WorldWideScience

Sample records for cumulative childhood adversity

  1. Separate and Cumulative Effects of Adverse Childhood Experiences in Predicting Adult Health and Health Care Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Mariette J.; Walker, John R.; Naimark, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Objectives of this population-based study were: (1) to examine the relative contribution of childhood abuse and other adverse childhood experiences to poor adult health and increased health care utilization and (2) to examine the cumulative effects of adverse childhood experiences on adult health and health care utilization. Methods:…

  2. Separate and Cumulative Effects of Adverse Childhood Experiences in Predicting Adult Health and Health Care Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Mariette J.; Walker, John R.; Naimark, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Objectives of this population-based study were: (1) to examine the relative contribution of childhood abuse and other adverse childhood experiences to poor adult health and increased health care utilization and (2) to examine the cumulative effects of adverse childhood experiences on adult health and health care utilization. Methods:…

  3. Cumulative childhood adversity, educational attainment, and active life expectancy among U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montez, Jennifer Karas; Hayward, Mark D

    2014-04-01

    Studies of the early-life origins of adult physical functioning and mortality have found that childhood health and socioeconomic context are important predictors, often irrespective of adult experiences. However, these studies have generally assessed functioning and mortality as distinct processes and used cross-sectional prevalence estimates that neglect the interplay of disability incidence, recovery, and mortality. Here, we examine whether early-life disadvantages both shorten lives and increase the number and fraction of years lived with functional impairment. We also examine the degree to which educational attainment mediates and moderates the health consequences of early-life disadvantages. Using the 1998-2008 Health and Retirement Study, we examine these questions for non-Hispanic whites and blacks aged 50-100 years using multistate life tables. Within levels of educational attainment, adults from disadvantaged childhoods lived fewer total and active years, and spent a greater portion of life impaired compared with adults from advantaged childhoods. Higher levels of education did not ameliorate the health consequences of disadvantaged childhoods. However, because education had a larger impact on health than did childhood socioeconomic context, adults from disadvantaged childhoods who achieved high education levels often had total and active life expectancies that were similar to or better than those of adults from advantaged childhoods who achieved low education levels.

  4. Cumulative exposure to childhood adversity, and treated attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a cohort study of 543 650 adolescents and young adults in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkenstam, E; Björkenstam, C; Jablonska, B; Kosidou, K

    2017-07-25

    Though childhood adversity (CA) has been associated with the risk of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), little is known about the effect of cumulative CAs and whether there are clusters of CAs that are more closely related with ADHD. We used a Swedish cohort of 543 650 individuals born 1987-1991. Register-based CAs included familial death, substantial parental substance abuse and psychiatric disorder, substantial parental criminality, parental separation, household public assistance recipiency, and residential instability. Individuals were followed from year 2006 when they were 15-19 years of age, for treated ADHD, defined as a registered ICD diagnosis and/or prescription of medications to treat ADHD. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Latent Class Analyses (LCA) were used to identify clusters based on the different CAs. All CAs increased the odds of ADHD in late adolescence and early adulthood; ORs ranged from 1.6 (95% CI 1.5-1.8) for familial death to 2.7 (95% CI 2.6-2.9) for household public assistance. We found a dose-response relationship between cumulative CA and ADHD; individuals with 4+ CAs had a markedly increased risk for ADHD (OR 5.5, 95% CI 5.0-6.0). LCA analyses revealed six distinct classes of CA associated with ADHD, of which 'exposure to most adversities' entailed highest risk. CA is a strong risk factor for ADHD, particularly when accumulated. Early and efficient detection of CA is of importance for interventions targeted to improve long-term mental health outcomes among disadvantaged children.

  5. Synergistic childhood adversities and complex adult psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Karen T; Harris, William W; Putnam, Frank W

    2013-08-01

    Numerous studies find a cumulative effect of different types of childhood adversities on increasing risk for serious adult mental and medical outcomes. This study uses the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication sample to investigate the cumulative impact of 8 childhood adversities on complex adult psychopathology as indexed by (a) number of lifetime diagnoses according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994); (b) number of 4 DSM-IV disorder categories (mood, anxiety, impulse control, and substance abuse disorders); and (c) coexistence of internalizing and externalizing disorders. Seven of the 8 childhood adversities were significantly associated with complex adult psychopathology. Individuals with 4 or more childhood adversities had an odds ratio of 7.3, 95% confidence interval [4.7, 11.7] for 4 disorder categories. Additive and multiplicative synergistic effects increasing adult psychopathology were found for specific pairwise combinations of childhood adversities. Synergistic patterns differed by gender suggesting that women are more impacted by sexual abuse and men by economic hardship. The absence of childhood adversities was protective, in that it significantly decreased an individual's risk for subsequent adult mental illness. The results support the clinical impression that increased childhood adversity is associated with more complex adult psychopathology.

  6. Adverse childhood experiences and health anxiety in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, Sarah J; McMillan, Katherine A; Wright, Kristi D; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2014-03-01

    Childhood experiences are thought to predispose a person to the development of health anxiety later in life. However, there is a lack of research investigating the influence of specific adverse experiences (e.g., childhood abuse, household dysfunction) on this condition. The current study examined the cumulative influence of multiple types of childhood adversities on health anxiety in adulthood. Adults 18-59 years of age (N=264) completed a battery of measures to assess adverse childhood experiences, health anxiety, and associated constructs (i.e., negative affect and trait anxiety). Significant associations were observed between adverse childhood experiences, health anxiety, and associated constructs. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicted that adverse childhood experiences were predictive of health anxiety in adulthood; however, the unique contribution of these experience were no longer significant following the inclusion of the other variables of interest. Subsequently, mediation analyses indicated that both negative affect and trait anxiety independently mediated the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and health anxiety in adulthood. Increased exposure to adverse childhood experiences is associated with higher levels of health anxiety in adulthood; this relationship is mediated through negative affect and trait anxiety. Findings support the long-term negative impact of cumulative adverse childhood experiences and emphasize the importance of addressing negative affect and trait anxiety in efforts to prevent and treat health anxiety.

  7. Childhood Cumulative Risk and Later Allostatic Load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doan, Stacey N; Dich, Nadya; Evans, Gary W

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study investigated the long-term impact of exposure to poverty-related stressors during childhood on allostatic load, an index of physiological dysregulation, and the potential mediating role of substance use. Method: Participants (n = 162) were rural children from New York...... in health across the life span and of the mechanisms by which adverse childhood environments impact health as children emerge into early adulthood. This knowledge will have implications for early intervention efforts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)....

  8. Cumulative early life adversity predicts longevity in wild baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Jenny; Archie, Elizabeth A; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C

    2016-04-19

    In humans and other animals, harsh circumstances in early life predict morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Multiple adverse conditions are thought to be especially toxic, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested in a prospective, longitudinal framework, especially in long-lived mammals. Here we use prospective data on 196 wild female baboons to show that cumulative early adversity predicts natural adult lifespan. Females who experience ≥3 sources of early adversity die a median of 10 years earlier than females who experience ≤1 adverse circumstances (median lifespan is 18.5 years). Females who experience the most adversity are also socially isolated in adulthood, suggesting that social processes partially explain the link between early adversity and adult survival. Our results provide powerful evidence for the developmental origins of health and disease and indicate that close ties between early adversity and survival arise even in the absence of health habit and health care-related explanations.

  9. Childhood adversities and laboratory pain perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieritz K

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Karoline Pieritz, Winfried Rief, Frank EuteneuerDivision of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Philipps University Marburg, Marburg, GermanyAbstract: Childhood adversity has frequently been related to a wide range of psychosomatic complaints in adulthood. The present study examined the relationship between different forms of childhood adversity and laboratory measures of pain. Heat pain tolerance and perceived heat pain intensity were measured in a community-based sample of 62 women (aged 20–64 years. Participants completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ, which assesses five forms of childhood adversity: physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect. Somatic symptoms, depressive symptoms, and pain catastrophizing were assessed as potential mediators. Bivariate analyses indicated that emotional abuse but no other forms of childhood adversity were significantly related to decreased heat pain tolerance (r=-0.27; P<0.05. Accordingly, multiple regression analyses revealed that only emotional abuse was a significant predictor of heat pain tolerance (β=-0.62; P=0.034 when entering all CTQ subscales simultaneously. Although emotional abuse was also related to somatic symptoms, depressive symptoms, and pain catastrophizing, none of these variables mediated the relationship between childhood adversity and laboratory pain (P>0.1. No significant associations were found between any forms of childhood adversity and heat pain intensity. Our findings indicate that the severity of emotional childhood abuse is associated with decreased pain tolerance, an affective component of pain, but not with heat pain intensity, which has been described as a sensory component of pain.Keywords: childhood adversity, emotional abuse, pain tolerance, pain intensity, somatic symptoms

  10. Childhood Cumulative Risk Exposure and Adult Amygdala Volume and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gary W; Swain, James E; King, Anthony P; Wang, Xin; Javanbakht, Arash; Ho, S Shaun; Angstadt, Michael; Phan, K Luan; Xie, Hong; Liberzon, Israel

    2016-06-01

    Considerable work indicates that early cumulative risk exposure is aversive to human development, but very little research has examined the neurological underpinnings of these robust findings. This study investigates amygdala volume and reactivity to facial stimuli among adults (mean 23.7 years of age, n = 54) as a function of cumulative risk exposure during childhood (9 and 13 years of age). In addition, we test to determine whether expected cumulative risk elevations in amygdala volume would mediate functional reactivity of the amygdala during socioemotional processing. Risks included substandard housing quality, noise, crowding, family turmoil, child separation from family, and violence. Total and left hemisphere adult amygdala volumes were positively related to cumulative risk exposure during childhood. The links between childhood cumulative risk exposure and elevated amygdala responses to emotionally neutral facial stimuli in adulthood were mediated by the corresponding amygdala volumes. Cumulative risk exposure in later adolescence (17 years of age), however, was unrelated to subsequent adult amygdala volume or function. Physical and socioemotional risk exposures early in life appear to alter amygdala development, rendering adults more reactive to ambiguous stimuli such as neutral faces. These stress-related differences in childhood amygdala development might contribute to the well-documented psychological distress as a function of early risk exposure.

  11. Childhood adversities, adulthood life events and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkeila, Jyrki; Vahtera, Jussi; Nabi, Hermann; Kivimäki, Mika; Korkeila, Katariina; Sumanen, Markku; Koskenvuo, Karoliina; Koskenvuo, Markku

    2010-12-01

    The role of childhood adversities in predicting adulthood depression has been suggested to be complex and in need of additional comprehensive studies. This investigation set out to examine whether increased exposure to life events (LEs) in adulthood mediates the association between childhood adversities and adulthood depression. This study is based on a random health survey sample from the Finnish working-aged population (n=16,877) with a follow-up of up to 7 years. Depression was identified by Beck Depression Inventory, records of antidepressant prescriptions and hospitalization due to depression obtained from national health registers. Childhood adversities were associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing a high number of LEs in adulthood and their perceived burdensomeness. The mean number of new LEs correlated significantly (Pchildhood adversities. Reporting childhood adversities was associated with a 1.28-2.70-fold increase in the odds of depression as indicated by BDI score, a 1.29-1.94-fold increase in the rate of antidepressant prescriptions and a 1.17-4.04-fold increase in the risk of hospitalization due to depression. Adjustment for new LE attenuated these associations by 21-24%, but did not render them insignificant. Increased exposure to adult negative life events proximal to adult depression may partially explain the association between childhood adversities and adult depression. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Enduring psychobiological effects of childhood adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlert, Ulrike

    2013-09-01

    This mini-review refers to recent findings on psychobiological long-term consequences of childhood trauma and adverse living conditions. The continuum of trauma-provoked aftermath reaches from healthy adaptation with high resilience, to severe maladjustment with co-occurring psychiatric and physical pathologies in children, adolescents and adults. There is increasing evidence of a strong interconnectivity between genetic dispositions, epigenetic processes, stress-related hormonal systems and immune parameters in all forms of (mal)-adjustment to adverse living conditions. Unfavorable constellations of these dispositions and systems, such as low cortisol levels and elevated markers of inflammation in maltreated children, seem to promote the (co)-occurrence of psychiatric and physical pathologies such as posttraumatic stress disorder, obesity, or diabetes. Although findings from prospective study designs support a deepened understanding of causal relations between adverse living conditions, including traumatic experiences, during childhood and its psychobiological effects, so far, little is known about the temporal coincidence of stress-sensitive developmental stages during childhood and adolescence and trauma consequences. Taken together, childhood adversity is a severe risk factor for the onset of psychobiological (mal)-adjustment, which has to be explained under consideration of diverse physiological systems and developmental stages of childhood and adolescence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Childhood poverty and young adults' allostatic load: the mediating role of childhood cumulative risk exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gary W; Kim, Pilyoung

    2012-09-01

    Childhood poverty is linked to a host of physical and psychological disorders during childhood and later in life. In the study reported here, we showed that the proportion of childhood spent in poverty from birth to age 9 was linked to elevated allostatic load, a marker of chronic physiological stress, in 17-year-olds. Furthermore, this prospective longitudinal relationship was mediated by cumulative risk exposure at age 13. The greater the duration of early life spent in poverty, the greater the exposure to cumulative risk. This, in turn, leads to elevated allostatic load. Multiple psychological, biological, and neurological pathways likely account for the social patterning of psychological and physical disease.

  14. Childhood poverty and health: cumulative risk exposure and stress dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gary W; Kim, Pilyoung

    2007-11-01

    A massive literature documents the inverse association between poverty or low socioeconomic status and health, but little is known about the mechanisms underlying this robust relation. We examined longitudinal relations between duration of poverty exposure since birth, cumulative risk exposure, and physiological stress in two hundred seven 13-year-olds. Chronic stress was assessed by basal blood pressure and overnight cortisol levels; stress regulation was assessed by cardiovascular reactivity to a standard acute stressor and recovery after exposure to this stressor. Cumulative risk exposure was measured by multiple physical (e.g., substandard housing) and social (e.g., family turmoil) risk factors. The greater the number of years spent living in poverty, the more elevated was overnight cortisol and the more dysregulated was the cardiovascular response (i.e., muted reactivity). Cardiovascular recovery was not affected by duration of poverty exposure. Unlike the duration of poverty exposure, concurrent poverty (i.e., during adolescence) did not affect these physiological stress outcomes. The effects of childhood poverty on stress dysregulation are largely explained by cumulative risk exposure accompanying childhood poverty.

  15. Future Directions in Childhood Adversity and Youth Psychopathology

    OpenAIRE

    McLaughlin, Katie A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite long-standing interest in the influence of adverse early experiences on mental health, systematic scientific inquiry into childhood adversity and developmental outcomes has emerged only recently. Existing research has amply demonstrated that exposure to childhood adversity is associated with elevated risk for multiple forms of youth psychopathology. In contrast, knowledge of developmental mechanisms linking childhood adversity to the onset of psychopathology—and whether those mechanis...

  16. Future Directions in Childhood Adversity and Youth Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A

    2016-01-01

    Despite long-standing interest in the influence of adverse early experiences on mental health, systematic scientific inquiry into childhood adversity and developmental outcomes has emerged only recently. Existing research has amply demonstrated that exposure to childhood adversity is associated with elevated risk for multiple forms of youth psychopathology. In contrast, knowledge of developmental mechanisms linking childhood adversity to the onset of psychopathology-and whether those mechanisms are general or specific to particular kinds of adversity-remains cursory. Greater understanding of these pathways and identification of protective factors that buffer children from developmental disruptions following exposure to adversity is essential to guide the development of interventions to prevent the onset of psychopathology following adverse childhood experiences. This article provides recommendations for future research in this area. In particular, use of a consistent definition of childhood adversity, integration of studies of typical development with those focused on childhood adversity, and identification of distinct dimensions of environmental experience that differentially influence development are required to uncover mechanisms that explain how childhood adversity is associated with numerous psychopathology outcomes (i.e., multifinality) and identify moderators that shape divergent trajectories following adverse childhood experiences. A transdiagnostic model that highlights disruptions in emotional processing and poor executive functioning as key mechanisms linking childhood adversity with multiple forms of psychopathology is presented as a starting point in this endeavour. Distinguishing between general and specific mechanisms linking childhood adversity with psychopathology is needed to generate empirically informed interventions to prevent the long-term consequences of adverse early environments on children's development.

  17. Early Childhood Adversity and Pregnancy Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Megan V.; Gotman, Nathan; Yonkers, Kimberly A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and pregnancy outcomes; to explore mediators of this association including psychiatric illness and health habits. Methods Exposure to ACEs was determined by the Early Trauma Inventory Self Report Short Form; psychiatric diagnoses were generated by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview administered in a cohort of 2303 pregnant women. Linear regression and structural equation modeling bootstrapping approaches tested for multiple mediators. Results Each additional ACE decreased birth weight by 16.33 g and decreased gestational age by 0.063. Smoking was the strongest mediator of the effect on gestational age. Conclusions ACEs have an enduring effect on maternal reproductive health, as manifested by mothers’ delivery of offspring that were of reduced birth weight and shorter gestational age. PMID:26762511

  18. Auditory hallucinations in childhood : associations with adversity and delusional ideation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels-Velthuis, A. A.; van de Willige, G.; Jenner, J. A.; Wiersma, D.; van Os, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Previous work suggests that exposure to childhood adversity is associated with the combination of delusions and hallucinations. In the present study, associations between (severity of) auditory vocal hallucinations (AVH) and (i) social adversity [traumatic experiences (TE) and stressful

  19. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS): Childhood Adversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reports of childhood abuse and neglect were investigated. Childhood trauma, defined as abuse, neglect, or loss, is a ... the lifespan. In various animal and human studies childhood trauma has been associated with low resting cortisol levels, ...

  20. The impact of childhood adversities on anxiety and depressive disorders in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marackova, Marketa; Prasko, Jan; Matousek, Stanislav; Latalova, Klara; Hruby, Radovan; Holubova, Michaela; Slepecky, Milos; Vrbova, Kristyna; Grambal, Ales

    2016-12-01

    The childhood adversities model is generally accepted as a predictor of adult psychopathology vulnerability. It stems from child development theories, but the question remains as of how well solid research supports it. The aim of this article is to give a review of the studies concerning childhood adversities and their impact on the development of anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder in adulthood. A computerized search of the MEDLINE database of publications up to 31 March 2016 was done, using the keywords "childhood adversities, abuse, maltreatment, bullying" and "anxiety disorders, depressive disorder". No backward time constraints were used. Non-original studies, conference abstracts, books and book chapters, commentaries, and dissertations were excluded. The influence of childhood adversities on later age psychopathology is examined in five categories: the negative family atmosphere, abuse, loss of a close person, the social difficulties, and problems at school (including, most importantly bullying). The majority of studies confirmed the connection between childhood adversities and anxiety and depression disorders in adulthood. The character of the adversities is not, apparently, a specific predictor for a concrete psychopathology. Multiple adversities are more frequently connected with depressive and anxiety disorders in adulthood, cumulating together in broader adverse context. Childhood adversities were found to increase vulnerability to the distress, depression, fear and anxiety later in the life. However, specific correlations between a given childhood adversity and a specific form of depression or anxiety disorder were either not found or weak. This is in line with the generally accepted view considering each of these factors a non-specific stressor increasing vulnerability to mood and affect disorders later in life.

  1. Use of a Cumulative Risk Scale to Predict Poor Intellectual and Academic Outcomes in Childhood Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, Brian C; Scarborough, Vanessa Ramos; Salorio, Cynthia F

    2016-06-01

    Discrete risk factors for poor outcomes in childhood epilepsy have been identified, but it is unclear whether the combined effect of several risk factors better predicts outcome. The Epilepsy Cumulative Risk Scale was developed to quantify cumulative risk for poor outcomes in childhood epilepsy. Participants included 156 clinic-referred children with epilepsy. The Epilepsy Cumulative Risk Scale was developed using variables previously associated with functional outcomes. Scale utility was examined through its association with intellectual and academic functioning. All Epilepsy Cumulative Risk Scale variables were significantly associated with functioning. The Total Score (ie, cumulative effect) was most strongly correlated with cognition and academic skills. A Total Score ≥ 5 had the best sensitivity and specificity for differentiating those at high risk for poor outcomes. The Epilepsy Cumulative Risk Scale shows promise as a practical, data-driven tool for quantification of cumulative risk for poor outcomes in childhood epilepsy and may be helpful in detecting those needing referral for additional services.

  2. An upside to adversity?: moderate cumulative lifetime adversity is associated with resilient responses in the face of controlled stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seery, Mark D; Leo, Raphael J; Lupien, Shannon P; Kondrak, Cheryl L; Almonte, Jessica L

    2013-07-01

    Despite common findings suggesting that lack of negative life events should be optimal, recent work has revealed a curvilinear pattern, such that some cumulative lifetime adversity is instead associated with optimal well-being. This work, however, is limited in that responses to specific stressors as they occurred were not assessed, thereby precluding investigation of resilience. The current research addressed this critical gap by directly testing the relationship between adversity history and resilience to stressors. Specifically, we used a multimethod approach across two studies to assess responses to controlled laboratory stressors (respectively requiring passive endurance and active instrumental performance). Results revealed hypothesized U-shaped relationships: Relative to a history of either no adversity or nonextreme high adversity, a moderate number of adverse life events was associated with less negative responses to pain and more positive psychophysiological responses while taking a test. These results provide novel evidence in support of adversity-derived propensity for resilience that generalizes across stressors.

  3. Cumulative Adverse Financial Circumstances: Associations with Patient Health Status and Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisgaier, Joanna; Rhodes, Karin V.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines associations between cumulative adverse financial circumstances and patient health in a sample of 1,506 urban emergency department (ED) patients. Study participants completed a previously validated Social Health Survey between May and October 2009. Five categories of economic deprivation were studied: food insecurity, housing…

  4. Childhood adversity and adulthood happiness: Evidence from Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Oshio, Takashi; Umeda, Maki; Kawakami, Norito

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined the impact of childhood interpersonal adversity on adulthood subjective well-being, with a focus on the mediating and moderating effects of social support and socioeconomic status (SES). We concentrated on parental maltreatment (abuse and neglect) and bullying in school as childhood adversity variables and on perceived happiness, life satisfaction, and self-rated health as adulthood subjective well-being measures. Our empirical analysis was based on micro data from ...

  5. Childhood adversity and chronicity of mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angst, Jules; Gamma, Alex; Rössler, Wulf; Ajdacic, Vladeta; Klein, Daniel N

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate the potential impact of early childhood problems on the chronicity of mood disorders. A representative cohort from the population was prospectively studied from ages 19/20 to 39/40. Unipolar (UP) and bipolar disorders (BP) were operationally defined applying broad Zurich criteria for bipolarity. Chronicity required the presence of symptoms for more days than not over 2 years prior to an interview, or almost daily occurrence for 1 year. A family history and a history of childhood problems were taken at ages 27/28 and 29/30. Data include the first of multiple self-assessments with the Symptom-Checklist-90 R at age 19/20, and mastery and self-esteem assessed 1 year later. A factor analysis of childhood problems yielded two factors: family problems and conduct problems. Sexual trauma, which did not load on either factor, and conduct problems were unrelated to chronicity of UP or BP or both together. In contrast, childhood family problems increased the risk of chronicity by a factor of 1.7. An anxious personality in childhood and low self-esteem and mastery in early adulthood were also associated with chronicity. Childhood family problems are strong risk factors for the chronicity of mood disorders (UP and BP). The risk may be mediated partly by anxious personality traits, poor coping and low self-esteem.

  6. Relationships between adverse childhood experiences and adult mental well-being: results from an English national household survey

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, K; Lowey, H; Quigg, Z; Bellis, MA

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Individuals' childhood experiences can strongly influence their future health and well-being. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) such as abuse and dysfunctional home environments show strong cumulative relationships with physical and mental illness yet less is known about their effects on mental well-being in the general population. METHODS: A nationally representative household survey of English adults (n = 3,885) measuring current mental well-being (Short Edinburgh-Warwick Men...

  7. Positive affect, childhood adversity, and psychopathology in psychiatric inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darryl W. Etter

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background : Low positive affect is closely related to common pathological responses to childhood adversity, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and depression, but little is known about how the characteristics of early adversity experiences might be related to positive affect in adulthood. Objective : This study aimed to explore whether low positive affect is related to specific childhood adversities, including abuse, neglect, caretaker dysfunction, and low childhood social support. Method : Using structured interviews and self-report measure data collected from 173 adult psychiatric inpatients, this study examined the relationship between positive affect and symptoms of psychopathology, as well as how the number of types of abuse experienced, severity of adversity types (physical abuse and sexual abuse, childhood environment (childhood social support, neglect, and caretaker dysfunction, and number of non-abuse traumas related to positive affect. Results: Positive affect was significantly negatively related to several symptoms of psychopathology, including depression, dissociation, self-destructive behavior, PTSD, and global psychopathology. Individuals who experienced both physical and sexual abuse reported significantly less positive affect than those with only physical or no abuse experiences. Lower positive affect was predicted by lower childhood social support and greater severity of sexual abuse, with both factors accounting for unique variance in positive affect. Conclusion : These results suggest that individuals who experience multiple types of early adversity, more severe sexual abuse experiences, and less social support are at risk of psychological difficulties. Given the relatively strong association between positive affect and childhood social support, interventions to foster social support may be a means of increasing positive affect among individuals exposed to childhood adversity.

  8. Positive affect, childhood adversity, and psychopathology in psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, Darryl W; Gauthier, Justin R; McDade-Montez, Elizabeth; Cloitre, Marylene; Carlson, Eve B

    2013-01-01

    Low positive affect is closely related to common pathological responses to childhood adversity, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression, but little is known about how the characteristics of early adversity experiences might be related to positive affect in adulthood. This study aimed to explore whether low positive affect is related to specific childhood adversities, including abuse, neglect, caretaker dysfunction, and low childhood social support. Using structured interviews and self-report measure data collected from 173 adult psychiatric inpatients, this study examined the relationship between positive affect and symptoms of psychopathology, as well as how the number of types of abuse experienced, severity of adversity types (physical abuse and sexual abuse), childhood environment (childhood social support, neglect, and caretaker dysfunction), and number of non-abuse traumas related to positive affect. Positive affect was significantly negatively related to several symptoms of psychopathology, including depression, dissociation, self-destructive behavior, PTSD, and global psychopathology. Individuals who experienced both physical and sexual abuse reported significantly less positive affect than those with only physical or no abuse experiences. Lower positive affect was predicted by lower childhood social support and greater severity of sexual abuse, with both factors accounting for unique variance in positive affect. These results suggest that individuals who experience multiple types of early adversity, more severe sexual abuse experiences, and less social support are at risk of psychological difficulties. Given the relatively strong association between positive affect and childhood social support, interventions to foster social support may be a means of increasing positive affect among individuals exposed to childhood adversity.

  9. Early life adversity potentiates the effects of later life stress on cumulative physiological dysregulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Nadya; Hansen, Åse Marie; Avlund, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Previous research indicates that early life adversity may heighten stress reactivity and impair mechanisms for adaptive coping, suggesting that experience of stress in early life may also potentiate adults' physiological vulnerability to stress in later life. The study...... tested this hypothesis by investigating whether experience of stressful events and circumstances (SEC) in childhood or adolescence amplified the effect of adulthood SEC on physiological dysregulation (allostatic load, AL) in later midlife. Design: Observational data were used in the present study......: The results provide further insight into the mechanisms behind the "biological embedding" of childhood stress....

  10. Adverse childhood event experiences, fertility difficulties and menstrual cycle characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Marni B; Boynton-Jarrett, Renee D; Harville, Emily W

    2015-01-01

    Increased childhood adversity may be affect adult fertility, however, the mechanism through which this occurs is unclear. Menstrual cycle abnormalities are predictive of fertility difficulties, and stress influences menstrual cycle characteristics. Here, we assess whether adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with fertility difficulties and menstrual cycle dysregulation, offering a plausible mechanism for the link between lifetime stress and fertility. From April 2012 to February 2014, 742 pregnant and non-pregnant women aged 18-45 years residing in southeastern Louisiana provided information on childhood adversity and reproductive history. Associations between ACEs and fertility difficulties and menstrual cycle patterns were evaluated. As the number of ACEs increased, risk of fertility difficulties and amenorrhea increased (RR = 1.09, 95% CI 1.05-1.13 and RR = 1.07, 95% CI 1.04-1.10, respectively), while fecundability decreased [fecundability ratio (FR) = 0.97, 95% CI 0.95-1.00]. Compared to women with no adversity, women in the high adversity group were more likely to experience both infertility and amenorrhea (RR = 2.75, 95% CI 1.45-5.21 and RR = 2.54, 95% CI 1.52-4.25, respectively), and reduced fecundability (FR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.56-1.00). Although similar patterns were seen for menstrual cycle irregularity, associations were diminished. Associations did not materially change following adjustment for age, body mass index, race, education, smoking and income. Results are constrained by the self-report nature of the study and the limited generalizability of the study population. To our knowledge, this is the first study to present evidence of a link between childhood stressors, menstrual cycle disruption and fertility difficulties. The effect of childhood stress on fertility may be mediated through altered functioning of the HPA axis, acting to suppress fertility in response to less than optimal reproductive circumstances.

  11. Cumulative incidence of childhood autism: a total population study of better accuracy and precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hideo; Shimizu, Yasuo; Imai, Miho; Nitto, Yukari

    2005-01-01

    Most studies on the frequency of autism have had methodological problems. Most notable of these have been differences in diagnostic criteria between studies, degree of cases overlooked by the initial screening, and type of measurement. This study aimed to replicate the first report on childhood autism to address cumulative incidence as well as prevalence, as defined in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th revision (ICD-10) Diagnostic Criteria for Research. Here, the same methodological accuracy (exactness of a measurement to the true value) as the first study was used, but population size was four times larger to achieve greater precision (reduction of random error). A community-oriented system of early detection and early intervention for developmental disorders was established in the northern part of Yokohama, Japan. The city's routine health checkup for 18-month-old children served as the initial mass screening, and all facilities that provided child care services aimed to detect all cases of childhood autism and refer them to the Yokohama Rehabilitation Center. Cumulative incidence up to age 5 years was calculated for childhood autism among a birth cohort from four successive years (1988 to 1991). Cumulative incidence of childhood autism was 27.2 per 10000. Cumulative incidences by sex were 38.4 per 10000 in males, and 15.5 per 10000 in females. The male:female ratio was 2.5:1. The proportions of children with high-functioning autism who had Binet IQs of 70 and over and those with Binet IQs of 85 and over were 25.3% and 13.7% respectively. Data on cumulative incidence of childhood autism derived from this study are the first to be drawn from an accurate, as well as precise, screening methodology.

  12. Life course pathways of adverse childhood experiences toward adult psychological well-being: A stress process analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurius, Paula S; Green, Sara; Logan-Greene, Patricia; Borja, Sharon

    2015-07-01

    Growing evidence suggests that toxic stressors early in life not only convey developmental impacts but also augment risk of proliferating chains of additional stressors that can overwhelm individual coping and undermine recovery and health. Examining trauma within a life course stress process perspective, we posit that early childhood adversity carries a unique capacity to impair adult psychological well-being both independent of and cumulative with other contributors, including social disadvantage and stressful adult experiences. This study uses data from a representative population-based health survey (N=13,593) to provide one of the first multivariate assessments of unique, cumulative, and moderated effects of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) toward explaining 3 related yet distinct measures of adult mental health: perceived well-being, psychological distress, and impaired daily activities. Results demonstrate support for each set of hypothesized associations, including exacerbation and amelioration of ACEs effects by adult stress and resilience resources, respectively. Implications for services and future research are discussed.

  13. Adverse childhood experiences, gender, and HIV risk behaviors: Results from a population-based sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Fang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent HIV research suggested assessing adverse childhood experiences (ACEs as contributing factors of HIV risk behaviors. However, studies often focused on a single type of adverse experience and very few utilized population-based data. This population study examined the associations between ACE (individual and cumulative ACE score and HIV risk behaviors. We analyzed the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (BRFSS from 5 states. The sample consisted of 39,434 adults. Eight types of ACEs that included different types of child abuse and household dysfunctions before the age of 18 were measured. A cumulative score of ACEs was also computed. Logistic regression estimated of the association between ACEs and HIV risk behaviors using odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs for males and females separately. We found that ACEs were positively associated with HIV risk behaviors overall, but the associations differed between males and females in a few instances. While the cumulative ACE score was associated with HIV risk behaviors in a stepwise manner, the pattern varied by gender. For males, the odds of HIV risk increased at a significant level as long as they experienced one ACE, whereas for females, the odds did not increase until they experienced three or more ACEs. Future research should further investigate the gender-specific associations between ACEs and HIV risk behaviors. As childhood adversities are prevalent among general population, and such experiences are associated with increased risk behaviors for HIV transmission, service providers can benefit from the principles of trauma-informed practice.

  14. Childhood adversities and adult psychopathology in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessler, Ronald C.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Green, Jennifer Greif; Gruber, Michael J.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alhamzawi, Ali Obaid; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias; Benjet, Corina; Bromet, Evelyn; Chatterji, Somnath; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Demyttenaere, Koen; Fayyad, John; Florescu, Silvia; Gal, Gilad; Gureje, Oye; Maria Haro, Josep; Hu, Chi-yi; Karam, Elie G.; Kawakami, Norito; Lee, Sing; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Ormel, Johan; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sagar, Rajesh; Tsang, Adley; Uestuen, T. Bedirhan; Vassilev, Svetlozar; Viana, Maria Carmen; Williams, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Although significant associations of childhood adversities with adult mental disorders are widely documented, most studies focus on single childhood adversities predicting single disorders. Aims To examine joint associations of 12 childhood adversities with first onset of 20 DSM-IV disord

  15. Origins of Adulthood Personality: The Role of Adverse Childhood Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Jason M. Fletcher; Schurer, Stefanie

    2017-01-01

    We test whether adverse childhood experiences exposure to parental maltreatment and its indirect effect on health are associated with age 30 personality traits. We use rich longitudinal data from a large, representative cohort of young US Americans and exploit differences across siblings to control for the confounding influences of shared environmental and genetic factors. We find that maltreatment experiences are significantly and robustly associated with neuroticism, conscientiousness, and ...

  16. Adverse childhood experiences and premature all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly-Irving, Michelle; Lepage, Benoit; Dedieu, Dominique; Bartley, Mel; Blane, David; Grosclaude, Pascale; Lang, Thierry; Delpierre, Cyrille

    2013-09-01

    Events causing stress responses during sensitive periods of rapid neurological development in childhood may be early determinants of all-cause premature mortality. Using a British birth cohort study of individuals born in 1958, the relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACE) and mortality≤50 year was examined for men (n=7,816) and women (n=7,405) separately. ACE were measured using prospectively collected reports from parents and the school: no adversities (70%); one adversity (22%), two or more adversities (8%). A Cox regression model was carried out controlling for early life variables and for characteristics at 23 years. In men the risk of death was 57% higher among those who had experienced 2+ ACE compared to those with none (HR 1.57, 95% CI 1.13, 2.18, p=0.007). In women, a graded relationship was observed between ACE and mortality, the risk increasing as ACE accumulated. Women with one ACE had a 66% increased risk of death (HR 1.66, 95% CI 1.19, 2.33, p=0.003) and those with ≥2 ACE had an 80% increased risk (HR 1.80, 95% CI 1.10, 2.95, p=0.020) versus those with no ACE. Given the small impact of adult life style factors on the association between ACE and premature mortality, biological embedding during sensitive periods in early development is a plausible explanatory mechanism.

  17. Childhood adversities and traumata in Lebanon: a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itani, Lynn; Haddad, Youmna C; Fayyad, John; Karam, Aimee; Karam, Elie

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to map the total occurrence and evaluate the risk of co-occurrence of childhood adversities (CA) and a wide variety of childhood traumatic events (including war) in a national sample. The nationally representative sample included 2,857 respondents and the instrument used was the Composite International Diagnostic Interview which screened for all CAs and traumatic events. 27.9% experienced CAs; the most common were parental death and parental mental/substance use disorder. 70.6% experienced a war-related traumatic event during their lifetime, and around half of them (38.1%) experienced it below the age of 18 years. 51.3% of the subjects experienced a traumatic event not related to war during their lifetime, and 19.2% experienced it before the age of 18 years. Sexual abuse, being a refugee during war, and experiencing a natural disaster were associated with female gender. Having any CA was associated with active war exposure (OR: 4.2, CI: 2.0-8.6); war-related direct personal trauma (OR: 3.9, CI: 1.5-10.0); war-related trauma to others (OR: 2.4, CI: 1.3-4.4); non-war direct personal trauma (OR: 3.8, CI: 2.0-7.4); and any non-war childhood traumatic event (OR: 1.9, CI: 1.1-3.1). Childhood is awash with adversities and traumatic events that co-occur and should be measured simultaneously; otherwise, the effects of a subset of traumata or adversities could be wrongly thought to be the contributor to negative outcomes under study.

  18. Factors Associated With Whether Pediatricians Inquire About Parents' Adverse Childhood Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, Moira; Kerker, Bonnie D; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Stein, Ruth E K; Garner, Andrew; O'Connor, Karen G; Hoagwood, Kimberly E; McCue Horwitz, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Cumulative adverse childhood experiences (ACE) can have profound and lasting effects on parenting. Parents with a history of multiple ACE have greater challenges modulating their own stress responses and helping their children adapt to life stressors. We examined pediatric practice in inquiring about parents' childhood adversities as of 2013. Using data from the 85th Periodic Survey of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), we restricted analyses to the 302 pediatricians exclusively practicing general pediatrics who answered questions regarding their beliefs about childhood stressors, their role in advising parents, and whether they asked about parents' ACEs. Weighted descriptive and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Despite endorsing the influence of positive parenting on a child's life-course trajectory (96%), that their advice can impact parenting skills (79%), and that screening for social-emotional risks is within their scope of practice (81%), most pediatricians (61%) did not inquire about parents' ACE. Pediatricians who believed that their advice influences positive parenting skills inquired about more parents' ACE. As of 2013, few pediatricians inquired about parents' ACEs despite recognizing their negative impact on parenting behaviors and child development. Research is needed regarding the best approaches to the prevention and amelioration of ACEs and the promotion of family and child resilience. Pediatricians need resources and education about the AAP's proposed dyadic approach to assessing family and child risk factors and strengths and to providing guidance and management. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Adult Risk Factors for Age-Related Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danese, Andrea; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Harrington, HonaLee; Milne, Barry J.; Polanczyk, Guilherme; Pariante, Carmine M.; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand why children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences are at elevated risk for age-related disease, such as cardiovascular disease, by testing whether adverse childhood experiences predict enduring abnormalities in stress-sensitive biological systems, namely, the nervous, immune, and endocrine/metabolic systems. Design A 32-year prospective longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort. Setting New Zealand. Participants A total of 1037 members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study. Main Exposures During their first decade of life, study members were assessed for exposure to 3 adverse psychosocial experiences: socioeconomic disadvantage, maltreatment, and social isolation. Main Outcome Measures At age 32 years, study members were assessed for the presence of 3 age-related-disease risks: major depression, high inflammation levels (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level >3 mg/L), and the clustering of metabolic risk biomarkers (overweight, high blood pressure, high total cholesterol, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high glycated hemoglobin, and low maximum oxygen consumption levels. Results Children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences were at elevated risk of depression, high inflammation levels, and clustering of metabolic risk markers. Children who had experienced socioeconomic disadvantage (incidence rate ratio, 1.89; 95% confidence interval, 1.36–2.62), maltreatment (1.81; 1.38–2.38), or social isolation (1.87; 1.38–2.51) had elevated age-related-disease risks in adulthood. The effects of adverse childhood experiences on age-related-disease risks in adulthood were nonredundant, cumulative, and independent of the influence of established developmental and concurrent risk factors. Conclusions Children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences have enduring emotional, immune, and metabolic abnormalities that contribute to explaining their elevated risk for age-related disease. The

  20. Youth Arrested for Trading Sex Have the Highest Rates of Childhood Adversity: A Statewide Study of Juvenile Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naramore, Rachel; Bright, Melissa A; Epps, Nathan; Hardt, Nancy S

    2017-06-01

    A history of childhood adversity is associated with high-risk behaviors and criminal activity in both adolescents and adults. Furthermore, individuals with histories of child maltreatment are at higher risk for engaging in risky sexual behavior, experiencing re-victimization, and in some cases, becoming sexual offenders. The purpose of the current study was to examine the prevalence of individual and cumulative adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) reported by 102 offending youth who were arrested for trading sex and 64,227 offending youth who were arrested for various other crimes, using Florida's Positive Achievement Change Tool. Youth with violations related to sex trafficking had higher rates for each ACE as well as number of ACEs, particularly sexual abuse and physical neglect. These findings have implications for identifying adverse experiences in both maltreated and offending youth as well as tailoring services to prevent re-victimization.

  1. Adverse family experiences during childhood and adolescent obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heerman, William J; Krishnaswami, Shanthi; Barkin, Shari L; McPheeters, Melissa

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the association between adverse family experiences (AFEs) during childhood and adolescent obesity and to determine populations at highest risk for AFEs. A cross-sectional analysis was performed of the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health, including children aged 10-17 years. Weighted estimates of 31,258,575 children were based on interviews with 42,239 caregivers. Caregiver reports of nine psychosocial risk factors measured AFEs during childhood. Adolescent overweight and obesity were derived by caregiver-reported child height and weight. Nearly one-third (30.5%) of children had experienced ≥2 AFEs, with geographic variation by state. The prevalence of obesity among children experiencing ≥2 AFEs was 20.4%, when compared with 12.5% among children with 0 AFEs. Adjusted survey regression models were controlled for child, parent, household, and neighborhood characteristics. Children with ≥2 AFEs in childhood were more likely to have obesity (AOR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.47-2.17; P obesity. Geographic variation and differential associations based on race/ethnicity identified children at greatest risk. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  2. Cumulative stress in childhood is associated with blunted reward-related brain activity in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jamie L; Albert, Dustin; Iselin, Anne-Marie R; Carré, Justin M; Dodge, Kenneth A; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2016-03-01

    Early life stress (ELS) is strongly associated with negative outcomes in adulthood, including reduced motivation and increased negative mood. The mechanisms mediating these relations, however, are poorly understood. We examined the relation between exposure to ELS and reward-related brain activity, which is known to predict motivation and mood, at age 26, in a sample followed since kindergarten with annual assessments. Using functional neuroimaging, we assayed individual differences in the activity of the ventral striatum (VS) during the processing of monetary rewards associated with a simple card-guessing task, in a sample of 72 male participants. We examined associations between a cumulative measure of ELS exposure and VS activity in adulthood. We found that greater levels of cumulative stress during childhood and adolescence predicted lower reward-related VS activity in adulthood. Extending this general developmental pattern, we found that exposure to stress early in development (between kindergarten and grade 3) was significantly associated with variability in adult VS activity. Our results provide an important demonstration that cumulative life stress, especially during this childhood period, is associated with blunted reward-related VS activity in adulthood. These differences suggest neurobiological pathways through which a history of ELS may contribute to reduced motivation and increased negative mood. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. The Role of Mindfulness in Reducing the Adverse Effects of Childhood Stress and Trauma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ortiz, Robin; Sibinga, Erica

    2017-01-01

    .... Taken together, this research suggests that high-quality, structured mindfulness instruction may mitigate the negative effects of stress and trauma related to adverse childhood exposures, improving...

  4. Association of adverse childhood experiences with shaking and smothering behaviors among Japanese caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isumi, Aya; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2016-07-01

    Shaking and smothering in response to infant crying are life-threatening child abuse. Parental childhood abuse history is known to be one of the most robust risk factors for abusing their offspring. In addition to childhood abuse history, other adverse childhood exposures (ACEs) need to be considered due to co-occurrence. However, few studies have investigated the impact of ACEs on caregivers shaking and smothering their infant. This study aims to investigate the association of ACEs with shaking and smothering among caregivers of infants in Japan. A questionnaire was administered to caregivers participating in a four-month health checkup between September 2013 and August 2014 in Chiba City, Japan, to assess their ACEs (parental death, parental divorce, mentally ill parents, witness of intimate partner violence, physical abuse, neglect, psychological abuse and economic hardship), and shaking and smothering toward their infants (N=4297). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the cumulative and individual impacts of ACEs on shaking and smothering. Analyses were conducted in 2015. A total of 28.3% reported having experienced at least one ACE during their childhood. We found that only witness of IPV had a significant association with shaking of infant (OR=1.93, 95% CI: 1.03-3.61). The total number of ACEs was not associated with either shaking or smothering. Our findings suggest that shaking and smothering in response to crying can occur regardless of ACEs. Population-based strategies that target all caregivers to prevent shaking and smothering of infants are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Depressive Symptoms in College Women: Examining the Cumulative Effect of Childhood and Adulthood Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Modallal, Hanan

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cumulative effect of childhood and adulthood violence on depressive symptoms in a sample of Jordanian college women. Snowball sampling technique was used to recruit the participants. The participants were heterosexual college-aged women between the ages of 18 and 25. The participants were asked about their experiences of childhood violence (including physical violence, sexual violence, psychological violence, and witnessing parental violence), partner violence (including physical partner violence and sexual partner violence), experiences of depressive symptoms, and about other demographic and familial factors as possible predictors for their complaints of depressive symptoms. Multiple linear regression analysis was implemented to identify demographic- and violence-related predictors of their complainants of depressive symptoms. Logistic regression analysis was further performed to identify possible type(s) of violence associated with the increased risk of depressive symptoms. The prevalence of depressive symptoms in this sample was 47.4%. For the violence experience, witnessing parental violence was the most common during childhood, experienced by 40 (41.2%) women, and physical partner violence was the most common in adulthood, experienced by 35 (36.1%) women. Results of logistic regression analysis indicated that experiencing two types of violence (regardless of the time of occurrence) was significant in predicting depressive symptoms (odds ratio [OR] = 3.45, p women's demographic characteristics, marital status (single vs. engaged), mothers' level of education, income, and smoking were significant in predicting depressive symptoms. Assessment of physical violence and depressive symptoms including the cumulative impact of longer periods of violence on depressive symptoms is recommended to be explored in future studies.

  6. Childhood adversities and adolescent depression : A matter of both risk and resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Nederhof, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Childhood adversities have been proposed to modify later stress sensitivity and risk of depressive disorder in several ways: by stress sensitization, stress amplification, and stress inoculation. Combining these models, we hypothesized that childhood adversities would increase risk of early, but not

  7. Childhood adversity, recent life stressors and suicidal behavior in Chinese college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Zhiqi; Chen, Mingxi; Yang, Sen; Zhou, Zongkui; Qin, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Although the independent effects of childhood adversities and of recent negative events on suicidality have been well-documented, the combinative role of childhood and recent adversities on risk for suicidality is still underexplored, especially in the context of Chinese culture and in consideration of specific types of negative events. 5989 students, randomly sampled from six universities in central China, completed the online survey for this study. Suicidal behavior, life adversity during childhood and stressful events in recent school life were assessed with designed questionnaires. Students experiencing recent stressful life events more often reported an experience of life adversity during childhood. While recent stressful life events and childhood life adversity both were associated with an increased risk for suicidal behavior, the two exposures presented conjunctively and acted interactively to increase the risk. There was noticeable variation of effects associated with specific childhood life adversities, and sexual abuse, poor parental relationship, divorce of parents and loss of a parent were among the adversities associated with the highest increased risk. Recent conflicts with classmates, poor school performance and rupture of romantic relationships were the recent school life stressors associated with the highest increased risk. Childhood adversity and recent school life stressors had a combinative role in predicting suicidality of young people studying in Chinese colleges. Unhappy family life during childhood and recent interpersonal conflicts in school were the most important predictors of suicidality in this population.

  8. Childhood adversity, recent life stressors and suicidal behavior in Chinese college students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqi You

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the independent effects of childhood adversities and of recent negative events on suicidality have been well-documented, the combinative role of childhood and recent adversities on risk for suicidality is still underexplored, especially in the context of Chinese culture and in consideration of specific types of negative events. METHOD: 5989 students, randomly sampled from six universities in central China, completed the online survey for this study. Suicidal behavior, life adversity during childhood and stressful events in recent school life were assessed with designed questionnaires. RESULTS: Students experiencing recent stressful life events more often reported an experience of life adversity during childhood. While recent stressful life events and childhood life adversity both were associated with an increased risk for suicidal behavior, the two exposures presented conjunctively and acted interactively to increase the risk. There was noticeable variation of effects associated with specific childhood life adversities, and sexual abuse, poor parental relationship, divorce of parents and loss of a parent were among the adversities associated with the highest increased risk. Recent conflicts with classmates, poor school performance and rupture of romantic relationships were the recent school life stressors associated with the highest increased risk. CONCLUSIONS: Childhood adversity and recent school life stressors had a combinative role in predicting suicidality of young people studying in Chinese colleges. Unhappy family life during childhood and recent interpersonal conflicts in school were the most important predictors of suicidality in this population.

  9. Adverse childhood experiences and prescription drug use in a cohort study of adult HMO patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dube Shanta R

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prescription drugs account for approximately 11% of national health expenditures. Prior research on adverse childhood experiences (ACEs, which include common forms of child maltreatment and related traumatic stressors, has linked them to numerous health problems. However, data about the relationship of these experiences to prescription drug use are scarce. Method We used the ACE Score (an integer count of 8 different categories of ACEs as a measure of cumulative exposure to traumatic stress during childhood. We prospectively assessed the relationship of the Score to prescription drug use in a cohort of 15,033 adult HMO patients (mean follow-up: 6.1 years and assessed mediation of this relationship by documented ACE-related health and social problems. Results Nearly 1.2 million prescriptions were recorded; prescriptions rates increased in a graded fashion as the ACE Score increased (p for trend Conclusion ACEs substantially increase the number of prescriptions and classes of drugs used for as long as 7 or 8 decades after their occurrence. The increases in prescription drug use were largely mediated by documented ACE-related health and social problems.

  10. Cumulative childhood trauma and psychological maladjustment of sexually abused children in Korea: mediating effects of emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Young; Oh, Kyung Ja

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the mediating effects of emotion regulation on the association between cumulative childhood trauma and behavior problems in sexually abused children in Korea, using structural equation modeling (SEM). Data were collected on 171 children (ages 6-13 years) referred to a public counseling center for sexual abuse in Seoul, Korea. Cumulative childhood traumas were defined on the basis of number of traumas (physical abuse, witnessing domestic violence, neglect, traumatic separation from parent, and sexual abuse) and the severity and duration of traumas. Children were evaluated by their parents on emotion regulation using the Emotion Regulation Checklist and internalizing and externalizing behavior problems using the Korean-Child Behavior Checklist. SEM analyses confirmed the complete mediation model, in which emotion dysregulation fully mediates the relationship between cumulative childhood traumas and internalizing/externalizing behavior problems. These findings indicate that emotion regulation is an important mechanism that can explain the negative effects of cumulative childhood traumas and that there is a need to focus on emotion regulation in sexually abused children exposed to cumulative trauma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hidden Suffering and the Effects of Adverse Childhood Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Fulford

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To understand suffering is to understand what it means to be human. Suffering focuses our attention on our vulnerability, which we would rather ignore or deny. As health care professionals (HCP we need to be able to listen, to attune and be empathic to the suffering patient. If we act as an “enlightened witness” we provide a safe place for a suffering patient to grieve their loss and be vulnerable. This is skilled and demanding work, it is also important to tend to our own needs through a practice of self-care and reflection to prevent burn-out and compassion fatigue. The topic of adverse childhood experiences (ACE, which are common in the general population, are addressed in the second part of this paper. Their effects are profound, and increase with the degree of maltreatment. The maltreatment and suffering of these children usually remains hidden into adulthood beneath years of shame and denial. One aspect of our job in health care is to help patients acknowledge, experience, and bear the reality of life with all its pleasures and heartache. In order to do this well, we need to keep in touch with our own humanity, but also continue to take care of ourselves.

  12. Resilience Intervention for Young Adults With Adverse Childhood Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Genevieve E; Roberts, Susan Jo; Chiodo, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are correlated with risk behaviors of smoking, disordered eating, and alcohol and substance abuse. Such behaviors can lead to significant public health problems of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, obesity, liver disease, and hypertension, yet some individuals do not appear to suffer negative consequences but rather bounce back. To pilot the feasibility and potential efficacy of the Empower Resilience Intervention to build capacity by increasing resilience and health behaviors and decreasing symptoms and negative health behaviors with young adults in an educational setting who have had ACEs. A two-group pre-post repeated measures design to compare symptoms, health behaviors, and resilience and written participant responses. There was a statistically significant cohort by time interaction for physical activity in the intervention group. There was no significant change in risk behaviors or resilience score by cohort. Young adults in the intervention group reported building strengths, reframing resilience, and creating support connections. An increase in health behavior is theoretically consistent with this strengths-based intervention. Evaluating this intervention with a larger sample is important. Interrupting the ACE to illness trajectory is complex. This short-term empower resilience intervention, however, holds promise as an opportunity to reconsider the negative effects of the trauma of the past and build on strengths to develop a preferred future. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Correlation of adverse childhood experiences with psychiatric disorders and aggressiveness in adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samardžić Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Consequences of individual adverse childhood experiences for adult mental health have been precisely studied during past decades. The focus of past research was mainly on childhood maltreatment and neglect. The aim of this paper was to determine association between multiple adverse childhood experiences and psychiatric disorders, as well as their correlation to the degree and type of aggressiveness in adult psychiatric patients. Methods. One hundred and thirteen psychiatric outpatients were divided into three diagnostic groups: psychotics, non-psychotics and alcoholics and compared with fourty healthy individuals. Adverse childhood experiences data were gathered retrospectively, using the Adverse childhood experiences questionnaire and explanatory interview. Aggressiveness was assessed using Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire. The Student's t test, ANOVA and correlational analysis were used for evaluation of statistical significance of differences among the groups. A value p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. Our results showed that the mean number of adverse childhood experiences in each group of psychiatric patients, as well as in the whole group of patients, was statistically significantly higher than in the group of healthy individuals (p < 0.001; there was a statistically significant difference in score of physical aggressiveness between the patients exposed to adverse childhood experiences and those who were not exposed to them (p < 0.05; scores of physical aggressiveness were in positive correlation with the number of adverse childhood experiences (p < 0.05. The highest mean score of adverse childhood experiences was evidenced in the group of patients with psychotic disorders. Conclusion. Multiple adverse childhood experiences are significantly associated with psychotic disorders, nonpsychotic disorders and alcohol dependence in adulthood and their presence is important morbidity risk factor for

  14. Adversity in childhood linked to elevated striatal dopamine function in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egerton, Alice; Valmaggia, Lucia R; Howes, Oliver D; Day, Fern; Chaddock, Christopher A; Allen, Paul; Winton-Brown, Toby T; Bloomfield, Michael A P; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Chilcott, Jack; Lappin, Julia M; Murray, Robin M; McGuire, Philip

    2016-10-01

    Childhood adversity increases the risk of psychosis in adulthood. Theoretical and animal models suggest that this effect may be mediated by increased striatal dopamine neurotransmission. The primary objective of this study was to examine the relationship between adversity in childhood and striatal dopamine function in early adulthood. Secondary objectives were to compare exposure to childhood adversity and striatal dopamine function in young people at ultra high risk (UHR) of psychosis and healthy volunteers. Sixty-seven young adults, comprising 47 individuals at UHR for psychosis and 20 healthy volunteers were recruited from the same geographic area and were matched for age, gender and substance use. Presynaptic dopamine function in the associative striatum was assessed using 18F-DOPA positron emission tomography. Childhood adversity was assessed using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse questionnaire. Within the sample as a whole, both severe physical or sexual abuse (T63=2.92; P=0.005), and unstable family arrangements (T57=2.80; P=0.007) in childhood were associated with elevated dopamine function in the associative striatum in adulthood. Comparison of the UHR and volunteer subgroups revealed similar incidence of childhood adverse experiences, and there was no significant group difference in dopamine function. This study provides evidence that childhood adversity is linked to elevated striatal dopamine function in adulthood. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Childhood adversity, attachment and personality styles as predictors of anxiety among elderly caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigerson, H G; Shear, M K; Bierhals, A J; Zonarich, D L; Reynolds, C F

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the ways in which childhood adversity, attachment and personality styles influenced the likelihood of having an anxiety disorder among aged caregivers for terminally ill spouses. We also sought to determine how childhood adversity and attachment/personality styles jointly influenced the likelihood of developing an anxiety disorder among aged caregivers. Data were derived from semistructured interviews with 50 spouses (aged 60 and above) of terminally ill patients. The Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse (CECA) record provided retrospective, behaviorally based information on childhood adversity. Measures of attachment and personality styles were obtained from self-report questionnaires, and the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-III-R (SCID) was used to determine diagnoses for anxiety disorders. Logistic regression models estimated the effects of childhood adversity, attachment/personality disturbances, and the interaction between the two on the likelihood of having an anxiety disorder. Results indicated that childhood adversity and paranoid, histrionic and self-defeating styles all directly increase the odds of having an anxiety disorder as an elderly spousal caregiver. In addition, childhood adversity in conjunction with borderline, antisocial and excessively dependent styles increased the likelihood of having an anxiety disorder. The results indicate the need to investigate further the interaction between childhood experiences and current attachment/personality styles in their effects on the development of anxiety disorders.

  16. Gender Differences in the Physical and Psychological Manifestation of Childhood Trauma and/or Adversity in People with Psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Shaun eSweeney; Tracy eAir; Lana eZannettino; Cherrie eGalletly

    2015-01-01

    The link between childhood trauma and/or adversity and risk of psychosis is well known. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of childhood trauma and/or adversity in people who have psychotic disorders and to investigate the association between childhood trauma and/or adversity and a range of social and health measures. Participants (n = 391, 42% male) were specifically asked about any experience of childhood trauma and/or adversity. Respondents provided information about education, employm...

  17. The lifelong effects of early childhood adversity and toxic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shonkoff, Jack P; Garner, Andrew S

    2012-01-01

    Advances in fields of inquiry as diverse as neuroscience, molecular biology, genomics, developmental psychology, epidemiology, sociology, and economics are catalyzing an important paradigm shift in our understanding of health and disease across the lifespan. This converging, multidisciplinary science of human development has profound implications for our ability to enhance the life prospects of children and to strengthen the social and economic fabric of society. Drawing on these multiple streams of investigation, this report presents an ecobiodevelopmental framework that illustrates how early experiences and environmental influences can leave a lasting signature on the genetic predispositions that affect emerging brain architecture and long-term health. The report also examines extensive evidence of the disruptive impacts of toxic stress, offering intriguing insights into causal mechanisms that link early adversity to later impairments in learning, behavior, and both physical and mental well-being. The implications of this framework for the practice of medicine, in general, and pediatrics, specifically, are potentially transformational. They suggest that many adult diseases should be viewed as developmental disorders that begin early in life and that persistent health disparities associated with poverty, discrimination, or maltreatment could be reduced by the alleviation of toxic stress in childhood. An ecobiodevelopmental framework also underscores the need for new thinking about the focus and boundaries of pediatric practice. It calls for pediatricians to serve as both front-line guardians of healthy child development and strategically positioned, community leaders to inform new science-based strategies that build strong foundations for educational achievement, economic productivity, responsible citizenship, and lifelong health.

