP from all pathways; it exceeded the tolerable levels for 30% of the children. From the three indoor pathways alone, several children had a cumulative intake that exceeded TDIcum. Exposures to phthalates present in the air and dust indoors meaningfully contribute to a child’s total intake of certain phthalates. Such exposures, by themselves, may lead to intakes exceeding current limit values. PMID:23626820

  16. Small car exposure data project. Phase 1 : methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-01

    The Small Car Exposure Data Project represents the first phase of an effort to build a data : base of exposure variables for crash-avoidance studies. Among these are: (1) vehicle make, : model, year, body style, wheel base, weight, and horsepower; (2...

  17. Patient exposure: description of cumulative irradiation of patients treated in interventional cardiology; Exposition des patients: description de l'irradiation cumulee des patients traites en cardiologie interventionnelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odile Bernier, M.O. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Laboratoire d ' Epidemiologie, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    2009-07-01

    Despite its clinical benefits, interventional cardiology induces cumulative exposure to ionizing radiation and may entail an important irradiation of the patient at the cutaneous level as well as for organs at the vicinity of the heart. The author briefly reports a study performed on a sample of 1591 patients who have been submitted to at least one corono-graphy or one angioplasty during 2005. Based on clinical characteristics and dose-area-product measurements, the doses received by lung, oesophagus, bone medulla and breast have been computed

  18. A non-linear relationship between the cumulative exposure to occupational stressors and nurses' burnout and the potentially emotion regulation factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ji-Wei; Lin, Ping-Zhen; Zhang, Hui-Hui; Li, Jia-Huan; Cao, Feng-Lin

    2017-10-08

    Stressful situations can increase the likelihood of nurses experiencing negative emotions, especially burnout. To explore the association of cumulative exposure to occupational stressors and emotion regulation strategies with nurses' burnout. Participants were 602 nurses from three general hospitals in Jinan, China. Social demographic characteristics, occupational stress, burnout, and emotion regulation strategies (cognitive reappraisal, expressive suppression, and rumination), were assessed. Nearly 70% of nurses reported that they were burnt out. Those with a moderate level and high level of stressors were 3.203 times and 26.444 times more likely to have burnout, respectively (x 2 trend = 62.732). Logistic regression revealed that nurses had higher cognitive reappraisal score (odds ratios (OR) = 0.941), scored lower for burnout. Those who had higher expressive suppression score (OR = 1.054), higher rumination score (OR = 1.037), and a higher level of stressors (OR = 2.779-18.259) scored higher for burnout. The results of sensitivity analysis were similar. A non-linear relationship exists between the cumulative exposure to occupational stressors and nurses' burnout. Those who less frequently use cognitive reappraisal, more frequently use rumination and expressive suppression, and have a high level of stressors may be more likely to experience burnout.

  19. A preliminary estimate of the EUVE cumulative distribution of exposure time on the unit sphere. [Extreme Ultra-Violet Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, C. C. H.

    1984-01-01

    A preliminary study of an all-sky coverage of the EUVE mission is given. Algorithms are provided to compute the exposure of the celestial sphere under the spinning telescopes, taking into account that during part of the exposure time the telescopes are blocked by the earth. The algorithms are used to give an estimate of exposure time at different ecliptic latitudes as a function of the angle of field of view of the telescope. Sample coverage patterns are also given for a 6-month mission.

  20. A broad-spectrum sunscreen prevents cumulative damage from repeated exposure to sub-erythemal solar ultraviolet radiation representative of temperate latitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seité, S; Christiaens, F; Bredoux, C; Compan, D; Zucchi, H; Lombard, D; Fourtanier, A; Young, A R

    2010-02-01

    We have previously shown the detrimental effects of 19 sub-erythemal exposures to daily ultraviolet radiation (DUVR, which mimics non-extreme exposure conditions), delivered over 4 weeks to volunteers. This source had UVA (320-400 nm) to UVB (290-320 nm) irradiance ratio of 25, instead of that close to 10 that is typically the case with solar-simulated radiation (SSR) that represents summer global sunlight with a clear sky and quasi-zenith solar irradiance. Here, we report on an extension of this previous study, in which we evaluated the photoprotection afforded by a broad-spectrum daily-care product with a low-sun protection factor (SPF 8, UVA-PF 7 and 3* rated UVA protection). We assessed cellular and molecular markers of photodamage that are relevant to skin cancer and photoageing. This study shows that biological effects of repeated exposure to DUVR can be prevented by a broad-spectrum daily-care product and that the level of protection afforded varies with the studied endpoint. Efficient daily UVR protection, as provided by a broad-spectrum daily-care product, is necessary to prevent the 'silent' sub-erythemal cumulative effects of UVR from inadvertent sun exposure.

  1. In vivo x-ray fluorescence of bone lead in the study of human lead metabolism: Serum lead, whole blood lead, bone lead, and cumulative exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cake, K.M.; Chettle, D.R.; Webber, C.E.; Gordon, C.L.

    1995-01-01

    Traditionally, clinical studies of lead's effect on health have relied on blood lead levels to indicate lead exposure. However, this is unsatisfactory because blood lead levels have a half-life of approximately 5 weeks, and thus reflect recent exposure. Over 90% of the lead body burden is in bone, and it is thought to have a long residence time, thus implying that measurements of bone lead reflect cumulative exposure. So, measurements of bone lead are useful in understanding the long-term health effects of lead. Ahlgren reported the first noninvasive measurements of bone lead in humans, where γ-rays from 57 Co were used to excite the K series x-rays of lead. The lead detection system at McMaster University uses a 109 Cd source which is positioned at the center of the detector face (HPGe) and a near backscatter (∼160 degrees) geometry. This arrangement allows great flexibility, since one can sample lead in a range of different bone sites due to a robust normalization technique which eliminates the need to correct for bone geometry, thickness of overlying tissue, and other related factors. The effective radiation dose to an adult during an x-ray fluorescence bone lead measurement is extremely low, being 35 nSv. This paper addresses the issue of how bone, whole blood, and serum lead concentrations can be related in order to understand a person's lead exposure history

  2. Instrumental variables estimation of exposure effects on a time-to-event endpoint using structural cumulative survival models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Torben; Vansteelandt, Stijn; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J.

    2017-01-01

    The use of instrumental variables for estimating the effect of an exposure on an outcome is popular in econometrics, and increasingly so in epidemiology. This increasing popularity may be attributed to the natural occurrence of instrumental variables in observational studies that incorporate elem...

  3. Feasibility study for evaluating cumulative exposure of downstream migrant juvenile salmonids to total dissolved gas. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abernethy, C.S.; Dauble, D.D.; Johnson, R.L.

    1997-11-01

    A feasibility study was initiated to determine if downstream migrant salmonids could be monitored to determine potential relationships between total dissolved gas (TDG) exposure and signs of gas bubble trauma (GBT). The primary objectives were to: (1) establish logistical requirements for in-river monitoring of TDG exposure, including net pen design, deployment, and navigation constraints; (2) resolve uncertainties associated with effects of the net pen on fish behavior; (3) test the accuracy and precision of in-river monitoring equipment used to measure fish distribution and water quality; and (4) determine the application of hydrologic/flow models to predictions of TDG exposure. In-river measurements included water velocity, boat position, and selected water quality parameters (temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, depth, conductivity). Fish distribution within the net pen was monitored using scanning sonar, and a split-beam echo sounder was used to evaluate vertical distribution of fish m in the river adjacent to the net pen. Three test drifts were conducted from late July through late August. The studies demonstrated that it was feasible to assemble and deploy a large net pen for mobile monitoring of TDG exposure. Accurate monitoring of vertical and lateral distribution of smolts was performed, and diel differences in behavior were documented. Further, the fish sounded in response to researcher activity on the perimeter platform. Thus, in-transit monitoring for GBT or mortality would affect fish depth distribution and exposure to TDG. Principal recommendations for future studies are directed at improving maneuverability of the net pen in adverse weather conditions and applying new acoustics technology to simultaneously collect fish distribution data from within and outside of the pen. 6 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Cumulative and current exposure to potentially nephrotoxic antiretrovirals and development of chronic kidney disease in HIV-positive individuals with a normal baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocroft, Amanda; Lundgren, Jens D; Ross, Michael

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Whether or not the association between some antiretrovirals used in HIV infection and chronic kidney disease is cumulative is a controversial topic, especially in patients with initially normal renal function. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between duration...... of exposure to antiretrovirals and the development of chronic kidney disease in people with initially normal renal function, as measured by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). METHODS: In this prospective international cohort study, HIV-positive adult participants (aged ≥16 years) from the D......:A:D study (based in Europe, the USA, and Australia) with first eGFR greater than 90 mL/min per 1·73 m(2) were followed from baseline (first eGFR measurement after Jan 1, 2004) until the occurrence of one of the following: chronic kidney disease; last eGFR measurement; Feb 1, 2014; or final visit plus 6...

  5. Cumulative effects of heat exposure and storage conditions of Oxytocin-in-Uniject in rural Ghana: implications for scale up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullany, Luke C; Newton, Sam; Afari-Asiedu, Samuel; Adiibokah, Edward; Agyemang, Charlotte T; Cofie, Patience; Brooke, Steve; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Stanton, Cynthia K

    2014-08-01

    Postpartum hemorrhage can be reduced substantially in home deliveries attended by community-based workers by using Oxytocin-in-Uniject (OIU) devices affixed with temperature-time indicators. We characterized the distribution of time to discard of these devices when stored under normal field conditions in Ghana. Two drug storage simulation studies were conducted in rural Ghana in 2011 and 2012. Devices were transported under refrigeration from manufacture (Argentina) to storage at the study site. Twenty-three field workers each stored at home (unrefrigerated) 25 OIU devices and monitored them daily to record: (1) time to transition from usable to unusable, and (2) continuous digital ambient temperature to determine heat exposure over the simulation period. Time to discard was estimated and compared with mean kinetic temperature exposure of the devices during the shipment and storage phases and with characteristics of the storage locations using Weibull regression models. We used the time to discard distributions in a Monte Carlo simulation to estimate wastage rates in a hypothetical program setting. Time for shipment and transfer to long-term refrigerated storage and mean kinetic temperature during the shipment phase was 8.6 days/10.3°C and 13.4 days/12.1°C, for the first and second simulation studies, respectively. Median (range) time to discard when stored under field conditions (unrefrigerated) was 43 (6 to 59) days and 33 (14 to 50) days, respectively. Mean time to discard was 10.0 days shorter in the second simulation, during which mean kinetic temperature exposure was 3.9°C higher. Simulating a monthly distribution system and assuming typical usage, predicted wastage of product was less than 10%. The time to discard of devices was highly sensitive to small changes in temperature exposure. Under field conditions typical in rural Ghana, OIU packages will have a half-life of approximately 30 to 40 days based on the temperature monitor used during the study

  6. Cumulative response of ecosystem carbon and nitrogen stocks to chronic CO2 exposure in a subtropical oak woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungate, Bruce A; Dijkstra, Paul; Wu, Zhuoting; Duval, Benjamin D; Day, Frank P; Johnson, Dale W; Megonigal, J Patrick; Brown, Alisha L P; Garland, Jay L

    2013-01-01

    Summary Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) could alter the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content of ecosystems, yet the magnitude of these effects are not well known. We examined C and N budgets of a subtropical woodland after 11 yr of exposure to elevated CO2. We used open-top chambers to manipulate CO2 during regrowth after fire, and measured C, N and tracer 15N in ecosystem components throughout the experiment. Elevated CO2 increased plant C and tended to increase plant N but did not significantly increase whole-system C or N. Elevated CO2 increased soil microbial activity and labile soil C, but more slowly cycling soil C pools tended to decline. Recovery of a long-term 15N tracer indicated that CO2 exposure increased N losses and altered N distribution, with no effect on N inputs. Increased plant C accrual was accompanied by higher soil microbial activity and increased C losses from soil, yielding no statistically detectable effect of elevated CO2 on net ecosystem C uptake. These findings challenge the treatment of terrestrial ecosystems responses to elevated CO2 in current biogeochemical models, where the effect of elevated CO2 on ecosystem C balance is described as enhanced photosynthesis and plant growth with decomposition as a first-order response. PMID:23718224

  7. Cumulative response of ecosystem carbon and nitrogen stocks to chronic CO₂ exposure in a subtropical oak woodland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungate, Bruce A; Dijkstra, Paul; Wu, Zhuoting; Duval, Benjamin D; Day, Frank P; Johnson, Dale W; Megonigal, J Patrick; Brown, Alisha L P; Garland, Jay L

    2013-11-01

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO₂) could alter the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content of ecosystems, yet the magnitude of these effects are not well known. We examined C and N budgets of a subtropical woodland after 11 yr of exposure to elevated CO₂. We used open-top chambers to manipulate CO₂ during regrowth after fire, and measured C, N and tracer (15) N in ecosystem components throughout the experiment. Elevated CO₂ increased plant C and tended to increase plant N but did not significantly increase whole-system C or N. Elevated CO₂ increased soil microbial activity and labile soil C, but more slowly cycling soil C pools tended to decline. Recovery of a long-term (15) N tracer indicated that CO₂ exposure increased N losses and altered N distribution, with no effect on N inputs. Increased plant C accrual was accompanied by higher soil microbial activity and increased C losses from soil, yielding no statistically detectable effect of elevated CO₂ on net ecosystem C uptake. These findings challenge the treatment of terrestrial ecosystems responses to elevated CO₂ in current biogeochemical models, where the effect of elevated CO₂ on ecosystem C balance is described as enhanced photosynthesis and plant growth with decomposition as a first-order response. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Secant cumulants and toric geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michalek, M.; Oeding, L.; Zwiernik, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    We study the secant line variety of the Segre product of projective spaces using special cumulant coordinates adapted for secant varieties. We show that the secant variety is covered by open normal toric varieties. We prove that in cumulant coordinates its ideal is generated by binomial quadrics. We

  9. Dose monitoring using the DICOM structured report: assessment of the relationship between cumulative radiation exposure and BMI in abdominal CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boos, J.; Lanzman, R.S.; Meineke, A.; Heusch, P.; Sawicki, L.M.; Antoch, G.; Kröpil, P.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To perform a systematic, large-scale analysis using the Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine structured report (DICOM-SR) to assess the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and radiation exposure in abdominal CT. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of DICOM-SR of 3121 abdominal CT examinations between April 2013 and March 2014 was performed. All examinations were conducted using a 128 row CT system. Patients (mean age 61 ± 15 years) were divided into five groups according to their BMI: group A <20 kg/m 2 (underweight), group B 20–25 kg/m 2 (normal weight), group C 25–30 kg/m 2 (overweight), group D 30–35 kg/m 2 (obese), and group E > 35 kg/m 2 (extremely obese). CT dose index (CTDI vol ) and dose–length product (DLP) were compared between all groups and matched to national diagnostic reference values. Results: The mean CTDI vol and DLP were 5.4 ± 2.9 mGy and 243 ± 153 mGy·cm in group A, 6 ± 3.6 mGy and 264 ± 179 mGy• cm in group B, 7 ± 3.6 mGy and 320 ± 180 mGy• cm in group C, 8.1 ± 5.2 mGy and 375 ± 306 mGy• cm in group D, and 10 ± 8 mGy and 476 ± 403 mGy• cm in group E, respectively. Except for group A versus group B, CTDI vol and DLP differed significantly between all groups (p<0.05). Significantly more CTDI vol values exceeded national diagnostic reference values in groups D and E (2.1% and 6.3%) compared to group B (0.5%, p<0.05). Conclusion: DICOM-SR is a comprehensive, fast, and reproducible way to analyse dose-related data at CT. It allows for automated evaluation of radiation dose in a large study population. Dose exposition is related to the patient's BMI and is increased by up to 96% for extremely obese patients undergoing abdominal CT. - Highlights: • DICOM-SR was used to implement automatic CT-dose monitoring. • DICOM-SR allowed for a fast and comprehensive analysis of CT dose data. • Radiation exposure for abdominal CT was increased by up to 96% for

  10. The association between osteoporotic hip fractures and actinic lesions as a biomarker for cumulative sun exposure in older people-a retrospective case-control study in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perroud, H A; Dagatti, M S; Amigot, B; Levit, G P; Tomat, M F; Morosano, M E; Masoni, A M; Pezzotto, S M

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the association between the presence of actinic lesions (solar keratosis and non-melanoma skin cancer) and osteoporotic hip fractures in older patients. Both pathologies are common conditions in this age group. Since cumulative sun exposure is difficult to quantify, the presence of actinic lesions can be used to indirectly analyze the association between ultraviolet radiation and osteoporotic hip fractures. This was an observational case-control study. We reviewed the centralized medical records of patients with hip fracture (cases, n = 51) and patients with other diseases hospitalized in the same institution and period (controls, n = 59). The mean age of the patients was 80 ± 8.3 years (range 50-103 years). Differences in maternal hip fracture history were found between cases and controls (14.8 and 8 %, respectively; p = 0.047). Falls history in the past year was higher in cases than in controls (p < 0.0001). Actinic lesions were observed in 32.7 % of patients (prevalence rate 23.5 % in cases, 40.7 % in controls; p = 0.04). When considering patients with actinic lesions, controls have a higher FRAX score compared with cases. Although sun exposure is recommended for bone health, it represents a risk factor for actinic lesions. The presence of actinic lesions may indicate a lower osteoporotic hip fracture risk. A balance between adequate lifetime sun exposure and protection against its adverse effects is required for each patient, in the context of geographic location.

  11. A Case Study Application of the Aggregate Exposure Pathway (AEP) and Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) Frameworks to Facilitate the Integration of Human Health and Ecological End Points for Cumulative Risk Assessment (CRA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumulative risk assessment (CRA) methods promote the use of a conceptual site model (CSM) to apportion exposures and integrate risk from multiple stressors. While CSMs may encompass multiple species, evaluating end points across taxa can be challenging due to data availability an...

  12. Developing statistical wildlife habitat relationships for assessing cumulative effects of fuels treatments: Final Report for Joint Fire Science Program Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel A. Cushman; Kevin S. McKelvey

    2006-01-01

    The primary weakness in our current ability to evaluate future landscapes in terms of wildlife lies in the lack of quantitative models linking wildlife to forest stand conditions, including fuels treatments. This project focuses on 1) developing statistical wildlife habitat relationships models (WHR) utilizing Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) and National Vegetation...

  13. Cooperia punctata trickle infections: parasitological parameters and evaluation of a Cooperia recombinant 14.2 kDa protein ELISA for estimating cumulative exposure of calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsuda, A P; Kooyman, F N J; Ploeger, H W; Vieira-Bressan, M C R; de Vries, E; Eysker, M

    2002-04-30

    Three groups of four calves each were trickle infected with three different levels of Cooperia punctata: 310 (group A), 1250 (group B) and 5000 (group C) third stage infective larvae (L3) twice a week over a 17-week period. Group D was the non-infected control group. Parasitological parameters as faecal egg counts (epg), worm burdens, size of worms and number of eggs per female were collected and the differences between the groups compared. Serological analyses were also conducted to investigate the efficiency of a recombinant C. oncophora CoES 14.2kDa protein in an ELISA to detect C. punctata antibodies. Group C had higher faecal egg counts until week 9 when the values decreased to those in group B. Mean faecal egg counts in group A were always lower than in the two other infected groups. The worm burdens were highest in group C, and lowest in group A, although the number of worms as a percentage of total larval intake was higher for the lower group. The mean length of the worms was shorter and the number of eggs per female lower for group C than for both other groups. ELISA using the CoES 14.2kDa proved to be efficient in measuring C. punctata antibodies. For group C it took 4 weeks to get increased levels of antibodies and this was one and 2 months more for groups B and A, respectively. Overall, there was a congruent relation between C. punctata antibodies and the cumulative exposure to the three different levels of trickle infections.

  14. Social Determinants of Health in Environmental Justice Communities: Examining Cumulative Risk in Terms of Environmental Exposures and Social Determinants of Health

    OpenAIRE

    Prochaska, John D.; Nolen, Alexandra B.; Kelley, Hilton; Sexton, Ken; Linder, Stephen H.; Sullivan, John

    2014-01-01

    Residents of environmental justice (EJ) communities may bear a disproportionate burden of environmental health risk, and often face additional burdens from social determinants of health. Accounting for cumulative risk should include measures of risk from both environmental sources and social determinants. This study sought to better understand cumulative health risk from both social and environmental sources in a disadvantaged community in Texas. Key outcomes were determining what data are cu...

  15. Patient exposure tracking: the IAEA smart card project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehani, Madan M; Frush, Donald P

    2011-09-01

    The existing approach of radiation protection is largely based on the collective dose to the population with provisions for protection at an individual level through justification and optimisation. With the individual patient dose now exceeding the life-long occupational dose to a worker in a typical radiology practice, there is a need to establish approaches based on the protection of an individual patient. Radiation exposure tracking seems a way forward in this respect. Technological advances in recent years have provided opportunities for tracking to becoming a reality. The IAEA project on Smart Card/SmartRadTrack is described in this paper. The tracking is now a reality in a few dozen centres in many countries connected by picture archiving and communication systems, and there is hope that this will extend to cover other countries and continents.

  16. Patient exposure tracking: The IAEA smart card project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehani, M. M.; Frush, D. P.

    2011-01-01

    The existing approach of radiation protection is largely based on the collective dose to the population with provisions for protection at an individual level through justification and optimisation. With the individual patient dose now exceeding the life-long occupational dose to a worker in a typical radiology practice, there is a need to establish approaches based on the protection of an individual patient. Radiation exposure tracking seems a way forward in this respect. Technological advances in recent years have provided opportunities for tracking to becoming a reality. The IAEA project on Smart Card/SmartRadTrack is described in this paper. The tracking is now a reality in a few dozen centres in many countries connected by picture archiving and communication systems, and there is hope that this will extend to cover other countries and continents. (authors)

  17. The MONIT project: electromagnetic radiation exposure assessment in mobile communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carla Oliveira; Daniel Sebastiao; Goncalo Carpinteiro; Luis M Correia; Carlos A Fernandes; Afonso Serralha; Nuno Marques

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the m.o.n.I.T. Project, a risk communication initiative, providing information to the public on exposure to radiation associated to Electromagnetic Fields (E.M.F.), and performing activities of exposure assessment. M.o.n.I.T. is developed within Instituto de Telecomunicacoes (I.T.) Lisbon site at Instituto Superior Tecnico (I.S.T., Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal), which is a non-profit scientific R and D institute with activities in the Telecommunications area. M.o.n.I.T. started in 2004 in the context of an emergent general public concern about possible health hazards caused by radiation from mobile communication antennas, most of the times rooted in misconceptions about the involved aspects, aggravated by the lack of trusty sources of information capable of presenting it in a simple understandable way. An objective evaluation of the risk requires the quantification of E.M.F. levels to which the population is exposed. Systematic information of this type was not openly available in Portugal, and this was one of the gaps that m.o.n.I.T. filled in, by providing results from extensive measurements campaigns performed in public places over the country for a period that presently mounts to three years. The monitoring system is based on a network of autonomous remote probing stations, and also on an extensive E.M.F. sounding program. Measured results are automatically uploaded to a web site for public dissemination (www.lx.it.pt/monit), which includes also other relevant information about E.M.F. for both the general public and the technical community. This paper describes the project structure and activities in Section 2, the automatic monitoring system in Section 3, and a brief analysis of the measured results in Section 4. Finally, some conclusions are presented in Section 5. (authors)

  18. The MONIT project: electromagnetic radiation exposure assessment in mobile communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carla Oliveira; Daniel Sebastiao; Goncalo Carpinteiro; Luis M Correia; Carlos A Fernandes [Instituto de Telecomunicacoes/Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon (Portugal); Afonso Serralha; Nuno Marques [Magnete Lisbon (Portugal)

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents the m.o.n.I.T. Project, a risk communication initiative, providing information to the public on exposure to radiation associated to Electromagnetic Fields (E.M.F.), and performing activities of exposure assessment. M.o.n.I.T. is developed within Instituto de Telecomunicacoes (I.T.) Lisbon site at Instituto Superior Tecnico (I.S.T., Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal), which is a non-profit scientific R and D institute with activities in the Telecommunications area. M.o.n.I.T. started in 2004 in the context of an emergent general public concern about possible health hazards caused by radiation from mobile communication antennas, most of the times rooted in misconceptions about the involved aspects, aggravated by the lack of trusty sources of information capable of presenting it in a simple understandable way. An objective evaluation of the risk requires the quantification of E.M.F. levels to which the population is exposed. Systematic information of this type was not openly available in Portugal, and this was one of the gaps that m.o.n.I.T. filled in, by providing results from extensive measurements campaigns performed in public places over the country for a period that presently mounts to three years. The monitoring system is based on a network of autonomous remote probing stations, and also on an extensive E.M.F. sounding program. Measured results are automatically uploaded to a web site for public dissemination (www.lx.it.pt/monit), which includes also other relevant information about E.M.F. for both the general public and the technical community. This paper describes the project structure and activities in Section 2, the automatic monitoring system in Section 3, and a brief analysis of the measured results in Section 4. Finally, some conclusions are presented in Section 5. (authors)

  19. A case study to illustrate the utility of the Aggregate Exposure Pathway and Adverse Outcome Pathway frameworks for integrating human health and ecological data into cumulative risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumulative risk assessment (CRA) methods, which evaluate the risk of multiple adverse outcomes (AOs) from multiple chemicals, promote the use of a conceptual site model (CSM) to integrate risk from relevant stressors. The Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework can inform these r...

  20. Barrier function and natural moisturizing factor levels after cumulative exposure to a fruit-derived organic acid and a detergent: different outcomes in atopic and healthy skin and relevance for occupational contact dermatitis in the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelova-Fischer, Irena; Hoek, Anne-Karin; Dapic, Irena; Jakasa, Ivone; Kezic, Sanja; Fischer, Tobias W; Zillikens, Detlef

    2015-12-01

    Fruit-derived organic compounds and detergents are relevant exposure factors for occupational contact dermatitis in the food industry. Although individuals with atopic dermatitis (AD) are at risk for development of occupational contact dermatitis, there have been no controlled studies on the effects of repeated exposure to multiple irritants, relevant for the food industry, in atopic skin. The aim of the study was to investigate the outcomes of repeated exposure to a fruit-derived organic acid and a detergent in AD compared to healthy volunteers. The volunteers were exposed to 2.0% acetic acid (AcA) and/or 0.5% sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) in controlled tandem repeated irritation test. The outcomes were assessed by measurements of erythema, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and natural moisturizing factor (NMF) levels. In the AD volunteers, repeated AcA exposure led to barrier disruption and significant TEWL increase; no significant differences after the same exposure in the healthy controls were found. Repeated exposure to SLS and the irritant tandems enhanced the reactions and resulted in a significantly higher increase in TEWL in the AD compared to the control group. Cumulative irritant exposure reduced the NMF levels in both groups. Differences in the severity of irritant-induced barrier impairment in atopic individuals contribute to the risk for occupational contact dermatitis in result of multiple exposures to food-derived irritants and detergents. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Pediatric cleft palate patients show a 3- to 5-fold increase in cumulative radiation exposure from dental radiology compared with an age- and gender-matched population: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Reinhilde; Pauwels, Ruben; Scarfe, William C; De Cock, Carl; Dula, Karl; Willems, Guy; Verdonck, An; Politis, Constantinus

    2018-05-01

    The objective of the study was to compare estimates of pediatric cumulative exposure and lifetime attributable risk (LAR) of radiation-induced cancer from dental radiology between cleft palate (CP) subjects and age- and gender-matched controls (non-CP), with and without orthodontic treatment. The radiation exposure frequency of CP subjects and non-CP controls with and without orthodontic treatment was compared for two-dimensional radiography (intra-oral, panoramic and cephalometric radiography), computed tomography (CT), and cone-beam CT (CBCT) using cumulative radiation dose as an estimate. From this dose estimate, the age- and gender-dependent risk for radiation-induced stochastic effects was calculated for each patient group. CP patients received more radiographic examinations than non-CP controls, with the exception of intra-oral radiographs. The cumulative dose to CP patients was considerably higher (1963 μSv at the age of 20 years) than non-CP patients with (597 μSv) and without (383 μSv) orthodontic treatment, primarily due to the higher frequency of CT scanning. Accordingly, CP patients had a three to five times higher LAR than non-CP patients. This study suggests a significantly higher lifetime radiation exposure to CP patients than non-CP controls from dental radiographic procedures. Diagnostic benefits from the use of CT and CBCT in children must be justified and appropriate dose optimization strategies implemented. The present study indicates the need for proper justification and optimization of pediatric exposures in dentistry, with a special focus on high-risk groups.

  2. Social Determinants of Health in Environmental Justice Communities: Examining Cumulative Risk in Terms of Environmental Exposures and Social Determinants of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, John D; Nolen, Alexandra B; Kelley, Hilton; Sexton, Ken; Linder, Stephen H; Sullivan, John

    2014-01-01

    Residents of environmental justice (EJ) communities may bear a disproportionate burden of environmental health risk, and often face additional burdens from social determinants of health. Accounting for cumulative risk should include measures of risk from both environmental sources and social determinants. This study sought to better understand cumulative health risk from both social and environmental sources in a disadvantaged community in Texas. Key outcomes were determining what data are currently available for this assessment, clarifying data needs, identifying data gaps, and considering how those gaps could be filled. Analyses suggested that the traditionally defined EJ community in Port Arthur may have a lower environmental risk from air toxics than the rest of the City of Port Arthur (although the entire city has a higher risk than the average for the state), but may have a larger burden from social determinants of health. However, the results should be interpreted in light of the availability of data, the definitions of community boundaries, and the areal unit utilized. Continued focus on environmental justice communities and the cumulative risks faced by their residents is critical to protecting these residents and, ultimately, moving towards a more equitable distribution and acceptable level of risk throughout society.

  3. Cumulative effects assessment: Does scale matter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therivel, Riki; Ross, Bill

    2007-01-01

    Cumulative effects assessment (CEA) is (or should be) an integral part of environmental assessment at both the project and the more strategic level. CEA helps to link the different scales of environmental assessment in that it focuses on how a given receptor is affected by the totality of plans, projects and activities, rather than on the effects of a particular plan or project. This article reviews how CEAs consider, and could consider, scale issues: spatial extent, level of detail, and temporal issues. It is based on an analysis of Canadian project-level CEAs and UK strategic-level CEAs. Based on a review of literature and, especially, case studies with which the authors are familiar, it concludes that scale issues are poorly considered at both levels, with particular problems being unclear or non-existing cumulative effects scoping methodologies; poor consideration of past or likely future human activities beyond the plan or project in question; attempts to apportion 'blame' for cumulative effects; and, at the plan level, limited management of cumulative effects caused particularly by the absence of consent regimes. Scale issues are important in most of these problems. However both strategic-level and project-level CEA have much potential for managing cumulative effects through better siting and phasing of development, demand reduction and other behavioural changes, and particularly through setting development consent rules for projects. The lack of strategic resource-based thresholds constrains the robust management of strategic-level cumulative effects

  4. Cumulative Poisson Distribution Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, Paul N.; Scheuer, Ernest M.; Nolty, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Overflow and underflow in sums prevented. Cumulative Poisson Distribution Program, CUMPOIS, one of two computer programs that make calculations involving cumulative Poisson distributions. Both programs, CUMPOIS (NPO-17714) and NEWTPOIS (NPO-17715), used independently of one another. CUMPOIS determines cumulative Poisson distribution, used to evaluate cumulative distribution function (cdf) for gamma distributions with integer shape parameters and cdf for X (sup2) distributions with even degrees of freedom. Used by statisticians and others concerned with probabilities of independent events occurring over specific units of time, area, or volume. Written in C.

  5. Diagnosis, monitoring and prevention of exposure-related non-communicable diseases in the living and working environment: DiMoPEx-project is designed to determine the impacts of environmental exposure on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budnik, Lygia Therese; Adam, Balazs; Albin, Maria; Banelli, Barbara; Baur, Xaver; Belpoggi, Fiorella; Bolognesi, Claudia; Broberg, Karin; Gustavsson, Per; Göen, Thomas; Fischer, Axel; Jarosinska, Dorota; Manservisi, Fabiana; O'Kennedy, Richard; Øvrevik, Johan; Paunovic, Elizabet; Ritz, Beate; Scheepers, Paul T J; Schlünssen, Vivi; Schwarzenbach, Heidi; Schwarze, Per E; Sheils, Orla; Sigsgaard, Torben; Van Damme, Karel; Casteleyn, Ludwine

    2018-01-01

    The WHO has ranked environmental hazardous exposures in the living and working environment among the top risk factors for chronic disease mortality. Worldwide, about 40 million people die each year from noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) including cancer, diabetes, and chronic cardiovascular, neurological and lung diseases. The exposure to ambient pollution in the living and working environment is exacerbated by individual susceptibilities and lifestyle-driven factors to produce complex and complicated NCD etiologies. Research addressing the links between environmental exposure and disease prevalence is key for prevention of the pandemic increase in NCD morbidity and mortality. However, the long latency, the chronic course of some diseases and the necessity to address cumulative exposures over very long periods does mean that it is often difficult to identify causal environmental exposures. EU-funded COST Action DiMoPEx is developing new concepts for a better understanding of health-environment (including gene-environment) interactions in the etiology of NCDs. The overarching idea is to teach and train scientists and physicians to learn how to include efficient and valid exposure assessments in their research and in their clinical practice in current and future cooperative projects. DiMoPEx partners have identified some of the emerging research needs, which include the lack of evidence-based exposure data and the need for human-equivalent animal models mirroring human lifespan and low-dose cumulative exposures. Utilizing an interdisciplinary approach incorporating seven working groups, DiMoPEx will focus on aspects of air pollution with particulate matter including dust and fibers and on exposure to low doses of solvents and sensitizing agents. Biomarkers of early exposure and their associated effects as indicators of disease-derived information will be tested and standardized within individual projects. Risks arising from some NCDs, like pneumoconioses, cancers and

  6. Dose-Response Relationship between Cumulative Occupational Lead Exposure and the Associated Health Damages: A 20-Year Cohort Study of a Smelter in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yue Wu; Jun-Ming Gu; Yun Huang; Yan-Ying Duan; Rui-Xue Huang; Jian-An Hu

    2016-01-01

    Long-term airborne lead exposure, even below official occupational limits, has been found to cause lead poisoning at higher frequencies than expected, which suggests that China’s existing occupational exposure limits should be reexamined. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 1832 smelting workers from 1988 to 2008 in China. These were individuals who entered the plant and came into continuous contact with lead at work for longer than 3 months. The dose-response relationship between o...

  7. Existing Default Values and Recommendations for Exposure Assessment - A Nordic Exposure Group Project 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höglund, Lena; Räisänen, Jouni; Hämäläinen, Anne-Maija

    range of more or less well-documented values originating from many different sources. The purpose of this report is to give an overview and to evaluate exposure factors that are currently used by the authorities and industry in the exposure assessments for both adults (occupational and consumer exposure......) and children in relation to REACH. Another important purpose of the report is to contribute towards a further harmonisation of exposure factors by giving recommendations of most valid and representative defaults. These recommendations can be used besides REACH also in biocide's and plant protection product...

  8. Cumulative effects of prenatal-exposure to exogenous chemicals and psychosocial stress on fetal growth: Systematic-review of the human and animal evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesterinen, Hanna M; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Sen, Saunak; Zeise, Lauren; Woodruff, Tracey J

    2017-01-01

    Adverse effects of prenatal stress or environmental chemical exposures on fetal growth are well described, yet their combined effect remains unclear. To conduct a systematic review on the combined impact and interaction of prenatal exposure to stress and chemicals on developmental outcomes. We used the first three steps of the Navigation Guide systematic review. We wrote a protocol, performed a robust literature search to identify relevant animal and human studies and extracted data on developmental outcomes. For the most common outcome (fetal growth), we evaluated risk of bias, calculated effect sizes for main effects of individual and combined exposures, and performed a random effects meta-analysis of those studies reporting on odds of low birthweight (LBW) by smoking and socioeconomic status (SES). We identified 17 human- and 22 animal-studies of combined chemical and stress exposures and fetal growth. Human studies tended to have a lower risk of bias across nine domains. Generally, we found stronger effects for chemicals than stress, and these exposures were associated with reduced fetal growth in the low-stress group and the association was often greater in high stress groups, with limited evidence of effect modification. We found smoking associated with significantly increased odds of LBW, with a greater effect for high stress (low SES; OR 4.75 (2.46-9.16)) compared to low stress (high SES; OR 1.95 (95% CI 1.53-2.48)). Animal studies generally had a high risk of bias with no significant combined effect or effect modification. We found that despite concern for the combined effects of environmental chemicals and stress, this is still an under-studied topic, though limited available human studies indicate chemical exposures exert stronger effects than stress, and this effect is generally larger in the presence of stress.

  9. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease symptom effects of long-term cumulative exposure to ambient levels of total suspended particulates and sulfur dioxide in California Seventh-Day Adventist residents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Euler, G.L.; Abbey, D.E.; Magie, A.R.; Hodgkin, J.E.

    1987-07-01

    Risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease symptoms due to long-term exposure to ambient levels of total suspended particulates (TSP) and sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) symptoms was ascertained using the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) respiratory symptoms questionnaire on 7445 Seventh-Day Adventists. They were non-smokers, at least 25 yr of age, and had lived 11 yr or more in areas ranging from high to low photochemical air pollution in California. Participant cumulative exposures to each pollutant in excess of four thresholds were estimated using monthly residence zip code histories and interpolated dosages from state air monitoring stations. These pollutant thresholds were entered individually and in combination in multiple logistic regression analyses with eight covariables including passive smoking. Statistically significant associations with chronic symptoms were seen for: SO/sub 2/ exposure above 4 pphm (104 mcg/m3), (p = .03), relative risk 1.18 for 500 hr/yr of exposure; and for total suspended particulates (TSP) above 200 mcg/m3, (p less than .00001), relative risk of 1.22 for 750 hr/yr.

  10. Tumulus Disposal Demonstration Project assessment plan for potential worker exposure: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Styers, D.R.

    1989-03-01

    The purpose of the ''Assessment Plan for Potential Worker Exposure'' is to determine the potential radiological exposures to the workers as they dispose of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) on the Tumulus Disposal Demonstration Project (TDDP). An evaluation of the work procedures and precautions will be made so as to maintain the exposure levels As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). 10 refs., 10 figs

  11. Advances in EPA’s Rapid Exposure and Dosimetry Project (Interagency Alternatives Assessment Webinar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estimates of human and ecological exposures are required as critical input to risk-based prioritization and screening of chemicals. The CSS Rapid Exposure and Dosimetry project seeks to develop the data, tools, and evaluation approaches required to generate rapid and scientifical...

  12. Cumulative Antiretroviral Exposure Measured in Hair Is Not Associated With Measures of HIV Persistence or Inflammation Among Individuals on Suppressive ART.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Monica; Gandhi, Rajesh T; Stefanescu, Andrei; Bosch, Ronald J; Cyktor, Joshua C; Horng, Howard; Louie, Alexander; Phung, Nhi; Eron, Joseph J; Hogg, Evelyn; Macatangay, Bernard J C; Hensel, Christopher; Fletcher, Courtney V; Mellors, John W; McMahon, Deborah K

    2018-06-20

    Data on the relationship of antiretroviral exposure to measures of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) persistence are limited. To address this gap, multiple viral, immunologic, and pharmacologic measures were analyzed from individuals with sustained virologic suppression on therapy (median 7 years) in the AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5321 cohort. Among 110 participants on tenofovir-(TFV)-disoproxil-fumarate (TDF)/emtricitabine (FTC)-containing regimens, we found no significant correlation between hair concentrations of individual antiretrovirals (ARVs) in the regimen and measures of HIV persistence (plasma HIV-1 RNA by single copy assay, cell-associated-DNA, cell-associated RNA) or soluble markers of inflammation. These findings suggest that higher systemic ARV exposure may not impact HIV persistence or inflammation.

  13. Divergent Cumulative Cultural Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Marriott, Chris; Chebib, Jobran

    2016-01-01

    Divergent cumulative cultural evolution occurs when the cultural evolutionary trajectory diverges from the biological evolutionary trajectory. We consider the conditions under which divergent cumulative cultural evolution can occur. We hypothesize that two conditions are necessary. First that genetic and cultural information are stored separately in the agent. Second cultural information must be transferred horizontally between agents of different generations. We implement a model with these ...

  14. Educational project on risk communication and reduction of the radon exposure in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrady, J.; Guhr, A.; Uhlig, R.

    2009-01-01

    The radon exposure in buildings is supposed to be the most important risk factor of lung cancer. In Saxony about 800 000 persons live in apartments with high radon exposure. The study discusses the effects of an educational project to communicate the facts on radon exposure in buildings and to develop risk awareness and individual initiatives to reduce the radon concentration. The project includes support and encouragement with respect of preventive and protective measures to improve the individual situation. Further items cover requirements for control and quantification of intervention impacts, development and optimization of specific strategies for a permanent risk communication in schools. Results of the pilot study are summarized.

  15. Neighborhood Perceptions and Cumulative Impacts of Low Level Chronic Exposure to Fine Particular Matter (PM2.5 on Cardiopulmonary Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen M. C. Malecki

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Adverse perceptions of neighborhood safety, aesthetics and quality including access to resources can induce stress and may make individuals more sensitive to cardiopulmonary effects of air pollution exposure. Few studies have examined neighborhood perceptions as important and modifiable non-chemical stressors of the built environment that may exacerbate effects of air pollution on cardiopulmonary health outcomes, particularly among general population based cohorts. This study examined associations between low-level chronic exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5 and cardiopulmonary health, and the potential mediating or modifying effects of adverse neighborhood perceptions. Using data from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin (SHOW, 2230 non-asthmatic adults age 21–74 were included in the analyses. The overall goals of this study were to assess if individuals who experience stress from neighborhood environments in which they live were more sensitive to low levels of fine particular matter (PM2.5 μg/m3. Demographic predictors of air pollution exposure included younger age, non-White race, lower education and middle class income. After adjustments, objective lung function measures (FEV1 and FEV1 to FVC ratio were the only cardiopulmonary health indicators significantly associated with chronic three-year annual averages of PM2.5. Among all non-asthmatics, a ten unit increase in estimated three year annual average PM2.5 exposure was significantly associated with lower forced expiratory volume (L in one second FEV1 (β = −0.40 μg/L; 95% CI −0.45, −0.06. Among all individuals, adverse perceptions of the neighborhood built environment did not appear to statistically moderate or mediate associations. However, stratified analysis did reveal significant associations between PM2.5 and lung function (FEV1 only among individuals with negative perceptions and increased reports of neighborhood stressors. These findings included individuals who

  16. Neighborhood Perceptions and Cumulative Impacts of Low Level Chronic Exposure to Fine Particular Matter (PM2.5) on Cardiopulmonary Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malecki, Kristen M C; Schultz, Amy A; Bergmans, Rachel S

    2018-01-06

    Adverse perceptions of neighborhood safety, aesthetics and quality including access to resources can induce stress and may make individuals more sensitive to cardiopulmonary effects of air pollution exposure. Few studies have examined neighborhood perceptions as important and modifiable non-chemical stressors of the built environment that may exacerbate effects of air pollution on cardiopulmonary health outcomes, particularly among general population based cohorts. This study examined associations between low-level chronic exposure to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and cardiopulmonary health, and the potential mediating or modifying effects of adverse neighborhood perceptions. Using data from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin (SHOW), 2230 non-asthmatic adults age 21-74 were included in the analyses. The overall goals of this study were to assess if individuals who experience stress from neighborhood environments in which they live were more sensitive to low levels of fine particular matter (PM 2.5 μg/m³). Demographic predictors of air pollution exposure included younger age, non-White race, lower education and middle class income. After adjustments, objective lung function measures (FEV1 and FEV1 to FVC ratio) were the only cardiopulmonary health indicators significantly associated with chronic three-year annual averages of PM 2.5 . Among all non-asthmatics, a ten unit increase in estimated three year annual average PM 2.5 exposure was significantly associated with lower forced expiratory volume (L) in one second FEV1 (β = -0.40 μg/L; 95% CI -0.45, -0.06). Among all individuals, adverse perceptions of the neighborhood built environment did not appear to statistically moderate or mediate associations. However, stratified analysis did reveal significant associations between PM 2.5 and lung function (FEV1) only among individuals with negative perceptions and increased reports of neighborhood stressors. These findings included individuals who felt their

  17. Children's Phthalate Intakes and Resultant Cumulative Exposures Estimated from Urine Compared with Estimates from Dust Ingestion, Inhalation and Dermal Absorption in Their Homes and Daycare Centers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Weschler, Charles J; Langer, Sarka

    2013-01-01

    Total daily intakes of diethyl phthalate (DEP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP), di(isobutyl) phthalate (DiBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were calculated from phthalate metabolite levels measured in the urine of 431 Danish children between 3 and 6 years of a...... of certain phthalates. Such exposures, by themselves, may lead to intakes exceeding current limit values.......Total daily intakes of diethyl phthalate (DEP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP), di(isobutyl) phthalate (DiBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were calculated from phthalate metabolite levels measured in the urine of 431 Danish children between 3 and 6 years of age....... For each child the intake attributable to exposures in the indoor environment via dust ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption were estimated from the phthalate levels in the dust collected from the child's home and daycare center. Based on the urine samples, DEHP had the highest total daily intake...

  18. The OBELIX project: early life exposure to endocrine disruptors and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legler, Juliette; Hamers, Timo; van Eck van der Sluijs-van de Bor, Margot; Schoeters, Greet; van der Ven, Leo; Eggesbo, Merete; Koppe, Janna; Feinberg, Max; Trnovec, Tomas

    2011-12-01

    The hypothesis of whether early life exposure (both pre- and early postnatal) to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may be a risk factor for obesity and related metabolic diseases later in life will be tested in the European research project OBELIX (OBesogenic Endocrine disrupting chemicals: LInking prenatal eXposure to the development of obesity later in life). OBELIX is a 4-y project that started in May 2009 and which has the following 5 main objectives: 1) to assess early life exposure in humans to major classes of EDCs identified as potential inducers of obesity (ie, dioxin-like compounds, non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, brominated flame retardants, phthalates, and perfluorinated compounds) by using mother-child cohorts from 4 European regions with different food-contaminant exposure patterns; 2) to relate early life exposure to EDCs with clinical markers, novel biomarkers, and health-effect data related to obesity; 3) to perform hazard characterization of early life exposure to EDCs for the development of obesity later in life by using a mouse model; 4) to determine mechanisms of action of obesogenic EDCs on developmental programming with in vivo and in vitro genomics and epigenetic analyses; and 5) to perform risk assessments of prenatal exposure to obesogenic EDCs in food by integrating maternal exposure through food-contaminant exposure and health-effect data in children and hazard data in animal studies.

  19. Cumulative alkylating agent exposure and semen parameters in adult survivors of childhood cancer: a report from the St Jude Lifetime Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Daniel M; Liu, Wei; Kutteh, William H; Ke, Raymond W; Shelton, Kyla C; Sklar, Charles A; Chemaitilly, Wassim; Pui, Ching-Hon; Klosky, James L; Spunt, Sheri L; Metzger, Monika L; Srivastava, DeoKumar; Ness, Kirsten K; Robison, Leslie L; Hudson, Melissa M

    2014-10-01

    Few data define the dose-specific relation between alkylating agent exposure and semen variables in adult survivors of childhood cancer. We undertook this study to test the hypothesis that increased exposure to alkylating agents would be associated with decreased sperm concentration in a cohort of adult male survivors of childhood cancer who were not exposed to radiation therapy for their childhood cancer. We did semen analysis on 214 adult male survivors of childhood cancer (median age 7·7 years [range 0·01-20·3] at diagnosis, 29·0 years [18·4-56·1] at assessment, and a median of 21·0 years [10·5-41·6] since diagnosis) who had received alkylating agent chemotherapy but no radiation therapy. Alkylating agent exposure was estimated using the cyclophosphamide equivalent dose (CED). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs for oligospermia (sperm concentration >0 and <15 million per mL) and azoospermia were calculated with logistic regression modelling. Azoospermia was noted in 53 (25%) of 214 participants, oligospermia in 59 (28%), and normospermia (sperm concentration ≥15 million per mL) in 102 (48%) participants. 31 (89%) of 35 participants who received CED less than 4000 mg/m(2) were normospermic. CED was negatively correlated with sperm concentration (correlation coefficient=-0·37, p<0·0001). Mean CED was 10 830 mg/m(2) (SD 7274) in patients with azoospermia, 8480 mg/m(2) (4264) in patients with oligospermia, and 6626 mg/m(2) (3576) in patients with normospermia. In multivariable analysis, CED was significantly associated with an increased risk per 1000 mg/m(2) CED for azoospermia (OR 1·22, 95% CI 1·11-1·34), and for oligospermia (1·14, 1·04-1·25), but age at diagnosis and age at assessment were not. Impaired spermatogenesis was unlikely when the CED was less than 4000 mg/m(2). Although sperm concentration decreases with increasing CED, there was substantial overlap of CED associated with normospermia, oligospermia, and azoospermia. These data can

  20. The Fee Sensitive Risk Exposures of Project Authorized Person in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai-On Cheung

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Authorized Persons (AP play a critical role in the design and construction of building works in Hong Kong. Under the Building Ordinance, design and construction of building works need to be coordinated and monitored by an AP registered with the Buildings Department. Professionally qualified Architects, Engineers and Surveyors are eligible to register as AP after completing the prescribed assessment. In addition, the project AP is often appointed by the project owner to be the project team leader. In these capacities, a project AP is exposed to various risks. This paper seeks to identify the fee sensitive risk exposures of project APs. Through an ANOVA study, these risks exposures are those due to liabilities under the Building Ordinance at the construction stage, those towards the third parties and the clients.

  1. Perspectives on cumulative risks and impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, John B

    2010-01-01

    Cumulative risks and impacts have taken on different meanings in different regulatory and programmatic contexts at federal and state government levels. Traditional risk assessment methodologies, with considerable limitations, can provide a framework for the evaluation of cumulative risks from chemicals. Under an environmental justice program in California, cumulative impacts are defined to include exposures, public health effects, or environmental effects in a geographic area from the emission or discharge of environmental pollution from all sources, through all media. Furthermore, the evaluation of these effects should take into account sensitive populations and socioeconomic factors where possible and to the extent data are available. Key aspects to this potential approach include the consideration of exposures (versus risk), socioeconomic factors, the geographic or community-level assessment scale, and the inclusion of not only health effects but also environmental effects as contributors to impact. Assessments of this type extend the boundaries of the types of information that toxicologists generally provide for risk management decisions.

  2. Cumulative radiation dose of multiple trauma patients during their hospitalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhikang; Sun Jianzhong; Zhao Zudan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the cumulative radiation dose of multiple trauma patients during their hospitalization and to analyze the dose influence factors. Methods: The DLP for CT and DR were retrospectively collected from the patients during June, 2009 and April, 2011 at a university affiliated hospital. The cumulative radiation doses were calculated by summing typical effective doses of the anatomic regions scanned. Results: The cumulative radiation doses of 113 patients were collected. The maximum,minimum and the mean values of cumulative effective doses were 153.3, 16.48 mSv and (52.3 ± 26.6) mSv. Conclusions: Multiple trauma patients have high cumulative radiation exposure. Therefore, the management of cumulative radiation doses should be enhanced. To establish the individualized radiation exposure archives will be helpful for the clinicians and technicians to make decision whether to image again and how to select the imaging parameters. (authors)

  3. Alpha-risk: a European project on the quantification of risks associated with multiple radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurier, D.; Monchaux, G.; Tirmarche, M.; Darby, S.; Cardis, E.; Binks, K.; Hofmann, W.; Muirhead, C.

