WorldWideScience

Sample records for cumulative burden borne

  1. Frequency, magnitude, and distribution of head impacts in Pop Warner football: the cumulative burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ricky H; Wong, Andrew K; Bailes, Julian E

    2014-03-01

    A growing body of research suggests that subconcussive head impacts or repetitive mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI) can have cumulative and deleterious effects. Several studies have investigated head impacts in football at the professional, collegiate, and high school levels, in an attempt to elucidate the biomechanics of head impacts among football players. Youth football players, generally from 7 to 14 years of age, constitute 70% of all football players, yet burden of, and susceptibility to, head injury in this population is not well known. A novel impact sensor utilizing binary force switches (Shockbox(®)) was used to follow an entire Pop Warner football team consisting of twenty-two players for six games and five practices. The impact sensor was designed to record impacts with linear accelerations over 30g. In addition, video recording of games and practices were used to further characterize the head impacts by type of position (skilled versus unskilled), field location of impact (open field versus line of scrimmage), type of hit (tackling, tackled, or hold/push), and whether the impact was a head-to-head impact or not. We recorded a total of 480 head impacts. An average of 21.8 head impacts occurred per practice, while 61.8 occurred per game. Players had an average of 3.7 head impacts per game and 1.5 impacts per practice (p80g) was 11. Two concussions were diagnosed over the course of the season. However, due to technical reasons the biomechanics of those hits resulting in concussions were not captured. Despite smaller players and slower play when compared to high school, collegiate or professional players, those involved in youth football sustain a moderate number of head impacts per season with several high magnitude impacts. Our results suggest that players involved in open-field, tackling plays that have head-to-head contact sustain impacts with the highest linear accelerations. Our data supports previously published data that suggests changes to the

  2. Vaccines for tick-borne diseases and cost-effectiveness of vaccination : a public health challenge to reduce the diseases’ burden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Renata; Postma, Maarten J

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and Lyme borreliosis (LB) are tick-borne diseases (TBDs), and both present an increasing burden worldwide. Vaccination as public health intervention could be the most effective way to reduce this burden. TBE vaccines are available, but vaccines against LB are still in

  3. Vaccines for tick-borne diseases and cost-effectiveness of vaccination : a public health challenge to reduce the diseases’ burden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Renata; Postma, Maarten J

    2016-01-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and Lyme borreliosis (LB) are tick-borne diseases (TBDs), and both present an increasing burden worldwide. Vaccination as public health intervention could be the most effective way to reduce this burden. TBE vaccines are available, but vaccines against LB are still in t

  4. Vector-borne disease intelligence: Strategies to deal with disease burden and threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieta eBraks

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the complex nature of vector-borne diseases, whereby monitoring of human case patients does not suffice, public health authorities experience challenges in surveillance and control of vector-borne diseases. Knowledge on the presence and distribution of vectors and the pathogens they transmit is vital to a risk assessment process to permit effective early warning, surveillance and control of vector-borne diseases. Upon accepting this reality, public health authorities face the phenomenon of an exponential rise in the number of possible surveillance targets and how to decide which are essential. Here, . we propose a comprehensive approach that integrates three surveillance strategies: population-based surveillance, disease-based surveillance and context-based surveillance for EU member states to tailor the best surveillance strategy for control of vector-borne diseases in their geographic region. By classifying the surveillance structure into 5 different contexts, we hope to provide guidance in optimizing surveillance efforts. Contextual surveillance strategies for vector-borne diseases entail combining organization and data collection approaches that result in disease intelligence rather than a preset static structure.

  5. Vector-borne disease intelligence: strategies to deal with disease burden and threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braks, Marieta; Medlock, Jolyon M; Hubalek, Zdenek; Hjertqvist, Marika; Perrin, Yvon; Lancelot, Renaud; Duchyene, Els; Hendrickx, Guy; Stroo, Arjan; Heyman, Paul; Sprong, Hein

    2014-01-01

    Owing to the complex nature of vector-borne diseases (VBDs), whereby monitoring of human case patients does not suffice, public health authorities experience challenges in surveillance and control of VBDs. Knowledge on the presence and distribution of vectors and the pathogens that they transmit is vital to the risk assessment process to permit effective early warning, surveillance, and control of VBDs. Upon accepting this reality, public health authorities face an ever-increasing range of possible surveillance targets and an associated prioritization process. Here, we propose a comprehensive approach that integrates three surveillance strategies: population-based surveillance, disease-based surveillance, and context-based surveillance for EU member states to tailor the best surveillance strategy for control of VBDs in their geographic region. By classifying the surveillance structure into five different contexts, we hope to provide guidance in optimizing surveillance efforts. Contextual surveillance strategies for VBDs entail combining organization and data collection approaches that result in disease intelligence rather than a preset static structure.

  6. Estimates of burden and consequences of infants born small for gestational age in low and middle income countries with INTERGROWTH-21st standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Anne Cc; Kozuki, Naoko; Cousens, Simon

    2017-01-01

     CHERG birth cohorts from 14 population based sites in low and middle income countries. Main outcome measures In low and middle income countries in the year 2012, the number and proportion of infants born small for gestational age; number and proportion of neonatal deaths attributable to small...... for gestational age; the number and proportion of neonatal deaths that could be prevented by reducing the prevalence of small for gestational age to 10%. Results  In 2012, an estimated 23.3 million infants (uncertainty range 17.6 to 31.9; 19.3% of live births) were born small for gestational age in low and middle...... deaths were attributable to infants born small for gestational age, 21.9% of all neonatal deaths. The largest burden was in South Asia, where the prevalence was the highest (34%); about 26% of neonatal deaths were attributable to infants born small for gestational age. Reduction of the prevalence...

  7. The cumulative incidence of atopic dermatitis in the first 12 months among Chinese, Vietnamese, and Caucasian infants born in Melbourne, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar, A; Tam, M; Jolley, D; Marks, R

    1999-04-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD), a disease with both inherited and environmental components determining its clinical expression, has been reported to be more frequent in people of Asian origin. Our purpose was to compare the 12-month cumulative incidence of AD in Caucasian, Chinese, and Vietnamese babies born in Australia. Sixty-two Caucasian, 61 Chinese, and 59 Vietnamese babies born in Melbourne, Australia were examined soon after birth and then followed up for 12 months to assess the frequency of AD. Parental education, employment history, and housing conditions were also recorded. AD developed in 21% of Caucasians, 44% of Chinese, and 17% of Vietnamese infants. Parents of the Chinese and Caucasian infants had similar socioeconomic and housing conditions compared with the parents of the Vietnamese infants, who tended to be of lower socioeconomic status with communal housing and lack of plush-pile carpeting. The high incidence of AD in Chinese compared with Caucasian infants tends to reflect genetic differences between the two populations, whereas the difference in incidence between the Chinese and Vietnamese infants possibly reflects more the environmental contribution to disease expression.

  8. Relating annual migration from high tuberculosis burden country of origin to changes in foreign-born tuberculosis notification rates in low-medium incidence European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanway, Aidan; Comiskey, Catherine M; Tobin, Katy; O'Toole, Ronan F

    2016-12-01

    The level of immigration from high tuberculosis (TB) burden countries (HBCs) which impacts on the foreign-born TB notification rate is largely unknown. In this work, we performed a cross-sectional analysis of epidemiological data from 2000 to 2013 from nine European countries: Austria, Denmark, Finland, Hungary, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Crude notification rates were calculated for foreign- and native-born populations and a multiple-linear regression model predicting notification rates with HBC population data was generated. From 2000 to 2013, the population percentage with a foreign birthplace increased on average each year in all nine countries, ranging from +0.11%/year in the Netherlands to +0.66%/year in Spain. An annual increase in HBC migrants above +0.43% per year (95% Confidence Interval: 0.24%-0.63%) corresponded with higher TB notification rates in the foreign-born population of the countries analyzed. This indicates that migration from HBCs can exert a measurable effect on the foreign-born TB notification rate. However, an increase in the foreign-born TB notification rate coincided with an average annual rise in national TB notification rates only in countries, Norway (+3.85%/year) and Sweden (+2.64%/year), which have a high proportion (>80%) of TB cases that are foreign-born.