  18. The Impact of Childhood Adversity on the Clinical Features of Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Ravi Philip

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Recent research has drawn attention to the link between childhood maltreatment and schizophrenia. Child abuse and neglect may have an impact on symptoms and physical health in these patients. This association has not been studied to date in India. Materials and Methods. Clinically stable patients with schizophrenia (n = 62) were assessed for childhood adversity using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. The association of specific forms of adversity with symptomatology and associated variables was examined. Results. Emotional abuse was reported by 56.5% patients and physical abuse by 33.9%; scores for childhood neglect were also high. Persecutory delusions were linked to physical abuse, while anxiety was linked to emotional neglect and depression to emotional abuse and childhood neglect. Physical abuse was linked to elevated systolic blood pressure, while emotional abuse and neglect in women were linked to being overweight. Conclusions. Childhood adversity is common in schizophrenia and appears to be associated with a specific symptom profile. Certain components of the metabolic syndrome also appear to be related to childhood adversity. These results are subject to certain limitations as they are derived from remitted patients, and no control group was used for measures of childhood adversity.

  19. The Impact of Childhood Adversity on the Clinical Features of Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Philip Rajkumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Recent research has drawn attention to the link between childhood maltreatment and schizophrenia. Child abuse and neglect may have an impact on symptoms and physical health in these patients. This association has not been studied to date in India. Materials and Methods. Clinically stable patients with schizophrenia (n=62 were assessed for childhood adversity using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. The association of specific forms of adversity with symptomatology and associated variables was examined. Results. Emotional abuse was reported by 56.5% patients and physical abuse by 33.9%; scores for childhood neglect were also high. Persecutory delusions were linked to physical abuse, while anxiety was linked to emotional neglect and depression to emotional abuse and childhood neglect. Physical abuse was linked to elevated systolic blood pressure, while emotional abuse and neglect in women were linked to being overweight. Conclusions. Childhood adversity is common in schizophrenia and appears to be associated with a specific symptom profile. Certain components of the metabolic syndrome also appear to be related to childhood adversity. These results are subject to certain limitations as they are derived from remitted patients, and no control group was used for measures of childhood adversity.

  20. Prenatal alcohol and other early childhood adverse exposures: Direct and indirect pathways to adolescent drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Marie D.; De Genna, Natacha M.; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Larkby, Cynthia; Day, Nancy L.

    2016-01-01

    We examined direct and indirect pathways between adverse environmental exposures during gestation and childhood and drinking in mid-adolescence. Mothers and their offspring (n = 917 mother/child dyads) were followed prospectively from second trimester to a 16-year follow-up assessment. Interim assessments occurred at delivery, 6, 10, and 14 years. Adverse environmental factors included gestational exposures to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana, exposures to childhood maltreatment and violence, maternal psychological symptoms, parenting practices, economic and home environments, and demographic characteristics of the mother and child. Indirect effects of early child behavioral characteristics including externalizing, internalizing activity, attention, and impulsivity were also examined. Polytomous logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate direct effects of adverse environmental exposures with level of adolescent drinking. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to simultaneously estimate the relation between early adversity variables, childhood characteristics, and drinking level at age 16 while controlling for significant covariates. Level of drinking among the adolescent offspring was directly predicted by prenatal exposure to alcohol, less parental strictness, and exposures to maltreatment and violence during childhood. Whites and offspring with older mothers were more likely to drink at higher levels. There was a significant indirect effect between childhood exposure to violence and adolescent drinking via childhood externalizing behavior problems. All other hypothesized indirect pathways were not significant. Thus most of the early adversity measures directly predicted adolescent drinking and did not operate via childhood behavioral dysregulation characteristics. These results highlight the importance of adverse environmental exposures on pathways to adolescent drinking. PMID:26994529

  1. Do adverse childhood experiences increase the risk of postdeployment posttraumatic stress disorder in US Marines?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Margaret AK

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD has been associated with combat intensity, lack of social support, and adverse childhood factors among military personnel in previous studies. It has not been well established if adverse childhood experiences reported predeployment are independently associated with postdeployment PTSD. Methods Data were evaluated from 8,391 male responders of the Recruit Assessment Program survey at Marine Corps Recruit Depot in San Diego who were deployed in support of military conflicts between September 2001 and June 2004. Using patient medical records to determine PTSD diagnoses, Cox proportional hazard modeling was performed to examine if adverse childhood experiences were independently associated with postdeployment PTSD. Results After adjustment, those who reported adverse childhood experiences in more than one category were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with postdeployment PTSD. Specifically, childhood physical neglect was mostly strongly associated with postdeployment PTSD. Conclusions Findings suggest that Marines who experience multiple types of adverse childhood experiences may be at increased risk for postdeployment PTSD. It is possible, however, that these results indicate that men willing to report childhood adverse experiences are also more willing to seek care for PTSD.

  2. Hepatic late adverse effects after antineoplastic treatment for childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Renee L.; van Dalen, Elvira C.; Van den Hof, Malon; Bresters, Dorine; Koot, Bart G. P.; Castellino, Sharon M.; Loke, Yoon; Leclercq, Edith; Post, Piet N.; Caron, Huib N.; Postma, Aleida; Kremer, Leontien C. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Survival rates have greatly improved as a result of more effective treatments for childhood cancer. Unfortunately the improved prognosis has resulted in the occurrence of late, treatment-related complications. Liver complications are common during and soon after treatment for childhood ca

  3. Neuroticism mediates the relationship between childhood adversity and adult sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsawh, Holly J; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Sullivan, Sarah G; Hitchcock, Carla A; Stein, Murray B

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of childhood adversity and adult sleep quality in 327 college students (91 males), with a mean age of 18.9 years (SD = 2.1) and also examined whether neuroticism significantly mediated the observed association. Regression findings indicate that the relationship between childhood adversity and adult sleep quality is significant, and that there is a stronger association in men. Furthermore, a bootstrapping approach to testing the significance of the indirect effect (i.e., mediation) indicated that neuroticism mediated this relationship in both men and women. These data suggest that otherwise healthy young adults with a history of childhood adversity are at increased risk for sleep disturbance. Neuroticism may represent a potential target for change in future insomnia interventions, particularly in adults with a history of childhood adversity.

  4. Adverse childhood experiences and higher-level functional limitations among older Japanese people: results from the JAGES study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amemiya, Airi; Fujiwara, Takeo; Murayama, Hiroshi; Tani, Yukako; Kondo, Katsunori

    2017-05-19

    A life-course perspective is essential in understanding the determinants of higher-level functional limitations. We examine the impact of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) on higher-level functional limitations in older people. Data were from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study 2013, a population-based cohort of independent people aged 65 years or older across Japan (n = 19,220). ACEs before the age of 18 were assessed in terms of seven adversities: parental death, parental divorce, parental mental illness, family violence, physical abuse, psychological neglect, and psychological abuse. Associations between the cumulative number of ACEs and higher-level functional limitations were investigated by multivariate Poisson regression with robust error variances, adjusted for age, gender, childhood disadvantage, adult socio-demographics, adult health behaviours, and health status. Of the older people, 36.3% reported at least one ACE. Older people who had experienced two or more ACEs showed significantly greater higher-level functional limitations than those with no ACE in a crude model (prevalence ratio, PR = 1.61, 95% confidence interval, CI = 1.51-1.71). After adjusting the covariates, this association remained (PR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.12-1.27). ACEs showed robust independent effects on higher-level functional limitations among older Japanese without disabilities, even after adjusting for potential covariates in childhood and adulthood. The current findings may help in understanding the impact of the latent effects of ACEs on functional limitations in older people.

  5. Retrospective study of cumulative diagnostic radiation exposure during childhood in patients with spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smookler, Gregory; Deavenport-Saman, Alexis

    2015-10-01

    The Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation Committee of the National Academy of Sciences in 2005 and other expert panels have warned that risk of cancer increases with higher doses of radiation. Children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus have far greater exposure to radiation than the average person, starting almost directly after birth and continuing throughout their lifetimes. The purpose of this study was to estimate the amount of ionizing radiation that patients with spina bifida and hydrocephalus are exposed to during childhood from diagnostic imaging. Thirty patients, ages 18 years or older, with spina bifida and hydrocephalus were randomly selected from a spina bifida clinic and their radiology records were reviewed. Descriptive analyses were conducted. The total radiation exposure was then calculated for the study group, and the mean effective dose per patient was determined. In the study group, during their first 18 years, each patient had a mean of 55.1 studies and a median of 45 radiologic studies, a mean of 9.6 brain CT scans, and a mean cumulative effective dose of 81.9 mSv (2.6 mSv/patient/year over 18 years) and a median cumulative effective dose of 77.2 mSV of accumulated radiation exposure (4.5 mSv/patient/year over 18 years). Clinicians should recognize that increased radiation exposure puts patients with spina bifida and hydrocephalus at higher risk for cancer. The population of children and adults with spina bifida and hydrocephalus should be surveyed for incidence of cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Childhood adversity specificity and dose-response effect in non-affective first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trauelsen, Anne Marie; Bendall, Sarah; Jansen, Jens Einar

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reviews conclude that childhood and adolescence sexual, physical, emotional abuse and emotional and physical neglect are all risk factors for psychosis. However, studies suggest only some adversities are associated with psychosis. Dose-response effects of several adversities on risk......% of the control group. Childhood and adolescent sexual, physical, emotional abuse, and physical and emotional neglect, separation and institutionalization were about four to 17 times higher for the FEP group (all p

  7. Early childhood adversities and trajectories of psychiatric problems in adoptees: Evidence for long lasting effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J.M. Vegt, van der (Esther); J. van der Ende (Jan); R.F. Ferdinand (Robert); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of the present study is to investigate whether early childhood adversities determine the longitudinal course of psychiatric problems from childhood to adulthood; in particular if the impact of early maltreatment on psychopathology decreases as time passes. A sample of 1,984 inter

  8. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Risk of Binge Drinking and Drunkenness in Middle-Aged Finnish Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Kauhanen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between adverse childhood experiences and binge drinking and drunkenness in adulthood using both historical and recalled data from childhood. Methods. Data on childhood adverse experiences were collected from school health records and questionnaires completed in adulthood. Adulthood data were obtained from the baseline examinations of the male participants (n=2682 in the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study (KIHD in 1984–1989 from eastern Finland. School health records from the 1930s to 1950s were available for a subsample of KIHD men (n=952. Results. According to the school health records, men who had adverse childhood experiences had a 1.51-fold (95% CI 1.05 to 2.18 age- and examination-year adjusted odds of binge drinking in adulthood. After adjustment for socioeconomic position in adulthood or behavioural factors in adulthood, the association remained unchanged. Adjustment for socioeconomic position in childhood attenuated these effects. Also the recalled data showed associations with adverse childhood experiences and binge drinking with different beverages. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that childhood adversities are associated with increased risk of binge drinking in adulthood.

  9. Childhood adversities and distress - The role of resilience in a representative sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutel, Manfred E.; Tibubos, Ana N.; Klein, Eva M.; Schmutzer, Gabriele; Reiner, Iris; Kocalevent, Rüya-Daniela; Brähler, Elmar

    2017-01-01

    While adverse childhood experiences have been shown to contribute to adverse health outcomes in adulthood, specifically distress and somatic symptoms, few studies have examined their joint effects with resilient coping style on adult adjustment. Hence, we aim to determine the association between resilient coping and distress in participants with and without reported childhood adversities. A representative German community sample (N = 2508) between 14–92 years (1334 women; 1174 men) was examined by the short form of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Brief Resilience Coping Scale, standardized scales of distress and somatoform symptoms. Childhood adversity was associated with reduced adjustment, social support and resilience. It was also strongly associated with increased distress and somatoform complaints. Resilient coping was not only associated with lower distress, it also buffered the effects of childhood adversity on distress. Our study corroborates the buffering effect of resilience in a representative German sample. High trait resilient subjects show less distress and somatoform symptoms despite reported childhood adversities in comparison to those with low resilient coping abilities. PMID:28296938

  10. Childhood adversity and social functioning in psychosis: Exploring clinical and cognitive mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmier-Claus, Jasper; Berry, Katherine; Darrell-Berry, Hannah; Emsley, Richard; Parker, Sophie; Drake, Richard; Bucci, Sandra

    2016-04-30

    Childhood adversity may increase risk of impaired social functioning across the continuum of psychosis. However, the pathways by which adversity dictates functional outcome remain underexplored. This study investigated the association between childhood adversity and social functioning, and the clinical and cognitive mediators of this relationship. Fifty-four clinical (20 chronic, 20 first episode, 14 at ultra-high risk) and 120 non-clinical participants completed standardised questionnaires, semi-structured interviews and tests of theory of mind ability. The authors used multiple group structural equation modelling to fit mediation models allowing for differential relationships between the clinical and non-clinical samples. When examining each pathway separately, depression, paranoia and anxious attachment mediated the effect of childhood adversity on social functioning. In a combined model, depression was the only significant mediating variable with greater adversity predicting lower mood across groups. Childhood adversity did not significantly predict theory of mind ability in any of the models. This is the first study to indicate that childhood adversity acts on social functioning by increasing levels of depression, suggesting a common mechanism across the spectrum of psychosis. Clinical interventions should target low mood in order to improve social functioning at all stages of psychotic disorder.

  11. Childhood Adversity Is Associated with Adult Theory of Mind and Social Affiliation, but Not Face Processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Germine

    Full Text Available People vary substantially in their ability to acquire and maintain social ties. Here, we use a combined epidemiological and individual differences approach to understand the childhood roots of adult social cognitive functioning. We assessed exposure to 25 forms of traumatic childhood experiences in over 5000 adults, along with measures of face discrimination, face memory, theory of mind, social motivation, and social support. Retrospectively-reported experiences of parental maltreatment in childhood (particularly physical abuse were the most broadly and robustly associated with adult variations in theory of mind, social motivation, and social support. Adult variations in face discrimination and face memory, on the other hand, were not significantly associated with exposure to childhood adversity. Our findings indicate domains of social cognition that may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of adverse childhood environments, and suggest mechanisms whereby environmental factors might influence the development of social abilities.

  12. Childhood Adversity, Self-Esteem, and Diurnal Cortisol Profiles Across the Life Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilioli, Samuele; Slatcher, Richard B; Chi, Peilian; Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2016-09-01

    Childhood adversity is associated with poor health outcomes in adulthood; the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been proposed as a crucial biological intermediary of these long-term effects. Here, we tested whether childhood adversity was associated with diurnal cortisol parameters and whether this link was partially explained by self-esteem. In both adults and youths, childhood adversity was associated with lower levels of cortisol at awakening, and this association was partially driven by low self-esteem. Further, we found a significant indirect pathway through which greater adversity during childhood was linked to a flatter cortisol slope via self-esteem. Finally, youths who had a caregiver with high self-esteem experienced a steeper decline in cortisol throughout the day compared with youths whose caregiver reported low self-esteem. We conclude that self-esteem is a plausible psychological mechanism through which childhood adversity may get embedded in the activity of the HPA axis across the life span.

  13. Childhood adversity and adult depression: The protective role of psychological resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Julia C; Dobson, Keith S; Pusch, Dennis

    2017-02-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), such as childhood abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction, have been identified as salient risk factors for adult depression. However, not all individuals who experience ACEs go on to develop depression. The extent to which resilience- or the ability to demonstrate stable levels of functioning despite adversity- may act as a buffer against depression among individuals with a history of ACEs has not been adequately examined. To address the associations between ACEs, depression, and resilience, 4006 adult participants were recruited from primary care clinics. Participants completed self-report questionnaires including: the Adverse Childhood Experiences Questionnaire, a retrospective measure of childhood adversity; the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, a measure of the presence and severity of the major symptoms of depression; and the Connor Davidson Resilience Scale, a measure of psychological resilience. Results from regression analyses indicated that, while controlling for a range of demographic variables, both ACEs and resilience independently predicted symptoms of depression, F(9, 3040)=184.81, R(2)=0.354. Further, resilience moderated the association between ACEs and depression, F(10, 3039)=174.36, presilience relative to those with high resilience. This research provides important information regarding the relationships among ACEs, resilience, and depression. Results have the potential to inform the development of treatments aimed to reduce symptoms of depression among primary care patients with a history of childhood adversity.

  14. Adverse Childhood Experiences Are Linked to Age of Onset and Reading Recognition in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Shaw

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAdverse childhood experiences (ACEs exert a psychological and physiological toll that increases risk of chronic conditions, poorer social functioning, and cognitive impairment in adulthood.ObjectiveTo investigate the relationship between childhood adversity and clinical disease features in multiple sclerosis (MS.MethodsSixty-seven participants with MS completed the ACE assessment and neuropsychological assessments as part of a larger clinical trial of cognitive remediation.ResultsAdverse childhood experience scores, a measure of exposure to adverse events in childhood, significantly predicted age of MS onset (r = –0.30, p = 0.04. ACEs were also linked to reading recognition (a proxy for premorbid IQ (r = –0.25, p = 0.04. ACE scores were not related to age, current disability, or current level of cognitive impairment measured by the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT.ConclusionChildhood adversity may increase the likelihood of earlier age of onset and poorer estimated premorbid IQ in MS.

  15. Childhood adversity profiles and adult psychopathology in a representative Northern Ireland study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLafferty, Margaret; Armour, Cherie; McKenna, Aine; O'Neill, Siobhan; Murphy, Sam; Bunting, Brendan

    2015-10-01

    Childhood adversities are key aetiological factors in the onset and persistence of psychopathology. The aims of this study were to identify childhood adversity profiles, and investigate the relationship between the adversity classes and psychopathology in Northern Ireland. The study utilized data from the Northern Ireland Study of Health and Stress, an epidemiological survey (N=1986), which used the CIDI to examine mental health disorders and associated risk factors. Latent Class Analysis revealed 3 distinct typologies; a low risk class (n=1709; 86%), a poly-adversity class (n=122; 6.1%), and an economic adversity class (n=155; 7.8%). Logistic Regression models revealed that individuals in the economic adversity class had a heightened risk of anxiety and substance disorders, with individuals in the poly-adversity class more likely to have a range of mental health problems and suicidality. The findings indicate the importance of considering the impact of co-occurring childhood adversities when planning treatment, prevention, and intervention programmes.

  16. The Role of Mindfulness in Reducing the Adverse Effects of Childhood Stress and Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Ortiz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Research suggests that many children are exposed to adverse experiences in childhood. Such adverse childhood exposures may result in stress and trauma, which are associated with increased morbidity and mortality into adulthood. In general populations and trauma-exposed adults, mindfulness interventions have demonstrated reduced depression and anxiety, reduced trauma-related symptoms, enhanced coping and mood, and improved quality of life. Studies in children and youth also demonstrate that mindfulness interventions improve mental, behavioral, and physical outcomes. Taken together, this research suggests that high-quality, structured mindfulness instruction may mitigate the negative effects of stress and trauma related to adverse childhood exposures, improving short- and long-term outcomes, and potentially reducing poor health outcomes in adulthood. Future work is needed to optimize implementation of youth-based mindfulness programs and to study long-term outcomes into adulthood.

  17. Psychological Defense Styles, Childhood Adversities and Psychopathology in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, R.; Egle, U. T.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The present study explores the link between reported sexual and/or physical abuse and psychological defense styles, as well as the association of both with psychological distress in adulthood. In two patient samples that differ in psychological distress and somatization, we examine whether the adversities reported and immature defense…

  18. Early and late renal adverse effects after potentially nephrotoxic treatment for childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knijnenburg, Sebastiaan L; Mulder, Renée L; Schouten-Van Meeteren, Antoinette Y N; Bökenkamp, Arend; Blufpand, Hester; van Dulmen-den Broeder, Eline; Veening, Margreet A; Kremer, Leontien C M; Jaspers, Monique W M

    2013-10-08

    Great improvements in diagnostics and treatment for malignant disease in childhood have led to a major increase in survival. However, childhood cancer survivors (CCS) are at great risk for developing adverse effects caused by multimodal treatment for their malignancy. Nephrotoxicity is one of these known (acute) side effects of several treatments, including cisplatin, carboplatin, ifosfamide, radiotherapy and nephrectomy, and can cause glomerular filtration rate impairment, proteinuria, tubulopathy and hypertension. However, evidence about the long-term effects of these treatments on renal function remains inconclusive. To reduce the number of (long-term) nephrotoxic events in CCS, it is important to know the risk of, and risk factors for, early and late renal adverse effects, so that ultimately treatment and screening protocols can be adjusted. To evaluate existing evidence on the effects of potentially nephrotoxic treatment modalities on the prevalence of and associated risk factors for renal dysfunction in survivors treated for childhood cancer with a median or mean survival of at least one year after cessation of treatment, where possible in comparison with healthy controls or CCS treated without potentially nephrotoxic treatment. We searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2011), MEDLINE/PubMed (from 1945 to December 2011) and EMBASE/Ovid (from 1980 to December 2011). With the exception of case reports, case series and studies including fewer than 20 participants, we included studies with all study designs that reported on renal function (one year or longer after cessation of treatment) in children and adults who were treated for a paediatric malignancy (aged 18 years or younger at diagnosis) with cisplatin, carboplatin, ifosfamide, radiation including the kidney region and/or a nephrectomy. Two review authors independently performed study selection, risk of bias

  19. Impact of childhood adversities on the short-term course of illness in psychotic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalinski, Inga; Fischer, Yolanda; Rockstroh, Brigitte

    2015-08-30

    Accumulating evidence indicates an impact of childhood adversities on the severity and course of mental disorders, whereas this impact on psychotic disorders remains to be specified. Effects of childhood adversities on comorbidity, on symptom severity of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and global functioning across four months (upon admission, 1 and 4 months after initial assessment), as well as the course of illness (measured by the remission rate, number of re-hospitalizations and dropout rate) were evaluated in 62 inpatients with psychotic spectrum disorders. Adverse experiences (of at least 1 type) were reported by 73% of patients. Patients with higher overall level of childhood adversities (n=33) exhibited more co-morbid disorders, especially alcohol/substance abuse and dependency, and higher dropout rates than patients with a lower levels of adverse experiences (n=29), together with higher levels of positive symptoms and symptoms of excitement and disorganization. Emotional and physical neglect were particularly related to symptom severity. Results suggest that psychological stress in childhood affects the symptom severity and, additionally, a more unfavorable course of disorder in patients diagnosed with psychoses. This impact calls for its consideration in diagnostic assessment and psychiatric care.

  20. Childhood adversity as a predictor of non-adherence to statin therapy in adulthood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarit Jaana Korhonen

    Full Text Available To investigate whether adverse experiences in childhood predict non-adherence to statin therapy in adulthood.A cohort of 1378 women and 538 men who initiated statin therapy during 2008-2010 after responding to a survey on childhood adversities, was followed for non-adherence during the first treatment year. Log-binomial regression was used to estimate predictors of non-adherence, defined as the proportion of days covered by dispensed statin tablets <80%. In fully adjusted models including age, education, marital status, current smoking, heavy alcohol use, physical inactivity, obesity, presence of depression and cardiovascular comorbidity, the number of women ranged from 1172 to 1299 and that of men from 473 to 516, because of missing data on specific adversities and covariates.Two in three respondents reported at least one of the following six adversities in the family: divorce/separation of the parents, long-term financial difficulties, severe conflicts, frequent fear, severe illness, or alcohol problem of a family member. 51% of women and 44% of men were non-adherent. In men, the number of childhood adversities predicted an increased risk of non-adherence (risk ratio [RR] per adversity 1.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.21], P for linear trend 0.013. Compared with those reporting no adversities, men reporting 3-6 adversities had a 1.44-fold risk of non-adherence (95% CI 1.12-1.85. Experiencing severe conflicts in the family (RR 1.27, 95% CI 1.03-1.57] and frequent fear of a family member (RR 1.27, 95% CI 1.00-1.62] in particular, predicted an increased risk of non-adherence. In women, neither the number of adversities nor any specific type of adversity predicted non-adherence.Exposure to childhood adversity may predict non-adherence to preventive cardiovascular medication in men. Usefulness of information on childhood adversities in identification of adults at high risk of non-adherence deserves further research.

  1. Adverse childhood experiences: assessing the impact on health and school engagement and the mitigating role of resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethell, Christina D; Newacheck, Paul; Hawes, Eva; Halfon, Neal

    2014-12-01

    The ongoing longitudinal Adverse Childhood Experiences Study of adults has found significant associations between chronic conditions; quality of life and life expectancy in adulthood; and the trauma and stress associated with adverse childhood experiences, including physical or emotional abuse or neglect, deprivation, or exposure to violence. Less is known about the population-based epidemiology of adverse childhood experiences among US children. Using the 2011-12 National Survey of Children's Health, we assessed the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences and associations between them and factors affecting children's development and lifelong health. After we adjusted for confounding factors, we found lower rates of school engagement and higher rates of chronic disease among children with adverse childhood experiences. Our findings suggest that building resilience-defined in the survey as "staying calm and in control when faced with a challenge," for children ages 6-17-can ameliorate the negative impact of adverse childhood experiences. We found higher rates of school engagement among children with adverse childhood experiences who demonstrated resilience, as well as higher rates of resilience among children with such experiences who received care in a family-centered medical home. We recommend a coordinated effort to fill knowledge gaps and translate existing knowledge about adverse childhood experiences and resilience into national, state, and local policies, with a focus on addressing childhood trauma in health systems as they evolve during ongoing reform.

  2. Dose-Effect Relationships for Adverse Events After Cranial Radiation Therapy in Long-term Childhood Cancer Survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijk, Irma W.E.M. van, E-mail: i.w.vandijk@amc.uva.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Cardous-Ubbink, Mathilde C. [Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pal, Helena J.H. van der [Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Heinen, Richard C. [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Leeuwen, Flora E. van [Department of Epidemiology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Oldenburger, Foppe; Os, Rob M. van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Ronckers, Cécile M. [Dutch Childhood Oncology Group, Long-term Effects after Childhood Cancer, The Hague (Netherlands); Schouten–van Meeteren, Antoinette Y.N. [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Caron, Huib N. [Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Koning, Caro C.E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kremer, Leontien C.M. [Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence and severity of clinical adverse events (AEs) and treatment-related risk factors in childhood cancer survivors treated with cranial radiation therapy (CRT), with the aim of assessing dose-effect relationships. Methods and Materials: The retrospective study cohort consisted of 1362 Dutch childhood cancer survivors, of whom 285 were treated with CRT delivered as brain irradiation (BI), as part of craniospinal irradiation (CSI), and as total body irradiation (TBI). Individual CRT doses were converted into the equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions (EQD{sub 2}). Survivors had received their diagnoses between 1966 and 1996 and survived at least 5 years after diagnosis. A complete inventory of Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events grade 3.0 AEs was available from our hospital-based late-effect follow-up program. We used multivariable logistic and Cox regression analyses to examine the EQD{sub 2} in relation to the prevalence and severity of AEs, correcting for sex, age at diagnosis, follow-up time, and the treatment-related risk factors surgery and chemotherapy. Results: There was a high prevalence of AEs in the CRT group; over 80% of survivors had more than 1 AE, and almost half had at least 5 AEs, both representing significant increases in number of AEs compared with survivors not treated with CRT. Additionally, the proportion of severe, life-threatening, or disabling AEs was significantly higher in the CRT group. The most frequent AEs were alopecia and cognitive, endocrine, metabolic, and neurologic events. Using the EQD{sub 2}, we found significant dose-effect relationships for these and other AEs. Conclusion: Our results confirm that CRT increases the prevalence and severity of AEs in childhood cancer survivors. Furthermore, analyzing dose-effect relationships with the cumulative EQD{sub 2} instead of total physical dose connects the knowledge from radiation therapy and radiobiology with the clinical experience.

  3. Childhood adversity, adult socioeconomic status and risk of work disability: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halonen, Jaana I; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Pentti, Jaana; Virtanen, Marianna; Ervasti, Jenni; Oksanen, Tuula; Lallukka, Tea

    2017-09-01

    To examine the combined effects of childhood adversities and low adult socioeconomic status (SES) on the risk of future work disability. Included were 34 384 employed Finnish Public Sector study participants who responded to questions about childhood adversities (none vs any adversity, eg, parental divorce or financial difficulties) in 2008, and whose adult SES in 2008 was available. We categorised exposure into four groups: neither (reference), childhood adversity only, low SES only or both. Participants were followed from 2009 until the first period of register-based work disability (sickness absence >9 days or disability pension) due to any cause, musculoskeletal or mental disorders; retirement; death or end of follow-up (December 2011). We ran Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for behavioural, health-related and work-related covariates, and calculated synergy indices for the combined effects. When compared with those with neither exposure, HR for work disability from any cause was increased among participants with childhood adversity, with low SES, and those with both exposures. The highest hazard was observed in those with both exposures: HR 2.53, 95% CI 2.29 to 2.79 for musculoskeletal disability, 1.55, 95% CI 1.36 to 1.78 for disability due to mental disorders and 1.29, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.39 for disability due to other reasons. The synergy indices did not indicate synergistic effects. These findings indicate that childhood psychosocial adversity and low adult SES are additive risk factors for work disability. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Do Childhood Adversities Predict Suicidality? Findings from the General Population of the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Mendonça Coêlho

    Full Text Available Childhood adversities have been associated with a number of medical and psychiatric outcomes. However, the reported effects that specific childhood adversities have on suicidality vary across studies.This was a cross-sectional, stratified, multistage area probability investigation of a general population in Brazil, designated the São Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey. The World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview was applied in 5037 individuals ≥ 18 years of age, in order to assess 12 different adversities occurring during childhood and/or adolescence, as well as to look for associations between those adversities and subsequent suicidality in different age strata.Over half of the respondents reported at least one childhood adversity. Only physical abuse was consistently associated with suicide attempts in all subsequent life stages (OR = 2.1. Among adults 20-29 years of age, the likelihood of a suicide attempt was correlated with parental divorce, whereas suicidal ideation was associated with prior sexual abuse. Among adults over 30 years of age, physical illness and economic adversity emerged as relevant childhood adversities associated with suicide attempts, whereas sexual abuse, family violence, and economic adversity were associated with suicidal ideation.Childhood adversities, especially physical abuse, are likely associated with unfavorable consequences in subsequent years. For suicidality across a lifespan, the role of different childhood adversities must be examined independently.

  5. The Relationship between Adverse Childhood Events, Resiliency and Health among Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigles, Bethany

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has shown a negative relationship between adverse childhood events (ACEs) and health and resiliency among the general population, but has not examined these associations among children with autism. Purpose: To determine the prevalence of ACEs among children with autism and how ACEs are associated with resiliency and health.…

  6. The Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on an Urban Pediatric Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Nadine J.; Hellman, Julia L.; Scott, Brandon G.; Weems, Carl F.; Carrion, Victor G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to investigate the adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in youth in a low-income, urban community. Study design: Data from a retrospective chart review of 701 subjects from the Bayview Child Health Center in San Francisco are presented. Medical chart documentation of ACEs as defined in previous studies were…

  7. Role of childhood adversity in the development of medical co-morbidities associated with bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Robert M.; Altshuler, Lori L.; Leverich, Gabriele S.; Frye, Mark A.; Suppes, Trisha; McElroy, Susan L.; Keck, Paul E.; Nolen, Willem A.; Kupka, Ralph W.; Grunze, Heinz; Rowe, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Objective: A role for childhood adversity in the development of numerous medical conditions in adults has been described in the general population, but has not been examined in patients with bipolar disorder who have multiple medical comorbidities which contribute to their premature mortality. Metho

  8. Screening for Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) in an Integrated Pediatric Care Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purewal, Sukhdip K.; Bucci, Monica; Wang, Lisa Gutiérrez; Koita, Kadiatou; Marques, Sara Silvério; Oh, Debora; Harris, Nadine Burke

    2016-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are stressful or traumatic events that place children at risk of negative health, mental health, and behavioral outcomes. The Center for Youth Wellness (CYW), working in partnership with the Bayview Child Health Center (BCHC), pioneered ACE screening for children and adolescents. This article describes the…

  9. Childhood adversity subtypes and depressive symptoms in early and late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Clair, Michelle C; Croudace, Tim; Dunn, Valerie J; Jones, Peter B; Herbert, Joe; Goodyer, Ian M

    2015-08-01

    Within a longitudinal study of 1,005 adolescents, we investigated how exposure to childhood psychosocial adversities was associated with the emergence of depressive symptoms between 14 and 17 years of age. The cohort was classified into four empirically determined adversity subtypes for two age periods in childhood (0-5 and 6-11 years). One subtype reflects normative/optimal family environments (n = 692, 69%), while the other three subtypes reflect differential suboptimal family environments (aberrant parenting: n = 71, 7%; discordant: n = 185, 18%; and hazardous: n = 57, 6%). Parent-rated child temperament at 14 years and adolescent self-reported recent negative life events in early and late adolescence were included in models implementing path analysis. There were gender-differentiated associations between childhood adversity subtypes and adolescent depressive symptoms. The discordant and hazardous subtypes were associated with elevated depressive symptoms in both genders but the aberrant parenting subtype only so in girls. Across adolescence the associations between early childhood adversity and depressive symptoms diminished for boys but remained for girls. Emotional temperament was also associated with depressive symptoms in both genders, while proximal negative life events related to depressive symptoms in girls only. There may be neurodevelopmental factors that emerge in adolescence that reduce depressogenic symptoms in boys but increase such formation in girls.

  10. The Relationship between Adverse Childhood Events, Resiliency and Health among Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigles, Bethany

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has shown a negative relationship between adverse childhood events (ACEs) and health and resiliency among the general population, but has not examined these associations among children with autism. Purpose: To determine the prevalence of ACEs among children with autism and how ACEs are associated with resiliency and health.…

  11. A longitudinal perspective on childhood adversities and onset risk of various psychiatric disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Ormel, Johan

    It is well-known that childhood adversities can have long-term effects on mental health, but a lot remains to be learned about the risk they bring about for a first onset of various psychiatric disorders, and how this risk develops over time. In the present study, which was based on a Dutch

  12. Adverse childhood experiences and trauma informed care: the future of health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral, Resmiye; Ramirez, Marizen; Coohey, Carol; Nakada, Stephanie; Walz, Amy; Kuntz, Angela; Benoit, Jenna; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2016-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are related to short- and long-term negative physical and mental health consequences among children and adults. Studies of the last three decades on ACEs and traumatic stress have emphasized their impact and the importance of preventing and addressing trauma across all service systems utilizing universal systemic approaches. Current developments on the implementation of trauma informed care (TIC) in a variety of service systems call for the surveillance of trauma, resiliency, functional capacity, and health impact of ACEs. Despite such efforts in adult medical care, early identification of childhood trauma in children still remains a significant public health need. This article reviews childhood adversity and traumatic toxic stress, presents epidemiologic data on the prevalence of ACEs and their physical and mental health impacts, and discusses intervention modalities for prevention.

  13. Cumulative Childhood Trauma and Adult Sexual Satisfaction: Mediation by Affect Dysregulation and Sexual Anxiety in Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigras, Noémie; Daspe, Marie-Ève; Godbout, Natacha; Briere, John; Sabourin, Stéphane

    2017-05-19

    Childhood cumulative trauma (CCT) refers to an amalgam of childhood maltreatment experiences that can lead to a range of symptoms and problems in adulthood. The current study examined an integrative model of CCT for its relevance to psychosexual adjustment in adult survivors. A total of 620 participants aged 18 years and over completed a questionnaire assessing early life experiences, affect dysregulation, sexual anxiety, and sexual satisfaction. Path analyses confirmed the hypothesis that CCT is associated with affect dysregulation and sexual anxiety that, in turn, predict lower levels of sexual satisfaction. The validity of this mediational model was demonstrated for different operationalizations of CCT. The results suggested that sex therapists, who are likely to encounter CCT survivors in their practice, should consider targeting affect dysregulation in their efforts to decrease sexual anxiety and increase sexual satisfaction.

  14. The varying impact of type, timing and frequency of exposure to childhood adversity on its association with adult psychotic disorder.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fisher, H L

    2010-12-01

    Childhood adversity has been associated with onset of psychosis in adulthood but these studies have used only general definitions of this environmental risk indicator. Therefore, we sought to explore the prevalence of more specific adverse childhood experiences amongst those with and without psychotic disorders using detailed assessments in a large epidemiological case-control sample (AESOP).

  15. Peptic ulcer and childhood adversities experienced by working-aged people

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Markku PT Sumanen; Markku J Koskenvuo; Lauri H Sillanm.ki; Kari J Mattila

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To study the association between self-reported peptic ulcer and childhood adversities.METHODS: The Health and Social Support Study (HeSSup) population consisted of a stratified random sample drawn from the Finnish Population Register in four age groups: 20-24, 30-34, 40-44 and 50-54. The survey was carried out by postal questionnaire during 1998, with a response rate of 40.0%. A follow-up questionnaire was sent during 2003 to all those who responded to the first.Altogether 19 626 individuals returned the follow-up questionnaire; a response rate of 75.8%. The subjects were asked whether a doctor had told them that they have or have had peptic ulcer. The analyses covered those who responded affirmatively to both the baseline and the follow-up enquiries ( n = 718). Those not reporting a peptic ulcer in either of the two questionnaires ( n = 17 677) were taken as controls. The subjects were further requested (through six questions) to think about their childhood adversities.RESULTS: The most common adversities mentioned were long-lasting financial difficulties in the family,serious conflicts in the family, and a family member seriously or chronically ill. All the adversities reported,except parental divorce, were more common among peptic ulcer patients than among controls ( Pvaried values between < 0.001 and 0.003). Age- and sexadjusted odds ratios (OR) of childhood adversities in the multivariate logistic analysis for self-reported peptic ulcer varied between 1.45 and 2.01. Adjusting for smoking, heavy drinking, stress and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug use had no further influence (ORsbetween 1.22 and 1.73).CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that childhood adversities maintain a connection with and have a predictive role in the development of peptic ulcer.

  16. Gender Differences in the Physical and Psychological Manifestation of Childhood Trauma and/or Adversity in People with Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Shaun; Air, Tracy; Zannettino, Lana; Galletly, Cherrie

    2015-01-01

    The link between childhood trauma and/or adversity and risk of psychosis is well known. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of childhood trauma and/or adversity in people who have psychotic disorders and to investigate the association between childhood trauma and/or adversity and a range of social and health measures. Participants (n = 391, 42% male) were specifically asked about any experience of childhood trauma and/or adversity. Respondents provided information about education, employment, physical health, and health service utilization. Univariate analyses revealed that childhood trauma and/or adversity was associated with poorer levels of self-reported physical health and social problems. This includes the experience of chronic pain, headaches, arthritis, asthma, and victimization/stigma in men. Participants with a childhood trauma and/or adversity history indicated higher rates of lifetime suicide attempts with women reporting more lifetime depressive symptoms. Multivariate analyses revealed differing profiles in relation to physical and psychological health variable between males and females. Males with the experience of childhood trauma and/or adversity were significantly more likely to report cardiovascular/stroke issues, migraines and anhedonia. Females with the experience of childhood trauma and/or adversity were more likely to report a lifetime history of elevated mood and to be married or in a de facto relationship. There has been very little research into the assessment and treatment of the effects of childhood trauma and/or adversity in adults with psychosis. Childhood trauma and/or adversity may contribute to higher rates of self-reported poor health in men and is associated with increased depression in women. Our findings suggest that interventions to address the effects of past trauma are urgently needed.

  17. Gender differences in the physical and psychological manifestation of childhood trauma and/or adversity in people with psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun eSweeney

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The link between childhood trauma and/or adversity and risk of psychosis is well known. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of childhood trauma and/or adversity in people who have psychotic disorders and to investigate the association between childhood trauma and/or adversity and a range of social and health measures. Participants (n=391, 42% male were specifically asked about any experience of childhood trauma and/or adversity. Respondents provided information about education, employment, physical health and health service utilisation. Univariate analyses revealed that childhood trauma and/or adversity was associated with poorer levels of self-reported physical health and social problems. This includes the experience of chronic pain, headaches, arthritis, asthma and victimisation/stigma in men. Participants with a childhood trauma and/or adversity history indicated higher rates of lifetime suicide attempts with women reporting more lifetime depressive symptoms. Multivariate analyses revealed differing profiles in relation to physical and psychological health variable between males and females. Males with the experience of childhood trauma and/or adversity were significantly more likely to report cardiovascular/stroke issues, migraines and anhedonia. Females with the experience of childhood trauma and/or adversity were more likely to report a lifetime history of elevated mood and to be married or in a defacto relationship. There has been very little research into the assessment and treatment of the effects of childhood trauma and/or adversity in adults with psychosis. Childhood trauma and/or adversity may contribute to higher rates of self-reported poor health in men and is associated with increased depression in women. Our findings suggest that interventions to address the effects of past trauma are urgently needed.

  18. Serum progesterone elevation adversely affects cumulative live birth rate in different ovarian responders during in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer: a large retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Zhiqin; Zhao, Feifei; Wang, Keyan; Guo, Yihong; Su, Yingchun; Zhai, Jun; Sun, Yingpu

    2014-01-01

    In order to explore the relationship between serum progesterone (P) level on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) administration and cumulative live birth rate in patients with different ovarian response during in vitro fertilization (IVF), we carried out this retrospective cohort study including a total of 4,651 patients undergoing their first IVF cycles from January 2011 to December 2012. All patients with a final live birth outcome (4,332 patients) were divided into three groups according to ovarian response: poor ovarian responder (≤5 oocytes, 785 patients), intermediate ovarian responder (6-19 oocytes, 3065 patients) and high ovarian responder (≥20 oocytes, 482 patients). The thresholds for serum P elevation were 1.60 ng/ml, 2.24 ng/ml, and 2.50 ng/ml for poor, intermediate, and high ovarian responders, respectively. Cumulative live birth rate per oocyte retrieval cycle was calculated in each group. The relationship between serum P level and cumulative live birth rate was evaluated by both univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Cumulative live birth rate per oocyte retrieval cycle was inversely associated with serum P level in patients with different ovarian response. For all responders, patients with elevated P level had significantly higher number of oocytes retrieved, but lower high quality embryo rate, and lower cumulative live birth rate compared with patients with normal serum P level. In addition, serum P level adversely affected cumulative live birth rate by both univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis, independent of ovarian response. Serum P elevation on the day of HCG administration adversely affects cumulative live birth rate per oocyte retrieval cycle in patients with different ovarian response.

  19. Childhood Adversity and Neural Development: Deprivation and Threat as Distinct Dimensions of Early Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Sheridan, Margaret A.; Lambert, Hilary K.

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of research has examined the impact of childhood adversity on neural structure and function. Advances in our understanding of the neurodevelopmental consequences of adverse early environments require the identification of dimensions of environmental experience that influence neural development differently and mechanisms other than the frequently-invoked stress pathways. We propose a novel conceptual framework that differentiates between deprivation (absence of expected environmental inputs and complexity) and threat (presence of experiences that represent a threat to one’s physical integrity) and make predictions grounded in basic neuroscience principles about their distinct effects on neural development. We review animal research on fear learning and sensory deprivation as well as human research on childhood adversity and neural development to support these predictions. We argue that these previously undifferentiated dimensions of experience exert strong and distinct influences on neural development that cannot be fully explained by prevailing models focusing only on stress pathways. Our aim is not to exhaustively review existing evidence on childhood adversity and neural development, but to provide a novel framework to guide future research. PMID:25454359

  20. Determining prenatal, early childhood and cumulative long-term lead exposure using micro-spatial deciduous dentine levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Arora

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the validity of micro-spatial dentine lead (Pb levels as a biomarker for accurately estimating exposure timing over the prenatal and early childhood periods and long-term cumulative exposure to Pb. In a prospective pregnancy cohort sub-sample of 85 subjects, we compared dentine Pb levels measured using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with Pb concentrations in maternal blood collected in the second and third trimesters, maternal bone, umbilical cord blood, and childhood serial blood samples collected from the ages of 3 months to ≥6 years. We found that Pb levels (as 208Pb:43Ca in dentine formed at birth were significantly associated with cord blood Pb (Spearman ρ = 0.69; n = 27; p<0.0001. The association of prenatal dentine Pb with maternal patella Pb (Spearman ρ = 0.48; n = 59; p<0.0001 was stronger than that observed for tibia Pb levels (Spearman ρ = 0.35; n = 41; p<0.03. When assessing postnatal exposure, we found that Pb levels in dentine formed at 3 months were significantly associated with Pb concentrations in children's blood collected concurrently (Spearman ρ = 0.64; n = 55; p<0.0001. We also found that mean Pb concentrations in secondary dentine (that is formed from root completion to tooth shedding correlated positively with cumulative blood lead index (Spearman ρ = 0.38; n = 75; p<0.0007. Overall, our results support that micro-spatial measurements of Pb in dentine can be reliably used to reconstruct Pb exposure timing over the prenatal and early childhood periods, and secondary dentine holds the potential to estimate long-term exposure up to the time the tooth is shed.

  1. Low Fruit/Vegetable Consumption in the Home: Cumulative Risk Factors in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Wendy L.; Swindle, Taren M.; Kyzer, Angela L.; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    Cumulative risk theory suggests that a variety of social risk factors would have an additive effect on obesity risk. Multiple studies have suggested that obesity is related to basic resources such as transportation and financial resources. Additional research points to parental engagement and parental monitoring as additional sources of risk. This…

  2. Developmental Patterns of Adverse Childhood Experiences and Current Symptoms and Impairment in Youth Referred For Trauma-Specific Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Damion J; Dierkhising, Carly B; Branson, Christopher E; Ford, Julian D; Lee, Robert

    2016-07-01

    By the time children reach adolescence, most have experienced at least one type of severe adversity and many have been exposed to multiple types. However, whether patterns of adverse childhood experiences are consistent or change across developmental epochs in childhood is not known. Retrospective reports of adverse potentially traumatic childhood experiences in 3 distinct developmental epochs (early childhood, 0- to 5-years-old; middle childhood, 6- to 12-years-old; and adolescence, 13- to 18-years-old) were obtained from adolescents (N = 3485) referred to providers in the National Child Traumatic Stress Network (NCTSN) for trauma-focused assessment and treatment. Results from latent class analysis (LCA) revealed increasingly complex patterns of adverse/traumatic experiences in middle childhood and adolescence compared to early childhood. Depending upon the specific developmental epoch assessed, different patterns of adverse/traumatic experiences were associated with gender and with adolescent psychopathology (e.g., internalizing/externalizing behavior problems), and juvenile justice involvement. A multiply exposed subgroup that had severe problems in adolescence was evident in each of the 3 epochs, but their specific types of adverse/traumatic experiences differed depending upon the developmental epoch. Implications for research and clinical practice are identified.

  3. Multi-exposure and clustering of adverse childhood experiences, socioeconomic differences and psychotropic medication in young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Björkenstam

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Stressful childhood experiences have negative long-term health consequences. The present study examines the association between adverse childhood experiences, socioeconomic position, and risk of psychotropic medication in young adulthood. METHODS: This register-based cohort study comprises the birth cohorts between 1985 and 1988 in Sweden. We followed 362 663 individuals for use of psychotropic medication from January 2006 until December 2008. Adverse childhood experiences were severe criminality among parents, parental alcohol or drug abuse, social assistance recipiency, parental separation or single household, child welfare intervention before the age of 12, mentally ill or suicidal parents, familial death, and number of changes in place of residency. Estimates of risk of psychotropic medication were calculated as odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Adverse childhood experiences were associated with increased risks of psychotropic medication. The OR for more than three adverse childhood experiences and risk of psychotropic medication was for women 2.4 (95% CI 2.3-2.5 and for men 3.1 (95% CI 2.9-3.2. The risk of psychotropic medication increased with a higher rate of adverse childhood experiences, a relationship similar in all socioeconomic groups. CONCLUSIONS: Accumulation of adverse childhood experiences increases the risk of psychotropic medication in young adults. Parental educational level is of less importance when adjusting for adverse childhood experiences. The higher risk for future mental health problems among children from lower socioeconomic groups, compared to peers from more advantaged backgrounds, seems to be linked to a higher rate of exposure to adverse childhood experiences.

  4. Impact of Different Childhood Adversities on 1-Year Outcomes of Psychotic Disorder in the Genetics and Psychosis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotta, Antonella; Murray, Robin M; David, Anthony S; Kolliakou, Anna; O'Connor, Jennifer; Di Forti, Marta; Dazzan, Paola; Mondelli, Valeria; Morgan, Craig; Fisher, Helen L

    2016-03-01

    While the role of childhood adversity in increasing the risk of psychosis has been extensively investigated, it is not clear what the impact of early adverse experiences is on the outcomes of psychotic disorders. Therefore, we investigated associations between childhood adversity and 1-year outcomes in 285 first-presentation psychosis patients. Exposure to childhood adversity prior to 17 years of age was assessed using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire. Data on illness course, symptom remission, length of psychiatric hospitalization, compliance with medication, employment, and relationship status were extracted from clinical records for the year following first contact with mental health services for psychosis. Seventy-one percent of patients reported exposure to at least 1 type of childhood adversity (physical abuse, sexual abuse, parental separation, parental death, disrupted family arrangements, or being taken into care). No robust associations were found between childhood adversity and illness course or remission. However, childhood physical abuse was associated with almost 3-fold increased odds of not being in a relationship at 1-year follow-up compared to patients who did not report such adverse experiences. There was also evidence of a significant association between parental separation in childhood and longer admissions to psychiatric wards during 1-year follow-up and 2-fold increased odds of noncompliance with medication compared to those not separated from their parents. Therefore, our findings suggest that there may be some specificity in the impact of childhood adversity on service use and social functioning among psychosis patients over the first year following presentation to mental health services.

  5. Appetitive aggression and adverse childhood experiences shape violent behavior in females formerly associated with combat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareike eAugsburger

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the impact of violent experiences during childhood, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and appetitive aggression on everyday violent behavior in Burundian females with varying participation in war. Moreover, group differences in trauma-related and aggression variables were expected. Appetitive aggression describes the perception of violence perpetration as fascinating and appealing and is a common phenomenon in former combatants. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 157 females, either former combatants, supporters of armed forces or civilians during the civil war in Burundi. The PTSD Symptom Scale Interview was used to assess PTSD symptom severity, the Appetitive Aggression Scale to measure appetitive aggression and the Domestic and Community Violence Checklist to assess both childhood maltreatment and recent aggressive behavior. Former combatants had experienced more traumatic events, perpetrated more violence and reported higher levels of appetitive aggression than supporters and civilians. They also suffered more severely from PTSD symptoms than civilians but not than supporters. The groups did not differ regarding childhood maltreatment. Both appetitive aggression and childhood violence predicted ongoing aggressive behavior, whereas the latter outperformed PTSD symptom severity. These findings support current research showing that adverse childhood experiences and a positive attitude towards aggression serve as the basis for aggressive behavior and promote an ongoing cycle of violence in post-conflict regions. Female members of armed groups are in need of demobilization procedures including trauma-related care and interventions addressing appetitive aggression.

  6. Appetitive Aggression and Adverse Childhood Experiences Shape Violent Behavior in Females Formerly Associated with Combat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augsburger, Mareike; Meyer-Parlapanis, Danie; Bambonye, Manassé; Elbert, Thomas; Crombach, Anselm

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of violent experiences during childhood, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and appetitive aggression on everyday violent behavior in Burundian females with varying participation in war. Moreover, group differences in trauma-related and aggression variables were expected. Appetitive aggression describes the perception of violence perpetration as fascinating and appealing and is a common phenomenon in former combatants. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 158 females, either former combatants, supporters of armed forces or civilians during the civil war in Burundi. The PTSD Symptom Scale Interview was used to assess PTSD symptom severity, the Appetitive Aggression Scale to measure appetitive aggression and the Domestic and Community Violence Checklist to assess both childhood maltreatment and recent aggressive behavior. Former combatants had experienced more traumatic events, perpetrated more violence and reported higher levels of appetitive aggression than supporters and civilians. They also suffered more severely from PTSD symptoms than civilians but not than supporters. The groups did not differ regarding childhood maltreatment. Both appetitive aggression and childhood violence predicted ongoing aggressive behavior, whereas the latter outperformed PTSD symptom severity. These findings support current research showing that adverse childhood experiences and a positive attitude toward aggression serve as the basis for aggressive behavior and promote an ongoing cycle of violence in post-conflict regions. Female members of armed groups are in need of demobilization procedures including trauma-related care and interventions addressing appetitive aggression.

  7. The relationship between self-reported childhood adversities, adulthood psychopathology and psychological stress markers in patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidenfaden, Dea; Knorr, Ulla; Soendergaard, Mia Greisen

    2017-01-01

    fulfilling ICD-10 criteria for schizophrenia and 39 healthy control persons filled out the comprehensive Childhood Abuse and Trauma Scale (CATS). Data were analyzed after a data-driven dichotomization into two groups of either high or low CATS score in patients and controls, respectively. The psychopathology......Background: Childhood adversity is a well-established risk factor for the development of schizophrenia. In particular, there is evidence that childhood adversity increases the occurrence of positive symptoms, possibly through glucocorticoid influences on dopaminergic neurotransmission. Aims......: To compare levels of childhood trauma in schizophrenia patients vs. healthy control persons, and to study the association between childhood adversity and the symptomatology of adulthood schizophrenia, as well as subjective and biological markers of psychological stress.  Methods: Thirty-seven patients...

  8. Cumulative family risks across income levels predict deterioration of children's general health during childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Ching; Seo, Dong-Chul

    2017-01-01

    Family is considered an important agent in the health development of children. This process is significant but quite complex because the prevalence of potential risk factors in the family can hinder children's health. This study examined if multiple family risks might have cumulative effect on children and youth's health across various levels of household income. The data in this study were drawn from the 2011-2012 U.S. National Survey of Children's Health (N = 79,601). A cumulative family risk (CFR) index was developed, which included such constructs as single-parenthood, unstable employment, large family, parenting stress, poor maternal education, poor maternal general health and poor maternal mental health. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that CFR level was significantly related to children and youth's poor health outcome (p families than on those from poor families. Overall there was a consistent pattern of trend in the point estimate as well as confidence limits as levels of affluence and numbers of family risk increased although some of the confidence intervals overlapped. Living in disadvantaged families might serve as a protective factor against CFRs possibly through repeated exposure to hardships and subsequent formation of resilience among some of the disadvantaged children.

  9. Childhood adverse life events and parental psychopathology as risk factors for bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergink, Veerle; Tidselbak Larsen, Janne; Hillegers, M H J

    2016-01-01

    Childhood adverse events are risk factors for later bipolar disorder. We quantified the risks for a later diagnosis of bipolar disorder after exposure to adverse life events in children with and without parental psychopathology. This register-based population cohort study included all persons born...... risk estimates of each of these eight life events as single exposure and risk estimates for exposure to multiple life events. Main outcome variable was a diagnosis of bipolar disorder after the age of 15 years, analysed with Cox proportional hazard regression. Single exposure to most...... in Denmark from 1980 to 1998 (980 554 persons). Adversities before age 15 years were: familial disruption; parental somatic illness; any parental psychopathology; parental labour market exclusion; parental imprisonment; placement in out-of-home care; and parental natural and unnatural death. We calculated...

  10. Childhood adverse life events and parental psychopathology as risk factors for bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergink, V; Larsen, J T; Hillegers, M H J; Dahl, S K; Stevens, H; Mortensen, P B; Petersen, L; Munk-Olsen, T

    2016-10-25

    Childhood adverse events are risk factors for later bipolar disorder. We quantified the risks for a later diagnosis of bipolar disorder after exposure to adverse life events in children with and without parental psychopathology. This register-based population cohort study included all persons born in Denmark from 1980 to 1998 (980 554 persons). Adversities before age 15 years were: familial disruption; parental somatic illness; any parental psychopathology; parental labour market exclusion; parental imprisonment; placement in out-of-home care; and parental natural and unnatural death. We calculated risk estimates of each of these eight life events as single exposure and risk estimates for exposure to multiple life events. Main outcome variable was a diagnosis of bipolar disorder after the age of 15 years, analysed with Cox proportional hazard regression. Single exposure to most of the investigated adversities were associated with increased risk for bipolar disorder, exceptions were parental somatic illness and parental natural death. By far the strongest risk factor for bipolar disorder in our study was any mental disorder in the parent (hazard ratio 3.53; 95% confidence interval 2.73-4.53) and the additional effects of life events on bipolar risk were limited. An effect of early adverse life events on bipolar risk later in life was mainly observed in children without parental psychopathology. Our findings do not exclude early-life events as possible risk factors, but challenge the concept of adversities as important independent determinants of bipolar disorder in genetically vulnerable individuals.

  11. Offenders in emerging adulthood: School maladjustment, childhood adversities, and prediction of aggressive antisocial behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallinius, Märta; Delfin, Carl; Billstedt, Eva; Nilsson, Thomas; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Hofvander, Björn

    2016-10-01

    Early psychosocial adversities and maladjustment, such as childhood maltreatment and school adjustment problems, have been linked to an increased risk of aggressive antisocial behaviors. Yet, clinical studies of subjects at the highest risk of persistence in such behaviors are rare, especially during the life-changing transition years of emerging adulthood. This study describes early predictors of aggressive antisocial behaviors in a large, nationally representative cohort of Swedish, male violent offenders in emerging adulthood (age range = 18-25 years; N = 270). First, data on psychosocial background characteristics and aggressive antisocial behaviors (including age at onset) are provided. Second, early predictors of aggressive antisocial behaviors are tested in bivariate and multivariate interactive models. The offenders demonstrated a diversity of early onset adversities and disruptive behaviors, in line with established risk factors for subsequent criminality and adverse outcomes in a variety of life domains. Severe school adjustment problems, especially bullying others and early onset truancy, were important and interrelated predictors of aggressive antisocial behaviors over the lifetime, whereas childhood adversities such as parental substance or alcohol abuse and repeated exposure to violence at home during childhood were interrelated predictors of aggressive antisocial behaviors, albeit with less statistical importance. The findings stress the importance of early identification of individuals in the risk zone of developing severe and persistent aggressive antisocial behaviors and of early preventive interventions directed toward families with high-risk profiles. The findings also provide initial guidelines on which psychosocial background risk factors that need to be considered first-hand in early interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Adverse childhood experiences and psychosocial well-being of women who were in foster care as children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruskas, Delilah; Tessin, Dale H

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that many children in foster care later have psychosocial problems as adults; this is often attributed to cumulative adversities and a lack of supportive caregivers. The risk factors associated with foster care, such as maternal separation and multiple placements, often counteract many protective factors that can ameliorate the effects of childhood adversities. This study assessed the relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and psychosocial well-being in women who were in foster care as children. A total of 101 women aged 18-71 years (mean, 36.83 [12.95] years) completed an anonymous online survey based on the 10-item ACE Questionnaire, the Sense of Coherence questionnaire, and the General Health Questionnaire. More than 56% of respondents were identified as experiencing current psychological distress. Sense of coherence scores (mean, 54.26 [15.35]) showed a significant inverse association with both General Health Questionnaire (mean, 14.83 [5.88]) and ACE (mean, 5.68 [2.90]) scores (r = -0.64 and -0.31, respectively) and 97% reported at least 1 ACE, 70% reported ≥ 5 and 33% reported ≥ 8. Linear regressions indicated that ACEs reported to occur before foster care were associated with lower levels of sense of coherence (8%) and higher levels of psychological distress (6%). Physical neglect and living in a dysfunctional household (parental loss, maternal abuse, or household member associated with substance abuse or prison) significantly decreased during foster care by 16 and 19 percentage points, respectively. Rates of emotional and physical abuse did not change. The number of ACEs was associated with the level of psychological distress. Our findings suggest that children entering the foster care system are already vulnerable and at risk of experiencing ACEs during foster care and psychological distress during adulthood. Measures implemented to protect children must not cause more harm than good. Social services that preserve

  13. Adverse childhood experiences, mental health, and quality of life of Chilean girls placed in foster care: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Annina; Kohler, Stefanie; Ruf-Leuschner, Martina; Landolt, Markus A

    2016-03-01

    In Latin America, little research has been conducted regarding exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), mental health, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among foster children. This study examined the association between ACEs and mental health, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and HRQoL in Chilean foster girls relative to age-matched Chilean family girls. Data were obtained from 27 Chilean foster girls and 27 Chilean girls ages 6 to 17 years living in family homes. Standardized self- and proxy-report measures were used. Foster girls reported more ACEs than controls in terms of familial and nonfamilial sexual abuse and both emotional and physical neglect. Girls living in foster care had a significantly higher rate of PTSD, displayed greater behavioral and emotional problems, and reported a lower HRQoL. Analysis confirmed the well-known cumulative risk hypothesis by demonstrating a significant positive association between the number of ACEs and PTSD symptom severity and a significant negative association with HRQoL. Chilean foster girls endured more ACEs that impair mental health and HRQoL than age-matched peers living with their families. These findings have implications for out-of-home care services in Latin America, highlighting the need to implement not only appropriate trauma-focused treatments but also appropriate prevention strategies. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Adverse Childhood Experiences and the Health of University Students in Eight Provinces of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Quynh Anh; Dunne, Michael P; Vo, Thang Van; Luu, Ngoc Hoat

    2015-11-01

    Recent systematic reviews have emphasized the need for more research into the health and social impacts of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in the Asia-Pacific region. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 2099 young adult students in 8 medical universities throughout Vietnam. An anonymous, self-report questionnaire included the World Health Organization ACE-International Questionnaire and standardized measures of mental and physical health. Three quarters (76%) of the students reported at least one exposure to ACEs; 21% had 4 or more ACEs. The most commonly reported adversities were emotional abuse, physical abuse, and witnessing a household member being treated violently (42.3%, 39.9%, and 34.6%, respectively). Co-occurrence of ACEs had dose-response relationships with poor mental health, suicidal ideation, and low physical health-related quality of life. This first multisite study of ACEs among Vietnamese university students provided evidence that childhood adversity is common and is significantly linked with impaired health and well-being into the early adult years. © 2015 APJPH.