    2006-01-01

    The Alpha-Risk research project is being conducted within the Sixth European Framework Programme (EC-FP6, 2005 -2008). It aims to improve the quantification of risks associated with multiple exposures, taking into account the contribution of different radionuclides and external exposure using specific organ dose calculations. The Alpha-Risk Consortium involves 18 partners from 9 countries, and is coordinated by the IRSN. Its composition allows a multidisciplinary collaboration between researchers in epidemiology, dosimetry, statistics, modelling and risk assessment. Alpha-Risk brings together major epidemiological studies in Europe, which are able to evaluate long-term health effects of internal exposure from radionuclides. It includes large size cohort and case-control studies, with accurate registration of individual annual exposures: uranium miner studies, studies on lung cancer and indoor radon exposure, and studies of lung cancer and leukaemia among nuclear workers exposed to transuranic nuclides (mainly uranium and plutonium), for whom organ doses will be reconstructed individually. The contribution of experts in dosimetry will allow the calculation of organ doses in presence of multiple exposures (radon decay products, uranium dust and external gamma exposure). Expression of the risk per unit organ dose will make it possible to compare results with those from other populations exposed to external radiation. The multidisciplinary approach of Alpha-Risk promotes the development of coherent and improved methodological approaches regarding risk modelling. A specific work - package is dedicated to the integration of results and their use for risk assessment, especially for radon. Alpha-Risk will contribute to a better understanding of long-term health risks following chronic low doses from internal exposures. The project also has the great potential to help resolve major public health concerns about the effects of low and/or protracted exposures, especially

  4. Characterizing the impact of projected changes in climate and air quality on human exposures to ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionisio, Kathie L; Nolte, Christopher G; Spero, Tanya L; Graham, Stephen; Caraway, Nina; Foley, Kristen M; Isaacs, Kristin K

    2017-05-01

    The impact of climate change on human and environmental health is of critical concern. Population exposures to air pollutants both indoors and outdoors are influenced by a wide range of air quality, meteorological, behavioral, and housing-related factors, many of which are also impacted by climate change. An integrated methodology for modeling changes in human exposures to tropospheric ozone (O 3 ) owing to potential future changes in climate and demographics was implemented by linking existing modeling tools for climate, weather, air quality, population distribution, and human exposure. Human exposure results from the Air Pollutants Exposure Model (APEX) for 12 US cities show differences in daily maximum 8-h (DM8H) exposure patterns and levels by sex, age, and city for all scenarios. When climate is held constant and population demographics are varied, minimal difference in O 3 exposures is predicted even with the most extreme demographic change scenario. In contrast, when population is held constant, we see evidence of substantial changes in O 3 exposure for the most extreme change in climate. Similarly, we see increases in the percentage of the population in each city with at least one O 3 exposure exceedance above 60 p.p.b and 70 p.p.b thresholds for future changes in climate. For these climate and population scenarios, the impact of projected changes in climate and air quality on human exposure to O 3 are much larger than the impacts of changing demographics. These results indicate the potential for future changes in O 3 exposure as a result of changes in climate that could impact human health.

  5. Environmental exposure assessment in European birth cohorts: results from the ENRIECO project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehring Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Environmental exposures during pregnancy and early life may have adverse health effects. Single birth cohort studies often lack statistical power to tease out such effects reliably. To improve the use of existing data and to facilitate collaboration among these studies, an inventory of the environmental exposure and health data in these studies was made as part of the ENRIECO (Environmental Health Risks in European Birth Cohorts project. The focus with regard to exposure was on outdoor air pollution, water contamination, allergens and biological organisms, metals, pesticides, smoking and second hand tobacco smoke (SHS, persistent organic pollutants (POPs, noise, radiation, and occupational exposures. The review lists methods and data on environmental exposures in 37 European birth cohort studies. Most data is currently available for smoking and SHS (N=37 cohorts, occupational exposures (N=33, outdoor air pollution, and allergens and microbial agents (N=27. Exposure modeling is increasingly used for long-term air pollution exposure assessment; biomonitoring is used for assessment of exposure to metals, POPs and other chemicals; and environmental monitoring for house dust mite exposure assessment. Collaborative analyses with data from several birth cohorts have already been performed successfully for outdoor air pollution, water contamination, allergens, biological contaminants, molds, POPs and SHS. Key success factors for collaborative analyses are common definitions of main exposure and health variables. Our review emphasizes that such common definitions need ideally be arrived at in the study design phase. However, careful comparison of methods used in existing studies also offers excellent opportunities for collaborative analyses. Investigators can use this review to evaluate the potential for future collaborative analyses with respect to data availability and methods used in the different cohorts and to identify potential partners

  6. Updates on EPA’s High-Throughput Exposure Forecast (ExpoCast) Research Project (CPCP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent research advances by the ORD ExpoCast project (CSS Rapid Exposure and Dosimetry) are presented to the computational toxicology community in the context of prioritizing chemicals on a risk-basis using joint ExpoCast and ToxCast predictions. Recent publications by Wambaugh e...

  7. Final report on the Project Research 'Assessment of Human Exposure to Environmental Radiation'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-03-01

    This is the final report of the Project Research, 'Assessment of Human Exposure to Environmental Radiation', which has been conducted during the period 1983-1988. With the objective of assessing risk of environmental radioactivity to the population, the Project was divided into the following five research groups: (1) research for establishing calculation models and parameters in transfer of radionuclides from crop species through the human body; (2) research for analyzing transfer of radionuclides in the ocean and their contributions to exposure doses in the human body; (3) research for surveying accuracy of exposure models for the external body and respiratory organ and the influential factors; (4) research for determining uptake and biokinetics of radionuclides in the body; and (5) research for estimating and evaluating physical and physiological characteristics of reference Japanese man and the populaltion doses. Effluents from nuclear power plants and reprocessing plants were regarded as radionuclide sources in the water and atmosphere. (N.K.)

  8. Application of Matrix Projection Exposure Using a Liquid Crystal Display Panel to Fabricate Thick Resist Molds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukasawa, Hirotoshi; Horiuchi, Toshiyuki

    2009-08-01

    The patterning characteristics of matrix projection exposure using an analog liquid crystal display (LCD) panel in place of a reticle were investigated, in particular for oblique patterns. In addition, a new method for fabricating practical thick resist molds was developed. At first, an exposure system fabricated in past research was reconstructed. Changes in the illumination optics and the projection lens were the main improvements. Using fly's eye lenses, the illumination light intensity distribution was homogenized. The projection lens was changed from a common camera lens to a higher-grade telecentric lens. In addition, although the same metal halide lamp was used as an exposure light source, the central exposure wavelength was slightly shortened from 480 to 450 nm to obtain higher resist sensitivity while maintaining almost equivalent contrast between black and white. Circular and radial patterns with linewidths of approximately 6 µm were uniformly printed in all directions throughout the exposure field owing to these improvements. The patterns were smoothly printed without accompanying stepwise roughness caused by the cell matrix array. On the bases of these results, a new method of fabricating thick resist molds for electroplating was investigated. It is known that thick resist molds fabricated using the negative resist SU-8 (Micro Chem) are useful because very high aspect patterns are printable and the side walls are perpendicular to the substrate surfaces. However, the most suitable exposure wavelength of SU-8 is 365 nm, and SU-8 is insensitive to light of 450 nm wavelength, which is most appropriate for LCD matrix exposure. For this reason, a novel multilayer resist process was proposed, and micromolds of SU-8 of 50 µm thickness were successfully obtained. As a result, feasibility for fabricating complex resist molds including oblique patterns was demonstrated.

  9. ITEM Project: Risk Communication on Exposure to Electromagnetic Radiation from Mobile Communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Carla; Carpinteiro, Goncalo; Correia, Luis M.; Fernandes, Carlos A.; Serralha, Afonso; Marques, Nuno

    2004-01-01

    The ITEM Project is a pioneer project in Portugal, providing public information on exposure to electromagnetic radiation, essentially due to mobile communication systems. The motivation, the main goals and the Project description are presented in this paper, as well as the website that provides the public dissemination of results and further significant information (www.lx.it.pt/item). This site provides information on different issues related to exposure to radiation, namely results of measurement campaigns conducted by a team on several locations in Portugal, and results of continuous measurements performed by autonomous stations located in public places in collaboration with municipal authorities. The global overview of the results from the measurement campaigns carried out up to present shows that all the analysed locations are in compliance with the radiation thresholds, i.e., all the electric field measured values are below the most restrictive threshold established at European level. (author)

  10. Use of Cumulative Degradation Factor Prediction and Life Test Result of the Thruster Gimbal Assembly Actuator for the Dawn Flight Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, C. John; Brophy, John R.; Etters, M. Andy; Ramesham, Rajeshuni; Jones, William R., Jr.; Jansen, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    The Dawn Ion Propulsion System is the ninth project in NASA s Discovery Program. The Dawn spacecraft is being developed to enable the scientific investigation of the two heaviest main-belt asteroids, Vesta and Ceres. Dawn is the first mission to orbit two extraterrestrial bodies, and the first to orbit a main-belt asteroid. The mission is enabled by the onboard Ion Propulsion System (IPS) to provide the post-launch delta-V. The three Ion Engines of the IPS are mounted on Thruster Gimbal Assembly (TGA), with only one engine operating at a time for this 10-year mission. The three TGAs weigh 14.6 kg.

  11. An Analysis of Cumulative Risks Indicated by Biomonitoring Data of Six Phthalates Using the Maximum Cumulative Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Maximum Cumulative Ratio (MCR) quantifies the degree to which a single component of a chemical mixture drives the cumulative risk of a receptor.1 This study used the MCR, the Hazard Index (HI) and Hazard Quotient (HQ) to evaluate co-exposures to six phthalates using biomonito...

  12. An analysis of cumulative risks based on biomonitoring data for six phthalates using the Maximum Cumulative Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Maximum Cumulative Ratio (MCR) quantifies the degree to which a single chemical drives the cumulative risk of an individual exposed to multiple chemicals. Phthalates are a class of chemicals with ubiquitous exposures in the general population that have the potential to cause ...

  13. CUMBIN - CUMULATIVE BINOMIAL PROGRAMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, P. N.

    1994-01-01

    The cumulative binomial program, CUMBIN, is one of a set of three programs which calculate cumulative binomial probability distributions for arbitrary inputs. The three programs, CUMBIN, NEWTONP (NPO-17556), and CROSSER (NPO-17557), can be used independently of one another. CUMBIN can be used by statisticians and users of statistical procedures, test planners, designers, and numerical analysts. The program has been used for reliability/availability calculations. CUMBIN calculates the probability that a system of n components has at least k operating if the probability that any one operating is p and the components are independent. Equivalently, this is the reliability of a k-out-of-n system having independent components with common reliability p. CUMBIN can evaluate the incomplete beta distribution for two positive integer arguments. CUMBIN can also evaluate the cumulative F distribution and the negative binomial distribution, and can determine the sample size in a test design. CUMBIN is designed to work well with all integer values 0 < k <= n. To run the program, the user simply runs the executable version and inputs the information requested by the program. The program is not designed to weed out incorrect inputs, so the user must take care to make sure the inputs are correct. Once all input has been entered, the program calculates and lists the result. The CUMBIN program is written in C. It was developed on an IBM AT with a numeric co-processor using Microsoft C 5.0. Because the source code is written using standard C structures and functions, it should compile correctly with most C compilers. The program format is interactive. It has been implemented under DOS 3.2 and has a memory requirement of 26K. CUMBIN was developed in 1988.

  14. Cumulative Environmental Impacts: Science and Policy to Protect Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Gina M; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Zeise, Lauren; Faust, John B

    2016-01-01

    Many communities are located near multiple sources of pollution, including current and former industrial sites, major roadways, and agricultural operations. Populations in such locations are predominantly low-income, with a large percentage of minorities and non-English speakers. These communities face challenges that can affect the health of their residents, including limited access to health care, a shortage of grocery stores, poor housing quality, and a lack of parks and open spaces. Environmental exposures may interact with social stressors, thereby worsening health outcomes. Age, genetic characteristics, and preexisting health conditions increase the risk of adverse health effects from exposure to pollutants. There are existing approaches for characterizing cumulative exposures, cumulative risks, and cumulative health impacts. Although such approaches have merit, they also have significant constraints. New developments in exposure monitoring, mapping, toxicology, and epidemiology, especially when informed by community participation, have the potential to advance the science on cumulative impacts and to improve decision making.

  15. Cumulation of light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldin, A.M.; Bondarev, V.K.; Golovanov, L.B.

    1977-01-01

    Limit fragmentation of light nuclei (deuterium, helium) bombarded with 8,6 GeV/c protons was investigated. Fragments (pions, protons and deuterons) were detected within the emission angle 50-150 deg with regard to primary protons and within the pulse range 150-180 MeV/c. By the kinematics of collision of a primary proton with a target at rest the fragments observed correspond to a target mass upto 3 GeV. Thus, the data obtained correspond to teh cumulation upto the third order

  16. Development, design, and conceptual issues of project zero exposure: A program to protect young children from tobacco smoke exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vardavas Constantine I

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoke exposure (TSE is a serious threat to child health. Roughly 40% of children worldwide are exposed to tobacco smoke, and the very young are often "captive smokers" in homes in which others smoke. The goal of this research project is to develop and evaluate an intervention to reduce young child tobacco smoke exposure. The objective of this paper is to document our approach to building the intervention, to describe the planned intervention, and to explore the conceptual issues regarding the intervention and its evaluation. Methods/Design This project is being developed using an iterative approach. We are currently in the middle of Stage 1. In this first stage, Intervention Development, we have already conducted a comprehensive search of the professional literature and internet resources, consulted with experts in the field, and conducted several Design Workshops. The planned intervention consists of parental group support therapy, a website to allow use of an "online/offline" approach, involvement of pediatricians, use of a video simulation game ("Dr. Cruz" to teach parents about child TSE, and personalized biochemical feedback on exposure levels. As part of this stage we will draw on a social marketing approach. We plan to use in-depth interviews and focus groups in order to identify barriers for behavior change, and to test the acceptability of program components. In Stage II, we plan to pilot the planned intervention with 5-10 groups of 10 parents each. In Stage III, we plan to implement and evaluate the intervention using a cluster randomized controlled trial with an estimated 540 participants. Discussion The major challenges in this research are twofold: building an effective intervention and measuring the effects of the intervention. Creation of an effective intervention to protect children from TSE is a challenging but sorely needed public health endeavor. We hope that our approach will contribute to building

  17. CROSSER - CUMULATIVE BINOMIAL PROGRAMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, P. N.

    1994-01-01

    The cumulative binomial program, CROSSER, is one of a set of three programs which calculate cumulative binomial probability distributions for arbitrary inputs. The three programs, CROSSER, CUMBIN (NPO-17555), and NEWTONP (NPO-17556), can be used independently of one another. CROSSER can be used by statisticians and users of statistical procedures, test planners, designers, and numerical analysts. The program has been used for reliability/availability calculations. CROSSER calculates the point at which the reliability of a k-out-of-n system equals the common reliability of the n components. It is designed to work well with all integer values 0 < k <= n. To run the program, the user simply runs the executable version and inputs the information requested by the program. The program is not designed to weed out incorrect inputs, so the user must take care to make sure the inputs are correct. Once all input has been entered, the program calculates and lists the result. It also lists the number of iterations of Newton's method required to calculate the answer within the given error. The CROSSER program is written in C. It was developed on an IBM AT with a numeric co-processor using Microsoft C 5.0. Because the source code is written using standard C structures and functions, it should compile correctly with most C compilers. The program format is interactive. It has been implemented under DOS 3.2 and has a memory requirement of 26K. CROSSER was developed in 1988.

  18. Effects of Youth´s Exposure to Community Violence: The MORE Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Cooley-Strickland

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Research on chronic community violence exposure focuses on ethnic minority, impoverished, and crime-ridden communities while treatment and prevention focuses on the perpetrators of the violence, not on the youth who are its direct or indirect victims. School-based treatment and preventive interventions are needed for children at elevated risk for exposure to community violence. This paper describes The Multiple Opportunities to Reach Excellence (MORE Project, a longitudinal, community epidemiological study currently being fielded to better understand the impact of children´s chronic exposure to community violence on their emotional, behavioral, substance use, and academic functioning with an overarching goal to identify malleable risk and protective factors which can be targeted in preventive and intervention programs.

  19. Childhood Cumulative Risk and Later Allostatic Load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doan, Stacey N; Dich, Nadya; Evans, Gary W

    2014-01-01

    State, followed for 8 years (between the ages 9 and 17). Poverty- related stress was computed using the cumulative risk approach, assessing stressors across 9 domains, including environmental, psychosocial, and demographic factors. Allostatic load captured a range of physiological responses, including......Objective: The present study investigated the long-term impact of exposure to poverty-related stressors during childhood on allostatic load, an index of physiological dysregulation, and the potential mediating role of substance use. Method: Participants (n = 162) were rural children from New York...... cardiovascular, hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis, sympathetic adrenal medullary system, and metabolic activity. Smoking and alcohol/drug use were tested as mediators of the hypothesized childhood risk-adolescent allostatic load relationship. Results: Cumulative risk exposure at age 9 predicted increases...

  20. Interim report on the special research project 'exposure to environmental radiation due to nuclear facilities'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-03-01

    This special research project was started in 1978 as five-year plan. The purposes are to clarify the aspect of radiation exposure in human bodies due to the radioactive substances brought into the environment regarding the utilization of atomic energy, its mechanism and various factors affecting it, and to contribute to the evaluation of exposure dose, the reduction of radiation exposure, the conditions of locating nuclear facilities and the improvement of the method of disposing radioactive wastes. In addition to the fields treated in the previous special research project, the experimental research concerning the metabolism of environmental radioactive nuclides in bodies, namely the problem of the peculiarity of radioactive nuclide kinetics in infants and fetuses different from adults and the possibility of causing the changes in the intake and metabolism of nuclides in foods by the difference in their states of existence, was newly included. Also the research concerning the method of evaluating the absorbed dose in human organs at the time of irradiation outside and inside bodies in a new subject. Accordingly, this special research project is composed of (1) the research concerning the radionuclide kinetics in the environment, (2) the research concerning the radionuclide kinetics in bodies, (3) the research concerning the measurement and evaluation of dose absorbed in internal organs due to environmental radiation, and (4) the research concerning the monitoring of low level environmental radiation. The results obtained so far are reported. (Kako, I.)

  1. Cumulative environmental effects. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This report presents a compilation of knowledge about the state of the environment and human activity in the Norwegian part of the North Sea and Skagerrak. The report gives an overview of pressures and impacts on the environment from normal activity and in the event of accidents. This is used to assess the cumulative environmental effects, which factors have most impact and where the impacts are greatest, and to indicate which problems are expected to be most serious in the future. The report is intended to provide relevant information that can be used in the management of the marine area in the future. It also provides input for the identification of environmental targets and management measures for the North Sea and Skagerrak.(Author)

  2. Cumulative environmental effects. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This report presents a compilation of knowledge about the state of the environment and human activity in the Norwegian part of the North Sea and Skagerrak. The report gives an overview of pressures and impacts on the environment from normal activity and in the event of accidents. This is used to assess the cumulative environmental effects, which factors have most impact and where the impacts are greatest, and to indicate which problems are expected to be most serious in the future. The report is intended to provide relevant information that can be used in the management of the marine area in the future. It also provides input for the identification of environmental targets and management measures for the North Sea and Skagerrak.(Author)

  3. NEWTONP - CUMULATIVE BINOMIAL PROGRAMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, P. N.

    1994-01-01

    The cumulative binomial program, NEWTONP, is one of a set of three programs which calculate cumulative binomial probability distributions for arbitrary inputs. The three programs, NEWTONP, CUMBIN (NPO-17555), and CROSSER (NPO-17557), can be used independently of one another. NEWTONP can be used by statisticians and users of statistical procedures, test planners, designers, and numerical analysts. The program has been used for reliability/availability calculations. NEWTONP calculates the probably p required to yield a given system reliability V for a k-out-of-n system. It can also be used to determine the Clopper-Pearson confidence limits (either one-sided or two-sided) for the parameter p of a Bernoulli distribution. NEWTONP can determine Bayesian probability limits for a proportion (if the beta prior has positive integer parameters). It can determine the percentiles of incomplete beta distributions with positive integer parameters. It can also determine the percentiles of F distributions and the midian plotting positions in probability plotting. NEWTONP is designed to work well with all integer values 0 < k <= n. To run the program, the user simply runs the executable version and inputs the information requested by the program. NEWTONP is not designed to weed out incorrect inputs, so the user must take care to make sure the inputs are correct. Once all input has been entered, the program calculates and lists the result. It also lists the number of iterations of Newton's method required to calculate the answer within the given error. The NEWTONP program is written in C. It was developed on an IBM AT with a numeric co-processor using Microsoft C 5.0. Because the source code is written using standard C structures and functions, it should compile correctly with most C compilers. The program format is interactive. It has been implemented under DOS 3.2 and has a memory requirement of 26K. NEWTONP was developed in 1988.

  4. The MCRA model for probabilistic single-compound and cumulative risk assessment of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Voet, Hilko; de Boer, Waldo J; Kruisselbrink, Johannes W; Goedhart, Paul W; van der Heijden, Gerie W A M; Kennedy, Marc C; Boon, Polly E; van Klaveren, Jacob D

    2015-05-01

    Pesticide risk assessment is hampered by worst-case assumptions leading to overly pessimistic assessments. On the other hand, cumulative health effects of similar pesticides are often not taken into account. This paper describes models and a web-based software system developed in the European research project ACROPOLIS. The models are appropriate for both acute and chronic exposure assessments of single compounds and of multiple compounds in cumulative assessment groups. The software system MCRA (Monte Carlo Risk Assessment) is available for stakeholders in pesticide risk assessment at mcra.rivm.nl. We describe the MCRA implementation of the methods as advised in the 2012 EFSA Guidance on probabilistic modelling, as well as more refined methods developed in the ACROPOLIS project. The emphasis is on cumulative assessments. Two approaches, sample-based and compound-based, are contrasted. It is shown that additional data on agricultural use of pesticides may give more realistic risk assessments. Examples are given of model and software validation of acute and chronic assessments, using both simulated data and comparisons against the previous release of MCRA and against the standard software DEEM-FCID used by the Environmental Protection Agency in the USA. It is shown that the EFSA Guidance pessimistic model may not always give an appropriate modelling of exposure. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cumulative radiation effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, J.; Gray, W.M.; Watson, E.R.

    1977-01-01

    In five previous papers, the concept of Cumulative Radiation Effect (CRE) has been presented as a scale of accumulative sub-tolerance radiation damage, with a unique value of the CRE describing a specific level of radiation effect. Simple nomographic and tabular methods for the solution of practical problems in radiotherapy are now described. An essential feature of solving a CRE problem is firstly to present it in a concise and readily appreciated form, and, to do this, nomenclature has been introduced to describe schedules and regimes as compactly as possible. Simple algebraic equations have been derived to describe the CRE achieved by multi-schedule regimes. In these equations, the equivalence conditions existing at the junctions between schedules are not explicit and the equations are based on the CREs of the constituent schedules assessed individually without reference to their context in the regime as a whole. This independent evaluation of CREs for each schedule has resulted in a considerable simplification in the calculation of complex problems. The calculations are further simplified by the use of suitable tables and nomograms, so that the mathematics involved is reduced to simple arithmetical operations which require at the most the use of a slide rule but can be done by hand. The order of procedure in the presentation and calculation of CRE problems can be summarised in an evaluation procedure sheet. The resulting simple methods for solving practical problems of any complexity on the CRE-system are demonstrated by a number of examples. (author)

  6. Air Pollution Exposure and Abnormal Glucose Tolerance during Pregnancy: The Project Viva Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Diane R.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Koutrakis, Petros; Schwartz, Joel D.; Kloog, Itai; Melly, Steven; Coull, Brent A.; Zanobetti, Antonella; Gillman, Matthew W.; Oken, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM with diameter ≤ 2.5 μm; PM2.5) has been linked to type 2 diabetes mellitus, but associations with hyperglycemia in pregnancy have not been well studied. Methods: We studied Boston, Massachusetts–area pregnant women without known diabetes. We identified impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) during pregnancy from clinical glucose tolerance tests at median 28.1 weeks gestation. We used residential addresses to estimate second-trimester PM2.5 and black carbon exposure via a central monitoring site and spatiotemporal models. We estimated residential traffic density and roadway proximity as surrogates for exposure to traffic-related air pollution. We performed multinomial logistic regression analyses adjusted for sociodemographic covariates, and used multiple imputation to account for missing data. Results: Of 2,093 women, 65 (3%) had IGT and 118 (6%) had GDM. Second-trimester spatiotemporal exposures ranged from 8.5 to 15.9 μg/m3 for PM2.5 and from 0.1 to 1.7 μg/m3 for black carbon. Traffic density was 0–30,860 vehicles/day × length of road (kilometers) within 100 m; 281 (13%) women lived ≤ 200 m from a major road. The prevalence of IGT was elevated in the highest (vs. lowest) quartile of exposure to spatiotemporal PM2.5 [odds ratio (OR) = 2.63; 95% CI: 1.15, 6.01] and traffic density (OR = 2.66; 95% CI: 1.24, 5.71). IGT also was positively associated with other exposure measures, although associations were not statistically significant. No pollutant exposures were positively associated with GDM. Conclusions: Greater exposure to PM2.5 and other traffic-related pollutants during pregnancy was associated with IGT but not GDM. Air pollution may contribute to abnormal glycemia in pregnancy. Citation: Fleisch AF, Gold DR, Rifas-Shiman SL, Koutrakis P, Schwartz JD, Kloog I, Melly S, Coull BA, Zanobetti A, Gillman MW, Oken E. 2014. Air pollution exposure and abnormal glucose

  7. Global crop exposure to critical high temperatures in the reproductive period: historical trends and future projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourdji, Sharon M; Sibley, Adam M; Lobell, David B

    2013-01-01

    Long-term warming trends across the globe have shifted the distribution of temperature variability, such that what was once classified as extreme heat relative to local mean conditions has become more common. This is also true for agricultural regions, where exposure to extreme heat, particularly during key growth phases such as the reproductive period, can severely damage crop production in ways that are not captured by most crop models. Here, we analyze exposure of crops to physiologically critical temperatures in the reproductive stage (T crit ), across the global harvested areas of maize, rice, soybean and wheat. Trends for the 1980–2011 period show a relatively weak correspondence (r = 0.19) between mean growing season temperature and T crit exposure trends, emphasizing the importance of separate analyses for T crit . Increasing T crit exposure in the past few decades is apparent for wheat in Central and South Asia and South America, and for maize in many diverse locations across the globe. Maize had the highest percentage (15%) of global harvested area exposed to at least five reproductive days over T crit in the 2000s, although this value is somewhat sensitive to the exact temperature used for the threshold. While there was relatively little sustained exposure to reproductive days over T crit for the other crops in the past few decades, all show increases with future warming. Using projections from climate models we estimate that by the 2030s, 31, 16, and 11% respectively of maize, rice, and wheat global harvested area will be exposed to at least five reproductive days over T crit in a typical year, with soybean much less affected. Both maize and rice exhibit non-linear increases with time, with total area exposed for rice projected to grow from 8% in the 2000s to 27% by the 2050s, and maize from 15 to 44% over the same period. While faster development should lead to earlier flowering, which would reduce reproductive extreme heat exposure for wheat on a

  8. Cumulative radiation effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, J.; Cain, O.; Gray, W.M.

    1977-01-01

    Cumulative Radiation Effect (CRE) represents a scale of accumulative sub-tolerance radiation damage, with a unique value of the CRE describing a specific level of radiation effect. Computer calculations have been used to simplify the evaluation of problems associated with the applications of the CRE-system in radiotherapy. In a general appraisal of the applications of computers to the CRE-system, the various problems encountered in clinical radiotherapy have been categorised into those involving the evaluation of a CRE at a point in tissue and those involving the calculation of CRE distributions. As a general guide, the computer techniques adopted at the Glasgow Institute of Radiotherapeutics for the solution of CRE problems are presented, and consist basically of a package of three interactive programs for point CRE calculations and a Fortran program which calculates CRE distributions for iso-effect treatment planning. Many examples are given to demonstrate the applications of these programs, and special emphasis has been laid on the problem of treating a point in tissue with different doses per fraction on alternate treatment days. The wide range of possible clinical applications of the CRE-system has been outlined and described under the categories of routine clinical applications, retrospective and prospective surveys of patient treatment, and experimental and theoretical research. Some of these applications such as the results of surveys and studies of time optimisation of treatment schedules could have far-reaching consequences and lead to significant improvements in treatment and cure rates with the minimum damage to normal tissue. (author)

  9. Projected lifetime cancer risks from exposure to regional radioactive fallout in the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Charles E; Bouville, André; Apostoaei, Iulian; Simon, Steven L

    2010-08-01

    Radioactive fallout from nuclear test detonations during 1946-1958 at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls in the Marshall Islands (MI) exposed populations living elsewhere in the MI archipelago. A comprehensive analysis, presented in seven companion papers, has produced estimates of tissue-specific radiation absorbed dose to MI residents at all historically inhabited atolls from internal (ingested) and external irradiation resulting from exposure to radioactive fallout, by calendar year, and by age of the population at time of exposure. The present report deals, for the first time, with the implications of these doses for cancer risk among exposed members of the MI population. Radiation doses differed by geographic location and year of birth, and radiation-related cancer risk depends upon age at exposure and age at observation for risk. Using dose-response models based on committee reports published by the National Research Council and the National Institutes of Health, we project that, during the lifetimes of members of the MI population potentially exposed to ionizing radiation from weapons test fallout deposited during the testing period (1948-1958) and from residual radioactive sources during the subsequent 12 y (1959-1970), perhaps 1.6% (with 90% uncertainty range 0.4% to 3.4%) of all cancers might be attributable to fallout-related radiation exposures. By sub-population, the projected proportion of cancers attributable to radiation from fallout from all nuclear tests conducted in the Marshall Islands is 55% (28% to 69%) among 82 persons exposed in 1954 on Rongelap and Ailinginae, 10% (2.4% to 22%) for 157 persons exposed on Utrik, and 2.2% (0.5% to 4.8%) and 0.8% (0.2% to 1.8%), respectively, for the much larger populations exposed in mid-latitude locations including Kwajalein and in southern locations including Majuro. By cancer type, point estimates of attributable risk varied, by location, between 12% and 95% for thyroid cancer, between 2% and 78% for leukemia, and

  10. Cumulative impact of axial, structural, and repolarization ECG findings on long-term cardiovascular mortality among healthy individuals in Japan: National Integrated Project for Prospective Observation of Non-Communicable Disease and its Trends in the Aged, 1980 and 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inohara, Taku; Kohsaka, Shun; Okamura, Tomonori; Watanabe, Makoto; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Higashiyama, Aya; Kadota, Aya; Okuda, Nagako; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Miura, Katsuyuki; Okayama, Akira; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2014-12-01

    Various cohort studies have shown a close association between long-term cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes and individual electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities such as axial, structural, and repolarization changes. The combined effect of these ECG abnormalities, each assumed to be benign, has not been thoroughly investigated. Community-dwelling Japanese residents from the National Integrated Project for Perspective Observation of Non-Communicable Disease and its Trends in the Aged, 1980-2004 and 1990-2005 (NIPPON DATA80 and 90), were included in this study. Baseline ECG findings were classified using the Minnesota Code and categorized into axial (left axis deviation, clockwise rotation), structural (left ventricular hypertrophy, atrial enlargement), and repolarization (minor and major ST-T changes) abnormalities. The hazard ratios of the cumulative impacts of ECG findings on long-term CVD death were estimated by stratified Cox proportional hazard models, including adjustments for cohort strata. In all, 16,816 participants were evaluated. The average age was 51.2 ± 13.5 years; 42.7% participants were male. The duration of follow up was 300,924 person-years (mean 17.9 ± 5.8 years); there were 1218 CVD deaths during that time. Overall, 4203 participants (25.0%) had one or more categorical ECG abnormalities: 3648 (21.7%) had a single abnormality, and 555 (3.3%) had two or more. The risk of CVD mortality increased as the number of abnormalities accumulated (single abnormality HR 1.29, 95% CI 1.13-1.48; ≥2 abnormalities HR 2.10, 95% CI 1.73-2.53). Individual ECG abnormalities had an additive effect in predicting CVD outcome risk in our large-scale cohort study. © The European Society of Cardiology 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  11. 78 FR 25440 - Request for Information and Citations on Methods for Cumulative Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... Citations on Methods for Cumulative Risk Assessment AGENCY: Office of the Science Advisor, Environmental... influence exposures, dose-response or risk/hazard posed by environmental contaminant exposures, and methods... who wish to receive further information about submitting information on methods for cumulative risk...

  12. The Ilocos Norte Communities against Rabies Exposure Elimination Project in the Philippines: Epidemiological and Economic Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Charinna B. Amparo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available As canine rabies control in Africa and Asia transitions from research-led proof-of-concept studies to government-led programs for elimination, experience and evidence of their impact and costs must be shared for the benefit of future programs. The Ilocos Norte Communities against Rabies Exposure project was implemented in April 2012 by the provincial veterinary and health offices and supported by many other partners. It delivered a comprehensive dog vaccination program and increased awareness of the need for postexposure prophylaxis (PEP, aiming to eliminate human and animal rabies cases from Ilocos Norte by 2015. Prior to the intervention, confirmed rabies cases in dogs were between 19 and 50 per year (2008–2011. The primary outcome of the project was a reduction in rabies cases in both dogs and humans to 0 in 2014 and 2015, which has subsequently been maintained. Animal bite consultations increased significantly during the project. Economic data for the dog vaccination and PEP components of the project were collated for two sites: Laoag City (an urban setting and Dingras Municipality (a rural setting between 2012 and 2014. The average programmatic cost of vaccinating each dog was $4.54 in Laoag City and $8.65 in Dingras, and costs fell as the project reached more dogs. The average costs of providing PEP were $69.72 per patient and $49.02 per patient for the two sites, respectively, again falling as the project reached more people. External donor contributions contributed less than 20% of dog vaccination costs and less than 1% of PEP costs. The project demonstrated that rabies elimination can be achieved in a short period of time, with concerted effort across multiple sectors. A lack of clear dog population estimates hampered interpretation of some aspects of the programme. From 2016, the provincial government has assumed complete responsibility for the programme and must now continue the vaccination and surveillance efforts. Although

  13. The challenge of cumulative impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masden, Elisabeth

    2011-07-01

    Full text: As governments pledge to combat climate change, wind turbines are becoming a common feature of terrestrial and marine environments. Although wind power is a renewable energy source and a means of reducing carbon emissions, there is a need to ensure that the wind farms themselves do not damage the environment. There is particular concern over the impacts of wind farms on bird populations, and with increasing numbers of wind farm proposals, the concern focuses on cumulative impacts. Individually, a wind farm, or indeed any activity/action, may have minor effects on the environment, but collectively these may be significant, potentially greater than the sum of the individual parts acting alone. Cumulative impact assessment is a legislative requirement of environmental impact assessment but such assessments are rarely adequate restricting the acquisition of basic knowledge about the cumulative impacts of wind farms on bird populations. Reasons for this are numerous but a recurring theme is the lack of clear definitions and guidance on how to perform cumulative assessments. Here we present a conceptual framework and include illustrative examples to demonstrate how the framework can be used to improve the planning and execution of cumulative impact assessments. The core concept is that explicit definitions of impacts, actions and scales of assessment are required to reduce uncertainty in the process of assessment and improve communication between stake holders. Only when it is clear what has been included within a cumulative assessment, is it possible to make comparisons between developments. Our framework requires improved legislative guidance on the actions to include in assessments, and advice on the appropriate baselines against which to assess impacts. Cumulative impacts are currently considered on restricted scales (spatial and temporal) relating to individual development assessments. We propose that benefits would be gained from elevating cumulative

  14. EPA Workshop on Epigenetics and Cumulative Risk ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agenda Download the Workshop Agenda (PDF) The workshop included presentations and discussions by scientific experts pertaining to three topics (i.e., epigenetic changes associated with diverse stressors, key science considerations in understanding epigenetic changes, and practical application of epigenetic tools to address cumulative risks from environmental stressors), to address several questions under each topic, and included an opportunity for attendees to participate in break-out groups, provide comments and ask questions. Workshop Goals The workshop seeks to examine the opportunity for use of aggregate epigenetic change as an indicator in cumulative risk assessment for populations exposed to multiple stressors that affect epigenetic status. Epigenetic changes are specific molecular changes around DNA that alter expression of genes. Epigenetic changes include DNA methylation, formation of histone adducts, and changes in micro RNAs. Research today indicates that epigenetic changes are involved in many chronic diseases (cancer, cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, mental health disorders, and asthma). Research has also linked a wide range of stressors including pollution and social factors with occurrence of epigenetic alterations. Epigenetic changes have the potential to reflect impacts of risk factors across multiple stages of life. Only recently receiving attention is the nexus between the factors of cumulative exposure to environmental

  15. Prenatal cocaine exposure decreases parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons and GABA-to-projection neuron ratio in the medial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Deirdre M; Bhide, Pradeep G

    2012-01-01

    Cocaine abuse during pregnancy produces harmful effects not only on the mother but also on the unborn child. The neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin are known as the principal targets of the action of cocaine in the fetal and postnatal brain. However, recent evidence suggests that cocaine can impair cerebral cortical GABA neuron development and function. We sought to analyze the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on the number and distribution of GABA and projection neurons (inhibitory interneurons and excitatory output neurons, respectively) in the mouse cerebral cortex. We found that the prenatal cocaine exposure decreased GABA neuron numbers and GABA-to-projection neuron ratio in the medial prefrontal cortex of 60-day-old mice. The neighboring prefrontal cortex did not show significant changes in either of these measures. However, there was a significant increase in projection neuron numbers in the prefrontal cortex but not in the medial prefrontal cortex. Thus, the effects of cocaine on GABA and projection neurons appear to be cortical region specific. The population of parvalbumin-immunoreactive GABA neurons was decreased in the medial prefrontal cortex following the prenatal cocaine exposure. The cocaine exposure also delayed the developmental decline in the volume of the medial prefrontal cortex. Thus, prenatal cocaine exposure produced persisting and region-specific effects on cortical cytoarchitecture and impaired the physiological balance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission. These structural changes may underlie the electrophysiological and behavioral effects of prenatal cocaine exposure observed in animal models and human subjects. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. [Air pollutant exposure during pregnancy and fetal and early childhood development. Research protocol of the INMA (Childhood and Environment Project)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esplugues, Ana; Fernández-Patier, Rosalía; Aguilera, Inma; Iñíguez, Carmen; García Dos Santos, Saúl; Aguirre Alfaro, Amelia; Lacasaña, Marina; Estarlich, Marisa; Grimalt, Joan O; Fernández, Marieta; Rebagliato, Marisa; Sala, María; Tardón, Adonina; Torrent, Maties; Martínez, María Dolores; Ribas-Fitó, Núria; Sunyer, Jordi; Ballester, Ferran

    2007-01-01

    The INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente [Spanish for Environment and Childhood]) project is a cooperative research network. This project aims to study the effects of environment and diet on fetal and early childhood development. This article aims to present the air pollutant exposure protocol during pregnancy and fetal and early childhood development of the INMA project. The information to assess air pollutant exposure during pregnancy is based on outdoor measurement of air pollutants (nitrogen dioxide [NO2], volatile organic compounds [VOC], ozone, particulate matter [PM10, PM2,5 ] and of their composition [polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons]); measurement of indoor and personal exposure (VOC and NO2); urinary measurement of a biological marker of hydrocarbon exposure (1-hydroxypyrene); and data gathered by questionnaires and geographic information systems. These data allow individual air pollutant exposure indexes to be developed, which can then be used to analyze the possible effects of exposure on fetal development and child health. This protocol and the type of study allow an approximation to individual air pollutant exposure to be obtained. Finally, the large number of participants (N = 4,000), as well as their geographic and social diversity, increases the study's potential.

  17. The “CROMa” Project: A Care Pathway for Clinical Management of Patients with Bisphosphonate Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Capocci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To describe 7 years of activity of “CROMa” (Coordination of Research on Osteonecrosis of the Jaws project of “Sapienza” University of Rome. Materials and Methods. A preventive and therapeutic care pathway was created for patients with bisphosphonates (BPs exposure. Demographic, social, behavioural, pharmacological, and clinical variables were registered in a dedicated database. Results. In the project, 502 patients, 403 females and 99 males, were observed. Bone pathologies were 79% osteometabolic diseases (OMD and 21% metastatic cancer (CA. Females were 90% in OMD group and 41% in CA. BP administration was 54% oral, 31% IV, and 11% IM; 89% of BPs were amino-BP and 11% non-amino-BP. Consistently with bone pathology (OMD/CA, alendronate appears to be prevalent for OMD (40% relative, while zoledronate was indicated in 92% of CA patients. Out of 502 cases collected, 28 BRONJ were detected: 17 of them were related to IV BP treatment. Preventive oral assessment was required for 50% of CA patients and by 4% of OMD patients. Conclusions. The proposed care pathway protocols for BP exposed patients appeared to be useful to meet treatment and preventive needs, in both oncological and osteometabolic diseases patients. Patients’ and physicians’ prevention awareness can be the starting point of a multilevel prevention system.

  18. Exposure Based Health Issues Project Report: Phase I of High Level Tank Operations, Retrieval, Pretreatment, and Vitrification Exposure Based Health Issues Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenner, Robert D.; Bowers, Harold N.; Kenoyer, Judson L.; Strenge, Dennis L.; Brady, William H.; Ladue, Buffi; Samuels, Joseph K.

    2001-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has the responsibility to understand the ''big picture'' of worker health and safety which includes fully recognizing the vulnerabilities and associated programs necessary to protect workers at the various DOE sites across the complex. Exposure analysis and medical surveillance are key aspects for understanding this big picture, as is understanding current health and safety practices and how they may need to change to relate to future health and safety management needs. The exposure-based health issues project was initiated to assemble the components necessary to understand potential exposure situations and their medical surveillance and clinical aspects. Phase I focused only on current Hanford tank farm operations and serves as a starting point for the overall project. It is also anticipated that once the pilot is fully developed for Hanford HLW (i.e., current operations, retrieval, pretreatment, vitrification, and disposal), the process and analysis methods developed will be available and applicable for other DOE operations and sites. The purpose of this Phase I project report is to present the health impact information collected regarding ongoing tank waste maintenance operations, show the various aspects of health and safety involved in protecting workers, introduce the reader to the kinds of information that will need to be analyzed in order to effectively manage worker safety

  19. Managing regional cumulative effects of oil sands development in Alberta, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaling, H.; Zwier, J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper demonstrates an approach to regional cumulative effects management using the case of oil sands development in Alberta, Canada. The 17 existing, approved, or planned projects, all concentrated in a relatively small region, pose significant challenges for conducting and reviewing cumulative effects assessment (CEA) on a project-by-project basis. In response, stakeholders have initiated a regional cumulative effects management system that is among the first such initiatives anywhere. Advantages of this system include (1) more efficient gathering and sharing of information, including a common regional database, (2) setting acceptable regional environmental thresholds for all projects, (3) collaborative assessment of similar cumulative effects from related projects, (4) co-ordinated regulatory review and approval process for overlapping CEAs, and (5) institutional empowerment from a Regional Sustainable Development Strategy administered by a public authority. This case provides a model for integrating project-based CEA with regional management of cumulative effects. (author)

  20. Anti-irritants II: Efficacy against cumulative irritation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Flemming; Hedegaard, Kathryn; Petersen, Thomas Kongstad

    2006-01-01

    window of opportunity in which to demonstrate efficacy. Therefore, the effect of AI was studied in a cumulative irritation model by inducing irritant dermatitis with 10 min daily exposures for 5+4 days (no irritation on weekend) to 1% sodium lauryl sulfate on the right and 20% nonanoic acid on the left...

  1. Ambient PM2.5 Exposure in India: Burden, Source-Apportionment and Projection Under Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, S.; Chowdhury, S.; Upadhyay, A. K.; Smith, K. R.

    2017-12-01

    Air pollution has been identified as one of the leading factors of premature death in India. Absence of adequate in-situ monitors led us to use satellite retrieved aerosol optical depth (AOD) data to infer surface fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Annual premature mortality burden due to ambient PM2.5 exposure is estimated to be 1.17 (0.42-2.7) million for India. A chemical transport model WRF-Chem is utilized to estimate source-apportioned PM2.5 exposure. We estimate the exposure for four major sources - transport, residential, energy and industrial and found that the largest contribution to ambient PM2.5 exposure in India is contributed by residential sources. We estimate that if all the solid fuel use at households is replaced by clean fuel, ambient PM2.5 exposure would reduce by 30-45%, leading to 170,000 (14.5% of total burden) averted premature deaths annually. To understand how the air quality is projected to change under climate change scenarios, we analyze 13 CMIP5 models. We calculate the relative changes in PM2.5 (ensemble mean) in future relative to the baseline period (2001-2005) and apply the factor to satellite-derived PM2.5 exposure in baseline period to project future PM2.5 exposure. Ambient PM2.5 is expected to reach a maxima in 2030 under RCP4.5 (15.5% rise from baseline period) and in 2040 (25.5% rise) under RCP8.5 scenario. The projected exposure under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios are further used to estimate premature mortality burden till the end of the century by considering population distribution projections from five shared socio-economic pathways (SSP) scenarios. We separate the burden due to ambient PM2.5 exposure in future attributable to change in meteorology due to climate change and change in demographic and epidemiological transitions. If all-India average PM2.5 exposure meets WHO interim target 1 (35 µg/m3) by 2031-40, 28000-38000 and 41100-60100 premature deaths can be averted every year under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 respectively. Even

  2. Off-site radiation exposure review project: computer-aided surface interpolation and graphical display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, T.A. Jr.

    1981-08-01

    This report presents the implementation of an iterative procedure that solves the following bivariate interpolation problem: Given N distinct points in the plane (x/sub i/, y/sub i/) and N real numbers Z/sub i/, construct a function F(x,y) that satisfies F(x/sub i/, y/sub i/) = Z/sub i/, for i = 1, ..., N. This problem can be interpreted as fitting a surface through N points in three dimensional space. The application of primary concern to the Offsite Radiation Exposure Review Project is the characterization of the radionuclide activity resulting from nuclear tests. Samples of activity were measured at various locations. The location of the sample point is represented by (x/sub i/, y/sub i/), and the magnitude of the reading is represented by Z/sub i/. The method presented in this report is constructed to be efficient on large data sets, stable on the large variations of the Z/sub i/ magnitudes, and capable of smoothly filling in areas that are void of data. This globally defined icode was initiateminednitial shock but to two later eriological invaders are Staphylococcus albus, Beta-hemolytic Streptococcus e to the same general semiclassical treatment

  3. HESI pilot project: Testing a qualitative approach for incorporating exposure into alternatives assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greggs, Bill; Arnold, Scott; Burns, Thomas J.

    -quantitative exposure assessment on the alternatives being considered. This talk will demonstrate an approach for including chemical and product exposure information in a qualitative AA comparison. Starting from existing hazard AAs, a series of four exposure examples were examined to test the concept, to understand...

  4. Cumulative risk, cumulative outcome: a 20-year longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Atkinson

    Full Text Available Cumulative risk (CR models provide some of the most robust findings in the developmental literature, predicting numerous and varied outcomes. Typically, however, these outcomes are predicted one at a time, across different samples, using concurrent designs, longitudinal designs of short duration, or retrospective designs. We predicted that a single CR index, applied within a single sample, would prospectively predict diverse outcomes, i.e., depression, intelligence, school dropout, arrest, smoking, and physical disease from childhood to adulthood. Further, we predicted that number of risk factors would predict number of adverse outcomes (cumulative outcome; CO. We also predicted that early CR (assessed at age 5/6 explains variance in CO above and beyond that explained by subsequent risk (assessed at ages 12/13 and 19/20. The sample consisted of 284 individuals, 48% of whom were diagnosed with a speech/language disorder. Cumulative risk, assessed at 5/6-, 12/13-, and 19/20-years-old, predicted aforementioned outcomes at age 25/26 in every instance. Furthermore, number of risk factors was positively associated with number of negative outcomes. Finally, early risk accounted for variance beyond that explained by later risk in the prediction of CO. We discuss these findings in terms of five criteria posed by these data, positing a "mediated net of adversity" model, suggesting that CR may increase some central integrative factor, simultaneously augmenting risk across cognitive, quality of life, psychiatric and physical health outcomes.

  5. Evaluation of public and worker exposure due to naturally occurring asbestos in gravel discovered during a road construction project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Robert A; Hargesheimer, John; Vaara, Leah

    2008-09-01

    During a repair and reconstruction project of an unpaved highway in a remote region of Alaska, workers discovered, after construction had commenced, that the materials used from a local material site contained asbestos (variously described as tremolite or actinolite). The regional geology indicated the presence of ultramafic rock, which often contains asbestos. Evaluation of asbestos exposure to workers, their equipment, and living quarters was required, as was the possible future exposure of workers and the general public to asbestos already used in the roadway construction. In addition, a decision was needed on whether to use materials from the contaminated site in the future. Of the almost 700 breathing zone air monitoring samples taken of the workers, 3% of the samples indicated exposures at or near 0.1 f/cc by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) 7400 phase contrast microscopy (PCM) procedure. Thirty-six of the PCM samples underwent transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis by the NIOSH 7402 procedure, which indicated that about 40% of the fibers were asbestos. After classifying samples by tasks performed by workers, analysis indicated that workers, such as road grader operators who ground or spread materials, had the highest exposures. Also, monitoring results indicated motorist exposure to be much less than 0.1 f/cc. The design phase of any proposed construction project in regions that contain ultramafic rock must consider the possibility of amphibole contamination of roadway materials, and budget for exploration and asbestos analysis of likely materials sites.

