WorldWideScience

Sample records for cumulative carbon emissions

  1. Sharing a quota on cumulative carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raupach, Michael R.; Davis, Steven J.; Peters, Glen P.; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Ciais, Philippe; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Jotzo, Frank; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Le Quéré, Corinne

    2014-10-01

    Any limit on future global warming is associated with a quota on cumulative global CO2 emissions. We translate this global carbon quota to regional and national scales, on a spectrum of sharing principles that extends from continuation of the present distribution of emissions to an equal per-capita distribution of cumulative emissions. A blend of these endpoints emerges as the most viable option. For a carbon quota consistent with a 2 °C warming limit (relative to pre-industrial levels), the necessary long-term mitigation rates are very challenging (typically over 5% per year), both because of strong limits on future emissions from the global carbon quota and also the likely short-term persistence in emissions growth in many regions.

  2. Cumulative carbon emissions and the Green Paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Ploeg, Frederick Van der

    2013-01-01

    The green paradox states that a gradually more ambitious climate policy such as a renewables subsidy or an anticipated carbon tax induces fossil fuel owners to extract more rapidly and accelerate global warming. However, if extraction becomes more costly as reserves are depleted, such policies also shorten the fossil fuel era, induce more fossil fuel to be left in the earth, and thus curb cumulative carbon emissions. These consequences are relevant, as global warming depends primarily on cumu...

  3. A probabilistic analysis of cumulative carbon emissions and long-term planetary warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyke, Jeremy; Damon Matthews, H.

    2015-11-01

    Efforts to mitigate and adapt to long-term climate change could benefit greatly from probabilistic estimates of cumulative carbon emissions due to fossil fuel burning and resulting CO2-induced planetary warming. Here we demonstrate the use of a reduced-form model to project these variables. We performed simulations using a large-ensemble framework with parametric uncertainty sampled to produce distributions of future cumulative emissions and consequent planetary warming. A hind-cast ensemble of simulations captured 1980-2012 historical CO2 emissions trends and an ensemble of future projection simulations generated a distribution of emission scenarios that qualitatively resembled the suite of Representative and Extended Concentration Pathways. The resulting cumulative carbon emission and temperature change distributions are characterized by 5-95th percentile ranges of 0.96-4.9 teratonnes C (Tt C) and 1.4 °C-8.5 °C, respectively, with 50th percentiles at 3.1 Tt C and 4.7 °C. Within the wide range of policy-related parameter combinations that produced these distributions, we found that low-emission simulations were characterized by both high carbon prices and low costs of non-fossil fuel energy sources, suggesting the importance of these two policy levers in particular for avoiding dangerous levels of climate warming. With this analysis we demonstrate a probabilistic approach to the challenge of identifying strategies for limiting cumulative carbon emissions and assessing likelihoods of surpassing dangerous temperature thresholds.

  4. Origins and implications of the relationship between warming and cumulative carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raupach, M. R.; Davis, S. J.; Peters, G. P.; Andrew, R. M.; Canadell, J.; Le Quere, C.

    2014-12-01

    A near-linear relationship between warming (T) and cumulative carbon emissions (Q) is a robust finding from numerous studies. This finding opens biophysical questions concerning (1) its theoretical basis, (2) the treatment of non-CO2 forcings, and (3) uncertainty specifications. Beyond these biophysical issues, a profound global policy question is raised: (4) how can a quota on cumulative emissions be shared? Here, an integrated survey of all four issues is attempted. (1) Proportionality between T and Q is an emergent property of a linear carbon-climate system forced by exponentially increasing CO2 emissions. This idealisation broadly explains past but not future near-proportionality between T and Q: in future, the roles of non-CO2 forcings and carbon-climate nonlinearities become important, and trajectory dependence becomes stronger. (2) The warming effects of short-lived non-CO2 forcers depend on instantaneous rather than cumulative fluxes. However, inertia in emissions trajectories reinstates some of the benefits of a cumulative emissions approach, with residual trajectory dependence comparable to that for CO2. (3) Uncertainties arise from several sources: climate projections, carbon-climate feedbacks, and residual trajectory dependencies in CO2 and other emissions. All of these can in principle be combined into a probability distribution P(T|Q) for the warming T from given cumulative CO2 emissions Q. Present knowledge of P(T|Q) allows quantification of the tradeoff between mitigation ambition and climate risk. (4) Cumulative emissions consistent with a given warming target and climate risk are a finite common resource that will inevitably be shared, creating a tragedy-of-the-commons dilemma. Sharing options range from "inertia" (present distribution of emissions is maintained) to "equity" (cumulative emissions are distributed equally per-capita). Both extreme options lead to emissions distributions that are unrealisable in practice, but a blend of the two

  5. Assessing the implications of human land-use change for the transient climate response to cumulative carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, C. T.; Matthews, H. D.

    2016-03-01

    Recent research has shown evidence of a linear climate response to cumulative CO2 emissions, which implies that the source, timing, and amount of emissions does not significantly influence the climate response per unit emission. Furthermore, these analyses have generally assumed that the climate response to land-use CO2 emissions is equivalent to that of fossil fuels under the assumption that, once in the atmosphere, the radiative forcing induced by CO2 is not sensitive to the emissions source. However, land-cover change also affects surface albedo and the strength of terrestrial carbon sinks, both of which have an additional climate effect. In this study, we use a coupled climate-carbon cycle model to assess the climate response to historical and future cumulative land-use CO2 emissions, in order to compare it to the response to fossil fuel CO2. We find that when we isolate the CO2-induced (biogeochemical) temperature changes associated with land-use change, then the climate response to cumulative land-use emissions is equivalent to that of fossil fuel CO2. We show further that the globally-averaged albedo-induced biophysical cooling from land-use change is non-negligible and may be of comparable magnitude to the biogeochemical warming, with the result that the net climate response to land-use change is substantially different from a linear response to cumulative emissions. However, our new simulations suggest that the biophysical cooling from land-use change follows its own independent (negative) linear response to cumulative net land-use CO2 emissions, which may provide a useful scaling factor for certain applications when evaluating the full transient climate response to emissions.

  6. Quark cluster contribution to cumulative proton emission in fragmentation of carbon ions

    CERN Document Server

    Abramov, B M; Borodin, Yu A; Bulychjov, S A; Dukhovskoy, I A; Khanov, A I; Krutenkova, A P; Kulikov, V V; Martemyanov, M A; Matsyuk, M A; Turdakina, E N

    2013-01-01

    In the FRAGM experiment at heavy ion accelerator complex TWAC-ITEP, the proton yields at an angle 3.5$^\\circ$ have been measured at fragmentation of carbon ions at $T_0 = $ 0.6, 0.95 and 2.0 GeV/nucleon on beryllium target. The data are presented as invariant proton yields on cumulative variable $x$ in the range 0.9 < $x$ < 2.4. Proton spectra cover six orders of invariant cross section magnitude. They have been analyzed in the framework of quark cluster fragmentation model. Fragmentation functions of quark-gluon string model are used. The probabilities of the existence of multi-quark clusters in carbon nuclei are estimated to be 8--12% for six-quark clusters and 0.2--0.6% for nine-quark clusters.

  7. Climate mitigation: sustainable preferences and cumulative carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckle, Simon

    2010-05-01

    We develop a stylized AK growth model with both climate damages to ecosystem goods and services and sustainable preferences that allow trade-offs between present discounted utility and long-run climate damages. The simplicity of the model permits analytical solutions. Concern for the long-term provides a strong driver for mitigation action. One plausible specification of sustainable preferences leads to the result that, for a range of initial parameter values, an optimizing agent would choose a level of cumulative carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions independent of initial production capital endowment and CO2 levels. There is no technological change so, for economies with sufficiently high initial capital and CO2 endowments, optimal mitigation will lead to disinvestment. For lower values of initial capital and/or CO2 levels, positive investment can be optimal, but still within the same overall level of cumulative emissions. One striking aspect of the model is the complexity of possible outcomes, in addition to these optimal solutions. We also identify a resource constrained region and several regions where climate damages exceed resources available for consumption. Other specifications of sustainable preferences are discussed, as is the case of a hard constraint on long-run damages. Scientists are currently highlighting the potential importance of the cumulative carbon emissions concept as a robust yet flexible target for climate policymakers. This paper shows that it also has an ethical interpretation: it embodies an implicit trade off in global welfare between present discounted welfare and long-term climate damages. We hope that further development of the ideas presented here might contribute to the research and policy debate on the critical areas of intra- and intergenerational welfare.

  8. Origin of path independence between cumulative CO2 emissions and global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadri, Ashwin K.

    2017-02-01

    Observations and GCMs exhibit approximate proportionality between cumulative carbon dioxide (CO2 ) emissions and global warming. Here we identify sufficient conditions for the relationship between cumulative CO2 emissions and global warming to be independent of the path of CO2 emissions; referred to as "path independence". Our starting point is a closed form expression for global warming in a two-box energy balance model (EBM), which depends explicitly on cumulative emissions, airborne fraction and time. Path independence requires that this function can be approximated as depending on cumulative emissions alone. We show that path independence arises from weak constraints, occurring if the timescale for changes in cumulative emissions (equal to ratio between cumulative emissions and emissions rate) is small compared to the timescale for changes in airborne fraction (which depends on CO2 uptake), and also small relative to a derived climate model parameter called the damping-timescale, which is related to the rate at which deep-ocean warming affects global warming. Effects of uncertainties in the climate model and carbon cycle are examined. Large deep-ocean heat capacity in the Earth system is not necessary for path independence, which appears resilient to climate modeling uncertainties. However long time-constants in the Earth system carbon cycle are essential, ensuring that airborne fraction changes slowly with timescale much longer than the timescale for changes in cumulative emissions. Therefore path independence between cumulative emissions and warming cannot arise for short-lived greenhouse gases.

  9. Seasonal climate change patterns due to cumulative CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Leduc, Martin; Damon Matthews, H.

    2017-07-01

    Cumulative CO2 emissions are near linearly related to both global and regional changes in annual-mean surface temperature. These relationships are known as the transient climate response to cumulative CO2 emissions (TCRE) and the regional TCRE (RTCRE), and have been shown to remain approximately constant over a wide range of cumulative emissions. Here, we assessed how well this relationship holds for seasonal patterns of temperature change, as well as for annual-mean and seasonal precipitation patterns. We analyzed an idealized scenario with CO2 concentration growing at an annual rate of 1% using data from 12 Earth system models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Seasonal RTCRE values for temperature varied considerably, with the highest seasonal variation evident in the Arctic, where RTCRE was about 5.5 °C per Tt C for boreal winter and about 2.0 °C per Tt C for boreal summer. Also the precipitation response in the Arctic during boreal winter was stronger than during other seasons. We found that emission-normalized seasonal patterns of temperature change were relatively robust with respect to time, though they were sub-linear with respect to emissions particularly near the Arctic. Moreover, RTCRE patterns for precipitation could not be quantified robustly due to the large internal variability of precipitation. Our results suggest that cumulative CO2 emissions are a useful metric to predict regional and seasonal changes in precipitation and temperature. This extension of the TCRE framework to seasonal and regional climate change is helpful for communicating the link between emissions and climate change to policy-makers and the general public, and is well-suited for impact studies that could make use of estimated regional-scale climate changes that are consistent with the carbon budgets associated with global temperature targets.

  10. Measuring a fair and ambitious climate agreement using cumulative emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Glen P.; Andrew, Robbie M.; Solomon, Susan; Friedlingstein, Pierre

    2015-10-01

    Policy makers have called for a ‘fair and ambitious’ global climate agreement. Scientific constraints, such as the allowable carbon emissions to avoid exceeding a 2 °C global warming limit with 66% probability, can help define ambitious approaches to climate targets. However, fairly sharing the mitigation challenge to meet a global target involves human values rather than just scientific facts. We develop a framework based on cumulative emissions of carbon dioxide to compare the consistency of countries’ current emission pledges to the ambition of keeping global temperatures below 2 °C, and, further, compare two alternative methods of sharing the remaining emission allowance. We focus on the recent pledges and other official statements of the EU, USA, and China. The EU and US pledges are close to a 2 °C level of ambition only if the remaining emission allowance is distributed based on current emission shares, which is unlikely to be viewed as ‘fair and ambitious’ by others who presently emit less. China’s stated emissions target also differs from measures of global fairness, owing to emissions that continue to grow into the 2020s. We find that, combined, the EU, US, and Chinese pledges leave little room for other countries to emit CO2 if a 2 °C limit is the objective, essentially requiring all other countries to move towards per capita emissions 7 to 14 times lower than the EU, USA, or China by 2030. We argue that a fair and ambitious agreement for a 2 °C limit that would be globally inclusive and effective in the long term will require stronger mitigation than the goals currently proposed. Given such necessary and unprecedented mitigation and the current lack of availability of some key technologies, we suggest a new diplomatic effort directed at ensuring that the necessary technologies become available in the near future.

  11. Economic and policy implications of the cumulative carbon budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M. R.; Otto, F. E. L.; Otto, A.; Hepburn, C.

    2014-12-01

    The importance of cumulative carbon emissions in determining long-term risks of climate change presents considerable challenges to policy makers. The traditional notion of "total CO2-equivalent emissions", which forms the backbone of agreements such as the Kyoto Protocol and the European Emissions Trading System, is fundamentally flawed. Measures to reduce short-lived climate pollutants benefit the current generation, while measures to reduce long-lived climate pollutants benefit future generations, so there is no sense in which they can ever be considered equivalent. Debates over the correct metric used to compute CO2-equivalence are thus entirely moot: both long-lived and short-lived emissions will need to be addressed if all generations are to be protected from dangerous climate change. As far as long-lived climate pollutants are concerned, the latest IPCC report highlights the overwhelming importance of carbon capture and storage in determining the cost of meeting the goal of limiting anthropogenic warming to two degrees. We will show that this importance arises directly from the cumulative carbon budget and the role of CCS as the technology of last resort before economic activity needs to be restricted to meet ambitious climate targets. It highlights the need to increase the rate of CCS deployment by orders of magnitude if the option of avoiding two degrees is to be retained. The difficulty of achieving this speed of deployment through conventional incentives and carbon-pricing mechanisms suggests a need for a much more direct mandatory approach. Despite their theoretical economic inefficiency, the success of recent regulatory measures in achieving greenhouse gas emissions reductions in jurisdictions such as the United States suggests an extension of the regulatory approach could be a more effective and politically acceptable means of achieving adequately rapid CCS deployment than conventional carbon taxes or cap-and-trade systems.

  12. Scenario dependency of the transient climate response to cumulative emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Katherine; Williams, Ric; Oschlies, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    The transient climate response to emissions (TCRE), in relating surface temperature changes to cumulative carbon emissions, provides a means of estimating carbon budgets from global warming benchmarks. Current Earth System Model results indicate that the TCRE is linear and scenario-independent. We explore the sensitivity of the TCRE to scenario and model parameter uncertainties using 8 configurations of the UVic Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity, forced by 2 twenty-first-century emissions scenarios (RCP 4.5 and 8.5). We find that the TCRE is higher under RCP 4.5 than 8.5 by 0.3-0.8 K/1000 Pg C and shows opposing nonlinear tendencies in these scenarios: an increase of 0.15-0.5 K/1000 Pg C over RCP 4.5 and a decrease of 0-0.7 K/1000 Pg C over RCP 8.5. These differences are robust across model configurations with perturbed land and ocean parametrizations and are the result of the decreased efficiency of heat transport into the deep ocean under decelerating emissions.

  13. On the proportionality between global temperature change and cumulative CO2 emissions during periods of net negative CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zickfeld, Kirsten; MacDougall, Andrew H.; Damon Matthews, H.

    2016-05-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that global mean surface air warming is approximately proportional to cumulative CO2 emissions. This proportional relationship has received considerable attention, as it allows one to calculate the cumulative CO2 emissions (‘carbon budget’) compatible with temperature targets and is a useful measure for model inter-comparison. Here we use an Earth system model to explore whether this relationship persists during periods of net negative CO2 emissions. Negative CO2 emissions are required in the majority of emissions scenarios limiting global warming to 2 °C above pre-industrial, with emissions becoming net negative in the second half of this century in several scenarios. We find that for model simulations with a symmetric 1% per year increase and decrease in atmospheric CO2, the temperature change (ΔT) versus cumulative CO2 emissions (CE) relationship is nonlinear during periods of net negative emissions, owing to the lagged response of the deep ocean to previously increasing atmospheric CO2. When corrected for this lagged response, or if the CO2 decline is applied after the system has equilibrated with the previous CO2 increase, the ΔT versus CE relationship is close to linear during periods of net negative CO2 emissions. A proportionality constant—the transient climate response to cumulative carbon emissions (TCRE)- can therefore be calculated for both positive and net negative CO2 emission periods. We find that in simulations with a symmetric 1% per year increase and decrease in atmospheric CO2 the TCRE is larger on the upward than on the downward CO2 trajectory, suggesting that positive CO2 emissions are more effective at warming than negative emissions are at subsequently cooling. We also find that the cooling effectiveness of negative CO2 emissions decreases if applied at higher atmospheric CO2 concentrations.

  14. Cumulative Impacts of Energy and Climate Change Policies on Carbon Leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varma, A.; Milnes, R.; Miller, K.; Williams, E. [AEA Technology plc, London (United Kingdom); De Bruyn, S.; Brinke, L. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands)

    2012-02-15

    Carbon leakage occurs when climate change policy aimed at reducing carbon dioxide emissions in one country leads to an increase in carbon dioxide emissions in a country that is not bound by these policies. Given that climate change is a global issue, carbon leakage impacts upon the effectiveness of climate change policies. This independent study examines the cumulative impact of climate change policies on carbon leakage. The report brings together findings and analysis from a wide range of primary literature in this area and where possible, conclusions relevant to the UK are drawn.

  15. Regional estimates of the transient climate response to cumulative CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Martin; Matthews, H. Damon; de Elía, Ramón

    2016-05-01

    The Transient Climate Response to cumulative carbon Emissions (TCRE) measures the response of global temperatures to cumulative CO2 emissions. Although the TCRE is a global quantity, climate impacts manifest predominantly in response to local climate changes. Here we quantify the link between CO2 emissions and regional temperature change, showing that regional temperatures also respond approximately linearly to cumulative CO2 emissions. Using an ensemble of twelve Earth system models, we present a novel application of pattern scaling to define the regional pattern of temperature change per emission of CO2. Ensemble mean regional TCRE values range from less than 1 °C per TtC for some ocean regions, to more than 5 °C per TtC in the Arctic, with a pattern of higher values over land and at high northern latitudes. We find also that high-latitude ocean regions deviate more strongly from linearity as compared to land and lower-latitude oceans. This suggests that ice-albedo and ocean circulation feedbacks are important contributors to the overall negative deviation from linearity of the global temperature response to high levels of cumulative emissions. The strong linearity of the regional climate response over most land regions provides a robust way to quantitatively link anthropogenic CO2 emissions to local-scale climate impacts.

  16. Carbon emissions Inventory Games

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Emadi, Eiman Ali

    2016-01-01

    Carbon emissions reduction has been the center of attention in many organizations during the past few decades. Many international entities developed rules and regulations to monitor and control carbon emissions especially under supply chain context. Furthermore, researchers investigated techniques and methods on how reduce carbon emissions under operational adjustment which can be done by cooperation or coordination. The main contribution of this thesis is to measure to what extend cooperatio...

  17. Carbon emission limits required to satisfy future representative concentration pathways of greenhouse gases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arora, V. K; Scinocca, J. F; Boer, G. J; Christian, J. R; Denman, K. L; Flato, G. M; Kharin, V. V; Lee, W. G; Merryfield, W. J

    2011-01-01

    ... 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios. For the historical 1850–2005 period, cumulative land plus ocean carbon uptake and, consequently, cumulative diagnosed emissions compare well with observation‐based estimates...

  18. Cumulative Radiative Forcing Implications of Deployment Strategies for Carbon Capture and Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathre, R. C.; Masanet, E.

    2011-12-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is increasingly discussed as a potential means of mitigating the climate disruption associated with fossil fuel use. Some technologies for capturing, transporting, and sequestering carbon dioxide (CO2) are already mature, while others technologies under development may lead to more cost- and energy-efficient CCS systems. Various elements of CCS systems are currently in operation at relatively small scale, but will need to be scaled up very substantially in order to make a significant contribution to climate change mitigation. Because the rate of fossil fuel CO2 emission is continuing to increase and the emitted CO2 will remain in the atmosphere for long time periods, the speed at which CCS is deployed will strongly affect the cumulative CO2 emission and the climate impacts. To better understand these issues, in this analysis we integrate scenario forecasting of energy supply systems, life cycle emission modeling, and time-dependent calculations of cumulative radiative forcing. We develop a series of CCS deployment scenarios that describe plausible future trajectories for CCS implementation in the US electric power plant fleet. The scenarios incorporate dimensions such as speed of deployment build-out, year of initiating deployment, efficiency of capture technology, and installation in new power plants vs. retrofitting existing plants. We conduct life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions analyses of each scenario to estimate annual emission profiles of CO2, CH4, and N2O over a 90-year time horizon, from 2010 to 2100. We then model the atmospheric dynamics of the emitted GHGs including atmospheric decay and instantaneous radiative forcing patterns over time. Finally, we determine the cumulative radiative forcing of each scenario, which we use as a proxy for surface temperature change and resulting disruption to physical, ecological and social systems. The results show strong climate mitigation benefits of early, aggressive

  19. Carbon emission flow in networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kang, Chongqing; Zhou, Tianrui; Chen, Qixin; Xu, Qianyao; Xia, Qing; Ji, Zhen

    2012-01-01

    As the human population increases and production expands, energy demand and anthropogenic carbon emission rates have been growing rapidly, and the need to decrease carbon emission levels has drawn increasing attention...

  20. Establishing the fair allocation of international aviation carbon emission rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Cai Zhao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available To identify potentially unfair use of international aviation carbon emission rights in different countries, this paper presents a carbon Lorenz curve and Gini coefficient, constructed on the basis of historical cumulative international aviation CO2 emissions per capita. The study follows a methodology adapted from the research into fair income allocation. The results of these calculations show that there has been vast unfairness surrounding international aviation carbon emissions in the past, and that this unfairness has been partially hidden by a delay in accumulative start dates. A solution to this problem, allowing fair allocation of carbon emissions, is the key to building a mechanism for the reduction of global international aviation emissions. This study proposes a fair method for allocating emission rights, based on a responsibility-capacity index. Taking a goal of carbon-neutral growth by 2020 as an example, the degree of carbon emission reduction expected from different countries by 2021 is calculated using the proposed method.

  1. Forecasting carbon dioxide emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaobing; Du, Ding

    2015-09-01

    This study extends the literature on forecasting carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by applying the reduced-form econometrics approach of Schmalensee et al. (1998) to a more recent sample period, the post-1997 period. Using the post-1997 period is motivated by the observation that the strengthening pace of global climate policy may have been accelerated since 1997. Based on our parameter estimates, we project 25% reduction in CO2 emissions by 2050 according to an economic and population growth scenario that is more consistent with recent global trends. Our forecasts are conservative due to that we do not have sufficient data to fully take into account recent developments in the global economy.

  2. Emissions & Measurements - Black Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions and Measurement (EM) research activities performed within the National Risk Management Research Lab NRMRL) of EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD) support measurement and laboratory analysis approaches to accurately characterize source emissions, and near sour...

  3. Legislators Urge Carbon Emissions Cuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mohi

    2007-02-01

    Legislators from the world's largest carbon dioxide (CO2) emitting countries met on 14-15 February in Washington, D.C., to discuss the future of the global climate and strategies to mitigate temperature increases resulting from global warming. The world faces a ``double challenge-how to reduce damaging carbon emissions while still meeting the energy demand that the world's poor need to escape poverty,'' said World Bank President Paul Wolfowitz during a keynote talk.

  4. Spectral distortion of the CMB by the cumulative CO emission from galaxies throughout cosmic history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashian, Natalie; Loeb, Abraham; Sternberg, Amiel

    2016-05-01

    We show that the cumulative CO emission from galaxies throughout cosmic history distorts the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background at a level that is well above the detection limit of future instruments, such as the Primordial Inflation Explorer. The modelled CO signal has a prominent bump in the frequency interval 100-200 GHz, with a characteristic peak intensity of ˜2 × 10-23 W m-2 Hz-1 sr-1. Most of the CO foreground originates from modest redshifts, z ˜ 2-5, and needs to be efficiently removed for more subtle distortions from the earlier Universe to be detected.

  5. Trend Prediction and Decomposed Driving Factors of Carbon Emissions in Jiangsu Province during 2015–2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decai Tang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available According to the economic and energy consumption statistics in Jiangsu Province, we combined the GM (1, 1 grey model and polynomial regression to forecast carbon emissions. Historical and projected emissions were decomposed using the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI approach to assess the relative contribution of different factors to emission variability. The results showed that carbon emissions will continue to increase in Jiangsu province during 2015–2020 period and cumulative carbon emissions will increase by 39.5487 million tons within the forecast period. The growth of gross domestic product (GDP per capita plays the greatest positive role in driving carbon emission growth. Furthermore, the improvement of energy usage efficiency is the primary factor responsible for reducing carbon emissions. Factors of population, industry structure adjustment and the optimization of fuel mix also help to reduce carbon emissions. Based on the LMDI analysis, we provide some advice for policy-makers in Jiangsu and other provinces in China.

  6. Seasonal Variation of Cumulative CO2 Emission from a Vertisol Under Apricot Orchard in Semi-Arid Southeast Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.YILMAZ

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the factors affecting the CO2 emission from agricultural practices is crucial for global warming.A study was performed in an apricot orchard field in the experimental farm of the Harran University,Southeast Turkey,to i) quantify weekly and seasonal variations of the CO2 emissions from a Vertisol under apricot orchard; ii) evaluate the difference in CO2 emission between the area under trees and rows; and iii) assess the relationships between the amounts of CO2 emissions and environmental parameters for better use and management of the soils from the view point of carbon balance and flux in a semi-arid environment under drip irrigation.Soil CO2 emission measurements were performed during May 2008 and May 2010,from both under tree crowns (CO2-UC) and between tree rows (CO2-BR),on a weekly basis in southeast Turkey with a semi-arid climate.CO2 emissions were statistically correlated with weather and soil parameters such as air temperature,relative humidity,rainfall,soil water content,and soil temperature at various depths from 5 to 100 cm.The weekly emissions ranged from 82 to 1 110 kg CO2 ha-1 week-1 and from 96 to 782 kg CO2 ha-1 week-1 in CO2-UC and CO2-BR,respectively.Increase in CO2 emission in the second year was due to increases in mean air and soil temperatures.The weekly and monthly cumulative CO2 emissions were positively correlated with the air and soil temperatures.Multiple linear regression analysis explained 35% and 83% variations in average weekly and monthly CO2 emissions,by using meteorological data.Including the interaction effects of meteorological parameters in regression equations nearly doubled the variance explained by the regression models.According to stepwise regression analysis,soil and air temperatures were found to have the most significant impact on the temporal variability of the soil CO2 emission.

  7. The carbon emissions of Chinese cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available As increasing urbanization has become a national policy priority for economic growth in China, cities have become important players in efforts to reduce carbon emissions. However, their efforts have been hampered by the lack of specific and comparable carbon emission inventories. Comprehensive carbon emission inventories, which present both a relatively current snapshot and also show how emissions have changed over the past several years, of twelve Chinese cities were developed using bottom-up approach. Carbon emissions in most of Chinese cities rose along with economic growth from 2004 to 2008. Yet per capita carbon emissions varied between the highest and lowest emitting cities by a factor of nearly 7. Average per capita carbon emissions varied across sectors, including industrial energy consumption (64.3%, industrial processes (10.2%, transportation (10.6%, household energy consumption (8.0%, commercial energy consumption (4.3% and waste processing (2.5%. The levels of per capita carbon emissions in China's cities were higher than we anticipated before comparing them with the average of global cities. This is mainly due to the major contribution of industry sector encompassing industrial energy consumption and industrial processes to the total carbon emissions of Chinese cities.

  8. Study on Influencing Factors of Carbon Emissions from Energy Consumption of Shandong Province of China from 1995 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiekun Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon emissions from energy consumption of Shandong province from 1995 to 2012 are calculated. Three zero-residual decomposition models (LMDI, MRCI and Shapley value models are introduced for decomposing carbon emissions. Based on the results, Kendall coordination coefficient method is employed for testing their compatibility, and an optimal weighted combination decomposition model is constructed for improving the objectivity of decomposition. STIRPAT model is applied to evaluate the impact of each factor on carbon emissions. The results show that, using 1995 as the base year, the cumulative effects of population, per capita GDP, energy consumption intensity, and energy consumption structure of Shandong province in 2012 are positive, while the cumulative effect of industrial structure is negative. Per capita GDP is the largest driver of the increasing carbon emissions and has a great impact on carbon emissions; energy consumption intensity is a weak driver and has certain impact on carbon emissions; population plays a weak driving role, but it has the most significant impact on carbon emissions; energy consumption structure is a weak driver of the increasing carbon emissions and has a weak impact on carbon emissions; industrial structure has played a weak inhibitory role, and its impact on carbon emissions is great.

  9. Study on influencing factors of carbon emissions from energy consumption of Shandong Province of China from 1995 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jiekun; Song, Qing; Zhang, Dong; Lu, Youyou; Luan, Long

    2014-01-01

    Carbon emissions from energy consumption of Shandong province from 1995 to 2012 are calculated. Three zero-residual decomposition models (LMDI, MRCI and Shapley value models) are introduced for decomposing carbon emissions. Based on the results, Kendall coordination coefficient method is employed for testing their compatibility, and an optimal weighted combination decomposition model is constructed for improving the objectivity of decomposition. STIRPAT model is applied to evaluate the impact of each factor on carbon emissions. The results show that, using 1995 as the base year, the cumulative effects of population, per capita GDP, energy consumption intensity, and energy consumption structure of Shandong province in 2012 are positive, while the cumulative effect of industrial structure is negative. Per capita GDP is the largest driver of the increasing carbon emissions and has a great impact on carbon emissions; energy consumption intensity is a weak driver and has certain impact on carbon emissions; population plays a weak driving role, but it has the most significant impact on carbon emissions; energy consumption structure is a weak driver of the increasing carbon emissions and has a weak impact on carbon emissions; industrial structure has played a weak inhibitory role, and its impact on carbon emissions is great.

  10. Study on Influencing Factors of Carbon Emissions from Energy Consumption of Shandong Province of China from 1995 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jiekun; Song, Qing; Zhang, Dong; Lu, Youyou; Luan, Long

    2014-01-01

    Carbon emissions from energy consumption of Shandong province from 1995 to 2012 are calculated. Three zero-residual decomposition models (LMDI, MRCI and Shapley value models) are introduced for decomposing carbon emissions. Based on the results, Kendall coordination coefficient method is employed for testing their compatibility, and an optimal weighted combination decomposition model is constructed for improving the objectivity of decomposition. STIRPAT model is applied to evaluate the impact of each factor on carbon emissions. The results show that, using 1995 as the base year, the cumulative effects of population, per capita GDP, energy consumption intensity, and energy consumption structure of Shandong province in 2012 are positive, while the cumulative effect of industrial structure is negative. Per capita GDP is the largest driver of the increasing carbon emissions and has a great impact on carbon emissions; energy consumption intensity is a weak driver and has certain impact on carbon emissions; population plays a weak driving role, but it has the most significant impact on carbon emissions; energy consumption structure is a weak driver of the increasing carbon emissions and has a weak impact on carbon emissions; industrial structure has played a weak inhibitory role, and its impact on carbon emissions is great. PMID:24977216

  11. Are Corporate Carbon Management Practices Reducing Corporate Carbon Emissions?

    OpenAIRE

    Doda, B; Gennaoli, C; Gouldson, A; Grover, D.; Sullivan, R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is the first large scale, quantitative study of the impact of corporate carbon management practices on corporate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Using data for 2009 and 2010 from the Carbon Disclosure Project survey, we find little compelling evidence that commonly adopted management practices are reducing emissions. This finding is unexpected and we propose three possible explanations for it. First, it may be because corporate carbon data and management practice information have n...

  12. The carbon emissions of Chinese cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Zhang, R.; Liu, M.; Bi, J.

    2012-07-01

    As increasing urbanization has become a national policy priority for economic growth in China, cities have become important players in efforts to reduce carbon emissions. However, their efforts have been hampered by the lack of specific and comparable carbon emission inventories. Comprehensive carbon emission inventories for twelve Chinese cities, which present both a relatively current snapshot and also show how emissions have changed over the past several years, were developed using a bottom-up approach. Carbon emissions in most Chinese cities rose along with economic growth from 2004 to 2008. Yet per capita carbon emissions varied between the highest and lowest emitting cities by a factor of nearly 7. Average contributions of sectors to per capita emissions for all Chinese cities were 65.1% for industrial energy consumption, 10.1% for industrial processes, 10.4% for transportation, 7.7% for household energy consumption, 4.2% for commercial energy consumption and 2.5% for waste processing. However, these shares are characterized by considerable variability due to city-specific factors. The levels of per capita carbon emissions in China's cities were higher than we anticipated before comparing them with the average of ten cities in other parts of the world. This is mainly due to the major contribution of the industry sector in Chinese cities.

  13. Revising China's energy consumption and carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.

    2015-12-01

    China is the world's largest carbon emitter and takes the lion's share of new increased emission since 2000, China's carbon emissions and mitigation efforts have received global attentions (Liu et al., Nature 500, 143-145)1. Yet China's emission estimates have been approved to be greatly uncertain (Guan et al., Nature Climate Change 2, 672-675)2. Accurate estimation becomes even crucial as China has recently pledged to reach a carbon emission peak by 2030, but no quantitative target has been given, nor is it even possible to assess without a reasonable baseline. Here we produced new estimates of Chinese carbon emissions for 1950-2012 based on a new investigation in energy consumption activities and emission factors using extensively surveyed and experimental data from 4243 mines and 602 coal samples. We reported that the total energy consumption is 10% higher than the nationally published value. The investigated emission factors used in China are significantly (40%) different from the IPCC default values which were used in drawing up several previous emission inventories. The final calculated total carbon emissions from China are 10% different than the amount reported by international data sets. The new estimate provides a revision of 4% of global emissions, which could have important implications for global carbon budgets and burden-sharing of climate change mitigation. 1 Liu, Z. et al. A low-carbon road map for China. Nature 500, 143-145 (2013). 2 Guan, D., Liu, Z., Geng, Y., Lindner, S. & Hubacek, K. The gigatonne gap in China's carbon dioxide inventories. Nature Climate Change, 672-675 (2012).

  14. Analysis of the Driving Factors and Contributions to Carbon Emissions of Energy Consumption from the Perspective of the Peak Volume and Time Based on LEAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Tian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Studying the driving factors and contributions of carbon emissions peak volume and time is essential for reducing the cumulative carbon emissions in developing countries with rapid economic development and increasing carbon emissions. Taking Jilin Province as a case study, four scenarios were set in this paper respectively: Business as Usual Scenario (BAU, Energy-Saving Scenario (ESS, Energy-Saving and Low-Carbon Scenario (ELS, and Low-Carbon Scenario (LCS. Furthermore, the carbon emissions were predicted according to the energy consumption based on the application of LEAP system. The research result showed that the peak time of carbon emissions would appear in 2045, 2040, 2035 and 2025 under the four different scenarios, respectively. The peak volumes would be 489.8 Mt, 395.2 Mt, 305.3 Mt and 233.6 Mt, respectively. The cumulative emissions by 2050 are respectively 15.632 Bt, 13.321 Bt, 10.971 Bt and 8.379 Bt. According to the forecasting, we analyzed the driving factors of and contributions to carbon emissions peak volume and time. On the premise of moderate economic growth, the “structural emission reduction”, namely the adjustment of industrial structure and energy structure, and “technology emission reduction”, namely the reduction of energy intensity and carbon emission coefficient could make the peak volume reduced by 20%–52% and cumulative carbon emissions (2050 reduced by 15%–46% on the basis of BAU. Meanwhile, controlling the industrial structure, energy structure and energy intensity could make carbon emissions reach the peak 5–20 years ahead of the time on the basis of BAU. Controlling GDP, industrial structure, energy structure, energy intensity and coefficient of carbon emissions is the feasible method to adjust the carbon emissions peak volume and time in order to reduce the cumulative emissions.

  15. Reduced carbon emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhu; Guan, Dabo; Wei, Wei; Davis, Steven J.; Ciais, Philippe; Bai, Jin; Peng, Shushi; Zhang, Qiang; Hubacek, Klaus; Marland, Gregg; Andres, Robert J.; Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Lin, Jintai; Zhao, Hongyan; Hong, Chaopeng; Boden, Thomas A.; Feng, Kuishuang; Peters, Glen P.; Xi, Fengming; Liu, Junguo; Li, Yuan; Zhao, Yu; Zeng, Ning; He, Kebin

    2015-08-01

    Nearly three-quarters of the growth in global carbon emissions from the burning of fossil fuels and cement production between 2010 and 2012 occurred in China. Yet estimates of Chinese emissions remain subject to large uncertainty; inventories of China's total fossil fuel carbon emissions in 2008 differ by 0.3 gigatonnes of carbon, or 15 per cent. The primary sources of this uncertainty are conflicting estimates of energy consumption and emission factors, the latter being uncertain because of very few actual measurements representative of the mix of Chinese fuels. Here we re-evaluate China's carbon emissions using updated and harmonized energy consumption and clinker production data and two new and comprehensive sets of measured emission factors for Chinese coal. We find that total energy consumption in China was 10 per cent higher in 2000-2012 than the value reported by China's national statistics, that emission factors for Chinese coal are on average 40 per cent lower than the default values recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and that emissions from China's cement production are 45 per cent less than recent estimates. Altogether, our revised estimate of China's CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production is 2.49 gigatonnes of carbon (2 standard deviations = +/-7.3 per cent) in 2013, which is 14 per cent lower than the emissions reported by other prominent inventories. Over the full period 2000 to 2013, our revised estimates are 2.9 gigatonnes of carbon less than previous estimates of China's cumulative carbon emissions. Our findings suggest that overestimation of China's emissions in 2000-2013 may be larger than China's estimated total forest sink in 1990-2007 (2.66 gigatonnes of carbon) or China's land carbon sink in 2000-2009 (2.6 gigatonnes of carbon).

  16. Reduced carbon emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhu; Guan, Dabo; Wei, Wei; Davis, Steven J; Ciais, Philippe; Bai, Jin; Peng, Shushi; Zhang, Qiang; Hubacek, Klaus; Marland, Gregg; Andres, Robert J; Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Lin, Jintai; Zhao, Hongyan; Hong, Chaopeng; Boden, Thomas A; Feng, Kuishuang; Peters, Glen P; Xi, Fengming; Liu, Junguo; Li, Yuan; Zhao, Yu; Zeng, Ning; He, Kebin

    2015-08-20

    Nearly three-quarters of the growth in global carbon emissions from the burning of fossil fuels and cement production between 2010 and 2012 occurred in China. Yet estimates of Chinese emissions remain subject to large uncertainty; inventories of China's total fossil fuel carbon emissions in 2008 differ by 0.3 gigatonnes of carbon, or 15 per cent. The primary sources of this uncertainty are conflicting estimates of energy consumption and emission factors, the latter being uncertain because of very few actual measurements representative of the mix of Chinese fuels. Here we re-evaluate China's carbon emissions using updated and harmonized energy consumption and clinker production data and two new and comprehensive sets of measured emission factors for Chinese coal. We find that total energy consumption in China was 10 per cent higher in 2000-2012 than the value reported by China's national statistics, that emission factors for Chinese coal are on average 40 per cent lower than the default values recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and that emissions from China's cement production are 45 per cent less than recent estimates. Altogether, our revised estimate of China's CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production is 2.49 gigatonnes of carbon (2 standard deviations = ±7.3 per cent) in 2013, which is 14 per cent lower than the emissions reported by other prominent inventories. Over the full period 2000 to 2013, our revised estimates are 2.9 gigatonnes of carbon less than previous estimates of China's cumulative carbon emissions. Our findings suggest that overestimation of China's emissions in 2000-2013 may be larger than China's estimated total forest sink in 1990-2007 (2.66 gigatonnes of carbon) or China's land carbon sink in 2000-2009 (2.6 gigatonnes of carbon).

  17. Black carbon and organic carbon emissions from wildfires in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    XÓCHITL CRUZ NÚÑEZ; LOURDES VILLERS RUIZ; CARLOS GAY GARCÍA

    2014-01-01

    In Mexico, approximately 7650 wildfires occur annually, affecting 263 115 hectares of land. In addition to their impact on land degradation, wildfires cause deforestation, damage to ecosystems and promote land use change; apart from being the source of emissions of toxic substances to the environment (i.e., hydrogen cya - nide, black carbon and organic carbon). Black carbon is a short-lived greenhouse pollutant that also promotes snow and ice melting and decreased rainfall; it has an estimate...

  18. A comparative study of floor construction on sloping sites: an analysis of cumulative energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Ding

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to make environmentally aware decisions, there is growing interest in the comparative energy and greenhouse gas (GHG performance of competing construction methods. Little research has been done concerning competing ground floor construction methods, especially given different site variables, such as slope and soil type. A life cycle assessment approach was adopted to analyse environmental impacts, including cumulative energy demand and GHG emissions for detached housing construction in Australia. Data was drawn from 24 case study housing projects, including 12 reinforced concrete and 12 suspended timber floor projects. The data presented in the paper compares cumulative energy demand, GHG and the constituent parts of competing construction methods. The findings indicate that the timber floors use/create significantly less cumulative energy demand and GHG emissions than concrete floors—approximately 2.1 to 2.7 times less energy and 2.3 to 2.9 times less GHG. These findings are limited to the site slope and foundation soil types identified in the paper. The main application of the work is in guidance concerning the lowest environmental impact options for detached housing construction.

  19. Light Emission in Silicon from Carbon Nanotubes

    CERN Document Server

    Gaufrès, Etienne; Noury, Adrien; Roux, Xavier Le; Rasigade, Gilles; Beck, Alexandre; Vivien, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    The use of optics in microelectronic circuits to overcome the limitation of metallic interconnects is more and more considered as a viable solution. Among future silicon compatible materials, carbon nanotubes are promising candidates thanks to their ability to emit, modulate and detect light in the wavelength range of silicon transparency. We report the first integration of carbon nanotubes with silicon waveguides, successfully coupling their emission and absorption properties. A complete study of this coupling between carbon nanotubes and silicon waveguides was carried out, which led to the demonstration of the temperature-independent emission from carbon nanotubes in silicon at a wavelength of 1.3 {\\mu}m. This represents the first milestone in the development of photonics based on carbon nanotubes on silicon.

  20. Trading permanent and temporary carbon emissions credits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marland, Gregg [ORNL; Marland, Eric [Appalachian State University

    2009-08-01

    In this issue of Climatic Change, Van Kooten (2009) addresses an issue that has bedeviled negotiators since the drafting stage of the Kyoto Protocol. If we accept that increasing withdrawals of carbon dioxide from the atmpshere has the same net impact on the climate system as reducing emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, how do we design a system that allows trading of one for the other? As van Kooten expresses the challenge: 'The problem is that emissions reduction and carbon sequestration, while opposite sides of the same coin in some sense, are not directly comparable, thereby inhibiting their trade in carbon markets.' He explains: 'The difficulty centers on the length of time that mitigation strategies without CO{sub 2} from entering the atmosphere - the duration problem.' While reducing emissions of CO{sub 2} represents an essentially permanent benefit for the atmosphere, capturing CO{sub 2} that has been produced (whether capture is from the atmosphere or directly from, for example, the exhaust from power plants) there is the challenge of storing the carbon adn the risk that it will yet escape to the atmosphere. Permanent benefit to the atmosphere is often not assured for carbon sequestration activities. This is especially true if the carbon is taken up and stored in the biosphere - e.g. in forest trees or agricultural soils.

  1. Carbon Nanotube Field Emission Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    together in hexagons and pentagons forming a sphere like a soccer ball. Fullerenes of all sizes are single molecules, which is uniquely different from the...10] Bhushan, B. Springer Handbook of Nanotechnology. Springer - Verlag. 2007 [11] Pierson, H. Handbook of Carbon, Graphite, Diamond and Fullerenes

  2. Will peak oil accelerate carbon dioxide emissions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, K.; Davis, S. J.; Cao, L.

    2008-12-01

    The relative scarcity of oil suggests that oil production is peaking and will decline thereafter. Some have suggested that this represents an opportunity to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. However, in the absence of constraints on carbon dioxide emission, "peak oil" may drive a shift towards increased reliance on coal as a primary energy source. Because coal per unit energy, in the absence of carbon capture and disposal, releases more carbon dioxide to the atmosphere than oil, "peak oil" may lead to an acceleration of carbon dioxide emissions. We will never run out of oil. As oil becomes increasingly scarce, prices will rise and therefore consumption will diminish. As prices rise, other primary energy sources will become increasingly competitive with oil. The developed world uses oil primarily as a source of transportation fuels. The developing world uses oil primarily for heat and power, but the trend is towards increasing reliance on oil for transportation. Liquid fuels, including petroleum derivatives such as gasoline and diesel fuel, are attractive as transportation fuels because of their relative abundance of energy per unit mass and volume. Such considerations are especially important for the air transport industry. Today, there is little that can compete with petroleum-derived transportation fuels. Future CO2 emissions from the transportation sector largely depend on what replaces oil as a source of fuel. Some have suggested that biomass-derived ethanol, hydrogen, or electricity could play this role. Each of these potential substitutes has its own drawbacks (e.g., low power density per unit area in the case of biomass, low power density per unit volume in the case of hydrogen, and low power density per unit mass in the case of battery storage). Thus, it is entirely likely that liquefaction of coal could become the primary means by which transportation fuels are produced. Since the burning of coal produces more CO2 per unit energy than does the burning of

  3. Emissions of carbon tetrachloride from Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziosi, Francesco; Arduini, Jgor; Bonasoni, Paolo; Furlani, Francesco; Giostra, Umberto; Manning, Alistair J.; McCulloch, Archie; O'Doherty, Simon; Simmonds, Peter G.; Reimann, Stefan; Vollmer, Martin K.; Maione, Michela

    2016-10-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a long-lived radiatively active compound with the ability to destroy stratospheric ozone. Due to its inclusion in the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (MP), the last two decades have seen a sharp decrease in its large-scale emissive use with a consequent decline in its atmospheric mole fractions. However, the MP restrictions do not apply to the use of carbon tetrachloride as feedstock for the production of other chemicals, implying the risk of fugitive emissions from the industry sector. The occurrence of such unintended emissions is suggested by a significant discrepancy between global emissions as derived from reported production and feedstock usage (bottom-up emissions), and those based on atmospheric observations (top-down emissions). In order to better constrain the atmospheric budget of carbon tetrachloride, several studies based on a combination of atmospheric observations and inverse modelling have been conducted in recent years in various regions of the world. This study is focused on the European scale and based on long-term high-frequency observations at three European sites, combined with a Bayesian inversion methodology. We estimated that average European emissions for 2006-2014 were 2.2 (± 0.8) Gg yr-1, with an average decreasing trend of 6.9 % per year. Our analysis identified France as the main source of emissions over the whole study period, with an average contribution to total European emissions of approximately 26 %. The inversion was also able to allow the localisation of emission "hot spots" in the domain, with major source areas in southern France, central England (UK) and Benelux (Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg), where most industrial-scale production of basic organic chemicals is located. According to our results, European emissions correspond, on average, to 4.0 % of global emissions for 2006-2012. Together with other regional studies, our results allow a better constraint

  4. Mid infrared emission spectroscopy of carbon plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemes, Laszlo; Brown, Ei Ei; Yang, Clayton S.-C.; Hommerich, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    Mid infrared time-resolved emission spectra were recorded from laser-induced carbon plasma. These spectra constitute the first study of carbon materials LIB spectroscopy in the mid infrared range. The carbon plasma was induced using a Q-switched Nd: YAG laser. The laser beam was focused to high purity graphite pellets mounted on a translation stage. Mid infrared emission from the plasma in an atmospheric pressure background gas was detected by a cooled HgCdTe detector in the range 4.4-11.6 μm, using long-pass filters. LIB spectra were taken in argon, helium and also in air. Despite a gate delay of 10 μs was used there were strong backgrounds in the spectra. Superimposed on this background broad and noisy emission bands were observed, the form and position of which depended somewhat on the ambient gas. The spectra were digitally smoothed and background corrected. In argon, for instance, strong bands were observed around 4.8, 6.0 and 7.5 μm. Using atomic spectral data by NIST it could be concluded that carbon, argon, helium and nitrogen lines from neutral and ionized atoms are very weak in this spectral region. The width of the infrared bands supports molecular origin. The infrared emission bands were thus compared to vibrational features of carbon molecules (excluding C2) of various sizes on the basis of previous carbon cluster infrared absorption and emission spectroscopic analyses in the literature and quantum chemical calculations. Some general considerations are given about the present results.

  5. Mid infrared emission spectroscopy of carbon plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemes, Laszlo; Brown, Ei Ei; S-C Yang, Clayton; Hommerich, Uwe

    2017-01-05

    Mid infrared time-resolved emission spectra were recorded from laser-induced carbon plasma. These spectra constitute the first study of carbon materials LIB spectroscopy in the mid infrared range. The carbon plasma was induced using a Q-switched Nd: YAG laser. The laser beam was focused to high purity graphite pellets mounted on a translation stage. Mid infrared emission from the plasma in an atmospheric pressure background gas was detected by a cooled HgCdTe detector in the range 4.4-11.6μm, using long-pass filters. LIB spectra were taken in argon, helium and also in air. Despite a gate delay of 10μs was used there were strong backgrounds in the spectra. Superimposed on this background broad and noisy emission bands were observed, the form and position of which depended somewhat on the ambient gas. The spectra were digitally smoothed and background corrected. In argon, for instance, strong bands were observed around 4.8, 6.0 and 7.5μm. Using atomic spectral data by NIST it could be concluded that carbon, argon, helium and nitrogen lines from neutral and ionized atoms are very weak in this spectral region. The width of the infrared bands supports molecular origin. The infrared emission bands were thus compared to vibrational features of carbon molecules (excluding C2) of various sizes on the basis of previous carbon cluster infrared absorption and emission spectroscopic analyses in the literature and quantum chemical calculations. Some general considerations are given about the present results.

  6. Economic growth and carbon emission control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenyu

    The question about whether environmental improvement is compatible with continued economic growth remains unclear and requires further study in a specific context. This study intends to provide insight on the potential for carbon emissions control in the absence of international agreement, and connect the empirical analysis with theoretical framework. The Chinese electricity generation sector is used as a case study to demonstrate the problem. Both social planner and private problems are examined to derive the conditions that define the optimal level of production and pollution. The private problem will be demonstrated under the emission regulation using an emission tax, an input tax and an abatement subsidy respectively. The social optimal emission flow is imposed into the private problem. To provide tractable analytical results, a Cobb-Douglas type production function is used to describe the joint production process of the desired output and undesired output (i.e., electricity and emissions). A modified Hamiltonian approach is employed to solve the system and the steady state solutions are examined for policy implications. The theoretical analysis suggests that the ratio of emissions to desired output (refer to 'emission factor'), is a function of productive capital and other parameters. The finding of non-constant emission factor shows that reducing emissions without further cutting back the production of desired outputs is feasible under some circumstances. Rather than an ad hoc specification, the optimal conditions derived from our theoretical framework are used to examine the relationship between desired output and emission level. Data comes from the China Statistical Yearbook and China Electric Power Yearbook and provincial information of electricity generation for the year of 1993-2003 are used to estimate the Cobb-Douglas type joint production by the full information maximum likelihood (FIML) method. The empirical analysis shed light on the optimal

  7. Tourism Transport, Technology, and Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Technological development from horse-drawn carriages to the new Airbus A380 has led to a remarkable increase in both the capacity and speed of tourist travel. This development has an endogenous systemic cause and will continue to increase carbon dioxide emissions/energy consumption if left

  8. Carbon Emissions from air-Conditioning

    OpenAIRE

    Rajesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores electricity consumption and carbon emissions associated with air-conditioning. The total heat load of a room fitted with air conditioner of 1.5 ton capacity has been calculated by calculating conduction and ventilation losses. Solar heat gain and internal gain were taken as the other two parameters for the total heat calculation.

  9. Carbon Emissions from air-Conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores electricity consumption and carbon emissions associated with air-conditioning. The total heat load of a room fitted with air conditioner of 1.5 ton capacity has been calculated by calculating conduction and ventilation losses. Solar heat gain and internal gain were taken as the other two parameters for the total heat calculation.

  10. Grazing the Commons : Global Carbon Emissions Forever?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melenberg, B.; Vollebergh, H.R.J.; Dijkgraaf, E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results from our investigation of the per-capita, long- term relation between carbon dioxide emissions and gross domestic product (GDP) for the world, obtained with the use of a new, exible estimator. Consistent with simple economic growth models, we find that regional, popul

  11. Tourism Transport, Technology, and Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Technological development from horse-drawn carriages to the new Airbus A380 has led to a remarkable increase in both the capacity and speed of tourist travel. This development has an endogenous systemic cause and will continue to increase carbon dioxide emissions/energy consumption if left unchecked

  12. Emission of carbon dioxide influenced by different water levels from soil incubated organic residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M B; Puteh, A B

    2013-01-01

    We studied the influence of different organic residues and water levels on decomposition rate and carbon sequestration in soil. Organic residues (rice straw, rice root, cow dung, and poultry litter) including control were tested under moistened and flooding systems. An experiment was laid out as a complete randomized design at 25°C for 120 days. Higher CO₂-C (265.45 mg) emission was observed in moistened condition than in flooding condition from 7 to 120 days. Among the organic residues, poultry litter produced the highest CO₂-C emission. Poultry litter with soil mixture increased 121% cumulative CO₂-C compared to control. On average, about 38% of added poultry litter C was mineralized to CO₂-C. Maximum CO₂-C was found in 7 days after incubation and thereafter CO₂-C emission was decreased with the increase of time. Control produced the lowest CO₂-C (158.23 mg). Poultry litter produced maximum cumulative CO₂-C (349.91 mg). Maximum organic carbon was obtained in cow dung which followed by other organic residues. Organic residues along with flooding condition decreased cumulative CO₂-C, k value and increased organic C in soil. Maximum k value was found in poultry litter and control. Incorpored rice straw increased organic carbon and decreased k value (0.003 g d⁻¹) in soil. In conclusion, rice straw and poultry litter were suitable for improving soil carbon.

  13. Electron Field Emission from Nanostructured Carbon Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sanju

    2005-03-01

    Fabricating small structures has almost become fashionable and the rationale is that reducing one or more dimensions below some critical length changes the systems' physical properties drastically, where nanocrystalline diamond (n-D) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in the class of advanced carbon materials serve model examples. Emission of electrons at room temperature - cold electron emitters - are of vital importance for a variety of vacuum microelectronic devices - electron microscopes, photo multipliers, X-ray generators, lamps, and flat panel displays and microwave cathodes. Electron emitters may lead to otherwise difficult to obtain advantages in performance and/or design. This is the driving force to investigate the carbon-related materials as cold cathodes. In this talk, the performance of various forms of carbon in thin film form including diamond, n-D, and vertically aligned CNTs as cold cathodes for their potential use in field emission displays (FEDs) in terms of I-V characteristics and corresponding spatial imaging will be presented. Physics based models such as, NEA, surface modification, geometric enhancement, and microstructure alteration due to particle bombardment, and doping, will be described to support the experimental observations of electron field enhancement (low turn-on voltage, high current and emission site density) and its reliability from the abovementioned carbon-related materials. Other vacuum device applications such as thermionic power generators will be mentioned briefly.

  14. Cumulative Energy Demands (CED) and Cumulative Emissions of PV systems in the European Union: Methodological aspects; Methodische Aspekte zu kumulierten Energieaufwendungen und Emissionen bei Photovoltaikanlagen in der Europaeischen Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerzenich, D.

    2002-07-01

    The present dissertation investigates options to save primary energy and emissions when manufacturing and using photovoltaic systems in regard to the concept of sustainability. Valuation is done by use of Cumulative Energy Demands (CED) and Cumulative Emissions as well as yearly substituted primary energy and avoided emissions. The main aim is to evaluate the consequences of national differences in electricity supply within the European Community upon the results of an ecological assessment. Therefore seven representative countries were selected within the EU. The most common photovoltaic systems presently and in the near future are monocrystalline- (sc-), multicrystalline- (pc-) and amorphous-silicon (a-Si) based. Comparison of production of these systems - with equal peak power - shows, that CED for production of these systems is lowest with pc-Si, followed by a-Si and sc-Si. The investigated countries are divided into two groups. One group - consisting of Austria and Sweden - with lower CEDs than the other one, whereas the CEDs in the second group approximately lie within the same margin. The Cumulative CO{sub 2}-Emissions show their lowest values not only in Austria and Sweden but also in France, while Cumulative NO{sub x}- and SO{sub 2}-Emissions tend to result in lower values when production takes place in Sweden or France. Especially pc-Si-Systems are found to give best results, whereas sc-Si-Systems lie at the end of the line. The use of the PC-Systems results in highest primary energy substitution in Spain and highest avoided emissions in Italy. In conclusion a comparison between production and use of the systems as well as calculation of energy payback time and emission related payback time is done. (orig.)

  15. CUMULATIVE DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS FOR THE TEMPERATURE THRESHOLD FOR THE ONSET OF CARBON STEEL CORROSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.G. Mon

    1998-05-15

    The purpose of this calculation is to process the cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) characterizing the temperature threshold for the onset of corrosion provided by expert elicitation and minimize the set of values to 200 points for use in WAPDEG.

  16. Evaluation of Kolubara lignite carbon emission characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakić Vukman V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The revised Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas (GHG inventories recommends that more comprehensive and thus more reliable characteristics of the local fossil fuels should be used for the national GHG inventory calculations. This paper deal with the carbon emission characteristics of low-calorific lignite recovered from the Kolubara open-pit mine. The samples of coal were carefully selected in order to cover the net calorific value, ash and water content of the broad spectrum of the quality of the raw lignite supplied to the Serbian thermal power plants. Correlation analysis of the laboratory analysis data gave a linear dependency of the net calorific value on the combustible content in the coal samples. Also, linear correlation between the carbon content and the net calorific value was found. The regression analysis of experimentally determined coal characteristics implies that the carbon emission factor is dependent on the net calorific value. For the subset of raw lignite samples with the net calorific value Qdr = 6 ÷ 10 MJ/kg, that is most representative for current and near future use for power generation in Serbian thermal power plants, the linear dependency CEFr (tC/TJ = 34.407 - 0.5891×Qdr (MJ/kg was proposed. Regarding the net calorific ranges of samples examined, the raw Kolubara lignite carbon emission factor is considerably higher than those recommended by IPCC Tier 1 method of 27.6 tC/TJ.

  17. Global civil aviation black carbon emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stettler, Marc E J; Boies, Adam M; Petzold, Andreas; Barrett, Steven R H

    2013-09-17

    Aircraft black carbon (BC) emissions contribute to climate forcing, but few estimates of BC emitted by aircraft at cruise exist. For the majority of aircraft engines the only BC-related measurement available is smoke number (SN)-a filter based optical method designed to measure near-ground plume visibility, not mass. While the first order approximation (FOA3) technique has been developed to estimate BC mass emissions normalized by fuel burn [EI(BC)] from SN, it is shown that it underestimates EI(BC) by >90% in 35% of directly measured cases (R(2) = -0.10). As there are no plans to measure BC emissions from all existing certified engines-which will be in service for several decades-it is necessary to estimate EI(BC) for existing aircraft on the ground and at cruise. An alternative method, called FOX, that is independent of the SN is developed to estimate BC emissions. Estimates of EI(BC) at ground level are significantly improved (R(2) = 0.68), whereas estimates at cruise are within 30% of measurements. Implementing this approach for global civil aviation estimated aircraft BC emissions are revised upward by a factor of ~3. Direct radiative forcing (RF) due to aviation BC emissions is estimated to be ~9.5 mW/m(2), equivalent to ~1/3 of the current RF due to aviation CO2 emissions.

  18. Decoupling and Decomposition Analysis of Carbon Emissions from Industry: A Case Study from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available China has overtaken the United States as the world’s largest producer of carbon dioxide, with industrial carbon emissions (ICE accounting for approximately 65% of the country’s total emissions. Understanding the ICE decoupling patterns and factors influencing the decoupling status is a prerequisite for balancing economic growth and carbon emissions. This paper provides an overview of ICE based on decoupling elasticity and the Tapio decoupling model. Furthermore, the study identifies the factors contributing to ICE changes in China, using the Kaya identity and Log Mean Divisia Index (LMDI techniques. Based on the effects and contributions of ICE, we close with a number of recommendations. The results revealed a significant upward trend of ICE during the study period 1994 to 2013, with a total amount of 11,147 million tons. Analyzing the decoupling relationship indicates that “weak decoupling” and “expansive decoupling” were the main states during the study period. The decomposition analysis showed that per capita wealth associated with industrial outputs and energy intensity are the main driving force of ICE, while energy intensity of industrial output and energy structure are major determinants for ICE reduction. The largest contributing cumulative effect to ICE is per capita wealth, at 1.23 in 2013. This factor is followed by energy intensity, with a contributing cumulative effect of −0.32. The cumulative effects of energy structure and population are relatively small, at 0.01 and 0.08, respectively.