  15. Associations of childhood adversity and adulthood trauma with C-reactive protein: A cross-sectional population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Joy E; Neylan, Thomas C; Epel, Elissa; O'Donovan, Aoife

    2016-03-01

    Mounting evidence highlights specific forms of psychological stress as risk factors for ill health. Particularly strong evidence indicates that childhood adversity and adulthood trauma exposure increase risk for physical and psychiatric disorders, and there is emerging evidence that inflammation may play a key role in these relationships. In a population-based sample from the Health and Retirement Study (n=11,198, mean age 69 ± 10), we examine whether childhood adversity, adulthood trauma, and the interaction between them are associated with elevated levels of the systemic inflammatory marker high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). All models were adjusted for age, gender, race, education, and year of data collection, as well as other possible confounds in follow-up sensitivity analyses. In our sample, 67% of individuals had experienced at least one traumatic event during adulthood, and those with childhood adversity were almost three times as likely to have experienced trauma as an adult. Childhood adversities and adulthood traumas were independently associated with elevated levels of hsCRP (β=0.03, p=0.01 and β=0.05, ptrauma alone, Estimate=-0.06, 95% CI [-0.003, -0.12], p=0.04, but not compared to those with childhood adversity alone, Estimate=-0.06, 95% CI [0.03, -0.16], p=0.19. There was no interaction between childhood and adulthood trauma exposure. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine adulthood trauma exposure and inflammation in a large population-based sample, and the first to explore the interaction of childhood adversity and adulthood trauma with inflammation. Our study demonstrates the prevalence of trauma-related inflammation in the general population and suggests that childhood adversity and adulthood trauma are independently associated with elevated inflammation.

  16. Childhood adversity and risk of suicide: cohort study of 548 721 adolescents and young adults in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkenstam, Charlotte; Kosidou, Kyriaki; Björkenstam, Emma

    2017-04-19

    Objective To examine the relation between childhood adversity, the role of school performance, and childhood psychopathology and the risk of suicide.Design Cohort study of register based indicators of childhood adversity (at ages 0-14) including death in the family (suicide analysed separately), parental substance abuse, parental psychiatric disorder, substantial parental criminality, parental separation/single parent household, receipt of public assistance, and residential instability.Setting Swedish medical birth register and various Swedish population based registers.Participants 548 721 individuals born 1987-91.Main outcome measures Estimates of suicide risk at ages 15-24 calculated as incidence rate ratios adjusted for time at risk and confounders.Results Adjusted incidence rate ratios for the relation between childhood adversity and suicide during adolescence and young adulthood ranged from 1.6 (95% confidence interval 1.1 to 2.4) for residential instability to 2.9 (1.4 to 5.9) for suicide in the family. There was a dose-response relation between accumulating childhood adversity and risk: 1.1 (0.9 to 1.4) for those exposed to one adversity and 1.9 (1.4 to 2.5) and 2.6 (1.9 to 3.4) for those exposed to two and three or more adversities, respectively. The association with increased risk of suicide remained even after adjustment for school performance and childhood psychopathology.Conclusion Childhood adversity is a risk factor for suicide in adolescence and young adulthood, particularly accumulated adversity. These results emphasise the importance of understanding the social mechanisms of suicide and the need for effective interventions early in life, aiming to alleviate the risk in disadvantaged children. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Childhood adversity, parental vulnerability and disorder: examining inter-generational transmission of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bifulco, A; Moran, P M; Ball, C; Jacobs, C; Baines, R; Bunn, A; Cavagin, J

    2002-11-01

    An investigation of intergenerational factors associated with psychiatric disorder in late adolescence/early adulthood was undertaken to differentiate influences from maternal disorder, maternal poor psychosocial functioning and poor parenting, on offspring. The sample comprised an intensively studied series of 276 mother-offspring pairs in a relatively deprived inner-city London area with high rates of lone parenthood and socio-economic disadvantage. The paired sample was collected over two time periods: first a consecutively screened series of mothers and offspring in 1985-90 (n = 172 pairs) and second a 'vulnerable' series of mothers and offspring in 1995-99 (n = 104 pairs). The vulnerable mothers were selected for poor interpersonal functioning and/or low self-esteem and the consecutive series were used for comparison. Rates of childhood adversity and disorder in the offspring were examined in the two groups. Maternal characteristics including psychosocial vulnerability and depression were then examined in relation to risk transmission. Offspring of vulnerable mothers had a fourfold higher rate of yearly disorder than those in the comparison series (43% vs. 11%, p childhood adversity comprising either severe neglect, physical or sexual abuse before age 17. Physical abuse, in particular, perpetrated either by mother or father/surrogate father was significantly raised in the vulnerable group. Analysis of the combined series showed that maternal vulnerability and neglect/abuse of offspring provided the best model for offspring disorder. Maternal history of depression had no direct effect on offspring disorder; its effects were entirely mediated by offspring neglect/abuse. Maternal childhood adversity also had no direct effect. Results are discussed in relation to psychosocial models of risk transmission for disorder. Maternal poor psychosocial functioning needs to be identified as a factor requiring intervention in order to stem escalation of risk across

  18. Additive Contributions of Childhood Adversity and Recent Stressors to Inflammation at Midlife: Findings from the MIDUS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostinar, Camelia E.; Lachman, Margie E.; Mroczek, Daniel K.; Seeman, Teresa E.; Miller, Gregory E.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the joint contributions of self-reported adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and recent life events (RLEs) to inflammation at midlife, by testing 3 competing theoretical models: stress generation, stress accumulation, and early life stress sensitization. We aimed to identify potential mediators between adversity and inflammation.…

  19. Utilizing the salutogenic paradigm to investigate well-being among adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse and other adversities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Shanta R; Rishi, Shobhana

    2017-02-26

    The long-term negative consequences of adverse childhood experiences are well documented. However, less is known about salutogenesis (well-being) among adult survivors of childhood adversity. The 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data were analyzed to assess the contribution of four health promoting factors (physical activity, smoking abstinence, educational level, social-emotional support) with positive health-related quality of life (HRQoL), among adults who retrospectively reported childhood abuse or exposure to other childhood toxic stressors (n=12,032) and separately for adults who reported childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Outcomes examined included positive self-rated health (good/very good/excellent); mentally unhealthy days (MUDS) and physically unhealthy days (PUDS) in the past 30 days. After controlling for demographic characteristics and existing health conditions, physical activity (pwell-being.

  20. Epigenetic Vestiges of Early Developmental Adversity: Childhood Stress Exposure and DNA Methylation in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essex, Marilyn J.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Hertzman, Clyde; Lam, Lucia L.; Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Neumann, Sarah M.A.; Kobor, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Fifteen-year-old adolescents (N=109) in a longitudinal study of child development were recruited to examine differences in DNA methylation in relation to parent reports of adversity during the adolescents’ infancy and preschool periods. Microarray technology applied to 28,000 cytosine-guanine dinucleotide (CpG) sites within DNA derived from buccal epithelial cells showed differential methylation among adolescents whose parents reported high levels of stress during their children’s early lives. Maternal stressors in infancy and paternal stressors in the preschool years were most strongly predictive of differential methylation, and the patterning of such epigenetic marks varied by children’s gender. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of prospective associations between adversities in early childhood and the epigenetic conformation of adolescents’ genomic DNA. PMID:21883162

  1. Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Psychotic-Like Symptoms and Stress Reactivity in Daily Life in Nonclinical Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballespí, Sergi; Mitjavila, Mercè; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Kwapil, Thomas R.; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus

    2016-01-01

    Background There is increasing interest in elucidating the association of different childhood adversities with psychosis-spectrum symptoms as well as the mechanistic processes involved. This study used experience sampling methodology to examine (i) associations of a range of childhood adversities with psychosis symptom domains in daily life; (ii) whether associations of abuse and neglect with symptoms are consistent across self-report and interview methods of trauma assessment; and (iii) the role of different adversities in moderating affective, psychotic-like, and paranoid reactivity to situational and social stressors. Method A total of 206 nonclinical young adults were administered self-report and interview measures to assess childhood abuse, neglect, bullying, losses, and general traumatic events. Participants received personal digital assistants that signaled them randomly eight times daily for one week to complete questionnaires about current experiences, including symptoms, affect, and stress. Results Self-reported and interview-based abuse and neglect were associated with psychotic-like and paranoid symptoms, whereas only self-reported neglect was associated with negative-like symptoms. Bullying was associated with psychotic-like symptoms. Losses and general traumatic events were not directly associated with any of the symptom domains. All the childhood adversities were associated with stress reactivity in daily life. Interpersonal adversities (abuse, neglect, bullying, and losses) moderated psychotic-like and/or paranoid reactivity to situational and social stressors, whereas general traumatic events moderated psychotic-like reactivity to situational stress. Also, different interpersonal adversities exacerbated psychotic-like and/or paranoid symptoms in response to distinct social stressors. Discussion The present study provides a unique examination of how childhood adversities impact the expression of spectrum symptoms in the real world and lends support

  2. Late adverse effects of whole cranial irradiation in childhood hematological disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Someya, Masanori; Nakata, Kensei; Nagakura, Hisayasu; Oouchi, Atsushi; Sakata, Kohichi; Hareyama, Masato [Sapporo Medical Coll. (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the late adverse effects of childhood hematological disorders treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy including whole cranial irradiation at Sapporo Medical University Hospital. Twenty-eight patients were treated with chemotherapy and 18-24 Gy of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and 14 patients were treated with 3-12.8 Gy of total body irradiation (TBI) and bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for ALL, acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), malignant lymphoma, and aplastic anemia (AA). Age at diagnosis ranged from 2 to 15 years old, and 28 were males and 14 were females. All patients were disease-free more than 2 years after diagnosis. Of 42 patients, 4 patients had decreased height (less than -2 S.D.), 3 patients required hormone replacement therapy, 2 patients had mental retardation, 3 patients had leukoencephalopathy, and 1 patient had a second malignancy. Except for the cases of decreased height, 3 of 7 late adverse effects were occurred in patients who had relapse of disease, and the risk of the adverse effects seemed to be higher for those patients whose doses of PCI were 22 Gy or more, or who received an additional craniospinal irradiation due to relapse of disease, and 18 Gy of PCI did not increase the risk of adverse effects. (author)

  3. Cumulative Effects of Prenatal Substance Exposure and Early Adversity on Foster Children's HPA-Axis Reactivity during a Psychosocial Stressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Philip A.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Bruce, Jacqueline; Pears, Katherine C.

    2012-01-01

    Dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis stress response has been reported among individuals with prenatal substance exposure and those with early adversity exposure. However, few researchers have examined the combined effects of these risk factors. Patterns of HPA reactivity among maltreated foster children with and without…

  4. Cumulative Effects of Prenatal Substance Exposure and Early Adversity on Foster Children's HPA-Axis Reactivity during a Psychosocial Stressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Philip A.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Bruce, Jacqueline; Pears, Katherine C.

    2012-01-01

    Dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis stress response has been reported among individuals with prenatal substance exposure and those with early adversity exposure. However, few researchers have examined the combined effects of these risk factors. Patterns of HPA reactivity among maltreated foster children with and without…

  5. The effect of childhood adversity on 4-year outcome in individuals at ultra high risk for psychosis in the Dutch Early Detection Intervention Evaluation (EDIE-NL) Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan, Tamar C; Ising, Helga K; Fokkema, Marjolein; Velthorst, Eva; van den Berg, David P G; Kerkhoven, Margot; Veling, Wim; Smit, Filip; Linszen, Don H.; Nieman, Dorien H; Wunderink, Lex; Boonstra, Nynke; Klaassen, Rianne M C; Dragt, Sara; Rietdijk, Judith; de Haan, Lieuwe; van der Gaag, Mark

    Childhood adversity is associated with a range of mental disorders, functional impairment and higher health care costs in adulthood. In this study we evaluated if childhood adversity was predictive of adverse clinical and functional outcomes and health care costs in a sample of patients at

  6. Adverse childhood experiences, health perception, and the role of shared familial factors in adult twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostoufi, Sheeva M; Strachan, Eric; Chopko, Laura; Succop, Annemarie; Martinez, Beatrice; Ahumada, Sandra M; Afari, Niloofar

    2013-11-01

    To examine the relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACE) and health perception in adulthood, and to explore the contribution of shared familial factors to these associations. Data were collected from 180 female twins (90 pairs) from the community-based University of Washington Twin Registry. Participants completed questionnaires including the modified ACE Questionnaire, Traumatic Life Events Questionnaire, McGill Pain Questionnaire-Short Form, and the SF-36. Mixed effects linear regression modeling investigated the effects of ACE on indices of health perception controlling for correlated twin data. Additional models examined the associations while controlling for the experience of physical and/or sexual abuse in childhood; within-twin pair models that inherently adjust for familial factors explored shared familial influences. After controlling for relevant demographic variables, more ACE was associated with worse perceptions of general health (p=.01) and vitality (p=.05) on the SF-36. After controlling for childhood physical and/or sexual abuse, the relationship between ACE and general health remained significant (p=.01) while vitality was no longer significant. None of the associations remained significant after accounting for the influence of familial factors. These results support previous findings on the negative link between ACE and perceived health in adulthood. The detrimental effects of ACE on vitality may be accounted for by the experience of childhood physical and/or sexual abuse. Shared familial factors might play a partial role in the relationship between ACE and health perception. Future research should further investigate the genetic and environmental mechanisms that may explain this relationship. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. The Flip Side of the Boomerang Generation: The Role of Childhood Adversity and Social Support on Housing Stress and Independent Living of Millennials in Young Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Curry, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims. There currently is a growing understanding of the physical and mental health consequences of childhood adversity, yet much less is known about how childhood adversity relates to adult housing outcomes. Some social supports present in the transition to adulthood may buffer young people from housing challenges. This study examines the relationship between childhood adversity, social support in the transition to adulthood, and housing stress and living arrangements in adulth...

  8. Traumatic and Adverse Attachment Childhood Experiences are not Characteristic of OCD but of Depression in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivarsson, Tord; Saavedra, Fanny; Granqvist, Pehr; Broberg, Anders G

    2016-04-01

    We investigated whether adverse attachment experience might contribute to the development of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We interviewed 100 adolescents, 25 each with primary OCD, depressive disorder (DD), OCD plus DD and general population controls (CTRs) using the adult attachment interview to assess attachment experiences (AEs), including traumatic and adverse AE (TAE). Adolescents with OCD, OCD+DD and DD had little evidence of secure base/safe haven parental behaviour and their childhood attachment needs judged to be rejected as compared to the controls. Overprotection was not characteristic of OCD, and parents using the child for their own needs (elevated levels of involving/role reversal) occurred only in DD, with low levels in OCD, OCD+DD and CTR. Traumatic experiences, often multiple, and/or attachment related were reported significantly more often in the DD group, and was less common in OCD+DD, CTR and particularly in the OCD group. In OCD, little TAE was reported and adverse AE were less serious and seem unlikely to contribute directly to OCD aetiology. In DD and to some degree in OCD+DD serious AE/TAE may have some etiological significance for the depressive states.

  9. Intra- and extra-familial adverse childhood experiences and a history of childhood psychosomatic disorders among Japanese university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munemoto Takao

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Japan has been witnessing a considerable increase in the number of children with psychosomatic disorders. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the risk of psychosomatic disorder in adolescents and intra- and extra-familial adverse childhood experiences (ACEs. Methods A retrospective cohort study of 1592 Japanese university students (52% male, mean age 19.9 years who completed a survey about intra- and extra-familial ACEs and the incidence of childhood psychosomatic disorders. Intra-familial ACEs included domestic violence, physical violence, emotional abuse, illness in household, parental divorce, no parental affection, and dysfunctional family. Extra-familial ACEs included physical violence or negative recognition by teachers, being bullied in elementary or junior high school, or sexual violence. Results The frequency of psychosomatic disorders among the respondents was 14.8%. Among the 7 intra-familial ACEs, emotional abuse (relative risk, RR = 1.9 and illness in household (RR = 1.7 increased the risk of psychosomatic disorders. Estimates of the relative risk for the 5 extra-familial ACEs were statistically significant and ranged from 1.5 for being bullied in elementary school or physical violence from teachers to 2.4. Students who had 3 or more intra-familial ACEs and 2 or more extra-familial ACEs had a 3.0 relative risk for psychosomatic disorder. Conclusion These results suggest that intra- and extra-familial ACEs are associated with the development of psychosomatic disorders. Therefore, sufficient evaluation of ACEs should be performed in adolescent patients with psychosomatic disorder.

  10. Intra- and extra-familial adverse childhood experiences and a history of childhood psychosomatic disorders among Japanese university students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Akinori; Yamanaka, Takao; Hirakawa, Tadatoshi; Koga, Yasuyuki; Minomo, Ryosuke; Munemoto, Takao; Tei, Chuwa

    2007-01-01

    Background Japan has been witnessing a considerable increase in the number of children with psychosomatic disorders. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the risk of psychosomatic disorder in adolescents and intra- and extra-familial adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). Methods A retrospective cohort study of 1592 Japanese university students (52% male, mean age 19.9 years) who completed a survey about intra- and extra-familial ACEs and the incidence of childhood psychosomatic disorders. Intra-familial ACEs included domestic violence, physical violence, emotional abuse, illness in household, parental divorce, no parental affection, and dysfunctional family. Extra-familial ACEs included physical violence or negative recognition by teachers, being bullied in elementary or junior high school, or sexual violence. Results The frequency of psychosomatic disorders among the respondents was 14.8%. Among the 7 intra-familial ACEs, emotional abuse (relative risk, RR = 1.9) and illness in household (RR = 1.7) increased the risk of psychosomatic disorders. Estimates of the relative risk for the 5 extra-familial ACEs were statistically significant and ranged from 1.5 for being bullied in elementary school or physical violence from teachers to 2.4. Students who had 3 or more intra-familial ACEs and 2 or more extra-familial ACEs had a 3.0 relative risk for psychosomatic disorder. Conclusion These results suggest that intra- and extra-familial ACEs are associated with the development of psychosomatic disorders. Therefore, sufficient evaluation of ACEs should be performed in adolescent patients with psychosomatic disorder. PMID:17407551

  11. The scars of childhood adversity: minor stress sensitivity and depressive symptoms in remitted recurrently depressed adult patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Kok

    Full Text Available Childhood adversity may lead to depressive relapse through its long-lasting influence on stress sensitivity. In line with the stress sensitization hypothesis, minor (daily stress is associated with depressive relapse. Therefore, we examine the impact of childhood adversity on daily stress and its predictive value on prospectively assessed depressive symptoms in recurrently depressed patients.Daily stress was assessed in recurrently depressed adult patients, enrolled into two randomized trials while remitted. The reported intensity and frequency of dependent and independent daily stress was assessed at baseline. Independent stress is externally generated, for example an accident happening to a friend, while dependent stress is internally generated, for example getting into a fight with a neighbor. Hierarchical regression analyses were performed with childhood adversity, independent and dependent daily stress as predictor variables of prospectively measured depressive symptoms after three months of follow-up (n = 138.We found that childhood adversity was not significantly associated with a higher frequency and intensity of daily stress. The intensity of both independent and dependent daily stress was predictive of depressive symptom levels at follow-up (unadjusted models respectively: B = 0.47, t = 2.05, p = 0.041, 95% CI = 0.02-0.92; B = 0.29, t = 2.20, p = 0.028, 95% CI = 0.03-0.55. No associations were found between childhood adversity and depressive symptoms at follow-up.No evidence was found supporting stress sensitization due to the experience of childhood adversity in this recurrently depressed but remitted patient group. Nevertheless, our research indicates that daily stress might be a target for preventive treatment.Trial A: Nederlands Trial Register NTR1907 Trial B: Nederlands Trial Register NTR2503.

  12. Predicting Adverse Health Outcomes in Long-Term Survivors of a Childhood Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaya S. Moskowitz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available More than 80% of children and young adults diagnosed with invasive cancer will survive five or more years beyond their cancer diagnosis. This population has an increased risk for serious illness- and treatment-related morbidity and premature mortality. A number of these adverse health outcomes, such as cardiovascular disease and some second primary neoplasms, either have modifiable risk factors or can be successfully treated if detected early. Absolute risk models that project a personalized risk of developing a health outcome can be useful in patient counseling, in designing intervention studies, in forming prevention strategies, and in deciding upon surveillance programs. Here, we review existing absolute risk prediction models that are directly applicable to survivors of a childhood cancer, discuss the concepts and interpretation of absolute risk models, and examine ways in which these models can be used applied in clinical practice and public health.

  13. Bullying, adverse childhood experiences and use of texting to promote behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattishall, Amy E; Ellen, Stacy B; Spector, Nancy D

    2013-12-01

    This article addresses three areas in which new research demonstrates the potential to impact the health of children and adolescents: bullying, adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and texting to promote behavior change. Recent research on bullying emphasizes its impact on children with chronic medical conditions, and highlights cyber bullying as a rising issue. ACEs are now recognized as risk factors for many health issues, particularly mental health problems. Text messaging is a promising new method to communicate with parents and adolescent patients. Pediatric healthcare providers can help patients with chronic medical problems by addressing bullying at well child visits. Screening for ACEs may identify children at risk for mental health issues. Incorporating text messaging into clinical practice can improve disease management and patient education.

  14. Vagal regulation and internalizing psychopathology among adolescents exposed to childhood adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A; Alves, Sonia; Sheridan, Margaret A

    2014-07-01

    Childhood adversity (CA) is strongly associated with youth psychopathology. Identifying factors that reduce vulnerability following CA is critical for developing preventive interventions. Vagal tone and vagal reactivity following psychosocial stressors might influence psychopathology among youths exposed to CA. We acquired heart period and impedance cardiography data to calculate respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and preejection period (PEP) from 157 adolescents aged 13-17 years at rest and during the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Internalizing and externalizing symptoms and multiple forms of CA were assessed. Resting RSA and RSA reactivity interacted with CA in predicting internalizing but not externalizing psychopathology; CA was unassociated with internalizing problems in adolescents with high resting RSA and RSA reactivity. No interactions were observed with PEP. High resting RSA predicted greater vagal rebound and accelerated heart rate recovery following the TSST, highlighting one potential mechanism underlying low internalizing symptoms following CA among youths with high vagal tone.

  15. Associations between the timing of childhood adversity and adulthood suicidal behavior: A nationally-representative cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hyoung Yoon; Chung, Yeonseung; Keyes, Katherine M; Jung, Sun Jae; Kim, Seung-Sup

    2015-11-01

    Although childhood adversities (CAs) are known to be associated with later suicidal behavior, it is uncertain whether the timing of specific CAs may influence this association. We analyzed nationally representative data for 9205 participants from the Korean Welfare Panel Study. Four different CAs (parental death, parental divorce, suspension of school education and being raised in a relative's house due to financial strain) were assessed and were categorized as early childhood and adolescent onset. Lifetime experiences of suicidal behaviors along with the age of the first time experience were recorded. Cox regression was used. After adjusting for age, sex, and childhood socioeconomic status, parental death before the age of 12 was associated with adulthood suicidal behavior (ideation HR 1.35, 95% CI 1.13, 1.61; attempt HR 1.60, 95% CI 1.02, 2.52), while suspension of school due to financial strain was associated with suicidal behavior when it occurred at adolescence (ideation HR 1.48, 95% CI 1.22, 1.79; plan HR 1.69, 95% CI 1.16, 2.48). When we also adjusted for adulthood SES, which is a potential mediator, there was no significant change except that the association between early parental death and suicidal attempt became non-significant (HR: 1.43, 95% CI: 0.92, 2.26). Experience of CA was assessed retrospectively, and the assessment of suicidal attempt was not specifically defined. There could be selection bias due to loss to the follow-up. There may be a critical period for the effect of CA on later suicidal behavior depending on the characteristics of CA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) questionnaire and Adult Attachment Interview (AAI): implications for parent child relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Anne; Steele, Miriam; Dube, Shanta Rishi; Bate, Jordan; Bonuck, Karen; Meissner, Paul; Goldman, Hannah; Steele, Howard

    2014-02-01

    Although Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) are linked to increased health problems and risk behaviors in adulthood, there are no studies on the association between ACEs and adults' states of mind regarding their early childhood attachments, loss, and trauma experiences. To validate the ACEs questions, we analyzed the association between ACEs and emotional support indicators and Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) classifications in terms of unresolved mourning regarding past loss or trauma and discordant states of mind in cannot classify (U/CC) interviews. Seventy-five urban women (41 clinical and 34 community) completed a questionnaire on ACEs, which included 10 categories of abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction, in addition to emotional support. Internal psychological processes or states of mind concerning attachment were assessed using the AAI. ACE responses were internally consistent (Cronbach's α=.88). In the clinical sample, 84% reported≥4 ACEs compared to 27% among the community sample. AAIs judged U/CC occurred in 76% of the clinical sample compared to 9% in the community sample. When ACEs were≥4, 65% of AAIs were classified U/CC. Absence of emotional support in the ACEs questionnaire was associated with 72% of AAIs being classified U/CC. As the number of ACEs and the lack of emotional support increases so too does the probability of AAIs being classified as U/CC. Findings provide rationale for including ACEs questions in pediatric screening protocols to identify and offer treatment reducing the intergenerational transmission of risk associated with problematic parenting.

  17. Sex Disparities in Adverse Childhood Experiences and HIV/STIs: Mediation of Psychopathology and Sexual Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Monique J; Masho, Saba W; Perera, Robert A; Mezuk, Briana; Pugsley, River A; Cohen, Steven A

    2016-09-29

    HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are important public health challenges in the US. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including abuse (emotional, physical or sexual), witnessing violence among household members, may have an effect on sexual behaviors, which increase the risk of HIV/STIs. The aim of this study was to examine the sex differences in the role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depression (MD), substance use disorders (SUDs), early sexual debut, and intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration as mediators in the association between ACEs and HIV/STIs. Data were obtained from Wave 2 (2004-2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Structural equation modeling was used to determine the role of PTSD, MD, SUDs, early sexual debut, and IPV perpetration as mediators in the relationships between ACEs and HIV/STIs. Differences and similarities existed in the mediational roles of psychopathology and sexual behaviors. For example, among men, MD fully mediated physical/psychological abuse (β = 0.0002; p = 0.012) and sexual abuse (β = 0.0002; p = 0.006), and HIV/STIs while among women, MD fully mediated physical/psychological abuse (β = 0.0005; p childhood events among men and women and consider the sex differences in the roles of psychopathology and sexual behaviors.

  18. Impacts of adverse childhood experiences on health, mental health, and substance use in early adulthood: a cohort study of an urban, minority sample in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersky, J P; Topitzes, J; Reynolds, A J

    2013-11-01

    Research has shown that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) increase the risk of poor health-related outcomes in later life. Less is known about the consequences of ACEs in early adulthood or among diverse samples. Therefore, we investigated the impacts of differential exposure to ACEs on an urban, minority sample of young adults. Health, mental health, and substance use outcomes were examined alone and in aggregate. Potential moderating effects of sex were also explored. Data were derived from the Chicago Longitudinal Study, a panel investigation of individuals who were born in 1979 or 1980. Main-effect analyses were conducted with multivariate logistic and OLS regression. Sex differences were explored with stratified analysis, followed by tests of interaction effects with the full sample. Results confirmed that there was a robust association between ACEs and poor outcomes in early adulthood. Greater levels of adversity were associated with poorer self-rated health and life satisfaction, as well as more frequent depressive symptoms, anxiety, tobacco use, alcohol use, and marijuana use. Cumulative adversity also was associated with cumulative effects across domains. For instance, compared to individuals without an ACE, individuals exposed to multiple ACEs were more likely to have three or more poor outcomes (OR range=2.75-10.15) and four or more poor outcomes (OR range=3.93-15.18). No significant differences between males and females were detected. Given that the consequences of ACEs in early adulthood may lead to later morbidity and mortality, increased investment in programs and policies that prevent ACEs and ameliorate their impacts is warranted.

  19. Assessing adverse experiences from infancy through early childhood in home visiting programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, Lorraine M; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Conners-Burrow, Nicola A; Swindle, Taren; Fitzgerald, Shalese

    2016-01-01

    The general aim of early intervention and home visiting programs is to support families to minimize Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs). However, assessing children's exposure to these risks is complicated because parents serve as the conduit for both measurement and intervention. The primary aims of the study were to develop an assessment of children's exposure to ACEs and to examine concurrently measured parental child abuse and neglect potential and child social-emotional functioning. Home visiting programs in a southern state implemented the Family Map Inventories (FMI) as comprehensive family assessment and child screenings (N=1,282) within one month of enrollment. Children (M=33 months of age, SD=20) were exposed at rates of 27% to one, 18% to two, 11% to three, and 12% to four or more FMI-ACEs. FMI-ACEs were associated with increased parental beliefs and behaviors associated with child abuse and neglect. FMI-ACEs also significantly predicted the likelihood of the child having at-risk social-emotional development; children with 4 or more FMI-ACEs were over 6 times more likely than those with none to have at-risk scores. The findings add to our understanding of the negative impact of trauma on children and families. Assessing these risks as they occur in a family-friendly manner provides a platform for early intervention programs to work with families to increase family strengths and reduce the impacts of adverse experiences for their children.

  20. Self-reported drunkenness among adolescents in four sub-Saharan African countries: associations with adverse childhood experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crichton Joanna

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of alcohol is associated with acute and chronic adverse health outcomes. There is a paucity of studies that explore the determinants of alcohol use among adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa and, in particular, that examine the effects of adverse childhood experiences on alcohol use. Methods The paper draws on nationally-representative data from 9,819 adolescents aged 12-19 years from Burkina Faso, Ghana, Malawi, and Uganda. Logistic regression models were employed to identify correlates of self-reported past-year drunkenness. Exposure to four adverse childhood experiences comprised the primary independent variables: living in a food-insecure household, living with a problem drinker, having been physically abused, and having been coerced into having sex. We controlled for age, religiosity, current schooling status, the household head's sex, living arrangements, place of residence, marital status, and country of survey. All analyses were conducted separately for males and females. Results At the bivariate level, all independent variables (except for coerced sex among males were associated with the outcome variable. Overall, 9% of adolescents reported that they had been drunk in the 12 months preceding the survey. In general, respondents who had experienced an adverse event during childhood were more likely to report drunkenness. In the multivariate analysis, only two adverse childhood events emerged as significant predictors of self-reported past-year drunkenness among males: living in a household with a problem drinker before age 10, and being physically abused before age 10. For females, exposure to family-alcoholism, experience of physical abuse, and coerced sex increased the likelihood of reporting drunkenness in the last 12 months. The association between adverse events and reported drunkenness was more pronounced for females. For both males and females there was a graded relationship between the number of

  1. Associations between Childhood Adversity and Depression, Substance Abuse and HIV and HSV2 Incident Infections in Rural South African Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewkes, Rachel K.; Dunkle, Kristin; Nduna, Mzikazi; Jama, P. Nwabisa; Puren, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To describe prevalence of childhood experiences of adversity in rural South African youth and their associations with health outcomes. Methods: We analyzed questionnaires and blood specimens collected during a baseline survey for a cluster randomized controlled trial of a behavioral intervention, and also tested blood HIV and herpes…

  2. Age of onset of bipolar disorder : Combined effect of childhood adversity and familial loading of psychiatric disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Robert M.; Altshuler, Lori L.; Kupka, Ralph; McElroy, Susan L.; Frye, Mark A.; Rowe, Michael; Grunze, Heinz; Suppes, Trisha; Keck, Paul E.; Leverich, Gabriele S.; Nolen, Willem A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Family history and adversity in childhood are two replicated risk factors for early onset bipolar disorder. However, their combined impact has not been adequately studied. Methods: Based on questionnaire data from 968 outpatients with bipolar disorder who gave informed consent, the relat

  3. The Prevalence of Childhood Adversity among Healthcare Workers and Its Relationship to Adult Life Events, Distress and Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maunder, Robert G.; Peladeau, Nathalie; Savage, Diane; Lancee, William J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the prevalence of childhood adversity among healthcare workers and if such experiences affect responses to adult life stress. Methods: A secondary analysis was conducted of a 2003 study of 176 hospital-based healthcare workers, which surveyed lifetime traumatic events, recent life events, psychological distress, coping,…

  4. The Prevalence of Childhood Adversity among Healthcare Workers and Its Relationship to Adult Life Events, Distress and Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maunder, Robert G.; Peladeau, Nathalie; Savage, Diane; Lancee, William J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the prevalence of childhood adversity among healthcare workers and if such experiences affect responses to adult life stress. Methods: A secondary analysis was conducted of a 2003 study of 176 hospital-based healthcare workers, which surveyed lifetime traumatic events, recent life events, psychological distress, coping,…

  5. DRD4-exonIII-VNTR moderates the effect of childhood adversities on emotional resilience in young-adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debjani Das

    Full Text Available Most individuals successfully maintain psychological well-being even when exposed to trauma or adversity. Emotional resilience or the ability to thrive in the face of adversity is determined by complex interactions between genetic makeup, previous exposure to stress, personality, coping style, availability of social support, etc. Recent studies have demonstrated that childhood trauma diminishes resilience in adults and affects mental health. The Dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4 exon III variable number tandem repeat (VNTR polymorphism was reported to moderate the impact of adverse childhood environment on behaviour, mood and other health-related outcomes. In this study we investigated whether DRD4-exIII-VNTR genotype moderates the effect of childhood adversities (CA on resilience. In a representative population sample (n = 1148 aged 30-34 years, we observed an interactive effect of DRD4 genotype and CA (β = 0.132; p = 0.003 on resilience despite no main effect of the genotype when effects of age, gender and education were controlled for. The 7-repeat allele appears to protect against the adverse effect of CA since the decline in resilience associated with increased adversity was evident only in individuals without the 7-repeat allele. Resilience was also significantly associated with approach-/avoidance-related personality measures (behavioural inhibition/activation system; BIS/BAS measures and an interactive effect of DRD4-exIII-VNTR genotype and CA on BAS was observed. Hence it is possible that approach-related personality traits could be mediating the effect of the DRD4 gene and childhood environment interaction on resilience such that when stressors are present, the 7-repeat allele influences the development of personality in a way that provides protection against adverse outcomes.

  6. Pathways between childhood/adolescent adversity, adolescent socioeconomic status, and long-term cardiovascular disease risk in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doom, Jenalee R; Mason, Susan M; Suglia, Shakira F; Clark, Cari Jo

    2017-09-01

    The current study investigated mediators between childhood/adolescent adversities (e.g., dating violence, maltreatment, homelessness, and parental death), low socioeconomic status (SES) during adolescence, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in young adulthood. The purpose of these analyses was to understand whether SES during adolescence and childhood/adolescent adversities affect CVD risk through similar pathways, including maternal relationship quality, health behaviors, financial stress, medical/dental care, educational attainment, sleep problems, and depressive symptoms. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (N = 14,493), which has followed US adolescents (Wave 1; M = 15.9 years) through early adulthood (Wave 4; M = 28.9 years), associations were examined between childhood/adolescent adversity and SES to 30-year CVD risk in young adulthood. The outcome was a Framingham-based prediction model of CVD risk that included age, sex, body mass index, smoking, systolic blood pressure, diabetes, and antihypertensive medication use at Wave 4. Path analysis was used to examine paths through the adolescent maternal relationship to young adult mediators of CVD risk. Childhood/adolescent adversity significantly predicted greater adult CVD risk through the following pathways: maternal relationship, health behaviors, financial stress, lack of medical/dental care, and educational attainment; but not through depressive symptoms or sleep problems. Lower SES during adolescence significantly predicted greater adult CVD risk through the following pathways: health behaviors, financial stress, lack of medical/dental care, and educational attainment, but not maternal relationship, depressive symptoms, or sleep problems. Childhood/adolescent adversities and SES affected CVD risk in young adulthood through both similar and unique pathways that may inform interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Interaction between COMT Val(158)Met polymorphism and childhood adversity affects reward processing in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boecker-Schlier, Regina; Holz, Nathalie E; Buchmann, Arlette F; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Plichta, Michael M; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Wolf, Isabella; Baumeister, Sarah; Treutlein, Jens; Rietschel, Marcella; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Laucht, Manfred

    2016-05-15

    Accumulating evidence suggests that altered dopamine transmission may increase the risk of mental disorders such as ADHD, schizophrenia or depression, possibly mediated by reward system dysfunction. This study aimed to clarify the impact of the COMT Val(158)Met polymorphism in interaction with environmental variation (G×E) on neuronal activity during reward processing. 168 healthy young adults from a prospective study conducted over 25years participated in a monetary incentive delay task measured with simultaneous EEG-fMRI. DNA was genotyped for COMT, and childhood family adversity (CFA) up to age 11 was assessed by a standardized parent interview. At reward delivery, a G×E revealed that fMRI activation for win vs. no-win trials in reward-related regions increased with the level of CFA in Met homozygotes as compared to Val/Met heterozygotes and Val homozygotes, who showed no significant effect. During the anticipation of monetary vs. verbal rewards, activation decreased with the level of CFA, which was also observed for EEG, in which the CNV declined with the level of CFA. These results identify convergent genetic and environmental effects on reward processing in a prospective study. Moreover, G×E effects during reward delivery suggest that stress during childhood is associated with higher reward sensitivity and reduced efficiency in processing rewarding stimuli in genetically at-risk individuals. Together with previous evidence, these results begin to define a specific system mediating interacting effects of early environmental and genetic risk factors, which may be targeted by early intervention and prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration among Sri Lankan Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseka, Ruvani W.; Minnis, Alexandra M.; Gomez, Anu Manchikanti

    2015-01-01

    In Sri Lanka, over one in three women experience intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization in their lifetime, making it a serious public health concern. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) such as child abuse and neglect, witnessing domestic violence, parental separation, and bullying are also widespread. Studies in Western settings have shown positive associations between ACEs and IPV perpetration in adulthood, but few have examined this relationship in a non-Western context. In the present study, we examined the association of ACEs with IPV perpetration among Sri Lankan men surveyed for the UN Multi-Country Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific. We found statistically significant positive associations between the number of ACE categories (ACE score) and emotional, financial, physical, and sexual IPV perpetration among Sri Lankan men. We analyzed the contributions of each ACE category and found that childhood abuse was strongly associated with perpetration of IPV in adulthood, with sexual abuse associated with the greatest increase in odds of perpetration (Adjusted odds ratio 2.36; 95% confidence interval: 1.69, 3.30). Witnessing abuse of one’s mother was associated with the greatest increase in the odds of perpetrating physical IPV (AOR 1.82; 95% CI: 1.29, 2.58), while lack of a male parental figure was not associated with physical IPV perpetration (AOR 0.76; 95% CI: 0.53, 1.09). These findings support a social learning theory of IPV perpetration, in which children who are exposed to violence learn to perpetrate IPV in adulthood. They also suggest that in Sri Lanka, being raised in a female-headed household does not increase the risk of IPV perpetration in adulthood compared to being raised in a household with a male parental figure. The relationship between being raised in a female-headed household (the number of which increased dramatically during Sri Lanka’s recent civil war) and perpetration of IPV warrants further study. Interventions

  9. Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration among Sri Lankan Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruvani W Fonseka

    Full Text Available In Sri Lanka, over one in three women experience intimate partner violence (IPV victimization in their lifetime, making it a serious public health concern. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs such as child abuse and neglect, witnessing domestic violence, parental separation, and bullying are also widespread. Studies in Western settings have shown positive associations between ACEs and IPV perpetration in adulthood, but few have examined this relationship in a non-Western context. In the present study, we examined the association of ACEs with IPV perpetration among Sri Lankan men surveyed for the UN Multi-Country Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific. We found statistically significant positive associations between the number of ACE categories (ACE score and emotional, financial, physical, and sexual IPV perpetration among Sri Lankan men. We analyzed the contributions of each ACE category and found that childhood abuse was strongly associated with perpetration of IPV in adulthood, with sexual abuse associated with the greatest increase in odds of perpetration (Adjusted odds ratio 2.36; 95% confidence interval: 1.69, 3.30. Witnessing abuse of one's mother was associated with the greatest increase in the odds of perpetrating physical IPV (AOR 1.82; 95% CI: 1.29, 2.58, while lack of a male parental figure was not associated with physical IPV perpetration (AOR 0.76; 95% CI: 0.53, 1.09. These findings support a social learning theory of IPV perpetration, in which children who are exposed to violence learn to perpetrate IPV in adulthood. They also suggest that in Sri Lanka, being raised in a female-headed household does not increase the risk of IPV perpetration in adulthood compared to being raised in a household with a male parental figure. The relationship between being raised in a female-headed household (the number of which increased dramatically during Sri Lanka's recent civil war and perpetration of IPV warrants further study

  10. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Use of Cigarettes and Smokeless Tobacco Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalá, Héctor E; von Ehrenstein, Ondine S; Tomiyama, A Janet

    2016-10-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to increased use of tobacco products later in life. However, studies to date have ignored smokeless tobacco products. To address this, data from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, which interviewed adults 18 years and over (N = 102,716) were analyzed. Logistic regression models were fit to estimate odds ratios of ever smoking, current smoking and current smokeless tobacco use in relation to ACEs. Results showed that less than 4 % of respondents currently used smokeless tobacco products, while 44.95 and 18.57 % reported ever and current smoking, respectively. Physical abuse (OR 1.40; 95 % CI 1.14, 1.72), emotional abuse (OR 1.41; 95 % CI 1.19, 1.67), sexual abuse (OR 0.70; 95 % CI 0.51, 0.95), living with a drug user (OR 1.50; 95 % CI 1.17, 1.93), living with someone who was jailed (OR 1.50; 95 % CI 1.11, 2.02) and having parents who were separated or divorced (OR 1.31; 95 % CI 1.09, 1.57) were associated with smokeless tobacco use in unadjusted models. After accounting for confounders, physical abuse (OR 1.43; 95 % CI 1.16, 1.78), emotional abuse (OR 1.32; 95 % CI 1.10, 1.57), living with a problem drinker (OR 1.30; 95 % CI 1.08, 1.58), living with a drug user (OR 1.31; 95 % CI 1.00, 1.72) and living with adults who treated each other violently (OR 1.30; 95 % CI 1.05, 1.62) were associated with smokeless tobacco use. Living with someone who was mentally ill (OR 0.70; 95 % CI 0.53, 0.92) was associated with smokeless tobacco use after accounting for confounders and all ACEs. Results indicated that some childhood adversities are associated with use of smokeless tobacco products. Special attention is needed to prevent tobacco use of different types among those experiencing ACEs.

  11. Exploring the relationship between childhood adversity and oral health: An anecdotal approach and integrative view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkengen, Anna Luise; Lygre, Henning

    2015-08-01

    During the past two decades, increasing recognition has been given to a relationship between oral health and systemic diseases. Associated systemic conditions include cardiovascular disease, diabetes, low birth weight and preterm births, respiratory diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, obesity, osteoporosis, and, in particular among oral conditions, periodontal disease. Low-grade inflammation is a common denominator linking these disorders. Applying an anecdotal approach and an integrative view, the medical and dental histories of two women document increasing ill health subsequent to incidences of maltreatment and sexual abuse, including oral penetration, at an early age. Comprehensive oral rehabilitation was required in both cases. These cases open for medical insight with regard to their implicit patho-physiology, when integrated with current evidence from neuroscience, endocrinology, and immunology, converging in the concepts of allostasis and allostatic load. In cases such as those presented in this paper, primary care physicians (family doctors, General Practitioners) and dentists may be the first to identify an etiological pattern. This report underlines the importance of increased and enhanced multidisciplinary research cooperation among health professionals. Our hypothesis is that childhood adversity may affect all aspects of human health, including adult oral health.

  12. Adverse Childhood Experiences among Veterinary Medical Students: A Multi-Site Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Elizabeth B; Brandt, Jennifer; Rogers, Kenita; Fonken, Laurie; Chun, Ruthanne; Conlon, Peter; Lord, Linda

    2017-03-27

    This research explores Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) among veterinary medical students across six academic institutions of veterinary medicine, and their relationship with depression, stress, and desire to become a veterinarian. Between April 1, 2016 and May 23, 2016, 1,118 veterinary medical students in all 4 years of the curriculum (39% response rate) completed an anonymous web-based questionnaire about ACEs, depression using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CESD), stress using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and the age at which they wanted to become a veterinarian. Sixty-one percent (677) of respondents reported having at least one ACE. The most prevalent ACE reported was living with a household member with a mental illness (31%). Students who had experienced four or more ACEs had an approximately threefold increase in signs of clinical depression and higher than average stress when compared to students who had experienced no ACEs. The number of ACEs showed an overall graded relationship to signs of clinical depression and higher than average stress. There was no statistically significant relationship between age at which a student wanted to become a veterinarian and exposure to ACEs. Veterinary students report being exposed to ACEs before age 18 at a rate similar to that of other population-based studies. These findings do not suggest that veterinary students enter the veterinary medical education system more at risk for poor mental health due to ACEs than the general population.

  13. Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs), Stress and Mental Health in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatekin, Canan

    2017-05-16

    The goal of this short-term longitudinal study was to examine whether adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) could be used to identify college students at risk for mental health problems and whether current level of stress mediates the relationship between ACEs and mental health. Data on ACEs and mental health (depression, anxiety and suicidality) were collected at the beginning of the semester, and data on current stressors and mental health were collected toward the end of the semester (n = 239). Findings indicated that ACEs predicted worsening of mental health over the course of a semester and suggested current number of stressors as a mediator of the relationship between ACEs and mental health. Results suggest that screening for ACEs might be useful to identify students at high risk for deterioration in mental health. Results further suggest that stress-related interventions would be beneficial for students with high levels of ACEs and point to the need for more research and strategies to increase help-seeking in college students. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Parental Alcoholism, Adverse Childhood Experiences, and Later Risk of Personal Alcohol Abuse among Chinese Medical Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN XIAO; MA-XIA DONG; JIE YAO; WEN-XIAN LI; DONG-QING YE

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine the status of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and the association of multiple ACEs with both parental alcoholism and later personal alcohol abuse among Chinese medical students with a view of improving adolescent health and reducing alcohol abuse among them. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 2073 Chinese medical students completed a survey on ten categories of ACEs in Anhui province of China. The association of parental alcoholism with ACEs and personal lcohol abuse was assessed by logistic regression analyses. Results The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for each category of ACEs in the subjects whose parents (either fathers or mothers or oth) had alcohol abuse was 2 to 14 times higher than that inthose with parental alcoholism (P<0.05). Subjects with i-parental alcoholism had the highest likelihood of ACEs. Compared with the subjects without ACEs, the risk of personal alcohol abuse was increased by 2-4-folds in the subjects with ACEs, irrespective of parental alcoholism (P<0.05). The total number of ACEs (ACE score) had a graded relationship to 4 categories of personal alcohol abuse with or without parental alcoholism. The prevalence of personal alcohol abuse among the subjects with parental alcoholism was higher, which was ndependent of ACE scores. Conclusion The prevalence of ACEs is generally serious in China. Efforts should be made to prevent and treat children with ACEs and subsequently to reduce alcohol abuse and later problems.

  15. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption Is Adversely Associated with Childhood Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ching-Jung; Du, Jung-Chieh; Chiou, Hsien-Chih; Feng, Chun-Cheng; Chung, Ming-Yi; Yang, Winnie; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Chien, Ling-Chu; Hwang, Betau; Chen, Mei-Lien

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood neurobehavioral conditions. Evidence of the negative effects of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) on mental health has not been convincing, although a few studies have found an association between high SSB levels and attention problems in children. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that SSB consumption is associated with ADHD among children. Doctor-diagnosed ADHD cases (n = 173) and non-ADHD controls (n = 159) between age 4 to 15 were recruited. SSB consumption, socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics of the children, as well as of their mothers’ characteristics during pregnancy, were collected using a questionnaire. Blood lead levels and polymorphisms of two commonly verified dopaminergic-related genes (the D4 dopamine receptor gene DRD4 and the dopamine transporter gene DAT1) were also analyzed. There was a dose-response relationship between SSB consumption and ADHD. After covariates were adjusted, children who consumed SSBs at moderate levels and high levels had 1.36 and 3.69 odds, respectively, of having ADHD, compared with those who did not consume SSBs (p for trend < 0.05). Similar results were obtained when females were excluded. Our findings highlighted the adverse correlation between SSB consumption and ADHD and indicated a dose-response effect even after covariates were adjusted. PMID:27384573

  16. Age of onset of bipolar disorder: Combined effect of childhood adversity and familial loading of psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Robert M; Altshuler, Lori L; Kupka, Ralph; McElroy, Susan L; Frye, Mark A; Rowe, Michael; Grunze, Heinz; Suppes, Trisha; Keck, Paul E; Leverich, Gabriele S; Nolen, Willem A

    2016-10-01

    Family history and adversity in childhood are two replicated risk factors for early onset bipolar disorder. However, their combined impact has not been adequately studied. Based on questionnaire data from 968 outpatients with bipolar disorder who gave informed consent, the relationship and interaction of: 1) parental and grandparental total burden of psychiatric illness; and 2) the degree of adversity the patient experienced in childhood on their age of onset of bipolar disorder was examined with multiple regression and illustrated with a heat map. The familial loading and child adversity vulnerability factors were significantly related to age of onset of bipolar and their combined effect was even larger. A heat map showed that at the extremes (none of each factor vs high amounts of both) the average age of onset differed by almost 20 years (mean = 25.8 vs 5.9 years of age). The data were not based on interviews of family members and came from unverified answers on a patient questionnaire. Family loading for psychiatric illness and adversity in childhood combine to have a very large influence on age of onset of bipolar disorder. These variables should be considered in assessment of risk for illness onset in different populations, the need for early intervention, and in the design of studies of primary and secondary prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The associations of cumulative adverse childhood experiences and irritability with mental disorders in detained male adolescent offenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bielas, Hannes; Barra, Steffen; Skrivanek, Christine

    2016-01-01

    -reported irritability. The ACE total score predicted depressive disorders, suicidality, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and anxiety disorders. Irritability was positively related to depressive disorders, suicidality, disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), substance use disorder (SUD), and attention deficit...... and SUD, the training of emotion regulation techniques appears most promising. Approaches focusing on both, ACEs and emotion-focused contents may be implemented in the treatment of depressive disorders and suicidality....

  18. Disparities in adverse childhood experiences among sexual minority and heterosexual adults: results from a multi-state probability-based sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith P Andersen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adverse childhood experiences (e.g., physical, sexual and emotional abuse, neglect, exposure to domestic violence, parental discord, familial mental illness, incarceration and substance abuse constitute a major public health problem in the United States. The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE scale is a standardized measure that captures multiple developmental risk factors beyond sexual, physical and emotional abuse. Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (i.e., sexual minority individuals may experience disproportionately higher prevalence of adverse childhood experiences. PURPOSE: To examine, using the ACE scale, prevalence of childhood physical, emotional, and sexual abuse and childhood household dysfunction among sexual minority and heterosexual adults. METHODS: Analyses were conducted using a probability-based sample of data pooled from three U.S. states' Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS surveys (Maine, Washington, Wisconsin that administered the ACE scale and collected information on sexual identity (n = 22,071. RESULTS: Compared with heterosexual respondents, gay/lesbian and bisexual individuals experienced increased odds of six of eight and seven of eight adverse childhood experiences, respectively. Sexual minority persons had higher rates of adverse childhood experiences (IRR = 1.66 gay/lesbian; 1.58 bisexual compared to their heterosexual peers. CONCLUSIONS: Sexual minority individuals have increased exposure to multiple developmental risk factors beyond physical, sexual and emotional abuse. We recommend the use of the Adverse Childhood Experiences scale in future research examining health disparities among this minority population.

  19. Oscillatory magnetic brain activity is related to dissociative symptoms and childhood adversities - A study in women with multiple trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalinski, I; Moran, J K; Elbert, T; Reindl, V; Wienbruch, C

    2017-08-15

    Individuals with trauma-related disorders are complex and heterogeneous; part of this complexity derives from additional psychopathology like dissociation as well as environmental adversities such as traumatic stress, experienced throughout the lifespan. Understanding the neurophysiological abnormalities in Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) requires a simultaneous consideration of these factors. Resting state magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings were obtained from 41 women with PTSD and comorbid depressive symptoms, and 16 healthy women. Oscillatory brain activity was extracted for five frequency bands and 11 source locations, and analyzed in relation to shutdown dissociation and adversity-related measures. Dissociative symptoms were related to increased delta and lowered beta power. Adversity-related measures modulated theta and alpha oscillatory power (in particular childhood sexual abuse) and differed between patients and controls. Findings are based on women with comorbid depressive symptoms and therefore may not be applicable for men or groups with other clinical profiles. In respect to childhood adversities, we had no reliable source for the early infancy. Trauma-related abnormalities in neural organization vary with both exposure to adversities as well as their potential to evoke ongoing shutdown responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Biological Sensitivity to the Effects of Childhood Family Adversity on Psychological Well-Being in Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Jennifer A; Ibrahim, Mariam Hanna; Luecken, Linda J

    2017-08-01

    The theory of biological sensitivity to context may inform our understanding of why some children exposed to family adversity develop mental health problems in emerging adulthood whereas others demonstrate resilience. This study investigated the interactive effects of heart rate (HR) reactivity and childhood family adversity (maltreatment and changes in family structure) on depressive symptoms and positive affect among 150 undergraduate students (18-28 years old; 77% White, non-Hispanic; 61% female). Participants reported on childhood parental divorce or death, and child maltreatment, and current depressive symptoms and positive affect. HR reactivity was assessed in response to a laboratory interpersonal stressor. HR reactivity moderated the effects of child maltreatment on depressive symptoms and positive affect; higher maltreatment was associated with more depressive symptoms and less positive affect, but only among those with average and higher levels of HR reactivity. Results suggest that higher physiological reactivity may confer greater susceptibility to environmental contexts.

  1. The role of adverse childhood experiences in cardiovascular disease risk: a review with emphasis on plausible mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shaoyong; Jimenez, Marcia P; Roberts, Cole T F; Loucks, Eric B

    2015-10-01

    Childhood adversity, characterized by abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction, is a problem that exerts a significant impact on individuals, families, and society. Growing evidence suggests that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with health decline in adulthood, including cardiovascular disease (CVD). In the current review, we first provide an overview of the association between ACEs and CVD risk, with updates on the latest epidemiological evidence. Second, we briefly review plausible pathways by which ACEs could influence CVD risk, including traditional risk factors and novel mechanisms. Finally, we highlight the potential implications of ACEs in clinical and public health. Information gleaned from this review should help physicians and researchers in better understanding potential long-term consequences of ACEs and considering adapting current strategies in treatment or intervention for patients with ACEs.

  2. Examining Perpetration of Physical Violence by Women: The Influence of Childhood Adversity, Victimization, Mental Illness, Substance Abuse, and Anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiak, Sheryl; Fedock, Gina; Kim, Woo Jong; Bybee, Deborah

    2017-02-01

    Research on women's perpetration of physical violence has focused primarily on partners, often neglecting perpetration against nonpartners. This study proposes a conceptual model with direct and indirect relationships between childhood adversity and different targets of violence (partners and nonpartners), mediated by victimization experiences (by partner and nonpartners), mental illness, substance abuse, and anger. Using survey data from a random sample of incarcerated women (N = 574), structural equation modeling resulted in significant, albeit different, indirect paths from childhood adversity, through victimization, to perpetration of violence against partners (β = .20) and nonpartners (β = .19). The results indicate that prevention of women's violence requires attention to specific forms of victimization, anger expression, and targets of her aggression.