  6. Prenatal and Childhood Traffic-Related Pollution Exposure and Childhood Cognition in the Project Viva Cohort (Massachusetts, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Diane R.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Melly, Steven J.; Zanobetti, Antonella; Coull, Brent A.; Schwartz, Joel D.; Gryparis, Alexandros; Kloog, Itai; Koutrakis, Petros; Bellinger, David C.; White, Roberta F.; Sagiv, Sharon K.; Oken, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Background Influences of prenatal and early-life exposures to air pollution on cognition are not well understood. Objectives We examined associations of gestational and childhood exposure to traffic-related pollution with childhood cognition. Methods We studied 1,109 mother–child pairs in Project Viva, a prospective birth cohort study in eastern Massachusetts (USA). In mid-childhood (mean age, 8.0 years), we measured verbal and nonverbal intelligence, visual motor abilities, and visual memory. For periods in late pregnancy and childhood, we estimated spatially and temporally resolved black carbon (BC) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposures, residential proximity to major roadways, and near-residence traffic density. We used linear regression models to examine associations of exposures with cognitive assessment scores, adjusted for potential confounders. Results Compared with children living ≥ 200 m from a major roadway at birth, those living pollutants and socioeconomic conditions on cognition may be difficult to disentangle. Citation Harris MH, Gold DR, Rifas-Shiman SL, Melly SJ, Zanobetti A, Coull BA, Schwartz JD, Gryparis A, Kloog I, Koutrakis P, Bellinger DC, White RF, Sagiv SK, Oken E. 2015. Prenatal and childhood traffic-related pollution exposure and childhood cognition in the Project Viva cohort (Massachusetts, USA). Environ Health Perspect 123:1072–1078; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408803 PMID:25839914

  7. Temperature and humidity based projections of a rapid rise in global heat stress exposure during the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffel, Ethan D.; Horton, Radley M.; de Sherbinin, Alex

    2018-01-01

    As a result of global increases in both temperature and specific humidity, heat stress is projected to intensify throughout the 21st century. Some of the regions most susceptible to dangerous heat and humidity combinations are also among the most densely populated. Consequently, there is the potential for widespread exposure to wet bulb temperatures that approach and in some cases exceed postulated theoretical limits of human tolerance by mid- to late-century. We project that by 2080 the relative frequency of present-day extreme wet bulb temperature events could rise by a factor of 100-250 (approximately double the frequency change projected for temperature alone) in the tropics and parts of the mid-latitudes, areas which are projected to contain approximately half the world’s population. In addition, population exposure to wet bulb temperatures that exceed recent deadly heat waves may increase by a factor of five to ten, with 150-750 million person-days of exposure to wet bulb temperatures above those seen in today’s most severe heat waves by 2070-2080. Under RCP 8.5, exposure to wet bulb temperatures above 35 °C—the theoretical limit for human tolerance—could exceed a million person-days per year by 2080. Limiting emissions to follow RCP 4.5 entirely eliminates exposure to that extreme threshold. Some of the most affected regions, especially Northeast India and coastal West Africa, currently have scarce cooling infrastructure, relatively low adaptive capacity, and rapidly growing populations. In the coming decades heat stress may prove to be one of the most widely experienced and directly dangerous aspects of climate change, posing a severe threat to human health, energy infrastructure, and outdoor activities ranging from agricultural production to military training.

  8. DIRECT AIR BLAST EXPOSURE EFFECTS IN ANIMALS, OPERATION UPSHOT-KNOTHOLE, PROJECT 4.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DRAEGER, R.H. (UNITED STATES NAVY - DEPARTMENT OF); LEE, R.H. (UNITED STATES NAVY - DEPARTMENT OF)

    1953-12-31

    Project 4.2 was designed to study direct (primary) air blast injury, in animals, from an atomic weapon in the range of 20 to 50 psi under circumstances affording protection against missiles, thermal and ionizing radiation and to estimate the probable direct air blast hazard in man. The pressure levels at which atomic weapons direct air blast injuries occur will determine, to a large extent, the number of blast casualties likely to be encountered. It is probable that fatal overpressures are not reached until well within the range at which indirect (secondary) blast, thermal and ionizing radiation are practically certain to prove fatal. Only in special situations affording partial protection from other injuries are blast injuries likely to be of practical importance. Two animal species of widely different body weights (700 rats and 56 dogs) were exposed, together with air pressure recorders, in aluminum cylinders, covered by sandbags and dirt but open at both ends, at seven stations distributed within the intended overpressure range of 20 to 50 psi of Shot 10« About 200 rats were likewise exposed in Shot 9. Unfortunately, the destructive effect of the air blast of Shot 10 was much greater than anticipated. Many of the exposure cylinders were displaced and their contents destroyed. Only a partial recovery of the animals was possible due to the excessive radioactive contamination which greatly limited the time in the area. Most of the animals were dead upon recovery. Those living were in a state of severe shock. Autopsy findings showed remarkably few traumatic lesions and lung hemorrhages in spite of the rough treatment and high overpressure to which they were subjected. The rats recovered from Shot 9 were exposed to a recorded pressure of 18 to 2k psi. The autopsy findings showed moderate lung hemorrhage in most of the animals undoubtedly due to direct air blast injury. The findings were typical of those seen following exposure to air blast from HE or in the shock

  9. Barrier function and natural moisturizing factor levels after cumulative exposure to a fruit-derived organic acid and a detergent: different outcomes in atopic and healthy skin and relevance for occupational contact dermatitis in the food industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelova-Fischer, Irena; Hoek, Anne-Karin; Dapic, Irena; Jakasa, Ivone; Kezic, Sanja; Fischer, Tobias W.; Zillikens, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    Fruit-derived organic compounds and detergents are relevant exposure factors for occupational contact dermatitis in the food industry. Although individuals with atopic dermatitis (AD) are at risk for development of occupational contact dermatitis, there have been no controlled studies on the effects

  10. Radiologic imaging in cystic fibrosis: cumulative effective dose and changing trends over 2 decades.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, Oisin J

    2012-06-01

    With the increasing life expectancy for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), and a known predisposition to certain cancers, cumulative radiation exposure from radiologic imaging is of increasing significance. This study explores the estimated cumulative effective radiation dose over a 17-year period from radiologic procedures and changing trends of imaging modalities over this period.

  11. A Review of Non-Chemical Stressors and Their Importance in Cumulative Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumulative exposure/risk assessments need to include non-chemical stressors as well as human activities and chemical data. Multiple stressor research can offer information on the interactions between chemical and non-chemical stressors needed for cumulative risk assessment resea...

  12. Cumulative Environmental Management Association : Wood Buffalo Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friesen, B.

    2001-01-01

    The recently announced oil sands development of the Wood Buffalo Region in Alberta was the focus of this power point presentation. Both mining and in situ development is expected to total $26 billion and 2.6 million barrels per day of bitumen production. This paper described the economic, social and environmental challenges facing the resource development of this region. In addition to the proposed oil sands projects, this region will accommodate the needs of conventional oil and gas production, forestry, building of pipelines and power lines, municipal development, recreation, tourism, mining exploration and open cast mining. The Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA) was inaugurated as a non-profit association in April 2000, and includes 41 members from all sectors. Its major role is to ensure a sustainable ecosystem and to avoid any cumulative impacts on wildlife. Other work underway includes the study of soil and plant species diversity, and the effects of air emissions on human health, wildlife and vegetation. The bioaccumulation of heavy metals and their impacts on surface water and fish is also under consideration to ensure the quality and quantity of surface water and ground water. 3 figs

  13. The GED4GEM project: development of a Global Exposure Database for the Global Earthquake Model initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamba, P.; Cavalca, D.; Jaiswal, K.S.; Huyck, C.; Crowley, H.

    2012-01-01

    In order to quantify earthquake risk of any selected region or a country of the world within the Global Earthquake Model (GEM) framework (www.globalquakemodel.org/), a systematic compilation of building inventory and population exposure is indispensable. Through the consortium of leading institutions and by engaging the domain-experts from multiple countries, the GED4GEM project has been working towards the development of a first comprehensive publicly available Global Exposure Database (GED). This geospatial exposure database will eventually facilitate global earthquake risk and loss estimation through GEM’s OpenQuake platform. This paper provides an overview of the GED concepts, aims, datasets, and inference methodology, as well as the current implementation scheme, status and way forward.

  14. The Algebra of the Cumulative Percent Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Andrew J.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to help students avoid some pervasive reasoning errors in solving cumulative percent problems. Discusses the meaning of ."%+b%." the additive inverse of ."%." and other useful applications. Emphasizes the operational aspect of the cumulative percent concept. (KHR)

  15. Adaptive strategies for cumulative cultural learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehn, Micael; Laland, Kevin

    2012-05-21

    The demographic and ecological success of our species is frequently attributed to our capacity for cumulative culture. However, it is not yet known how humans combine social and asocial learning to generate effective strategies for learning in a cumulative cultural context. Here we explore how cumulative culture influences the relative merits of various pure and conditional learning strategies, including pure asocial and social learning, critical social learning, conditional social learning and individual refiner strategies. We replicate the Rogers' paradox in the cumulative setting. However, our analysis suggests that strategies that resolved Rogers' paradox in a non-cumulative setting may not necessarily evolve in a cumulative setting, thus different strategies will optimize cumulative and non-cumulative cultural learning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Constructing Predictive Estimates for Worker Exposure to Radioactivity During Decommissioning: Analysis of Completed Decommissioning Projects - Master Thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dettmers, Dana Lee; Eide, Steven Arvid

    2002-10-01

    An analysis of completed decommissioning projects is used to construct predictive estimates for worker exposure to radioactivity during decommissioning activities. The preferred organizational method for the completed decommissioning project data is to divide the data by type of facility, whether decommissioning was performed on part of the facility or the complete facility, and the level of radiation within the facility prior to decommissioning (low, medium, or high). Additional data analysis shows that there is not a downward trend in worker exposure data over time. Also, the use of a standard estimate for worker exposure to radioactivity may be a best estimate for low complete storage, high partial storage, and medium reactor facilities; a conservative estimate for some low level of facility radiation facilities (reactor complete, research complete, pits/ponds, other), medium partial process facilities, and high complete research facilities; and an underestimate for the remaining facilities. Limited data are available to compare different decommissioning alternatives, so the available data are reported and no conclusions can been drawn. It is recommended that all DOE sites and the NRC use a similar method to document worker hours, worker exposure to radiation (person-rem), and standard industrial accidents, injuries, and deaths for all completed decommissioning activities.

  17. 76 FR 69726 - Pyrethrins/Pyrethroid Cumulative Risk Assessment; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... exposure to multiple chemicals that have a common mechanism of toxicity when making regulatory decisions... stakeholders including environmental, human health, farm worker, and agricultural advocates; the chemical... Cumulative Risk Assessment; Notice of Availability AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION...

  18. [Prevalence of exposure to occupational risks in pregnant Spanish workers (the INMA Project-Valencia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Galarzo, M Carmen; García, Ana M; Estarlich, Marisa; García García, Francisco; Esplugues, Ana; Rodríguez, Paz; Rebagliato, Marisa; Ballester, Ferran

    2009-01-01

    To describe the prevalence of exposure to occupational risks among pregnant women and analyze its relationship with personal and occupational characteristics using information collected in the Childhood and Environment (Infancia y Medio Ambiente [INMA])-Valencia cohort study. The INMA-Valencia cohort study started in 2004 with 855 pregnant women living in Valencia, Spain. Data on sociodemographic variables (age, education and country of birth) and occupational conditions (activity, occupation, type of contract, working hours and self-reported occupational exposure to physical load and psychosocial, physical, chemical and biological risks) in women with paid employment during pregnancy (n=649) were collected through face-to-face interviews with a structured questionnaire in week 32 of pregnancy. The prevalences of reported exposure to physical and psychosocial load and to physical pollutants (including non-ionizing radiations) were 56%, 63% and 62%, respectively. The prevalence of reported exposure to chemicals (including cleaning products) and biological pollutants was 22% and 6%, respectively. In general, the characteristics most closely associated with exposure to occupational risks were younger age, non-Spanish nationality, lower education, having a temporary contract or being self-employed. This study is the first to quantify the prevalence of exposure to occupational risks during pregnancy in a Spanish population-based sample. According to the data observed, surveillance and control actions should be intensified in pregnant workers, as some of the observed occupational exposures have been consistently associated with detrimental reproductive and developmental effects.

  19. 32 CFR 651.16 - Cumulative impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Cumulative impacts. 651.16 Section 651.16... § 651.16 Cumulative impacts. (a) NEPA analyses must assess cumulative effects, which are the impact on the environment resulting from the incremental impact of the action when added to other past, present...

  20. Implications of applying cumulative risk assessment to the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Mary A; Spicer, Kristen; Chosewood, L Casey; Susi, Pam; Johns, Douglas O; Dotson, G Scott

    2018-06-01

    Multiple changes are influencing work, workplaces and workers in the US including shifts in the main types of work and the rise of the 'gig' economy. Work and workplace changes have coincided with a decline in unions and associated advocacy for improved safety and health conditions. Risk assessment has been the primary method to inform occupational and environmental health policy and management for many types of hazards. Although often focused on one hazard at a time, risk assessment frameworks and methods have advanced toward cumulative risk assessment recognizing that exposure to a single chemical or non-chemical stressor rarely occurs in isolation. We explore how applying cumulative risk approaches may change the roles of workers and employers as they pursue improved health and safety and elucidate some of the challenges and opportunities that might arise. Application of cumulative risk assessment should result in better understanding of complex exposures and health risks with the potential to inform more effective controls and improved safety and health risk management overall. Roles and responsibilities of both employers and workers are anticipated to change with potential for a greater burden of responsibility on workers to address risk factors both inside and outside the workplace that affect health at work. A range of policies, guidance and training have helped develop cumulative risk assessment for the environmental health field and similar approaches are available to foster the practice in occupational safety and health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A paradox of cumulative culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yutaka; Wakano, Joe Yuichiro; Ohtsuki, Hisashi

    2015-08-21

    Culture can grow cumulatively if socially learnt behaviors are improved by individual learning before being passed on to the next generation. Previous authors showed that this kind of learning strategy is unlikely to be evolutionarily stable in the presence of a trade-off between learning and reproduction. This is because culture is a public good that is freely exploited by any member of the population in their model (cultural social dilemma). In this paper, we investigate the effect of vertical transmission (transmission from parents to offspring), which decreases the publicness of culture, on the evolution of cumulative culture in both infinite and finite population models. In the infinite population model, we confirm that culture accumulates largely as long as transmission is purely vertical. It turns out, however, that introduction of even slight oblique transmission drastically reduces the equilibrium level of culture. Even more surprisingly, if the population size is finite, culture hardly accumulates even under purely vertical transmission. This occurs because stochastic extinction due to random genetic drift prevents a learning strategy from accumulating enough culture. Overall, our theoretical results suggest that introducing vertical transmission alone does not really help solve the cultural social dilemma problem. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cumulative keyboard strokes: a possible risk factor for carpal tunnel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleftheriou Andreas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contradictory reports have been published regarding the association of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS and the use of computer keyboard. Previous studies did not take into account the cumulative exposure to keyboard strokes among computer workers. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between cumulative keyboard use (keyboard strokes and CTS. Methods Employees (461 from a Governmental data entry & processing unit agreed to participate (response rate: 84.1 % in a cross-sectional study. Α questionnaire was distributed to the participants to obtain information on socio-demographics and risk factors for CTS. The participants were examined for signs and symptoms related to CTS and were asked if they had previous history or surgery for CTS. The cumulative amount of the keyboard strokes per worker per year was calculated by the use of payroll’s registry. Two case definitions for CTS were used. The first included subjects with personal history/surgery for CTS while the second included subjects that belonged to the first case definition plus those participants were identified through clinical examination. Results Multivariate analysis used for both case definitions, indicated that those employees with high cumulative exposure to keyboard strokes were at increased risk of CTS (case definition A: OR = 2.23;95 % CI = 1.09-4.52 and case definition B: OR = 2.41; 95%CI = 1.36-4.25. A dose response pattern between cumulative exposure to keyboard strokes and CTS has been revealed (p  Conclusions The present study indicated a possible association between cumulative exposure to keyboard strokes and development of CTS. Cumulative exposure to key-board strokes would be taken into account as an exposure indicator regarding exposure assessment of computer workers. Further research is needed in order to test the results of the current study and assess causality between cumulative keyboard strokes and

  3. Turning stumbling blocks into stepping stones in the analysis of cumulative impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie M. Reid

    2004-01-01

    Federal and state legislation, such as the National Environmental Policy Act and the California Environmental Quality Act, require that responsible agency staff consider the cumulative impacts of proposed activities before permits are issued for certain kinds of public or private projects. The Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ 1997) defined a cumulative impact as...

  4. Vehicular Traffic-Related Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Exposure and Breast Cancer Incidence: The Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project (LIBCSP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordukhovich, Irina; Beyea, Jan; Herring, Amy H; Hatch, Maureen; Stellman, Steven D; Teitelbaum, Susan L; Richardson, David B; Millikan, Robert C; Engel, Lawrence S; Shantakumar, Sumitra; Steck, Susan E; Neugut, Alfred I; Rossner, Pavel; Santella, Regina M; Gammon, Marilie D

    2016-01-01

    -related B[a]P exposure and breast cancer incidence among women with comparatively high long-term traffic B[a]P exposures, although effect estimates were imprecise. Mordukhovich I, Beyea J, Herring AH, Hatch M, Stellman SD, Teitelbaum SL, Richardson DB, Millikan RC, Engel LS, Shantakumar S, Steck SE, Neugut AI, Rossner P Jr., Santella RM, Gammon MD. 2016. Vehicular traffic-related polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure and breast cancer incidence: the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project (LIBCSP). Environ Health Perspect 124:30-38; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307736.

  5. Korean research project on the integrated exposure assessment of hazardous substances for food safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Ae Lim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This survey was designed to conduct the first nationwide dietary exposure assessment on hazardous substances including the intakes of functional food and herbal medicine. In this paper, we introduced the survey design and the results of the dietary exposure status and internal exposure levels of lead (Pb, cadmium (Cd, and mercury (Hg. Methods: We selected 4867 subjects of all ages throughout Korea. We conducted a food survey, dietary survey, biomonitoring, and health survey. Results: Pb and Cd were the highest (median value in the seaweed (94.2 μg/kg for Pb; 594 μg/kg for Cd, and Hg was the highest in the fish (46.4 μg/kg. The dietary exposure level (median value of Pb was 0.14 μg/kg body weight (bw/d, 0.18 μg/kg bw/d for Cd, and 0.07 μg/kg bw/d for Hg. Those with a blood Pb level of less than 5.00 μg/dL (US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, reference value for those 1 to 5 years of age were 99.0% of all the subjects. Those with a blood Cd level with less than 0.30 μg/L (German Federal Environmental Agency, reference value for non-smoking children were 24.5%. For those with a blood Hg level with less than 5.00 μg/L (human biomonitoring I, references value for children and adults, German Federal Environmental Agency was 81.0 % of all the subjects. Conclusions: The main dietary exposure of heavy metals occurs through food consumed in a large quantity and high frequency. The blood Hg level and dietary exposure level of Hg were both higher than those in the European Union.

  6. JCCRER Project 2.3 -- Deterministic effects of occupational exposure to radiation. Phase 1: Feasibility study; Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okladnikova, N.; Pesternikova, V.; Sumina, M. [Inst. of Biophysics, Ozyorsk (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1998-12-01

    Phase 1 of Project 2.3, a short-term collaborative Feasibility Study, was funded for 12 months starting on 1 February 1996. The overall aim of the study was to determine the practical feasibility of using the dosimetric and clinical data on the MAYAK worker population to study the deterministic effects of exposure to external gamma radiation and to internal alpha radiation from inhaled plutonium. Phase 1 efforts were limited to the period of greatest worker exposure (1948--1954) and focused on collaboratively: assessing the comprehensiveness, availability, quality, and suitability of the Russian clinical and dosimetric data for the study of deterministic effects; creating an electronic data base containing complete clinical and dosimetric data on a small, representative sample of MAYAK workers; developing computer software for the testing of a currently used health risk model of hematopoietic effects; and familiarizing the US team with the Russian diagnostic criteria and techniques used in the identification of Chronic Radiation Sickness.

  7. JCCRER Project 2.3 - Deterministic effects of occupational exposure to radiation. Phase 1: Feasibility study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okladnikova, N.; Pesternikova, V.; Sumina, M.

    1998-01-01

    Phase 1 of Project 2.3, a short-term collaborative Feasibility Study, was funded for 12 months starting on 1 February 1996. The overall aim of the study was to determine the practical feasibility of using the dosimetric and clinical data on the MAYAK worker population to study the deterministic effects of exposure to external gamma radiation and to internal alpha radiation from inhaled plutonium. Phase 1 efforts were limited to the period of greatest worker exposure (1948--1954) and focused on collaboratively: assessing the comprehensiveness, availability, quality, and suitability of the Russian clinical and dosimetric data for the study of deterministic effects; creating an electronic data base containing complete clinical and dosimetric data on a small, representative sample of MAYAK workers; developing computer software for the testing of a currently used health risk model of hematopoietic effects; and familiarizing the US team with the Russian diagnostic criteria and techniques used in the identification of Chronic Radiation Sickness

  8. Exposure calculations for the FRG isotopic heat source project environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, I.L.

    1997-01-01

    The report documents the maximum exposure for transfer of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) Isotopic Heat Sources from the 324 Building and placed in interim storage at the Central Waste Complex (CWC). These results are to be reported in the Environmental Assessment DOE-EA- 1 21 1

  9. Final report on the project research 'assessment of radiation exposure of the public to radioactivities related to the environment and food chain'. April 1988 - March 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This publication is the collection of the reports on the project research 'Assessment of Radiation Exposure of the Public to Radioactivities Related to the Environment and Food Chain'. The 16 of the reports are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  10. Prenatal co-exposure to neurotoxic metals and neurodevelopment in preschool children: The Environment and Childhood (INMA) Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Carmen; Amaya, Esperanza; Gil, Fernando; Fernández, Mariana F; Murcia, Mario; Llop, Sabrina; Andiarena, Ainara; Aurrekoetxea, Juanjo; Bustamante, Mariona; Guxens, Mònica; Ezama, Esteban; Fernández-Tardón, Guillermo; Olea, Nicolás

    2018-04-15

    We sought to determine whether prenatal co-exposure to As, Cd, Hg, Mn, and Pb was associated with impaired neurodevelopment in preschool children from the Spanish Environment and Childhood (INMA) Project, using the placenta as exposure matrix. We measured metal levels in placenta tissue samples randomly selected from five of the seven population-based birth cohorts participating in the INMA Project, collected between 2000 and 2008. Neuropsychological assessment of cognitive and motor function was carried through the use of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (MSCA) at the age of 4-5years. Data on placental metal levels, MSCA scores, and relevant covariates was available for 302 children. Mn was detected in all placental samples, Cd in nearly all placentas (99%) and As, Hg, and Pb in 22%, 58%, and 17% of the placentas, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders, detectable As levels were associated with decrements in global and verbal executive functions and quantitative abilities; detectable Hg was associated with lower scores on the verbal function of posterior cortex in a dose-response manner, and non-linearly related to poorer motor function and gross motor skills; and Mn levels were associated with decrement in perceptual-performance skills in a dose-response manner but with better memory span and quantitative skills. A synergistic interactive effect was found between As and Pb with respect to the general cognitive score, whereas an antagonistic interaction was found between Mn and Hg. Prenatal exposure to As and Hg may be a risk factor for cognitive and motor impairment in children, while the effects of Cd and Mn on neurodevelopment are less clear. Future studies should examine combined and interactive effects of exposure to multiple metals during vulnerable periods of brain development prospectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. How Exposure to ”Role Model” Projects Can Lead to Decisions for More Sustainable Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Harris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A role model, whether an individual or a project, can inspire similar performance in others. This research examines such a phenomenon during the design process for more sustainable physical infrastructure. In this empirical study, engineering professionals (n = 54 were randomly assigned either a modified version of the Envision rating system for sustainable infrastructure, which was changed to include details from an exemplary role model project, or the current version of Envision, with no role model. Professionals given the role model version of Envision achieved on average 34% more points (SD = 27 than the control group (p = 0.001. A positive role model project appears to lead engineering professionals to higher goals for sustainability performance in their design decisions. This finding, and the corresponding line of interdisciplinary research, can be used in decision-structuring interventions, which are a relatively low-cost approach to support greater sustainability in physical infrastructure development.

  12. Role of exposure in projected residential building cyclone risk for the Australian region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, Denis; Cechet, Bob; Arthur, Craig

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents a methodology to analyse the direct impact of tropical cyclone hazard on communities in northern Australia. The study focuses on the maximum potential intensity (MPI) of the cyclonic wind hazard, and location. Storm surge impacts were developed using a simple relationship between intensity and storm surge height and mid-point sea-level rise projections. The impact on residential building stock of severe wind and storm surge hazards associated with IPCC climate change scenarios is considered. Changes in residential building stock, for over 500 coastal statistical local areas (SLAs) from Southeast Queensland anticlockwise to Perth, were estimated using Australian Bureau of Statistics population projections through to 2100. A Probable Maximum Loss (PML) curve was derived, and the average annual cost across a 5000 year period (or 'annualised loss') was evaluated for each region. The projected population growth and the drift to coastal locations are significant elements in determining the damage associated with possible future cyclone threat.

  13. Cumulative trauma disorders: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Zaheen A; Alghadir, Ahmad H

    2017-08-03

    Cumulative trauma disorder (CTD) is a term for various injuries of the musculoskeletal and nervous systems that are caused by repetitive tasks, forceful exertions, vibrations, mechanical compression or sustained postures. Although there are many studies citing incidence of CTDs, there are fewer articles about its etiology, pathology and management. The aim of our study was to discuss the etiology, pathogenesis, prevention and management of CTDs. A literature search was performed using various electronic databases. The search was limited to articles in English language pertaining to randomized clinical trials, cohort studies and systematic reviews of CTDs. A total of 180 papers were identified to be relevant published since 1959. Out of these, 125 papers reported about its incidence and 50 about its conservative treatment. Workplace environment, same task repeatability and little variability, decreased time for rest, increase in expectations are major factors for developing CTDs. Prevention of its etiology and early diagnosis can be the best to decrease its incidence and severity. For effective management of CTDs, its treatment should be divided into Primordial, Primary, Secondary and Tertiary prevention.

  14. Complete cumulative index (1963-1983)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This complete cumulative index covers all regular and special issues and supplements published by Atomic Energy Review (AER) during its lifetime (1963-1983). The complete cumulative index consists of six Indexes: the Index of Abstracts, the Subject Index, the Title Index, the Author Index, the Country Index and the Table of Elements Index. The complete cumulative index supersedes the Cumulative Indexes for Volumes 1-7: 1963-1969 (1970), and for Volumes 1-10: 1963-1972 (1972); this Index also finalizes Atomic Energy Review, the publication of which has recently been terminated by the IAEA

  15. Using Information on Exposure to Characterizing Risks to Human Health from Concurrent Exposures to Multiple Chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mr Price, PSP

    2012-01-01

    This thesis explores the concept of using exposure information to understand, organize, and manage the risks associated with cumulative exposures to chemicals (exposures to multiple chemicals from multiple sources). The issue of cumulative exposures was identified in more than 30 years ago, but in

  16. Projections of future extreme weather losses under changes in climate and exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwer, L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Many attempts are made to assess future changes in extreme weather events due to anthropogenic climate change, but few studies have estimated the potential change in economic losses from such events. Projecting losses is more complex as it requires insight into the change in the weather hazard but

  17. Cumulant approach to dynamical correlation functions at finite temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Minhtien.

    1993-11-01

    A new theoretical approach, based on the introduction of cumulants, to calculate thermodynamic averages and dynamical correlation functions at finite temperatures is developed. The method is formulated in Liouville instead of Hilbert space and can be applied to operators which do not require to satisfy fermion or boson commutation relations. The application of the partitioning and projection methods for the dynamical correlation functions is discussed. The present method can be applied to weakly as well as to strongly correlated systems. (author). 9 refs

  18. Cumulative Risk Assessment Toolbox: Methods and Approaches for the Practitioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret M. MacDonell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The historical approach to assessing health risks of environmental chemicals has been to evaluate them one at a time. In fact, we are exposed every day to a wide variety of chemicals and are increasingly aware of potential health implications. Although considerable progress has been made in the science underlying risk assessments for real-world exposures, implementation has lagged because many practitioners are unaware of methods and tools available to support these analyses. To address this issue, the US Environmental Protection Agency developed a toolbox of cumulative risk resources for contaminated sites, as part of a resource document that was published in 2007. This paper highlights information for nearly 80 resources from the toolbox and provides selected updates, with practical notes for cumulative risk applications. Resources are organized according to the main elements of the assessment process: (1 planning, scoping, and problem formulation; (2 environmental fate and transport; (3 exposure analysis extending to human factors; (4 toxicity analysis; and (5 risk and uncertainty characterization, including presentation of results. In addition to providing online access, plans for the toolbox include addressing nonchemical stressors and applications beyond contaminated sites and further strengthening resource accessibility to support evolving analyses for cumulative risk and sustainable communities.

  19. System-Reliability Cumulative-Binomial Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuer, Ernest M.; Bowerman, Paul N.

    1989-01-01

    Cumulative-binomial computer program, NEWTONP, one of set of three programs, calculates cumulative binomial probability distributions for arbitrary inputs. NEWTONP, CUMBIN (NPO-17555), and CROSSER (NPO-17557), used independently of one another. Program finds probability required to yield given system reliability. Used by statisticians and users of statistical procedures, test planners, designers, and numerical analysts. Program written in C.

  20. Common-Reliability Cumulative-Binomial Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuer, Ernest, M.; Bowerman, Paul N.

    1989-01-01

    Cumulative-binomial computer program, CROSSER, one of set of three programs, calculates cumulative binomial probability distributions for arbitrary inputs. CROSSER, CUMBIN (NPO-17555), and NEWTONP (NPO-17556), used independently of one another. Point of equality between reliability of system and common reliability of components found. Used by statisticians and users of statistical procedures, test planners, designers, and numerical analysts. Program written in C.

  1. Cumulative human impacts on marine predators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maxwell, Sara M; Hazen, Elliott L; Bograd, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Stressors associated with human activities interact in complex ways to affect marine ecosystems, yet we lack spatially explicit assessments of cumulative impacts on ecologically and economically key components such as marine predators. Here we develop a metric of cumulative utilization and impact...

  2. Cumulative Student Loan Debt in Minnesota, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Wyche, Shaun

    2016-01-01

    To better understand student debt in Minnesota, the Minnesota Office of Higher Education (the Office) gathers information on cumulative student loan debt from Minnesota degree-granting institutions. These data detail the number of students with loans by institution, the cumulative student loan debt incurred at that institution, and the percentage…

  3. The Role of Cumulative Trauma, Betrayal, and Appraisals in Understanding Trauma Symptomatology

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Christina Gamache; Cromer, Lisa DeMarni; DePrince, Anne P.; Freyd, Jennifer J.

    2011-01-01

    Poor psychological outcomes are common among trauma survivors, yet not all survivors experience adverse sequelae. The current study examined links between cumulative trauma exposure as a function of the level of betrayal (measured by the relational closeness of the survivor and the perpetrator), trauma appraisals, gender, and trauma symptoms. Participants were 273 college students who reported experiencing at least one traumatic event on a trauma checklist. Three cumulative indices were const...

  4. Cumulative Human Impacts on Coral Reefs: Assessing Risk and Management Implications for Brazilian Coral Reefs

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael A. Magris; Alana Grech; Robert L. Pressey

    2018-01-01

    Effective management of coral reefs requires strategies tailored to cope with cumulative disturbances from human activities. In Brazil, where coral reefs are a priority for conservation, intensifying threats from local and global stressors are of paramount concern to management agencies. Using a cumulative impact assessment approach, our goal was to inform management actions for coral reefs in Brazil by assessing their exposure to multiple stressors (fishing, land-based activities, coastal de...

  5. A mixture of Iprodione and Vinclozolin delays the onset of puberty in the male rat in a cumulative manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinclozolin and iprodione are dicarboximide fungicides that display anti-androgenic effects in the male rat, which suggests co-exposure to these fungicides would lead to cumulative effects on androgen-sensitive endpoints. In order to test for cumulative effects by iprodione and v...

  6. Recommendations for Guidelines for EMF Personal Exposure Measurements, Rapid Project #4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Dan Bracken, Inc.

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of developing guidelines for electric and magnetic field (EMF) personal exposure measurements (lF'EM) is to ensure reliable and comparable data across I?EM studies. Study techniques may vary due to different populations or objectives, but the resulting data should be consistently reported and comparable, to the extent possible. Any guideline must allow creativity by the research-oriented investigator and provide specific guidance to industrial hygienists or other results-oriented investigators, requiring a standard protocol. Recognizing measurement studies with different purposes is an important aspect of these recommendations. The guidelines presented here intend to produce comparable data across studies while remaining flexible. The recommendations for designing and implementing an EMF PEM program describe a three-stage process. The first step is to clearly state the purpose of the PEM program. The next stage addresses the fundamental elements of an EMF PEM study, including an assessment of the scientific and organizational resources that will be required. This process is codified in a written study plan. These stages are described in 1 Section 5 of this report. The third stage of a PEM study involves the design, implementation and documentation of specific procedures and protocols fo~ sampling strategies, selection of measurement parameters; instrumentation, measurement and data collection, data management, data analysis, quality assurance, uncertainty evaluation, and archiving the study methods and results. The methods for designing these elements of an EMF PEM study are described in Section 6: Specific Guidelines for EMF I?EM Study Design.

  7. Report on the project research 'exposure to environmental radiation due to nuclear facilities'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    This special research was carried out for five years from fiscal 1978 to fiscal 1982, and its constitution was as follows: the investigation research on the behavior of radioactive substances in ocean and land environments, the investigation research on the metabolism of radioactive substances within bodies, the measurement of the dose absorbed in organs due to environmental radiation and the evaluation, and the investigation research on low level environmental radiation monitoring. As the sources of environmental radiation exposure, not only the release into the atmosphere and sea from nuclear power stations, nuclear fuel reprocessing plants and other facilities, but also the disposal of radioactive wastes on land and into ocean were considered. As the method of research, the experiment using living things and others, the analysis of the fallout nuclides existing in environment and living things, the analysis of the results of quantitative determination of stable elements and others were used. The detailed results of the above described researches are reported. By having executed this special research, the accumulation of new knowledge was obtained on the behavior of radioactive nuclides in environment and living things. (Kako, I.)

  8. The healthy workplace project: Reduced viral exposure in an office setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Kelly A; Beamer, Paloma I; Plotkin, Kevin R; Sifuentes, Laura Y; Koenig, David W; Gerba, Charles P

    2016-05-03

    Viral illnesses such as gastroenteritis and the common cold create a substantial burden in the workplace due to reduced productivity, increased absenteeism, and increased health care costs. Behaviors in the workplace contribute to the spread of human viruses via direct contact between hands, contaminated surfaces, and the mouth, eyes, and/or nose. This study assessed whether implementation of the Healthy Workplace Project (HWP) (providing hand sanitizers, disinfecting wipes, facial tissues, and use instructions) would reduce viral loads in an office setting of approximately 80 employees after seeding fomites and the hands of volunteer participants with an MS-2 phage tracer. The HWP significantly reduced viable phage detected on participants' hands, communal fomites, and personal fomites (p ≤ .010) in office environments and presents a cost-effective method for reducing the health and economic burden associated with viral illnesses in the workplace.

  9. Projecting community changes in hazard exposure to support long-term risk reduction: A case study of tsunami hazards in the U.S. Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Wood, Nathan J.; Soulard, Christopher E.; Wilson, Tamara

    2017-01-01

    Tsunamis have the potential to cause considerable damage to communities along the U.S. Pacific Northwest coastline. As coastal communities expand over time, the potential societal impact of tsunami inundation changes. To understand how community exposure to tsunami hazards may change in coming decades, we projected future development (i.e. urban, residential, and rural), households, and residents over a 50-year period (2011–2061) along the Washington, Oregon, and northern California coasts. We created a spatially explicit, land use/land cover, state-and-transition simulation model to project future developed land use based on historical development trends. We then compared our development projection results to tsunami-hazard zones associated with a Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ) earthquake. Changes in tsunami-hazard exposure by 2061 were estimated for 50 incorporated cities, 7 tribal reservations, and 17 counties relative to current (2011) estimates. Across the region, 2061 population exposure in tsunami-hazard zones was projected to increase by 3880 households and 6940 residents. The top ten communities with highest population exposure to CSZ-related tsunamis in 2011 are projected to remain the areas with the highest population exposure by 2061. The largest net population increases in tsunami-hazard zones were projected in the unincorporated portions of several counties, including Skagit, Coos, and Humboldt. Land-change simulation modeling of projected future development serves as an exploratory tool aimed at helping local governments understand the hazard-exposure implications of community growth and to include this knowledge in risk-reduction planning.

  10. A structured approach to Exposure Based Waiving of human health endpoints under REACH developed in the OSIRIS project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquart, Hans; Meijster, Tim; Van de Bovenkamp, Marja; Ter Burg, Wouter; Spaan, Suzanne; Van Engelen, Jacqueline

    2012-03-01

    Exposure Based Waiving (EBW) is one of the options in REACH when there is insufficient hazard data on a specific endpoint. Rules for adaptation of test requirements are specified and a general option for EBW is given via Appendix XI of REACH, allowing waiving of repeated dose toxicity studies, reproductive toxicity studies and carcinogenicity studies under a number of conditions if exposure is very low. A decision tree is described that was developed in the European project OSIRIS (Optimised Strategies for Risk Assessment of Industrial Chemicals through Integration of Non-Test and Test Information) to help decide in what cases EBW can be justified. The decision tree uses specific criteria as well as more general questions. For the latter, guidance on interpretation and resulting conclusions is provided. Criteria and guidance are partly based on an expert elicitation process. Among the specific criteria a number of proposed Thresholds of Toxicological Concern are used. The decision tree, expanded with specific parts on absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion that are not described in this paper, is implemented in the OSIRIS webtool on integrated testing strategies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Experience of cumulative effects assessment in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piper Jake

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Cumulative effects assessment (CEA is a development of environmental impact assessment which attempts to take into account the wider picture of what impacts may affect the environment as a result of either multiple or linear projects, or development plans. CEA is seen as a further valuable tool in promoting sustainable development. The broader canvas upon which the assessment is made leads to a suite of issues such as complexity in methods and assessment of significance, the desirability of co-operation between developers and other parties, new ways of addressing mitigation and monitoring. After outlining the legislative position and the process of CEA, this paper looks at three cases studies in the UK where cumulative assessment has been carried out - the cases concern wind farms, major infrastructure and off-shore developments.

  12. A Full Year's Chandra Exposure on Sloan Digital Sky Survey Quasars from the Chandra Multiwavelength Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Paul J.; Aldcroft, T. L.; Richards, G. T.; Barkhouse, W. A.; Constantin, A.; Haggard, D.; Karovska, M.; Kim, D.-W.; Kim, M.; Vikhlinin, A.; Anderson, S. F.; Mossman, A.; Kashyap, V.; Myers, A. D.; Silverman, J. D.; Wilkes, B. J.; Tananbaum, H.

    2009-01-01

    We study the spectral energy distributions and evolution of a large sample of optically selected quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey that were observed in 323 Chandra images analyzed by the Chandra Multiwavelength Project. Our highest-confidence matched sample includes 1135 X-ray detected quasars in the redshift range 0.2 3, substantially expanding the known sample. We find no evidence for evolution out to z ~ 5 for either the X-ray photon index Γ or for the ratio of optical/UV to X-ray flux αox. About 10% of detected QSOs show best-fit intrinsic absorbing columns greater than 1022 cm-2, but the fraction might reach ~1/3 if most nondetections are absorbed. We confirm a significant correlation between αox and optical luminosity, but it flattens or disappears for fainter (MB gsim -23) active galactic nucleus (AGN) alone. We report significant hardening of Γ both toward higher X-ray luminosity, and for relatively X-ray loud quasars. These trends may represent a relative increase in nonthermal X-ray emission, and our findings thereby strengthen analogies between Galactic black hole binaries and AGN. For uniformly selected subsamples of narrow-line Seyfert 1s and narrow absorption line QSOs, we find no evidence for unusual distributions of either αox or Γ.

  13. The Relationship between Gender, Cumulative Adversities and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Relationship between Gender, Cumulative Adversities and Mental Health of Employees in ... CAs were measured in three forms (family adversities (CAFam), personal adversities ... Age of employees ranged between 18-65 years.

  14. Cumulative cultural learning: Development and diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The complexity and variability of human culture is unmatched by any other species. Humans live in culturally constructed niches filled with artifacts, skills, beliefs, and practices that have been inherited, accumulated, and modified over generations. A causal account of the complexity of human culture must explain its distinguishing characteristics: It is cumulative and highly variable within and across populations. I propose that the psychological adaptations supporting cumulative cultural transmission are universal but are sufficiently flexible to support the acquisition of highly variable behavioral repertoires. This paper describes variation in the transmission practices (teaching) and acquisition strategies (imitation) that support cumulative cultural learning in childhood. Examining flexibility and variation in caregiver socialization and children’s learning extends our understanding of evolution in living systems by providing insight into the psychological foundations of cumulative cultural transmission—the cornerstone of human cultural diversity. PMID:28739945

  15. Complexity and demographic explanations of cumulative culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Querbes, A.; Vaesen, K.; Houkes, W.N.

    2014-01-01

    Formal models have linked prehistoric and historical instances of technological change (e.g., the Upper Paleolithic transition, cultural loss in Holocene Tasmania, scientific progress since the late nineteenth century) to demographic change. According to these models, cumulation of technological

  16. Cumulative human impacts on marine predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Sara M; Hazen, Elliott L; Bograd, Steven J; Halpern, Benjamin S; Breed, Greg A; Nickel, Barry; Teutschel, Nicole M; Crowder, Larry B; Benson, Scott; Dutton, Peter H; Bailey, Helen; Kappes, Michelle A; Kuhn, Carey E; Weise, Michael J; Mate, Bruce; Shaffer, Scott A; Hassrick, Jason L; Henry, Robert W; Irvine, Ladd; McDonald, Birgitte I; Robinson, Patrick W; Block, Barbara A; Costa, Daniel P

    2013-01-01

    Stressors associated with human activities interact in complex ways to affect marine ecosystems, yet we lack spatially explicit assessments of cumulative impacts on ecologically and economically key components such as marine predators. Here we develop a metric of cumulative utilization and impact (CUI) on marine predators by combining electronic tracking data of eight protected predator species (n=685 individuals) in the California Current Ecosystem with data on 24 anthropogenic stressors. We show significant variation in CUI with some of the highest impacts within US National Marine Sanctuaries. High variation in underlying species and cumulative impact distributions means that neither alone is sufficient for effective spatial management. Instead, comprehensive management approaches accounting for both cumulative human impacts and trade-offs among multiple stressors must be applied in planning the use of marine resources.

  17. Cumulative cultural learning: Development and diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legare, Cristine H

    2017-07-24

    The complexity and variability of human culture is unmatched by any other species. Humans live in culturally constructed niches filled with artifacts, skills, beliefs, and practices that have been inherited, accumulated, and modified over generations. A causal account of the complexity of human culture must explain its distinguishing characteristics: It is cumulative and highly variable within and across populations. I propose that the psychological adaptations supporting cumulative cultural transmission are universal but are sufficiently flexible to support the acquisition of highly variable behavioral repertoires. This paper describes variation in the transmission practices (teaching) and acquisition strategies (imitation) that support cumulative cultural learning in childhood. Examining flexibility and variation in caregiver socialization and children's learning extends our understanding of evolution in living systems by providing insight into the psychological foundations of cumulative cultural transmission-the cornerstone of human cultural diversity.

  18. Calculating Cumulative Binomial-Distribution Probabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuer, Ernest M.; Bowerman, Paul N.

    1989-01-01

    Cumulative-binomial computer program, CUMBIN, one of set of three programs, calculates cumulative binomial probability distributions for arbitrary inputs. CUMBIN, NEWTONP (NPO-17556), and CROSSER (NPO-17557), used independently of one another. Reliabilities and availabilities of k-out-of-n systems analyzed. Used by statisticians and users of statistical procedures, test planners, designers, and numerical analysts. Used for calculations of reliability and availability. Program written in C.

  19. About the cumulants of periodic signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrau, Axel; El Badaoui, Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    This note studies cumulants of time series. These functions originating from the probability theory being commonly used as features of deterministic signals, their classical properties are examined in this modified framework. We show additivity of cumulants, ensured in the case of independent random variables, requires here a different hypothesis. Practical applications are proposed, in particular an analysis of the failure of the JADE algorithm to separate some specific periodic signals.

  20. County-level cumulative environmental quality associated with cancer incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagai, Jyotsna S; Messer, Lynne C; Rappazzo, Kristen M; Gray, Christine L; Grabich, Shannon C; Lobdell, Danelle T

    2017-08-01

    Individual environmental exposures are associated with cancer development; however, environmental exposures occur simultaneously. The Environmental Quality Index (EQI) is a county-level measure of cumulative environmental exposures that occur in 5 domains. The EQI was linked to county-level annual age-adjusted cancer incidence rates from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program state cancer profiles. All-site cancer and the top 3 site-specific cancers for male and female subjects were considered. Incident rate differences (IRDs; annual rate difference per 100,000 persons) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using fixed-slope, random intercept multilevel linear regression models. Associations were assessed with domain-specific indices and analyses were stratified by rural/urban status. Comparing the highest quintile/poorest environmental quality with the lowest quintile/best environmental quality for overall EQI, all-site county-level cancer incidence rate was positively associated with poor environmental quality overall (IRD, 38.55; 95% CI, 29.57-47.53) and for male (IRD, 32.60; 95% CI, 16.28-48.91) and female (IRD, 30.34; 95% CI, 20.47-40.21) subjects, indicating a potential increase in cancer incidence with decreasing environmental quality. Rural/urban stratified models demonstrated positive associations comparing the highest with the lowest quintiles for all strata, except the thinly populated/rural stratum and in the metropolitan/urbanized stratum. Prostate and breast cancer demonstrated the strongest positive associations with poor environmental quality. We observed strong positive associations between the EQI and all-site cancer incidence rates, and associations differed by rural/urban status and environmental domain. Research focusing on single environmental exposures in cancer development may not address the broader environmental context in which cancers develop, and future research should address cumulative environmental

  1. Cumulative trauma and symptom complexity in children: a path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Monica; Godbout, Natacha; Briere, John; Lanktree, Cheryl; Gilbert, Alicia; Kletzka, Nicole Taylor

    2013-11-01

    Multiple trauma exposures during childhood are associated with a range of psychological symptoms later in life. In this study, we examined whether the total number of different types of trauma experienced by children (cumulative trauma) is associated with the complexity of their subsequent symptomatology, where complexity is defined as the number of different symptom clusters simultaneously elevated into the clinical range. Children's symptoms in six different trauma-related areas (e.g., depression, anger, posttraumatic stress) were reported both by child clients and their caretakers in a clinical sample of 318 children. Path analysis revealed that accumulated exposure to multiple different trauma types predicts symptom complexity as reported by both children and their caretakers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Predicting Cumulative Incidence Probability: Marginal and Cause-Specific Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas H.; Zhang, Mei-Jie

    2005-01-01

    cumulative incidence probability; cause-specific hazards; subdistribution hazard; binomial modelling......cumulative incidence probability; cause-specific hazards; subdistribution hazard; binomial modelling...

  3. Predicting Cumulative Incidence Probability by Direct Binomial Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas H.; Zhang, Mei-Jie

    Binomial modelling; cumulative incidence probability; cause-specific hazards; subdistribution hazard......Binomial modelling; cumulative incidence probability; cause-specific hazards; subdistribution hazard...

  4. A comparison of the dietary arsenic exposures from ingestion of contaminated soil and hyperaccumulating Pteris ferns used in a residential phytoremediation project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbs, Stephen; Hatfield, Sarah; Nagarajan, Vinay; Blaylock, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic (As) hyperaccumulating ferns are used to phytoremediate As-contaminated soils, including soils in residential areas. This use may pose a health risk if children were to ingest these plants. Spider brake (Pteris cretica L.) plants were grown in sand spiked with arsenate, to produce tissue As concentrations (2000-4500 mg kg DW(-1)) typical of those observed in plants deployed for As phytoremediation. The fronds were subjected to a physiologically-based extraction test to estimate As bioaccessibility, which ranged from 3.4-20.5%. A scenario for human dietary exposure to As in an urban setting was then estimated for a child consuming 0.25 g DW of tissue. The calculation of dietary exposure took into account the As concentration in the fern pinnae, the bioaccessibility of As in the tissue, and the typical absorption of inorganic As by the gastrointestinal tract. The pinnae As concentrations and the calculated dietary exposures were used to create a non-linear regression model relating tissue As concentration to dietary exposure. Data from a phytoremediation project in a residential area using Pteris cretica and Pteris vittata (L.) were input into this model to project dietary As exposure in a residential phytoremediation setting. These exposures were compared to estimates of dietary As exposure from the consumption of soil. The results showed that dietary exposures to As from consumption of soil or pinnae tissue were similar and that estimates of dietary exposure were below the LOAEL value of 14 microg As kg(-1) d(-1). The results suggest that the hyperaccumulation of As in Pteris ferns during growth in moderately contaminated residential soils (e.g., < or = 100 mg As kg DW(-1)) does not represent an inherent risk or a risk substantially different from that posed by accidental ingestion of contaminated soil.

  5. Managing cumulative impacts: A key to sustainability?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunsaker, C.T.

    1994-12-31

    This paper addresses how science can be more effectively used in creating policy to manage cumulative effects on ecosystems. The paper focuses on the scientific techniques that we have to identify and to assess cumulative impacts on ecosystems. The term ``sustainable development`` was brought into common use by the World Commission on Environment and Development (The Brundtland Commission) in 1987. The Brundtland Commission report highlighted the need to simultaneously address developmental and environmental imperatives simultaneously by calling for development that ``meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the needs of future generations.`` We cannot claim to be working toward sustainable development until we can quantitatively assess cumulative impacts on the environment: The two concepts are inextricibally linked in that the elusiveness of cumulative effects likely has the greatest potential of keeping us from achieving sustainability. In this paper, assessment and management frameworks relevant to cumulative impacts are discussed along with recent literature on how to improve such assessments. When possible, examples are given for marine ecosystems.

  6. Introduction to the Monte Carlo project and the approach to the validation of probabilistic models of dietary exposure to selected food chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gibney, M.J.; Voet, van der H.

    2003-01-01

    The Monte Carlo project was established to allow an international collaborative effort to define conceptual models for food chemical and nutrient exposure, to define and validate the software code to govern these models, to provide new or reconstructed databases for validation studies, and to use

  7. Seasonal climate change patterns due to cumulative CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Leduc, Martin; Damon Matthews, H.

    2017-07-01

    Cumulative CO2 emissions are near linearly related to both global and regional changes in annual-mean surface temperature. These relationships are known as the transient climate response to cumulative CO2 emissions (TCRE) and the regional TCRE (RTCRE), and have been shown to remain approximately constant over a wide range of cumulative emissions. Here, we assessed how well this relationship holds for seasonal patterns of temperature change, as well as for annual-mean and seasonal precipitation patterns. We analyzed an idealized scenario with CO2 concentration growing at an annual rate of 1% using data from 12 Earth system models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Seasonal RTCRE values for temperature varied considerably, with the highest seasonal variation evident in the Arctic, where RTCRE was about 5.5 °C per Tt C for boreal winter and about 2.0 °C per Tt C for boreal summer. Also the precipitation response in the Arctic during boreal winter was stronger than during other seasons. We found that emission-normalized seasonal patterns of temperature change were relatively robust with respect to time, though they were sub-linear with respect to emissions particularly near the Arctic. Moreover, RTCRE patterns for precipitation could not be quantified robustly due to the large internal variability of precipitation. Our results suggest that cumulative CO2 emissions are a useful metric to predict regional and seasonal changes in precipitation and temperature. This extension of the TCRE framework to seasonal and regional climate change is helpful for communicating the link between emissions and climate change to policy-makers and the general public, and is well-suited for impact studies that could make use of estimated regional-scale climate changes that are consistent with the carbon budgets associated with global temperature targets.