  19. Grazing the Commons. Global Carbon Emissions Forever?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melenberg, B. [CentER and Department of Econometrics and Operations Research, Tilburg University, Tilburg (Netherlands); Vollebergh, H.R.J. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Dijkgraaf, E. [SEOR-ECRi and Tinbergen Institute, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-02-15

    This paper presents the results from our investigation of the per-capita, long-term relation between carbon dioxide emissions and gross domestic product (GDP) for the world, obtained with the use of a new, flexible estimator. Consistent with simple economic growth models, we find that regional, population-weighted per-capita emissions systematically increase with income (scale effect) and usually decline over time (composition and technology effect). Both our in-sample results and out-of-sample scenarios indicate that this negative time effect is unlikely to compensate for the upward-income effect at a global level, in the near future. In particular, even if China's specialization in carbon-intensive industrial sectors would come to a halt, recent trends outside China make a reversal of the overall global trend very unlikely.

  20. Research on Global Carbon Emission and Sequestration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Prof.Fang Jingyun,member of the Chinese Academy of Science,of Peking University and colleagues published an online article on Science in July,2011 introducing the findings of an international research group about the global carbon emission and sequestration which will produce significant influence on researches on climate change as well as the international climate change policies.The research project was funded by NSFC and MOST.

  1. Carbon dioxide emission from brickfields around Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Imran

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken at six divisions of Bangladesh to investigate the CO2 emission from brickfields. to explore the rate of carbon emission over the last 10 years, based on existing technology for brick production. The finding reveals that there were more than 45,000 Brick kilns in Bangladesh which together account for about 95% of operating kilns including Bull's Trench Kiln, Fixed Chimney Kiln, Zigzag Kiln and Hoffman Kiln. These kilns were the most carbon emitting source but it varies on fuel type, kiln type and also for location. It has been found that, maximum carbon emission area was Chittagong, which was 93.150 with percentage of last 10 years and 9.310 per cent per year. Whereas Sylhet was lower carbon emission area indicating percentage 17.172 of last 10 years and 4.218 percent per year. It has been found that total annual amount of CO2 emission for 4 types brick kilns from Dhaka, Chittagong, Rajshahi, Khulana, Sylhet and Barisal were 8.862 Mt yr-1, 10.048 Mt yr-1, 12.783 Mt yr-1, 15.250 Mt yr-1, in the year of 2002, 2005, 2007 and 2010 respectively. In Mymensingh district, the maximum CO2 emission and coal consumption was obtained in Chamak brick field, which was 1882 tons and 950 tons, respectively and minimum was obtained in Zhalak brick field, which was 1039.5 tons and 525.0 tons, respectively during the year of 2013. The percentage in last 10 years of CO2 emission was 72.784 and per cent per year 7.970, which is very alarming for us. The estimates obtained from surveys and on-site investigations indicate that these kilns consume an average of 240 tons of coal to produce 1 million bricks. This type of coal has a measured calorific value of 6,400 KJ, heating value of coal is 20.93 GJ t-1 and it produces 94.61 TJ t-1 and 56.1 TJ t-1 CO2 from coal and natural gas, respectively.

  2. Quantification of carbon emissions and savings in smart grids

    OpenAIRE

    Eng Tseng, Lau

    2016-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the award of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London In this research, carbon emissions and carbon savings in the smart grid are modelled and quantified. Carbon emissions are defined as the product of the activity (energy) and the corresponding carbon factor. The carbon savings are estimated as the difference between the conventional and improved energy usage multiplied by the corresponding carbon factor. An adaptive seasonal model bas...

  3. The TOPSIS Evaluation on Carbon Emission Economic Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng; XU; Chao; ZHANG; Juan; YANG

    2013-01-01

    Based on carbon emission data of 17 cities in Shandong Province in 2005-2009,this paper analyzes carbon emission economic efficiency. It conducts weight distribution by the Ordered Weighted Averaging ( OWA) method,and takes systematic evaluation on carbon emission economic efficiency using TOPSIS method. In eastern coastal regions,including Dongying,Yantai,Weihai and Qingdao,the carbon emission economic efficiency is generally higher than inland regions of Shandong Province. The conclusion reached after correction of time weight is basically consistent with traditional TOPSIS overall evaluation,further proves validity of the evaluation. Finally,it gives recommendations for improving carbon emission economic efficiency in Shandong Province.

  4. Carbon emission patterns in different income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Wang, Le-Le Zou, Jie Guo, Wen-Jing Yi, Zhen-Hua Feng, Yi-Ming Wei

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to find the main driving forces affecting CO2 emission patterns and the relationship between economic development and CO2 emissions, this paper uses models of Sigma-convergence, absolute Beta-convergence and conditional Beta-convergence to analyze the inner characteristics of CO2 emissions and the income level of 128 countries (and regions in the world. The countries (and regions are divided into 5 groups based on their per capita income levels. The results show that in the past 40 years, all the groups showed trends of convergence on the CO2 emissions. In terms of emission levels, lagging countries (and regions tend to catch up with advanced nations, with convergence tending to be conditional on country-specific characteristics such as energy use and energy structures rather than absolute convergence. Then this paper examines the impacts of selected variables such as GDP per capita, population, oil, gas, coal etc. on the emission trends. The analysis on the impacting factors shows that for the developing countries (and regions, the levels of economic development have greater effects on their carbon emissions patterns. And for the developed countries (and regions, the energy consumption structures wielded a big influence for the past 40 years. We find that the growth speed of CO2 emissions in developed countries (and regions would get slower, and those of the developing countries (and regions give expression to catching-up effects. These findings are expected to shed a light on the global policy making in coping climate change.

  5. Carbon dioxide emission from bamboo culms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariah, E J; Sabulal, B; Nair, D N K; Johnson, A J; Kumar, C S P

    2016-05-01

    Bamboos are one of the fastest growing plants on Earth, and are widely considered to have high ability to capture and sequester atmospheric carbon, and consequently to mitigate climate change. We tested this hypothesis by measuring carbon dioxide (CO2 ) emissions from bamboo culms and comparing them with their biomass sequestration potential. We analysed diurnal effluxes from Bambusa vulgaris culm surface and gas mixtures inside hollow sections of various bamboos using gas chromatography. Corresponding variations in gas pressure inside the bamboo section and culm surface temperature were measured. SEM micrographs of rhizome and bud portions of bamboo culms were also recorded. We found very high CO2 effluxes from culm surface, nodes and buds of bamboos. Positive gas pressure and very high concentrations of CO2 were observed inside hollow sections of bamboos. The CO2 effluxes observed from bamboos were very high compared to their carbon sequestration potential. Our measurements suggest that bamboos are net emitters of CO2 during their lifespan.

  6. China's regional carbon emissions change over 1997-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan-Cui Liu, Jin-Nan Wang, Gang Wu, Yi-Ming Wei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased demand for energy in China has generated concomitant increase of carbon emissions, which poses an unprecedented challenge to China’s, and even global, sustainable development. In this paper, from the perspective of provincial carbon emissions, we analyze China’s carbon emissions changes during 1997-2007 based on the index decomposition analysis method. We find that: (1 China's CO2 emissions from end-use energy consumption mainly originated from such major industrial provinces as Hebei, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shandong, Henan and Guangdong. (2 Economic growth and decline in energy intensity will have the greatest impact on CO2 emissions from end-use energy consumption. Economic growth is the key factor driving the increase of CO2 emissions. Change in energy intensity can more or less decrease CO2 emissions. In the future, China’s carbon emissions mitigation policies should be developed to address these differences in provincial carbon emissions.

  7. Climate response: Strong warming at high emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frölicher, Thomas L.

    2016-09-01

    The ratio of global temperature change to cumulative emissions is relatively constant up to two trillion tonnes of carbon emissions. Now a new modelling study suggests that the concept of a constant ratio is even applicable to higher cumulative carbon emissions, with important implications for future warming.

  8. Carbon emissions from fossil fuel consumption of Beijing in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Ling; Guan, Dabo; Zhang, Ning; Shan, Yuli; Chen, G. Q.

    2016-11-01

    The present study analyzed the consumption-based carbon emissions from fossil fuel consumption of Beijing in 2012. The multi-scale input-output analysis method was applied. It is capable of tracing the carbon emissions embodied in imports based on a global multi-regional input-output analysis using Eora data. The results show that the consumption-based carbon emission of Beijing has increased by 18% since 2007, which is 2.57 times higher than the production-based carbon emission in 2012. Only approximately 1/10 of the total carbon emissions embodied in Beijing’s local final demand originated from local direct carbon emissions. Meanwhile, more than 4/5 were from domestically imported products. The carbon emission nexus between Beijing and other Chinese regions has become closer since 2007, while the imbalance as the carbon emission transfer from Beijing to other regions has been mitigated. Instead, Beijing has imported more carbon emissions from foreign countries. Some carbon emission reduction strategies for Beijing concerning different goals are presented on the basis of detailed discussion.

  9. Accounting Treatment for Carbon Emission Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Gallego-Alvarez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In light of the growing demand for sustainable behavior and the special interest that has emerged regarding the social and environmental impact of firms, the purpose of this research is to analyze the determinants of the accounting treatment of emission rights. To achieve that purpose, we use a sample composed of 119 firms worldwide from different  countries and activity sectors for the period 2011. Our findings show different accounting treatments depending on a series of factors. Specifically, firms pertaining to countries that have adopted Environmental Trading Schemes (ETS tend to account for emission rights through provisions, investments, or as inventory. For their part, firms that issue indicators that appear in the report drawn up by KPMG and GRI (2007 tend to account for these entries as expenses, especially as R + D expenses. Finally, firms located in countries that signed the Kyoto protocol have a tendency to not account for carbon emission rights. The findings of this work can be considered of great interest on the international level because our research contributes to the scant previous literature regarding the accounting treatment of emission rights.

  10. Light absorbing carbon emissions from commercial shipping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lack, Daniel; Lerner, Brian; Granier, Claire; Baynard, Tahllee; Lovejoy, Edward; Massoli, Paola; Ravishankara, A. R.; Williams, Eric

    2008-07-01

    Extensive measurements of the emission of light absorbing carbon aerosol (LAC) from commercial shipping are presented. Vessel emissions were sampled using a photoacoustic spectrometer in the Gulf of Mexico region. The highest emitters (per unit fuel burnt) are tug boats, thus making significant contributions to local air quality in ports. Emission of LAC from cargo and non cargo vessels in this study appears to be independent of engine load. Shipping fuel consumption data (2001) was used to calculate a global LAC contribution of 133(+/-27) Ggyr-1, or ~1.7% of global LAC. This small fraction could have disproportionate effects on both air quality near port areas and climate in the Arctic if direct emissions of LAC occur in that region due to opening Arctic sea routes. The global contribution of this LAC burden was investigated using the MOZART model. Increases of 20-50 ng m-3 LAC (relative increases up to 40%) due to shipping occur in the tropical Atlantic, Indonesia, central America and the southern regions of South America and Africa.

  11. Carbon disclosure, emission levels, and the cost of debt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleimeier, S.; Viehs, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of voluntary carbon emissions disclosure on the cost of debt of publicly listed firms. Using a unique and comprehensive database on carbon emissions from CDP (formerly ‘The Carbon Disclosure Project’), we study whether firms which choose to voluntarily

  12. Environment, Renewable Energy and Reduced Carbon Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, S.; Khazanov, G.; Kishimoto, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Increased energy security and reduced carbon emissions pose significant challenges for science and technology. However, they also create substantial opportunities for innovative research and development. In this review paper, we highlight some of the key opportunities and mention public policies that are needed to enable the efforts and to maximize the probability of their success. Climate is among the uttermost nonlinear behaviors found around us. As recent studies showed the possible effect of cosmic rays on the Earth's climate, we investigate how complex interactions between the planet and its environment can be responsible for climate anomalies.

  13. Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reduction Estimates: Potential Use of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    with ethanol to determine CO2 emissions reduction for 1998−2007, and thereafter making emissions ... Keywords: Carbon dioxide; Transport; Biofuel; Gasoline−ethanol blends; ..... Mechanical Engineers, Part A: Journal of Power and Energy.

  14. Estimation of carbon emissions from crown fires in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucuk, O.; Bilgili, E.

    2009-04-01

    Forest biomass consumption is an important index for carbon cycling. Forest fire represents one of the important sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions due to biomass burning processes. Forest fire contribute to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration therefore, role of forest fires in the global carbon cycle has received increasing interest. Various methods were used to estimation of carbon emission. IPCC methodology is commonly used for the calculation of GHG amounts released at forest fire in Europe especially on a national basis. Many European countries have done many studies relation to estimation of carbon emissions from forest fires. However, carbon emissions from forest fires were not estimated in Turkey. The objective of this paper was to estimate carbon emission from forest fires from 1997 to 2006 in three forest district directorate of Turkey. We have used IPCC methodology for estimation of carbon emission form forest fire in Turkey. The emission calculations associated with forest fires were carried out using the IPCC methodology for estimating emissions from biomass burning. According to IPCC methodology, the annual carbon release of gas is the product of parameters: Annual biomass loss by burning (kt), fraction of biomass oxidized on-site, carbon content (CC), emission ratio, N/C ratio. A set of forest fire data during 1997-2006 obtained from the Turkish Ministry of Environment and Forestry-General Directorate of Forestry Service. Fuel biomass and fuel consumption data were provided from experimental fires and biomass studies in Turkey. The highest carbon emission amount was CO2 gas. A wide range in carbon emissions of 0.37-94.85 Gg was caused by variability in pre-fire fuel characteristics (fuel size, distribution, fuel moisture and total load), fire type, fire season and fire weather, which affected fuel moisture and fire behavior. Keywords: Carbon emissions, Forest fire, Fuel consumption, IPCC, Turkey

  15. Kenya Airways Launches New Project to Reduce Carbon Emissions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Kenya Airways announced its new carbon offset project in May,aiming to have guests directly take part in a carbon emissions reduction plan for environmental protection.Titus Naikuni,Managing Director of

  16. Estimates of increased black carbon emissions from electrostatic precipitators during powdered activated carbon injection for mercury emissions control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, Herek L

    2012-07-03

    The behavior of mercury sorbents within electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) is not well-understood, despite a decade or more of full-scale testing. Recent laboratory results suggest that powdered activated carbon exhibits somewhat different collection behavior than fly ash in an ESP and particulate filters located at the outlet of ESPs have shown evidence of powdered activated carbon penetration during full-scale tests of sorbent injection for mercury emissions control. The present analysis considers a range of assumed differential ESP collection efficiencies for powdered activated carbon as compared to fly ash. Estimated emission rates of submicrometer powdered activated carbon are compared to estimated emission rates of particulate carbon on submicrometer fly ash, each corresponding to its respective collection efficiency. To the extent that any emitted powdered activated carbon exhibits size and optical characteristics similar to black carbon, such emissions could effectively constitute an increase in black carbon emissions from coal-based stationary power generation. The results reveal that even for the low injection rates associated with chemically impregnated carbons, submicrometer particulate carbon emissions can easily double if the submicrometer fraction of the native fly ash has a low carbon content. Increasing sorbent injection rates, larger collection efficiency differentials as compared to fly ash, and decreasing sorbent particle size all lead to increases in the estimated submicrometer particulate carbon emissions.

  17. Estimate of China's energy carbon emissions peak and analysis on electric power carbon emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Xuan Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available China's energy carbon emissions are projected to peak in 2030 with approximately 110% of its 2020 level under the following conditions: 1 China's gross primary energy consumption is 5 Gtce in 2020 and 6 Gtce in 2030; 2 coal's share of the energy consumption is 61% in 2020 and 55% in 2030; 3 non-fossil energy's share increases from 15% in 2020 to 20% in 2030; 4 through 2030, China's GDP grows at an average annual rate of 6%; 5 the annual energy consumption elasticity coefficient is 0.30 in average; and 6 the annual growth rate of energy consumption steadily reduces to within 1%. China's electricity generating capacity would be 1,990 GW, with 8,600 TW h of power generation output in 2020. Of that output 66% would be from coal, 5% from gas, and 29% from non-fossil energy. By 2030, electricity generating capacity would reach 3,170 GW with 11,900 TW h of power generation output. Of that output, 56% would be from coal, 6% from gas, and 37% from non-fossil energy. From 2020 to 2030, CO2 emissions from electric power would relatively fall by 0.2 Gt due to lower coal consumption, and relatively fall by nearly 0.3 Gt with the installation of more coal-fired cogeneration units. During 2020–2030, the portion of carbon emissions from electric power in China's energy consumption is projected to increase by 3.4 percentage points. Although the carbon emissions from electric power would keep increasing to 118% of the 2020 level in 2030, the electric power industry would continue to play a decisive role in achieving the goal of increase in non-fossil energy use. This study proposes countermeasures and recommendations to control carbon emissions peak, including energy system optimization, green-coal-fired electricity generation, and demand side management.

  18. Changes in agricultural carbon emissions and factors that influence agricultural carbon emissions based on different stages in Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Chuanhe; Yang, Degang; Xia, Fuqiang; Huo, Jinwei

    2016-11-01

    Xinjiang’s agricultural carbon emissions showed three stages of change, i.e., continued to rise, declined and continued to rise, during 1991–2014. The agriculture belonged to the “low emissions and high efficiency” agriculture category, with a lower agricultural carbon emission intensity. By using the logarithmic mean divisia index decomposition method, agricultural carbon emissions were decomposed into an efficiency factor, a structure factor, an economy factor, and a labour factor. We divided the study period into five stages based on the changes in efficiency factor and economy factor. Xinjiang showed different agricultural carbon emission characteristics at different stages. The degree of impact on agricultural carbon emissions at these stages depended on the combined effect of planting-animal husbandry carbon intensity and agricultural labour productivity. The economy factor was the critical factor to promote the increase in agricultural carbon emissions, while the main inhibiting factor for agricultural carbon emissions was the efficiency factor. The labour factor became more and more obvious in increasing agricultural carbon emissions. Finally, we discuss policy recommendations in terms of the main factors, including the development of agricultural science and technology (S&T), the establishment of three major mechanisms and transfer of rural labour in ethnic areas.

  19. A Multiperiod Supply Chain Network Design Considering Carbon Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a mixed integer linear programming formulation for modeling and solving a multiperiod one-stage supply chain distribution network design problem. The model is aimed to minimize two objectives, the total supply chain cost and the greenhouse gas emissions generated mainly by transportation and warehousing operations. The demand forecast is known for the planning horizon and shortage of demand is allowed at a penalty cost. This scenario must satisfy a minimum service level. Two carbon emission regulatory policies are investigated, the tax or carbon credit and the carbon emission cap. Computational experiments are performed to analyze the trade-offs between the total cost of the supply chain, the carbon emission quantity, and both carbon emission regulatory policies. Results demonstrate that for a certain range the carbon credit price incentivizes the reduction of carbon emissions to the environment. On the other hand, modifying the carbon emission cap inside a certain range could lead to significant reductions of carbon emission while not significantly compromising the total cost of the supply chain.

  20. Direct carbon dioxide emissions from civil aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Matt; Williams, Ian; Preston, John

    2014-10-01

    Global airlines consume over 5 million barrels of oil per day, and the resulting carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by aircraft engines is of concern. This article provides a contemporary review of the literature associated with the measures available to the civil aviation industry for mitigating CO2 emissions from aircraft. The measures are addressed under two categories - policy and legal-related measures, and technological and operational measures. Results of the review are used to develop several insights into the challenges faced. The analysis shows that forecasts for strong growth in air-traffic will result in civil aviation becoming an increasingly significant contributor to anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Some mitigation-measures can be left to market-forces as the key-driver for implementation because they directly reduce airlines' fuel consumption, and their impact on reducing fuel-costs will be welcomed by the industry. Other mitigation-measures cannot be left to market-forces. Speed of implementation and stringency of these measures will not be satisfactorily resolved unattended, and the current global regulatory-framework does not provide the necessary strength of stewardship. A global regulator with ‘teeth' needs to be established, but investing such a body with the appropriate level of authority requires securing an international agreement which history would suggest is going to be very difficult. If all mitigation-measures are successfully implemented, it is still likely that traffic growth-rates will continue to out-pace emissions reduction-rates. Therefore, to achieve an overall reduction in CO2 emissions, behaviour change will be necessary to reduce demand for air-travel. However, reducing demand will be strongly resisted by all stakeholders in the industry; and the ticket price-increases necessary to induce the required reduction in traffic growth-rates place a monetary-value on CO2 emissions of approximately 7-100 times greater than other common

  1. Using Carbon Emissions Data to "Heat Up" Descriptive Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This article illustrates using carbon emissions data in an introductory statistics assignment. The carbon emissions data has desirable characteristics including: choice of measure; skewness; and outliers. These complexities allow research and public policy debate to be introduced. (Contains 4 figures and 2 tables.)

  2. Energy use and carbon emissions: Non-OECD countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    This report surveys world energy use and carbon emissions patterns, with particular emphasis on the non-OECD countries. The non OECD is important not only because it currently makes up 84% of world population, but because its energy consumption, carbon emissions, population, and grow domestic product have all been growing faster than OECD`s. This presentation has seven major sections: (1) overview of key trends in non-OECD energy use and carbon emissions since 1970; (2) Comparison and contrasting energy use and carbon emissions for five major non OEDC regions (former Soviet Union and eastern Europe, Pacific Rim including China, Latin America, other Asia; Africa; 3-7) presentation of aggregate and sectoral energy use and carbon emissions data for countries within each of the 5 regions.

  3. The effect of carbon tax on carbon emission abatement and GDP: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Leung, Yee; Xu, Yuan; Yung, Linda Chor Wing

    2017-07-01

    Carbon tax has been advocated as an effective economic instrument for the abatement of CO2 emission by various countries, including China, the world's biggest carbon emission country. However, carbon emission abatement cannot be done while ignoring the impact on economic growth. A delicate balance needs to be achieved between the two to find an appropriate pathway for sustainable development. This paper applies a multi-objective optimization approach to analyze the impact of levying carbon tax on the energy-intensive sectors of Guangdong province in China under the constraint of emission reduction target. This approach allows us to evaluate carbon emission minimization while maximizing GDP. For policy analysis, we construct five scenarios for evaluation and optimal choice. The results of the analysis show that a lower initial carbon tax rate is not necessarily better, and that a carbon tax is an effective means to reduce CO2 emissions while maintaining a certain level of GDP growth.

  4. Assessing "dangerous climate change": required reduction of carbon emissions to protect young people, future generations and nature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Hansen

    Full Text Available We assess climate impacts of global warming using ongoing observations and paleoclimate data. We use Earth's measured energy imbalance, paleoclimate data, and simple representations of the global carbon cycle and temperature to define emission reductions needed to stabilize climate and avoid potentially disastrous impacts on today's young people, future generations, and nature. A cumulative industrial-era limit of ∼500 GtC fossil fuel emissions and 100 GtC storage in the biosphere and soil would keep climate close to the Holocene range to which humanity and other species are adapted. Cumulative emissions of ∼1000 GtC, sometimes associated with 2°C global warming, would spur "slow" feedbacks and eventual warming of 3-4°C with disastrous consequences. Rapid emissions reduction is required to restore Earth's energy balance and avoid ocean heat uptake that would practically guarantee irreversible effects. Continuation of high fossil fuel emissions, given current knowledge of the consequences, would be an act of extraordinary witting intergenerational injustice. Responsible policymaking requires a rising price on carbon emissions that would preclude emissions from most remaining coal and unconventional fossil fuels and phase down emissions from conventional fossil fuels.

  5. Assessing 'Dangerous Climate Change': Required Reduction of Carbon Emissions to Protect Young People, Future Generations and Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James; Kharecha, Pushker; Sato, Makiko; Masson-Demotte, Valerie; Ackerman, Frank; Beerling, David J.; Hearty, Paul J.; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Hsu, Shi-Ling; Parmesan, Camille; hide

    2013-01-01

    We assess climate impacts of global warming using ongoing observations and paleoclimate data. We use Earth's measured energy imbalance, paleoclimate data, and simple representations of the global carbon cycle and temperature to define emission reductions needed to stabilize climate and avoid potentially disastrous impacts on today's young people, future generations, and nature. A cumulative industrial-era limit of approx.500 GtC fossil fuel emissions and 100 GtC storage in the biosphere and soil would keep climate close to the Holocene range to which humanity and other species are adapted. Cumulative emissions of approx.1000 GtC, sometimes associated with 2 C global warming, would spur "slow" feedbacks and eventual warming of 3-4 C with disastrous consequences. Rapid emissions reduction is required to restore Earth's energy balance and avoid ocean heat uptake that would practically guarantee irreversible effects. Continuation of high fossil fuel emissions, given current knowledge of the consequences, would be an act of extraordinary witting intergenerational injustice. Responsible policymaking requires a rising price on carbon emissions that would preclude emissions from most remaining coal and unconventional fossil fuels and phase down emissions from conventional fossil fuels.

  6. Simulated carbon emissions from land-use change are substantially enhanced by accounting for agricultural management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pugh, T. A. M.; Arneth, A.; Olin, S.;

    2015-01-01

    quantified at the global scale. Here we assess the effect of representing agricultural land management in a dynamic global vegetation model. Accounting for harvest, grazing and tillage resulted in cumulative E LUC since 1850 ca. 70% larger than in simulations ignoring these processes, but also changed...... the timescale over which these emissions occurred and led to underestimations of the carbon sequestered by possible future reforestation actions. The vast majority of Earth system models in the recent IPCC Fifth Assessment Report omit these processes, suggesting either an overestimation in their present...

  7. Spatially explicit estimates of forest carbon emissions, mitigation costs and REDD+ opportunities in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Victoria; Laurance, Susan G.; Grech, Alana; Venter, Oscar

    2017-04-01

    Carbon emissions from the conversion and degradation of tropical forests contribute to anthropogenic climate change. Implementing programs to reduce emissions from tropical forest loss in Southeast Asia are perceived to be expensive due to high opportunity costs of avoided deforestation. However, these costs are not representative of all REDD+ opportunities as they are typically based on average costs across large land areas and are primarily for reducing deforestation from oil palm or pulp concessions. As mitigation costs and carbon benefits can vary according to site characteristics, spatially-explicit information should be used to assess cost-effectiveness and to guide the allocation of scarce REDD+ resources. We analyzed the cost-effectiveness of the following REDD+ strategies in Indonesia, one of the world’s largest sources of carbon emissions from deforestation: halting additional deforestation in protected areas, timber and oil palm concessions, reforesting degraded land and employing reduced-impact logging techniques in logging concessions. We discover that when spatial variation in costs and benefits is considered, low-cost options emerged even for the two most expensive strategies: protecting forests from conversion to oil palm and timber plantations. To achieve a low emissions reduction target of 25%, we suggest funding should target deforestation in protected areas, and oil palm and timber concessions to maximize emissions reductions at the lowest cumulative cost. Low-cost opportunities for reducing emissions from oil palm are where concessions have been granted on deep peat deposits or unproductive land. To achieve a high emissions reduction target of 75%, funding is allocated across all strategies, emphasizing that no single strategy can reduce emissions cost-effectively across all of Indonesia. These findings demonstrate that by using a spatially-targeted approach to identify high priority locations for reducing emissions from deforestation and

  8. Numerical analysis of cumulative impact of phytoplankton photoresponses to light variation on carbon assimilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, S; Botte, V; Iudicone, D; d'Alcala', M Ribera

    2009-12-07

    Light variation in temporal and spatial domains is a key constraint on the photosynthetic performance of phytoplankton. The most obvious responses are the modification of cell pigment content either to improve photocapture or to mitigate photo-damage. Very few studies have analyzed whether light variation significantly alters carbon assimilation, especially in a fluctuating light environment as in the mixed layer of the ocean. We addressed the question using a modeling approach, which allows the reproduction of most of the possible scenarios, obtained with great difficulty from laboratory or field experiments. The complete model is based on the dynamic coupling of a photoacclimation and photodamage-repair responses. In this combined model the virtual phytoplankton is exposed to different light regimes (steady, square wave, sinusoidal light-dark cycles and fluctuating regimes). The results reconcile controversial results on different photoacclimation states achieved during fluctuating light regimes. The model produces a depression of carbon assimilation in any light fluctuating scenario, as compared to steady light regimes, due to the temporal delay between light fluctuations and photoresponses. These results suggest the possibility of selective pressure during evolution, more effective on photoprotective mechanisms than on optimization of light harvesting.

  9. Effect of Population Structure Change on Carbon Emission in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Guo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper expanded the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI model through the introduction of urbanization, residents’ consumption, and other factors, and decomposed carbon emission changes in China into carbon emission factor effect, energy intensity effect, consumption inhibitory factor effect, urbanization effect, residents’ consumption effect, and population scale effect, and then explored contribution rates and action mechanisms of the above six factors on change in carbon emissions in China. Then, the effect of population structure change on carbon emission was analyzed by taking 2003–2012 as a sample period, and combining this with the panel data of 30 provinces in China. Results showed that in 2003–2012, total carbon emission increased by 4.2117 billion tons in China. The consumption inhibitory factor effect, urbanization effect, residents’ consumption effect, and population scale effect promoted the increase in carbon emissions, and their contribution ratios were 27.44%, 12.700%, 74.96%, and 5.90%, respectively. However, the influence of carbon emission factor effect (−2.54% and energy intensity effect (−18.46% on carbon emissions were negative. Population urbanization has become the main population factor which affects carbon emission in China. The “Eastern aggregation” phenomenon caused the population scale effect in the eastern area to be significantly higher than in the central and western regions, but the contribution rate of its energy intensity effect (−11.10 million tons was significantly smaller than in the central (−21.61 million tons and western regions (−13.29 million tons, and the carbon emission factor effect in the central area (−3.33 million tons was significantly higher than that in the eastern (−2.00 million tons and western regions (−1.08 million tons. During the sample period, the change in population age structure, population education structure, and population occupation structure

  10. Forest carbon in North America: annual storage and emissions from British Columbia's harvest, 1965-2065.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymond, Caren C

    2012-07-24

    The default international accounting rules estimate the carbon emissions from forest products by assuming all harvest is immediately emitted to the atmosphere. This makes it difficult to assess the greenhouse gas (GHG) consequences of different forest management or manufacturing activities that maintain the storage of carbon. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) addresses this issue by allowing other accounting methods. The objective of this paper is to provide a new model for estimating annual stock changes of carbon in harvested wood products (HWP). The model, British Columbia Harvested Wood Products version 1 (BC-HWPv1), estimates carbon stocks and fluxes for wood harvested in BC from 1965 to 2065, based on new parameters on local manufacturing, updated and new information for North America on consumption and disposal of wood and paper products, and updated parameters on methane management at landfills in the USA. Based on model results, reporting on emissions as they occur would substantially lower BC's greenhouse gas inventory in 2010 from 48 Mt CO2 to 26 Mt CO2 because of the long-term forest carbon storage in-use and in the non-degradable material in landfills. In addition, if offset projects created under BC's protocol reported 100 year cumulative emissions using the BC-HWPv1 the emissions would be lower by about 11%. This research showed that the IPCC default methods overestimate the emissions North America wood products. Future IPCC GHG accounting methods could include a lower emissions factor (e.g. 0.52) multiplied by the annual harvest, rather than the current multiplier of 1.0. The simulations demonstrated that the primary opportunities for climate change mitigation are in shifting from burning mill waste to using the wood for longer-lived products.

  11. Plant factory: A new method for reducing carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong; Liu, Tong; Ma, Jianshe

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, climate change has become a focus issue all over the world. Many scientific studies have confirmed the relationship between the emission of greenhouse gas such as carbon dioxide and global climate change. Reducing the emission of greenhouse gas is an effective way to solve the problem of climate change. This paper presents a new method for reducing carbon emissions: using the photosynthesis of plants to achieve carbon fixation in plant factory. In order to verify the feasibility of this method, we built a closed artificial light plant factory adopting LED lighting to conduct the experiment of carbon dioxide enrichment. The results shows that the production of the plants increased by 20%-25% and the plants fixed a considerable amount of carbon dioxide by increasing the concentration of carbon dioxide in the environment to 1000 ppm.

  12. Energy consumption, income, and carbon emissions in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soytas, Ugur [Department of Business Administration, Middle East Technical University Ankara, Turkey 06531 (Turkey); Sari, Ramazan [Department of Economics, Abant Izzet Baysal University Bolu, Turkey 14280 (Turkey); Ewing, Bradley T. [Rawls College of Business Texas Tech University Lubbock, TX 79409-2101 (United States)

    2007-05-15

    This paper investigates the effect of energy consumption and output on carbon emissions in the United States. Earlier research focused on testing the existence and/or shape of an environmental Kuznets curve without taking energy consumption into account. We investigate the Granger causality relationship between income, energy consumption, and carbon emissions, including labor and gross fixed capital formation in the model. We find that income does not Granger cause carbon emissions in the US in the long run, but energy use does. Hence, income growth by itself may not become a solution to environmental problems. (author)

  13. Scenario analysis on the global carbon emissions reduction goal proposed in the declaration of the 2009 G8 Summit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG JingYun; WANG ShaoPeng; YUE Chao; ZHU JiangLing; GUO ZhaoDi; HE CanFei; TANG ZhiYao

    2009-01-01

    A goal of a 50% reduction in global greenhouse gases emissions by 2050,with an 80% reduction by developed countries (hereafter referred to as the G8 Goal),was proposed at the G8 Summit held in L'Aquila,Italy,in July 2009.Here we analyze the scientific and political implications of the G8 Goal and its equity and feasibility by examining four greenhouse gas emissions scenarios.Our results show that (1) the goal to keep atmospheric CO_2 concentration of <450 ppmv,stated by G8 nations,can only be achieved under the scenario of a steady,linear emissions reduction by all countries and simultaneously meeting the G8 Goal during the period 2005-2050;(2) under the G8 Goal,the carbon emissions quota for developing countries would not meet their carbon emission demands even if very strict reduction regimes are followed,with a gap of up to>1/3 of emissions demand in the next 45 years;and (3) under the G8 Goal,the cumulative per capita emissions during the period of 2006-2050 for developed and developing countries will be 81 t C and 40-47 t C,respectively,with the former doubling that of the latter,implying that the historical disparity of carbon emissions between developed and developing countries would be widened.Historically,the cumulative per capita emissions from developed countries are 12 times of those from developing countries.We therefore conclude that (1) the G8 Goal seeks to impose binding reduction targets on developing countries that will impede their industrialization process and cause conflicts among developing countries in the allocation of carbon emission rights;(2) the G8 Goal will not only widen the existing disparities of historical carbon emissions between developed and developing countries,but also generate new inequalities in the rights of carbon emissions;and (3) the 450 ppmv threshold of atmospheric CO_2 concentration control,which is the basis for the G8 climate negotiation on carbon emission reduction.In summary,the G8 Goal is clearly against the

  14. Scenario analysis on the global carbon emissions reduction goal proposed in the declaration of the 2009 G8 Summit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A goal of a 50% reduction in global greenhouse gases emissions by 2050, with an 80% reduction by developed countries (hereafter referred to as the G8 Goal), was proposed at the G8 Summit held in L’Aquila, Italy, in July 2009. Here we analyze the scientific and political implications of the G8 Goal and its equity and feasibility by examining four greenhouse gas emissions scenarios. Our results show that (1) the goal to keep atmospheric CO2 concentration of <450 ppmv, stated by G8 nations, can only be achieved under the scenario of a steady, linear emissions reduction by all countries and simultaneously meeting the G8 Goal during the period 2005-2050; (2) under the G8 Goal, the carbon emissions quota for developing countries would not meet their carbon emission demands even if very strict reduction regimes are followed, with a gap of up to >1/3 of emissions demand in the next 45 years; and (3) under the G8 Goal, the cumulative per capita emissions during the period of 2006-2050 for developed and developing countries will be 81 t C and 40-47 t C, respectively, with the former doubling that of the latter, implying that the historical disparity of carbon emissions between developed and developing countries would be widened. Historically, the cumulative per capita emissions from developed countries are 12 times of those from developing countries. We therefore conclude that (1) the G8 Goal seeks to impose binding reduction targets on developing countries that will impede their industrialization process and cause conflicts among developing countries in the allocation of carbon emission rights; (2) the G8 Goal will not only widen the existing disparities of historical carbon emissions between developed and developing countries, but also generate new inequalities in the rights of carbon emissions; and (3) the 450 ppmv threshold of atmospheric CO2 concentration control, which is the basis for the G8 Goal, is impractical and impossible, and should not be accepted as the

  15. Reducing Carbon Emissions from Shopping Trips: Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available With rising income and the emergence of modern shopping centers in urban China, shopping trips by private car becomes more and more common, leading to higher carbon emissions in the transport sector. Encouraging car owners to shift transport mode from private car to public transport could achieve significant emissions reductions. This study estimate carbon emissions savings by shifting from private cars to public transport for shopping trips in urban China, using Shenyang, one of the largest cities in China, as a case study. Our results show that the average carbon emissions per shopper is 426.9 g, and the carbon emissions on weekends is 13% higher than weekdays. Moreover, shoppers travelling by private car emitted five times more carbon emission than those by public transport. We also found that car ownership gradually increased as accessibility to public transport decreased, and that more car owners chose to travel by private cars than public transport in areas with limited access. This study, thus, highlights the potential for high-quality public transport to reduce the transport sector’s carbon emissions in urban China.

  16. Electricity Consumption, Carbon Emissions and Economic Growth in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godwin Effiong Akpan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies a Multivariate Vector Error Correction (VECM framework to examine the long run and causal relationship between electricity consumption, carbon emissions and economic growth in Nigeria. Using annual time series data for 1970 to 2008, findings show that in the long run, economic growth is associated with increase carbon emissions, while an increase in electricity consumption leads to an increase in carbon emissions. These imply that Nigeria’s growth process is pollution intensive, while the negative relationship between electricity consumption (or positive relationship between electricity consumption and emissions in Nigeria is a clear indication that electricity consumption in the country has intensified carbon emissions. No support was obtained for the hypothesized environmental Kuznets curve (EKC. Granger-causality results confirm a unidirectional causality running from economic growth to carbon emissions, indicating that carbon emissions reduction policies could be pursued without reducing economic growth in Nigeria. No causality was found between electricity and growth, in either way, which further lends credence to the crisis in the Nigerian electricity sector. Overall, the paper submits that efficient planning and increased investment in electricity infrastructure development may be the crucial missing variable in the obtained neutrality hypothesis between electricity and growth.

  17. Estimation and prediction of black carbon emissions in Beijing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yuan; SHAO Min

    2007-01-01

    Black carbon is a by-product of incomplete combustion of carbon containing fuels. It can alter atmospheric radiation property and make adverse impacts on human health. The energy consumption in Beijing City depends largely on coal burning. Recently, Beijing City has been performing the municipal energy structure adjustment as a tool for air pollution abatement, aiming at the air quality goal for the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. Based on Beijing energy use data in 2000, combined with emission factors of major sources of black carbon, the emission of black carbon in Beijing City is estimated to be 7.77 Gg. Coke, raw coal and biomass as non-commercial energy are the main contributors to municipal black carbon emissions. Based on Beijing energy planning in the year 2008, the emission of black carbon in 2008 will be 2.97 Gg if the contribution from biomass is not taken into account. Assuming that the black carbon emission from rural biomass in 2008 is the same as that in 2004, the biomass burning will be the largest emitter of black carbon to Beijing City in 2008.

  18. Re-grown aligned carbon nanotubes with improved field emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Xiaodai; Zhu, Yanwu; Varghese, Binni; Gao, Xingyu; Wee, Andrew Thye Shen; Sow, Chorng-Haur

    2012-01-01

    In this work, a simple technique to improve the field emission property of multi-walled carbon nanotubes is presented. Re-grown multi-walled carbon nanotubes are grown on the same substrates after the as-grown multi-walled carbon nanotubes are transferred to other substrates using polydimethylsiloxane as intermediation. For the duration of the synthesis of the re-grown multi-walled carbon nanotubes, similar synthesis parameters used in growing the as-grown multi-walled carbon nanotubes are utilized. As a form of possible application, field emission studies show -2.6 times improvement in field enhancement factor and more uniform emission for the re-grown multi-walled carbon nanotubes. In addition, the turn-on field is reduced from 2.85 V/microm to 1.40 V/microm. Such significant improvements are attributed to new emission sites comprising of sharp carbonaceous impurities encompassing both tip and upper portion of the multi-walled carbon nanotubes. As such, this technique presents a viable route for the production of multi-walled carbon nanotubes with better field emission quality.

  19. Carbon Footprint Management of Road Freight Transport under the Carbon Emission Trading Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing concern over environmental issues has considerably increased the number of regulations and legislation that aim to curb carbon emissions. Carbon emission trading mechanism, which is one of the most effective means, has been broadly adopted by several countries. This paper presents a road truck routing problem under the carbon emission trading mechanism. By introducing a calculation method of carbon emissions that considers the load and speed of the vehicle among other factors, a road truck routing optimizing model under the cap and trade mechanism based on the Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP is described. Compared with the classical TSP model that only considers the economic cost, this model suggests that the truck routing decision under the cap and trade mechanism is more effective in reducing carbon emissions. A modified tabu search algorithm is also proposed to obtain solutions within a reasonable amount of computation time. We theoretically and numerically examine the impacts of carbon trading, carbon cap, and carbon price on truck routing decision, carbon emissions, and total cost. From the results of numerical experiments, we derive interesting observations about how to control the total cost and reduce carbon emissions.

  20. Scanning Anode Field Emission Characterisation of Carbon Nanotube emitter arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berhanu, S.; Gröning, O.; Chen, Z.; Merikhi, J.; Bachmann, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    Scanning anode field emission microscopy (SAFEM) was used to characterise carbon nanotube (CNT) emitter arrays produced within Philips CediX-Technotubes' activities. Four different samples were investigated and compared. The field enhancement distributions were determined and the local field

  1. Reducing Carbon Emissions from Shopping Trips: Evidence from China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jing Li; Pingyu Zhang; Kevin Lo; Meng Guo; Mark Wang

    2015-01-01

      With rising income and the emergence of modern shopping centers in urban China, shopping trips by private car becomes more and more common, leading to higher carbon emissions in the transport sector...

  2. Enforcement Issues in the Governance of Ships’ Carbon Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bloor

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The shipping industry, although relatively carbon-efficient, is projected to produce rising carbon emissions in the future as a consequence of increasing world trade. A number of candidate regulations designed to mitigate these emissions have been canvassed by the UN’s International Maritime Organisation and by the European Commission. Many of these schemes are focussed on the use of market measures—emission trading schemes or fuel levies. This paper draws on observational and interview data gathered to examine enforcement issues associated with the control of ships’ sulphur emissions in order to consider the possible enforcement problems that might be associated with projected market measures to control ships’ carbon emissions. Enforcement problems are shown to be associated with the globalised character of the industry and its polycentric governance structure.

  3. [Research on contribution decomposition by industry to China's carbon intensity reduction and carbon emission growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jing-Jing; Ye, Bin; Ji, Jun-Ping; Ma, Xiao-Ming

    2014-11-01

    The binding carbon intensity index and the pilot "cap-and-trade" emission trading scheme are two important approaches currently applied by China to mitigate its greenhouse gases emissions. It is of great significance to research the influence mechanism of related factors by industry on the dynamics of national carbon intensity and emission, not only for setting industry-specified intensity reduction target but also for setting industry coverage of the ETS. Two LMDI models were applied in this paper to decompose industry contributions to the changes of China's carbon intensity and carbon emission during the period of 1996-2010. Empirical results showed that: The decline of national carbon intensity was jointly determined by the changes of carbon intensities and the added value proportions of all industries, and the impact of industry carbon intensities was larger. The increase of national carbon emission was jointly determined by the changes of carbon intensities and the added value of all industries. The former had inhibitory effect whist the latter had decisive promoting effect. The five industries making the largest contribution to the changes of national carbon emission and carbon intensity included industries of electricity, nonmetal mineral, ferrous metal, transportation service, chemical materials, which were followed by the industries of agriculture, coal mining and processing, petroleum and natural gas extraction. Petroleum refining and coking industry and construction industry made small contribution to the decline of national carbon intensity, but made large contribution to the growth of national carbon emission. The contributions of service industries to national carbon emission growth showed a rising trend, especially those of transportation service industry, wholesaling, retailing and catering service industry.

  4. Black carbon emissions in Russia: A critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Meredydd; Kholod, Nazar; Kuklinski, Teresa; Denysenko, Artur; Smith, Steven J.; Staniszewski, Aaron; Hao, Wei Min; Liu, Liang; Bond, Tami C.

    2017-08-01

    This study presents a comprehensive review of estimated black carbon (BC) emissions in Russia from a range of studies. Russia has an important role regarding BC emissions given the extent of its territory above the Arctic Circle, where BC emissions have a particularly pronounced effect on the climate. We assess underlying methodologies and data sources for each major emissions source based on their level of detail, accuracy and extent to which they represent current conditions. We then present reference values for each major emissions source. In the case of flaring, the study presents new estimates drawing on data on Russia's associated petroleum gas and the most recent satellite data on flaring. We also present estimates of organic carbon (OC) for each source, either based on the reference studies or from our own calculations. In addition, the study provides uncertainty estimates for each source. Total BC emissions are estimated at 688 Gg in 2014, with an uncertainty range 401 Gg-1453 Gg, while OC emissions are 9224 Gg with uncertainty ranging between 5596 Gg and 14,736 Gg. Wildfires dominated and contributed about 83% of the total BC emissions: however, the effect on radiative forcing is mitigated in part by OC emissions. We also present an adjusted estimate of Arctic forcing from Russia's BC and OC emissions. In recent years, Russia has pursued policies to reduce flaring and limit particulate emissions from on-road transport, both of which appear to significantly contribute to the lower emissions and forcing values found in this study.

  5. Measuring Carbon Emissions of Pavement Construction in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youliang Huang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available While various methodologies for quantifying carbon emissions of pavement construction are developed worldwide, adopting and promoting the existing tools to China’s market is found fairly challenging due to institutional constraints. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to propose a methodology for measuring carbon emissions of pavement construction compatible with the fixed pricing systems prevalent in China; and develop an automatic tool for carbon estimations. The total carbon emissions are measured by aggregating emissions of energy consumption and materials used along with four stages, namely material manufacture, transportation, construction, and disposal. A set of composite carbon emission factors for energy and materials was calculated based on existing emission factors with the consideration of the boundaries concerned. The quantity of energy and materials used in pavement construction are obtained through bills of quantity and the fixed price system. The database of the emission factors for energy and materials was embedded into a C# based tool, and validated in a real case.

  6. Phonon-assisted electron emission from individual carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xianlong; Golberg, Dmitri; Chen, Qing; Bando, Yoshio; Peng, Lianmao

    2011-02-09

    A question of how electrons can escape from one-atom-thick surfaces has seldom been studied and is still not properly answered. Herein, lateral electron emission from a one-atom-thick surface is thoroughly studied for the first time. We study electron emission from side surface of individual electrically biased carbon nanotubes (CNTs) both experimentally and theoretically and discover a new electron emission mechanism named phonon-assisted electron emission. A kinetic model based on coupled Boltzmann equations of electrons and optical phonons is proposed and well describes experimentally measured lateral electron emission from CNTs. It is shown that the electrons moving along a biased CNT can overflow from the one-atom-thick surface due to the absorption of hot forward-scattering optical phonons. A low working voltage, high emission density, and side emission character make phonon-assisted electron emission primarily promising in electron source applications.

  7. Field Emission from Lateral Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Yarn Emitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohai Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A field emission from a lateral emitter made by a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT yarn was investigated. The lateral emitter showed an excellent field emission performance with a low turn-on electric field of 1.13 V/um at an emission current of 1 uA, high emission current of 0.2 mA at an applied voltage of 700 V, and long-time emission stability for over 20 h without any significant current decay under an initial emission current of about 0.10 mA. The lateral emitter also demonstrated a uniform line emission pattern. It is suggested that the field emission occurs from the outmost MWCNTs which are protruding out from the yarn surface.

  8. Field Emission from Lateral Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Yarn Emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guohai; Song, Yenan

    2016-10-01

    A field emission from a lateral emitter made by a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) yarn was investigated. The lateral emitter showed an excellent field emission performance with a low turn-on electric field of 1.13 V/um at an emission current of 1 uA, high emission current of 0.2 mA at an applied voltage of 700 V, and long-time emission stability for over 20 h without any significant current decay under an initial emission current of about 0.10 mA. The lateral emitter also demonstrated a uniform line emission pattern. It is suggested that the field emission occurs from the outmost MWCNTs which are protruding out from the yarn surface.

  9. Estimated lag time in global carbon emissions and CO2 concentrations produced by commercial nuclear power through 2009 with projections through 2030.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Neil M; Abramson, Lee R; Coleman, Fiona A B

    2012-03-01

    This study examines the past and future impact of nuclear reactors on anthropogenic carbon emissions to the atmosphere. If nuclear power had never been commercially developed, what additional global carbon emissions would have occurred? More than 44 y of global nuclear power have caused a lag time of at least 1.2 y in carbon emissions and CO2 concentrations through the end of 2009. This lag time incorporates the contribution of life cycle carbon emissions due to the construction and operation of nuclear plants. Cumulative global carbon emissions would have been about 13 Gt greater through 2009, and the mean annual CO2 concentration at Mauna Loa would have been ~2.7 ppm greater than without nuclear power. This study finds that an additional 14–17 Gt of atmospheric carbon emissions could be averted by the global use of nuclear power through 2030, for a cumulative total of 27–30 Gt averted during the period 1965–2030. This result is based on International Atomic Energy Agency projections of future growth in nuclear power from 2009–2030, modified by the recent loss or permanent shutdown of 14 reactors in Japan and Germany

  10. Laboratory estimation of black carbon emissions from cookstoves

    OpenAIRE

    Sota, Candela de la; Kane, M.; M. Viana; Lumbreras Martin, Julio; Ba, M.B.; Querol, Xavier; Mazorra, J.; Narros Sierra, Adolfo; Borge, R.; Youm, I.

    2016-01-01

    Recent estimations show that residential solid fuel combustion accounts for 25% of global black carbon (BC) emissions (Lamarque et al., 2010). Thus, the control of these emissions through the implementation of cleaner cooking technologies could be crucial for climate change mitigation (Venkataraman et al., 2005). However, BC emission factors for biofuel cooking stoves have been poorly estimated due to the wide distribution and remote location of the stoves and the relatively complex existing ...

  11. Field Emission from Carbon Nanotube/Tin Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Bo; ZHANG Ya-fei

    2009-01-01

    Powder metallurgy was used to fabricate carbon nanotube (CNT) field emission cathodes. CNTs and tin (Sn) powder were blended, compacted and sintered. After polishing and etching, CNTs were exposed and protruded from the metal surface. CNTs were embedded into the Sn matrix, which acted as stable field emitters. The J-E curves show excellent field emission properties, such as low turn-on field of 2.8 V/μm, high emission current density and good current stability.

  12. Assessing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Energy Use at a University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddell, William; Bhatia, Krishan Kumar; Parisi, Matthew; Foote, Jessica; Imperatore, John, III

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the carbon dioxide emissions associated with electric, HVAC, and hot water use from a US university. Design/methodology/approach: First, the total on-campus electrical, natural gas and oil consumption for an entire year was assessed. For each category of energy use, the carbon associated with…

  13. Assessing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Energy Use at a University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddell, William; Bhatia, Krishan Kumar; Parisi, Matthew; Foote, Jessica; Imperatore, John, III

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the carbon dioxide emissions associated with electric, HVAC, and hot water use from a US university. Design/methodology/approach: First, the total on-campus electrical, natural gas and oil consumption for an entire year was assessed. For each category of energy use, the carbon associated with…

  14. Trade and the Future of China's Black Carbon Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persad, G.; Oppenheimer, M.; Naik, V.

    2016-12-01

    Emissions of black carbon aerosols in China have increased by over 200% during the last 50 years, with negative implications both for human health and for regional and global climate. The Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) emissions scenarios all assume that China's future black carbon emissions will decrease. However, this decline partially depends on the assumption that the evolution of future pollutant emissions in developing nations will match the observed historical relationship between air quality and income in developed nations. Recent research has demonstrated that a substantial portion of China's current black carbon emissions are driven by the production of goods exported for consumption elsewhere. This constitutes an external demand for black carbon-emitting activity in China that is much smaller in the developed nations on which the historical air quality/income relationship is based. We here show using integrated assessment model output, general circulation modeling, and emissions and economic data that (1) China must achieve a faster technological and regulatory evolution than did developed countries in order achieve the same air quality/income trajectory; (2) China's uniquely large share of export-related black carbon-emitting activities and their potential growth are a plausible explanation for this disparity; and (3) the climate and health implications of these export-related black carbon emissions, if unmitigated, are of interest from a policy perspective. Together these results indicate that the production of goods for export will steepen the mitigation curve for China relative to developed nations, if China is to achieve the future black carbon emissions reductions assumed in the RCPs.

  15. Australian carbon dust emission: a carbon accounting omission?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erosion preferentially removes the finest carbon- and nutrient-rich soil fractions, and consequently its role may be significant within terrestrial carbon (C) cycles. However, the impacts of wind erosion on soil organic carbon redistribution are not considered in most SOC models, or within the Austr...

  16. Black carbon emissions in Russia: A critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Meredydd; Kholod, Nazar; Kuklinski, Teresa; Denysenko, Artur; Smith, Steven J.; Staniszewski, Aaron; Hao, Wei Min; Liu, Liang; Bond, Tami C.

    2017-08-01

    Russia has a particularly important role regarding black carbon (BC) emissions given the extent of its territory above the Arctic Circle, where BC emissions have a particularly pronounced effect on the climate. This study presents a comprehensive review of BC estimates from a range of studies. We assess underlying methodologies and data sources for each major emissions source based on their level of detail, accuracy and extent to which they represent current conditions. We then present reference values for each major emissions source. In the case of flaring, the study presents new estimates drawing on data on Russian associated petroleum gas and the most recent satellite data on flaring. We also present estimates of organic carbon (OC) for each source, either based on the reference studies or from our own calculations. In addition, the study provides uncertainty estimates for each source. Total BC emissions are estimated at 689 Gg in 2014, with an uncertainty range between (407-1,416), while OC emissions are 9,228 Gg (with uncertainty between 5,595 and 14,728). Wildfires dominated and contributed about 83% of the total BC emissions, however the effect on radiative forcing is mitigated by OC emissions. We also present an adjusted estimate of Arctic forcing from Russian OC and BC emissions. In recent years, Russia has pursued policies to reduce flaring and limit particulate emissions from on-road transport, both of which appear to significantly contribute to the lower emissions and forcing values found in this study.

  17. Carbon Emissions and Economic Growth: Alternative Approaches to Causality Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehdanz, Katrin (Christian-Albrechts Univ., Kiel (Germany)); Maddison, David J. (Univ. of Birmingham, Dept. of Economics, Birmingham (United Kingdom))

    2008-07-01

    Numerous papers have examined data on energy and GDP for evidence of Granger causality. More recently this technique has been extended to looking at the relationship between carbon emissions and GDP per capita. These analyses frequently reach differing conclusions concerning the existence and direction of Granger causality. This paper compares the standard fixed-dynamic-effects approach to a heterogenous panel approach testing for evidence of a causal relationship between GDP per capita and carbon emissions per capita allowing for heterogeneity. Overall there is strong evidence for the existence of a bidirectional causal relationship between GDP per capita and CO{sub 2} emissions per capita

  18. Carbon dioxide emissions from international air freight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howitt, Oliver J. A.; Carruthers, Michael A.; Smith, Inga J.; Rodger, Craig J.

    2011-12-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions from international air transport were excluded from reduction targets under the Kyoto Protocol, partly because of difficulties with quantifying and apportioning such emissions. Although there has been a great deal of recent research into calculating emissions from aeroplane operations globally, publicly available emissions factors for air freight emissions are scarce. This paper presents a methodology to calculate the amount of fuel burnt and the resulting CO 2 emissions from New Zealand's internationally air freighted imports and exports in 2007. This methodology could be applied to other nations and/or regions. Using data on fuel uplift, air freight and air craft movements, and assumptions on mean passenger loadings and the mass of passengers and air freight, CO 2 emissions factors of 0.82 kg CO 2 per t-km and 0.69 kg CO 2 per t-km for short-haul and long-haul journeys, respectively, were calculated. The total amount of fuel consumed for the international air transport of New Zealand's imports and exports was calculated to be 0.21 Mt and 0.17 Mt respectively, with corresponding CO 2 emissions of 0.67 Mt and 0.53 Mt.

  19. Monthly, global emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andres, R.J.; Gregg, Jay Sterling; Losey, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines available data, develops a strategy and presents a monthly, global time series of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions for the years 1950–2006. This monthly time series was constructed from detailed study of monthly data from the 21 countries that account for approximately 80...... reproduces monthly patterns in the data and the global monthly pattern of emissions is relatively insensitive to the exact proxy assignments used. The data and results presented here should lead to a better understanding of global and regional carbon cycles, especially when the mass data are combined...... with the stable carbon isotope data in atmospheric transport models....

  20. Field emission from hybrid diamond-like carbon and carbon nanotube composite structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanin, H; May, P W; Hamanaka, M H M O; Corat, E J

    2013-12-11

    A thin diamond-like carbon (DLC) film was deposited onto a densely packed "forest" of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (VACNT). DLC deposition caused the tips of the CNTs to clump together to form a microstructured surface. Field-emission tests of this new composite material show the typical low threshold voltages for carbon nanotube structures (2 V μm(-1)) but with greatly increased emission current, better stability, and longer lifetime.

  1. Soil carbon sequestration and biochar as negative emission technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Pete

    2016-03-01

    Despite 20 years of effort to curb emissions, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions grew faster during the 2000s than in the 1990s, which presents a major challenge for meeting the international goal of limiting warming to carbon capture and storage and afforestation/deforestation, showed that all NETs have significant limits to implementation, including economic cost, energy requirements, land use, and water use. In this paper, I assess the potential for negative emissions from soil carbon sequestration and biochar addition to land, and also the potential global impacts on land use, water, nutrients, albedo, energy and cost. Results indicate that soil carbon sequestration and biochar have useful negative emission potential (each 0.7 GtCeq. yr(-1) ) and that they potentially have lower impact on land, water use, nutrients, albedo, energy requirement and cost, so have fewer disadvantages than many NETs. Limitations of soil carbon sequestration as a NET centre around issues of sink saturation and reversibility. Biochar could be implemented in combination with bioenergy with carbon capture and storage. Current integrated assessment models do not represent soil carbon sequestration or biochar. Given the negative emission potential of SCS and biochar and their potential advantages compared to other NETs, efforts should be made to include these options within IAMs, so that their potential can be explored further in comparison with other NETs for climate stabilization.

  2. Field emission from a selected multiwall carbon nanotube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passacantando, M; Bussolotti, F; Santucci, S; Di Bartolomeo, A; Giubileo, F; Iemmo, L; Cucolo, A M

    2008-10-01

    The electron field emission characteristics of individual multiwalled carbon nanotubes were investigated by a piezoelectric nanomanipulation system operating inside a scanning electron microscopy chamber. The experimental set-up ensures a precise evaluation of the geometric parameters (multiwalled carbon nanotube length and diameter and anode-cathode separation) of the field emission system. For several multiwalled carbon nanotubes, reproducible and quite stable emission current behaviour was obtained, with a dependence on the applied voltage well described by a series resistance modified Fowler-Nordheim model. A turn-on field of ∼30 V µm(-1) and a field enhancement factor of around 100 at a cathode-anode distance of the order of 1 µm were evaluated. Finally, the effect of selective electron beam irradiation on the nanotube field emission capabilities was extensively investigated.

  3. Carbon dioxide emissions from biochar in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, S; Clauson-Kaas, S; Bobul'ská, L

    2014-01-01

    The stability of biochar in soil is of importance if it is to be used for carbon sequestration and long-term improvement of soil properties. It is well known that a significant fraction of biochar is highly stable in soil, but carbon dioxide (CO2) is also released immediately after application....... This study investigated the nature of the early release of CO2 and the degree to which stabilizing mechanisms protect biochar from microbial attack. Incubations of 14C-labelled biochar produced at different temperatures were performed in soils with different clay contents and in sterilized and non......-sterilized soils. It emerged that carbonate may be concentrated or form during or after biochar production, resulting in significant carbonate contents. If CO2 released from carbonates in short-term experiments is misinterpreted as mineralization of biochar, the impact of this process may be significantly over...

  4. Methane and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Different Composting Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hsiung Chang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate green house gas emissions from compost preparations, methane and carbon dioxide concentrations and emission rates at different accumulative times and composting periods were determined. While the accumulative time was less than 10 min with a closed acrylic chamber, meth ane and carbon dioxide emissions in creased slightly but with high fluntuation in the sampling e ror, and these values decreased significantly when the accumulative time was more than 20 min. During the 8 weeks of composting, the methane emission rate reaches its peak near the end of the second week and the carbon dioxide emission rate does the same near the end of third week. Meth ane and carbon dioxide emissions had high val ues at the first stage of com post ing and then de creased grad u ally for the ma tu rity of com post. Carbon dioxide emission (y was significantly related to temperature (x1, moisture content (x2, and total or ganiccarbon (x3; and there gression equation is: y = 3.11907x1 + 6.19236x2 - 6.63081x3 - 50.62498. The re gres sion equa tion be tween meth ane emis sion (y? and mois ture con tent (x2, pH (x4, C/N ra tio (x5, and ash con tent (x6 is: y?= 0.13225x2 - 0.97046x4 - 1.10599x5 - 0.55220x6 + 50.77057 in the ini tial com post ing stage (weeks 1 to 3; while, the equa tion is: y?= 0.02824x2 - 0.0037x4 - 0.1499x5 - 0.07013x6 + 4.13589 in the later compost ing stage (weeks 4 to 8. Dif ferent stage composts have significant variation of properties and greenhouse gas emissions. Moreover, the emissions may be reduced by manipulating the proper factors.

  5. Field emission properties of the graphenated carbon nanotube electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanin, H.; Ceragioli, H. J.; Peterlevitz, A. C.; Baranauskas, Vitor; Marciano, F. R.; Lobo, A. O.