  3. Sex-specific relationships between adverse childhood experiences and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in five states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunningham TJ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Timothy J Cunningham,1 Earl S Ford,1 Janet B Croft,1 Melissa T Merrick,2 Italia V Rolle,3 Wayne H Giles1 1Division of Population Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2Division of Violence Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA Purpose: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs before age 18 have been repeatedly associated with several chronic diseases in adulthood such as depression, heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and stroke. We examined sex-specific relationships between individual ACEs and the number of ACEs with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in the general population. Materials and methods: Data from 26,546 women and 19,015 men aged ≥18 years in five states of the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were analyzed. We used log-linear regression to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs for the relationship of eight ACEs with COPD after adjustment for age group, race/ethnicity, marital status, educational attainment, employment, asthma history, health insurance coverage, and smoking status. Results: Some 63.8% of women and 62.2% of men reported ≥1 ACE. COPD was reported by 4.9% of women and 4.0% of men. In women, but not in men, there was a higher likelihood of COPD associated with verbal abuse (PR =1.30, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.61, sexual abuse (PR =1.69, 95% CI: 1.36, 2.10, living with a substance abusing household member (PR =1.49, 95% CI: 1.23, 1.81, witnessing domestic violence (PR =1.40, 95% CI: 1.14, 1.72, and parental separation/divorce (PR =1.47, 95% CI: 1.21, 1.80 during childhood compared to those with no individual ACEs

  4. Planned Repeat Cesarean Section at Term and Adverse Childhood Health Outcomes: A Record-Linkage Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mairead Black

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Global cesarean section (CS rates range from 1% to 52%, with a previous CS being the commonest indication. Labour following a previous CS carries risk of scar rupture, with potential for offspring hypoxic brain injury, leading to high rates of repeat elective CS. However, the effect of delivery by CS on long-term outcomes in children is unclear. Increasing evidence suggests that in avoiding exposure to maternal bowel flora during labour or vaginal birth, offspring delivered by CS may be adversely affected in terms of energy uptake from the gut and immune development, increasing obesity and asthma risks, respectively. This study aimed to address the evidence gap on long-term childhood outcomes following repeat CS by comparing adverse childhood health outcomes after (1 planned repeat CS and (2 unscheduled repeat CS with those that follow vaginal birth after CS (VBAC.A data-linkage cohort study was performed. All second-born, term, singleton offspring delivered between 1 January 1993 and 31 December 2007 in Scotland, UK, to women with a history of CS (n = 40,145 were followed up until 31 January 2015. Outcomes assessed included obesity at age 5 y, hospitalisation with asthma, learning disability, cerebral palsy, and death. Cox regression and binary logistic regression were used as appropriate to compare outcomes following planned repeat CS (n = 17,919 and unscheduled repeat CS (n = 8,847 with those following VBAC (n = 13,379. Risk of hospitalisation with asthma was greater following both unscheduled repeat CS (3.7% versus 3.3%, adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.18, 95% CI 1.05-1.33 and planned repeat CS (3.6% versus 3.3%, adjusted HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.09-1.42 compared with VBAC. Learning disability and death were more common following unscheduled repeat CS compared with VBAC (3.7% versus 2.3%, adjusted odds ratio 1.64, 95% CI 1.17-2.29, and 0.5% versus 0.4%, adjusted HR 1.50, 95% CI 1.00-2.25, respectively. Risk of obesity at age 5 y and risk of cerebral

  5. The Association Between Adverse Childhood Experiences and Risk of Cancer in Adulthood: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Dawn M; Ports, Katie A; Buchanan, Natasha D; Hawkins, Nikki A; Merrick, Melissa T; Metzler, Marilyn; Trivers, Katrina F

    2016-11-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) can affect health and well-being across the life course. This systematic review summarizes the literature on associations between ACEs and risk of cancer in adulthood. We searched PubMed to identify relevant publications published on or before May 31, 2015. We included original research quantifying the association between ACEs and adult cancer incidence. Case reports and reviews were excluded. Two reviewers independently abstracted and summarized key information (eg, ACE type, cancer type, risk estimates) from included studies and resolved all discrepancies. Twelve studies were included in the review. In studies in which ACE summary scores were calculated, significant associations were observed between the scores and an increased risk of cancer in adulthood. Of the different types of ACEs examined, physical and psychological abuse victimization were associated with risk of any cancer in 3 and 2 studies, respectively. Two studies also reported significant associations with regard to sexual abuse victimization (1 for cervical cancer and 1 for any cancer). However, 2 other studies reported no significant associations between childhood sexual or physical abuse and incidence of cervical or breast cancer. Because of heterogeneity across studies, we were unable to compute a summary effect estimate. These findings suggest that childhood adversity in various forms may increase a person's cancer risk. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms driving this relationship and to identify opportunities to prevent and mitigate the deleterious effects of early adversity on long-term health. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  6. Pathways from childhood abuse and other adversities to adult health risks: The role of adult socioeconomic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Sarah A; Maguire-Jack, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including child abuse, have been linked with poor health outcomes in adulthood. The mechanisms that explain these relations are less understood. This study assesses whether associations of ACEs and health risks are mediated by adult socioeconomic conditions, and whether these pathways are different for maltreatment than for other types of adversities. Using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2012 survey (N=29,229), we employ structural equation modeling to (1) estimate associations of the number and type of ACEs with five health risks-depression, obesity, tobacco use, binge drinking, and self-reported sub-optimal health; and (2) assess whether adult socioeconomic conditions-marriage, divorce and separation, educational attainment, income and insurance status-mediate those associations. Findings suggest both direct and indirect associations between ACEs and health risks. At high numbers of ACEs, 15-20% of the association between number of ACEs and adult health risks was attributable to socioeconomic conditions. Associations of three ACEs (exposure to domestic violence, parental divorce, and residing with a person who was incarcerated) with health risks were nearly entirely explained by socioeconomic conditions in adulthood. However, child physical, emotional, and sexual abuse were significantly associated with several adult health risks, beyond the effects of other adversities, and socioeconomic conditions explained only a small portion of these associations. These findings suggest that the pathways to poor adult health differ by types of ACEs, and that childhood abuse is more likely than other adversities to have a direct impact.

  7. Adverse childhood events and current depressive symptoms among women in Hawaii: 2010 BRFSS, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remigio-Baker, Rosemay A; Hayes, Donald K; Reyes-Salvail, Florentina

    2014-12-01

    Research on the association between adverse childhood events (ACEs) and depression among women in Hawaii is scarce. ACEs have been linked to unfavorable health behaviors such as smoking and binge drinking which are more prevalent in the state compared to the US overall. The concomitant presence of ACEs with smoking or binge drinking may explain the excess depression prevalence in Hawaii compared to the national average. Using data of women residing in the state (2010 Hawaii Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey), we examined the association between ACEs count or type (household dysfunction and physical, verbal and sexual abuse) and current depressive symptoms (CDS), in addition to modification by current smoking status (smoked >100 cigarettes in a lifetime and currently smoke) and binge drinking (consumed ≥4 alcoholic beverage within the past month and in ≥1 occasion(s)). Evaluation of ACEs before age 18 consisted of 11 indicators. Eight indicators of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8) were used to assess CDS. All analyses utilized logistic regression taking into account sampling design. The odds ratio of having CDS between those with versus without ACEs increased per increasing number of ACEs (1 ACE: OR = 2.11, CI = 1.16-3.81; 2 ACEs: OR = 2.90, CI = 1.51-5.58; 3 or 4 ACEs: OR = 3.94, CI = 2.13-7.32; 5+ ACEs: OR = 4.04, CI = 2.26-7.22). Household dysfunction (OR = 2.10, CI = 1.37-3.23), physical abuse (OR = 1.67, CI = 1.08-2.59), verbal abuse (OR = 3.21, CI = 2.03-5.09) and sexual abuse (OR = 1.68, CI = 1.04-2.71) were all positively associated with CDS. Verbal abuse had the strongest magnitude of association. Neither current smoking status nor binge drinking modified the relationship between ACEs count (or type) and CDS. In conclusion, the presence of ACEs among women in Hawaii was indicative of CDS in adulthood, notably verbal abuse. Further, a dose response existed between the number of ACEs and the odds for CDS. The concomitant exposure

  8. Adverse Childhood Experiences, Support, and the Perception of Ability to Work in Adults with Disability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Miryam Schüssler-Fiorenza Rose

    Full Text Available To examine the impact of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs and support on self-reported work inability of adults reporting disability.Adults (ages 18-64 who participated in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System in 2009 or 2010 and who reported having a disability (n = 13,009.The study used a retrospective cohort design with work inability as the main outcome. ACE categories included abuse (sexual, physical, emotional and family dysfunction (domestic violence, incarceration, mental illness, substance abuse, divorce. Support included functional (perceived emotional/social support and structural (living with another adult support. Logistic regression was used to adjust for potential confounders (age, sex and race and to evaluate whether there was an independent effect of ACEs on work inability after adding other important predictors (support, education, health to the model.ACEs were highly prevalent with almost 75% of the sample reporting at least one ACE category and over 25% having a high ACE burden (4 or more categories. ACEs were strongly associated with functional support. Participants experiencing a high ACE burden had a higher adjusted odds ratio (OR [95% confidence interval] of 1.9 [1.5-2.4] of work inability (reference: zero ACEs. Good functional support (adjusted OR 0.52 [0.42-0.63] and structural support (adjusted OR 0.48 [0.41-0.56] were protective against work inability. After adding education and health to the model, ACEs no longer appeared to have an independent effect. Structural support remained highly protective, but functional support only appeared to be protective in those with good physical health.ACEs are highly prevalent in working-age US adults with a disability, particularly young adults. ACEs are associated with decreased support, lower educational attainment and worse adult health. Health care providers are encouraged to screen for ACEs. Addressing the effects of ACEs on health and support, in addition to

  9. Exploring the Prevalence of Adverse Childhood Experiences in Soldiers Seeking Behavioral Health Care During a Combat Deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applewhite, Larry; Arincorayan, Derrick; Adams, Barry

    2016-10-01

    This exploratory study examines the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in soldiers who sought behavioral health support during a combat deployment. We conducted a secondary analysis of data extracted from two studies on the basis of retrospective reviews of behavioral health records of soldiers deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan. Of 162 clinical samples, 135 (83%) reported at least one type of childhood adversity. ACE scores ranged from 0 to 9 with a mean of 3 (standard deviation = 2.4) and mode of 0. A total of 65 (40%) experienced four or more ACEs. Parental divorce or separation was the most frequently reported childhood experience and was associated with witnessing domestic violence, having a member of the household abuse substances, and being physically and psychologically abused as a child. A sizeable proportion lived with a household member who had been in prison. Soldiers with an extensive history of ACEs may benefit from additional mentoring from frontline leaders and prevention measures instituted by unit behavioral health personnel. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  10. Racial/ethnic differences in the association of childhood adversities with depression and the role of resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Nagy A; Belew, Daniel; Hao, Guang; Wang, Xiaoling; Treiber, Frank A; Stefanek, Michael; Yassa, Mark; Boswell, Elizabeth; McCall, W Vaughn; Su, Shaoyong

    2017-01-15

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) including childhood abuse and trauma increase depressive symptoms. The role of resilience and how it interacts with both ACEs and the potential development of depressive symptoms, including how race and ethnicity moderate these effects, are much less studied. The aims of this study were to examine: 1) whether there is a dose-response relationship between trauma and depressive symptoms; 2) whether early trauma affected European Americans (EA) and African Americans (AA) in a similar fashion; and 3) whether resilience mitigates the effect of trauma. The present study comprised a cross-sectional study of subjects from a longitudinal cohort. All subjects were 19 years or older with traumatic experiences prior to age 18. Subjects were assessed for depressive symptoms as well as resilience. In 413 subjects enrolled, ACEs were significantly associated with depression severity in a dose-response fashion (presilience showed less depressive symptoms compared to those with low resilience (presilience mitigated the impact of childhood adversities on depressive symptoms in young adults. The results are encouraging, and guides research for therapeutics to boost resilience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [Adverse Sensory Input of Childhood Maltreatment Modified by Early Experience Ascertaining the Neural Basis of Neurodevelopmental and Attachment Disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomoda, Akemi

    2015-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment, which markedly increases the risk of psychopathology such as depression, PTSD, and reduced cognitive abilities, is associated with structural and functional brain differences. Our earlier studies elucidated potential discernible effects on the brain morphology of childhood maltreatment on the gray matter volume or cortical thickness. Further, our preliminary studies revealed a significantly reduced gray matter volume (GMV) in the left primary visual cortex (Brodmann area 17) in the reactive attachment disorder (RAD) group compared to the typically developed group. These visual cortex GMV abnormalities may also be associated with such visual stimulus-induced emotion regulation impairments of RAD, leading to an increase in the risk of future psychopathology. Brain regions that process and convey the adverse sensory input of the abuse might be modified specifically by such experiences, particularly in subjects exposed to a single type of maltreatment. Thus, exposure to multiple types of maltreatment is more commonly associated with morphological alterations in corticolimbic regions.

  12. Effect of adverse childhood experiences on physical health in adulthood: Results of a study conducted in Baghdad city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameel F Al-Shawi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have revealed a powerful relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs and physical and mental health in adulthood. Literature documents the conversion of traumatic emotional experiences in childhood into organic disease later in life. Objective: The aim was to estimate the effect of childhood experiences on the physical health of adults in Baghdad city. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2013 to January 2014. The study sample was drawn from Baghdad city. Multistage sampling techniques were used in choosing 13 primary health care centers and eight colleges of three universities in Baghdad. In addition, teachers of seven primary schools and two secondary schools were chosen by a convenient method. Childhood experiences were measured by applying a modified standardized ACEs-International Questionnaire form and with questions for bonding to family and parental monitoring. Physical health assessment was measured by a modified questionnaire derived from Health Appraisal Questionnaire of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The questionnaire includes questions on cerebrovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, tumor, respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases. Results: Logistic regression model showed that a higher level of bonding to family (fourth quartile is expected to reduce the risk of chronic physical diseases by almost the half (odds ratio = 0.57 and exposure to a high level of household dysfunction and abuse (fourth quartile is expected to increase the risk of chronic physical diseases by 81%. Conclusion: Childhood experiences play a major role in the determination of health outcomes in adulthood, and early prevention of ACEs. Encouraging strong family bonding can promote physical health in later life.

  13. Childhood adversity and allostatic overload of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis: a vulnerability model for depressive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Paul O; Goodyer, Ian M

    2011-11-01

    Childhood adversity is associated with increased risk for onset of depressive episodes. This review will present evidence that allostatic overload of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) partially mediates this association. The HPAA is the physiological system that regulates levels of the stress hormone cortisol. First, data from animals and humans has shown that early environmental adversity is associated with long-term dysregulation of the HPAA. This may occur due to permanent epigenetic modification of the glucocorticoid receptor. Second, data from humans has demonstrated that HPAA dysregulation is associated with increased risk of future depression onset in healthy individuals, and pharmacological correction of HPAA dysregulation reduces depressive symptoms. HPAA dysregulation may result in corticoid-mediated abnormalities in neurogenesis in early life and/or neurotoxicity on neural systems that subserve emotion and cognition.

  14. Masculine norms, disclosure, and childhood adversities predict long-term mental distress among men with histories of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Scott D

    2014-02-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) can have a profound effect on the long-term mental health of boys/men. However, not all men with histories of CSA experience psychopathology. To improve prevention and intervention services, more research is needed to understand why some male survivors experience mental health problems and others do not. The purpose of this study was to examine factors related to mental distress among a large, non-clinical sample of men with histories of CSA (N=487). Using a cross-sectional design with purposive sampling from three national survivor organizations, data were collected through an anonymous Internet-based survey. Multivariate analyses found that only one of the four CSA severity variables-use of physical force by the abuser-was related to mental distress. Additional factors that were related to mental distress included the number of other childhood adversities, years until disclosure, overall response to disclosure, and conformity to masculine norms. Overall, the final model predicted 36% of the variance in the number of mental health symptoms. Mental health practitioners should include masculine norms, disclosure history, and childhood adversities in assessments and intervention planning with male survivors. To more fully explicate risk factors for psychopathology in this population, future studies with probability samples of men that focus on mediational processes and use longitudinal designs are needed.

  15. A review of primary care interventions to improve health outcomes in adult survivors of adverse childhood experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotana, Laurel M; Dobson, Keith S; Pusch, Dennis; Josephson, Trevor

    2016-06-01

    Research has consistently demonstrated a link between the experience of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and adult health conditions, including mental and physical health problems. While a focus on the prevention or mitigation of adversity in childhood is an important direction of many programs, many individuals do not access support services until adulthood, when health problems may be fairly engrained. It is not clear which interventions have the strongest evidence base to support the many adults who present to services with a history of ACEs. The current review examines the evidence base for psychosocial interventions for adults with a history of ACEs. The review focuses on interventions that may be provided in primary care, as that is the setting where most patients will first present and are most likely to receive treatment. A systematic review of the literature was completed using PsycInfo and PubMed databases, with 99 studies identified that met inclusion and exclusion criteria. These studies evaluated a range of interventions with varying levels of supportive evidence. Overall, cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBT) have the most evidence for improving health problems - in particular, improving mental health and reducing health-risk behaviors - in adults with a history of ACEs. Expressive writing and mindfulness-based therapies also show promise, whereas other treatments have less supportive evidence. Limitations of the current literature base are discussed and research directions for the field are provided.

  16. Household and community-level Adverse Childhood Experiences and adult health outcomes in a diverse urban population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Roy; Cronholm, Peter F; Fein, Joel A; Forke, Christine M; Davis, Martha B; Harkins-Schwarz, Mary; Pachter, Lee M; Bair-Merritt, Megan H

    2016-02-01

    Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs), which include family dysfunction and community-level stressors, negatively impact the health and well being of children throughout the life course. While several studies have examined the impact of these childhood exposures amongst racially and socially diverse populations, the contribution of ACEs in the persistence of socioeconomic disparities in health is poorly understood. To determine the association between ACEs and health outcomes amongst a sample of adults living in Philadelphia and examine the moderating effect of Socioeconomic Status (SES) on this association, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1,784 Philadelphia adults, ages 18 and older, using random digit dialing methodology to assess Conventional ACEs (experiences related to family dysfunction), Expanded ACEs (community-level stressors), and health outcomes. Using weighted, multivariable logistic regression analyses along with SES stratified models, we examined the relationship between ACEs and health outcomes as well as the modifying effect of current SES. High Conventional ACE scores were significantly associated with health risk behaviors, physical and mental illness, while elevated Expanded ACE scores were associated only with substance abuse history and sexually transmitted infections. ACEs did have some differential impacts on health outcomes based on SES. Given the robust impact of Conventional ACEs on health, our results support prior research highlighting the primacy of family relationships on a child's life course trajectory and the importance of interventions designed to support families. Our findings related to the modifying effect of SES may provide additional insight into the complex relationship between poverty and childhood adversity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Appetitive aggression and adverse childhood experiences shape violent behavior in females formerly associated with combat

    OpenAIRE

    Mareike eAugsburger; Danie eMeyer-Parlapanis; Manassé eBambonye; Thomas eElbert; Anselm eCrombach

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of violent experiences during childhood, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and appetitive aggression on everyday violent behavior in Burundian females with varying participation in war. Moreover, group differences in trauma-related and aggression variables were expected. Appetitive aggression describes the perception of violence perpetration as fascinating and appealing and is a common phenomenon in former combatants. Semi-structured interviews were condu...

  18. Childhood Adversity and Adult Onset of Hypertension and Heart Disease in São Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Parrish, Canada; Surkan, Pamela J; Martins, Silvia S.; Gattaz, Wagner F.; Andrade, Laura Helena; Viana, Maria Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the São Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey and logistic regression models, we studied how childhood neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and family violence were related to adult hypertension and heart disease. After adjustment for sociodemographic factors, child physical abuse was associated with hypertension and heart disease, whereas family violence was associated with hypertension. Efforts to curb child physical abuse could potentially reduce subsequent hypertension and...

  19. Appetitive Aggression and Adverse Childhood Experiences Shape Violent Behavior in Females Formerly Associated with Combat

    OpenAIRE

    Augsburger, Mareike; Meyer-Parlapanis, Danie; Bambonye, Manassé; Elbert, Thomas; Crombach, Anselm

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of violent experiences during childhood, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and appetitive aggression on everyday violent behavior in Burundian females with varying participation in war. Moreover, group differences in trauma-related and aggression variables were expected. Appetitive aggression describes the perception of violence perpetration as fascinating and appealing and is a common phenomenon in former combatants. Semi-structured interviews were condu...

  20. Longitudinal patterns of poverty and health in early childhood: exploring the influence of concurrent, previous, and cumulative poverty on child health outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Although the links between poverty and health have often been studied , the dynamics of poverty and physical health in early childhood remain under-investigated. In particular, it is not known whether the health of young children is affected differently from that of adults by patterns of poverty unique to them. Methods We examined patterns of health from 5 to 41 months of age as a function of concurrent, lagged, and chronic exposure to insufficient income. Using data from the first four rounds of the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, we performed multilevel logistic and multilevel Poisson regressions and latent growth curve analyses to explore associations between exposure to poverty and mother-reported asthma-like attacks, and maternal perception of health status controlling for neonatal, maternal, and environmental characteristics. Results The mean number of mother-reported asthma-like attacks significantly decreased as children aged. The likelihood of being perceived in a poorer health status also decreased across time. Concurrent poverty was associated with more mother-reported asthma-like attacks and with a higher risk of being perceived in poorer health status. One-period-lagged poverty was associated with more mother-reported asthma-like attacks and this remained significant after controlling for concurrent poverty. The number of mother-reported asthma-like attacks was significantly higher among children in the chronic poverty class compared to those in the never-poor class, particularly at 17 and 29 months. Perceived health status at 5-months was significantly poorer among chronically poor children compared to never-poor children. Conclusion Exposure to poverty negatively affects two major health indicators in early childhood – maternal perception of child health and mother-reported asthma-like attacks. Patterns of the effects vary according to timing and duration of poverty exposure. Further longitudinal research is warranted

  1. Longitudinal patterns of poverty and health in early childhood: exploring the influence of concurrent, previous, and cumulative poverty on child health outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béatrice Nikiéma

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the links between poverty and health have often been studied , the dynamics of poverty and physical health in early childhood remain under-investigated. In particular, it is not known whether the health of young children is affected differently from that of adults by patterns of poverty unique to them. Methods We examined patterns of health from 5 to 41 months of age as a function of concurrent, lagged, and chronic exposure to insufficient income. Using data from the first four rounds of the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, we performed multilevel logistic and multilevel Poisson regressions and latent growth curve analyses to explore associations between exposure to poverty and mother-reported asthma-like attacks, and maternal perception of health status controlling for neonatal, maternal, and environmental characteristics. Results The mean number of mother-reported asthma-like attacks significantly decreased as children aged. The likelihood of being perceived in a poorer health status also decreased across time. Concurrent poverty was associated with more mother-reported asthma-like attacks and with a higher risk of being perceived in poorer health status. One-period-lagged poverty was associated with more mother-reported asthma-like attacks and this remained significant after controlling for concurrent poverty. The number of mother-reported asthma-like attacks was significantly higher among children in the chronic poverty class compared to those in the never-poor class, particularly at 17 and 29 months. Perceived health status at 5-months was significantly poorer among chronically poor children compared to never-poor children. Conclusion Exposure to poverty negatively affects two major health indicators in early childhood – maternal perception of child health and mother-reported asthma-like attacks. Patterns of the effects vary according to timing and duration of poverty exposure. Further

  2. A cross-cultural longitudinal examination of the effect of cumulative adversity on the mental and physical health of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palgi, Yuval; Shrira, Amit

    2016-03-01

    Self-oriented adversity refers to traumatic events that primarily inflict the self, whereas other-oriented adversity refers to events that affect the self by primarily targeting others. The present study aimed to examine whether cultural background moderates the effects of self-oriented and other-oriented adversity on mental and physical health of older adults. Using longitudinal data from the Israeli component of the Survey of Health and Retirement, we focused on 370 Jews and 239 Arabs who reported their exposure to various adversities across the life span, and completed questionnaires regarding mental and physical health. Results showed that the effect of self-oriented adversity on health did not differ among Jews and Arabs. However, other-oriented adversity showed a stronger effect on Arabs' mental and physical health than on Jews' health. Our findings suggest that the accumulation of adverse events that affect the self by primarily targeting others may have a stronger impact in collectivist cultures than in individualist cultures.

  3. Epigenetic Vestiges of Early Developmental Adversity: Childhood Stress Exposure and DNA Methylation in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essex, Marilyn J.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Hertzman, Clyde; Lam, Lucia L.; Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Neumann, Sarah M. A.; Kobor, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Fifteen-year-old adolescents (N = 109) in a longitudinal study of child development were recruited to examine differences in DNA methylation in relation to parent reports of adversity during the adolescents' infancy and preschool periods. Microarray technology applied to 28,000 cytosine-guanine dinucleotide sites within DNA derived from buccal…

  4. Childhood adversity as a moderator of the relationship between emotional reactivity and the occurrence of anxiety and depression in a non-clinical group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Łukasz Dragan

    2016-02-01

    The obtained results are only partially explained within the temperamental risk factor model. A different pattern of relationships between the intensity of the temperamental trait and the occurrence of anxiety and depression depending on the amount of reported adversity may result from the cumulative effect of the negative consequences of this type of experience.

  5. Adverse childhood experiences in relation to mood and anxiety disorders in a population-based sample of active military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sareen, J; Henriksen, C A; Bolton, S L; Afifi, T O; Stein, M B; Asmundson, G J G

    2013-01-01

    Although it has been posited that exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) increases vulnerability to deployment stress, previous literature in this area has demonstrated conflicting results. Using a cross-sectional population-based sample of active military personnel, the present study examined the relationship between ACEs, deployment related stressors and mood and anxiety disorders. Data were analyzed from the 2002 Canadian Community Health Survey-Canadian Forces Supplement (CCHS-CFS; n = 8340, age 18-54 years, response rate 81%). The following ACEs were self-reported retrospectively: childhood physical abuse, childhood sexual abuse, economic deprivation, exposure to domestic violence, parental divorce/separation, parental substance abuse problems, hospitalization as a child, and apprehension by a child protection service. DSM-IV mood and anxiety disorders [major depressive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic attacks/disorder and social phobia] were assessed using the composite international diagnostic interview (CIDI). Even after adjusting for the effects of deployment-related traumatic exposures (DRTEs), exposure to ACEs was significantly associated with past-year mood or anxiety disorder among men [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.34, 99% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.73, p < 0.01] and women [aOR 1.37, 99% CI 1.00-1.89, p = 0.01]. Participants exposed to both ACEs and DRTEs had the highest prevalence of past-year mood or anxiety disorder in comparison to those who were exposed to either ACEs alone, DRTEs alone, or no exposure. ACEs are associated with several mood and anxiety disorders among active military personnel. Intervention strategies to prevent mental health problems should consider the utility of targeting soldiers with exposure to ACEs.

  6. Adverse childhood experiences and intimate partner aggression in the US: Sex differences and similarities in psychosocial mediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Monique J.; Perera, Robert A.; Masho, Saba W.; Mezuk, Briana; Cohen, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Six in ten people in the general population have been exposed to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health problem in the US. The main objective of this study was to assess sex differences in the role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance abuse, and depression as mediators in the association between ACEs and intimate partner aggression. Data were obtained from Wave 2 (2004–2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Structural equation modeling was used to determine the mediational role of PTSD, substance abuse and depression in the association between ACE constructs (neglect, physical/psychological abuse, sexual abuse, parental violence, and parental incarceration/psychopathology) and intimate partner aggression. Among men, PTSD mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and intimate partner aggression. However, among men and women, substance abuse mediated the relationship between physical and psychological abuse and intimate partner aggression. IPV programs geared towards aggressors should address abuse (sexual, physical and psychological), which occurred during childhood and recent substance abuse and PTSD. These programs should be implemented for men and women. Programs aimed at preventing abuse of children may help to reduce rates of depression and PTSD in adulthood, and subsequent intimate partner aggression. PMID:25753285

  7. Impact of early psychosocial factors (childhood socioeconomic factors and adversities on future risk of type 2 diabetes, metabolic disturbances and obesity: a systematic review

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    Tamayo Teresa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological factors and socioeconomic status (SES have a notable impact on health disparities, including type 2 diabetes risk. However, the link between childhood psychosocial factors, such as childhood adversities or parental SES, and metabolic disturbances is less well established. In addition, the lifetime perspective including adult socioeconomic factors remains of further interest. We carried out a systematic review with the main question if there is evidence in population- or community-based studies that childhood adversities (like neglect, traumata and deprivation have considerable impact on type 2 diabetes incidence and other metabolic disturbances. Also, parental SES was included in the search as risk factor for both, diabetes and adverse childhood experiences. Finally, we assumed that obesity might be a mediator for the association of childhood adversities with diabetes incidence. Therefore, we carried out a second review on obesity, applying a similar search strategy. Methods Two systematic reviews were carried out. Longitudinal, population- or community-based studies were included if they contained data on psychosocial factors in childhood and either diabetes incidence or obesity risk. Results We included ten studies comprising a total of 200,381 individuals. Eight out of ten studies indicated that low parental status was associated with type 2 diabetes incidence or the development of metabolic abnormalities. Adjustment for adult SES and obesity tended to attenuate the childhood SES-attributable risk but the association remained. For obesity, eleven studies were included with a total sample size of 70,420 participants. Four out of eleven studies observed an independent association of low childhood SES on the risk for overweight and obesity later in life. Conclusions Taken together, there is evidence that childhood SES is associated with type 2 diabetes and obesity in later life. The database on the role of

  8. The association between childhood adversities and subsequent first onset of psychotic experiences : a cross-national analysis of 23 998 respondents from 17 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGrath, J J; McLaughlin, K A; Saha, S; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S; Al-Hamzawi, A; Alonso, J; Bruffaerts, R; de Girolamo, G; de Jonge, P; Esan, O; Florescu, S; Gureje, O; Haro, J M; Hu, C; Karam, E G; Kovess-Masfety, V; Lee, S; Lepine, J P; Lim, C C W; Medina-Mora, M E; Mneimneh, Z; Pennell, B E; Piazza, M; Posada-Villa, J; Sampson, N; Viana, M C; Xavier, M; Bromet, E J; Kendler, K S; Kessler, R C

    Background. Although there is robust evidence linking childhood adversities (CAs) and an increased risk for psychotic experiences (PEs), little is known about whether these associations vary across the life-course and whether mental disorders that emerge prior to PEs explain these associations.

  9. Childhood adversities as risk factors for alexithymia and other aspects of affect dysregulation in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooiman, Cornelis G; van Rees Vellinga, Sonja; Spinhoven, Philip; Draijer, Nel; Trijsburg, Rutger W; Rooijmans, Harry G M

    2004-01-01

    Affect regulation is assumed to be a biologically based function that can become disrupted by inadequate parenting and by traumatic experiences. We studied the relation between the perceived parental parenting style, and sexual and physical abuse, with alexithymia, dissociation, anxiety and depression. In a cross-sectional study psychiatric outpatients were administered a structured interview on childhood physical and sexual abuse and they completed a number of questionnaires about the parenting styles of their parents, and about alexithymia, dissociation and mood pathology. Maternal and paternal parenting styles were moderately correlated with alexithymia and depression. The paternal parenting style was also correlated with dissociation. Optimal parenting of one of the parents had a buffering effect on the degree of alexithymia, but not on the severity of other forms of affect dysregulation. The effect of sexual or physical abuse did not add to that of parental parenting style in terms of predicting affect dysregulation. However, a positively perceived maternal parenting style was found to have a buffering effect in terms of the degree of alexithymia, if sexual abuse had also taken place. Perceived parenting does appear to be of some significance in the development of alexithymia. Optimal parenting of one of the parents may protect against the development of alexithymia when the parenting of the other parent is perceived as non-optimal. However, it is likely that other factors besides parental care and sexual or physical abuse play an important role in the development of an adequate affect regulation. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  10. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption Is Adversely Associated with Childhood Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ching-Jung; Du, Jung-Chieh; Chiou, Hsien-Chih; Feng, Chun-Cheng; Chung, Ming-Yi; Yang, Winnie; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Chien, Ling-Chu; Hwang, Betau; Chen, Mei-Lien

    2016-07-04

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood neurobehavioral conditions. Evidence of the negative effects of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) on mental health has not been convincing, although a few studies have found an association between high SSB levels and attention problems in children. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that SSB consumption is associated with ADHD among children. Doctor-diagnosed ADHD cases (n = 173) and non-ADHD controls (n = 159) between age 4 to 15 were recruited. SSB consumption, socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics of the children, as well as of their mothers' characteristics during pregnancy, were collected using a questionnaire. Blood lead levels and polymorphisms of two commonly verified dopaminergic-related genes (the D4 dopamine receptor gene DRD4 and the dopamine transporter gene DAT1) were also analyzed. There was a dose-response relationship between SSB consumption and ADHD. After covariates were adjusted, children who consumed SSBs at moderate levels and high levels had 1.36 and 3.69 odds, respectively, of having ADHD, compared with those who did not consume SSBs (p for trend consumption and ADHD and indicated a dose-response effect even after covariates were adjusted.

  11. Does continuous trusted adult support in childhood impart life-course resilience against adverse childhood experiences - a retrospective study on adult health-harming behaviours and mental well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellis, Mark A; Hardcastle, Katie; Ford, Kat; Hughes, Karen; Ashton, Kathryn; Quigg, Zara; Butler, Nadia

    2017-03-23

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) including child abuse and household problems (e.g. domestic violence) increase risks of poor health and mental well-being in adulthood. Factors such as having access to a trusted adult as a child may impart resilience against developing such negative outcomes. How much childhood adversity is mitigated by such resilience is poorly quantified. Here we test if access to a trusted adult in childhood is associated with reduced impacts of ACEs on adoption of health-harming behaviours and lower mental well-being in adults. Cross-sectional, face-to-face household surveys (aged 18-69 years, February-September 2015) examining ACEs suffered, always available adult (AAA) support from someone you trust in childhood and current diet, smoking, alcohol consumption and mental well-being were undertaken in four UK regions. Sampling used stratified random probability methods (n = 7,047). Analyses used chi squared, binary and multinomial logistic regression. Adult prevalence of poor diet, daily smoking and heavier alcohol consumption increased with ACE count and decreased with AAA support in childhood. Prevalence of having any two such behaviours increased from 1.8% (0 ACEs, AAA support, most affluent quintile of residence) to 21.5% (≥4 ACEs, lacking AAA support, most deprived quintile). However, the increase was reduced to 7.1% with AAA support (≥4 ACEs, most deprived quintile). Lower mental well-being was 3.27 (95% CIs, 2.16-4.96) times more likely with ≥4 ACEs and AAA support from someone you trust in childhood (vs. 0 ACE, with AAA support) increasing to 8.32 (95% CIs, 6.53-10.61) times more likely with ≥4 ACEs but without AAA support in childhood. Multiple health-harming behaviours combined with lower mental well-being rose dramatically with ACE count and lack of AAA support in childhood (adjusted odds ratio 32.01, 95% CIs 18.31-55.98, ≥4 ACEs, without AAA support vs. 0 ACEs, with AAA support). Adverse childhood experiences

  12. Planned Cesarean Delivery at Term and Adverse Outcomes in Childhood Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Mairead; Bhattacharya, Siladitya; Philip, Sam; Norman, Jane E.; McLernon, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Importance Planned cesarean delivery comprises a significant proportion of births globally, with combined rates of planned and unscheduled cesarean delivery in a number of regions approaching 50%. Observational studies have shown that offspring born by cesarean delivery are at increased risk of ill health in childhood, but these studies have been unable to adjust for some key confounding variables. Additionally, risk of death beyond the neonatal period has not yet been reported for offspring born by planned cesarean delivery. Objective To investigate the relationship between planned cesarean delivery and offspring health problems or death in childhood. Design, Setting, and Participants Population-based data-linkage study of 321 287 term singleton first-born offspring born in Scotland, United Kingdom, between 1993 and 2007, with follow-up until February 2015. Exposures Offspring born by planned cesarean delivery in a first pregnancy were compared with offspring born by unscheduled cesarean delivery and with offspring delivered vaginally. Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcome was asthma requiring hospital admission; secondary outcomes were salbutamol inhaler prescription at age 5 years, obesity at age 5 years, inflammatory bowel disease, type 1 diabetes, cancer, and death. Results Compared with offspring born by unscheduled cesarean delivery (n = 56 015 [17.4%]), those born by planned cesarean delivery (12 355 [3.8%]) were at no significantly different risk of asthma requiring hospital admission, salbutamol inhaler prescription at age 5 years, obesity at age 5 years, inflammatory bowel disease, cancer, or death but were at increased risk of type 1 diabetes (0.66% vs 0.44%; difference, 0.22% [95% CI, 0.13%-0.31%]; adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.35 [95% CI, 1.05-1.75]). In comparison with children born vaginally (n = 252 917 [78.7%]), offspring born by planned cesarean delivery were at increased risk of asthma requiring hospital admission (3.73% vs 3

  13. Adverse childhood experiences and frequent insufficient sleep in 5 U.S. States, 2009: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapman Daniel P

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although adverse childhood experiences (ACEs have previously been demonstrated to be adversely associated with a variety of health outcomes in adulthood, their specific association with sleep among adults has not been examined. To better address this issue, this study examines the relationship between eight self-reported ACEs and frequent insufficient sleep among community-dwelling adults residing in 5 U.S. states in 2009. Methods To assess whether ACEs were associated with frequent insufficient sleep (respondent did not get sufficient rest or sleep ≥14 days in past 30 days in adulthood, we analyzed ACE data collected in the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a random-digit-dialed telephone survey in Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Tennessee, and Washington. ACEs included physical abuse, sexual abuse, verbal abuse, household mental illness, incarcerated household members, household substance abuse, parental separation/divorce, and witnessing domestic violence before age 18. Smoking status and frequent mental distress (FMD (≥14 days in past 30 days when self-perceived mental health was not good were assessed as potential mediators in multivariate logistic regression analyses of frequent insufficient sleep by ACEs adjusted for race/ethnicity, gender, education, and body mass index. Results Overall, 28.8% of 25,810 respondents reported frequent insufficient sleep, 18.8% were current smokers, 10.8% reported frequent mental distress, 59.5% percent reported ≥1 ACE, and 8.7% reported ≥ 5 ACEs. Each ACE was associated with frequent insufficient sleep in multivariate analyses. Odds of frequent insufficient sleep were 2.5 (95% CI, 2.1-3.1 times higher in persons with ≥5 ACEs compared to those with no ACEs. Most relationships were modestly attenuated by smoking and FMD, but remained significant. Conclusions Childhood exposures to eight indicators of child maltreatment and household dysfunction were significantly

  14. Profiles of family-focused adverse experiences through childhood and early adolescence: The ROOTS project a community investigation of adolescent mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Joe

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse family experiences in early life are associated with subsequent psychopathology. This study adds to the growing body of work exploring the nature and associations between adverse experiences over the childhood years. Methods Primary carers of 1143 randomly recruited 14-year olds in Cambridgeshire and Suffolk, UK were interviewed using the Cambridge Early Experiences Interview (CAMEEI to assess family-focused adversities. Adversities were recorded retrospectively in three time periods (early and later childhood and early adolescence. Latent Class Analysis (LCA grouped individuals into adversity classes for each time period and longitudinally. Adolescents were interviewed to generate lifetime DSM-IV diagnoses using the K-SADS-PL. The associations between adversity class and diagnoses were explored. Results LCA generated a 4-class model for each time period and longitudinally. In early childhood 69% were allocated to a low adversity class; a moderate adversity class (19% showed elevated rates of family loss, mild or moderate family discord, financial difficulties, maternal psychiatric illness and higher risk for paternal atypical parenting; a severe class (6% experienced higher rates on all indicators and almost exclusively accounted for incidents of child abuse; a fourth class, characterised by atypical parenting from both parents, accounted for the remaining 7%. Class membership was fairly stable (~ 55% over time with escape from any adversity by 14 years being uncommon. Compared to those in the low class, the odds ratio for reported psychopathology in adolescents in the severe class ranged from 8 for disruptive behaviour disorders through to 4.8 for depressions and 2.0 for anxiety disorders. Only in the low adversity class did significantly more females than males report psychopathology. Conclusions Family adversities in the early years occur as multiple rather than single experiences. Although some children escape

  15. Impact of Coastal Pollution on Childhood Disabilities and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes: The Case of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juma Rahman

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this review was to explore the situation of coastal water pollution and its impact on child health and pregnancy outcomes in Bangladesh. Background: Globally coastal pollution is of greater significance than inland’s for its huge resources and contribution to livelihood. As a result it has been a source of increased Global Burden of Disease by means of consumption of seafood, involvement in risky jobs, and exposure to water related disastrous events. Almost sixty percent of the world’s population is at risk of costal contamination and developing countries like Bangladesh, geographically located at the tip of the Bay of Bengal, are facing significant challenges by this form of pollution. Method: This study was based on a critical review of published literature and unpublished documents from 1972 to 2011 retrieved from databases of scientific publications, from public-access search engines, reports from government, international organizations, and non-government agencies, and personal communications. Discussion: Huge noxious pollutants including heavy metals, oil spill and redionucleotides were found in the Bay of Bengal, those have enormous adverse impacts on child health and pregnancy outcomes. This review focuses on children and pregnant women because of their vulnerable physiological conditions to the impacts of environmental factors. The physiological systems of children and fetuses are developing fast and usually are sensitive to disruptions induced by environmental pollutants and exposures in utero increase the risk of future toxic insults. Conclusion: The coastal zone of Bangladesh is one of the vulnerable zones in the world which is predicted to disappear due to climate change impacts. This areas face huge weather-related disasters due to continuous changing coastal-configuration and man-made pollutions. However, these observations are indecisive due to limitations of supportive evidence. Therefore, further

  16. Retraumatization Mediates the Effect of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Clinical Training-Related Secondary Traumatic Stress Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Lisa D; Maguin, Eugene; Carello, Janice

    2017-03-10

    Previous research (Butler, Carello, & Maguin, 2016) has found that exposure to trauma-related material in graduate clinical coursework and field training can put students at risk for reactivations of feelings/memories from negative past experiences (retraumatization) and for secondary traumatic stress (STS) symptoms. The present report sought to examine the role, if any, of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in these outcomes. Using the Butler et al. (2016) sample, we examined: (1) rates of ACEs in 195 graduate social work students, (2) whether the total number of ACEs was associated with training-related retraumatization (TRT) and/or STS symptoms, and (3) if TRT mediated the relationship between ACEs and STS symptoms. The results indicate that more than three quarters of the sample had experienced one or more ACEs before age 18 and almost one third endorsed 4 or more. The most commonly reported ACEs were household mental illness, parental separation/divorce, household alcohol/substance abuse, and emotional abuse or neglect by a parent or household member. Higher ACE scores were associated with increased likelihood of TRT experiences and STS symptoms during training. A mediation analysis confirmed that TRT mediated the effect of ACE scores on STS symptoms; this finding also provides support for the role of proximal emotional reactions in mediating the effects of distal adverse experiences on the development of trauma symptoms. In summary, despite the evident resilience of this graduate student sample, those with ACE histories were at heightened risk for training-related distress. These results underscore the need for a trauma-informed approach to clinical training.

  17. Adverse childhood experiences among children placed in and adopted from foster care: Evidence from a nationally representative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Kristin; Wildeman, Christopher

    2017-02-01

    Despite good reason to believe that children in foster care are disproportionately exposed to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), relatively little research considers exposure to ACEs among this group of vulnerable children. In this article, we use data from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH), a nationally representative sample of non-institutionalized children ages 0-17 in the United States, to estimate the association between foster care placement and exposure to an array of ACEs. In adjusted logistic regression models, we find that children placed in foster care or adopted from foster care, compared to their counterparts, were more likely to experience parental divorce or separation, parental death, parental incarceration, parental abuse, violence exposure, household member mental illness, and household member substance abuse. These children were also more likely to experience ACEs than children across different thresholds of socioeconomic disadvantage (e.g., children in households with incomes below the poverty line) and across different family structures (e.g., children in single-mother families). These results advance our understanding of how children in foster care, an already vulnerable population, are disproportionately exposed to ACEs. This exposure, given the link between ACEs and health, may have implications for children's health and wellbeing throughout the life course. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of childhood adversities on depression in early adulthood: A longitudinal cohort study of 478,141 individuals in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkenstam, Emma; Vinnerljung, Bo; Hjern, Anders

    2017-12-01

    Although the relationship between childhood adversity (CA) and depression is widely accepted, there is little information on what proportion of depression is attributable to CA. We used a Swedish cohort of 478,141 individuals born in 1984-1988 in Sweden. Register-based CA indicators included parental death, parental substance abuse and psychiatric morbidity, parental criminality, parental separation, public assistance recipiency, child welfare intervention, and residential instability. Estimates of risk of depression, measured as retrieval of prescribed antidepressants and/or psychiatric care with a clinical diagnosis of depression, between 2006 and 2012 were calculated as Hazard Ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI), using a Cox regression analysis. All CAs predicted depression in early adulthood. Furthermore, the predictive association between the CA indicators and depression was graded, with highest HRs observed for 4+ CAs (HR: 3.05 (95% CI 2.83-3.29)) for a clinical diagnosis for depression and HR: 1.32 (95% CI 1.25-1.41) for antidepressant medication after adjustments were made for important confounding factors. Of the studied CAs, child welfare intervention entailed highest HR for depression. Regardless of causality issues, children and youth with a history of multiple CA should be regarded as a high-risk group for depression by professionals in social, and health services that come into contact with this group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Early childhood adversity, toxic stress, and the role of the pediatrician: translating developmental science into lifelong health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Andrew S; Shonkoff, Jack P

    2012-01-01

    Advances in a wide range of biological, behavioral, and social sciences are expanding our understanding of how early environmental influences (the ecology) and genetic predispositions (the biologic program) affect learning capacities, adaptive behaviors, lifelong physical and mental health, and adult productivity. A supporting technical report from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) presents an integrated ecobiodevelopmental framework to assist in translating these dramatic advances in developmental science into improved health across the life span. Pediatricians are now armed with new information about the adverse effects of toxic stress on brain development, as well as a deeper understanding of the early life origins of many adult diseases. As trusted authorities in child health and development, pediatric providers must now complement the early identification of developmental concerns with a greater focus on those interventions and community investments that reduce external threats to healthy brain growth. To this end, AAP endorses a developing leadership role for the entire pediatric community-one that mobilizes the scientific expertise of both basic and clinical researchers, the family-centered care of the pediatric medical home, and the public influence of AAP and its state chapters-to catalyze fundamental change in early childhood policy and services. AAP is committed to leveraging science to inform the development of innovative strategies to reduce the precipitants of toxic stress in young children and to mitigate their negative effects on the course of development and health across the life span.

  20. The Feasibility of Using Large-Scale Text Mining to Detect Adverse Childhood Experiences in a VA-Treated Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Kenric W; Ben-Ari, Alon Y; Laundry, Ryan J; Boyko, Edward J; Samore, Matthew H

    2015-12-01

    Free text in electronic health records resists large-scale analysis. Text records facts of interest not found in encoded data, and text mining enables their retrieval and quantification. The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) clinical data repository affords an opportunity to apply text-mining methodology to study clinical questions in large populations. To assess the feasibility of text mining, investigation of the relationship between exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and recorded diagnoses was conducted among all VA-treated Gulf war veterans, utilizing all progress notes recorded from 2000-2011. Text processing extracted ACE exposures recorded among 44.7 million clinical notes belonging to 243,973 veterans. The relationship of ACE exposure to adult illnesses was analyzed using logistic regression. Bias considerations were assessed. ACE score was strongly associated with suicide attempts and serious mental disorders (ORs = 1.84 to 1.97), and less so with behaviorally mediated and somatic conditions (ORs = 1.02 to 1.36) per unit. Bias adjustments did not remove persistent associations between ACE score and most illnesses. Text mining to detect ACE exposure in a large population was feasible. Analysis of the relationship between ACE score and adult health conditions yielded patterns of association consistent with prior research.

  1. Prospective study of family adversity and maladaptive parenting in childhood and borderline personality disorder symptoms in a non-clinical population at 11 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsper, C; Zanarini, M; Wolke, D

    2012-11-01

    Retrospective studies have consistently indicated an association between maladaptive parenting and borderline personality disorder (BPD). This requires corroboration with prospective, longitudinal designs. We investigated the association between suboptimal parenting and parent conflict in childhood and BPD symptoms in late childhood using a prospective sample. A community sample of 6050 mothers and their children (born between April 1991 and December 1992) were assessed. Mothers' family adversity was assessed during pregnancy and parenting behaviours such as hitting, shouting, hostility and parent conflict across childhood. Intelligence quotient (IQ) and DSM-IV Axis I diagnoses were assessed at 7-8 years. Trained psychologists interviewed children at 11 years (mean age 11.74 years) to ascertain BPD symptoms. After adjustment for confounders, family adversity in pregnancy predicted BPD probable 1 to 2 adversities: odds ratio (OR)=1.34 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.77]; >2 adversities: OR 1.99 (95% CI 1.34-2.94) and definite 1 to 2 adversities: OR 2.48 (95% CI 1.01-6.08) symptoms. Each point increase in the suboptimal parenting index predicted BPD probable: OR 1.13 (95% CI 1.05-1.23) and definite: OR 1.28 (95% CI 1.03-1.60) symptoms. Parent conflict predicted BPD probable: OR 1.19 (95% CI 1.06-1.34) and definite: OR 1.42 (95% CI 1.06-1.91) symptoms. Within the path analysis, the association between suboptimal parenting and BPD outcome was partially mediated by DSM-IV diagnoses and IQ at 7-8 years. Children from adverse family backgrounds, who experience suboptimal parenting and more conflict between parents, have poor cognitive abilities and a DSM-IV diagnosis, are at increased risk of BPD symptoms at 11 years.

  2. Health-related quality of life in childhood epilepsy: Moving beyond 'seizure control with minimal adverse effects'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenbaum Peter

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Childhood epilepsy is one of the most important and prevalent neurological conditions in the developing years. Persons with childhood onset epilepsy are at a high risk for poor psychosocial outcomes, even without experiencing co-morbidities. The goal of management of children with epilepsy should be to enable the child and the family to lead a life as free as possible from the medical and psychosocial complications of epilepsy. This comprehensive care needs to go beyond simply trying to control seizures with minimal adverse drug reactions. Seizure frequency and severity is only one important outcome variable. Other factors such as social, psychological, behavioural, educational, and cultural dimensions of their lives affect children with epilepsy, their families and their close social networks. A number of epilepsy-specific health-related quality of life (HRQL scales for children have been developed with the aim to include and measure accurately the impact and burden of epilepsy. Their target populations, details of the origin of the items, and psychometric properties vary significantly. Their strengths and weaknesses will be identified more clearly through their continued use in the clinical setting and in research studies. Only a few studies to date have utilized these or generic HRQL measures to assess the HRQL of specific populations with epilepsy. Future research needs to develop theory driven models of HRQL and identify measurable factors that have important correlations with outcomes. Since biomedical variables like seizure frequency and severity have only moderate correlations with HRQL, other independent factors including the child's resilience, co-morbid conditions, parental well-being, family factors and societal/cultural variables may play a major role. We also need to learn what encompasses comprehensive patient care, define the goals of management and evaluate the impact of different interventions. Future studies need to

  3. Association between childhood adversities and long-term suicidality among South Africans from the results of the South African Stress and Health study: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Bruwer, Belinda; Govender, Ravi; Bishop, Melanie; Williams, David R.; Stein, Dan J.; Seedat, Soraya

    2014-01-01

    Objective Suicide and suicidal behaviours are significant public health problems and a leading cause of death worldwide and in South Africa. We examined the association between childhood adversities and suicidal behaviour over the life course. Methods A national probability sample of 4351 South African adult participants (aged 18 years and older) in the South African Stress and Health (SASH) study was interviewed as part of the World Mental Health Surveys initiative. Respondents provided soci...

  4. Association between childhood adversities and long-term suicidality among South Africans from the results of the South African Stress and Health study: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Bruwer, Belinda; Govender, Ravi; Bishop, Melanie; Williams, David R.; Stein, Dan J.; Seedat, Soraya

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Suicide and suicidal behaviours are significant public health problems and a leading cause of death worldwide and in South Africa. We examined the association between childhood adversities and suicidal behaviour over the life course. Methods: A national probability sample of 4351 South African adult participants (aged 18 years and older) in the South African Stress and Health (SASH) study was interviewed as part of the World Mental Health Surveys initiative. Respondents provided so...

  5. Type and timing of adverse childhood experiences differentially affect severity of PTSD, dissociative and depressive symptoms in adult inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalinski, Inga; Teicher, Martin H; Nischk, Daniel; Hinderer, Eva; Müller, Oliver; Rockstroh, Brigitte

    2016-08-19

    A dose-dependent effect of Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) on the course and severity of psychiatric disorders has been frequently reported. Recent evidence indicates additional impact of type and timing of distinct ACE on symptom severity experienced in adulthood, in support of stress-sensitive periods in (brain) development. The present study seeks to clarify the impact of ACE on symptoms that are often comorbid across various diagnostic groups: symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), shutdown dissociation and depression. A key aim was to determine and compare the importance of dose-dependent versus type and timing specific prediction of ACE on symptom levels. Exposure to ten types of maltreatment up to age 18 were retrospectively assessed in N = 129 psychiatric inpatients using the Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure (MACE). Symptoms of PTSD, shutdown dissociation, and depression were related to type and timing of ACE. The predictive power of peak types and timings was compared to that of global MACE measures of duration, multiplicity and overall severity. A dose-dependent effect (MACE duration, multiplicity and overall severity) on severity of all symptoms confirmed earlier findings. Conditioned random forest regression verified that PTSD symptoms were best predicted by overall ACE severity, whereas type and timing specific effects showed stronger prediction for symptoms of dissociation and depression. In particular, physical neglect at age 5 and emotional neglect at ages 4-5 were related to increased symptoms of dissociation, whereas the emotional neglect at age 8-9 enhanced symptoms of depression. In support of the sensitive period of exposure model, present results indicate augmented vulnerability by type x timing of ACE, in particular emphasizing pre-school (age 4-5) and pre-adolescent (8-9) periods as sensitive for the impact of physical and emotional neglect. PTSD, the most severe stress-related disorder, varies with the amount

  6. Culture as a mediator of gene-environment interaction: Cultural consonance, childhood adversity, a 2A serotonin receptor polymorphism, and depression in urban Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, William W; Balieiro, Mauro C; Ferreira de Araújo, Luiza; Silva, Wilson A; Ernesto Dos Santos, José

    2016-07-01

    Research on gene-environment interaction was facilitated by breakthroughs in molecular biology in the late 20th century, especially in the study of mental health. There is a reliable interaction between candidate genes for depression and childhood adversity in relation to mental health outcomes. The aim of this paper is to explore the role of culture in this process in an urban community in Brazil. The specific cultural factor examined is cultural consonance, or the degree to which individuals are able to successfully incorporate salient cultural models into their own beliefs and behaviors. It was hypothesized that cultural consonance in family life would mediate the interaction of genotype and childhood adversity. In a study of 402 adult Brazilians from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds, conducted from 2011 to 2014, the interaction of reported childhood adversity and a polymorphism in the 2A serotonin receptor was associated with higher depressive symptoms. Further analysis showed that the gene-environment interaction was mediated by cultural consonance in family life, and that these effects were more pronounced in lower social class neighborhoods. The findings reinforce the role of the serotonergic system in the regulation of stress response and learning and memory, and how these processes in turn interact with environmental events and circumstances. Furthermore, these results suggest that gene-environment interaction models should incorporate a wider range of environmental experience and more complex pathways to better understand how genes and the environment combine to influence mental health outcomes.

  7. Spanking and adult mental health impairment: The case for the designation of spanking as an adverse childhood experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O; Ford, Derek; Gershoff, Elizabeth T; Merrick, Melissa; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Ports, Katie A; MacMillan, Harriet L; Holden, George W; Taylor, Catherine A; Lee, Shawna J; Peters Bennett, Robbyn

    2017-01-23

    Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) such as child abuse are related to poor health outcomes. Spanking has indicated a similar association with health outcomes, but to date has not been considered an ACE. Physical and emotional abuse have been shown in previous research to correlate highly and may be similar in nature to spanking. To determine if spanking should be considered an ACE, this study aimed to examine 1): the grouping of spanking with physical and emotional abuse; and 2) if spanking has similar associations with poor adult health problems and accounts for additional model variance. Adult mental health problems included depressive affect, suicide attempts, moderate to heavy drinking, and street drug use. Data were from the CDC-Kaiser ACE study (N=8316, response rate=65%). Spanking loaded on the same factor as the physical and emotional abuse items. Additionally, spanking was associated with increased odds of suicide attempts (Adjusted Odds Ratios (AOR)=1.37; 95% CI=1.02 to1.86), moderate to heavy drinking (AOR)=1.23; 95% CI=1.07 to 1.41), and the use of street drugs (AOR)=1.32; 95% CI=1.4 to 1.52) in adulthood over and above experiencing physical and emotional abuse. This indicates spanking accounts for additional model variance and improves our understanding of these outcomes. Thus, spanking is empirically similar to physical and emotional abuse and including spanking with abuse adds to our understanding of these mental health problems. Spanking should also be considered an ACE and addressed in efforts to prevent violence.

  8. Relationships of Childhood Adverse Experiences With Mental Health and Quality of Life at Treatment Start for Adult Refugees Traumatized by Pre-Flight Experiences of War and Human Rights Violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opaas, Marianne; Varvin, Sverre

    2015-09-01

    Adverse and potentially traumatic experiences (PTEs) in childhood were examined among 54 adult refugee patients with pre-flight PTEs of war and human rights violations (HRVs) and related to mental health and quality of life at treatment start. Extent of childhood PTEs was more strongly related to mental health and quality of life than the extent of war and HRV experiences. Childhood PTEs were significantly related to arousal and avoidance symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and to quality of life, whereas pre-flight war and HRV experiences were significantly related to reexperiencing symptoms of PTSD only. Within childhood adversities, experiences of family violence and external violence, but not of loss and illness, were significantly related to increased mental health symptoms and reduced quality of life. These results point to the importance of taking childhood adverse experiences into account in research and treatment planning for adult refugees with war and HRVs trauma.

  9. The mediating sex-specific effect of psychological distress on the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and current smoking among adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Research suggests that ACEs have a long-term impact on the behavioral, emotional, and cognitive development of children. These disruptions can lead to adoption of unhealthy coping behaviors throughout the lifespan. The present study sought to examine psychological distress as a potential mediator of sex-specific associations between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and adult smoking. Method Data from 7,210 Kaiser-Permanente members in San Diego California collected between April and October 1997 were used. Results Among women, psychological distress mediated a significant portion of the association between ACEs and smoking (21% for emotional abuse, 16% for physical abuse, 15% for physical neglect, 10% for parental separation or divorce). Among men, the associations between ACEs and smoking were not significant. Conclusions These findings suggest that for women, current smoking cessation strategies may benefit from understanding the potential role of childhood trauma. PMID:22788356

  10. The mediating sex-specific effect of psychological distress on the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and current smoking among adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strine Tara W

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research suggests that ACEs have a long-term impact on the behavioral, emotional, and cognitive development of children. These disruptions can lead to adoption of unhealthy coping behaviors throughout the lifespan. The present study sought to examine psychological distress as a potential mediator of sex-specific associations between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs and adult smoking. Method Data from 7,210 Kaiser-Permanente members in San Diego California collected between April and October 1997 were used. Results Among women, psychological distress mediated a significant portion of the association between ACEs and smoking (21% for emotional abuse, 16% for physical abuse, 15% for physical neglect, 10% for parental separation or divorce. Among men, the associations between ACEs and smoking were not significant. Conclusions These findings suggest that for women, current smoking cessation strategies may benefit from understanding the potential role of childhood trauma.

  11. The specificity of childhood adversities and negative life events across the life span to anxiety and depressive disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinhoven, Philip; Elzinga, Bernet M.; Hovens, Jacqueline G. F. M.; Roelofs, Karin; Zitman, Frans G.; van Oppen, Patricia; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Although several studies have shown that life adversities play an important role in the etiology and maintenance of both depressive and anxiety disorders, little is known about the relative specificity of several types of life adversities to different forms of depressive and anxiety diso

  12. Are childhood and adult life adversities differentially associated with specific symptom dimensions of depression and anxiety? Testing the tripartite model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, T.; Wardenaar, K. J.; Carlier, I. V. E.; Spinhoven, P.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.; Zitman, F. G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Different types of adverse events may have general or specific effects on depression and anxiety symptomatology. We examined the effects of adversities on the dimensions of the tripartite model: general distress, anhedonic depression and anxious arousal. Methods: Data were from 2615 indi

  13. Are childhood and adult life adversities differentially associated with specific symptom dimensions of depression and anxiety? Testing the tripartite model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, T.; Wardenaar, K. J.; Carlier, I. V. E.; Spinhoven, P.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.; Zitman, F. G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Different types of adverse events may have general or specific effects on depression and anxiety symptomatology. We examined the effects of adversities on the dimensions of the tripartite model: general distress, anhedonic depression and anxious arousal. Methods: Data were from 2615

  14. Case-term Adverse Outcomes of Chronic Hepatitis C, Extrahepatic Manifestations of a Young Man Infected in Early Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Baramzina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present article discusses the clinical case of unfavorable course of chronic hepatitis C with the outcome of cirrhosis and development of extrahepatic manifestations of a young man of 20 years as a result of infection in early childhood.

  15. Epidemiology of trauma: Childhood adversities, neighborhood problems, discrimination, chronic strains, life events, and daily hassles among people with a severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Richard E; Ritter, Christian; Bonfine, Natalie

    2015-12-15

    Trauma during childhood and adolescence is a common event among people with a serious psychological disorder. Few studies assess a wide range of stressors for this population. This is surprising given that these stressful events are implicated in poorer outcomes related to course and treatment of mental health problems. This study of 214 people with serious mental illness examines the prevalence of childhood traumas, perceived neighborhood problems, discrimination, chronic strains, negative life events, and daily hassles. We use regression analyses to determine if these stressors are associated with quality of life. Results show that 95% of the sample report at least one childhood adversity. Perceived neighborhood problems, experiences of discrimination, chronic strains, life events, and daily hassles were also common. Examining the relationship between demographic factors and stressors suggests that older respondents, Whites, those who have never been married, and people diagnosed with Schizophrenia reported fewer stressors compared to those who are older, non-White, ever married, or suffering from other types of mental health problems. Finally, three of the six types of stressors were related to lower quality of life and depression. We discuss the implications of these findings for the treatment of severe psychological problems.