  8. Family Resources and Effects on Child Behavior Problem Interventions: A Cumulative Risk Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tømmerås, Truls; Kjøbli, John

    2017-01-01

    Family resources have been associated with health care inequality in general and with social gradients in treatment outcomes for children with behavior problems. However, there is limited evidence concerning cumulative risk-the accumulation of social and economic disadvantages in a family-and whether cumulative risk moderates the outcomes of evidence-based parent training interventions. We used data from two randomized controlled trials evaluating high-intensity ( n  = 137) and low-intensity ( n  = 216) versions of Parent Management Training-Oregon (PMTO) with a 50:50 allocation between participants receiving PMTO interventions or regular care. A nine-item family cumulative risk index tapping socioeconomic resources and parental health was constructed to assess the family's exposure to risk. Autoregressive structured equation models (SEM) were run to investigate whether cumulative risk moderated child behaviors at post-treatment and follow-up (6 months). Our results showed opposite social gradients for the treatment conditions: the children exposed to cumulative risk in a pooled sample of both PMTO groups displayed lower levels of behavior problems, whereas children with identical risk exposures who received regular care experienced more problems. Furthermore, our results indicated that the social gradients differed between PMTO interventions: children exposed to cumulative risk in the low-intensity (five sessions) Brief Parent Training fared equally well as their high-resource counterparts, whereas children exposed to cumulative risk in the high-intensity PMTO (12 sessions) experienced vastly better treatment effects. Providing evidence-based parent training seem to be an effective way to counteract health care inequality, and the more intensive PMTO treatment seemed to be a particularly effective way to help families with cumulative risk.

  9. Projected Hg dietary exposure of 3 bird species nesting on a contaminated floodplain (South River, Virginia, USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jincheng; Newman, Michael C

    2013-04-01

    Dietary Hg exposure was modeled for Carolina wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus), Eastern song sparrow (Melospiza melodia), and Eastern screech owl (Otus asio) nesting on the contaminated South River floodplain (Virginia, USA). Parameterization of Monte-Carlo models required formal expert elicitation to define bird body weight and feeding ecology characteristics because specific information was either unavailable in the published literature or too difficult to collect reliably by field survey. Mercury concentrations and weights for candidate food items were obtained directly by field survey. Simulations predicted the probability that an adult bird during breeding season would ingest specific amounts of Hg during daily foraging and the probability that the average Hg ingestion rate for the breeding season of an adult bird would exceed published rates reported to cause harm to other birds (>100 ng total Hg/g body weight per day). Despite the extensive floodplain contamination, the probabilities that these species' average ingestion rates exceeded the threshold value were all <0.01. Sensitivity analysis indicated that overall food ingestion rate was the most important factor determining projected Hg ingestion rates. Expert elicitation was useful in providing sufficiently reliable information for Monte-Carlo simulation. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  10. Projectables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Troels A.; Merritt, Timothy R.

    2017-01-01

    CNC cutting machines have become essential tools for designers and architects enabling rapid prototyping, model-building and production of high quality components. Designers often cut from new materials, discarding the irregularly shaped remains. We introduce ProjecTables, a visual augmented...... reality system for interactive packing of model parts onto sheet materials. ProjecTables enables designers to (re)use scrap materials for CNC cutting that would have been previously thrown away, at the same time supporting aesthetic choices related to wood grain, avoiding surface blemishes, and other...... relevant material properties. We conducted evaluations of ProjecTables with design students from Aarhus School of Architecture, demonstrating that participants could quickly and easily place and orient model parts reducing material waste. Contextual interviews and ideation sessions led to a deeper...

  11. Radiation protection of patients in medical exposures: regional project IAEA 2007-2008 RLA/9/57

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The radiation protection of patients in medical exposures as a project is composed of 5 regional covers some 80 countries, 94 hospitals and 120 activities related to radiology and radiation. A workshop was developed with the following objectives: to provide theoretical and practical elements for professionals in radiation protection of patients developing tasks assigned, to identify the methodology by measurement through sheets for data collection and interpretation of the same, to perform practical exercises of the procedures to apply in radiology, mammography, computed tomography and interventionism. The workshop was divided into theoretical and practical sections, sections for analysis and interpretation of data and a final exam. This project aims to identify strengths and weaknesses, simple primary objectives with fast results, involvement of doctors, institutional commitment to see results after more complex stages, technique stiffness, sustainability. Among the goals of the member states are: To prevent radioinjury in interventional procedures and reduce the probability of stochastic effect, especially in pediatrics; dose reduction changing of rare earth in countries that have not yet made, optimization in mammography, optimization of protection in CT, with emphasis in pediatrics; protection of family and the public to give discharge the patient, after therapy with radiopharmaceuticals; to prevent accidental exposures in radiotherapy and pediatric radiology. The content is divided into four parts which include different forms to collect information constituted on the following topics: Intervention, with information over Uncertainties in calibration of the meter P K A, Evaluation of dose with radiochromatic movie, Data processing and radiation protection, Measurements of kerma-area product, Practice: Exposure assessment of the patient in interventional radiology, Determination of the Hemi reducer layer, Recalibration and use of a meter of Kerma-area product

  12. Cumulative processes and quark distribution in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondratyuk, L.; Shmatikov, M.

    1984-01-01

    Assuming existence of multiquark (mainly 12q) bags in nuclei the spectra of cumulative nucleons and mesons produced in high-energy particle-nucleus collisions are discussed. The exponential form of quark momentum distribution in 12q-bag (agreeing well with the experimental data on lepton-nucleus interactions at large q 2 ) is shown to result in quasi-exponential distribution of cumulative particles over the light-cone variable αsub(B). The dependence of f(αsub(B); psub(perpendicular)) (where psub(perpendicular) is the transverse momentum of the bag) upon psub(perpendicular) is considered. The yields of cumulative resonances as well as effects related to the u- and d-quark distributions in N > Z nuclei being different are dicscussed

  13. Cumulative Culture and Future Thinking: Is Mental Time Travel a Prerequisite to Cumulative Cultural Evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, G. L.; Flynn, E. G.; Kendal, R. L.

    2012-01-01

    Cumulative culture denotes the, arguably, human capacity to build on the cultural behaviors of one's predecessors, allowing increases in cultural complexity to occur such that many of our cultural artifacts, products and technologies have progressed beyond what a single individual could invent alone. This process of cumulative cultural evolution…

  14. EXAFS cumulants of CdSe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diop, D.

    1997-04-01

    EXAFS functions had been extracted from measurements on the K edge of Se at different temperatures between 20 and 300 K. The analysis of the EXAFS of the filtered first two shells has been done in the wavevector range laying between 2 and 15.5 A -1 in terms of the cumulants of the effective distribution of distances. The cumulants C 3 and C 4 obtained from the phase difference and the amplitude ratio methods have shown the anharmonicity in the vibrations of atoms around their equilibrium position. (author). 13 refs, 3 figs

  15. Cumulative effects of wind turbines. A guide to assessing the cumulative effects of wind energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This guidance provides advice on how to assess the cumulative effects of wind energy developments in an area and is aimed at developers, planners, and stakeholders interested in the development of wind energy in the UK. The principles of cumulative assessment, wind energy development in the UK, cumulative assessment of wind energy development, and best practice conclusions are discussed. The identification and assessment of the cumulative effects is examined in terms of global environmental sustainability, local environmental quality and socio-economic activity. Supplementary guidance for assessing the principle cumulative effects on the landscape, on birds, and on the visual effect is provided. The consensus building approach behind the preparation of this guidance is outlined in the annexes of the report.

  16. Cumulative dosages of antipsychotic drugs are associated with increased mortality rate in patients with Alzheimer's dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, R E; Lolk, A; Valentin, J B

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We wished to investigate the effects of cumulative dosages of antipsychotic drug in Alzheimer's dementia, when controlling for known risk factors, including current antipsychotic exposure, on all-cause mortality. METHOD: We utilized a nationwide, population-based, retrospective cohort...... study design with mortality as outcome in individual patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's dementia. RESULTS: We included a total of 45 894 patients and followed them for 3 803 996 person-years in total, presenting 27 894 deaths in the study population. Cumulative antipsychotic exposure increased...... or equal to 730 DDDs: HR 1.06, 95% CI (0.95-1.18), P = 0.322, when controlling for proxy markers of severity, somatic and mental comorbid disorders. CONCLUSION: In this nationwide cohort study of 45 894 patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's dementia, we found that cumulative dosages of antipsychotic drugs...

  17. Probabilistic cumulative risk assessment of anti-androgenic pesticides in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Anne Kirstine; Nielsen, Elsa

    2008-01-01

    A cumulative risk assessment of three anti-androgenic pesticides vinclozolin, procymidone and prochloraz in combination has been carried out using an Integrated Probabilistic Risk Assessment (IPRA) model. In the model, variability in both exposure and sensitivity between individuals were combined...

  18. Associations between parenting, media use, cumulative risk, and children’s executive functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linebarger, D.L.; Barr, R.; Lapierre, M.A.; Piotrowski, J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to examine how parenting style, media exposure, and cumulative risk were associated with executive functioning (EF) during early childhood. Methods: A nationally representative group of US parents/caregivers (N = 1156) with 1 child between 2 and 8 years

  19. Interactive Contributions of Cumulative Peer Stress and Executive Function Deficits to Depression in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agoston, Anna M.; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to peer stress contributes to adolescent depression, yet not all youth experience these effects. Thus, it is important to identify individual differences that shape the consequences of peer stress. This research investigated the interactive contribution of cumulative peer stress during childhood (second-fifth grades) and executive…

  20. Unique versus cumulative effects of physical and sexual assault on patterns of adolescent substance use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charak, R.; Koot, H.M.; Dvorak, R.D.; Elklit, A.; Elhai, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    The present study assessed the unique versus cumulative effects of physical and sexual assault, on patterns of substance-use in adolescents. It was hypothesized that experiencing a single assault (physical or sexual) when compared with exposure to both physical and sexual assault would be more

  1. Multiparty correlation measure based on the cumulant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, D. L.; Zeng, B.; Xu, Z.; You, L.

    2006-01-01

    We propose a genuine multiparty correlation measure for a multiparty quantum system as the trace norm of the cumulant of the state. The legitimacy of our multiparty correlation measure is explicitly demonstrated by proving it satisfies the five basic conditions required for a correlation measure. As an application we construct an efficient algorithm for the calculation of our measures for all stabilizer states

  2. Decision analysis with cumulative prospect theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayoumi, A M; Redelmeier, D A

    2000-01-01

    Individuals sometimes express preferences that do not follow expected utility theory. Cumulative prospect theory adjusts for some phenomena by using decision weights rather than probabilities when analyzing a decision tree. The authors examined how probability transformations from cumulative prospect theory might alter a decision analysis of a prophylactic therapy in AIDS, eliciting utilities from patients with HIV infection (n = 75) and calculating expected outcomes using an established Markov model. They next focused on transformations of three sets of probabilities: 1) the probabilities used in calculating standard-gamble utility scores; 2) the probabilities of being in discrete Markov states; 3) the probabilities of transitioning between Markov states. The same prophylaxis strategy yielded the highest quality-adjusted survival under all transformations. For the average patient, prophylaxis appeared relatively less advantageous when standard-gamble utilities were transformed. Prophylaxis appeared relatively more advantageous when state probabilities were transformed and relatively less advantageous when transition probabilities were transformed. Transforming standard-gamble and transition probabilities simultaneously decreased the gain from prophylaxis by almost half. Sensitivity analysis indicated that even near-linear probability weighting transformations could substantially alter quality-adjusted survival estimates. The magnitude of benefit estimated in a decision-analytic model can change significantly after using cumulative prospect theory. Incorporating cumulative prospect theory into decision analysis can provide a form of sensitivity analysis and may help describe when people deviate from expected utility theory.

  3. Cumulative watershed effects: a research perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie M. Reid; Robert R. Ziemer

    1989-01-01

    A cumulative watershed effect (CWE) is any response to multiple land-use activities that is caused by, or results in, altered watershed function. The CWE issue is politically defined, as is the significance of particular impacts. But the processes generating CWEs are the traditional focus of geomorphology and ecology, and have thus been studied for decades. The CWE...

  4. Toxicology research projects directory, 1978. Monthly repts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The Toxicology Research Projects Directory is a monthly publication of ongoing research projects in toxicology and related fields selected from the files of the Smithsonian Science Information Exchange (SSIE). Each issue lists toxicology-related research projects reported to SSIE during the one-month period preceding that issue. Each of the summaries is categorized by scientific discipline and assigned a unique identification number for cross-referencing from the Directory Indexes--Subject, Investigator, Performing Organization, Supporting Agency, and Master Grant Number. The thirteenth issue consists of Cumulative Indexes for the entire volume with referencing to projects in all of the previous twelve issues. The emphasis of the Directory is on the manifestations of the exposure of man and animals to toxic substances. Projects are classified by toxic agents, research orientation, and areas of environmental concern

  5. Concerted Uranium Research in Europe (CURE): toward a collaborative project integrating dosimetry, epidemiology and radiobiology to study the effects of occupational uranium exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Olivier; Gomolka, Maria; Haylock, Richard; Blanchardon, Eric; Giussani, Augusto; Atkinson, Will; Baatout, Sarah; Bingham, Derek; Cardis, Elisabeth; Hall, Janet; Tomasek, Ladislav; Ancelet, Sophie; Badie, Christophe; Bethel, Gary; Bertho, Jean-Marc; Bouet, Ségolène; Bull, Richard; Challeton-de Vathaire, Cécile; Cockerill, Rupert; Davesne, Estelle; Ebrahimian, Teni; Engels, Hilde; Gillies, Michael; Grellier, James; Grison, Stephane; Gueguen, Yann; Hornhardt, Sabine; Ibanez, Chrystelle; Kabacik, Sylwia; Kotik, Lukas; Kreuzer, Michaela; Lebacq, Anne Laure; Marsh, James; Nosske, Dietmar; O'Hagan, Jackie; Pernot, Eileen; Puncher, Matthew; Rage, Estelle; Riddell, Tony; Roy, Laurence; Samson, Eric; Souidi, Maamar; Turner, Michelle C; Zhivin, Sergey; Laurier, Dominique

    2016-06-01

    The potential health impacts of chronic exposures to uranium, as they occur in occupational settings, are not well characterized. Most epidemiological studies have been limited by small sample sizes, and a lack of harmonization of methods used to quantify radiation doses resulting from uranium exposure. Experimental studies have shown that uranium has biological effects, but their implications for human health are not clear. New studies that would combine the strengths of large, well-designed epidemiological datasets with those of state-of-the-art biological methods would help improve the characterization of the biological and health effects of occupational uranium exposure. The aim of the European Commission concerted action CURE (Concerted Uranium Research in Europe) was to develop protocols for such a future collaborative research project, in which dosimetry, epidemiology and biology would be integrated to better characterize the effects of occupational uranium exposure. These protocols were developed from existing European cohorts of workers exposed to uranium together with expertise in epidemiology, biology and dosimetry of CURE partner institutions. The preparatory work of CURE should allow a large scale collaborative project to be launched, in order to better characterize the effects of uranium exposure and more generally of alpha particles and low doses of ionizing radiation.

  6. Constitution of a group of Czech and French uranium miners in order to estimate lung cancer risk linked to low chronic exposure to radon decay products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirmarche, M.; Tomasek, L.

    1996-01-01

    West Bohemian and French uranium miners are characterized by a long duration of exposure to radon and its decay products, in comparison to most of the other groups of miners, studied in the recent international joint analysis by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) in USA. This analysis has confirmed the linearly increasing risk of lung cancer by cumulative radon exposure, describing the different factors that may influence this dose-response relationship. One of the main factors presently discussed is the influence of the exposure-rate effect: in other words, has the same cumulated exposure spread over 10 years the same risk of lung cancer as if it is cumulated in 2 years? The implication of an inverse exposure-rate effect for low chronic exposures as well as some methodological approaches will be discussed and tested by using the data of the Czech and French cohorts. These two cohorts present annual exposures varying by a factor of 5 to 10, French exposure rates being close or even less than 0.1 Working Level during the last 20 years. The project is integrated in a larger European project on uranium miners, co-ordinated by IPSN. (author)

  7. An evaluation paradigm for cumulative impact analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stakhiv, Eugene Z.

    1988-09-01

    Cumulative impact analysis is examined from a conceptual decision-making perspective, focusing on its implicit and explicit purposes as suggested within the policy and procedures for environmental impact analysis of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and its implementing regulations. In this article it is also linked to different evaluation and decision-making conventions, contrasting a regulatory context with a comprehensive planning framework. The specific problems that make the application of cumulative impact analysis a virtually intractable evaluation requirement are discussed in connection with the federal regulation of wetlands uses. The relatively familiar US Army Corps of Engineers' (the Corps) permit program, in conjunction with the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) responsibilities in managing its share of the Section 404 regulatory program requirements, is used throughout as the realistic context for highlighting certain pragmatic evaluation aspects of cumulative impact assessment. To understand the purposes of cumulative impact analysis (CIA), a key distinction must be made between the implied comprehensive and multiobjective evaluation purposes of CIA, promoted through the principles and policies contained in NEPA, and the more commonly conducted and limited assessment of cumulative effects (ACE), which focuses largely on the ecological effects of human actions. Based on current evaluation practices within the Corps' and EPA's permit programs, it is shown that the commonly used screening approach to regulating wetlands uses is not compatible with the purposes of CIA, nor is the environmental impact statement (EIS) an appropriate vehicle for evaluating the variety of objectives and trade-offs needed as part of CIA. A heuristic model that incorporates the basic elements of CIA is developed, including the idea of trade-offs among social, economic, and environmental protection goals carried out within the context of environmental

  8. Cumulating the Supplements to the Seventh Edition of LC Subject Headings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy B. Torkington

    1973-12-01

    Full Text Available A description is presented of the project of the University of California Library Automation Program to cumulate the 1966 through 1971 supplements to the Library of Congress Subject Headings. The University of California Institute of Library Research MARC processing software, BIBCON, was used, with specially written programs. The resulting cumulation was edited, printed in book form, and made available to libraries. The final task involved merging six MARC files into one file of over 125,000 records and then printing that file in a format similar to that of LC Subject Headings. The project was a cooperative effort with participation by people from several UC campuses.

  9. Cumulative effect of multiple trauma on symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and depression in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliman, Sharain; Mkabile, Siyabulela G; Fincham, Dylan S; Ahmed, Rashid; Stein, Dan J; Seedat, Soraya

    2009-01-01

    Recent literature has indicated that exposure to multiple traumatic events in adults is associated with high levels of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depression. Against the backdrop of stressful life events and childhood abuse and neglect, we investigated the cumulative effect of multiple trauma exposure on PTSD, anxiety, and depression in an adolescent sample. One thousand one hundred forty 10th-grade learners from 9 Cape Town (South Africa) schools completed questionnaires on stressful life experiences; trauma exposure; and symptoms of anxiety, depression, and PTSD. Our population of interest for this study was adolescents between the ages of 14 and 18 years who had been exposed to serious, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, qualifying traumatic events. The final sample size was thus 922. Rates of trauma exposure, PTSD, depression, and anxiety were high. Controlling for sex, stressful life experiences in the past year, and childhood adversity, we found an effect of cumulative trauma exposure effect on PTSD and depression, with an increase in the number of traumas linearly associated with an increase in symptoms of PTSD (F((4,912)) = 7.60, P cumulative effect on anxiety. Our findings indicate that adolescents exposed to multiple traumas are more likely to experience more severe symptoms of PTSD and depression than those who experience a single event, with this effect independent of childhood adversity and everyday stressful life experiences. Exposure to multiple trauma, however, does not seem to be associated with more severe anxiety symptoms.

  10. Practical management of cumulative anthropogenic impacts with working marine examples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyhn, Line Anker; Wright, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    for petroleum. Human disturbances, including the noise almost ubiquitously associated with human activity, are likely to increase the incidence, magnitude, and duration of adverse effects on marine life, including stress responses. Stress responses have the potential to induce fitness consequences...... on impact can be facilitated through implementation of regular application cycles for project authorization or improved programmatic and aggregated impact assessments that simultaneously consider multiple projects. Cross-company collaborations and a better incorporation of uncertainty into decision making...... could also help limit, if not reduce, cumulative impacts of multiple human activities. These simple management steps may also form the basis of a rudimentary form of marine spatial planning and could be used in support of future ecosystem-based management efforts....

  11. Acute and Cumulative Effects of Unmodified 50-nm Nano-ZnO on Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Tao; Zhang, Shu-Hui; Zhang, Ji-Liang; Hao, Xue-Qin; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Cai; Yang, Zi-Jun; Zhang, Meng-Yu; Wang, Jie

    2018-01-02

    Nanometer zinc oxide (nano-ZnO) is widely used in diverse industrial and agricultural fields. Due to the extensive contact humans have with these particles, it is crucial to understand the potential effects that nano-ZnO have on human health. Currently, information related to the toxicity and mechanisms of nano-ZnO is limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate acute and cumulative toxic effects of 50-nm unmodified ZnO in mice. This investigation will seek to establish median lethal dose (LD50), a cumulative coefficient, and target organs. The acute and cumulative toxicity was investigated by Karber's method and via a dose-increasing method, respectively. During the experiment, clinical signs, mortality, body weights, hematology, serum biochemistry, gross pathology, organ weight, and histopathology were examined. The LD50 was 5177-mg/kg·bw; the 95% confidence limits for the LD50 were 5116-5238-mg/kg·bw. It could be concluded that the liver, kidney, lung, and gastrointestinal tract were target organs for the 50-nm nano-ZnO acute oral treatment. The cumulative coefficient (K) was 1.9 which indicated that the cumulative toxicity was apparent. The results also indicated that the liver, kidney, lung, and pancrea were target organs for 50-nm nano-ZnO cumulative oral exposure and might be target organs for subchronic and chronic toxicity of oral administered 50-nm ZnO.

  12. Cumulative Human Impacts on Coral Reefs: Assessing Risk and Management Implications for Brazilian Coral Reefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A. Magris

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Effective management of coral reefs requires strategies tailored to cope with cumulative disturbances from human activities. In Brazil, where coral reefs are a priority for conservation, intensifying threats from local and global stressors are of paramount concern to management agencies. Using a cumulative impact assessment approach, our goal was to inform management actions for coral reefs in Brazil by assessing their exposure to multiple stressors (fishing, land-based activities, coastal development, mining, aquaculture, shipping, and global warming. We calculated an index of the risk to cumulative impacts: (i assuming uniform sensitivity of coral reefs to stressors; and (ii using impact weights to reflect varying tolerance levels of coral reefs to each stressor. We also predicted the index in both the presence and absence of global warming. We found that 16% and 37% of coral reefs had high to very high risk of cumulative impacts, without and with information on sensitivity respectively, and 42% of reefs had low risk to cumulative impacts from both local and global stressors. Our outputs are the first comprehensive spatial dataset of cumulative impact on coral reefs in Brazil, and show that areas requiring attention mostly corresponded to those closer to population centres. We demonstrate how the relationships between risks from local and global stressors can be used to derive strategic management actions.

  13. The Montbeliard Radiation Protection Pilot Project: a global approach of radiation protection addressing occupational, public and patient exposures at the level of a large urban community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieber, Caroline; Lochard, Jacques; Badajoz, Coralie; Bataille, Celine; Croueail, Pascal; Klein, Didier; Klopfenstein, Jean-Francois; Makovicka, Libor

    2008-01-01

    The Montbeliard Radiation Protection Pilot Project started in March 2004, at the initiative of the Inter- City Council of the Montbeliard Country in cooperation with CEPN. It aims at improving the radiation protection of the inhabitants of the Montbeliard Country in the various exposure situations which can be potentially encountered on the territory (hospital, dwellings, environment,...) as well as at promoting the creation of a pole of competence in the field of radiation protection in the Montbeliard Country. The project relies on the involvement of all relevant stakeholders at the local, national and international level. This paper provides with a quick insight of the project organisation, followed by a synthetic description of the main achievements of the various project areas. (author)

  14. Cumulative Mass and NIOSH Variable Lifting Index Method for Risk Assessment: Possible Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucchi, Giulia; Battevi, Natale; Pandolfi, Monica; Galinotti, Luca; Iodice, Simona; Favero, Chiara

    2018-02-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to explore whether the Variable Lifting Index (VLI) can be corrected for cumulative mass and thus test its efficacy in predicting the risk of low-back pain (LBP). Background A validation study of the VLI method was published in this journal reporting promising results. Although several studies highlighted a positive correlation between cumulative load and LBP, cumulative mass has never been considered in any of the studies investigating the relationship between manual material handling and LBP. Method Both VLI and cumulative mass were calculated for 2,374 exposed subjects using a systematic approach. Due to high variability of cumulative mass values, a stratification within VLI categories was employed. Dummy variables (1-4) were assigned to each class and used as a multiplier factor for the VLI, resulting in a new index (VLI_CMM). Data on LBP were collected by occupational physicians at the study sites. Logistic regression was used to estimate the risk of acute LBP within levels of risk exposure when compared with a control group formed by 1,028 unexposed subjects. Results Data showed greatly variable values of cumulative mass across all VLI classes. The potential effect of cumulative mass on damage emerged as not significant ( p value = .6526). Conclusion When comparing VLI_CMM with raw VLI, the former failed to prove itself as a better predictor of LBP risk. Application To recognize cumulative mass as a modifier, especially for lumbar degenerative spine diseases, authors of future studies should investigate potential association between the VLI and other damage variables.

  15. Presentation of the project MobiKids Communication technologies, environmental exposures and risk of brain tumors in young people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardis, E.; Alguacil, J.; Aragones, N.; Morales, M.; Carretero, G.; Ferreras, E.; Kinci, L.; Kogevinas, M.; Pollan, M.; Solis, R.; Vriheid, M.; Zumel, A.

    2011-01-01

    MOBI-Kids, an international study coordinated by CREAL, Barcelona, aims to assess the possible relationship between exposure in children and adolescents to electromagnetic fields (EMF) from communication technologies (RF - and extremely low frequency - ELF) and the risk of developing a brain tumor. It also investigated the effects of other risk factors, including environmental exposures in childhood and in utero.

  16. Sharing a quota on cumulative carbon emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raupach, Michael R.; Davis, Steven J.; Peters, Glen P.; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Ciais, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Any limit on future global warming is associated with a quota on cumulative global CO 2 emissions. We translate this global carbon quota to regional and national scales, on a spectrum of sharing principles that extends from continuation of the present distribution of emissions to an equal per-capita distribution of cumulative emissions. A blend of these endpoints emerges as the most viable option. For a carbon quota consistent with a 2 C warming limit (relative to pre-industrial levels), the necessary long-term mitigation rates are very challenging (typically over 5% per year), both because of strong limits on future emissions from the global carbon quota and also the likely short-term persistence in emissions growth in many regions. (authors)

  17. Complexity and demographic explanations of cumulative culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querbes, Adrien; Vaesen, Krist; Houkes, Wybo

    2014-01-01

    Formal models have linked prehistoric and historical instances of technological change (e.g., the Upper Paleolithic transition, cultural loss in Holocene Tasmania, scientific progress since the late nineteenth century) to demographic change. According to these models, cumulation of technological complexity is inhibited by decreasing--while favoured by increasing--population levels. Here we show that these findings are contingent on how complexity is defined: demography plays a much more limited role in sustaining cumulative culture in case formal models deploy Herbert Simon's definition of complexity rather than the particular definitions of complexity hitherto assumed. Given that currently available empirical evidence doesn't afford discriminating proper from improper definitions of complexity, our robustness analyses put into question the force of recent demographic explanations of particular episodes of cultural change.

  18. Complexity and demographic explanations of cumulative culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Querbes

    Full Text Available Formal models have linked prehistoric and historical instances of technological change (e.g., the Upper Paleolithic transition, cultural loss in Holocene Tasmania, scientific progress since the late nineteenth century to demographic change. According to these models, cumulation of technological complexity is inhibited by decreasing--while favoured by increasing--population levels. Here we show that these findings are contingent on how complexity is defined: demography plays a much more limited role in sustaining cumulative culture in case formal models deploy Herbert Simon's definition of complexity rather than the particular definitions of complexity hitherto assumed. Given that currently available empirical evidence doesn't afford discriminating proper from improper definitions of complexity, our robustness analyses put into question the force of recent demographic explanations of particular episodes of cultural change.

  19. Conceptual models for cumulative risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Stephen H; Sexton, Ken

    2011-12-01

    In the absence of scientific consensus on an appropriate theoretical framework, cumulative risk assessment and related research have relied on speculative conceptual models. We argue for the importance of theoretical backing for such models and discuss 3 relevant theoretical frameworks, each supporting a distinctive "family" of models. Social determinant models postulate that unequal health outcomes are caused by structural inequalities; health disparity models envision social and contextual factors acting through individual behaviors and biological mechanisms; and multiple stressor models incorporate environmental agents, emphasizing the intermediary role of these and other stressors. The conclusion is that more careful reliance on established frameworks will lead directly to improvements in characterizing cumulative risk burdens and accounting for disproportionate adverse health effects.

  20. Fuzzy set theory for cumulative trauma prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, Daniel J.; Merritt, Thomas W.; Moynihan, Gary P.

    2001-01-01

    A widely used fuzzy reasoning algorithm was modified and implemented via an expert system to assess the potential risk of employee repetitive strain injury in the workplace. This fuzzy relational model, known as the Priority First Cover Algorithm (PFC), was adapted to describe the relationship between 12 cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs) of the upper extremity, and 29 identified risk factors. The algorithm, which finds a suboptimal subset from a group of variables based on the criterion of...

  1. Sikap Kerja Duduk Terhadap Cumulative Trauma Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmawati, Yulita; Sugiharto, -

    2011-01-01

    Permasalahan yang diteliti adalah adakah hubungan antara sikap kerja duduk dengan kejadian Cumulative Trauma Disorder (CTD) pada pekerja bagian pengamplasan di PT. Geromar Jepara. Tujuan yang ingin dicapai adalah untuk mengetahui hubungan antara sikap kerja duduk dengan kejadian CTD pada pekerja bagian pengamplasan. Metode penelitian ini bersifat explanatory dengan menggunakan pendekatan belah lintang. Populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah pekerja bagian pengamplasan sebanyak 30 orang. Teknik ...

  2. Power Reactor Docket Information. Annual cumulation (citations)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    An annual cumulation of the citations to the documentation associated with civilian nuclear power plants is presented. This material is that which is submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission in support of applications for construction and operating licenses. Citations are listed by Docket number in accession number sequence. The Table of Contents is arranged both by Docket number and by nuclear power plant name

  3. Cumulative Effect of Depression on Dementia Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Olazarán, J.; Trincado, R.; Bermejo-Pareja, F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To analyze a potential cumulative effect of life-time depression on dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD), with control of vascular factors (VFs). Methods. This study was a subanalysis of the Neurological Disorders in Central Spain (NEDICES) study. Past and present depression, VFs, dementia status, and dementia due to AD were documented at study inception. Dementia status was also documented after three years. Four groups were created according to baseline data: never depression (n...

  4. Cumulative release to the accessible environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanehiro, B.

    1985-01-01

    The Containment and Isolation Working Group considered issues related to the postclosure behavior of repositories in crystalline rock. This working group was further divided into subgroups to consider the progress since the 1978 GAIN Symposium and identify research needs in the individual areas of regional ground-water flow, ground-water travel time, fractional release, and cumulative release. The analysis and findings of the Fractional Release Subgroup are presented

  5. The Role of Cumulative Trauma, Betrayal, and Appraisals in Understanding Trauma Symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christina Gamache; Cromer, Lisa Demarni; Deprince, Anne P; Freyd, Jennifer J

    2013-03-01

    Poor psychological outcomes are common among trauma survivors, yet not all survivors experience adverse sequelae. The current study examined links between cumulative trauma exposure as a function of the level of betrayal (measured by the relational closeness of the survivor and the perpetrator), trauma appraisals, gender, and trauma symptoms. Participants were 273 college students who reported experiencing at least one traumatic event on a trauma checklist. Three cumulative indices were constructed to assess the number of different types of traumas experienced that were low (LBTs), moderate (MBTs), or high in betrayal (HBTs). Greater trauma exposure was related to more symptoms of depression, dissociation, and PTSD, with exposure to HBTs contributing the most. Women were more likely to experience HBTs than men, but there were no gender differences in trauma-related symptoms. Appraisals of trauma were predictive of trauma-related symptoms over and above the effects explained by cumulative trauma at each level of betrayal. The survivor's relationship with the perpetrator, the effect of cumulative trauma, and their combined impact on trauma symptomatology are discussed.

  6. Lead in teeth from lead-dosed goats: Microdistribution and relationship to the cumulative lead dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellis, David J.; Hetter, Katherine M.; Jones, Joseph; Amarasiriwardena, Dula; Parsons, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    Teeth are commonly used as a biomarker of long-term lead exposure. There appear to be few data, however, on the content or distribution of lead in teeth where data on specific lead intake (dose) are also available. This study describes the analysis of a convenience sample of teeth from animals that were dosed with lead for other purposes, i.e., a proficiency testing program for blood lead. Lead concentration of whole teeth obtained from 23 animals, as determined by atomic absorption spectrometry, varied from 0.6 to 80 μg g -1 . Linear regression of whole tooth lead (μg g -1 ) on the cumulative lead dose received by the animal (g) yielded a slope of 1.2, with r 2 =0.647 (p -1 , were found in circumpulpal dentine. Linear regression of circumpulpal lead (μg g -1 ) on cumulative lead dose (g) yielded a slope of 23 with r 2 =0.961 (p=0.0001). The data indicated that whole tooth lead, and especially circumpulpal lead, of dosed goats increased linearly with cumulative lead exposure. These data suggest that circumpulpal dentine is a better biomarker of cumulative lead exposure than is whole tooth lead, at least for lead-dosed goats

  7. Higher order cumulants in colorless partonic plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherif, S. [Sciences and Technologies Department, University of Ghardaia, Ghardaia, Algiers (Algeria); Laboratoire de Physique et de Mathématiques Appliquées (LPMA), ENS-Kouba (Bachir El-Ibrahimi), Algiers (Algeria); Ahmed, M. A. A. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Taibah University Al-Madinah Al-Mounawwarah KSA (Saudi Arabia); Department of Physics, Taiz University in Turba, Taiz (Yemen); Laboratoire de Physique et de Mathématiques Appliquées (LPMA), ENS-Kouba (Bachir El-Ibrahimi), Algiers (Algeria); Ladrem, M., E-mail: mladrem@yahoo.fr [Department of Physics, College of Science, Taibah University Al-Madinah Al-Mounawwarah KSA (Saudi Arabia); Laboratoire de Physique et de Mathématiques Appliquées (LPMA), ENS-Kouba (Bachir El-Ibrahimi), Algiers (Algeria)

    2016-06-10

    Any physical system considered to study the QCD deconfinement phase transition certainly has a finite volume, so the finite size effects are inevitably present. This renders the location of the phase transition and the determination of its order as an extremely difficult task, even in the simplest known cases. In order to identify and locate the colorless QCD deconfinement transition point in finite volume T{sub 0}(V), a new approach based on the finite-size cumulant expansion of the order parameter and the ℒ{sub m,n}-Method is used. We have shown that both cumulants of higher order and their ratios, associated to the thermodynamical fluctuations of the order parameter, in QCD deconfinement phase transition behave in a particular enough way revealing pronounced oscillations in the transition region. The sign structure and the oscillatory behavior of these in the vicinity of the deconfinement phase transition point might be a sensitive probe and may allow one to elucidate their relation to the QCD phase transition point. In the context of our model, we have shown that the finite volume transition point is always associated to the appearance of a particular point in whole higher order cumulants under consideration.

  8. Cumulative irritation potential of topical retinoid formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyden, James J; Grossman, Rachel; Nighland, Marge

    2008-08-01

    Localized irritation can limit treatment success with topical retinoids such as tretinoin and adapalene. The factors that influence irritant reactions have been shown to include individual skin sensitivity, the particular retinoid and concentration used, and the vehicle formulation. To compare the cutaneous tolerability of tretinoin 0.04% microsphere gel (TMG) with that of adapalene 0.3% gel and a standard tretinoin 0.025% cream. The results of 2 randomized, investigator-blinded studies of 2 to 3 weeks' duration, which utilized a split-face method to compare cumulative irritation scores induced by topical retinoids in subjects with healthy skin, were combined. Study 1 compared TMG 0.04% with adapalene 0.3% gel over 2 weeks, while study 2 compared TMG 0.04% with tretinoin 0.025% cream over 3 weeks. In study 1, TMG 0.04% was associated with significantly lower cumulative scores for erythema, dryness, and burning/stinging than adapalene 0.3% gel. However, in study 2, there were no significant differences in cumulative irritation scores between TMG 0.04% and tretinoin 0.025% cream. Measurements of erythema by a chromameter showed no significant differences between the test formulations in either study. Cutaneous tolerance of TMG 0.04% on the face was superior to that of adapalene 0.3% gel and similar to that of a standard tretinoin cream containing a lower concentration of the drug (0.025%).

  9. Cumulative Risk and Impact Modeling on Environmental Chemical and Social Stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongtai; Wang, Aolin; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Lam, Juleen; Sirota, Marina; Padula, Amy; Woodruff, Tracey J

    2018-03-01

    The goal of this review is to identify cumulative modeling methods used to evaluate combined effects of exposures to environmental chemicals and social stressors. The specific review question is: What are the existing quantitative methods used to examine the cumulative impacts of exposures to environmental chemical and social stressors on health? There has been an increase in literature that evaluates combined effects of exposures to environmental chemicals and social stressors on health using regression models; very few studies applied other data mining and machine learning techniques to this problem. The majority of studies we identified used regression models to evaluate combined effects of multiple environmental and social stressors. With proper study design and appropriate modeling assumptions, additional data mining methods may be useful to examine combined effects of environmental and social stressors.

  10. Extending the relationship between global warming and cumulative carbon emissions to multi-millennial timescales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frölicher, Thomas L; Paynter, David J

    2015-01-01

    The transient climate response to cumulative carbon emissions (TCRE) is a highly policy-relevant quantity in climate science. The TCRE suggests that peak warming is linearly proportional to cumulative carbon emissions and nearly independent of the emissions scenario. Here, we use simulations of the Earth System Model (ESM) from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) to show that global mean surface temperature may increase by 0.5 °C after carbon emissions are stopped at 2 °C global warming, implying an increase in the coefficient relating global warming to cumulative carbon emissions on multi-centennial timescales. The simulations also suggest a 20% lower quota on cumulative carbon emissions allowed to achieve a policy-driven limit on global warming. ESM estimates from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5–ESMs) qualitatively agree on this result, whereas Earth System Models of Intermediate Complexity (EMICs) simulations, used in the IPCC 5th assessment report to assess the robustness of TCRE on multi-centennial timescales, suggest a post-emissions decrease in temperature. The reason for this discrepancy lies in the smaller simulated realized warming fraction in CMIP5–ESMs, including GFDL ESM2M, than in EMICs when carbon emissions increase. The temperature response to cumulative carbon emissions can be characterized by three different phases and the linear TCRE framework is only valid during the first phase when carbon emissions increase. For longer timescales, when emissions tape off, two new metrics are introduced that better characterize the time-dependent temperature response to cumulative carbon emissions: the equilibrium climate response to cumulative carbon emissions and the multi-millennial climate response to cumulative carbon emissions. (letter)

  11. Vehicular Traffic?Related Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Exposure and Breast Cancer Incidence: The Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project (LIBCSP)

    OpenAIRE

    Mordukhovich, Irina; Beyea, Jan; Herring, Amy H.; Hatch, Maureen; Stellman, Steven D.; Teitelbaum, Susan L.; Richardson, David B.; Millikan, Robert C.; Engel, Lawrence S.; Shantakumar, Sumitra; Steck, Susan E.; Neugut, Alfred I.; Rossner, Pavel; Santella, Regina M.; Gammon, Marilie D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread environmental pollutants, known human lung carcinogens, and potent mammary carcinogens in laboratory animals. However, the association between PAHs and breast cancer in women is unclear. Vehicular traffic is a major ambient source of PAH exposure. Objectives Our study aim was to evaluate the association between residential exposure to vehicular traffic and breast cancer incidence. Methods Residential histories of 1,508 particip...

  12. The effects of road traffic and aircraft noise exposure on children′s episodic memory: The RANCH Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Matheson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have found that chronic exposure to aircraft noise has a negative effect on children′s performance on tests of episodic memory. The present study extended the design of earlier studies in three ways: firstly, by examining the effects of two noise sources, aircraft and road traffic, secondly, by examining exposure-effect relationships, and thirdly, by carrying out parallel field studies in three European countries, allowing cross-country comparisons to be made. A total of 2844 children aged between 8 years 10 months and 12 years 10 months (mean age 10 years 6 months completed classroom-based tests of cued recall, recognition memory and prospective memory. Questionnaires were also completed by the children and their parents in order to provide information about socioeconomic context. Multilevel modeling analysis revealed aircraft noise to be associated with an impairment of recognition memory in a linear exposure-effect relationship. The analysis also found road traffic noise to be associated with improved performance on cued recall in a linear exposure-effect relationship. No significant association was found between exposure to aircraft noise and cued recall or prospective memory. Likewise, no significant association was found between road traffic noise and recognition or prospective memory. Taken together, these findings indicate that exposure to aircraft noise and road traffic noise can impact on certain aspects of children′s episodic memory.

  13. An integrated approach to radionuclide flow in semi-natural ecosystems underlying exposure pathways to man. Final report of the LANDSCAPE project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moberg, L.; Hubbard, L.; Avila, R.; Wallberg, L.; Feoli, E.; Scimone, M.; Milesi, C.; Mayes, B.; Iason, G.; Rantavaara, A.; Vetikko, V.; Bergman, R.; Nylen, T.; Palo, T.; White, N.; Guillitte, O.

    1999-10-01

    The general objective of the LANDSCAPE project has been to obtain a basis for reliable assessments of the radiation exposure to man under different time scales from radionuclides in plant and animal products of representative forest ecosystems in Europe. The work has been focussed on radiocaesium, 134 Cs, 137 Cs. In particular, the project has included (i) to quantify some major processes which influence the radiocaesium contamination of vegetation and fungi, (ii) to quantify radiocaesium intake of key herbivores, particularly free ranging moose, relative to food availability and degree of contamination, (iii) to quantify the influence of forest management on radiocaesium dynamics, and (iv) to incorporate these processes in dynamic models. The LANDSCAPE project has been the combined effort of eight research groups from five European countries, and this report describes the results obtained during 30 months of common work

  14. An integrated approach to radionuclide flow in semi-natural ecosystems underlying exposure pathways to man. Final report of the LANDSCAPE project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moberg, L; Hubbard, L; Avila, R; Wallberg, L [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Feoli, E; Scimone, M; Milesi, C [Trieste Univ. (Italy); Mayes, B; Iason, G [Macaulay Land Use Research Inst., Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Rantavaara, A; Vetikko, V [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Bergman, R; Nylen, T [National Defence Research Establishment, Umeaa (Sweden); Palo, T; White, N [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Faculty of Forestry; Raitio, H; Aro, L; Kaunisto, S [The Finnish Forest Research Inst., Parkano (Finland); Guillitte, O [Faculte Univ. des Sciences Agronomiques de Gembloux (Belgium)

    1999-10-01

    The general objective of the LANDSCAPE project has been to obtain a basis for reliable assessments of the radiation exposure to man under different time scales from radionuclides in plant and animal products of representative forest ecosystems in Europe. The work has been focussed on radiocaesium, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs. In particular, the project has included (i) to quantify some major processes which influence the radiocaesium contamination of vegetation and fungi, (ii) to quantify radiocaesium intake of key herbivores, particularly free ranging moose, relative to food availability and degree of contamination, (iii) to quantify the influence of forest management on radiocaesium dynamics, and (iv) to incorporate these processes in dynamic models. The LANDSCAPE project has been the combined effort of eight research groups from five European countries, and this report describes the results obtained during 30 months of common work.

  15. Calculus of the Resources Cumulative Task Using Different Technics and Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie Margareta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper main objective is to reveals how one can use two software application tools: Microsoft Project 2013 and Oracle Primavera P6 Professional for the project planning management, especially for industrial projects and for the calculus and graphical representation of resources cumulative task. The present planning consider four small processes with a total of 38 activities and seven resources. The two software are used for leveling the project’s resources and for giving the necessary information about the evolutions of cumulative tasks and how its values influences the cost of project. In conclusions comparison between the values and graphical representation presented by the two software shows differences of exemplifications, most of them from the graphical point of view.

  16. A bivariate optimal replacement policy with cumulative repair cost ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Min-Tsai Lai

    Shock model; cumulative damage model; cumulative repair cost limit; preventive maintenance model. 1. Introduction ... with two types of shocks: one type is failure shock, and the other type is damage ...... Theory, methods and applications.

  17. The radiological exposure of the population of the European Community from radioactivity in North European marine waters Project 'Marina'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Project Marina was set up by the Commission of the European Communities in 1985 to look at the radiological impact of radionuclides, both natural and anthropogenic, in northern European marine waters. This paper is a summary of project Marina's work and its conclusions

  18. On interference of cumulative proton production mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, M.A.; Vechernin, V.V.

    1993-01-01

    The dynamical picture of the cumulative proton production in hA-collisions by means of diagram analysis with NN interaction described by a non-relativistic NN potential is considered. The contributions of the various mechanisms (spectator, direct and rescattering) for backward hemisphere proton production within the framework of this common approach is calculated. The emphasis is on the comparison of the relative contributions of these mechanisms for various angles, taking into account the interference of these contributions. Comparison with experimental data is also presented. (author)

  19. Preserved cumulative semantic interference despite amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Michael Oppenheim

    2015-05-01

    As predicted by Oppenheim et al’s (2010 implicit incremental learning account, WRP’s BCN RTs demonstrated strong (and significant repetition priming and semantic blocking effects (Figure 1. Similar to typical results from neurally intact undergraduates, WRP took longer to name pictures presented in semantically homogeneous blocks than in heterogeneous blocks, an effect that increased with each cycle. This result challenges accounts that ascribe cumulative semantic interference in this task to explicit memory mechanisms, instead suggesting that the effect has the sort of implicit learning bases that are typically spared in hippocampal amnesia.

  20. Impact of Residential Mobility on Exposure Assessment in Longitudinal Air Pollution Studies: A Sensitivity Analysis within the ESCAPE Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Oudin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure misclassification in longitudinal studies of air pollution exposure and health effects can occur due to residential mobility in a study population over followup. The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent residential mobility during followup can be expected to cause exposure misclassification in such studies, where exposure at the baseline address is used as the main exposure assessment. The addresses for each participant in a large population-based study (N>25,000 were obtained via national registers. We used a Land Use Regression model to estimate the NOx concentration for each participant's all addresses during the entire follow-up period (in average 14.6 years and calculated an average concentration during followup. The Land Use Regression model explained 83% of the variation in measured levels. In summary, the NOx concentration at the inclusion address was similar to the average concentration over followup with a correlation coefficient of 0.80, indicating that air pollution concentration at study inclusion address could be used as indicator of average air pollution concentrations over followup. The differences between an individual's inclusion and average follow-up mean concentration were small and seemed to be nondifferential with respect to a large range of factors and disease statuses, implying that bias due to residential mobility was small.

  1. Practical management of cumulative anthropogenic impacts with working marine examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Andrew J; Kyhn, Line A

    2015-04-01

    Human pressure on the environment is expanding and intensifying, especially in coastal and offshore areas. Major contributors to this are the current push for offshore renewable energy sources, which are thought of as environmentally friendly sources of power, as well as the continued demand for petroleum. Human disturbances, including the noise almost ubiquitously associated with human activity, are likely to increase the incidence, magnitude, and duration of adverse effects on marine life, including stress responses. Stress responses have the potential to induce fitness consequences for individuals, which add to more obvious directed takes (e.g., hunting or fishing) to increase the overall population-level impact. To meet the requirements of marine spatial planning and ecosystem-based management, many efforts are ongoing to quantify the cumulative impacts of all human actions on marine species or populations. Meanwhile, regulators face the challenge of managing these accumulating and interacting impacts with limited scientific guidance. We believe there is scientific support for capping the level of impact for (at a minimum) populations in decline or with unknown statuses. This cap on impact can be facilitated through implementation of regular application cycles for project authorization or improved programmatic and aggregated impact assessments that simultaneously consider multiple projects. Cross-company collaborations and a better incorporation of uncertainty into decision making could also help limit, if not reduce, cumulative impacts of multiple human activities. These simple management steps may also form the basis of a rudimentary form of marine spatial planning and could be used in support of future ecosystem-based management efforts. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  2. Cumulative trauma and current posttraumatic stress disorder status in general population and inmate samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briere, John; Agee, Elisha; Dietrich, Anne

    2016-07-01

    This research was undertaken to examine the role between cumulative exposure to different types of traumatic events and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) status in general population and prison samples. Two archival datasets were examined: the standardization sample for the Detailed Assessment of Posttraumatic States (DAPS; Briere, 2001), and data from a study on trauma and posttraumatic sequelae among inmates and others. PTSD was found in 4% of the general population sample and 48% of the prison sample. Trauma exposure was very common among prisoners, including a 70% rate of childhood sexual abuse for women and a 50% rate for men. Lifetime number of different types of trauma was associated with PTSD in both the general population and prison samples, even when controlling for the effects of sexual trauma. Cumulative interpersonal trauma predicted PTSD, whereas cumulative noninterpersonal trauma did not. In the general population sample, participants who had only 1 type of trauma exposure had a 0% likelihood of current PTSD, whereas those with 6 or more other trauma types had a 12% likelihood. In the prison sample, those with only 1 type of trauma exposure had a 17% percent likelihood of current PTSD, whereas those exposed to 6 or more other trauma types had a 64% chance of PTSD. Cumulative trauma predicts current PTSD in both general population and prison samples, even after controlling for sexual trauma. PTSD appears to develop generally as a function of exposure to multiple types of interpersonal trauma, as opposed to a single traumatic event. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Chapter 19. Cumulative watershed effects and watershed analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie M. Reid

    1998-01-01

    Cumulative watershed effects are environmental changes that are affected by more than.one land-use activity and that are influenced by.processes involving the generation or transport.of water. Almost all environmental changes are.cumulative effects, and almost all land-use.activities contribute to cumulative effects

  4. Original and cumulative prospect theory: a discussion of empirical differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, P.P.; Fennema, H.