    2015-01-01

    Reduced graphene oxide-coated carbon nanotubes (RGO-CNT) electrodes have been prepared by hot filament chemical vapour deposition system in one-step growth process. We studied RGO-CNT electrodes behaviour as cold cathode in field emission test. Our results show that RGO-CNT retain the low threshold voltage typical of CNTs, but with greatly improved emission current stability. The field emission enhancement value is significantly higher than that expected being caused by geometric effect (height divided by the radius of nanotube). This suggested that the field emission of this hybrid structure is not only from a single tip, but eventually it is from several tips with contribution of graphene nanosheets at CNT's walls. This phenomenon explains why the graphenated carbon nanotubes do not burn out as quickly as CNT does until emission ceases completely. These preliminaries results make nanocarbon materials good candidates for applications as electron sources for several devices.

  6. [Forest carbon storage and fuel carbon emission in Tanjiang River basin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiliang; Xia, Nianhe; Wu, Zhifeng; Cheng, Jiong; Liu, Ping

    2006-10-01

    The investigation on the forest carbon storage and fuel carbon emission in Tanjiang River basin showed that since 1990, the forests in Tanjiang River basin acted as a carbon sink, and this action was increased with time and with economic development. The net carbon uptake by the forests was 1.0579 x 10 (7) t in 1990 and 1.28061 x 10 (7) t in 2002, with an annual increment of 1.856 x 10(5) t, while the fuel carbon emission was 9. 508 x 10(5) t in 1990 and 1.8562 x 10(6) t in 2002, with an annual increment of 7.0 x 10(4) t. In 2003, the fuel carbon emission was up to 2.1968 x 10(6) t, 3.406 x 105 t more than that in 2002. In 2002, the energy consumption per 10(4) yuan GDP in Tanjiang River basin was 2.21 t standard coal, higher than the average consumption (1.81 t standard coal) in the Pearl River delta. If the fuel consumption decreased to the average level, the carbon emission in Tanjiang River basin would be reduced by 3.360 x 10(5) t, which was higher than the annual increment of forest net carbon uptake in the basin. From the viewpoint of net carbon uptake and emission in a basin, more attention should be paid to the relations between forest carbon sink and human activities.

  7. Russia's black carbon emissions: focus on diesel sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholod, Nazar; Evans, Meredydd; Kuklinski, Teresa

    2016-09-01

    Black carbon (BC) is a significant climate forcer with a particularly pronounced forcing effect in polar regions such as the Russian Arctic. Diesel combustion is a major global source of BC emissions, accounting for 25-30 % of all BC emissions. While the demand for diesel is growing in Russia, the country's diesel emissions are poorly understood. This paper presents a detailed inventory of Russian BC emissions from diesel sources. Drawing on a complete Russian vehicle registry with detailed information about vehicle types and emission standards, this paper analyzes BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles. We use the COPERT emission model (COmputer Programme to calculate Emissions from Road Transport) with Russia-specific emission factors for all types of on-road vehicles. On-road diesel vehicles emitted 21 Gg of BC in 2014: heavy-duty trucks account for 60 % of the on-road BC emissions, while cars represent only 5 % (light commercial vehicles and buses account for the remainder). Using Russian activity data and fuel-based emission factors, the paper also presents BC emissions from diesel locomotives and ships, off-road engines in industry, construction and agriculture, and generators. The study also factors in the role of superemitters in BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles and off-road sources. The total emissions from diesel sources in Russia are estimated to be 49 Gg of BC and 17 Gg of organic carbon (OC) in 2014. Off-road diesel sources emitted 58 % of all diesel BC in Russia.

  8. Green emission in carbon doped ZnO films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. T. Tseng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The emission behavior of C-doped ZnO films, which were prepared by implantation of carbon into ZnO films, is investigated. Orange/red emission is observed for the films with the thickness of 60–100 nm. However, the film with thickness of 200 nm shows strong green emission. Further investigations by annealing bulk ZnO single crystals under different environments, i.e. Ar, Zn or C vapor, indicated that the complex defects based on Zn interstitials are responsible for the strong green emission. The existence of complex defects was confirmed by electron spin resonance (ESR and low temperature photoluminescence (PL measurement.

  9. Green emission in carbon doped ZnO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, L. T.; Yi, J. B., E-mail: jiabao.yi@unsw.edu.au; Zhang, X. Y.; Xing, G. Z.; Luo, X.; Li, S. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW, 2052 (Australia); Fan, H. M. [School of Chemical Engineering, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China); Herng, T. S.; Ding, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, 119260 (Singapore); Ionescu, M. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization, (ANSTO), New Illawarra Road, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234 (Australia)

    2014-06-15

    The emission behavior of C-doped ZnO films, which were prepared by implantation of carbon into ZnO films, is investigated. Orange/red emission is observed for the films with the thickness of 60–100 nm. However, the film with thickness of 200 nm shows strong green emission. Further investigations by annealing bulk ZnO single crystals under different environments, i.e. Ar, Zn or C vapor, indicated that the complex defects based on Zn interstitials are responsible for the strong green emission. The existence of complex defects was confirmed by electron spin resonance (ESR) and low temperature photoluminescence (PL) measurement.

  10. Allowable carbon emissions for medium-to-high mitigation scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachiiri, Kaoru; Hargreaves, Julia C.; Annan, James D.; Kawamiya, Michio [Research Inst. for Global Change, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokohama, (Japan)], e-mail: tachiiri@jamstec.go.jp; Huntingford, Chris [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-15

    Using an ensemble of simulations with an intermediate complexity climate model and in a probabilistic framework, we estimate future ranges of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions in order to follow three medium-high mitigation concentration pathways: RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and SCP4.5 to 2.6. Uncertainty is first estimated by allowing modelled equilibrium climate sensitivity, aerosol forcing and intrinsic physical and biogeochemical processes to vary within widely accepted ranges. Results are then constrained by comparison against contemporary measurements. For both constrained and unconstrained projections, our calculated allowable emissions are close to the standard (harmonised) emission scenarios associated with these pathways. For RCP4.5, which is the most moderate scenario considered in terms of required emission abatement, then after year 2100 very low net emissions are needed to maintain prescribed year 2100 CO{sub 2} concentrations. As expected, RCP2.6 and SCP4.5 to 2.6 require more strict emission reductions. The implication of this is that direct sequestration of carbon dioxide is likely to be required for RCP4.5 or higher mitigation scenarios, to offset any minimum emissions for society to function (the 'emissions floor'). Despite large uncertainties in the physical and biogeochemical processes, constraints from model-observational comparisons support a high degree of confidence in predicting the allowable emissions consistent with a particular concentration pathway. In contrast the uncertainty in the resulting temperature range remains large. For many parameter sets, and especially for RCP2.6, the land will turn into a carbon source within the twenty first century, but the ocean will remain as a carbon sink. For land carbon storage and our modelling framework, major reductions are seen in northern high latitudes and the Amazon basin even after atmospheric CO{sub 2} is stabilised, while for ocean carbon uptake, the tropical ocean regions will be a

  11. Light emission from carbon nanofilaments/nanotubes at field electron emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormont, A. B.; Izrael'yants, K. R.; Musatov, A. L.

    2016-01-01

    The spatial distribution of light emission has been studied in planar field electron emitters with long and sparse carbon nanofilaments/nanotubes. The photographic recording of light emission of the emitting nanofilaments/nanotubes is shown to be efficient to determine the position of individual nanofilaments/ nanotubes in different emitter surface areas, as well as to highlight the nanofilaments/nanotube agglomerate distribution over the emitter surface, which mainly contributes to its emission.

  12. Alternative industrial carbon emissions benchmark based on input-output analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mengyao; Ji, Xi

    2016-12-01

    Some problems exist in the current carbon emissions benchmark setting systems. The primary consideration for industrial carbon emissions standards highly relate to direct carbon emissions (power-related emissions) and only a portion of indirect emissions are considered in the current carbon emissions accounting processes. This practice is insufficient and may cause double counting to some extent due to mixed emission sources. To better integrate and quantify direct and indirect carbon emissions, an embodied industrial carbon emissions benchmark setting method is proposed to guide the establishment of carbon emissions benchmarks based on input-output analysis. This method attempts to link direct carbon emissions with inter-industrial economic exchanges and systematically quantifies carbon emissions embodied in total product delivery chains. The purpose of this study is to design a practical new set of embodied intensity-based benchmarks for both direct and indirect carbon emissions. Beijing, at the first level of carbon emissions trading pilot schemes in China, plays a significant role in the establishment of these schemes and is chosen as an example in this study. The newly proposed method tends to relate emissions directly to each responsibility in a practical way through the measurement of complex production and supply chains and reduce carbon emissions from their original sources. This method is expected to be developed under uncertain internal and external contexts and is further expected to be generalized to guide the establishment of industrial benchmarks for carbon emissions trading schemes in China and other countries.

  13. Alternative industrial carbon emissions benchmark based on input-output analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mengyao; Ji, Xi

    2016-05-01

    Some problems exist in the current carbon emissions benchmark setting systems. The primary consideration for industrial carbon emissions standards highly relate to direct carbon emissions (power-related emissions) and only a portion of indirect emissions are considered in the current carbon emissions accounting processes. This practice is insufficient and may cause double counting to some extent due to mixed emission sources. To better integrate and quantify direct and indirect carbon emissions, an embodied industrial carbon emissions benchmark setting method is proposed to guide the establishment of carbon emissions benchmarks based on input-output analysis. This method attempts to link direct carbon emissions with inter-industrial economic exchanges and systematically quantifies carbon emissions embodied in total product delivery chains. The purpose of this study is to design a practical new set of embodied intensity-based benchmarks for both direct and indirect carbon emissions. Beijing, at the first level of carbon emissions trading pilot schemes in China, plays a significant role in the establishment of these schemes and is chosen as an example in this study. The newly proposed method tends to relate emissions directly to each responsibility in a practical way through the measurement of complex production and supply chains and reduce carbon emissions from their original sources. This method is expected to be developed under uncertain internal and external contexts and is further expected to be generalized to guide the establishment of industrial benchmarks for carbon emissions trading schemes in China and other countries.

  14. Diamond-Coated Carbon Nanotubes for Efficient Field Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijevic, Stevan; Withers, James C.

    2005-01-01

    Field-emission cathodes containing arrays of carbon nanotubes coated with diamond or diamondlike carbon (DLC) are undergoing development. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes have been shown to perform well as electron field emitters. The idea underlying the present development is that by coating carbon nanotubes with wideband- gap materials like diamond or DLC, one could reduce effective work functions, thereby reducing threshold electric-field levels for field emission of electrons and, hence, improving cathode performance. To demonstrate feasibility, experimental cathodes were fabricated by (1) covering metal bases with carbon nanotubes bound to the bases by an electrically conductive binder and (2) coating the nanotubes, variously, with diamond or DLC by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition. In tests, the threshold electric-field levels for emission of electrons were reduced by as much as 40 percent, relative to those of uncoated- nanotube cathodes. Coating with diamond or DLC could also make field emission-cathodes operate more stably by helping to prevent evaporation of carbon from nanotubes in the event of overheating of the cathodes. Cathodes of this type are expected to be useful principally as electron sources for cathode-ray tubes and flat-panel displays.

  15. Carbon footprint and ammonia emissions of California beef production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse-Lawson, K R; Rotz, C A; Oltjen, J W; Mitloehner, F M

    2012-12-01

    Beef production is a recognized source of greenhouse gas (GHG) and ammonia (NH(3)) emissions; however, little information exists on the net emissions from beef production systems. A partial life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted using the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM) to estimate GHG and NH(3) emissions from representative beef production systems in California. The IFSM is a process-level farm model that simulates crop growth, feed production and use, animal growth, and the return of manure nutrients back to the land to predict the environmental impacts and economics of production systems. Ammonia emissions are determined by summing the emissions from animal housing facilities, manure storage, field applied manure, and direct deposits of manure on pasture and rangeland. All important sources and sinks of methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon dioxide are predicted from primary and secondary emission sources. Primary sources include enteric fermentation, manure, cropland used in feed production, and fuel combustion. Secondary emissions occur during the production of resources used on the farm, which include fuel, electricity, machinery, fertilizer, and purchased animals. The carbon footprint is the net exchange of all GHG in carbon dioxide equivalent (CO(2)e) units per kg of HCW produced. Simulated beef production systems included cow-calf, stocker, and feedlot phases for the traditional British beef breeds and calf ranch and feedlot phases for Holstein steers. An evaluation of differing production management strategies resulted in ammonia emissions ranging from 98 ± 13 to 141 ± 27 g/kg HCW and carbon footprints of 10.7 ± 1.4 to 22.6 ± 2.0 kg CO(2)e/kg HCW. Within the British beef production cycle, the cow-calf phase was responsible for 69 to 72% of total GHG emissions with 17 to 27% from feedlot sources. Holstein steers that entered the beef production system as a by-product of dairy production had the lowest carbon footprint because the emissions

  16. Field emission properties of the graphenated carbon nanotube electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanin, H., E-mail: hudson.zanin@bristol.ac.uk [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom); Faculdade de Engenharia Elétrica e Computação, Departamento de Semicondutores, Instrumentos e Fotônica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP, Av. Albert Einstein N. 400, CEP 13 083-852 Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Ceragioli, H.J.; Peterlevitz, A.C.; Baranauskas, Vitor [Faculdade de Engenharia Elétrica e Computação, Departamento de Semicondutores, Instrumentos e Fotônica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP, Av. Albert Einstein N. 400, CEP 13 083-852 Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Marciano, F.R.; Lobo, A.O. [Laboratory of Biomedical Nanotechnology/Institute of Research and Development at UNIVAP, Av. Shishima Hifumi, 2911, CEP 12244-000 Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Facile method to prepare graphenated carbon nanotubes (g-CNTs). • The electric field emission behaviour of g-CNTs was studied. • g-CNTs show better emission current stability than non-graphenated CNTs. - Abstract: Reduced graphene oxide-coated carbon nanotubes (RGO-CNT) electrodes have been prepared by hot filament chemical vapour deposition system in one-step growth process. We studied RGO-CNT electrodes behaviour as cold cathode in field emission test. Our results show that RGO-CNT retain the low threshold voltage typical of CNTs, but with greatly improved emission current stability. The field emission enhancement value is significantly higher than that expected being caused by geometric effect (height divided by the radius of nanotube). This suggested that the field emission of this hybrid structure is not only from a single tip, but eventually it is from several tips with contribution of graphene nanosheets at CNT's walls. This phenomenon explains why the graphenated carbon nanotubes do not burn out as quickly as CNT does until emission ceases completely. These preliminaries results make nanocarbon materials good candidates for applications as electron sources for several devices.

  17. Analytical optimization for field emission of carbon nanotube array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XinQing; LI Liang; CHEN Min; JIN HongXiao; JIN DingFeng; PENG Min; GE HongLiang

    2009-01-01

    To optimize field emission (FE) property of carbon nanotube (CNT) array on a planar cathode surface,the Fowler-Nordheim formula has been used to discuss the maximum of the emission current density with the floating sphere model in this paper. The emission current density is dominating as the ane-lytical Fowler-Nordheim function of the intertube distance, and the maximum of the emission current density is deduced and discussed. The results indicate that the intertube distance in CNT array criti-cally affects the field enhancement factor and the emission current density, whose maximum occurs at the intertube distance approximating a tenth of the tube height. Considering the emission current den-sity and the field enhancement factor, the FE can be optimized analytically when the intertube distance is about a tenth of the tube height.

  18. Carbon dioxide emissions from Indian monsoonal estuaries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Viswanadham, R.; Rao, G.D.; Prasad, V.R.; Kumar, B.S.K.; Naidu, S.A.; Kumar, N.A.; Rao, D.B.; Sridevi, T.; Krishna, M.S.; Reddy, N.P.C.; Sadhuram, Y.; Murty, T.V.R.

    estuaries. Estuaries and Coasts, …. Jiang, L.Q., W.J. Cai, and Y. Wang (2008). Carbon dioxide degassing in river- and maine- dominated estuaries: Importance of freshwater runoff. Limnol. Oceanogr., 53, 2603-2615. Mukhopadhyay, S.K., H. Biswas, T.K. De..., S. Sen and T.K. Jana (2002). Seasonal effects on the air-water carbon dioxide exchange in the Hooghly estuary, NE coast of Gulf of Bengal, India. J. Environ. Monit., 4, 549-552. Ortega, T., R. Ponce, J. Forja, and A. Gomez-Parra (2005). Fluxes...

  19. EU Emission Trading: Starting with Carbon Dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterdal, Morten; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2003-01-01

    The Commission of the European Union wants to start a limited emission trading scheme by 2005 within the Community to enable "learning-by-doing" prior to the Kyoto Protocol. This to accomplish the desired 8% target level for six different greenhouse gases. However, in the EU it is not clear whether...

  20. EU Emission Trading: Starting with Carbon Dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterdal, Morten; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2003-01-01

    The Commission of the European Union wants to start a limited emission trading scheme by 2005 within the Community to enable "learning-by-doing" prior to the Kyoto Protocol. This to accomplish the desired 8% target level for six different greenhouse gases. However, in the EU it is not clear wheth...

  1. Mixed Carbon Policies Based on Cooperation of Carbon Emission Reduction in Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongwei Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper established cooperation decision model for a mixed carbon policy of carbon trading-carbon tax (environmental tax in a two-stage S-M supply chain. For three different cooperative abatement situations, we considered the supplier driven model, the manufacturer driven model, and the equilibrium game model. We investigated the influence of mixed carbon policy with constraint of reduction targets on supply chain price, productivity, profits, carbon emissions reduction rate, and so on. The results showed that (1 high-strength carbon policies do not necessarily encourage enterprises to effectively reduce emissions, and increasing market acceptance of low carbon products or raising the price of carbon quota can promote the benign reduction; (2 perfect competitive carbon market has a higher carbon reduction efficiency than oligarch carbon market, but their optimal level of cooperation is the same and the realized reduction rate is in line with the intensity of carbon policy; (3 the policy sensitivity of the carbon trading mechanism is stronger than the carbon tax; “paid quota mechanism” can subsidize the cost of abatement and improve reduction initiative. Finally, we use a numerical example to solve the optimal decisions under different market situations, validating the effectiveness of model and the conclusions.

  2. Simulation and Assessment of Whole Life-Cycle Carbon Emission Flows from Different Residential Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikun Wen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To explore the differences in carbon emissions over the whole life-cycle of different building structures, the published calculated carbon emissions from residential buildings in China and abroad were normalized. Embodied carbon emission flows, operations stage carbon emission flows, demolition and reclamation stage carbon emission flows and total life-cycle carbon emission flows from concrete, steel, and wood structures were obtained. This study is based on the theory of the social cost of carbon, with an adequately demonstrated social cost of carbon and social discount rate. Taking into consideration both static and dynamic situations and using a social discount rate of 3.5%, the total life-cycle carbon emission flows, absolute carbon emission and building carbon costs were calculated and assessed. The results indicated that concrete structures had the highest embodied carbon emission flows and negative carbon emission flows in the waste and reclamation stage. Wood structures that started the life-cycle with stored carbon had the lowest carbon emission flows in the operations stage and relatively high negative carbon emission flows in the reclamation stage. Wood structures present the smallest carbon footprints for residential buildings.

  3. Current and historical individual data about exposure of workers in the rayon industry to carbon disulfide and their validity in calculating the cumulative dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göen, Thomas; Schramm, Axel; Baumeister, Thomas; Uter, Wolfgang; Drexler, Hans

    2014-08-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate how exposure to carbon disulfide (CS2) in a rayon-manufacturing plant has changed within two decades and whether it is possible to calculate valid data for the individual cumulative exposure. The data for CS2 concentration in air and biological exposure monitoring (2-thio-1,3-thiaxolidine-4-carboxylic acid (TTCA) in urine) from two cross-sectional studies, performed in 1992 (n = 362) and 2009 (n = 212) in a German rayon-manufacturing plant, were compared to data obtained from company-internal measurements between the studies. Using the data from the cross-sectional studies and company-internal data, cumulative external exposure and the cumulative internal exposure were calculated for each worker. External and internal CS2 exposure of the employees decreased from 1992 (medians 4.0 ppm and 1.63 mgTTCA/g creatinine) to 2009 (medians 2.5 ppm and 0.86 mg/g). However, company-internal CS2 data do not show a straight trend for this period. The annual medians of the company-internal measurement of external exposure to CS2 have varied between 2.7 and 8.4 ppm, in which median values exceeded 5 ppm generally since 2000. The annual medians for the company-internal biomonitoring assessment ranged between 1.2 and 2.8 mg/g creatinine. The cumulative CS2 exposure ranged from 8.5 to 869.5 ppm years for external exposure and between 1.30 and 176.2 mg/g creatinine years for the internal exposure. Significant correlations were found between the current air pollution and the internal exposure in 2009 but also between the cumulative external and internal CS2 exposure. Current exposure data, usually collected in cross-sectional studies, rarely allow a reliable statement on the cumulative dose, because of higher exposure in the past and of fluctuating courses of exposure. On the other hand, company-internal exposure data may be affected by non-representative measurement strategies. Some verification of the reliability of

  4. Editorial: Using charcoal to fix the price of carbon emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Gray

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Using charcoal as a model is probably as close as we can come at present to developing a realistic cost for offsetting CO2 emissions. Of course, carbon taxation needs an equitable basis for calculation and, unlike the current offset costs that are based largely on what the voluntary market can sustain, fixed emission charges per weight may well be the incentive required to achieve elusive GHG reduction targets.

  5. Field emission from non-uniform carbon nanotube arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'agnol, Fernando F; den Engelsen, Daniel

    2013-07-10

    Regular arrays of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are frequently used in studies on field emission. However, non-uniformities are always present like dispersions in height, radius, and position. In this report, we describe the effect of these non-uniformities in the overall emission current by simulation. We show that non-uniform arrays can be modeled as a perfect array multiplied by a factor that is a function of the CNTs spacing.

  6. Improvement of carbon nanotube field emission properties by ultrasonic nanowelding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Yadian, Boluo; Chen, Da; Xu, Dong; Zhang, Yafei

    2008-12-01

    Ultrasonic nanowelding was used to improve the field emission properties of carbon nanotube (CNT) cathodes. The CNTs were deposited on the Ti-coated glass substrate by electrophoretic deposition. By pressing CNTs against metal (Ti) substrate under a vibrating force at ultrasonic frequency, a reliable and low resistance contact was obtained between CNTs and Ti. The scanning electron microscopy results show that CNTs are embedded into the metal substrate and act as stable field emitters. The welded cathode demonstrates an excellent field emission with high emission current density and good current stability.

  7. Global carbon dioxide emissions from inland waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Peter A.; Hartmann, Jens; Lauerwald, Ronny; Sobek, Sebastian; McDonald, Cory P.; Hoover, Mark; Butman, David; Striegl, Robert G.; Mayorga, Emilio; Humborg, Christoph; Kortelainen, Pirkko; Durr, Hans H.; Meybeck, Michel; Ciais, Philippe; Guth, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) transfer from inland waters to the atmosphere, known as CO2 evasion, is a component of the global carbon cycle. Global estimates of CO2 evasion have been hampered, however, by the lack of a framework for estimating the inland water surface area and gas transfer velocity and by the absence of a global CO2 database. Here we report regional variations in global inland water surface area, dissolved CO2 and gas transfer velocity. We obtain global CO2 evasion rates of 1.8   petagrams of carbon (Pg C) per year from streams and rivers and 0.32  Pg C yr−1 from lakes and reservoirs, where the upper and lower limits are respectively the 5th and 95th confidence interval percentiles. The resulting global evasion rate of 2.1 Pg C yr−1 is higher than previous estimates owing to a larger stream and river evasion rate. Our analysis predicts global hotspots in stream and river evasion, with about 70 per cent of the flux occurring over just 20 per cent of the land surface. The source of inland water CO2 is still not known with certainty and new studies are needed to research the mechanisms controlling CO2 evasion globally.

  8. Black Carbon Emissions from Associated Natural Gas Flaring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyant, Cheryl L; Shepson, Paul B; Subramanian, R; Cambaliza, Maria O L; Heimburger, Alexie; McCabe, David; Baum, Ellen; Stirm, Brian H; Bond, Tami C

    2016-02-16

    Approximately 150 billion cubic meters (BCM) of natural gas is flared and vented in the world annually, emitting greenhouse gases and other pollutants with no energy benefit. About 7 BCM per year is flared in the United States, and half is from North Dakota alone. There are few emission measurements from associated gas flares and limited black carbon (BC) emission factors have been previously reported from the field. Emission plumes from 26 individual flares in the Bakken formation in North Dakota were sampled. Methane, carbon dioxide, and BC were measured simultaneously, allowing the calculation of BC mass emission factors using the carbon balance method. Particle optical absorption was measured using a three-wavelength particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP) and BC particle number and mass concentrations were measured with a single particle soot photometer. The BC emission factors varied over 2 orders of magnitude, with an average and uncertainty range of 0.14 ± 0.12 g/kg hydrocarbons in associated gas and a median of 0.07 g/kg which represents a lower bound on these measurements. An estimation of the BC emission factor derived from PSAP absorption provides an upper bound at 3.1 g/kg. These results are lower than previous estimations and laboratory measurements. The BC mass absorption cross section was 16 ± 12 m(2)/g BC at 530 nm. The average absorption Ångström exponent was 1.2 ± 0.8, suggesting that most of the light absorbing aerosol measured was black carbon and the contribution of light absorbing organic carbon was small.

  9. The Measurement of Landfill Gas Emissions with the Orbiting Carbon Observatory and CarbonSAT Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil, S. A.; Bovensmann, H.

    2010-12-01

    Landfill gas is a significant contributor to anthropogenic emissions of CH4 and CO2. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has estimated the total U.S. 2007 emissions of the CH4 component of landfill gas at 132.9 Tg CO2 Equivalent. This compares to total CH4 emission from all US sources in 2007 at 585.3 Tg CO2 Equivalent. Worldwide CH4 emissions from landfill gas have been estimated at 668 Tg CO2 Equivalent. Satellite remote sensing can also be used to characterize landfill gas emissions. The NASA Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2) and the proposed CarbonSAT (University of Bremen) satellites are particularly suited for this purpose. The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) was designed to provided high spatial resolution ( developed countries. In general, landfills in the developed countries have landfill gas control system ground based landfill gas monitoring systems. These ground-based measurements can be used to calibrate OCO-2 and CarbonSAT landfill gas measurements. OCO-2 and CarbonSAT can be used to measure landfill emissions from the large landfills and open dumps of the emerging megacities in the developing world where accurate ground measurements are not available. For example Mexico City generates 26,000 MT of municipal solid waste that is disposed of in two uncontrolled landfills. Similar conditions exist in Asia, Latin America, and Africa. Satellite based measurements of these landfill gas emissions could help prioritize greenhouse gas remediation projects for these countries.

  10. Options for lowering U.S. carbon dioxide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierbaum, Rosina M.; Friedman, Robert M.; Levenson, Howard; Rapoport, Richard D.; Sundt, Nick

    1992-03-01

    The United States can decrease its emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) to as much as 35 percent below 1987 levels within the next 25 years by adopting an aggressive package of policies crossing all sectors of the economy. Such emissions reductions will be difficult to achieve and may be costly, but no major technological breakthroughs are needed. In this paper, we identify a ``Tough'' package of energy conservation, energy supply, and forest managment practices to accomplish this level of emissions reductions. We also present a package of cost-effective, ``Moderate'' technical options, which if adopted, would hold CO2 emissions to about 15-percent increase over 1987 levels by 2015. In constrast, if the United State takes not new actions to curb energy use, CO2 emissions will likely rise 50 percent during that time. A variety of Federal policy initiatives will be required to achieve large reductions in U.S. CO2 emissions. Such policy actions will have to include both regulatory ``push'' and market ``pull'' mechanisms--including performance standards, tax incentive programs, carbon-emission or energy taxes, labeling and efficiency ratings, and research, development, and demostration activities.

  11. Capacity and production planning with carbon emission constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Song, Shuang; Xu, Lei

    2017-01-01

    This paper builds a two-stage, stochastic model to study capacity expansion problem in logistics under cap-and-trade and carbon tax regulations. The optimal capacity expansion and production decisions are obtained, and the effects of carbon emission regulations on capacity expansion are studied....... Through analytical study and a real case numerical analysis, we find that the carbon tax exhibits different impacts on optimal capacity expansion decisions in low tax rate and high tax rate, and the volatility of capacity investment cost has a larger impact on optimal capacity expansion than...... that of production cost....

  12. High Speed Rail: Implications for carbon emissions and biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornet, Yannick; Dudley, Geoffrey; Banister, David

    2017-01-01

    Rail has traditionally been seen as ‘good’ for the environment, as it is fast and efficient with a low carbon footprint. With respect to HS2 in the UK, new environmental debates have arisen over the competing global objectives of reducing the carbon footprint of HSR and the need to maintain and e...... levels of carbon emissions and biodiversity loss.......Rail has traditionally been seen as ‘good’ for the environment, as it is fast and efficient with a low carbon footprint. With respect to HS2 in the UK, new environmental debates have arisen over the competing global objectives of reducing the carbon footprint of HSR and the need to maintain...

  13. Timing of carbon emissions from global forest clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Mason Earles; Sonia Yeh; Kenneth E. Skog

    2012-01-01

    Land-use change, primarily from conventional agricultural expansion and deforestation, contributes to approximately 17% of global greenhouse-gas emissions1. The fate of cleared wood and subsequent carbon storage as wood products, however, has not been consistently estimated, and is largely ignored or oversimplified by most models estimating...

  14. Trade, production fragmentation, and China's carbon dioxide emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, Erik; Pei, Jiansuo; Yang, Cuihong

    2012-01-01

    An input-output framework is adopted to estimate China's carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions as generated by its exports in 2002. More than one half of China's exports are related to international production fragmentation. These processing exports generate relatively little value added but also relativel

  15. Development of Field-Emission Electron Gun from Carbon Nanotubes

    CERN Document Server

    Hozumi, Y

    2004-01-01

    Aiming to use a narrow energy-spread electron beam easily and low costly on injector electron guns, we have been tested field emission cathodes of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Experiments for these three years brought us important suggestions and a few rules of thumb. Now at last, anode current of 3.0 [A/cm2

  16. Field emission characteristics of regular arrays of carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, A A; Al-Heniti, S; Al-Hazmi, F S; Faidah, Adel S; Shalaan, E; Husain, M

    2014-06-01

    The developments of electronic devices based on micron-sized vacuum electron sources during the last decades have triggered intense research on highly efficient carbon based thin film electron emitters. The synthesis of massive arrays of carbon nanotubes that are oriented on patterned Fe catalyst deposited on quartz substrates is reported. The well-ordered nanotubes can be used as electron field emission arrays. Scaling up of the synthesis process should be entirely compatible with the existing semiconductor processes, and should allow the development of nanotubes devices integrated into future technology. The emission from carbon nanotubes array is explained by Fowler-Nordheim tunneling of electrons from tip-like structures in the nanometer range, which locally amplify the applied field by the field enhancement factor beta. We found that the low pressure chemical vapour deposition (LPCVD) system can produce nanotubes capable of excellent emission currents at lower voltages. The carbon nanotubes array shows good field emission with turn on field E(alpha) = 1.30 V/microm at the current density of 3.50 mA/cm2 with enhancement factor beta = 1.22 x 10(2).

  17. UV-induced carbon monoxide emission from living vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Dan; Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard

    2013-01-01

    The global burden of carbon monoxide (CO) is rather uncertain. In this paper we address the potential for UV-induced CO emission by living terrestrial vegetation surfaces. Real-time measurements of CO concentrations were made with a cavity enhanced laser spectrometer connected in closed loop...

  18. Hydrological restoration of Indonesian peatlands to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wösten, H.; Jaenicke, J.; Budiman, A.; Siegert, F.

    2010-01-01

    Delta Session DS 9: The lowland deltas of Indonesia. Hydrological restoration of Indonesian peatlands to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions, Henk Wösten (2010). Presented at the international conference Deltas in Times of Climate Change, 29 September - 1 October, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

  19. Carbon Emissions Abatement Cost in China: Provincial Panel Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper employs the quadratic directional output distance function to derive shadow prices of China’s aggregate carbon emissions at the province level between 1997 and 2010. The empirical results indicate that the national weighted average shadow price presents an “N-shape” curve across the sample period, experiencing the initial phase of growth followed by a phase of deterioration, and then a further increase. This change trend implies that the cost of carbon emissions reduction is increasing. In addition, the shadow price varies significantly across provinces, which means that China should uphold the principal of “common but differentiated responsibilities” in regional carbon emissions reduction. Generally, the shadow price of the east provinces with high economic development is markedly higher than that of the west provinces with low economic development. The OLS regression results indicate that the shadow price positively connected with the regional economic development levels. Moreover, an inflection point exists in the relation curve between the shadow price and GDP per capita, that is, the increase rate of the shadow price becomes small when the GDP per capita is less than 18.1 thousand Yuan, while it becomes large when the GDP per capita surpasses 18.1 thousand Yuan. With the economic growth, the cost of carbon emissions reduction would be significantly increased. The empirical results can provide more insight for policymakers.

  20. Electrically Excited, Localized Infrared Emission from Single Carbon Nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freitag, Marcus; Tsang, James C.; Kirtley, John; Kirtley, J.R.; Carlsen, Autumn; Chen, Jia; Troeman, A.G.P.; Hilgenkamp, Johannes W.M.; Avouris, Phaedon

    2006-01-01

    Carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNTFETs) produce band gap derived infrared emission under both ambipolar and unipolar transport conditions. We demonstrate here that heterogeneities/defects in the local environment of a CNTFET perturb the local potentials and, as a result, the

  1. Field emission of GaN-filled carbon nanotubes: high and stable emission current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, L; Li, J C; Liu, C; Xu, Z; Wang, W L; Liu, S; Bai, X D; Wang, E G

    2007-03-01

    Field electron emission of GaN-filled carbon nanotubes, grown by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, was investigated. The detailed structural characterization shows that the filled nanotube has a GaN-core/C-shell structure, in which the GaN wire corresponds to a wurtzite structure. The field emission properties of the GaN-filled carbon nanotubes have been achieved with high and stable emission current. It is attributed to the unique cable-like structure, which makes the GaN-core/C-shell composite mechanically solid and chemically stable. This study suggests the GaN-filled carbon nanotube as an ideal candidate for future high-current and high-power field emitter applications.

  2. Managing carbon emissions in China through building energy efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Colombier, Michel

    2009-06-01

    This paper attempts to analyse the role of building energy efficiency (BEE) in China in addressing climate change mitigation. It provides an analysis of the current situation and future prospects for the adoption of BEE technologies in Chinese cities. It outlines the economic and institutional barriers to large-scale deployment of the sustainable, low-carbon, and even carbon-free construction techniques. Based on a comprehensive overview of energy demand characteristics and development trends driven by economic and demographic growth, different policy tools for cost-effective CO(2) emission reduction in the Chinese construction sector are described. We propose a comprehensive approach combining building design and construction, and the urban planning and building material industries, in order to drastically improve BEE during this period of rapid urban development. A coherent institutional framework needs to be established to ensure the implementation of efficiency policies. Regulatory and incentive options should be integrated into the policy portfolios of BEE to minimise the efficiency gap and to realise sizeable carbon emissions cuts in the next decades. We analyse in detail several policies and instruments, and formulate relevant policy proposals fostering low-carbon construction technology in China. Specifically, Our analysis shows that improving building energy efficiency can generate considerable carbon emissions reduction credits with competitive price under the CDM framework.

  3. Predator-induced reduction of freshwater carbon dioxide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Trisha B.; Hammill, Edd; Greig, Hamish S.; Kratina, Pavel; Shurin, Jonathan B.; Srivastava, Diane S.; Richardson, John S.

    2013-03-01

    Predators can influence the exchange of carbon dioxide between ecosystems and the atmosphere by altering ecosystem processes such as decomposition and primary production, according to food web theory. Empirical knowledge of such an effect in freshwater systems is limited, but it has been suggested that predators in odd-numbered food chains suppress freshwater carbon dioxide emissions, and predators in even-numbered food chains enhance emissions. Here, we report experiments in three-tier food chains in experimental ponds, streams and bromeliads in Canada and Costa Rica in the presence or absence of fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and invertebrate (Hesperoperla pacifica and Mecistogaster modesta) predators. We monitored carbon dioxide fluxes along with prey and primary producer biomass. We found substantially reduced carbon dioxide emissions in the presence of predators in all systems, despite differences in predator type, hydrology, climatic region, ecological zone and level of in situ primary production. We also observed lower amounts of prey biomass and higher amounts of algal and detrital biomass in the presence of predators. We conclude that predators have the potential to markedly influence carbon dioxide dynamics in freshwater systems.

  4. Accounting for the climate-carbon feedback in emission metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Thomas; Peters, Glen P.; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Collins, William J.; Shindell, Drew T.; Ciais, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    Most emission metrics have previously been inconsistently estimated by including the climate-carbon feedback for the reference gas (i.e. CO2) but not the other species (e.g. CH4). In the fifth assessment report of the IPCC, a first attempt was made to consistently account for the climate-carbon feedback in emission metrics. This attempt was based on only one study, and therefore the IPCC concluded that more research was needed. Here, we carry out this research. First, using the simple Earth system model OSCAR v2.2, we establish a new impulse response function for the climate-carbon feedback. Second, we use this impulse response function to provide new estimates for the two most common metrics: global warming potential (GWP) and global temperature-change potential (GTP). We find that, when the climate-carbon feedback is correctly accounted for, the emission metrics of non-CO2 species increase, but in most cases not as much as initially indicated by IPCC. We also find that, when the feedback is removed for both the reference and studied species, these relative metric values only have modest changes compared to when the feedback is included (absolute metrics change more markedly). Including or excluding the climate-carbon feedback ultimately depends on the user's goal, but consistency should be ensured in either case.

  5. Effect of Additional Carbonates on CO2 Emission from Calcareous Soil During the Closed-Jar Incubation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Yan-Jie; CAI Miao; LIANG Bin; ZHOU Jian-Bin

    2013-01-01

    The closed-jar incubation method is widely used to estimate the mineralization of soil organic C.There are two C pools (i.e.,organic and inorganic C) in calcareous soil.To evaluate the effect of additional carbonates on CO2 emission from calcareous soil during closed-jar incubation,three incubation experiments were conducted by adding different types (CaCO3 and MgCO3) and amounts of carbonate to the soil.The addition of carbonates significantly increased CO2 emission from the soil; the increase ranged from 12.0% in the CaCO3 amended soil to 460% in the MgCO3 amended soil during a 100-d incubation.Cumulative CO2 production at the end of the incubation was three times greater in the MgCO3 amended soil compared to the CaCO3 amended one.The CO2 emission increased with the amount of CaCO3 added to the soil.In contrast,CO2 emission decreased as the amount of MgCO3 added to the soil increased.Our results confirmed that the closed-jar incubation method could lead to an overestimate of organic C mineralization in calcareous soils.Because of its effect on soil pH and the dissolution of carbonates,HgC12 should not be used to sterilize calcareous soil if the experiment includes the measurement of soil CO2 production.

  6. Study of Carbon Emission in Computing Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Nikhil B. Dhake Mr. Pankaj M. Poul Prof. Pranav R. Shriram Prof. Kanchan V. Wankhade

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study of what is green computing, why we need to go green computing & will tell you how to minimize the energy consumption as well how to lessen the CO2 emission by going Green Computing. The huge amount of computing manufactured worldwide has a direct impact on environment issues and scientists are conducting numerous studies in order to reduce the negative impact of computing technology on environment. Energy consumption in the datacenter reached the highs. A large corporate IT infrastructure, consumes as much as the energy produced by five power plants over the same time period. This case study will provide a rich source for anyone interested in green computing research.

  7. Atmospheric Carbon Tetrachloride: Mysterious Emissions Gap Almost Closed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Q.; Newman, P. A.; Reimann, S.

    2016-12-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a major ozone-depleting substance and its production and consumption is controlled under the Montreal Protocol for emissive uses. The most recent WMO/UNEP Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion [WMO, 2014] estimated a 2007-2012 CCl4 bottom-up emission of 1-4 Gg yr-1, based on country-by-country reports to UNEP, vs. a global top-down emissions estimate of 57 Gg yr-1, based on atmospheric measurements. To understand the gap between the top-down and bottom-up emissions estimates, a CCl4 activity was formed under the auspices of the Stratosphere-Troposphere Processes And their Role in Climate (SPARC) project. Several new findings were brought forward by the SPARC CCl4 activity. CCl4 is destroyed in the stratosphere, oceans, and soils. The total lifetime estimate has been increased from 26 to 33 years. The new 33-year total lifetime lowers the top-down emissions estimate to 40 (25-55) Gg yr-1. In addition, a persistent hemispheric difference implies substantial ongoing Northern Hemisphere emissions, yielding an independent emissions estimate of 30 Gg yr-1. The combination of these two yields an emissions estimate of 35 Gg yr-1. Regional estimates have been made for Australia, North America, East Asia, and Western Europe. The sum of these estimates results in emissions of 21 Gg yr-1, albeit this does not include all regions of the world. Four bottom-up CCl4 emissions pathways have been identified, i.e., fugitive, unreported non-feedstock, unreported inadvertent, and legacy emissions. The new industrial bottom-up emissions estimate includes emissions from chloromethanes plants (13 Gg yr-1) and feedstock fugitive emissions (2 Gg yr-1). When combined with legacy emissions and unreported inadvertent emissions ( 10 Gg yr-1), the total global emissions are 20±5 Gg yr-1. While the new bottom-up value is still less than the aggregated top-down values, these estimates reconcile the CCl4 budget discrepancy when considered at the edges of their

  8. Carbon emission reduction potentials through thinned wood in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninomiya H

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Substituting fossil fuel with woody biomass for bioelectricity production has great potentials for carbon emission reductions while increasing forest productivity to increase carbon sequestration and improve ecological functionalities. Until recently, study on such potentials was very limited. Beginning in 2007, Japan’s special budgets were allocated for a 6-year intensive thinning on about 3.3 million ha of young stands for increasing carbon sinks in Japanese forests to meet the capped amount of 47.7 Tg CO2 year-1 allowed under the Marrakesh Accord. Because of only 30% of the thinned wood were used for sawntimber, CO2 and CH4 must have been emitted from the disposed thinned wood and wood waste. Such emissions and reduction potentials need to be assessed to provide future alternatives for climate change mitigation. We assessed carbon emission reduction potentials when woody biomass from thinned wood is fully utilized for bioelectricity production as compared with the generation of the same amount of energy produced under coal, oil, and natural gas scenarios. Our analytical results show that if all disposed thinned wood and wood waste are utilized to generate energy, about 62.6, 58.3, and 37.8 Tg CO2 year-1 could be prevented from emitting depending on emission scenarios or about 33.2, 30.9, and 20.0% of Japan’s reduction commitment to the Kyoto Protocol. On the other hand, if thinned wood and wood waste are not utilized, about 13.4 Tg CO2 year-1 would be released due to thinning. Our results suggest that incentives to reducing emission reductions in forest sector in the future climate change mitigation agreements will likely lead to large emission reductions, otherwise leakages due to thinning are unavoidable.

  9. Effects of moisture and carbonate additions on CO2 emission from calcareous soil during closed-jar incubation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YanJie DONG; Miao CAI; JianBin ZHOU

    2014-01-01

    Calcareous soil contains organic and inorganic carbon (C) pools, which both contribute to CO2 emission during closed-jar incubation. The mineralization of organic C and dissolution of inorganic C are both related to soil moisture, but the exact effect of water content on CO2 emission from calcareous soil is unclear. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of soil water content (air-dried, 30%, 70%, and 100%water-holding capacity (WHC)), carbonate type (CaCO3 or MgCO3), and carbonate amount (0.0, 1.0%, and 2.0%) on CO2 emission from calcareous soil during closed-jar incubation. Soil CO2 emission increased significantly as the water content in-creased to 70%WHC, regardless of whether or not the soil was amended with carbonates. Soil CO2 emission re-mained the same or increased slowly as the soil water content increased from 70%WHC to 100%WHC. When the water content was≤30%WHC, soil CO2 emission from soil amended with 1.0%inorganic C was greater than that from unamended soil. When the soil water content was 70%or 100%WHC, CO2 emission from CaCO3 amended soil was greater than that from the control. Furthermore, CO2 emission from soil amended with 2.0%CaCO3 was greater than that from soil amended with 1.0%CaCO3. Soil CO2 emission was higher in the MgCO3 amended soil than from the unamended soil. Soil CO2 emission decreased as the MgCO3 content increased. Cumulative CO2 emission was 3-6 times higher from MgCO3 amended soil than from CaCO3 amended soil. There was significant interaction effect between soil moisture and carbonates on CO2 emission. Soil moisture plays an important role in CO2 emission from calcareous soil because it affects both biotic and abiotic processes during the closed-jar incu-bation.

  10. A study of legal attributes of carbon emission rights in carbon trading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei Qing; Jiang Dongmei; Zhang Mengheng

    2009-01-01

    Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) has given birth to an international carbon trading market prosperity,which provides developing countries with valuable opportunity to address climate change issues right along with economic development and environmental improvement to achieve sustainable development,However,most studies of CDM focus on economics,and few on its legal problems.CDM involves too many aspects.And the clear legal attribute of trading object is the basis of progress of the transaction and also the start point of legal protection.Therefore,this paper in accordance with the inherent principle of property rights economics,and environmental economics in CDM,only discusses CDM carbon emission right legal interpretation and its attribution.The paper recommends that in order to ensure and promote the carbon emission right trading,carbon emission right should be attributed into the system of real rights to be regulated by Real Right Law.In this way,carbon emission right can gain exclusive power of possession and use,which can achieve a clear right definition of environmental goods in line with Coase's theory to protect Chinese profit in carbon trading market and promote the development of the carbon trading market further.

  11. Carbon dioxide emissions from agricultural soils amended with livestock-derived organic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzolla, D.; Said-Pullicino, D.; Gigliotti, G.

    2009-04-01

    Carbon dioxide gas xchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, as well as the carbon sink strength of various arable land ecosystems, is of primary interest for global change research. Measures for increasing soil C inputs include the preferential use of livestock-derived organic materials (e.g. animal manure and slurries, digestate from biogas production plants and compost). The application of such materials to agricultural soils returns essential nutrients for plant growth and organic matter to maintain long-term fertility. Whether or not such practices ultimately result in sustained C sequestration at the ecosystem level will depend on their mineralization rates. This work presents preliminary results from a laboratory incubation trial to evaluate carbon dioxide fluxes from two agricultural soils (a calcareous silt loam and a silty clay loam) amended with agricultural doses of (i) pig slurry (PSL), (ii) the digestate from the anaerobic fermentation of pig slurries (AAS) and (ii) a compost from the aerobic stabilisation of the digestate (LDC). These subsequent steps of slurry stabilisation resulted in a decrease in the content of labile organic matter which was reflected in a reduction in maximum carbon dioxide emission rates from amended soils. Measurements have shown that peak emissions from soils occur immediately after application of these organic materials (within 5 days) and decrease in the order PSL > AAS > LDC. Moreover, mean cumulative emissions over the first 40 days showed that a higher percentage (about 44%) of the C added with PSL was mineralised respect to C added with AAS (39%) and LDC (25%). Although it was hypothesised that apart from the quantity and stability of the added organic materials, even soil characteristics could influence C mineralisation rates, no significant differences were observed between emission fluxes for similarly treated soils. Mean cumulative emission fluxes after 40 days from treatment were of 114, 103 and

  12. Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends report is the authoritative reference for carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions,...

  13. Field emission from laterally aligned carbon nanotube flower arrays for low turn-on field emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroe Kimura

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Laterally aligned carbon nanotube (CNT arrays “blossomed” homogeneously in honeycomb holes of a metal grid substrate were explored as rational architecture for field emission. A low turn-on field (TOF of 1.09 V/μm for 10 μA/cm2 emission was achieved, which approaches or exceeds the lowest reported TOF values for field emitter arrays. We interpret that these lateral CNT arrays act as source of CNT “loop” arrays enabling a structure suited toward low TOF field emission.

  14. The Tractor and Semitrailer Routing Considering Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongqi Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of the minimization of carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions in the VRP is important to logistics companies. The paper deals with the tractor and semitrailer routing problem with full truckload between any two depots of the network; an integer programming model with the objective of minimizing CO2 emissions per ton-kilometer is proposed. A two-stage approach with the same core steps of the simulated annealing (SA in both stages is designed. The number of tractors is provided in the first stage and the CO2 emissions per ton-kilometer are then optimized in the second stage. Computational experiments on small-scale randomly generated instances supported the feasibility and validity of the heuristic algorithm. To a practical-scale problem, the SA algorithm can provide advice on the number of tractors, the routes, and the location of the central depot to realize CO2 emissions decrease.

  15. [Interactions of straw, nitrogen fertilizer and bacterivorous nematodes on soil labile carbon and nitrogen and greenhouse gas emissions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Teng-Hao; Wang, Nan; Liu, Man-Qiang; Li, Fang-Hui; Zhu, Kang-Li; Li, Hui-Xin; Hu, Feng

    2014-11-01

    A 3 x 2 factorial design of microcosm experiment was conducted to investigate the interactive effects of straw, nitrogen fertilizer and bacterivorous nematodes on soil microbial biomass carbon (C(mic)) and nitrogen (N(mic)), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON), mineral nitrogen (NH(4+)-N and NO(3-)-N), and greenhouse gas (CO2, N2O and CH4) emissions. Results showed that straw amendment remarkably increased the numbers of bacterivorous nematodes and the contents of Cmic and Nmic, but Cmic and Nmic decreased with the increasing dose of nitrogen fertilization. The effects of bacterivorous nematodes strongly depended on either straw or nitrogen fertilization. The interactions of straw, nitrogen fertilization and bacterivorous nematodes on soil DOC, DON and mineral nitrogen were strong. Straw and nitrogen fertilization increased DOC and mineral nitrogen contents, but their influences on DON depended on the bacterivorous nematodes. The DOC and mineral nitrogen were negatively and positively influenced by the bacterivorous nematodes, re- spectively. Straw significantly promoted CO2 and N2O emissions but inhibited CH4 emission, while interactions between nematodes and nitrogen fertilization on emissions of greenhouse gases were obvious. In the presence of straw, nematodes increased cumulative CO2 emissions with low nitrogen fertilization, but decreased CO2 and N2O emissions with high nitrogen fertilization on the 56th day after incubation. In summary, mechanical understanding the soil ecological process would inevitably needs to consider the roles of soil microfauna.

  16. Assessing the risk of carbon dioxide emissions from blue carbon ecosystems

    KAUST Repository

    Lovelock, Catherine E.

    2017-05-15

    "Blue carbon" ecosystems, which include tidal marshes, mangrove forests, and seagrass meadows, have large stocks of organic carbon (C) in their soils. These carbon stocks are vulnerable to decomposition and - if degraded - can be released to the atmosphere in the form of CO. We present a framework to help assess the relative risk of CO emissions from degraded soils, thereby supporting inclusion of soil C into blue carbon projects and establishing a means to prioritize management for their carbon values. Assessing the risk of CO emissions after various kinds of disturbances can be accomplished through knowledge of both the size of the soil C stock at a site and the likelihood that the soil C will decompose to CO.

  17. An economic evaluation of carbon emission and carbon sequestration for the forestry sector in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, R. [Forest Research Inst., Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1995-12-31

    Forestry is an important sector in Malaysia. The long term development of the forestry sector will definitely affect the future amounts of carbon sequestration and emission of the country. This paper evaluates various forestry economic options that contribute to the reduction of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The analysis shows that, although forest plantation could sequester the highest amount of carbon per unit area, natural forests which are managed for sustainable timber production are the cheapest option for per-unit area carbon sequestrated. In evaluating forest options to address the issues of carbon sequestration and emission, the paper proposes that it should be assessed as an integral part of overall long term forestry development of the country which takes into account the future demands for forestry goods and services, financial resources, technology and human resource development. (Author)

  18. A Healthy Reduction in Oil Dependence and Carbon Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, P. A.; Higgins, M.

    2003-12-01

    Societal dependence on oil as an energy source for personal transportation leads to increasingly negative social consequences including climate change, air pollution, political and economic instability and habitat degradation. Our heavy reliance on the automobile for transportation, determined in part by urban sprawl, also contributes to the population's increasingly sedentary lifestyle and to a concomitant degradation in health. We have shown that widespread substitution of exercise, commensurate with previously recommended levels, through biking or walking instead of driving can substantially reduce oil consumption and carbon emissions. For example, if all individuals between the ages of 10 and 64 substituted one hour of cycling for driving the reduction in gasoline demand would be equivalent to the gas produced from 34.9 percent of current oil consumption. Relative to 1990 net US emissions, this constitutes a 10.9 percent reduction in carbon emissions. Therefore, substitution of exercise for driving could improve health, reduce carbon emissions and save more oil than even upper estimates of that contained in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge.

  19. Forest carbon in North America: annual storage and emissions from British Columbia’s harvest, 1965–2065

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dymond Caren C

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The default international accounting rules estimate the carbon emissions from forest products by assuming all harvest is immediately emitted to the atmosphere. This makes it difficult to assess the greenhouse gas (GHG consequences of different forest management or manufacturing activities that maintain the storage of carbon. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC addresses this issue by allowing other accounting methods. The objective of this paper is to provide a new model for estimating annual stock changes of carbon in harvested wood products (HWP. Results The model, British Columbia Harvested Wood Products version 1 (BC-HWPv1, estimates carbon stocks and fluxes for wood harvested in BC from 1965 to 2065, based on new parameters on local manufacturing, updated and new information for North America on consumption and disposal of wood and paper products, and updated parameters on methane management at landfills in the USA. Based on model results, reporting on emissions as they occur would substantially lower BC’s greenhouse gas inventory in 2010 from 48 Mt CO2 to 26 Mt CO2 because of the long-term forest carbon storage in-use and in the non-degradable material in landfills. In addition, if offset projects created under BC’s protocol reported 100 year cumulative emissions using the BC-HWPv1 the emissions would be lower by about 11%. Conclusions This research showed that the IPCC default methods overestimate the emissions North America wood products. Future IPCC GHG accounting methods could include a lower emissions factor (e.g. 0.52 multiplied by the annual harvest, rather than the current multiplier of 1.0. The simulations demonstrated that the primary opportunities for climate change mitigation are in shifting from burning mill waste to using the wood for longer-lived products.

  20. Carbon dioxide and methane emissions from the Yukon River system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striegl, Rob; Dornblaser, Mark M.; McDonald, Cory P.; Rover, Jennifer R.; Stets, Edward G.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions are important, but poorly quantified, components of riverine carbon (C) budgets. This is largely because the data needed for gas flux calculations are sparse and are spatially and temporally variable. Additionally, the importance of C gas emissions relative to lateral C exports is not well known because gaseous and aqueous fluxes are not commonly measured on the same rivers. We couple measurements of aqueous CO2 and CH4 partial pressures (pCO2, pCH4) and flux across the water-air interface with gas transfer models to calculate subbasin distributions of gas flux density. We then combine those flux densities with remote and direct observations of stream and river water surface area and ice duration, to calculate C gas emissions from flowing waters throughout the Yukon River basin. CO2emissions were 7.68 Tg C yr−1 (95% CI: 5.84 −10.46), averaging 750 g C m−2 yr−1 normalized to water surface area, and 9.0 g C m−2 yr−1 normalized to river basin area. River CH4 emissions totaled 55 Gg C yr−1 or 0.7% of the total mass of C emitted as CO2 plus CH4 and ∼6.4% of their combined radiative forcing. When combined with lateral inorganic plus organic C exports to below head of tide, C gas emissions comprised 50% of total C exported by the Yukon River and its tributaries. River CO2 and CH4 derive from multiple sources, including groundwater, surface water runoff, carbonate equilibrium reactions, and benthic and water column microbial processing of organic C. The exact role of each of these processes is not yet quantified in the overall river C budget.

  1. Carbon emissions from land use and land-cover change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Houghton

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The net flux of carbon from land use and land-cover change (LULCC accounted for 12.5% of anthropogenic carbon emissions from 1990 to 2010. This net flux is the most uncertain term in the global carbon budget, not only because of uncertainties in rates of deforestation and forestation, but also because of uncertainties in the carbon density of the lands actually undergoing change. Furthermore, there are differences in approaches used to determine the flux that introduce variability into estimates in ways that are difficult to evaluate, and not all analyses consider the same types of management activities. Thirteen recent estimates of net carbon emissions from LULCC are summarized here. In addition to deforestation, all analyses considered changes in the area of agricultural lands (croplands and pastures. Some considered, also, forest management (wood harvest, shifting cultivation. None included emissions from the degradation of tropical peatlands. Means and standard deviations across the thirteen model estimates of annual emissions for the 1980s and 1990s, respectively, are 1.14 ± 0.23 and 1.12 ± 0.25 Pg C yr−1 (1 Pg = 1015 g carbon. Four studies also considered the period 2000–2009, and the mean and standard deviations across these four for the three decades are 1.14 ± 0.39, 1.17 ± 0.32, and 1.10 ± 0.11 Pg C yr−1. For the period 1990–2009 the mean global emissions from LULCC are 1.14 ± 0.18 Pg C yr−1. The standard deviations across model means shown here are smaller than previous estimates of uncertainty as they do not account for the errors that result from data uncertainty and from an incomplete understanding of all the processes affecting the net flux of carbon from LULCC. Although these errors have not been systematically evaluated, based on partial analyses available in the literature and expert opinion, they are estimated to be on the order of ± 0.5 Pg C yr−1.

  2. Enhanced Field Emission from Printed Carbon Nanotubes by Hard Hairbrush

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Ru-jia; ZHAN Ya-ge; LIU Yang; XUE Shao-lin

    2008-01-01

    A method, the morphology of screen printed carbon nanotube pastes is modified using a hard hairbrush, is presented.In this way, the organic matrix material is preferentially removed.Compared to those untreated films, the turn-on electric field of the treated film decreases from 2.2 V/um to 1.6 V/um, while the total emission current of the treated increases from 0.6 mA/cm2 to 3 mA/cm2, and uniform emission site density image has also been observed.

  3. Global anthropogenic emissions of particulate matter including black carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Klimont

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive assessment of historical (1990–2010 global anthropogenic particulate matter (PM emissions including the consistent and harmonized calculation of mass-based size distribution (PM1, PM2. 5, PM10, as well as primary carbonaceous aerosols including black carbon (BC and organic carbon (OC. The estimates were developed with the integrated assessment model GAINS, where source- and region-specific technology characteristics are explicitly included. This assessment includes a number of previously unaccounted or often misallocated emission sources, i.e. kerosene lamps, gas flaring, diesel generators, refuse burning; some of them were reported in the past for selected regions or in the context of a particular pollutant or sector but not included as part of a total estimate. Spatially, emissions were calculated for 172 source regions (as well as international shipping, presented for 25 global regions, and allocated to 0.5°  ×  0.5° longitude–latitude grids. No independent estimates of emissions from forest fires and savannah burning are provided and neither windblown dust nor unpaved roads emissions are included. We estimate that global emissions of PM have not changed significantly between 1990 and 2010, showing a strong decoupling from the global increase in energy consumption and, consequently, CO2 emissions, but there are significantly different regional trends, with a particularly strong increase in East Asia and Africa and a strong decline in Europe, North America, and the Pacific region. This in turn resulted in important changes in the spatial pattern of PM burden, e.g. European, North American, and Pacific contributions to global emissions dropped from nearly 30 % in 1990 to well below 15 % in 2010, while Asia's contribution grew from just over 50 % to nearly two-thirds of the global total in 2010. For all PM species considered, Asian sources represented over 60 % of the global

  4. Global anthropogenic emissions of particulate matter including black carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimont, Zbigniew; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Heyes, Chris; Purohit, Pallav; Cofala, Janusz; Rafaj, Peter; Borken-Kleefeld, Jens; Schöpp, Wolfgang

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive assessment of historical (1990-2010) global anthropogenic particulate matter (PM) emissions including the consistent and harmonized calculation of mass-based size distribution (PM1, PM2. 5, PM10), as well as primary carbonaceous aerosols including black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC). The estimates were developed with the integrated assessment model GAINS, where source- and region-specific technology characteristics are explicitly included. This assessment includes a number of previously unaccounted or often misallocated emission sources, i.e. kerosene lamps, gas flaring, diesel generators, refuse burning; some of them were reported in the past for selected regions or in the context of a particular pollutant or sector but not included as part of a total estimate. Spatially, emissions were calculated for 172 source regions (as well as international shipping), presented for 25 global regions, and allocated to 0.5° × 0.5° longitude-latitude grids. No independent estimates of emissions from forest fires and savannah burning are provided and neither windblown dust nor unpaved roads emissions are included. We estimate that global emissions of PM have not changed significantly between 1990 and 2010, showing a strong decoupling from the global increase in energy consumption and, consequently, CO2 emissions, but there are significantly different regional trends, with a particularly strong increase in East Asia and Africa and a strong decline in Europe, North America, and the Pacific region. This in turn resulted in important changes in the spatial pattern of PM burden, e.g. European, North American, and Pacific contributions to global emissions dropped from nearly 30 % in 1990 to well below 15 % in 2010, while Asia's contribution grew from just over 50 % to nearly two-thirds of the global total in 2010. For all PM species considered, Asian sources represented over 60 % of the global anthropogenic total, and residential combustion

  5. The travel-related carbon dioxide emissions of atmospheric researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stohl

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Most atmospheric scientists agree that greenhouse gas emissions have already caused significant changes to the global climate system and that these changes will accelerate in the near future. At the same time, atmospheric scientists who – like other scientists – rely on international collaboration and information exchange travel a lot and, thereby, cause substantial emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2. In this paper, the CO2 emissions of the employees working at an atmospheric research institute (the Norwegian Institute for Air Research, NILU caused by all types of business travel (conference visits, workshops, field campaigns, instrument maintainance, etc. were calculated for the years 2005–2007. It is estimated that more than 90% of the emissions were caused by air travel, 3% by ground travel and 5% by hotel usage. The travel-related annual emissions were between 1.9 and 2.4 t CO2 per employee or between 3.9 and 5.5 t CO2 per scientist. For comparison, the total annual per capita CO2 emissions are 4.5 t worldwide, 1.2 t for India, 3.8 t for China, 5.9 t for Sweden and 19.1 t for Norway. The travel-related CO2 emissions of a NILU scientist, occurring in 24 days of a year on average, exceed the global average annual per capita emission. Norway's per-capita CO2 emissions are among the highest in the world, mostly because of the emissions from the oil industry. If the emissions per NILU scientist derived in this paper are taken as representative for the average Norwegian researcher, travel by Norwegian scientists would nevertheless account for a substantial 0.2% of Norway's total CO2 emissions. Since most of the travel-related emissions are due to air travel, water vapor emissions, ozone production and contrail formation further increase the relative importance of NILU's travel in terms of radiative forcing.