  16. Infectious, atopic and inflammatory diseases, childhood adversities and familial aggregation are independently associated with the risk for mental disorders: Results from a large Swiss epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Aleksandrowicz, Aleksandra; Rodgers, Stephanie; Mutsch, Margot; Tesic, Anja; Müller, Mario; Kawohl, Wolfram; Rössler, Wulf; Seifritz, Erich; Castelao, Enrique; Strippoli, Marie-Pierre F; Vandeleur, Caroline; von Känel, Roland; Paolicelli, Rosa; Landolt, Markus A; Witthauer, Cornelia; Lieb, Roselind; Preisig, Martin

    2016-12-22

    To examine the associations between mental disorders and infectious, atopic, inflammatory diseases while adjusting for other risk factors. We used data from PsyCoLaus, a large Swiss Population Cohort Study (n = 3720; age range 35-66). Lifetime diagnoses of mental disorders were grouped into the following categories: Neurodevelopmental, anxiety (early and late onset), mood and substance disorders. They were regressed on infectious, atopic and other inflammatory diseases adjusting for sex, educational level, familial aggregation, childhood adversities and traumatic experiences in childhood. A multivariate logistic regression was applied to each group of disorders. In a complementary analysis interactions with sex were introduced via nested effects. Associations with infectious, atopic and other chronic inflammatory diseases were observable together with consistent effects of childhood adversities and familial aggregation, and less consistent effects of trauma in each group of mental disorders. Streptococcal infections were associated with neurodevelopmental disorders (men), and measles/mumps/rubella-infections with early and late anxiety disorders (women). Gastric inflammatory diseases took effect in mood disorders (both sexes) and in early disorders (men). Similarly, irritable bowel syndrome was prominent in a sex-specific way in mood disorders in women, and, moreover, was associated with early and late anxiety disorders. Atopic diseases were associated with late anxiety disorders. Acne (associations with mood disorders in men) and psoriasis (associations with early anxiety disorders in men and mood disorders in women) contributed sex-specific results. Urinary tract infections were associated with mood disorders and, in addition, in a sex-specific way with late anxiety disorders (men), and neurodevelopmental and early anxiety disorders (women). Infectious, atopic and inflammatory diseases are important risk factors for all groups of mental disorders. The sexual

  17. The relationship between childhood adverse experiences and disability due to physical health problems in a community sample of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonmyr, Lil; Jamieson, Ellen; Mery, Leslie S; MacMillan, Harriet L

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the association of physical and sexual abuse in childhood, poverty, parental substance abuse problems and parental psychiatric problems with disability due to physical health problems in a community sample of women. We included 4,243 women aged 15-64 years from the Ontario Mental Health Supplement in the analysis. The associations were tested by multiple logistic regression. Ten percent of women had a disability due to physical health problems. Among women with a disability, approximately 40% had been abused while growing up. After controlling for income and age, disability showed the strongest association with childhood physical abuse, parental education less than high school and parental psychiatric disorder. The association with child sexual abuse was not significant. Given the high correlation between abuse and disability due to physical health problems, it is important to investigate approaches to identify women who are at increased risk of subsequent impairment.

  18. The combined effects of prenatal drug exposure and early adversity on neurobehavioral disinhibition in childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Philip A; Lester, Barry M; DeGarmo, David S; Lagasse, Linda L; Lin, Hai; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta S; Bauer, Charles R; Hammond, Jane; Whitaker, Toni; Higgins, Rosemary

    2011-08-01

    The negative effects of prenatal substance exposure on neurobiological and psychological development and of early adversity are clear, but little is known about their combined effects. In this study, multilevel analyses of the effects of prenatal substance exposure and early adversity on the emergence of neurobehavioral disinhibition in adolescence were conducted. Neurobehavioral disinhibition has previously been observed to occur frequently in multiproblem youth from high-risk backgrounds. In the present study, neurobehavioral disinhibition was assessed via behavioral dysregulation and poor executive function composite measures. Data were drawn from a prospective longitudinal investigation of prenatal substance exposure that included 1,073 participants followed from birth through adolescence. The results from latent growth modeling analyses showed mean stability but significant individual differences in behavioral dysregulation and mean decline with individual differences in executive function difficulties. Prior behavioral dysregulation predicted increased executive function difficulties. Prenatal drug use predicted the emergence and growth in neurobehavioral disinhibition across adolescence (directly for behavioral dysregulation and indirectly for executive function difficulties via early adversity and behavioral dysregulation). Prenatal drug use and early adversity exhibited unique effects on growth in behavioral dysregulation; early adversity uniquely predicted executive function difficulties. These results are discussed in terms of implications for theory development, social policy, and prevention science.

  19. Retrospective study on the adverse childhood experience among medical college student%医学生儿童期不良经历回顾性调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马金凤; 戴江红; 关素珍; 刘维; 刘继文

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the prevalence rate of different adverse childhood experience ( ACEs) among medical college students and its characteristics, and to provide evidence for the interventive measurements. Methods A total of 475 medical college students were chosen by stratified cluster sampling and investigated by ACEs questionnaire. Results The prevalence rate of total adverse childhood experiences among the medical college students was 77. 1% , it was higher than other study. The prevalence rate of different adverse childhood experiences among medical college students were not equal. The highest was the prevalence rate of emotional abuse (36. 2% ) , then were the prevalence rate of domestic violence (28. 2% ) and substance abusers (29. 5% ). The lowest was the prevalence rate of incarcerated household member(4. 4% ). The boys had higher report rates of e-motional abuse and emotional neglect than girls'; the minority students had a higher report rate of substance abusers in family than Han students'; the medicos from city had the highest report rate of family violence than those from other regions) P <0. 05 ). Conclusion The prevalence rate of different adverse childhood experiences among medical college students in Xinjiang Autonomous Region is high, especially the prevalence rate of emotional abuse, domestic violence and substance abusers.%目的 了解儿童期不良经历发生率及其特征,为采取相应的干预措施改善人群健康状况提供依据.方法 采用分层整群抽样方法,选取新疆某医科院校在校本科学生475名;采用问卷调查的方式对10种儿童期不良经历的发生情况进行调查.结果 医学生儿童期不良经历的报告率为77.1%,其中情感虐待报告率最高,为36.2%;家庭中有物质滥用者及家庭暴力报告率分别达到了29.5%和28.2%;家人中有犯罪者的报告率最低,为4.4%.男生情感虐待、情感忽视的报告率明显高于女生;家人中有物质滥用者的

  20. Association between serotonin cumulative genetic score and the Behavioral Approach System (BAS): Moderation by early life environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Rahel; McGeary, John E; Beevers, Christopher G

    2014-11-01

    The present study investigates if genetic variation in the serotonergic system interacts with early adversity to predict changes in the Behavioral Approach System (BAS), a system that taps into reward processing. In a sample of community adults (N= 236) the influence of single serotonergic candidate polymorphisms on BAS was analyzed, we also examined the aggregate contribution of these genetic variants by creating a Cumulative Genetic Score (CGS). A CGS quantifies an individual's cumulative risk by aggregating the number of risk alleles across the candidate polymorphisms. After individual gene analysis, three candidate genes rs7305115 (TPH2), rs6311 (HTR2A), and rs6295 (HTR1A) were combined into the CGS. There were no significant interactions between individual candidate polymorphisms and childhood adversity, but the CGS interacted with childhood adversity to explain a significant amount of variance (11.6%) in the BAS. Findings suggest that genetic variations in the serotonergic system in combination with childhood adversity contribute to individual differences in reward sensitivity.

  1. Brief Report: Examining the Association of Autism and Adverse Childhood Experiences in the National Survey of Children's Health: The Important Role of Income and Co-Occurring Mental Health Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, Connor Morrow; Newschaffer, Craig J.; Berkowitz, Steven; Lee, Brian K.

    2017-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are risk factors for mental and physical illness and more likely to occur for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The present study aimed to clarify the contribution of poverty, intellectual disability and mental health conditions to this disparity. Data on child and family characteristics, mental…

  2. [Adverse effects of the herd immunity or when childhood vaccination becomes deleterious for the epidemiology of infectious diseases in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Pierre-Olivier

    2011-03-01

    The irremediable ageing of the world population, the aged-related increasing in the prevalence of infectious diseases the fear of any influenza pandemic rife have recently led the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society (EUGMS) et the International Association of Geriatric and Gerontology European Regions (IAGG-ER) of establishing vaccine recommendations dedicated to individuals aged of 60 years or above and promoting a life-course vaccination programme. This approach is mainly motivated by the herd immunity-associated effect on the epidemiology of infectious diseases observed within the adult and old adult population. This review (1) after a presentation of the concept and its demonstrated beneficial effects; (2) will detail that herd immunity acts with adverse effects on the epidemiology of the infectious diseases in the adult and aged individual population; (3) in order to demonstrate that maintaining a vaccine pressure in every age groups is imperative.

  3. The Soft Cumulative Constraint

    CERN Document Server

    Petit, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    This research report presents an extension of Cumulative of Choco constraint solver, which is useful to encode over-constrained cumulative problems. This new global constraint uses sweep and task interval violation-based algorithms.

  4. Childhood trauma and childhood urbanicity in relation to psychotic disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frissen, Aleida; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Drukker, Marjan; van Winkel, Ruud; Delespaul, Philippe; Cahn, W

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urban upbringing and childhood trauma are both associated with psychotic disorders. However, the association between childhood urbanicity and childhood trauma in psychosis is poorly understood. The urban environment could occasion a background of social adversity against which any effect

  5. Sex and sexual orientation disparities in adverse childhood experiences and early age at sexual debut in the United States: results from a nationally representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Monique J; Masho, Saba W; Perera, Robert A; Mezuk, Briana; Cohen, Steven A

    2015-08-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to early sexual debut, which has been found to be associated with multiple adverse health outcomes. Sexual minorities and men tend to have earlier sexual debut compared to heterosexual populations and women, respectively. However, studies examining the association between ACEs and early sexual debut among men and sexual minorities are lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the sex and sexual orientation disparities in the association between ACEs and age at sexual debut. Data were obtained from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic and linear regression models were used to obtain crude and adjusted estimates and 95% confidence intervals adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, income, education, insurance and marital status for the association between ACEs (neglect, physical/psychological abuse, sexual abuse, parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology) and early sexual debut. Analyses were stratified by sex and sexual orientation. Larger effect estimates depicting the association between ACEs and sexual debut were seen for women compared to men, and among sexual minorities, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM) and women who have sex with women (WSW), compared to heterosexuals. Sexual health education programs with a focus on delaying sexual debut among children and adolescents should also consider addressing ACEs, such as neglect, physical, psychological and sexual abuse, witnessing parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology. Public health practitioners, researchers and sexual health education curriculum coordinators should consider these differences by sex and sexual orientation when designing these programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sex and sexual orientation disparities in adverse childhood experiences and early age at sexual debut in the United States: Results from a nationally representative sample☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Monique J.; Masho, Saba W.; Perera, Robert A.; Mezuk, Briana; Cohen, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to early sexual debut, which has been found to be associated with multiple adverse health outcomes. Sexual minorities and men tend to have earlier sexual debut compared to heterosexual populations and women, respectively. However, studies examining the association between ACEs and early sexual debut among men and sexual minorities are lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the sex and sexual orientation disparities in the association between ACEs and age at sexual debut. Data were obtained from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic and linear regression model were used to obtain crude and adjusted estimates and 95% confidence intervals adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, income, education, insurance and marital status for the association between ACEs (neglect, physical/psychological abuse, sexual abuse, parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology) and early sexual debut. Analyses were stratified by sex and sexual orientation. Larger effect estimates depicting the association between ACEs and sexual debut were seen for women compared to men, and among sexual minorities, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM) and women who have sex with women (WSW), compared to heterosexuals. Sexual health education programs with a focus on delaying sexual debut among children and adolescents should also consider addressing ACEs, such as neglect, physical, psychological and sexual abuse, witnessing parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology. Public health practitioners, researchers and sexual health education curriculum coordinators should consider these differences by sex and sexual orientation when designing these programs. PMID:25804435

  7. Childhood adversity, perceived discrimination, and coping strategies in relation to depressive symptoms among First Nations adults in Canada: The moderating role of unsupportive social interactions from ingroup and outgroup members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuaid, Robyn Jane; Bombay, Amy; McInnis, Opal Arilla; Matheson, Kimberly; Anisman, Hymie

    2015-07-01

    Aboriginal peoples are at greater risk of experiencing early life adversity relative to non-Aboriginal peoples in Canada, and as adults frequently experience high levels of discrimination that act as a further stressor. Although these factors appear to contribute to high rates of depressive disorders and suicidality in Aboriginal peoples, the psychosocial factors that contribute to the relationship between childhood adversity and the development of depressive symptoms have hardly been assessed in this group. The present investigation explored potential mediators to help explain the relation between childhood trauma and depressive symptoms among a sample of First Nations adults from across Canada. These mediated relationships were further examined in the context of unsupportive social interactions from ingroup and outgroup members. In Study 1, (N = 225), the relationship between childhood trauma and depression scores was mediated by perceived discrimination, and this was particularly notable in the presence of unsupportive relations with outgroup members. In Study 2, (N = 134) the relationship between childhood trauma and depressive symptoms was mediated by emotion-focused coping that was specific to coping with experiences of ethnic discrimination, and this mediated effect was moderated by both outgroup and ingroup unsupportive social interactions. Thus, it seems that experiences of discrimination and unsupport might contribute to depressive symptoms among First Nations adults who had experienced early life adverse events. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Are Specific Early-Life Adversities Associated With Specific Symptoms of Psychosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, Sophie; Bentall, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Epidemiological studies have suggested that there may be associations between specific adversities and specific psychotic symptoms. There is also evidence that beliefs about justice may play a role in paranoid symptoms. In this study, we determined whether these associations could be replicated in a patient sample and whether beliefs about a just world played a specific role in the relationship between adversity and paranoia. We examined associations between childhood trauma, belief in justice, and paranoia and hallucinatory experiences in 144 individuals: 72 individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia spectrum disorders and 72 comparison controls. There was a dose-response relationship between cumulative trauma and psychosis. When controlling for comorbidity between symptoms, childhood sexual abuse predicted hallucinatory experiences, and experiences of childhood emotional neglect predicted paranoia. The relationship between neglect and paranoia was mediated by a perception of personal injustice. The findings replicate in a patient sample previous observations from epidemiological research. PMID:27065105

  9. Cumulative cultural learning: Development and diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legare, Cristine H

    2017-07-24

    The complexity and variability of human culture is unmatched by any other species. Humans live in culturally constructed niches filled with artifacts, skills, beliefs, and practices that have been inherited, accumulated, and modified over generations. A causal account of the complexity of human culture must explain its distinguishing characteristics: It is cumulative and highly variable within and across populations. I propose that the psychological adaptations supporting cumulative cultural transmission are universal but are sufficiently flexible to support the acquisition of highly variable behavioral repertoires. This paper describes variation in the transmission practices (teaching) and acquisition strategies (imitation) that support cumulative cultural learning in childhood. Examining flexibility and variation in caregiver socialization and children's learning extends our understanding of evolution in living systems by providing insight into the psychological foundations of cumulative cultural transmission-the cornerstone of human cultural diversity.

  10. Adversities in childhood and adult psychopathology in the South Africa Stress and Health Study: associations with first-onset DSM-IV disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slopen, Natalie; Williams, David R; Seedat, Soraya; Moomal, Hashim; Herman, Allen; Stein, Dan J

    2010-11-01

    Extensive epidemiologic research from the United States demonstrates that childhood adversities (CAs) are predictive of several psychiatric outcomes, including depression, anxiety, substance abuse, and externalizing disorders. To date, this has not been explored in a national sample of adults in South Africa. The present study examined the joint predictive effects of 11 retrospectively reported CAs on the first onset of DSM-IV disorders in the South Africa Stress and Health Study (SASH), a nationally representative sample of adults. We utilized substantively plausible regression models of joint CA effects that account for the comorbidity between individual CAs; outcomes included DSM-IV anxiety disorders, mood disorders, substance use disorders, and externalizing disorders measured with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The results indicated that experiences of CA varied by race, and many CAs were correlated with one another. The best-fitting model for first onset of any disorder included separate indicators for each type of CA, in addition to indicator variables for the number of other CAs reported. Results disaggregated by class of disorder showed that the majority of CAs with significant odds ratios only predicted anxiety disorder. Results disaggregated by life course stage of first onset showed that significant effects of CAs can be observed at each stage of the life course. This study contributes to a growing body of research on the social determinants of mental health in South Africa. Our findings illustrate the importance of utilizing a model that accounts for the clustering and accumulation of CAs, and suggest that a variety of CAs predict onset of mental disorders, particularly anxiety disorders, at several stages of the life course.

  11. Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Violence Data LGB Suicidal Thoughts & Experiences Data LGB Youth Report School Violence Featured Topic: Opportunities for Action Featured Topic: Bullying Research Featured Topic: Prevent Gang Membership Featured Topic: ...

  12. Cumulative stress and autonomic dysregulation in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Rachel; Tuit, Keri; Hong, Kwang-Ik; Donovan, Theresa; Lee, Forrester; Sinha, Rajita

    2016-05-01

    Whether cumulative stress, including both chronic stress and adverse life events, is associated with decreased heart rate variability (HRV), a non-invasive measure of autonomic status which predicts poor cardiovascular outcomes, is unknown. Healthy community dwelling volunteers (N = 157, mean age 29 years) participated in the Cumulative Stress/Adversity Interview (CAI), a 140-item event interview measuring cumulative adversity including major life events, life trauma, recent life events and chronic stressors, and underwent 24-h ambulatory ECG monitoring. HRV was analyzed in the frequency domain and standard deviation of NN intervals (SDNN) calculated. Initial simple regression analyses revealed that total cumulative stress score, chronic stressors and cumulative adverse life events (CALE) were all inversely associated with ultra low-frequency (ULF), very low-frequency (VLF) and low-frequency (LF) power and SDNN (all p stress and chronic stress each was significantly associated with SDNN and ULF even after the highly significant contributions of age and sex, with no other covariates accounting for additional appreciable variance. For VLF and LF, both total cumulative stress and chronic stress significantly contributed to the variance alone but were not longer significant after adjusting for race and health behaviors. In summary, total cumulative stress, and its components of adverse life events and chronic stress were associated with decreased cardiac autonomic function as measured by HRV. Findings suggest one potential mechanism by which stress may exert adverse effects on mortality in healthy individuals. Primary preventive strategies including stress management may prove beneficial.

  13. Mismatch or cumulative stress : Toward an integrated hypothesis of programming effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhof, Esther; Schmidt, Mathias V.

    2012-01-01

    This paper integrates the cumulative stress hypothesis with the mismatch hypothesis, taking into account individual differences in sensitivity to programming. According to the cumulative stress hypothesis, individuals are more likely to suffer from disease as adversity accumulates. According to the

  14. Prioritizing Possibilities for Child and Family Health: An Agenda to Address Adverse Childhood Experiences and Foster the Social and Emotional Roots of Well-being in Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethell, Christina D; Solloway, Michele R; Guinosso, Stephanie; Hassink, Sandra; Srivastav, Aditi; Ford, David; Simpson, Lisa A

    A convergence of theoretical and empirical evidence across many scientific disciplines reveals unprecedented possibilities to advance much needed improvements in child and family well-being by addressing adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), promoting resilience, and fostering nurturance and the social and emotional roots of healthy child development and lifelong health. In this article we synthesize recommendations from a structured, multiyear field-building and research, policy, and practice agenda setting process to address these issues in children's health services. Between Spring of 2013 and Winter of 2017, the field-building and agenda-setting process directly engaged more than 500 individuals and comprised 79 distinct agenda-setting and field-building activities and processes, including: 4 in-person meetings; 4 online crowdsourcing rounds across 10 stakeholder groups; literature and environmental scans, publications documenting ACEs, resilience, and protective factors among US children, and commissioning of this special issue of Academic Pediatrics; 8 in-person listening forums and 31 educational sessions with stakeholders; and a range of action research efforts with emerging community efforts. Modified Delphi processes and grounded theory methods were used and iterative and structured synthesis of input was conducted to discern themes, priorities, and recommendations. Participants discerned that sufficient scientific findings support the formation of an applied child health services research and policy agenda. Four overarching priorities for the agenda emerged: 1) translate the science of ACEs, resilience, and nurturing relationships into children's health services; 2) cultivate the conditions for cross-sector collaboration to incentivize action and address structural inequalities; 3) restore and reward for promoting safe and nurturing relationships and full engagement of individuals, families, and communities to heal trauma, promote resilience, and prevent

  15. The relation between an adverse psychological and social environment in childhood and the development of adult obesity: a systematic literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vámosi, M; Heitmann, B L; Kyvik, K O

    2010-01-01

    weight children for later development of obesity. The purpose of this study was to systematically review current literature on associations between psychological factors in childhood and development of obesity in adulthood. A systematic search was conducted in three electronic databases MEDLINE...... disorders. In addition, depression in adolescence tended to be related to adult obesity but among young girls only. Learning difficulties and scholastic proficiencies below average were also risk factors. The current literature suggests that specific psychosocial factors in childhood may act as determinants...

  16. Cumulative fatigue damage models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgaw, Michael A.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of calculating expected component life under fatigue loading conditions is complicated by the fact that component loading histories contain, in many cases, cyclic loads of widely varying amplitudes. In such a case a cumulative damage model is required, in addition to a fatigue damage criterion, or life relationship, in order to compute the expected fatigue life. The traditional cumulative damage model used in design is the linear damage rule. This model, while being simple to use, can yield grossly unconservative results under certain loading conditions. Research at the NASA Lewis Research Center has led to the development of a nonlinear cumulative damage model, named the double damage curve approach (DDCA), that has greatly improved predictive capability. This model, which considers the life (or loading) level dependence of damage evolution, was applied successfully to two polycrystalline materials, 316 stainless steel and Haynes 188. The cumulative fatigue behavior of the PWA 1480 single-crystal material is currently being measured to determine the applicability of the DDCA for this material.

  17. Avoiding Program-Induced Cumulative Overload (PICO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Robin; Knapik, Joseph J; Pope, Rodney

    2016-01-01

    This article defines the concept of program-induced cumulative overload (PICO), provides examples, and advises ways to mitigate the adverse effects. PICO is the excessive cumulative physical workload that can be imparted to military personnel by a military training program with an embedded physical training component. PICO can be acute (accumulating within a single day) or chronic (accumulating across the entirety of the program) and results in adverse outcomes for affected personnel, including detrimental fatigue, performance degradation, injuries, or illness. Strategies to mitigate PICO include focusing administration and logistic practices during the development and ongoing management of a trainee program and implementing known musculoskeletal injury prevention strategies. More training is not always better, and trainers need to consider the total amount of physical activity that military personnel experience across both operational training and physical training if PICO is to be mitigated.

  18. Are Specific Early-Life Adversities Associated With Specific Symptoms of Psychosis?: A Patient Study Considering Just World Beliefs as a Mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, Sophie; Bentall, Richard

    2016-08-01

    Epidemiological studies have suggested that there may be associations between specific adversities and specific psychotic symptoms. There is also evidence that beliefs about justice may play a role in paranoid symptoms. In this study, we determined whether these associations could be replicated in a patient sample and whether beliefs about a just world played a specific role in the relationship between adversity and paranoia. We examined associations between childhood trauma, belief in justice, and paranoia and hallucinatory experiences in 144 individuals: 72 individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia spectrum disorders and 72 comparison controls. There was a dose-response relationship between cumulative trauma and psychosis. When controlling for comorbidity between symptoms, childhood sexual abuse predicted hallucinatory experiences, and experiences of childhood emotional neglect predicted paranoia. The relationship between neglect and paranoia was mediated by a perception of personal injustice. The findings replicate in a patient sample previous observations from epidemiological research.

  19. Cumulative Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders by Young Adulthood: A Prospective Cohort Analysis From the Great Smoky Mountains Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, William; Shanahan, Lilly; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Objective: No longitudinal studies beginning in childhood have estimated the cumulative prevalence of psychiatric illness from childhood into young adulthood. The objective of this study was to estimate the cumulative prevalence of psychiatric disorders by young adulthood and to assess how inclusion of not otherwise specified diagnoses affects…

  20. 医学生心理健康状况与儿童期不良经历的关系探讨%Study on the relationship between adult mental health status and adverse childhood experiences among medical college students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马金凤; 戴江红; 茹建国; 刘维; 刘继文

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the status of mental health and explore the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and adult mental health status among medical college students. Methods 475 medical college students were chosen by stratified cluster sampling and investigated by Symptom Checklist-90(SCL-90) and adverse childhood experiences ( ACEs) questionnaires. Results The prevalence rate of mental problem among the medical college students was 35. 58%. There were no statistical significant differences in the prevalence rates of mental problem under different background variables. Single factor analysis showed that the risk were adult mental problems in medical college students with physical abuse, emotional abuse and sex abuse in childhood were respectively 2.42 (95%CI:1.38-4.23) , 2.65(95%CI: 1.79-3.92) and 1. 66(95%CI:1. 07-2. 58)times than the ones without such experiences; The risk of adult mental problems in medical college students whose family had domestic violence or who had families with substance abuse experience in childhood were respectively 1. 97 ( 95% CI; 1. 31-2. 96) and 1. 69 (95%CI:1. 13-2. 54)times than the ones without such experiences. Logistic regression analysis showed that adverse childhood experiences increased risk for adult mental problems, with adjusted odds ratios from 1. 89 to 6. 97. Conclusions Different adverse childhood experiences are important risk factors for adult mental problems. Adverse childhood experiences are important risk factors for adult mental problems and they should not be ignored in preventing from psychological disorders and keeping mental health of them.%目的 了解医学生的心理健康状况及其人口学特征,探讨其与儿童期不良经历之间的关系,为进一步研究并开展有效的预防和治疗心理状况问题提供依据.方法 采用症状自评量表(symptom checklist90,SCL-90)和儿童期不良经历(adverse childhood experiences,ACEs)量表,使用分层整群抽样的方法,对475

  1. Latino Mothers' Cumulative Food Insecurity Exposure and Child Body Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Daphne C

    2016-01-01

    To document whether an intergenerational transmission of food insecurity is occurring by assessing low-income foreign-born Latino mothers' experiences with food insecurity as none, once (either childhood or adulthood) or twice (during both childhood and adulthood). Also the association between maternal cumulative food insecurity and children's body composition was examined. Maternal self-reported surveys on retrospective measures of food insecurity during childhood, current measures of food insecurity, and demographics were collected from Houston-area community centers (N = 96). Children's body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were directly assessed. Covariate-adjusted logistic regression models analyzed the association between cumulative food insecurity experiences and children's body composition. Fifty-eight percent of mothers experienced food insecurity both as a child and as an adult and 31% of the mothers experienced food insecurity either as a child or adult. Maternal cumulative exposure to food insecurity was unrelated to BMI but was negatively related to elevated WC. Although an intergenerational transmission of food insecurity does exist, maternal cumulative exposure to food insecurity does not impact children's body composition negatively in the short term. Studying the long-term effects of cumulative food insecurity exposure can provide information for the development and timing of obesity interventions.

  2. Cumulative Timers for Microprocessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battle, John O.

    2007-01-01

    It has been proposed to equip future microprocessors with electronic cumulative timers, for essentially the same reasons for which land vehicles are equipped with odometers (total-distance-traveled meters) and aircraft are equipped with Hobbs meters (total-engine-operating time meters). Heretofore, there has been no way to determine the amount of use to which a microprocessor (or a product containing a microprocessor) has been subjected. The proposed timers would count all microprocessor clock cycles and could only be read by means of microprocessor instructions but, like odometers and Hobbs meters, could never be reset to zero without physically damaging the chip.

  3. Cumulative Vehicle Routing Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Kara, &#;mdat; Kara, Bahar Yeti&#;; Yeti&#;, M. Kadri

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a new objective function and corresponding formulations for the vehicle routing problem. The new cost function defined as the product of the distance of the arc and the flow on that arc. We call a vehicle routing problem with this new objective function as the Cumulative Vehicle Routing Problem (CumVRP). Integer programming formulations with O(n2) binary variables and O(n2) constraints are developed for both collection and delivery cases. We show that the CumVRP is a gener...

  4. Lifecourse adversity and physical performance across countries among men and women aged 65-74.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Patrício de Albuquerque Sousa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study examines the associations between lifecourse adversity and physical performance in old age in different societies of North and South America and Europe. METHODS: We used data from the baseline survey of the International Study of Mobility in Aging, conducted in: Kingston (Canada, Saint-Hyacinthe (Canada, Natal (Brazil, Manizales (Colombia and Tirana (Albania. The study population was composed of community dwelling people between 65 and 74 years of age, recruiting 200 men and 200 women at each site. Physical Performance was assessed with the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB. Economic and social adversity was estimated from childhood adverse events, low education, semi-skilled occupations during adulthood and living alone and insufficient income in old age. RESULTS: A total of 1995 people were assessed. Low physical performance was associated with childhood social and economic adversity, semi-skilled occupations, living alone and insufficient income. Physical performance was lower in participants living in Colombia, Brazil and Albania than in Canada counterparts, despite adjustment for lifecourse adversity, age and sex. CONCLUSIONS: We show evidence of the early origins of social and economic inequalities in physical performance during old age in distinct populations and for the independent and cumulative disadvantage of low socioeconomic status during adulthood and poverty and living alone in later life.

  5. Clarifying Associations between Childhood Adversity, Social Support, Behavioral Factors, and Mental Health, Health, and Well-Being in Adulthood: A Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Mashhood A.; Abelsen, Birgit; Olsen, Jan A.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that socio-demographic factors, childhood socioeconomic status (CSES), childhood traumatic experiences (CTEs), social support and behavioral factors are associated with health and well-being in adulthood. However, the relative importance of these factors for mental health, health, and well-being has not been studied. Moreover, the mechanisms by which CTEs affect mental health, health, and well-being in adulthood are not clear. Using data from a representative sample (n = 12,981) of the adult population in Tromsø, Norway, this study examines (i) the relative contribution of structural conditions (gender, age, CSES, psychological abuse, physical abuse, and substance abuse distress) to social support and behavioral factors in adulthood; (ii) the relative contribution of socio-demographic factors, CSES, CTEs, social support, and behavioral factors to three multi-item instruments of mental health (SCL-10), health (EQ-5D), and subjective well-being (SWLS) in adulthood; (iii) the impact of CTEs on mental health, health, and well-being in adulthood, and; (iv) the mediating role of adult social support and behavioral factors in these associations. Instrumental support (24.16%, p factors mediate 11–18% (p < 0.01) of these effects. The study advances the theoretical understanding of how CTEs influence adult mental health, health, and well-being. PMID:27252668

  6. Clarifying associations between childhood adversity, social support, behavioral factors, and mental health, health, and well-being in adulthood: A population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashhood Ahmed Sheikh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that socio-demographic factors, childhood socioeconomic status (CSES, childhood traumatic experiences (CTEs, social support and behavioural factors are associated with health and well-being in adulthood. However, the relative importance of these factors for mental health, health, and well-being has not been studied. Moreover, the mechanisms by which CTEs affect mental health, health, and well-being in adulthood are not clear. Using data from a representative sample (n=12,981 of the adult population in Tromsø, Norway, this study examines (i the relative contribution of structural conditions (gender, age, CSES, psychological abuse, physical abuse, and substance abuse distress to social support and behavioural factors in adulthood ; (ii the relative contribution of socio-demographic factors, CSES, CTEs, social support, and behavioural factors to three multi-item instruments of mental health (SCL-10, health (EQ-5D, and subjective well-being (SWLS in adulthood; (iii the impact of CTEs on mental health, health, and well-being in adulthood, and; (iv the mediating role of adult social support and behavioural factors in these associations. Instrumental support (24.16%, p<0.001 explained most of the variation in mental health, while gender (21.32%, p<0.001 explained most of the variation in health, and emotional support (23.34%, p<0.001 explained most of the variation in well-being. Psychological abuse was relatively more important for mental health (12.13%, health (7.01%, and well-being (9.09%, as compared to physical abuse, and substance abuse distress. The subjective assessment of childhood financial conditions was relatively more important for mental health (6.02%, health (10.60%, and well-being (20.60%, as compared to mother’s and father’s education. CTEs were relatively more important for mental health, while, CSES was relatively more important for health and well-being. Respondents exposed to all three types of CTEs

  7. Clarifying Associations between Childhood Adversity, Social Support, Behavioral Factors, and Mental Health, Health, and Well-Being in Adulthood: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Mashhood A; Abelsen, Birgit; Olsen, Jan A

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that socio-demographic factors, childhood socioeconomic status (CSES), childhood traumatic experiences (CTEs), social support and behavioral factors are associated with health and well-being in adulthood. However, the relative importance of these factors for mental health, health, and well-being has not been studied. Moreover, the mechanisms by which CTEs affect mental health, health, and well-being in adulthood are not clear. Using data from a representative sample (n = 12,981) of the adult population in Tromsø, Norway, this study examines (i) the relative contribution of structural conditions (gender, age, CSES, psychological abuse, physical abuse, and substance abuse distress) to social support and behavioral factors in adulthood; (ii) the relative contribution of socio-demographic factors, CSES, CTEs, social support, and behavioral factors to three multi-item instruments of mental health (SCL-10), health (EQ-5D), and subjective well-being (SWLS) in adulthood; (iii) the impact of CTEs on mental health, health, and well-being in adulthood, and; (iv) the mediating role of adult social support and behavioral factors in these associations. Instrumental support (24.16%, p childhood financial conditions was relatively more important for mental health (6.02%), health (10.60%), and well-being (20.60%), as compared to mother's and father's education. CTEs were relatively more important for mental health, while, CSES was relatively more important for health and well-being. Respondents exposed to all three types of CTEs had a more than two-fold increased risk of being mentally unhealthy (RR Total Effect = 2.75, 95% CI: 2.19-3.10), an 89% increased risk of being unhealthy (RR Total Effect = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.47-1.99), and a 42% increased risk of having a low level of well-being in adulthood (RR Total Effect = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.29-1.52). Social support and behavioral factors mediate 11-18% (p < 0.01) of these effects. The study advances the

  8. Cumulative environmental effects. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This report presents a compilation of knowledge about the state of the environment and human activity in the Norwegian part of the North Sea and Skagerrak. The report gives an overview of pressures and impacts on the environment from normal activity and in the event of accidents. This is used to assess the cumulative environmental effects, which factors have most impact and where the impacts are greatest, and to indicate which problems are expected to be most serious in the future. The report is intended to provide relevant information that can be used in the management of the marine area in the future. It also provides input for the identification of environmental targets and management measures for the North Sea and Skagerrak.(Author)

  9. 童年期逆境经历、人格特征与成年男性酒精依赖的关系%Association between adverse childhood experiences, personality characteristics and male alcohol depen-dence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘增训; 史振春; 曹枫林

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the correlation between adverse childhood experiences, personality characteris⁃tics and alcohol dependence. Methods A total of 102 patients with alcohol-dependence (Patients group) and 106 volun⁃teers (control group) were rated by the adverse childhood experience scale (ACEs) and the big five personality scale (BFP). Results The prevalence of ACEs are significant higher in patients group than in control group, especially regard⁃ing emotional abuse, physical neglect, witness violence and substance abuse. The patients group has lower scores of de⁃light, conscientiousness and higher scores of psychoticism. Psychoticism and parents abuse alcohol in childhood were the risk factors of alcohol dependence. Conclusions There is a correlation between alcohol dependence with their ACEs, per⁃sonality characteristics and parents abused substance. The psychoticism increase the risk of alcohol dependence.%目的:探讨童年期逆境经历、人格特征与成年男性酒精依赖的关系。方法应用童年期逆境问卷(adverse childhood experience scale,ACEs)及大五人格问卷(big five personality,BFP),对103例酒精依赖患者(患者组)及106名健康志愿者(对照组)进行童年期逆境经历及人格特征的评估,比较两组间的差异。结果患者组中经历高童年期逆境者构成比为42.2%,高于对照组的16.0%(P<0.01);其中患者组的情感虐待、躯体忽视、目击暴力和物质滥用的发生率高于对照组(均P<0.05)。在人格特征方面,患者组在宜人性、尽责性维度得分低于对照组(均P<0.01),神经质维度得分高于对照组(P<0.01)。多因素Logistic回归分析示,家庭成员物质滥用(OR=8.397,95%CI:3.022~23.328)及人格特征中神经质维度(OR=1.135,95%CI:1.052~1.224)与酒精依赖有关联(P<0.01)。结论童年期逆境经历、人格特征与酒精依赖之间存在一定关系,童年期

  10. UBIQUITOUS POLLUTANTS FROM CUMULATIVE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPS) as environmental pollutants is a multifaceted issue whose scope continues to become better delineated since the escalation of concerted attention beginning in the 1980s. PPCPs typically occur as trace environmental pollutants (primarily in surface but also in ground waters) as a result of their widespread, continuous, combined usage in a broad range of human and veterinary therapeutic activities and practices. With respect to the risk-assessment paradigm, the growing body of published work has focused primarily on the origin and occurrence of these substances. Comparatively less is known about human and ecological exposure, and even less about the known or even potential hazards associated with exposure to these anthropogenic substances, many of which are highly bioactive. The continually growing, worldwide importance of freshwater resources underscores the need for ensuring that any aggregate or cumulative impacts on water supplies and resultant potential for human or ecological exposure be minimized. This has prompted the more recent investigations on waste treatment processes for one of the major sources of environmental disposition, namely sewage. Despite the paucity of health effects data for long-term, simultaneous exposure to multiple xenobiotics (particularly PPCPS) at low doses (a major toxicological issue that can be described by the

  11. Absence of Fluoride Varnish–Related Adverse Events in Caries Prevention Trials in Young Children, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorich, Steven E.; Ramos-Gomez, Francisco; Braun, Patricia A.; Wilson, Anne; Albino, Judith; Tiwari, Tamanna; Harper, Maya; Batliner, Terrence S.; Rasmussen, Margaret; Cheng, Nancy F.; Santo, William; Geltman, Paul L.; Henshaw, Michelle; Gansky, Stuart A.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Fluoride varnish is an effective prevention intervention for caries in young children. Its routine use in clinical care is supported by meta-analyses and recommended by clinical guidelines, including the US Preventive Services Task Force (B rating). This report is the first prospective systematic assessment of adverse events related to fluoride varnish treatment in young children. Methods We determined the incidence of adverse events related to fluoride varnish treatment in 3 clinical trials on the prevention of early childhood caries, conducted under the auspices of the Early Childhood Caries Collaborating Centers, an initiative sponsored by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research. Each trial incorporated use of fluoride varnish in its protocol and systematically queried all children’s parents or legal guardians about the occurrence of acute adverse events after each fluoride varnish treatment. Results A total of 2,424 community-dwelling, dentate children aged 0 to 5 years were enrolled and followed for up to 3 years. These children received a cumulative total of 10,249 fluoride varnish treatments. On average, each child received 4.2 fluoride varnish treatments. We found zero fluoride varnish–related adverse events. Conclusion Fluoride varnish was not associated with treatment-related adverse events in young children. Our findings support its safety as an effective prevention intervention for caries in young children. PMID:28207379

  12. Absence of Fluoride Varnish-Related Adverse Events in Caries Prevention Trials in Young Children, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Raul I; Gregorich, Steven E; Ramos-Gomez, Francisco; Braun, Patricia A; Wilson, Anne; Albino, Judith; Tiwari, Tamanna; Harper, Maya; Batliner, Terrence S; Rasmussen, Margaret; Cheng, Nancy F; Santo, William; Geltman, Paul L; Henshaw, Michelle; Gansky, Stuart A

    2017-02-16

    Fluoride varnish is an effective prevention intervention for caries in young children. Its routine use in clinical care is supported by meta-analyses and recommended by clinical guidelines, including the US Preventive Services Task Force (B rating). This report is the first prospective systematic assessment of adverse events related to fluoride varnish treatment in young children. We determined the incidence of adverse events related to fluoride varnish treatment in 3 clinical trials on the prevention of early childhood caries, conducted under the auspices of the Early Childhood Caries Collaborating Centers, an initiative sponsored by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research. Each trial incorporated use of fluoride varnish in its protocol and systematically queried all children's parents or legal guardians about the occurrence of acute adverse events after each fluoride varnish treatment. A total of 2,424 community-dwelling, dentate children aged 0 to 5 years were enrolled and followed for up to 3 years. These children received a cumulative total of 10,249 fluoride varnish treatments. On average, each child received 4.2 fluoride varnish treatments. We found zero fluoride varnish-related adverse events. Fluoride varnish was not associated with treatment-related adverse events in young children. Our findings support its safety as an effective prevention intervention for caries in young children.

  13. Long-term survivors of childhood Ewing sarcoma: report from the childhood cancer survivor study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Jill P; Goodman, Pamela; Leisenring, Wendy; Ness, Kirsten K; Meyers, Paul A; Wolden, Suzanne L; Smith, Stephanie M; Stovall, Marilyn; Hammond, Sue; Robison, Leslie L; Oeffinger, Kevin C

    2010-08-18

    The survival of Ewing sarcoma (ES) patients has improved since the 1970s but is associated with considerable future health risks. The study population consisted of long-term (> or =5-year) survivors of childhood ES diagnosed before age 21 from 1970 to 1986. Cause-specific mortality was evaluated in eligible survivors (n = 568), and subsequent malignant neoplasms, chronic health conditions, infertility, and health status were evaluated in the subset participating in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (n = 403). Outcomes were compared with the US population and sibling control subjects (n = 3899). Logistic, Poisson, or Cox proportional hazards models, with adjustments for sex, age, race/ethnicity, and potential intrafamily correlation, were used. Statistical tests were two-sided. Cumulative mortality of ES survivors was 25.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 21.1 to 28.9) 25 years after diagnosis. The all-cause standardized mortality ratio was 13.3 (95% CI = 11.2 to 15.8) overall, 23.1 (95% CI = 17.6 to 29.7) for women, and 10.0 (95% CI = 7.9 to 12.5) for men. The nonrecurrence-progression non-external cause standardized mortality ratio (subsequent non-ES malignant neoplasms and cardiac and pulmonary causes potentially attributable to ES treatment) was 8.7 (95% CI = 6.2 to 12.0). Twenty-five years after ES diagnosis, cumulative incidence of subsequent malignant neoplasms, excluding nonmelanoma skin cancers, was 9.0% (95% CI = 5.8 to 12.2). Compared with siblings, survivors had an increased risk of severe, life-threatening, or disabling chronic health conditions (relative risk = 6.0, 95% CI = 4.1 to 9.0). Survivors had lower fertility rates (women: P = .005; men: P < .001) and higher rates of moderate to extreme adverse health status (P < .001). Long-term survivors of childhood ES exhibit excess mortality and morbidity.

  14. Childhood obesity and prevention approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Dilek Yildiz; Berna Eren Fidanci; Derya Suluhan

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity has increased dramatically during the past two decades. The growing incidence of childhood obesity is alarming, given the significant short and long term health problems associated with obesity. Being overweight or obese may increase the rate of non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in adulthood. It may contribute to shortening life expectancy and adversely affects the quality of life. Therefore, it is important to prevent childhood obe...

  15. Adverse family experiences and obesity in children and adolescents in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Brian A; Agunwamba, Amenah; Wilson, Patrick M; Kumar, Seema; Jacobson, Robert M; Phelan, Sean; Cristiani, Valeria; Fan, Chun; Finney Rutten, Lila J

    2016-09-01

    While exposure to adverse family experiences (AFEs), subset of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), has been associated with childhood obesity, less is known about the impact of exposures to each type of AFE. Using 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health data, we evaluated associations between exposure to individual AFEs and overweight/obesity status in children 10years or older, adjusting for socio-demographic factors. Caregivers reported their child's height, weight, and exposure to nine AFEs; body mass index (BMI) was classified by Center for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) guidelines. At Mayo Clinic, we calculated frequencies and weighted estimates of socio-demographic factors and AFEs. Unadjusted and adjusted weighted multinomial logistic regression models were employed to assess the independent associations of each AFE and the different AFE composite scores with BMI category. Exposure to two or more AFEs was independently associated with increased odds of overweight (odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13, 1.56) and obese (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.21, 1.73) status after adjustment for age, household income, parents' education-level, race and sex. Death of parent (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.18, 2.15) and hardship due to family income (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.06, 1.50) were independently associated with obesity status with adjustment for other AFEs and socio-demographic factors. Our results suggest that, in addition to cumulative exposure to AFEs, exposure to certain childhood experiences are more strongly associated with childhood obesity than others. Death of parent and hardship due to family income are individual AFEs, which are strongly predictive of obesity.

  16. Childhood trauma and chronic illness in adulthood: mental health and socioeconomic status as explanatory factors and buffers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven E Mock

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiences of traumatic events in childhood have been shown to have long-term consequences for health in adulthood. With data from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey we take a life course perspective of cumulative disadvantage and examine the potential role of mental health and socioeconomic status in adulthood as multiple mediators of the link between childhood trauma and chronic illness in adulthood. Mental health and socioeconomic status are also tested as buffers against the typically adverse consequences of childhood trauma. The results suggest mental health and socioeconomic status partially explain the association of childhood trauma with chronic illness in adulthood, with mental health showing a stronger effect. In addition, an analysis of the interactions suggested higher socioeconomic status is a potential protective factor for those with a history of trauma. Results also suggest cumulative disadvantage following trauma may lead to chronic illness and suggest the need for public health expenditures on resources such as counseling and income supports to prevent or reduce psychological harm and chronic illness resulting from traumatic events.

  17. Cumulant expansions for atmospheric flows

    CERN Document Server

    Ait-Chaalal, Farid; Meyer, Bettina; Marston, J B

    2015-01-01

    The equations governing atmospheric flows are nonlinear, and consequently the hierarchy of cumulant equations is not closed. But because atmospheric flows are inhomogeneous and anisotropic, the nonlinearity may manifests itself only weakly through interactions of mean fields with disturbances such as thermals or eddies. In such situations, truncations of the hierarchy of cumulant equations hold promise as a closure strategy. We review how truncations at second order can be used to model and elucidate the dynamics of turbulent atmospheric flows. Two examples are considered. First, we study the growth of a dry convective boundary layer, which is heated from below, leading to turbulent upward energy transport and growth of the boundary layer. We demonstrate that a quasilinear truncation of the equations of motion, in which interactions of disturbances among each other are neglected but interactions with mean fields are taken into account, can successfully capture the growth of the convective boundary layer. Seco...

  18. Electro-cumulation CNF project

    CERN Document Server

    Grishin, V G

    2000-01-01

    bound or free ion current within solid substances; non-plain symmetry; cumulation of the ion interaction. Experimental result: an Ice SuperPolarization. Cold nuclear fusion ? At http://www.shortway.to/to2084 . Keywords: ion, current, solid, symmetry, cumulation, cold nuclear fusion, polarization, depolarization, ionic conductor, superionic conductor, ice, crystal, strain, V-center, V-centre, doped crystal, interstitial impurity, intrinsic color center, high pressure technology, Bridgman, experiment, crowdion, dielectric, proton, layer, defect, lattice, dynamics, electromigration, mobility, muon catalysis, concentration, doping, dopant, conductivity, pycnonuclear reaction, permittivity, dielectric constant, point defects, interstitials, polarizability, imperfection, defect centers, glass, epitaxy, sodium hydroxide, metallic substrate, crystallization, point, tip, susceptibility, ferroelectric, ordering, force, correlation, collective, shift, distortion, coalescence, crowdions, electrolysis.

  19. Cumulative Paired φ-Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo Klein

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A new kind of entropy will be introduced which generalizes both the differential entropy and the cumulative (residual entropy. The generalization is twofold. First, we simultaneously define the entropy for cumulative distribution functions (cdfs and survivor functions (sfs, instead of defining it separately for densities, cdfs, or sfs. Secondly, we consider a general “entropy generating function” φ, the same way Burbea et al. (IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 1982, 28, 489–495 and Liese et al. (Convex Statistical Distances; Teubner-Verlag, 1987 did in the context of φ-divergences. Combining the ideas of φ-entropy and cumulative entropy leads to the new “cumulative paired φ-entropy” ( C P E φ . This new entropy has already been discussed in at least four scientific disciplines, be it with certain modifications or simplifications. In the fuzzy set theory, for example, cumulative paired φ-entropies were defined for membership functions, whereas in uncertainty and reliability theories some variations of C P E φ were recently considered as measures of information. With a single exception, the discussions in the scientific disciplines appear to be held independently of each other. We consider C P E φ for continuous cdfs and show that C P E φ is rather a measure of dispersion than a measure of information. In the first place, this will be demonstrated by deriving an upper bound which is determined by the standard deviation and by solving the maximum entropy problem under the restriction of a fixed variance. Next, this paper specifically shows that C P E φ satisfies the axioms of a dispersion measure. The corresponding dispersion functional can easily be estimated by an L-estimator, containing all its known asymptotic properties. C P E φ is the basis for several related concepts like mutual φ-information, φ-correlation, and φ-regression, which generalize Gini correlation and Gini regression. In addition, linear rank tests for scale that

  20. Interactive Contributions of Cumulative Peer Stress and Executive Function Deficits to Depression in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agoston, Anna M.; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to peer stress contributes to adolescent depression, yet not all youth experience these effects. Thus, it is important to identify individual differences that shape the consequences of peer stress. This research investigated the interactive contribution of cumulative peer stress during childhood (second-fifth grades) and executive…

  1. Interactive Contributions of Cumulative Peer Stress and Executive Function Deficits to Depression in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agoston, Anna M.; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to peer stress contributes to adolescent depression, yet not all youth experience these effects. Thus, it is important to identify individual differences that shape the consequences of peer stress. This research investigated the interactive contribution of cumulative peer stress during childhood (second-fifth grades) and executive…

  2. Associations between parenting, media use, cumulative risk, and children’s executive functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linebarger, D.L.; Barr, R.; Lapierre, M.A.; Piotrowski, J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to examine how parenting style, media exposure, and cumulative risk were associated with executive functioning (EF) during early childhood. Methods: A nationally representative group of US parents/caregivers (N = 1156) with 1 child between 2 and 8 years

  3. Parenting intervention and the caregiving environment : cumulative risk and process evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, Mirjam Neeltje

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the research described in this thesis was to study single and cumulative family risk in relation to early childhood externalizing problems and the effectiveness of a parenting intervention program. The Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting and Sensitive Disciplin

  4. Associations between parenting, media use, cumulative risk, and children’s executive functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.L. Linebarger; R. Barr; M.A. Lapierre; J. Piotrowski

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to examine how parenting style, media exposure, and cumulative risk were associated with executive functioning (EF) during early childhood. Methods: A nationally representative group of US parents/caregivers (N = 1156) with 1 child between 2 and 8 years participate

  5. The Algebra of the Cumulative Percent Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Andrew J.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to help students avoid some pervasive reasoning errors in solving cumulative percent problems. Discusses the meaning of ."%+b%." the additive inverse of ."%." and other useful applications. Emphasizes the operational aspect of the cumulative percent concept. (KHR)

  6. Adaptive strategies for cumulative cultural learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehn, Micael; Laland, Kevin

    2012-05-21

    The demographic and ecological success of our species is frequently attributed to our capacity for cumulative culture. However, it is not yet known how humans combine social and asocial learning to generate effective strategies for learning in a cumulative cultural context. Here we explore how cumulative culture influences the relative merits of various pure and conditional learning strategies, including pure asocial and social learning, critical social learning, conditional social learning and individual refiner strategies. We replicate the Rogers' paradox in the cumulative setting. However, our analysis suggests that strategies that resolved Rogers' paradox in a non-cumulative setting may not necessarily evolve in a cumulative setting, thus different strategies will optimize cumulative and non-cumulative cultural learning.

  7. "Buddha's Light" of Cumulative Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Kopeliovich, Vladimir B; Potashnikova, Irina K

    2014-01-01

    We show analytically that in the cumulative particles production off nuclei multiple interactions lead to a glory-like backward focusing effect. Employing the small phase space method we arrived at a characteristic angular dependence of the production cross section $d\\sigma \\sim 1/ \\sqrt {\\pi - \\theta}$ near the strictly backward direction. This effect takes place for any number $n\\geq 3 $ of interactions of rescattered particle, either elastic or inelastic (with resonance excitations in intermediate states), when the final particle is produced near corresponding kinematical boundary. Such a behaviour of the cross section near the backward direction is in qualitative agreement with some of available data.

  8. A Resource Cost Aware Cumulative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonis, Helmut; Hadzic, Tarik

    We motivate and introduce an extension of the well-known cumulative constraint which deals with time and volume dependent cost of resources. Our research is primarily interested in scheduling problems under time and volume variable electricity costs, but the constraint equally applies to manpower scheduling when hourly rates differ over time and/or extra personnel incur higher hourly rates. We present a number of possible lower bounds on the cost, including a min-cost flow, different LP and MIP models, as well as greedy algorithms, and provide a theoretical and experimental comparison of the different methods.

  9. The Public Health Burden of Early Adversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlueter, Lisa J.; Watamura, Sarah Enos

    2017-01-01

    Severe and chronic stress in early childhood has enormous physical and mental health costs across an individual's lifespan. Unfortunately, exposure to early life adversity is common, and costs accrue to individuals and society. This article highlights several promising approaches to buffer children from the negative health consequences associated…

  10. The Public Health Burden of Early Adversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlueter, Lisa J.; Watamura, Sarah Enos

    2017-01-01

    Severe and chronic stress in early childhood has enormous physical and mental health costs across an individual's lifespan. Unfortunately, exposure to early life adversity is common, and costs accrue to individuals and society. This article highlights several promising approaches to buffer children from the negative health consequences associated…

  11. A paradox of cumulative culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yutaka; Wakano, Joe Yuichiro; Ohtsuki, Hisashi

    2015-08-21

    Culture can grow cumulatively if socially learnt behaviors are improved by individual learning before being passed on to the next generation. Previous authors showed that this kind of learning strategy is unlikely to be evolutionarily stable in the presence of a trade-off between learning and reproduction. This is because culture is a public good that is freely exploited by any member of the population in their model (cultural social dilemma). In this paper, we investigate the effect of vertical transmission (transmission from parents to offspring), which decreases the publicness of culture, on the evolution of cumulative culture in both infinite and finite population models. In the infinite population model, we confirm that culture accumulates largely as long as transmission is purely vertical. It turns out, however, that introduction of even slight oblique transmission drastically reduces the equilibrium level of culture. Even more surprisingly, if the population size is finite, culture hardly accumulates even under purely vertical transmission. This occurs because stochastic extinction due to random genetic drift prevents a learning strategy from accumulating enough culture. Overall, our theoretical results suggest that introducing vertical transmission alone does not really help solve the cultural social dilemma problem. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Toward a unified theory of childhood trauma and psychosis: A comprehensive review of epidemiological, clinical, neuropsychological and biological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiak, Błażej; Krefft, Maja; Bielawski, Tomasz; Moustafa, Ahmed A; Sąsiadek, Maria M; Frydecka, Dorota

    2017-04-01

    There is a growing body of research focused on the relationship between childhood trauma and the risk of developing psychosis. Numerous studies, including many large-scale population-based studies, controlling for possible mediating variables, provide persuasive evidence of a dose-response association and are indicative of a causal relationship. Existing evidence supports the specificity model, showing differential associations between particular adversities and clinical symptoms, with cumulative adversity causing less favorable clinical and functional outcomes in psychotic patients. To date, several psychological and biological models have been proposed to search for underlying developmental trajectories leading to the onset of psychosis, influencing psychopathological manifestation and negative functional outcomes due to a history of childhood trauma. In this article, we provide a unified review on the relationship between childhood trauma and psychosis by integrating results of epidemiological, clinical, neuropsychological and biological studies. The question whether psychosis with a positive history of childhood trauma should be considered as a new psychotic phenotype, requiring specific therapeutic interventions, warrants further investigation.

  13. Cumulative dietary exposure of the population of Denmark to pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Nielsen, Elsa

    2015-01-01

    We used the Hazard Index (HI) method to carry out a cumulative risk assessment after chronic dietary exposure to all monitored pesticides in fruit, vegetables and cereals for various consumer groups in Denmark. Residue data for all the pesticides were obtained from the Danish monitoring programme...... that included processing factors and set non-detects to ½ LOR, but limited the correction (Model 3), gave the most realistic exposure estimate. With Model 3 the HI was calculated to be 0.44 for children and 0.18 for adults, indicating that there is no risk of adverse health effects following chronic cumulative...... exposure to the pesticides found in fruit, vegetables and cereals on the Danish market. The HI was below 1 even for consumers who eat more than 550 g of fruit and vegetables per day, corresponding to 1/3 of the population. Choosing Danish-produced commodities whenever possible could reduce the HI...

  14. Multiple adverse experiences and child cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinosso, Stephanie A; Johnson, Sara B; Riley, Anne W

    2016-01-01

    During childhood and adolescence, children's social environments shape their cognitive development. Children exposed to multiple adversities in their social environment are more likely to have poorer cognitive outcomes. These findings have prompted interest among pediatric and public health communities to screen and connect youth to appropriate interventions that ameliorate the detrimental effects of adverse exposures. Such intervention efforts can be improved with a stronger conceptual understanding of the relationship between multiple adverse exposures and child cognitive development. This includes disentangling adverse exposures from other risk factors or underlying mechanisms, specifying mechanisms of action, and determining when adverse exposures are most detrimental. This review summarizes findings from the literature on each of these areas and proposes a conceptual model to guide further research and intervention.

  15. War trauma, child labor, and family violence: life adversities and PTSD in a sample of school children in Kabul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catani, Claudia; Schauer, Elisabeth; Elbert, Thomas; Missmahl, Inge; Bette, Jean-Paul; Neuner, Frank

    2009-06-01

    The extent of cumulative adverse childhood experiences such as war, family violence, child labor, and poverty were assessed in a sample of school children (122 girls, 165 boys) in Kabul, Afghanistan. Strong gender differences were found with respect to both the frequency of such experiences and the association of different types of stressors with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Boys reported higher overall amounts of traumatic events, specifically experiences of violence at home. This was reflected in a 26% prevalence of probable PTSD in boys compared to 14% in girls. Child labor emerged as a common phenomenon in the examined sample and was furthermore associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing family violence for girls. The results suggest that the interplay of multilevel stressors in Afghan children contributes to a higher vulnerability for the development of PTSD.

  16. Troubled Childhood May Boost Bipolar Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of childhood adversity in the development of the mental illness. Although the study doesn't establish a cause- ... published in the October issue of the British Journal of Psychiatry . SOURCE: University of Manchester, news release, ...

  17. Childhood Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Childhood Stress KidsHealth > For Parents > Childhood Stress Print A A ... and feel stress to some degree. Sources of Stress Stress is a function of the demands placed ...

  18. Childhood Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood schizophrenia Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Childhood schizophrenia is an uncommon but severe mental disorder in which children interpret reality abnormally. Schizophrenia involves a range of problems with thinking (cognitive), ...

  19. Cumulate Fragments in Silicic Ignimbrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, O.; Ellis, B. S.; Wolff, J.