    1997-01-01

    This note discusses differences between prospect theory and cumulative prospect theory. It shows that cumulative prospect theory is not merely a formal correction of some theoretical problems in prospect theory, but it also gives different predictions. Experiments are described that favor cumulative

  5. Cumulative childhood risk and adult functioning in abused and neglected children grown up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, Jacqueline M; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines the relationship between childhood exposure to cumulative risk and three indicators of psychosocial adjustment in adulthood (educational attainment, mental health, and criminal behavior) and tests three different models (linear, quadratic, and interaction). Data were collected over several time points from individuals who were part of a prospective cohort design study that matched children with documented cases of abuse and/or neglect with children without such histories and followed them into adulthood. Hierarchical multiple regressions compared linear and quadratic models and then examined potential moderating effects of child abuse/neglect and gender. Exposure to a greater number of childhood risk factors was significantly related to fewer years of education, more anxiety and depression symptomatology, and more criminal arrests in adulthood. The relationship between cumulative risk and years of education demonstrated a curvilinear pattern, whereas the relationship between cumulative risk and both mental health and criminal arrests was linear. Child abuse/neglect did not moderate these relationships, although there were direct effects for both child abuse/neglect and gender on criminal arrests, with more arrests for abused/neglected individuals than controls and more for males than females. Gender interacted with cumulative risk to impact educational attainment and criminal behavior, suggesting that interventions may be more effective if tailored differently for males and females. Interventions may need to be multifaceted and designed to address these different domains of functioning.

  6. Lower cumulative stress is associated with better health for physically active adults in the community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stults-Kolehmainen, Matthew A.; Tuit, Keri; Sinha, Rajita

    2015-01-01

    Both cumulative adversity, an individual's lifetime exposure to stressors, and insufficient exercise are associated with poor health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether exercise buffers the association of cumulative adverse life events (CALE) with health in a community-wide sample of healthy adults (ages 18–50 years; women: n 219, 29.5 ± 9.2 years; men: n = 176, 29.4 ± 8.7 years, mean ± standard deviation). Participants underwent the Cumulative Adversity Interview, which divides life events into three subsets: major life events (MLE), recent life events (RLE) and traumatic experiences (TLE). These individuals also completed the Cornell Medical Index and a short assessment for moderate or greater intensity exercise behavior, modified from the Nurses’ Health Study. Results indicated that higher CALE was associated with greater total health problems (r = 0.431, pstress and exercise were not apparent for RLE and TLE. However, at low levels of MLE, greater exercise was related to fewer total, physical, cardiovascular and psychological health problems (p valuestress. Increased levels of exercise were related to better physical health in men, at all levels of CALE. Only women who reported both low levels of CALE and high levels of exercise had more favorable physical health outcomes. A similar pattern of results emerged for RLE. Together, these data suggest that increased exercise is related to better health, but these effects may vary by cumulative stress exposure and sex. PMID:24392966

  7. Impact of occupational mechanical exposures on risk of lateral and medial inguinal hernia requiring surgical repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vad, Marie Vestergaard; Frost, Poul; Bay-Nielsen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    We undertook a register-based cohort study to evaluate exposure-response relations between cumulative occupational mechanical exposures, and risk of lateral and medial inguinal hernia repair.......We undertook a register-based cohort study to evaluate exposure-response relations between cumulative occupational mechanical exposures, and risk of lateral and medial inguinal hernia repair....

  8. RE-AIM evaluation of the Alcohol and Pregnancy Project: educational resources to inform health professionals about prenatal alcohol exposure and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Janet M; France, Kathryn E; Henley, Nadine; D'Antoine, Heather A; Bartu, Anne E; O'Leary, Colleen M; Elliott, Elizabeth J; Bower, Carol; Geelhoed, Elizabeth

    2011-03-01

    The objective was to evaluate the Alcohol and Pregnancy Project that provided health professionals in Western Australia (WA) with educational resources to inform them about prevention of prenatal alcohol exposure and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). The authors developed, produced, and distributed educational resources to 3,348 health professionals in WA. Six months later, they surveyed 1,483 of these health professionals. The authors used the RE-AIM framework (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance) to evaluate the project. The educational resources were effective in producing a 31% increase in the proportion of health professionals who routinely provided pregnant women with information about the consequences of drinking alcohol during pregnancy. One hundred percent of the settings adopted the project, it reached 96.3% of the target population, it was implemented as intended, and the resources were maintained (http://www.ichr.uwa.edu.au/alcoholandpregnancy). The educational resources for health professionals have potential to contribute to reducing prenatal alcohol exposure and FASD.

  9. A structured approach to Exposure Based Waiving of human health endpoints under REACH developed in the OSIRIS project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marquart, H.; Meijster, T.; Bovenkamp, M. van de; Burg, W. ter; Spaan, S.; Engelen, J. van

    2011-01-01

    Within the REACH framework, but alsowithin OECD, there is understanding that for reasons of animal welfare, costs and logistics, it is important to limit the number of tests to be conducted. Exposure-based waiving (EBW) is a potentially important element in testing strategies. This publication

  10. Intercomparison for individual monitoring of external exposure from photon radiation. Results of a co-ordinated research project 1996-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-12-01

    This TECDOC presents the results of a Co-ordinated Research Project on Intercomparison for Individual Monitoring of External Exposure from photon radiation. The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS) have endorsed the use of the operational quantities for monitoring purposes. Specifically, personal dose equivalent, H p (d), is to be used for individual dosimetry to demonstrate compliance with the exposure limit recommendations, while for workplace area monitoring the ambient dose equivalent and the directional dose equivalent are recommended. In view of the technical difficulties associated with the introduction of these operational quantities the IAEA decided to assist Member States in their provision of appropriate dosimetry for occupational protection. In this respect, intercomparisons have proven to be a cost effective method of providing such support. A Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) was started in 1997 on Intercomparison for Individual Monitoring of External Exposure from photon radiation, involving more than twenty laboratories from eastern Europe and the countries of the former Soviet Union, and focusing on personnel dosimetry services for nuclear power plants. This CRP was part of the activities of the IAEA Occupational Protection Programme, the objective4s of which are to promote and internationally harmonized approach for optimizing occupational radiation protection through: the development of guides, within the IAEA activities for establishing standards for radiation protection, for restricting radiation exposures in the workplace and for applying current occupational radiation protection techniques, and the promotion of the application of these guidelines. The preparatory phase included, in May 1997, a workshop aimed at familiarizing the participants with the new operational quantities

  11. A method proposal for cumulative environmental impact assessment based on the landscape vulnerability evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlickova, Katarina; Vyskupova, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Cumulative environmental impact assessment deals with the occasional use in practical application of environmental impact assessment process. The main reasons are the difficulty of cumulative impact identification caused by lack of data, inability to measure the intensity and spatial effect of all types of impacts and the uncertainty of their future evolution. This work presents a method proposal to predict cumulative impacts on the basis of landscape vulnerability evaluation. For this purpose, qualitative assessment of landscape ecological stability is conducted and major vulnerability indicators of environmental and socio-economic receptors are specified and valuated. Potential cumulative impacts and the overall impact significance are predicted quantitatively in modified Argonne multiple matrixes while considering the vulnerability of affected landscape receptors and the significance of impacts identified individually. The method was employed in the concrete environmental impact assessment process conducted in Slovakia. The results obtained in this case study reflect that this methodology is simple to apply, valid for all types of impacts and projects, inexpensive and not time-consuming. The objectivity of the partial methods used in this procedure is improved by quantitative landscape ecological stability evaluation, assignment of weights to vulnerability indicators based on the detailed characteristics of affected factors, and grading impact significance. - Highlights: • This paper suggests a method proposal for cumulative impact prediction. • The method includes landscape vulnerability evaluation. • The vulnerability of affected receptors is determined by their sensitivity. • This method can increase the objectivity of impact prediction in the EIA process

  12. Evolution model with a cumulative feedback coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimper, Steffen; Zabrocki, Knud; Schulz, Michael

    2002-05-01

    The paper is concerned with a toy model that generalizes the standard Lotka-Volterra equation for a certain population by introducing a competition between instantaneous and accumulative, history-dependent nonlinear feedback the origin of which could be a contribution from any kind of mismanagement in the past. The results depend on the sign of that additional cumulative loss or gain term of strength λ. In case of a positive coupling the system offers a maximum gain achieved after a finite time but the population will die out in the long time limit. In this case the instantaneous loss term of strength u is irrelevant and the model exhibits an exact solution. In the opposite case λ<0 the time evolution of the system is terminated in a crash after ts provided u=0. This singularity after a finite time can be avoided if u≠0. The approach may well be of relevance for the qualitative understanding of more realistic descriptions.

  13. Psychometric properties of the Cumulated Ambulation Score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferriero, Giorgio; Kristensen, Morten T; Invernizzi, Marco

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In the geriatric population, independent mobility is a key factor in determining readiness for discharge following acute hospitalization. The Cumulated Ambulation Score (CAS) is a potentially valuable score that allows day-to-day measurements of basic mobility. The CAS was developed...... and validated in older patients with hip fracture as an early postoperative predictor of short-term outcome, but it is also used to assess geriatric in-patients with acute medical illness. Despite the fast- accumulating literature on the CAS, to date no systematic review synthesizing its psychometric properties....... Of 49 studies identified, 17 examined the psychometric properties of the CAS. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Most papers dealt with patients after hip fracture surgery, and only 4 studies assessed the CAS psychometric characteristics also in geriatric in-patients with acute medical illness. Two versions of CAS...

  14. Smoking and Secondhand Smoke Exposure at Home Were Associated with Poor Perceived Family Well-Being: Findings of FAMILY Project.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    Full Text Available To investigate the associations of cigarette smoking and secondhand (SHS exposure at home with family well-being among Chinese adults in Hong Kong.Telephone surveys were conducted among 3043 randomly selected adults (response rate 70% in 2010 and 2012 to monitor family health information and tobacco use in Hong Kong. Family well-being was measured using three questions of perceived family harmony, happiness and health (3Hs with responses ranging from 0-10 and a higher score indicating better family well-being. Smoking status, nicotine dependence, quitting behaviours and SHS exposure at home were recorded. Multiple linear regressions were used to calculate β-coefficients for individual family 3Hs component and an overall composite score representing family well-being.Compared with never smokers, current smokers reported lower levels of family harmony (adjusted β = -0.15, 95% CI: -0.35 to -0.10, happiness (adjusted β = -0.12, 95% CI: -0.28 to -0.02, health (adjusted β = -0.15, 95% CI: -0.30 to -0.03 and overall family well-being (adjusted β = -0.17, 95% CI: -0.32 to -0.06. Quit attempt and intention to quit were not associated with family well-being. SHS exposure at home was associated with lower levels of family harmony (adjusted β = -0.17, 95% CI: -0.30 to -0.07, happiness (adjusted β = -0.19, 95% CI: -0.32 to -0.08, health (adjusted β = -0.13, 95% CI: -0.26 to -0.03 and family well-being (adjusted β = -0.19, 95% CI: -0.32 to -0.09.Smoking and SHS exposure at home were associated with the lower levels of perceived family well-being. Prospective studies are needed to confirm the results.

  15. Characterizing Risks of Exposures to Combined Stressors: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumulative risk assessment (CRA) addresses the impacts of multiple chemical and nonchemical stressors on communities, resulting from complex exposures for populations with a variety of vulnerabilities. These efforts focus on real world exposure scenarios and applications that ra...

  16. Acute Stress Symptoms in Seriously Injured Patients: Precipitating Versus Cumulative Trauma and the Contribution of Peritraumatic Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briere, John; Dias, Colin P; Semple, Randye J; Scott, Catherine; Bigras, Noémie; Godbout, Natacha

    2017-08-01

    The relationship between type of trauma exposure, cumulative trauma, peritraumatic distress, and subsequent acute stress disorder (ASD) symptoms was examined prospectively in 96 individuals presenting with acute medical injuries to a Level 1 emergency/trauma department. Common precipitating traumas included motor vehicle-related events, stabbings, shootings, and physical assaults. At 2 to 3 weeks follow-up, 22.9% of participants had developed ASD. Univariate analysis revealed no relationship between type of precipitating trauma and ASD symptoms, whereas robust path analysis indicated direct effects of gender, lifetime cumulative trauma exposure, and peritraumatic distress. Peritraumatic distress did not mediate the association between cumulative trauma and symptoms, but did mediate the association between gender and symptomatology. These results, which account for 23.1% of the variance in ASD symptoms, suggest that ASD may be more due to cumulative trauma exposure than the nature of the precipitating trauma, but that cumulative trauma does not exert its primary effect by increasing peritraumatic distress to the most recent trauma. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  17. Social factors associated with nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure during pregnancy: the INMA-Valencia project in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llop, Sabrina; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Iñiguez, Carmen; Ramón, Rosa; Gonzalez, Ma Carmen; Murcia, Mario; Esplugues, Ana; Rebagliato, Marisa

    2011-03-01

    Numerous studies have focused on the effects of exposure to air pollution on health; however, certain subsets of the population tend to be more exposed to such pollutants depending on their social or demographic characteristics. In addition, exposure to toxicants during pregnancy may play a deleterious role in fetal development as fetuses are especially vulnerable to external insults. The present study was carried out within the framework of the INMA (Infancia y Medio Ambiente or Childhood and the Environment) multicenter cohort study with the objective of identifying the social, demographic, and life-style factors associated with nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) exposure in the subjects in the cohort. The study comprised 785 pregnant women who formed part of the INMA cohort in Valencia, Spain. Outdoor levels of NO(2) were measured at 93 sampling sites spread over the study area during four different sampling periods lasting 7 days each. Multiple regression models were used for mapping outdoor NO(2) throughout the area. Individual exposure was assigned as: 1) the estimated outdoor NO(2) levels at home, and 2) the average of estimated outdoor NO(2) levels at home and work, weighted according to the time spent in each environment. The subjects' socio-demographic and life-style information was obtained through a questionnaire. In the multiple linear analyses, the outdoor NO(2) levels assigned to each home were taken to be the dependent variable. Other variables included in the model were: age, country of origin, smoking during pregnancy, parity, season of the year, and social class. These same variables remained in the model when the dependent variable was changed to the NO(2) levels adjusted for the subjects' time-activity patterns. We found that younger women, those coming from Latin American countries, and those belonging to the lower social strata were exposed to higher NO(2) levels, both as measured outside their homes as well as when time-activity patterns were taken

  18. Cumulative doses analysis in young trauma patients: a single-centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Sergio; Marrale, Maurizio; Geraci, Claudia; Caruso, Giuseppe; Lo Re, Giuseppe; Lo Casto, Antonio; Midiri, Massimo

    2016-02-01

    Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) represents the main source of radiation exposure in trauma patients. The radiation exposure of young patients is a matter of considerable medical concern due to possible long-term effects. Multiple MDCT studies have been observed in the young trauma population with an increase in radiation exposure. We have identified 249 young adult patients (178 men and 71 women; age range 14-40 years) who had received more than one MDCT study between June 2010 and June 2014. According to the International Commission on Radiological Protection publication, we have calculated the cumulative organ dose tissue-weighting factors by using CT-EXPO software(®). We have observed a mean cumulative dose of about 27 mSv (range from 3 to 297 mSv). The distribution analysis is characterised by low effective dose, below 20 mSv, in the majority of the patients. However, in 29 patients, the effective dose was found to be higher than 20 mSv. Dose distribution for the various organs analysed (breasts, ovaries, testicles, heart and eye lenses) shows an intense peak for lower doses, but in some cases high doses were recorded. Even though cumulative doses may have long-term effects, which are still under debate, high doses are observed in this specific group of young patients.

  19. Childhood cumulative risk and obesity: the mediating role of self-regulatory ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gary W; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E; Doan, Stacey N

    2012-01-01

    We tested whether early childhood risk exposures are related to weight gain in adolescence and evaluate an underlying mechanism, self-regulatory behavior, for the risk-obesity link. Cumulative risk exposure to 9 sociodemographic (eg, poverty), physical (eg, substandard housing), and psychosocial (eg, family turmoil) stressors was assessed in 244 nine-year-old children. BMI was calculated at age 9 and then 4 years later. At age 9, children's ability to delay gratification as an index of self-regulatory behavior was assessed. Path analyses were then estimated to evaluate our mediational model (Cumulative risk → Self-regulation → BMI) over a 4-year period in a prospective, longitudinal design. Nine-year-old children exposed to a greater accumulation of multiple risk factors show larger gains in adiposity over the next four year period, net of their initial BMI. These gains in BMI during early adolescence are largely accounted for by deteriorated self-regulatory abilities among children facing more cumulative risks. Early childhood risk exposure leads to larger gains in BMI in adolescence. Given the importance of childhood adiposity to the development of obesity later in life, understanding the underlying mechanisms that link early experience to weight gain is an essential task. Deficiencies in self-regulation in response to chronic stress appears to be an important agent in the obesity epidemic.

  20. The ChimERA project: Coupling mechanistic exposure and effect models into an integrated platform for ecological risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laender, de F.; Brink, van den P.J.; Janssen, C.R.; Guardo, Di A.

    2014-01-01

    Current techniques for the ecological risk assessment of chemical substances are often criticised for their lack of environmental realism, ecological relevance and methodological accuracy. ChimERA is a 3-year project (2013-2016), funded by Cefic's Long Range Initiative (LRI) that aims to address

  1. Report made on the behalf of the Commission on Economic Affairs on the bill project related to temperance, transparency and conciliation with regard to exposure to electromagnetic waves (nr 1635) - Nr 1677

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abeille, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    This report first explains why to reduce the exposure to electromagnetic waves: we are living in an always denser wave environment, it is a matter of concern for the population, there is a probability of health risks, and there is now a political demand. The next part discusses how to reduce this exposure through information, anticipation, regulation and protection. The general discussion is then reported, and then the examination of the bill project articles. The topics addressed by the bill project are: moderation of exposure to electromagnetic fields and conciliation when installing radio-electric equipment, information and protection of public and users

  2. Cumulative effects assessment in Canada: an agenda for action and research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, E.B.; Chan, Y.-H.; Peterson, N.M.; Constable, G.A.; Caton, R.B.; Davis, C.S.; Wallace, R.R.; Yarranton, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    This review of cumulative environmental effects assessment in Canada identified 13 sets of issues that are considered to be of particular significance to Canadians over the next decade or two. They are: long-range transport of air pollutants; urban air quality and airshed saturation, mobilization of persistent or bioaccumulated substances, climatic modification, land occupation by man-made features, habitat alienation and fragmentation, soil losses, effects of agricultural chemicals, groundwater supply reduction and contamination, increased sediment, chemical and thermal loading of freshwater and marine habitats, accelerating rates of renewable resource harvesting, and long-term containment and disposal of toxic wastes. There is a diverse set of examples in which cumulative effects have been recognized and brought under control and management, and the scientific and institutional factors that promoted a successful approach are summarized. It was confirmed that there are well-defined limitations in the degree to which project referrals and project-specific environmental impact assessments can be adapted to manage cumulative effects successfully. In general, this review confirmed the hypothesis that current approaches for both scientific analyses and institutional arrangements to manage cumulative effects remain inadequately developed in Canada. To address this weakness, action is required on improving links between ecosystems, research, and management. Recommendations are made and a research agenda is presented. 171 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. A probabilistic analysis of cumulative carbon emissions and long-term planetary warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fyke, Jeremy; Matthews, H Damon

    2015-01-01

    Efforts to mitigate and adapt to long-term climate change could benefit greatly from probabilistic estimates of cumulative carbon emissions due to fossil fuel burning and resulting CO 2 -induced planetary warming. Here we demonstrate the use of a reduced-form model to project these variables. We performed simulations using a large-ensemble framework with parametric uncertainty sampled to produce distributions of future cumulative emissions and consequent planetary warming. A hind-cast ensemble of simulations captured 1980–2012 historical CO 2 emissions trends and an ensemble of future projection simulations generated a distribution of emission scenarios that qualitatively resembled the suite of Representative and Extended Concentration Pathways. The resulting cumulative carbon emission and temperature change distributions are characterized by 5–95th percentile ranges of 0.96–4.9 teratonnes C (Tt C) and 1.4 °C–8.5 °C, respectively, with 50th percentiles at 3.1 Tt C and 4.7 °C. Within the wide range of policy-related parameter combinations that produced these distributions, we found that low-emission simulations were characterized by both high carbon prices and low costs of non-fossil fuel energy sources, suggesting the importance of these two policy levers in particular for avoiding dangerous levels of climate warming. With this analysis we demonstrate a probabilistic approach to the challenge of identifying strategies for limiting cumulative carbon emissions and assessing likelihoods of surpassing dangerous temperature thresholds. (letter)

  4. Biomedical and biophysical research and calibration projects: radiobiology. Chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocytes - response to mixed neutron/photon exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slabbert, J.P.; Hough, J.H.; Jansen, S.

    1991-01-01

    Whether synergistic interaction damage is realized when lymphocytes are exposed to mixed high/low LET radiation fields, and if so, how well these effects can be predicted, was investigated. Whole-blood samples were exposed, at 37 degrees C, to neutrons, 60 Co gamma-rays and a mixture of 25% neutrons and 75% photons. The mixture was delivered both sequentially and simultaneously. A significant difference between the sequential and simultaneous irradiations was evident. Both mixed-field exposures yield aberration frequencies in excess of the sum predicted for individual irradiations. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  5. Cumulative Effect of Racial Discrimination on the Mental Health of Ethnic Minorities in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Stephanie; Nazroo, James; Bécares, Laia

    2016-07-01

    To examine the longitudinal association between cumulative exposure to racial discrimination and changes in the mental health of ethnic minority people. We used data from 4 waves (2009-2013) of the UK Household Longitudinal Study, a longitudinal household panel survey of approximately 40 000 households, including an ethnic minority boost sample of approximately 4000 households. Ethnic minority people who reported exposure to racial discrimination at 1 time point had 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) mental component scores 1.93 (95% confidence interval [CI] = -3.31, -0.56) points lower than did those who reported no exposure to racial discrimination, whereas those who had been exposed to 2 or more domains of racial discrimination, at 2 different time points, had SF-12 mental component scores 8.26 (95% CI = -13.33, -3.18) points lower than did those who reported no experiences of racial discrimination. Controlling for racial discrimination and other socioeconomic factors reduced ethnic inequalities in mental health. Cumulative exposure to racial discrimination has incremental negative long-term effects on the mental health of ethnic minority people in the United Kingdom. Studies that examine exposure to racial discrimination at 1 point in time may underestimate the contribution of racism to poor health.

  6. Pharmacoepidemiology of opiate use in the neonatal ICU: Increasing cumulative doses and iatrogenic opiate withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Tamorah; Erfe, Betty Luan; Ezell, Tarrah; Gauda, Estelle

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal intensive care unit (ICU) care involves use of opiates to treat postoperative, ventilated, or chronically ill infants. Opiates provide necessary analgesia and sedation, but the morbidities include prolonged neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) and extended length of stay for dose tapering. Our objective was to quantify trends in opiate exposure in a tertiary care NICU. The authors hypothesize that medical opiate exposure and resultant ICU-acquired NAS would increase over time. Retrospective cross-sectional cohort study. Tertiary care NICU. High-risk inborn infants admitted in fiscal years 2003-2004, 2007-2008, and 2010-2011. Average cumulative morphine exposure (all opiate doses converted to morphine equivalents) per time epoch was compared in cohorts of clinically similar infants. Linear regression was used to assess the primary outcome, assessing changes in opiate exposure over time. Sixty-three infants were included in the final analysis. The primary analysis assessing cumulative opiate exposure per infant showed an increase of 134 mg per time epoch (95% CI-12, 279 mg, p-value 0.071). There was a statistically significant increase in the percent of infants with a diagnosis of iatrogenic NAS, increasing from 9 to 35 to 50 percent (p-value 0.012).

  7. 7 CFR 42.132 - Determining cumulative sum values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determining cumulative sum values. 42.132 Section 42... Determining cumulative sum values. (a) The parameters for the on-line cumulative sum sampling plans for AQL's... 3 1 2.5 3 1 2 1 (b) At the beginning of the basic inspection period, the CuSum value is set equal to...

  8. Improving cumulative effects assessment in Alberta: Regional strategic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Dallas; Lalonde, Kim; McEachern, Menzie; Kenney, John; Mendoza, Gustavo; Buffin, Andrew; Rich, Kate

    2011-01-01

    The Government of Alberta, Canada is developing a regulatory framework to better manage cumulative environmental effects from development in the province. A key component of this effort is regional planning, which will lay the primary foundation for cumulative effects management into the future. Alberta Environment has considered the information needs of regional planning and has concluded that Regional Strategic Assessment may offer significant advantages if integrated into the planning process, including the overall improvement of cumulative environmental effects assessment in the province.

  9. Cumulative Socioeconomic Status Risk, Allostatic Load, and Adjustment: A Prospective Latent Profile Analysis with Contextual and Genetic Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H.; Yu, Tianyi; Chen, Yi-Fu; Kogan, Steven M.; Evans, Gary W.; Beach, Steven R. H.; Windle, Michael; Simons, Ronald L.; Gerrard, Meg; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Philibert, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    The health disparities literature has identified a common pattern among middle-aged African Americans that includes high rates of chronic disease along with low rates of psychiatric disorders despite exposure to high levels of cumulative socioeconomic status (SES) risk. The current study was designed to test hypotheses about the developmental…

  10. Cumulative biological impacts of The Geysers geothermal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brownell, J.A.

    1981-10-01

    The cumulative nature of current and potential future biological impacts from full geothermal development in the steam-dominated portion of The Geysers-Calistoga KGRA are identified by the California Energy Commission staff. Vegetation, wildlife, and aquatic resources information have been reviewed and evaluated. Impacts and their significance are discussed and staff recommendations presented. Development of 3000 MW of electrical energy will result in direct vegetation losses of 2790 acres, based on an estimate of 11.5% loss per lease-hold of 0.93 acres/MW. If unmitigated, losses will be greater. Indirect vegetation losses and damage occur from steam emissions which contain elements (particularly boron) toxic to vegetation. Other potential impacts include chronic low-level boron exposure, acid rain, local climate modification, and mechanical damage. A potential exists for significant reduction and changes in wildlife from direct habitat loss and development influences. Highly erosive soils create the potential for significant reduction of aquatic resources, particularly game fish. Toxic spills have caused some temporary losses of aquatic species. Staff recommends monitoring and implementation of mitigation measures at all geothermal development stages.

  11. Gender disparities among the association between cumulative family-level stress & adolescent weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Daphne C; Pressler, Emily

    2015-04-01

    To investigate precursors to gender-related obesity disparities by examining multiple family-level stress indices. Analyses was based on adolescents born between 1975 and 1991 to women from the 1979 National Longitudinal Study of Youth data set (N=4762). Three types of family-level stressors were captured from birth to age 15: family disruption and conflict, financial strain, and maternal risky health behaviors, along with a total cumulative risk index. Body mass index was constructed on reference criteria for children outlined by the Centers for Disease Control. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted for the three types of family stressors and for the total cumulative index. The accumulation of family disruption and conflict and financial stress was positively related to female adolescents being overweight/obese. Childhood exposure to maternal risky health behaviors was positively associated with higher weight status for male adolescents. Total cumulative stress was related to overweight/obesity for females, but not males. Different family-level stress indices are associated with the weight status of female and male adolescents. Combining types of family-level stress into one cumulative index appears to mask these differences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Children neglected: Where cumulative risk theory fails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Mandy; Legano, Lori; Homel, Peter; Walker-Descartes, Ingrid; Rojas, Mary; Laraque, Danielle

    2015-07-01

    Neglected children, by far the majority of children maltreated, experience an environment most deficient in cognitive stimulation and language exchange. When physical abuse co-occurs with neglect, there is more stimulation through negative parent-child interaction, which may lead to better cognitive outcomes, contrary to Cumulative Risk Theory. The purpose of the current study was to assess whether children only neglected perform worse on cognitive tasks than children neglected and physically abused. Utilizing LONGSCAN archived data, 271 children only neglected and 101 children neglected and physically abused in the first four years of life were compared. The two groups were assessed at age 6 on the WPPSI-R vocabulary and block design subtests, correlates of cognitive intelligence. Regression analyses were performed, controlling for additional predictors of poor cognitive outcome, including socioeconomic variables and caregiver depression. Children only neglected scored significantly worse than children neglected and abused on the WPPSI-R vocabulary subtest (p=0.03). The groups did not differ on the block design subtest (p=0.4). This study shows that for neglected children, additional abuse may not additively accumulate risk when considering intelligence outcomes. Children experiencing only neglect may need to be referred for services that address cognitive development, with emphasis on the linguistic environment, in order to best support the developmental challenges of neglected children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Standardization of the cumulative absolute velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, T.F.; Jacobson, J.P.

    1991-12-01

    EPRI NP-5930, ''A Criterion for Determining Exceedance of the Operating Basis Earthquake,'' was published in July 1988. As defined in that report, the Operating Basis Earthquake (OBE) is exceeded when both a response spectrum parameter and a second damage parameter, referred to as the Cumulative Absolute Velocity (CAV), are exceeded. In the review process of the above report, it was noted that the calculation of CAV could be confounded by time history records of long duration containing low (nondamaging) acceleration. Therefore, it is necessary to standardize the method of calculating CAV to account for record length. This standardized methodology allows consistent comparisons between future CAV calculations and the adjusted CAV threshold value based upon applying the standardized methodology to the data set presented in EPRI NP-5930. The recommended method to standardize the CAV calculation is to window its calculation on a second-by-second basis for a given time history. If the absolute acceleration exceeds 0.025g at any time during each one second interval, the earthquake records used in EPRI NP-5930 have been reanalyzed and the adjusted threshold of damage for CAV was found to be 0.16g-set

  14. Cumulative effective dose and cancer risk for pediatric population in repetitive full spine follow-up imaging: How micro dose is the EOS microdose protocol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Martin; Ma, Wang-Kei; Lau, Damian; Cheung, Kenneth; Ip, Janice; Yip, Lawrance; Lam, Wendy

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate and to obtain analytic formulation for the calculation of the effective dose and associated cancer risk using the EOS microdose protocol for scoliotic pediatric patients undergoing full spine imaging at different age of exposure; to demonstrate the microdose protocol capable of delivering lesser radiation dose and hence of further reducing cancer risk induction when compared with the EOS low dose protocol; to obtain cumulative effective dose and cancer risk for both genders scoliotic pediatrics of US and Hong Kong population using the microdose protocol. Organ absorbed doses of full spine exposed scoliotic pediatric patients have been simulated with the use of EOS microdose protocol imaging parameters input to the Monte Carlo software PCXMC. Gender and age specific effective dose has been calculated with the simulated organ absorbed dose using the ICRP-103 approach. The associated radiation induced cancer risk, expressed as lifetime attributable risk (LAR), has been estimated according to the method introduced in the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation VII report. Values of LAR have been estimated for scoliotic patients exposed repetitively during their follow up period at different age for US and Hong Kong population. The effective doses of full spine imaging with simultaneous posteroanterior and lateral projection for patients exposed at the age between 5 and 18 years using the EOS microdose protocol have been calculated within the range of 2.54-14.75 μSv. The corresponding LAR for US and Hong Kong population was ranged between 0.04 × 10 -6 and 0.84 × 10 -6 . Cumulative effective dose and cancer risk during follow-up period can be estimated using the results and are of information to patients and their parents. With the use of computer simulation and analytic formulation, we obtained the cumulative effective dose and cancer risk at any age of exposure for pediatric patients of US and Hong Kong population undergoing repetitive

  15. Analysis of Memory Codes and Cumulative Rehearsal in Observational Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, Albert; And Others

    1974-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of memory codes varying in meaningfulness and retrievability and cumulative rehearsal on retention of observationally learned responses over increasing temporal intervals. (Editor)

  16. Soil intervention as a strategy for lead exposure prevention: The New Orleans lead-safe childcare playground project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mielke, Howard W., E-mail: howard.mielke@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118 (United States); Center for Bioenvironmental Research at Tulane and Xavier Universities, 1430 Tulane Avenue SL-3, New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States); Covington, Tina P. [Charity School of Nursing, Delgado Community College, New Orleans, LA 70112-1397 (United States); College of Nursing, University of South Alabama, Doctor of Nursing Practice Program (student), Mobile AL 36688-0002 (United States); Mielke, Paul W. [Department of Statistics, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1877 (United States); Wolman, Fredericka J. [Director of Pediatrics, Department of Children and Families, State of Connecticut, Hartford, CT 06473 (United States); Powell, Eric T.; Gonzales, Chris R. [Lead Lab, Inc., New Orleans, LA 70179-1125 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    The feasibility of reducing children's exposure to lead (Pb) polluted soil in New Orleans is tested. Childcare centers (median = 48 children) are often located in former residences. The extent of soil Pb was determined by selecting centers in both the core and outlying areas. The initial 558 mg/kg median soil Pb (range 14-3692 mg/kg) decreased to median 4.1 mg/kg (range 2.2-26.1 mg/kg) after intervention with geotextile covered by 15 cm of river alluvium. Pb loading decreased from a median of 4887 {mu}g/m{sup 2} (454 {mu}g/ft{sup 2}) range 603-56650 {mu}g/m{sup 2} (56-5263 {mu}g/ft{sup 2}) to a median of 398 {mu}g/m{sup 2} (37 {mu}g/ft{sup 2}) range 86-980 {mu}g/m{sup 2} (8-91 {mu}g/ft{sup 2}). Multi-Response Permutation Procedures indicate similar (P-values = 0.160-0.231) soil Pb at childcare centers compared to soil Pb of nearby residential communities. At {approx}$100 per child, soil Pb and surface loading were reduced within hours, advancing an upstream intervention conceptualization about Pb exposure prevention. - Highlights: > Upstream thinking refers to attending to causative agents that affect outcomes. > New Orleans has a high density soil Pb map of all residential communities. > Many childcare centers are located in Pb polluted residential communities. > Evaluation of childcare center playground soils substantiated severe Pb pollution. > Pursuing upstream thinking, low Pb soil was put on playgrounds to protect children. - Within hours, at a cost of about U.S. $100 (2010) per child, it is feasible to transform exterior play areas at childcare centers from Pb contaminated to Pb-safe with a large margin of safety.

  17. Exposure to an open-field arena increases c-Fos expression in a distributed anxiety-related system projecting to the basolateral amygdaloid complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, M W; Hay-Schmidt, A; Mikkelsen, J D; Poulsen, B; Shekhar, A; Lowry, C A

    2008-08-26

    Anxiety states and anxiety-related behaviors appear to be regulated by a distributed and highly interconnected system of brain structures including the basolateral amygdala. Our previous studies demonstrate that exposure of rats to an open-field in high- and low-light conditions results in a marked increase in c-Fos expression in the anterior part of the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus (BLA) compared with controls. The neural mechanisms underlying the anatomically specific effects of open-field exposure on c-Fos expression in the BLA are not clear, however, it is likely that this reflects activation of specific afferent input to this region of the amygdala. In order to identify candidate brain regions mediating anxiety-induced activation of the basolateral amygdaloid complex in rats, we used cholera toxin B subunit (CTb) as a retrograde tracer to identify neurons with direct afferent projections to this region in combination with c-Fos immunostaining to identify cells responding to exposure to an open-field arena in low-light (8-13 lux) conditions (an anxiogenic stimulus in rats). Adult male Wistar rats received a unilateral microinjection of 4% CTb in phosphate-buffered saline into the basolateral amygdaloid complex. Rats were housed individually for 11 days after CTb injections and handled (HA) for 2 min each day. On the test day rats were either, 1) exposed to an open-field in low-light conditions (8-13 lux) for 15 min (OF); 2) briefly HA or 3) left undisturbed (control). We report that dual immunohistochemical staining for c-Fos and CTb revealed an increase in the percentage of c-Fos-immunopositive basolateral amygdaloid complex-projecting neurons in open-field-exposed rats compared with HA and control rats in the ipsilateral CA1 region of the ventral hippocampus, subiculum and lateral entorhinal cortex. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that exposure to the open-field arena activates an anxiety-related neuronal system with convergent input to the

  18. Studying the cumulative environmental effects of Hydro-Quebec's installations plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubeau, D.

    1992-01-01

    The study of the cumulative environmental effects that have been integrated with technical and economic analyses include mercury, land use in the region (territory), natural landscapes, cultural heritages, forest dynamics, regional economies and ways of life. Requests and petitions from the public about Hydro-Quebec projects fall into four categories: welfare of communities, impact on the land, environmental responsibility and preservation of plant and animal species. The cooperation of all concerned is necessary for Hydro-Quebec's developments. (author)

  19. Prioritizing Risk in Preparation for a Demonstration Project: A Mixed Methods Feasibility Study of Oral Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PREP) among Female Sex Workers in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza-Paul, Sushena; Lazarus, Lisa; Doshi, Monika; Hafeez Ur Rahman, Syed; Ramaiah, Manjula; Maiya, Raviprakash; Ms, Venugopal; Venukumar, K T; Sundararaman, Sundar; Becker, Marissa; Moses, Stephen; Lorway, Robert

    2016-01-01

    HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs) in India remains well above the national average. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), a new HIV prevention technology, may help to reduce HIV incidence, but there is a dearth of research that can inform the potential scale-up of PrEP in India. In partnership with Ashodaya Samithi, a local sex worker collective, we conducted a feasibility study to assess acceptance of a planned PrEP demonstration project, willingness to use PrEP, and recommendations for project roll-out among FSWs in southern Karnataka. From January-April 2015, 6 focus group discussions, 47 in-depth interviews, and 427 interviewer-administered questionnaires were completed by female sex workers. All participants were 18 years of age or older and practiced sex work. Qualitative data were coded for key themes and emergent categories. Univariate descriptive analysis was employed to summarise the quantitative data. Qualitative. PrEP was described as an exciting new prevention technology that places control in the hands of FSWs and provides a "double safety" in combination with condom use. Participants expressed agreement that women who may experience more HIV risk in their occupational environments should be prioritized for enrollment into a demonstration project. Quantitative. 406 participants (95%) expressed interest in PrEP. Participants prioritized the inclusion of FSWs under the age of 25 (79%), those who do not use condoms when clients offer more money (58%), who do not consistently use condoms with regular partners (57%), who drink alcohol regularly (49%), and who do not use condoms consistently with clients (48%). This feasibility study indicated strong interest in PrEP and a desire to move forward with the demonstration project. Participants expressed their responses in terms of public health discourses surrounding risk, pointing to the importance of situating PrEP scale up within the trusted spaces of community-based organizations as a means of

  20. Cumulative Effect of Depression on Dementia Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Olazarán

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze a potential cumulative effect of life-time depression on dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD, with control of vascular factors (VFs. Methods. This study was a subanalysis of the Neurological Disorders in Central Spain (NEDICES study. Past and present depression, VFs, dementia status, and dementia due to AD were documented at study inception. Dementia status was also documented after three years. Four groups were created according to baseline data: never depression (nD, past depression (pD, present depression (prD, and present and past depression (prpD. Logistic regression was used. Results. Data of 1,807 subjects were investigated at baseline (mean age 74.3, 59.3% women, and 1,376 (81.6% subjects were evaluated after three years. The prevalence of dementia at baseline was 6.7%, and dementia incidence was 6.3%. An effect of depression was observed on dementia prevalence (OR [CI 95%] 1.84 [1.01–3.35] for prD and 2.73 [1.08–6.87] for prpD, and on dementia due to AD (OR 1.98 [0.98–3.99] for prD and OR 3.98 [1.48–10.71] for prpD (fully adjusted models, nD as reference. Depression did not influence dementia incidence. Conclusions. Present depression and, particularly, present and past depression are associated with dementia at old age. Multiple mechanisms, including toxic effect of depression on hippocampal neurons, plausibly explain these associations.

  1. Quantitative cumulative biodistribution of antibodies in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Victor; Palma, Enzo; Tesar, Devin B; Mundo, Eduardo E; Bumbaca, Daniela; Torres, Elizabeth K; Reyes, Noe A; Shen, Ben Q; Fielder, Paul J; Prabhu, Saileta; Khawli, Leslie A; Boswell, C Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) plays an important and well-known role in antibody recycling in endothelial and hematopoietic cells and thus it influences the systemic pharmacokinetics (PK) of immunoglobulin G (IgG). However, considerably less is known about FcRn’s role in the metabolism of IgG within individual tissues after intravenous administration. To elucidate the organ distribution and gain insight into the metabolism of humanized IgG1 antibodies with different binding affinities FcRn, comparative biodistribution studies in normal CD-1 mice were conducted. Here, we generated variants of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D-specific antibody (humanized anti-gD) with increased and decreased FcRn binding affinity by genetic engineering without affecting antigen specificity. These antibodies were expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cell lines, purified and paired radiolabeled with iodine-125 and indium-111. Equal amounts of I-125-labeled and In-111-labeled antibodies were mixed and intravenously administered into mice at 5 mg/kg. This approach allowed us to measure both the real-time IgG uptake (I-125) and cumulative uptake of IgG and catabolites (In-111) in individual tissues up to 1 week post-injection. The PK and distribution of the wild-type IgG and the variant with enhanced binding for FcRn were largely similar to each other, but vastly different for the rapidly cleared low-FcRn-binding variant. Uptake in individual tissues varied across time, FcRn binding affinity, and radiolabeling method. The liver and spleen emerged as the most concentrated sites of IgG catabolism in the absence of FcRn protection. These data provide an increased understanding of FcRn’s role in antibody PK and catabolism at the tissue level. PMID:24572100

  2. Interpreting biomarker data from the COPHES/DEMOCOPHES twin projects: Using external exposure data to understand biomarker differences among countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolders, R.; Den Hond, E.; Koppen, G.; Govarts, E.; Willems, H.; Casteleyn, L.; Kolossa-Gehring, M.; Fiddicke, U.; Castaño, A.; Koch, H.M.; Angerer, J.; Esteban, M.; Sepai, O.; Exley, K.; Bloemen, L.; Horvat, M.; Knudsen, L.E.; Joas, A.; Joas, R.; Biot, P.

    2015-01-01

    In 2011 and 2012, the COPHES/DEMOCOPHES twin projects performed the first ever harmonized human biomonitoring survey in 17 European countries. In more than 1800 mother–child pairs, individual lifestyle data were collected and cadmium, cotinine and certain phthalate metabolites were measured in urine. Total mercury was determined in hair samples. While the main goal of the COPHES/DEMOCOPHES twin projects was to develop and test harmonized protocols and procedures, the goal of the current paper is to investigate whether the observed differences in biomarker values among the countries implementing DEMOCOPHES can be interpreted using information from external databases on environmental quality and lifestyle. In general, 13 countries having implemented DEMOCOPHES provided high-quality data from external sources that were relevant for interpretation purposes. However, some data were not available for reporting or were not in line with predefined specifications. Therefore, only part of the external information could be included in the statistical analyses. Nonetheless, there was a highly significant correlation between national levels of fish consumption and mercury in hair, the strength of antismoking legislation was significantly related to urinary cotinine levels, and we were able to show indications that also urinary cadmium levels were associated with environmental quality and food quality. These results again show the potential of biomonitoring data to provide added value for (the evaluation of) evidence-informed policy making. - Highlights: • External data was collected to interpret HBM data from DEMOCOPHES. • Hg in hair could be related to fish consumption across different countries. • Urinary cotinine was related to strictness of anti-smoking legislation. • Urinary Cd was borderline significantly related to air and food quality. • Lack of comparable data among countries hampered the analysis

  3. Interpreting biomarker data from the COPHES/DEMOCOPHES twin projects: Using external exposure data to understand biomarker differences among countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolders, R., E-mail: roel.smolders@vito.be [Flemish Institute of Technological Research (VITO), Environmental Risks and Health Unit, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Den Hond, E.; Koppen, G.; Govarts, E.; Willems, H. [Flemish Institute of Technological Research (VITO), Environmental Risks and Health Unit, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Casteleyn, L. [KU LEUVEN (Belgium); Kolossa-Gehring, M.; Fiddicke, U. [Federal Environment Agency (UBA) (Germany); Castaño, A. [Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Spain); Koch, H.M.; Angerer, J. [Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance - Institute of the Ruhr-Universität Bochum (IPA) (Germany); Esteban, M. [Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Spain); Sepai, O.; Exley, K. [Public Health England (United Kingdom); Bloemen, L. [Environmental Health Sciences International (Netherlands); Horvat, M. [Jožef Stefan Institute (Slovenia); Knudsen, L.E. [University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Joas, A.; Joas, R. [BiPRO (Germany); Biot, P. [FPS Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment (Belgium); and others

    2015-08-15

    In 2011 and 2012, the COPHES/DEMOCOPHES twin projects performed the first ever harmonized human biomonitoring survey in 17 European countries. In more than 1800 mother–child pairs, individual lifestyle data were collected and cadmium, cotinine and certain phthalate metabolites were measured in urine. Total mercury was determined in hair samples. While the main goal of the COPHES/DEMOCOPHES twin projects was to develop and test harmonized protocols and procedures, the goal of the current paper is to investigate whether the observed differences in biomarker values among the countries implementing DEMOCOPHES can be interpreted using information from external databases on environmental quality and lifestyle. In general, 13 countries having implemented DEMOCOPHES provided high-quality data from external sources that were relevant for interpretation purposes. However, some data were not available for reporting or were not in line with predefined specifications. Therefore, only part of the external information could be included in the statistical analyses. Nonetheless, there was a highly significant correlation between national levels of fish consumption and mercury in hair, the strength of antismoking legislation was significantly related to urinary cotinine levels, and we were able to show indications that also urinary cadmium levels were associated with environmental quality and food quality. These results again show the potential of biomonitoring data to provide added value for (the evaluation of) evidence-informed policy making. - Highlights: • External data was collected to interpret HBM data from DEMOCOPHES. • Hg in hair could be related to fish consumption across different countries. • Urinary cotinine was related to strictness of anti-smoking legislation. • Urinary Cd was borderline significantly related to air and food quality. • Lack of comparable data among countries hampered the analysis.

  4. Use of mock-up training to reduce personnel exposure at the North Anna Unit 1 Steam Generator Replacement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, H.G. [Virginia Power, Mineral, VA (United States); Reilly, B.P. [Bechtel Power Corp., Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The North Anna Power Station is located on the southern shore of Lake Anna in Louisa County, approximately forty miles northwest of Richmond, Virginia. The two 910 Mw nuclear units located on this site are owned by Virginia Electric and Power Company (Virginia Power) and Old Dominion Electric Cooperative and operated by Virginia Power. Fuel was loaded into Unit 1 in December 1977, and it began commercial operation in June 1978. Fuel was loaded into Unit 2 in April 1980 and began commercial operation in December 1980. Each nuclear unit includes a three-coolant-loop pressurized light water reactor nuclear steam supply system that was furnished by Westinghouse Electric Corporation. Included within each system were three Westinghouse Model 51 steam generators with alloy 600, mill-annealed tubing material. Over the years of operation of Unit 1, various corrosion-related phenomena had occurred that affected the steam generators tubing and degraded their ability to fulfill their heat transfer function. Advanced inspection and repair techniques helped extend the useful life of the steam generators, but projections based on the results of the inspections indicated that the existing steam generators tubing and degraded their ability to fullfill their heat transfer function. Advanced inspection and repair techniques helped extend the useful life of the steam generators, but projections based on the results of the inspections indicated that the existing steam generators would not last their design life and must be repaired. To this end Virginia Power determined that a steam generator replacement (SGR) program was necessary to remove the old steam generator tube bundles and lower shell sections, including the channel heads (collectively called the lower assemblies), and replace them with new lower assemblies incorporating design features that will prevent the degradation problems that the old steam generators had experienced.

  5. The Influence of Changes in Lifestyle and Mercury Exposure in Riverine Populations of the Madeira River (Amazon Basin near a Hydroelectric Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra S. Hacon

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the Amazon Basin, naturally occurring methylmercury bioaccumulates in fish, which is a key source of protein consumed by riverine populations. The hydroelectric power-plant project at Santo Antônio Falls allows us to compare the Hg exposure of riverine populations sparsely distributed on both sides of the Madeira river before the area is to be flooded. From 2009 to 2011, we concluded a population survey of the area (N = 2,008; representing circa 80% of community residents that estimated fish consumption and mercury exposure of riverine populations with different degrees of lifestyle related to fish consumption. Fish samples from the Madeira river (N = 1,615 and 110 species were analyzed for Hg. Hair-Hg was significantly lower (p < 0.001 in less isolated communities near to the capital of Porto Velho (median 2.32 ppm than in subsistence communities in the Cuniã Lake, 180 km from Porto Velho city (median 6.3 ppm. Fish Hg concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 6.06 µg/g, depending on fish size and feeding behavior. Currently available fish in the Madeira river show a wide variability in Hg concentrations. Despite cultural similarities, riparians showed hair-Hg distribution patterns that reflect changes in fish-eating habits driven by subsistence characteristics.

  6. The influence of changes in lifestyle and mercury exposure in riverine populations of the Madeira River (Amazon Basin) near a hydroelectric project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacon, Sandra S; Dórea, José G; Fonseca, Márlon de F; Oliveira, Beatriz A; Mourão, Dennys S; Ruiz, Claudia M V; Gonçalves, Rodrigo A; Mariani, Carolina F; Bastos, Wanderley R

    2014-02-26

    In the Amazon Basin, naturally occurring methylmercury bioaccumulates in fish, which is a key source of protein consumed by riverine populations. The hydroelectric power-plant project at Santo Antônio Falls allows us to compare the Hg exposure of riverine populations sparsely distributed on both sides of the Madeira river before the area is to be flooded. From 2009 to 2011, we concluded a population survey of the area (N = 2,008; representing circa 80% of community residents) that estimated fish consumption and mercury exposure of riverine populations with different degrees of lifestyle related to fish consumption. Fish samples from the Madeira river (N = 1,615) and 110 species were analyzed for Hg. Hair-Hg was significantly lower (p < 0.001) in less isolated communities near to the capital of Porto Velho (median 2.32 ppm) than in subsistence communities in the Cuniã Lake, 180 km from Porto Velho city (median 6.3 ppm). Fish Hg concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 6.06 µg/g, depending on fish size and feeding behavior. Currently available fish in the Madeira river show a wide variability in Hg concentrations. Despite cultural similarities, riparians showed hair-Hg distribution patterns that reflect changes in fish-eating habits driven by subsistence characteristics.