  6. Energy, Carbon-emission and Financial Savings from Thermostat Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasing, T J [ORNL; Schroeder, Dana [University of Georgia, Athens, GA

    2013-08-01

    Among the easiest approaches to energy, and cost, savings for most people is the adjustment of thermostats to save energy. Here we estimate savings of energy, carbon, and money in the United States of America (USA) that would result from adjusting thermostats in residential and commercial buildings by about half a degree Celsius downward during the heating season and upward during the cooling season. To obtain as small a unit as possible, and therefore the least likely to be noticeable by most people, we selected an adjustment of one degree Fahrenheit (0.56 degree Celsius) which is the gradation used almost exclusively on thermostats in the USA and is the smallest unit of temperature that has been used historically. Heating and/or cooling of interior building space for personal comfort is sometimes referred to as space conditioning, a term we will use for convenience throughout this work without consideration of humidity. Thermostat adjustment, as we use the term here, applies to thermostats that control the indoor temperature, and not to other thermostats such as those on water heaters. We track emissions of carbon only, rather than of carbon dioxide, because carbon atoms change atomic partners as they move through the carbon cycle, from atmosphere to biosphere or ocean and, on longer time scales, through the rock cycle. To convert a mass of carbon to an equivalent mass of carbon dioxide (thereby including the mass of the 2 oxygen atoms in each molecule) simply multiply by 3.67.

  7. Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Fossil-Fuel Consumption in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, J. S.; Robert, A. J.

    2005-05-01

    Applying monthly sales and consumption data of coal, petroleum and natural gas, a monthly time series of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel consumption is created for Indonesia. These are then modeled with an autoregressive function to produce a quantitative description of the seasonal distribution and long-term pattern of CO2 emissions. Currently, Indonesia holds the 21st ranked position in total anthropogenic CO2 emissions among countries of the world. The demand for energy in Indonesia has been growing rapidly in recent years as Indonesia attempts to modernize and upgrade the standard of living for its citizens. With such a large population (a quarter of a billion people), the recent increase observed in the per capita energy use equates to a large escalation in total CO2 emissions. However, the economy and political climate is rather turbulent and thus emissions tend to fluctuate wildly. For example, Indonesia's energy consumption dropped substantially during the Asian economic crisis in the late 1990s. It is likely that the recent tsunami will also significantly impact energy consumption as the hard-hit Aceh region is the largest fuel-producing region of Indonesia. Therefore, Indonesia is a country whose emissions are more unpredictable than most countries that emit comparable levels of CO2. Complicating matters further, data collection practices in Indonesia are less diligent than in other countries with more stable economies. Thus, though CO2 emissions from Indonesia are a particular challenge to model, they are an important component to understanding the total global carbon cycle.

  8. The Application of Two-stage Structure Decomposition Technique to the Study of Industrial Carbon Emissions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanqiu HE

    2015-01-01

    The total carbon emissions control is the ultimate goal of carbon emission reduction, while industrial carbon emissions are the basic units of the total carbon emission. On the basis of existing research results, in this paper, a two-stage input-output structure decomposition method is creatively proposed for fully combining the input-output method with the structure decomposition technique. In this study, more comprehensive technical progress indicators were chosen in comparison with the previous studies and included the utilization efficiency of all kinds of intermediate inputs such as energy and non-energy products, and finally were positioned at the factors affecting the carbon emissions of different industries. Through analysis, the affecting rate of each factor on industrial carbon emissions was acquired. Thus, a theory basis and data support is provided for the total carbon emissions control of China from the perspective of industrial emissions.

  9. Carbon Emissions Decomposition and Environmental Mitigation Policy Recommendations for Sustainable Development in Shandong Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjian Wang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Provincial carbon emissions research is necessary for China to realize emissions reduction targets. Two-level decomposition model based on the Kaya identity was applied to uncover the main driving forces for the energy related carbon emissions in Shandong province from 1995 to 2011, an important energy base in China. Coal consumption is still the biggest contributor to the increased carbon emissions in Shandong. Decomposition results show that the affluence effect is the most important contributors to the carbon emissions increments. The energy intensity effect is the dominant factor in curbing carbon emissions. The emission coefficient effect plays an important negative but relatively minor effect on carbon emissions. Based on the local realities, a series of environment-friendly mitigation policies are raised by fully considering all of these influencing factors. Sustainable mitigation policies will pay more attention to the low-carbon economic development along with the significant energy intensity reduction in Shangdong province.

  10. A mathematical/physics carbon emission reduction strategy for building supply chain network based on carbon tax policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueying; Peng, Ying; Zhang, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Under the background of a low carbon economy, this paper examines the impact of carbon tax policy on supply chain network emission reduction. The integer linear programming method is used to establish a supply chain network emission reduction such a model considers the cost of CO2 emissions, and analyses the impact of different carbon price on cost and carbon emissions in supply chains. The results show that the implementation of a carbon tax policy can reduce CO2 emissions in building supply chain, but the increase in carbon price does not produce a reduction effect, and may bring financial burden to the enterprise. This paper presents a reasonable carbon price range and provides decision makers with strategies towards realizing a low carbon building supply chain in an economical manner.

  11. A Pareto Optimal Auction Mechanism for Carbon Emission Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxi Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The carbon emission rights do not fit well into the framework of existing multi-item auction mechanisms because of their own unique features. This paper proposes a new auction mechanism which converges to a unique Pareto optimal equilibrium in a finite number of periods. In the proposed auction mechanism, the assignment outcome is Pareto efficient and the carbon emission rights’ resources are efficiently used. For commercial application and theoretical completeness, both discrete and continuous markets—represented by discrete and continuous bid prices, respectively—are examined, and the results show the existence of a Pareto optimal equilibrium under the constraint of individual rationality. With no ties, the Pareto optimal equilibrium can be further proven to be unique.

  12. Estimation of Direct Carbon Emissions from Chinese Forest Fires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIANXiaorui; GAOChengde; SHULifu; WANGMingyu; YANGXiaohui

    2004-01-01

    Many studies indicated that the products of biosphere burning have short and long-term effects on the atmosphere. Vegetation burning can produce some gases which have significant influence on environment, including some greenhouse gases as CO2 and CH4, etc. Smoke aerosols produced from burning also influence global climate and atmospheric chemistry. The paper calculates the consumed biomass due to forest fires according to the statistics of forest fires from 1991 to 2000 and research results of biomass of Chinese forests. During the study period, forest fires burned average 5Tg-7Tg biomass each year and directly emitted 20.24 Tg-28.56 Tg carbon. In 1991-2000, average emission of carbon dioxide and CH4 account for 2.7%-3.9% and 3.3%-4.7% of the total emission of China (calculating with the data of 2000), respectively.

  13. A Modeled Carbon Emission Analysis Of Rampal Power Plant In Bangladesh And A Review Of Carbon Reduction Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gour Chand Mazumder

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available todays most important concern of Bangladesh is power generation. Government has planned a 1320 MW coal-fired power station at Rampal near Sundarbans. Environmentalists have indicated that this plant will face environmental issues. So we tried finding the capability of Sundarbans to face carbon emissions. We figured out approximate carbon emission of that power plant using an arbitrary operational model. We found 3.16MKg of carbon emission daily. We used mangroves carbon sequestration rate to calculate the carbon tolerance level of Sundarbans and found approximately 4.2 MKg of carbon per day.The amount of emission we found here is marginal with the ability of Sundarbans as it is already contributing to sequester carbon from other sources. We studied and showed technology wise carbon reductions. It is possible to reduce 90 to 95 carbon emissioby using these technologies. We recommend these advanced technologies to ensure sundarbans environmental safety.

  14. Research on the Influence of Carbon Tax on Carbon Emission and Economic Development in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aihua Luo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon tax is one of ways to cut the emissions of GHG, which has already been employed by the west. To study the effect of carbon tax on energy conservation and carbon reduction in China, a new model is constructed based on dynamic CGE model and the linkage of dynamic CGE model and energy technology model. Besides the improvement of technology of energy, if carbon taxation is employed, the goal to reduce its carbon intensity by 40% by 2020 compared with 2005 need to levy a tax of 60 yuan at least per tonne, the simulations of this tax to carbon reduction, economic and income of residents are analysed under different circumstances, the results shows that there is a great impact on income of residents and GDP with a higher tax burden level.

  15. Soil organic carbon redistribution by water erosion--the role of CO2 emissions for the carbon budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang; Cammeraat, Erik L H; Romeijn, Paul; Kalbitz, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    A better process understanding of how water erosion influences the redistribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) is sorely needed to unravel the role of soil erosion for the carbon (C) budget from local to global scales. The main objective of this study was to determine SOC redistribution and the complete C budget of a loess soil affected by water erosion. We measured fluxes of SOC, dissolved organic C (DOC) and CO2 in a pseudo-replicated rainfall-simulation experiment. We characterized different C fractions in soils and redistributed sediments using density fractionation and determined C enrichment ratios (CER) in the transported sediments. Erosion, transport and subsequent deposition resulted in significantly higher CER of the sediments exported ranging between 1.3 and 4.0. In the exported sediments, C contents (mg per g soil) of particulate organic C (POC, C not bound to soil minerals) and mineral-associated organic C (MOC) were both significantly higher than those of non-eroded soils indicating that water erosion resulted in losses of C-enriched material both in forms of POC and MOC. The averaged SOC fluxes as particles (4.7 g C m(-2) yr(-1)) were 18 times larger than DOC fluxes. Cumulative emission of soil CO2 slightly decreased at the erosion zone while increased by 56% and 27% at the transport and depositional zone, respectively, in comparison to non-eroded soil. Overall, CO2 emission is the predominant form of C loss contributing to about 90.5% of total erosion-induced C losses in our 4-month experiment, which were equal to 18 g C m(-2). Nevertheless, only 1.5% of the total redistributed C was mineralized to CO2 indicating a large stabilization after deposition. Our study also underlines the importance of C losses by particles and as DOC for understanding the effects of water erosion on the C balance at the interface of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.

  16. Hydrogen sensing characteristics from carbon nanotube field emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Changkun; Luo, Haijun; Cai, Jianqiu; Wang, Fuquan; Zhao, Yangyang; Li, Detian

    2016-03-01

    An innovative hydrogen sensing concept is demonstrated based on the field emission from multi-walled carbon nanotubes, where the low emission currents rise in proportion to hydrogen partial pressures above 10-9 Torr. Experimental and first principles studies reveal that the sensing mechanism is attributed to the effective work function reduction from dissociative hydrogen chemisorption. The embedded Ni catalyst would assist both the hydrogen dissociation and work function reduction. This technique is promising to build miniature low cost hydrogen sensors for multiple applications. This work is valuable for studies of nanocarbon-gas reaction mechanisms and the work function properties in adsorption related applications, including field emission, hydrogen storage, energy cells, and gas sensing.

  17. Supply chain carbon footprinting and responsibility allocation under emission regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin-Xiao; Chen, Jian

    2017-03-01

    Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions has become an enormous challenge for any single enterprise and its supply chain because of the increasing concern on global warming. This paper investigates carbon footprinting and responsibility allocation for supply chains involved in joint production. Our study is conducted from the perspective of a social planner who aims to achieve social value optimization. The carbon footprinting model is based on operational activities rather than on firms because joint production blurs the organizational boundaries of footprints. A general model is proposed for responsibility allocation among firms who seek to maximize individual profits. This study looks into ways for the decentralized supply chain to achieve centralized optimality of social value under two emission regulations. Given a balanced allocation for the entire supply chain, we examine the necessity of over-allocation to certain firms under specific situations and find opportunities for the firms to avoid over-allocation. The comparison of the two regulations reveals that setting an emission standard per unit of product will motivate firms to follow the standard and improve their emission efficiencies. Hence, a more efficient and promising policy is needed in contrast to existing regulations on total production.

  18. Fabrication of carbon nanotubes field emission cathode by composite plating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang-Hsing; Lin, Tzu-Ching; Tzeng, Shien-Der

    2010-07-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have high aspect ratio and have great potential to be applied as the field emission cathode because of its large field enhancement factor. In this work, a high performance carbon nanotube field emission cathode (CNTFC) was fabricated by using a composite plating method. The CNTs were purified by acid solutions and then dispersed in electrobath with nickel ions at temperatures of 60, 70, or 80 degrees C for the electroless plating process on glass substrate. The resulting CNT-Ni composite film has strong adhesion on the glass substrate. The degree of graphitization and the microstructure of the CNTFCs were studied by Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The field emission properties of the CNTFCs show a low turn-on electric field E(on) of about 1.2 V/microm, and a low threshold electric field E(th) of about 1.9 V/microm. Such a composite plating method could be applied to the fabrication of large area CNT field-emission displays.

  19. Economic Growth And Carbon Emission: A Dynamic Panel Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim BAKIRTAS

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between carbon dioxide emission (CO2 and economic growth is one of the crucial topics in environmental economics. This study is aimed to investigatethat problem. In this study, depending on the theory of Environmental Kuznets Curves (EKC, the impact of income in carbon dioxide emission has measured for 34 OECD and5 BRICS countries with using Dynamic Panel Data Analysis. In this regard OECD countries are classified by income groups due to the average per capita income rate ofOECD to solve the homogeneity problem among OECD countries. On the other hand EKC hypothesis analysed by short and long run income elasticity which will be using foran evident that a country reduces CO2 emissions with the income increase in this study. According to the findings of the study, % 36 of the country sample coherent with theEKC hypothesis. The main encouragement for testing this relationship between economic growth and CO2 emission is leading politicians to reconsider the environmental impactswhich are arising from income increase when they are taking a decision to maximizes the economic growth.Keywords: EKC; OECD; Dynamic Panel Data

  20. A thin film triode type carbon nanotube field emission cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanborn, Graham; Turano, Stephan; Collins, Peter; Ready, W. Jud

    2013-01-01

    The field electron emission of carbon nanotubes has been heavily studied over the past two decades for various applications, such as in display technologies, microwave amplifiers, and spacecraft propulsion. However, a commercializable lightweight and internally gated electron source has yet to be realized. This work presents the fabrication and testing of a novel internally gated carbon nanotube field electron emitter. Several specific methods are used to prevent electrical shorting of the gate layer, a common failure for internally gated devices. A unique design is explored where the etch pits extend into the silicon substrate and isotropic etching is used to create a lateral buffer zone between the gate and carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes are self-aligned to and within 10 microns from the gate, which creates large electric fields at low potential inputs. Initial tests confirm high field emission performance with an anode current density (based on total area of the device) of 293 μA cm-2 and a gate current density of 1.68 mA cm-2 at 250 V.

  1. Using LMDI approach to analyze changes in carbon dioxide emissions of China’s logistics industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Dai

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: China is confronting with tremendous pressure in carbon emission reduction. While logistics industry seriously relies on fossil fuel, and emits greenhouse gas, especially carbon dioxide. The aim of this article is to estimate the carbon dioxide emission in China’s logistics sector, and analyze the causes for the change of carbon dioxide emission, and identify the critical factors which mainly drive the change in carbon dioxide emissions of China’s logistics industry. Design/methodology/approach: The logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI method has often been used to analyze decomposition of energy consumption and carbon emission due to its theoretical foundation, adaptability, ease of use and result interpretation. So we use the LMDI method to analyze the changes in carbon dioxide emission in China’s logistics industry in this paper. Findings: By analyzing carbon dioxide emission of China’s logistics, the results show that the carbon dioxide emission of logistics in China has increased by 21.5 times, from 45.1 million tons to 1014.1 million tons in the research period. The highway transport is the main contributor to carbon dioxide emission in logistics industry. The energy intensity and carbon dioxide emission factors were contributing to the reduction of carbon dioxide emission in China’s logistics industry in overall study period. Originality/value: Although there are a lot of literature analyzed carbon dioxide emission in many industry sectors, for example manufacturing, iron and steel , pulp and paper, cement, glass industry, and so on. However, few scholars researched on carbon dioxide emission in logistics industry. This the first study is in the context of carbon dioxide emission of China’s logistics industry.

  2. Development of an Evaluating Method for Carbon Emissions of Manufacturing Process Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon intensity reduction and energy utilization enhancement in manufacturing industry are becoming a timely topic. In a manufacturing system, the process planning is the combination of all production factors which influences the entail carbon emissions during manufacturing. In order to meet the current low carbon manufacturing requirements, a carbon emission evaluation method for the manufacturing process planning is highly desirable to be developed. This work presents a method to evaluate the carbon emissions of a process plan by aggregating the unit process to form a combined model for evaluating carbon emissions. The evaluating results can be used to decrease the resource and energy consumption and pinpoint detailed breakdown of the influences between manufacturing process plan and carbon emissions. Finally, the carbon emission analysis method is applied to a process plan of an axis to examine its feasibility and validity.

  3. The impact of financial development on carbon emissions: An empirical analysis in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yuejun, E-mail: zyjmis@126.co [School of Management and Economics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China) and Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2011-04-15

    Given the complexity between China's financial development and carbon emissions, this paper uses some econometric techniques, including cointegration theory, Granger causality test, variance decomposition, etc., to explore the influence of financial development on carbon emissions. Results indicate that, first, China's financial development acts as an important driver for carbon emissions increase, which should be taken into account when carbon emissions demand is projected. Second, the influence of financial intermediation scale on carbon emissions outweighs that of other financial development indicators but its efficiency's influence appears by far weaker although it may cause the change of carbon emissions statistically. Third, China's stock market scale has relatively larger influence on carbon emissions but the influence of its efficiency is very limited. This to some extent reflects the relatively lower liquidity in China's stock markets. Finally, among financial development indicators, China's FDI exerts the least influence on the change of carbon emissions, due to its relatively smaller volume compared with GDP; but it is mainly utilized in carbon intensive sectors now, therefore, with the increase of China's FDI in the future, many efforts should be made to adapt its utilizing directions and play its positive role in promoting low-carbon development. - Research Highlights: {yields} This paper explores the influence of financial development on carbon emissions. {yields} China's financial development appears to be an important driver for carbon emissions increase. {yields} The influence of financial intermediation scale on carbon emissions outweighs that of other indicators. {yields} China's stock market scale has relatively larger influence on carbon emissions but the influence of its efficiency is very limited. {yields} China's FDI exerts the least influence on carbon emissions change, due to its relatively

  4. Field emission from Mo2C coated carbon nanosheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagge-Hansen, M.; Outlaw, R. A.; Miraldo, P.; Zhu, M. Y.; Hou, K.; Theodore, N. D.; Zhao, X.; Manos, D. M.

    2008-01-01

    Carbon nanosheets have recently evolved into useful edge emitters with high emission current densities, low threshold electric fields, and long lifetimes. In addition to further improvement in these characteristics, good stability and repeatability are also essential for these materials to be suitable for high vacuum applications such as microwave tubes and flat panel displays. Since the work function of graphite, carbon nanotubes, and amorphous carbon is relatively high, 4.6-4.8eV, selective thin film coatings may offer significant advantages. Carbides are a good film choice for their corrosive resistance, chemical stability, and substantially lower work function. Approximately 3 ML (monolayer) (˜1nm) of molybdenum were deposited on carbon nanosheets by physical vapor deposition and the carbide (Mo2C) formed by heating to >200°C at 1×10-8Torr. The carbide stoichiometry was confirmed in situ by the characteristic Auger triple peak at 272eV. A stoichiometric Mo2C calibration sample was used to acquire the Auger electron spectroscopy asymmetric ratio of 0.7 and this was used to determine the carbide growth as a function of temperature (from room temperature to 1000°C). Field emission currents of up to 400μA were compared with uncoated CNS at a given electric field. The Mo2C/CNS cathodes were shown to have greater than a factor of 100 increase in current and greater than 2V/μm decrease in threshold. The Fowler-Nordheim plots were exceptionally linear and quite repeatable (correlation coefficient R2=0.999+). Using the slope and vertical intercept, an emission area for the 0.07cm2 Mo2C/CNS dot sample was determined to be ˜3×10-9cm2 and the field enhancement factor was found to be β ˜530.

  5. A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andres, R.J.; Boden, T.A.; Bréon, F.-M.

    2012-01-01

    This synthesis discusses the emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production. While much is known about these emissions, there is still much that is unknown about the details surrounding these emissions. This synthesis explores our knowledge of these emissions in terms......, or which have had emissions reduction as a byproduct of other events, global total emissions continue their general increase with time. Global total fossilfuel carbon dioxide emissions are known to within 10% uncertainty (95% confidence interval). Uncertainty on individual national total fossil-fuel carbon...... dioxide emissions range from a few percent to more than 50 %. This manuscript concludes that carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion continue to increase with time and that while much is known about the overall characteristics of these emissions, much is still to be learned about the detailed...

  6. Including carbon emissions from deforestation in the carbon footprint of Brazilian beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederberg, Christel; Persson, U Martin; Neovius, Kristian; Molander, Sverker; Clift, Roland

    2011-03-01

    Effects of land use changes are starting to be included in estimates of life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, so-called carbon footprints (CFs), from food production. Their omission can lead to serious underestimates, particularly for meat. Here we estimate emissions from the conversion of forest to pasture in the Legal Amazon Region (LAR) of Brazil and present a model to distribute the emissions from deforestation over products and time subsequent to the land use change. Expansion of cattle ranching for beef production is a major cause of deforestation in the LAR. The carbon footprint of beef produced on newly deforested land is estimated at more than 700 kg CO(2)-equivalents per kg carcass weight if direct land use emissions are annualized over 20 years. This is orders of magnitude larger than the figure for beef production on established pasture on non-deforested land. While Brazilian beef exports have originated mainly from areas outside the LAR, i.e. from regions not subject to recent deforestation, we argue that increased production for export has been the key driver of the pasture expansion and deforestation in the LAR during the past decade and this should be reflected in the carbon footprint attributed to beef exports. We conclude that carbon footprint standards must include the more extended effects of land use changes to avoid giving misleading information to policy makers, retailers, and consumers.

  7. Effect of carbon nanotubes upon emissions from cutting and sanding carbon fiber-epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitbrink, William A.; Lo, Li-Ming

    2015-08-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are being incorporated into structural composites to enhance material strength. During fabrication or repair activities, machining nanocomposites may release CNTs into the workplace air. An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the emissions generated by cutting and sanding on three types of epoxy-composite panels: Panel A containing graphite fibers, Panel B containing graphite fibers and carbon-based mat, and Panel C containing graphite fibers, carbon-based mat, and multi-walled CNTs. Aerosol sampling was conducted with direct-reading instruments, and filter samples were collected for measuring elemental carbon (EC) and fiber concentrations. Our study results showed that cutting Panel C with a band saw did not generate detectable emissions of fibers inspected by transmission electron microscopy but did increase the particle mass, number, and EC emission concentrations by 20-80 % compared to Panels A and B. Sanding operation performed on two Panel C resulted in fiber emission rates of 1.9 × 108 and 2.8 × 106 fibers per second (f/s), while no free aerosol fibers were detected from sanding Panels A and B containing no CNTs. These free CNT fibers may be a health concern. However, the analysis of particle and EC concentrations from these same samples cannot clearly indicate the presence of CNTs, because extraneous aerosol generation from machining the composite epoxy material increased the mass concentrations of the EC.

  8. Effect of carbon nanotubes upon emissions from cutting and sanding carbon fiber-epoxy composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heitbrink, William A. [LMK OSH Consulting LLC (United States); Lo, Li-Ming, E-mail: LLo@cdc.gov [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Division of Applied Research and Technology, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are being incorporated into structural composites to enhance material strength. During fabrication or repair activities, machining nanocomposites may release CNTs into the workplace air. An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the emissions generated by cutting and sanding on three types of epoxy-composite panels: Panel A containing graphite fibers, Panel B containing graphite fibers and carbon-based mat, and Panel C containing graphite fibers, carbon-based mat, and multi-walled CNTs. Aerosol sampling was conducted with direct-reading instruments, and filter samples were collected for measuring elemental carbon (EC) and fiber concentrations. Our study results showed that cutting Panel C with a band saw did not generate detectable emissions of fibers inspected by transmission electron microscopy but did increase the particle mass, number, and EC emission concentrations by 20–80 % compared to Panels A and B. Sanding operation performed on two Panel C resulted in fiber emission rates of 1.9 × 10{sup 8} and 2.8 × 10{sup 6} fibers per second (f/s), while no free aerosol fibers were detected from sanding Panels A and B containing no CNTs. These free CNT fibers may be a health concern. However, the analysis of particle and EC concentrations from these same samples cannot clearly indicate the presence of CNTs, because extraneous aerosol generation from machining the composite epoxy material increased the mass concentrations of the EC.

  9. Simulated carbon emissions from land-use change are substantially enhanced by accounting for agricultural management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pugh, T. A. M.; Arneth, A.; Olin, S.

    2015-01-01

    quantified at the global scale. Here we assess the effect of representing agricultural land management in a dynamic global vegetation model. Accounting for harvest, grazing and tillage resulted in cumulative E LUC since 1850 ca. 70% larger than in simulations ignoring these processes, but also changed...... processes are not well defined, particularly the role of emissions from land-use change (E LUC) versus the biospheric carbon uptake (S L; S T = S L − E LUC). One key aspect of the interplay of E LUC and S L is the role of agricultural processes in land-use change emissions, which has not yet been clearly......-day S T, or an underestimation of S L, of up to 1.0 Pg C a−1. Management processes influencing crop productivity per se are important for food supply, but were found to have little influence on E LUC....

  10. Forest management strategies for reducing carbon emissions, the French case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valade, Aude; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Bellassen, Valentin; Vallet, Patrick; Martin, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    International agreements now recognize the role of forest in the mitigation of climate change through the levers of in-situ sequestration, storage in products and energy and product substitution. These three strategies of carbon management are often antagonistic and it is still not clear which strategy would have the most significant impact on atmospheric carbon concentrations. With a focus on France, this study compares several scenarios of forest management in terms of their effect on the overall carbon budget from trees to wood-products. We elaborated four scenarios of forest management that target different wood production objectives. One scenario is 'Business as usual' and reproduces the current forest management and wood production levels. Two scenarios target an increase in bioenergy wood production, with either long-term or short-term goals. One scenario aims at increasing the production of timber for construction. For this, an empirical regression model was developed building on the rich French inventory database. The model can project the current forest resource at a time horizon of 20 years for characteristic variables diameter, standing volume, above-ground biomass, stand age. A simplified life-cycle analysis provides a full carbon budget for each scenario from forest management to wood use and allows the identification of the scenario that most reduces carbon emissions.

  11. Sunlight-induced carbon dioxide emissions from inland waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Birgit; Landelius, Tomas; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.; Machida, Nanako; Tranvik, Lars J.

    2014-07-01

    The emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) from inland waters are substantial on a global scale. Yet the fundamental question remains open which proportion of these CO2 emissions is induced by sunlight via photochemical mineralization of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), rather than by microbial respiration during DOC decomposition. Also, it is unknown on larger spatial and temporal scales how photochemical mineralization compares to other C fluxes in the inland water C cycle. We combined field and laboratory data with atmospheric radiative transfer modeling to parameterize a photochemical rate model for each day of the year 2009, for 1086 lakes situated between latitudes from 55°N to 69°N in Sweden. The sunlight-induced production of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) averaged 3.8 ± 0.04 g C m-2 yr-1, which is a flux comparable in size to the organic carbon burial in the lake sediments. Countrywide, 151 ± 1 kt C yr-1 was produced by photochemical mineralization, corresponding to about 12% of total annual mean CO2 emissions from Swedish lakes. With a median depth of 3.2 m, the lakes were generally deep enough that incoming, photochemically active photons were absorbed in the water column. This resulted in a linear positive relationship between DIC photoproduction and the incoming photon flux, which corresponds to the absorbed photons. Therefore, the slope of the regression line represents the wavelength- and depth-integrated apparent quantum yield of DIC photoproduction. We used this relationship to obtain a first estimate of DIC photoproduction in lakes and reservoirs worldwide. Global DIC photoproduction amounted to 13 and 35 Mt C yr-1 under overcast and clear sky, respectively. Consequently, these directly sunlight-induced CO2 emissions contribute up to about one tenth to the global CO2 emissions from lakes and reservoirs, corroborating that microbial respiration contributes a substantially larger share than formerly thought, and generate annual C fluxes similar in

  12. Very stable electron field emission from strontium titanate coated carbon nanotube matrices with low emission thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Archana; Prasad, Abhishek; Moscatello, Jason P; Engelhard, Mark; Wang, Chongmin; Yap, Yoke Khin

    2013-01-22

    Novel PMMA-STO-CNT matrices were created by opened-tip vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (VA-MWCNTs) with conformal coatings of strontium titanate (STO) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). Emission threshold of 0.8 V/μm was demonstrated, about 5-fold lower than that of the as-grown VA-MWCNTs. This was obtained after considering the related band structures under the perspective of work functions and tunneling width as a function of the STO thickness. We showed that there is an optimum thickness of STO coatings to effectively reduce the work function of CNTs and yet minimize the tunneling width for electron emissions. Furthermore, simulation and modeling suggest that PMMA-STO-CNT matrices have suppressed screening effects and Coulombs' repulsion forces between electrons in adjacent CNTs, leading to low emission threshold, high emission density, and prolonged emission stability. These findings are important for practical application of VA-MWCNTs in field emission devices, X-ray generation, and wave amplification.

  13. Taxing Strategies for Carbon Emissions: A Bilevel Optimization Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a quantitative and computational method to determine the optimal tax rate among generating units. To strike a balance between the reduction of carbon emission and the profit of energy sectors, the proposed bilevel optimization model can be regarded as a Stackelberg game between the government agency and the generation companies. The upper-level, which represents the government agency, aims to limit total carbon emissions within a certain level by setting optimal tax rates among generators according to their emission performances. The lower-level, which represents decision behaviors of the grid operator, tries to minimize the total production cost under the tax rates set by the government. The bilevel optimization model is finally reformulated into a mixed integer linear program (MILP which can be solved by off-the-shelf MILP solvers. Case studies on a 10-unit system as well as a provincial power grid in China demonstrate the validity of the proposed method and its capability in practical applications.

  14. Carbon Monoxide Emissions in Middle Aged Debris Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Morgan; Gorti, Uma; Hales, Antonio; Carpenter, John M.; Hughes, A. Meredith

    2017-01-01

    Circumstellar disks greater than 10 Myr old, referred to as debris disks, are expected to be gas poor. The original gas and dust in these disks is thought to be accreted onto the host stars, used up in the formation of planets and other bodies, or blown out of the disks via stellar radiation. However, recent ALMA observations at millimeter wavelengths have led to the detection of carbon monoxide (J=2-1) emission in a few debris disks, prompting further investigation.Using ALMA data, two separate models of gas genesis were tested against observations of the CO emissions in the disks around HIP 73145, HIP 76310, and HIP 84881 in the Upper Sco association. One of these models was built on the hypothesis that the gas in these debris disks is left over from stellar formation and has persisted over uncommonly long periods of time. The other model is built on the hypothesis that this gas is of secondary nature, produced by collisions between planetary bodies in the debris disks. Model emissions were calculated using the Line Modeling Engine (LIME) radiative transfer code and were compared with observational data to infer gas masses under both production scenarios. The implications of the masses of carbon monoxide in the disks suggested by each of the two models are discussed.

  15. Irreversible climate change due to carbon dioxide emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Susan; Plattner, Gian-Kasper; Knutti, Reto; Friedlingstein, Pierre

    2009-02-10

    The severity of damaging human-induced climate change depends not only on the magnitude of the change but also on the potential for irreversibility. This paper shows that the climate change that takes place due to increases in carbon dioxide concentration is largely irreversible for 1,000 years after emissions stop. Following cessation of emissions, removal of atmospheric carbon dioxide decreases radiative forcing, but is largely compensated by slower loss of heat to the ocean, so that atmospheric temperatures do not drop significantly for at least 1,000 years. Among illustrative irreversible impacts that should be expected if atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations increase from current levels near 385 parts per million by volume (ppmv) to a peak of 450-600 ppmv over the coming century are irreversible dry-season rainfall reductions in several regions comparable to those of the "dust bowl" era and inexorable sea level rise. Thermal expansion of the warming ocean provides a conservative lower limit to irreversible global average sea level rise of at least 0.4-1.0 m if 21st century CO(2) concentrations exceed 600 ppmv and 0.6-1.9 m for peak CO(2) concentrations exceeding approximately 1,000 ppmv. Additional contributions from glaciers and ice sheet contributions to future sea level rise are uncertain but may equal or exceed several meters over the next millennium or longer.

  16. An Analysis of Decoupling and Influencing Factors of Carbon Emissions from the Transportation Sector in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Zhu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The transport sector is the major green-house gas emitter and most rapidly growing sector in terms of consuming energy in China. Understanding the driving forces behind carbon emission is a prerequisite for reducing carbon emissions and finding a balance between economic growth and carbon emissions. The purpose of this paper is to identify the impact of the factors which influence the level of carbon emissions from the transportation sector in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH area, China, using decomposition model, combined with a decoupling elasticity index. The results of our study indicate that: (1 changes in the level of carbon emissions from the transportation sector are not always synchronized with changes in economic growth. (2 The decoupling state between the carbon emissions and economic growth of Tianjin and Beijing can be roughly divided into two phases. The first phase was during the 2005 to 2009 period, when the decoupling state was pessimistic. The second phase was from 2009 to 2013, when the decoupling state became better overall and was mainly dominated by weak decoupling. Conversely, the decoupling state of Hebei was mainly weak during this period. (3 Economic growth and population size play positive roles in increasing the levels of transportation-related carbon emissions in BTH. However, the energy structure is a negative force. The effect of energy intensity always plays a negative role in Tianjin and Hebei, but positive in Beijing. The industrial structure effect shows a fluctuating trend, but the cumulative effect value is negative, and negative interaction is prominent. Finally, this paper gives some suggestions on how to develop low-carbon transport in BTH area.

  17. Increases in terrestrially derived carbon stimulate organic carbon processing and CO2 emissions in boreal aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, Jean-François; Guillemette, François; Berggren, Martin; Del Giorgio, Paul A.

    2013-12-01

    The concentrations of terrestrially derived dissolved organic carbon have been increasing throughout northern aquatic ecosystems in recent decades, but whether these shifts have an impact on aquatic carbon emissions at the continental scale depends on the potential for this terrestrial carbon to be converted into carbon dioxide. Here, via the analysis of hundreds of boreal lakes, rivers and wetlands in Canada, we show that, contrary to conventional assumptions, the proportion of biologically degradable dissolved organic carbon remains constant and the photochemical degradability increases with terrestrial influence. Thus, degradation potential increases with increasing amounts of terrestrial carbon. Our results provide empirical evidence of a strong causal link between dissolved organic carbon concentrations and aquatic fluxes of carbon dioxide, mediated by the degradation of land-derived organic carbon in aquatic ecosystems. Future shifts in the patterns of terrestrial dissolved organic carbon in inland waters thus have the potential to significantly increase aquatic carbon emissions across northern landscapes.

  18. Global Carbon Emissions in the Coming Decades: The Case of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Mark; Levine, Mark D.; Aden, Nathaniel T.

    2008-05-01

    China's annual energy-related carbon emissions surpassed those of the United States in In order to build a more robust understanding of China's energy-related carbon emissions, emissions after 2001? The divergence between actual and forecasted carbon emissions international trade, and central government policies in driving emissions growth. so greatly in error and what drove the rapid growth of China's energy-related carbon this article reviews the role of economic restructuring, urbanization, coal dependence, underscores the rapid changes that have taken place in China's energy system since 2001.

  19. Implications of carbon dust emission for terrestrail carbon cycling and carbon accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind erosion preferentially removes the finest carbon- and nutrient-rich soil fractions, and consequently its role may be significant within terrestrial carbon (C) cycles. However, the impacts of wind erosion on soil organic carbon (SOC) redistribution are not considered in most carbon cycle models,...

  20. Time-resolved analysis of particle emissions from residential biomass combustion - Emissions of refractory black carbon, PAHs and organic tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Ingeborg E.; Eriksson, Axel C.; Lindgren, Robert; Martinsson, Johan; Nyström, Robin; Nordin, Erik Z.; Sadiktsis, Ioannis; Boman, Christoffer; Nøjgaard, Jacob K.; Pagels, Joakim

    2017-09-01

    Time-resolved particle emissions from a conventional wood stove were investigated with aerosol mass spectrometry to provide links between combustion conditions, emission factors, mixing state of refractory black carbon and implications for organic tracer methods. The addition of a new batch of fuel results in low temperature pyrolysis as the fuel heats up, resulting in strong, short-lived, variable emission peaks of organic aerosol-containing markers of anhydrous sugars, such as levoglucosan (fragment at m/z 60). Flaming combustion results in emissions dominated by refractory black carbon co-emitted with minor fractions of organic aerosol and markers of anhydrous sugars. Full cycle emissions are an external mixture of larger organic aerosol-dominated and smaller thinly coated refractory black carbon particles. A very high burn rate results in increased full cycle mass emission factors of 66, 2.7, 2.8 and 1.3 for particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, refractory black carbon, total organic aerosol and m/z 60, respectively, compared to nominal burn rate. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are primarily associated with refractory black carbon-containing particles. We hypothesize that at very high burn rates, the central parts of the combustion zone become air starved, leading to a locally reduced combustion temperature that reduces the conversion rates from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to refractory black carbon. This facilitates a strong increase of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emissions. At nominal burn rates, full cycle emissions based on m/z 60 correlate well with organic aerosol, refractory black carbon and particulate matter. However, at higher burn rates, m/z 60 does not correlate with increased emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, refractory black carbon and organic aerosol in the flaming phase. The new knowledge can be used to advance source apportionment studies, reduce emissions of genotoxic compounds and model the climate impacts of

  1. Enhancement of field emission characteristics of carbon nanotubes on oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Ashish; Roy, Susanta Sinha; Ray, Sekhar Chandra; Hazra, Kiran Shankar; Hamilton, Jeremy; Dickinson, Calum; McLaughlin, James; Misra, Devi Shankar

    2011-08-01

    Vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were grown on p-type silicon wafer using thermal chemical vapor deposition process and subsequently treated with oxygen plasma for oxidation. It was observed that the electron field emission (EFE) characteristics are enhanced. It showed that the turn-on electric field (E(TOE)) of CNTs decreased from 0.67 (untreated) to 0.26 V/microm (oxygen treated). Raman spectra showed that the numbers of defects are increased, which are generated by oxygen-treatment, and absorbed molecules on the CNTs are responsible for the enhancement of EFE. Scanning electron microscopy and Transmission electron microscopy images were used to identify the quality and physical changes of the nanotube morphology and surfaces; revealing the evidence of enhancement in the field emission properties after oxygen-plasma treatment.

  2. Carbon-nanotube-polymer nanocomposites for field-emission cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Thomas; Smith, Richard C; Hernandez, Yenny; Gun'ko, Yurii; Coleman, Jonathan N; Carey, J David

    2009-04-01

    The electron field-emission (FE) characteristics of functionalized single-walled carbon-nanotube (CNT)-polymer composites produced by solution processing are reported. It is shown that excellent electron emission can be obtained by using as little as 0.7% volume fraction of nanotubes in the composite. Furthermore by tailoring the nanotube concentration and type of polymer, improvements in the charge transfer through the composite can be obtained. The synthesis of well-dispersed randomly oriented nanotube-polymer composites by solution processing allows the development of CNT-based large area cathodes produced using a scalable technology. The relative insensitivity of the cathode's FE characteristics to the electrical conductivity of the composite is also discussed.

  3. Carbon Emissions and Economic Growth: Causality Testing in Heterogenous Panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Maddison; Katrin Rehdanz [Department of Economics, University of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2008-09-30

    Numerous papers have examined data on energy and GDP for evidence of Granger causality. Using time series techniques these analyses not infrequently reach differing conclusions concerning the existence and direction of Granger causality. This paper presents a heterogenous panel approach to Granger causality testing. This technique is used to examine a panel of data for evidence of a causal relationship between GDP and carbon emissions per capita allowing for heterogeneity in short run dynamics and even the long run cointegrating vector. This technique is compared to the standard fixed dynamic effects approach to pooling individual error correction models. In one important case the heterogenous panel test for Granger causality reaches conclusions quite different to those from conventional tests of Granger causality. Except for Asia there is strong evidence for the existence of a bidirectional causal relationship between GDP per capita and CO{sub 2} emissions per capita.

  4. Population aging and future carbon emissions in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, Michael [California State University Monterey Bay, CA (United States); O' Neill, Brian [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria); Brown University, Providence, RI (United States); Prskawetz, Alexia [Vienna Institute of Demography, Vienna (Austria); Jiang, Leiwen [Brown University, Providence, RI (United States); Pitkin, John [Analysis and Forecasting, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2008-03-15

    Changes in the age composition of U.S. households over the next several decades could affect energy use and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions, the most important greenhouse gas. This article incorporates population age structure into an energy-economic growth model with multiple dynasties of heterogeneous households. The model is used to estimate and compare effects of population aging and technical change on baseline paths of U.S. energy use, and CO{sub 2} emissions. Results show that population aging reduces long-term emissions, by almost 40% in a low population scenario, and effects of aging on emissions can be as large, or larger than, effects of technical change in some cases. These results are derived under standard assumptions and functional forms that are used in economic growth models. The model also assumes a closed economy, substitution elasticities that are fixed, and identical across age groups, and patterns of labor supply that vary by age group, but are fixed over time. (author)

  5. Global cost estimates of reducing carbon emissions through avoided deforestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrasko, K. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Beach, R. [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Kindermann, G. [International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria); Obersteiner, M. [International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria); Rametsteiner, E. [International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria); Sathaye, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Schlamadinger, B. [TerraCarbon, Graz, (Austria); Sohngen, B. [Department of Agricultural, Environmental, and Development Economics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Wunder, S. [Center for International Forestry Research, Belem-PA (Brazil)

    2008-07-15

    Tropical deforestation is estimated to cause about one-quarter of anthropogenic carbon emissions, loss of biodiversity, and other environmental services. United Nations Framework Convention for Climate Change talks are now considering mechanisms for avoiding deforestation (AD), but the economic potential of AD has yet to be addressed. We use three economic models of glboal land use and management to analyze the potential contribution of AD activities to reduced greenhouse gas emissions. AD activities are found to be a competitive, low-cost abatement option. A program providing a 10% reduction in deforestation from 2005 to 2030 could provide 0.3-0.6 Gt (1 Gt = 1 x 105 g) CO2{center_dot}yr-1 in emission reductions and would require $0.4 billion to $1.7 billion{center_dot}yr-1 for 30 years. A 50% reduction in deforestation from 2005 to 2030 could provide 1.5-2.7 Gt CO2{center_dot}yr-1 in emission reductions and would require $17.2 billion to $28.0 billion{center_dot}yr-1. Finally, some caveats to the analysis that could increase costs of AD programs are described.

  6. Correlation between calcium carbonate content and emission characteristics of incense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chi-Ru; Lin, Ta-Chang; Chang, Feng-Hsiang

    2006-12-01

    In Taiwan and China, calcium carbonate is commonly added as a filler during incense production to lower the cost. This study has found an unexpected benefit for this practice: it reduces particulate emission. Nine types of the popular incense on the local market were chosen for this study. The calcium content in raw material incense was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, followed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy. The correlation between the calcium content and emission characteristics of incense was investigated. The calcium content varied from 1.8 to 60 mg/g (incense burned) among those nine different types of incense. Very little calcium (incense. Instead, most calcium was artificially added in the form of CaCO3 during manufacturing. The combustion characteristics, including burning rate, emission factors of particulate, ash, and solid-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (S-PAHs), varied significantly among the nine types of incense. Incense containing 2% calcium would emit 30% less S-PAHs, compared with those with little (incense by approximately 50%.

  7. Carbon dioxide emission prediction using support vector machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Chairul; Rachman Dzakiyullah, Nur; Bayu Nugroho, Jonathan

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, the SVM model was proposed for predict expenditure of carbon (CO2) emission. The energy consumption such as electrical energy and burning coal is input variable that affect directly increasing of CO2 emissions were conducted to built the model. Our objective is to monitor the CO2 emission based on the electrical energy and burning coal used from the production process. The data electrical energy and burning coal used were obtained from Alcohol Industry in order to training and testing the models. It divided by cross-validation technique into 90% of training data and 10% of testing data. To find the optimal parameters of SVM model was used the trial and error approach on the experiment by adjusting C parameters and Epsilon. The result shows that the SVM model has an optimal parameter on C parameters 0.1 and 0 Epsilon. To measure the error of the model by using Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) with error value as 0.004. The smallest error of the model represents more accurately prediction. As a practice, this paper was contributing for an executive manager in making the effective decision for the business operation were monitoring expenditure of CO2 emission.

  8. Precise measurement of prompt photon emission for carbon ion therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Agodi, C; Cirrone, G A P; Collamati, F; Cuttone, G; De Lucia, E; De Napoli, M; Di Domenico, A; Faccini, R; Ferroni, F; Fiore, S; Gauzzi, P; Iarocci, E; Marafini, M; Mattei, I; Paoloni, A; Patera, V; Piersanti, L; Romano, F; Sarti, A; Sciubba, A; Voena, C

    2011-01-01

    Proton and carbon ion therapy is an emerging technique used for the treatment of solid cancers. The monitoring of the dose delivered during such treatments is still a matter of research. A possible technique exploits the information provided by single photon emission from nuclear decays induced by the irradiation. This paper reports the measurements of the spectrum and rate of such photons produced from the interaction of a 80 MeV/u fully stripped carbon ion beam at the Laboratori Nazionali del Sud of INFN, Catania, with a Poly-methyl methacrylate target. The differential production rate for photons with energy E > 2 MeV and emitted at 90 degree is found to be $dN_{\\gamma}/(dN_C d\\Omega)=(2.92\\pm 0.19)\\times 10^{-2}$sr$^{-1}$.

  9. Model comparisons for estimating carbon emissions from North American wildland fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy H.F. French; William J. de Groot; Liza K. Jenkins; Brendan M. Rogers; Ernesto Alvarado; Brian Amiro; Bernardus De Jong; Scott Goetz; Elizabeth Hoy; Edward Hyer; Robert Keane; B.E. Law; Donald McKenzie; Steven G. McNulty; Roger Ottmar; Diego R. Perez-Salicrup; James Randerson; Kevin M. Robertson; Merritt. Turetsky

    2011-01-01

    Research activities focused on estimating the direct emissions of carbon from wildland fires across North America are reviewed as part of the North American Carbon Program disturbance synthesis. A comparison of methods to estimate the loss of carbon from the terrestrial biosphere to the atmosphere from wildland fires is presented. Published studies on emissions from...

  10. Memristive model of hysteretic field emission from carbon nanotube arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorodetskiy, Dmitriy V.; Gusel'nikov, Artem V.; Shevchenko, Sergey N.; Kanygin, Mikhail A.; Okotrub, Alexander V.; Pershin, Yuriy V.

    2016-01-01

    Some instances of electron field emitters are characterized by frequency-dependent hysteresis in their current-voltage characteristics. We argue that such emitters can be classified as memristive systems and introduce a general framework to describe their response. As a specific example of our approach, we consider field emission from a carbon nanotube array. Our experimental results demonstrate a low-field hysteresis, which is likely caused by an electrostatic alignment of some of the nanotubes in the applied field. We formulate a memristive model of such phenomena, whose results are in agreement with the experimental results.

  11. Performance of a carbon nanotube field emission electron gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getty, Stephanie A.; King, Todd T.; Bis, Rachael A.; Jones, Hollis H.; Herrero, Federico; Lynch, Bernard A.; Roman, Patrick; Mahaffy, Paul

    2007-04-01

    A cold cathode field emission electron gun (e-gun) based on a patterned carbon nanotube (CNT) film has been fabricated for use in a miniaturized reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer (RTOF MS), with future applications in other charged particle spectrometers, and performance of the CNT e-gun has been evaluated. A thermionic electron gun has also been fabricated and evaluated in parallel and its performance is used as a benchmark in the evaluation of our CNT e-gun. Implications for future improvements and integration into the RTOF MS are discussed.

  12. Filtration of Carbon Particulate Emissions from a Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agui, Juan H.; Green, Robert; Vijayakumar, R.; Berger, Gordon; Greenwood, Zach; Abney, Morgan; Peterson, Elspeth

    2016-01-01

    NASA is investigating plasma pyrolysis as a candidate technology that will enable the recovery of hydrogen from the methane produced by the ISS Sabatier Reactor. The Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) is the current prototype of this technology which converts the methane product from the Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) to acetylene and hydrogen with 90% or greater conversion efficiency. A small amount of solid carbon particulates are generated as a side product and must be filtered before the acetylene is removed and the hydrogen-rich gas stream is recycled back to the CRA. We discuss developmental work on several options for filtering out the carbon particulate emissions from the PPA exit gas stream. The filtration technologies and concepts investigated range from fibrous media to monolithic ceramic and sintered metal media. This paper describes the different developed filter prototypes and characterizes their performance from integrated testing at the Environmental Chamber (E-Chamber) at MSFC. In addition, characterization data on the generated carbon particulates, that help to define filter requirements, are also presented.

  13. Carbon uptake by mature Amazon forests has mitigated Amazon nations' carbon emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Oliver L; Brienen, Roel J W

    2017-12-01

    Several independent lines of evidence suggest that Amazon forests have provided a significant carbon sink service, and also that the Amazon carbon sink in intact, mature forests may now be threatened as a result of different processes. There has however been no work done to quantify non-land-use-change forest carbon fluxes on a national basis within Amazonia, or to place these national fluxes and their possible changes in the context of the major anthropogenic carbon fluxes in the region. Here we present a first attempt to interpret results from ground-based monitoring of mature forest carbon fluxes in a biogeographically, politically, and temporally differentiated way. Specifically, using results from a large long-term network of forest plots, we estimate the Amazon biomass carbon balance over the last three decades for the different regions and nine nations of Amazonia, and evaluate the magnitude and trajectory of these differentiated balances in relation to major national anthropogenic carbon emissions. The sink of carbon into mature forests has been remarkably geographically ubiquitous across Amazonia, being substantial and persistent in each of the five biogeographic regions within Amazonia. Between 1980 and 2010, it has more than mitigated the fossil fuel emissions of every single national economy, except that of Venezuela. For most nations (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname) the sink has probably additionally mitigated all anthropogenic carbon emissions due to Amazon deforestation and other land use change. While the sink has weakened in some regions since 2000, our analysis suggests that Amazon nations which are able to conserve large areas of natural and semi-natural landscape still contribute globally-significant carbon sequestration. Mature forests across all of Amazonia have contributed significantly to mitigating climate change for decades. Yet Amazon nations have not directly benefited from providing this global scale

  14. A novel field emission microscopy method to study field emission characteristics of freestanding carbon nanotube arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunhan; Sun, Yonghai; Jaffray, David A.; Yeow, John T. W.

    2017-04-01

    Field emission (FE) uniformity and the mechanism of emitter failure of freestanding carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays have not been well studied due to the difficulty of observing and quantifying FE performance of each emitter in CNT arrays. Herein a field emission microscopy (FEM) method based on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thin film is proposed to study the FE uniformity and CNT emitter failure of freestanding CNT arrays. FE uniformity of freestanding CNT arrays and different levels of FE current contributions from each emitter in the arrays are recorded and visualized. FEM patterns on the PMMA thin film contain the details of the CNT emitter tip shape and whether multiple CNT emitters occur at an emission site. Observation of real-time FE performance and the CNT emitter failure process in freestanding CNT arrays are successfully achieved using a microscopic camera. High emission currents through CNT emitters causes Joule heating and light emission followed by an explosion of the CNTs. The proposed approach is capable of resolving the major challenge of building the relationship between FE performance and CNT morphologies, which can significantly facilitate the study of FE non-uniformity, the emitter failure mechanism and the development of stable and reliable FE devices in practical applications.

  15. Soil carbon dioxide emissions from the Mojave desert: Isotopic evidence for a carbonate source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soper, Fiona M.; McCalley, Carmody K.; Sparks, Kimberlee; Sparks, Jed P.

    2017-01-01

    Arid soils represent a substantial carbonate pool and may participate in surface-atmosphere CO2 exchange via a diel cycle of carbonate dissolution and exsolution. We used a Keeling plot approach to determine the substrate δ13C of CO2 emitted from carbonate-dominated soils in the Mojave desert and found evidence for a nonrespiratory source that increased with surface temperature. In dry soils at 25-30°C, the CO2 substrate had δ13C values of -19.4 ± 4.2‰, indicative of respiration of organic material (soil organic matter = -23.1 ± 0.8‰). CO2 flux increased with temperature; maximum fluxes occurred above 60°C, where δ13CO2 substrate (-7.2‰ ± 2.8‰) approached soil carbonate values (0.2 ± 0.2‰). In wet soils, CO2 emissions were not temperature dependent, and δ13CO2 substrate was lower in vegetated soils with higher flux rates, higher organic C content, and potential root respiration. These data provide the first direct evidence of CO2 emissions from alkaline desert soils derived from an abiotic source and that diurnal emission patterns are strongly driven by surface temperature.

  16. Solid state carbon nanotube device for controllable trion electroluminescence emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shuang; Ma, Ze; Wei, Nan; Liu, Huaping; Wang, Sheng; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2016-03-01

    Semiconducting carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have a direct chirality-dependent bandgap and reduced dimensionality-related quantum confinement effects, which are closely related to the performance of optoelectronic devices. Here, taking advantage of the large energy separations between neutral singlet excitons and charged excitons, i.e. trions in CNTs, we have achieved for the first time all trion electroluminescence (EL) emission from chirality-sorted (8,3) and (8,4) CNT-based solid state devices. We showed that strong trion emission can be obtained as a result of localized impact excitation and electrically injected holes, with an estimated efficiency of ~5 × 10-4 photons per injected hole. The importance of contact-controlled carrier injection (including symmetric and asymmetric contact configurations) and EL spectral stability for gradually increasing bias were also investigated. The realization of electrically induced pure trion emission opens up a new opportunity for CNT film-based optoelectronic devices, providing a new degree of freedom in controlling the devices to extend potential applications in spin or magnetic optoelectronics fields.Semiconducting carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have a direct chirality-dependent bandgap and reduced dimensionality-related quantum confinement effects, which are closely related to the performance of optoelectronic devices. Here, taking advantage of the large energy separations between neutral singlet excitons and charged excitons, i.e. trions in CNTs, we have achieved for the first time all trion electroluminescence (EL) emission from chirality-sorted (8,3) and (8,4) CNT-based solid state devices. We showed that strong trion emission can be obtained as a result of localized impact excitation and electrically injected holes, with an estimated efficiency of ~5 × 10-4 photons per injected hole. The importance of contact-controlled carrier injection (including symmetric and asymmetric contact configurations) and EL spectral stability for

  17. Invasion chronosequence of Spartina alterniflora on methane emission and organic carbon sequestration in a coastal salt marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Jian; Liu, Deyan; Ding, Weixin; Yuan, Junji; Lin, Yongxin

    2015-07-01

    Spartina alterniflora was intentionally introduced to China in 1979 for the purpose of sediment stabilization and dike protection, and has continuously replaced native plants or invaded bare mudflats in the coastal marsh. To evaluate the spatial variation of CH4 emission and soil organic carbon (SOC) storage along the invasion chronosequence, we selected four sites including bare mudflat (Control, as first year invasion), and marshes invaded by S. alterniflora in 2002 (SA-1), 1999 (SA-2) and 1995 (SA-3), respectively, in Sheyang county, Jiangsu, China and set up the marsh mesocosm system for flux measurement. The mean accumulation rate of SOC in the 0-30 cm layer exponentially increased with the invasion time, ranging from 1.08 (over the first 9 years) to 2.35 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 (over the period of 12-16 years). The cumulative CH4 emission during the growth season was 20.5, 75.4, 81.0 and 92.2 kg CH4 ha-1 in Control, SA-1, SA-2 and SA-3, respectively, and there was a binomial relationship between CH4 emission and invasion time. Cumulative CH4 emission was logarithmically increased with SOC concentration; however the ratio of CH4 emission to SOC concentration was inversely correlated with the invasion time in the S. alterniflora marsh, suggesting that the less increased SOC in the S. alterniflora marsh was converted into CH4. The net global warming potential (GWP) was estimated at 733 kg CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 in the tidal mudflat and reduced to -1273 (SA-1) to -2233 kg CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 (SA-3) in the S. alterniflora marsh. Our results indicated that S. alterniflora invasion effectively sequestrated atmospheric CO2 and mitigated GWP in the coastal marsh of China.

  18. Carbon stocks of intact mangroves and carbon emissions arising from their conversion in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, J Boone; Heider, Chris; Norfolk, Jennifer; Payton, Frederick

    2014-04-01

    Mangroves are recognized to possess a variety of ecosystem services including high rates of carbon sequestration and storage. Deforestation and conversion of these ecosystems continue to be high and have been predicted to result in significant carbon emissions to the atmosphere. Yet few studies have quantified the carbon stocks or losses associated with conversion of these ecosystems. In this study we quantified the ecosystem carbon stocks of three common mangrove types of the Caribbean as well as those of abandoned shrimp ponds in areas formerly occupied by mangrove-a common land-use conversion of mangroves throughout the world. In the mangroves of the Montecristi Province in Northwest Dominican Republic we found C stocks ranged from 706 to 1131 Mg/ha. The medium-statured mangroves (3-10 m in height) had the highest C stocks while the tall (> 10 m) mangroves had the lowest ecosystem carbon storage. Carbon stocks of the low mangrove (shrub) type (mangroves. Using a stock-change approach, the potential emissions from the conversion of mangroves to shrimp ponds ranged from 2244 to 3799 Mg CO2e/ha (CO2 equivalents). This is among the largest measured C emissions from land use in the tropics. The 6260 ha of mangroves and converted mangroves in the Montecristi Province are estimated to contain 3,841,490 Mg of C. Mangroves represented 76% of this area but currently store 97% of the carbon in this coastal wetland (3,696,722 Mg C). Converted lands store only 4% of the total ecosystem C (144,778 Mg C) while they comprised 24% of the area. By these metrics the replacement of mangroves with shrimp and salt ponds has resulted in estimated emissions from this region totaling 3.8 million Mg CO2e or approximately 21% of the total C prior to conversion. Given the high C stocks of mangroves, the high emissions from their conversion, and the other important functions and services they provide, their inclusion in climate-change mitigation strategies is warranted.

  19. Field emission energy distributions from individual multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransen, M. J.; van Rooy, Th. L.; Kruit, P.

    1999-05-01

    We measured field emission energy distributions of electrons emitted from individual multiwalled carbon nanotubes mounted on tungsten tips. The shape of the energy distribution is strongly sample dependent. Some nanotube emitters exhibit an almost metallic behaviour, while others show sharply peaked energy distributions. The smallest half-width we measured was only 0.11 eV, without correction for the broadening of the energy analyzer. A common feature of both types of carbon nanotube energy spectra is that the position of the peaks in the spectrum depends linearly on the extraction voltage, unlike metallic emitters, where the position stays in the vicinity of the Fermi level. With a small modification to the field emission theory for metals we extract the distance between the highest filled energy level of the nanotube and the vacuum potential, the field on the emitter surface, the emitter radius and the emitting area, from the energy distribution and the Fowler-Nordheim plot. The last two parameters are in good agreement with transmission electron micrographs of such samples. The sharply-peaked energy distributions from other samples indicate that resonant states can exist at the top of the nanotube.

  20. Fuel and Carbon Dioxide Emissions Savings Calculation Methodology for Combined Heat and Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper provides the EPA Combined Heat and Power Partnership's recommended methodology for calculating fuel and carbon dioxide emissions savings from CHP compared to SHP, which serves as the basis for the EPA's CHP emissions calculator.

  1. Life cycle study. Carbon dioxide emissions lower in electric heating than in oil heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heikkinen, A.; Jaervinen, P.; Nikula, A.

    1996-11-01

    A primary objective of energy conservation is to cut carbon dioxide emissions. A comparative study on the various heating forms, based on the life cycle approach, showed that the carbon dioxide emissions resulting form heating are appreciably lower now that electric heating has become more common. The level of carbon dioxide emissions in Finland would have been millions of tonnes higher had oil heating been chosen instead of electric heating. (orig.)