  9. Investigation of the cumulative body burden of estrogen-3,4-quinone in breast cancer patients and controls using albumin adducts as biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Che; Chen, Dar-Ren; Hsieh, Wei-Chung; Yu, Wen-Fa; Lin, Ching-Chiuan; Ko, Mao-Huei; Juan, Chang-Hsin; Tsuang, Ben-Jei; Lin, Po-Hsiung

    2013-04-26

    Both 17β-estradiol-2,3-quinone (E2-2,3-Q) and 17β-estradiol-3,4-quinone (E2-3,4-Q) are reactive metabolites of estrogen. Elevation of E2-3,4-Q to E2-2,3-Q ratio is thought to be an important indicator of estrogen-induced carcinogenesis. Our current study compared the cumulative body burden of these estrogen quinones in serum samples taken from Taiwanese women with breast cancer (n=152) vs healthy controls (n=75) by using albumin (Alb) adducts as biomarkers. Results clearly demonstrated the presence of cysteinyl adducts of E2-2,3-Q-4-S-Alb and E2-3,4-Q-2-S-Alb in all study population at levels ranging from 61.7-1330 to 66.6-1,590 pmol/g, respectively. Correlation coefficient between E2-2,3-Q-4-S-Alb and E2-3,4-Q-2-S-Alb was 0.610 for controls and 0.767 for breast cancer patients (pQ-2-S-Alb was inversely proportional to BMI with about 25% increase in E2-3,4-Q-2-S-Alb per 5 kg/m(2) decrease in BMI (pQ-2-S-Alb in breast cancer patients were ∼5-fold greater than in those of controls (pQ may play a role in the development of breast cancer.

  10. Reduced peripheral expression of the glucocorticoid receptor α isoform in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder: a cumulative effect of trauma burden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Gola

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a serious psychiatric condition that was found to be associated with altered functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis and changes in glucocorticoid (GC responsiveness. The physiological actions of GCs are primarily mediated through GC receptors (GR of which isoforms with different biological activities exist. This study aimed to investigate whether trauma-experience and/or PTSD are associated with altered expression of GR splice variants. METHODS: GRα and GRβ mRNA expression levels were determined by real-time quantitative PCR in whole blood samples of individuals with chronic and severe forms of PTSD (n = 42 as well as in ethnically matched reference subjects (non-PTSD, n = 35. RESULTS: Individuals suffering from PTSD exhibited significantly lower expression of the predominant and functionally active GRα isoform compared to non-PTSD subjects. This effect remained significant when accounting for gender, smoking, psychotropic medication or comorbid depression. Moreover, the GRα expression level was significantly negatively correlated with the number of traumatic event types experienced, both in the whole sample and within the PTSD patient group. Expression of the less abundant and non-ligand binding GRβ isoform was comparable between patient and reference groups. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced expression of the functionally active GRα isoform in peripheral blood cells of individuals with PTSD seems to be a cumulative effect of trauma burden rather than a specific feature of PTSD since non-PTSD subjects with high trauma load showed an intermediate phenotype between PTSD patients and individuals with no or few traumatic experiences.

  11. Burden of Severe Respiratory Syncytial Virus Disease Among 33–35 Weeks’ Gestational Age Infants Born During Multiple Respiratory Syncytial Virus Seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell-Estrany, Xavier; Blanken, Maarten; Lanari, Marcello; Sheridan-Pereira, Margaret; Rodgers-Gray, Barry; Fullarton, John; Rouffiac, Elisabeth; Vo, Pamela; Notario, Gerard; Campbell, Fiona; Paes, Bosco

    2017-01-01

    Background: Moderate-late preterm infants, 33–35 weeks’ gestational age (wGA), are at increased risk for respiratory syncytial virus hospitalization (RSVH). The objective of this study is to quantify the burden of RSVH in moderate-late preterm infants. Methods: A pooled analysis was conducted on RSVH from 7 prospective, observational studies in the Northern Hemisphere from 2000 to 2014. Infants’ 330–356 wGA without comorbidity born during the respiratory syncytial virus season who did not receive respiratory syncytial virus immunoprophylaxis were enrolled. Data for the first confirmed RSVH during the season (+1 month) were analyzed. Incidence and hospitalization rate per 100 patient-seasons, intensive care unit admission and length of stay (LOS), oxygen support, mechanical ventilation and overall hospital LOS were assessed. Results: The pooled analysis comprised 7,820 infants; 267 experienced a confirmed RSVH at a median age of 8.4 weeks. The crude pooled RSVH incidence rate was 3.41% and the rate per 100 patient-seasons was 4.52. Median hospital LOS was 5.7 days. A total of 22.2% of infants required intensive care unit admission for a median LOS of 8.3 days. A total of 70.4% received supplemental oxygen support for a median of 4.9 days, and 12.7% required mechanical ventilation for a median of 4.8 days. Conclusions: The burden of RSVH in moderate-late, 33–35 weeks’ wGA preterm infants without comorbidities born during the viral season in Northern Hemisphere countries is substantial. Severe cases required prolonged and invasive supportive therapy. PMID:27755464

  12. Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) as a composite measure to express the burden of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in Slovenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, R.; Postma, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: TBE is a serious central nervous system disease, which may lead to permanent neurological sequelae or even death. TBE is becoming a high burden in many parts of Europe, Asian Russia, Siberia, Asian former USSR and Far East. The burden is usually expressed by only the incidence or death.

  13. Application of the Central Limit Theorem in microbial risk assessment: high number of servings reduces the Coefficient of Variation of food-borne burden-of-illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Fernando; Zwietering, Marcel H

    2012-02-15

    The Central Limit Theorem (CLT) is proposed as a means of understanding microbial risk in foods from a Public Health perspective. One variant of the CLT states that as the number of random variables, each with a finite mean and variance, increases (→∞), the distribution of the sum (or mean) of those variables approximates a normal distribution. On the basis of the CLT, the hypothesis introduced by this paper states that the Coefficient of Variation (CV) of the annual number of food-borne illness cases decreases as a result of a larger number of exposures (or servings) (n). Second-order Monte-Carlo analysis and classical statistics were used to support the hypothesis, based on existing risk models on Listeria monocytogenes in deli meat products focused on elderly people in the United States. Likewise, the hypothesis was tested on epidemiological data of annual incidence of salmonellosis and listeriosis in different countries (i.e. different n). Although different sources of error affected the accuracy of the results, both the Monte-Carlo analysis (in silico) and epidemiological data (in vivo), especially for salmonellosis, demonstrated that the CV of the annual number of cases decreased as n increased as stated by the CLT. Furthermore, results from this work showed that classical statistical methods can be helpful to provide reliable risk estimates based on simple and well-established statistical principles.

  14. Surge of dengue virus infection and chikungunya Fever in bali in 2010: the burden of mosquito-borne infectious diseases in a tourist destination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Minako Jen; Kusriastuti, Rita

    2013-06-01

    Labor flow and travelers are important factors contributing to the spread of Dengue virus infection and chikungunya fever. Bali Province of Indonesia, a popular resort and tourist destination, has these factors and suffers from mosquito-borne infectious diseases. Using area study approach, a series of fieldwork was conducted in Bali to obtain up-to-date primary disease data, to learn more about public health measures, and to interview health officers, hotel personnel, and other resource persons. The national data including information on two other provinces were obtained for comparison. The health ministry reported 5,810 and 11,697 cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever in Bali in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Moreover, two densely populated tourist areas and one district have shown a particularly high incidence and sharp increases in 2010. Cases of chikungunya fever reported in Bali more than doubled in 2010 from the previous year. Our findings suggest that Bali can benefit from a significant reduction in vector populations and dissemination of disease preventive knowledge among both local residents and foreign visitors. This will require a concerted and trans-border approach, which may prove difficult in the province.

  15. The Soft Cumulative Constraint

    CERN Document Server

    Petit, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    This research report presents an extension of Cumulative of Choco constraint solver, which is useful to encode over-constrained cumulative problems. This new global constraint uses sweep and task interval violation-based algorithms.

  16. Cumulative fatigue damage models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgaw, Michael A.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of calculating expected component life under fatigue loading conditions is complicated by the fact that component loading histories contain, in many cases, cyclic loads of widely varying amplitudes. In such a case a cumulative damage model is required, in addition to a fatigue damage criterion, or life relationship, in order to compute the expected fatigue life. The traditional cumulative damage model used in design is the linear damage rule. This model, while being simple to use, can yield grossly unconservative results under certain loading conditions. Research at the NASA Lewis Research Center has led to the development of a nonlinear cumulative damage model, named the double damage curve approach (DDCA), that has greatly improved predictive capability. This model, which considers the life (or loading) level dependence of damage evolution, was applied successfully to two polycrystalline materials, 316 stainless steel and Haynes 188. The cumulative fatigue behavior of the PWA 1480 single-crystal material is currently being measured to determine the applicability of the DDCA for this material.