  7. A Framework for Treating Cumulative Trauma with Art Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naff, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Cumulative trauma is relatively undocumented in art therapy practice, although there is growing evidence that art therapy provides distinct benefits for resolving various traumas. This qualitative study proposes an art therapy treatment framework for cumulative trauma derived from semi-structured interviews with three art therapists and artistic…

  8. Cumulative effects of forest management activities: how might they occur?

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. M. Rice; R. B. Thomas

    1985-01-01

    Concerns are often voiced about possible environmental damage as the result of the cumulative sedimentation effects of logging and forest road construction. In response to these concerns, National Forests are developing procedures to reduce the possibility that their activities may lead to unacceptable cumulative effects

  9. Cumulative effect in multiple production processes on nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubyatnikova, E.S.; Shmonin, V.L.; Kalinkin, B.N.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that the cumulative effect is a natural result of the process of hadron multiple production in nuclear reactions. Interpretation is made of the universality of slopes of inclusive spectra and other characteristics of cumulative hadrons. The character of information from such reactions is discussed, which could be helpful in studying the mechanism of multiparticle production. 27 refs.; 4 figs

  10. Cumulative particle production in the quark recombination model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilov, V.B.; Leksin, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    Production of cumulative particles in hadron-nuclear inteactions at high energies is considered within the framework of recombination quark model. Predictions for inclusive cross sections of production of cumulative particles and different resonances containing quarks in s state are made

  11. Cumulative trauma and partner conflict predict post-traumatic stress disorder in postpartum African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauff, Nancy J; Fry-McComish, Judith; Chiodo, Lisa M

    2017-08-01

    To describe relationships between cumulative trauma, partner conflict and post-traumatic stress in African-American postpartum women. Cumulative trauma exposure estimates for women in the USA range from 51-69%. During pregnancy, most trauma research has focused on physical injury to the mother. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with trauma and more prevalent in African-American women than women of other groups. Knowledge about both the rate and impact of cumulative trauma on pregnancy may contribute to our understanding of women seeking prenatal care, and disparities in infant morbidity and mortality. This retrospective, correlational, cross-sectional study took place on postpartum units of two Detroit hospitals. Participants were 150 African-American women aged between 18-45 who had given birth. Mothers completed the Cumulative Trauma Scale, Conflict Tactics Scale, Clinician Administered Post-traumatic Stress Scale, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and a Demographic Data form. Descriptive statistics, correlations and multiple regressions were used for data analysis. All participants reported at least one traumatic event in their lifetime. Cumulative trauma and partner conflict predicted PTSD, with the trauma of a life-threatening event for a loved one reported by 60% of the sample. Nearly, one-fourth of the women screened were at risk for PTSD. Increased cumulative trauma, increased partner conflict and lower level of education were related to higher rates of PTSD symptoms. Both cumulative trauma and partner conflict in the past year predict PTSD. Reasoning was used most often for partner conflict resolution. The results of this study offer additional knowledge regarding relationships between cumulative trauma, partner conflict and PTSD in African-American women. Healthcare providers need to be sensitive to patient life-threatening events, personal failures, abuse and other types of trauma. Current evidence supports the need to assess for

  12. Project Date SMART: a Dating Violence (DV) and Sexual Risk Prevention Program for Adolescent Girls with Prior DV Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Christie J; Joppa, Meredith; Barker, David; Collibee, Charlene; Zlotnick, Caron; Brown, Larry K

    2018-05-01

    This study assessed the initial feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of an intervention aimed at reducing dating violence and sexual risk behavior in a sample of adolescent girls (ages 14-17) with prior exposure to physical dating violence (DV). One hundred and nine girls were randomly assigned to Date SMART (Skills to Manage Aggression in Relationships for Teens) or a Knowledge-only (KO) comparison group. Both intervention arms consisted of six, weekly 2-h sessions and one "booster" session 6 weeks later. Based on principles of cognitive behavioral therapy, the Date SMART intervention was designed to target common underlying skills deficits linked to both DV and sexual risk behavior in adolescent females: depression, self-regulation deficits, and interpersonal skills deficits. Assessments were administered at four time points (baseline, 3, 6, and 9 months). The Date SMART group was effective as reducing sexual DV involvement across the 9-month follow-up period. Both groups evidenced clinically meaningful reductions in physical, emotional, and digital DV involvement, total time in dating relationships, as well as reductions in depression. Findings indicate that delivering a DV and sexual risk prevention intervention to DV-affected adolescent girls is feasible and well-received. Furthermore, a skills-based approach that addresses the co-occurrence of DV and sexual risk behavior may be particularly useful for promoting reductions of sexual DV among high-risk adolescent girls. A future, large-scale trial with an inactive comparison condition is needed to evaluate the efficacy of Date SMART further. Clinical Trials, NCT01326195, and http://www.clinicaltrials.gov.

  13. Cumulative causation, market transition, and emigration from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zai; Chunyu, Miao David; Zhuang, Guotu; Ye, Wenzhen

    2008-11-01

    This article reports findings from a recent survey of international migration from China's Fujian Province to the United States. Using the ethnosurvey approach developed in the Mexican Migration Project, the authors conducted surveys in migrant-sending communities in China as well as in destination communities in New York City. Hypotheses are derived from the international migration literature and the market transition debate. The results are generally consistent with hypotheses derived from cumulative causation of migration; however, geographical location creates some differences in migration patterns to the United States. In China as in Mexico, the existence of migration networks increases the propensity of migration for others in the community. In contrast to the Mexican case, among Chinese immigrants, having a previously migrated household member increases the propensity of other household members to migrate only after the debt for previous migration is paid off. In step with market transition theory, the authors also find that political power influences the migration experience from the coastal Fujian Province.

  14. Evaluation of a post-analysis method for cumulative dose distribution in stereotactic body radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imae, Toshikazu; Takenaka, Shigeharu; Saotome, Naoya

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a post-analysis method for cumulative dose distribution in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). VMAT is capable of acquiring respiratory signals derived from projection images and machine parameters based on machine logs during VMAT delivery. Dose distributions were reconstructed from the respiratory signals and machine parameters in the condition where respiratory signals were without division, divided into 4 and 10 phases. The dose distribution of each respiratory phase was calculated on the planned four-dimensional CT (4DCT). Summation of the dose distributions was carried out using deformable image registration (DIR), and cumulative dose distributions were compared with those of the corresponding plans. Without division, dose differences between cumulative distribution and plan were not significant. In the condition Where respiratory signals were divided, dose differences were observed over dose in cranial region and under dose in caudal region of planning target volume (PTV). Differences between 4 and 10 phases were not significant. The present method Was feasible for evaluating cumulative dose distribution in VMAT-SBRT using 4DCT and DIR. (author)

  15. Cumulative Impact Assessment: Approaching Environmental Capacity in Development Area Using Environmental Impact Assessment Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, N.; Lee, M. J.; Maeng, J. H.

    2017-12-01

    Environmental impact assessment estimates the impact of development as a business unit and establishes mitigation plan. If the development is done, its economic effects can spread to the nearby areas. So that various developments can be distributed at different time intervals. The impact of the new developments can be combined with existing environmental impacts and can have a larger impact. That is, Cumulative impact assessment is needed to consider the environmental capacity of the Nearby area. Cumulative impact assessments require policy tools such as environmental impact assessment information and cumulative impact estimation models. In Korea, environmental information (water quality, air quality, etc.) of the development site is measured for environmental impact assessment and monitored for a certain period (generally 5 years) after the project. In addition, by constructing the environmental information as a spatial database, it is possible to express the environmental impact on a regional basis spatially and to intuitively use it for development site selection. Utilizing a composite model of environmental impact assessment information and Remote Sensing data for cumulative impact estimation, That can be used as a policy decision support tool that provides quantitative information for development area management, such as time series effect and sprawl phenomenon.

  16. High cumulants of conserved charges and their statistical uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Zhu, Chen; Ye-Yin, Zhao; Xue, Pan; Zhi-Ming, Li; Yuan-Fang, Wu

    2017-10-01

    We study the influence of measured high cumulants of conserved charges on their associated statistical uncertainties in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. With a given number of events, the measured cumulants randomly fluctuate with an approximately normal distribution, while the estimated statistical uncertainties are found to be correlated with corresponding values of the obtained cumulants. Generally, with a given number of events, the larger the cumulants we measure, the larger the statistical uncertainties that are estimated. The error-weighted averaged cumulants are dependent on statistics. Despite this effect, however, it is found that the three sigma rule of thumb is still applicable when the statistics are above one million. Supported by NSFC (11405088, 11521064, 11647093), Major State Basic Research Development Program of China (2014CB845402) and Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST) (2016YFE0104800)

  17. The impact of ergonomics intervention on trunk posture and cumulative compression load among carpet weavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshari, Davood; Motamedzade, Majid; Salehi, Reza; Soltanian, Alir Raze

    2015-01-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders of back among weavers are prevalent. Epidemiological studies have shown an association between poor working postures and back disorders among carpet weavers. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the impact of the traditional (A) and ergonomically designed (B) workstations on trunk posture and cumulative compression load in carpet weavers. In this study, subtasks were identified in terms of stressful postures and carpet weaving process. Postural data were collected during knotting and compacting subtasks using inclinometer during four hours for each workstation. Postural data, weight and height of the weavers were entered into the University of Michigan three-dimensional static biomechanical model for estimation of the compression load and cumulative load were estimated from the resultant load and exposure time. Thirteen healthy carpet weavers (four males and nine females) participated in the study. Median trunk flexion angle was reduced with workstation B during knotting subtask (18° versus 8.5°, pergonomically designed workstation.

  18. Cumulative Risk and Continuity in Nonparental Care from Infancy to Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, Malinda J; Pettit, Gregory S; Meece, Darrell; Bates, John E; Dodge, Kenneth A

    2001-04-01

    Variations in amounts of nonparental care across infancy, preschool, early elementary school, and early adolescence were examined in a longitudinal sample (N = 438). Of interest was (a) continuity in use of the different arrangements, (b) whether the arrangements were additively and cumulatively associated with children's externalizing behavior problems, and (c) whether predictive relations were accounted for by social-ecological (socioeconomic status, mothers' employment status, marital status) and social-experiential (parenting quality, exposure to aggressive peers) factors. Correlations among overall amounts of care provided little evidence of cross-time continuity. Consistent with the cumulative risk perspective, Grade 1 self-care and Grade 6 unsupervised peer contact incrementally predicted Grade 6 externalizing problems. Most of the predictive associations were accounted for by family background and social relationship factors.

  19. Materials properties utilization in a cumulative mechanical damage function for LMFBR fuel pin failure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, D.C.

    1977-01-01

    An overview is presented of one of the fuel-pin analysis techniques used in the CRBRP program, the cumulative mechanical damage function. This technique, as applied to LMFBR's, was developed along with the majority of models used to describe the mechanical properties and environmental behavior of the cladding (i.e., 20 percent cold-worked, 316 stainless steel). As it relates to fuel-pin analyses the Cumulative Mechanical Damage Function (CDF) continually monitors cladding integrity through steady state and transient operation; it is a time dependent function of temperature and stress which reflects the effects of both the prior mechanical history and the variations in mechanical properties caused by exposure to the reactor environment

  20. Towards Greenland Glaciation: cumulative or abrupt transition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramstein, Gilles; Tan, Ning; Ladant, Jean-baptiste; Dumas, Christophe; Contoux, Camille

    2017-04-01

    During the mid-Pliocene warming period (3-3.3 Ma BP), the global annual mean temperatures inferred by data and model studies were 2-3° warmer than pre-industrial values. Accordingly, Greenland ice sheet volume is supposed to reach at the most, only half of that of present-day [Haywood et al. 2010]. Around 2.7-2.6 Ma BP, just ˜ 500 kyr after the warming peak of mid-Pliocene, the Greenland ice sheet has reached its full size [Lunt et al. 2008]. A crucial question concerns the evolution of the Greenland ice sheet from half to full size during the 3 - 2.5 Ma period. Data show a decreasing trend of atmospheric CO2 concentration from 3 Ma to 2.5 Ma [Seki et al.2010; Bartoli et al. 2011; Martinez et al. 2015]. However, a recent study [Contoux et al. 2015] suggests that a lowering of CO2 is not sufficient to initiate a perennial glaciation on Greenland and must be combined with low summer insolation to preserve the ice sheet during insolation maxima. This suggests rather a cumulative process than an abrupt event. In order to diagnose the evolution of the ice sheet build-up, we carry on, for the first time, a transient simulation of climate and ice sheet evolutions from 3 Ma to 2.5 Ma. This strategy enables us to investigate the waxing and waning of the ice sheet during several orbital cycles. We use a tri-dimensional interpolation method designed by Ladant et al. (2014), which allows the evolution of CO2 concentration and of orbital parameters, and the evolution of the Greenland ice sheet size to be taken into account. By interpolating climatic snapshot simulations ran with various possible combinations of CO2, orbits and ice sheet sizes, we can build a continuous climatic forcing that is then used to provide 500 kyrs-long ice sheet simulations. With such a tool, we may offer a physically based answer to different CO2 reconstructions scenarios and analyse which one is the most consistent with Greenland ice sheet buildup.

  1. Addressing cumulative effects through strategic environmental assessment: a case study of small hydro development in Newfoundland, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnell, S.; Storey, K.

    2000-01-01

    Environmental assessment (EA) is widely used as a means of incorporating environmental considerations into decision-making, primarily at the project level. The scope of EA has been expanded considerably in recent years to include earlier stages of the decision-making process, namely, policies, plans and programmes. Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) facilitates a planning approach to addressing the overall, cumulative effects of the projects that occur as a result of these decisions. This paper demonstrates the potential benefits of SEA in the assessment and management of cumulative effects, using a case study of recent hydroelectric development planning in Newfoundland, Canada. It goes on to illustrate how SEA could be used to address potential cumulative effects at the various stages of such a decision-making process. Through the case study, the paper also explores a number of issues in the implementation of such a planning approach. (author)

  2. Thyroid exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian children due to the Chernobyl accident and resulting thyroid cancer risk. Final report of BfS project StSch 4240

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, P; Meckbach, R; Ulanovski, A; Schotola, C; Proehl, G [GSF-Institute of Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany); Kenigsberg, J; Buglova, E; Kruk, J [Institute of Radiation Medicine and Endocrinology, Minsk (Belarus); Likhtarev, I; Kovgan, L; Vavilov, S; Chepurniy, M [Ukrainian Radiation Protection Inst., Kyiv (Ukraine); Tronko, M; Bogdanova, T [Institute of Endocrinolgoy and Metabolism of the Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv (Ukraine); Shinkarev, S; Gavrilin, Y [All-Russian Public Organization of Invalids ' Chernobylets' , Scientific Center ' FENIX' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Demidchik, Y [Thyroid Cancer Center, Minsk (Belarus)

    2005-07-01

    Main objectives of the BfS Project StSch4240 Thyroid Exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian Children due to the Chernobyl Accident and Resulting Thyroid Cancer Risk were: to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian settlements, in which more than 10 measurements of the {sup 131}I activity in the human thyroid have been performed in May/June 1986, to explore, whether this dosimetric database can be extended to neighboring settlements, to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian oblasts (regions) and larger cities, to document the thyroid cancer incidence for the period 1986 - 2001 in Ukraine and Belarus and describe morphological characteristics of the cancer cases, to assess the contribution of the baseline incidence to the total thyroid cancer incidence in the two countries and identify regional and temporal dependencies, to perform analyses of excess risks in settlements with more than 10 measurements of the {sup 131}I activity in the human thyroid. The project has been conducted in the period 6 December 1999 to 31 March 2004. (orig.)

  3. Thyroid exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian children due to the Chernobyl accident and resulting thyroid cancer risk. Final report of BfS project StSch 4240

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, P.; Meckbach, R.; Ulanovski, A.; Schotola, C.; Proehl, G.; Kenigsberg, J.; Buglova, E.; Kruk, J.; Likhtarev, I.; Kovgan, L.; Vavilov, S.; Chepurniy, M.; Tronko, M.; Bogdanova, T.; Shinkarev, S.; Gavrilin, Y.; Demidchik, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Main objectives of the BfS Project StSch4240 Thyroid Exposure of Belarusian and Ukrainian Children due to the Chernobyl Accident and Resulting Thyroid Cancer Risk were: to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian settlements, in which more than 10 measurements of the 131 I activity in the human thyroid have been performed in May/June 1986, to explore, whether this dosimetric database can be extended to neighboring settlements, to establish improved estimates of average thyroid dose for both genders and for each birth-year cohort of the period 1968 - 1985 in Ukrainian and Belarusian oblasts (regions) and larger cities, to document the thyroid cancer incidence for the period 1986 - 2001 in Ukraine and Belarus and describe morphological characteristics of the cancer cases, to assess the contribution of the baseline incidence to the total thyroid cancer incidence in the two countries and identify regional and temporal dependencies, to perform analyses of excess risks in settlements with more than 10 measurements of the 131 I activity in the human thyroid. The project has been conducted in the period 6 December 1999 to 31 March 2004. (orig.)

  4. Cumulative trauma, hyperarousal, and suicidality in the general population: a path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briere, John; Godbout, Natacha; Dias, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Although trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) both have been linked to suicidal thoughts and behavior, the underlying basis for this relationship is not clear. In a sample of 357 trauma-exposed individuals from the general population, younger participant age, cumulative trauma exposure, and all three Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, PTSD clusters (reexperiencing, avoidance, and hyperarousal) were correlated with clinical levels of suicidality. However, logistic regression analysis indicated that when all PTSD clusters were considered simultaneously, only hyperarousal continued to be predictive. A path analysis confirmed that posttraumatic hyperarousal (but not other components of PTSD) fully mediated the relationship between extent of trauma exposure and degree of suicidal thoughts and behaviors.

  5. Not so Black and White: environmental justice and cumulative impact assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, Eric J.; Faber, Daniel R.

    2004-01-01

    A growing number of scientific studies in recent years have investigated disparate exposure to ecological hazards in American society. Working from an environmental justice perspective, this body of research consistently reveals that poor communities of color are most likely to bear a disproportionate burden of negative externalities. These studies utilize a wide range of research methodologies, including various indicators of ecological hazards (e.g., proximity to waste sites, industrial emissions, ambient air quality), but few, if any, utilize composite measures to approximate cumulative environmental impact. Consequently, the environmental justice (EJ) literature is characterized by a failure to effectively measure overall impact from an extensive range of ecological hazards. Limitations on available data make this a serious problem for present and future studies. We argue that cumulative measures of environmental impact can play an important role in furthering our understanding of environmental injustices in the United States. In this study of Massachusetts, we develop and implement such a cumulative measure of negative environmental impacts. By controlling for the density and severity of ecological hazardous sites and facilities within every community in the state, we demonstrate that exposure patterns take a generally linear distribution when analyzed by race and class. So, while our results reaffirm previous findings that low-income communities and communities of color bear significantly greater ecological burdens than predominantly White and more affluent communities, our findings also suggest that environmental injustices exist on a remarkably consistent continuum for nearly all communities. In other words, as the minority population and lower-income composition of a community increases, correspondingly, so does cumulative exposure to environmental hazards. In this respect, communities which are more racially mixed and of moderate income status that are

  6. Cumulative stress and autonomic dysregulation in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Rachel; Tuit, Keri; Hong, Kwang-Ik; Donovan, Theresa; Lee, Forrester; Sinha, Rajita

    2016-05-01

    Whether cumulative stress, including both chronic stress and adverse life events, is associated with decreased heart rate variability (HRV), a non-invasive measure of autonomic status which predicts poor cardiovascular outcomes, is unknown. Healthy community dwelling volunteers (N = 157, mean age 29 years) participated in the Cumulative Stress/Adversity Interview (CAI), a 140-item event interview measuring cumulative adversity including major life events, life trauma, recent life events and chronic stressors, and underwent 24-h ambulatory ECG monitoring. HRV was analyzed in the frequency domain and standard deviation of NN intervals (SDNN) calculated. Initial simple regression analyses revealed that total cumulative stress score, chronic stressors and cumulative adverse life events (CALE) were all inversely associated with ultra low-frequency (ULF), very low-frequency (VLF) and low-frequency (LF) power and SDNN (all p accounting for additional appreciable variance. For VLF and LF, both total cumulative stress and chronic stress significantly contributed to the variance alone but were not longer significant after adjusting for race and health behaviors. In summary, total cumulative stress, and its components of adverse life events and chronic stress were associated with decreased cardiac autonomic function as measured by HRV. Findings suggest one potential mechanism by which stress may exert adverse effects on mortality in healthy individuals. Primary preventive strategies including stress management may prove beneficial.

  7. Mechanisms and risk of cumulative impacts to coastal ecosystem services: An expert elicitation approach

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Gerald G.

    2017-05-23

    Coastal environments are some of the most populated on Earth, with greater pressures projected in the future. Managing coastal systems requires the consideration of multiple uses, which both benefit from and threaten multiple ecosystem services. Thus understanding the cumulative impacts of human activities on coastal ecosystem services would seem fundamental to management, yet there is no widely accepted approach for assessing these. This study trials an approach for understanding the cumulative impacts of anthropogenic change, focusing on Tasman and Golden Bays, New Zealand. Using an expert elicitation procedure, we collected information on three aspects of cumulative impacts: the importance and magnitude of impacts by various activities and stressors on ecosystem services, and the causal processes of impact on ecosystem services. We assessed impacts to four ecosystem service benefits — fisheries, shellfish aquaculture, marine recreation and existence value of biodiversity—addressing three main research questions: (1) how severe are cumulative impacts on ecosystem services (correspondingly, what potential is there for restoration)?; (2) are threats evenly distributed across activities and stressors, or do a few threats dominate?; (3) do prominent activities mainly operate through direct stressors, or do they often exacerbate other impacts? We found (1) that despite high uncertainty in the threat posed by individual stressors and impacts, total cumulative impact is consistently severe for all four ecosystem services. (2) A subset of drivers and stressors pose important threats across the ecosystem services explored, including climate change, commercial fishing, sedimentation and pollution. (3) Climate change and commercial fishing contribute to prominent indirect impacts across ecosystem services by exacerbating regional impacts, namely sedimentation and pollution. The prevalence and magnitude of these indirect, networked impacts highlights the need for

  8. Looking up, down, and sideways: Reconceiving cumulative effects assessment as a mindset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, A. John, E-mail: jsincla@umanitoba.ca [Natural Resources Institute, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2 (Canada); Doelle, Meinhard, E-mail: mdoelle@dal.ca [Marine & Environmental Law Institute, Dalhousie University, Schulich School of Law, Dalhousie University, 6061 University Ave., Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada); Duinker, Peter N., E-mail: peter.duinker@dal.ca [School for Resource and Environmental Studies, Dalhousie University, 6100 University Ave., Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada)

    2017-01-15

    Despite all the effort that has gone into defining, researching and establishing best practices for cumulative effects assessment (CEA), understanding remains weak and practice wanting. At one extreme of implementation, CEA can be described as merely an irritant to the completion of a project-specific environmental assessment (EA). At the other extreme, the conceptual view is that all effects in EA should be deemed cumulative unless demonstrated otherwise. Our purpose here is to consider how we might reconceive CEA as a mindset that is at the heart of absolutely every assessment of valued ecosystem component (VEC) to ensure that we understand the relative contributions of various stressors and can decide when cumulative effects may foreclose future activities due to impacts on VECs. Conceptually, we ground the CEA mindset in the context of three lenses that must all be functioning and working together for the mindset to be operative: a technical lens; a law and policy lens; and a participatory lens. Our arguments are based on a review of the CEA, strategic effects assessment (SEA) and regional effects assessment literatures, an examination and consideration of Canadian EA and SEA case practice, and our combined professional experiences. Through using the Bay of Fundy in Canada as a case example, we establish the concept of the CEA mindset and an approach for moving forward with implementation. - Highlights: • Conceptualization of cumulative effects assessment as a mindset. • Elaboration of technical, law and policy and participation lenses critical to CEA • Coordination and integration of cumulative effects for valued ecosystem components • Application in Bay of Fundy ecosystem and terrestrial watershed.

  9. Mechanisms and risk of cumulative impacts to coastal ecosystem services: An expert elicitation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gerald G; Sinner, Jim; Ellis, Joanne; Kandlikar, Milind; Halpern, Benjamin S; Satterfield, Terre; Chan, Kai M A

    2017-09-01

    Coastal environments are some of the most populated on Earth, with greater pressures projected in the future. Managing coastal systems requires the consideration of multiple uses, which both benefit from and threaten multiple ecosystem services. Thus understanding the cumulative impacts of human activities on coastal ecosystem services would seem fundamental to management, yet there is no widely accepted approach for assessing these. This study trials an approach for understanding the cumulative impacts of anthropogenic change, focusing on Tasman and Golden Bays, New Zealand. Using an expert elicitation procedure, we collected information on three aspects of cumulative impacts: the importance and magnitude of impacts by various activities and stressors on ecosystem services, and the causal processes of impact on ecosystem services. We assessed impacts to four ecosystem service benefits - fisheries, shellfish aquaculture, marine recreation and existence value of biodiversity-addressing three main research questions: (1) how severe are cumulative impacts on ecosystem services (correspondingly, what potential is there for restoration)?; (2) are threats evenly distributed across activities and stressors, or do a few threats dominate?; (3) do prominent activities mainly operate through direct stressors, or do they often exacerbate other impacts? We found (1) that despite high uncertainty in the threat posed by individual stressors and impacts, total cumulative impact is consistently severe for all four ecosystem services. (2) A subset of drivers and stressors pose important threats across the ecosystem services explored, including climate change, commercial fishing, sedimentation and pollution. (3) Climate change and commercial fishing contribute to prominent indirect impacts across ecosystem services by exacerbating regional impacts, namely sedimentation and pollution. The prevalence and magnitude of these indirect, networked impacts highlights the need for approaches

  10. Self-similarity of hard cumulative processes in fixed target experiment for BES-II at STAR

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tokarev, M. V.; Zborovský, Imrich; Aparin, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 2 (2015), s. 221-229 ISSN 1547-4771 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13031 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : critical point * cumulative process * heavy ions * high energy * phase transition * self-similarity Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics

  11. Conceptual and methodological challenges to integrating SEA and cumulative effects assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunn, Jill; Noble, Bram F.

    2011-01-01

    The constraints to assessing and managing cumulative environmental effects in the context of project-based environmental assessment are well documented, and the potential benefits of a more strategic approach to cumulative effects assessment (CEA) are well argued; however, such benefits have yet to be clearly demonstrated in practice. While it is widely assumed that cumulative effects are best addressed in a strategic context, there has been little investigation as to whether CEA and strategic environmental assessment (SEA) are a 'good fit' - conceptually or methodologically. This paper identifies a number of conceptual and methodological challenges to the integration of CEA and SEA. Based on results of interviews with international experts and practitioners, this paper demonstrates that: definitions and conceptualizations of CEA are typically weak in practice; approaches to effects aggregation vary widely; a systems perspective lacks in both SEA and CEA; the multifarious nature of SEA complicates CEA; tiering arrangements between SEA and project-based assessment are limited to non-existing; and the relationship of SEA to regional planning remains unclear.

  12. Cumulants in perturbation expansions for non-equilibrium field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauser, R.

    1995-11-01

    The formulation of perturbation expansions for a quantum field theory of strongly interacting systems in a general non-equilibrium state is discussed. Non-vanishing initial correlations are included in the formulation of the perturbation expansion in terms of cumulants. The cumulants are shown to be the suitable candidate for summing up the perturbation expansion. Also a linked-cluster theorem for the perturbation series with cumulants is presented. Finally a generating functional of the perturbation series with initial correlations is studied. We apply the methods to a simple model of a fermion-boson system. (orig.)

  13. Estimating a population cumulative incidence under calendar time trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stefan N; Overgaard, Morten; Andersen, Per K

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The risk of a disease or psychiatric disorder is frequently measured by the age-specific cumulative incidence. Cumulative incidence estimates are often derived in cohort studies with individuals recruited over calendar time and with the end of follow-up governed by a specific date....... It is common practice to apply the Kaplan-Meier or Aalen-Johansen estimator to the total sample and report either the estimated cumulative incidence curve or just a single point on the curve as a description of the disease risk. METHODS: We argue that, whenever the disease or disorder of interest is influenced...

  14. Prioritizing Risk in Preparation for a Demonstration Project: A Mixed Methods Feasibility Study of Oral Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PREP among Female Sex Workers in South India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushena Reza-Paul

    Full Text Available HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs in India remains well above the national average. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP, a new HIV prevention technology, may help to reduce HIV incidence, but there is a dearth of research that can inform the potential scale-up of PrEP in India. In partnership with Ashodaya Samithi, a local sex worker collective, we conducted a feasibility study to assess acceptance of a planned PrEP demonstration project, willingness to use PrEP, and recommendations for project roll-out among FSWs in southern Karnataka.From January-April 2015, 6 focus group discussions, 47 in-depth interviews, and 427 interviewer-administered questionnaires were completed by female sex workers. All participants were 18 years of age or older and practiced sex work. Qualitative data were coded for key themes and emergent categories. Univariate descriptive analysis was employed to summarise the quantitative data.Qualitative. PrEP was described as an exciting new prevention technology that places control in the hands of FSWs and provides a "double safety" in combination with condom use. Participants expressed agreement that women who may experience more HIV risk in their occupational environments should be prioritized for enrollment into a demonstration project. Quantitative. 406 participants (95% expressed interest in PrEP. Participants prioritized the inclusion of FSWs under the age of 25 (79%, those who do not use condoms when clients offer more money (58%, who do not consistently use condoms with regular partners (57%, who drink alcohol regularly (49%, and who do not use condoms consistently with clients (48%.This feasibility study indicated strong interest in PrEP and a desire to move forward with the demonstration project. Participants expressed their responses in terms of public health discourses surrounding risk, pointing to the importance of situating PrEP scale up within the trusted spaces of community-based organizations as a means

  15. [The contribution of diet and sun exposure to the nutritional status of vitamin D in elderly Spanish women: the five countries study (OPTIFORD Project)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Sangrador, M; Beltrán de Miguel, B; Quintanilla Murillas, L; Cuadrado Vives, C; Moreiras Tuny, O

    2008-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency represents an important public health problem, especially among elderly people, by increasing the morbimortality. Because of the importance of this, in the year 2001 the "Five Countries Study" was put in place, within the European OPTIFORD project (Towards a strategy for optimal vitamin D fortification). This cross-sectional and observational study aims at knowing the vitamin D status in adolescent and elder women from five European countries, including Spain, according to different dietary and behavioral habits. This work analyzes the relative contribution of sun exposure and diet to the vitamin D status in 53 Caucasian Spanish elder women (72 +/- 1.6 years), with an autonomous life, participating at the Five Countries Study. The information was gathered in summer and winter time, by using homologated and validated questionnaires: health status and life style questionnaire; assessment of sun exposure by a standardized test and using a Viospor UV dosimeter (only in summer time); biochemical analysis of 25 hydroxyvitamin D (S-25-OHD) and parathyroid hormone; and questionnaire of frequency of selective intake. We observed a direct relationship between sun exposure measured with the dosimeter (741 +/- 624 J/m2) and the number of hours outdoors during the measuring week (3.4 +/- 1.9 hours/day) (p 50 nmol/L (p = 0.01). There is also a direct association between the number of hours outdoors and S-25-OHD (p = 0.09), with differences between the participants in the S-25-OHD 50 nmol/L group. In more than 95% of the sample, mean dietary intakes of vitamin D (5.17 +/- 4.84 microg/day in summer time and 4.70+/- 4.72 microg/day in winter time), the main source of which being fish, did not cover the Recommended Allowances. We did not observe a relationship between the dietary intake and blood levels of vitamin D. By contrast, those participants taking vitamin D supplements presented higher S-25-OHD levels (summer = 69.64 nmol/L and winter = 55 nmol/L) than

  16. Pesticide Cumulative Risk Assessment: Framework for Screening Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides guidance on how to screen groups of pesticides for cumulative evaluation using a two-step approach: begin with evaluation of available toxicological information and, if necessary, follow up with a risk-based screening approach.

  17. Online Scheduling in Manufacturing A Cumulative Delay Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Suwa, Haruhiko

    2013-01-01

    Online scheduling is recognized as the crucial decision-making process of production control at a phase of “being in production" according to the released shop floor schedule. Online scheduling can be also considered as one of key enablers to realize prompt capable-to-promise as well as available-to-promise to customers along with reducing production lead times under recent globalized competitive markets. Online Scheduling in Manufacturing introduces new approaches to online scheduling based on a concept of cumulative delay. The cumulative delay is regarded as consolidated information of uncertainties under a dynamic environment in manufacturing and can be collected constantly without much effort at any points in time during a schedule execution. In this approach, the cumulative delay of the schedule has the important role of a criterion for making a decision whether or not a schedule revision is carried out. The cumulative delay approach to trigger schedule revisions has the following capabilities for the ...

  18. Considering Environmental and Occupational Stressors in Cumulative Risk Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    While definitions vary across the global scientific community, cumulative risk assessments (CRAs) typically are described as exhibiting a population focus and analyzing the combined risks posed by multiple stressors. CRAs also may consider risk management alternatives as an anal...

  19. Peer tutors as learning and teaching partners: a cumulative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... paper explores the kinds of development in tutors' thinking and action that are possible when training and development is theoretically informed, coherent, and oriented towards improving practice. Keywords: academic development, academic literacies, cumulative learning, higher education, peer tutoring, writing centres.

  20. CTD Information Guide. Preventing Cumulative Trauma Disorders in the Workplace

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide Army occupational safety and health (OSH) professionals with a primer that explains the basic principles of ergonomic-hazard recognition for common cumulative trauma disorders...

  1. Pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-negative persons with partners living with HIV: uptake, use, and effectiveness in an open-label demonstration project in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffron, Renee; Ngure, Kenneth; Odoyo, Josephine; Bulya, Nulu; Tindimwebwa, Edna; Hong, Ting; Kidoguchi, Lara; Donnell, Deborah; Mugo, Nelly R; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Katabira, Elly; Asiimwe, Stephen; Morton, Jennifer; Morrison, Susan; Haugen, Harald; Mujugira, Andrew; Haberer, Jessica E; Ware, Norma C; Wyatt, Monique A; Marzinke, Mark A; Frenkel, Lisa M; Celum, Connie; Baeten, Jared M

    2017-11-06

    Introduction : Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) can provide high protection against HIV infection and is a recommended intervention for HIV-negative persons with substantial HIV risk, such as individuals with a partner living with HIV.  Demonstration projects of PrEP have been conducted in diverse settings worldwide to illustrate practical examples of how PrEP can be delivered.  Methods : We evaluated delivery of PrEP for HIV-negative partners within heterosexual HIV serodiscordant couples in an open-label demonstration project in East Africa.  The delivery model integrated PrEP into HIV treatment services, prioritizing PrEP for HIV-negative partners within serodiscordant couples prior to and during the first 6 months after the partner living with HIV initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART).  We measured adherence to PrEP through medication event monitoring system (MEMS) bottle caps and quantification of tenofovir in plasma among a random sample of participants. We estimated HIV infections prevented using a counterfactual cohort simulated from the placebo arm of a previous PrEP clinical trial. Results : We enrolled 1,010 HIV serodiscordant couples that were naïve to ART and PrEP.  Ninety-seven percent (97%) of HIV-negative partners initiated PrEP, and when PrEP was dispensed, objective measures suggest high adherence: 71% of HIV-negative participants took ≥80% of expected doses, as recorded via MEMS, and 81% of plasma samples had tenofovir detected.  A total of 4 incident HIV infections were observed (incidence rate=0.24 per 100 person-years), a 95% reduction (95% CI 86-98%, pproject for African HIV-negative individuals whose partners were known to be living with HIV.  Delivery of PrEP to HIV-negative partners within HIV serodiscordant couples was feasible and should be prioritized for wide-scale implementation.

  2. Cumulative query method for influenza surveillance using search engine data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Woo; Jo, Min-Woo; Sohn, Chang Hwan; Shin, Soo-Yong; Lee, JaeHo; Yu, Maengsoo; Kim, Won Young; Lim, Kyoung Soo; Lee, Sang-Il

    2014-12-16

    Internet search queries have become an important data source in syndromic surveillance system. However, there is currently no syndromic surveillance system using Internet search query data in South Korea. The objective of this study was to examine correlations between our cumulative query method and national influenza surveillance data. Our study was based on the local search engine, Daum (approximately 25% market share), and influenza-like illness (ILI) data from the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. A quota sampling survey was conducted with 200 participants to obtain popular queries. We divided the study period into two sets: Set 1 (the 2009/10 epidemiological year for development set 1 and 2010/11 for validation set 1) and Set 2 (2010/11 for development Set 2 and 2011/12 for validation Set 2). Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated between the Daum data and the ILI data for the development set. We selected the combined queries for which the correlation coefficients were .7 or higher and listed them in descending order. Then, we created a cumulative query method n representing the number of cumulative combined queries in descending order of the correlation coefficient. In validation set 1, 13 cumulative query methods were applied, and 8 had higher correlation coefficients (min=.916, max=.943) than that of the highest single combined query. Further, 11 of 13 cumulative query methods had an r value of ≥.7, but 4 of 13 combined queries had an r value of ≥.7. In validation set 2, 8 of 15 cumulative query methods showed higher correlation coefficients (min=.975, max=.987) than that of the highest single combined query. All 15 cumulative query methods had an r value of ≥.7, but 6 of 15 combined queries had an r value of ≥.7. Cumulative query method showed relatively higher correlation with national influenza surveillance data than combined queries in the development and validation set.

  3. Steps and pips in the history of the cumulative recorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Lattal, Kennon A

    2004-01-01

    From its inception in the 1930s until very recent times, the cumulative recorder was the most widely used measurement instrument in the experimental analysis of behavior. It was an essential instrument in the discovery and analysis of schedules of reinforcement, providing the first real-time analysis of operant response rates and patterns. This review traces the evolution of the cumulative recorder from Skinner's early modified kymographs through various models developed by Skinner and his co...

  4. Mapping Cumulative Impacts of Human Activities on Marine Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    , Seaplan

    2018-01-01

    Given the diversity of human uses and natural resources that converge in coastal waters, the potential independent and cumulative impacts of those uses on marine ecosystems are important to consider during ocean planning. This study was designed to support the development and implementation of the 2009 Massachusetts Ocean Management Plan. Its goal was to estimate and visualize the cumulative impacts of human activities on coastal and marine ecosystems in the state and federal waters off of Ma...

  5. Alcohol Consumption Patterns among Adolescents are Related to Family Structure and Exposure to Drunkenness within the Family: Results from the SEYLE Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Rüütel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There is expedient evidence showing that differences in adolescent alcohol consumption and other risk-behaviour depend on both family structure and family member drunkenness exposure. Data were obtained among adolescents (N = 12,115, mean age 14.9 ± 0.89 in Austria, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Romania, Slovenia and Spain within the European Union’s 7th Framework Programme funded project, ‘Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE’. The current study reveals how adolescents’ alcohol consumption patterns are related to their family structure and having seen their family member drunk. The results revealed statistically significant differences in adolescent alcohol consumption depending on whether the adolescent lives in a family with both birth parents, in a single-parent family or in a family with one birth parent and one step-parent. The study also revealed that the abstaining from alcohol percentage among adolescents was greater in families with both birth parents compared to other family types. The study also showed that the more often adolescents see their family member drunk the more they drink themselves. There is no difference in adolescent drinking patterns whether they see their family member drunk once a month or once a week. This study gives an insight on which subgroups of adolescents are at heightened risk of alcohol abuse and that decrease of family member drunkenness may have positive effects on the drinking habits of their children.

  6. Estimation of human exposure to chemical substances and radiation. State of the art of the research projects of the Dutch National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeire, T.G.; Van Veen, M.P.; Janssen, M.P.M.; Smetsers, R.C.G.M.

    1997-03-01

    In 1994, the Sector Substances and Risks of RIVM decided to strengthen strategically its research into risk assessment methodology. In this report the research area of human exposure assessment at the RIVM is outlined. A representative selection of human exposure assessment models for both chemical substances and radiation is analysed with regard to aim, principle, degree of model analyses and values of default parameter. For comparison, a model to assess human exposure to micro-organisms is included as well. All models are operational or nearly so in the production of risk assessments in the Sector Substances and Risks and also in the Sectors Public Health Research and Environmental Research. The models discussed all have a defined area of application and support risk management. The research areas of exposure assessment for substances and radiation are compared and many methodological analogies are apparent. However, at the level of models and parameters an in-depth analysis of analogies and explained or unexplained differences is lacking. A detailed examination of organisation aspects and RIVM-models for human exposure assessment learns that all relevant areas of interest are covered. For all routes of exposure the reach of the actual risk and exposure assessment methodology is large. A more uniform coverage is attained for radiation than for chemical substances. For both areas the estimation and registration of emissions can be improved. The development of risk assessment systems and related harmonisation proJects have already attention for many years (e.g. CSOIL, USES, RIBRON). It is concluded that the RIVM requires a broad, up-to-date range of instruments for exposure assessment and active involvement in all kinds of national and international relevant networks. The RIVM should also remain involved in the development and evaluation of methodology and in projects aiming at harmonisation. 2 figs., 9 tabs., 64 refs

  7. Framing Climate Goals in Terms of Cumulative CO2-Forcing-Equivalent Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, S.; Millar, R. J.; Leach, N.; Allen, M. R.

    2018-03-01

    The relationship between cumulative CO2 emissions and CO2-induced warming is determined by the Transient Climate Response to Emissions (TCRE), but total anthropogenic warming also depends on non-CO2 forcing, complicating the interpretation of emissions budgets based on CO2 alone. An alternative is to frame emissions budgets in terms of CO2-forcing-equivalent (CO2-fe) emissions—the CO2 emissions that would yield a given total anthropogenic radiative forcing pathway. Unlike conventional "CO2-equivalent" emissions, these are directly related to warming by the TCRE and need to fall to zero to stabilize warming: hence, CO2-fe emissions generalize the concept of a cumulative carbon budget to multigas scenarios. Cumulative CO2-fe emissions from 1870 to 2015 inclusive are found to be 2,900 ± 600 GtCO2-fe, increasing at a rate of 67 ± 9.5 GtCO2-fe/yr. A TCRE range of 0.8-2.5°C per 1,000 GtC implies a total budget for 0.6°C of additional warming above the present decade of 880-2,750 GtCO2-fe, with 1,290 GtCO2-fe implied by the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 median response, corresponding to 19 years' CO2-fe emissions at the current rate.

  8. Environmental impacts of renewable energy. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) based analysis of cumulative effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoden, Henning

    2015-01-01

    The energy transition and thus turning away from fossil fuels and nuclear energy sources is based on an increased expansion of renewable energies. This expansion mainly take place in nature and the landscape, which conflicts with the objectives of the Federal Nature Conservation Act concerning scenery or the consequences of monoculture cultivation of energy crops. What happens, however, if more than one type of renewables occur compressed in a landscape that is investigated in this work. Result from cumulative effects are extended conflict with the objectives of the Federal Nature Conservation Act or possibly have positive effects can be seen? A ''cumulative effect'' is defined as an additive-synergistic overall effect of all a protected interest of respective impact factors. These arise from one or more projects / plans and influence from a variety of ways. As part of the investigations carried out it is clear that extended conflicts may arise in relation to the objectives of the Federal Nature Conservation Act by cumulative effects of renewable energies. To prevent these conflicts, policies and regulations in the context of spatial planning is necessary to enable a focusing of spatial planning for a sustainable expansion of renewable energy. [de

  9. Detecting spatial patterns with the cumulant function – Part 1: The theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Naveau

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In climate studies, detecting spatial patterns that largely deviate from the sample mean still remains a statistical challenge. Although a Principal Component Analysis (PCA, or equivalently a Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF decomposition, is often applied for this purpose, it provides meaningful results only if the underlying multivariate distribution is Gaussian. Indeed, PCA is based on optimizing second order moments, and the covariance matrix captures the full dependence structure of multivariate Gaussian vectors. Whenever the application at hand can not satisfy this normality hypothesis (e.g. precipitation data, alternatives and/or improvements to PCA have to be developed and studied. To go beyond this second order statistics constraint, that limits the applicability of the PCA, we take advantage of the cumulant function that can produce higher order moments information. The cumulant function, well-known in the statistical literature, allows us to propose a new, simple and fast procedure to identify spatial patterns for non-Gaussian data. Our algorithm consists in maximizing the cumulant function. Three families of multivariate random vectors, for which explicit computations are obtained, are implemented to illustrate our approach. In addition, we show that our algorithm corresponds to selecting the directions along which projected data display the largest spread over the marginal probability density tails.

  10. CEAMF study, volume 2 : cumulative effects indicators, thresholds, and case studies : final

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-03-01

    The four types of cumulative effects on the environment are: alteration, loss, and fragmentation of habitat; disturbance; barriers to movement; and direct and indirect mortality. Defining where and how human activities can be continued without irreversible net harm to the environment is part of cumulative effects management. Various land-use and habitat indicators were tested in the Blueberry and Sukunka study areas of British Columbia, to address the environmental effects associated with oil and gas development. As recommended, a tiered threshold approach was used to allow for flexibility in different land management regimes and ecological settings. Success will depend on defining acceptable change, threshold values, standard public database, standard processes to calculate indicator values using the database, and project-specific and cooperative management actions. A pilot study was suggested to test the candidate thresholds and implementation process. The two areas proposed for consideration were the Jedney Enhanced Resource Development Resource Management Zone in the Fort St. John Forest District, and the Etsho Enhanced Resource Development Resource Management Zone in the Fort Nelson Forest District. Both are of interest to the petroleum and forest sectors, and support the woodland caribou, a species which is extremely sensitive to cumulative effects of habitat fragmentation and disturbance. 117 refs., 11 tabs., 39 figs.

  11. Application of the ELDO approach to assess cumulative eye lens doses for interventional cardiologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farah, J.; Jacob, S.; Clairand, I.; Struelens, L.; Vanhavere, F.; Auvinen, A.; Koukorava, C.; Schnelzer, M.

    2015-01-01

    In preparation of a large European epidemiological study on the relation between eye lens dose and the occurrence of lens opacities, the European ELDO project focused on the development of practical methods to estimate retrospectively cumulative eye lens dose for interventional medical professionals exposed to radiation. The present paper applies one of the ELDO approaches, correlating eye lens dose to whole-body doses, to assess cumulative eye lens dose for 14 different Finnish interventional cardiologists for whom annual whole-body dose records were available for their entire working period. The estimated cumulative left and right eye lens dose ranged from 8 to 264 mSv and 6 to 225 mSv, respectively. In addition, calculations showed annual eye lens doses sometimes exceeding the new ICRP annual limit of 20 mSv. The work also highlights the large uncertainties associated with the application of such an approach proving the need for dedicated dosimetry systems in the routine monitoring of the eye lens dose. (authors)

  12. Cumulative Burden of Lifetime Adversities: Trauma and Mental Health in Low-SES African Americans and Latino/as

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Hector F.; Wyatt, Gail E.; Ullman, Jodie B.; Loeb, Tamra B.; Chin, Dorothy; Prause, Nicole; Zhang, Muyu; Williams, John K.; Slavich, George M.; Liu, Honghu

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 American Psychological Association. All rights reserved. This study examined the utility of a lifetime cumulative adversities and trauma model in predicting the severity of mental health symptoms of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder. We also tested whether ethnicity and gender moderate the effects of this stress exposure construct on mental health using multigroup structural equation modeling. A sample of 500 low-socioeconomic status African American and Latino men...

  13. Non-Chemical Stressors and Cumulative Risk Assessment: An Overview of Current Initiatives and Potential Air Pollutant Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ari S.; Sax, Sonja N.; Wason, Susan C.; Campleman, Sharan L.

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory agencies are under increased pressure to consider broader public health concerns that extend to multiple pollutant exposures, multiple exposure pathways, and vulnerable populations. Specifically, cumulative risk assessment initiatives have stressed the importance of considering both chemical and non-chemical stressors, such as socioeconomic status (SES) and related psychosocial stress, in evaluating health risks. The integration of non-chemical stressors into a cumulative risk assessment framework has been largely driven by evidence of health disparities across different segments of society that may also bear a disproportionate risk from chemical exposures. This review will discuss current efforts to advance the field of cumulative risk assessment, highlighting some of the major challenges, discussed within the construct of the traditional risk assessment paradigm. Additionally, we present a summary of studies of potential interactions between social stressors and air pollutants on health as an example of current research that supports the incorporation of non-chemical stressors into risk assessment. The results from these studies, while suggestive of possible interactions, are mixed and hindered by inconsistent application of social stress indicators. Overall, while there have been significant advances, further developments across all of the risk assessment stages (i.e., hazard identification, exposure assessment, dose-response, and risk characterization) are necessary to provide a scientific basis for regulatory actions and effective community interventions, particularly when considering non-chemical stressors. A better understanding of the biological underpinnings of social stress on disease and implications for chemical-based dose-response relationships is needed. Furthermore, when considering non-chemical stressors, an appropriate metric, or series of metrics, for risk characterization is also needed. Cumulative risk assessment research will benefit

  14. Very-long-term and short-term chromatic adaptation: are their influences cumulative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmore, Suzanne C; Shevell, Steven K

    2011-02-09

    Very-long-term (VLT) chromatic adaptation results from exposure to an altered chromatic environment for days or weeks. Color shifts from VLT adaptation are observed hours or days after leaving the altered environment. Short-term chromatic adaptation, on the other hand, results from exposure for a few minutes or less, with color shifts measured within seconds or a few minutes after the adapting light is extinguished; recovery to the pre-adapted state is complete in less than an hour. Here, both types of adaptation were combined. All adaptation was to reddish-appearing long-wavelength light. Shifts in unique yellow were measured following adaptation. Previous studies demonstrate shifts in unique yellow due to VLT chromatic adaptation, but shifts from short-term chromatic adaptation to comparable adapting light can be far greater than from VLT adaptation. The question considered here is whether the color shifts from VLT adaptation are cumulative with large shifts from short-term adaptation or, alternatively, does simultaneous short-term adaptation eliminate color shifts caused by VLT adaptation. The results show the color shifts from VLT and short-term adaptation together are cumulative, which indicates that both short-term and very-long-term chromatic adaptation affect color perception during natural viewing. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Low Lifetime Stress Exposure Is Associated with Reduced Stimulus-Response Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Elizabeth V.; Shields, Grant S.; Daw, Nathaniel D.; Slavich, George M.; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to stress throughout life can cumulatively influence later health, even among young adults. The negative effects of high cumulative stress exposure are well-known, and a shift from episodic to stimulus-response memory has been proposed to underlie forms of psychopathology that are related to high lifetime stress. At the other extreme,…

  16. Baseline Preferences for Daily, Event-Driven, or Periodic HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis among Gay and Bisexual Men in the PRELUDE Demonstration Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie J. Vaccher

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe effectiveness of daily pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP is well established. However, there has been increasing interest in non-daily dosing schedules among gay and bisexual men (GBM. This paper explores preferences for PrEP dosing schedules among GBM at baseline in the PRELUDE demonstration project.Materials and methodsIndividuals at high-risk of HIV were enrolled in a free PrEP demonstration project in New South Wales, Australia, between November 2014 and April 2016. At baseline, they completed an online survey containing detailed behavioural, demographic, and attitudinal questions, including their ideal way to take PrEP: daily (one pill taken every day, event-driven (pills taken only around specific risk events, or periodic (daily dosing during periods of increased risk.ResultsOverall, 315 GBM (98% of study sample provided a preferred PrEP dosing schedule at baseline. One-third of GBM expressed a preference for non-daily PrEP dosing: 20% for event-driven PrEP, and 14% for periodic PrEP. Individuals with a trade/vocational qualification were more likely to prefer periodic to daily PrEP [adjusted odds ratio (aOR = 4.58, 95% confidence intervals (95% CI: (1.68, 12.49], compared to individuals whose highest level of education was high school. Having an HIV-positive main regular partner was associated with strong preference for daily, compared to event-driven PrEP [aOR = 0.20, 95% CI: (0.04, 0.87]. Participants who rated themselves better at taking medications were more likely to prefer daily over periodic PrEP [aOR = 0.39, 95% CI: (0.20, 0.76].DiscussionIndividuals’ preferences for PrEP schedules are associated with demographic and behavioural factors that may impact on their ability to access health services and information about PrEP and patterns of HIV risk. At the time of data collection, there were limited data available about the efficacy of non-daily PrEP schedules, and clinicians only recommended daily PrEP to

  17. The role of cumulative physical work load in symptomatic knee osteoarthritis – a case-control study in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolmaali Nasreddin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To examine the dose-response relationship between cumulative exposure to kneeling and squatting as well as to lifting and carrying of loads and symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA in a population-based case-control study. Methods In five orthopedic clinics and five practices we recruited 295 male patients aged 25 to 70 with radiographically confirmed knee osteoarthritis associated with chronic complaints. A total of 327 male control subjects were recruited. Data were gathered in a structured personal interview. To calculate cumulative exposure, the self-reported duration of kneeling and squatting as well as the duration of lifting and carrying of loads were summed up over the entire working life. Results The results of our study support a dose-response relationship between kneeling/squatting and symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. For a cumulative exposure to kneeling and squatting > 10.800 hours, the risk of having radiographically confirmed knee osteoarthritis as measured by the odds ratio (adjusted for age, region, weight, jogging/athletics, and lifting or carrying of loads is 2.4 (95% CI 1.1–5.0 compared to unexposed subjects. Lifting and carrying of loads is significantly associated with knee osteoarthritis independent of kneeling or similar activities. Conclusion As the knee osteoarthritis risk is strongly elevated in occupations that involve both kneeling/squatting and heavy lifting/carrying, preventive efforts should particularly focus on these "high-risk occupations".