  2. Research on Spatial-Temporal Characteristics and Driving Factor of Agricultural Carbon Emissions in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yun; ZHANG Jun-biao; HE Ya-ya

    2014-01-01

    Macroscopic grasp of agricultural carbon emissions status, spatial-temporal characteristics as well as driving factors are the basic premise in further research on China’s agricultural carbon emissions. Based on 23 kinds of major carbon emission sources including agricultural materials inputs, paddy ifeld, soil and livestock breeding, this paper ifrstly calculated agricultural carbon emissions from 1995 to 2010, as well as 31 provinces and cities in 2010 in China. We then made a decomposed analysis to the driving factors of carbon emissions with logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) model. The results show:(1) The amount of agricultural carbon emissions is 291.1691 million t in 2010. Compared with 249.5239 million t in 1995, it increased by 16.69%, in which, agricultural materials inputs, paddy ifeld, soil, enteric fermentation, and manure management accounted for 33.59, 22.03, 7.46, 17.53 and 19.39%of total agricultural carbon emissions, respectively. Although the amount exist ups and downs, it shows an overall trend of cyclical rise; (2) There is an obvious difference among regions:the amount of agricultural carbon emissions from top ten zones account for 56.68%, while 9.84%from last 10 zones. The traditional agricultural provinces, especially the major crop production areas are the main source regions. Based on the differences of carbon emission rations, 31 provinces and cities are divided into ifve types, namely agricultural materials dominant type, paddy ifeld dominant type, enteric fermentation dominant type, composite factors dominant type and balanced type. The agricultural carbon emissions intensity in west of China is the highest, followed by the central region, and the east zone is the lowest; (3) Compared with 1995, efifciency, labor and structure factors cut down carbon emissions by 65.78, 27.51 and 3.19%, respectively;while economy factor increase carbon emissions by 113.16%.

  3. Life cycle study. Carbon dioxide emissions lower in electric heating than in oil heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heikkinen, A.; Jaervinen, P.; Nikula, A.

    1996-11-01

    A primary objective of energy conservation is to cut carbon dioxide emissions. A comparative study on the various heating forms, based on the life cycle approach, showed that the carbon dioxide emissions resulting form heating are appreciably lower now that electric heating has become more common. The level of carbon dioxide emissions in Finland would have been millions of tonnes higher had oil heating been chosen instead of electric heating. (orig.)

  4. Structural Decomposition Analysis of Carbon Emissions and Policy Recommendations for Energy Sustainability in Xinjiang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjian Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Regional carbon dioxide emissions study is necessary for China to realize the emissions mitigation. An environmental input–output structural decomposition analysis (IO-SDA has been conducted in order to uncover the driving forces for the increment in energy-related carbon dioxide emissions in Xinjiang from both production and final demands perspectives from 1997 to 2007. According to our research outcomes, emissions increase can be illustrated as a competition between consumption growth (per capita GDP and efficiency improvement (carbon emission intensity. Consumption growth have caused an increase of 109.98 Mt carbon dioxide emissions during 1997 to 2007, and efficiency improvement have caused a 97.03 Mt decrease during the same period. Per capita GDP is the most important driver for the rapid emission growth, while carbon emission intensity is the significant contributor to offset these increments. In addition, production structure changes performed as a new major driver for the steep rise in carbon dioxide emissions in recent years (2002–2007, indicating that the rapid emission growth in Xinjiang is the result of structural changes in the economy making it more carbon-intensive. From the viewpoint of final demands, fixed capital formation contributed the highest carbon dioxide emission, followed by inter-provincial export and urban residential consumption; while inter-provincial imports had the biggest contributions to offset emission increments. Based on our analysis results, Xinjiang may face great challenges to curb carbon dioxide emissions in the near future. However, several concrete mitigation measures have been further discussed and then raised by considering the regional realities, aiming to harmonize regional development and carbon dioxide emissions reduction.

  5. Synthesis and electron emission properties of aligned carbon nanotube arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, Suman

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have become one of the most interesting allotropes of carbon due to their intriguing mechanical, electrical, thermal and optical properties. The synthesis and electron emission properties of CNT arrays have been investigated in this work. Vertically aligned CNTs of different densities were synthesized on copper substrate with catalyst dots patterned by nanosphere lithography. The CNTs synthesized with catalyst dots patterned by spheres of 500 nm diameter exhibited the best electron emission properties with the lowest turn-on/threshold electric fields and the highest field enhancement factor. Furthermore, CNTs were treated with NH3 plasma for various durations and the optimum enhancement was obtained for a plasma treatment of 1.0 min. CNT point emitters were also synthesized on a flat-tip or a sharp-tip to understand the effect of emitter geometry on the electron emission. The experimental results show that electron emission can be enhanced by decreasing the screening effect of the electric field by neighboring CNTs. In another part of the dissertation, vertically aligned CNTs were synthesized on stainless steel (SS) substrates with and without chemical etching or catalyst deposition. The density and length of CNTs were determined by synthesis time. For a prolonged growth time, the catalyst activity terminated and the plasma started etching CNTs destructively. CNTs with uniform diameter and length were synthesized on SS substrates subjected to chemical etching for a period of 40 minutes before the growth. The direct contact of CNTs with stainless steel allowed for the better field emission performance of CNTs synthesized on pristine SS as compared to the CNTs synthesized on Ni/Cr coated SS. Finally, fabrication of large arrays of free-standing vertically aligned CNT/SnO2 core-shell structures was explored by using a simple wet-chemical route. The structure of the SnO2 nanoparticles was studied by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy

  6. Can a unilateral carbon tax reduce emissions elsewhere?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Joshua [Chicago Univ., IL (United States); Fullerton, Don [Illinois Univ., Champaign, IL (United States)

    2013-02-15

    One country that tries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions may fear that other countries get a competitive advantage and increase emissions (''leakage''). Estimates from computable general equilibrium (CGE) models such as Elliott et al (2010a,b) indicate that 15% to 25% of abatement might be offset by leakage. Yet the Fullerton et al (2012) analytical general equilibrium model shows an offsetting term with negative leakage. To derive analytical expressions, their model is quite simple, with only one good from each country or sector, a fixed stock of capital, competitive markets, and many identical consumers that purchase both goods. Their model is not intended to be realistic, but only to demonstrate the potential for negative leakage. Most CGE models do not allow for negative leakage. In this paper, we use a full CGE model with many countries and many goods to measure effects in a way that allows for negative leakage. We vary elasticities of substitution and confirm the analytical model's prediction that negative leakage depends on the ability of consumers to substitute into the untaxed good and the ability of firms to substitute from carbon emissions into labor or capital.

  7. UK company strategies in reducing carbon dioxide emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongmei Bentley

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated a number of large UK companies’ strategies in reducing emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2 in their supply chain operations. In-depth interviews were conducted with logistics/supply chain (SC managers across different sectors. The research identified the main CO2 reduction strategies, and examined these in the light of existing literature in the research domain. One of the key findings was that there was a strong tension between cost reduction (identified as the major driver for reducing CO2 and lack of resources (the main barrier. It was also found that most CO2 reduction strategies had started only fairly recently, and so far, were mainly operational and tactical in nature. This study makes an empirical contribution to a better understanding of how companies form their CO2 reduction strategies in response to environmental pressures. It has implications for policy makers in terms of how to motivate logistics/SC managers to implement strategies to reduce the environmental impact of CO2 emissions in their business operations. Therefore, it is recommended that logistics/SC managers develop and implement practical initiatives and strategies to reduce CO2 emissions, and to embed these into corporate strategy.

  8. Solid state carbon nanotube device for controllable trion electroluminescence emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shuang; Ma, Ze; Wei, Nan; Liu, Huaping; Wang, Sheng; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2016-03-28

    Semiconducting carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have a direct chirality-dependent bandgap and reduced dimensionality-related quantum confinement effects, which are closely related to the performance of optoelectronic devices. Here, taking advantage of the large energy separations between neutral singlet excitons and charged excitons, i.e. trions in CNTs, we have achieved for the first time all trion electroluminescence (EL) emission from chirality-sorted (8,3) and (8,4) CNT-based solid state devices. We showed that strong trion emission can be obtained as a result of localized impact excitation and electrically injected holes, with an estimated efficiency of ∼5 × 10(-4) photons per injected hole. The importance of contact-controlled carrier injection (including symmetric and asymmetric contact configurations) and EL spectral stability for gradually increasing bias were also investigated. The realization of electrically induced pure trion emission opens up a new opportunity for CNT film-based optoelectronic devices, providing a new degree of freedom in controlling the devices to extend potential applications in spin or magnetic optoelectronics fields.

  9. Carbon Emission Disclosure and the Cost of Capital: An Analysis of Malaysian Capital Market

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Noor Raida Binti Abd Rahman; Nor Hasimah Binti Johari; Nor Edi Azhar Binti Mohamad

    2017-01-01

    ...) on the firm’s weighted-average cost of capital. A carbon disclosure index is used to evaluate the quality of carbon emission disclosure in 2013 and 2014 annual reports of 247 Malaysian public listed companies...

  10. Analysis and forecast of residential building energy consumption in Chongqing on carbon emissions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李沁; 刘猛; 钱发

    2009-01-01

    Carbon emissions mainly result from energy consumption. Carbon emissions inevitably will increase to some extent with economic expansion and rising energy consumption. We introduce a gray theory of quantitative analysis of the energy consumption of residential buildings in Chongqing,China,on the impact of carbon emission factors. Three impacts are analyzed,namely per capita residential housing area,domestic water consumption and the rate of air conditioner ownership per 100 urban households. The gray prediction model established using the Chongqing carbon emission-residential building energy consumption forecast model is sufficiently accurate to achieve a measure of feasibility and applicability.

  11. Carbon Emission Effect of Land Use in Nanchang City and Its Optimization Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haisheng; CAI; Ting; ZHANG; Xueling; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    Land use/coverage change(LUCC)exerts a profound influence on global carbon emission through changing structure and functions of ecosystem.Taking Nanchang City as an example,this study determined organic carbon emission of land ecosystem by ecosystem type method.In 2005,total carbon emission of Nanchang City was 4.826 2 Tg.In 2010,it became 5.535 9 Tg,showing a growth trend of carbon emission from land use change.The carbon emission of cropland and grassland decreased in 2005-2010,that of garden land and construction land had increase,and carbon absorption function of water land and other unused land was weakened.Due to difference of land use structure,the carbon emission of Nanchang City is varied.In 2005-2010,the rank of carbon emission from high to low is as follows:Nanchang County,Xinjian County,Jinxian County and Qingshanhu District.In combination with land use change and development plan of Nanchang City,Nanchang City should take carbon emission reduction measures,including conceding the land to forestry,returning the land to water,limiting excessive expansion of construction land,optimizing distribution of urban land use,flexibly regulating land supply policies,and establishing carbon trading legal system,to reach the objective of combining land use plan with ecological construction.

  12. The computation of carbon emissions due to the net payload on a truck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turkensteen, Marcel

    , it is necessary to compute the carbon emissions of these decisions. Current studies are only able to determine this for very specific conditions, such as a given vehicle under given driving conditions, and they may require many input parameters. Therefore, this paper presents a simple and broadly applicable...... emission computation tool. We determine the share of the carbon emissions of fully loaded vehicles due to the weight of the load on the vehicle, i.e. the load‐based emission percentage (LBEP). We conduct a review study on papers that report on carbon emissions or fuel consumption for different load factors...

  13. Carbon Emissions from Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, C.; Klooster, S.; Genovese, V.

    2009-01-01

    A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation greenness from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000-2002. The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) model estimates of annual forest production were used for the first time as the basis to generate a prediction for the standing pool of carbon in above-ground biomass (AGB; gC/sq m) for forested areas of the Brazilian Amazon region. Plot-level measurements of the residence time of carbon in wood in Amazon forest from Malhi et al. (2006) were interpolated by inverse distance weighting algorithms and used with CASA to generate a new regional map of AGB. Data from the Brazilian PRODES (Estimativa do Desflorestamento da Amazonia) project were used to map deforested areas. Results show that net primary production (NPP) sinks for carbon varied between 4.25 Pg C/yr (1 Pg=10(exp 15)g) and 4.34 Pg C for the region and were highest across the eastern and northern Amazon areas, whereas deforestation sources of CO2 flux from decomposition of residual woody debris were higher and less seasonal in the central Amazon than in the eastern and southern areas. Increased woody debris from past deforestation events was predicted to alter the net ecosystem carbon balance of the Amazon region to generate annual CO2 source fluxes at least two times higher than previously predicted by CASA modeling studies. Variations in climate, land cover, and forest burning were predicted to release carbon at rates of 0.5 to 1 Pg C/yr from the Brazilian Amazon. When direct deforestation emissions of CO2 from forest burning of between 0.2 and 0.6 Pg C/yr in the Legal Amazon are overlooked in regional budgets, the year-to-year variations in this net biome flux may appear to be large, whereas our model results implies net biome fluxes had actually been relatively consistent from

  14. Carbon emissions from deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Genovese

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation greenness from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000–2002. The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach model estimates of annual forest production were used for the first time as the basis to generate a prediction for the standing pool of carbon in above-ground biomass (AGB; g C m−2 for forested areas of the Brazilian Amazon region. Plot-level measurements of the residence time of carbon in wood in Amazon forest from Malhi et al. (2006 were interpolated by inverse distance weighting algorithms and used with CASA to generate a new regional map of AGB. Data from the Brazilian PRODES (Estimativa do Desflorestamento da Amazônia project were used to map deforested areas. Results show that net primary production (NPP sinks for carbon varied between 4.25 Pg C yr−1 (1 Pg=1015 g and 4.34 Pg C for the region and were highest across the eastern and northern Amazon areas, whereas deforestation sources of CO2 flux from decomposition of residual woody debris were higher and less seasonal in the central Amazon than in the eastern and southern areas. Increased woody debris from past deforestation events was predicted to alter the net ecosystem carbon balance of the Amazon region to generate annual CO2 source fluxes at least two times higher than previously predicted by CASA modeling studies. Variations in climate, land cover, and forest burning were predicted to release carbon at rates of 0.5 to 1 Pg C yr−1 from the Brazilian Amazon. When direct deforestation emissions of CO2 from forest burning of between 0.2 and 0.6 Pg C yr−1 in the Legal Amazon are overlooked in regional budgets, the year-to-year variations in this net biome flux may

  15. Carbon Emission Trading System of New Zealand and Its Enlightenment for China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan; XIAO; Xiaoxue; LI

    2013-01-01

    The design characteristics and operation results of carbon emission trading system of New Zealand was introduced in this paper. The results suggested that taking forest carbon trade as the only one supplying source of greenhouse gas emission improved the foreseeability in forest maintenance,and strengthened the effect of forestation. According to this,the author suggested that carbon emission trading market in which forest carbon trade was the only one supplying source should be cultivated in China. A compensation mechanism that industry compensated forestry should be established. A social participated,highly united,coordinated and mutual intermediated carbon trading market should be built.

  16. Emission Inventories of Carbon-containing Greenhouse Gases in and Technological Measures for Their Abatement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuang Yahui; Zhang Hongxun; Wang Xiaoke; Li Changsheng

    2004-01-01

    The report summarizes surveys on carbon inventories and initiatives on sustainable carbon cycling taken by the Research Center for EcoEnvironmental Sciences, where the authors work/worked. The first part of the report, which appeared in the preceding issue of this journal, deals with the concept of sustainable carbon cycling, the historic evolution of carbon cycling processes in China, carbon pool enhancement, value addition,carbon sequestration and carbon balance. This very paper, as the second part of the report, covers the results of carbon dynamics modeling, emission inventories of various carbon-containing greenhouse gases and their potential abatement measures.

  17. The effects of emission control strategies on light-absorbing carbon emissions from a modern heavy-duty diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael A; Olson, Michael R; Liu, Z Gerald; Schauer, James J

    2015-06-01

    Control of atmospheric black carbon (BC) and brown carbon (BrC) has been proposed as an important pathway to climate change mitigation, but sources of BC and BrC are still not well understood. In order to better identify the role of modern heavy-duty diesel engines on the production of BC and BrC, emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine operating with different emission control strategies were examined using a source dilution sampling system. The effect of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particulate filter (DPF) on light-absorbing carbon (LAC) was evaluated at three steady-state engine operation modes: idle, 50% speed and load, and 100% speed and load. LAC was measured with four different engine configurations: engine out, DOC out, DPF out, and engine out with an altered combustion calibration. BC and BrC emission rates were measured with the Aethalometer (AE-31). EC and BC emission rates normalized to the mass of CO₂emitted increased with increasing engine speed and load. Emission rates normalized to brake-specific work did not exhibit similar trends with speed and load, but rather the highest emission rate was measured at idle. EC and OC emissions were reduced by 99% when the DOC and DPF architecture was applied. The application of a DPF was equally effective at removing 99% of the BC fraction of PM, proving to be an important control strategy for both LAC and PM. BC emissions were unexpectedly increased across the DOC, seemingly due to a change aerosol optical properties. Removal of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) flow due to simulated EGR cooler failure caused a large increase in OC and BrC emission rates at idle, but had limited influence during high load operation. LAC emissions proved to be sensitive to the same control strategies effective at controlling the total mass of diesel PM. In the context of black carbon emissions, very small emission rates of brown carbon were measured over a range of control technologies and engine operating

  18. Mechanism of field electron emission from carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhi-bing; DENG Shao-zhi; XU Ning-sheng

    2006-01-01

    Field electron emission (FE) is a quantum tunneling process in which electrons are injected from materials (usually metals) into a vacuum under the influence of an applied electric field.In order to obtain usable electron current,the conventional way is to increase the local field at the surface of an emitter.For a plane metal emitter with a typical work function of 5 eV,an applied field of over 1000V/μm is needed to obtain a significant current.The high working field (and/or the voltage between the electrodes)has been the bottleneck for many applications of the FE technique.Since the 1960s,enormous effort has been devoted to reduce the working macroscopic field (voltage).A widely adopted idea is to sharpen the emitters to get a large surface field enhancement.The materials of emitters should have good electronic conductivity,high melting points,good chemical inertness,and high mechanical stiffness.Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are built with such needed properties.As a quasi-one-dimensional material,the CNT is expected to have a large surface field enhancement factor.The experiments have proved the excellent FE performance of CNTs.The turn-on field (the macroscopic field for obtaining a density of 10 μA/cm2 ) of CNT based emitters can be as low as 1 V/μm.However,this turn-on field is too good to be explained by conventional theory.There are other observations,such as the non-linear Fowler-Nordheim plot and multi-peaks field emission energy distribution spectra,indicating that the field enhancement is not the only story in the FE of CNTs.Since the discovery of CNTs,people have employed more serious quantum mechanical methods,including the electronic band theory,tight-binding theory,scattering theory and density function theory,to investigate FE of CNTs.A few theoretical models have been developed at the same time.The multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)should be assembled with a sharp metal needle of nano-scale radius,for which the FE mechanism is more or less clear

  19. Urban Traffic Congestion Pricing Model with the Consideration of Carbon Emissions Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most effective traffic demand management opinions, congestion pricing can reduce private car travel demand and the associated carbon dioxide emissions. First, we summarized the status quo of transport carbon dioxide emission charges and congestion pricing, and then, we analyzed the characteristics of urban transport carbon dioxide emissions. Then, we proposed a (pricing framework in which carbon emission costs would be considered as part of the generalized cost of travel. Based on this framework, this paper developed a bi-level mathematical model to optimize consumer surplus, using congestion and carbon emission charges as the control variables. A dissect search algorithm was used to solve the bi-level program model, and a numerical example was given to illustrate the methodology. This paper incorporates the emission pricing into the congestion pricing model, while considering two modes, and puts forward suitable proposals for the implementation of an urban traffic congestion pricing policy in China.

  20. Are emissions of black carbon from gasoline vehicles overestimated? Real-time, in situ measurement of black carbon emission factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Xing, Zhenyu; Zhao, Shuhui; Zheng, Mei; Mu, Chao; Du, Ke

    2016-03-15

    Accurately quantifying black carbon (BC) emission factors (EFs) is a prerequisite for estimation of BC emission inventory. BC EFs determined by measuring BC at the roadside or chasing a vehicle on-road may introduce large uncertainty for low emission vehicles. In this study, BC concentrations were measured inside the tailpipe of gasoline vehicles with different engine sizes under different driving modes to determine the respective EFs. BC EFs ranged from 0.005-7.14 mg/kg-fuel under the speeds of 20-70 km/h, 0.05-28.95 mg/kg-fuel under the accelerations of 0.5-1.5m/s(2). Although the water vapor in the sampling stream could result in an average of 12% negative bias, the BC EFs are significantly lower than the published results obtained with roadside or chasing vehicle measurement. It is suggested to conduct measurement at the tailpipe of gasoline vehicles instead of in the atmosphere behind the vehicles to reduce the uncertainty from fluctuation in ambient BC concentration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. An approach to a black carbon emission inventory for Mexico by two methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Núñez, Xochitl

    2014-05-01

    A black carbon (BC) emission inventory for Mexico is presented. Estimate was performed by using two approaches, based on fuel consumption and emission factors in a top-down scheme, and the second from PM25 emission data and its correlation with black carbon by source category, assuming that black carbon=elemental carbon. Results show that black carbon emissions are in interval 53-473Gg using the fuel consumption approach and between 62 and 89 using the sector method. Black carbon key sources come from biomass burning in the rural sector, with 47 percent share to the National total. Mobile sources emissions account to 16% to the total. An opportunity to reduce, in the short-term, carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-eq) emissions by reducing black carbon emissions would be obtained in reducing emissions mainly from biomass burning in rural housing sector and diesel emissions in the transport sector with important co-benefits in direct radiative forcing, public health and air quality.

  2. Role of C3 plant species on carbon dioxide and methane emissions in Mediterranean constructed wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Maucieri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available C3 plant species are widely used to vegetate constructed wetlands (CW, but so far no information is available on their effect on CW CO2(eq balance in the Mediterranean climate. The aim of this research was to study carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4 emissions and CO2(eq budgets of CW horizontal sub-surface flow pilot-plant beds vegetated with Arundo donax L. and Phragmites australis (Cav. Trin. ex Steud. compared with an unvegetated bed in Sicily. The highest total plant biomass production was measured in the bed vegetated with A. donax (17.0 kg m–2, whereas P. australis produced 7.6 kg m–2. CO2 and CH4 emissions and showed significant correlation with average air temperature and solar radiation for each bed. The CO2 emission values ranged from 0.8±0.1 g m–2 d–1, for the unvegetated bed in April, to 24.9±0.6 g m–2 d–1 for the bed with P. australis in August. The average CO2 emissions of the whole monitored period were 15.5±7.2, 15.1±7.1 and 3.6±2.4 g m–2 d–1 for A. donax, P. australis and unvegetated beds respectively. The CH4 fluxes differed significantly over the monitored seasons, with the highest median value being measured during spring (0.963 g m–2 d–1. No statistical differences were found for CH4 flux among the studied beds. Cumulative estimated CH4 emissions during the study period (from April to December were 159.5, 134.1 and 114.7 g m–2 for A. donax, P. australis and unvegetated beds respectively. CO2(eq balance showed that the two vegetated beds act as CO2(eq sinks, while the unvegetated bed, as expected, acts as a CO2(eq source. Considering only the above-ground plant biomass in the CO2(eq budgets, P. australis and A. donax determined uptakes of 1.30 and 8.35 kg CO2(eq m–2 respectively.

  3. Outstanding field emission properties of wet-processed titanium dioxide coated carbon nanotube based field emission devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinzhuo; Xu, Peng; Ou-Yang, Wei; Chen, Xiaohong; Guo, Pingsheng; Li, Jun; Piao, Xianqing; Wang, Miao; Sun, Zhuo

    2015-02-01

    Field emission devices using a wet-processed composite cathode of carbon nanotube films coated with titanium dioxide exhibit outstanding field emission characteristics, including ultralow turn on field of 0.383 V μm-1 and threshold field of 0.657 V μm-1 corresponding with a very high field enhancement factor of 20 000, exceptional current stability, and excellent emission uniformity. The improved field emission properties are attributed to the enhanced edge effect simultaneously with the reduced screening effect, and the lowered work function of the composite cathode. In addition, the highly stable electron emission is found due to the presence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the carbon nanotubes, which prohibits the cathode from the influence of ions and free radical created in the emission process as well as residual oxygen gas in the device. The high-performance solution-processed composite cathode demonstrates great potential application in vacuum electronic devices.

  4. A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Andres

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This synthesis discusses the emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production. While much is known about these emissions, there is still much that is unknown about the details surrounding these emissions. This synthesis explores our knowledge of these emissions in terms of why there is concern about them; how they are calculated; the major global efforts on inventorying them; their global, regional, and national totals at different spatial and temporal scales; how they are distributed on global grids (i.e., maps; how they are transported in models; and the uncertainties associated with these different aspects of the emissions. The magnitude of emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels has been almost continuously increasing with time since fossil fuels were first used by humans. Despite events in some nations specifically designed to reduce emissions, or which have had emissions reduction as a byproduct of other events, global total emissions continue their general increase with time. Global total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions are known to within 10 % uncertainty (95 % confidence interval. Uncertainty on individual national total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions range from a few percent to more than 50 %. This manuscript concludes that carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion continue to increase with time and that while much is known about the overall characteristics of these emissions, much is still to be learned about the detailed characteristics of these emissions.

  5. Greenhouse gas emission accounting and management of low-carbon community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dan; Su, Meirong; Yang, Jin; Chen, Bin

    2012-01-01

    As the major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, cities have been under tremendous pressure of energy conservation and emission reduction for decades. Community is the main unit of urban housing, public facilities, transportation, and other properties of city's land use. The construction of low-carbon community is an important pathway to realize carbon emission mitigation in the context of rapid urbanization. Therefore, an efficient carbon accounting framework should be proposed for CO₂ emissions mitigation at a subcity level. Based on life-cycle analysis (LCA), a three-tier accounting framework for the carbon emissions of the community is put forward, including emissions from direct fossil fuel combustion, purchased energy (electricity, heat, and water), and supply chain emissions embodied in the consumption of goods. By compiling a detailed CO₂ emission inventory, the magnitude of carbon emissions and the mitigation potential in a typical high-quality community in Beijing are quantified within the accounting framework proposed. Results show that emissions from supply chain emissions embodied in the consumption of goods cannot be ignored. Specific suggestions are also provided for the urban decision makers to achieve the optimal resource allocation and further promotion of low-carbon communities.

  6. Greenhouse Gas Emission Accounting and Management of Low-Carbon Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Song

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As the major source of greenhouse gas (GHG emission, cities have been under tremendous pressure of energy conservation and emission reduction for decades. Community is the main unit of urban housing, public facilities, transportation, and other properties of city's land use. The construction of low-carbon community is an important pathway to realize carbon emission mitigation in the context of rapid urbanization. Therefore, an efficient carbon accounting framework should be proposed for CO2 emissions mitigation at a subcity level. Based on life-cycle analysis (LCA, a three-tier accounting framework for the carbon emissions of the community is put forward, including emissions from direct fossil fuel combustion, purchased energy (electricity, heat, and water, and supply chain emissions embodied in the consumption of goods. By compiling a detailed CO2 emission inventory, the magnitude of carbon emissions and the mitigation potential in a typical high-quality community in Beijing are quantified within the accounting framework proposed. Results show that emissions from supply chain emissions embodied in the consumption of goods cannot be ignored. Specific suggestions are also provided for the urban decision makers to achieve the optimal resource allocation and further promotion of low-carbon communities.

  7. Unusual secondary electron emission behavior in carbon nanotube forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md K; Yaghoobi, P; Nojeh, A

    2009-01-01

    Electron yield was measured from patterned carbon nanotube forests for a wide range of primary beam energies (400-20,000 eV). It was observed that secondary and backscattered electron emission behaviors in these forests are quite different than in bulk materials. This seems to be primarily because of the increased range of electrons due to the porous nature of the forests and dependent on their structural parameters, namely nanotube length, diameter and inter-nanotube spacing. In addition to providing insight into the electron microscopy of nanotubes, these results have interesting implications on designing novel secondary electron emitters based on the structural degrees of freedom of nanomaterials. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Thermionic field emission transport in carbon nanotube transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perello, David J; Lim, Seong Chu; Chae, Seung Jin; Lee, Innam; Kim, Moon J; Lee, Young Hee; Yun, Minhee

    2011-03-22

    With experimental and analytical analysis, we demonstrate a relationship between the metal contact work function and the electrical transport properties saturation current (Isat) and differential conductance (σsd=∂Isd/∂Vsd) in ambient exposed carbon nanotubes (CNT). A single chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown 6 mm long semiconducting single-walled CNT is electrically contacted with a statistically significant number of Hf, Cr, Ti, Pd, and Au electrodes, respectively. The observed exponentially increasing relationship of Isat and σsd with metal contact work function is explained by a theoretical model derived from thermionic field emission. Statistical analysis and spread of the data suggest that the conduction variability in same CNT devices results from differences in local surface potential of the metal contact. Based on the theoretical model and methodology, an improved CNT-based gas sensing device layout is suggested. A method to experimentally determine gas-induced work function changes in metals is also examined.

  9. A Preliminary Study of the Carbon Emissions Reduction Effects of Land Use Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuai, Xiaowei; Huang, Xianjin; Qi, Xinxian; Li, Jiasheng; Zuo, Tianhui; Lu, Qinli; Li, Jianbao; Wu, Changyan; Zhao, Rongqin

    2016-11-01

    Land use change not only directly influences carbon storage in terrestrial ecosystems but can also cause energy-related carbon emissions. This study examined spatiotemporal land use change across Jiangsu Province, China; calculated vegetation carbon storage loss caused by land use change and energy-related carbon emissions; analysed the relationship among land use change, carbon emissions and social-economic development; and optimized land use structure to maximize carbon storage. Our study found that 13.61% of the province’s land area underwent a change in type of land use between 1995 and 2010, mainly presented as built-up land expansion and cropland shrinkage, especially in southern Jiangsu. Land use change caused a 353.99 × 104 t loss of vegetation carbon storage loss. Energy-related carbon emissions increased 2.5 times from 1995 to 2013; the energy consumption structure has been improved to some extent while still relying on coal. The selected social-economic driving forces have strong relationships with carbon emissions and land use changes, while there are also other determinants driving land use change, such as land use policy. The optimized land use structure will slow the rate of decline in vegetation carbon storage compared with the period between 1995 and 2010 and will also reduce energy-related carbon emissions by 12%.

  10. Electricity generation: options for reduction in carbon emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, H W

    2002-08-15

    Historically, the bulk production of electricity has been achieved by burning fossil fuels, with unavoidable gaseous emissions, including large quantities of carbon dioxide: an average-sized modern coal-burning power station is responsible for more than 10 Mt of CO(2) each year. This paper details typical emissions from present-day power stations and discusses the options for their reduction. Acknowledging that the cuts achieved in the past decade in the UK CO(2) emissions have been achieved largely by fuel switching, the remaining possibilities offered by this method are discussed. Switching to less-polluting fossil fuels will achieve some measure of reduction, but the basic problem of CO(2) emissions continues. Of the alternatives to fossil fuels, only nuclear power represents a zero-carbon large-scale energy source. Unfortunately, public concerns over safety and radioactive waste have still to be assuaged. Other approaches include the application of improved combustion technology, the removal of harmful gases from power-station flues and the use of waste heat to improve overall power-station efficiency. These all have a part to play, but many consider our best hope for emissions reduction to be the use of renewable energy. The main renewable energy contenders are assessed in this paper and realistic estimates of the contribution that each could provide are indicated. It appears that, in the time-scale envisaged by planners for reduction in CO(2) emission, in many countries renewable energy will be unlikely to deliver. At the same time, it is worth commenting that, again in many countries, the level of penetration of renewable energy will fall short of the present somewhat optimistic targets. Of renewable options, wind energy could be used in the short to medium term to cover for thermal plant closures, but for wind energy to be successful, the network will have to be modified to cope with wind's intermittent nature. Globally, hydroelectricity is currently the

  11. Carbon emission and sequestration of urban turfgrass systems in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ling; Shi, Zhengjun; Chu, L M

    2014-03-01

    Climate change is more than just a global issue. Locally released carbon dioxide may lead to a rise in global ambient temperature and influence the surrounding climate. Urban greenery may mitigate this as they can remove carbon dioxide by storing carbon in substrates and vegetation. On the other hand, urban greenery systems which are under intense management and maintenance may contribute to the emission of carbon dioxide or other greenhouse gases. The impact of urban greenery on carbon balance in major metropolitan areas thus remains controversial. We investigated the carbon footprints of urban turf operation and maintenance by conducting a research questionnaire on different Hong Kong turfs in 2012, and showed that turf maintenance contributed 0.17 to 0.63 kg Ce m(-2)y(-1) to carbon emissions. We also determined the carbon storage of turfs at 0.05 to 0.21 kg C m(-2) for aboveground grass biomass and 1.26 to 4.89 kg C m(-2) for soils (to 15 cm depth). We estimated that the carbon sink capacity of turfs could be offset by carbon emissions in 5-24 years under current management patterns, shifting from carbon sink to carbon source. Our study suggested that maintenance management played a key role in the carbon budget and footprint of urban greeneries. The environmental impact of turfgrass systems can be optimized by shifting away from empirically designed maintenance schedules towards rational ones based on carbon sink and emission principles.

  12. New use of global warming potentials to compare cumulative and short-lived climate pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Myles R.; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Shine, Keith P.; Reisinger, Andy; Pierrehumbert, Raymond T.; Forster, Piers M.

    2016-08-01

    Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) have requested guidance on common greenhouse gas metrics in accounting for Nationally determined contributions (NDCs) to emission reductions. Metric choice can affect the relative emphasis placed on reductions of `cumulative climate pollutants' such as carbon dioxide versus `short-lived climate pollutants' (SLCPs), including methane and black carbon. Here we show that the widely used 100-year global warming potential (GWP100) effectively measures the relative impact of both cumulative pollutants and SLCPs on realized warming 20-40 years after the time of emission. If the overall goal of climate policy is to limit peak warming, GWP100 therefore overstates the importance of current SLCP emissions unless stringent and immediate reductions of all climate pollutants result in temperatures nearing their peak soon after mid-century, which may be necessary to limit warming to ``well below 2 °C'' (ref. ). The GWP100 can be used to approximately equate a one-off pulse emission of a cumulative pollutant and an indefinitely sustained change in the rate of emission of an SLCP. The climate implications of traditional CO2-equivalent targets are ambiguous unless contributions from cumulative pollutants and SLCPs are specified separately.

  13. Particle emissions from laboratory activities involving carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Li-Ming; Tsai, Candace S.-J.; Heitbrink, William A.; Dunn, Kevin H.; Topmiller, Jennifer; Ellenbecker, Michael

    2017-08-01

    This site study was conducted in a chemical laboratory to evaluate nanomaterial emissions from 20-30-nm-diameter bundles of single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) during product development activities. Direct-reading instruments were used to monitor the tasks in real time, and airborne particles were collected using various methods to characterize released nanomaterials using electron microscopy and elemental carbon (EC) analyses. CNT clusters and a few high-aspect-ratio particles were identified as being released from some activities. The EC concentration (0.87 μg/m3) at the source of probe sonication was found to be higher than other activities including weighing, mixing, centrifugation, coating, and cutting. Various sampling methods all indicated different levels of CNTs from the activities; however, the sonication process was found to release the highest amounts of CNTs. It can be cautiously concluded that the task of probe sonication possibly released nanomaterials into the laboratory and posed a risk of surface contamination. Based on these results, the sonication of CNT suspension should be covered or conducted inside a ventilated enclosure with proper filtration or a glovebox to minimize the potential of exposure.

  14. Assessment of Carbon Emission Reduction for Buildings Projects in Malaysia-A Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klufallah Mustafa M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Malaysian construction industry significantly contributes as an empowerment to its development vision of 2020 by reducing 40% of carbon emission. Moreover, this industry accounts as a threat to the environment, not only in terms of consumption of natural resources but also in emitting million tons of carbon emission annually. In fact, Malaysia is categorized the 30th in the world's ranking in carbon emission level. To mitigate the raise of carbon emission level from the buildings construction, several studies identified some of the effective carbon emission assessment tools for construction projects but it is lack of implementation in Malaysia. The green building index (GBI, Malaysian CIB Report has been introduced to assist the construction stakeholders in reducing the level of carbon emission and the impact of buildings on the environment. This paper presents an analysis of carbon emission from housing projects and office buildings in order to identify and quantify the main sources of carbon emission for each project and it proposes environmental friendly materials as replacement for conventional construction materials to achieve the implementation of sustainability in Malaysia.

  15. Institute a modest carbon tax to reduce carbon emissions, finance clean energy technology development, cut taxes, and reduce the deficit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muro, Mark; Rothwell, Jonathan

    2012-11-15

    The nation should institute a modest carbon tax in order to help clean up the economy and stabilize the nation’s finances. Specifically, Congress and the president should implement a $20 per ton, steadily increasing carbon excise fee that would discourage carbon dioxide emissions while shifting taxation onto pollution, financing energy efficiency (EE) and clean technology development, and providing opportunities to cut taxes or reduce the deficit. The net effect of these policies would be to curb harmful carbon emissions, improve the nation’s balance sheet, and stimulate job-creation and economic renewal.

  16. Joint Optimal Production Planning for Complex Supply Chains Constrained by Carbon Emission Abatement Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longfei He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We focus on the joint production planning of complex supply chains facing stochastic demands and being constrained by carbon emission reduction policies. We pick two typical carbon emission reduction policies to research how emission regulation influences the profit and carbon footprint of a typical supply chain. We use the input-output model to capture the interrelated demand link between an arbitrary pair of two nodes in scenarios without or with carbon emission constraints. We design optimization algorithm to obtain joint optimal production quantities combination for maximizing overall profit under regulatory policies, respectively. Furthermore, numerical studies by featuring exponentially distributed demand compare systemwide performances in various scenarios. We build the “carbon emission elasticity of profit (CEEP” index as a metric to evaluate the impact of regulatory policies on both chainwide emissions and profit. Our results manifest that by facilitating the mandatory emission cap in proper installation within the network one can balance well effective emission reduction and associated acceptable profit loss. The outcome that CEEP index when implementing Carbon emission tax is elastic implies that the scale of profit loss is greater than that of emission reduction, which shows that this policy is less effective than mandatory cap from industry standpoint at least.

  17. Challenges for Reducing Emissions of Black Carbon from the Transport Sector in Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, M. A.; Molina, L. T.

    2013-05-01

    The transport sector is a large contributor of harmful gaseous and particulate emissions in many urban areas. Black carbon is a component of short-lived particulate matter emitted predominantly by freight, public transport, and heavy- duty trucks. Controlling the emissions of black carbon from the transport sector is important for mitigating its impacts on climate, ecosystems, and human health. However, reducing the emissions of black carbon from mobile sources may be a challenging task in many developing urban areas due to economic, social, and technical constrains. Several emissions control technologies offer a proven approach for reducing emissions of black carbon from diesel-powered mobile sources, but the accurate quantification of associated emissions benefits in developing urban areas is not well documented. We describe recent advances for the estimation of black carbon emissions from the transport sector in real world driving conditions and present examples of the potential benefits of implementing various emission control technologies in Mexico. The results can help in the identification of key factors that hinder the implementation of control emissions for reducing emissions of black carbon elsewhere.

  18. International Oil Price’s Impacts on Carbon Emission in China’s Transportation Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoxing Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper analyses the impact mechanism of international oil price on the industrial carbon emission, and uses the partial least squares regression model to study international oil price’s impact on carbon emissions in China’s transportation industry.Design/methodology/approach: This paper chooses five independent variables of GDP, international oil price, private car population, passenger and freight transportation volume as impact factors to investigate industrial carbon emissions, the paper also analyses the impact mechanism of international oil price on the industrial carbon emission, and finally the paper uses the partial least squares regression model to study international oil price’s impact on carbon emissions in China’s transportation industry. With the independent variables’ historical data from 1994 to 2009 as a sample, the fitting of the industry carbon emissions is satisfying. And based on the data of 2011, the paper maintains the private car owning, passenger and freight transportation volume to study international oil prices’ impact on the industry carbon emissions at different levels of GDP.Findings: The results show that: with the same GDP growth, the industry carbon emissions increase with the rise in international oil prices, and vice versa, the industry carbon emissions decrease; and lastly when GDP increases to a certain extent, in both cases of international oil prices’ rise or fall, the industry carbon emissions will go up, and the industry carbon emissions increase even faster while the energy prices are rising.Practical implications: Limit the growth in private-vehicle ownership, change China's transport sector within the next short-term in the structure of energy consumption and put forward China's new energy, alternative energy sources and renewable energy application so as to weaken the dependence on international oil, and indirectly slowdown China's GDP growth rate, which are all possible

  19. Carbon dioxide emissions and nutrition on a drained pine mire - a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, M.; Karsisto, M.; Kaunisto, S. [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Vantaa (Finland). Vantaa Research Centre

    1996-12-31

    Drainage of boreal peatlands intensify aerobic decomposition and carbon dioxide emission from the peat substrate and increase tree growth. CO{sub 2} emission rates depend on the ground water level and the soil temperature. Predicted rises in mean air temperatures due to anthropogenically induced climate change are expected to further increase carbon dioxide emission from drained boreal peatlands. The role of added nutrients is somewhat vague. The purpose of this presentation is to give some preliminary results on microbial biomass carbon and on carbon dioxide output/input relationship on a pine mire. (6 refs.)

  20. Implication of Land-Use and Land-Cover Change into Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Karang Gading and Langkat Timur Wildlife Reserve, North Sumatra, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Basyuni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove forest in the context of climate change is important sector to be included in the inventory of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. The present study describes land-use and land-cover change during 2006–2012 of a mangrove forest conservation area, Karang Gading and Langkat Timur Laut Wildlife Reserve (KGLTLWR in North Sumatra, Indonesia and their implications to carbon dioxide emissions. A land-use change matrix showed that the decrease of mangrove forest due to increases of other land-use such as aquaculture (50.00% and oil palm plantation (28.83%. Furthermore, the net cumulative of carbon emissions in KGLTLWR for 2006 was 3804.70 t CO2-eq year-1, whereas predicting future emissions in 2030 was 11,318.74 t CO2-eq year-1 or an increase of 33.61% for 12 years. Source of historical emissions mainly from changes of secondary mangrove forests into aquaculture and oil palm plantation were 3223.9 t CO2-eq year-1 (84.73% and 959.00 t CO2-eq year-1 (25.21%, respectively, indicating that the KGLTLWR is still a GHG emitter. Mitigation scenario with no conversion in secondary mangrove forest reduced 16.21% and 25.8% carbon emissions in 2024 and 2030, respectively. This study suggested that aquaculture and oil palm plantation are drivers of deforestation as well as the largest of GHG emission source in this area. Keywords: carbon emission, climate change, deforestation, forest degradation, mangrove conservation

  1. Examining the Efforts of a Small, Open Economy to Reduce Carbon Emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levitt, Clinton J.; Saaby Pedersen, Morten; Sørensen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    emissions by relatively small, open economies. Although, these economies are small players in international markets, international trade has an important influence on their economies. Investigating the outcome of efforts to curb emissions by these small, open economies provides insights into the situation...... faced by a large set of the world's economies. This paper has three objectives: (1) investigate the outcome of Denmark's efforts to reduce its carbon emissions by characterizing the relationship between Denmark's macroeconomic activity and carbon emissions; (2) determine the carbon content of Danish...... suggest two, related lessons. First, small, open economies, should track both production and consumption emissions when evaluating their progress towards reducing carbon emissions. Second, international trade should be considered in the design of environmental policy. The Danish experience indicates...

  2. Atmospheric monitoring for fugitive emissions from geological carbon storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Z. M.; Etheridge, D.; Luhar, A.; Leuning, R.; Jenkins, C.

    2013-12-01

    We present a multi-year record of continuous atmospheric CO2 and CH4 concentration measurements, flask sampling (for CO2, CH4, N2O, δ13CO2 and SF6) and CO2 flux measurements at the CO2CRC Otway Project (http://www.co2crc.com.au/otway/), a demonstration site for geological storage of CO2 in south-western Victoria, Australia. The measurements are used to develop atmospheric methods for operational monitoring of large scale CO2 geological storage. Characterization of emission rates ideally requires concentration measurements upwind and downwind of the source, along with knowledge of the atmospheric turbulence field. Because only a single measurement location was available for much of the measurement period, we develop techniques to filter the record and to construct a ';pseudo-upwind' measurement from our dataset. Carbon dioxide and methane concentrations were filtered based on wind direction, downward shortwave radiation, atmospheric stability and hour-to-hour changes in CO2 flux. These criteria remove periods of naturally high concentration due to the combined effects of biogenic respiration, stable atmospheric conditions and pre-existing sources (both natural and anthropogenic), leaving a reduced data set, from which a fugitive leak from the storage reservoir, the ';(potential) source sector)', could more easily be detected. Histograms of the filtered data give a measure of the background variability in both CO2 and CH4. Comparison of the ';pseudo-upwind' dataset histogram with the ';(potential) source sector' histogram shows no statistical difference, placing limits on leakage to the atmosphere over the preceding two years. For five months in 2011, we ran a true pair of up and downwind CO2 and CH4 concentration measurements. During this period, known rates of gas were periodically released at the surface (near the original injection point). These emissions are clearly detected as elevated concentrations of CO2 and CH4 in the filtered data and in the measured

  3. A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Andres

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This synthesis discusses the emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production. While much is known about these emissions, there is still much that is unknown about the details surrounding these emissions. This synthesis explores our knowledge of these emissions in terms of why there is concern about them; how they are calculated; the major global efforts on inventorying them; their global, regional, and national totals at different spatial and temporal scales; how they are distributed on global grids (i.e. maps; how they are transported in models; and the uncertainties associated with these different aspects of the emissions. The magnitude of emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels has been almost continuously increasing with time since fossil fuels were first used by humans. Despite events in some nations specifically designed to reduce emissions, or which have had emissions reduction as a byproduct of other events, global total emissions continue their general increase with time. Global total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions are known to within 10% uncertainty (95% confidence interval. Uncertainty on individual national total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions range from a few percent to more than 50%. The information discussed in this manuscript synthesizes global, regional and national fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions, their distributions, their transport, and the associated uncertainties.

  4. Systematic framework for carbon dioxide capture and utilization processes to reduce the global carbon dioxide emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frauzem, Rebecca; Plaza, Cristina Calvera; Gani, Rafiqul

    carbon dioxide emission problems. More specifically, the prototype framework and the three-stage approach adopted for systematic and sustainable design of carbon capture and utilization processes incorporates (i) process synthesis stage, the determination of a processing path from a network...... of alternatives; (ii) process design, the design and analysis of a process or generated processing path in terms of process “hot-spots” or deficiencies to set design targets for improvement; and (iii) innovative and more sustainable design, determination of solutions matching the design targets. In this way......) and the determination of the optimal processing route. Finally, the framework has access to, a collection of tools for analysis, such as economic analysis, sustainability and life cycle assessment, and links to detailed process simulation (process simulators). Following the work-flow and data-flow implemented...

  5. The impacts of population change on carbon emissions in China during 1978-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Qin, E-mail: zhuqin@fudan.edu.cn; Peng Xizhe, E-mail: xzpeng@fudan.edu.cn

    2012-09-15

    This study examines the impacts of population size, population structure, and consumption level on carbon emissions in China from 1978 to 2008. To this end, we expanded the stochastic impacts by regression on population, affluence, and technology model and used the ridge regression method, which overcomes the negative influences of multicollinearity among independent variables under acceptable bias. Results reveal that changes in consumption level and population structure were the major impact factors, not changes in population size. Consumption level and carbon emissions were highly correlated. In terms of population structure, urbanization, population age, and household size had distinct effects on carbon emissions. Urbanization increased carbon emissions, while the effect of age acted primarily through the expansion of the labor force and consequent overall economic growth. Shrinking household size increased residential consumption, resulting in higher carbon emissions. Households, rather than individuals, are a more reasonable explanation for the demographic impact on carbon emissions. Potential social policies for low carbon development are also discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine the impacts of population change on carbon emissions in China. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We expand the STIRPAT model by containing population structure factors in the model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The population structure includes age structure, urbanization level, and household size. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ridge regression method is used to estimate the model with multicollinearity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The population structure plays a more important role compared with the population size.

  6. Carbon Emissions in China: A Spatial Econometric Analysis at the Regional Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Liu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An extended Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence and Technology (STIRPAT model, incorporating factors that drive carbon emissions, is built from the regional perspective. A spatial Durbin model is applied to investigate the factors, including population, urbanization level, economic development, energy intensity, industrial structure, energy consumption structure, energy price, and openness, that impact both the scale and intensity of carbon emissions. After performing the model, we find that the revealed negative and significant impact of spatial-lagged variables suggests that the carbon emissions among regions are highly correlated. Therefore, the empirical results suggest that the provinces are doing an exemplary job of lowering carbon emissions. The driving factors, with the exception of energy prices, significantly impact carbon emissions both directly and indirectly. We, thus, argue that spatial correlation, endogeneity and externality should be taken into account in formulating polices that seek to reduce carbon emissions in China. Carbon emissions will not be met by controlling economic development, but by energy consumption and low-carbon path.

  7. Potential biodiversity benefits from international programs to reduce carbon emissions from deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siikamäki, Juha; Newbold, Stephen C

    2012-01-01

    Deforestation is the second largest anthropogenic source of carbon dioxide emissions and options for its reduction are integral to climate policy. In addition to providing potentially low cost and near-term options for reducing global carbon emissions, reducing deforestation also could support biodiversity conservation. However, current understanding of the potential benefits to biodiversity from forest carbon offset programs is limited. We compile spatial data on global forest carbon, biodiversity, deforestation rates, and the opportunity cost of land to examine biodiversity conservation benefits from an international program to reduce carbon emissions from deforestation. Our results indicate limited geographic overlap between the least-cost areas for retaining forest carbon and protecting biodiversity. Therefore, carbon-focused policies will likely generate substantially lower benefits to biodiversity than a more biodiversity-focused policy could achieve. These results highlight the need to systematically consider co-benefits, such as biodiversity in the design and implementation of forest conservation programs to support international climate policy.

  8. Carbon Embodied in International Trade of China and Its Emission Responsibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Huimin; Qi Ye

    2010-01-01

    Carbon emissions embodied in international trade of China during 1997-2007 are accounted by input-output method based on Chinese input-output table and global trade analysis project database.It is revealed that carbon emissions embodied in imports and exports both increased during 1997-2007,but carbon emissions embodied in exports are greater than those embodied in imports,China is a net export nation in embodied carbon.The net exports of embodied carbon account for about 10.82% of the total carbon emissions in 1997,dropped to 7.15% in 2002,increased to13.13% in 2006,and slightly dropped to 12.64% in 2007.Low-end position of international industry division is an objective factor of being a net exporter of embodied carbon for China,and usage of a large amount of obsolete energy-using equipments wasted much energy and increased carbon emissions embodied in exports.Importers should take more responsibilities for carbon emissions embodied in trade,and China should take a certain responsibility for unreasonable energy dissipations too.

  9. The Production, Value, and Reduction Responsibility of Carbon Emissions through Electricity Consumption of Manufacturing Industries in South Korea and Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitikun, Medhawin

    , manufacturing industries take full responsibility for emissions reductions by curtailing their use of energy without any subsidies from the government. Revenue function estimates provide measures of the differential costs imposed on different industries by emissions reductions. In the second scenario, emissions reductions are achieved by changing the mix of electricity generation technologies used by the power generation sector within the country. For the international case, I focus on the fairness of emission reduction responsibility among countries. To be fair to countries at different levels of development and with different rate of carbon emissions, I propose a new method to adjust the timing and rates of emission reductions based on a lifetime cumulative emission per capita.

  10. Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Science overview and knowledge needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    William T. Sommers; Rachel A. Loehman; Colin C. Hardy

    2014-01-01

    Wildland fires have influenced the global carbon cycle for 420 million years of Earth history, interacting with climate to define vegetation characteristics and distributions, trigger abrupt ecosystem shifts, and move carbon among terrestrial and atmospheric pools. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the dominant driver of ongoing climate change and the principal emissions...

  11. Using forest carbon credits to offset emissions in the downstream business

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hein, Lars

    2017-01-01

    In the refining sector, there is currently limited scope for using forest carbon credits to offset emissions. A potentially more promising option is to develop a "carbon neutral" gasoline and/or diesel for sale at retail stations using voluntary carbon credits. The sector would need to show that

  12. Carbon dioxide and methane emission dynamics in central London (UK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfter, Carole; Nemitz, Eiko; Barlow, Janet F.; Wood, Curtis R.

    2013-04-01

    London, with a population of 8.2 million, is the largest city in Europe. It is heavily built-up (typically 8% vegetation cover within the central boroughs) and boasts some of the busiest arteries in Europe despite efforts to reduce traffic in the city centre with the introduction of a congestion charging scheme in 2007. We report on two substantial pollution monitoring efforts in the heart of London between October 2006 and present. Fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) were measured continuously by eddy-covariance in central London from October 2006 until May 2008 from a 190 m telecommunication tower (BT tower; 51° 31' 17.4'' N 0° 8' 20.04'' W). The eddy-covariance system consisted of a Gill R3-50 ultrasonic anemometer operated at 20 Hz and a LI-COR 6262 infrared gas analyser. Air was sampled 0.3 m below the sensor head of the ultrasonic anemometer - which was itself mounted on a 3 m mast to the top of a 15 m lattice tower situated on the roof of the tower (instrument head at 190 m above street level) - and pulled down 45 m of 12.7 mm OD Teflon tubing. In addition, meteorological variables (temperature, relative humidity, pressure, precipitation, wind speed and direction) were also measured with a multi-sensor (Weather Transmitter WXT510, Vaisala). Eddy-covariance measurements at the BT tower location were reinstated in July 2011 and include methane (CH4), CO2 and H2O concentrations measured by a Picarro fast methane analyser (G2301-f). CO2 emissions were found to be mainly controlled by fossil fuel combustion (e.g. traffic, commercial and domestic heating). Diurnal averages of CO2 fluxes were found to be highly correlated to traffic. However changes in heating-related natural gas consumption and, to a lesser extent, photosynthetic activity in two large city centre green spaces (Hyde Park and Regent's Park) explained the seasonal variability. Annual estimates of net exchange of CO2 obtained by eddy-covariance agreed well with up-scaled data from the UK

  13. The Soft Cumulative Constraint

    CERN Document Server

    Petit, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    This research report presents an extension of Cumulative of Choco constraint solver, which is useful to encode over-constrained cumulative problems. This new global constraint uses sweep and task interval violation-based algorithms.

  14. Forest carbon emissions from cropland expansion in the Brazilian Cerrado biome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noojipady, Praveen; Morton, C. Douglas; Macedo, N. Marcia; Victoria, C. Daniel; Huang, Chengquan; Gibbs, K. Holly; Edson Bolfe, L.

    2017-02-01

    Land use, land use change, and forestry accounted for two-thirds of Brazil’s greenhouse gas emissions profile in 2005. Amazon deforestation has declined by more than 80% over the past decade, yet Brazil’s forests extend beyond the Amazon biome. Rapid expansion of cropland in the neighboring Cerrado biome has the potential to undermine climate mitigation efforts if emissions from dry forest and woodland conversion negate some of the benefits of avoided Amazon deforestation. Here, we used satellite data on cropland expansion, forest cover, and vegetation carbon stocks to estimate annual gross forest carbon emissions from cropland expansion in the Cerrado biome. Nearly half of the Cerrado met Brazil’s definition of forest cover in 2000 (≥0.5 ha with ≥10% canopy cover). In areas of established crop production, conversion of both forest and non-forest Cerrado formations for cropland declined during 2003–2013. However, forest carbon emissions from cropland expansion increased over the past decade in Matopiba, a new frontier of agricultural production that includes portions of Maranhão, Tocantins, Piauí, and Bahia states. Gross carbon emissions from cropland expansion in the Cerrado averaged 16.28 Tg C yr‑1 between 2003 and 2013, with forest-to-cropland conversion accounting for 29% of emissions. The fraction of forest carbon emissions from Matopiba was much higher; between 2010–2013, large-scale cropland conversion in Matopiba contributed 45% of total Cerrado forest carbon emissions. Carbon emissions from Cerrado-to-cropland transitions offset 5%–7% of the avoided emissions from reduced Amazon deforestation rates during 2011–2013. Comprehensive national estimates of forest carbon fluxes, including all biomes, are critical to detect cross-biome leakage within countries and achieve climate mitigation targets to reduce emissions from land use, land use change, and forestry.

  15. Do forests best mitigate CO2 emissions to the atmosphere by setting them aside for maximization of carbon storage or by management for fossil fuel substitution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taeroe, Anders; Mustapha, Walid Fayez; Stupak, Inge; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten

    2017-07-15

    Forests' potential to mitigate carbon emissions to the atmosphere is heavily debated and a key question is if forests left unmanaged to store carbon in biomass and soil provide larger carbon emission reductions than forests kept under forest management for production of wood that can substitute fossil fuels and fossil fuel intensive materials. We defined a modelling framework for calculation of the carbon pools and fluxes along the forest energy and wood product supply chains over 200 years for three forest management alternatives (FMA): 1) a traditionally managed European beech forest, as a business-as-usual case, 2) an energy poplar plantation, and 3) a set-aside forest left unmanaged for long-term storage of carbon. We calculated the cumulative net carbon emissions (CCE) and carbon parity times (CPT) of the managed forests relative to the unmanaged forest. Energy poplar generally had the lowest CCE when using coal as the reference fossil fuel. With natural gas as the reference fossil fuel, the CCE of the business-as-usual and the energy poplar was nearly equal, with the unmanaged forest having the highest CCE after 40 years. CPTs ranged from 0 to 156 years, depending on the applied model assumptions. CCE and CPT were especially sensitive to the reference fossil fuel, material alternatives to wood, forest growth rates for the three FMAs, and energy conversion efficiencies. Assumptions about the long-term steady-state levels of carbon stored in the unmanaged forest had a limited effect on CCE after 200 years. Analyses also showed that CPT was not a robust measure for ranking of carbon mitigation benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of a stationary carbon emission inventory for Shanghai using pollution source census data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianzhe; Jiang, Ping; Zhang, Yan; Ma, Weichun

    2016-12-01

    This study utilizes 521,631 activity data points from the 2007 Shanghai Pollution Source Census to compile a stationary carbon emission inventory for Shanghai. The inventory generated from our dataset shows that a large portion of Shanghai's total energy use consists of coal-oriented energy consumption. The electricity and heat production industries, iron and steel mills, and the petroleum refining industry are the main carbon emitters. In addition, most of these industries are located in Baoshan District, which is Shanghai's largest contributor of carbon emissions. Policy makers can use the enterpriselevel carbon emission inventory and the method designed in this study to construct sound carbon emission reduction policies. The carbon trading scheme to be established in Shanghai based on the developed carbon inventory is also introduced in this paper with the aim of promoting the monitoring, reporting and verification of carbon trading. Moreover, we believe that it might be useful to consider the participation of industries, such as those for food processing, beverage, and tobacco, in Shanghai's carbon trading scheme. Based on the results contained herein, we recommend establishing a comprehensive carbon emission inventory by inputting data from the pollution source census used in this study.

  17. Magmatic carbon dioxide emissions at Mammoth Mountain, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Christopher D.; Neil, John M.; Howle, James F.

    1999-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) of magmatic origin is seeping out of the ground in unusual quantities at several locations around the flanks of Mammoth Mountain, a dormant volcano in Eastern California. The most recent volcanic activity on Mammoth Mountain was steam eruptions about 600 years ago, but seismic swarms and long-period earthquakes over the past decade are evidence of an active magmatic system at depth. The CO2 emission probably began in 1990 but was not recognized until 1994. Seismic swarms and minor ground deformation during 1989, believed to be results of a shallow intrusion of magma beneath Mammoth Mountain, probably triggered the release of CO2, which persists in 1998. The CO2 gas is at ambient temperatures and emanates diffusely from the soil surface rather than flowing from distinct vents. The CO2 has collected in the soil by displacing air in the pore spaces and reaches concentrations of greater than 95 percent by volume in places. The total area affected by high CO2 concentrations and high CO2 flux from the soil surface was estimated at 60 hectares in 1997. Coniferous forest covering about 40 hectares has been killed by high CO2 concentrations in the root zone. In more than 300 soil-gas samples collected from depths of 0.5 to 2 m in 1995, CO2 concentrations ranged from background levels (less than 1 percent) to greater than 95 percent by volume. At 250 locations, CO2 flux was measured using a closed chamber in 1996; values, in grams per square meter per day, ranged from background (less than 25) to more than 30,000. On the basis of these data, the total emission of magmatic CO2 in 1996 is estimated to be about 530 megagrams per day. Concentrations of CO2 exceeding Occupational Safety and Health Administration standards have been measured in pits dug in soil and snow, in poorly ventilated buildings, and in below-ground valve-boxes around Mammoth Mountain. CO2 concentrations greater than 10 percent in poorly ventilated spaces are not uncommon on some parts

  18. Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Littoral Zone of a Chinese Reservoir, and a Comparison with Other Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Meng

    2017-04-01

    The continuous increase in the number of reservoirs in countries like China, India and Brazil has raised important questions about the environmental impact of their greenhouse gases emissions. In particular, the littoral zone may be a hotspot for production of greenhouse gases. We investigated the spatiotemporal variation of CO2 flux at the littoral zone of a Chinese reservoir along a wet-to-dry transect from permanent flooded land, seasonal flooded land to non-flooded dry land, using the static dark chamber technique. The mean total respiration was 346 mg m-2 h-1 (52% of which was contributed by shoots) and the rate varied significantly among water levels, months and time of day. We developed a statistical model which shows that temperature and biomass explain 76% of the variation. Flooding could play a positive role in carbon balance if water recession occurs at the time when carbon gains associated with plant growth overcomes the carbon loss of ecosystem. The overall carbon balance was analysed using cumulative greenhouse gases fluxes and biomass, bringing the data of the present study alongside our published data of CH4 and N2O flux which had been investigated simultaneously. CO2 and CH4 emissions correlated significantly under flooding, while N2O did not show significant correlations with CO2 or CH4 irrespective of whether the land was flooded or not. For the growing season, 11.6 g C m-2 was absorbed by the littoral zone. Taking CH4 and N2O into the calculation showed that permanently flooded sites were a source of greenhouse gases, rather than a sink. We emphasise the importance of taking into account all three gases when evaluating the greenhouse gas budgets of wetland ecosystems.