  17. Burden of morbidity in 10+ year survivors of hematopoietic cell transplantation: report from the bone marrow transplantation survivor study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Can-Lan; Kersey, John H; Francisco, Liton; Armenian, Saro H; Baker, K Scott; Weisdorf, Daniel J; Forman, Stephen J; Bhatia, Smita

    2013-07-01

    Long-term morbidity after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is unknown. The risk of physical and psychological health in 324 patients who had survived 10 or more years after HCT and a sibling comparison group (n = 309) was evaluated. Using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, the 15-year cumulative incidence of severe/life-threatening/fatal conditions was 41% (95% confidence interval, 34% to 48%). HCT survivors were 5.7 times as likely to develop a severe/life-threatening condition (P survivors returned to the transplantation center for their cancer-related care. The burden of long-term physical and emotional morbidity borne by survivors remains substantial, even beyond 10 years after HCT; however, specialized health care is underused. Patients, families, and healthcare providers need to be made aware of the high burden, so they can plan for post-HCT care, even many years after HCT.

  18. Cumulative Timers for Microprocessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battle, John O.

    2007-01-01

    It has been proposed to equip future microprocessors with electronic cumulative timers, for essentially the same reasons for which land vehicles are equipped with odometers (total-distance-traveled meters) and aircraft are equipped with Hobbs meters (total-engine-operating time meters). Heretofore, there has been no way to determine the amount of use to which a microprocessor (or a product containing a microprocessor) has been subjected. The proposed timers would count all microprocessor clock cycles and could only be read by means of microprocessor instructions but, like odometers and Hobbs meters, could never be reset to zero without physically damaging the chip.

  19. Cumulative Vehicle Routing Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Kara, &#;mdat; Kara, Bahar Yeti&#;; Yeti&#;, M. Kadri

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a new objective function and corresponding formulations for the vehicle routing problem. The new cost function defined as the product of the distance of the arc and the flow on that arc. We call a vehicle routing problem with this new objective function as the Cumulative Vehicle Routing Problem (CumVRP). Integer programming formulations with O(n2) binary variables and O(n2) constraints are developed for both collection and delivery cases. We show that the CumVRP is a gener...

  20. Cumulative environmental effects. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This report presents a compilation of knowledge about the state of the environment and human activity in the Norwegian part of the North Sea and Skagerrak. The report gives an overview of pressures and impacts on the environment from normal activity and in the event of accidents. This is used to assess the cumulative environmental effects, which factors have most impact and where the impacts are greatest, and to indicate which problems are expected to be most serious in the future. The report is intended to provide relevant information that can be used in the management of the marine area in the future. It also provides input for the identification of environmental targets and management measures for the North Sea and Skagerrak.(Author)

  1. UBIQUITOUS POLLUTANTS FROM CUMULATIVE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPS) as environmental pollutants is a multifaceted issue whose scope continues to become better delineated since the escalation of concerted attention beginning in the 1980s. PPCPs typically occur as trace environmental pollutants (primarily in surface but also in ground waters) as a result of their widespread, continuous, combined usage in a broad range of human and veterinary therapeutic activities and practices. With respect to the risk-assessment paradigm, the growing body of published work has focused primarily on the origin and occurrence of these substances. Comparatively less is known about human and ecological exposure, and even less about the known or even potential hazards associated with exposure to these anthropogenic substances, many of which are highly bioactive. The continually growing, worldwide importance of freshwater resources underscores the need for ensuring that any aggregate or cumulative impacts on water supplies and resultant potential for human or ecological exposure be minimized. This has prompted the more recent investigations on waste treatment processes for one of the major sources of environmental disposition, namely sewage. Despite the paucity of health effects data for long-term, simultaneous exposure to multiple xenobiotics (particularly PPCPS) at low doses (a major toxicological issue that can be described by the

  2. Human to human transmission of arthropod-borne pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martina, Byron E.; Barzon, Luisa; Pijlman, Gorben P.; Fuente, de la José; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Wammes, Linda J.; Takken, Willem; Rij, van Ronald P.; Papa, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Human-to-human (H2H) transmitted arthropod-borne pathogens are a growing burden worldwide, with malaria and dengue being the most common mosquito-borne H2H transmitted diseases. The ability of vectors to get infected by humans during a blood meal to further propel an epidemic depends on complex i

  3. Latino Mothers' Cumulative Food Insecurity Exposure and Child Body Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Daphne C

    2016-01-01

    To document whether an intergenerational transmission of food insecurity is occurring by assessing low-income foreign-born Latino mothers' experiences with food insecurity as none, once (either childhood or adulthood) or twice (during both childhood and adulthood). Also the association between maternal cumulative food insecurity and children's body composition was examined. Maternal self-reported surveys on retrospective measures of food insecurity during childhood, current measures of food insecurity, and demographics were collected from Houston-area community centers (N = 96). Children's body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were directly assessed. Covariate-adjusted logistic regression models analyzed the association between cumulative food insecurity experiences and children's body composition. Fifty-eight percent of mothers experienced food insecurity both as a child and as an adult and 31% of the mothers experienced food insecurity either as a child or adult. Maternal cumulative exposure to food insecurity was unrelated to BMI but was negatively related to elevated WC. Although an intergenerational transmission of food insecurity does exist, maternal cumulative exposure to food insecurity does not impact children's body composition negatively in the short term. Studying the long-term effects of cumulative food insecurity exposure can provide information for the development and timing of obesity interventions.

  4. Mapping cumulative environmental effects, social vulnerability, and health in the San Joaquin Valley, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ganlin; London, Jonathan

    2012-05-01

    To understand the social distribution of environmental hazards, methods to assess cumulative effects and their health implications are needed. We developed a cumulative environmental hazard index integrating environmental data on pollution sites, air quality, and pesticide use; a social vulnerability index to measure residents' resources to prevent or mitigate health effects; and a health index. We found that communities in California's San Joaquin Valley with high social vulnerability face more environmental burdens and have worse health conditions.

  5. Family burden in injecting versus noninjecting opioid users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh Nebhinani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A substance-dependent person in the family affects almost all aspects of family life that also impact the lives of the significant others and causes enormous burden. Objectives: This study was aimed to assess the pattern of burden borne by the family caregivers of patients with opioid-dependence-injecting drug users (IDU and noninjecting drug users (NIDU. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with ICD-10 diagnosed-opioid-dependent subjects (IDU and NIDU, N = 40 in each group and their family caregivers attending a de-addiction centre at a multispecialty teaching hospital in North India. Family Burden interview schedule was used to assess the pattern of burden borne by the family caregivers. Results: The IDU group was characterized by older age, longer duration of substance dependence, greater subjective and objective family burden in all the areas compared to NIDU group, and single status and unemployment were associated with severe objective burden. The family burden was associated neither with age, education, or duration of dependence of the patients, nor with family size, type of caregiver or caregiver′s education in either group. Conclusion: All caregivers reported a moderate or severe burden, which indicates the significance and need for further work in this area.

  6. Cumulant expansions for atmospheric flows

    CERN Document Server

    Ait-Chaalal, Farid; Meyer, Bettina; Marston, J B

    2015-01-01

    The equations governing atmospheric flows are nonlinear, and consequently the hierarchy of cumulant equations is not closed. But because atmospheric flows are inhomogeneous and anisotropic, the nonlinearity may manifests itself only weakly through interactions of mean fields with disturbances such as thermals or eddies. In such situations, truncations of the hierarchy of cumulant equations hold promise as a closure strategy. We review how truncations at second order can be used to model and elucidate the dynamics of turbulent atmospheric flows. Two examples are considered. First, we study the growth of a dry convective boundary layer, which is heated from below, leading to turbulent upward energy transport and growth of the boundary layer. We demonstrate that a quasilinear truncation of the equations of motion, in which interactions of disturbances among each other are neglected but interactions with mean fields are taken into account, can successfully capture the growth of the convective boundary layer. Seco...

  7. Electro-cumulation CNF project

    CERN Document Server

    Grishin, V G

    2000-01-01

    bound or free ion current within solid substances; non-plain symmetry; cumulation of the ion interaction. Experimental result: an Ice SuperPolarization. Cold nuclear fusion ? At http://www.shortway.to/to2084 . Keywords: ion, current, solid, symmetry, cumulation, cold nuclear fusion, polarization, depolarization, ionic conductor, superionic conductor, ice, crystal, strain, V-center, V-centre, doped crystal, interstitial impurity, intrinsic color center, high pressure technology, Bridgman, experiment, crowdion, dielectric, proton, layer, defect, lattice, dynamics, electromigration, mobility, muon catalysis, concentration, doping, dopant, conductivity, pycnonuclear reaction, permittivity, dielectric constant, point defects, interstitials, polarizability, imperfection, defect centers, glass, epitaxy, sodium hydroxide, metallic substrate, crystallization, point, tip, susceptibility, ferroelectric, ordering, force, correlation, collective, shift, distortion, coalescence, crowdions, electrolysis.