    2014-12-01

    Increasingly, studies are concluding that silicic ignimbrites are the result of the amalgamation of multiple discrete magma batches. Yet the existence of discrete batches presents a conundrum for magma generation and storage; if silicic magma batches are not generated nearly in situ in the upper crust, they must traverse, and reside within, a thermally hostile environment with large temperature gradients, resulting in low survivability in their shallow magmatic hearths. The Snake River Plain (Idaho, USA) is a type example of this 'multi-batch' assembly with ignimbrites containing multiple populations of pyroxene crystals, glass shards, and crystal aggregates. The ubiquitous crystal aggregates hint at a mechanism to facilitate the existence of multiple, relatively small batches of rhyolite in the upper crust. These aggregates contain the same plagioclase, pyroxene, and oxide mineral compositions as single phenocrysts of the same minerals in their host rocks, but they have significantly less silicic bulk compositions and lack quartz and sanidine, which occur as single phenocrysts in the deposits. This implies significant crystallization followed by melt extraction from mushy reservoir margins. The extracted melt then continues to evolve (crystallizing sanidine and quartz) while the melt-depleted margins provide an increasingly rigid and refractory network segregating the crystal-poor batches of magma. The hot, refractory, margins insulate the crystal-poor lenses, allowing (1) extended residence in the upper crust, and (2) preservation of chemical heterogeneities among batches. In contrast, systems that produce cumulates richer in low-temperature phases (quartz, K-feldspars, and/or biotite) favour remelting upon recharge, leading to less segregation of eruptible melt pockets and the formation of gradationally zoned ignimbrites. The occurrence of similar crystal aggregates from a variety of magmatic lineages suggests the generality of this process.

  20. Childhood obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, Justine; Howard, Simon

    2006-01-01

    Childhood obesity has important consequences for health and wellbeing both during childhood and also in later adult life. The rising prevalence of childhood obesity poses a major public health challenge in both developed and developing countries by increasing the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases. Despite the urgent need for effective preventative strategies, there remains disagreement over its definition due to a lack of evidence on the optimal cut-offs linking childhood BMI to dis...

  1. Definition of Cure in Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubnitz, Jeffrey E.; Inaba, Hiroto; Leung, Wing; Pounds, Stanley; Cao, Xueyuan; Campana, Dario; Ribeiro, Raul C.; Pui, Ching-Hon

    2014-01-01

    Background A better understanding of when cure can be declared in childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) would reduce anxiety and improve quality of life of AML survivors. We determined the likelihood of patients with AML to maintain long-term remission after completion of therapy. Patients and Methods The cumulative risk of relapse, time to relapse, event-free survival and overall survival were analyzed for 604 patients with AML enrolled in seven successive clinical trials, divided into 3 treatment eras (1976–1991, 1991–1997, 2002–2008). Results The median time to relapse did not change over time (0.93 years vs. 0.76 vs. 0.8 years for each consecutive era, P = .22) but the risk of relapse decreased significantly (5-year cumulative incidence of relapse 52.6% ± 3.1% vs. 31.5% ± 3.9% vs. 22.0% ± 3.0%, P < .001). Among patients who were in remission 4 years from diagnosis, the probabilities of relapse were 1.7%, 2.9%, and 0.9%, respectively. In the most recent era, all 44 relapses except one occurred within four years of diagnosis. Conclusion Children with AML who are treated with contemporary therapy and remain in remission four years from diagnosis are likely cured. Although late relapses and late deaths from other causes are rare, long-term follow up of survivors is necessary for timely management of late adverse effects. PMID:24798038

  2. Pulmonary Complications of Childhood Cancer Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versluijs, AB; Bresters, Dorine

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary complications of childhood cancer treatment are frequently seen. These can lead to adverse sequelae many years after treatment, with important impact on morbidity, quality of life and mortality in childhood cancer survivors. This review addresses the effects of chemotherapy, radiotherapy,

  3. Cumulative human impacts on marine predators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maxwell, Sara M; Hazen, Elliott L; Bograd, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Stressors associated with human activities interact in complex ways to affect marine ecosystems, yet we lack spatially explicit assessments of cumulative impacts on ecologically and economically key components such as marine predators. Here we develop a metric of cumulative utilization and impact...

  4. Identification and Quantification of Cumulative Factors that Increase Environmental Exposures and Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluating the combined adverse effects of multiple stressors upon human health is an imperative component of cumulative risk assessment (CRA)1. In addition to chemical stressors, other non-chemical factors are also considered. For examples, smoking will elevate the risks of havi...

  5. Relationship between cumulative BMI and symptomatic, psychosocial, and medical outcomes in patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenburg, Frances R; Zanarini, Mary C

    2011-08-01

    We examined the relationship between cumulative body mass index (BMI) and symptomatic, psychosocial, and medical outcomes in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Two hundred female borderline patients were weighed and measured during their index admission. They were subsequently interviewed at six-, eight-, and 10-year intervals. Over 10 years of prospective follow-up, increases in cumulative BMI were significantly associated with self-mutilation and dissociation (but not suicide attempts). Increases in cumulative BMI were also significantly associated with having no life partner, a poor work or school history, being on disability, being rated with a GAF score in the fair or poor range, and having a low income. In addition, increases in BMI were related to having two or more other medical conditions and using costly forms of health care. Increases in cumulative BMI may be a marker for adverse symptomatic, functional, and medical outcomes in patients with BPD.

  6. 医学生人际关系敏感与儿童期不良经历:负性情绪的关系模型%Interpersonal sensitivity and adverse childhood experiences among medical college students: the mediating role of negative emotions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭伟; 曹枫林; 崔乃雪

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨医学生儿童期不良经历、负性情绪与人际关系敏感的关系模型.方法 以某综合性大学492名医科新生为研究对象,采用儿童期不良经历问卷(ACEQ)、抑郁-焦虑-压力量表(The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale,DASS-21)及症状自评量表(SCL-90)的人际关系敏感因子对其进行测试,分析人际关联敏感、儿童期不良经历、负性情绪的关系模型.结果 男生ACEQ平均秩次显著高于女生;非独生子女抑郁、人际关系敏感平均秩显著高于独生子女;农村医学生的抑郁、焦虑、压力、人际关系敏感平均秩次显著高于非农村;父亲文化程度不同的子女在ACEQ、抑郁、焦虑、压力、人际关系敏感方面比较差异有统计学意义;不同母亲文化程度的子女在抑郁、焦虑、人际关系敏感有差异.ACEQ评分=0、1、2、≥3组之间抑郁、焦虑、压力、人际关系敏感得分方面比较差异有统计学意义.双变量相关分析表明,各量表、各因子间均呈不同程度的相关.结构方程模型结果显示,在儿童期不良经历与人际关系敏感之间负性情绪起完全中介作用.结论 医学生儿童期不良经历对成年期负性情绪和人际关系敏感有重要影响,负性情绪在儿童期不良经历与人际关系敏感之间起完全中介作用.%Objective To explore the relationship between adverse childhood experiences,negative emotions and interpersonal sensitivity.Methods Adverse Childhood Experiences Questionnaire (ACEQ),Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21) and the Interpersonal Sensitivity Subscale of Symptom Check-List (SCL-90) were applied to investigate the 492 new enrolled medical students.Results Boys got higher ACEQ scores than girls; Compared with only-child,non-only-child scored higher in depression,interpersonal sensitivity; Compared with students from non-rural areas,those from rural areas got higher scores in depression,anxiety stress

  7. Osteogenic toxicity in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. te Winkel (Mariël Lizet)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBone mineral density (BMD) Our multi-center study in children treated according to the Dutch Childhood Oncology Group (DCOG)-ALL9 protocol showed a three-years cumulative incidence of fractures of 18%. BMD of ALL patients was lower than of healthy peers. The year after treatment disconti

  8. Nonlinear cumulative damage model for multiaxial fatigue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG De-guang; SUN Guo-qin; DENG Jing; YAN Chu-liang

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of the continuum fatigue damage theory,a nonlinear uniaxial fatigue cumulative damage model is first proposed.In order to describe multiaxial fatigue damage characteristics,a nonlinear multiaxial fatigue cumulative damage model is developed based on the critical plane approach,The proposed model can consider the multiaxial fatigue limit,mean hydrostatic pressure and the unseparated characteristic for the damage variables and loading parameters.The recurrence formula of fatigue damage model was derived under multilevel loading,which is used to predict multiaxial fatigue life.The results showed that the proposed nonlinear multiaxial fatigue cumulative damage model is better than Miner's rule.

  9. Treatment Outcome in Older Patients with Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubnitz, Jeffrey E.; Pounds, Stanley; Cao, Xueyuan; Jenkins, Laura; Dahl, Gary; Bowman, W. Paul; Taub, Jeffrey W; Pui, Ching-Hon; Ribeiro, Raul C.; Campana, Dario; Inaba, Hiroto

    2013-01-01

    Background Older age has historically been an adverse prognostic factor in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The impact of age relative to that of other prognostic factors on the outcome of patients treated in recent trials is unknown. Methods Clinical outcome and causes of treatment failure of 351 patients enrolled on three consecutive protocols for childhood AML between 1991 and 2008 were analyzed according to age and protocol. Results The more recent protocol (AML02) produced improved outcomes for 10- to 21-year-old patients compared to 2 earlier studies (AML91 and 97), with 3-year rates of event-free survival (EFS), overall survival (OS) and cumulative incidence of refractory leukemia or relapse (CIR) for this group similar to those of 0- to 9-year old patients: EFS, 58.3% ± 5.4% vs. 66.6% ± 4.9%, P=.20; OS, 68.9% ± 5.1% vs. 75.1% ± 4.5%, P=.36; cumulative incidence of refractory leukemia or relapse, 21.9% ± 4.4%; vs. 25.3% ± 4.1%, P=.59. EFS and OS estimates for 10–15-year-old patients overlapped those for 16–21-year-old patients. However, the cumulative incidence of toxic death was significantly higher for 10- to 21-year-old patients compared to younger patients (13.2% ± 3.6 vs. 4.5% ± 2.0%, P=.028). Conclusion The survival rate for older children with AML has improved on our recent trial and is now similar to that of younger patients. However, deaths from toxicity remain a significant problem in the older age group. Future trials should focus on improving supportive care while striving to develop more effective antileukemic therapy. PMID:22674050

  10. Is uveitis associated with topiramate use? A cumulative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldberg JL

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey L Goldberg,1 Amy G Lau,2 Bo Fan,2 Lisa Ford,3 Howard E Greenberg3 1Byers Eye Institute, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, 2Janssen Research & Development, LLC, Horsham, PA, 3Janssen Research & Development, LLC, Titusville, NJ, USA Abstract: Occasional reports of uveitis following topiramate use necessitated an investigation of relevant cases from safety databases and published biomedical literature. Data mining of the Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System and cumulative review of cases from the global safety database (sponsor database and published literature were conducted to assess association between topiramate use and uveitis. The Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System search identified disproportional reporting of uveitis (n=23 and related terms (choroidal detachment, n=25; iridocyclitis, n=17. The postmarketing reporting frequency of uveitis and related events from the global safety database and based on an estimated topiramate exposure of 11,185,740 person-years from launch to April 2015 was 0.38 per 100,000 person-years and assigned as very rare. A total of 14 potential uveitis cases were identified from the cumulative review. Seven of these 14 cases were complicated by inadequate documentation, appearance of uveitic signs following drug withdrawal, or concurrent use of other sulfonamides. In acute angle-closure glaucoma and uveal effusions cases, insufficient evidence for underlying inflammation suggested that uveitis was not a component. Only seven of 14 cases were well documented, potentially topiramate-associated uveitis cases. Uveitis may occur in the setting of topiramate use only in very rare instances. Current evidence did not reveal a dose- or duration-dependent relationship between uveitis and topiramate use. Keywords: topiramate, uveitis, acute angle-closure glaucoma, drug safety, Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System, postmarketing 

  11. Calculating Cumulative Binomial-Distribution Probabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuer, Ernest M.; Bowerman, Paul N.

    1989-01-01

    Cumulative-binomial computer program, CUMBIN, one of set of three programs, calculates cumulative binomial probability distributions for arbitrary inputs. CUMBIN, NEWTONP (NPO-17556), and CROSSER (NPO-17557), used independently of one another. Reliabilities and availabilities of k-out-of-n systems analyzed. Used by statisticians and users of statistical procedures, test planners, designers, and numerical analysts. Used for calculations of reliability and availability. Program written in C.

  12. Individual, Family, and Neighborhood Factors Distinguish Resilient from Non-Resilient Maltreated Children: A Cumulative Stressors Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffee, Sara R.; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Polo-Tomas, Monica; Taylor, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Children who are physically maltreated are at risk of a range of adverse outcomes in childhood and adulthood, but some children who are maltreated manage to function well despite their history of adversity. Which individual, family, and neighborhood characteristics distinguish resilient from non-resilient maltreated children? Do…

  13. Cumulative cultural evolution: the role of teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Laureano; Toro, Miguel A

    2014-04-21

    In humans, cultural transmission occurs usually by cumulative inheritance, generating complex adaptive behavioral features. Cumulative culture requires key psychological processes (fundamentally imitation and teaching) that are absent or impoverished in non-human primates. In this paper we analyze the role that teaching has played in human cumulative cultural evolution. We assume that a system of cumulative culture generates increasingly adaptive behaviors, that are also more complex and difficult to imitate. Our thesis is that, as cultural traits become more complex, cumulative cultural transmission requires teaching to ensure accurate transmission from one generation to the next. In an increasingly complex cultural environment, we consider that individuals commit errors in imitation. We develop a model of cumulative cultural evolution in a changing environment and show that these errors hamper the process of cultural accumulation. We also show that a system of teaching between parents and offspring that increases the fidelity of imitation unblocks the accumulation and becomes adaptive whenever the gain in fitness compensates the cost of teaching.

  14. Human cumulative culture: a comparative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Lewis G; Vale, Gill L; Laland, Kevin N; Flynn, Emma; Kendal, Rachel L

    2014-05-01

    Many animals exhibit social learning and behavioural traditions, but human culture exhibits unparalleled complexity and diversity, and is unambiguously cumulative in character. These similarities and differences have spawned a debate over whether animal traditions and human culture are reliant on homologous or analogous psychological processes. Human cumulative culture combines high-fidelity transmission of cultural knowledge with beneficial modifications to generate a 'ratcheting' in technological complexity, leading to the development of traits far more complex than one individual could invent alone. Claims have been made for cumulative culture in several species of animals, including chimpanzees, orangutans and New Caledonian crows, but these remain contentious. Whilst initial work on the topic of cumulative culture was largely theoretical, employing mathematical methods developed by population biologists, in recent years researchers from a wide range of disciplines, including psychology, biology, economics, biological anthropology, linguistics and archaeology, have turned their attention to the experimental investigation of cumulative culture. We review this literature, highlighting advances made in understanding the underlying processes of cumulative culture and emphasising areas of agreement and disagreement amongst investigators in separate fields.

  15. Social Inequalities in Young Children’s Lifestyle Behaviors and Childhood Overweight : The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.I. Wijtzes (Anne)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Childhood overweight and obesity is a major public health concern. Adverse health and psychosocial outcomes associated with childhood overweight include elevated blood pressure and hypertension, type 2 diabetes, asthma, sleeping disorders, low self-esteem, and decreased

  16. Social Inequalities in Young Children’s Lifestyle Behaviors and Childhood Overweight : The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.I. Wijtzes (Anne)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Childhood overweight and obesity is a major public health concern. Adverse health and psychosocial outcomes associated with childhood overweight include elevated blood pressure and hypertension, type 2 diabetes, asthma, sleeping disorders, low self-esteem, and

  17. Social Inequalities in Young Children’s Lifestyle Behaviors and Childhood Overweight : The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.I. Wijtzes (Anne)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Childhood overweight and obesity is a major public health concern. Adverse health and psychosocial outcomes associated with childhood overweight include elevated blood pressure and hypertension, type 2 diabetes, asthma, sleeping disorders, low self-esteem, and decreased

  18. Adverse drug reactions in hospitalized Colombian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Las Salas, Roxana; Díaz-Agudelo, Daniela; Burgos-Flórez, Francisco Javier; Vaca, Claudia; Serrano-Meriño, Dolores Vanessa

    2016-09-30

    The occurrence of adverse drug reactions is an important issue due to the lack of drug safety data in children. To describe the Adverse Drug Reactions in inpatient children under 6 years of age in two general pediatrics wards located in Barranquilla, Colombia. A prospective cohort study based on intensive pharmacovigilance was conducted during six months in order to monitor the emergence of Adverse Drug Reactions in inpatients children under 6 years of age with at least one medication prescribed. The study was conducted in two pediatric wards of two hospitals located in Barranquilla, Colombia. Naranjo´s Algorithm was used to evaluate imputability, the modified Hartwig and Siegel assessment scale to establish severity and the Schumock and Thornton criteria to determine preventability. Of a total of 772 monitored patients, 156 Adverse Drug Reactions were detected on 147 children. The cumulative incidence of Adverse Drug Reactions was 19.0% (147/772); the incidence density was 37.6 Adverse Drug Reactions per 1,000 patients-days (147/3,913). The frequency was higher in children under 2 years of age (12.7%). Emergence of Adverse Drug Reactions was higher in male patients (RR= 1.66; 95% CI= 1.22-2.22, p= 0.001) and in those who used systemic antibiotics (RR= 1.82; 95% CI= 1.17-2.82, p= 0.005). Adverse Drug Reactions are common among hospitalized children and represent an additional burden of morbidity and risk, particularly in those who used several medicines, including antibiotics.

  19. Predicting Cumulative Incidence Probability by Direct Binomial Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas H.; Zhang, Mei-Jie

    Binomial modelling; cumulative incidence probability; cause-specific hazards; subdistribution hazard......Binomial modelling; cumulative incidence probability; cause-specific hazards; subdistribution hazard...

  20. Practical management of cumulative anthropogenic impacts with working marine examples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyhn, Line Anker; Wright, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    for petroleum. Human disturbances, including the noise almost ubiquitously associated with human activity, are likely to increase the incidence, magnitude, and duration of adverse effects on marine life, including stress responses. Stress responses have the potential to induce fitness consequences...... for individuals, which add to more obvious directed takes (e.g., hunting or fishing) to increase the overall population-level impact. To meet the requirements of marine spatial planning and ecosystem-based management, many efforts are ongoing to quantify the cumulative impacts of all human actions on marine...... species or populations. Meanwhile, regulators face the challenge of managing these accumulating and interacting impacts with limited scientific guidance. We believe there is scientific support for capping the level of impact for (at a minimum) populations in decline or with unknown statuses. This cap...

  1. Cumulative dietary exposure of the population of Denmark to pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Nielsen, Elsa; Christensen, Tue; Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Andersen, Jens Hinge

    2015-09-01

    We used the Hazard Index (HI) method to carry out a cumulative risk assessment after chronic dietary exposure to all monitored pesticides in fruit, vegetables and cereals for various consumer groups in Denmark. Residue data for all the pesticides were obtained from the Danish monitoring programme during the period 2004-2011. Food consumption data were obtained from DANSDA (the DAnish National Survey of Diet and physical Activity) for the period 2005-2008. The calculations were made using three different models to cope with residues below the limit of reporting (LOR). We concluded that a model that included processing factors and set non-detects to ½ LOR, but limited the correction (Model 3), gave the most realistic exposure estimate. With Model 3 the HI was calculated to be 0.44 for children and 0.18 for adults, indicating that there is no risk of adverse health effects following chronic cumulative exposure to the pesticides found in fruit, vegetables and cereals on the Danish market. The HI was below 1 even for consumers who eat more than 550 g of fruit and vegetables per day, corresponding to 1/3 of the population. Choosing Danish-produced commodities whenever possible could reduce the HI by a factor of 2.

  2. Cumulative Culture and Future Thinking: Is Mental Time Travel a Prerequisite to Cumulative Cultural Evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, G. L.; Flynn, E. G.; Kendal, R. L.

    2012-01-01

    Cumulative culture denotes the, arguably, human capacity to build on the cultural behaviors of one's predecessors, allowing increases in cultural complexity to occur such that many of our cultural artifacts, products and technologies have progressed beyond what a single individual could invent alone. This process of cumulative cultural evolution…

  3. Is cumulated pyrethroid exposure associated with prediabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Rune; Jørs, Erik; Lander, Flemming;

    2014-01-01

    , cumulative exposure) was assessed from questionnaire data. Participants were asked about symptoms of diabetes. Blood samples were analyzed for glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), a measure of glucose regulation. No association was found between pyrethroid exposure and diabetes symptoms. The prevalence...

  4. Cumulative Disadvantage among the Highly Ambitious.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Katherine

    1990-01-01

    Using a social reproduction theory framework, analyzes the process by which high school seniors aspiring to high-level positions are sorted out after graduation. Analyzes early educational attainments and changes in occupational expectations. Shows a process of cumulative disadvantage in which White males are more likely to achieve their goals.…

  5. Pavlovian conditioning and cumulative reinforcement rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Justin A; Patterson, Angela E; Gharaei, Saba

    2015-04-01

    In 5 experiments using delay conditioning of magazine approach with rats, reinforcement rate was varied either by manipulating the mean interval between onset of the conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US) or by manipulating the proportion of CS presentations that ended with the US (trial-based reinforcement rate). Both manipulations influenced the acquisition of responding. In each experiment, a specific comparison was made between 2 CSs that differed in their mean CS-US interval and in their trial-based reinforcement rate, such that the cumulative reinforcement rate-the cumulative duration of the CS between reinforcements-was the same for the 2 CSs. For example, a CS reinforced on 100% of trials with a mean CS-US interval of 60 s was compared with a CS reinforced on 33% of trials and a mean duration of 20 s. Across the 5 experiments, conditioning was virtually identical for the 2 CSs with matched cumulative reinforcement rate. This was true as long as the timing of the US was unpredictable and, thus, response rates were uniform across the length of the CS. We conclude that the effects of CS-US interval and of trial-based reinforcement rate are reducible entirely to their common effect on cumulative reinforcement rate. We discuss the implications of this for rate-based, trial-based, and real-time associative models of conditioning.

  6. An Axiomatization of Cumulative Prospect Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, P.P.; Tversky, A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a method for axiomatizing a variety of models for decision making under uncertainty, including Expected Utility and Cumulative Prospect Theory. This method identifies, for each model, the situations that permit consistent inferences about the ordering of value differences. Exampl

  7. Cumulative Disadvantage among the Highly Ambitious.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Katherine

    1990-01-01

    Using a social reproduction theory framework, analyzes the process by which high school seniors aspiring to high-level positions are sorted out after graduation. Analyzes early educational attainments and changes in occupational expectations. Shows a process of cumulative disadvantage in which White males are more likely to achieve their goals.…

  8. Childhood Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... emergency physicians. They receive comprehensive training in treating childhood emergencies and have more training in pediatric emergencies than other physicians, including pediatricians. Does Your Child's School Know About Food Allergies? - 8/10/2015 The nation's emergency physician ...

  9. Adverse reactions to sulfites

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, William H; Purchase, Emerson C.R.

    1985-01-01

    Sulfites are widely used as preservatives in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In the United States more than 250 cases of sulfite-related adverse reactions, including anaphylactic shock, asthmatic attacks, urticaria and angioedema, nausea, abdominal pain and diarrhea, seizures and death, have been reported, including 6 deaths allegedly associated with restaurant food containing sulfites. In Canada 10 sulfite-related adverse reactions have been documented, and 1 death suspected to be su...

  10. Temperament and the psychobiology of childhood stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, W T; Barr, R G; Zeltzer, L K

    1992-09-01

    This paper provides a conceptual overview of recent research on the developmental psychobiology of childhood stress. We propose that the construct of temperament can be regarded as an organizing principle in children's responses to environmental adversity, and we review three physiologic "windows" through which such responses can be usefully examined. It is concluded that individual differences between children in their psychobiologic reactivity to stressors may constitute an important and novel point of departure for future studies of stress and childhood morbidity.

  11. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met polymorphism and early life adversity affect hippocampal volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballedo, Angela; Morris, Derek; Zill, Peter; Fahey, Ciara; Reinhold, Elena; Meisenzahl, Eva; Bondy, Brigitta; Gill, Michael; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Frodl, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    The interaction between adverse life events during childhood and genetic factors is associated with a higher risk to develop major depressive disorder (MDD). One of the polymorphisms found to be associated with MDD is the Val66MET polymorphism of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The aim of our two-center study was to determine how the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and childhood adversity affect the volumetric measures of the hippocampus in healthy individuals and people with MDD. In this two-center study, 62 adult patients with MDD and 71 healthy matched controls underwent high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. We used manual tracing of the bilateral hippocampal structure with help of the software BRAINS2, assessed childhood adversity using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and genotyped Val66Met BDNF SNP (rs6265). MDD patients had smaller hippocampal volumes, both in the left and right hemispheres (F = 5.4, P = 0.022). We also found a significant interaction between BDNF allele and history of childhood adversity (F = 6.1, P = 0.015): Met allele carriers in our samples showed significantly smaller hippocampal volumes when they did have a history of childhood adversity, both in patients and controls. Our results highlight how relevant stress-gene interactions are for hippocampal volume reductions. Subjects exposed to early life adversity developed smaller hippocampal volumes when they carry the Met-allele of the BDNF polymorphism.

  12. Catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158met Polymorphism Interacts With Early Experience to Predict Executive Functions in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Clancy; Sulik, Michael; Willoughby, Michael; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Petrill, Stephen; Bartlett, Christopher; Greenberg, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies demonstrate that the Methionine variant of the catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met polymorphism, which confers less efficient catabolism of catecholamines, is associated with increased focal activation of prefrontal cortex (PFC) and higher levels of executive function abilities. By and large, however, studies of COMT Val158Met have been conducted with adult samples and do not account for the context in which development is occurring. Effects of early adversity on stress response physiology and the inverted U shape relating catecholamine levels to neural activity in PFC indicate the need to take into account early experience when considering relations between genes such as COMT and executive cognitive ability. Consistent with this neurobiology, we find in a prospective longitudinal sample of children and families (N=1292) that COMT Val158Met interacts with early experience to predict executive function abilities in early childhood. Specifically, the Valine variant of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism, which confers more rather than less efficient catabolism of catecholamines is associated with higher executive function abilities at child ages 48 and 60 months and with faster growth of executive function for children experiencing early adversity, as indexed by cumulative risk factors in the home at child ages 7, 15, 24, and 36 months. Findings indicate the importance of the early environment for the relation between catecholamine genes and developmental outcomes and demonstrate that the genetic moderation of environmental risk is detectable in early childhood. PMID:26251232

  13. Gender disparities among the association between cumulative family-level stress & adolescent weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Daphne C; Pressler, Emily

    2015-04-01

    To investigate precursors to gender-related obesity disparities by examining multiple family-level stress indices. Analyses was based on adolescents born between 1975 and 1991 to women from the 1979 National Longitudinal Study of Youth data set (N=4762). Three types of family-level stressors were captured from birth to age 15: family disruption and conflict, financial strain, and maternal risky health behaviors, along with a total cumulative risk index. Body mass index was constructed on reference criteria for children outlined by the Centers for Disease Control. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted for the three types of family stressors and for the total cumulative index. The accumulation of family disruption and conflict and financial stress was positively related to female adolescents being overweight/obese. Childhood exposure to maternal risky health behaviors was positively associated with higher weight status for male adolescents. Total cumulative stress was related to overweight/obesity for females, but not males. Different family-level stress indices are associated with the weight status of female and male adolescents. Combining types of family-level stress into one cumulative index appears to mask these differences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cumulative effects of early poverty on cortisol in young children: moderation by autonomic nervous system activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Clancy; Berry, Daniel; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Granger, Douglas

    2013-11-01

    The relation of the cumulative experience of poverty in infancy and early childhood to child cortisol at age 48 months was examined in a prospective longitudinal sample of children and families (N=1292) in predominantly low-income and rural communities in two distinct regions of the United States. Families were seen in the home for data collection and cumulative experience of poverty was indexed by parent reported income-to-need ratio and household chaos measures collected between child ages 2 months and 48 months. For the analysis presented here, three saliva samples were also collected over an approximate 90 min interval at child age 48 months and were assayed for cortisol. ECG data were also collected during a resting period and during the administration of a mildly challenging battery of cognitive tasks. Mixed model analysis indicated that child cortisol at 48 months decreased significantly over the sampling time period and that cumulative time in poverty (number of years income-to-need less than or equal to 1) and cumulative household chaos were significantly related to a flatter trajectory for cortisol change and to an overall higher level of cortisol, respectively. Findings also indicated that respiratory sinus arrhythmia derived from the ECG data moderated the association between household chaos and child cortisol and that increase in respiratory sinus arrhythmia during the cognitive task was associated with an overall lower level of cortisol at 48 months.

  15. Complexity and demographic explanations of cumulative culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Querbes

    Full Text Available Formal models have linked prehistoric and historical instances of technological change (e.g., the Upper Paleolithic transition, cultural loss in Holocene Tasmania, scientific progress since the late nineteenth century to demographic change. According to these models, cumulation of technological complexity is inhibited by decreasing--while favoured by increasing--population levels. Here we show that these findings are contingent on how complexity is defined: demography plays a much more limited role in sustaining cumulative culture in case formal models deploy Herbert Simon's definition of complexity rather than the particular definitions of complexity hitherto assumed. Given that currently available empirical evidence doesn't afford discriminating proper from improper definitions of complexity, our robustness analyses put into question the force of recent demographic explanations of particular episodes of cultural change.

  16. Sharing a quota on cumulative carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raupach, Michael R.; Davis, Steven J.; Peters, Glen P.; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Ciais, Philippe; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Jotzo, Frank; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Le Quéré, Corinne

    2014-10-01

    Any limit on future global warming is associated with a quota on cumulative global CO2 emissions. We translate this global carbon quota to regional and national scales, on a spectrum of sharing principles that extends from continuation of the present distribution of emissions to an equal per-capita distribution of cumulative emissions. A blend of these endpoints emerges as the most viable option. For a carbon quota consistent with a 2 °C warming limit (relative to pre-industrial levels), the necessary long-term mitigation rates are very challenging (typically over 5% per year), both because of strong limits on future emissions from the global carbon quota and also the likely short-term persistence in emissions growth in many regions.

  17. Structural Vibration Monitoring Using Cumulative Spectral Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Goto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a resonance decay estimation for structural health monitoring in the presence of nonstationary vibrations. In structural health monitoring, the structure's frequency response and resonant decay characteristics are very important for understanding how the structure changes. Cumulative spectral analysis (CSA estimates the frequency decay by using the impulse response. However, measuring the impulse response of buildings is impractical due to the need to shake the building itself. In a previous study, we reported on system damping monitoring using cumulative harmonic analysis (CHA, which is based on CSA. The current study describes scale model experiments on estimating the hidden resonance decay under non-stationary noise conditions by using CSA for structural condition monitoring.

  18. Cumulative carbon emissions and the Green Paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Ploeg, Frederick Van der

    2013-01-01

    The green paradox states that a gradually more ambitious climate policy such as a renewables subsidy or an anticipated carbon tax induces fossil fuel owners to extract more rapidly and accelerate global warming. However, if extraction becomes more costly as reserves are depleted, such policies also shorten the fossil fuel era, induce more fossil fuel to be left in the earth, and thus curb cumulative carbon emissions. These consequences are relevant, as global warming depends primarily on cumu...

  19. Expansive Soil Crack Depth under Cumulative Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei-xiao Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The crack developing depth is a key problem to slope stability of the expansive soil and its project governance and the crack appears under the roles of dry-wet cycle and gradually develops. It is believed from the analysis that, because of its own cohesion, the expansive soil will have a certain amount of deformation under pulling stress but without cracks. The soil body will crack only when the deformation exceeds the ultimate tensile strain that causes cracks. And it is also believed that, due to the combined effect of various environmental factors, particularly changes of the internal water content, the inherent basic physical properties of expansive soil are weakened, and irreversible cumulative damages are eventually formed, resulting in the development of expansive soil cracks in depth. Starting from the perspective of volumetric strain that is caused by water loss, considering the influences of water loss rate and dry-wet cycle on crack developing depth, the crack developing depth calculation model which considers the water loss rate and the cumulative damages is established. Both the proposal of water loss rate and the application of cumulative damage theory to the expansive soil crack development problems try to avoid difficulties in matrix suction measurement, which will surely play a good role in promoting and improving the research of unsaturated expansive soil.

  20. EPA Workshop on Epigenetics and Cumulative Risk ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agenda Download the Workshop Agenda (PDF) The workshop included presentations and discussions by scientific experts pertaining to three topics (i.e., epigenetic changes associated with diverse stressors, key science considerations in understanding epigenetic changes, and practical application of epigenetic tools to address cumulative risks from environmental stressors), to address several questions under each topic, and included an opportunity for attendees to participate in break-out groups, provide comments and ask questions. Workshop Goals The workshop seeks to examine the opportunity for use of aggregate epigenetic change as an indicator in cumulative risk assessment for populations exposed to multiple stressors that affect epigenetic status. Epigenetic changes are specific molecular changes around DNA that alter expression of genes. Epigenetic changes include DNA methylation, formation of histone adducts, and changes in micro RNAs. Research today indicates that epigenetic changes are involved in many chronic diseases (cancer, cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, mental health disorders, and asthma). Research has also linked a wide range of stressors including pollution and social factors with occurrence of epigenetic alterations. Epigenetic changes have the potential to reflect impacts of risk factors across multiple stages of life. Only recently receiving attention is the nexus between the factors of cumulative exposure to environmental

  1. Repeated Radionuclide therapy in metastatic paraganglioma leading to the highest reported cumulative activity of 131I-MIBG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezziddin Samer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract 131I-MIBG therapy for neuroendocrine tumours may be dose limited. The common range of applied cumulative activities is 10-40 GBq. We report the uneventful cumulative administration of 111 GBq (= 3 Ci 131I-MIBG in a patient with metastatic paraganglioma. Ten courses of 131I-MIBG therapy were given within six years, accomplishing symptomatic, hormonal and tumour responses with no serious adverse effects. Chemotherapy with cisplatin/vinblastine/dacarbazine was the final treatment modality with temporary control of disease, but eventually the patient died of progression. The observed cumulative activity of 131I-MIBG represents the highest value reported to our knowledge, and even though 12.6 GBq of 90Y-DOTATOC were added intermediately, no associated relevant bone marrow, hepatic or other toxicity were observed. In an individual attempt to palliate metastatic disease high cumulative activity alone should not preclude the patient from repeat treatment.

  2. Adverse reactions to sulfites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, William H.; Purchase, Emerson C.R.

    1985-01-01

    Sulfites are widely used as preservatives in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In the United States more than 250 cases of sulfite-related adverse reactions, including anaphylactic shock, asthmatic attacks, urticaria and angioedema, nausea, abdominal pain and diarrhea, seizures and death, have been reported, including 6 deaths allegedly associated with restaurant food containing sulfites. In Canada 10 sulfite-related adverse reactions have been documented, and 1 death suspected to be sulfite-related has occurred. The exact mechanism of sulfite-induced reactions is unknown. Practising physicians should be aware of the clinical manifestations of sulfite-related adverse reactions as well as which foods and pharmaceuticals contain sulfites. Cases should be reported to health officials and proper advice given to the victims to prevent further exposure to sulfites. The food industry, including beer and wine manufacturers, and the pharmaceutical industry should consider using alternative preservatives. In the interim, they should list any sulfites in their products. PMID:4052897

  3. Childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Anju; Sharma, Rajni

    2013-04-01

    Childhood obesity is an issue of serious medical and social concern. In developing countries including India, it is a phenomenon seen in higher socioeconomic strata due to the adoption of a western lifestyle. Consumption of high calorie food, lack of physical activity and increased screen time are major risk factors for childhood obesity apart from other genetic, prenatal factors and socio-cultural practices. Obese children and adolescents are at increased risk of medical and psychological complications. Insulin resistance is commonly present especially in those with central obesity and manifests as dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension, polycystic ovarian syndrome and metabolic syndrome. Obese children and adolescents often present to general physicians for management. The latter play a key role in prevention and treatment of obesity as it involves lifestyle modification of the entire family. This article aims at discussing the approach to diagnosis and work-up, treatment and preventive strategies for childhood obesity from a general physician's perspective.

  4. Childhood obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, Berit L; Koplan, Jeffrey; Lissner, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    Despite progress toward assuring the health of today's young population, the 21(st) century began with an epidemic of childhood obesity. There is general agreement that the situation must be addressed by means of primary prevention, but relatively little is known about how to intervene effectively....... The evidence behind the assumption that childhood obesity can be prevented was discussed critically in this roundtable symposium. Overall, there was general agreement that action is needed and that the worldwide epidemic itself is sufficient evidence for action. As the poet, writer, and scholar Wittner Bynner...

  5. Epidemiology of childhood food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Ashley A; Gupta, Ruchi

    2013-06-01

    Food allergy is a public health problem that affects nearly 6 million children in the United States. The extent to which children, families, and communities live with food allergies varies as much as the range of clinical symptoms associated with the disease itself. Food allergy is defined as the reproducible adverse event that elicits a pathologic immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated or non-IgE-mediated reaction. Once an allergic child ingests a specific food allergen, the reaction can result in clinical symptoms ranging from mild hives to life-threatening anaphylaxis.Not surprisingly, food allergies have been shown to limit social interactions and impair children's quality of life due to the ubiquity of food where children live, learn, and play. To ensure the safety of our children, the development of sound policy, clinical practice, and health programs must be informed by current research characterizing childhood food allergy at the population level. To set the stage for understanding the current evidence base, this article reviews: 1) epidemiology of childhood food allergy; 2) severity of symptoms; 3) geographic distribution of childhood food allergy; 4) tolerance; 5) economic impact of childhood food allergy; and 6) future directions in childhood food allergy epidemiological research.

  6. Adverse outcomes after colposcopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damery Sarah L

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colposcopy is an essential part of the National Health Service Cervical Screening Programme (NHSCSP. It is used for both diagnosis and treatment of pre-cancerous cells of the cervix. Despite colposcopy being a commonly performed and relatively invasive procedure, very little research has explored the potential long-term impacts of colposcopic examination upon patient quality of life. The aim of this study is to investigate and quantify any potential reduction in women's quality of life following a colposcopy procedure. More specifically, the degree of female sexual dysfunction and the excess risk of adverse events in those undergoing colposcopy will be explored. If such risks are identified, these can be communicated to women before undergoing colposcopy. It will also assist in identifying whether there are particular sub-groups at greater risk and if so, this may lead to a re-evaluation of current recommendations concerning colposcopically directed treatments. Methods/design Cohort study using postal surveys to assess sexual function and quality of life in women who have attended for colposcopy (cases, compared with those who have not attended colposcopy (controls. The prevalence and excess risk of female sexual dysfunction will be determined. Logistic regression will identify the predictors of adverse outcomes. Discussion There are more than 400,000 colposcopy appointments each year in England, of which 134,000 are new referrals. There is some evidence that there may be long-term implications for women treated under colposcopy with respect to adverse obstetric outcomes, persisting anxiety, increased rates of sexual dysfunction and reduced quality of life. Reliably establishing whether such adverse outcomes exist and the excess risk of adverse events will facilitate informed decision-making and patient choice.

  7. Cumulative risks of foster care placement for Danish children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fallesen, Peter; Emanuel, Natalia; Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Although recent research suggests that the cumulative risk of foster care placement is far higher for American children than originally suspected, little is known about the cumulative risk of foster...

  8. Recursive Numerical Evaluation of the Cumulative Bivariate Normal Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Christian

    2010-01-01

    We propose an algorithm for evaluation of the cumulative bivariate normal distribution, building upon Marsaglia's ideas for evaluation of the cumulative univariate normal distribution. The algorithm is mathematically transparent, delivers competitive performance and can easily be extended to arbitrary precision.

  9. Climate mitigation: sustainable preferences and cumulative carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckle, Simon

    2010-05-01

    We develop a stylized AK growth model with both climate damages to ecosystem goods and services and sustainable preferences that allow trade-offs between present discounted utility and long-run climate damages. The simplicity of the model permits analytical solutions. Concern for the long-term provides a strong driver for mitigation action. One plausible specification of sustainable preferences leads to the result that, for a range of initial parameter values, an optimizing agent would choose a level of cumulative carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions independent of initial production capital endowment and CO2 levels. There is no technological change so, for economies with sufficiently high initial capital and CO2 endowments, optimal mitigation will lead to disinvestment. For lower values of initial capital and/or CO2 levels, positive investment can be optimal, but still within the same overall level of cumulative emissions. One striking aspect of the model is the complexity of possible outcomes, in addition to these optimal solutions. We also identify a resource constrained region and several regions where climate damages exceed resources available for consumption. Other specifications of sustainable preferences are discussed, as is the case of a hard constraint on long-run damages. Scientists are currently highlighting the potential importance of the cumulative carbon emissions concept as a robust yet flexible target for climate policymakers. This paper shows that it also has an ethical interpretation: it embodies an implicit trade off in global welfare between present discounted welfare and long-term climate damages. We hope that further development of the ideas presented here might contribute to the research and policy debate on the critical areas of intra- and intergenerational welfare.

  10. Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuca, Sevil Ari, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book aims to provide readers with a general as well as an advanced overview of the key trends in childhood obesity. Obesity is an illness that occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental, psychosocial, metabolic and hormonal factors. The prevalence of obesity has shown a great rise both in adults and children in the last 30 years.…

  11. Childhood Obesity

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-06

    In this podcast, Dr. Tom Frieden, CDC Director, discusses the decrease in childhood obesity rates and what strategies have been proven to work to help our children grow up and thrive.  Created: 8/6/2013 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.   Date Released: 3/6/2014.

  12. Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuca, Sevil Ari, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book aims to provide readers with a general as well as an advanced overview of the key trends in childhood obesity. Obesity is an illness that occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental, psychosocial, metabolic and hormonal factors. The prevalence of obesity has shown a great rise both in adults and children in the last 30 years.…

  13. Childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, R

    1999-01-01

    Approximately 10% of children are obese. Twin and adoption studies demonstrate a large genetic component to obesity, especially in adults. However, the increasing prevalence of obesity over the last 20 years can only be explained by environmental factors. In most obese individuals, no measurable differences in metabolism can be detected. Few children engage in regular physical activity. Obese children and adults uniformly underreport the amount of food they eat. Obesity is particularly related to increased consumption of high-fat foods. BMI is a quick and easy way to screen for childhood obesity. Treating childhood obesity relies on positive family support and lifestyle changes involving the whole family. Food preferences are influenced early by parental eating habits, and when developed in childhood, they tend to remain fairly constant into adulthood. Children learn to be active or inactive from their parents. In addition, physical activity (or more commonly, physical inactivity) habits that are established in childhood tend to persist into adulthood. Weight loss is usually followed by changes in appetite and metabolism, predisposing individuals to regain their weight. However, when the right family dynamics exist--a motivated child with supportive parents--long-term success is possible.

  14. Long and Short Term Cumulative Structural Priming Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Kaschak, Michael P.; Kutta, Timothy J.; Coyle, Jacqueline M.

    2012-01-01

    We present six experiments that examine cumulative structural priming effects (i.e., structural priming effects that accumulate across many utterances). Of particular interest is whether (1) cumulative priming effects transfer across language production tasks and (2) the transfer of cumulative priming effects across tasks persists over the course of a week. Our data suggest that cumulative structural priming effects do transfer across language production tasks (e.g., from written stem complet...

  15. Preserved cumulative semantic interference despite amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Michael Oppenheim

    2015-05-01

    As predicted by Oppenheim et al’s (2010 implicit incremental learning account, WRP’s BCN RTs demonstrated strong (and significant repetition priming and semantic blocking effects (Figure 1. Similar to typical results from neurally intact undergraduates, WRP took longer to name pictures presented in semantically homogeneous blocks than in heterogeneous blocks, an effect that increased with each cycle. This result challenges accounts that ascribe cumulative semantic interference in this task to explicit memory mechanisms, instead suggesting that the effect has the sort of implicit learning bases that are typically spared in hippocampal amnesia.

  16. Cumulant matching for independent source extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phlypo, Ronald; Zarzoso, Vicente; Comon, Pierre; Lemahieu, Ignace

    2008-01-01

    In this work we show how one can make use of priors on signal statistics under the form of cumulant guesses to extract an independent source from an observed mixture. The advantage of using statistical priors on the signal lies in the fact that no specific knowledge is needed about its temporal behavior, neither about its spatial distribution. We show that these statistics can be obtained either by reasoning on the theoretical values of a supposed waveform, either by using a subset of the observations from which we know that their statistics are merely hindered by interferences. Results on an electro-cardiographic recording confirm the above assumptions.

  17. Peer Relationship Adversities and Children's Aggression During Late Childhood: The Mediating Roles of Self-conception and Peer Beliefs%童年晚期同伴关系不利与儿童的攻击行为:自我概念与同伴信念的中介作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪林芹; 魏星; 陈亮; 张文新

    2012-01-01

    采用整群抽样法选取1806名小学儿童(平均年龄11.27±0.36岁)为被试,考察同伴拒绝、侵害两种同伴关系不利与儿童攻击行为间的关系、以及儿童的自我概念与同伴信念在其中的中介作用.结果发现,(1)同伴拒绝、侵害与儿童的身体攻击、关系攻击显著正相关,与儿童的自我概念、同伴信念显著负相关,自我概念、同伴信念与两类攻击显著相关.(2)同伴拒绝、关系侵害对身体攻击和关系攻击具有正向预测作用;身体侵害仅对身体攻击具有正向预测作用,对关系攻击无显著影响.(3)儿童的身体自我概念、社交自我概念及同伴信念在同伴拒绝、同伴侵害与攻击的联系中具有中介作用.本研究结果表明,同伴拒绝对儿童的身体攻击、关系攻击主要表现为直接效应,不同类型的侵害经历与儿童攻击间的联系存在类型特定性.%The development and control of childhood aggression have been among topics that received the most attentions from researchers for more than half a century, and in research on aggression, exploration of the correlated risk factors and mechanisms of aggression is one of the most important tasks. Research indicated that peer rejection and peer victimization, forms of peer relationship adversities, were predictive of children's aggression. There are correlations between peer rejection and victimization, so in investigating associations between peer relationship adversities and children's aggression, it is important to include both the two forms of peer relationship adversities in the statistical models so that the unique associations may be tested. There are physical and relational forms in both aggression and peer victimization, and recent theoretical perspectives recognize the specificity of associations between certain types of peer experience and children's adjustment. Accordingly, research on the associations between peer victimization and aggression

  18. A Missing Link in the Evolution of the Cumulative Recorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Toshio; Lattal, Kennon A.

    2012-01-01

    A recently recovered cumulative recorder provides a missing link in the evolution of the cumulative recorder from a modified kymograph to a reliably operating, scientifically and commercially successful instrument. The recorder, the only physical evidence of such an early precommercial cumulative recorder yet found, was sent to Keio University in…

  19. Original and cumulative prospect theory: a discussion of empirical differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P. Wakker; H. Fennema

    1997-01-01

    This note discusses differences between prospect theory and cumulative prospect theory. It shows that cumulative prospect theory is not merely a formal correction of some theoretical problems in prospect theory, but it also gives different predictions. Experiments are described that favor cumulative

  20. Evaluating the efficacy of Tui Na in treatment of childhood anorexia: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qiao Cui; Feng, Zhang Xin; Ping, Cai Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Medical practitioners are now seeing more children younger than 15 y who are developing childhood anorexia. Hua Tuo chiropractic treatments are an ancient and practical massage therapy and are a type of Tui Na therapy, which has been used for curing childhood anorexia for thousands of years in China. Research literature suggests that chiropractic care produces outcomes at least comparable with alternative treatments. The research team intended to perform a systematic review to identify and synthesize evidence on the efficacy of Tui Na for treatment of childhood anorexia. Systematic searches were conducted for studies evaluating Tui Na therapy in electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, the Cochrane Library, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, the Midwives Information and Resource Service, the Health Management Information Consortium, the Health Management and Information Service, PubMed, the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), the Chinese Scientific Journal Database VIP, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and the Chinese Clinical Trial Register-from inception to November 2011. The research team hand-searched reference lists and journals, extracted data from the papers, and assessed the quality of the research. Participants of the reviewed studies were infants and children younger than 15 y. Of the 109 papers identified, 3 papers reported on randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) involving 332 patients; 45 covered cohort or quasi-experimental studies; and 61 discussed nonintervention studies. Meta-analysis results from the 3 RCTs showed that Tui Na can improve the curative effect compared with oral medicine that is used for infants and young children with anorexia and can also increase a child's weight. The level of evidence reported was mixed, but given the available evidence, the research team concluded that Tui Na therapy was a

  1. 童年期不良经历与青春发动时相提前的关联及其性别差异的研究%Associations between adverse childhood experiences with early puberty timing and possible gender difference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘阳; 孙莹; 陶芳标; 童世庐

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the association of adverse childhood events with early puberty timing and possible gender differences.Methods Data was gathered through questionnaires,physical and secondary sexual characteristics,examination with breast stage in girls and testicular volume in boys measured under informed consent among children in grade 3 to grade 5 from a largescale primary school.Information regarding adverse childhood experiences (ACEs),time of screening and physical activity was included in the questionnaire.Age limits on secondary sexual characteristics for defining early puberty established under the "China Puberty Research Collaboration Project" were used to classify early puberty timing.Body mass index was calculated and used to classify both overweight and obesity,in each gender.Results Among the 1 744 children aged 8.2-12.2 years old (957 boys),the prevalence rates of early puberty timing among boys and girls were 7.5% and 14.6%,respectively,with gender differences (x2= 11.671,P< 0.001).Boys who reported having experienced serious adverse family events and girls with physical abuse were more likely to develop early puberty.Results from multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that family life events were associated with a higher risk of early puberty timing in boys (odds ratio:2.531,95% CI:1.276-5.020) while experience related to physical abuse appeared a risk factor of early puberty timing in girls (odds ratio:2.453,95%CI:1.588-3.788).Conclusion Physical abuse and adverse family life events seemed to be associated with early puberty timing,suggesting further longitudinal study should be carried out to understand the nature of these findings and gender differences.%目的 探讨童年期不良经历与青春发动时相提前的关联及其可能的性别差异.方法 以安徽省某九年一贯制小学3~5年级自愿参加的男女生为研究对象,进行问卷调查、体格和第二性征发育(男生睾丸容积和女生

  2. Adverse reactions to cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogra A

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Adverse reaction to cosmetics constitute a small but significant number of cases of contact dermatitis with varied appearances. These can present as contact allergic dermatitis, photodermatitis, contact irritant dermatitis, contact urticaria, hypopigmentation, hyperpigmentotion or depigmentation, hair and nail breakage. Fifty patients were included for the study to assess the role of commonly used cosmetics in causing adverse reactions. It was found that hair dyes, lipsticks and surprisingly shaving creams caused more reaction as compared to other cosmetics. Overall incidence of contact allergic dermatitis seen was 3.3% with patients own cosmetics. Patch testing was also done with the basic ingredients and showed positive results in few cases where casual link could be established. It is recommended that labeling of the cosmetics should be done to help the dermatologists and the patients to identify the causative allergen in cosmetic preparation.

  3. Cumulative Environmental Management Association : Wood Buffalo Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friesen, B. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    The recently announced oil sands development of the Wood Buffalo Region in Alberta was the focus of this power point presentation. Both mining and in situ development is expected to total $26 billion and 2.6 million barrels per day of bitumen production. This paper described the economic, social and environmental challenges facing the resource development of this region. In addition to the proposed oil sands projects, this region will accommodate the needs of conventional oil and gas production, forestry, building of pipelines and power lines, municipal development, recreation, tourism, mining exploration and open cast mining. The Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA) was inaugurated as a non-profit association in April 2000, and includes 41 members from all sectors. Its major role is to ensure a sustainable ecosystem and to avoid any cumulative impacts on wildlife. Other work underway includes the study of soil and plant species diversity, and the effects of air emissions on human health, wildlife and vegetation. The bioaccumulation of heavy metals and their impacts on surface water and fish is also under consideration to ensure the quality and quantity of surface water and ground water. 3 figs.

  4. Cumulative environmental management and the oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    In response to concerns regarding the cumulative environmental impacts of oil sands development within the Athabasca oil sands deposit, the government of Alberta established a Regional Sustainable Development Strategy (RSDS) to balance development with environmental protection. The environmental issues identified through the RSDS were addressed by the Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA). CEMA's boundary is the Wood Buffalo region of northeastern Alberta. It identifies existing and future environmental effects in the region and proposes recommendations to regulatory bodies for reducing environmental impacts associated with oil sands development. This presentation outlined some of the 55 stakeholder representatives of CEMA, including Alberta government departments associated with resource development, oil sand developers within the region, and Aboriginal communities and First Nations. These stakeholders provide input on sector priorities and agree on environmental thresholds. Established working groups also address technical and scientific research issues identified in the RSDS such as sustainable ecosystems; surface waters; trace metals and air contaminants; nitrogen oxides and sulphur dioxides; and land reclamation. To date, CEMA has submitted more than 50 reports and has made 4 major environmental recommendations for trace metal management, ecosystem management tools, a framework for acid deposition management, and a landscape design checklist. tabs., figs.

  5. Higher Order Cumulants in Colorless Partonic Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Cherif, S; Ladrem, M

    2016-01-01

    Any physical system considered to study the QCD deconfinement phase transition certainly has a finite volume, so the finite size effects are inevitably present. This renders the location of the phase transition and the determination of its order as an extremely difficult task, even in the simplest known cases. In order to identify and locate the colorless QCD deconfinement transition point in finite volume $T_{0}(V)$, a new approach based on the finite-size cumulant expansion of the order parameter and the $\\mathscr{L}_{m,n}$-Method is used.We have shown that both cumulants of higher order and their ratios, associated to the thermodynamical fluctuations of the order parameter, in QCD deconfinement phase transition behave in a particular enough way revealing pronounced oscillations in the transition region. The sign structure and the oscillatory behavior of these in the vicinity of the deconfinement phase transition point might be a sensitive probe and may allow one to elucidate their relation to the QCD phase...

  6. Innovativeness, population size and cumulative cultural evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yutaka; Aoki, Kenichi

    2012-08-01

    Henrich [Henrich, J., 2004. Demography and cultural evolution: how adaptive cultural processes can produce maladaptive losses-the Tasmanian case. Am. Antiquity 69, 197-214] proposed a model designed to show that larger population size facilitates cumulative cultural evolution toward higher skill levels. In this model, each newborn attempts to imitate the most highly skilled individual of the parental generation by directly-biased social learning, but the skill level he/she acquires deviates probabilistically from that of the exemplar (cultural parent). The probability that the skill level of the imitator exceeds that of the exemplar can be regarded as the innovation rate. After reformulating Henrich's model rigorously, we introduce an overlapping-generations analog based on the Moran model and derive an approximate formula for the expected change per generation of the highest skill level in the population. For large population size, our overlapping-generations model predicts a much larger effect of population size than Henrich's discrete-generations model. We then investigate by way of Monte Carlo simulations the case where each newborn chooses as his/her exemplar the most highly skilled individual from among a limited number of acquaintances. When the number of acquaintances is small relative to the population size, we find that a change in the innovation rate contributes more than a proportional change in population size to the cumulative cultural evolution of skill level.

  7. Adverse Effects of Bisphosphonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Use of bisphosphonates has been growing steadily in the last decade. This follows the introduction of simpler dosing regimes, the availability of lower-priced generics, and concerns about the safety of hormone-replacement therapy. Bisphosphonates have a relatively good safety record and are toler......Use of bisphosphonates has been growing steadily in the last decade. This follows the introduction of simpler dosing regimes, the availability of lower-priced generics, and concerns about the safety of hormone-replacement therapy. Bisphosphonates have a relatively good safety record...... and are tolerated by the majority of patients, but serious adverse events have been recorded in some cases. Only the most common of adverse effects are robustly observable in clinical trials. In general, studies were not powered to detect effects that were lower in incidence than fractures. This review of adverse...... compared with the risk of osteoporotic fractures, at least in patients with the same risk of fractures as those in the phase III trials. It is biologically plausible that atypical fragility fractures could follow from suppression of bone remodeling, but high-quality studies proving causality are lacking...

  8. Adverse effects of bisphosphonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Use of bisphosphonates has been growing steadily in the last decade. This follows the introduction of simpler dosing regimes, the availability of lower-priced generics, and concerns about the safety of hormone-replacement therapy. Bisphosphonates have a relatively good safety record and are toler......Use of bisphosphonates has been growing steadily in the last decade. This follows the introduction of simpler dosing regimes, the availability of lower-priced generics, and concerns about the safety of hormone-replacement therapy. Bisphosphonates have a relatively good safety record...... and are tolerated by the majority of patients, but serious adverse events have been recorded in some cases. Only the most common of adverse effects are robustly observable in clinical trials. In general, studies were not powered to detect effects that were lower in incidence than fractures. This review of adverse...... compared with the risk of osteoporotic fractures, at least in patients with the same risk of fractures as those in the phase III trials. It is biologically plausible that atypical fragility fractures could follow from suppression of bone remodeling, but high-quality studies proving causality are lacking...

  9. Childhood vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Palit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood vitiligo is often encountered in dermatological practice. When present in infancy or early childhood, various nevoid and hereditary disorders are to be differentiated. In many cases, familial aggregation of the disease is seen and other autoimmune disorders may be associated. Segmental presentation is more common, and limited body surface area involvement is usual in this age group. Children with vitiligo often suffer from anxiety and depression because of their unusual appearance. Management of vitiligo in children is difficult as therapeutic options are restricted when compared to that in adult patients. Selection of treatment should be careful in these patients with the aim to achieve best results with minimal side effects as well as relieving patients′ and parents′ anxiety.

  10. Childhood rhabdomyosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba Rovira, S M; Inarejos Clemente, E J

    Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common soft-tissue sarcoma in children; it can appear in any part of the body. Its biological behavior varies widely, and despite the absence of specific clinical or radiological characteristics, rhabdomyosarcoma should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of solid tumors in children. This review focuses primarily on the imaging findings and anatomical distribution of the histological subtypes of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma and secondarily on the differential findings in histological studies.

  11. Childhood pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uretsky, G; Goldschmiedt, M; James, K

    1999-05-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a rare finding in childhood but probably more common than is generally realized. This condition should be considered in the evaluation of children with vomiting and abdominal pain, because it can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Clinical suspicion is required to make the diagnosis, especially when the serum amylase concentration is normal. Recurrent pancreatitis may be familial as a result of inherited biochemical or anatomic abnormalities. Patients with hereditary pancreatitis are at high risk for pancreatic cancer.

  12. Fertility in female childhood cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Bruin, Marie L; Van Dulmen-den Broeder, Eline; Van den Berg, Marleen H

    2009-01-01

    chemotherapy and radiotherapy may have an adverse effect on ovarian function, ovarian reserve and uterine function, clinically leading to sub-fertility, infertility, premature menopause and/or adverse pregnancy outcomes. Here we will first address normal female fertility and methods to detect decreased...... fertility. Hence we will focus on direct effects as well as late fertility-related adverse effects caused by chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and we will conclude with a summary of current options for fertility preservation in female childhood cancer survivors....

  13. Ion cumulation by conical cathode electrolysis.

    CERN Document Server

    Grishin, V G

    2002-01-01

    Results of solid-state sodium stearate electrolysis with conical and cylindrical cathodes is presented here. Both electric measurement and conical samples destruction can be explained if a stress developing inside the conical sample is much bigger than in the cylindrical case and there is its unlimited amplification along cone slopes. OTHER KEYWORDS: ion, current, solid, symmetry, cumulation, polarization, depolarization, ionic conductor,superionic conductor, ice, crystal, strain, V-center, V-centre, doped crystal, interstitial impurity, intrinsic color center, high pressure technology, Bridgman, anvil, experiment, crowdion, dielectric, proton, layer, defect, lattice, dynamics, electromigration, mobility, muon catalysis, concentration, doping, dopant, conductivity, pycnonuclear reaction, permittivity, dielectric constant, point defects, interstitials, polarizability, imperfection, defect centers, glass, epitaxy, sodium hydroxide, metallic substrate, crystallization, point, tip, susceptibility, ferroelectric, ...