  19. Wind farms on peatland: Effect of Management Practices on Carbon Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. U.; Nayak, D. R.; Miller, D.; Nolan, A.; Smith, P.

    2009-04-01

    The Scottish Government has set ambitious targets for electricity generation by renewables (Scottish Government, 2007). To meet the interim target of 31% electricity generation from renewable sources by 2011 and 50% by 2020, a substantial increase in the number of onshore wind farms is likely to be required. In Scotland a large number of proposed wind farm developments are on peatlands. One concern raised over the development of wind farms on peatlands questions whether the expected saving in carbon emissions due to electricity generation using wind power will be offset by increased carbon losses associated with the development. If carbon payback time exceeds the life time of the wind farm, then the development represents a net carbon cost. However, our calculations show that even on peatlands, good management practices can be used to minimise carbon losses and achieve carbon payback times that are significantly less than the lifetime of the wind farm. Using floating roads instead of excavated roads can minimise the carbon loss. Restoration of the site could potentially halt carbon loss processes, so allowing carbon dioxide emissions to be limited to the time before the habitat and hydrological conditions are restored. If the site is restored after decommissioning, the carbon payback time can be reduced by 50%. Habitat improvement at disturbed sites can significantly reduce carbon emissions, potentially preventing further losses and increasing carbon stored in the improved habitat. We present the calculations of carbon losses at a range of wind farm developments across Scotland, differing in soil type, climate, management practices and site design. We assess the impact of management and design on carbon emissions, and demonstrate the importance of good site management and design to reducing carbon emissions, especially for wind farms sited on peatlands.

  20. Decomposition of energy-related carbon emissions in Xinjiang and relative mitigation policy recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changjian; Zhang, Xiaolei; Wang, Fei; Lei, Jun; Zhang, Li

    2015-03-01

    Regional carbon emissions research is necessary and helpful for China in realizing reduction targets. The LMDI I (Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index I) technique based on an extended Kaya identity was conducted to uncover the main five driving forces for energy-related carbon emissions in Xinjiang, an important energy base in China. Decomposition results show that the affluence effect and the population effect are the two most important contributors to increased carbon emissions. The energy intensity effect had a positive influence on carbon emissions during the pre-reform period, and then became the dominant factor in curbing carbon emissions after 1978. The renewable energy penetration effect and the emission coefficient effect showed important negative but relatively minor effects on carbon emissions. Based on the local realities, a comprehensive suite of mitigation policies are raised by considering all of these influencing factors. Mitigation policies will need to significantly reduce energy intensity and pay more attention to the regional economic development path. Fossil fuel substitution should be considered seriously. Renewable energy should be increased in the energy mix. All of these policy recommendations, if implemented by the central and local government, should make great contributions to energy saving and emission reduction in Xinjiang.

  1. Will the use of a carbon tax for revenue generation produce an incentive to continue carbon emissions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rong; Moreno-Cruz, Juan; Caldeira, Ken

    2017-05-01

    Integrated assessment models are commonly used to generate optimal carbon prices based on an objective function that maximizes social welfare. Such models typically project an initially low carbon price that increases with time. This framework does not reflect the incentives of decision makers who are responsible for generating tax revenue. If a rising carbon price is to result in near-zero emissions, it must ultimately result in near-zero carbon tax revenue. That means that at some point, policy makers will be asked to increase the tax rate on carbon emissions to such an extent that carbon tax revenue will fall. Therefore, there is a risk that the use of a carbon tax to generate revenue could eventually create a perverse incentive to continue carbon emissions in order to provide a continued stream of carbon tax revenue. Using the Dynamic Integrated Climate Economy (DICE) model, we provide evidence that this risk is not a concern for the immediate future but that a revenue-generating carbon tax could create this perverse incentive as time goes on. This incentive becomes perverse at about year 2085 under the default configuration of DICE, but the timing depends on a range of factors including the cost of climate damages and the cost of decarbonizing the global energy system. While our study is based on a schematic model, it highlights the importance of considering a broader spectrum of incentives in studies using more comprehensive integrated assessment models. Our study demonstrates that the use of a carbon tax for revenue generation could potentially motivate implementation of such a tax today, but this source of revenue generation risks motivating continued carbon emissions far into the future.

  2. Plasma-induced field emission study of carbon nanotube cathode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Shen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available An investigation on the plasma-induced field emission (PFE properties of a large area carbon nanotube (CNT cathode on a 2 MeV linear induction accelerator injector is presented. Experimental results show that the cathode is able to emit intense electron beams. Intense electron beams of 14.9–127.8  A/cm^{2} are obtained from the cathode. The CNT cathode desorbs gases from the CNTs during the PFE process. The fast cathode plasma expansion affects the diode perveance. The amount of outgassing is estimated to be 0.06–0.49  Pa·L, and the ratio of outgassing and electron are roughly calculated to be within the range of 170–350 atoms per electron. The effect of the outgassing is analyzed, and the outgassing mass spectrum of the CNT cathode has been studied during the PFE. There is a significant desorption of CO_{2}, N_{2}(CO, and H_{2} gases, which plays an important role during the PFE process. All the experiments demonstrate that the outgassing plays an important role in the formation of the cathode plasma. Moreover, the characteristic turn-on time of the CNT cathode was measured to be 39 ns.

  3. AC-driven organic light emission devices with carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, So-Yeon; Yu, SeGi

    2017-02-01

    We have investigated alternating current (AC)-driven organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs), with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) incorporated within the emission layer. With CNT incorporation, the brightness of the OLEDs was substantially improved, and the turn-on voltage was reduced by at least a factor of five. Furthermore, the current levels of the CNT-incorporated OLEDs were lower than that of the reference device. A roughly 70% decrease in the current level was obtained for a CNT concentration of 0.03 wt%. This was accomplished by keeping the concentration of CNTs low and the length of CNTs short, which helped to suppress the percolation networking of CNTs within the emitting layer. Strong local electric fields near the end-tips of CNTs and micro-capacitors formed by dispersed CNTs might have caused this high brightness and these low currents. CNT incorporation in the emitting layer can improve the characteristics of AC-driven OLEDs, which are considered to be one of the candidates for flat panel displays and lightning devices.

  4. Consideration of black carbon and primary organic carbon emissions in life-cycle analysis of Greenhouse gas emissions of vehicle systems and fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hao; Wang, Michael Q

    2014-10-21

    The climate impact assessment of vehicle/fuel systems may be incomplete without considering short-lived climate forcers of black carbon (BC) and primary organic carbon (POC). We quantified life-cycle BC and POC emissions of a large variety of vehicle/fuel systems with an expanded Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation model developed at Argonne National Laboratory. Life-cycle BC and POC emissions have small impacts on life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of gasoline, diesel, and other fuel vehicles, but would add 34, 16, and 16 g CO2 equivalent (CO2e)/mile, or 125, 56, and 56 g CO2e/mile with the 100 or 20 year Global Warming Potentials of BC and POC emissions, respectively, for vehicles fueled with corn stover-, willow tree-, and Brazilian sugarcane-derived ethanol, mostly due to BC- and POC-intensive biomass-fired boilers in cellulosic and sugarcane ethanol plants for steam and electricity production, biomass open burning in sugarcane fields, and diesel-powered agricultural equipment for biomass feedstock production/harvest. As a result, life-cycle GHG emission reduction potentials of these ethanol types, though still significant, are reduced from those without considering BC and POC emissions. These findings, together with a newly expanded GREET version, help quantify the previously unknown impacts of BC and POC emissions on life-cycle GHG emissions of U.S. vehicle/fuel systems.

  5. Factors Leading to Variability of Emission Factors, Single Scattering Albedo, and Elemental Carbon Fraction from Biofuel Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roden, C. A.; Bond, T. C.; Conway, S.; Osorto Pinel, B.; Maccarty, N.

    2006-12-01

    In a three-year study of field and laboratory emissions of traditional and improved biofuel cookstoves, we found that field measured particulate emissions of actual cooking events average 2.5 times those of reproduced lab emissions. Emission factors are highly dependent on the care and skill of the operator, and the resulting combustion; these do not appear to be accurately reproduced in the lab. The single scatter albedo (SSA) of the emissions is very low in both lab and field measurements, averaging about 0.3 for lab tests and around 0.5 for field tests, indicating that the primary particles are climate warming. In Honduras, improved stoves generally had lower emission factors than traditional stoves. Over the course of 3 summers we have measured field emissions from traditional cookstoves, relatively-new improved cookstoves, and "broken-in" improved cookstoves. For improved stoves, the presence of a chimney generally resulted in lower emission factors but left the SSA unaffected. Traditional cookstoves had an average PM emission factor of 8.5 g/kg significantly larger than previous studies. Particulate emission factors for improved cookstoves without and with chimneys averaged about 5.7 g/kg and 3.5 g/kg respectively. The elemental carbon (EC) fraction of PM varied significantly between individual tests, but averaged about 25% for each of the categories. Wood type affects on the PM emission factor, the SSA of the emissions and EC fraction. During our 2006 field measurements, we performed multiple emission measurements on the same stove while varying the fuel. Pine wood generally produced more PM than oak per kilogram of fuel. Additionally, Ocote, a resinous pitch pine often used in Central America for lighting fires, produces emissions which have a very low SSA and high EC fraction. We present the elemental carbon fraction and mass emission factors for different type of stoves and testing conditions. We summarize the characteristics of the particles emitted

  6. Carbon emissions from U.S. ethylene production under climate change policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Matthias; Amato, Anthony D; Davidsdottir, Brynhildur

    2002-01-15

    This paper presents the results from a dynamic computer model of U.S. ethylene production, designed to explore implications of alternative climate change policies for the industry's energy use and carbon emissions profiles. The model applies to the aggregate ethylene industry but distinguishes its main cracker types, fuels used as feedstocks and for process energy, as well as the industry's capital vintage structure and vintage-specific efficiencies. Results indicate that policies which increase the cost of carbon of process energy-such as carbon taxes or carbon permit systems-are relatively blunt instruments for cutting carbon emissions from ethylene production. In contrast, policies directly affecting the relative efficiencies of new to old capital-such as R&D stimuli or accelerated depreciation schedules-may be more effective in leveraging the industry's potential for carbon emissions reductions.

  7. Fabrication of small diameter few-walled carbon nanotubes with enhanced field emission property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Cheng; Qi, Hang; Gao, Bo; Cheng, Yuan; Qiu, Qi; Qin, Lu-Chang; Zhou, Otto; Liu, Jie

    2006-05-01

    A unique type of carbon nanotubes with 2 to 5 layers of sidewalls and diameters less than 10 nm was synthesized by the thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method with MgO supported Fe/Mo catalyst. Unlike the typical CVD grown multi-walled carbon nanotubes, these few-walled carbon nanotubes (FWNTs) have a high degree of structural perfection. They have enhanced electron field emission characteristics compared to the current commercial nanotubes, with a low threshold field for emission and improved emission stability.

  8. A modified impulse-response representation of the global near-surface air temperature and atmospheric concentration response to carbon dioxide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Richard J.; Nicholls, Zebedee R.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Allen, Myles R.

    2017-06-01

    Projections of the response to anthropogenic emission scenarios, evaluation of some greenhouse gas metrics, and estimates of the social cost of carbon often require a simple model that links emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) to atmospheric concentrations and global temperature changes. An essential requirement of such a model is to reproduce typical global surface temperature and atmospheric CO2 responses displayed by more complex Earth system models (ESMs) under a range of emission scenarios, as well as an ability to sample the range of ESM response in a transparent, accessible and reproducible form. Here we adapt the simple model of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 5th Assessment Report (IPCC AR5) to explicitly represent the state dependence of the CO2 airborne fraction. Our adapted model (FAIR) reproduces the range of behaviour shown in full and intermediate complexity ESMs under several idealised carbon pulse and exponential concentration increase experiments. We find that the inclusion of a linear increase in 100-year integrated airborne fraction with cumulative carbon uptake and global temperature change substantially improves the representation of the response of the climate system to CO2 on a range of timescales and under a range of experimental designs.

  9. Analysis of China’s Carbon Emissions Base on Carbon Flow in Four Main Sectors: 2000–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Reducing carbon emissions is a major way to achieve green development and sustainability for China’s future. This paper elaborates the detailed features of China’s carbon flow for 2013 with the carbon flow chart and shows the changing characteristics of China’s CO2 flow from the viewpoint of specific sectors and energies from 2000 and 2013. The results show that (1 from 2000 to 2013, China’s CO2 emissions approximately grew by 9% annually, while the CO2 intensity of China diminished at different rates. (2 The CO2 emissions from the secondary industry are prominent from the perspective of four main sectors, accounting for 83.5% of emissions. Manufacturing plays an important part in the secondary industry with 45% of the emissions, in which the “smelting and pressing of metal” takes up a large percentage of about 50% of the emissions from manufacturing. (3 The CO2 emissions produced by coal consumption are dominant in energy-related emissions with a contribution of 65%, which will decrease in the future. (4 From the aspect of different sectors, the CO2 emissions mainly come from the “electricity and heating” sector and the “smelting, pressing and manufacturing of metals” sub-sector. It is essential and urgent to propose concrete recommendations for CO2 emissions mitigation. Firstly, the progression of creative technology is inevitable and undeniable. Secondly, the government should make different CO2 emissions reduction policies among different sectors. For example, the process emissions play an important role in “non-metallic minerals” while in “smelting and manufacturing of metals” it is energy emissions. Thirdly, the country can change the energy structure and promote renewable energy that is powered by wind or other low-carbon energy sources. Alternatively, coke oven gas can be a feasible substitution. Finally, policy makers should be aware that the emissions from residents have been growing at a fast rate. It is

  10. Carbon emission and sequestration of urban turfgrass systems in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Ling [School of Life Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong (China); Shi, Zhengjun [Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Southern Subtropical Plant Diversity, Fairy Lake Botanical Garden, Shenzhen and Chinese Academy of Science, Shenzhen (China); Chu, L.M., E-mail: leemanchu@cuhk.edu.hk [School of Life Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong (China)

    2014-03-01

    Climate change is more than just a global issue. Locally released carbon dioxide may lead to a rise in global ambient temperature and influence the surrounding climate. Urban greenery may mitigate this as they can remove carbon dioxide by storing carbon in substrates and vegetation. On the other hand, urban greenery systems which are under intense management and maintenance may contribute to the emission of carbon dioxide or other greenhouse gases. The impact of urban greenery on carbon balance in major metropolitan areas thus remains controversial. We investigated the carbon footprints of urban turf operation and maintenance by conducting a research questionnaire on different Hong Kong turfs in 2012, and showed that turf maintenance contributed 0.17 to 0.63 kg Ce m{sup −2} y{sup −1} to carbon emissions. We also determined the carbon storage of turfs at 0.05 to 0.21 kg C m{sup −2} for aboveground grass biomass and 1.26 to 4.89 kg C m{sup −2} for soils (to 15 cm depth). We estimated that the carbon sink capacity of turfs could be offset by carbon emissions in 5–24 years under current management patterns, shifting from carbon sink to carbon source. Our study suggested that maintenance management played a key role in the carbon budget and footprint of urban greeneries. The environmental impact of turfgrass systems can be optimized by shifting away from empirically designed maintenance schedules towards rational ones based on carbon sink and emission principles. - Highlights: • Carbon storage capacity at 0.05 to 0.21 kg C m{sup −2} for grasses and 1.26 to 4.89 kg C m{sup −2} for soils (to 15 cm depth). • Turf maintenance contributed to carbon emissions at 0.17 to 0.63 kg Ce (carbon equivalent) m{sup −2} y{sup −1}. • Turf system respiration was negatively correlated with soil carbon capacity but only in the wet season. • Carbon stored in turfs could be offset by maintenance carbon emissions in 5–24 years.

  11. The causal nexus between carbon dioxide emissions and agricultural ecosystem-an econometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asumadu-Sarkodie, Samuel; Owusu, Phebe Asantewaa

    2017-01-01

    Achieving a long-term food security and preventing hunger include a better nutrition through sustainable systems of production, distribution, and consumption. Nonetheless, the quest for an alternative to increasing global food supply to meet the growing demand has led to the use of poor agricultural practices that promote climate change. Given the contribution of the agricultural ecosystem towards greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, this study investigated the causal nexus between carbon dioxide emissions and agricultural ecosystem by employing a data spanning from 1961 to 2012. Evidence from long-run elasticity shows that a 1 % increase in the area of rice paddy harvested will increase carbon dioxide emissions by 1.49 %, a 1 % increase in biomass-burned crop residues will increase carbon dioxide emissions by 1.00 %, a 1 % increase in cereal production will increase carbon dioxide emissions by 1.38 %, and a 1 % increase in agricultural machinery will decrease carbon dioxide emissions by 0.09 % in the long run. There was a bidirectional causality between carbon dioxide emissions, cereal production, and biomass-burned crop residues. The Granger causality shows that the agricultural ecosystem in Ghana is sensitive to climate change vulnerability.

  12. Is faster economic growth compatible with reductions in carbon emissions? The role of diminished population growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Gregory; Galor, Oded

    2017-01-01

    We provide evidence that lower fertility can simultaneously increase income per capita and lower carbon emissions, eliminating a trade-off central to most policies aimed at slowing global climate change. We estimate the effect of lower fertility on carbon emissions, accounting for the fact that changes in fertility patterns affect carbon emissions through three channels: total population, the age structure of the population, and economic output. Our analysis proceeds in two steps. First, we estimate the elasticity of carbon emissions with respect to population and income per capita in an unbalanced yearly panel of cross-country data from 1950-2010. We demonstrate that the elasticity with respect to population is nearly seven times larger than the elasticity with respect to income per capita and that this difference is statistically significant. Thus, the regression results imply that 1% slower population growth could be accompanied by an increase in income per capita of nearly 7% while still lowering carbon emissions. In the second part of our analysis, we use a recently constructed economic-demographic model of Nigeria to estimate the effect of lower fertility on carbon emissions, accounting for the impacts of fertility on population growth, population age structure, and income per capita. We find that by 2100 C.E. moving from the medium to the low variant of the UN fertility projection leads to 35% lower yearly emissions and 15% higher income per capita. These results suggest that population policies could be part of the approach to combating global climate change.

  13. Method of synthesizing small-diameter carbon nanotubes with electron field emission properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie (Inventor); Du, Chunsheng (Inventor); Qian, Cheng (Inventor); Gao, Bo (Inventor); Qiu, Qi (Inventor); Zhou, Otto Z. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Carbon nanotube material having an outer diameter less than 10 nm and a number of walls less than ten are disclosed. Also disclosed are an electron field emission device including a substrate, an optionally layer of adhesion-promoting layer, and a layer of electron field emission material. The electron field emission material includes a carbon nanotube having a number of concentric graphene shells per tube of from two to ten, an outer diameter from 2 to 8 nm, and a nanotube length greater than 0.1 microns. One method to fabricate carbon nanotubes includes the steps of (a) producing a catalyst containing Fe and Mo supported on MgO powder, (b) using a mixture of hydrogen and carbon containing gas as precursors, and (c) heating the catalyst to a temperature above 950.degree. C. to produce a carbon nanotube. Another method of fabricating an electron field emission cathode includes the steps of (a) synthesizing electron field emission materials containing carbon nanotubes with a number of concentric graphene shells per tube from two to ten, an outer diameter of from 2 to 8 nm, and a length greater than 0.1 microns, (b) dispersing the electron field emission material in a suitable solvent, (c) depositing the electron field emission materials onto a substrate, and (d) annealing the substrate.

  14. A hybrid method for provincial scale energy-related carbon emission allocation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Hongtao; Zhang, Yingxuan; Wang, Huizhi; Huang, Yanying; Xu, He

    2014-01-01

    Achievement of carbon emission reduction targets proposed by national governments relies on provincial/state allocations. In this study, a hybrid method for provincial energy-related carbon emissions allocation in China was developed to provide a good balance between production- and consumption-based approaches. In this method, provincial energy-related carbon emissions are decomposed into direct emissions of local activities other than thermal power generation and indirect emissions as a result of electricity consumption. Based on the carbon reduction efficiency principle, the responsibility for embodied emissions of provincial product transactions is assigned entirely to the production area. The responsibility for carbon generation during the production of thermal power is borne by the electricity consumption area, which ensures that different regions with resource endowments have rational development space. Empirical studies were conducted to examine the hybrid method and three indices, per capita GDP, resource endowment index and the proportion of energy-intensive industries, were screened to preliminarily interpret the differences among China's regional carbon emissions. Uncertainty analysis and a discussion of this method are also provided herein.

  15. Century-scale patterns and trends of global pyrogenic carbon emissions and fire influences on terrestrial carbon balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jia; Tian, Hanqin; Tao, Bo; Ren, Wei; Lu, Chaoqun; Pan, Shufen; Wang, Yuhang; Liu, Yongqiang

    2015-09-01

    Fires have consumed a large amount of terrestrial organic carbon and significantly influenced terrestrial ecosystems and the physical climate system over the past century. Although biomass burning has been widely investigated at a global level in recent decades via satellite observations, less work has been conducted to examine the century-scale changes in global fire regimes and fire influences on the terrestrial carbon balance. In this study, we investigated global pyrogenic carbon emissions and fire influences on the terrestrial carbon fluxes from 1901 to 2010 by using a process-based land ecosystem model. Our results show a significant declining trend in global pyrogenic carbon emissions between the early 20th century and the mid-1980s but a significant upward trend between the mid-1980s and the 2000s as a result of more frequent fires in ecosystems with high carbon storage, such as peatlands and tropical forests. Over the past 110 years, average pyrogenic carbon emissions were estimated to be 2.43 Pg C yr-1 (1 Pg = 1015 g), and global average combustion rate (defined as carbon emissions per unit area burned) was 537.85 g C m-2 burned area. Due to the impacts of fires, the net primary productivity and carbon sink of global terrestrial ecosystems were reduced by 4.14 Pg C yr-1 and 0.57 Pg C yr-1, respectively. Our study suggests that special attention should be paid to fire activities in the peatlands and tropical forests in the future. Practical management strategies, such as minimizing forest logging and reducing the rate of cropland expansion in the humid regions, are in need to reduce fire risk and mitigate fire-induced greenhouse gases emissions.

  16. Reducing Deforestation and Trading Emissions: Economic Implications for the post-Kyoto Carbon Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anger, Niels (Centre for European Economic Research, Mannheim (Germany)); Sathaye, Jayant (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, CA (United States))

    2008-07-01

    This paper quantitatively assesses the economic implications of crediting carbon abatement from reduced deforestation for the emissions market in 2020 by linking a numerical equilibrium model of the global carbon market with a dynamic partial equilibrium model of the forestry sector. We find that integrating avoided deforestation in international emissions trading considerably decreases the costs of post-Kyoto climate policy - even when accounting for conventional abatement options of developing countries under the CDM. Regarding uncertainties of this future carbon abatement option, we find both forestry transaction costs and deforestation baselines to play an important role for the post-Kyoto carbon market

  17. Spatial Configuration of Energy Consumption and Carbon Emissions of Shanghai, and Our Policy Suggestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kexi Pan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research constructs a 1 km × 1 km Shanghai energy consumption and carbon emission spatial grid through a bottom-up approach. First, we locate all energy consumption locations in Shanghai via GIS. Second, we calculate energy consumption and associated CO2 emissions by energy type, by usage type, and by facilities. Finally, we use a spatial grid to represent the energy consumption and CO2 emissions. The grid shows CO2 emissions in Shanghai are highly spatially correlated with energy types and volumes of consumption. This research also finds out that high energy consumption and carbon emission locations in Shanghai display significant spatial aggregation. In 7209 spatial energy consumption cells, the top 10 grids of emissions account for 52.8% of total CO2 emissions in Shanghai; the top 20 grids account for 64.5% and the top 50 grids account for 76.5%. The most critical point emission sources are coal-fired power plants and iron and steel plants. The most important line emission sources are the Yan’an Road and Inner Ring viaducts. The area emission sources that account for the most future-projected growth are commercial and residential natural gas. After this spatial analysis, this paper makes policy suggestions and solutions to conserve energy consumption and mitigate carbon emissions in Shanghai.

  18. Stochastic Lot-Sizing under Carbon Emission Control for Profit Optimisation in MTO Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aggravating global warming has heightened the imminent need by the world to step up forceful efforts on curbing emission of greenhouse gases. Although manufacturing is a major resource of carbon emission, few research works have studied the impacts of carbon constraints on manufacturing, leading to environmentally unsustainable production strategies and operations. This paper incorporates carbon emission management into production planning for make-to-order (MTO manufacturing. This paper proposes a model that solves lot-sizing problems to maximise profits under carbon emission caps. The model adopts stochastic interarrival times for customer orders to enhance the practicality of the results for real-world manufacturing. Numerical experiments show that reducing carbon emission undercuts short-term profits of a company. However, it is conducive to the company’s market image as being socially responsible which would attract more customers who concern about environmental protection. Hence, reducing carbon emission in manufacturing is beneficial to long-term profitability and sustainability. The results provide managerial insights into manufacture operations for balancing profitability and carbon control.

  19. The Logistics Equipment Carbon Emission Monitoring System for a Green Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyungrim; Park, Byoungkwon; Lee, Byungha; Park, Yongsung; Lee, Changsup; Ha, Jeongsoo

    Recently, due to the global enforcement of obligations to reduce green house gases and various environmental regulations, low carbon green growth strategies are required. Currently, in our country, environment friendly logistics activities are staying in the early stage compared to advanced countries because of our country's large energy consumption type industrial structures. As a measure to respond to the trend of the reinforcement of international environmental regulations in the sector of logistics, active green logistics systems should be established and to solve this problem, this study is intended to develop a monitoring system that can manage the carbon emission of logistics equipment(container truck, discharging equipment etc) in real time using a new technology named IP-RFID. The monitoring system developed in this study can actively manage the carbon emission of individual logistics equipment by attaching IP-Tags that can measure the carbon emission of individual logistics equipment in real time and transmit the information obtained from the measurement directly to users through IP communication. Since carbon emission can be managed by logistics equipment and drivers can check the carbon emission of equipment through this system, the carbon emission generated in the logistics sector may be reduced by using this system.

  20. A Power System Optimal Dispatch Strategy Considering the Flow of Carbon Emissions and Large Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The carbon emissions trading market and direct power purchases by large consumers are two promising directions of power system development. To trace the carbon emission flow in the power grid, the theory of carbon emission flow is improved by allocating power loss to the load side. Based on the improved carbon emission flow theory, an optimal dispatch model is proposed to optimize the cost of both large consumers and the power grid, which will benefit from the carbon emissions trading market. Moreover, to better simulate reality, the direct purchase of power by large consumers is also considered in this paper. The OPF (optimal power flow method is applied to solve the problem. To evaluate our proposed optimal dispatch strategy, an IEEE 30-bus system is used to test the performance. The effects of the price of carbon emissions and the price of electricity from normal generators and low-carbon generators with regards to the optimal dispatch are analyzed. The simulation results indicate that the proposed strategy can significantly reduce both the operation cost of the power grid and the power utilization cost of large consumers.

  1. Incorrectly Interpreting the Carbon Mass Balance Technique Leads to Biased Emissions Estimates from Global Vegetation Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surawski, N. C.; Sullivan, A. L.; Roxburgh, S. H.; Meyer, M.; Polglase, P. J.

    2016-12-01

    Vegetation fires are a complex phenomenon and have a range of global impacts including influences on climate. Even though fire is a necessary disturbance for the maintenance of some ecosystems, a range of anthropogenically deleterious consequences are associated with it, such as damage to assets and infrastructure, loss of life, as well as degradation to air quality leading to negative impacts on human health. Estimating carbon emissions from fire relies on a carbon mass balance technique which has evolved with two different interpretations in the fire emissions community. Databases reporting global fire emissions estimates use an approach based on `consumed biomass' which is an approximation to the biogeochemically correct `burnt carbon' approach. Disagreement between the two methods occurs because the `consumed biomass' accounting technique assumes that all burnt carbon is volatilized and emitted. By undertaking a global review of the fraction of burnt carbon emitted to the atmosphere, we show that the `consumed biomass' accounting approach overestimates global carbon emissions by 4.0%, or 100 Teragrams, annually. The required correction is significant and represents 9% of the net global forest carbon sink estimated annually. To correctly partition burnt carbon between that emitted to the atmosphere and that remaining as a post-fire residue requires the post-burn carbon content to be estimated, which is quite often not undertaken in atmospheric emissions studies. To broaden our understanding of ecosystem carbon fluxes, it is recommended that the change in carbon content associated with burnt residues be accounted for. Apart from correctly partitioning burnt carbon between the emitted and residue pools, it enables an accounting approach which can assess the efficacy of fire management operations targeted at sequestering carbon from fire. These findings are particularly relevant for the second commitment period for the Kyoto protocol, since improved landscape fire

  2. Subsidence and carbon loss in drained tropical peatlands: reducing uncertainty and implications for CO2 emission reduction options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Idris

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Conversion of tropical peatlands to agriculture leads to a release of carbon from previously stable, long-term storage, resulting in land subsidence that can be a surrogate measure of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. We present an analysis of recent large-scale subsidence monitoring studies in Acacia and oil palm plantations on peatland in SE Asia, and compare the findings with previous studies. Subsidence in the first 5 years after drainage was found to be 142 cm, of which 75 cm occurred in the first year. After 5 years, the subsidence rate in both plantation types, at average water table depths of 0.7 m, remained constant at around 5 cm yr−1. Bulk density profiles indicate that consolidation contributes only 7 % to total subsidence, in the first year after drainage, and that the role of compaction is also reduced quickly and becomes negligible after 5 years. Over 18 years after drainage, 92 % of cumulative subsidence was caused by peat oxidation. The average rate of carbon loss over the first 5 years was 178 t ha−1 yr−1 CO2eq, which reduced to 73 t ha−1 yr−1 CO2eq over subsequent years, resulting in an average loss of 100 t ha−1 yr−1 CO2eq annualized over 25 years. Part of the observed range in subsidence and carbon loss values is explained by differences in water table depth, but vegetation cover and addition of fertilizers also influence peat oxidation. A relationship with groundwater table depth shows that subsidence and carbon loss are still considerable even at the highest water table levels theoretically possible in plantations. This implies that improved water management will reduce these impacts by only 20 % at most, relative to current conditions, and that high rates of carbon loss and land subsidence should be accepted as inevitable consequences of conversion of forested tropical peatlands to other land uses.

  3. Urban Household Carbon Emission and Contributing Factors in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xibao; Tan, Yan; Chen, Shuang; Yang, Guishan; Su, Weizhong

    2015-01-01

    Carbon reduction at the household level is an integral part of carbon mitigation. This study analyses the characteristics, effects, contributing factors and policies for urban household carbon emissions in the Yangtze River Delta of China. Primary data was collected through structured questionnaire surveys in three cities in the region – Nanjing, Ningbo, and Changzhou in 2011. The survey data was first used to estimate the magnitude of household carbon emissions in different urban contexts. It then examined how, and to what extent, each set of demographic, economic, behavioral/cognitive and spatial factors influence carbon emissions at the household level. The average of urban household carbon emissions in the region was estimated to be 5.96 tonnes CO2 in 2010. Energy consumption, daily commuting, garbage disposal and long-distance travel accounted for 51.2%, 21.3%, 16.0% and 11.5% of the total emission, respectively. Regulating rapidly growing car-holdings of urban households, stabilizing population growth, and transiting residents’ low-carbon awareness to household behavior in energy saving and other spheres of consumption in the context of rapid population aging and the growing middle income class are suggested as critical measures for carbon mitigation among urban households in the Yangtze River Delta. PMID:25884853

  4. Urban household carbon emission and contributing factors in the Yangtze River Delta, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xibao Xu

    Full Text Available Carbon reduction at the household level is an integral part of carbon mitigation. This study analyses the characteristics, effects, contributing factors and policies for urban household carbon emissions in the Yangtze River Delta of China. Primary data was collected through structured questionnaire surveys in three cities in the region--Nanjing, Ningbo, and Changzhou in 2011. The survey data was first used to estimate the magnitude of household carbon emissions in different urban contexts. It then examined how, and to what extent, each set of demographic, economic, behavioral/cognitive and spatial factors influence carbon emissions at the household level. The average of urban household carbon emissions in the region was estimated to be 5.96 tonnes CO2 in 2010. Energy consumption, daily commuting, garbage disposal and long-distance travel accounted for 51.2%, 21.3%, 16.0% and 11.5% of the total emission, respectively. Regulating rapidly growing car-holdings of urban households, stabilizing population growth, and transiting residents' low-carbon awareness to household behavior in energy saving and other spheres of consumption in the context of rapid population aging and the growing middle income class are suggested as critical measures for carbon mitigation among urban households in the Yangtze River Delta.

  5. A Longitudinal Study on the Carbon Emissions of a New Residential Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seppo Junnila

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Buildings account for nearly 50% of all greenhouse gases globally. While this has been widely recognized, the GHG mitigation strategies have traditionally concentrated on reducing the use phase emissions, as over 90% of the emissions are generated during the use phase according to several studies. However, two current developments increase the importance of the construction phase emissions and the embodied emissions of the building materials. Firstly, the improvements in the energy efficiency of buildings directly increase the relative share of the construction phase emissions. Secondly, the notification of the temporal allocation of the emissions increases the importance of the carbon spike from construction. While these perspectives have been noted, few studies exist that combine the two perspectives of the construction and the use phase. In this paper, we analyze the implications of low-carbon residential construction on the life cycle emissions of a residential area with a case study. Furthermore, we demonstrate that when the temporal allocation of the emissions is taken into account, the construction phase emissions can hinder or even reverse the carbon mitigation effect of low-carbon buildings for decades.

  6. [Carbon emissions and low-carbon regulation countermeasures of land use change in the city and town concentrated area of central Liaoning Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Feng-ming; Liang, Wen-juan; Niu, Ming-fen; Wang, Jiao-yue

    2016-02-01

    Carbon emissions due to land use change have an important impact on global climate change. Adjustment of regional land use patterns has a great scientific significance to adaptation to a changing climate. Based on carbon emission/absorption parameters suitable for Liaoning Province, this paper estimated the carbon emission of land use change in the city and town concentrated area of central Liaoning Province. The results showed that the carbon emission and absorption were separately 308.51 Tg C and 11.64 Tg C from 1997 to 2010. It meant 3.8% of carbon emission. was offset by carbon absorption. Among the 296.87 Tg C net carbon emission of land use change, carbon emission of remaining land use type was 182.24 Tg C, accounting for 61.4% of the net carbon emission, while the carbon emission of land use transformation was 114.63 Tg C, occupying the rest 38.6% of net carbon emission. Through quantifying the mapping relationship between land use change and carbon emission, it was shown that during 1997-2004 the contributions of remaining construction land (40.9%) and cropland transform ation to construction land (40.6%) to carbon emission were larger, but the greater contributions to carbon absorption came from cropland transformation to forest land (38.6%) and remaining forest land (37.5%). During 2004-2010, the land use types for carbon emission and absorption were the same to the period of 1997-2004, but the contribution of remaining construction land to carbon emission increased to 80.6%, and the contribution of remaining forest land to carbon absorption increased to 71.7%. Based on the carbon emission intensity in different land use types, we put forward the low-carbon regulation countermeasures of land use in two aspects. In carbon emission reduction, we should strict control land transformation to construction land, increase the energy efficiency of construction land, and avoid excessive development of forest land and water. In carbon sink increase, we should

  7. Partitioning carbon dioxide emission and assessing dissolved organic carbon leaching of a drained peatland cultivated with pineapple at Saratok, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim Kim Choo, Liza Nuriati; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna

    2014-01-01

    Pineapples (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) cultivation on drained peats could affect the release of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere and also the leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Carbon dioxide emission needs to be partitioned before deciding on whether cultivated peat is net sink or net source of carbon. Partitioning of CO2 emission into root respiration, microbial respiration, and oxidative peat decomposition was achieved using a lysimeter experiment with three treatments: peat soil cultivated with pineapple, bare peat soil, and bare peat soil fumigated with chloroform. Drainage water leached from cultivated peat and bare peat soil was also analyzed for DOC. On a yearly basis, CO2 emissions were higher under bare peat (218.8 t CO2 ha/yr) than under bare peat treated with chloroform (205 t CO2 ha/yr), and they were the lowest (179.6 t CO2 ha/yr) under cultivated peat. Decreasing CO2 emissions under pineapple were attributed to the positive effects of photosynthesis and soil autotrophic activities. An average 235.7 mg/L loss of DOC under bare peat suggests rapid decline of peat organic carbon through heterotrophic respiration and peat decomposition. Soil CO2 emission depended on moderate temperature fluctuations, but it was not affected by soil moisture.

  8. Partitioning Carbon Dioxide Emission and Assessing Dissolved Organic Carbon Leaching of a Drained Peatland Cultivated with Pineapple at Saratok, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liza Nuriati Lim Kim Choo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pineapples (Ananas comosus (L. Merr. cultivation on drained peats could affect the release of carbon dioxide (CO2 into the atmosphere and also the leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC. Carbon dioxide emission needs to be partitioned before deciding on whether cultivated peat is net sink or net source of carbon. Partitioning of CO2 emission into root respiration, microbial respiration, and oxidative peat decomposition was achieved using a lysimeter experiment with three treatments: peat soil cultivated with pineapple, bare peat soil, and bare peat soil fumigated with chloroform. Drainage water leached from cultivated peat and bare peat soil was also analyzed for DOC. On a yearly basis, CO2 emissions were higher under bare peat (218.8 t CO2 ha/yr than under bare peat treated with chloroform (205 t CO2 ha/yr, and they were the lowest (179.6 t CO2 ha/yr under cultivated peat. Decreasing CO2 emissions under pineapple were attributed to the positive effects of photosynthesis and soil autotrophic activities. An average 235.7 mg/L loss of DOC under bare peat suggests rapid decline of peat organic carbon through heterotrophic respiration and peat decomposition. Soil CO2 emission depended on moderate temperature fluctuations, but it was not affected by soil moisture.

  9. Rehybridization of atomic orbitals and field electron emission from nanostructured carbon

    CERN Document Server

    Obraztsov, A N; Boronin, A I; Koshcheev, S V

    2001-01-01

    The results of the experimental study on the electron field emission, structural peculiarities and electron properties of carbon films, obtained through the gas-phase chemical deposition, are presented. It is shown that the field emission for the films, consisting of the spatially oriented carbon nanotubes and graphite laminar nanocrystallites, is observed by the electric field intensity by one-two orders lower than the values, representative for the metal emitters. The experimental data, testifying to the local decrease in the yield performance in such carbon materials in comparison with the graphite are obtained for the first time. The model of the emission center and the field emission mechanism for the nanostructured carbon are proposed

  10. Research on Urban Road Congestion Pricing Strategy Considering Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yitian Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Congestion pricing strategy has been recognized as an effective countermeasure in the practical field of urban traffic congestion mitigation. In this paper, a bi-level programming model considering carbon dioxide emission is proposed to mitigate traffic congestion and reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The objective function of the upper level model is to minimize the sum of travel costs and the carbon dioxide emissions costs. The lower level is a multi-modal transportation network equilibrium model. To solve the model, the method of successive averages (MSA and the shuffled frog leaping algorithm (SFLA are introduced. The proposed method and algorithm are tested through the numerical example. The results show that the proposed congestion pricing strategy can mitigate traffic congestion and reduce carbon emissions effectively.

  11. Low Carbon Grid Study: Analysis of a 50% Emission Reduction in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, Gregory [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jorgenson, Jennie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ehlen, Ali [Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Technologies, Sacramento, CA (United States); Caldwell, James H. [Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Technologies, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2016-01-07

    The California 2030 Low Carbon Grid Study (LCGS) analyzes the grid impacts of a variety of scenarios that achieve 50% carbon emission reductions from California's electric power sector. Impacts are characterized based on several key operational and economic metrics, including production costs, emissions, curtailment, and impacts on the operation of gas generation and imports. The modeling results indicate that achieving a low-carbon grid (with emissions 50% below 2012 levels) is possible by 2030 with relatively limited curtailment (less than 1%) if institutional frameworks are flexible. Less flexible institutional frameworks and a less diverse generation portfolio could lead to higher curtailment (up to 10%), operational costs (up to $800 million higher), and carbon emissions (up to 14% higher).

  12. A comparative study of the field emission properties of aligned carbon nanostructures films, from carbon nanotubes to diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Normand, F.; Cojocaru, C. S.; Fleaca, C.; Li, J. Q.; Vincent, P.; Pirio, G.; Gangloff, L.; Nedellec, Y.; Legagneux, P.

    2007-05-01

    The electron field emission properties of different graphitic and diamond-like nanostructures films are compared. They are prepared in the same CVD chamber on SiO{2}/Si(100) and Si(100) flat surfaces, respectively. These nanostructures are thoroughly characterized by scanning electron emission (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Films of dense aligned carbon nanotubes by far display the lowest threshold fields around few V/μ m and the largest emission currents. Carbon nanofibers, with platelet arrangement of the graphitic planes parallel to the substrate, exhibit higher emission thresholds around 10 V/μ m. Diamond nanostructures, either modified through ammonia incorporation within the gas phase or not, exhibit the largest emission threshold around 25 V/μ m. The high enhancement factors, deduced from the Fowler-Nordheim plots, can explain the low emission thresholds whereas limitations to the electron transport ever occur through different processes (i) surface modifications of the surface, as the transformation of the SiO{2} barrier layer into SiN{x} in the presence of ammonia evidenced by XPS; (ii) different orientation of the graphitic basal planes relative to the direction of electron transport (carbon nanofiber) and (iii) presence of a graphitic nest at the interface of the carbon nanostructure and the substrate, observed when catalyst is deposited through mild evaporation.

  13. Research on impacts of population-related factors on carbon emissions in Beijing from 1984 to 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yayun; Zhao, Tao; Wang, Yanan, E-mail: wyn3615@126.com; Shi, Zhaohui

    2015-11-15

    Carbon emissions related to population factors have aroused great attention around the world. A multitude of literature mainly focused on single demographic impacts on environmental issues at the national level, and comprehensive studies concerning population-related factors at a city level are rare. This paper employed STIRPAT (Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence and Technology) model incorporating PLS (Partial least squares) regression method to examine the influence of population-related factors on carbon emissions in Beijing from 1984 to 2012. Empirically results manifest that urbanization is the paramount driver. Changes in population age structure have significantly positive impacts on carbon emissions, and shrinking young population, continuous expansion of working age population and aging population will keep on increasing environmental pressures. Meanwhile, shrinking household size and expanding floating population boost the discharge of carbon emissions. Besides, per capita consumption is an important contributor of carbon emissions, while industry energy intensity is the main inhibitory factor. Based upon these findings and the specific circumstances of Beijing, policies such as promoting clean and renewable energy, improving population quality and advocating low carbon lifestyles should be enhanced to achieve targeted emissions reductions. - Highlights: • We employed the STIRPAT model to identify population-related factors of carbon emissions in Beijing. • Urbanization is the paramount driver of carbon emissions. • Changes in population age structure exert significantly positive impacts on carbon emissions. • Shrinking household size, expanding floating population and improving consumption level increase carbon emissions. • Industry energy intensity decreases carbon emissions.

  14. Black carbon emissions from diesel sources in Russia. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kholod, Nazar [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Evans, Meredydd [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-31

    This report presents a detailed inventory of Russian BC emissions from diesel sources. Drawing on a complete Russian vehicle registry with detailed information about vehicle types and emission standards, this report analyzes BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles. On-road diesel vehicles emitted 21 Gg of BC in 2014: heavy-duty trucks account for 60% of the on-road BC emissions, while cars represent only 5% (light commercial vehicles and buses account for the remainder). Using Russian activity data and fuel-based emission factors, the report also presents BC emissions from diesel locomotives and ships, off-road engines in industry, construction and agriculture, and generators. The total emissions from diesel sources in Russia are estimated to be 49 Gg of BC in 2014.

  15. Land use change sector contribution to the carbon historical emissions and the sustainability. Case study of the Brazilian Legal Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muylaert de Araujo, Maria Silvia [Energy and Environment Planning Program/COPPE/UFRJ, Cidade Universitaria, Centro de Tecnologia, Bloco C, sala 211, Ilha do Fundao, CEP: 21945-970, Caixa Postal: 68501, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Corbiniano [IVIG/COPPE/UFRJ, Cidade Universitaria, Centro de Tecnologia, Bloco I, sala 129, Ilha do Fundao, CEP: 21945-970, Caixa Postal: 68501, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Campos, Christiano Pires de [Petrobras Research Center, CENPES Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-04-15

    The paper presents 5 methodological aspects for the historic land use change accountability to compare 2 databases: the Historical Database on the Global Environment of RIVM, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, adapted by the IVIG, International Virtual Institute of Global Change of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, named HYDE/IVIG and the Brazilian National Institute of Spatial Research database, named INPE database. The 5 aspects here considered are geographic limits; scale; basic methodology; deforestation concept; vegetal classification. It also presents their importance for the results of the calculus of deforested areas in the Brazilian Legal Amazon case. The use of the 2 databases information for carbon emissions calculation showed to be useful in terms of magnitude but not for qualitative analysis. The calculus of deforested areas is approximately similar for the period analyzed. According to HYDE/IVIG, the Brazilian Legal Amazon land use changes representing agriculture and pasture lands, account 422,070 km{sup 2}, between 1750 and 1990 and the natural areas modified were originally classified as 3 types: tropical forest, wooded tropical forest and savanna. According to INPE, the cumulative Brazilian Legal Amazon deforestation until 1990 accounts 415,000 km{sup 2} and the natural areas modified were originally classified as 9 types. It means that different carbon contents by unit of deforestation have to be taken into account for the carbon emissions calculus. These numbers show the compatibility of the databases in terms of magnitude but the quality of the information present huge differences. (author)

  16. The travel-related carbon dioxide emissions of atmospheric researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohl, A.

    2008-11-01

    Most atmospheric scientists agree that greenhouse gas emissions have already caused significant changes to the global climate system and that these changes will accelerate in the near future. At the same time, atmospheric scientists who like other scientists rely on international collaboration and information exchange travel a lot and, thereby, cause substantial emissions of CO2. In this paper, the CO2 emissions of the employees working at an atmospheric research institute (the Norwegian Institute for Air Research, NILU) caused by all types of business travel (conference visits, workshops, field campaigns, instrument maintainance, etc.) were calculated for the years 2005 2007. It is estimated that more than 90% of the emissions were caused by air travel, 3% by ground travel and 5% by hotel usage. The travel-related annual emissions were between 1.9 and 2.4 t CO2 per employee or between 3.9 and 5.5 t CO2 per scientist. For comparison, the total annual per capita CO2 emissions are 4.5 t worldwide, 1.2 t for India, 3.8 t for China, 5.9 t for Sweden and 19.1 t for Norway. The travel-related CO2 emissions of a NILU scientist, occurring in 24 days of a year on average, exceed the global average annual per capita emission. Norway's per-capita CO2 emissions are among the highest in the world, mostly because of the emissions from the oil industry. If the emissions per NILU scientist derived in this paper are taken as representative for the average Norwegian researcher, travel by Norwegian scientists would nevertheless account for a substantial 0.2% of Norway's total CO2 emissions. Since most of the travel-related emissions are due to air travel, water vapor emissions, ozone production and contrail formation further increase the relative importance of NILU's travel in terms of radiative forcing.

  17. Spatial Distribution of Energy Consumption and Carbon Emission of Regional Logistics

    OpenAIRE

    Fan Xiao; Zhi-Hua Hu; Ke-Xin Wang; Pei-Hua Fu

    2015-01-01

    Facing serious energy-related constraints and environmental stress, the development of the green logistics industry is restricted by degrees of logistics energy utilization and carbon emissions. Considering different logistics spatial distributions, this paper uses the degree of regional logistics energy utilization and the spatial distribution of carbon emissions as two indicators of green logistics to investigate the regional differences and changes in spatiotemporal logistics energy effici...

  18. Grassland carbon sequestration and emissions following cultivation in a mixed crop rotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acharya, Bharat Sharma; Rasmussen, Jim; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    Grasslands are potential carbon sinks to reduce unprecedented increase in atmospheric CO2. Effect of age (1–4-year-old) and management (slurry, grazing multispecies mixture) of a grass phase mixed crop rotation on carbon sequestration and emissions upon cultivation was compared with 17-year...... with age but indifference in CO2 emissions across the age and management in temporary grasslands, thus, indicates potential for long-term sequestration of soil C....

  19. A Simple Approach to Estimate Soil Organic Carbon and Soil CO2 Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhat Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available SOC (Soil Organic Carbon and soil CO 2 (Carbon Dioxide emission are among the indicator of carbon sequestration and hence global climate change. Researchers in developed countries benefit from advance technologies to estimate C (Carbon sequestration. However, access to the latest technologies has always been challenging in developing countries to conduct such estimates. This paper presents a simple and comprehensive approach for estimating SOC and soil CO 2 emission from arable- and forest soils. The approach includes various protocols that can be followed in laboratories of the research organizations or academic institutions equipped with basic research instruments and technology. The protocols involve soil sampling, sample analysis for selected properties, and the use of a worldwide tested Rothamsted carbon turnover model. With this approach, it is possible to quantify SOC and soil CO 2 emission over short- and long-term basis for global climate change assessment studies.

  20. Geographical Detector Model for Influencing Factors of Industrial Sector Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Wu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Studying the influencing factors of carbon dioxide emissions is not only practically but also theoretically crucial for establishing regional carbon-reduction policies, developing low-carbon economy and solving the climate problems. Therefore, we used a geographical detector model which is consists of four parts, i.e., risk detector, factor detector, ecological detector and interaction detector to analyze the effect of these social economic factors, i.e., GDP, industrial structure, urbanization rate, economic growth rate, population and road density on the increase of energy consumption carbon dioxide emissions in industrial sector in Inner Mongolia northeast of China. Thus, combining with the result of four detectors, we found that GDP and population more influence than economic growth rate, industrial structure, urbanization rate and road density. The interactive effect of any two influencing factors enhances the increase of the carbon dioxide emissions. The findings of this research have significant policy implications for regions like Inner Mongolia.

  1. Carbon now and carbon futures -- a systems and performance based approach to reducing GHG emissions in the Auckland region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, R., E-mail: robert.perry@arc.govt.nz; Chambers, P. [Auckland Regional Council (New Zealand)

    2010-07-01

    The Auckland Regional Council (ARC) has led a consortium of all Auckland councils and key stakeholders to develop an integrated regional policy response to address the critical climate change-related issues affecting the Auckland region's resilience and sustainable development. The development of climate mitigation policy has been underpinned by two separate but complementary initiatives known as Carbon Now, and Carbon Futures. Carbon Now is a performance and systems based management framework for measuring, monitoring and reporting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions against prescribed targets. Carbon Futures refers to a backcasting and visioning study which sought to (i) develop long-term (year 2040) emissions projections, and (ii) to evaluate a suite of mitigations to achieve a range of reduction targets. These initiatives were developed in five broad stages. Stage one focused on the development of the Carbon Now framework and guidelines to provide a consistent methodology for the development of a detailed regional emissions inventory. An initial estimation of Auckland regional GHG emissions was undertaken in stage two based on a 2006 base year. In stage three a suite of potential GHG mitigation options were identified and evaluated to deliver GHG reductions and broader co-benefits for Auckland region. Stage four was the development of the Auckland regional GHG emission inventory using the Carbon Now Framework. In stage five a series of modified projections have been evaluated based on a series of scenarios and underpinning assumptions. It was estimated using a 'top down' approach (stage one) that Auckland's regional emissions have risen by 17.7% between 2001 and 2008, compared to a 26% increase rise in national emissions since 1990. It was predicted that by 2040, regional emissions will increase by 87.3% relative to 2001 levels. The Auckland regional footprint equated to 10,040,084 tonnes carbon-dioxide equivalent (CO{sub 2}e) or 7

  2. Density functional theory for field emission from carbon nano-structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhibing

    2015-12-01

    Electron field emission is understood as a quantum mechanical many-body problem in which an electronic quasi-particle of the emitter is converted into an electron in vacuum. Fundamental concepts of field emission, such as the field enhancement factor, work-function, edge barrier and emission current density, will be investigated, using carbon nanotubes and graphene as examples. A multi-scale algorithm basing on density functional theory is introduced. We will argue that such a first principle approach is necessary and appropriate for field emission of nano-structures, not only for a more accurate quantitative description, but, more importantly, for deeper insight into field emission.

  3. Examining carbon emissions economic growth nexus for India: A multivariate cointegration approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Sajal, E-mail: sghosh@mdi.ac.i [Management Development Institute, Gurgaon, Haryana 122001 (India)

    2010-06-15

    The study probes cointegration and causality between carbon emissions and economic growth for India using ARDL bounds testing approach complemented by Johansen-Juselius maximum likelihood procedure in a multivariate framework by incorporating energy supply, investment and employment for time span 1971-2006. The study fails to establish long-run equilibrium relationship and long term causality between carbon emissions and economic growth; however, there exists a bi-directional short-run causality between the two. Hence, in the short-run, any effort to reduce carbon emissions could lead to a fall in the national income. This study also establishes unidirectional short-run causality running from economic growth to energy supply and energy supply to carbon emissions. The absence of causality running from energy supply to economic growth implies that in India, energy conservation and energy efficiency measures can be implemented to minimize the wastage of energy across value chain. Such measures would narrow energy demand-supply gap. Absence of long-run causality between carbon emissions and economic growth implies that in the long-run, focus should be given on harnessing energy from clean sources to curb carbon emissions, which would not affect the country's economic growth.

  4. Examining carbon emissions economic growth nexus for India. A multivariate cointegration approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Sajal [Assistant, Professor, Management Development Institute, Gurgaon, Haryana 122001 (India)

    2010-06-15

    The study probes cointegration and causality between carbon emissions and economic growth for India using ARDL bounds testing approach complemented by Johansen-Juselius maximum likelihood procedure in a multivariate framework by incorporating energy supply, investment and employment for time span 1971-2006. The study fails to establish long-run equilibrium relationship and long term causality between carbon emissions and economic growth; however, there exists a bi-directional short-run causality between the two. Hence, in the short-run, any effort to reduce carbon emissions could lead to a fall in the national income. This study also establishes unidirectional short-run causality running from economic growth to energy supply and energy supply to carbon emissions. The absence of causality running from energy supply to economic growth implies that in India, energy conservation and energy efficiency measures can be implemented to minimize the wastage of energy across value chain. Such measures would narrow energy demand-supply gap. Absence of long-run causality between carbon emissions and economic growth implies that in the long-run, focus should be given on harnessing energy from clean sources to curb carbon emissions, which would not affect the country's economic growth. (author)

  5. Carbon emissions from deforestation and forest fragmentation in the Brazilian Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numata, Izaya; Cochrane, Mark A [GIScCE, South Dakota State University (United States); Souza, Carlos M Jr; Sales, Marcio H [Instituto do Homen e Meio Ambiente da Amazonia-IMAZON (Brazil)

    2011-10-15

    Forest-fragmentation-related edge effects are one of the major causes of forest degradation in Amazonia and their spatio-temporal dynamics are highly influenced by annual deforestation patterns. Rapid biomass collapse due to edge effects in forest fragments has been reported in the Brazilian Amazon; however the collective impacts of this process on Amazonian carbon fluxes are poorly understood. We estimated biomass loss and carbon emissions from deforestation and forest fragmentation related to edge effects on the basis of the INPE (Brazilian National Space Research Institute) PRODES deforestation data and forest biomass volume data. The areas and ages of edge forests were calculated annually and the corresponding biomass loss and carbon emissions from these forest edges were estimated using published rates of biomass decay and decomposition corresponding to the areas and ages of edge forests. Our analysis estimated carbon fluxes from deforestation (4195 Tg C) and edge forest (126-221 Tg C) for 2001-10 in the Brazilian Amazon. The impacts of varying rates of deforestation on regional forest fragmentation and carbon fluxes were also investigated, with the focus on two periods: 2001-5 (high deforestation rates) and 2006-10 (low deforestation rates). Edge-released carbon accounted for 2.6-4.5% of deforestation-related carbon emissions. However, the relative importance of carbon emissions from forest fragmentation increased from 1.7-3.0% to 3.3-5.6% of the respective deforestation emissions between the two contrasting deforestation rates. Edge-related carbon fluxes are of increasing importance for basin-wide carbon accounting, especially as regards ongoing reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) efforts in Brazilian Amazonia.

  6. Study of Biodiesel Emissions and Carbon Mitigation in Gas Turbine Combustor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Alalim Altaher

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The energy security and reduction of carbon emissions have accelerated the R&D of the alternative fuels in the transport, heating and power generation sectors in last decade. The heating and power generation sectors are two of the major contributors to carbon dioxide emissions, which are due to the combustion of petroleum fuels. A gas turbine combustor test rig was used to study the combustion and emission characteristics of waste cooking oil methyl ester (WME biodiesel. A 140mm diameter atmospheric pressure premixed combustion test rig was used at 600K inlet air temperature and Mach number 0.017. The tests were conducted using pure WME and blend with kerosene. The central fuel injection was used for liquid fuels and wall injection was used for NG (Natural Gas. The exhaust samples for smoke and gaseous emissions (NOx, UHC, CO and CO₂ have been analysed on dry basis and corrected to 15% O₂ over range of different fuel rate. The results showed that the biodiesel had lower CO, UHC emissions and higher NOx emissions than the kerosene. The blend B20 had lowest NOx emissions comparing with pure biodiesel (B100 and B50. The optimum conditions for WME with lowest emissions were identified. The carbon dioxide emissions per 100 megawatts of heat generated for each fuel were calculated. The relative carbon emissions and mitigations by biodiesel were compared. The results can be used to estimate pollutant emissions and carbon reductions by biodiesel in power generation industry and other sectors where gas turbine engines are used.

  7. Road transport emissions and capacity of forests in the region of Athens for sequestring these emissions: carbon flow before and after forest fires

    OpenAIRE

    Petros Chatzimpiros; Natalia Roumelioti; Anna Zamba; Kimon Hadjibiros

    2016-01-01

    One important component of the urban contribution to carbon dioxide atmospheric emissions is road transport. Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from urban road transport in the centre of Athens recorded over a period of five years (2000–2005) are compared with the carbon sequestration capacity of regional forests, prior to and after the devastating forest fires in Attica in 2007 and 2009, which is the administrative region of Athens. The comparison of carbon flow reveals two complementary aspects...

  8. Disproportionality in Power Plants’ Carbon Emissions: A Cross-National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Andrew; Longhofer, Wesley; Grant, Don

    2016-07-01

    Past research on the disproportionality of pollution suggests a small subset of a sector’s facilities often produces the lion’s share of toxic emissions. Here we extend this idea to the world’s electricity sectors by calculating national-level disproportionality Gini coefficients for plant-level carbon emissions in 161 nations based on data from 19,941 fossil-fuel burning power plants. We also evaluate if disproportionalities in plant-level emissions are associated with increased national carbon emissions from fossil-fuel based electricity production, while accounting for other well-established human drivers of greenhouse gas emissions. Results suggest that one potential pathway to decreasing nations’ greenhouse gas emissions could involve reducing disproportionality among fossil-fuel power plants by targeting those plants in the upper end of the distribution that burn fuels more inefficiently to produce electricity.

  9. Decoupling China's carbon emissions increase from economic growth : An economic analysis and policy implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, ZX

    2000-01-01

    As the world's second largest carbon emitter, China has long been criticized as a "free-rider" benefiting from other countries' efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions but not taking responsibility for its own emissions. China has been singled out as one of the major targets at the subsequent neg

  10. Soil carbon dioxide emission from intensively cultivated black soil in Northeast China. Nitrogen fertilization effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Kang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China). State Key Lab. of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture; Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Ding, Weixin; Cai, Zucong [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China). State Key Lab. of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture; Wang, Yufeng; Zhang, Xilin; Zhou, Baoku [Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin (China). Inst. of Soil and Fertilizer

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to understand the effect of nitrogen fertilization on soil respiration and native soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition and to identify the key factor affecting soil respiration in a cultivated black soil. Materials and methods: A field experiment was conducted at the Harbin State Key Agroecological Experimental Station, China. The study consisted of four treatments: unplanted and N-unfertilized soil (U0), unplanted soil treated with 225 kg N ha{sup -1} (UN), maize planted and N-unfertilized soil (P0), and planted soil fertilized with 225 kg N ha{sup -1} (PN). Soil CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O fluxes were measured using the static closed chamber method. Results and discussion: Cumulative CO{sub 2} emissions during the maize growing season with the U0, UN, P0, and PN treatments were 1.29, 1.04, 2.30 and 2.27 Mg C ha{sup -1}, respectively, indicating that N fertilization significantly reduced the decomposition of native SOC. However, no marked effect on soil respiration in planted soil was observed because the increase of rhizosphere respiration caused by N addition was counteracted by the reduction of native SOC decomposition. Soil CO{sub 2} fluxes were significantly affected by soil temperature but not by soil moisture. The temperature sensitivity (Q{sub 10}) of soil respiration was 2.16-2.47 for unplanted soil but increased to 3.16-3.44 in planted soil. N addition reduced the Q{sub 10} of native SOC decomposition possibly due to low labile organic C but increased the Q{sub 10} of soil respiration due to the stimulation of maize growth. The estimated annual CO{sub 2} emission in N-fertilized soil was 1.28 Mg C ha{sup -1} and was replenished by the residual stubble, roots, and exudates. In contrast, the lost C (1.53 Mg C ha{sup -1}) in N-unfertilized soil was not completely supplemented by maize residues, resulting in a reduction of SOC. Although N fertilization significantly increased N{sub 2}O emissions, the global warming potential

  11. Spatiotemporal Changes of Built-Up Land Expansion and Carbon Emissions Caused by the Chinese Construction Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuai, Xiaowei; Huang, Xianjin; Lu, Qinli; Zhang, Mei; Zhao, Rongqin; Lu, Junyu

    2015-11-01

    China is undergoing rapid urbanization, enlarging the construction industry, greatly expanding built-up land, and generating substantial carbon emissions. We calculated both the direct and indirect carbon emissions from energy consumption (anthropogenic emissions) in the construction sector and analyzed built-up land expansion and carbon storage losses from the terrestrial ecosystem. According to our study, the total anthropogenic carbon emissions from the construction sector increased from 3,905×10(4) to 103,721.17×10(4) t from 1995 to 2010, representing 27.87%-34.31% of the total carbon emissions from energy consumption in China. Indirect carbon emissions from other industrial sectors induced by the construction sector represented approximately 97% of the total anthropogenic carbon emissions of the sector. These emissions were mainly concentrated in seven upstream industry sectors. Based on our assumptions, built-up land expansion caused 3704.84×10(4) t of carbon storage loss from vegetation between 1995 and 2010. Cropland was the main built-up land expansion type across all regions. The study shows great regional differences. Coastal regions showed dramatic built-up land expansion, greater carbon storage losses from vegetation, and greater anthropogenic carbon emissions. These regional differences were the most obvious in East China followed by Midsouth China. These regions are under pressure for strong carbon emissions reduction.