  18. Cumulative risk effects for the development of behaviour difficulties in children and adolescents with special educational needs and disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldfield, Jeremy; Humphrey, Neil; Hebron, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Research has identified multiple risk factors for the development of behaviour difficulties. What have been less explored are the cumulative effects of exposure to multiple risks on behavioural outcomes, with no study specifically investigating these effects within a population of young people with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND). Furthermore, it is unclear whether a threshold or linear risk model better fits the data for this population. The sample included 2660 children and 1628 adolescents with SEND. Risk factors associated with increases in behaviour difficulties over an 18-month period were summed to create a cumulative risk score, with this explanatory variable being added into a multi-level model. A quadratic term was then added to test the threshold model. There was evidence of a cumulative risk effect, suggesting that exposure to higher numbers of risk factors, regardless of their exact nature, resulted in increased behaviour difficulties. The relationship between risk and behaviour difficulties was non-linear, with exposure to increasing risk having a disproportionate and detrimental impact on behaviour difficulties in child and adolescent models. Interventions aimed at reducing behaviour difficulties need to consider the impact of multiple risk variables. Tailoring interventions towards those exposed to large numbers of risks would be advantageous. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. DynaPop-X: A population dynamics model applied to spatio-temporal exposure assessment - Implementation aspects from the CRISMA project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrecht, Christoph; Steinnocher, Klaus; Humer, Heinrich; Huber, Hermann

    2014-05-01

    In the context of proactive disaster risk as well as immediate situational crisis management knowledge of locational social aspects in terms of spatio-temporal population distribution dynamics is considered among the most important factors for disaster impact minimization (Aubrecht et al., 2013a). This applies to both the pre-event stage for designing appropriate preparedness measures and to acute crisis situations when an event chain actually unfolds for efficient situation-aware response. The presented DynaPop population dynamics model is developed at the interface of those interlinked crisis stages and aims at providing basic input for social impact evaluation and decision support in crisis management. The model provides the starting point for assessing population exposure dynamics - thus here labeled as DynaPop-X - which can either be applied in a sense of illustrating the changing locations and numbers of affected people at different stages during an event or as ex-ante estimations of probable and maximum expected clusters of affected population (Aubrecht et al., 2013b; Freire & Aubrecht, 2012). DynaPop is implemented via a gridded spatial disaggregation approach and integrates previous efforts on spatio-temporal modeling that account for various aspects of population dynamics such as human mobility and activity patterns that are particularly relevant in picturing the highly dynamic daytime situation (Ahola et al., 2007; Bhaduri, 2008; Cockings et al., 2010). We will present ongoing developments particularly focusing on the implementation logic of the model using the emikat software tool, a data management system initially designed for inventorying and analysis of spatially resolved regional air pollutant emission scenarios. This study was performed in the framework of the EU CRISMA project. CRISMA is funded from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme FP7/2007-2013 under grant agreement no. 284552. REFERENCES Ahola, T., Virrantaus, K., Krisp, J

  20. Cumulative Trauma Among Mayas Living in Southeast Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millender, Eugenia I; Lowe, John

    2017-06-01

    Mayas, having experienced genocide, exile, and severe poverty, are at high risk for the consequences of cumulative trauma that continually resurfaces through current fear of an uncertain future. Little is known about the mental health and alcohol use status of this population. This correlational study explored t/he relationship of cumulative trauma as it relates to social determinants of health (years in the United States, education, health insurance status, marital status, and employment), psychological health (depression symptoms), and health behaviors (alcohol use) of 102 Guatemalan Mayas living in Southeast Florida. The results of this study indicated that, as specific social determinants of health and cumulative trauma increased, depression symptoms (particularly among women) and the risk for harmful alcohol use (particularly among men) increased. Identifying risk factors at an early stage before serious disease or problems are manifest provides room for early screening leading to early identification, early treatment, and better outcomes.

  1. Session: What do we know about cumulative or population impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerlinger, Paul; Manville, Al; Kendall, Bill

    2004-09-01

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of a panel discussion followed by a discussion/question and answer period. The panelists were Paul Kerlinger, Curry and Kerlinger, LLC, Al Manville, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and Bill Kendall, US Geological Service. The panel addressed the potential cumulative impacts of wind turbines on bird and bat populations over time. Panel members gave brief presentations that touched on what is currently known, what laws apply, and the usefulness of population modeling. Topics addressed included which sources of modeling should be included in cumulative impacts, comparison of impacts from different modes of energy generation, as well as what research is still needed regarding cumulative impacts of wind energy development on bird and bat populations.

  2. Estimating a population cumulative incidence under calendar time trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stefan N; Overgaard, Morten; Andersen, Per K

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The risk of a disease or psychiatric disorder is frequently measured by the age-specific cumulative incidence. Cumulative incidence estimates are often derived in cohort studies with individuals recruited over calendar time and with the end of follow-up governed by a specific date...... by calendar time trends, the total sample Kaplan-Meier and Aalen-Johansen estimators do not provide useful estimates of the general risk in the target population. We present some alternatives to this type of analysis. RESULTS: We show how a proportional hazards model may be used to extrapolate disease risk...... estimates if proportionality is a reasonable assumption. If not reasonable, we instead advocate that a more useful description of the disease risk lies in the age-specific cumulative incidence curves across strata given by time of entry or perhaps just the end of follow-up estimates across all strata...

  3. Evolutionary neural network modeling for software cumulative failure time prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Liang; Noore, Afzel

    2005-01-01

    An evolutionary neural network modeling approach for software cumulative failure time prediction based on multiple-delayed-input single-output architecture is proposed. Genetic algorithm is used to globally optimize the number of the delayed input neurons and the number of neurons in the hidden layer of the neural network architecture. Modification of Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm with Bayesian regularization is used to improve the ability to predict software cumulative failure time. The performance of our proposed approach has been compared using real-time control and flight dynamic application data sets. Numerical results show that both the goodness-of-fit and the next-step-predictability of our proposed approach have greater accuracy in predicting software cumulative failure time compared to existing approaches

  4. Baltic Sea biodiversity status vs. cumulative human pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper H.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Korpinen, Samuli

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Many studies have tried to explain spatial and temporal variations in biodiversity status of marine areas from a single-issue perspective, such as fishing pressure or coastal pollution, yet most continental seas experience a wide range of human pressures. Cumulative impact assessments have...... been developed to capture the consequences of multiple stressors for biodiversity, but the ability of these assessments to accurately predict biodiversity status has never been tested or ground-truthed. This relationship has similarly been assumed for the Baltic Sea, especially in areas with impaired...... status, but has also never been documented. Here we provide a first tentative indication that cumulative human impacts relate to ecosystem condition, i.e. biodiversity status, in the Baltic Sea. Thus, cumulative impact assessments offer a promising tool for informed marine spatial planning, designation...

  5. Cumulative carbon as a policy framework for achieving climate stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, H. Damon; Solomon, Susan; Pierrehumbert, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations at a level that will avoid dangerous climate impacts. However, greenhouse gas concentration stabilization is an awkward framework within which to assess dangerous climate change on account of the significant lag between a given concentration level and the eventual equilibrium temperature change. By contrast, recent research has shown that global temperature change can be well described by a given cumulative carbon emissions budget. Here, we propose that cumulative carbon emissions represent an alternative framework that is applicable both as a tool for climate mitigation as well as for the assessment of potential climate impacts. We show first that both atmospheric CO2 concentration at a given year and the associated temperature change are generally associated with a unique cumulative carbon emissions budget that is largely independent of the emissions scenario. The rate of global temperature change can therefore be related to first order to the rate of increase of cumulative carbon emissions. However, transient warming over the next century will also be strongly affected by emissions of shorter lived forcing agents such as aerosols and methane. Non-CO2 emissions therefore contribute to uncertainty in the cumulative carbon budget associated with near-term temperature targets, and may suggest the need for a mitigation approach that considers separately short- and long-lived gas emissions. By contrast, long-term temperature change remains primarily associated with total cumulative carbon emissions owing to the much longer atmospheric residence time of CO2 relative to other major climate forcing agents. PMID:22869803

  6. Hip pain onset in relation to cumulative workplace and leisure time mechanical load: a population based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, D P; Hunt, I M; Birrell, F N; Silman, A J; Macfarlane, G J

    2003-04-01

    In an unselected community sample of adults, to assess the role and importance of exposure to mechanical factors both at work and leisure in the aetiology of hip pain. A population based prevalence case-control study. Cases and controls were identified from a population survey of 3847 subjects registered with two general practices in Cheshire, United Kingdom. All subjects received a postal questionnaire which inquired about hip pain during the past month. An occupational history was obtained, including exposure to each of seven physical demands. Information was also obtained on history of participation in eight common sporting activities. 88% of those invited to participate returned a completed questionnaire. The 352 subjects with hip pain were designated as cases, and the remaining 3002 subjects as controls. In people ever employed, hip pain was significantly associated with high cumulative workplace exposure (before onset) of walking long distances over rough ground, lifting/moving heavy weights, sitting for prolonged periods, walking long distances, frequent jumping between different levels, and standing for prolonged periods. Odds ratios (ORs) in the higher exposure categories ranged from 1.46 to 2.65. Cumulative exposure to three sporting activities was significantly associated with hip pain: track and field sports, jogging, and walking, with odds ratios varying between 1.57 to 1.94. On multivariate analysis three factors were independent predictors of hip pain onset: cumulative exposure of sitting for prolonged periods (higher exposure v not exposed: OR=1.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13 to 2.92), lifting weights >50 lb (23 kg) (OR=1.74, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.86) (both relating to the workplace), and walking as a leisure activity (OR=1.97, 95% CI 1.32 to 2.94). The population attributable risk associated with each of these activities was 21%, 13%, and 16%, respectively Cumulative exposure to some workplace and sporting "mechanical" risk factors for hip

  7. The role of factorial cumulants in reactor neutron noise theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombino, A.; Pacilio, N.; Sena, G.

    1979-01-01

    The physical meaning and the combinatorial implications of the factorial cumulant of a state variable such as the number of neutrons or the number of neutron counts are specified. Features of the presentation are: (1) the fission process is treated in its entirety without the customary binary emission restriction, (b) the introduction of the factorial cumulants helps in reducing the complexity of the mathematical problems, (c) all the solutions can be obtained analytically. Only the ergodic hypothesis for the neutron population evolution is dealt with. (author)

  8. Super-Resolution Algorithm in Cumulative Virtual Blanking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montillet, J. P.; Meng, X.; Roberts, G. W.; Woolfson, M. S.

    2008-11-01

    The proliferation of mobile devices and the emergence of wireless location-based services have generated consumer demand for precise location. In this paper, the MUSIC super-resolution algorithm is applied to time delay estimation for positioning purposes in cellular networks. The goal is to position a Mobile Station with UMTS technology. The problem of Base-Stations herability is solved using Cumulative Virtual Blanking. A simple simulator is presented using DS-SS signal. The results show that MUSIC algorithm improves the time delay estimation in both the cases whether or not Cumulative Virtual Blanking was carried out.

  9. The impact of physical activity on cumulative cardiovascular disease risk factors among Malaysian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasiah, Rajah; Thangiah, Govindamal; Yusoff, Khalid; Manikam, Rishya; Chandrasekaran, Sankara Kumar; Mustafa, Rujhan; Bakar, Najmin Binti Abu

    2015-12-16

    Numerous studies have shown the importance of physical activity in reducing the morbidity and mortality rates caused by cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, most of these studies emphasise little on the cumulative effect of CVD risk factors. Hence, this study investigates the association between physical exercise and cumulative CVD risk factors among adults in three different age groups. Using a sample of 7276 respondents drawn from community centers, the REDISCOVER team gathered information on physical activity, CVD risk factors (obesity, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, tobacco use) and socioeconomic and demographic variables in Malaysia. Because the study required medical examination, a convenience sampling frame was preferred in which all volunteers were included in the study. Fasting blood samples and anthropometric (height, weight and more) measurements were collected by trained staffs. Socio-demographic and physical activity variables were recorded through questionnaires. A Chi-square test was performed to identify the bivariate association between the covariates (socioeconomic variables, demographic variables and physical activity) and outcome variable. The association between the main exposure, physical activity, and the outcome variable, cumulative CVD risk factors, was assessed using an ordinal logistic regression model, controlling for socioeconomic status and demographic influences in three different age groups, 35-49, 50-64 and 65 and above. The mean age of participants is 51.8 (SD = 9.4). Respondents in the age groups of 35-49 (aORmoderate = 0.12; 95 % CI: 0.02 - 0.53 ) and 65 and above (aORhigh = 0.58; 95 % CI: 0.24, 0.78) showed a statistically significant inverse relationship between physical activity and cumulative CVD risk factors. However, this relationship was not significant among respondents in the 50-64 age group suggesting the possible influence of other variables, such as stress and environment. The

  10. Cumulative total effective whole-body radiation dose in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohner, Deborah J; Bennett, Suzanne; Samaratunga, Chandrasiri; Jewell, Elizabeth S; Smith, Jeffrey P; Gaskill-Shipley, Mary; Lisco, Steven J

    2013-11-01

    Uncertainty exists about a safe dose limit to minimize radiation-induced cancer. Maximum occupational exposure is 20 mSv/y averaged over 5 years with no more than 50 mSv in any single year. Radiation exposure to the general population is less, but the average dose in the United States has doubled in the past 30 years, largely from medical radiation exposure. We hypothesized that patients in a mixed-use surgical ICU (SICU) approach or exceed this limit and that trauma patients were more likely to exceed 50 mSv because of frequent diagnostic imaging. Patients admitted into 15 predesignated SICU beds in a level I trauma center during a 30-day consecutive period were prospectively observed. Effective dose was determined using Huda's method for all radiography, CT imaging, and fluoroscopic examinations. Univariate and multivariable linear regressions were used to analyze the relationships between observed values and outcomes. Five of 74 patients (6.8%) exceeded exposures of 50 mSv. Univariate analysis showed trauma designation, length of stay, number of CT scans, fluoroscopy minutes, and number of general radiographs were all associated with increased doses, leading to exceeding occupational exposure limits. In a multivariable analysis, only the number of CT scans and fluoroscopy minutes remained significantly associated with increased whole-body radiation dose. Radiation levels frequently exceeded occupational exposure standards. CT imaging contributed the most exposure. Health-care providers must practice efficient stewardship of radiologic imaging in all critically ill and injured patients. Diagnostic benefit must always be weighed against the risk of cumulative radiation dose.

  11. Applicability of the tissue stem cell turnover concept on the validity of cumulative dose based radiation risk evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Kensuke; Hamada, Nobuyuki; Iwasaki, Toshiyasu; Yoshida, Kazuo

    2011-01-01

    The radiation protection system adopts the linear no-threshold model to achieve proper radiation protection for considering cancer risks resulting from radiation exposure. This model uses cumulative dose to a tissue for risk evaluation in which cumulative dose is related to the amount of DNA damage and consequential induction of gene mutation. In this concept, gene mutation accumulates in tissue stem cells, the putative target of carcinogenesis, with total dose given to the tissue. Unlike high-dose-rate exposure, epidemiological studies in high radiation background areas, such as Kerala in India, revealed that cancer risks is not elevated by the dose to the inhabitants, suggesting that there exists some mechanisms to eliminate the damage/mutation in the exposed tissue under extremely low-dose-rate exposure situations. In this report, the dynamics of tissue stem cell turnover is evaluated as a possible mechanism under extremely low-dose-rate exposure situations. To this end, we reviewed recent literatures studying tissue stem cell turnover, and found that great advances in stem cell research have made it possible to trace a fate of stem cells in tissues. Furthermore, turnover of tissue stem cells is found to occur after irradiation, due to competition of stem cells within tissues. This raises a possibility that radiation effects may not accumulate in a tissue depending on the dose-rate and duration of exposure period. (author)

  12. Opinion on the behalf of the Commission for Sustainable Development and Land Planning on the bill project, modified by the Senate, related to sobriety, transparency, information and consultation with respect to exposure to electromagnetic waves (nr 2062). Nr 2501

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallard, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    This report first recalls the evolution of the bill project with its accepted or refused amendments associated with its main articles. Those articles addressed the return of the notion of sobriety for the exposure to electromagnetic fields, the crucial role of local executive power in the information and consultation procedure in the case of new installations of relay antennas, a more reliable definition of some atypical issues, obligations of information and awareness heightening of public and users, and maintaining the taking into account of the health impact of electromagnetic waves. Discussions of the commission on general issues and on the bill project articles are reported

  13. Cumulative effects of wind turbines. Volume 3: Report on results of consultations on cumulative effects of wind turbines on birds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This report gives details of the consultations held in developing the consensus approach taken in assessing the cumulative effects of wind turbines. Contributions on bird issues, and views of stakeholders, the Countryside Council for Wales, electric utilities, Scottish Natural Heritage, and the National Wind Power Association are reported. The scoping of key species groups, where cumulative effects might be expected, consideration of other developments, the significance of any adverse effects, mitigation, regional capacity assessments, and predictive models are discussed. Topics considered at two stakeholder workshops are outlined in the appendices.

  14. Cumulative impacts: current research and current opinions at PSW

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. M. Rice

    1987-01-01

    Consideration of cumulative watershed effects (CWEs) has both political and physical aspects. Regardless of the practical usefulness of present methods of dealing with CWEs, the legal requirement to address them remains. Management of federal land is regulated by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972. The...

  15. Cumulative Risks of Foster Care Placement for Danish Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallesen, Peter; Emanuel, Natalia; Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    children. Our results also show some variations by parental ethnicity and sex, but these differences are small. Indeed, they appear quite muted relative to racial/ethnic differences in these risks in the United States. Last, though cumulative risks are similar between Danish and American children...

  16. Disintegration of a profiled shock wave at the cumulation point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaliski, S.

    1978-01-01

    The disintegration at the cumulation point is analyzed of a shock wave generated with the aid of a profiled pressure. The quantitative relations are analyzed for the disintegration waves for typical compression parameters in systems of thermonuclear microfusion. The quantitative conclusions are drawn for the application of simplifying approximate calculations in problems of microfusion. (author)

  17. Cumulative Prospect Theory, Option Returns, and the Variance Premium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baele, Lieven; Driessen, Joost; Ebert, Sebastian; Londono Yarce, J.M.; Spalt, Oliver

    The variance premium and the pricing of out-of-the-money (OTM) equity index options are major challenges to standard asset pricing models. We develop a tractable equilibrium model with Cumulative Prospect Theory (CPT) preferences that can overcome both challenges. The key insight is that the

  18. Steps and Pips in the History of the Cumulative Recorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattal, Kennon A.

    2004-01-01

    From its inception in the 1930s until very recent times, the cumulative recorder was the most widely used measurement instrument in the experimental analysis of behavior. It was an essential instrument in the discovery and analysis of schedules of reinforcement, providing the first real-time analysis of operant response rates and patterns. This…

  19. The effects of cumulative practice on mathematics problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, Kristin H; Chase, Philip N

    2002-01-01

    This study compared three different methods of teaching five basic algebra rules to college students. All methods used the same procedures to teach the rules and included four 50-question review sessions interspersed among the training of the individual rules. The differences among methods involved the kinds of practice provided during the four review sessions. Participants who received cumulative practice answered 50 questions covering a mix of the rules learned prior to each review session. Participants who received a simple review answered 50 questions on one previously trained rule. Participants who received extra practice answered 50 extra questions on the rule they had just learned. Tests administered after each review included new questions for applying each rule (application items) and problems that required novel combinations of the rules (problem-solving items). On the final test, the cumulative group outscored the other groups on application and problem-solving items. In addition, the cumulative group solved the problem-solving items significantly faster than the other groups. These results suggest that cumulative practice of component skills is an effective method of training problem solving.

  20. Cumulative Beam Breakup with Time-Dependent Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Delayen, J R

    2004-01-01

    A general analytical formalism developed recently for cumulative beam breakup (BBU) in linear accelerators with arbitrary beam current profile and misalignments [1] is extended to include time-dependent parameters such as energy chirp or rf focusing in order to reduce BBU-induced instabilities and emittance growth. Analytical results are presented and applied to practical accelerator configurations.

  1. On the mechanism of hadron cumulative production on nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efremov, A.V.

    1976-01-01

    A mechanism of cumulative production of hadrons on nucleus is proposed which is similar to that of high perpendicular hadron production. The cross section obtained describes the main qualitative features of such prosesses, e.g., initial energy dependence atomic number behaviour, dependence on the rest mass of the produced particle and its production angle

  2. Hyperscaling breakdown and Ising spin glasses: The Binder cumulant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundow, P. H.; Campbell, I. A.

    2018-02-01

    Among the Renormalization Group Theory scaling rules relating critical exponents, there are hyperscaling rules involving the dimension of the system. It is well known that in Ising models hyperscaling breaks down above the upper critical dimension. It was shown by Schwartz (1991) that the standard Josephson hyperscaling rule can also break down in Ising systems with quenched random interactions. A related Renormalization Group Theory hyperscaling rule links the critical exponents for the normalized Binder cumulant and the correlation length in the thermodynamic limit. An appropriate scaling approach for analyzing measurements from criticality to infinite temperature is first outlined. Numerical data on the scaling of the normalized correlation length and the normalized Binder cumulant are shown for the canonical Ising ferromagnet model in dimension three where hyperscaling holds, for the Ising ferromagnet in dimension five (so above the upper critical dimension) where hyperscaling breaks down, and then for Ising spin glass models in dimension three where the quenched interactions are random. For the Ising spin glasses there is a breakdown of the normalized Binder cumulant hyperscaling relation in the thermodynamic limit regime, with a return to size independent Binder cumulant values in the finite-size scaling regime around the critical region.

  3. How to manage the cumulative flood safety of catchment dams ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dam safety is a significant issue being taken seriously worldwide. However, in Australia, although much attention is being devoted to the medium- to large-scale dams, minimal attention is being paid to the serious potential problems associated with smaller dams, particularly the potential cumulative safety threats they pose ...

  4. Cumulative Beam Breakup due to Resistive-Wall Wake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.-M.

    2004-01-01

    The cumulative beam breakup problem excited by the resistive-wall wake is formulated. An approximate analytic method of finding the asymptotic behavior for the transverse bunch displacement is developed and solved. Comparison between the asymptotic analytical expression and the direct numerical solution is presented. Good agreement is found. The criterion of using the asymptotic analytical expression is discussed

  5. Analysis of sensory ratings data with cumulative link models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen; Brockhoff, Per B.

    2013-01-01

    Examples of categorical rating scales include discrete preference, liking and hedonic rating scales. Data obtained on these scales are often analyzed with normal linear regression methods or with omnibus Pearson chi2 tests. In this paper we propose to use cumulative link models that allow for reg...

  6. Tests of Cumulative Prospect Theory with graphical displays of probability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Birnbaum

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent research reported evidence that contradicts cumulative prospect theory and the priority heuristic. The same body of research also violates two editing principles of original prospect theory: cancellation (the principle that people delete any attribute that is the same in both alternatives before deciding between them and combination (the principle that people combine branches leading to the same consequence by adding their probabilities. This study was designed to replicate previous results and to test whether the violations of cumulative prospect theory might be eliminated or reduced by using formats for presentation of risky gambles in which cancellation and combination could be facilitated visually. Contrary to the idea that decision behavior contradicting cumulative prospect theory and the priority heuristic would be altered by use of these formats, however, data with two new graphical formats as well as fresh replication data continued to show the patterns of evidence that violate cumulative prospect theory, the priority heuristic, and the editing principles of combination and cancellation. Systematic violations of restricted branch independence also contradicted predictions of ``stripped'' prospect theory (subjectively weighted additive utility without the editing rules.

  7. Hierarchical Bayesian parameter estimation for cumulative prospect theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nilsson, H.; Rieskamp, J.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.

    2011-01-01

    Cumulative prospect theory (CPT Tversky & Kahneman, 1992) has provided one of the most influential accounts of how people make decisions under risk. CPT is a formal model with parameters that quantify psychological processes such as loss aversion, subjective values of gains and losses, and

  8. An Axiomatization of Cumulative Prospect Theory for Decision under Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, P.P.; Chateauneuf, A.

    1999-01-01

    Cumulative prospect theory was introduced by Tversky and Kahneman so as to combine the empirical realism of their original prospect theory with the theoretical advantages of Quiggin's rank-dependent utility. Preference axiomatizations were provided in several papers. All those axiomatizations,

  9. Cumulative assessment: does it improve students’ knowledge acquisition and retention?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cecilio Fernandes, Dario; Nagtegaal, Manouk; Noordzij, Gera; Tio, Rene

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Assessment for learning means changing students’ behaviour regarding their learning. Cumulative assessment has been shown to increase students’ self-study time and spread their study time throughout a course. However, there was no difference regarding students’ knowledge at the end of

  10. Radiation exposure of uranium mill workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Giridhar; Saha, S.C.

    1982-01-01

    The uranium mill workers at Jaduguda were covered by a regular film badge service from 1969 onwards. Since the log normal plot is useful in interpreting occupational exposure, a statistical analysis of the radiation exposure data was attempted. Exposure data for each year has been plotted as cumulative percentage and worker's population with exposure levels in different class intervals. The plot for each of the year under investigation shows an occupational exposure distribution more or less consistent with the log normal distribution function. The analysis shows that more than 98% of radiation workers received less than 200 mrem (2 mSv). (author)

  11. Long-Term Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Incidence of Postmenopausal Breast Cancer in 15 European Cohorts within the ESCAPE Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafoggia, Massimo; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Pedersen, Marie; Galassi, Claudia; Jørgensen, Jeanette T.; Oudin, Anna; Forsberg, Bertil; Olsson, David; Oftedal, Bente; Marit Aasvang, Gunn; Aamodt, Geir; Pyko, Andrei; Pershagen, Göran; Korek, Michal; De Faire, Ulf; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Fratiglioni, Laura; Eriksen, Kirsten T.; Tjønneland, Anne; Peeters, Petra H.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Plusquin, Michelle; Key, Timothy J.; Jaensch, Andrea; Nagel, Gabriele; Lang, Alois; Wang, Meng; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Fournier, Agnes; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Baglietto, Laura; Grioni, Sara; Marcon, Alessandro; Krogh, Vittorio; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Migliore, Enrica; Tamayo-Uria, Ibon; Amiano, Pilar; Dorronsoro, Miren; Vermeulen, Roel; Sokhi, Ranjeet; Keuken, Menno; de Hoogh, Kees; Beelen, Rob; Vineis, Paolo; Cesaroni, Giulia; Brunekreef, Bert; Hoek, Gerard; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological evidence on the association between ambient air pollution and breast cancer risk is inconsistent. Objective: We examined the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer in European women. Methods: In 15 cohorts from nine European countries, individual estimates of air pollution levels at the residence were estimated by standardized land-use regression models developed within the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) and Transport related Air Pollution and Health impacts - Integrated Methodologies for Assessing Particulate Matter (TRANSPHORM) projects: particulate matter (PM) ≤2.5μm, ≤10μm, and 2.5–10μm in diameter (PM2.5, PM10, and PMcoarse, respectively); PM2.5 absorbance; nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOx); traffic intensity; and elemental composition of PM. We estimated cohort-specific associations between breast cancer and air pollutants using Cox regression models, adjusting for major lifestyle risk factors, and pooled cohort-specific estimates using random-effects meta-analyses. Results: Of 74,750 postmenopausal women included in the study, 3,612 developed breast cancer during 991,353 person-years of follow-up. We found positive and statistically insignificant associations between breast cancer and PM2.5 {hazard ratio (HR)=1.08 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.77, 1.51] per 5 μg/m3}, PM10 [1.07 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.30) per 10 μg/m3], PMcoarse [1.20 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.49 per 5 μg/m3], and NO2 [1.02 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.07 per 10 μg/m3], and a statistically significant association with NOx [1.04 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.08) per 20 μg/m3, p=0.04]. Conclusions: We found suggestive evidence of an association between ambient air pollution and incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer in European women. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1742 PMID:29033383

  12. Radiation exposure and management of medical employes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Chiaki

    1981-01-01

    Medical employes handling medical radiation are increasing in recent years. In connection with the radiation exposure management, it was surveyed how much their cumulative exposure doses are and how many employes distribute in respective exposure levels. The medical employes surveyed are physicians, radiation technicians and nurses, working in the hospitals of educational institutions. The period of survey is every three years, from 1962 to 1977. For X-ray and ν-ray, respectively, the yearly cumulative exposure doses were measured by film badges, stepwise starting from below 500 mrem upward to over 5000 mrem; for the respective groups of employes, the percentage in each dose level was shown. The percentage in the level below 500 mrem was the largest in all groups, and in both X-ray and ν-ray, the percentages in higher levels decreased sharply to less than 7%. The exposure management has been improved in recent years. (J.P.N.)

  13. Radiation exposure and management of medical employes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, C [Nagoya Univ. (Japan)

    1981-11-01

    Medical employes handling medical radiation are increasing in recent years. In connection with the radiation exposure management, it was surveyed how much their cumulative exposure doses are and how many employes distribute in respective exposure levels. The medical employes surveyed are physicians, radiation technicians and nurses, working in the hospitals of educational institutions. The period of survey is every three years, from 1962 to 1977. For X-ray and ..gamma..-ray, respectively, the yearly cumulative exposure doses were measured by film badges, stepwise starting from below 500 mrem upward to over 5000 mrem; for the respective groups of employes, the percentage in each dose level was shown. The percentage in the level below 500 mrem was the largest in all groups, and in both X-ray and ..gamma..-ray, the percentages in higher levels decreased sharply to less than 7%. The exposure management has been improved in recent years.

  14. The challenges and opportunities in cumulative effects assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, Melissa M., E-mail: mfoley@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center, 400 Natural Bridges, Dr., Santa Cruz, CA 95060 (United States); Center for Ocean Solutions, Stanford University, 99 Pacific St., Monterey, CA 93940 (United States); Mease, Lindley A., E-mail: lamease@stanford.edu [Center for Ocean Solutions, Stanford University, 473 Via Ortega, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Martone, Rebecca G., E-mail: rmartone@stanford.edu [Center for Ocean Solutions, Stanford University, 99 Pacific St., Monterey, CA 93940 (United States); Prahler, Erin E. [Center for Ocean Solutions, Stanford University, 473 Via Ortega, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Morrison, Tiffany H., E-mail: tiffany.morrison@jcu.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, 4811 (Australia); Murray, Cathryn Clarke, E-mail: cmurray@pices.int [WWF-Canada, 409 Granville Street, Suite 1588, Vancouver, BC V6C 1T2 (Canada); Wojcik, Deborah, E-mail: deb.wojcik@duke.edu [Nicholas School for the Environment, Duke University, 9 Circuit Dr., Durham, NC 27708 (United States)

    2017-01-15

    The cumulative effects of increasing human use of the ocean and coastal zone have contributed to a rapid decline in ocean and coastal resources. As a result, scientists are investigating how multiple, overlapping stressors accumulate in the environment and impact ecosystems. These investigations are the foundation for the development of new tools that account for and predict cumulative effects in order to more adequately prevent or mitigate negative effects. Despite scientific advances, legal requirements, and management guidance, those who conduct assessments—including resource managers, agency staff, and consultants—continue to struggle to thoroughly evaluate cumulative effects, particularly as part of the environmental assessment process. Even though 45 years have passed since the United States National Environmental Policy Act was enacted, which set a precedent for environmental assessment around the world, defining impacts, baseline, scale, and significance are still major challenges associated with assessing cumulative effects. In addition, we know little about how practitioners tackle these challenges or how assessment aligns with current scientific recommendations. To shed more light on these challenges and gaps, we undertook a comparative study on how cumulative effects assessment (CEA) is conducted by practitioners operating under some of the most well-developed environmental laws around the globe: California, USA; British Columbia, Canada; Queensland, Australia; and New Zealand. We found that practitioners used a broad and varied definition of impact for CEA, which led to differences in how baseline, scale, and significance were determined. We also found that practice and science are not closely aligned and, as such, we highlight opportunities for managers, policy makers, practitioners, and scientists to improve environmental assessment.

  15. The challenges and opportunities in cumulative effects assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, Melissa M.; Mease, Lindley A.; Martone, Rebecca G.; Prahler, Erin E.; Morrison, Tiffany H.; Murray, Cathryn Clarke; Wojcik, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    The cumulative effects of increasing human use of the ocean and coastal zone have contributed to a rapid decline in ocean and coastal resources. As a result, scientists are investigating how multiple, overlapping stressors accumulate in the environment and impact ecosystems. These investigations are the foundation for the development of new tools that account for and predict cumulative effects in order to more adequately prevent or mitigate negative effects. Despite scientific advances, legal requirements, and management guidance, those who conduct assessments—including resource managers, agency staff, and consultants—continue to struggle to thoroughly evaluate cumulative effects, particularly as part of the environmental assessment process. Even though 45 years have passed since the United States National Environmental Policy Act was enacted, which set a precedent for environmental assessment around the world, defining impacts, baseline, scale, and significance are still major challenges associated with assessing cumulative effects. In addition, we know little about how practitioners tackle these challenges or how assessment aligns with current scientific recommendations. To shed more light on these challenges and gaps, we undertook a comparative study on how cumulative effects assessment (CEA) is conducted by practitioners operating under some of the most well-developed environmental laws around the globe: California, USA; British Columbia, Canada; Queensland, Australia; and New Zealand. We found that practitioners used a broad and varied definition of impact for CEA, which led to differences in how baseline, scale, and significance were determined. We also found that practice and science are not closely aligned and, as such, we highlight opportunities for managers, policy makers, practitioners, and scientists to improve environmental assessment.

  16. The challenges and opportunities in cumulative effects assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Melissa M.; Mease, Lindley A; Martone, Rebecca G; Prahler, Erin E; Morrison, Tiffany H; Clarke Murray, Cathryn; Wojcik, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    The cumulative effects of increasing human use of the ocean and coastal zone have contributed to a rapid decline in ocean and coastal resources. As a result, scientists are investigating how multiple, overlapping stressors accumulate in the environment and impact ecosystems. These investigations are the foundation for the development of new tools that account for and predict cumulative effects in order to more adequately prevent or mitigate negative effects. Despite scientific advances, legal requirements, and management guidance, those who conduct assessments—including resource managers, agency staff, and consultants—continue to struggle to thoroughly evaluate cumulative effects, particularly as part of the environmental assessment process. Even though 45 years have passed since the United States National Environmental Policy Act was enacted, which set a precedent for environmental assessment around the world, defining impacts, baseline, scale, and significance are still major challenges associated with assessing cumulative effects. In addition, we know little about how practitioners tackle these challenges or how assessment aligns with current scientific recommendations. To shed more light on these challenges and gaps, we undertook a comparative study on how cumulative effects assessment (CEA) is conducted by practitioners operating under some of the most well-developed environmental laws around the globe: California, USA; British Columbia, Canada; Queensland, Australia; and New Zealand. We found that practitioners used a broad and varied definition of impact for CEA, which led to differences in how baseline, scale, and significance were determined. We also found that practice and science are not closely aligned and, as such, we highlight opportunities for managers, policy makers, practitioners, and scientists to improve environmental assessment.

  17. HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis and early antiretroviral treatment among female sex workers in South Africa: Results from a prospective observational demonstration project.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn Eakle

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Operational research is required to design delivery of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP and early antiretroviral treatment (ART. This paper presents the primary analysis of programmatic data, as well as demographic, behavioural, and clinical data, from the TAPS Demonstration Project, which offered both interventions to female sex workers (FSWs at 2 urban clinic sites in South Africa.The TAPS study was conducted between 30 March 2015 and 30 June 2017, with the enrolment period ending on 31 July 2016. TAPS was a prospective observational cohort study with 2 groups receiving interventions delivered in existing service settings: (1 PrEP as part of combination prevention for HIV-negative FSWs and (2 early ART for HIV-positive FSWs. The main outcome was programme retention at 12 months of follow-up. Of the 947 FSWs initially seen in clinic, 692 were HIV tested. HIV prevalence was 49%. Among those returning to clinic after HIV testing and clinical screening, 93% of the women who were HIV-negative were confirmed as clinically eligible for PrEP (n = 224/241, and 41% (n = 110/270 of the women who were HIV-positive had CD4 counts within National Department of Health ART initiation guidelines at assessment. Of the remaining women who were HIV-positive, 93% were eligible for early ART (n = 148/160. From those eligible, 98% (n = 219/224 and 94% (n = 139/148 took up PrEP and early ART, respectively. At baseline, a substantial fraction of women had a steady partner, worked in brothels, and were born in Zimbabwe. Of those enrolled, 22% on PrEP (n = 49/219 and 60% on early ART (n = 83/139 were seen at 12 months; we observed high rates of loss to follow-up: 71% (n = 156/219 and 30% (n = 42/139 in the PrEP and early ART groups, respectively. Little change over time was reported in consistent condom use or the number of sexual partners in the last 7 days, with high levels of consistent condom use with clients and low use with steady partners in both study groups

  18. Public service impacts of geothermal development: cumulative impacts study of the Geysers KGRA. Final staff report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, K.M.

    1983-07-01

    The number of workers currently involved in the various aspects of geothermal development in the Geysers are identified. Using two different development scenarios, projections are made for the number of power plants needed to reach the electrical generation capacity of the steam resource in the Geysers. The report also projects the cumulative number of workers needed to develop the steam field and to construct, operate, and maintain these power plants. Although the number of construction workers fluctuates, most are not likely to become new, permanent residents of the KGRA counties. The administrative and public service costs of geothermal development to local jurisdications are examined, and these costs are compared to geothermal revenues accruing to the local governments. Revenues do not cover the immediate fiscal needs resulting from increases in local road maintenance and school enrollment attributable to geothermal development. Several mitigation options are discussed and a framework presented for calculating mitigation costs for school and road impacts.

  19. Cumulative childhood risk is associated with a new measure of chronic inflammation in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Line Jee Hartmann; Moffitt, Terrie E; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Belsky, Daniel W; Danese, Andrea; Harrington, HonaLee; Houts, Renate M; Poulton, Richie; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Caspi, Avshalom

    2018-05-09

    Childhood risk factors are associated with elevated inflammatory biomarkers in adulthood, but it is unknown whether these risk factors are associated with increased adult levels of the chronic inflammation marker soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR). We aimed to test the hypothesis that childhood exposure to risk factors for adult disease is associated with elevated suPAR in adulthood and to compare suPAR with the oft-reported inflammatory biomarker C-reactive protein (CRP). Prospective study of a population-representative 1972-1973 birth cohort; the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study observed participants to age 38 years. Main childhood predictors were poor health, socioeconomic disadvantage, adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), low IQ, and poor self-control. Main adult outcomes were adulthood inflammation measured as suPAR and high-sensitivity CRP (hsCRP). Participants with available plasma samples at age 38 were included (N = 837, 50.5% male). suPAR (mean 2.40 ng/ml; SD 0.91) was positively correlated with hsCRP (r 0.15, p childhood risks were aggregated into a Cumulative Childhood Risk index, and controlling for sex, BMI, and smoking, Cumulative Childhood Risk was associated with higher suPAR (b 0.10; SE 0.03; p = .002). Cumulative Childhood Risk predicted elevated suPAR, after controlling for hsCRP (b 0.18; SE 0.03; p childhood risk factors was associated with higher suPAR levels, independent of CRP. suPAR is a useful addition to studies connecting childhood risk to adult inflammatory burden. © 2018 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  20. Predicting the cumulative risk of death during hospitalization by modeling weekend, weekday and diurnal mortality risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coiera, Enrico; Wang, Ying; Magrabi, Farah; Concha, Oscar Perez; Gallego, Blanca; Runciman, William

    2014-05-21

    Current prognostic models factor in patient and disease specific variables but do not consider cumulative risks of hospitalization over time. We developed risk models of the likelihood of death associated with cumulative exposure to hospitalization, based on time-varying risks of hospitalization over any given day, as well as day of the week. Model performance was evaluated alone, and in combination with simple disease-specific models. Patients admitted between 2000 and 2006 from 501 public and private hospitals in NSW, Australia were used for training and 2007 data for evaluation. The impact of hospital care delivered over different days of the week and or times of the day was modeled by separating hospitalization risk into 21 separate time periods (morning, day, night across the days of the week). Three models were developed to predict death up to 7-days post-discharge: 1/a simple background risk model using age, gender; 2/a time-varying risk model for exposure to hospitalization (admission time, days in hospital); 3/disease specific models (Charlson co-morbidity index, DRG). Combining these three generated a full model. Models were evaluated by accuracy, AUC, Akaike and Bayesian information criteria. There was a clear diurnal rhythm to hospital mortality in the data set, peaking in the evening, as well as the well-known 'weekend-effect' where mortality peaks with weekend admissions. Individual models had modest performance on the test data set (AUC 0.71, 0.79 and 0.79 respectively). The combined model which included time-varying risk however yielded an average AUC of 0.92. This model performed best for stays up to 7-days (93% of admissions), peaking at days 3 to 5 (AUC 0.94). Risks of hospitalization vary not just with the day of the week but also time of the day, and can be used to make predictions about the cumulative risk of death associated with an individual's hospitalization. Combining disease specific models with such time varying- estimates appears to

  1. An Overview of Applications of Kafka’s General Mesomechanical Concept to Inelastic Deformation, Cumulative Damage and Fracture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kafka, Vratislav; Vokoun, David

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 5 (2011), s. 706-728 ISSN 1056-7895 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA103/09/2101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520; CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : plasticity * rheology * cumulative damage * fracture Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.928, year: 2011 http://ijd.sagepub.com/content/early/2010/05/18/1056789510369334

  2. Measurement of four-particle cumulants and symmetric cumulants with subevent methods in small collision systems with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Derendarz, Dominik; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Measurements of symmetric cumulants SC(n,m)=⟨v2nv2m⟩−⟨v2n⟩⟨v2m⟩ for (n,m)=(2,3) and (2,4) and asymmetric cumulant AC(n) are presented in pp, p+Pb and peripheral Pb+Pb collisions at various collision energies, aiming to probe the long-range collective nature of multi-particle production in small systems. Results are obtained using the standard cumulant method, as well as the two-subevent and three-subevent cumulant methods. Results from the standard method are found to be strongly biased by non-flow correlations as indicated by strong sensitivity to the chosen event class definition. A systematic reduction of non-flow effects is observed when using the two-subevent method and the results become independent of event class definition when the three-subevent method is used. The measured SC(n,m) shows an anti-correlation between v2 and v3, and a positive correlation between v2 and v4. The magnitude of SC(n,m) is constant with Nch in pp collisions, but increases with Nch in p+Pb and Pb+Pb collisions. ...

  3. Assessing stress-related treatment needs among girls at risk for poor functional outcomes: The impact of cumulative adversity, criterion traumas, and non-criterion events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, Amy E; Plante, Wendy Y; Beck, Audrey N

    2017-05-01

    Despite growing recognition that cumulative adversity (total stressor exposure, including complex trauma), increases the risk for psychopathology and impacts development, assessment strategies lag behind: Adversity-related mental health needs (symptoms, functional impairment, maladaptive coping) are typically assessed in response to only one qualifying Criterion-A traumatic event. This is especially problematic for youth at-risk for health and academic disparities who experience cumulative adversity, including non-qualifying events (separation from caregivers) which may produce more impairing symptomatology. Data from 118 delinquent girls demonstrate: (1) an average of 14 adverse Criterion-A and non-Criterion event exposures; (2) serious maladaptive coping strategies (self-injury) directly in response to cumulative adversity; (3) more cumulative adversity-related than worst-event related symptomatology and functional impairment; and (4) comparable symptomatology, but greater functional impairment, in response to non-Criterion events. These data support the evaluation of mental health needs in response to cumulative adversity for optimal identification and tailoring of services in high-risk populations to reduce disparities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Does Traffic-related Air Pollution Explain Associations of Aircraft and Road Traffic Noise Exposure on Children's Health and Cognition? A Secondary Analysis of the United Kingdom Sample From the RANCH Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Charlotte; Crombie, Rosanna; Head, Jenny; van Kamp, Irene; van Kempen, Elise; Stansfeld, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined whether air pollution at school (nitrogen dioxide) is associated with poorer child cognition and health and whether adjustment for air pollution explains or moderates previously observed associations between aircraft and road traffic noise at school and children's cognition in the 2001–2003 Road Traffic and Aircraft Noise Exposure and Children's Cognition and Health (RANCH) project. This secondary analysis of a subsample of the United Kingdom RANCH sample examined 719 children who were 9–10 years of age from 22 schools around London's Heathrow airport for whom air pollution data were available. Data were analyzed using multilevel modeling. Air pollution exposure levels at school were moderate, were not associated with a range of cognitive and health outcomes, and did not account for or moderate associations between noise exposure and cognition. Aircraft noise exposure at school was significantly associated with poorer recognition memory and conceptual recall memory after adjustment for nitrogen dioxide levels. Aircraft noise exposure was also associated with poorer reading comprehension and information recall memory after adjustment for nitrogen dioxide levels. Road traffic noise was not associated with cognition or health before or after adjustment for air pollution. Moderate levels of air pollution do not appear to confound associations of noise on cognition and health, but further studies of higher air pollution levels are needed. PMID:22842719

  5. Does traffic-related air pollution explain associations of aircraft and road traffic noise exposure on children's health and cognition? A secondary analysis of the United Kingdom sample from the RANCH project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Charlotte; Crombie, Rosanna; Head, Jenny; van Kamp, Irene; van Kempen, Elise; Stansfeld, Stephen A

    2012-08-15

    The authors examined whether air pollution at school (nitrogen dioxide) is associated with poorer child cognition and health and whether adjustment for air pollution explains or moderates previously observed associations between aircraft and road traffic noise at school and children's cognition in the 2001-2003 Road Traffic and Aircraft Noise Exposure and Children's Cognition and Health (RANCH) project. This secondary analysis of a subsample of the United Kingdom RANCH sample examined 719 children who were 9-10 years of age from 22 schools around London's Heathrow airport for whom air pollution data were available. Data were analyzed using multilevel modeling. Air pollution exposure levels at school were moderate, were not associated with a range of cognitive and health outcomes, and did not account for or moderate associations between noise exposure and cognition. Aircraft noise exposure at school was significantly associated with poorer recognition memory and conceptual recall memory after adjustment for nitrogen dioxide levels. Aircraft noise exposure was also associated with poorer reading comprehension and information recall memory after adjustment for nitrogen dioxide levels. Road traffic noise was not associated with cognition or health before or after adjustment for air pollution. Moderate levels of air pollution do not appear to confound associations of noise on cognition and health, but further studies of higher air pollution levels are needed.

  6. Cumulative burden of lifetime adversities: Trauma and mental health in low-SES African Americans and Latino/as.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Hector F; Wyatt, Gail E; Ullman, Jodie B; Loeb, Tamra B; Chin, Dorothy; Prause, Nicole; Zhang, Muyu; Williams, John K; Slavich, George M; Liu, Honghu

    2015-05-01

    This study examined the utility of a lifetime cumulative adversities and trauma model in predicting the severity of mental health symptoms of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder. We also tested whether ethnicity and gender moderate the effects of this stress exposure construct on mental health using multigroup structural equation modeling. A sample of 500 low-socioeconomic status African American and Latino men and women with histories of adversities and trauma were recruited and assessed with a standard battery of self-report measures of stress and mental health. Multiple-group structural equation models indicated good overall model fit. As hypothesized, experiences of discrimination, childhood family adversities, childhood sexual abuse, other childhood trauma, and chronic stresses all loaded on the latent cumulative burden of adversities and trauma construct (CBAT). The CBAT stress exposure index in turn predicted the mental health status latent variable. Although there were several significant univariate ethnic and gender differences, and ethnic and gender differences were observed on several paths, there were no significant ethnic differences in the final model fit of the data. These findings highlight the deleterious consequences of cumulative stress and trauma for mental health and underscore a need to assess these constructs in selecting appropriate clinical interventions for reducing mental health disparities and improving human health. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Influence of occupational exposure to pesticides on lymphocytes responses to environment and UV. Report from the EC Project ERBIC 15CT 960300 'Pesticide Effects on Humans'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The report presented studies of the genotoxic influence of occupational exposure to pesticides on human lymphocytes. The susceptibility of the cells to UV-C radiation and repair capacities of DNA damages were examined

  8. Exposure conditions, lung function and airway symptoms in industrial production of wood pellets. A pilot project; Exponeringsfoerhaallanden, lungfunktion och luftvaegsbesaer vid industriell produktion av traepellets. Ett pilotprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edman, Katja; Loefstedt, Haakan; Berg, Peter; Bryngelsson, I.L.; Fedeli, Cecilia; Selden, Anders [Oerebro Univ. Hospital (Sweden). Yrkes- och miljoemedicinska kliniken; Eriksson, Kaare [Umeaa Univ. Hospital (Sweden); Holmstroem, Mats; Rask- Andersen, Anna [Uppsala Univ. Hospital (Sweden)

    2002-02-01

    The production of wood pellets is a relatively new branch of the Swedish wood industry and has increased during the last years. A pilot study was performed to investigate the prevalence of airway symptoms, lung function and exposure among all 39 men employed in industrial production of wood pellets at six companies. The study included a questionnaire, medical examination, registration of nasal-PEF (peak expiratory flow) during a week, allergy screening (Phadiatop) and lung function (spirometry) before and after work shift. The results were compared with different reference data from other Swedish studies. Exposure measurements of monoterpenes and wood dust on filter and with a data logger (DataRAM) were also performed. The study group reported a higher frequency of cough without phlegm, awakening due to breathlessness and current asthma medication compared with reference data. For five of the six participants with physician-diagnosed asthma the disease debuted before the current employment and the results did not indicate an unusual asthma morbidity. Spirometry showed lower lung function before work shift than expected. However no difference over work shift was observed. A negative and non-significant correlation was seen between time with current work task and lung function. The study group reported a higher frequency of nasal symptoms mostly blockage, sneezing and dryness compared with reference data. The registrations of nasal-PEF did not show any differences between work and spare time. The prevalence of positive Phadiatop (23 %) did not differ from reference data. No association between exposure (wood dust and monoterpenes) and acute effects on lung function was observed. The wood dust exposure (0.16-19 mg/m{sup 3}) was high and 11 of 24 measurements exceeded the present Swedish occupational exposure limit of 2 mg/m{sup 3}. Peak exposures could be identified, e.g. at cleaning of engines with compressed air, with the DataRAM. The exposure to monoterpenes (0

  9. Study of the effectiveness of a participatory ergonomics intervention in reducing worker pain severity through physical exposure pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, Andrew C; Frazer, Mardon B; Cole, Donald C; Kerr, Mickey S; Wells, Richard P; Norman, Robert W

    2005-02-01

    A participatory ergonomics programme was implemented in an automotive parts manufacturing factory. An ergonomics change team was formed composed of members from management and the organized labour union. It was hypothesized that the physical change projects implemented as part of this process would result in decreased worker exposures to peak and cumulative physical demands and reduced worker perceptions of physical effort and pain severity. A quasi-experimental design was employed, utilizing a sister plant in the corporation as a referent group. A longitudinal questionnaire approach was used to document pre-post changes in worker perceptions. In general, the physical change projects were rated as improvements by workers and were successful at reducing peak and/or cumulative mechanical exposures. However, there were few systematic changes in perceived effort or pain severity levels. Explanations include the confounding effects of differential production rate and staffing changes at the intervention and referent plants and/or insufficient overall intervention intensity due to a relatively short intervention period, plant and team ambivalence towards the process and the low overall impact on exposure of the particular changes implemented.