  14. [Cumulative trauma disorders: work or professional disease?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Marcus Vitor Diniz; Cavalcanti, Francisco Ivo Dantas; Soriano, Evelyne Pessoa; de Miranda, Hênio Ferreira

    2009-06-01

    This study aimed at reviewing the Brazilian legislation applied to occupational health. It refers to the diseases embodied in the Repetition Strain Injury (RSI) and Cumulative Trauma Disorders (CTD) regarded as work or professional diseases. This analysis allowed to perform the historical evolution of legislation concerning the issue, noting that the state of the art of regulation on RSI-CTD is anchored in specific regulation present in the Normative Instruction 98/2003, that establishes the diagnostic criteria and classification of RSI-CTD. It was concluded that according to the existing legislation in Brazil, the pathologies related to RSI-CTD are considered as work diseases and their legal effects are similar to the work-related accidents.

  15. Childhood Obesity Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Childhood Obesity Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Children (WIC) Program, 2000–2014 Prevalence of Childhood Obesity in the United States, 2011-2014 Childhood obesity ...

  16. Vaccine adverse events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follows, Jill

    2012-01-01

    Millions of adults are vaccinated annually against the seasonal influenza virus. An undetermined number of individuals will develop adverse events to the influenza vaccination. Those who suffer substantiated vaccine injuries, disabilities, and aggravated conditions may file a timely, no-fault and no-cost petition for financial compensation under the National Vaccine Act in the Vaccine Court. The elements of a successful vaccine injury claim are described in the context of a claim showing the seasonal influenza vaccination was the cause of Guillain-Barré syndrome.

  17. Polytraumatization and Trauma Symptoms in Adolescent Boys and Girls: Interpersonal and Noninterpersonal Events and Moderating Effects of Adverse Family Circumstances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Doris Kristina; Gustafsson, Per E.; Svedin, Carl Goran

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the cumulative effect of interpersonal and noninterpersonal traumatic life events (IPEs and nIPEs, respectively) on the mental health of adolescents and to determine if the adverse impacts of trauma were moderated by adverse family circumstances (AFC). Adolescents (mean age 16.7 years) from the…

  18. Mu opioid receptor polymorphism, early social adversity, and social traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Charles S; Johnson, Sheri L; Kim, Youngmee

    2016-10-01

    A polymorphism in the mu opioid receptor gene OPRM1 (rs1799971) has been investigated for its role in sensitivity to social contexts. Evidence suggests that the G allele of this polymorphism is associated with higher levels of sensitivity. This study tested for main effects of the polymorphism and its interaction with a self-report measure of childhood adversity as an index of negative environment. Outcomes were several personality measures relevant to social connection. Significant interactions were obtained, such that the negative impact of childhood adversity on personality was greater among G carriers than among A homozygotes on measures of agreeableness, interdependence, anger proneness, hostility, authentic pride, life engagement, and an index of (mostly negative) feelings coloring one's world view. Findings support the role of OPRM1 in sensitivity to negative environments. Limitations are noted, including the lack of a measure of advantageous social environment to assess sensitivity to positive social contexts.

  19. Childhood trauma exposure and toxic stress: what the PNP needs to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornor, Gail

    2015-01-01

    Trauma exposure in childhood is a major public health problem that can result in lifelong mental and physical health consequences. Pediatric nurse practitioners must improve their skills in the identification of trauma exposure in children and their interventions with these children. This continuing education article will describe childhood trauma exposure (adverse childhood experiences) and toxic stress and their effects on the developing brain and body. Adverse childhood experiences include a unique set of trauma exposures. The adverse childhood experiences or trauma discussed in this continuing education offering will include childhood exposure to emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect, physical neglect, domestic violence, household substance abuse, household mental illness, parental separation or divorce, and a criminal household member. Thorough and efficient methods of screening for trauma exposure will be discussed. Appropriate intervention after identification of trauma exposure will be explored.

  20. Mismatch or allostatic load? Timing of life adversity differentially shapes gray matter volume and anxious temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Manuel; Scharfenort, Robert; Schümann, Dirk; Schiele, Miriam A.; Münsterkötter, Anna L.; Deckert, Jürgen; Domschke, Katharina; Haaker, Jan; Kalisch, Raffael; Pauli, Paul; Reif, Andreas; Romanos, Marcel; Zwanzger, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, adversity was defined as the accumulation of environmental events (allostatic load). Recently however, a mismatch between the early and the later (adult) environment (mismatch) has been hypothesized to be critical for disease development, a hypothesis that has not yet been tested explicitly in humans. We explored the impact of timing of life adversity (childhood and past year) on anxiety and depression levels (N = 833) and brain morphology (N = 129). Both remote (childhood) and proximal (recent) adversities were differentially mirrored in morphometric changes in areas critically involved in emotional processing (i.e. amygdala/hippocampus, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, respectively). The effect of adversity on affect acted in an additive way with no evidence for interactions (mismatch). Structural equation modeling demonstrated a direct effect of adversity on morphometric estimates and anxiety/depression without evidence of brain morphology functioning as a mediator. Our results highlight that adversity manifests as pronounced changes in brain morphometric and affective temperament even though these seem to represent distinct mechanistic pathways. A major goal of future studies should be to define critical time periods for the impact of adversity and strategies for intervening to prevent or reverse the effects of adverse childhood life experiences. PMID:26568620

  1. Protection of Childhood in Greece

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deligeoroglou E; Christopoulos P; Salakos N; Roupa Z; Sotiropoulou P; Papadimitriou P

    2005-01-01

    The early childhood care is important not only for individual Greek children and families but also for Greek society at large. Furthermore, it needs to be secured that the burden of labour and the raising of child is not only a woman's duty. There is a broad recognition that a strategy for developing early childhood services and childcare to support mother's labour force participation is in the public interest and should be the primary scope of the national health and social care policy. The inadequate organization of the child welfare system has adverse effects on the well-being, and function of the family. Only the improvement of the expected protection can lead to social politics that will give a chance to mother and child to live in conditions fitting human value and dignity. Herein, we presented the regulations and services along with health care professionals that refer to the protection of child in Greece.

  2. Long and Short Term Cumulative Structural Priming Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaschak, Michael P; Kutta, Timothy J; Coyle, Jacqueline M

    We present six experiments that examine cumulative structural priming effects (i.e., structural priming effects that accumulate across many utterances). Of particular interest is whether (1) cumulative priming effects transfer across language production tasks and (2) the transfer of cumulative priming effects across tasks persists over the course of a week. Our data suggest that cumulative structural priming effects do transfer across language production tasks (e.g., from written stem completion to picture description, and from picture description to written stem completion), but only when both tasks are presented in the same experimental session. When cumulative priming effects are established in one task, and the second (changed) task is not presented until a week later, the cumulative priming effects are not observed.

  3. Why Veterinary Medical Educators Should Embrace Cumulative Final Exams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, Kenneth D

    2017-01-03

    The topic of cumulative final examinations often elicits polarizing opinions from veterinary medical educators. While some faculty prefer cumulative finals, there are many who perceive these types of examinations as problematic. Specifically, faculty often cite cumulative examinations are more likely to cause students' greater stress, which may in turn result in negative student evaluations of teaching. Cumulative finals also restrict the number of items one may present to students on most recent material. While these cited disadvantages may have some merit, the advantages of cumulative examinations far exceed the disadvantages. The purpose of this article is to discuss the advantages of cumulative examinations with respect to learning evidence, grade/score validity, fairness issues, and implications for academic policy.

  4. Exposure assessment of the cumulative intake of pesticides with dissimilar mode of action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Christiansen, Sofie

    Risk assessment of pesticides is currently based on the no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) for effects of single compounds. However, humans might be exposed to a mixture of pesticides at the same time and the exposure could occur from more pesticides with endocrine disrupting effects....... In this study the effects of combined exposure from four endocrine disrupting pesticides have been investigated (procymidone, mancozeb, tebuconazole, and prochloraz). The four pesticides have dissimilar mode of actions. On the background of the potency for each pesticide to a given effect, a relative potency...... factor and the cumulative acute exposure of the pesticides have been estimated....

  5. Analysis of experimental data on correlations between cumulative particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlasov, A.V.; Doroshkevich, E.A.; Leksin, G.A. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    Experimental data on correlations between cumulative particles are analyzed. A space-time and energy-transfer pattern of hadron-nucleus interaction based on both correlation data and data on the inclusive spectra of cumulative particles is considered. A new variable that is convenient for describing the production of cumulative particles is proposed using the concept of symmetry between the one-particle and multiparticle distributions. 32 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Analysis of Memory Codes and Cumulative Rehearsal in Observational Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, Albert; And Others

    1974-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of memory codes varying in meaningfulness and retrievability and cumulative rehearsal on retention of observationally learned responses over increasing temporal intervals. (Editor)

  7. Continuously Cumulating Meta-Analysis and Replicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braver, Sanford L; Thoemmes, Felix J; Rosenthal, Robert

    2014-05-01

    The current crisis in scientific psychology about whether our findings are irreproducible was presaged years ago by Tversky and Kahneman (1971), who noted that even sophisticated researchers believe in the fallacious Law of Small Numbers-erroneous intuitions about how imprecisely sample data reflect population phenomena. Combined with the low power of most current work, this often leads to the use of misleading criteria about whether an effect has replicated. Rosenthal (1990) suggested more appropriate criteria, here labeled the continuously cumulating meta-analytic (CCMA) approach. For example, a CCMA analysis on a replication attempt that does not reach significance might nonetheless provide more, not less, evidence that the effect is real. Alternatively, measures of heterogeneity might show that two studies that differ in whether they are significant might have only trivially different effect sizes. We present a nontechnical introduction to the CCMA framework (referencing relevant software), and then explain how it can be used to address aspects of replicability or more generally to assess quantitative evidence from numerous studies. We then present some examples and simulation results using the CCMA approach that show how the combination of evidence can yield improved results over the consideration of single studies.

  8. Childhood psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahé, Emmanuel

    2016-12-01

    Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease. Recently, few data have been published on epidemiology, comorbidity, or therapy in children with psoriasis. Psoriasis affects up to 2% of children in Europe, even during the first months of life. The link between psoriasis and metabolic comorbidities has been highlighted, notably in relation to excessive weight and obesity. The clinical picture of psoriasis in childhood resembles adult disease, however, some clinical features are noteworthy: neonatal diaper rash is relatively specific, face involvement and guttate psoriasis are more common, plaques are often smaller, and scales are finer and softer than in adults. Napkin, guttate and palmoplantar psoriasis appear to have specific features in childhood and prevalence depends on the age of the child. Although benign, the effect of psoriasis on social interaction can be major, especially in children. Topical therapies are the first line of treatment for skin-limited disease. For chronic cases and more severe cases, phototherapy or traditional biologic systemic treatments must be discussed. The great challenge will be to propose international guidelines to manage these children.

  9. Childhood: 1892-1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortham, Sue C.

    Written to celebrate a century of childhood and to mark the centennial year of the Association for Childhood Education International (ACEI), this book describes childhood and childhood education during the past century in the context of the conditions during different periods. The book contains the following chapters: (1) "The American…

  10. Cumulative Effect of Depression on Dementia Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Olazarán

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze a potential cumulative effect of life-time depression on dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD, with control of vascular factors (VFs. Methods. This study was a subanalysis of the Neurological Disorders in Central Spain (NEDICES study. Past and present depression, VFs, dementia status, and dementia due to AD were documented at study inception. Dementia status was also documented after three years. Four groups were created according to baseline data: never depression (nD, past depression (pD, present depression (prD, and present and past depression (prpD. Logistic regression was used. Results. Data of 1,807 subjects were investigated at baseline (mean age 74.3, 59.3% women, and 1,376 (81.6% subjects were evaluated after three years. The prevalence of dementia at baseline was 6.7%, and dementia incidence was 6.3%. An effect of depression was observed on dementia prevalence (OR [CI 95%] 1.84 [1.01–3.35] for prD and 2.73 [1.08–6.87] for prpD, and on dementia due to AD (OR 1.98 [0.98–3.99] for prD and OR 3.98 [1.48–10.71] for prpD (fully adjusted models, nD as reference. Depression did not influence dementia incidence. Conclusions. Present depression and, particularly, present and past depression are associated with dementia at old age. Multiple mechanisms, including toxic effect of depression on hippocampal neurons, plausibly explain these associations.

  11. Cumulative social disadvantage and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Laurie J; Silver, Ellen J; Stein, Ruth E K

    2006-04-01

    Disparities in child health are a major public health concern. However, it is unclear whether these are predominantly the result of low income, race, or other social risk factors that may contribute to their health disadvantage. Although others have examined the effects of the accumulation of risk factors, this methodology has not been applied to child health. We tested 4 social risk factors (poverty, minority race/ethnicity, low parental education, and not living with both biological parents) to assess whether they have cumulative effects on child health and examined whether access to health care reduced health disparities. We analyzed data on 57,553 children low parental education, and single-parent household) were consistently associated with child health. These were summed, generating the Social Disadvantage Index (range: 0-3). A total of 43.6% of children had no social disadvantages, 30.8% had 1, 15.6% had 2, and 10.0% had all 3. Compared with those with no social disadvantages, the odds ratios (ORs) of being in "good, fair, or poor health" (versus "excellent or very good") were 1.95 for 1 risk, 3.22 for 2 risks, and 4.06 for 3 risks. ORs of having a chronic condition increased from 1.25 (1 risk) to 1.60 (2 risks) to 2.11 (3 risks). ORs for activity limitation were 1.51 (1 risk) to 2.14 (2 risks) and 2.88 (3 risks). Controlling for health insurance did not affect these findings. The accumulation of social disadvantage among children was strongly associated with poorer child health and having insurance did not reduce the observed health disparities.

  12. Adversity and Internalizing Problems among Rural Chinese Adolescents: The Roles of Parents and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Shannon; Adams, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the developing world, adolescents living in rural poverty face multiple and inter-related adaptive challenges. Using longitudinal data from the Gansu Survey of Children and Families, we adopt an approach grounded in resilience theory to investigate the relationship between cumulative adversity and internalizing problems among 1,659…

  13. A Framework for Treating Cumulative Trauma with Art Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naff, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Cumulative trauma is relatively undocumented in art therapy practice, although there is growing evidence that art therapy provides distinct benefits for resolving various traumas. This qualitative study proposes an art therapy treatment framework for cumulative trauma derived from semi-structured interviews with three art therapists and artistic…

  14. Cumulative Effects of Human Activities on Marine Mammal Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Cumulative Effects of Human Activities on Marine Mammal ...marine mammals . OBJECTIVES The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine has convened a volunteer committee that will...Review the present scientific understanding of cumulative effects of anthropogenic stressors on marine mammals with a focus on anthropogenic sound

  15. A Framework for Treating Cumulative Trauma with Art Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naff, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Cumulative trauma is relatively undocumented in art therapy practice, although there is growing evidence that art therapy provides distinct benefits for resolving various traumas. This qualitative study proposes an art therapy treatment framework for cumulative trauma derived from semi-structured interviews with three art therapists and artistic…

  16. Cumulative Estrogen Exposure and Prospective Memory in Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesson, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    This study looked at cumulative lifetime estrogen exposure, as estimated with a mathematical index (Index of Cumulative Estrogen Exposure (ICEE)) that included variables (length of time on estrogen therapy, age at menarche and menopause, postmenopausal body mass index, time since menopause, nulliparity and duration of breastfeeding) known to…

  17. Lattice QCD results on cumulant ratios at freeze-out

    CERN Document Server

    Karsch, Frithjof

    2016-01-01

    Ratios of cumulants of net proton-number fluctuations measured by the STAR Collaboration show strong deviations from a skellam distribution, which should describe thermal properties of cumulant ratios, if proton-number fluctuations are generated in equilibrium and a hadron resonance gas (HRG) model would provide a suitable description of thermodynamics at the freeze-out temperature. We present some results on sixth order cumulants entering the calculation of the QCD equation of state at non-zero values of the baryon chemical potential (mu_B) and discuss limitations on the applicability of HRG thermodynamics deduced from a comparison between QCD and HRG model calculations of cumulants of conserved charge fluctuations. We show that basic features of the $\\mu_B$-dependence of skewness and kurtosis ratios of net proton-number fluctuations measured by the STAR Collaboration resemble those expected from a O(mu_B^2) QCD calculation of the corresponding net baryon-number cumulant ratios.

  18. A new family of cumulative indexes for measuring scientific performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Kozak

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a new family of cumulative indexes for measuring scientific performance which can be applied to many metrics, including h index and its variants (here we apply it to the h index, h(2 index and Google Scholar's i10 index. These indexes follow the general principle of repeating the index calculation for the same publication set. Using bibliometric data and reviewer scores for accepted and rejected fellowship applicants we examine how valid the cumulative variant is compared to the original variant. These analyses showed that the cumulative indexes result in higher correlations with the reviewer scores than their original variants. Thus, the cumulative indexes better reflect the assessments by peers than the original variants and are useful extensions of the original indexes. In contrast to many other measures of scientific performance proposed up to now, the cumulative indexes seem not only to be effective, but they are also easy to understand and calculate.

  19. Do Multiple Concussions Lead to Cumulative Cognitive Deficits? A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumul, Joy Noelle; McKinlay, Audrey

    2016-11-01

    A concussion is an important health concern for children and adolescents, particularly in the context of sporting injuries. Some research suggests a cumulative effect from multiple concussions (also referred to as mild traumatic brain injury), which creates a dilemma when considering how to manage children and young persons who may experience multiple concussive events within a sporting season. However, there is very little research regarding the outcomes of multiple concussions and their optimal management. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the evidence regarding the cognitive outcomes of multiple concussions. After assessing the eligibility of the articles from the literature search, 7 studies were identified and included in the review. In most of the available literature, the cognitive outcomes related to multiple concussions are measured during the same developmental age as when the injuries happened. Moreover, most studies that investigated multiple concussions are focused on sports-related injuries, and only some are conducted in children and adolescents in the general population. The current evidence is inconclusive; whereas some studies reported adverse outcomes, others reported null findings. The studies that reported adverse or cumulative effects based their findings on worse cognitive outcomes, more subjective symptoms, and prolonged recovery postinjury. II. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A bivariate optimal replacement policy with cumulative repair cost limit under cumulative damage model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MIN-T SAI LAI; SHIH-CHIH CHEN

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a bivariate replacement policy (n, T) for a cumulative shock damage process is presented that included the concept of cumulative repair cost limit. The arrival shocks can be divided into two kinds of shocks. Each type-I shock causes a random amount of damage and these damages are additive. When the total damage exceeds a failure level, the system goes into serious failure. Type-II shock causes the system into minor failure and such a failure can be corrected by minimal repair. When a minor failure occurs, the repaircost will be evaluated and minimal repair is executed if the accumulated repair cost is less than a predetermined limit L. The system is replaced at scheduled time T, at n-th minor failure, or at serious failure. The long-term expected cost per unit time is derived using the expected costs as the optimality criterion. The minimum-cost policy is derived, and existence and uniqueness of the optimal n* and T* are proved. This bivariate optimal replacement policy (n, T) is showed to be better than the optimal T* and the optimal n* policy.

  1. Life course adversity in the lives of formerly homeless persons with serious mental illness: context and meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, Deborah K; Smith, Bikki Tran; Henwood, Benjamin F; Tiderington, Emmy

    2012-07-01

    This qualitative study assessed the frequency and subjective meaning of adverse experiences using case study analyses of interviews with 38 formerly homeless adults with co-occurring serious mental illness (SMI) and substance abuse histories. Adverse life events were inventoried using an adaptation of Lloyd and Turner's (2008) 41-item checklist. Participants averaged 8.8 adverse events, with approximately one-third having experienced incarceration (37%), suicidality (32%), abandonment by one or both parents (30%), and death of their mother (34%). Cross-case analyses yielded 3 themes: social losses because of death and estrangement; the significance of chronic stressors as well as acute events; and the cumulative lifetime nature of adversity. Findings suggest that life course experiences of trauma and loss have a cumulative influence in the lives of this population in addition and in relation to SMI, substance abuse, and homelessness. In this context, the mental health recovery movement should address prior adverse experiences beyond comorbid diagnoses in this population.

  2. Longhi Games, Internal Reservoirs, and Cumulate Porosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, S. A.

    2009-05-01

    Fe in plagioclase at an early age, T-rollers (or not) on the Di-Trid boundary in Fo-Di-Sil, the mantle solidus, origins of anorthosites, esoteric uses of Schreinemakers rules and many more topics are all fresh and pleasant memories of John Longhi's prolific and creative work. The Fram-Longhi experimental effect of pressure on plagioclase partitioning with liquid in mafic rocks became essential to an understanding of multiphase Rayleigh fractionation of plagioclase in big layered intrusions. Only by using the pressure effect could I find a good equation through the data for the Kiglapait intrusion, and that result among others required the existence with probability 1.0 of an internal reservoir (Morse, JPet 2008). Knowledge of cumulate porosity is a crucial key to the understanding of layered igneous rocks. We seek both the initial (inverse packing fraction) and residual porosity to find the time and process path from sedimentation to solidification. In the Kiglapait Lower Zone we have a robust estimate of mean residual porosity from the modes of the excluded phases augite, oxides, sulfide, and apatite. To this we apply the maximum variance of plagioclase composition (the An range) to find an algorithm that extends through the Upper Zone and to other intrusions. Of great importance is that all these measurements were made in grain mounts concentrated from typically about 200 g of core or hand specimen, hence the represented sample volume is thousands of times greater than for a thin section. The resulting distribution and scatter of the An range is novel and remarkable. It is V-shaped in the logarithmic representation of stratigraphic height, running from about 20 mole % at both ends (base to top of the Layered Series) to near-zero at 99 PCS. The intercept of the porosity-An range relation gives An range = 3.5 % at zero residual porosity. Petrographic analysis reveals that for PCS less than 95 and greater than 99.9, the An range is intrinsic, i.e. pre-cumulus, for

  3. Modelling the cumulative risk of a false-positive screening test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Rebecca A; Miglioretti, Diana L; Smith, Robert A

    2010-10-01

    The goal of a screening test is to reduce morbidity and mortality through the early detection of disease; but the benefits of screening must be weighed against potential harms, such as false-positive (FP) results, which may lead to increased healthcare costs, patient anxiety, and other adverse outcomes associated with diagnostic follow-up procedures. Accurate estimation of the cumulative risk of an FP test after multiple screening rounds is important for program evaluation and goal setting, as well as informing individuals undergoing screening what they should expect from testing over time. Estimation of the cumulative FP risk is complicated by the existence of censoring and possible dependence of the censoring time on the event history. Current statistical methods for estimating the cumulative FP risk from censored data follow two distinct approaches, either conditioning on the number of screening tests observed or marginalizing over this random variable. We review these current methods, identify their limitations and possibly unrealistic assumptions, and propose simple extensions to address some of these limitations. We discuss areas where additional extensions may be useful. We illustrate methods for estimating the cumulative FP recall risk of screening mammography and investigate the appropriateness of modelling assumptions using 13 years of data collected by the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC). In the BCSC data we found evidence of violations of modelling assumptions of both classes of statistical methods. The estimated risk of an FP recall after 10 screening mammograms varied between 58% and 77% depending on the approach used, with an estimate of 63% based on what we feel are the most reasonable modelling assumptions.

  4. Cumulative high doses of inhaled formoterol have less systemic effects in asthmatic children 6-11 years-old than cumulative high doses of inhaled terbutaline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaae, Rikke; Agertoft, Lone; Pedersen, Sören

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate high dose tolerability and relative systemic dose potency between inhaled clinically equipotent dose increments of formoterol and terbutaline in children. METHODS: Twenty boys and girls (6-11 years-old) with asthma and normal ECGs were studied. Ten doses of formoterol (Oxis......) 4.5 microg (F4.5) or terbutaline (Bricanyl) 500 microg (T500) were inhaled cumulatively via a dry powder inhaler (Turbuhaler) over 1 h (three patients) or 2.5 h (17 patients) and compared to a day of no treatment, in a randomised, double-blind (active treatments only), crossover trial. Blood...... pressure (BP), ECG, plasma potassium, glucose, lactate, and adverse events were monitored up to 10 h to assess tolerability and relative systemic dose potency. RESULTS: Formoterol and terbutaline had significant beta2-adrenergic effects on most outcomes. Apart from the effect on systolic BP, QRS duration...

  5. Parameters from preoperative overnight oximetry predict postoperative adverse events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, F; Zhou, L; Liao, P

    2014-10-01

    Continuous home monitoring of oxygen saturation has become a reliable and feasible practice. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of preoperative overnight oximetry in predicting postoperative adverse events. Following research ethics board approval, consented patients underwent a preoperative overnight monitoring of oxygen saturation with a portable oximeter. Parameters from the oximetry data were extracted and their predictive performance for postoperative adverse events was evaluated. A total of 573 patients were studied with age: 60±12 years and 45% male. Oxygen desaturation index (ODI), cumulative time percentage with SpO2 3.0 events/h, >9.2 events/h and > 28.5 events/h; CT90: >0.1%, >1.1% and >7.2%; mean SpO2: rate of postoperative adverse events. For ODI >28.5 vs. ODI ⋝28.5 events/h, the odds ratio adjusted with age, gender, body mass index and American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status was 2.2 (95% CI: 1.3-3.9). Patients with mean preoperative overnight SpO2 28.5 events/h or CT90 >7.2% are at higher risk for postoperative adverse events. Overnight oximetry could be a useful tool to stratify patients for the risk of postoperative adverse events.

  6. Childhood Trauma, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Alcohol Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Brady, Kathleen T.; Back, Sudie E.

    2012-01-01

    Early-childhood trauma is strongly associated with developing mental health problems, including alcohol dependence, later in life. People with early-life trauma may use alcohol to help cope with trauma-related symptoms. This article reviews the prevalence of early-childhood trauma and its robust association with the development of alcohol use disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder. It also examines the potential biological mechanisms by which early adverse experiences can result in long-...

  7. Treatment of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Without Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pui, Ching-Hon; Campana, Dario; Pei, Deqing; Bowman, W. Paul; Sandlund, John T.; Kaste, Sue C.; Ribeiro, Raul C.; Rubnitz, Jeffrey E.; Raimondi, Susana C.; Onciu, Mihaela; Coustan-Smith, Elaine; Kun, Larry E.; Jeha, Sima; Cheng, Cheng; Howard, Scott C.; Simmons, Vickey; Bayles, Amy; Metzger, Monika L.; Boyett, James M.; Leung, Wing; Handgretinger, Rupert; Downing, James R.; Evans, William E.; Relling, Mary V.

    2009-01-01

    Background We conducted a clinical trial to test whether prophylactic cranial irradiation could be omitted in all children with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Methods A total of 498 evaluable patients were enrolled. Treatment intensity was based on presenting features and the level of minimal residual disease after remission induction treatment. Continuous complete remission was compared between the 71 patients who previously would have received prophylactic cranial irradiation and the 56 historical controls who received it. Results The 5-year event-free and overall survival probabilities (95% confidence interval) for all 498 patients were 85.6% (79.9% to 91.3%) and 93.5% (89.8% to 97.2%), respectively. The 5-year cumulative risk of isolated central-nervous-system (CNS) relapse was 2.7% (1.1% to 4.2%), and that of any CNS relapse (isolated plus combined) was 3.9% (1.9% to 5.9%). The 71 patients had significantly better continuous complete remission than the 56 historical controls (P=0.04). All 11 patients with isolated CNS relapse remain in second remission for 0.4 to 5.5 years. CNS leukemia (CNS-3 status) or a traumatic lumbar puncture with blasts at diagnosis and a high level of minimal residual disease (≥ 1%) after 6 weeks of remission induction were significantly associated with poorer event-free survival. Risk factors for CNS relapse included the presence of the t(1;19)[TCF3-PBX1], any CNS involvement at diagnosis, and T-cell immunophenotype. Common adverse effects included allergic reactions to L-asparaginase, osteonecrosis, thrombosis, and disseminated fungal infection. Conclusions With effective risk-adjusted chemotherapy, prophylactic cranial irradiation can be safely omitted in the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. PMID:19553647

  8. Adverse Reactions to Hallucinogenic Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Roger E. , Ed.

    This reports a conference of psychologists, psychiatrists, geneticists and others concerned with the biological and psychological effects of lysergic acid diethylamide and other hallucinogenic drugs. Clinical data are presented on adverse drug reactions. The difficulty of determining the causes of adverse reactions is discussed, as are different…

  9. Childhood fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, C Y; Allen, D M

    1996-02-01

    Childhood fever is a common symptom, reflective of multiple causes. As the child is often unable to express himself, the physician must rely on parents' observations and the physical examination. The majority of febrile children have non-bacterial upper respiratory tract infection and indiscriminate use of antibiotics is inappropriate, ineffective and leads to drug-resistance such as the emergence of Penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. In this article, we attempt to identify the possible causes of fever by a simple approach using the presence or absence of associated or localising symptoms. Infants less than 3 months constitute a unique group as the fever may be related to perinatal events and as serious bacterial infections can still occur despite unremarkable physical findings. Management of fever needs to take into account the toxicity, immune status and age of the patients as well as the source of the infection. Zealous overprescription of antipyretics needs to be avoided with attention directed to the cause of the fever, the child's capacity to cope with the illness and parental education.

  10. Entanglement entropy and particle number cumulants of disordered fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmistrov, I. S.; Tikhonov, K. S.; Gornyi, I. V.; Mirlin, A. D.

    2017-08-01

    We study the entanglement entropy and particle number cumulants for a system of disordered noninteracting fermions in d dimensions. We show, both analytically and numerically, that for a weak disorder the entanglement entropy and the second cumulant (particle number variance) are proportional to each other with a universal coefficient. The corresponding expressions are analogous to those in the clean case but with a logarithmic factor regularized by the mean free path rather than by the system size. We also determine the scaling of higher cumulants by analytical (weak disorder) and numerical means. Finally, we predict that the particle number variance and the entanglement entropy are nonanalytic functions of disorder at the Anderson transition.

  11. Concurrent adversities among adolescents with conduct problems: the NAAHS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigstad, Bjørn; Kvernmo, Siv

    2016-10-01

    Several studies have confirmed that maltreatment and abuse in childhood are related to conduct problems. Less is known about such relationships with concurrent adversities in adolescence and, also, when compared with other severe adversities and possible multiple additive effects. The study encompassed a community population of 4881 adolescents 15-16 years of age 50.1 % boys and 49.9 % girls. Youth with and without conduct problem scores within the deviant range on the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was compared on 12 concurrent adversities. Based on self-reports, 4.4 % of the adolescents had conduct problem scores within the deviant range and more girls (5.1 %) than boys (3.7 %). In the deviant conduct problem group, 65.1 % had experienced two or more concurrent adversities compared with 26.3 % of youths in the non-deviant group (OR 5.23, 95 % CI 3.91-7.01). Likewise, the deviant conduct problem group was from 1.71 to 8.43 times more at the risk of experiencing the different adversities. Parental mental health problems and experiences of violence were multivariately strongest associated with conduct problem scores within the deviant range on the SDQ. A strong multiple additive relationship with adversities was found. Two-thirds of youth with SDQ conduct problem scores within the deviant range reported two or more concurrent adversities. Clinicians should seek information about kinds and amount of possible traumatic adversities in youth with conduct problems and offer evidence based treatment.

  12. Psychopathology, childhood trauma, and personality traits in patients with borderline personality disorder and their sisters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, Lise; Paris, Joel; Guttman, Herta; Russell, Jennifer

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to document and compare adverse childhood experiences, and personality profiles in women with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and their sisters, and to determine how these factors impact current psychopathology. Fifty-six patients with BPD and their sisters were compared on measures assessing psychopathology, personality traits, and childhood adversities. Most sisters showed little evidence of psychopathology. Both groups reported dysfunctional parent-child relationships and a high prevalence of childhood trauma. Subjects with BPD reported experiencing more emotional abuse and intrafamilial sexual abuse, but more similarities than differences between probands and sisters were found. In multilevel analyses, personality traits of affective instability and impulsivity predicted DIB-R scores and SCL-90-R scores, above and beyond trauma. There were few relationships between childhood adversities and other measures of psychopathology. Sensitivity to adverse experiences, as reflected in the development of psychopathology, appears to be influenced by personality trait profiles.

  13. An Upsurge in early childhood mortality in Kenya: A search for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    attributable to a combination of factors, including increased poverty, adverse effects of economic ... programs, increased childhood malnutrition, decreased use of certain maternity care services ... Hence data on the levels and determinants of.

  14. Interrelationship Between Childhood Obesity and Pediatric Dentistry: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülçin Doğusal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is an important public health problem worldwide with an increasing incidence and prevalance. This increase in the obesity rates can lead to many other health problems. Obesity shows early symptoms in childhood like other chronic diseases such as dental caries and gingivitis, and it will be an important step to prevent their adverse effects at early ages in terms of improving the general wellbeing of the societies. The aim of this review is to point out childhood obesity and its potential risks, and put forward its consequences in terms of oral health as well as offering solutions.

  15. Childhood Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...

  16. Adverse Perinatal Outcomes among Immigrant Women from Ethiopia in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon-Margalit, Ronit; Sherman, Dan; Manor, Orly; Kurzweil, Yaffa

    2015-06-01

    Immigration from Ethiopia to Israel started about 30 years ago. We aimed to compare birth outcomes between Israeli women of Ethiopian origin and Israeli-born, non-Ethiopian women. We hypothesized a higher frequency of adverse birth outcomes among Ethiopian women and a trend of improvement among those who were raised in Israel since early childhood. This is a descriptive study, comparing birth outcomes of Ethiopian (n = 1,319) and non-Ethiopian women (n = 27,307) who gave birth in a medical center in Central Israel in 2002 to 2009. Ethiopian women were further categorized by age at immigration. Logistic regressions were constructed to compare the incidence of adverse birth outcomes between Ethiopian and non-Ethiopian women, controlling for potential confounders. Ethiopian women had about twice the incidence of very and extremely preterm births, compared with non-Ethiopians. Ethiopian women had twice the odds for neonates who were either small for gestational age or had low 5-minute Apgar scores. Ethiopian women had about threefold increased risk of stillbirths (OR 2.9 [95% CI 1.87-4.49]). No trend of improvement was noted for women who were raised in Israel from early childhood. Ethiopian women are at increased risk of adverse birth outcomes. Future research is needed to investigate the underlying causes for the increased risks and lack of improvement among those who were raised in Israel that will lead to effective interventions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Predicting Cumulative Watershed Effects using Spatially Explicit Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, L. H.; Litschert, S.

    2004-12-01

    Cumulative watershed effects /(CWEs/) result from the combined effects of land disturbances distributed over both space and time. They are of concern because changes in flow and sediment yields can adversely affect aquatic habitat, channel morphology, water yields, and water quality. The assessment procedures currently used by agencies such as the U.S. Forest Service generally rely on a lumped approach to quantify disturbance, despite the widespread recognition that site conditions and location do matter! The overall goal of our work is to develop spatially-explicit models to quantify changes in flow and sediment yields. Key objectives include: use of readily available GIS data; ease of use for resource managers with minimal GIS experience; modularity so that models can be added or updated; and allowing users to select the models and values for key parameters. The DeltaQ model calculates changes in peak, median, and low flows due to forest management activities and fires. Inputs include GIS data with disturbance polygons, an initial change in flow rate, and the time to recovery. Data from paired watershed studies are provided to help guide the user. The initial version of FORest Erosion Simulation Tools /(FOREST/) calculates sediment production from forest harvest, fires, and unpaved roads. Additional modules are being developed to deliver this sediment to the stream channel and route it to downstream locations. In accordance with our objectives, the user can predict sediment production rates using different empirical equations, assign an initial sediment production rate and a specified linear recovery period, or develop a look-up table based on local knowledge, published values, or data from other models such as WEPP. The required GIS layers vary according to the model/(s/) selected, but generally include past disturbances /(e.g., fires and timber harvest/), roads, and elevation. Outputs include GIS layers and text files that can be subjected to additional

  18. Job Demands and Job Control as Predictors of Depressive Symptoms: Moderating Effects of Negative Childhood Socioemotional Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Elovainio, Marko; Virtanen, Marianna; Kivimäki, Mika; Hintsanen, Mirka; Hintsa, Taina; Jokela, Markus; Puttonen, Sampsa; Joensuu, Matti; Lipsanen, Jari; Raitakari, Olli T; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa

    2016-10-01

    There have been calls to know more about vulnerability factors that may predispose to adverse health outcomes at work. We examined if childhood adverse experiences would affect vulnerability to psychosocial stress factors at work. A nationally representative sample of 1546 Finnish men and women was followed up from childhood to adulthood. Childhood adverse experiences consisted of socioeconomic and emotional factors. Job demands and job control were measured 21 years later, and depressive symptoms were measured 21 and 27 years after the childhood measurements. Job demands predicted depressive symptoms over 6 years, and the association was modified by childhood emotional adversity. Participants with three or more emotional adversities in childhood had more depressive symptoms in response to high job demands compared with participants with zero or one emotional adversities in childhood (Betas = -1.40 and -2.01, ps job control and depressive symptoms. Although modest in effect size, these findings provide a developmental viewpoint for understanding the role of childhood experiences in work-related stress factors. Such knowledge can enhance understanding of individual differences in vulnerability to the demands of working life. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. The Temporal Dynamics of Childhood Economic Deprivation and Children’s Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Wagmiller, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Economic deprivation during childhood adversely affects achievement in adolescence and early adulthood. Economically disadvantaged children tend to achieve less than their more advantaged peers on a variety of measures of educational and socioeconomic achievement. Researchers recognize that what matters for achievement is not merely exposure to economic deprivation during childhood but also the temporal dynamics of deprivation. Recent studies have found that the effects of childhood economic ...

  20. Relation between childhood experiences and adults' self-esteem: A sample from Baghdad

    OpenAIRE

    AlShawi, Ameel F; Lafta, Riyadh K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Adverse childhood experiences are associated with significant functional impairments and loss of life in adolescence and adulthood. Literature documents the conversion of traumatic emotional experiences in childhood into psychological disorders later in life. The family is one of the most critical risks and resilient factors for mental health in adolescence and emerging adulthood. Objective: To estimate the effect of childhood experiences on self-esteem during adulthood in a sampl...

  1. Do race, neglect, and childhood poverty predict physical health in adulthood? A multilevel prospective analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikulina, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Childhood neglect and poverty often co-occur and both have been linked to poor physical health outcomes. In addition, Blacks have higher rates of childhood poverty and tend to have worse health than Whites. This paper examines the unique and interacting effects of childhood neglect, race, and family and neighborhood poverty on adult physical health outcomes. This prospective cohort design study uses a sample (N = 675) of court-substantiated cases of childhood neglect and matched controls followed into adulthood (Mage = 41). Health indicators (C-Reactive Protein [CRP], hypertension, and pulmonary functioning) were assessed through blood collection and measurements by a registered nurse. Data were analyzed using hierarchical linear models to control for clustering of participants in childhood neighborhoods. Main effects showed that growing up Black predicted CRP and hypertension elevations, despite controlling for neglect and childhood family and neighborhood poverty and their interactions. Multivariate results showed that race and childhood adversities interacted to predict adult health outcomes. Childhood family poverty predicted increased risk for hypertension for Blacks, not Whites. In contrast, among Whites, childhood neglect predicted elevated CRP. Childhood neighborhood poverty interacted with childhood family poverty to predict pulmonary functioning in adulthood. Gender differences in health indicators were also observed. The effects of childhood neglect, childhood poverty, and growing up Black in the United States are manifest in physical health outcomes assessed 30 years later. Implications are discussed. PMID:24189205

  2. Do race, neglect, and childhood poverty predict physical health in adulthood? A multilevel prospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikulina, Valentina; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2014-03-01

    Childhood neglect and poverty often co-occur and both have been linked to poor physical health outcomes. In addition, Blacks have higher rates of childhood poverty and tend to have worse health than Whites. This paper examines the unique and interacting effects of childhood neglect, race, and family and neighborhood poverty on adult physical health outcomes. This prospective cohort design study uses a sample (N=675) of court-substantiated cases of childhood neglect and matched controls followed into adulthood (M(age)=41). Health indicators (C-Reactive Protein [CRP], hypertension, and pulmonary functioning) were assessed through blood collection and measurements by a registered nurse. Data were analyzed using hierarchical linear models to control for clustering of participants in childhood neighborhoods. Main effects showed that growing up Black predicted CRP and hypertension elevations, despite controlling for neglect and childhood family and neighborhood poverty and their interactions. Multivariate results showed that race and childhood adversities interacted to predict adult health outcomes. Childhood family poverty predicted increased risk for hypertension for Blacks, not Whites. In contrast, among Whites, childhood neglect predicted elevated CRP. Childhood neighborhood poverty interacted with childhood family poverty to predict pulmonary functioning in adulthood. Gender differences in health indicators were also observed. The effects of childhood neglect, childhood poverty, and growing up Black in the United States are manifest in physical health outcomes assessed 30 years later. Implications are discussed.

  3. Online Scheduling in Manufacturing A Cumulative Delay Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Suwa, Haruhiko

    2013-01-01

    Online scheduling is recognized as the crucial decision-making process of production control at a phase of “being in production" according to the released shop floor schedule. Online scheduling can be also considered as one of key enablers to realize prompt capable-to-promise as well as available-to-promise to customers along with reducing production lead times under recent globalized competitive markets. Online Scheduling in Manufacturing introduces new approaches to online scheduling based on a concept of cumulative delay. The cumulative delay is regarded as consolidated information of uncertainties under a dynamic environment in manufacturing and can be collected constantly without much effort at any points in time during a schedule execution. In this approach, the cumulative delay of the schedule has the important role of a criterion for making a decision whether or not a schedule revision is carried out. The cumulative delay approach to trigger schedule revisions has the following capabilities for the ...

  4. Cumulative Risks of Foster Care Placement for Danish Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallesen, Peter; Emanuel, Natalia; Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Although recent research suggests that the cumulative risk of foster care placement is far higher for American children than originally suspected, little is known about the cumulative risk of foster care placement in other countries, which makes it difficult to gauge the degree to which factor...... is for Danish children. Results suggest that at the beginning of the study period (in 1998) the cumulative risk of foster care placement for Danish children was roughly in line with the risk for American children. Yet, by the end of the study period (2010), the risk had declined to half the risk for American...... foster care placement is salient in other contexts. In this article, we provide companion estimates to those provided in recent work on the US by using Danish registry data and synthetic cohort life tables to show how high and unequally distributed the cumulative risk of foster care placement...

  5. Mapping cumulative human impacts in the eastern North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stock, A.; Andersen, Jesper; Heinänen, S.

    of the MSFD; and 3) to deepen the understanding of how errors in expert judgment affect the resulting cumulative human impact maps by means of Monte Carlo simulations. We combined existing data sets on the spatial distribution of 33 anthropogenic stressors (linked to the MSFD pressures) and 28 key habitats....... In contrast, the predicted impacts for much of the Norwegian EEZ and areas far offshore were lower. The Monte Carlo simulations confirmed earlier findings that mapping cumulative impacts is generally "robust", but also showed that specific combinations of errors can seriously change local and regional...... on marine ecosystems have only recently been developed. The aims of our study were: 1) to develop a map of cumulative human impacts for the Danish, Swedish, Norwegian and German parts of the Greater North Sea; 2) to adjust the existing methods for mapping cumulative human impacts to fit the requirements...

  6. Cumulative Production Per Township - SaMiRa

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset contains a selected township grid within the Sagebrush Mineral Resource Assessment project (SaMiRa) study area attributed with cumulative oil and gas...

  7. Cumulative radiation exposure in children with cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Reilly, R

    2010-02-01

    This retrospective study calculated the cumulative radiation dose for children with cystic fibrosis (CF) attending a tertiary CF centre. Information on 77 children with a mean age of 9.5 years, a follow up time of 658 person years and 1757 studies including 1485 chest radiographs, 215 abdominal radiographs and 57 computed tomography (CT) scans, of which 51 were thoracic CT scans, were analysed. The average cumulative radiation dose was 6.2 (0.04-25) mSv per CF patient. Cumulative radiation dose increased with increasing age and number of CT scans and was greater in children who presented with meconium ileus. No correlation was identified between cumulative radiation dose and either lung function or patient microbiology cultures. Radiation carries a risk of malignancy and children are particularly susceptible. Every effort must be made to avoid unnecessary radiation exposure in these patients whose life expectancy is increasing.

  8. Macroscopic cumulative fatigue damage of material under nonsymmetrical cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盖秉政

    2002-01-01

    Hashin's macroscopic theory of fatigue damage is further discussed and a new method has been proposed for prediction of cumulative fatigue damage of material and its lifetime under nonsymmetrical cyclic loading.

  9. Translation-Invariant Representation for Cumulative Foot Pressure Images

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Shuai; Tan, Tieniu

    2010-01-01

    Human can be distinguished by different limb movements and unique ground reaction force. Cumulative foot pressure image is a 2-D cumulative ground reaction force during one gait cycle. Although it contains pressure spatial distribution information and pressure temporal distribution information, it suffers from several problems including different shoes and noise, when putting it into practice as a new biometric for pedestrian identification. In this paper, we propose a hierarchical translation-invariant representation for cumulative foot pressure images, inspired by the success of Convolutional deep belief network for digital classification. Key contribution in our approach is discriminative hierarchical sparse coding scheme which helps to learn useful discriminative high-level visual features. Based on the feature representation of cumulative foot pressure images, we develop a pedestrian recognition system which is invariant to three different shoes and slight local shape change. Experiments are conducted on...

  10. Is Childhood Physical Abuse Associated with Peptic Ulcer Disease? Findings from a Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Bottoms, Jennifer; Brennenstuhl, Sarah; Hurd, Marion

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated childhood physical abuse and ulcers in a regionally representative community sample. Age, race and sex were controlled for in addition to five clusters of potentially confounding factors: adverse childhood conditions, adult socioeconomic status, current health behaviors, current stress and marital status, and history of…

  11. Maternal use of folic acid supplements during pregnancy, and childhood respiratory health and atopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B.M. Bekkers (Marga); L.E.M. Elstgeest (Liset E.); S. Scholtens (Salome); A. Haveman-Nies (Annemien); J.C. de Jongste (Johan); M. Kerkhof (Marjan); G.H. Koppelman (Gerard); U. Gehring (Ulrike); H.A. Smit (Henriëtte); A.H. Wijga (Alet)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPrevious studies have suggested possible adverse side-effects of maternal use of folic acid-containing supplements (FACSs) during pregnancy on wheeze and asthma in early childhood. We investigated the association between maternal use of FACSs and childhood respiratory health and atopy in

  12. Maternal use of folic acid supplements during pregnancy, and childhood respiratory health and atopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, Marga B. M.; Elstgeest, Liset E. M.; Soholtens, Salome; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; de Jongste, Johan C.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Gehring, Ulrike; Smit, Henriette A.; Wijga, Alet H.

    Previous studies have suggested possible adverse side-effects of maternal use of folic acid-containing supplements (FACSs) during pregnancy on wheeze and asthma in early childhood. We investigated the association between maternal use of FACSs and childhood respiratory health and atopy in the first 8

  13. Childhood and later life stressors and increased inflammatory gene expression at older ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, M E; Cole, S W; Weir, D R; Crimmins, E M

    2015-04-01

    Adverse experiences in early life have the ability to "get under the skin" and affect future health. This study examined the relative influence of adversities during childhood and adulthood in accounting for individual differences in pro-inflammatory gene expression in late life. Using a pilot-sample from the Health and Retirement Study (N = 114) aged from 51 to 95, OLS regression models were run to determine the association between a composite score from three proinflammatory gene expression levels (PTGS2, ILIB, and IL8) and 1) childhood trauma, 2) childhood SES, 3) childhood health, 4) adult traumas, and 5) low SES in adulthood. Our results showed that only childhood trauma was found to be associated with increased inflammatory transcription in late life. Furthermore, examination of interaction effects showed that childhood trauma exacerbated the influence of low SES in adulthood on elevated levels of inflammatory gene expression-signifying that having low SES in adulthood was most damaging for persons who had experienced traumatic events during their childhood. Overall our study suggests that traumas experienced during childhood may alter the stress response, leading to more sensitive reactivity throughout the lifespan. As a result, individuals who experienced greater adversity in early life may be at higher risk of late life health outcomes, particularly if adulthood adversity related to SES persists. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Maternal use of folic acid supplements during pregnancy, and childhood respiratory health and atopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, Marga B. M.; Elstgeest, Liset E. M.; Soholtens, Salome; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; de Jongste, Johan C.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Gehring, Ulrike; Smit, Henriette A.; Wijga, Alet H.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested possible adverse side-effects of maternal use of folic acid-containing supplements (FACSs) during pregnancy on wheeze and asthma in early childhood. We investigated the association between maternal use of FACSs and childhood respiratory health and atopy in the first 8

  15. Igniting the Policy Conversation: Bringing a Trauma-Informed Approach to Early Childhood System Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Julie; Oser, Cindy; Quigley, Kelsey

    2013-01-01

    The issue of early childhood trauma is becoming more prominent in early childhood policy discussions, driven by a growing recognition of the potentially devastating impacts of trauma and violence on infants, toddlers, and families. This article provides facts about the impacts of trauma and other adverse early experiences on child health and…

  16. Some Characterization Results on Dynamic Cumulative Residual Tsallis Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madan Mohan Sati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a generalized cumulative residual information measure based on Tsallis entropy and its dynamic version. We study the characterizations of the proposed information measure and define new classes of life distributions based on this measure. Some applications are provided in relation to weighted and equilibrium probability models. Finally the empirical cumulative Tsallis entropy is proposed to estimate the new information measure.

  17. Steps and pips in the history of the cumulative recorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Lattal, Kennon A.

    2004-01-01

    From its inception in the 1930s until very recent times, the cumulative recorder was the most widely used measurement instrument in the experimental analysis of behavior. It was an essential instrument in the discovery and analysis of schedules of reinforcement, providing the first real-time analysis of operant response rates and patterns. This review traces the evolution of the cumulative recorder from Skinner's early modified kymographs through various models developed by Skinner and his co...

  18. Control charts for monitoring accumulating adverse event count frequencies from single and multiple blinded trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, A Lawrence

    2016-12-30

    Conventional practice monitors accumulating information about drug safety in terms of the numbers of adverse events reported from trials in a drug development program. Estimates of between-treatment adverse event risk differences can be obtained readily from unblinded trials with adjustment for differences among trials using conventional statistical methods. Recent regulatory guidelines require monitoring the cumulative frequency of adverse event reports to identify possible between-treatment adverse event risk differences without unblinding ongoing trials. Conventional statistical methods for assessing between-treatment adverse event risks cannot be applied when the trials are blinded. However, CUSUM charts can be used to monitor the accumulation of adverse event occurrences. CUSUM charts for monitoring adverse event occurrence in a Bayesian paradigm are based on assumptions about the process generating the adverse event counts in a trial as expressed by informative prior distributions. This article describes the construction of control charts for monitoring adverse event occurrence based on statistical models for the processes, characterizes their statistical properties, and describes how to construct useful prior distributions. Application of the approach to two adverse events of interest in a real trial gave nearly identical results for binomial and Poisson observed event count likelihoods. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Life adversity is associated with smoking relapse after a quit attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Andrine; Olson, Leif; Nakajima, Motohiro; Schulberg, Lauren; al'Absi, Mustafa

    2016-09-01

    Multiple cross-sectional studies have linked adverse childhood events and adult adversities to current smoking, lifetime smoking, and former smoking. To date, however, there have been no direct observational studies assessing the influence of adversities on smoking relapse. We prospectively followed 123 participants, 86 of whom were habitual smokers, from pre-quit ad libitum smoking to four weeks post-quit. Thirty-seven non-smokers were also tested in parallel as a comparison group. Subjects provided biological samples for confirmation of abstinence status and self-report history of adversities such as abuse, neglect, family dysfunction, incarceration, and child-parent separation. They also completed mood and smoking withdrawal symptom measures. The results indicated that within non-smokers and smokers who relapsed within the first month of a quit attempt, but not abstainers, females had significantly higher adversity scores than males. Cigarette craving, which was independent from depressive affect, increased for low adversity participants, but not those with no adversity nor high adversity. These results demonstrate that sex and relapse status interact to predict adversity and that craving for nicotine may be an important additional mediator of relapse. These results add further support to the previous cross-sectional evidence of an adversity and smoking relationship. Further studies to clarify how adversity complicates smoking cessation and impacts smoking behaviors are warranted.

  20. Older Siblings Affect Gut Microbiota Development in Early Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Zachariassen, Gitte; Bahl, Martin Iain

    of allergies. Methods: We investigated whether presence of older siblings, furred pets and early life infections affected gut microbial communities at 9 and 18 months of age and whether these differences were associated with the cumulative prevalence of atopic symptoms of eczema and asthmatic bronchitis...... and the cumulative prevalence of diagnosed asthmatic bronchitis and self-reported eczema at three years of age. Results: The number of older siblings correlated positively with bacterial diversity (p = 0.030), diversity of the phyla Firmicutes (p = 0.014) and Bacteroidetes (p = 0.004) and bacterial richness (p = 0....... Gut microbiota characteristics were not significantly associated with cumulative occurrence of eczema and asthmatic bronchitis during the first three years of life. Conclusions: Presence of older siblings is associated with increased gut microbial diversity and richness during early childhood, which...

  1. Resilience and Stuttering: Factors that Protect People from the Adversity of Chronic Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Ashley; Blumgart, Elaine; Tran, Yvonne

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Chronic disorder can impose a significant negative mental health burden. This research was conducted to explore factors that may protect people from the adversity of chronic stuttering. Method: The study employed a population group cohort design. Participants included 200 adults who have stuttered since childhood, and the sample was…

  2. A Serious Adverse Effect of Pseudoephedrine Used For Common Cold Treatment : Ventricular Arrhythmia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenk Aypak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Common cold is one of the frequently seen disease in childhood. Pseudoephedrine hydrochloride (PEH is a sympathomimetic drug which is widely used for treatment of common cold as a decongestant on children. The aim of this case report is, to draw attention to serious adverse effects of PEH treatment. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(3.000: 506-510

  3. Adverse Effect of Child Abuse Victimization among Substance-Using Women in Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sung-Yeon; Magura, Stephen; Laudet, Alexandre; Whitney, Shirley

    1999-01-01

    Study examined adverse effects of childhood sexual/physical abuse among substance-abusing women with children. Several significant differences between abused and nonabused women were found in service outcomes. Abused women had more problems relating to drug use and psychiatric/psychological adjustment at follow-up. Findings support a need for…

  4. Ventral striatum and amygdala activity as convergence sites for early adversity and conduct disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holz, N.E.; Boecker-Schlier, R.; Buchmann, A.F.; Blomeyer, D.; Jennen-Steinmetz, C.; Baumeister, S.; Plichta, M.M.; Cattrell, A.; Schumann, G.; Esser, G.; Schmidt, M.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Meyer-Lindenberg, A.; Banaschewski, T.; Brandeis, D.; Laucht, M.

    2017-01-01

    Childhood family adversity (CFA) increases the risk for conduct disorder (CD) and has been associated with alterations in regions of affective processing like ventral striatum (VS) and amygdala. However, no study so far has demonstrated neural converging effects of CFA and CD in the same sample. At

  5. Do Specific Early-Life Adversities Lead to Specific Symptoms of Psychosis? A Study from the 2007 The Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Bentall, Richard P; Wickham, Sophie; Shevlin, Mark; Varese, Filippo

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have reported associations between childhood adversities, eg, loss of a parent, being raised in institutional care, sexual and other kinds of abuse by adults and bullying by peers, and psychosis in adulthood. However, the mechanisms by which these adversities lead to psychotic experiences are poorly understood. From models of the psychological processes involved in positive symptoms, it was predicted that childhood sexual abuse would be specifically associated with auditory h...

  6. Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) is a computerized information database designed to support the FDA's post-marketing safety surveillance program for all...

  7. Pollution adverse tourists and growth

    OpenAIRE

    Cerina, Fabio; Giannoni, Sauveur

    2008-01-01

    We build a growth model in which tourism development generates pollution while tourists are pollution adverse. We establish that long run positive growth exists only for a particular value of tourists pollution adversion. Furthermore, we show that an intensive use of facilities is associated with a lower growth rate for destinations specialized in green tourism. We also see that if the destination can choose the degree of use of facilities, tourism will generate positive growth only if touris...

  8. Reverse Engineering Adverse Outcome Pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, Edward; Chipman, J.K.; Edwards, Stephen; Habib, Tanwir; Falciani, Francesco; Taylor, Ronald C.; Van Aggelen, Graham; Vulpe, Chris; Antczak, Philipp; Loguinov, Alexandre

    2011-01-30

    The toxicological effects of many stressors are mediated through unknown, or poorly characterized, mechanisms of action. We describe the application of reverse engineering complex interaction networks from high dimensional omics data (gene, protein, metabolic, signaling) to characterize adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) for chemicals that disrupt the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal endocrine axis in fathead minnows. Gene expression changes in fathead minnow ovaries in response to 7 different chemicals, over different times, doses, and in vivo versus in vitro conditions were captured in a large data set of 868 arrays. We examined potential AOPs of the antiandrogen flutamide using two mutual information theory methods, ARACNE and CLR to infer gene regulatory networks and potential adverse outcome pathways. Representative networks from these studies were used to predict a network path from stressor to adverse outcome as a candidate AOP. The relationship of individual chemicals to an adverse outcome can be determined by following perturbations through the network in response to chemical treatment leading to the nodes associated with the adverse outcome. Identification of candidate pathways allows for formation of testable hypotheses about key biologic processes, biomarkers or alternative endpoints, which could be used to monitor an adverse outcome pathway. Finally, we identify the unique challenges facing the application of this approach in ecotoxicology, and attempt to provide a road map for the utilization of these tools. Key Words: mechanism of action, toxicology, microarray, network inference

  9. Having older siblings is associated with gut microbiota development during early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Zachariassen, Gitte; Bahl, Martin Iain

    2015-01-01

    characteristics were not significantly associated with cumulative occurrence of eczema and asthmatic bronchitis during the first 3 years of life. Presence of older siblings is associated with increased gut microbial diversity and richness during early childhood, which could contribute to the substantiation...... of the hygiene hypothesis. However, no associations were found between gut microbiota and atopic symptoms of eczema and asthmatic bronchitis during early childhood and thus further studies are required to elucidate whether sibling-associated gut microbial changes influence development of allergies later...... in childhood....

  10. Socioeconomic disparities in childhood cancer survival in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Martin; Rueegg, Corina S; Schmidlin, Kurt; Spoerri, Adrian; Niggli, Felix; Grotzer, Michael; von der Weid, Nicolas X; Egger, Matthias; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Zwahlen, Marcel; Kuehni, Claudia E

    2016-06-15

    In this study, we investigated whether childhood cancer survival in Switzerland is influenced by socioeconomic status (SES), and if disparities vary by type of cancer and definition of SES (parental education, living condition, area-based SES). Using Cox proportional hazards models, we analyzed 5-year cumulative mortality in all patients registered in the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry diagnosed 1991-2006 below 16 years. Information on SES was extracted from the Swiss census by probabilistic record linkage. The study included 1602 children (33% with leukemia, 20% with lymphoma, 22% with central nervous system (CNS) tumors); with an overall 5-year survival of 77% (95%CI 75-79%). Higher SES, particularly parents' education, was associated with a lower 5-year cumulative mortality. Results varied by type of cancer with no association for leukemia and particularly strong effects for CNS tumor patients, where mortality hazard ratios for the different SES indicators, comparing the highest with the lowest group, ranged from 0.48 (95%CI: 0.28-0.81) to 0.71 (95%CI: 0.44-1.15). We conclude that even in Switzerland with a high quality health care system and mandatory health insurance, socioeconomic differences in childhood cancer survival persist. Factors causing these survival differences have to be further explored, to facilitate universal access to optimal treatment and finally eliminate social inequalities in childhood cancer survival.