  12. Outstanding field emission properties of wet-processed titanium dioxide coated carbon nanotube based field emission devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jinzhuo; Ou-Yang, Wei, E-mail: ouyangwei@phy.ecnu.edu.cn; Chen, Xiaohong; Guo, Pingsheng; Piao, Xianqing; Sun, Zhuo [Engineering Research Center for Nanophotonics and Advanced Instrument, Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062 (China); Xu, Peng; Wang, Miao [Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, 38 ZheDa Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Li, Jun [Department of Electronic Science and Technology, Tongji University, 4800 Caoan Road, Shanghai 201804 (China)

    2015-02-16

    Field emission devices using a wet-processed composite cathode of carbon nanotube films coated with titanium dioxide exhibit outstanding field emission characteristics, including ultralow turn on field of 0.383 V μm{sup −1} and threshold field of 0.657 V μm{sup −1} corresponding with a very high field enhancement factor of 20 000, exceptional current stability, and excellent emission uniformity. The improved field emission properties are attributed to the enhanced edge effect simultaneously with the reduced screening effect, and the lowered work function of the composite cathode. In addition, the highly stable electron emission is found due to the presence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the carbon nanotubes, which prohibits the cathode from the influence of ions and free radical created in the emission process as well as residual oxygen gas in the device. The high-performance solution-processed composite cathode demonstrates great potential application in vacuum electronic devices.

  13. Daily black carbon emissions from fires in northern Eurasia for 2002-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Wei Min; Petkov, Alexander; Nordgren, Bryce L.; Corley, Rachel E.; Silverstein, Robin P.; Urbanski, Shawn P.; Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Balkanski, Yves; Kinder, Bradley L.

    2016-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) emitted from fires in northern Eurasia is transported and deposited on ice and snow in the Arctic and can accelerate its melting during certain times of the year. Thus, we developed a high spatial resolution (500 m × 500 m) dataset to examine daily BC emissions from fires in this region for 2002-2015. Black carbon emissions were estimated based on MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) land cover maps and detected burned areas, the Forest Inventory Survey of the Russian Federation, the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Tier-1 Global Biomass Carbon Map for the year 2000, and vegetation specific BC emission factors. Annual BC emissions from northern Eurasian fires varied greatly, ranging from 0.39 Tg in 2010 to 1.82 Tg in 2015, with an average of 0.71 ± 0.37 Tg from 2002 to 2015. During the 14-year period, BC emissions from forest fires accounted for about two-thirds of the emissions, followed by grassland fires (18 %). Russia dominated the BC emissions from forest fires (92 %) and central and western Asia was the major region for BC emissions from grassland fires (54 %). Overall, Russia contributed 80 % of the total BC emissions from fires in northern Eurasia. Black carbon emissions were the highest in the years 2003, 2008, and 2012. Approximately 58 % of the BC emissions from fires occurred in spring, 31 % in summer, and 10 % in fall. The high emissions in spring also coincide with the most intense period of ice and snow melting in the Arctic.

  14. Modeling of carbon and nitrogen gaseous emissions from cattle manure compost windrows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windrow composting of cattle manure is a significant source of gaseous emissions, which include ammonia (NH3) and the greenhouse gases (GHGs) of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O). A manure compost model was developed to simulate carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) processes includ...

  15. Effect of Purity and Substrate on Field Emission Properties of Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sethupathi K

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractMulti-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT have been synthesized by chemical vapour decomposition (CVD of acetylene over Rare Earth (RE based AB2(DyNi2 alloy hydride catalyst. The as-grown carbon nanotubes were purified by acid and heat treatments and characterized using powder X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, Thermo Gravimetric Analysis and Raman Spectroscopy. Fully carbon based field emitters have been fabricated by spin coating a solutions of both as-grown and purified MWNT and dichloro ethane (DCE over carbon paper with and without graphitized layer. The use of graphitized carbon paper as substrate opens several new possibilities for carbon nanotube (CNT field emitters, as the presence of the graphitic layer provides strong adhesion between the nanotubes and carbon paper and reduces contact resistance. The field emission characteristics have been studied using an indigenously fabricated set up and the results are discussed. CNT field emitter prepared by spin coating of the purified MWNT–DCE solution over graphitized carbon paper shows excellent emission properties with a fairly stable emission current over a period of 4 h. Analysis of the field emission characteristics based on the Fowler–Nordheim (FN theory reveals current saturation effects at high applied fields for all the samples.

  16. A SECOND-BEST EVALUATION OF EIGHT POLICY INSTRUMENTS TO REDUCE CARBON EMISSIONS. (R825313)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractThis paper uses a numerical general equilibrium model to compare the costs of alternative policies for reducing carbon emissions in a second-best setting with a distortionary tax on labor. We examine a carbon tax, two energy taxes, and both narrow-based and br...

  17. Effect of Purity and Substrate on Field Emission Properties of Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhi, Rb; Sethupathi, K; Ramaprabhu, S

    2007-06-21

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) have been synthesized by chemical vapour decomposition (CVD) of acetylene over Rare Earth (RE) based AB2(DyNi2) alloy hydride catalyst. The as-grown carbon nanotubes were purified by acid and heat treatments and characterized using powder X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, Thermo Gravimetric Analysis and Raman Spectroscopy. Fully carbon based field emitters have been fabricated by spin coating a solutions of both as-grown and purified MWNT and dichloro ethane (DCE) over carbon paper with and without graphitized layer. The use of graphitized carbon paper as substrate opens several new possibilities for carbon nanotube (CNT) field emitters, as the presence of the graphitic layer provides strong adhesion between the nanotubes and carbon paper and reduces contact resistance. The field emission characteristics have been studied using an indigenously fabricated set up and the results are discussed. CNT field emitter prepared by spin coating of the purified MWNT-DCE solution over graphitized carbon paper shows excellent emission properties with a fairly stable emission current over a period of 4 h. Analysis of the field emission characteristics based on the Fowler-Nordheim (FN) theory reveals current saturation effects at high applied fields for all the samples.

  18. Impact of inland shipping emissions on elemental carbon concentrations near waterways in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keuken, M.P.; Moerman, M.; Jonkers, J.; Hulskotte, J.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.; Hoek, G.; Sokhi, R.S.

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to quantify the impact of black carbon from inland shipping on air quality, expressed as elemental carbon (EC) near inland waterways in The Netherlands. Downwind measurements of particle numbers and EC were used to establish emission factors for EC from inland shipping using inverse

  19. A comparative study of the field emission properties of aligned carbon nanostructures films, from carbon nanotubes to diamond

    OpenAIRE

    Le Normand, Francois; Cojocaru, Costel Sorin; Fleaca, Claudiu; Li, J. Q.; Vincent, Pascal; Pirio, Gilles; Gangloff, Laurent; Nedellec, Yanick; Legagneux, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    International audience; The electron field emission properties of different graphitic and diamond-like nanostructures films are compared. They are prepared in the same CVD chamber on SiO{2}/Si(100) and Si(100) flat surfaces, respectively. These nanostructures are thoroughly characterized by scanning electron emission (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Films of dense aligned carbon nan...

  20. Carbon dioxid emissions of the investments obliged to emission trading in the year 2010; Kohlendioxidemissionen der Emissionshandelspflichtigen Anlagen im Jahr 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The German Emissions Trading Authority (DEHSt) at the Federal Environment Office (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) has evaluated the reported carbon dioxide emissions for 2010 (VET 2010) and presents now the key findings. From 15th May, the performance status (compliance status) of the investments obliged to emissions trading is accessible in the German register and for all European investments in the central register of the European Commission (Community Independent Transaction Log, CITL). The operators of the investments obliged to emissions trading were required to submit emission allowances according to carbon dioxide emissions of their investment in 2010 till to 30th April, 2011.

  1. Embodied energy consumption and carbon emissions evaluation for urban industrial structure optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xi; Chen, Zhanming; Li, Jinkai

    2014-03-01

    Cities are the main material processors associated with industrialization. The development of urban production based on fossil fuels is the major contributor to the rise of greenhouse gas density, and to global warming. The concept of urban industrial structure optimization is considered to be a solution to urban sustainable development and global climate issues. Enforcing energy conservation and reducing carbon emissions are playing key roles in addressing these issues. As such, quantitative accounting and the evaluation of energy consumption and corresponding carbon emissions, which are by-products of urban production, are critical, in order to discover potential opportunities to save energy and to reduce emissions. Conventional evaluation indicators, such as "energy consumption per unit output value" and "emissions per unit output value", are concerned with immediate consumptions and emissions; while the indirect consumptions and emissions that occur throughout the supply chain are ignored. This does not support the optimization of the overall urban industrial system. To present a systematic evaluation framework for cities, this study constructs new evaluation indicators, based on the concepts of "embodied energy" and "embodied carbon emissions", which take both the immediate and indirect effects of energy consumption and emissions into account. Taking Beijing as a case, conventional evaluation indicators are compared with the newly constructed ones. Results show that the energy consumption and emissions of urban industries are represented better by the new indicators than by conventional indicators, and provide useful information for urban industrial structure optimization.

  2. Attributing land-use change carbon emissions to exported biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saikku, Laura, E-mail: laura.saikku@helsinki.fi [University of Helsinki, P.O Box 65, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Soimakallio, Sampo, E-mail: sampo.soimakallio@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, 02044 VTT (Finland); Pingoud, Kim, E-mail: kim.pingoud@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, 02044 VTT (Finland)

    2012-11-15

    In this study, a simple, transparent and robust method is developed in which land-use change (LUC) emissions are retrospectively attributed to exported biomass products based on the agricultural area occupied for the production. LUC emissions account for approximately one-fifth of current greenhouse gas emissions. Increasing agricultural exports are becoming an important driver of deforestation. Brazil and Indonesia are used as case studies due to their significant deforestation in recent years. According to our study, in 2007, approximately 32% and 15% of the total agricultural land harvested and LUC emissions in Brazil and Indonesia respectively were due to exports. The most important exported single items with regard to deforestation were palm oil for Indonesia and bovine meat for Brazil. To reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions effectively worldwide, leakage of emissions should be avoided. This can be done, for example, by attributing embodied LUC emissions to exported biomass products. With the approach developed in this study, controversial attribution between direct and indirect LUC and amortization of emissions over the product life cycle can be overcome, as the method operates on an average basis and annual level. The approach could be considered in the context of the UNFCCC climate policy instead of, or alongside with, other instruments aimed at reducing deforestation. However, the quality of the data should be improved and some methodological issues, such as the allocation procedure in multiproduct systems and the possible dilution effect through third parties not committed to emission reduction targets, should be considered. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CO{sub 2} emissions from land use changes are highly important. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Attribution of land use changes for products is difficult. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simple and robust method is developed to attribute land use change emissions.

  3. Evaluation of policy options to reform the EU Emissions Trading System. Effects on carbon price, emissions and the economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdonk, M.; Brink, C.; Vollebergh, H.; Roelfsema, M.

    2013-04-15

    The EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) is a key instrument of EU climate policy, providing a clear reduction pathway for CO2 emissions. The current carbon price (of about 3 euros per tonne of CO2, April 2013) is much lower than previously expected (which was around 30 euros) and is likely to remain low for a long time. This fuels doubts about whether the ETS will remain a key policy instrument in the long term. Such doubts also increase investment uncertainty, which is likely to have a negative impact on further investments in low-carbon technologies needed for a low-carbon economy in 2050. In November 2012, the European Commission put forward six options for a more structural reform of the EU ETS. The proposed options vary from reducing the cap and expanding the ETS to include other sectors, to strengthening the ETS by measures directly affecting allowance prices. The Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment (IenM) asked the PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency to assess the impact of these options. Four categories of options for reforming the ETS were evaluated: (1) reducing the supply of emission allowances; (2) expanding the ETS by including other sectors; (3) a minimum price for auctioned allowances; and (4) combining ETS with a carbon tax. Recently, the European Parliament voted against the European Commission's proposal to temporarily set aside emission allowances. In an earlier assessment of this proposal, PBL concluded that the impact of this backloading proposal on CO2 prices is likely to be limited, because the total amount of allowances up to 2020 would remain unchanged. All options analysed would reduce emissions and cause the emission price to increase. A minimum price on carbon, however, would provide the best opportunity to make the ETS more robust against unforeseen events, such as a further deterioration of the economy. Such a minimum price would result in more emission reductions if abatement proves to be cheaper

  4. A new biogeochemical model to simulate regional scale carbon emission from lakes, ponds and wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Tina; Brakebusch, Matthias; Gustafsson, Erik; Beer, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Small aquatic systems are receiving increasing attention for their role in global carbon cycling. For instance, lakes and ponds in permafrost are net emitters of carbon to the atmosphere, and their capacity to process and emit carbon is significant on a landscape scale, with a global flux of 8-103 Tg methane per year which amounts to 5%-30% of all natural methane emissions (Bastviken et al 2011). However, due to the spatial and temporal highly localised character of freshwater methane emissions, fluxes remain poorly qualified and are difficult to upscale based on field data alone. While many models exist to model carbon cycling in individual lakes and ponds, we perceived a lack of models that can work on a larger scale, over a range of latitudes, and simulate regional carbon emission from a large number of lakes, ponds and wetlands. Therefore our objective was to develop a model that can simulate carbon dioxide and methane emission from freshwaters on a regional scale. Our resulting model provides an additional tool to assess current aquatic carbon emissions as well as project future responses to changes in climatic drivers. To this effect, we have combined an existing large-scale hydrological model (the Variable Infiltration Capacity Macroscale Hydrologic Model (VIC), Liang & Lettenmaier 1994), an aquatic biogeochemical model (BALTSEM, Savchuk et al., 2012; Gustafsson et al., 2014) and developed a new methane module for lakes. The resulting new process-based biogeochemical model is designed to model aquatic carbon emission on a regional scale, and to perform well in high-latitude environments. Our model includes carbon, oxygen and nutrient cycling in lake water and sediments, primary production and methanogenesis. Results of calibration and validation of the model in two catchments (Torne-Kalix in Northern Sweden and of a large arctic river catchment) will be presented.

  5. Structural change at the carbon-nanotube tip by field emission

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzumaki, Toru; Takamura, Yuzuru; Ichinose, Hideki; Horiike, Yasuhiro

    2001-01-01

    Carbon-nanotube tips are plastically deformed during field emission. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and structural simulations suggest that the deformed structure of the closed nanotube is explained by heterogeneous nucleation of the pentagonal and heptagonal carbon ring pairs, and that of the opened one is represented by sp^3-like line defects in the hexagonal carbon network. It is considered that the changing of the inclination of the Fowler-Nordheim plots corresponds to t...

  6. Evaluating the latest estimates of spatially and temporally resolved gridded black carbon emission over Indian region in a strategic integrated modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S.; Kumar, B. D.; Reddy, M.

    2016-12-01

    Among aerosol constituents, black carbon (BC) has a strong mass absorption efficiency and play an important role in modifying the climate system. Regional and global modelling studies using BC emissions as input and simulating BC distribution in general exhibit large inadequacy compared to observations especially over regions where atmosphere is observed laden with high pollution level of BC concentration (e.g. the Indo-Gangetic plain, IGP over the Indian region); thereby indicating discrepancy in emissions. In the present study, we evaluate the latest spatially and temporally resolved gridded black carbon (BC) emissions estimated over Indian region in a strategic integrated modelling approach; this estimation was done extracting information on initial bottom-up monthly emissions and atmospheric BC concentration from a general circulation model (GCM) simulation in conjunction with receptor modelling approach. Monthly BC emission obtained from the present study exhibited a spatial and temporal variability with this being the highest (lowest) during February (July). Monthly BC emission flux was considerably high (> 100 Kg.Km-2) over the entire Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP) and the east coast during winter months with this high value, however, being persistent throughout over the northern IGP. This was relatively higher over the central and western India than over the IGP during summer months. Annual BC emission rate was 2568 Gg y-1with that over the IGP and central India respectively being 58% and 34% of the total annual BC emissions over India. The relative predominance of monthly BC emission flux over a region (as depicted from z-score distribution maps) was inferred being consistent with the prevalence of region- and season-specific anthropogenic activity. Evaluation of emissions (modified and old) through simulations in a chemical transport model showed the mean BC surface concentration simulated using modified emission resembled relatively well with the measured

  7. An optimal control model for reducing and trading of carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Huaying; Liang, Jin

    2016-03-01

    A stochastic optimal control model of reducing and trading for carbon emissions is established in this paper. With considerations of reducing the carbon emission growth and the price of the allowances in the market, an optimal policy is searched to have the minimum total costs to achieve the agreement of emission reduction targets. The model turns to a two-dimension HJB equation problem. By the methods of reducing dimension and Cole-Hopf transformation, a semi-closed form solution of the corresponding HJB problem under some assumptions is obtained. For more general cases, the numerical calculations, analysis and comparisons are presented.

  8. A multivariate causality test of carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption and economic growth in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Ching-Chih [Department of Transportation and Communication Management Science, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan 70101 (China)

    2010-11-15

    This paper uses multivariate co-integration Granger causality tests to investigate the correlations between carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption and economic growth in China. Some researchers have argued that the adoption of a reduction in carbon dioxide emissions and energy consumption as a long term policy goal will result in a closed-form relationship, to the detriment of the economy. Therefore, a perspective that can make allowances for the fact that the exclusive pursuit of economic growth will increase energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions is required; to the extent that such growth will have adverse effects with regard to global climate change. (author)

  9. New-type planar field emission display with superaligned carbon nanotube yarn emitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Wei, Yang; Liu, Kai; Liu, Liang; Jiang, Kaili; Fan, Shoushan

    2012-05-09

    With the superaligned carbon nanotube yarn as emitter, we have fabricated a 16 × 16 pixel field emission display prototype by adopting screen printing and laser cutting technologies. A planar diode field emission structure has been adopted. A very sharp carbon nanotube yarn tip emitter can be formed by laser cutting. Low voltage phosphor was coated on the anode electrodes also by screen printing. With a specially designed circuit, we have demonstrated the dynamic character display with the field emission display prototype. The emitter material and fabrication technologies in this paper are both easy to scale up to large areas.

  10. Factors Affecting Regional Per-Capita Carbon Emissions in China Based on an LMDI Factor Decomposition Model

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Feng; Long, Ruyin; Chen, Hong; Li, Xiaohui; Yang, Qingliang

    2013-01-01

    China is considered to be the main carbon producer in the world. The per-capita carbon emissions indicator is an important measure of the regional carbon emissions situation. This study used the LMDI factor decomposition model–panel co-integration test two-step method to analyze the factors that affect per-capita carbon emissions. The main results are as follows. (1) During 1997, Eastern China, Central China, and Western China ranked first, second, and third in the per-capita carbon emissions...

  11. Secondary nanotube growth on aligned carbon nanofibre arrays for superior field emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Paul C P; Lyth, Stephen M; Henley, Simon J; Silva, S Ravi P

    2008-04-01

    We report substantial improvement of the field emission properties from aligned carbon nanotubes grown on aligned carbon nanofibres by a two-stage plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) process. The threshold field decreased from 15.0 to 3.6 V/microm after the secondary growth. The field enhancement factor increased from 240 to 1480. This technique allows for superior emission of electrons for carbon nanotube/nanofibre arrays grown directly on highly doped silicon for direct integration in large area displays.

  12. Estimation of Black Carbon Emissions from Dry Dipterocarp Forest Fires in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubonwan Chaiyo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the estimation of black carbon emissions from dry dipterocarp forest fires in Thailand. Field experiments were set up at the natural forest, Mae Nam Phachi wildlife sanctuary, Ratchaburi Province, Thailand. The dead leaves were the main component consumed of the surface biomass with coverage higher than 90% in volume and mass. The dead leaves load was 342 ± 190 g∙m−2 and followed by a little mass load of twig, 100 g∙m−2. The chemical analysis of the dead leaves showed that the carbon content in the experimental biomass fuel was 45.81 ± 0.04%. From the field experiments, it was found that 88.38 ± 2.02% of the carbon input was converted to carbon released to the atmosphere, while less than 10% were left in the form of residues, and returned to soil. The quantity of dead leaves consumed to produce each gram of carbon released was 2.40 ± 0.02 gdry biomass burned. From the study, the emissions factor of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, particulate matter (PM2.5 and black carbon amounted 1329, 90, 26.19 and 2.83 g∙kg−1dry biomass burned, respectively. In Thailand, the amount of black carbon emissions from dry dipterocarp forest fires amounted 17.43 tonnes∙y−1.

  13. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. (eds.) (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Cerutti, O.M.; Ordonez, M.J.; Minjarez, R.D. (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico) Centro de Ecologia)

    1992-08-01

    Estimates of carbon emissions from deforestation in Mexico are derived for the year 1985 and for two contrasting scenarios in 2025. Carbon emissions are calculated through an in-depth review of the existing information on forest cover deforestation mtes and area affected by forest fires as well as on forests' carbon-related biological characteristics. The analysis covers both tropical -- evergreen and deciduous -- and temperate -- coniferous and broadleaf -- closed forests. Emissions from the forest sector are also compared to those from energy and industry. Different policy options for promoting the sustainable management of forest resources in the country are discussed. The analysis indicates that approximately 804,000 hectares per year of closed forests suffered from major perturbations in the mid 1980's in Mexico, leading to an annual deforestation mte of 668,000 hectares. Seventy five percent of total deforestation is concentrated in tropical forests. The resulting annual carbon balance is estimated in 53.4 million tons per year, and the net committed emissions in 45.5 million tons or 41% and 38%, respectively, of the country's total for 1985--87. The annual carbon balance from the forest sector in 2025 is expected to decline to 16.5 million tons in the low emissions scenario and to 22.9 million tons in the high emissions scenario. Because of the large uncertainties in some of the primary sources of information, the stated figures should be taken as preliminary estimates.

  14. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries. Volume 4: Mexico: Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. [eds.] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Cerutti, O.M.; Ordonez, M.J.; Minjarez, R.D. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico) Centro de Ecologia

    1992-08-01

    Estimates of carbon emissions from deforestation in Mexico are derived for the year 1985 and for two contrasting scenarios in 2025. Carbon emissions are calculated through an in-depth review of the existing information on forest cover deforestation mtes and area affected by forest fires as well as on forests` carbon-related biological characteristics. The analysis covers both tropical -- evergreen and deciduous -- and temperate -- coniferous and broadleaf -- closed forests. Emissions from the forest sector are also compared to those from energy and industry. Different policy options for promoting the sustainable management of forest resources in the country are discussed. The analysis indicates that approximately 804,000 hectares per year of closed forests suffered from major perturbations in the mid 1980`s in Mexico, leading to an annual deforestation mte of 668,000 hectares. Seventy five percent of total deforestation is concentrated in tropical forests. The resulting annual carbon balance is estimated in 53.4 million tons per year, and the net committed emissions in 45.5 million tons or 41% and 38%, respectively, of the country`s total for 1985--87. The annual carbon balance from the forest sector in 2025 is expected to decline to 16.5 million tons in the low emissions scenario and to 22.9 million tons in the high emissions scenario. Because of the large uncertainties in some of the primary sources of information, the stated figures should be taken as preliminary estimates.

  15. A small subset of protected areas are a highly significant source of carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Murray B.; Mitchard, Edward T. A.

    2017-02-01

    Protected areas (PAs) aim to protect multiple ecosystem services. However, not all are well protected. For the first time, using published carbon and forest loss maps, we estimate carbon emissions in large forest PAs in tropical countries (N = 2018). We found 36 ± 16 Pg C stored in PA trees, representing 14.5% of all tropical forest biomass carbon. However the PAs lost forest at a mean rate of 0.18% yr‑1 from 2000–2012. Lower protection status areas experienced higher forest losses (e.g. 0.39% yr‑1 in IUCN cat III), yet even highest status areas lost 0.13% yr‑1 (IUCN Cat I). Emissions were not evenly distributed: 80% of emissions derived from 8.3% of PAs (112 ± 49.5 Tg CO2 yr‑1 n = 171). Unsurprisingly the largest emissions derived from PAs that started with the greatest total forest area; accounting for starting forest area and relating that to carbon lost using a linear model (r2 = 0.41), we found 1.1% outlying PAs (residuals >2σ N = 23), representing 1.3% of the total PA forest area, yet causing 27.3% of all PA emissions. These results suggest PAs have been a successful means of protecting biomass carbon, yet a subset causing a disproportionately high share of emissions should be an urgent priority for management interventions.

  16. The market effectiveness of electricity reform: A case of carbon emissions trading market of Shenzhen city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongli; Wang, Gang; Zuo, Yi; Fan, Lisha; Xiao, Yao

    2017-03-01

    In the 13th Five-Year Plan, the Chinese government proposed to achieve the national carbon emission trading market established by 2017. The establishment of carbon emission trading market is the most important one in power reform, which helps to promote the power reform and achieve the goal of energy saving and emission reduction. As the bond of connecting environment energy issues and the economic development, carbon emissions trading market has become a hot research topic in the related fields, by market means, it incentive the lower cost subject emissions to undertake more reductions and therefore to benefit, the body of the high cost finished the task by buying quota reduction, to achieve the effect of having the least social total cost. Shenzhen has become the first city in China to start carbon trading pilot formally on June 16, 2013, online trading on June 18. The paper analyzes the market effectiveness of electricity reform in China, which takes carbon emissions trading market of Shenzhen city for example, and gives some suggestions for future development.

  17. Energy-Dominated Local Carbon Emissions in Beijing 2007: Inventory and Input-Output Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Guo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For greenhouse gas (GHG emissions by Beijing economy 2007, a concrete emission inventory covering carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4, and nitrous oxide (N2O is presented and associated with an input-output analysis to reveal the local GHG embodiment in final demand and trade without regard to imported emissions. The total direct GHG emissions amount to 1.06E + 08 t CO2-eq, of which energy-related CO2 emissions comprise 90.49%, non-energy-related CO2 emissions 6.35%, CH4 emissions 2.33%, and N2O emissions 0.83%, respectively. In terms of energy-related CO2 emissions, the largest source is coal with a percentage of 53.08%, followed by coke with 10.75% and kerosene with 8.44%. Sector 26 (Construction Industry holds the top local emissions embodied in final demand of 1.86E + 07 t CO2-eq due to its considerable capital, followed by energy-intensive Sectors 27 (Transport and Storage and 14 (Smelting and Pressing of Ferrous and Nonferrous Metals. The GHG emissions embodied in Beijing's exports are 4.90E + 07 t CO2-eq, accounting for 46.01% of the total emissions embodied in final demand. The sound scientific database totally based on local emissions is an important basis to make effective environment and energy policies for local decision makers.

  18. Global emission inventory and atmospheric transport of black carbon. Evaluation of the associated exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Rong

    2015-06-01

    This thesis presents research focusing on the improvement of high-resolution global black carbon (BC) emission inventory and application in assessing the population exposure to ambient BC. A particular focus of the thesis is on the construction of a high-resolution (both spatial and sectorial) fuel consumption database, which is used to develop the emission inventory of black carbon. Above all, the author updates the global emission inventory of black carbon, a resource subsequently used to study the atmospheric transport of black carbon over Asia with the help of a high-resolution nested model. The thesis demonstrates that spatial bias in fuel consumption and BC emissions can be reduced by means of the sub-national disaggregation approach. Using the inventory and nested model, ambient BC concentrations can be better validated against observations. Lastly, it provides a complete uncertainty analysis of global black carbon emissions, and this uncertainty is taken into account in the atmospheric modeling, helping to better understand the role of black carbon in regional and global air pollution.

  19. Discussion of Carbon Emissions for Charging Hot Metal in EAF Steelmaking Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ling-zhi; Jiang, Tao; Li, Guang-hui; Guo, Yu-feng

    2017-07-01

    As the cost of hot metal is reduced for iron ore prices are falling in the international market, more and more electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking enterprises use partial hot metal instead of scrap as raw materials to reduce costs and the power consumption. In this paper, carbon emissions based on 1,000 kg molten steel by charging hot metal in EAF steelmaking is studied. Based on the analysis of material and energy balance calculation in EAF, the results show that 146.9, 142.2, 137.0, and 130.8 kg/t of carbon emissions are produced at a hot metal ratio of 0 %, 30 %, 50 %, and 70 %, while 143.4, 98.5, 65.81, and 31.5 kg/t of carbon emissions are produced at a hot metal ratio of 0 %, 30 %, 50 %, and 70 % by using gas waste heat utilization (coal gas production) for EAF steelmaking unit process. However, carbon emissions are increased by charging hot metal for the whole blast furnace-electric arc furnace (BF-EAF) steelmaking process. In the condition that the hot metal produced by BF is surplus, as carbon monoxide in gas increased by charging hot metal, the way of coal gas production can be used for waste heat utilization, which reduces carbon emissions in EAF steelmaking unit process.

  20. Optimization of the Waterbus Operation Plan Considering Carbon Emissions: The Case of Zhoushan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juying Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, as more people are concerned with the issues around environment protection, research about how to reduce carbon emissions has drawn increasing attention. Encouraging public transportation is an effective measure to reduce carbon emissions. However, overland public transportation does less to lower carbon because of the gradually increasing pressure of the urban road traffic. Therefore, the waterbus along the coast becomes a new direction of the urban public transport development. In order to optimize the operation plan of the waterbus, a bi-level model considering carbon emissions is proposed in this paper. In the upper-level model, a multiple objective model is established, which considers both the interests of the passengers and the operator while considering the carbon emissions. The lower-level model is a traffic model split by using a Nested Logit model. A NSGA-II (Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II algorithm is proposed to solve the model. Finally, the city of Zhoushan is chosen as an example to prove the feasibility of the model and the algorithm. The result shows that the proposed model for waterbus operation optimization can efficiently reduce transportation carbon emissions and satisfy passenger demand at the same time.

  1. The Evaluation System Design of GIS-Based Oil and Gas Resources Carbon Emission Database Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenju; Bi, Jiantao; Wang, Xingxing; Zhu, Zuojia; Pang, Wenqi

    2014-03-01

    Due to the importance of research on carbon budgets in natural processes, it is critical to be able to effectively manage and process all types of data in order to get measure carbon emissions. For this purpose, data produced in oil and gas exploration and natural processes are the focus of this research. Various tools are used including Oracle11g for data storage, Arc Engine combined with Microsoft Visual C# among others including C++ and the Database Storage Management Platform with GIS software functions. The IPCC algorithms are the most important reference, combine this with actual events, a new calculation model about oil and gas resources carbon emission was constructed. This model will analyze and predict the amount of carbon emissions in the oil and gas production in the future. Putting the new calculation model into the Database Storage Management Platform, an Intelligent Prediction Database Platform contained the new calculation model was established.

  2. The fabrication of carbon-nanotube-coated electrodes and a field-emission-based luminescent device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Sanjay; Yamini Sarada, B; Kar, Kamal K

    2010-02-10

    Tungsten substrates were coated with an Ni or Ni-Co catalyst by the electroless dip coating technique. Various carbon nanotubes were synthesized by the catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method under different growth conditions. It was observed that Ni-and Ni-Co-coated tungsten substrates give very good growth of carbon nanotubes (CNT) in terms of yield, uniformity and alignment at a growth temperature of 600 degrees C. We fabricated a field-emission-based luminescent light bulb where a tungsten wire coated with carbon nanotubes served as a cathode. Results show lower threshold voltage, better emission stability and higher luminescence for CNT cathodes in comparison with uncoated tungsten cathodes. We found that aligned-coiled carbon nanotubes are superior to straight CNTs in terms of field emission characteristics and luminescence properties.

  3. Flexible field emission of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes/reduced graphene hybrid films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Duck Hyun; Lee, Jin Ah; Lee, Won Jong; Kim, Sang Ouk

    2011-01-03

    The outstanding flexible field emission properties of carbon hybrid films made of vertically aligned N-doped carbon nanotubes grown on mechanically compliant reduced graphene films are demonstrated. The bottom-reduced graphene film substrate enables the conformal coating of the hybrid film on flexible device geometry and ensures robust mechanical and electrical contact even in a highly deformed state. The field emission properties are precisely examined in terms of the control of the bending radius, the N-doping level, and the length or wall-number of the carbon nanotubes and analyzed with electric field simulations. This high-performance flexible carbon field emitter is potentially useful for diverse, flexible field emission devices.

  4. Carbon-centered free radicals in particulate matter emissions from wood and coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linwei Tian; Catherine P. Koshland; Junko Yano; Vittal K. Yachandra; Ignatius T.S. Yu; S.C. Lee; Donald Lucas [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China). School of Public Health

    2009-05-15

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used to measure the free radicals in the particulate matter (PM) emissions from wood and coal combustion. The intensity of radicals in PM dropped linearly within two months of sample storage and stabilized after that. This factor of storage time was adjusted when comparing radical intensities among different PM samples. An inverse relationship between coal rank and free radical intensities in PM emissions was observed, which was in contrast with the pattern of radical intensities in the source coals. The strong correlation between intensities of free radical and elemental carbon in PM emissions suggests that the radical species may be carbon-centered. The increased g-factors, 2.0029-2.0039, over that of purely carbon-centered radicals may indicate the presence of vicinal oxygen heteroatom. The redox and biology activities of these carbon-centered radicals are worthy of evaluation. 22 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Annual Carbon Emissions from Deforestation in the Amazon Basin between 2000 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiao-Peng; Huang, Chengquan; Saatchi, Sassan S; Hansen, Matthew C; Townshend, John R

    2015-01-01

    Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) is considered one of the most cost-effective strategies for mitigating climate change. However, historical deforestation and emission rates-critical inputs for setting reference emission levels for REDD+-are poorly understood. Here we use multi-source, time-series satellite data to quantify carbon emissions from deforestation in the Amazon basin on a year-to-year basis between 2000 and 2010. We first derive annual deforestation indicators by using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Vegetation Continuous Fields (MODIS VCF) product. MODIS indicators are calibrated by using a large sample of Landsat data to generate accurate deforestation rates, which are subsequently combined with a spatially explicit biomass dataset to calculate committed annual carbon emissions. Across the study area, the average deforestation and associated carbon emissions were estimated to be 1.59 ± 0.25 M ha•yr(-1) and 0.18 ± 0.07 Pg C•yr(-1) respectively, with substantially different trends and inter-annual variability in different regions. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon increased between 2001 and 2004 and declined substantially afterwards, whereas deforestation in the Bolivian Amazon, the Colombian Amazon, and the Peruvian Amazon increased over the study period. The average carbon density of lost forests after 2005 was 130 Mg C•ha(-1), ~11% lower than the average carbon density of remaining forests in year 2010 (144 Mg C•ha(-1)). Moreover, the average carbon density of cleared forests increased at a rate of 7 Mg C•ha(-1)•yr(-1) from 2005 to 2010, suggesting that deforestation has been progressively encroaching into high-biomass lands in the Amazon basin. Spatially explicit, annual deforestation and emission estimates like the ones derived in this study are useful for setting baselines for REDD+ and other emission mitigation programs, and for evaluating the performance of such efforts.

  6. Annual Carbon Emissions from Deforestation in the Amazon Basin between 2000 and 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Peng Song

    Full Text Available Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+ is considered one of the most cost-effective strategies for mitigating climate change. However, historical deforestation and emission rates-critical inputs for setting reference emission levels for REDD+-are poorly understood. Here we use multi-source, time-series satellite data to quantify carbon emissions from deforestation in the Amazon basin on a year-to-year basis between 2000 and 2010. We first derive annual deforestation indicators by using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Vegetation Continuous Fields (MODIS VCF product. MODIS indicators are calibrated by using a large sample of Landsat data to generate accurate deforestation rates, which are subsequently combined with a spatially explicit biomass dataset to calculate committed annual carbon emissions. Across the study area, the average deforestation and associated carbon emissions were estimated to be 1.59 ± 0.25 M ha•yr(-1 and 0.18 ± 0.07 Pg C•yr(-1 respectively, with substantially different trends and inter-annual variability in different regions. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon increased between 2001 and 2004 and declined substantially afterwards, whereas deforestation in the Bolivian Amazon, the Colombian Amazon, and the Peruvian Amazon increased over the study period. The average carbon density of lost forests after 2005 was 130 Mg C•ha(-1, ~11% lower than the average carbon density of remaining forests in year 2010 (144 Mg C•ha(-1. Moreover, the average carbon density of cleared forests increased at a rate of 7 Mg C•ha(-1•yr(-1 from 2005 to 2010, suggesting that deforestation has been progressively encroaching into high-biomass lands in the Amazon basin. Spatially explicit, annual deforestation and emission estimates like the ones derived in this study are useful for setting baselines for REDD+ and other emission mitigation programs, and for evaluating the performance of such

  7. Terrestrial carbon disturbance from mountaintop mining increases lifecycle emissions for clean coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, James F; Campbell, J Elliott

    2010-03-15

    The Southern Appalachian forest region of the U.S.--a region responsible for 23% of U.S. coal production--has 24 billion metric tons of high quality coal remaining of which mountaintop coal mining (MCM) will be the primary extraction method. Here we consider greenhouse gas emissions associated with MCM terrestrial disturbance in the life-cycle of coal energy production. We estimate disturbed forest carbon, including terrestrial soil and nonsoil carbon using published U.S. Environmental Protection Agency data of the forest floor removed and U.S. Department of Agriculture--Forest Service inventory data. We estimate the amount of previously buried geogenic organic carbon brought to the soil surface during MCM using published measurements of total organic carbon and carbon isotope data for reclaimed soils, soil organic matter and coal fragments. Contrary to conventional wisdom, the life-cycle emissions of coal production for MCM methods were found to be quite significant when considering the potential terrestrial source. Including terrestrial disturbance in coal life-cycle assessment indicates that indirect emissions are at least 7 and 70% of power plant emissions for conventional and CO(2) capture and sequestration power plants, respectively. To further constrain these estimates, we suggest that the fate of soil carbon and geogenic carbon at MCM sites be explored more widely.

  8. Enhanced electron field emission from carbon nanotubes irradiated by energetic C ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng-Cheng; Deng, Jian-Hua; Cheng, Guo-An; Zheng, Rui-Ting; Ping, Zhao-Xia

    2012-08-01

    The field emission performance and structure of the vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube arrays irradiated by energetic C ion with average energy of 40 keV have been investigated. During energetic C ion irradiation, the curves of emission current density versus the applied field of samples shift firstly to low applied fields when the irradiation doses are less than 9.6 x 10(16) cm(-2), and further increase of dose makes the curves reversing to a high applied field, which shows that high dose irradiation in carbon nanotube arrays makes their field emission performance worse. After energetic ion irradiation with a dose of 9.6 x 1016 cm(-2), the turn-on electric field and the threshold electric field of samples decreased from 0.80 and 1.13 V/microm to 0.67 and 0.98 V/microm respectively. Structural analysis of scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy indicates that the amorphous carbon nanowire/carbon nanotube hetero nano-structures have been fabricated in the C ion irradiated carbon nanotubes. The enhancement of electron field emission is due to the formation of amorphous carbon nanowires at the tip of carbon nanotube arrays, which is an electron emitting material with low work function.

  9. Innovative Carbon Allowance Allocation Policy for the Shenzhen Emission Trading Scheme in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Ye

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The initial allocation of tradable carbon emission allowances is among the most contentious issues in developing an emission trading scheme (ETS. China faces serious dilemmas of system complexity and information incompleteness and asymmetry in allocating carbon allowance among enterprises. As one of the pilot ETS regions, Shenzhen has launched the first regional cap-and-trade ETS (SZ ETS in China. Adhering to the overall plan and classification analysis, SZ ETS intends to solve the aforementioned dilemmas by developing innovative allowance allocation policies. A fundamental principle is to allocate allowances based on carbon intensity and actual output, according to which a two-step allocation procedure is constructed. A competitive game mechanism is introduced for allowance allocation among manufacturing enterprises. Empirical results indicate the following: (1 Carbon allowance allocation based on carbon intensity and actual output can mitigate carbon emission growth by reducing CO2 emitted per unit output, and, thus, buffer the shocks of unexpected economic fluctuations to ETS stability; (2 Competitive game allocation may contribute to improving the use of scattered information to enhance the efficiency of information and emission resource allocation. Exploring SZ ETS may provide a reference for formulating future national carbon allowance allocation policies in China and other developing regions.

  10. Impacts of black carbon and co-pollutant emissions from transportation sector in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, Miguel; Almanza, Victor; Garcia, Agustin; Jazcilevich, Aron; Lei, Wenfang; Molina, Luisa

    2016-04-01

    Black carbon is one of the most important short-lived climate-forcing agents, which is harmful to human health and also contributes significantly to climate change. Transportation is one of the largest sources of black carbon emissions in many megacities and urban complexes, with diesel vehicles leading the way. Both on-road and off-road vehicles can emit substantial amounts of harmful BC-containing particulate matter (PM) and are also responsible for large emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and many other co-emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Regionally, black carbon emissions contributions from mobile sources may vary widely depending on the technical characteristics of the vehicle fleet, the quality and chemical properties of the fuels consumed, and the degree of local development and economic activities that foster wider and more frequent or intensive use of vehicles. This presentation will review and assess the emissions of black carbon from the on-road and off-road transportation sector in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. Viable mitigation strategies, including innovative technological alternatives to reduce black carbon and co-pollutants in diesel vehicles and their impacts on climate, human health and ecosystems will be described.

  11. The effects of carbon tax on the Oregon economy and state greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, A. L.; Butenhoff, C. L.; Renfro, J.; Liu, J.

    2014-12-01

    Of the numerous mechanisms to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions on statewide, regional or national scales in the United States, a tax on carbon is perhaps one of the simplest. By taxing emissions directly, the costs of carbon emissions are incorporated into decision-making processes of market actors including consumers, energy suppliers and policy makers. A carbon tax also internalizes the social costs of climate impacts. In structuring carbon tax revenues to reduce corporate and personal income taxes, the negative incentives created by distortionary income taxes can be reduced or offset entirely. In 2008, the first carbon tax in North America across economic sectors was implemented in British Columbia through such a revenue-neutral program. In this work, we investigate the economic and environmental effects of a carbon tax in the state of Oregon with the goal of informing the state legislature, stakeholders and the public. The study investigates 70 different economic sectors in the Oregon economy and six geographical regions of the state. The economic model is built upon the Carbon Tax Analysis Model (C-TAM) to provide price changes in fuel with data from: the Energy Information Agency National Energy Modeling System (EIA-NEMS) Pacific Region Module which provides Oregon-specific energy forecasts; and fuel price increases imposed at different carbon fees based on fuel-specific carbon content and current and projected regional-specific electricity fuel mixes. CTAM output is incorporated into the Regional Economic Model (REMI) which is used to dynamically forecast economic impacts by region and industry sector including: economic output, employment, wages, fiscal effects and equity. Based on changes in economic output and fuel demand, we further project changes in greenhouse gas emissions resulting from economic activity and calculate revenue generated through a carbon fee. Here, we present results of this modeling effort under different scenarios of carbon fee and

  12. Analysis of carbon dioxide emission of gas fuelled cogeneration plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Adzuieen; Amin, M.; Majid, A.

    2013-12-01

    Gas turbines are widely used for power generation. In cogeneration system, the gas turbine generates electricity and the exhaust heat from the gas turbine is used to generate steam or chilled water. Besides enhancing the efficiency of the system, the process assists in reducing the emission of CO2 to the environment. This study analyzes the amount of CO2 emission by Universiti Teknologi Petronas gas fuelled cogeneration system using energy balance equations. The results indicate that the cogeneration system reduces the CO2 emission to the environment by 60%. This finding could encourage the power plant owners to install heat recovery systems to their respective plants.

  13. Field emission of carbon quantum dots synthesized from a single organic solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiahui; Yang, Bingjun; Yang, Juan; Yu, Shengxue; Chen, Jiangtao

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, a facile synthesis of carbon quantum dots (CQDs) and its field emission performance are reported. The CQDs are prepared from a single N, N-dimethylformamide acting as carbon and nitrogen-doping sources simultaneously. The CQDs are investigated by photoluminescence, transmission electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The CQDs have an average size of 3 nm and are doped with N atoms. CQD dispersion shows strong fluorescence under UV illumination. For the first time, the field emission behavior of CQDs coated on Si substrate is studied. As a candidate of cold cathode, the CQDs display good field emission performance. The CQD emitter reaches the current density of 1.1 mA cm-2 at 7.0 V μm-1 and exhibits good long-term emission stability, suggesting promising application in field emission devices.

  14. Consumer Travel Behaviors and Transport Carbon Emissions: A Comparative Study of Commercial Centers in Shenyang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Current literature highlights the role of commercial centers in cities in generating shopping trips and transport carbon emissions. However, the influence of the characteristics of commercial centers on consumer travel behavior and transport carbon emissions is not well understood. This study addresses this knowledge gap by examining shopping trips to eight commercial centers in Shenyang, China, and the CO2 emissions of these trips. We found that the locations and types of commercial centers strongly influence CO2 emissions. CO2 emissions per trip to commercial centers in the suburbs of Shenyang were on average 6.94% and 26.92% higher than those to commercial centers in the urban core and the inner city, respectively. CO2 emissions induced by wholesale centers were nearly three times higher than the lowest CO2 emissions of commercial centers in the inner city. These empirical results enhance our understanding of shopping-related transport carbon emissions and highlight the importance of optimizing urban space structure, in particular, the layout of commercial centers.

  15. an evaluation of china's carbon emission reduction policies on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Urban transport system, greenhouse gas emission reduction, .... Analysis Framework. In particular .... The actual fuel efficiency data of every country or region ..... (c) promoting the application of intelligent transportation system (ITS).

  16. Field Emission of Thermally Grown Carbon Nanostructures on Silicon Carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    thermal decomposition of silicon carbide does not utilize a catalyst, therefore relatively defect free. One drawback to this method, however is that the CNT...In this thesis, silicon carbide samples are patterned to create elevated emission sites in an attempt to minimize the field emission screening effect...Patterning is accomplished by using standard photolithography methods to implement a masking nickel layer on the silicon carbide . Pillars are created

  17. Single-layer nano-carbon film, diamond film, and diamond/nano-carbon composite film field emission performance comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoping; Wang, Jinye; Wang, Lijun

    2016-05-01

    A series of single-layer nano-carbon (SNC) films, diamond films, and diamond/nano-carbon (D/NC) composite films have been prepared on the highly doped silicon substrate by using microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition techniques. The films were characterised by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and field emission I-V measurements. The experimental results indicated that the field emission maximum current density of D/NC composite films is 11.8-17.8 times that of diamond films. And the field emission current density of D/NC composite films is 2.9-5 times that of SNC films at an electric field of 3.0 V/μm. At the same time, the D/NC composite film exhibits the advantage of improved reproducibility and long term stability (both of the nano-carbon film within the D/NC composite cathode and the SNC cathode were prepared under the same experimental conditions). And for the D/NC composite sample, a high current density of 10 mA/cm2 at an electric field of 3.0 V/μm was obtained. Diamond layer can effectively improve the field emission characteristics of nano-carbon film. The reason may be due to the diamond film acts as the electron acceleration layer.

  18. Multicolour Emission States from Charge Transfer between Carbon Dots and Surface Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengliang Hu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The emissive states of carbon dots have been tuned by controlling the charge transfer process. The carbon dots couple with molecules, which are made of a benzene ring and different heteroatom substituents, through amino-carboxylic bonds that are generally identified as charge transfer promoters at the interface. New ways of radiative recombination are created due to the transfer of photo-excited electrons from carbon dots to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO of the grafted molecules. By variation of the molecular orbital energy levels via heteroatom substituents in the benzene ring, the different optical properties and emission colors of the carbon dots were presented. This work opens up new opportunities for the application of carbon dots since different heteroatom substituents could lead to many possibilities for conjugation with drugs and biomolecules.

  19. Effect of irrigation, nitrogen application, and a nitrification inhibitor on nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane emissions from an olive (Olea europaea L.) orchard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maris, S C; Teira-Esmatges, M R; Arbonés, A; Rufat, J

    2015-12-15

    Drip irrigation combined with nitrogen (N) fertigation is applied in order to save water and improve nutrient efficiency. Nitrification inhibitors reduce greenhouse gas emissions. A field study was conducted to compare the emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) associated with the application of N fertiliser through fertigation (0 and 50kgNha(-1)), and 50kgNha(-1)+nitrification inhibitor in a high tree density Arbequina olive orchard. Spanish Arbequina is the most suited variety for super intensive olive groves. This system allows reducing production costs and increases crop yield. Moreover its oil has excellent sensorial features. Subsurface drip irrigation markedly reduced N2O and N2O+N2 emissions compared with surface drip irrigation. Fertiliser application significantly increased N2O+N2, but not N2O emissions. Denitrification was the main source of N2O. The N2O losses (calculated as emission factor) ranging from -0.03 to 0.14% of the N applied, were lower than the IPCC (2007) values. The N2O+N2 losses were the largest, equivalent to 1.80% of the N applied, from the 50kgNha(-1)+drip irrigation treatment which resulted in water filled pore space >60% most of the time (high moisture). Nitrogen fertilisation significantly reduced CO2 emissions in 2011, but only for the subsurface drip irrigation strategies in 2012. The olive orchard acted as a net CH4 sink for all the treatments. Applying a nitrification inhibitor (DMPP), the cumulative N2O and N2O+N2 emissions were significantly reduced with respect to the control. The DMPP also inhibited CO2 emissions and significantly increased CH4 oxidation. Considering global warming potential, greenhouse gas intensity, cumulative N2O emissions and oil production, it can be concluded that applying DMPP with 50kgNha(-1)+drip irrigation treatment was the best option combining productivity with keeping greenhouse gas emissions under control.

  20. Scenarios Analysis of the Energies’ Consumption and Carbon Emissions in China Based on a Dynamic CGE Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanying Chi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the development trends and variation characteristics of China’s economy, energy consumption and carbon emissions from 2007 to 2030, and the impacts on China’s economic growth, energy consumption, and carbon emissions under the carbon tax policy scenarios, based on the dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE model. The results show that during the simulation period, China’s economy will keep a relatively high growth rate, but the growth rate will slow down under the benchmark scenario. The energy consumption intensity and the carbon emissions intensity per unit of Gross Domestic Product (GDP will continually decrease. The energy consumption structure and industrial structure will gradually optimize. With the economic growth, the total energy consumption will constantly increase, and the carbon dioxide emissions are still large, and the situation of energy-saving and emission-reduction is still serious. The carbon tax is very important for energy-saving and emission-reduction and energy consumption structure optimization, and the effect of the carbon tax on GDP is small. If the carbon tax could be levied and the enterprise income tax could be reduced at the same time, the dual goals of reducing energy consumption and carbon emissions and increasing the GDP growth can be achieved. Improving the technical progress level of clean power while implementing a carbon tax policy is very meaningful to optimize energy consumption structure and reduce the carbon emissions, but it has some offsetting effect to reduce energy consumption.

  1. Dynamics of Blue Carbon Stocks and GHG Emissions Along a Land Use Gradient in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes, M.; Torres, D.; Sergio, V.; Rivera, C. G.; Molina, O.

    2016-12-01

    Coastal blue carbon ecosystems can store up to 5 times more carbon than their terrestrial counterparts. The former are also under great threats stemming from climate change (i.e. sea level rise) and human encroachment (i.e. land use change). Our research was conducted in Jiquilisco and Jaltepeque Bays in El Salvador and constitutes the first-ever assessment of blue carbon stocks and GHG emissions along a land use gradient in the country. Ecosystem-level carbon stocks were measured in mangroves (natural and restored stands), marshes, shrimp farms, artisan salt flats, and adjacent agriculture areas. Ecosystem carbon ranged from 738 ± 116 MgC·ha-1 to 617 ± 115 MgC·ha-1 in tall and medium mangroves to 191 ± 28 MgC·ha-1 in dwarf mangroves. An average 87 % of this carbon is sequestered in the soil, consistent with measurements made elsewhere. Carbon losses from conversion from mangroves to agricultural uses reduced natural stocks by 90%, thus producing dramatic historical emissions in the country. Conservative estimates suggest historical (1993-2014) carbon emissions from this land-use dynamics may amount to 48495 to 58004 Gg CO2e, representing 3 to 4 times the country's emissions in 2005. Our data allow us to test the efficacy of "Ecological Mangrove Restoration" programs promoted in El Salvador to strengthen local governance, livelihoods and ecosystem stability. Restored mangrove stands represent anywhere from 36 to 77 % of ecosystem carbon stocks measured in natural stands, suggesting they are playing an important role in recovering lost stocks over time. Further efforts should be spent in expanding community mangrove restoration, and ensuring carbon sequestration is properly included in the national MRV system for REDD+.

  2. A strategic decision-making model considering the social costs of carbon dioxide emissions for sustainable supply chain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Shih-Chang; Hung, Shiu-Wan

    2014-01-15

    Incorporating sustainability into supply chain management has become a critical issue driven by pressures from governments, customers, and various stakeholder groups over the past decade. This study proposes a strategic decision-making model considering both the operational costs and social costs caused by the carbon dioxide emissions from operating such a supply chain network for sustainable supply chain management. This model was used to evaluate carbon dioxide emissions and operational costs under different scenarios in an apparel manufacturing supply chain network. The results showed that the higher the social cost rate of carbon dioxide emissions, the lower the amount of the emission of carbon dioxide. The results also suggested that a legislation that forces the enterprises to bear the social costs of carbon dioxide emissions resulting from their economic activities is an effective approach to reducing carbon dioxide emissions.

  3. Irreversible Climate Change Due to Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Susan Solomon; Gian-Kasper Plattner; Reto Knutti; Pierre Friedlingstein

    2009-01-01

    ... do not drop significantly for at least 1,000 years. Among illustrative irreversible impacts that should be expected if atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations increase from current levels near 385 parts per million by volume (ppmv...

  4. Wildfires in a warmer climate: Emission fluxes, emission heights, and black carbon concentrations in 2090-2099

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veira, A.; Lasslop, G.; Kloster, S.

    2016-04-01

    Global warming is expected to considerably impact wildfire activity and aerosol emission release in the future. Due to their complexity, the future interactions between climate change, wildfire activity, emission release, and atmospheric aerosol processes are still uncertain. Here we use the process-based fire model SPITFIRE within the global vegetation model JSBACH to simulate wildfire activity for present-day climate conditions and future Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). The modeled fire emission fluxes and fire radiative power serve as input for the aerosol-climate model ECHAM6-HAM2, which has been extended by a semiempirical plume height parametrization. Our results indicate a general increase in extratropical and a decrease in tropical wildfire activity at the end of the 21st century. Changes in emission fluxes are most pronounced for the strongest warming scenario RCP8.5 (+49% in the extratropics, -37% in the tropics). Tropospheric black carbon (BC) concentrations are similarly affected by changes in emission fluxes and changes in climate conditions with regional variations of up to -50% to +100%. In the Northern Hemispheric extratropics, we attribute a mean increase in aerosol optical thickness of +0.031±0.002 to changes in wildfire emissions. Due to the compensating effects of fire intensification and more stable atmospheric conditions, global mean emission heights change by at most 0.3 km with only minor influence on BC long-range transport. The changes in wildfire emission fluxes for the RCP8.5 scenario, however, may largely compensate the projected reduction in anthropogenic BC emissions by the end of the 21st century.

  5. Impact of biochar application on nitrogen nutrition of rice, greenhouse-gas emissions and soil organic carbon dynamics in two paddy soils of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Zubin; Xu, Yanping; Liu, Gang; Liu, Qi; Zhu, Jianguo; Tu, Cong; Amonette, James E.; Cadisch, Georg; Yong, Jean W.; Hu, Shuijin

    2013-09-01

    Two field microcosm experiments and 15N labeling techniques were used to investigate the first-year effects of biochar addition on rice N nutrition and GHG emissions in an Inceptisol and an Ultisol. Biochar N bioavailability and effect of biochar on fertilizer nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE) were studied by 15N-enriched wheat biochar (7.8803 atom% 15N) and fertilizer urea (5 atom% 15N) (Experiment I). Corn biochar and corn stalks were applied at 12 Mg ha-1 to study their effects on GHG emissions (Experiment II). Biochar had no significant impact on rice production and less than 2% of the biochar N was available to plants in the first season. Biochar addition increased soil C and N contents and decreased urea NUE.. Seasonal cumulative CH4 emissions with biochar were similar to the controls, but significantly lower than the local practice of straw amendment. Soil emissions of N2O with biochar amendment were similar to the control in the acidic Ultisol, but significantly higher in the slightly alkaline Inceptisol. Carbon-balance calculations found no major losses of biochar-C. Low bio-availability of biochar N did not make a significant impact on rice production or N nutrition during the first year.. Replacement of straw amendments with biochar could decrease CH4 emissions and increase SOC stocks.

  6. Network environ perspective for urban metabolism and carbon emissions: a case study of Vienna, Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaoqing; Chen, Bin

    2012-04-17

    Cities are considered major contributors to global warming, where carbon emissions are highly embedded in the overall urban metabolism. To examine urban metabolic processes and emission trajectories we developed a carbon flux model based on Network Environ Analysis (NEA). The mutual interactions and control situation within the urban ecosystem of Vienna were examined, and the system-level properties of the city's carbon metabolism were assessed. Regulatory strategies to minimize carbon emissions were identified through the tracking of the possible pathways that affect these emission trajectories. Our findings suggest that indirect flows have a strong bearing on the mutual and control relationships between urban sectors. The metabolism of a city is considered self-mutualistic and sustainable only when the local and distal environments are embraced. Energy production and construction were found to be two factors with a major impact on carbon emissions, and whose regulation is only effective via ad-hoc pathways. In comparison with the original life-cycle tracking, the application of NEA was better at revealing details from a mechanistic aspect, which is crucial for informed sustainable urban management.

  7. Energy-Related Carbon Emissions of China’s Model Environmental Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Lo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies three types of model environmental cities in China and examines their levels of energy-related carbon emissions using a bottom-up accounting system. Model environmental cities are identified as those that have been recently awarded official recognition from the central government for their efforts in environmental protection. The findings show that, on average, the Low-Carbon Cities have lower annual carbon emissions, carbon intensities, and per capita emissions than the Eco-Garden Cities and the Environmental Protection Cities. Compared internationally, the Eco-Garden Cities and the Environmental Protection Cities have per capita emissions that are similar to those of American cities whereas per capita emissions from the Low-Carbon Cities are similar to those of European cities. The result indicates that addressing climate change is not a priority for some model environmental cities. Policy changes are needed to prioritize climate mitigation in these cities, considering that climate change is a cross-cutting environmental issue with wide-ranging impact.

  8. Field Emission Properties of the Dendritic Carbon Nanotubes Film Embedded with ZnO Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Zuo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Response on the effects of individual differences of common carbon nanotubes on the field emission current stability and the luminescence uniformity of cathode film, a new type of cathode film made of dendritic carbon nanotubes embedded with Zinc oxide quantum dots is proposed. The film of dendritic carbon nanotubes was synthesized through high-temperature pyrolysis of iron phthalocyanine on a silicon substrate coated with zinc oxide nanoparticles. The dendritic structure looks like many small branches protrude from the main branches in SEM and TEM images, and both the branch and the trunk are embedded with Zinc oxide quantum dots. The turn-on field of the dendritic structure film is ∼1.3 V/μm at a current of 2 μA, which is much lower than that of the common carbon nanotube film, and the emission current and the luminescence uniformity are better than that of the common one. The whole film emission uniformity has been improved because the multi-emission sites out from the dendritic structure carbon nanotubes cover up the failure and defects of the single emission site.

  9. LIDAR-based urban metabolism approach to neighbourhood scale energy and carbon emissions modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christen, A. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Geography; Coops, N. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Forest Sciences; Canada Research Chairs, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Kellet, R. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture

    2010-07-01

    A remote sensing technology was used to model neighbourhood scale energy and carbon emissions in a case study set in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC). The study was used to compile and aggregate atmospheric carbon flux, urban form, and energy and emissions data in a replicable neighbourhood-scale approach. The study illustrated methods of integrating diverse emission and uptake processes on a range of scales and resolutions, and benchmarked comparisons of modelled estimates with measured energy consumption data obtained over a 2-year period from a research tower located in the study area. The study evaluated carbon imports, carbon exports and sequestration, and relevant emissions processes. Fossil fuel emissions produced in the neighbourhood were also estimated. The study demonstrated that remote sensing technologies such as LIDAR and multispectral satellite imagery can be an effective means of generating and extracting urban form and land cover data at fine scales. Data from the study were used to develop several emissions reduction and energy conservation scenarios. 6 refs.