  10. County‐level cumulative environmental quality associated with cancer incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Cancer risk is affected by a combination of behavioral, genetic, and environmental factors. Individual environmental exposures have been associated with cancer development; however, a variety of environmental exposures may occur simultaneously. The Environmental Quali...

  11. Cumulants of heat transfer across nonlinear quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huanan; Agarwalla, Bijay Kumar; Li, Baowen; Wang, Jian-Sheng

    2013-12-01

    We consider thermal conduction across a general nonlinear phononic junction. Based on two-time observation protocol and the nonequilibrium Green's function method, heat transfer in steady-state regimes is studied, and practical formulas for the calculation of the cumulant generating function are obtained. As an application, the general formalism is used to study anharmonic effects on fluctuation of steady-state heat transfer across a single-site junction with a quartic nonlinear on-site pinning potential. An explicit nonlinear modification to the cumulant generating function exact up to the first order is given, in which the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation symmetry is found still valid. Numerically a self-consistent procedure is introduced, which works well for strong nonlinearity.

  12. A cumulant functional for static and dynamic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollett, Joshua W.; Hosseini, Hessam; Menzies, Cameron

    2016-01-01

    A functional for the cumulant energy is introduced. The functional is composed of a pair-correction and static and dynamic correlation energy components. The pair-correction and static correlation energies are functionals of the natural orbitals and the occupancy transferred between near-degenerate orbital pairs, rather than the orbital occupancies themselves. The dynamic correlation energy is a functional of the statically correlated on-top two-electron density. The on-top density functional used in this study is the well-known Colle-Salvetti functional. Using the cc-pVTZ basis set, the functional effectively models the bond dissociation of H 2 , LiH, and N 2 with equilibrium bond lengths and dissociation energies comparable to those provided by multireference second-order perturbation theory. The performance of the cumulant functional is less impressive for HF and F 2 , mainly due to an underestimation of the dynamic correlation energy by the Colle-Salvetti functional.

  13. Fragmentation of tensor polarized deuterons into cumulative pions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanas'ev, S.; Arkhipov, V.; Bondarev, V.

    1998-01-01

    The tensor analyzing power T 20 of the reaction d polarized + A → π - (0 0 ) + X has been measured in the fragmentation of 9 GeV tensor polarized deuterons into pions with momenta from 3.5 to 5.3 GeV/c on hydrogen, beryllium and carbon targets. This kinematic range corresponds to the region of cumulative hadron production with the cumulative variable x c from 1.08 to 1.76. The values of T 20 have been found to be small and consistent with positive values. This contradicts the predictions based on a direct mechanism assuming NN collision between a high momentum nucleon in the deuteron and a target nucleon (NN → NNπ)

  14. Ecosystem assessment methods for cumulative effects at the regional scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunsaker, C.T.

    1989-01-01

    Environmental issues such as nonpoint-source pollution, acid rain, reduced biodiversity, land use change, and climate change have widespread ecological impacts and require an integrated assessment approach. Since 1978, the implementing regulations for the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) have required assessment of potential cumulative environmental impacts. Current environmental issues have encouraged ecologists to improve their understanding of ecosystem process and function at several spatial scales. However, management activities usually occur at the local scale, and there is little consideration of the potential impacts to the environmental quality of a region. This paper proposes that regional ecological risk assessment provides a useful approach for assisting scientists in accomplishing the task of assessing cumulative impacts. Critical issues such as spatial heterogeneity, boundary definition, and data aggregation are discussed. Examples from an assessment of acidic deposition effects on fish in Adirondack lakes illustrate the importance of integrated data bases, associated modeling efforts, and boundary definition at the regional scale

  15. Unique versus cumulative effects of physical and sexual assault on patterns of adolescent substance use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charak, R.; Koot, H. M.; Dvorak, R. D.

    2015-01-01

    The present study assessed the unique versus cumulative effects of physical and sexual assault, on patterns of substance-use in adolescents. It was hypothesized that experiencing a single assault (physical or sexual) when compared with exposure to both physical and sexual assault would be more...... strongly related to membership of polysubstance use classes. From the National Survey of Adolescents-1995 (N=4023) 918 adolescents (age range=12-17 years, M=14.92, 49.6% female) with reports of physical assault and/or sexual assault were selected. Using information on alcohol-use, cigarette...... to a single type of assault those exposed to both physical and sexual assault were two-to-three times more likely to be in the heavier polysubstance-use class. Females were more likely to be members of the polysubstance-use class than of the experimental use class. Gender did not emerge as a significant...

  16. Morphology of the cumulative logistic distribution when used as a model of radiologic film characteristic curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The cumulative logistic distribution (CLD) is an empiric model for film characteristic curves. Characterizing the shape parameters of the CLD in terms of contrast, latitude and speed is required. The CLD is written as Υ-F=D/[1+EXP-(Κ+κ 1 X)] where Υ is the optical density (OD) at log exposure X, F is fog level, D is a constant equal to Dm-F, Κ and κ 1 are shape parameters, and Dm is the maximum attainable OD. Further analysis demonstrates that when Κ is held constant, Κ 1 characterizes contrast (the larger κ 1 , the greater the contrast) and hence latitude; when κ 1 is held constant, Κ characterizes film speed (the larger Κ is, the faster the film). These equations and concepts are further illustrated with examples from radioscintigraphy, diagnostic radiology, and light sensitometry

  17. Polarization in high Psub(trans) and cumulative hadron production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efremov, A.V.

    1978-01-01

    The final hadron polarization in the high Psub(trans) processes is analyzed in the parton hard scattering picture. Scaling assumption allows a correct qualitative description to be given for the Psub(trans)-behaviour of polarization or escape angle behaviour in cumulative production. The energy scaling and weak dependence on the beam and target type is predicted. A method is proposed for measuring the polarization of hadron jets

  18. Firm heterogeneity, Rules of Origin and Rules of Cumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Bombarda , Pamela; Gamberoni , Elisa

    2013-01-01

    We analyse the impact of relaxing rules of origin (ROOs) in a simple setting with heterogeneous firms that buy intermediate inputs from domestic and foreign sources. In particular, we consider the impact of switching from bilateral to diagonal cumulation when using preferences (instead of paying the MFN tariff) involving the respect of rules of origin. We find that relaxing the restrictiveness of the ROOs leads the least productive exporters to stop exporting. The empirical part confirms thes...

  19. Severe occupational hand eczema, job stress and cumulative sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, D; Stock Gissendanner, S; Finkeldey, F; John, S M; Werfel, T; Diepgen, T L; Breuer, K

    2014-10-01

    Stress is known to activate or exacerbate dermatoses, but the relationships between chronic stress, job-related stress and sickness absence among occupational hand eczema (OHE) patients are inadequately understood. To see whether chronic stress or burnout symptoms were associated with cumulative sickness absence in patients with OHE and to determine which factors predicted sickness absence in a model including measures of job-related and chronic stress. We investigated correlations of these factors in employed adult inpatients with a history of sickness absence due to OHE in a retrospective cross-sectional explorative study, which assessed chronic stress (Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress), burnout (Shirom Melamed Burnout Measure), clinical symptom severity (Osnabrück Hand Eczema Severity Index), perceived symptom severity, demographic characteristics and cumulative days of sickness absence. The study group consisted of 122 patients. OHE symptoms were not more severe among patients experiencing greater stress and burnout. Women reported higher levels of chronic stress on some measures. Cumulative days of sickness absence correlated with individual dimensions of job-related stress and, in multiple regression analysis, with an overall measure of chronic stress. Chronic stress is an additional factor predicting cumulative sickness absence among severely affected OHE patients. Other relevant factors for this study sample included the 'cognitive weariness' subscale of the Shirom Melamed Burnout Measure and the physical component summary score of the SF-36, a measure of health-related life quality. Prevention and rehabilitation should take job stress into consideration in multidisciplinary treatment strategies for severely affected OHE patients. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Finite-volume cumulant expansion in QCD-colorless plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladrem, M. [Taibah University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Madinah, Al-Munawwarah (Saudi Arabia); Physics Department, Algiers (Algeria); ENS-Vieux Kouba (Bachir El-Ibrahimi), Laboratoire de Physique et de Mathematiques Appliquees (LPMA), Algiers (Algeria); Ahmed, M.A.A. [Taibah University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Madinah, Al-Munawwarah (Saudi Arabia); ENS-Vieux Kouba (Bachir El-Ibrahimi), Laboratoire de Physique et de Mathematiques Appliquees (LPMA), Algiers (Algeria); Taiz University in Turba, Physics Department, Taiz (Yemen); Alfull, Z.Z. [Taibah University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Madinah, Al-Munawwarah (Saudi Arabia); Cherif, S. [ENS-Vieux Kouba (Bachir El-Ibrahimi), Laboratoire de Physique et de Mathematiques Appliquees (LPMA), Algiers (Algeria); Ghardaia University, Sciences and Technologies Department, Ghardaia (Algeria)

    2015-09-15

    Due to the finite-size effects, the localization of the phase transition in finite systems and the determination of its order, become an extremely difficult task, even in the simplest known cases. In order to identify and locate the finite-volume transition point T{sub 0}(V) of the QCD deconfinement phase transition to a colorless QGP, we have developed a new approach using the finite-size cumulant expansion of the order parameter and the L{sub mn}-method. The first six cumulants C{sub 1,2,3,4,5,6} with the corresponding under-normalized ratios (skewness Σ, kurtosis κ, pentosis Π{sub ±}, and hexosis H{sub 1,2,3}) and three unnormalized combinations of them, (O = σ{sup 2}κΣ{sup -1},U = σ{sup -2}Σ{sup -1},N = σ{sup 2}κ) are calculated and studied as functions of (T, V). A new approach, unifying in a clear and consistent way the definitions of cumulant ratios, is proposed.Anumerical FSS analysis of the obtained results has allowed us to locate accurately the finite-volume transition point. The extracted transition temperature value T{sub 0}(V) agrees with that expected T{sub 0}{sup N}(V) from the order parameter and the thermal susceptibility χ{sub T} (T, V), according to the standard procedure of localization to within about 2%. In addition to this, a very good correlation factor is obtained proving the validity of our cumulants method. The agreement of our results with those obtained by means of other models is remarkable. (orig.)

  1. Science and Societal Partnerships to Address Cumulative Impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Lundquist, Carolyn J.; Fisher, Karen T.; Le Heron, Richard; Lewis, Nick I.; Ellis, Joanne I.; Hewitt, Judi E.; Greenaway, Alison J.; Cartner, Katie J.; Burgess-Jones, Tracey C.; Schiel, David R.; Thrush, Simon F.

    2016-01-01

    Funding and priorities for ocean research are not separate from the underlying sociological, economic, and political landscapes that determine values attributed to ecological systems. Here we present a variation on science prioritization exercises, focussing on inter-disciplinary research questions with the objective of shifting broad scale management practices to better address cumulative impacts and multiple users. Marine scientists in New Zealand from a broad range of scientific and social...

  2. Cumulative prospect theory and mean variance analysis. A rigorous comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Hens, Thorsten; Mayer, Janos

    2012-01-01

    We compare asset allocations derived for cumulative prospect theory(CPT) based on two different methods: Maximizing CPT along the mean–variance efficient frontier and maximizing it without that restriction. We find that with normally distributed returns the difference is negligible. However, using standard asset allocation data of pension funds the difference is considerable. Moreover, with derivatives like call options the restriction to the mean-variance efficient frontier results in a siza...

  3. Signal anomaly detection using modified CUSUM [cumulative sum] method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgenstern, V.; Upadhyaya, B.R.; Benedetti, M.

    1988-01-01

    An important aspect of detection of anomalies in signals is the identification of changes in signal behavior caused by noise, jumps, changes in band-width, sudden pulses and signal bias. A methodology is developed to identify, isolate and characterize these anomalies using a modification of the cumulative sum (CUSUM) approach. The new algorithm performs anomaly detection at three levels and is implemented on a general purpose computer. 7 refs., 4 figs

  4. Probabilistic assessment of the cumulative dietary exposure of the population of Denmark to endocrine disrupting pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Christiansen, Sofie

    2013-01-01

    to these pesticides from the intake of fruit and vegetables. The assessment was carried out using the probabilistic approach combined with the relative potency factor (RPF) approach. Residue data for prochloraz, procymidone, and tebuconazole were obtained from the Danish monitoring programme 2006–2009, while residue...... data for epoxiconazole were obtained from the Swedish monitoring programme carried out in the period 2007–2009. Food consumption data were obtained from the Danish nationwide dietary survey conducted in 2000–2002. Relative potency factors for the four pesticides were obtained from rat studies...

  5. Cumulative exposure to disadvantage and the intergenerational transmission of neighbourhood effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hedman, L.; Manley, D.; Van Ham, M.; Östh, J.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of neighbourhood effects typically investigate the instantaneous effect of point-in-time measures of neighbourhood poverty on individual outcomes. It has been suggested that it is not solely the current neighbourhood, but also the neigh-bourhood history of an individual that is important in

  6. Cumulative genetic effects from exposure of male mice to tritium for ten generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mewissen, D.J.; Ugarte, A.S.

    1979-01-01

    Three sublines of C57 Black/6M mice were propagated from three sibling pairs from the same litter. All breeders were weaned at 28+-2 days of age. At each generation in experimental lines weaned male breeders aged 35 days either received a single injection of tritiated thymidine (1 μCi/g of body weight) or were exposed for 5 weeks to tritiated drinking water (10 μCi/ml). At 10 weeks of age all breeders were sibling-mated. The time of delivery, the litter size and sex ratio was recorded. At each generation the offspring in the three lines were sibling-mated in the same sequence as their parents. At the 6th generation total offspring in the sibling line receiving tritiated thymidine numbered 108 versus 336 in the sibling line exposed to tritiated water, in contrast with 721 in the control sibling line. The 6th generation couples (20 in either subline) generated at the 9th generation 624 animals in the control subline versus 386 and 476 in the subline exposed to tritium. The data suggest a trend toward reduction in the subpopulation of offspring propagated from male parents exposed to tritiated water or tritiated thymidine. At the 9th generation 50 couples were assigned to a special study on reproductive fitness. The litter size was decreased and infant mortality was increased in experimental sublines (chi-square test, P<0.05). In control, as well as in experimental lines, at 70 days of age males were sibling-mated with their sisters. All animals received tap water and were not exposed at any time to tritiated thymidine or tritiated water. Preimplantation loss values were significantly increased in experimental versus control sublines (chi-square test, P<0.01). The dose to male sperm over a 35-day period was estimated at 3.7 rads from tritiated water and at 3.9 rads from tritiated thymidine under our experimental conditions

  7. Problems of describing the cumulative effect in relativistic nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldin, A.M.

    1979-01-01

    The problem of describing the cumulative effect i.e., the particle production on nuclei in the range kinematically forbidden for one-nucleon collisions, is studied. Discrimination of events containing cumulative particles fixes configurations in the wave function of a nucleus, when several nucleons are closely spaced and their quark-parton components are collectivized. For the cumulative processes under consideration large distances between quarks are very important. The fundamental facts and theoretical interpretation of the quantum field theory and of the condensed media theory in the relativistic nuclear physics are presented in brief. The collisions of the relativistic nuclei with low momentum transfers is considered in a fast moving coordinate system. The basic parameter determining this type of collisions is the energy of nucleon binding in nuclei. It has been shown that the short-range correlation model provides a good presentation of many characteristics of the multiple particle production and it may be regarded as an approximate universal property of hadron interactions

  8. Dynamic prediction of cumulative incidence functions by direct binomial regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand, Mia K; de Witte, Theo J M; Putter, Hein

    2018-03-25

    In recent years there have been a series of advances in the field of dynamic prediction. Among those is the development of methods for dynamic prediction of the cumulative incidence function in a competing risk setting. These models enable the predictions to be updated as time progresses and more information becomes available, for example when a patient comes back for a follow-up visit after completing a year of treatment, the risk of death, and adverse events may have changed since treatment initiation. One approach to model the cumulative incidence function in competing risks is by direct binomial regression, where right censoring of the event times is handled by inverse probability of censoring weights. We extend the approach by combining it with landmarking to enable dynamic prediction of the cumulative incidence function. The proposed models are very flexible, as they allow the covariates to have complex time-varying effects, and we illustrate how to investigate possible time-varying structures using Wald tests. The models are fitted using generalized estimating equations. The method is applied to bone marrow transplant data and the performance is investigated in a simulation study. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Energy Current Cumulants in One-Dimensional Systems in Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Abhishek; Saito, Keiji; Roy, Anjan

    2018-06-01

    A recent theory based on fluctuating hydrodynamics predicts that one-dimensional interacting systems with particle, momentum, and energy conservation exhibit anomalous transport that falls into two main universality classes. The classification is based on behavior of equilibrium dynamical correlations of the conserved quantities. One class is characterized by sound modes with Kardar-Parisi-Zhang scaling, while the second class has diffusive sound modes. The heat mode follows Lévy statistics, with different exponents for the two classes. Here we consider heat current fluctuations in two specific systems, which are expected to be in the above two universality classes, namely, a hard particle gas with Hamiltonian dynamics and a harmonic chain with momentum conserving stochastic dynamics. Numerical simulations show completely different system-size dependence of current cumulants in these two systems. We explain this numerical observation using a phenomenological model of Lévy walkers with inputs from fluctuating hydrodynamics. This consistently explains the system-size dependence of heat current fluctuations. For the latter system, we derive the cumulant-generating function from a more microscopic theory, which also gives the same system-size dependence of cumulants.

  10. Preference, resistance to change, and the cumulative decision model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Randolph C

    2018-01-01

    According to behavioral momentum theory (Nevin & Grace, 2000a), preference in concurrent chains and resistance to change in multiple schedules are independent measures of a common construct representing reinforcement history. Here I review the original studies on preference and resistance to change in which reinforcement variables were manipulated parametrically, conducted by Nevin, Grace and colleagues between 1997 and 2002, as well as more recent research. The cumulative decision model proposed by Grace and colleagues for concurrent chains is shown to provide a good account of both preference and resistance to change, and is able to predict the increased sensitivity to reinforcer rate and magnitude observed with constant-duration components. Residuals from fits of the cumulative decision model to preference and resistance to change data were positively correlated, supporting the prediction of behavioral momentum theory. Although some questions remain, the learning process assumed by the cumulative decision model, in which outcomes are compared against a criterion that represents the average outcome value in the current context, may provide a plausible model for the acquisition of differential resistance to change. © 2018 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  11. Exposure to an open-field arena increases c-Fos expression in a distributed anxiety-related system projecting to the basolateral amygdaloid complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hale, M.W.; Hay-Schmidt, A.; Mikkelsen, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    Anxiety states and anxiety-related behaviors appear to be regulated by a distributed and highly interconnected system of brain structures including the basolateral amygdala. Our previous studies demonstrate that exposure of rats to an open-field in high- and low-light conditions results in a marked...... increase in c-Fos expression in the anterior part of the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus (BLA) compared with controls. The neural mechanisms underlying the anatomically specific effects of open-field exposure on c-Fos expression in the BLA are not clear, however, it is likely that this reflects activation...... to this region in combination with c-Fos immunostaining to identify cells responding to exposure to an open-field arena in low-light (8-13 lux) conditions (an anxiogenic stimulus in rats). Adult male Wistar rats received a unilateral microinjection of 4% CTb in phosphate-buffered saline into the basolateral...

  12. Evolution of costly explicit memory and cumulative culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamaru, Mayuko

    2016-06-21

    Humans can acquire new information and modify it (cumulative culture) based on their learning and memory abilities, especially explicit memory, through the processes of encoding, consolidation, storage, and retrieval. Explicit memory is categorized into semantic and episodic memories. Animals have semantic memory, while episodic memory is unique to humans and essential for innovation and the evolution of culture. As both episodic and semantic memory are needed for innovation, the evolution of explicit memory influences the evolution of culture. However, previous theoretical studies have shown that environmental fluctuations influence the evolution of imitation (social learning) and innovation (individual learning) and assume that memory is not an evolutionary trait. If individuals can store and retrieve acquired information properly, they can modify it and innovate new information. Therefore, being able to store and retrieve information is essential from the perspective of cultural evolution. However, if both storage and retrieval were too costly, forgetting and relearning would have an advantage over storing and retrieving acquired information. In this study, using mathematical analysis and individual-based simulations, we investigate whether cumulative culture can promote the coevolution of costly memory and social and individual learning, assuming that cumulative culture improves the fitness of each individual. The conclusions are: (1) without cumulative culture, a social learning cost is essential for the evolution of storage-retrieval. Costly storage-retrieval can evolve with individual learning but costly social learning does not evolve. When low-cost social learning evolves, the repetition of forgetting and learning is favored more than the evolution of costly storage-retrieval, even though a cultural trait improves the fitness. (2) When cumulative culture exists and improves fitness, storage-retrieval can evolve with social and/or individual learning, which

  13. El Carreto o Cumulá - Aspidosperma Dugandii Standl El Carreto o Cumulá - Aspidosperma Dugandii Standl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugand Armando

    1944-03-01

    Full Text Available Nombres vulgares: Carreto (Atlántico, Bolívar, Magdalena; Cumulá, Cumulá (Cundinamarca, ToIima. Según el Dr. Emilio Robledo (Lecciones de Bot. ed. 3, 2: 544. 1939 el nombre Carreto también es empleado en Puerto Berrío (Antioquia. El mismo autor (loc. cit. da el nombre Comulá para una especie indeterminada de Viburnum en Mariquita (Tolima y J. M. Duque, refiriendose a la misma planta y localidad (en Bot. Gen. Colomb. 340, 356. 1943 atribuye este nombre vulgar al Aspidosperma ellipticum Rusby.  Sin embargo, las muestras de madera de Cumulá o Comulá que yo he examinado, procedentes de la región de Mariquita -una de las cuales me fue recientemente enviada por el distinguido ictiólogo Sr. Cecil Miles- pertenecen sin duda alguna al A. Dugandii StandI. Por otra parte, Santiago Cortés (FI. Colomb. 206. 1898; ed, 2: 239. 1912 cita el Cumulá "de Anapoima y otros lugares del (rio Magdalena" diciendo que pertenece a las Leguminosas, pero la brevísima descripción que este autor hace de la madera "naranjada y notable por densidad, dureza y resistencia a la humedad", me induce a creer que se trata del mismo Cumula coleccionado recientemente en Tocaima, ya que esta población esta situada a pocos kilómetros de Anapoima. Nombres vulgares: Carreto (Atlántico, Bolívar, Magdalena; Cumulá, Cumulá (Cundinamarca, ToIima. Según el Dr. Emilio Robledo (Lecciones de Bot. ed. 3, 2: 544. 1939 el nombre Carreto también es empleado en Puerto Berrío (Antioquia. El mismo autor (loc. cit. da el nombre Comulá para una especie indeterminada de Viburnum en Mariquita (Tolima y J. M. Duque, refiriendose a la misma planta y localidad (en Bot. Gen. Colomb. 340, 356. 1943 atribuye este nombre vulgar al Aspidosperma ellipticum Rusby.  Sin embargo, las muestras de madera de Cumulá o Comulá que yo he examinado, procedentes de la región de Mariquita -una de las cuales me fue recientemente enviada por el distinguido ictiólogo Sr. Cecil Miles- pertenecen sin

  14. Estimating the Cumulative Ecological Effect of Local Scale Landscape Changes in South Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Dianna M.; Labiosa, William; Pearlstine, Leonard; Hallac, David; Strong, David; Hearn, Paul; Bernknopf, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Ecosystem restoration in south Florida is a state and national priority centered on the Everglades wetlands. However, urban development pressures affect the restoration potential and remaining habitat functions of the natural undeveloped areas. Land use (LU) planning often focuses at the local level, but a better understanding of the cumulative effects of small projects at the landscape level is needed to support ecosystem restoration and preservation. The South Florida Ecosystem Portfolio Model (SFL EPM) is a regional LU planning tool developed to help stakeholders visualize LU scenario evaluation and improve communication about regional effects of LU decisions. One component of the SFL EPM is ecological value (EV), which is evaluated through modeled ecological criteria related to ecosystem services using metrics for (1) biodiversity potential, (2) threatened and endangered species, (3) rare and unique habitats, (4) landscape pattern and fragmentation, (5) water quality buffer potential, and (6) ecological restoration potential. In this article, we demonstrate the calculation of EV using two case studies: (1) assessing altered EV in the Biscayne Gateway area by comparing 2004 LU to potential LU in 2025 and 2050, and (2) the cumulative impact of adding limestone mines south of Miami. Our analyses spatially convey changing regional EV resulting from conversion of local natural and agricultural areas to urban, industrial, or extractive use. Different simulated local LU scenarios may result in different alterations in calculated regional EV. These case studies demonstrate methods that may facilitate evaluation of potential future LU patterns and incorporate EV into decision making.

  15. The effects of varying exposure to malaria transmission on development of antimalarial antibody responses in preschool children. XVI. Asembo Bay Cohort Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singer, Lauren M.; Mirel, Lisa B.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Branch, OraLee H.; Vulule, John M.; Kolczak, Margarette S.; Hawley, William A.; Kariuki, Simon K.; Kaslow, David C.; Lanar, David E.; Lal, Altaf A.

    2003-01-01

    In areas of intense malaria transmission, malaria morbidity and mortality is highest in children 3-18 months old. Interventions that reduce malaria exposure early in life reduce morbidity but may also delay development of clinical immunity. We assessed the relationship between intensity of malaria

  16. Simulating Real-World Exposures during Emergency Events: Studying Effects of Indoor and Outdoor Releases in the Urban Dispersion Project in Upper Manhattan, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A prospective personal exposure study, involving indoor and outdoor releases, was conducted in upper Midtown Manhattan in New York City as part of the Urban Dispersion Program (UDP) focusing on atmospheric dispersion of chemicals in complex urban settings. The UDP experiments inv...

  17. A comparative study of floor construction on sloping sites: an analysis of cumulative energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Ding

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to make environmentally aware decisions, there is growing interest in the comparative energy and greenhouse gas (GHG performance of competing construction methods. Little research has been done concerning competing ground floor construction methods, especially given different site variables, such as slope and soil type. A life cycle assessment approach was adopted to analyse environmental impacts, including cumulative energy demand and GHG emissions for detached housing construction in Australia. Data was drawn from 24 case study housing projects, including 12 reinforced concrete and 12 suspended timber floor projects. The data presented in the paper compares cumulative energy demand, GHG and the constituent parts of competing construction methods. The findings indicate that the timber floors use/create significantly less cumulative energy demand and GHG emissions than concrete floors—approximately 2.1 to 2.7 times less energy and 2.3 to 2.9 times less GHG. These findings are limited to the site slope and foundation soil types identified in the paper. The main application of the work is in guidance concerning the lowest environmental impact options for detached housing construction.

  18. Reactor-specific spent fuel discharge projections, 1984 to 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heeb, C.M.; Libby, R.A.; Holter, G.M.

    1985-04-01

    The original spent fuel utility data base (SFDB) has been adjusted to produce agreement with the EIA nuclear energy generation forecast. The procedure developed allows the detail of the utility data base to remain intact, while the overall nuclear generation is changed to match any uniform nuclear generation forecast. This procedure adjusts the weight of the reactor discharges as reported on the SFDB and makes a minimal (less than 10%) change in the original discharge exposures in order to preserve discharges of an integral number of fuel assemblies. The procedure used in developing the reactor-specific spent fuel discharge projections, as well as the resulting data bases themselves, are described in detail in this report. Discussions of the procedure cover the following topics: a description of the data base; data base adjustment procedures; addition of generic power reactors; and accuracy of the data base adjustments. Reactor-specific discharge and storage requirements are presented. Annual and cumulative discharge projections are provided. Annual and cumulative requirements for additional storage are shown for the maximum at-reactor (AR) storage assumption, and for the maximum AR with transshipment assumption. These compare directly to the storage requirements from the utility-supplied data, as reported in the Spent Fuel Storage Requirements Report. The results presented in this report include: the disaggregated spent fuel discharge projections; and disaggregated projections of requirements for additional spent fuel storage capacity prior to 1998. Descriptions of the methodology and the results are included in this report. Details supporting the discussions in the main body of the report, including descriptions of the capacity and fuel discharge projections, are included. 3 refs., 6 figs., 12 tabs

  19. Mismatch or cumulative stress : Toward an integrated hypothesis of programming effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhof, Esther; Schmidt, Mathias V.

    2012-01-01

    This paper integrates the cumulative stress hypothesis with the mismatch hypothesis, taking into account individual differences in sensitivity to programming. According to the cumulative stress hypothesis, individuals are more likely to suffer from disease as adversity accumulates. According to the

  20. Exposure Forecaster

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Exposure Forecaster Database (ExpoCastDB) is EPA's database for aggregating chemical exposure information and can be used to help with chemical exposure...

  1. Science and societal partnerships to address cumulative impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn J Lundquist

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Funding and priorities for ocean research are not separate from the underlying sociological, economic, and political landscapes that determine values attributed to ecological systems. Here we present a variation on science prioritisation exercises, focussing on inter-disciplinary research questions with the objective of shifting broad scale management practices to better address cumulative impacts and multiple users. Marine scientists in New Zealand from a broad range of scientific and social-scientific backgrounds ranked 48 statements of research priorities. At a follow up workshop, participants discussed five over-arching themes based on survey results. These themes were used to develop mechanisms to increase the relevance and efficiency of scientific research while acknowledging socio-economic and political drivers of research agendas in New Zealand’s ocean ecosystems. Overarching messages included the need to: 1 determine the conditions under which ‘surprises’ (sudden and substantive undesirable changes are likely to occur and the socio-ecological implications of such changes; 2 develop methodologies to reveal the complex and cumulative effects of change in marine systems, and their implications for resource use, stewardship, and restoration; 3 assess potential solutions to management issues that balance long-term and short-term benefits and encompass societal engagement in decision-making; 4 establish effective and appropriately resourced institutional networks to foster collaborative, solution-focused marine science; and 5 establish cross-disciplinary dialogues to translate diverse scientific and social-scientific knowledge into innovative regulatory, social and economic practice. In the face of multiple uses and cumulative stressors, ocean management frameworks must be adapted to build a collaborative framework across science, governance and society that can help stakeholders navigate uncertainties and socio-ecological surprises.

  2. Cumulative risk hypothesis: Predicting and preventing child maltreatment recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, David; Åsberg, Kia; Peer, Samuel; Prince, Gwendolyn

    2016-08-01

    Although Child Protective Services (CPS) and other child welfare agencies aim to prevent further maltreatment in cases of child abuse and neglect, recidivism is common. Having a better understanding of recidivism predictors could aid in preventing additional instances of maltreatment. A previous study identified two CPS interventions that predicted recidivism: psychotherapy for the parent, which was related to a reduced risk of recidivism, and temporary removal of the child from the parent's custody, which was related to an increased recidivism risk. However, counter to expectations, this previous study did not identify any other specific risk factors related to maltreatment recidivism. For the current study, it was hypothesized that (a) cumulative risk (i.e., the total number of risk factors) would significantly predict maltreatment recidivism above and beyond intervention variables in a sample of CPS case files and that (b) therapy for the parent would be related to a reduced likelihood of recidivism. Because it was believed that the relation between temporary removal of a child from the parent's custody and maltreatment recidivism is explained by cumulative risk, the study also hypothesized that that the relation between temporary removal of the child from the parent's custody and recidivism would be mediated by cumulative risk. After performing a hierarchical logistic regression analysis, the first two hypotheses were supported, and an additional predictor, psychotherapy for the child, also was related to reduced chances of recidivism. However, Hypothesis 3 was not supported, as risk did not significantly mediate the relation between temporary removal and recidivism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cumulative or delayed nephrotoxicity after cisplatin (DDP) treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnarò, P; Ruggeri, E M; Carlini, P; Giovannelli, M; Cognetti, F

    1986-04-30

    The present retrospective study reports data regarding renal toxicity in 115 patients (63 males, 52 females; median age, 56 years) who received cumulative doses of cisplatin (DDP) greater than or equal to 200 mg/m2. DDP was administered alone or in combination at a dose of 50-70 mg/m2 in 91 patients, and at a dose of 100 mg/m2 in 22 patients. Two patients after progression of ovarian carcinoma treated with conventional doses of DDP received 4 and 2 courses, respectively, of high-dose DDP (40 mg/m2 for 5 days) in hypertonic saline. The median number of DDP courses was 6 (range 2-14), and the median cumulative dose was 350 mg/m2 (range, 200-1200). Serum creatinine and urea nitrogen were determined before initiating the treatment and again 13-16 days after each administration. The incidence of azotemia (creatinina levels that exceeded 1.5 mg/dl) was similar before (7.8%) and after (6.1%) DDP doses of 200 mg/m2. Azotemia appears to be related to the association of DDP with other potentially nephrotoxic antineoplastic drugs (methotrexate) more than to the dose per course of DDP. Of 59 patients followed for 2 months or more after discontinuing the DDP treatment, 3 (5.1%) presented creatinine values higher than 1.5 mg/dl. The data deny that the incidence of nephrotoxicity is higher in patients receiving higher cumulative doses of DDP and confirm that increases in serum creatinine levels may occur some time after discontinuation of the drug.

  4. Relationship of cumulative low-level dose of ionizing radiation on human eye lens and occurrence of cataract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deolalikar, Raghavendra

    2015-01-01

    International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), issued a statement on Tissue Reaction, lowering the equivalent dose limit for eye lens for occupational exposure to 20 mSv per year. With a view to determine presence of any relationship between the cumulative low-level occupational radiation dose to the eye lens and occurrence of cataract, departmental records of the annual medical examination of employees of Narora Atomic Power Plant were examined along with the NAPS eye camps and surgical records of the employees. Analysis of the data showed no demonstrable definite relationship between the two. The analysis of the data and the observations are discussed in this paper. (author)

  5. Alchemy to reason: Effective use of Cumulative Effects Assessment in resource management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegmann, George; Yarranton, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    Cumulative Effects Assessment (CEA) is a tool that can be useful in making decisions about natural resource management and allocation. The decisions to be made include those (i) necessary to construct planning and regulatory frameworks to control development activity so that societal goals will be achieved and (ii) whether or not to approve individual development projects, with or without conditions. The evolution of CEA into a more successful tool cannot occur independently of the evolution of decision making processes. Currently progress is painfully slow on both fronts. This paper explores some opportunities to accelerate improvements in decision making in natural resource management and in the utility of CEA as a tool to assist in making such decisions. The focus of the paper is on how to define the public interest by determining what is acceptable.

  6. The proportional odds cumulative incidence model for competing risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Frank; Li, Jianing; Scheike, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We suggest an estimator for the proportional odds cumulative incidence model for competing risks data. The key advantage of this model is that the regression parameters have the simple and useful odds ratio interpretation. The model has been considered by many authors, but it is rarely used...... in practice due to the lack of reliable estimation procedures. We suggest such procedures and show that their performance improve considerably on existing methods. We also suggest a goodness-of-fit test for the proportional odds assumption. We derive the large sample properties and provide estimators...

  7. Lyapunov exponent of the random frequency oscillator: cumulant expansion approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anteneodo, C; Vallejos, R O

    2010-01-01

    We consider a one-dimensional harmonic oscillator with a random frequency, focusing on both the standard and the generalized Lyapunov exponents, λ and λ* respectively. We discuss the numerical difficulties that arise in the numerical calculation of λ* in the case of strong intermittency. When the frequency corresponds to a Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, we compute analytically λ* by using a cumulant expansion including up to the fourth order. Connections with the problem of finding an analytical estimate for the largest Lyapunov exponent of a many-body system with smooth interactions are discussed.

  8. Exact probability distribution function for the volatility of cumulative production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadourian, Rubina; Klümper, Andreas

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we study the volatility and its probability distribution function for the cumulative production based on the experience curve hypothesis. This work presents a generalization of the study of volatility in Lafond et al. (2017), which addressed the effects of normally distributed noise in the production process. Due to its wide applicability in industrial and technological activities we present here the mathematical foundation for an arbitrary distribution function of the process, which we expect will pave the future research on forecasting of the production process.

  9. Numerical simulation of explosive magnetic cumulative generator EMG-720

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deryugin, Yu N; Zelenskij, D K; Kazakova, I F; Kargin, V I; Mironychev, P V; Pikar, A S; Popkov, N F; Ryaslov, E A; Ryzhatskova, E G [All-Russian Research Inst. of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The paper discusses the methods and results of numerical simulations used in the development of a helical-coaxial explosive magnetic cumulative generator (EMG) with the stator up to 720 mm in diameter. In the process of designing, separate units were numerically modeled, as was the generator operation with a constant inductive-ohmic load. The 2-D processes of the armature acceleration by the explosion products were modeled as well as those of the formation of the sliding high-current contact between the armature and stator`s insulated turns. The problem of the armature integrity in the region of the detonation waves collision was numerically analyzed. 8 figs., 2 refs.

  10. Cumulative exergy losses associated with the production of lead metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szargut, J [Technical Univ. of Silesia, Gliwice (PL). Inst. of Thermal-Engineering; Morris, D R [New Brunswick Univ., Fredericton, NB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1990-08-01

    Cumulative exergy losses result from the irreversibility of the links of a technological network leading from raw materials and fuels extracted from nature to the product under consideration. The sum of these losses can be apportioned into partial exergy losses (associated with particular links of the technological network) or into constituent exergy losses (associated with constituent subprocesses of the network). The methods of calculation of the partial and constituent exergy losses are presented, taking into account the useful byproducts substituting the major products of other processes. Analyses of partial and constituent exergy losses are made for the technological network of lead metal production. (author).

  11. Cumulative effects of wind turbines. Volume 1: Report on the preparation of a planning tool by means of consensus-building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This report summarises the results of the Cumulative Effect of Wind Turbines project which sought to develop guidance on planning and assessing the combined effects of wind energy developments in an area. Details are given of the consensus-building approach, the call for contributions, stakeholder workshops and consultation, the project research, the development and refinement of the guidance, and the completion of the final draft.

  12. Methodological Considerations in Screening for Cumulative Environmental Health Impacts: Lessons Learned from a Pilot Study in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Zeise

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Polluting facilities and hazardous sites are often concentrated in low-income communities of color already facing additional stressors to their health. The influence of socioeconomic status is not considered in traditional models of risk assessment. We describe a pilot study of a screening method that considers both pollution burden and population characteristics in assessing the potential for cumulative impacts. The goal is to identify communities that warrant further attention and to thereby provide actionable guidance to decision- and policy-makers in achieving environmental justice. The method uses indicators related to five components to develop a relative cumulative impact score for use in comparing communities: exposures, public health effects, environmental effects, sensitive populations and socioeconomic factors. Here, we describe several methodological considerations in combining disparate data sources and report on the results of sensitivity analyses meant to guide future improvements in cumulative impact assessments. We discuss criteria for the selection of appropriate indicators, correlations between them, and consider data quality and the influence of choices regarding model structure. We conclude that the results of this model are largely robust to changes in model structure.

  13. Relationship between mutation frequency of GPA locus and cumulative dose among medical diagnostic X-ray workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jixian; Yu Wenru; Li Benxiao; Fan Tiqiang; Li Zhen; Gao Zhiwei; Chen Zhenjun; Zhao Yongcheng

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To explore the feasibility of using GPA locus mutation assay as a bio-dosimeter for occupational exposure to ionizing radiation. Methods: An improved technique of GPA locus mutation assay was used in th study. The frequencies of mutant RBC in peripheral blood of 55 medical X-ray workers and 50 controls employed in different calendar-year periods were detected. The relationship between mutation frequencies (MFs) and period of entry, working years and cumulative doses were analyzed. Results: The MFs were significantly elevated among X-ray workers employed before 1970. This finding is similar to the result of cancer epidemiological study among medical X-ray workers , in which the cancer risk was significantly increased only X-ray workers employed before 1970. The MFs of GPA increased with increasing cumulative dose. The dose-effect relationship of Nφ MF with cumulative dose was closer than that of NN MF. Conclusion: There are many problems to be solved for using GPA MF assay as a bio-dosimeter such as individual variation, specificity and calibration curve of dose-effect relationship

  14. Estimated cumulative radiation dose received by diagnostic imaging during staging and treatment of operable Ewing sarcoma 2005-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsen, Boel [Haukeland University Hospital, Centre for Nuclear Medicine and PET, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 1400, Bergen (Norway); Fasmer, Kristine Eldevik [Haukeland University Hospital, Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Section, Bergen (Norway); Boye, Kjetil [Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital, Department of Oncology, Oslo (Norway); Rosendahl, Karen; Aukland, Stein Magnus [Haukeland University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Paediatric Section, Bergen (Norway); University of Bergen, Department of Clinical Medicine, Bergen (Norway); Trovik, Clement [University of Bergen, Department of Clinical Medicine, Bergen (Norway); Haukeland University Hospital, Department of Surgery, Orthopaedic Section, Bergen (Norway); Biermann, Martin [Haukeland University Hospital, Centre for Nuclear Medicine and PET, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 1400, Bergen (Norway); University of Bergen, Department of Clinical Medicine, Bergen (Norway)

    2017-01-15

    Patients with Ewing sarcoma are subject to various diagnostic procedures that incur exposure to ionising radiation. To estimate the radiation doses received from all radiologic and nuclear imaging episodes during diagnosis and treatment, and to determine whether {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography - computed tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG PET-CT) is a major contributor of radiation. Twenty Ewing sarcoma patients diagnosed in Norway in 2005-2012 met the inclusion criteria (age <30 years, operable disease, uncomplicated chemotherapy and surgery, no metastasis or residual disease within a year of diagnosis). Radiation doses from all imaging during the first year were calculated for each patient. The mean estimated cumulative radiation dose for all patients was 34 mSv (range: 6-70), radiography accounting for 3 mSv (range: 0.2-12), CT for 13 mSv (range: 2-28) and nuclear medicine for 18 mSv (range: 2-47). For the patients examined with PET-CT, the mean estimated cumulative effective dose was 38 mSv, of which PET-CT accounted for 14 mSv (37%). There was large variation in number and type of examinations performed and also in estimated cumulative radiation dose. The mean radiation dose for patients examined with PET-CT was 23% higher than for patients not examined with PET-CT. (orig.)

  15. Estimated cumulative radiation dose received by diagnostic imaging during staging and treatment of operable Ewing sarcoma 2005-2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnsen, Boel; Fasmer, Kristine Eldevik; Boye, Kjetil; Rosendahl, Karen; Aukland, Stein Magnus; Trovik, Clement; Biermann, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Patients with Ewing sarcoma are subject to various diagnostic procedures that incur exposure to ionising radiation. To estimate the radiation doses received from all radiologic and nuclear imaging episodes during diagnosis and treatment, and to determine whether 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography - computed tomography ( 18 F-FDG PET-CT) is a major contributor of radiation. Twenty Ewing sarcoma patients diagnosed in Norway in 2005-2012 met the inclusion criteria (age <30 years, operable disease, uncomplicated chemotherapy and surgery, no metastasis or residual disease within a year of diagnosis). Radiation doses from all imaging during the first year were calculated for each patient. The mean estimated cumulative radiation dose for all patients was 34 mSv (range: 6-70), radiography accounting for 3 mSv (range: 0.2-12), CT for 13 mSv (range: 2-28) and nuclear medicine for 18 mSv (range: 2-47). For the patients examined with PET-CT, the mean estimated cumulative effective dose was 38 mSv, of which PET-CT accounted for 14 mSv (37%). There was large variation in number and type of examinations performed and also in estimated cumulative radiation dose. The mean radiation dose for patients examined with PET-CT was 23% higher than for patients not examined with PET-CT. (orig.)

  16. Addressing trend-related changes within cumulative effects studies in water resources planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canter, L.W., E-mail: envimptr@aol.com [University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma and President, Canter Associates, Inc., Horseshoe Bay, TX (United States); Chawla, M.K. [ERDC-CERL, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Champaign, IL (United States); Swor, C.T. [Canter Associates, Inc., Frankewing, TN (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Summarized herein are 28 case studies wherein trend-related causative physical, social, or institutional changes were connected to consequential changes in runoff, water quality, and riparian and aquatic ecological features. The reviewed cases were systematically evaluated relative to their identified environmental effects; usage of analytical frameworks, and appropriate models, methods, and technologies; and the attention given to mitigation and/or management of the resultant causative and consequential changes. These changes also represent important considerations in project design and operation, and in cumulative effects studies associated therewith. The cases were grouped into five categories: institutional changes associated with legislation and policies (seven cases); physical changes from land use changes in urbanizing watersheds (eight cases); physical changes from land use changes and development projects in watersheds (four cases); physical, institutional, and social changes from land use and related policy changes in river basins (three cases); and multiple changes within a comprehensive study of land use and policy changes in the Willamette River Basin in Oregon (six cases). A tabulation of 110 models, methods and technologies used in the studies is also presented. General observations from this review were that the features were unique for each case; the consequential changes were logically based on the causative changes; the analytical frameworks provided relevant structures for the studies, and the identified methods and technologies were pertinent for addressing both the causative and consequential changes. One key lesson was that the cases provide useful, “real-world” illustrations of the importance of addressing trend-related changes in cumulative effects studies within water resources planning. Accordingly, they could be used as an “initial tool kit” for addressing trend-related changes.

  17. Addressing trend-related changes within cumulative effects studies in water resources planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canter, L.W.; Chawla, M.K.; Swor, C.T.

    2014-01-01

    Summarized herein are 28 case studies wherein trend-related causative physical, social, or institutional changes were connected to consequential changes in runoff, water quality, and riparian and aquatic ecological features. The reviewed cases were systematically evaluated relative to their identified environmental effects; usage of analytical frameworks, and appropriate models, methods, and technologies; and the attention given to mitigation and/or management of the resultant causative and consequential changes. These changes also represent important considerations in project design and operation, and in cumulative effects studies associated therewith. The cases were grouped into five categories: institutional changes associated with legislation and policies (seven cases); physical changes from land use changes in urbanizing watersheds (eight cases); physical changes from land use changes and development projects in watersheds (four cases); physical, institutional, and social changes from land use and related policy changes in river basins (three cases); and multiple changes within a comprehensive study of land use and policy changes in the Willamette River Basin in Oregon (six cases). A tabulation of 110 models, methods and technologies used in the studies is also presented. General observations from this review were that the features were unique for each case; the consequential changes were logically based on the causative changes; the analytical frameworks provided relevant structures for the studies, and the identified methods and technologies were pertinent for addressing both the causative and consequential changes. One key lesson was that the cases provide useful, “real-world” illustrations of the importance of addressing trend-related changes in cumulative effects studies within water resources planning. Accordingly, they could be used as an “initial tool kit” for addressing trend-related changes

  18. Expansion formulae for characteristics of cumulative cost in finite horizon production models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayhan, H.; Schlegel, S.

    2001-01-01

    We consider the expected value and the tail probability of cumulative shortage and holding cost (i.e. the probability that cumulative cost is more than a certain value) in finite horizon production models. An exact expression is provided for the expected value of the cumulative cost for general

  19. Cumulative IT Use Is Associated with Psychosocial Stress Factors and Musculoskeletal Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billy C. L. So

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the relationship between cumulative use of electronic devices and musculoskeletal symptoms. Smartphones and tablet computers are very popular and people may own or operate several devices at the same time. High prevalence rates of musculoskeletal symptoms associated with intensive computer use have been reported. However, research focusing on mobile devices is only just emerging in recent years. In this study, 285 persons participated including 140 males and 145 females (age range 18–50. The survey consisted of self-reported estimation of daily information technology (IT exposure hours, tasks performed, psychosocial stress factors and relationship to musculoskeletal discomfort in the past 12 months. Total IT exposure time was an average of 7.38 h (±5.2 per day. The psychosocial factor of “working through pain” showed the most significant association with odds ratio (OR ranging from 1.078 (95% CI = 1.021–1.138 for elbow discomfort, to 1.111 (95% CI = 1.046–1.180 for shoulder discomfort. Desktop time was also significantly associated with wrist/hand discomfort (OR = 1.103. These findings indicate only a modest relationship but one that is statistically significant with accounting for confounders. It is anticipated that prevalence rates of musculoskeletal disorders would rise in the future with increasing contribution due to psychosocial stress factors.

  20. Cumulative IT Use Is Associated with Psychosocial Stress Factors and Musculoskeletal Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Billy C L; Cheng, Andy S K; Szeto, Grace P Y

    2017-12-08

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between cumulative use of electronic devices and musculoskeletal symptoms. Smartphones and tablet computers are very popular and people may own or operate several devices at the same time. High prevalence rates of musculoskeletal symptoms associated with intensive computer use have been reported. However, research focusing on mobile devices is only just emerging in recent years. In this study, 285 persons participated including 140 males and 145 females (age range 18-50). The survey consisted of self-reported estimation of daily information technology (IT) exposure hours, tasks performed, psychosocial stress factors and relationship to musculoskeletal discomfort in the past 12 months. Total IT exposure time was an average of 7.38 h (±5.2) per day. The psychosocial factor of "working through pain" showed the most significant association with odds ratio (OR) ranging from 1.078 (95% CI = 1.021-1.138) for elbow discomfort, to 1.111 (95% CI = 1.046-1.180) for shoulder discomfort. Desktop time was also significantly associated with wrist/hand discomfort (OR = 1.103). These findings indicate only a modest relationship but one that is statistically significant with accounting for confounders. It is anticipated that prevalence rates of musculoskeletal disorders would rise in the future with increasing contribution due to psychosocial stress factors.