  8. Cumulative Paired φ-Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo Klein

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A new kind of entropy will be introduced which generalizes both the differential entropy and the cumulative (residual entropy. The generalization is twofold. First, we simultaneously define the entropy for cumulative distribution functions (cdfs and survivor functions (sfs, instead of defining it separately for densities, cdfs, or sfs. Secondly, we consider a general “entropy generating function” φ, the same way Burbea et al. (IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 1982, 28, 489–495 and Liese et al. (Convex Statistical Distances; Teubner-Verlag, 1987 did in the context of φ-divergences. Combining the ideas of φ-entropy and cumulative entropy leads to the new “cumulative paired φ-entropy” ( C P E φ . This new entropy has already been discussed in at least four scientific disciplines, be it with certain modifications or simplifications. In the fuzzy set theory, for example, cumulative paired φ-entropies were defined for membership functions, whereas in uncertainty and reliability theories some variations of C P E φ were recently considered as measures of information. With a single exception, the discussions in the scientific disciplines appear to be held independently of each other. We consider C P E φ for continuous cdfs and show that C P E φ is rather a measure of dispersion than a measure of information. In the first place, this will be demonstrated by deriving an upper bound which is determined by the standard deviation and by solving the maximum entropy problem under the restriction of a fixed variance. Next, this paper specifically shows that C P E φ satisfies the axioms of a dispersion measure. The corresponding dispersion functional can easily be estimated by an L-estimator, containing all its known asymptotic properties. C P E φ is the basis for several related concepts like mutual φ-information, φ-correlation, and φ-regression, which generalize Gini correlation and Gini regression. In addition, linear rank tests for scale that

  9. The Global Cancer Burden

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-02

    This podcast describes the global burden of cancer and efforts by CDC and others to reduce that burden.  Created: 2/2/2012 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 2/2/2012.

  10. The Algebra of the Cumulative Percent Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Andrew J.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to help students avoid some pervasive reasoning errors in solving cumulative percent problems. Discusses the meaning of ."%+b%." the additive inverse of ."%." and other useful applications. Emphasizes the operational aspect of the cumulative percent concept. (KHR)

  11. Adaptive strategies for cumulative cultural learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehn, Micael; Laland, Kevin

    2012-05-21

    The demographic and ecological success of our species is frequently attributed to our capacity for cumulative culture. However, it is not yet known how humans combine social and asocial learning to generate effective strategies for learning in a cumulative cultural context. Here we explore how cumulative culture influences the relative merits of various pure and conditional learning strategies, including pure asocial and social learning, critical social learning, conditional social learning and individual refiner strategies. We replicate the Rogers' paradox in the cumulative setting. However, our analysis suggests that strategies that resolved Rogers' paradox in a non-cumulative setting may not necessarily evolve in a cumulative setting, thus different strategies will optimize cumulative and non-cumulative cultural learning.

  12. "Buddha's Light" of Cumulative Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Kopeliovich, Vladimir B; Potashnikova, Irina K

    2014-01-01

    We show analytically that in the cumulative particles production off nuclei multiple interactions lead to a glory-like backward focusing effect. Employing the small phase space method we arrived at a characteristic angular dependence of the production cross section $d\\sigma \\sim 1/ \\sqrt {\\pi - \\theta}$ near the strictly backward direction. This effect takes place for any number $n\\geq 3 $ of interactions of rescattered particle, either elastic or inelastic (with resonance excitations in intermediate states), when the final particle is produced near corresponding kinematical boundary. Such a behaviour of the cross section near the backward direction is in qualitative agreement with some of available data.

  13. A Resource Cost Aware Cumulative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonis, Helmut; Hadzic, Tarik

    We motivate and introduce an extension of the well-known cumulative constraint which deals with time and volume dependent cost of resources. Our research is primarily interested in scheduling problems under time and volume variable electricity costs, but the constraint equally applies to manpower scheduling when hourly rates differ over time and/or extra personnel incur higher hourly rates. We present a number of possible lower bounds on the cost, including a min-cost flow, different LP and MIP models, as well as greedy algorithms, and provide a theoretical and experimental comparison of the different methods.

  14. A paradox of cumulative culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yutaka; Wakano, Joe Yuichiro; Ohtsuki, Hisashi

    2015-08-21

    Culture can grow cumulatively if socially learnt behaviors are improved by individual learning before being passed on to the next generation. Previous authors showed that this kind of learning strategy is unlikely to be evolutionarily stable in the presence of a trade-off between learning and reproduction. This is because culture is a public good that is freely exploited by any member of the population in their model (cultural social dilemma). In this paper, we investigate the effect of vertical transmission (transmission from parents to offspring), which decreases the publicness of culture, on the evolution of cumulative culture in both infinite and finite population models. In the infinite population model, we confirm that culture accumulates largely as long as transmission is purely vertical. It turns out, however, that introduction of even slight oblique transmission drastically reduces the equilibrium level of culture. Even more surprisingly, if the population size is finite, culture hardly accumulates even under purely vertical transmission. This occurs because stochastic extinction due to random genetic drift prevents a learning strategy from accumulating enough culture. Overall, our theoretical results suggest that introducing vertical transmission alone does not really help solve the cultural social dilemma problem. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Food-borne Zoonoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The awareness of food borne illness has shifted over the years as international agribusiness and transportation have steadily increased. At least 30 food borne agents have been identified, with one-third emerging in the last 3 decades. Despite an increased emphasis on control measures, t...

  16. Innovative Born Globals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Sascha; Brem, Alexander; Muench, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Internationalization is a hot topic in innovation management, whereby the phenomenon of “Born Globals” is still limited to research in the domains of Entrepreneurship and International Management. As business model design plays a key role for Born Globals, we link these two concepts. For this, we...

  17. Impact of food and water-borne diseases on European population health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cassini, A.; Colzani, E.; Kramarz, P.; Kretzschmar, M. E.; Takkinen, J.

    2016-01-01

    Composite health measures are increasingly applied in studies aiming at describing the burden of diseases, and food and water-borne diseases (FWDs) are no exception. The Burden of Communicable Diseases in Europe (BCoDE) is a project led and funded by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Co

  18. Impact of food and water-borne diseases on European population health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cassini, A.; Colzani, E.; Kramarz, P.; Kretzschmar, M. E.; Takkinen, J.

    2016-01-01

    Composite health measures are increasingly applied in studies aiming at describing the burden of diseases, and food and water-borne diseases (FWDs) are no exception. The Burden of Communicable Diseases in Europe (BCoDE) is a project led and funded by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and

  19. Review of tick-borne encephalitis and vaccines : clinical and economical aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Renata; Postma, Maarten J

    2015-01-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) disease is an increasing burden not only locally but also globally. In most endemic countries, vaccination coverage is too low to reduce the TBE burden significantly; however, vaccination is the most effective protection against TBE, with various vaccines currently avai

  20. Cumulate Fragments in Silicic Ignimbrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, O.; Ellis, B. S.; Wolff, J.

    2014-12-01

    Increasingly, studies are concluding that silicic ignimbrites are the result of the amalgamation of multiple discrete magma batches. Yet the existence of discrete batches presents a conundrum for magma generation and storage; if silicic magma batches are not generated nearly in situ in the upper crust, they must traverse, and reside within, a thermally hostile environment with large temperature gradients, resulting in low survivability in their shallow magmatic hearths. The Snake River Plain (Idaho, USA) is a type example of this 'multi-batch' assembly with ignimbrites containing multiple populations of pyroxene crystals, glass shards, and crystal aggregates. The ubiquitous crystal aggregates hint at a mechanism to facilitate the existence of multiple, relatively small batches of rhyolite in the upper crust. These aggregates contain the same plagioclase, pyroxene, and oxide mineral compositions as single phenocrysts of the same minerals in their host rocks, but they have significantly less silicic bulk compositions and lack quartz and sanidine, which occur as single phenocrysts in the deposits. This implies significant crystallization followed by melt extraction from mushy reservoir margins. The extracted melt then continues to evolve (crystallizing sanidine and quartz) while the melt-depleted margins provide an increasingly rigid and refractory network segregating the crystal-poor batches of magma. The hot, refractory, margins insulate the crystal-poor lenses, allowing (1) extended residence in the upper crust, and (2) preservation of chemical heterogeneities among batches. In contrast, systems that produce cumulates richer in low-temperature phases (quartz, K-feldspars, and/or biotite) favour remelting upon recharge, leading to less segregation of eruptible melt pockets and the formation of gradationally zoned ignimbrites. The occurrence of similar crystal aggregates from a variety of magmatic lineages suggests the generality of this process.