  11. The cumulative effect of smoking at age 50, 60, and 70 on functional ability at age 75

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støvring, Nina; Avlund, Kirsten; Schultz-Larsen, Kirsten

    2004-01-01

    AIMS: As elderly people form a steadily growing part of the population in most parts of the world we are in need of knowledge of the influence of modifiable lifestyle factors on functional ability late in life. This study aims to examine the cumulative impact of smoking from age 50 to 70...... on functional ability at age 75. METHODS: 387 men and women born in 1914 and living in seven municipalities in the western part of the County of Copenhagen were followed for 25 years with examinations in 1964, 1974, 1984, and 1989. Associations between smoking and functional ability were examined using multiple...... logistic regression analyses with cumulative smoking as determinant and physical activity, sex, basic school education, and household composition as possible confounders. RESULTS: There is an adverse relation between smoking and functional ability regardless of the time of examination or the ways...

  12. Cumulative risks of foster care placement for Danish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallesen, Peter; Emanuel, Natalia; Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Although recent research suggests that the cumulative risk of foster care placement is far higher for American children than originally suspected, little is known about the cumulative risk of foster care placement in other countries, which makes it difficult to gauge the degree to which factor foster care placement is salient in other contexts. In this article, we provide companion estimates to those provided in recent work on the US by using Danish registry data and synthetic cohort life tables to show how high and unequally distributed the cumulative risk of foster care placement is for Danish children. Results suggest that at the beginning of the study period (in 1998) the cumulative risk of foster care placement for Danish children was roughly in line with the risk for American children. Yet, by the end of the study period (2010), the risk had declined to half the risk for American children. Our results also show some variations by parental ethnicity and sex, but these differences are small. Indeed, they appear quite muted relative to racial/ethnic differences in these risks in the United States. Last, though cumulative risks are similar between Danish and American children (especially at the beginning of the study period), the age-specific risk profiles are markedly different, with higher risks for older Danish children than for older American children.

  13. USING CUMULATIVE NUMBER DENSITIES TO COMPARE GALAXIES ACROSS COSMIC TIME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behroozi, Peter S.; Wechsler, Risa H. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Marchesini, Danilo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Muzzin, Adam [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Papovich, Casey [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Stefanon, Mauro [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Comparing galaxies across redshifts at fixed cumulative number density is a popular way to estimate the evolution of specific galaxy populations. This method ignores scatter in mass accretion histories and galaxy-galaxy mergers, which can lead to errors when comparing galaxies over large redshift ranges (Δz > 1). We use abundance matching in the ΛCDM paradigm to estimate the median change in cumulative number density with redshift and provide a simple fit (+0.16 dex per unit Δz) for progenitors of z = 0 galaxies. We find that galaxy descendants do not evolve in the same way as galaxy progenitors, largely due to scatter in mass accretion histories. We also provide estimates for the 1σ range of cumulative number densities corresponding to galaxy progenitors and descendants. Finally, we discuss some limits on cumulative number density comparisons, which arise due to difficulties measuring physical quantities (e.g., stellar mass) consistently across redshifts. A public tool to calculate cumulative number density evolution for galaxies, as well as approximate halo masses, is available online.

  14. Maintenance hemodialysis patients have high cumulative radiation exposure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kinsella, Sinead M

    2010-10-01

    Hemodialysis is associated with an increased risk of neoplasms which may result, at least in part, from exposure to ionizing radiation associated with frequent radiographic procedures. In order to estimate the average radiation exposure of those on hemodialysis, we conducted a retrospective study of 100 patients in a university-based dialysis unit followed for a median of 3.4 years. The number and type of radiological procedures were obtained from a central radiology database, and the cumulative effective radiation dose was calculated using standardized, procedure-specific radiation levels. The median annual radiation dose was 6.9 millisieverts (mSv) per patient-year. However, 14 patients had an annual cumulative effective radiation dose over 20 mSv, the upper averaged annual limit for occupational exposure. The median total cumulative effective radiation dose per patient over the study period was 21.7 mSv, in which 13 patients had a total cumulative effective radiation dose over 75 mSv, a value reported to be associated with a 7% increased risk of cancer-related mortality. Two-thirds of the total cumulative effective radiation dose was due to CT scanning. The average radiation exposure was significantly associated with the cause of end-stage renal disease, history of ischemic heart disease, transplant waitlist status, number of in-patient hospital days over follow-up, and death during the study period. These results highlight the substantial exposure to ionizing radiation in hemodialysis patients.

  15. Prevalence of Negative Life Events and Chronic Adversities in European Pre- and Primary-School Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanaelst, Barbara; Huybrechts, Inge; Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2012-01-01

    Background: Children are not always recognized as being susceptible to stress, although childhood stressors may originate from multiple events in their everyday surroundings with negative effects on children’s health. Methods: As there is a lack of large-scale, European prevalence data on childhood......- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS’). Results: The following findings were observed: (1) Certain adversities occur only rarely, while others are very regular (i.e. parental divorce); (2) A large percentage of children is shielded from stressors, while a small group of children...... adversities, this study presents the prevalence of (1) negative life events and (2) familial and social adversities in 4637 European pre- and primary-school children (4–11 years old), using a parentally-reported questionnaire embedded in the IDEFICS project (‘Identification and prevention of Dietary...

  16. Childhood environments and cytomegalovirus serostatus and reactivation in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janicki-Deverts, D.; Cohen, S.; Doyle, W.J.; Marsland, A.L.; Bosch, J.

    2014-01-01

    Childhood adversity, defined in terms of material hardship or physical or emotional maltreatment has been associated with risk for infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) among children and adolescents, and with CMV reactivation in children and adults. The present study examined whether different dimen

  17. Early adverse events, HPA activity and rostral anterior cingulate volume in MDD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T Treadway

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prior studies have independently reported associations between major depressive disorder (MDD, elevated cortisol concentrations, early adverse events and region-specific decreases in grey matter volume, but the relationships among these variables are unclear. In the present study, we sought to evaluate the relationships between grey matter volume, early adverse events and cortisol levels in MDD. METHODS/RESULTS: Grey matter volume was compared between 19 controls and 19 individuals with MDD using voxel-based morphometry. A history of early adverse events was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Subjects also provided salivary cortisol samples. Depressed patients showed decreased grey matter volume in the rostral ACC as compared to controls. Rostral ACC volume was inversely correlated with both cortisol and early adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest a key relationship between ACC morphology, a history of early adverse events and circulating cortisol in the pathophysiology of MDD.

  18. Cumulative Trauma Among Mayas Living in Southeast Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millender, Eugenia I; Lowe, John

    2016-01-04

    Mayas, having experienced genocide, exile, and severe poverty, are at high risk for the consequences of cumulative trauma that continually resurfaces through current fear of an uncertain future. Little is known about the mental health and alcohol use status of this population. This correlational study explored t/he relationship of cumulative trauma as it relates to social determinants of health (years in the United States, education, health insurance status, marital status, and employment), psychological health (depression symptoms), and health behaviors (alcohol use) of 102 Guatemalan Mayas living in Southeast Florida. The results of this study indicated that, as specific social determinants of health and cumulative trauma increased, depression symptoms (particularly among women) and the risk for harmful alcohol use (particularly among men) increased. Identifying risk factors at an early stage before serious disease or problems are manifest provides room for early screening leading to early identification, early treatment, and better outcomes.

  19. Analysis of sensory ratings data with cumulative link models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen; Brockhoff, Per B.

    2013-01-01

    Examples of categorical rating scales include discrete preference, liking and hedonic rating scales. Data obtained on these scales are often analyzed with normal linear regression methods or with omnibus Pearson chi2 tests. In this paper we propose to use cumulative link models that allow...... for regression methods similar to linear models while respecting the categorical nature of the observations. We describe how cumulative link models are related to the omnibus chi2 tests and how they can lead to more powerful tests in the non-replicated setting. For replicated categorical ratings data we present...... a quasi-likelihood approach and a mixed effects approach both being extensions of cumulative link models. We contrast population-average and subject-specific interpretations based on these models and discuss how different approaches lead to different tests. In replicated settings, naive tests that ignore...

  20. Cumulative pion production via successive collisions in nuclear medium

    CERN Document Server

    Motornenko, A

    2016-01-01

    Production of pions in proton-nucleus (p+A) reactions outside of a kinematical boundary of proton-nucleon collisions, the so-called cumulative effect, is studied. The kinematical restrictions on pions emitted in backward direction in the target rest frame are analyzed. It is shown that cumulative pion production requires a presence of massive baryonic resonances that are produced during successive collisions of projectile with nuclear nucleons. After each successive collision the mass of created resonance may increase and, simultaneously, its longitudinal velocity decreases. Simulations within Ultra relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics model reveals that successive collisions of baryonic resonances with nuclear nucleons plays the dominant role in cumulative pion production in p+A reactions.

  1. Solid-state electro-cumulation effect numerical simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Grishin, V G

    2001-01-01

    It is an attempt to simulate as really as possible a crystal's interatomic interaction under conditions of "Solid-state electro-cumulation (super-polarization) effect". Some theoretical and experimental reasons to believe that within solid substances an interparticles interaction could concentrate from the surface to a centre were given formerly. Now, numerical results show the conditions that could make the cumulation more effective. Another keywords: ion, current, solid, symmetry, cumulation, polarization, depolarization, ionic conductor,superionic conductor, ice, crystal, strain, V-center, V-centre, doped crystal, interstitial impurity, intrinsic color center, high pressure technology, Bridgman, anvil, experiment, crowdion, dielectric, proton, layer, defect, lattice, dynamics, electromigration, mobility, muon catalysis, concentration, doping, dopant, conductivity, pycnonuclear reaction, permittivity, dielectric constant, point defects, interstitials, polarizability, imperfection, defect centers, glass, epi...

  2. Association between diastolic blood pressure and cumulative work time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cordeiro

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Diastolic blood pressure was viewed as a generic indicator of aging, and its association with cumulative work time was studied after controlling for age as a potential confounding factor. The study was conducted among production line workers at a Brazilian tannery in July 1993. The association between diastolic blood pressure and cumulative work time was verified by fitting a second-order linear regression model, where diastolic blood pressure was a function of worker's age and cumulative work time. By fitting the model, one can predict that, in the beginning of working life at the tannery, on average each 1-year period is associated with an increase of about 1.5 mmHg in diastolic blood pressure. The fit obtained highlights one component directly associated with work as part of the rate of pressure increase in the study group. This component is twice as high as that directly associated with age.

  3. Baltic Sea biodiversity status vs. cumulative human pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper H.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Korpinen, Samuli

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Many studies have tried to explain spatial and temporal variations in biodiversity status of marine areas from a single-issue perspective, such as fishing pressure or coastal pollution, yet most continental seas experience a wide range of human pressures. Cumulative impact assessments have...... been developed to capture the consequences of multiple stressors for biodiversity, but the ability of these assessments to accurately predict biodiversity status has never been tested or ground-truthed. This relationship has similarly been assumed for the Baltic Sea, especially in areas with impaired...... status, but has also never been documented. Here we provide a first tentative indication that cumulative human impacts relate to ecosystem condition, i.e. biodiversity status, in the Baltic Sea. Thus, cumulative impact assessments offer a promising tool for informed marine spatial planning, designation...

  4. Session: What do we know about cumulative or population impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerlinger, Paul; Manville, Al; Kendall, Bill

    2004-09-01

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of a panel discussion followed by a discussion/question and answer period. The panelists were Paul Kerlinger, Curry and Kerlinger, LLC, Al Manville, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and Bill Kendall, US Geological Service. The panel addressed the potential cumulative impacts of wind turbines on bird and bat populations over time. Panel members gave brief presentations that touched on what is currently known, what laws apply, and the usefulness of population modeling. Topics addressed included which sources of modeling should be included in cumulative impacts, comparison of impacts from different modes of energy generation, as well as what research is still needed regarding cumulative impacts of wind energy development on bird and bat populations.

  5. Cumulant dynamics in a finite population linkage equilibrium theory

    CERN Document Server

    Rattray, M; Rattray, Magnus; Shapiro, Jonathan L.

    1999-01-01

    The evolution of a finite population at linkage equilibrium is described in terms of the dynamics of phenotype distribution cumulants. This provides a powerful method for describing evolutionary transients and we elucidate the relationship between the cumulant dynamics and the diffusion approximation. A separation of time-scales between the first and higher cumulants for low mutation rates is demonstrated in the diffusion limit and provides a significant simplification of the dynamical system. However, the diffusion limit may not be appropriate for strong selection as the standard Fisher-Wright model of genetic drift can break down in this case. Two novel examples of this effect are considered: we shown that the dynamics may depend on the number of loci under strong directional selection and that environmental variance results in a reduced effective population size. We also consider a simple model of a changing environment which cannot be described by a diffusion equation and we derive the optimal mutation ra...

  6. Effect of correlation on cumulants in heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, D K; Netrakanti, P K

    2015-01-01

    We study the effects of correlation on cumulants and their ratios of net-proton multiplicity distribution which have been measured for central (0-5\\%) Au+Au collisions at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This effect has been studied assuming individual proton and anti-proton distributions as Poisson or Negative Binomial Distribution (NBD). In-spite of significantly correlated production due to baryon number, electric charge conservation and kinematical correlations of protons and anti-protons, the measured cumulants of net-proton distribution follow the independent production model. In the present work we demonstrate how the introduction of correlations will affect the cumulants and their ratios for the difference distributions. We have also demonstrated this study using the proton and anti-proton distributions obtained from HIJING event generator.

  7. Longitudinal follow-up of adult survivors of Ewing sarcoma: A report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marina, Neyssa M; Liu, Qi; Donaldson, Sarah S; Sklar, Charles A; Armstrong, Gregory T; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Leisenring, Wendy M; Ginsberg, Jill P; Henderson, Tara O; Neglia, Joseph P; Stovall, Marilyn A; Yasui, Yutaka; Randall, R Lor; Geller, David S; Robison, Leslie L; Ness, Kirsten K

    2017-07-01

    Ewing sarcoma survivors (ESSs) are at increased risk for treatment-related complications. The incidence of treatment-related morbidity and late mortality with aging is unknown. This study reports survival probabilities, estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method, and the cumulative incidence of cause-specific mortality and chronic conditions among ESSs in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study who were treated between 1970 and 1986. Piecewise exponential models were used to estimate relative rates (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for these outcomes. Chronic conditions were graded with the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (version 4.03). Among 404 5-year ESSs (median age at last follow-up, 34.8 years; range, 9.1-54.8 years), the 35-year survival rate was 70% (95% CI, 66%-74%). Late recurrence (cumulative incidence at 35 years, 15.1%) was the most common cause of death, and it was followed by treatment-related causes (11.2%). There were 53 patients with subsequent neoplasms (SNs; cumulative incidence at 35 years, 24.0%), and 38 were malignant (14.3% at 35 years). The standardized incidence ratios were 377.1 (95% CI, 172.1-715.9) for osteosarcoma, 28.9 (95% CI, 3.2-104.2) for acute myeloid leukemia, 14.9 (95% CI, 7.9-25.5) for breast cancer, and 13.1 (95% CI, 4.8-28.5) for thyroid cancer. Rates of chronic conditions were highest for musculoskeletal (RR, 18.1; 95% CI, 12.8-25.7) and cardiac complications (RR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.4-2.3). Thirty-five years after the diagnosis, the cumulative incidences of any chronic conditions and 2 or more chronic conditions were 84.6% (95% CI, 80.4%-88.8%) and 73.8% (95% CI, 67.8%-79.9%), respectively. With extended follow-up, ESSs' risk for late mortality and SNs does not plateau. Treatment-related chronic conditions develop years after therapy, and this supports the need for lifelong follow-up. Cancer 2017;123:2551-60. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  8. Self-harm and violent criminality among young people who experienced trauma-related hospital admission during childhood: a Danish national cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Roger T; Antonsen, Sussie; Carr, Matthew J; Appleby, Louis; Pedersen, Carsten B; Mok, Pearl L H

    2017-07-01

    Development of a better understanding of subsequent pathways for individuals who experienced trauma during childhood might usefully inform clinicians and public health professionals regarding the causes of self-harm and interpersonal violence. We aimed to examine these risks during late adolescence and early adulthood among people admitted to hospital following injuries or poisonings during their childhood. This national cohort study included Danish people born between Jan 1, 1977, and Dec 31, 1997, and was linked to the National Patient Register and Psychiatric Central Research Register to identify all people exposed to hospital admissions for injuries or poisonings due to self-harm, interpersonal violence, or accidents before their 15th birthday. Linkage to these two registers and to the National Crime Register enabled ascertainment of self-harm and violent offending, respectively, as adverse outcomes at ages 15-35 years. Sex-specific incidence rate ratios (IRRs; relative risks) and cumulative incidence percentage values (absolute risks) were estimated. The confounding influence of parental socioeconomic status was also explored. 1 087 672 Danish people were included in this study. The prevalence of any trauma-related hospital admission was 10% (105 753 per 1 087 672; males: 64 454 [11%]; females: 44 299 [8%]) and for both sexes, accident was by far the most prevalent of the categories assessed (males: 59 011 [11%]; females: 40 756 [8%]). Similar patterns of increased risk for self-harm and violent criminality were observed in both sexes, although the IRRs were consistently and significantly larger in women (self-harm: IRR 1·94 [95% CI 1·85-2·02]; violent criminality: 2·16 [1·97-2·36]) than in men (self-harm: 1·61 [1·53-1·69]; violent criminality: 1·58 [1·53-1·63]). Confounding by parental socioeconomic status explained little of the increased risks observed. For young adult men, the highest absolute risk observed was for violent

  9. System Dynamics and Modified Cumulant Neglect Closure Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köylüoglu, H. Ugur; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    Dealing with multipeaked problems, the goal of the paper is to improve the quality of the approximations for the expectations appearing in the differential equations written for the statistical moments of the state vector, guided by insight in the system dynamics. For systems with polynomial non......-linearities, modifications in the cumulant neglect closure scheme are suggested. The methodology is illustrated using the two wells oscillator. An error analysis is performed to compare the modified and ordinary cumulant neglect closure schemes applied at the second and fourth order levels with the exact results available....

  10. Baltic Sea biodiversity status vs. cumulative human pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper H.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Korpinen, Samuli

    2015-01-01

    been developed to capture the consequences of multiple stressors for biodiversity, but the ability of these assessments to accurately predict biodiversity status has never been tested or ground-truthed. This relationship has similarly been assumed for the Baltic Sea, especially in areas with impaired...... status, but has also never been documented. Here we provide a first tentative indication that cumulative human impacts relate to ecosystem condition, i.e. biodiversity status, in the Baltic Sea. Thus, cumulative impact assessments offer a promising tool for informed marine spatial planning, designation...

  11. Aspect of cumulative fatigue damage under multiaxial strain cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamrik, S. Y.; Tang, P. Y.

    1972-01-01

    The concept of order of loading and its effect on cumulative fatigue damage under multiaxial strain cyclings was investigated. The effect is illustrated through nonlinear relationships between biaxial fatigue damage and cycle-ratio diagrams. Uniaxial theories such as Miner's method, the convergence method, and the double linear damage rule in its special and generalized form, were examined and extended to the biaxial case through the octahedral shear strain theory. The generalized double linear damage rule was found more applicable to biaxial cumulative fatigue damage.

  12. Cumulative Incidence of Cancer After Solid Organ Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Erin C.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Segev, Dorry L.; Engels, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Solid organ transplantation recipients have elevated cancer incidence. Estimates of absolute cancer risk after transplantation can inform prevention and screening. METHODS The Transplant Cancer Match Study links the US transplantation registry with 14 state/regional cancer registries. The authors used nonparametric competing risk methods to estimate the cumulative incidence of cancer after transplantation for 2 periods (1987–1999 and 2000–2008). For recipients from 2000 to 2008, the 5-year cumulative incidence, stratified by organ, sex, and age at transplantation, was estimated for 6 preventable or screen-detectable cancers. For comparison, the 5-year cumulative incidence was calculated for the same cancers in the general population at representative ages using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data. RESULTS Among 164,156 recipients, 8520 incident cancers were identified. The absolute cancer risk was slightly higher for recipients during the period from 2000 to 2008 than during the period from 1987 to 1999 (5-year cumulative incidence: 4.4% vs 4.2%; P =.006); this difference arose from the decreasing risk of competing events (5-year cumulative incidence of death, graft failure, or retransplantation: 26.6% vs 31.9%; P 50 years; range, 0.36%–2.22%). For recipients aged >50 years, the 5-year cumulative incidence was higher for colorectal cancer (range, 0.33%–1.94%) than for the general population at the recommended screening age (aged 50 years: range, 0.25%–0.33%). For recipients aged >50 years, the 5-year cumulative incidence was high for lung cancer among thoracic organ recipients (range, 1.16%–3.87%) and for kidney cancer among kidney recipients (range, 0.53%–0.84%). The 5-year cumulative incidence for prostate cancer and breast cancer was similar or lower in transplantation recipients than at the recommended ages of screening in the general population. CONCLUSIONS Subgroups of transplantation recipients have a high absolute risk

  13. A study of cumulative fatigue damage in AISI 4130 steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeelani, S.; Musial, M.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental data were obtained using AISI 4130 steel under stress ratios of -1 and 0. A study of cumulative fatigue damage using Miner's and Kramer's equations for stress ratios of -1 and 0 for low-high, low-high-mixed, high-low, and high-low-mixed stress sequences has revealed that there is a close agreement between the theoretical and experimental values of fatigue damage and fatigue life. Kramer's equation predicts less conservative and more realistic cumulative fatigue damage than the popularly used Miner's rule does.

  14. Dynamic Insurance and Adverse Selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten); V.A. Karamychev (Vladimir)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractWe take a dynamic perspective on insurance markets under adverse selection and study a generalized Rothschild and Stiglitz model where agents may differ with respect to the accidental probability and their expenditure levels in case an accident occurs. We investigate the nature of dynami

  15. Childhood poverty and recruitment of adult emotion regulatory neurocircuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberzon, Israel; Ma, Sean T; Okada, Go; Ho, S Shaun; Swain, James E; Evans, Gary W

    2015-11-01

    One in five American children grows up in poverty. Childhood poverty has far-reaching adverse impacts on cognitive, social and emotional development. Altered development of neurocircuits, subserving emotion regulation, is one possible pathway for childhood poverty's ill effects. Children exposed to poverty were followed into young adulthood and then studied using functional brain imaging with an implicit emotion regulation task focused. Implicit emotion regulation involved attention shifting and appraisal components. Early poverty reduced left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex recruitment in the context of emotional regulation. Furthermore, this emotion regulation associated brain activation mediated the effects of poverty on adult task performance. Moreover, childhood poverty also predicted enhanced insula and reduced hippocampal activation, following exposure to acute stress. These results demonstrate that childhood poverty can alter adult emotion regulation neurocircuitry, revealing specific brain mechanisms that may underlie long-term effects of social inequalities on health. The role of poverty-related emotion regulatory neurocircuitry appears to be particularly salient during stressful conditions.

  16. Childhood Trauma and Chronic Illness in Adulthood: Mental Health and Socioeconomic Status as Explanatory Factors and Buffers

    OpenAIRE

    Mock, Steven E.; Susan M Arai

    2011-01-01

    Experiences of traumatic events in childhood have been shown to have long-term consequences for health in adulthood. With data from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey we take a life course perspective of cumulative disadvantage and examine the potential role of mental health and socioeconomic status in adulthood as multiple mediators of the link between childhood trauma and chronic illness in adulthood. Mental health and socioeconomic status are also tested as buffers against the typic...

  17. Adverse Effects of Hormonal Contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabatini R

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available contraception acceptability, compliance and continuation. Despite the safety profile of current COCs, fears of adverse metabolic and vascular effects caused by estrogen component, and possible neoplastic effects of these formulations remain. Misperceptions and concerns about side-effects, especially those affecting the menstrual cycle and increased body weight, are often given as reason for discontinuation. Besides, severe adverse effects exist; perhaps they are very rare, but it might be that other cases were underestimated or ignored. It is important to take into account that COCs, as all medications, have some contraindications, which is mandatory to consider. The „pill“ could be not for everyone. In any case, also mild or moderate adverse effects of COCs may impair the woman’s quality of life. It is well known that even small increases in frequency of adverse effects, in COCs-users, could have a general critical health impact because of their widespread use, which is currently expanding to potential risk groups. To avoid adverse events by COC use the exclusion of patients with known risk factors including patient history and family history is necessary. Furthermore the patient should be informed about possible side effects and side effects during OC use should be carefully monitored. Finally the risk benefit analysis for oral contraceptive pills which are worldwide used since more than 50 years for healthy patients is positive. Most women will benefit from additional noncontraceptive benefits such as improvement of acne vulgaris, dysmenorrhoea, stabilization of menstrual bleeding pattern, less ovarian cysts and finally a lower risk for ovarian and breast cancer, which persists even after withdrawl of COC for several years.

  18. Continued Statin Prescriptions After Adverse Reactions and Patient Outcomes: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huabing; Plutzky, Jorge; Shubina, Maria; Turchin, Alexander

    2017-08-15

    Many patients discontinue statin treatment, often after having a possible adverse reaction. The risks and benefits of continued statin therapy after an adverse reaction are not known. To examine the relationship between continuation of statin therapy (any prescription within 12 months after an adverse reaction) and clinical outcomes. Retrospective cohort study. Primary care practices affiliated with 2 academic medical centers. Patients with a presumed adverse reaction to a statin between 2000 and 2011. Information on adverse reactions to statins was obtained from structured electronic medical record data or natural-language processing of narrative provider notes. The primary composite outcome was time to a cardiovascular event (myocardial infarction or stroke) or death. Most (81%) of the adverse reactions to statins were identified from the text of electronic provider notes. Among 28 266 study patients, 19 989 (70.7%) continued receiving statin prescriptions after the adverse reaction. Four years after the presumed adverse event, the cumulative incidence of the composite primary outcome was 12.2% for patients with continued statin prescriptions, compared with 13.9% for those without them (difference, 1.7% [95% CI, 0.8% to 2.7%]; P statin was prescribed after the adverse reaction, 2014 (26.5%) had a documented adverse reaction to the second statin, but 1696 (84.2%) of those patients continued receiving statin prescriptions. The risk for recurrent adverse reactions to statins could not be established for the entire sample. It was also not possible to determine whether patients actually took the statins. Continued statin prescriptions after an adverse reaction were associated with a lower incidence of death and cardiovascular events. Chinese National Key Program of Clinical Science, National Natural Science Foundation of China, and Young Scientific Research Fund of Peking Union Medical College Hospital.

  19. Childhood poverty, early motherhood and adult social exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobcraft, J; Kiernan, K

    2001-09-01

    Childhood poverty and early parenthood are both high on the current political agenda. The key new issue that this research addresses is the relative importance of childhood poverty and of early motherhood as correlates of outcomes later in life. How far are the 'effects' of early motherhood on later outcomes due to childhood precursors, especially experience of childhood poverty? Subsidiary questions relate to the magnitude of these associations, the particular levels of childhood poverty that prove most critical, and whether, as often assumed, only teenage mothers are subsequently disadvantaged, or are those who have their first birth in their early twenties similarly disadvantaged? The source of data for this study is the National Child Development Study. We examine outcomes at age 33 for several domains of adult social exclusion: welfare, socio-economic, physical health, emotional well-being and demographic behaviour. We control for a wide range of childhood factors: poverty; social class of origin and of father; mother's and father's school leaving age; family structure; housing tenure; mother's and father's interest in education; personality attributes; performance on educational tests; and contact with the police by age 16. There are clear associations for the adult outcomes with age at first birth, even after controlling for childhood poverty and the other childhood background factors. Moreover, we demonstrate that the widest gulf in adult outcomes occurs for those who enter motherhood early (before age 23), though further reinforced by teenage motherhood for most adult outcomes. We also show that any experience of childhood poverty is clearly associated with adverse outcomes in adulthood, with reinforcement for higher levels of childhood poverty for a few outcomes.

  20. A Parametric Cumulative Sum Statistic for Person Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Ronald D.; Shi, Min

    2009-01-01

    This article develops a new cumulative sum (CUSUM) statistic to detect aberrant item response behavior. Shifts in behavior are modeled with quadratic functions and a series of likelihood ratio tests are used to detect aberrancy. The new CUSUM statistic is compared against another CUSUM approach as well as traditional person-fit statistics. A…

  1. RECURSIVE CLASSIFICATION OF MQAM SIGNALS BASED ON HIGHER ORDER CUMULANTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Weidong; Yang Shaoquan

    2002-01-01

    A new feature based on higher order cumulants is proposed for classification of MQAM signals. Theoretical analysis justify that the new feature is invariant with respect to translation (shift), scale and rotation transform of signal constellations, and can suppress color or white additive Gaussian noise. Computer simulation shows that the proposed recursive orderreduction based classification algorithm can classify MQAM signals with any order.

  2. Hierarchical Bayesian parameter estimation for cumulative prospect theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nilsson, H.; Rieskamp, J.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.

    2011-01-01

    Cumulative prospect theory (CPT Tversky & Kahneman, 1992) has provided one of the most influential accounts of how people make decisions under risk. CPT is a formal model with parameters that quantify psychological processes such as loss aversion, subjective values of gains and losses, and

  3. Cumulative psychosocial stress, coping resources, and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Sheila W; Kingston, Dawn; Bayrampour, Hamideh; Dolan, Siobhan M; Tough, Suzanne C

    2014-12-01

    Preterm birth constitutes a significant international public health issue, with implications for child and family well-being. High levels of psychosocial stress and negative affect before and during pregnancy are contributing factors to shortened gestation and preterm birth. We developed a cumulative psychosocial stress variable and examined its association with early delivery controlling for known preterm birth risk factors and confounding environmental variables. We further examined this association among subgroups of women with different levels of coping resources. Utilizing the All Our Babies (AOB) study, an ongoing prospective pregnancy cohort study in Alberta, Canada (n = 3,021), multinomial logistic regression was adopted to examine the independent effect of cumulative psychosocial stress and preterm birth subgroups compared to term births. Stratified analyses according to categories of perceived social support and optimism were undertaken to examine differential effects among subgroups of women. Cumulative psychosocial stress was a statistically significant risk factor for late preterm birth (OR = 1.73; 95 % CI = 1.07, 2.81), but not for early preterm birth (OR = 2.44; 95 % CI = 0.95, 6.32), controlling for income, history of preterm birth, pregnancy complications, reproductive history, and smoking in pregnancy. Stratified analyses showed that cumulative psychosocial stress was a significant risk factor for preterm birth at psychosocial stress on the risk for early delivery.

  4. The proportional odds cumulative incidence model for competing risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Frank; Li, Jianing; Scheike, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We suggest an estimator for the proportional odds cumulative incidence model for competing risks data. The key advantage of this model is that the regression parameters have the simple and useful odds ratio interpretation. The model has been considered by many authors, but it is rarely used in pr...

  5. Is learning in problem-based learning cumulative?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.H.J. Yew (Elaine); E. Chng (Esther); H.G. Schmidt (Henk)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractProblem-based learning (PBL) is generally organized in three phases, involving collaborative and self-directed learning processes. The hypothesis tested here is whether learning in the different phases of PBL is cumulative, with learning in each phase depending on that of the previous ph

  6. Cumulative assessment : Strategic choices to influence students' study effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerdijk, Wouter; Tio, Rene A.; Mulder, B. Florentine; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2013-01-01

    Background: It has been asserted that assessment can and should be used to drive students' learning. In the current study, we present a cumulative assessment program in which test planning, repeated testing and compensation are combined in order to influence study effort. The program is aimed at hel

  7. Repeated mild injury causes cumulative damage to hippocampal cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. Matser (Amy); C.I. de Zeeuw (Chris); J.T. Weber (John)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractAn interesting hypothesis in the study of neurotrauma is that repeated traumatic brain injury may result in cumulative damage to cells of the brain. However, post-injury sequelae are difficult to address at the cellular level in vivo. Therefore, it is necessary to compl

  8. The effects of cumulative practice on mathematics problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, Kristin H; Chase, Philip N

    2002-01-01

    This study compared three different methods of teaching five basic algebra rules to college students. All methods used the same procedures to teach the rules and included four 50-question review sessions interspersed among the training of the individual rules. The differences among methods involved the kinds of practice provided during the four review sessions. Participants who received cumulative practice answered 50 questions covering a mix of the rules learned prior to each review session. Participants who received a simple review answered 50 questions on one previously trained rule. Participants who received extra practice answered 50 extra questions on the rule they had just learned. Tests administered after each review included new questions for applying each rule (application items) and problems that required novel combinations of the rules (problem-solving items). On the final test, the cumulative group outscored the other groups on application and problem-solving items. In addition, the cumulative group solved the problem-solving items significantly faster than the other groups. These results suggest that cumulative practice of component skills is an effective method of training problem solving.

  9. A Parametric Cumulative Sum Statistic for Person Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Ronald D.; Shi, Min

    2009-01-01

    This article develops a new cumulative sum (CUSUM) statistic to detect aberrant item response behavior. Shifts in behavior are modeled with quadratic functions and a series of likelihood ratio tests are used to detect aberrancy. The new CUSUM statistic is compared against another CUSUM approach as well as traditional person-fit statistics. A…

  10. Variable cultural acquisition costs constrain cumulative cultural evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Mesoudi

    Full Text Available One of the hallmarks of the human species is our capacity for cumulative culture, in which beneficial knowledge and technology is accumulated over successive generations. Yet previous analyses of cumulative cultural change have failed to consider the possibility that as cultural complexity accumulates, it becomes increasingly costly for each new generation to acquire from the previous generation. In principle this may result in an upper limit on the cultural complexity that can be accumulated, at which point accumulated knowledge is so costly and time-consuming to acquire that further innovation is not possible. In this paper I first review existing empirical analyses of the history of science and technology that support the possibility that cultural acquisition costs may constrain cumulative cultural evolution. I then present macroscopic and individual-based models of cumulative cultural evolution that explore the consequences of this assumption of variable cultural acquisition costs, showing that making acquisition costs vary with cultural complexity causes the latter to reach an upper limit above which no further innovation can occur. These models further explore the consequences of different cultural transmission rules (directly biased, indirectly biased and unbiased transmission, population size, and cultural innovations that themselves reduce innovation or acquisition costs.

  11. Cumulative index 1981-1985, Volumes 138-157.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    This cumulative index also includes listings of all major papers from the American Journal of Neuroradiology, American Journal of Roentgenology, Clinics in Diagnostic Ultrasound, Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography, Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine, RadioGraphics, Radiologic Clinics of North America, Seminars in Nuclear Medicine, Seminars in Roentgenology, and Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MR.

  12. Cumulative index 1981-1985, Volumes 138-157

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    This cumulative index also includes listings of all major papers from the American Journal of Neuroradiology, American Journal of Roentgenology, Clinics in Diagnostic Ultrasound, Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography, Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine, RadioGraphics, Radiologic Clinics of North America, Seminars in Nuclear Medicine, Seminars in Roentgenology, and Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MR.

  13. Self-Reported Childhood Maltreatment and Traumatic Events among Israeli Patients Suffering from Fibromyalgia and Rheumatoid Arthritis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hellou, Raneen; Häuser, Winfried; Brenner, Inbal; Buskila, Dan; Jacob, Giris; Elkayam, Ori; Aloush, Valerie; Ablin, Jacob N

    2017-01-01

      Objective. The association between Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS) and childhood maltreatment and adversity has frequently been proposed but limited data exists regarding the transcultural nature of this association. Methods...

  14. Prevalence of Negative Life Events and Chronic Adversities in European Pre- and Primary-School Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanaelst, Barbara; Huybrechts, Inge; Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2012-01-01

    - and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS’). Results: The following findings were observed: (1) Certain adversities occur only rarely, while others are very regular (i.e. parental divorce); (2) A large percentage of children is shielded from stressors, while a small group of children......Background: Children are not always recognized as being susceptible to stress, although childhood stressors may originate from multiple events in their everyday surroundings with negative effects on children’s health. Methods: As there is a lack of large-scale, European prevalence data on childhood...

  15. Cumulative risk assessment for plasticizer-contaminated food using the hazard index approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J W; Chen, C Y; Yan, B R; Chang, M H; Tseng, S H; Kao, Y M; Chen, J C; Lee, C C

    2014-06-01

    Phthalates strongly and adversely affect reproduction, development and liver function. We did a cumulative risk assessment for simultaneous exposure to nine phthalates using the hazard index (HI) and the levels of nine phthalates in 1200 foodstuff samples. DEHP (di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate) present the highest level (mean: 0.443 mg/kg) in 1200 samples, and the highest average daily dose (ADD) was found in DEHP, ΣDBP(i + n) (the sum of dibutyl phthalate [DBP] isomers [DnBP + DiBP]) posed the highest risk potential of all the phthalates. In seven phthalates, the 95th percentiles of the ADDs for ΣDBP(i + n) in 0-6-yr-old children accounted for 91% (79-107%) of the tolerable daily intake, and the 95th percentiles of the HIs for the anti-androgenic effects of five phthalates in 0-3-yr-old children and 4-6-yr-old girls were >1. We conclude that the health of younger Taiwanese may be adversely affected by overexposure of phthalate-contaminated foods.

  16. Pathways from Childhood Abuse to Prospective Revictimization: Depression, Sex to Reduce Negative Affect, and Forecasted Sexual Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Miron, Lynsey R.; Orcutt, Holly K.

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that adverse events in childhood, such as childhood physical, sexual, and emotional abuse, confer risk for later sexual assault. Psychological distress, coping strategies, and sexual behavior may help explain the path from childhood abuse to revictimization. The present study explored how the use of sex to regulate negative affect (SRNA) operates independently, and in combination with other psychosocial factors to increase college women’s (N = 541) risk of experiencing prosp...

  17. The impact of the experience of childhood poverty on adult health-risk behaviors in Japan: a mediation analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Umeda, Maki; Oshio, Takashi; Fujii, Mayu

    2015-01-01

    Background The experience of childhood poverty has a long-lasting, adverse impact on physical health outcomes in adulthood. We examined the mediating effects of adult socioeconomic status (SES) and social support on the association between childhood poverty and adult health-risk behaviors. Methods Cross-sectional data collected from Japanese community residents (N = 3836) were used. A binary indicator of the experience of childhood poverty was constructed by utilizing retrospectively assessed...

  18. CUMULANTS OF STOCHASTIC RESPONSE FOR A CLASS OF SPECIAL NONHOLONOMIC SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG MEI; ZHANG YI

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies the response cumulants for a kind of special nonholonomic systems under non-Gaussian, delta- correlated excitations. We present a new methodology for formulating the equations governing the evolution of the response cumulants of the stochastic dynamic systems. The response cumulant differential equations (CDEs) derived can be used to calculate the response cumulants for both linear and nonlinear systems. One example is given to illustrate how to use the CDEs for calculating response cumulants.

  19. Undiagnosed asthma in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gent, R.

    2008-01-01

    Asthma is the most prevalent chronic disease in childhood. To study the actual prevalence and impact of undiagnosed childhood asthma in daily life (i.e. quality of life, participation in physical and school activities) we performed a survey in schoolchildren (aged 7-10 years) in the southern part of

  20. Childhood Roots of Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Norman F.; Lubensky, Amy W.

    1976-01-01

    Earlier project reports compared childhood social behavior of nonmigratory schizophrenics and normal classmates by analyzing teachers' comments in school records. This article expands the sample to include migratory schizophrenics and analyzes childhood intellectual functioning. Behavioral differences indicated emotional immaturity and social…

  1. Optimal Contracting under Adverse Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenells, Jonatan; Stea, Diego; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2015-01-01

    We study a model of adverse selection, hard and soft information, and mentalizing ability--the human capacity to represent others' intentions, knowledge, and beliefs. By allowing for a continuous range of different information types, as well as for different means of acquiring information, we dev...... of that information. This strategy affects the properties of the optimal contract, which grows closer to the first best. This research provides insights into the implications of mentalizing for agency theory....

  2. Childhood social hardships and fertility: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harville, Emily W; Boynton-Jarrett, Renée

    2013-12-01

    To examine the effect of lifetime social hardships on fertility. Using the British National Child Development Study, a longitudinal cohort study, the impact of exposure to childhood hardships on becoming pregnant, reported infertility, and time-to-pregnancy was investigated. In total, 6477 women reported on whether they had become pregnant by 41 years, and 5198 women had data on at least one pregnancy. Factor analysis was used to identify six types of childhood hardships (as reported by parent, child, social worker, or teacher); retrospective report of child abuse was also examined. Logistic regression and discrete failure-time analysis was used to adjust for potential confounders. Never-married women were more likely to have become pregnant at some point if they had experienced more childhood hardships. Retrospectively, reported child abuse was associated with an increased likelihood of having been told that one was unable to have children. Among ever-married women, childhood hardships were associated with reduced fecundability, but the association was weakened by adjustment for adult social class. The relationship between childhood adversity and adult fertility is complex. Future research should investigate pathways between characteristics of adversities and fertility. 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Childhood environments and cytomegalovirus serostatus and reactivation in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Cohen, Sheldon; Doyle, William J; Marsland, Anna L; Bosch, Jos

    2014-08-01

    Childhood adversity, defined in terms of material hardship or physical or emotional maltreatment has been associated with risk for infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) among children and adolescents, and with CMV reactivation in children and adults. The present study examined whether different dimensions of childhood experience-those pertaining to socioeconomic status (SES), physical environment, or family relationships-relate differentially to CMV serostatus and reactivation during adulthood. Participants were 140 healthy adults, aged 18-55years (41% female; 64% white). Childhood environments were assessed retrospectively and included family SES (parental housing tenure); childhood neighborhood environment (urban residence; physical conditions; safety; and social atmosphere); residential exposures (parental smoking and physical condition of home); and family relationships (parental divorce; warmth; harmony; dysfunction; parental bonding). Approximately 39% (n=53) of participants were CMV+. In individual analyses controlling for age, sex, race, body mass, current adult SES and smoking status, fewer years of parental home ownership, having a parent who smoked, and living in a poorly maintained or unsafe neighborhood each were associated with greater odds of infection with CMV. By comparison, in individual analyses limited to CMV+ participants, less family warmth, less harmony, greater dysfunction, and suboptimal parental bonding each were related to higher antibody levels, independent of the aforementioned covariates. Findings were not attributable to current adult perceptions of psychological stress or relative levels of emotional stability. These results suggest that different types of childhood adversity may be associated with differential effects on CMV infection and latency.

  4. The role of violent media preference in cumulative developmental risk for violence and general aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxer, Paul; Huesmann, L Rowell; Bushman, Brad J; O'Brien, Maureen; Moceri, Dominic

    2009-03-01

    The impact of exposure to violence in the media on the long-term development and short-term expression of aggressive behavior has been well documented. However, gaps in this literature remain, and in particular the role of violent media exposure in shaping violent and other serious antisocial behavior has not been investigated. Further, studies of violent media effects typically have not sampled from populations with confirmed histories of violent and/or nonviolent antisocial behavior. In this study, we analyzed data on 820 youth, including 390 juvenile delinquents and 430 high school students, to examine the relation of violent media use to involvement in violence and general aggression. Using criterion scores developed through cross-informant modeling of data from self, parent/guardian, and teacher/staff reports, we observed that childhood and adolescent violent media preferences contributed significantly to the prediction of violence and general aggression from cumulative risk totals. Findings represent a new and important direction for research on the role of violent media use in the broader matrix of risk factors for youth violence.

  5. Psychotic experiences in the context of depression: The cumulative role of victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Boyoung; Hilimire, Matthew; Schiffman, Jason; DeVylder, Jordan

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies have reported an association between depression and psychotic experiences, but little is known about what drives this co-occurrence. This study tests the hypothesis that exposure to trauma and bullying may strengthen the relation between depression and psychotic experiences. A total of 799 college students completed self-report questionnaires on psychotic experiences, depression, bullying, and sexual trauma. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were conducted to test the direct relationship between depression and psychotic experiences, as well as interactions. Approximately 20% of respondents reported a history of being bullied, and 7% reported exposure to childhood sexual trauma. There was a significant direct relationship between depression and psychotic experiences. The association between depression and psychotic experiences was significantly stronger among respondents who were victims of both bullying and sexual violence compared to those who experienced either exposure alone, or who were not exposed to either form of victimization. These findings suggest that cumulative exposure to trauma and victimization may contribute to the co-occurrence of depression and psychotic experiences. History of victimization should be assessed among individuals with depressive symptoms to improve treatment plans and outcomes.

  6. Childhood risk factors for developing fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivieri P

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Patrick Olivieri,1 Bruce Solitar,2,* Michel Dubois3,*1NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; 2Department of Rheumatology, 3Department of Pain Management, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, USA*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Fibromyalgia is a disease process without an obvious etiology. While some evidence suggests that adverse experiences in childhood contribute to its development, specific evidence has been equivocal.Methods: A total of 36 patients with fibromyalgia from the greater New York area were recruited and surveyed using the Centers for Disease Control's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey, and questions from the section on adverse childhood experiences were administered. The results were compared to those obtained from over 400,000 people surveyed by the Centers for Disease control each year, and were monitored for statistically significant differences.Results: A statistically significant difference was noted among the control group, suggesting that individuals reported growing up with someone who was depressed when the respondents were between the ages of 0 and 18 years old. Moreover, respondents reported that they were hit by their parents in some way, were insulted or cursed at by their parents, and had been forced to have sex with someone at least 5 years older than them or with an adult. No correlation was found with the following variables and the development of fibromyalgia: growing up with divorced or separated parents; growing up with someone sentenced to serve time in jail; or having parents that abused each other. Additionally, statistically significant differences were found for the following categories: lack of emotional support; life dissatisfaction; fair or poor health; physical, mental or emotional disability; and being divorced or not married.Discussion: Using this well-validated survey, it became clear that at least six specific adverse childhood

  7. A cumulative entropy method for distribution recognition of model error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yingjie; Chen, Wen

    2015-02-01

    This paper develops a cumulative entropy method (CEM) to recognize the most suitable distribution for model error. In terms of the CEM, the Lévy stable distribution is employed to capture the statistical properties of model error. The strategies are tested on 250 experiments of axially loaded CFT steel stub columns in conjunction with the four national building codes of Japan (AIJ, 1997), China (DL/T, 1999), the Eurocode 4 (EU4, 2004), and United States (AISC, 2005). The cumulative entropy method is validated as more computationally efficient than the Shannon entropy method. Compared with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and root mean square deviation, the CEM provides alternative and powerful model selection criterion to recognize the most suitable distribution for the model error.

  8. Experience of cumulative effects assessment in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piper Jake

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Cumulative effects assessment (CEA is a development of environmental impact assessment which attempts to take into account the wider picture of what impacts may affect the environment as a result of either multiple or linear projects, or development plans. CEA is seen as a further valuable tool in promoting sustainable development. The broader canvas upon which the assessment is made leads to a suite of issues such as complexity in methods and assessment of significance, the desirability of co-operation between developers and other parties, new ways of addressing mitigation and monitoring. After outlining the legislative position and the process of CEA, this paper looks at three cases studies in the UK where cumulative assessment has been carried out - the cases concern wind farms, major infrastructure and off-shore developments.

  9. Petrogenesis of the nakhlite meteorites - Evidence from cumulate mineral zoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Ralph P.; Mcsween, Harry Y., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to a simple igneous petrogenesis for the meteorite Nakhla, which was previously called into question because Mg/Fe ratios in olivine indicate substantial disequilibrium between the predominant cumulus minerals (olivine and augite). Comparative analyses of simulated diffusive zoning and the observed cumulus mineral zoning for all three nakhlites (Nakhla, Governador Valadares, and Lafayette) show that their current compositions do not necessarily reflect parental magma compositions. Diffusion has altered primary cumulus compositions to varying degrees, Nakhla being the least affected, and Lafayette being almost completely reequilibrated. Since mineral zoning in each meteorite is strongly concentric around mesostasis areas, it is inferred that reaction with intercumulus liquid has controlled the observed zoning. It is argued that the nakhlites appear to be a series of relatively simple cumulate rocks which have undergone various amounts of late-magmatic and subsolidus diffusion, possibly reflecting their relative positions in a cooling cumulate pile.

  10. Determination of radionuclides and pathways contributing to cumulative dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, B.A.

    1992-12-01

    A series of scoping calculations has been undertaken to evaluate the absolute and relative contributions of different radionuclides and exposure pathways to doses that may have been received by individuals living in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. This scoping calculation (Calculation 004) examined the contributions of numerous radionuclides to cumulative dose via environmental exposures and accumulation in foods. Addressed in this calculation were the contributions to organ and effective dose of infants and adults from (1) air submersion and groundshine external dose, (2) inhalation, (3) ingestion of soil by humans, (4) ingestion of leafy vegetables, (5) ingestion of other vegetables and fruits, (6) ingestion of meat, (7) ingestion of eggs, and (8) ingestion of cows' milk from Feeding Regime 1, as described in calculation 002. This calculation specifically addresses cumulative radiation doses to infants and adults resulting from releases occurring over the period 1945 through 1972.

  11. Cumulative impacts of oil fields on northern alaskan landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D A; Webber, P J; Binnian, E F; Everett, K R; Lederer, N D; Nordstrand, E A; Walker, M D

    1987-11-06

    Proposed further developments on Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain raise questions about cumulative effects on arctic tundra ecosystems of development of multiple large oil fields. Maps of historical changes to the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field show indirect impacts can lag behind planned developments by many years and the total area eventually disturbed can greatly exceed the planned area of construction. For example, in the wettest parts of the oil field (flat thaw-lake plains), flooding and thermokarst covered more than twice the area directly affected by roads and other construction activities. Protecting critical wildlife habitat is the central issue for cumulative impact analysis in northern Alaska. Comprehensive landscape planning with the use of geographic information system technology and detailed geobotanical maps can help identify and protect areas of high wildlife use.

  12. Effective Carrier Sensing in CSMA Networks under Cumulative Interference

    CERN Document Server

    Fu, Liqun; Huang, Jianwei

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes and investigates the concept of a safe carrier-sensing range that can guarantee interference safe (also termed hidden-node-free) transmissions in CSMA networks under the cumulative interference model. Compared with the safe carrier-sensing range under the commonly assumed but less realistic pairwise interference model, we show that the safe carrier-sensing range required under the cumulative interference model is larger by a constant multiplicative factor. The concept of a safe carrier-sensing range, although amenable to elegant analytical results, is inherently not compatible with the conventional power threshold carrier-sensing mechanism (e.g., that used in IEEE 802.11). Specifically, the absolute power sensed by a node in the conventional mechanism does not contain enough information for it to derive its distances from other concurrent transmitter nodes. We show that, fortunately, a carrier-sensing mechanism called Incremental-Power Carrier-Sensing (IPCS) can realize the carrier-sensing...

  13. Cumulants and Correlation Functions vs the QCD phase diagram

    CERN Document Server

    Bzdak, Adam; Strodthoff, Nils

    2016-01-01

    In this note we discuss the relation of particle number cumulants and correlation functions related to them. It is argued that measuring couplings of the genuine correlation functions could provide cleaner information on possible non-trivial dynamics in heavy-ion collisions. We extract integrated multi-particle correlation functions from the presently available experimental data on proton cumulants. We find that the STAR data contain significant four-particle correlations, at least at the lower energies, with indication of changing dynamics in central collisions. We also find that these correlations are rather long-ranged in rapidity. Finally based on the signs of genuine correlation functions we provide exclusion plots for the QCD phase diagram.

  14. Cumulants of heat transfer across nonlinear quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huanan; Agarwalla, Bijay Kumar; Li, Baowen; Wang, Jian-Sheng

    2013-12-01

    We consider thermal conduction across a general nonlinear phononic junction. Based on two-time observation protocol and the nonequilibrium Green's function method, heat transfer in steady-state regimes is studied, and practical formulas for the calculation of the cumulant generating function are obtained. As an application, the general formalism is used to study anharmonic effects on fluctuation of steady-state heat transfer across a single-site junction with a quartic nonlinear on-site pinning potential. An explicit nonlinear modification to the cumulant generating function exact up to the first order is given, in which the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation symmetry is found still valid. Numerically a self-consistent procedure is introduced, which works well for strong nonlinearity.

  15. Seasonal climate change patterns due to cumulative CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Leduc, Martin; Damon Matthews, H.

    2017-07-01

    Cumulative CO2 emissions are near linearly related to both global and regional changes in annual-mean surface temperature. These relationships are known as the transient climate response to cumulative CO2 emissions (TCRE) and the regional TCRE (RTCRE), and have been shown to remain approximately constant over a wide range of cumulative emissions. Here, we assessed how well this relationship holds for seasonal patterns of temperature change, as well as for annual-mean and seasonal precipitation patterns. We analyzed an idealized scenario with CO2 concentration growing at an annual rate of 1% using data from 12 Earth system models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Seasonal RTCRE values for temperature varied considerably, with the highest seasonal variation evident in the Arctic, where RTCRE was about 5.5 °C per Tt C for boreal winter and about 2.0 °C per Tt C for boreal summer. Also the precipitation response in the Arctic during boreal winter was stronger than during other seasons. We found that emission-normalized seasonal patterns of temperature change were relatively robust with respect to time, though they were sub-linear with respect to emissions particularly near the Arctic. Moreover, RTCRE patterns for precipitation could not be quantified robustly due to the large internal variability of precipitation. Our results suggest that cumulative CO2 emissions are a useful metric to predict regional and seasonal changes in precipitation and temperature. This extension of the TCRE framework to seasonal and regional climate change is helpful for communicating the link between emissions and climate change to policy-makers and the general public, and is well-suited for impact studies that could make use of estimated regional-scale climate changes that are consistent with the carbon budgets associated with global temperature targets.

  16. Heavy metal cumulation in crops after the sewage sludge application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gondová Andrea

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available During 1995 - 1996 the crops samples after the sewage sludge application were collected. The heavy metals cumulation in investigated crops from Bardejov increased in order: Zn > Cu > Pb > Ni > Cr > Cd and Banská Bystrica : Zn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Pb > Cd. Heavy metals contents after the sewage sludge application were increased in comparison with the highest admissible concentration in eatable part of crops. The sewage sludge application were not recommended in soils for the growth of vegetables

  17. Finite-volume cumulant expansion in QCD-colorless plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladrem, M. [Taibah University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Madinah, Al-Munawwarah (Saudi Arabia); Physics Department, Algiers (Algeria); ENS-Vieux Kouba (Bachir El-Ibrahimi), Laboratoire de Physique et de Mathematiques Appliquees (LPMA), Algiers (Algeria); Ahmed, M.A.A. [Taibah University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Madinah, Al-Munawwarah (Saudi Arabia); ENS-Vieux Kouba (Bachir El-Ibrahimi), Laboratoire de Physique et de Mathematiques Appliquees (LPMA), Algiers (Algeria); Taiz University in Turba, Physics Department, Taiz (Yemen); Alfull, Z.Z. [Taibah University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Madinah, Al-Munawwarah (Saudi Arabia); Cherif, S. [ENS-Vieux Kouba (Bachir El-Ibrahimi), Laboratoire de Physique et de Mathematiques Appliquees (LPMA), Algiers (Algeria); Ghardaia University, Sciences and Technologies Department, Ghardaia (Algeria)

    2015-09-15

    Due to the finite-size effects, the localization of the phase transition in finite systems and the determination of its order, become an extremely difficult task, even in the simplest known cases. In order to identify and locate the finite-volume transition point T{sub 0}(V) of the QCD deconfinement phase transition to a colorless QGP, we have developed a new approach using the finite-size cumulant expansion of the order parameter and the L{sub mn}-method. The first six cumulants C{sub 1,2,3,4,5,6} with the corresponding under-normalized ratios (skewness Σ, kurtosis κ, pentosis Π{sub ±}, and hexosis H{sub 1,2,3}) and three unnormalized combinations of them, (O = σ{sup 2}κΣ{sup -1},U = σ{sup -2}Σ{sup -1},N = σ{sup 2}κ) are calculated and studied as functions of (T, V). A new approach, unifying in a clear and consistent way the definitions of cumulant ratios, is proposed.Anumerical FSS analysis of the obtained results has allowed us to locate accurately the finite-volume transition point. The extracted transition temperature value T{sub 0}(V) agrees with that expected T{sub 0}{sup N}(V) from the order parameter and the thermal susceptibility χ{sub T} (T, V), according to the standard procedure of localization to within about 2%. In addition to this, a very good correlation factor is obtained proving the validity of our cumulants method. The agreement of our results with those obtained by means of other models is remarkable. (orig.)

  18. The cumulation of methylmercury in fish (Poecilia reticulata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stary, J.; Kratzer, K.; Havlik, B.; Prasilova, J.; Hanusova, J.

    1980-01-01

    Methylmercury labelled with mercury-203 was used for the investigation of the uptake and the release of methylmercury in fish. It has been found that methylmercury compounds adsorbed on fish food remain completely in fish and that they are released with the biological half-time of 110 days. The cumulation of methylmercury from water is very rapid. Equations for the calculation of the concentration of methylmercury in fish were derived and compared with the uptake of phenylmercury and inorganic mercury.

  19. Erupted cumulate fragments in rhyolites from Lipari (Aeolian Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forni, Francesca; Ellis, Ben S.; Bachmann, Olivier; Lucchi, Federico; Tranne, Claudio A.; Agostini, Samuele; Dallai, Luigi

    2015-12-01

    Over the last ~267 ky, the island of Lipari has erupted magmas ranging in compositions from basaltic andesites to rhyolites, with a notable compositional gap in the dacite field. Bulk geochemical and isotopic compositions of the volcanic succession, in conjunction with major and trace elemental compositions of minerals, indicate that the rhyolites were dominantly generated via crystal fractionation processes, with subordinate assimilation. Radiogenic (Sr, Nd, and Pb) and stable (O) isotopes independently suggest ≤30 % of crustal contamination with the majority of it occurring in mafic compositions, likely relatively deep in the system. Within the rhyolites, crystal-rich, K2O-rich enclaves are common. In contrast to previous interpretations, we suggest that these enclaves represent partial melting, remobilization and eruption of cumulate fragments left-over from rhyolite melt extraction. Cumulate melting and remobilization is supported by the presence of (1) resorbed, low-temperature minerals (biotite and sanidine), providing the potassic signature to these clasts, (2) reacted Fo-rich olivine, marking the presence of mafic recharge, (3) An38-21 plagioclase, filling the gap in feldspar composition between the andesites and the rhyolites and (4) strong enrichment in Sr and Ba in plagioclase and sanidine, suggesting crystallization from a locally enriched melt. Based on Sr-melt partitioning, the high-Sr plagioclase would require ~2300 ppm Sr in the melt, a value far in excess of Sr contents in Lipari and Vulcano magmas (50-1532 ppm) but consistent with melting of a feldspar-rich cumulate. Due to the presence of similar crystal-rich enclaves within the rhyolites from Vulcano, we propose that the eruption of remobilized cumulates associated with high-SiO2 rhyolites may be a common process at the Aeolian volcanoes, as already attested for a variety of volcanic systems around the world.

  20. [Cumulative effect of Coriolis acceleration on coronary hemodynamics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapaev, E V; Bednenko, V S

    1985-01-01

    Time-course variations in coronary circulation and cardiac output were measured in 29 healthy test subjects who performed tests with a continuous cumulation of Coriolis accelerations and in 12 healthy test subjects who were exposed to Coriolis accelerations combined with acute hypoxia. Adaptive changes in coronary circulation were seen. It is recommended to monitor coronary circulation during vestibulometric tests as part of medical expertise of the flying personnel.