  10. Carbon dioxide emissions embodied in international trade in Central Europe between 1995 and 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlčková Jana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and environmental policies are widely discussed, but much less is known about emissions embodied in goods traded internationally, and the distinction between emission producers and consumers. The carbon dioxide emissions embodied in international trade in Central European countries are subject to examination in this paper. As a result of industrial restructuring and environmental legislation, air pollution has improved significantly in Central European countries since the 1989 transition. On the other hand, economic growth has been accompanied by a rise in consumerism. Despite the increasing role of exports, the Visegrad group countries have become net importers of carbon dioxide emissions between 1995 and 2008. This seems to be the ‘standard trajectory’ of a country’s transition toward a more developed and consumption-oriented economy. The global patterns of carbon dioxide emissions embodied in manufacturing exports are also mapped, using network analysis and constructing ‘product space’. The analysis confirms that industrial re-structuring played an important role in lowering the production of carbon dioxide emissions in the Visegrad countries.

  11. Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in the steel sector in key developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, L.K.; Phylipsen, G.J.M.; Worrell, E.

    2001-04-01

    Iron and steel production consumes enormous quantities of energy, especially in developing countries where outdated, inefficient technologies are still used to produce iron and steel. Carbon dioxide emissions from steel production, which range between 5 and 15% of total country emissions in key developing countries (Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa), will continue to grow as these countries develop and as demand for steel products such as materials, automobiles, and appliances increases. In this report, we describe the key steel processes, discuss typical energy-intensity values for these processes, review historical trends in iron and steel production by process in five key developing countries, describe the steel industry in each of the five key developing countries, present international comparisons of energy use and carbon dioxide emissions among these countries, and provide our assessment of the technical potential to reduce these emissions based on best-practice benchmarking. Using a best practice benchmark, we find that significant savings, in the range of 33% to 49% of total primary energy used to produce steel, are technically possible in these countries. Similarly, we find that the technical potential for reducing intensities of carbon dioxide emissions ranges between 26% and 49% of total carbon dioxide emissions from steel production in these countries.

  12. Economic implications of reducing carbon emissions from energy use and industrial processes in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y-H Henry; Timilsina, Govinda R; Landis, Florian

    2013-11-30

    This study assesses the economy-wide impacts of cutting CO2 emissions on the Brazilian economy. It finds that in 2040, the business-as-usual CO2 emissions from energy use and industrial processes would be almost three times as high as those in 2010 and would account for more than half of total national CO2 emissions. The current policy aims to reduce deforestation by 70 percent by 2017 and lower emissions intensity of the overall economy by 36-39 percent by 2020. If the policy were implemented as planned and continued to 2040, there would be no need to cut CO2 emissions from energy use and industrial processes until 2035, as emissions reduction through controlling deforestation would be enough to meet the voluntary carbon mitigation target of Brazil. The study also finds that using the carbon tax revenue to subsidize wind power can effectively increase the country's wind power output if that is the policy priority. Further, it finds evidence supporting the double dividend hypothesis, i.e., using revenue from a hypothetical carbon tax to finance a cut in labor income tax can significantly lower the GDP impacts of the carbon tax. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Measurement of black carbon emissions from in-use diesel-electric passenger locomotives in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, N. W.; Kirchstetter, T.; Martien, P. T.; Apte, J.

    2015-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) emission factors were measured for a California commuter rail line fleet of diesel-electric passenger locomotives (Caltrain). The emission factors are based on BC and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in the exhaust plumes of passing locomotives, which were measured from pedestrian overpasses using portable analyzers. Each of the 29 locomotives in the fleet was sampled on 4-20 separate occasions at different locations to characterize different driving modes. The average emission factor expressed as g BC emitted per kg diesel consumed was 0.87 ± 0.66 g kg-1 (±1 standard deviation, n = 362 samples). BC emission factors tended to be higher for accelerating locomotives traveling at higher speeds with engines in higher notch settings. Higher fuel-based BC emission factors (g kg-1) were measured for locomotives equipped with separate "head-end" power generators (SEP-HEPs), which power the passenger cars, while higher time-based emission factors (g h-1) were measured for locomotives without SEP-HEPs, whose engines are continuously operated at high speeds to provide both head-end and propulsion power. PM10 emission factors, estimated assuming a BC/PM10 emission ratio of 0.6 and a typical power output-to-fuel consumption ratio, were generally in line with the Environmental Protection Agency's locomotive exhaust emission standards. Per passenger mile, diesel-electric locomotives in this study emit only 20% of the CO2 emitted by typical gasoline-powered light-duty vehicles (i.e., cars). However, the reduction in carbon footprint (expressed in terms of CO2 equivalents) due to CO2 emissions avoidance from a passenger commuting by train rather than car is appreciably offset by the locomotive's higher BC emissions.

  14. Characteristics of particulate carbon emissions from real-world Chinese coal combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanxun; Schauer, James Jay; Zhang, Yuanhang; Zeng, Limin; Wei, Yongjie; Liu, Yuan; Shao, Min

    2008-07-15

    Particulate matter emissions from a series of different Chinese coal combustion systems were collected and analyzed for elemental and organic carbon (EC, OC), and molecular markers. Emissions from both industrial boilers and residential stoves were investigated. The coal used in this study included anthracite, bituminite, and brown coal, as well as commonly used coal briquettes produced in China for residential coal combustion. Results show significant differences in the contribution of carbonaceous species to particulate mass emissions. Industrial boilers had much higher burn out of carbon yielding particulate matter emissions with much lower levels of OC, EC, and speciated organic compounds, while residential stoves had significantly higher emissions of carbonaceous particulate matter with emission rates of approximately 100 times higher than that of industrial boilers. Quantified organic compounds emitted from industrial boilers were dominated by oxygenated compounds, of which 46-68% were organic acids, whereas the dominate species quantified in the emissions from residential stoves were PAHs (38%) and n-alkanes (20%). An important observation was the fact that emission factors of PAHs and the distribution of hopanoids were different among the emissions from industrial and residential coal combustion even using the same coal for combustion. Although particulate matter emissions from industrial and residential combustion were different in many regards, picene was detected in all samples with detectable OC mass concentrations, which supports the use of this organic tracer for OC from all types of coal combustion. 17alpha(H),21beta(H)-29-norhopane was the predominant hopanoid in coal combustion emissions, which is different from mobile source emissions and may be used to distinguish emissions from these different fossil fuel sources.

  15. Energy substitution to reduce carbon dioxide emission in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jinping Huang (Beijing Economic Research Inst. of Water Resources and Electric Power (BERI), BJ (China))

    1993-03-01

    Energy consumption per capita in China is very low, less than one-half of the average level of the world. But China has a large population and coal consumption dominates total energy consumption (the share of coal was 76% in 1989). Therefore, the amount of CO[sub 2] emitted is very large (11% of the total world emission in 1990). Many people are concerned about what measures can be taken to reduce CO[sub 2] emission in China. Proposed measures include energy-efficiency improvement and energy substitution. Energy substitution is one the most effective measures of reducing CO[sub 2] emission in China. We give a detailed analysis of the exploitable potential of hydropower, nuclear power and the new energy sources (including solar, wind, geothermal, and tidal energy) from 1990 to 2020. Estimated reductions in CO[sub 2] emission due to enhanced use of non-fossil energy are also given. About 330 x 10[sup 6] tce (we use for coal 7000 kcal/kgce) of non-fossil energy will be produced and about 239 x 10[sup 6] mt of C can be eliminated in 2020 (about 38% of China's total CO[sub 2] emission in 1990). (author)

  16. Carbon soundings: greenhouse gas emissions of the UK music industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottrill, C.; Liverman, D.; Boykoff, M.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, questions regarding how to reduce human contributions to climate change have become more commonplace and non-nation state actors—such as businesses, non-government organizations, celebrities—have increasingly become involved in climate change mitigation and adaptation initiatives. For these dynamic and rapidly expanding spaces, this letter provides an accounting of the methods and findings from a 2007 assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the UK music industry. The study estimates that overall GHG emissions associated with the UK music market are approximately 540 000 t CO2e per annum. Music recording and publishing accounted for 26% of these emissions (138 000 t CO2e per annum), while three-quarters (74%) derived from activities associated with live music performances (400 000 t CO2e per annum). These results have prompted a group of music industry business leaders to design campaigns to reduce the GHG emissions of their supply chains. The study has also provided a basis for ongoing in-depth research on CD packaging, audience travel, and artist touring as well as the development of a voluntary accreditation scheme for reducing GHG emissions from activities of the UK music industry.

  17. Carbon soundings: greenhouse gas emissions of the UK music industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottrill, C [Centre for Environmental Strategy, School of Engineering (D3), University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Liverman, D [Institute of the Environment, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Boykoff, M, E-mail: c.bottrill@surrey.ac.u, E-mail: liverman@u.arizona.ed, E-mail: boykoff@colorado.ed [CIRES Center for Science and Technology Policy, Environmental Studies and Geography, University of Colorado - Boulder, 1333 Grandview Ave, Campus Box 488, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Over the past decade, questions regarding how to reduce human contributions to climate change have become more commonplace and non-nation state actors-such as businesses, non-government organizations, celebrities-have increasingly become involved in climate change mitigation and adaptation initiatives. For these dynamic and rapidly expanding spaces, this letter provides an accounting of the methods and findings from a 2007 assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the UK music industry. The study estimates that overall GHG emissions associated with the UK music market are approximately 540 000 t CO{sub 2}e per annum. Music recording and publishing accounted for 26% of these emissions (138 000 t CO{sub 2}e per annum), while three-quarters (74%) derived from activities associated with live music performances (400 000 t CO{sub 2}e per annum). These results have prompted a group of music industry business leaders to design campaigns to reduce the GHG emissions of their supply chains. The study has also provided a basis for ongoing in-depth research on CD packaging, audience travel, and artist touring as well as the development of a voluntary accreditation scheme for reducing GHG emissions from activities of the UK music industry.

  18. On the major proposals for carbon emission reduction and some related issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated and ran simulations for seven proposals for the reduction of global CO2 emissions (e.g.,those of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC),United Nations Development Program,and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development).All the proposals ignored the fact that the cumulative CO2 emissions per capita for developed countries were 7.54 times those for developing countries in the historical period of 1900-2005.These proposals further deliberately allocate 2006-2050 emission quotas to developed countries that are 2.3-6.7 times those to developing countries.This will seriously violate the development rights of developing countries.This paper clearly states that proposals such as that of the IPCC are not suitable references for future international climate change negotiations as they violate the fundamentals of fairness and equity in international relationships and the UNFCCC principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities".Comparing estimates of emissions in China in the scenario of rapid development with low-CO2-emission technology in the period 2006-2050 with estimates for other countries and groups,we find that China can logically and morally argue for equivalent emission rights even in the case of the strict CO2 concentration target of 450-470 ppmv.

  19. Emissions from prescribed fire in temperate forest in south-east Australia: implications for carbon accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possell, M.; Jenkins, M.; Bell, T. L.; Adams, M. A.

    2014-09-01

    We estimated of emissions of carbon, as CO2-equivalents, from planned fire in four sites in a south-eastern Australian forest. Emission estimates were calculated using measurements of fuel load and carbon content of different fuel types, before and after burning, and determination of fuel-specific emission factors. Median estimates of emissions for the four sites ranged from 20 to 139 T CO2-e ha-1. Variability in estimates was a consequence of different burning efficiencies of each fuel type from the four sites. Higher emissions resulted from more fine fuel (twigs, decomposing matter, near-surface live and leaf litter) or coarse woody debris (CWD; > 25 mm diameter) being consumed. In order to assess the effect of estimating emissions when only a few fuel variables are known, Monte-Carlo simulations were used to create seven scenarios where input parameters values were replaced by probability density functions. Calculation methods were: (1) all measured data were constrained between measured maximum and minimum values for each variable, (2) as for (1) except the proportion of carbon within a fuel type was constrained between 0 and 1, (3) as for (2) but losses of mass caused by fire were replaced with burning efficiency factors constrained between 0 and 1; and (4) emissions were calculated using default values in the Australian National Greenhouse Accounts (NGA), National Inventory Report 2011, as appropriate for our sites. Effects of including CWD in calculations were assessed for calculation Method 1, 2 and 3 but not for Method 4 as the NGA does not consider this fuel type. Simulations demonstrate that the probability of estimating true median emissions declines strongly as the amount of information available declines. Including CWD in scenarios increased uncertainty in calculations because CWD is the most variable contributor to fuel load. Inclusion of CWD in scenarios generally increased the amount of carbon lost. We discuss implications of these simulations and

  20. Environmental Kuznets Curve for carbon emissions in Pakistan: An empirical investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasir, Muhammad, E-mail: nasirawan84@yahoo.co [Staff Economist, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan); Ur Rehman, Faiz, E-mail: faizeconomist@yahoo.co [Department of Economics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2011-03-15

    This study investigates the relationship between carbon emissions, income, energy consumption, and foreign trade in Pakistan for the period 1972-2008. By employing the Johansen method of cointegration, the study finds that there is a quadratic long-run relationship between carbon emissions and income, confirming the existence of Environmental Kuznets Curve for Pakistan. Moreover, both energy consumption and foreign trade are found to have positive effects on emissions. The short-run results have, however, denied the existence of the Environmental Kuznets Curve. The short-run results are unique to the existing literature in the sense that none of the long-run determinants of emissions is significant. The contradictory results of short- and long-run give policy makers the opportunity to formulate different types of growth policies for the two terms taking environmental issues into consideration. In addition, the uni-directional causality from growth to energy consumption suggests that the policy makers should not only focus on forecasting future demand for energy with different growth scenarios but also on obtaining the least cost energy. Furthermore, the absence of causality from emissions to growth suggests that Pakistan can curb its carbon emissions without disturbing its economic growth. - Research highlights: {yields} Environmental Kuznets Curve exists only in the long-run in Pakistan. {yields} Both energy consumption and trade openness also affect carbon emissions positively in the long run. {yields} The short-run results have, however, denied the existence of the Environmental Kuznets Curve. {yields} None of the explanatory variables affect emissions in short-run. {yields} There is uni-directional causality from growth to energy consumption. {yields} There is uni-directional causality from growth to emissions.

  1. Relationship between Sampling Distance and Carbon Dioxide Emission under Oil Palm Plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Dariah

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A carbon dioxide emission on peatland under oil palm plantation was highly varied due to many factors involved. The objectives of the research were to evaluate the effect of sampling distance from center of oil palm tree on Carbon dioxide flux, and to study the factors that cause variability of carbon dioxide flux on peatland under oil palm plantation. The study was conducted on peatland at Arang-Arang Village, Kumpek Ulu Sub-District, Muaro Jambi District, Jambi Province, on six-years old oil palm plantation. The study was conducted in the form of observational exploratory. Emission measurements were performed on 5 selected oil palm trees at points within 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, and 400 cm from the center of trunk. Carbon dioxide flux was measured using (IRGA, Li-COR 820. The results showed that there was significant correlation between the distance of sampling from center of oil palm tree and Carbon dioxide flux. The farther distance from the tree, the more decreased of Carbon dioxide flux . Before applying fertilizer, variability of soil fertility was not significantly correlated with the flux of Carbon dioxide, so the difference of Carbon dioxide flux based on distance sampling can be caused by root distribution factor. After fertilizer application, variability of Carbon dioxide flux under the oil palm tree were not only affected by differences in root distribution but also greatly influenced by fertilization.

  2. Carbon emissions. The economic benefits of the Kyoto Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leo, G A; Rizzi, L; Caizzi, A; Gatto, M

    2001-10-04

    The third Conference of the Parties in Kyoto set the target of reducing greenhouse-gas emissions by an average of 5.3% with respect to 1990 values by 2008-2012. One of the main objections to the protocol's ratification is that compliance would pose an unbearable economic burden on the countries involved. But we show here that this is not the case if costs apart from the direct costs of energy production are also considered. Costs are also incurred in rectifying damage to human health, material goods, agriculture and the environment related to greenhouse-gas emissions.

  3. Carbon and Aerosol Emissions from Biomass Fires in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, W. M.; Flores Garnica, G.; Baker, S. P.; Urbanski, S. P.

    2009-12-01

    Biomass burning is an important source of many atmospheric greenhouse gases and photochemically reactive trace gases. There are limited data available on the spatial and temporal extent of biomass fires and associated trace gas and aerosol emissions in Mexico. Biomass burning is a unique source of these gases and aerosols, in comparison to industrial and biogenic sources, because the locations of fires vary considerably both daily and seasonally and depend on human activities and meteorological conditions. In Mexico, the fire season starts in January and about two-thirds of the fires occur in April and May. The amount of trace gases and aerosols emitted by fires spatially and temporally is a major uncertainty in quantifying the impact of fire emissions on regional atmospheric chemical composition. To quantify emissions, it is necessary to know the type of vegetation, the burned area, the amount of biomass burned, and the emission factor of each compound for each ecosystem. In this study biomass burning experiments were conducted in Mexico to measure trace gas emissions from 24 experimental fires and wildfires in semiarid, temperate, and tropical ecosystems from 2005 to 2007. A range of representative vegetation types were selected for ground-based experimental burns to characterize fire emissions from representative Mexico fuels. A third of the country was surveyed each year, beginning in the north. The fire experiments in the first year were conducted in Chihuahua, Nuevo Leon, and Tamaulipas states in pine forest, oak forest, grass, and chaparral. The second-year fire experiments were conducted on pine forest, oak forest, shrub, agricultural, grass, and herbaceous fuels in Jalisco, Puebla, and Oaxaca states in central Mexico. The third-year experiments were conducted in pine-oak forests of Chiapas, coastal grass, and low subtropical forest on the Yucatan peninsula. FASS (Fire Atmosphere Sampling System) towers were deployed for the experimental fires. Each FASS

  4. Breakdown of Richardson's law in electron emission from individual self-Joule-heated carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xianlong; Wang, Sheng; Chen, Qing; Peng, Lianmao

    2014-05-29

    Probing the validity of classical macroscopic physical laws at the nanoscale is important for nanoscience research. Herein, we report on experimental evidence that electron emission from individual hot carbon nanotubes (CNTs) heated by self-Joule-heating does not obey Richardson's law of thermionic emission. By using an in-situ multi-probe measurement technique, electron emission density (J) and temperature (T) of individual self-Joule-heated CNTs are simultaneously determined. Experimental ln(J/T(2)) - 1/T plots are found to exhibit an upward bending feature deviating from the straight lines in Richardson plots, and the measured electron emission density is more than one order of magnitude higher than that predicted by Richardson's law. The breakdown of Richardson's law implies a much better electron emission performance of individual CNTs as compared to their macroscopic allotropes and clusters, and the need of new theoretical descriptions of electron emission from individual low-dimensional nanostructures.

  5. Connecting the cycles: impact of farming practices, Carbon and nutrient erosion on GHG emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2013-04-01

    This study focuses on identifying links between GHG emissions, soil management and soil erosion that are not considered in the commonly applied emission calculations associated with farming and soil erosion. The role of agriculture in generating GHG emissions through the use of fertilizers and fossil fuels is well documented. The negative impacts of soil erosion on agricultural land and its productivity have also been studied extensively. The lateral movement of soil through terrestrial ecosystems has also been recognized as a significant flux of C within the global C cycle. Soil erosion removes approximately 0.5 Gt of C per year from agricultural land. Much of this C is deposited in the landscape, effectively burying the organic matter from the atmosphere and taking it, at least for an unspecified time, out of the C exchange between soil and atmosphere. Such calculations raise the notion that soil erosion generates an unintentional benefit for climate, owing to the long-term burial of soil organic Carbon. But limiting the assessment of the impact of soil erosion on climate change to organic carbon burial ignores, apart from economic and social damages, the coupling between biogeochemical cycles. For example, the eroded nitrogen has to be replaced, at least in part by artificial fertilizers, to maintain soil fertility. At this point the sediment, Carbon and nitrogen cycles meet, because the production of fertilizer generates greenhouse gases. The production of one ton of fertilizer generates on the order of 850 kg of carbon dioxide. Applying this number to the 0.5 GT C erosion estimate, the amount of nitrogen lost owing to erosion each year yields carbon dioxide emissions of 0.02-0.04 Pg per year. These emissions correspond to 15-30% of the organic carbon buried owing to soil erosion. In this presentation, the full complexity of biogeochemical cycling on agricultural land is explored and connections between cycles which require consideration for a full GHG emission

  6. Quantification of Black Carbon and Other Pollutant Emissions from a Traditional and an Improved Cookstove

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchstetter, Thomas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Preble, Chelsea [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Hadley, Odelle [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Gadgil, Ashok [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2010-11-05

    Traditional methods of cooking in developing regions of the world emit pollutants that endanger the lives of billions of people and contribute to climate change. This study quantifies the emission of pollutants from the Berkeley-Darfur Stove and the traditional three-stone fire at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory cookstove testing facility. The Berkeley-Darfur Stove was designed as a fuel efficient alternative to the three-stone fire to aid refugees in Darfur, who walk long distances from their camps and risk bodily harm in search of wood for cooking. A potential co-benefit of the more fuel efficient stove may be reduced pollutant emissions. This study measured emissions of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, particulate matter, and sunlight-absorbing black carbon. It also measured climate-relevant optical properties of the emitted particulate matter. Pollutant monitors were calibrated specifically for measuring cookstove smoke.

  7. Anode distance effect on field electron emission from carbon nanotubes: a molecular/quantum mechanical simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chunshan; Wang, Weiliang; Deng, Shaozhi; Xu, Ningsheng; Li, Zhibing; Chen, Guihua; Peng, Jie

    2009-06-25

    Field electron emission from single-walled (5,5) carbon nanotubes was simulated with a quantum chemistry method, emphasizing the effect of distance between the anode and apex. The emission probability and the field enhancement factor were obtained for different anode-apex separations with two representative applied macroscopic fields. The quantum chemistry simulation was compared to the classical finite element calculation. It was found that the field enhancement factor was overestimated by about a factor 2 in the classical calculation (for the capped carbon nanotube). The effective work function lowering due to the field penetration into the apex has important contribution to the emission probability. A peculiar decrease of the effective work function with the anode-apex separation was found for the capped carbon nanotube, and its quantum mechanical origin is discussed.

  8. Effect of irrigation, nitrogen application, and a nitrification inhibitor on nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane emissions from an olive (Olea europaea L.) orchard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maris, S.C., E-mail: stefania@macs.udl.cat [University of Lleida, Environment and Soil Science Department, Av. Alcalde Rovira Roure 191, E-25198 Lleida (Spain); Teira-Esmatges, M.R. [University of Lleida, Environment and Soil Science Department, Av. Alcalde Rovira Roure 191, E-25198 Lleida (Spain); Arbonés, A.; Rufat, J. [Programa Ús Eficient de l’Aigua, Institut de Recerca i Tecnologia Agroalimentàries (IRTA), Parc Científic i Tecnològic Agroalimentari de Lleida (PCiTAL). Parc de Gardeny, Edifici Fruitcentre, E-2503 Lleida (Spain)

    2015-12-15

    Drip irrigation combined with nitrogen (N) fertigation is applied in order to save water and improve nutrient efficiency. Nitrification inhibitors reduce greenhouse gas emissions. A field study was conducted to compare the emissions of nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}) associated with the application of N fertiliser through fertigation (0 and 50 kg N ha{sup −1}), and 50 kg N ha{sup −1} + nitrification inhibitor in a high tree density Arbequina olive orchard. Spanish Arbequina is the most suited variety for super intensive olive groves. This system allows reducing production costs and increases crop yield. Moreover its oil has excellent sensorial features. Subsurface drip irrigation markedly reduced N{sub 2}O and N{sub 2}O + N{sub 2} emissions compared with surface drip irrigation. Fertiliser application significantly increased N{sub 2}O + N{sub 2}, but not N{sub 2}O emissions. Denitrification was the main source of N{sub 2}O. The N{sub 2}O losses (calculated as emission factor) ranging from − 0.03 to 0.14% of the N applied, were lower than the IPCC (2007) values. The N{sub 2}O + N{sub 2} losses were the largest, equivalent to 1.80% of the N applied, from the 50 kg N ha{sup −1} + drip irrigation treatment which resulted in water filled pore space > 60% most of the time (high moisture). Nitrogen fertilisation significantly reduced CO{sub 2} emissions in 2011, but only for the subsurface drip irrigation strategies in 2012. The olive orchard acted as a net CH{sub 4} sink for all the treatments. Applying a nitrification inhibitor (DMPP), the cumulative N{sub 2}O and N{sub 2}O + N{sub 2} emissions were significantly reduced with respect to the control. The DMPP also inhibited CO{sub 2} emissions and significantly increased CH{sub 4} oxidation. Considering global warming potential, greenhouse gas intensity, cumulative N{sub 2}O emissions and oil production, it can be concluded that applying DMPP with 50 kg N ha{sup −1

  9. A methodology for calculating transport emissions in cities with limited traffic data: Case study of diesel particulates and black carbon emissions in Murmansk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholod, N; Evans, M; Gusev, E; Yu, S; Malyshev, V; Tretyakova, S; Barinov, A

    2016-03-15

    This paper presents a methodology for calculating exhaust emissions from on-road transport in cities with low-quality traffic data and outdated vehicle registries. The methodology consists of data collection approaches and emission calculation methods. For data collection, the paper suggests using video survey and parking lot survey methods developed for the International Vehicular Emissions model. Additional sources of information include data from the largest transportation companies, vehicle inspection stations, and official vehicle registries. The paper suggests using the European Computer Programme to Calculate Emissions from Road Transport (COPERT) 4 model to calculate emissions, especially in countries that implemented European emissions standards. If available, the local emission factors should be used instead of the default COPERT emission factors. The paper also suggests additional steps in the methodology to calculate emissions only from diesel vehicles. We applied this methodology to calculate black carbon emissions from diesel on-road vehicles in Murmansk, Russia. The results from Murmansk show that diesel vehicles emitted 11.7 tons of black carbon in 2014. The main factors determining the level of emissions are the structure of the vehicle fleet and the level of vehicle emission controls. Vehicles without controls emit about 55% of black carbon emissions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Reduction of harmful nitrogen oxide emission from low heat rejection diesel engine using carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thulasi Gopinathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, lanthanum aluminate is used as thermal barrier coating material for the first time in the internal combustion engine to convert the standard engine into low heat rejection engine. Initially, the biodiesel is prepared from sunflower oil by using trans-esterification process. The piton crown, cylinder head and valves of the engine is coated with lanthanum aluminate for a thickness of around 200 microns. However, the analysis of performance and emission characteristics of a standard diesel is carried out with diesel/biodiesel to compare with the low heat rejection engine. The lanthanum aluminate coated engine fueled with sunflower methyl ester shows better performance and emission. But the emission of NOx founds to be higher in the coated engine. Further, a small quantity of carbon nanotubes is added onto the biodiesel to carry out the experiments. Based on the results, the carbon nanotubes are added with the biodiesel to reduce the emission of NOx.

  11. Electron emission degradation of nano-structured sp2-bonded amorphous carbon films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Zhan-Ling; Wang Chang-Qing; Jia Yu; Zhang Bing-Lin; Yao Ning

    2007-01-01

    The initial field electron emission degradation behaviour of original nano-structured sp2-bonded amorphous carbon films has been observed.which can be attributed to the increase of the work function of the film in the field emission process analysed using a Fowler-Nordheim plot.The possible re.on for the change of work function is suggested to be the desorption of hydrogen from the original hydrogen termination film surface due to field emission current-induced local heating.For the explanation of the emission degradation behaviour of the nano-structured sp2-bonded amorphous carbon film,a cluster model with a series of graphite(0001) basal surfaces has been presented,and the theoretical calculations have been performed to investigate work functions of graphite(0001) surfaces with different hydrogen atom and ion chemisorption sites by using first principles method based on density functional theory-local density approximation.

  12. Short-term effects of biogas digestate and cattle slurry application on greenhouse gas emissions from high organic carbon grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eickenscheidt, T.; Freibauer, A.; Heinichen, J.; Augustin, J.; Drösler, M.

    2014-04-01

    The change in the German energy policy resulted in a strong development of biogas plants in Germany. As a consequence, huge amounts of nutrient rich residues remain from the fermentative process, which are used as organic fertilizers. Drained peatlands are increasingly used to satisfy the huge demand for fermentative substrates and the digestate is returned to the peatlands. However, drained organic soils are considered as hot spots for nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and organic fertilization is additionally known to increase N2O emissions from managed grasslands. Our study addressed the questions (a) to what extent biogas digestate and cattle slurry application increase N2O, methane (CH4) and ammonia (NH3) fluxes as well as the mineral nitrogen use efficiency (NUEmin), and (b) how different soil organic matter contents (SOM) promote the production of N2O. The study was conducted at two areas within a grassland parcel, which differed in their soil organic carbon (SOC) contents. At each area (named Corg-medium and Corg-high) two sites were established, one was fertilized five times with biogas digestate and one with cattle slurry. For each treatment, fluxes of N2O and CH4 were measured over two years using the closed chamber method. For NH3 measurements we used the calibrated dynamic chamber method. On an annual basis the application of biogas digestate significantly enhanced the N2O fluxes compared to the application of cattle slurry and additionally increased the NUEmin. Furthermore, N2O fluxes from the Corg-high site significantly exceeded N2O fluxes from the Corg-medium sites. Annual cumulative emissions ranged from 0.91 ± 0.49 kg N ha-1 yr-1 to 3.14 ± 0.91 kg N ha-1 yr-1. Significantly different CH4 fluxes between the investigated treatments or the different soil types were not observed. Cumulative annual CH4 exchange rates varied between -0.21 ± 0.19 kg C ha-1 yr-1 and -1.06 ± 0.46 kg C ha-1 yr-1. Significantly higher NH3 losses from treatments fertilized

  13. Non-energy use and related carbon dioxide emissions in Germany: a carbon flow analysis with the NEAT model for the period of 1990–2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiss, M.; Neelis, M.L.; Blok, K.; Patel, M.K.

    2008-01-01

    Non-energy use of fossil fuels accounts for 7% of the Total Primary Energy Supply (TPES) of Germany and represents an important potential source of CO2 (carbon dioxide) emissions. To gain a better understanding of emissions associated with non-energy use in Germany, we conduct a bottom-up carbon flo

  14. Carbon emission trading system of China: a linked market vs. separated markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Feng, Shenghao; Cai, Songfeng; Zhang, Yaxiong; Zhou, Xiang; Chen, Yanbin; Chen, Zhanming

    2013-12-01

    The Chinese government intends to upgrade its current provincial carbon emission trading pilots to a nationwide scheme by 2015. This study investigates two of scenarios: separated provincial markets and a linked inter-provincial market. The carbon abatement effects of separated and linked markets are compared using two pilot provinces of Hubei and Guangdong based on a computable general equilibrium model termed Sino-TERMCo2. Simulation results show that the linked market can improve social welfare and reduce carbon emission intensity for the nation as well as for the Hubei-Guangdong bloc compared to the separated market. However, the combined system also distributes welfare more unevenly and thus increases social inequity. On the policy ground, the current results suggest that a well-constructed, nationwide carbon market complemented with adequate welfare transfer policies can be employed to replace the current top-down abatement target disaggregation practice.

  15. Field emission response from multi-walled carbon nanotubes grown on electrochemically engineered copper foil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, Amit Kumar; Jain, Vaibhav [Nanomaterials and Applications Lab., Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, 247667, Uttarakhand (India); Saini, Krishna [Nanomaterials and Applications Lab., Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, 247667, Uttarakhand (India); Centre of Excellence: Nanotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, 247667, Uttarakhand (India); Lahiri, Indranil, E-mail: indrafmt@iitr.ac.in [Nanomaterials and Applications Lab., Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, 247667, Uttarakhand (India); Centre of Excellence: Nanotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, 247667, Uttarakhand (India)

    2017-02-01

    Exciting properties of carbon nanotube has proven it to be a promising candidate for field emission applications, if its processing cost can be reduced effectively. In this research, a new electrochemical technique is proposed for growing carbon nanotubes in selective areas by thermal chemical vapour deposition. In this process, electrochemical processing is used to create localized pits and deposition of catalysts, which act as roots to support growth and alignment of the CNTs on copper substrate. CNTs grown thus were characterized and studied using scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and Raman spectroscopy, elucidating presence of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). These CNT emitters have comparatively lower turn-on field and higher field enhancement factor. - Highlights: • Electrochemical pitting for localized carbon nanotube growth is proposed. • Electrochemical pitting method shows patterning effect on the substrate. • Size and density of pits depend on voltage, pH and temperature. • CNTs thus grown shows good field emission response.

  16. INFLUENCES OF DENSITY AND DIMENSION OF CARBON NANOTUBES ON THEIR FIELD EMISSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.B. Zhu; W.L. Wang; C.G. Hu

    2003-01-01

    The influences of density and dimension of carbon nanotubes on their electron emission from arrays are studied. The tip electric field of nanotubes, electric field enhancement factor, and optimum nanotube density are expressed by analytic equations. The theoretical analyses show that the field enhancement factor is sensitive to nanotube density, and can be sharply improved at a specific and optimum density. Some experiments have demonstrated these. Owning to electrostatic screening effect, the length of carbon nanotubes has little effect on their emission. A uniformly-distributed carbon nanotube array model is set up, and applied to analysis of carbon nanotube arrays.The results obtained here are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  17. Atmospheric CO2 capture by algae: Negative carbon dioxide emission path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Diana; Pires, José C M

    2016-09-01

    Carbon dioxide is one of the most important greenhouse gas, which concentration increase in the atmosphere is associated to climate change and global warming. Besides CO2 capture in large emission point sources, the capture of this pollutant from atmosphere may be required due to significant contribution of diffuse sources. The technologies that remove CO2 from atmosphere (creating a negative balance of CO2) are called negative emission technologies. Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage may play an important role for CO2 mitigation. It represents the combination of bioenergy production and carbon capture and storage, keeping carbon dioxide in geological reservoirs. Algae have a high potential as the source of biomass, as they present high photosynthetic efficiencies and high biomass yields. Their biomass has a wide range of applications, which can improve the economic viability of the process. Thus, this paper aims to assess the atmospheric CO2 capture by algal cultures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. On the effects of social and economic policies on future carbon emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D. [T.H. Huxley School of Environment, Earth Sciences and Engineering, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    Published scenarios of carbon emissions vary over a 40:1 range, and vary greatly even when the possible effects of future climate change policies are ignored. Differences in assumptions about how social and economic policies will affect the rates of economic growth throughout the world, population growth, international trade and investment, the rate of improvement in energy efficiency, and innovations and developments in non-carbon technologies are among the main reasons for such huge differences - alongside the considerable uncertainties that remain about the structural forms and parameters of the economic models used for making projections. The following analysis shows that a low carbon emissions scenario is fully consistent with developing countries achieving economic prosperity and the rich countries increasing theirs. It would depend on the emergence of non-carbon options, such as renewable energy, and this is indeed more likely to happen with favourable conditions for economic growth and innovation. 72 refs.

  19. The Economics of Forest Carbon Sequestration: The Challenge for Emissions Offset Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kooten, G. C.

    2016-12-01

    This paper provides an overview of the role that forestry activities can play in mitigating climate change. The price of carbon offset credits is used for incentivizing a reduction in the release of CO2 emissions and an increase in sequestration of atmospheric CO2 through forestry activities. Forestland owners essentially have two options for creating carbon offset credits: (1) avoid or delay harvest of mature timber; or (2) harvest timber and allow natural regeneration or regeneration with `regular' or genetically-enhanced growing stock, storing carbon in post-harvest products, using sawmill and potentially logging residues to generate electricity. In this study, a model representative of the Quesnel Timber Supply Area (TSA) in the BC interior is developed. The objective is to maximize net discounted returns to commercial timber operations (and sale of downstream products) plus the benefits of managing carbon fluxes. The model tracks carbon in living trees, organic matter, and, importantly, post-harvest carbon pools and avoided emissions from substituting wood for non-wood in construction or wood bioenergy for fossil fuels. Model constraints ensure that commercial forest management is sustainable, while carbon prices incentivize sequestration to ensure efficient mitigation of climate change. The results are confirmed more generally by comparing the carbon fluxes derived from the integrated forest management model with those from a Faustmann-Hartman rotation age model that explicitly includes benefits of storing carbon. One other question is addressed: If carbon offsets are created when wood biomass substitutes for fossil fuels in power generation, can one count the saved emissions from steel/cement production when wood substitutes for non-wood materials in construction?

  20. Charge transport effects in field emission from carbon nanotube-polymer composites

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, RC; Carey, JD; Murphy, RJ; Blau, WJ; Coleman, JN; Silva, SRP

    2006-01-01

    Electron field emission measurements have been made on multiwall arc discharge carbon nanotubes embedded in a conjugated polymer host. Electron emission at low nanotube content is observed and attributed to an enhancement of the applied electric field at the polymer/nanotube/vacuum interface where the electron supply through the film is attributed to fluctuation induced tunneling in a disordered percolation network. A high network resistance is attributed to a polymer coating surrounding each...

  1. Carbon dioxide emission implications if hydrofluorocarbons are regulated: a refrigeration case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blowers, Paul; Lownsbury, James M

    2010-03-01

    The U.S. is strongly considering regulating hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) due to their global climate change forcing effects. A drop-in replacement hydrofluoroether has been evaluated using a gate-to-grave life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions for the trade-offs between direct and indirect carbon dioxide equivalent emissions compared to a current HFC and a historically used refrigerant. The results indicate current regulations being considered may increase global climate change.

  2. Balancing carbon sequestration and GHG emissions in a constructed wetland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, de J.J.M.; Werf, van der A.K.

    2014-01-01

    In many countries wetlands are constructed or restored for removing nutrients from surface water. At the same time vegetated wetlands can act as carbon sinks when CO2 is sequestered in biomass. However, it is well known that wetlands also produce substantial amounts of greenhouse gasses CH4 and N2O.

  3. Electron field emission from 2-induced insulating to metallic behaviour of amorphous carbon (-C) films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pitamber Mahanandia; P N Viswakarma; Prasad Vishnu Bhotla; S V Subramanyam; Karuna Kar Nanda

    2010-06-01

    The influence of concentration and size of 2 cluster on the transport properties and electron field emissions of amorphous carbon films have been investigated. The observed insulating to metallic behaviour from reduced activation energy derived from transport measurement and threshold field for electron emission of -C films can be explained in terms of improvements in the connectivity between 2 clusters. The connectivity is resulted by the cluster concentration and size. The concentration and size of 2 content cluster is regulated by the coalescence of carbon globules into clusters, which evolves with deposition conditions.

  4. Transportation Costs and Carbon Emissions in a Vendor Managed Inventory Situation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turkensteen, Marcel; Larsen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Recently, there has been much focus on carbon emissions and fuel consumption from road transport. In this paper, we consider a vendor deciding on the degree to which deliveries to geographically dispersed retailers should be consolidated. The vendor can consolidate shipments over time and deliver...... infrequently or deliver to many retailers simultaneously. We adapt models for determining the vendor’s cost minimizing strategy and for computing emissions. We find that if the per km transportation costs increase, the vendor mainly selects smaller zones to avoid transportation, resulting in lower carbon...

  5. Building capacity for national carbon measurements for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, S. J.; Laporte, N.; Horning, N.; Pelletier, J.; Jantz, P.; Ndunda, P.

    2014-12-01

    Many tropical countries are now working on developing their strategies for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, including activities that result in conservation or enhancement of forest carbon stocks and sustainable management of forests to effectively decrease atmospheric carbon emissions (i.e. REDD+). A new international REDD+ agreement is at the heart of recent negotiations of the parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). REDD+ mechanisms could provide an opportunity to not only diminish an important source of emissions, but also to promote large-scale conservation of tropical forests and establish incentives and opportunities to alleviate poverty. Most tropical countries still lack basic information for developing and implementing their forest carbon stock assessments, including the extent of forest area and the rate at which forests are being cleared and/or degraded, and the carbon amounts associated with these losses. These same countries also need support to conduct integrated assessments of the most promising approaches for reducing emissions, and in identifying those policy options that hold the greatest potential while minimizing potential negative impacts of REDD+ policies. The WHRC SERVIR project in East Africa is helping to provide these data sets to countries via best practice tools and methods to support cost effective forest carbon monitoring solutions and more informed decision making processes under REDD+. We will present the results of our capacity building activites in the region and planned future efforts being coordinated with the NASA-SERVIR Hub in Kenya to support to REDD+ decision support.

  6. Reviews on current carbon emission reduction technologies and projects and their feasibilities on ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haibin; Zhou, Peilin; Wang, Zhongcheng

    2017-06-01

    Concern about global climate change is growing, and many projects and researchers are committed to reducing greenhouse gases from all possible sources. International Maritime (IMO) has set a target of 20% CO2 reduction from shipping by 2020 and also presented a series of carbon emission reduction methods, which are known as Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) and Energy Efficiency Operation Indicator (EEOI). Reviews on carbon emission reduction from all industries indicate that, Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is an excellent solution to global warming. In this paper, a comprehensive literature review of EEDI and EEOI and CCS is conducted and involves reviewing current policies, introducing common technologies, and considering their feasibilities for marine activities, mainly shipping. Current projects are also presented in this paper, thereby illustrating that carbon emission reduction has been the subject of attention from all over the world. Two case ship studies indicate the economic feasibility of carbon emission reduction and provide a guide for CCS system application and practical installation on ships.

  7. Carbon emission impact on the operation of virtual power plant with combined heat and power system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-hang XIA; Jun-yong LIU; Zheng-wen HUANG; Xu ZHANG

    2016-01-01

    A virtual power plant (VPP) can realize the aggregation of distributed generation in a certain region, and represent distributed generation to participate in the power market of the main grid. With the expansion of VPPs and ever-growing heat demand of consumers, managing the effect of fluctuations in the amount of available renewable resources on the operation of VPPs and maintaining an economical supply of electric power and heat energy to users have been important issues. This paper proposes the allocation of an electric boiler to realize wind power directly converted for supplying heat, which can not only overcome the limitation of heat output from a combined heat and power (CHP) unit, but also reduce carbon emissions from a VPP. After the electric boiler is considered in the VPP operation model of the combined heat and power system, a multi-objective model is built, which includes the costs of carbon emissions, total operation of the VPP and the electricity traded between the VPP and the main grid. The model is solved by the CPLEX package using the fuzzy membership function in Matlab, and a case study is pre-sented. The power output of each unit in the case study is analyzed under four scenarios. The results show that after carbon emission is taken into account, the output of low carbon units is significantly increased, and the allocation of an electric boiler can facilitate the maximum absorption of renewable energy, which also reduces carbon emissions from the VPP.

  8. Forest carbon accounting methods and the consequences of forest bioenergy for national greenhouse gas emissions inventories

    OpenAIRE

    McKechnie, Jon; Colombo, Steve; Heather L. MacLean

    2014-01-01

    While bioenergy plays a key role in strategies for increasing renewable energy deployment, studies assessing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from forest bioenergy systems have identified a potential trade-off of the system with forest carbon stocks. Of particular importance to national GHG inventories is how trade-offs between forest carbon stocks and bioenergy production are accounted for within the Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU) sector under current and future international...

  9. Methane emissions proportional to permafrost carbon thawed in Arctic lakes since the 1950s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter Anthony, Katey; Daanen, Ronald; Anthony, Peter; Schneider von Deimling, Thomas; Ping, Chien-Lu; Chanton, Jeffrey P.; Grosse, Guido

    2016-09-01

    Permafrost thaw exposes previously frozen soil organic matter to microbial decomposition. This process generates methane and carbon dioxide, and thereby fuels a positive feedback process that leads to further warming and thaw. Despite widespread permafrost degradation during the past ~40 years, the degree to which permafrost thaw may be contributing to a feedback between warming and thaw in recent decades is not well understood. Radiocarbon evidence of modern emissions of ancient permafrost carbon is also sparse. Here we combine radiocarbon dating of lake bubble trace-gas methane (113 measurements) and soil organic carbon (289 measurements) for lakes in Alaska, Canada, Sweden and Siberia with numerical modelling of thaw and remote sensing of thermokarst shore expansion. Methane emissions from thermokarst areas of lakes that have expanded over the past 60 years were directly proportional to the mass of soil carbon inputs to the lakes from the erosion of thawing permafrost. Radiocarbon dating indicates that methane age from lakes is nearly identical to the age of permafrost soil carbon thawing around them. Based on this evidence of landscape-scale permafrost carbon feedback, we estimate that 0.2 to 2.5 Pg permafrost carbon was released as methane and carbon dioxide in thermokarst expansion zones of pan-Arctic lakes during the past 60 years.

  10. PM, carbon, and PAH emissions from a diesel generator fuelled with soy-biodiesel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jen-Hsiung; Chen, Shui-Jen; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Lin, Yuan-Chung; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Lin, Chih-Chung; Lin, Wen-Yinn

    2010-07-15

    Biodiesels have received increasing attention as alternative fuels for diesel engines and generators. This study investigates the emissions of particulate matter (PM), total carbon (TC), e.g., organic/elemental carbons, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from a diesel generator fuelled with soy-biodiesel blends. Among the tested diesel blends (B0, B10 (10 vol% soy-biodiesel), B20, and B50), B20 exhibited the lowest PM emission concentration despite the loads (except the 5 kW case), whereas B10 displayed lower PM emission factors when operating at 0 and 10 kW than the other fuel blends. The emission concentrations or factors of EC, OC, and TC were the lowest when B10 or B20 was used regardless of the loading. Under all tested loads, the average concentrations of total-PAHs emitted from the generator using the B10 and B20 were lower (by 38% and 28%, respectively) than those using pure petroleum diesel fuel (B0), while the emission factors of total-PAHs decreased with an increasing ratio of biodiesel to premium diesel. With an increasing loading, although the brake specific fuel consumption decreased, the energy efficiency increased despite the bio/petroleum diesel ratio. Therefore, soy-biodiesel is promising for use as an alternative fuel for diesel generators to increase energy efficiency and reduce the PM, carbon, and PAH emissions.

  11. Factors affecting regional per-capita carbon emissions in China based on an LMDI factor decomposition model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Dong

    Full Text Available China is considered to be the main carbon producer in the world. The per-capita carbon emissions indicator is an important measure of the regional carbon emissions situation. This study used the LMDI factor decomposition model-panel co-integration test two-step method to analyze the factors that affect per-capita carbon emissions. The main results are as follows. (1 During 1997, Eastern China, Central China, and Western China ranked first, second, and third in the per-capita carbon emissions, while in 2009 the pecking order changed to Eastern China, Western China, and Central China. (2 According to the LMDI decomposition results, the key driver boosting the per-capita carbon emissions in the three economic regions of China between 1997 and 2009 was economic development, and the energy efficiency was much greater than the energy structure after considering their effect on restraining increased per-capita carbon emissions. (3 Based on the decomposition, the factors that affected per-capita carbon emissions in the panel co-integration test showed that Central China had the best energy structure elasticity in its regional per-capita carbon emissions. Thus, Central China was ranked first for energy efficiency elasticity, while Western China was ranked first for economic development elasticity.

  12. Factors affecting regional per-capita carbon emissions in China based on an LMDI factor decomposition model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Feng; Long, Ruyin; Chen, Hong; Li, Xiaohui; Yang, Qingliang

    2013-01-01

    China is considered to be the main carbon producer in the world. The per-capita carbon emissions indicator is an important measure of the regional carbon emissions situation. This study used the LMDI factor decomposition model-panel co-integration test two-step method to analyze the factors that affect per-capita carbon emissions. The main results are as follows. (1) During 1997, Eastern China, Central China, and Western China ranked first, second, and third in the per-capita carbon emissions, while in 2009 the pecking order changed to Eastern China, Western China, and Central China. (2) According to the LMDI decomposition results, the key driver boosting the per-capita carbon emissions in the three economic regions of China between 1997 and 2009 was economic development, and the energy efficiency was much greater than the energy structure after considering their effect on restraining increased per-capita carbon emissions. (3) Based on the decomposition, the factors that affected per-capita carbon emissions in the panel co-integration test showed that Central China had the best energy structure elasticity in its regional per-capita carbon emissions. Thus, Central China was ranked first for energy efficiency elasticity, while Western China was ranked first for economic development elasticity.

  13. Black carbon emissions from Russian diesel sources: case study of Murmansk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Evans

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Black carbon (BC is a potent pollutant because of its effects on climate change, ecosystems and human health. Black carbon has a particularly pronounced impact as a climate forcer in the Arctic because of its effect on snow albedo and cloud formation. We have estimated BC emissions from diesel sources in Murmansk Region and Murmansk City, the largest city in the world above the Arctic Circle. In this study we developed a detailed inventory of diesel sources including on-road vehicles, off-road transport (mining, locomotives, construction and agriculture, fishing and diesel generators. For on-road transport, we conducted several surveys to understand the vehicle fleet and driving patterns, and, for all sources, we also relied on publicly available local data sets and analysis. We calculated that BC emission in Murmansk Region were 0.40 Gg in 2012. The mining industry is the largest source of BC emissions in the region, emitting 70% of all BC emissions because of its large diesel consumption and absence of emissions controls. On-road vehicles are the second largest source emitting about 12% of emissions. Old heavy duty trucks are the major source of emissions. Emission controls on new vehicles limit total emissions from on-road transportation. Vehicle traffic and fleet surveys show that many of the older cars on the registry are lightly or never used. We also estimated that total BC emissions from diesel sources in Russia were 56.7 Gg in 2010, and on-road transport contributed 55% of diesel BC emissions. Agricultural machinery is also a significant source Russia-wide, in part because of the lack of controls on off-road vehicles.

  14. Carbon dioxide emissions, output, and energy consumption categories in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amri, Fethi

    2017-06-01

    This study examines the relation between CO2 emissions, income, non-renewable, and renewable energy consumption in Algeria during the period extending from 1980 to 2011. Our work gives particular attention to the validity of environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis. The autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) with break point method outcome demonstrates the positive effect of non-renewable type of energy on CO2 emissions consumption. On the contrary, the results reveal an insignificant effect of renewable energy on environment improvement. Moreover, the results accept the existence of EKC hypothesis but the highest gross domestic product value in logarithm scale of our data is inferior to the estimated turning point. Consequently, policy-makers in Algeria should expand the ratio of renewable energy and should decrease the quota of non-renewable energy consumption.

  15. 2002 Monthly Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Mexico at a 10x10k Spatial Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, D. L.; Gurney, K. R.; Geethakumar, S.; Zhou, Y.; Sahni, N.

    2009-12-01

    The contribution of fossil fuel CO2 emissions to the total measured amount of CO2 in the Earth’s atmosphere remains an important component of carbon cycle science, particularly as efforts to understand the net exchange of carbon at the surface move to smaller scales. In order to reduce the uncertainty of this flux, researchers led by Purdue University have built a high-resolution fossil fuel CO2 flux inventory for the United States, called “Vulcan”. The Vulcan inventory quantifies emissions for the United States at 10km resolution every hour for the year 2002 and can be seen as a key component of a national assessment and verification system for greenhouse gas emissions and emissions mitigation. As part of the North American Carbon Project, the 2002 carbon dioxide emissions from Mexico are presented at the monthly temporal and municipality spatial scale. Mexico is of particular importance because of the scientific integration under the North American Carbon Program. Furthermore, Mexico has seen a notable growth in its population as well as migration toward urban centers and increasing energy requirements due in part to industrial intensification. The native resolution of the emissions is geolocated (lat/lon) for point sources, such as power plants, airports, and large industry. The emissions are estimated at the municipality level for residential and commercial sources, and allocated to roads for the mobile transport sector. Data sources include the National Emissions Inventory (NEI), Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC), and Carbon Monitoring for Action (CARMA). CO2 emissions are calculated from the 1999 NEI data by converting CO emissions using sector and process-dependent emission factors, and is scaled up to 2002 using statistics obtained from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center CDIAC. CEC and CARMA data, which encompass power plant emissions, are already in units of CO2. Emissions are regridded to 10x10k and 0.1x0.1 deg grids to

  16. Soil organic carbon dust emission: an omitted global source of atmospheric CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Adrian; Webb, Nicholas P; Butler, Harry J; Strong, Craig L; McTainsh, Grant H; Leys, John F; Viscarra Rossel, Raphael A

    2013-10-01

    Soil erosion redistributes soil organic carbon (SOC) within terrestrial ecosystems, to the atmosphere and oceans. Dust export is an essential component of the carbon (C) and carbon dioxide (CO(2)) budget because wind erosion contributes to the C cycle by removing selectively SOC from vast areas and transporting C dust quickly offshore; augmenting the net loss of C from terrestrial systems. However, the contribution of wind erosion to rates of C release and sequestration is poorly understood. Here, we describe how SOC dust emission is omitted from national C accounting, is an underestimated source of CO(2) and may accelerate SOC decomposition. Similarly, long dust residence times in the unshielded atmospheric environment may considerably increase CO(2) emission. We developed a first approximation to SOC enrichment for a well-established dust emission model and quantified SOC dust emission for Australia (5.83 Tg CO(2)-e yr(-1)) and Australian agricultural soils (0.4 Tg CO(2)-e yr(-1)). These amount to underestimates for CO(2) emissions of ≈10% from combined C pools in Australia (year = 2000), ≈5% from Australian Rangelands and ≈3% of Australian Agricultural Soils by Kyoto Accounting. Northern hemisphere countries with greater dust emission than Australia are also likely to have much larger SOC dust emission. Therefore, omission of SOC dust emission likely represents a considerable underestimate from those nations' C accounts. We suggest that the omission of SOC dust emission from C cycling and C accounting is a significant global source of uncertainty. Tracing the fate of wind-eroded SOC in the dust cycle is therefore essential to quantify the release of CO(2) from SOC dust to the atmosphere and the contribution of SOC deposition to downwind C sinks.

  17. Volatile organic compound emissions in relation to plant carbon fixation and the terrestrial carbon budget

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kesselmeier, J.; Ciccioli, P.; Kuhn, U.; Stefani, P.; Biesenthal, T.; Rottenberger, S.; Wolf, A.; Vitullo, M.; Valentini, R.; Nobre, A.; Kabat, P.; Andreae, M.O.

    2002-01-01

    A substantial amount of carbon is emitted by terrestrial vegetation as biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOC), which contributes to the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere, to particle production and to the carbon cycle. With regard to the carbon budget of the terrestrial biosphere, a release of

  18. LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Don Augenstein

    1999-01-11

    ''Conventional'' waste landfills emit methane, a potent greenhouse gas, in quantities such that landfill methane is a major factor in global climate change. Controlled landfilling is a novel approach to manage landfills for rapid completion of total gas generation, maximizing gas capture and minimizing emissions of methane to the atmosphere. With controlled landfilling, methane generation is accelerated and brought to much earlier completion by improving conditions for biological processes (principally moisture levels) in the landfill. Gas recovery efficiency approaches 100% through use of surface membrane cover over porous gas recovery layers operated at slight vacuum. A field demonstration project's results at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California are, to date, highly encouraging. Two major controlled landfilling benefits would be the reduction of landfill methane emissions to minuscule levels, and the recovery of greater amounts of landfill methane energy in much shorter times than with conventional landfill practice. With the large amount of US landfill methane generated, and greenhouse potency of methane, better landfill methane control can play a substantial role in reduction of US greenhouse gas emissions.

  19. Emissions Scenario Portal for Visualization of Low Carbon Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, J.; Hennig, R. J.; Mountford, H.; Altamirano, J. C.; Ge, M.; Fransen, T.

    2016-12-01

    This proposal for a presentation is centered around a new project which is developed collaboratively by the World Resources Institute (WRI), Google Inc., and Deep Decarbonization Pathways Project (DDPP). The project aims to develop an online, open portal, the Emissions Scenario Portal (ESP),to enable users to easily visualize a range of future greenhouse gas emission pathways linked to different scenarios of economic and energy developments, drawing from a variety of modeling tools. It is targeted to users who are not modelling experts, but instead policy analysts or advisors, investment analysts, and similar who draw on modelled scenarios to inform their work, and who can benefit from better access to, and transparency around, the wide range of emerging scenarios on ambitious climate action. The ESP will provide information from scenarios in a visually appealing and easy-to-understand manner that enable these users to recognize the opportunities to reduce GHG emissions, the implications of the different scenarios, and the underlying assumptions. To facilitate the application of the portal and tools in policy dialogues, a series of country-specific and potentially sector-specific workshops with key decision-makers and analysts, supported by relevant analysis, will be organized by the key partners and also in broader collaboration with others who might wish to convene relevant groups around the information. This project will provide opportunities for modelers to increase their outreach and visibility in the public space and to directly interact with key audiences of emissions scenarios, such as policy analysts and advisors. The information displayed on the portal will cover a wide range of indicators, sectors and important scenario characteristics such as macroeconomic information, emission factors and policy as well as technology assumptions in order to facilitate comparison. These indicators have been selected based on existing standards (such as the IIASA AR5

  20. Black carbon in the Arctic: the underestimated role of gas flaring and residential combustion emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stohl

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Arctic haze is a seasonal phenomenon with high concentrations of accumulation-mode aerosols occurring in the Arctic in winter and early spring. Chemistry transport models and climate chemistry models struggle to reproduce this phenomenon, and this has recently prompted changes in aerosol removal schemes to remedy the modeling problems. In this paper, we show that shortcomings in current emission data sets are at least as important. We perform a 3 yr model simulation of black carbon (BC with the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART. The model is driven with a new emission data set ("ECLIPSE emissions" which includes emissions from gas flaring. While gas flaring is estimated to contribute less than 3% of global BC emissions in this data set, flaring dominates the estimated BC emissions in the Arctic (north of 66° N. Putting these emissions into our model, we find that flaring contributes 42% to the annual mean BC surface concentrations in the Arctic. In March, flaring even accounts for 52% of all Arctic BC near the surface. Most of the flaring BC remains close to the surface in the Arctic, so that the flaring contribution to BC in the middle and upper troposphere is small. Another important factor determining simulated BC concentrations is the seasonal variation of BC emissions from residential combustion (often also called domestic combustion, which is used synonymously in this paper. We have calculated daily residential combustion emissions using the heating degree day (HDD concept based on ambient air temperature and compare results from model simulations using emissions with daily, monthly and annual time resolution. In January, the Arctic-mean surface concentrations of BC due to residential combustion emissions are 150% higher when using daily emissions than when using annually constant emissions. While there are concentration reductions in summer, they are smaller than the winter increases, leading to a systematic increase of

  1. Black carbon in the Arctic: the underestimated role of gas flaring and residential combustion emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohl, A.; Klimont, Z.; Eckhardt, S.; Kupiainen, K.; Shevchenko, V. P.; Kopeikin, V. M.; Novigatsky, A. N.

    2013-09-01

    Arctic haze is a seasonal phenomenon with high concentrations of accumulation-mode aerosols occurring in the Arctic in winter and early spring. Chemistry transport models and climate chemistry models struggle to reproduce this phenomenon, and this has recently prompted changes in aerosol removal schemes to remedy the modeling problems. In this paper, we show that shortcomings in current emission data sets are at least as important. We perform a 3 yr model simulation of black carbon (BC) with the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART. The model is driven with a new emission data set ("ECLIPSE emissions") which includes emissions from gas flaring. While gas flaring is estimated to contribute less than 3% of global BC emissions in this data set, flaring dominates the estimated BC emissions in the Arctic (north of 66° N). Putting these emissions into our model, we find that flaring contributes 42% to the annual mean BC surface concentrations in the Arctic. In March, flaring even accounts for 52% of all Arctic BC near the surface. Most of the flaring BC remains close to the surface in the Arctic, so that the flaring contribution to BC in the middle and upper troposphere is small. Another important factor determining simulated BC concentrations is the seasonal variation of BC emissions from residential combustion (often also called domestic combustion, which is used synonymously in this paper). We have calculated daily residential combustion emissions using the heating degree day (HDD) concept based on ambient air temperature and compare results from model simulations using emissions with daily, monthly and annual time resolution. In January, the Arctic-mean surface concentrations of BC due to residential combustion emissions are 150% higher when using daily emissions than when using annually constant emissions. While there are concentration reductions in summer, they are smaller than the winter increases, leading to a systematic increase of annual mean Arctic

  2. Policy Considerations for Using Forests to Mitigate Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Brown

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A recent article in Nature, “Soil Fertility Limits Carbon Sequestration by Forest Ecosystems in a CO2-Enriched Atmosphere” by Oren and colleagues[1], has been widely reported on, and often misinterpreted, by the press. The article dampens enthusiasm for accelerated forest growth due to CO2 fertilization and puts in question the fringe theory that the world’s forests can provide an automatic mitigation feedback. We agree that these results increase our understanding of the global carbon cycle. At the same time, their relevance in the context of the international climate change negotiations is much more complicated than portrayed by newspapers such as the New York Times (“Role of Trees in Curbing Greenhouse Gases is Challenged”, May 24, 2001 and the Christian Science Monitor (“Trees No Savior for Global Warming”, May 25, 2001.

  3. Size of the localized electron emission sites on a closed multiwalled carbon nanotube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeres, Erwin C; Oosterkamp, Tjerk H; de Jonge, Niels

    2012-01-20

    We have measured the size of the localized electron emission sites on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) with caps closed by a fullerenelike structure. MWNTs were individually mounted on tungsten support tips and imaged with a field emission microscope (FEM). The magnification of the FEM was calibrated using electron ray tracing and verified by comparing transmission electron microscope images. The FEM image was also tested for effects of the lateral energy spread. We found ring-shaped emission areas with three flattened sides, of a radius of 1.7±0.3 nm, and separated by 5±1 nm. © 2012 American Physical Society

  4. Estimating Biomass Burning Emissions for Carbon Cycle Science and Resource Monitoring & Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    French,