  1. Innovative Born Globals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Sascha; Brem, Alexander; Muench, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Internationalization is a hot topic in innovation management, whereby the phenomenon of “Born Globals” is still limited to research in the domains of Entrepreneurship and International Management. As business model design plays a key role for Born Globals, we link these two concepts. For this, we...... propose hypotheses about the influence of efficiency-centered and novelty-entered business model design on international firm performance. To test these hypotheses, we performed a quantitative survey with 252 founders of international companies in Germany, Switzerland and Liechtenstein. Additionally, we...... gained further insights through a case study analysis of 11 Born Globals. The results show that business model design matters to international firm performance and the business model design of Born Globals tends to be more efficiency-centered. Based on a multiple case study, we analyzed business models...

  2. Cumulative human impacts on marine predators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maxwell, Sara M; Hazen, Elliott L; Bograd, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Stressors associated with human activities interact in complex ways to affect marine ecosystems, yet we lack spatially explicit assessments of cumulative impacts on ecologically and economically key components such as marine predators. Here we develop a metric of cumulative utilization and impact...

  3. Microbial control of arthropod-borne disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldaña, Miguel A; Hegde, Shivanand; Hughes, Grant L

    2017-01-01

    Arthropods harbor a diverse array of microbes that profoundly influence many aspects of host biology, including vector competence. Additionally, symbionts can be engineered to produce molecules that inhibit pathogens. Due to their intimate association with the host, microbes have developed strategies that facilitate their transmission, either horizontally or vertically, to conspecifics. These attributes make microbes attractive agents for applied strategies to control arthropod-borne disease. Here we discuss the recent advances in microbial control approaches to reduce the burden of pathogens such as Zika, Dengue and Chikungunya viruses, and Trypanosome and Plasmodium parasites. We also highlight where further investigation is warranted. PMID:28177042

  4. Microbial control of arthropod-borne disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A Saldaña

    Full Text Available Arthropods harbor a diverse array of microbes that profoundly influence many aspects of host biology, including vector competence. Additionally, symbionts can be engineered to produce molecules that inhibit pathogens. Due to their intimate association with the host, microbes have developed strategies that facilitate their transmission, either horizontally or vertically, to conspecifics. These attributes make microbes attractive agents for applied strategies to control arthropod-borne disease. Here we discuss the recent advances in microbial control approaches to reduce the burden of pathogens such as Zika, Dengue and Chikungunya viruses, and Trypanosome and Plasmodium parasites. We also highlight where further investigation is warranted.

  5. Annual patient and caregiver burden of oncology clinic visits for granulocyte-colony stimulating factor therapy in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, J Mark; Li, Xiaoyan; Reiner, Maureen; Tzivelekis, Spiros

    2016-01-01

    Prophylactic treatment with granulocyte-colony stimulating factors (G-CSFs) is indicated for chemotherapy patients with a significant risk of febrile neutropenia. This study estimates the annual economic burden on patients and caregivers of clinic visits for prophylactic G-CSF injections in the US. Annual clinic visits for prophylactic G-CSF injections (all cancers) were estimated from national cancer incidence, chemotherapy treatment and G-CSF utilization data, and G-CSF sales and pricing information. Patient travel times, plus time spent in the clinic, were estimated from patient survey responses collected during a large prospective cohort study (the Prospective Study of the Relationship between Chemotherapy Dose Intensity and Mortality in Early-Stage (I-III) Breast Cancer Patients). Economic models were created to estimate travel costs, patient co-pays and the economic value of time spent by patients and caregivers in G-CSF clinic visits. Estimated total clinic visits for prophylactic G-CSF injections in the US were 1.713 million for 2015. Mean (SD) travel time per visit was 62 (50) min; mean (SD) time in the clinic was 41 (68) min. Total annual time for travel to and from the clinic, plus time at the clinic, is estimated at 4.9 million hours, with patient and caregiver time valued at $91.8 million ($228 per patient). The estimated cumulative annual travel distance for G-CSF visits is 60.2 million miles, with a total transportation cost of $28.9 million ($72 per patient). Estimated patient co-pays were $61.1 million, ∼$36 per visit, $152 per patient. The total yearly economic impact on patients and caregivers is $182 million, ∼$450 per patient. Data to support model parameters were limited. Study estimates are sensitive to the assumptions used. The burden of clinic visits for G-CSF therapy is a significant addition to the total economic burden borne by cancer patients and their families.

  6. The socioeconomic burden of parasitic zoonoses: global trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgerson, Paul R; Macpherson, Calum N L

    2011-11-24

    Diseases resulting from zoonotic transmission of parasites are common. Humans become infected through food, water, soil and close contact with animals. Most parasitic zoonoses are neglected diseases despite causing a considerable global burden of ill health in humans and having a substantial financial burden on livestock industries. This review aims to bring together the current data available on global burden estimates of parasitic zoonoses and indicate any changes in the trends of these diseases. There is a clear need of such information as interventions to control zoonoses are often in their animal hosts. The costs of such interventions together with animal health issues will drive the cost effectiveness of intervention strategies. What is apparent is that collectively, parasitic zoonoses probably have a similar human disease burden to any one of the big three human infectious diseases: malaria, tuberculosis or HIV in addition to animal health burden. Although the global burden for most parasitic zoonoses is not yet known, the major contributors to the global burden of parasitic zoonoses are toxoplasmosis, food borne trematode infections, cysticercosis, echinococcosis, leishmaniosis and zoonotic schistosomosis. In addition, diarrhoea resulting from zoonotic protozoa may have a significant impact.

  7. Nonlinear cumulative damage model for multiaxial fatigue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG De-guang; SUN Guo-qin; DENG Jing; YAN Chu-liang

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of the continuum fatigue damage theory,a nonlinear uniaxial fatigue cumulative damage model is first proposed.In order to describe multiaxial fatigue damage characteristics,a nonlinear multiaxial fatigue cumulative damage model is developed based on the critical plane approach,The proposed model can consider the multiaxial fatigue limit,mean hydrostatic pressure and the unseparated characteristic for the damage variables and loading parameters.The recurrence formula of fatigue damage model was derived under multilevel loading,which is used to predict multiaxial fatigue life.The results showed that the proposed nonlinear multiaxial fatigue cumulative damage model is better than Miner's rule.

  8. The economic burden of hemodialysis in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Adel Al-Shdaifat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hemodialysis treatment is a costly procedure that requires specific resources. It has a considerable burden on patients, caregivers, and healthcare system. The aim of this study was to estimate the economic burden borne by the Ministry of Health (MOH in Jordan, with a focus on direct medical, direct non-medical, and indirect cost. Materials and Methods:The study was conducted at MOH hospitals in Jordan, from August to November 2010. A total of 138 patients and 49 caregivers were involved in the study. An economic evaluation study was used to analyze the burden of hemodialysis treatment at MOH, Jordan. Direct medical costs were estimated through micro and macro costing from the provider′s perspective. Patients′ and caregivers′ costs were included to calculate direct non-medical costs. Human capital approach was employed to evaluate the productivity loss for indirect cost and premature death and potential year life loss was used to estimate the premature death cost. Results: The total burden of hemodialysis at MOH, Jordan was USD17.70 million per year. Cost per session was $72 and the annual cost per patient was $9976. Direct medical cost was $7.20 million (41% and direct non-medical cost was $2.02 million (11%. On the other hand, indirect cost (productivity loss was $8.48 million (48%. All 722 patients on hemodialysis at MOH hospitals consumed 2.7% of MOH budget. Conclusions: Costs of treating and managing patients on hemodialysis at MOH hospitals in Jordan are substantial. Therefore, efforts should be taken to slow down the progress of renal failure to save resources and a comparative study with other modalities, such as continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and kidney transplantation, should be considered.

  9. The heterogeneity in financial and time burden of caregiving to children with chronic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zan, Hua; Scharff, Robert L

    2015-03-01

    We examine the financial and time burdens associated with caring for children with chronic conditions, focusing on disparities across types of conditions. Using linked data from the 2003 to 2006 National Health Interview Survey and 2004-2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, we created measures of financial burden (out-of-pocket healthcare costs, the ratio of out-of-pocket healthcare costs to family income, healthcare costs paid by insurance, and total healthcare costs) and time burden (missed school time due to illness or injury and the number of doctor visits) associated with 14 groups of children's chronic conditions. We used the two-part model to assess the effect of condition on financial burden and finite mixture/latent class model to analyze the time burden of caregiving. Controlling for the influences of other socio-demographic characteristics on caregiving burden, children with chronic conditions have higher financial and time burdens relative to caregiving burdens for healthy children. Levels of financial burden and burden sharing between families and insurance system also vary by type of condition. For example, children with pervasive developmental disorder or heart disease have a relatively low financial burden for families, while imposing a high cost on the insurance system. In contrast, vision difficulties are associated with a high financial burden for families relative to the costs borne by others. With respect to time burden, conditions such as cerebral palsy and heart disease impose a low time burden, while conditions such as pervasive developmental disorder are associated with a high time burden. This study demonstrates that differences exist in caregiving burden for children by type of chronic condition. Each condition has a unique profile of time and financial cost burden for families and the insurance system. These results have implications for policymakers and for families' savings and employment decisions.

  10. Cumulative Incidence of Cancer among People with AIDS in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, Edgar P.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Engels, Eric A.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND As people with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) live longer due to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, widely available since 1996), the overall burden of cancer may increase. METHODS A population-based record linkage study identified cancers in 472,378 people with AIDS (1980–2006). Using non-parametric competing risk methods, we estimated cumulative incidence of cancer across 3 calendar periods (AIDS onset in 1980–1989, 1990–1995, and 1996–2006). RESULTS Measured at 5-years after AIDS onset, cumulative incidence of AIDS-defining cancer (ADC) declined sharply across AIDS calendar periods (from 18% in 1980–1989, to 11% in 1990–1995, to 4.2% in 1996–2006 [i.e., HAART era]). Cumulative incidence of Kaposi sarcoma declined from 14.3% during 1980–1989 to 6.7% during 1990–1995 to 1.8% during 1996–2006. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) cumulative incidence declined from 3.8% during 1990–1995 to 2.2% during 1996–2006; during the HAART era, NHL was the commonest (53%) ADC. Cumulative incidence of non-AIDS-defining cancer (NADC) increased from 1.1% to 1.5% with no change thereafter (1.0%, 1996–2006), in part due to declines in competing mortality. However, cumulative incidence increased steadily over time for specific NADCs (anal cancer, Hodgkin lymphoma, and liver cancer). Lung cancer cumulative incidence increased from 0.14% during 1980–1989 to 0.32% during 1990–1995, with no change thereafter. CONCLUSIONS We noted dramatically declining cumulative incidence of 2 major ADCs (Kaposi sarcoma and NHL) and increases in some NADCs (specifically cancers of the anus, liver, and lung, and Hodgkin lymphoma). As HIV/AIDS is increasingly managed as a chronic disease, greater attention should be focused on cancer screening and prevention. PMID:20960504

  11. Cumulative cultural learning: Development and diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legare, Cristine H

    2017-07-24

    The complexity and variability of human culture is unmatched by any other species. Humans live in culturally constructed niches filled with artifacts, skills, beliefs, and practices that have been inherited, accumulated, and modified over generations. A causal account of the complexity of human culture must explain its distinguishing characteristics: It is cumulative and highly variable within and across populations. I propose that the psychological adaptations supporting cumulative cultural transmission are universal but are sufficiently flexible to support the acquisition of highly variable behavioral repertoires. This paper describes variation in the transmission practices (teaching) and acquisition strategies (imitation) that support cumulative cultural learning in childhood. Examining flexibility and variation in caregiver socialization and children's learning extends our understanding of evolution in living systems by providing insight into the psychological foundations of cumulative cultural transmission-the cornerstone of human cultural diversity.

  12. Worldwide burden of diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaikrit Bhutani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a pandemic of major public health importance cannot be disputed. While the IDF data does emphasis the importance of diabetes as a global public health problem, it does not place in perspective the ranking of diabetes as compared to other diseases and illnesses. The GBD data highlight this fact in multiple ways. The disease and its complications or comorbid conditions rank high in the list of risk factors, and causes of death. This communication describes the global burden of diabetes especially south-east Asia and the statistical sequelae of the disease.

  13. Calculating Cumulative Binomial-Distribution Probabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuer, Ernest M.; Bowerman, Paul N.

    1989-01-01

    Cumulative-binomial computer program, CUMBIN, one of set of three programs, calculates cumulative binomial probability distributions for arbitrary inputs. CUMBIN, NEWTONP (NPO-17556), and CROSSER (NPO-17557), used independently of one another. Reliabilities and availabilities of k-out-of-n systems analyzed. Used by statisticians and users of statistical procedures, test planners, designers, and numerical analysts. Used for calculations of reliability and availability. Program written in C.

  14. Cumulative cultural evolution: the role of teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Laureano; Toro, Miguel A

    2014-04-21

    In humans, cultural transmission occurs usually by cumulative inheritance, generating complex adaptive behavioral features. Cumulative culture requires key psychological processes (fundamentally imitation and teaching) that are absent or impoverished in non-human primates. In this paper we analyze the role that teaching has played in human cumulative cultural evolution. We assume that a system of cumulative culture generates increasingly adaptive behaviors, that are also more complex and difficult to imitate. Our thesis is that, as cultural traits become more complex, cumulative cultural transmission requires teaching to ensure accurate transmission from one generation to the next. In an increasingly complex cultural environment, we consider that individuals commit errors in imitation. We develop a model of cumulative cultural evolution in a changing environment and show that these errors hamper the process of cultural accumulation. We also show that a system of teaching between parents and offspring that increases the fidelity of imitation unblocks the accumulation and becomes adaptive whenever the gain in fitness compensates the cost of teaching.

  15. Human cumulative culture: a comparative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Lewis G; Vale, Gill L; Laland, Kevin N; Flynn, Emma; Kendal, Rachel L

    2014-05-01

    Many animals exhibit social learning and behavioural traditions, but human culture exhibits unparalleled complexity and diversity, and is unambiguously cumulative in character. These similarities and differences have spawned a debate over whether animal traditions and human culture are reliant on homologous or analogous psychological processes. Human cumulative culture combines high-fidelity transmission of cultural knowledge with beneficial modifications to generate a 'ratcheting' in technological complexity, leading to the development of traits far more complex than one individual could invent alone. Claims have been made for cumulative culture in several species of animals, including chimpanzees, orangutans and New Caledonian crows, but these remain contentious. Whilst initial work on the topic of cumulative culture was largely theoretical, employing mathematical methods developed by population biologists, in recent years researchers from a wide range of disciplines, including psychology, biology, economics, biological anthropology, linguistics and archaeology, have turned their attention to the experimental investigation of cumulative culture. We review this literature, highlighting advances made in understanding the underlying processes of cumulative culture and emphasising areas of agreement and disagreement amongst investigators in separate fields.

  16. Global burden of COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Campos, José Luis; Tan, Wan; Soriano, Joan B

    2016-01-01

    It is estimated that the world population will reach a record 7.3 billion in 2015, and the high burden of chronic conditions associated with ageing and smoking will increase further. Respiratory diseases in general receive little attention and funding in comparison with other major causes of global morbidity and mortality. In particular, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been a major public health problem and will remain a challenge for clinicians within the 21st century. Worldwide, COPD is in the spotlight, since its high prevalence, morbidity and mortality create formidable challenges for health-care systems. This review emphasizes the magnitude of the COPD problem from a clinician's standpoint by drawing extensively from the new findings of the Global Burden of Disease study. Updated, distilled information on the population distribution of COPD is useful for the clinician to help provide an appreciation of the relative impact of COPD in daily practice compared with other chronic conditions, and to allocate minimum resources in anticipation of future needs in care. Despite recent trends in reduction of COPD standardized mortality rates and some recent successes in anti-smoking efforts in a number of Western countries, the overarching demographic impact of ageing in an ever-expanding world population, joined with other factors such as high rates of smoking and air pollution in Asia, will ensure that COPD will continue to pose an ever-increasing problem well into the 21st century.

  17. Salmonella burden in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaeb, M; Bizri, A R; Ghosn, N; Berry, A; Musharrafieh, U

    2016-06-01

    Salmonellosis is a disease that represents a major public health concern in both developing and developed countries. The aim of this article is to evaluate the public health burden of Salmonella illness in Lebanon. The current scope of the Salmonella infection problem was assessed in relation to disease incidence and distribution with respect to age, gender and district. Factors that provide a better understanding of the magnitude of the problem were explored and highlighted. Data reported to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Department at the Lebanese Ministry of Public Health between 2001 and 2013 was reviewed. Information obtained was compared to information reported regionally and globally. The estimated true incidence was derived using multipliers from the CDC and Jordan. A literature review of all published data from Lebanon about Salmonella susceptibility/resistance patterns and its serious clinical complications was conducted. The estimated incidence was 13·34 cases/100 000 individuals, most cases occurred in the 20-39 years age group with no significant gender variation. Poor and less developed districts of Lebanon had the highest number of cases and the peak incidence was in summer. Reflecting on the projected incidence derived from the use of multipliers indicates a major discrepancy between what is reported and what is estimated. We conclude that data about Salmonella infection in Lebanon and many Middle Eastern and developing countries lack crucial information and are not necessarily representative of the true incidence, prevalence and burden of illness.

  18. Tick-Borne Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Topics Tick-Borne Disease Hazards to Outdoor Workers Physical Hazards Heat Stress Cold Stress Sun Exposure Noise Biological Hazards Insects ... No Longer Available Lyme Disease Hazards to Outdoor Workers Physical Hazards Heat Stress Cold Stress Sun Exposure Noise Biological Hazards Insects ...

  19. Vector-borne Infections

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-18

    This podcast discusses emerging vector-borne pathogens, their role as prominent contributors to emerging infectious diseases, how they're spread, and the ineffectiveness of mosquito control methods.  Created: 4/18/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/27/2011.

  20. Predicting Cumulative Incidence Probability by Direct Binomial Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas H.; Zhang, Mei-Jie

    Binomial modelling; cumulative incidence probability; cause-specific hazards; subdistribution hazard......Binomial modelling; cumulative incidence probability; cause-specific hazards; subdistribution hazard...

  1. Tick-Borne Encephalitis (TBE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Tick-borne Encephalitis (TBE) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... CDC.gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Tick-borne encephalitis, or TBE, is a human viral ...

  2. Space Borne Event Timer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turko, B.

    1980-01-01

    The Space Borne Event Timer is a part of the NASA laser ranging system that is intended to operate aboard the Space Shuttle orbiting over California. The object is to measure, by laser ranging, the earth movement along the San Andreas fault and possibly forecast future earthquakes. A number of cube reflector targets will be placed along both sides of the fault. The ranging system aboard the Space Shuttle will fire a burst of laser pulses at each target and detect the reflected light. Time differences between pulses from the two sides of the fault will indicate earth displacements. The Space Borne Event Timer is a CAMAC compatible system that provides extremely accurate timing data and controls the operation of the ranging system. For each event the time is given in 19.53 increments from the instant of firing the laser to the instant the reflected light is received back, within a range of 130 days.

  3. [Food-borne botulism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yuko; Sawada, Mikio; Ikeguchi, Kunihiko; Nakano, Imaharu

    2012-08-01

    Botulism is a neuroparalytic disease caused by neurotoxins produced by Clostridium botulinum, and classically presents as palsies of cranial nerves and acute descending flaccid paralysis. Food-borne botulism is the most common form of botulism, and caused by preformed neurotoxins produced by Clostridium botulinum. Electrophysiological studies play an important role in the early diagnosis. Confirmation of the diagnosis is based on the detection of botulinum toxins in the patient's serum or stool. In Japan, decades ago, botulism type E occurred, though only sporadically, almost every year, but in recent years, has dramatically decreased in frequency. Botulism is a curable disease when treated early and adequately. Differential diagnosis of cranial nerves and limb muscle palsies with rapid exacerbation should include food-borne botulism.

  4. Where was Joseph Babinski born?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H A G Teive

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is controversy in the neurological literature about where Joseph Babinski was born, including a myth propounded by various important authors that he was born in Lima, Peru. However, according to the most consistent biographical data, he was in fact born in Paris, France, and became a medical celebrity there and in Poland as well as around the world.

  5. Where was Joseph Babinski born?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teive, Hélio A G; Munhoz, Renato P; de Souza, Leonardo Cruz

    2011-01-01

    There is controversy in the neurological literature about where Joseph Babinski was born, including a myth propounded by various important authors that he was born in Lima, Peru. However, according to the most consistent biographical data, he was in fact born in Paris, France, and became a medical celebrity there and in Poland as well as around the world.

  6. Food-borne diseases - the challenges of 20 years ago still persist while new ones continue to emerge.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newell, D.G.; Koopmans, M.; Verhoef, L.; Duizer, E.; Aidara-Kane, A.; Sprong, H.; Opsteegh, M.; Langelaar, M.; Threfall, J.; Scheutz, F.; van der Giessen, J.; Kruse, H.

    2010-01-01

    The burden of diseases caused by food-borne pathogens remains largely unknown. Importantly data indicating trends in food-borne infectious intestinal disease is limited to a few industrialised countries, and even fewer pathogens. It has been predicted that the importance of diarrhoeal disease, mainl

  7. Food-borne diseases - the challenges of 20 years ago still persist while new ones continue to emerge.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newell, D.G.; Koopmans, M.; Verhoef, L.; Duizer, E.; Aidara-Kane, A.; Sprong, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/222364815; Opsteegh, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/31149305X; Langelaar, M.; Threfall, J.; Scheutz, F.; van der Giessen, J.; Kruse, H.

    2010-01-01

    The burden of diseases caused by food-borne pathogens remains largely unknown. Importantly data indicating trends in food-borne infectious intestinal disease is limited to a few industrialised countries, and even fewer pathogens. It has been predicted that the importance of diarrhoeal disease,

  8. Food-borne diseases - the challenges of 20 years ago still persist while new ones continue to emerge.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newell, D.G.; Koopmans, M.; Verhoef, L.; Duizer, E.; Aidara-Kane, A.; Sprong, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/222364815; Opsteegh, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/31149305X; Langelaar, M.; Threfall, J.; Scheutz, F.; van der Giessen, J.; Kruse, H.

    2010-01-01

    The burden of diseases caused by food-borne pathogens remains largely unknown. Importantly data indicating trends in food-borne infectious intestinal disease is limited to a few industrialised countries, and even fewer pathogens. It has been predicted that the importance of diarrhoeal disease, mainl

  9. Cumulative Culture and Future Thinking: Is Mental Time Travel a Prerequisite to Cumulative Cultural Evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, G. L.; Flynn, E. G.; Kendal, R. L.

    2012-01-01

    Cumulative culture denotes the, arguably, human capacity to build on the cultural behaviors of one's predecessors, allowing increases in cultural complexity to occur such that many of our cultural artifacts, products and technologies have progressed beyond what a single individual could invent alone. This process of cumulative cultural evolution…

  10. Patient-experienced burden of treatment in patients with multimorbidity - A systematic review of qualitative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosbach, Michael; Andersen, John Sahl

    2017-01-01

    To synthesize existing qualitative literature on patient-experienced burden of treatment in multimorbid patients. A literature search identified available qualitative studies on the topic of burden of treatment in multimorbidity and meta-ethnography was applied as method. The authors' original findings were preserved, but also synthesized to new interpretations to investigate the concept of the burden of treatment using the Cumulative Complexity Model. Nine qualitative studies were identified. The majority of the 1367 participants from 34 different countries were multimorbid. The treatment burden components, experienced by patients, were identified for each study. The components financial burden, lack of knowledge, diet and exercise, medication burden and frequent healthcare reminding patients of their health problem were found to attract additional attention from the multimorbid patients. In studies conducted in the US and Australia the financial burden and the time and travel burden were found most straining to patients with deprived socioeconomic status. The burden of treatment was found to be a complex concept consisting of many different components and factors interacting with each other. The size of the burden was associated to the workload of demands (number of conditions, number of medications and health status), the capacity (cognitive, physical and financial resources, educational level, cultural background, age, gender and employment conditions) and the context (structure of healthcare and social support). Patients seem to use strategies such as prioritizing between treatments to diminish the workload and mobilizing and coordinating resources to improve their ability to manage the burden of treatment. They try to routinize and integrate the treatment into their daily lives, which might be a way to maintain the balance between workload and capacity. Healthcare providers need to increase the focus on minimizing multimorbid patients' burden of treatment

  11. Patient-experienced burden of treatment in patients suffering from multimorbidity data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosbach, Michael; Andersen, John Sahl

    2017-01-01

    . The authors’ original findings were preserved, but also synthesized to new interpretations to investigate the concept of the burden of treatment using the Cumulative Complexity Model. Results: Nine qualitative studies were identified. The majority of the 1367 participants from 34 different countries were...... the multimorbid patients. In studies conducted in the US and Australia the financial burden and the time and travel burden were found most straining to patients with deprived socioeconomic status. The burden of treatment was found to be a complex concept consisting of many different components and factors...... interacting with each other. The size of the burden was associated to the workload of demands (number of conditions, number of medications and health status), the capacity (cognitive, physical and financial resources, educational level, cultural background, age, gender and employment conditions...

  12. Is cumulated pyrethroid exposure associated with prediabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Rune; Jørs, Erik; Lander, Flemming;

    2014-01-01

    , cumulative exposure) was assessed from questionnaire data. Participants were asked about symptoms of diabetes. Blood samples were analyzed for glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), a measure of glucose regulation. No association was found between pyrethroid exposure and diabetes symptoms. The prevalence...

  13. Cumulative Disadvantage among the Highly Ambitious.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Katherine

    1990-01-01

    Using a social reproduction theory framework, analyzes the process by which high school seniors aspiring to high-level positions are sorted out after graduation. Analyzes early educational attainments and changes in occupational expectations. Shows a process of cumulative disadvantage in which White males are more likely to achieve their goals.…

  14. Pavlovian conditioning and cumulative reinforcement rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Justin A; Patterson, Angela E; Gharaei, Saba

    2015-04-01

    In 5 experiments using delay conditioning of magazine approach with rats, reinforcement rate was varied either by manipulating the mean interval between onset of the conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US) or by manipulating the proportion of CS presentations that ended with the US (trial-based reinforcement rate). Both manipulations influenced the acquisition of responding. In each experiment, a specific comparison was made between 2 CSs that differed in their mean CS-US interval and in their trial-based reinforcement rate, such that the cumulative reinforcement rate-the cumulative duration of the CS between reinforcements-was the same for the 2 CSs. For example, a CS reinforced on 100% of trials with a mean CS-US interval of 60 s was compared with a CS reinforced on 33% of trials and a mean duration of 20 s. Across the 5 experiments, conditioning was virtually identical for the 2 CSs with matched cumulative reinforcement rate. This was true as long as the timing of the US was unpredictable and, thus, response rates were uniform across the length of the CS. We conclude that the effects of CS-US interval and of trial-based reinforcement rate are reducible entirely to their common effect on cumulative reinforcement rate. We discuss the implications of this for rate-based, trial-based, and real-time associative models of conditioning.

  15. An Axiomatization of Cumulative Prospect Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, P.P.; Tversky, A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a method for axiomatizing a variety of models for decision making under uncertainty, including Expected Utility and Cumulative Prospect Theory. This method identifies, for each model, the situations that permit consistent inferences about the ordering of value differences. Exampl

  16. Cumulative Disadvantage among the Highly Ambitious.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Katherine

    1990-01-01

    Using a social reproduction theory framework, analyzes the process by which high school seniors aspiring to high-level positions are sorted out after graduation. Analyzes early educational attainments and changes in occupational expectations. Shows a process of cumulative disadvantage in which White males are more likely to achieve their goals.…

  17. Vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    More, Simon J.; Bicout, Dominique; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    After a request from the Europea n Commission, EFSA’s Panel on Animal Health and Welfaresummarised the main characteristics of 36 vector-borne disease s (VBDs) in 36 web-based storymaps.The risk of introduction in the EU through movement of livestock or pets was assessed for eac h of the36 VBDs...... new information becomesavailable. Since this risk assessment was carried out for large regions in the EU for many VBD-agents,it should be considered as a first screening. If a more detailed risk assessment for a specificVBDiswished for on a national or subnational level, the EFSA...

  18. Born-Infeld Cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    García-Salcedo, R; Garcia-Salcedo, Ricardo; Breton, Nora

    2000-01-01

    We present a model for an inhomogeneous and anisotropic early universe filled with a nonlinear electromagnetic field of Born-Infeld (BI) type. The effects of the BI field are compared with the linear case (Maxwell). Since the curvature invaria nts are well behaved then we conjecture that our model does not present an initial big bang singularity. The existence of the BI field modifies the curvature invariants at t=0 as well as sets bounds on the amplitude of the conformal metric function

  19. Caregiver burden in dependent elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mauricio Ocampo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the frequency and the associated factors with the presence of care burden imposed by dependent elderly of Buenaventura, Valle; Colombia. Design: A pilot cross-sectional study. Patients and methods: Between March and May of 2006, data were collected on 35 over 60 years old patients who live in the community of Buenaventura, with a score in the Barthel index Results: The mean age and the standard deviation of the patient group was 78.9±10 years. There was a larger proportion of women (68.5%. In the care givers, the regular age and the standard deviation was 49.4±18.8 years, where 91% were women. It was found that for 54.2% of the caregivers there was no burden at all, 40% of them had a minimum burden and the others a greater burden. Bivariate analysis between the care giver’s burden and the number of chronic disease, the score on the minimental test, elderly depression and the family APGAR, resulted in statistic association (p Conclusions: There is an association between aged people, dependent in basic common day activities related with physical aspects, and care giver’s burden. Being the caregivers mostly family members, further studies must be focused on identifying and realizing interventions to prevent or limit the decrease of declining mental health and loss of life quality and the consequent increase of the care giver’s burden.

  20. Burden in the main caregiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Yonte Huete

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The main objective is to determine the degree of burden in the main caregivers of dependent patients, to analyse the profile of informal caregivers and dependent patients. Their claims and help received with caring, the influence of mental deteriorate and duration of care giving regarding the burden of caregivers.Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional observational study amongst 50 caregivers and dependents. We used descriptive statistics and correlational studies. Results: 86 % of caregivers were women, middle aged, son/daughter of the dependent, married, with basic studies, no work outside the home, the average time in the role of caregiver was 16,96 hours a day and 2,1 free hours a day. 64 % of them received family support and 68 % wish to receive economic aid. It was found that for 38 % of the caregivers there was no burden at all, 34 % of them had a minimum burden and 28 % a greater burden.Conclusion: There are some caregivers with moderate or great burden. Our caregiver wishes to receive economic help. Our research shows that the decrease of mental health and the years of evolution do not have a significant statistically influence on caregivers. It is necessary prioritize the interventions and its recipients, provide solutions for caregivers with a greater burden, trying to keep away “caregiver syndrome”.

  1. Gender disparities among the association between cumulative family-level stress & adolescent weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Daphne C; Pressler, Emily

    2015-04-01

    To investigate precursors to gender-related obesity disparities by examining multiple family-level stress indices. Analyses was based on adolescents born between 1975 and 1991 to women from the 1979 National Longitudinal Study of Youth data set (N=4762). Three types of family-level stressors were captured from birth to age 15: family disruption and conflict, financial strain, and maternal risky health behaviors, along with a total cumulative risk index. Body mass index was constructed on reference criteria for children outlined by the Centers for Disease Control. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted for the three types of family stressors and for the total cumulative index. The accumulation of family disruption and conflict and financial stress was positively related to female adolescents being overweight/obese. Childhood exposure to maternal risky health behaviors was positively associated with higher weight status for male adolescents. Total cumulative stress was related to overweight/obesity for females, but not males. Different family-level stress indices are associated with the weight status of female and male adolescents. Combining types of family-level stress into one cumulative index appears to mask these differences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Complexity and demographic explanations of cumulative culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Querbes

    Full Text Available Formal models have linked prehistoric and historical instances of technological change (e.g., the Upper Paleolithic transition, cultural loss in Holocene Tasmania, scientific progress since the late nineteenth century to demographic change. According to these models, cumulation of technological complexity is inhibited by decreasing--while favoured by increasing--population levels. Here we show that these findings are contingent on how complexity is defined: demography plays a much more limited role in sustaining cumulative culture in case formal models deploy Herbert Simon's definition of complexity rather than the particular definitions of complexity hitherto assumed. Given that currently available empirical evidence doesn't afford discriminating proper from improper definitions of complexity, our robustness analyses put into question the force of recent demographic explanations of particular episodes of cultural change.

  3. Avoiding Program-Induced Cumulative Overload (PICO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Robin; Knapik, Joseph J; Pope, Rodney

    2016-01-01

    This article defines the concept of program-induced cumulative overload (PICO), provides examples, and advises ways to mitigate the adverse effects. PICO is the excessive cumulative physical workload that can be imparted to military personnel by a military training program with an embedded physical training component. PICO can be acute (accumulating within a single day) or chronic (accumulating across the entirety of the program) and results in adverse outcomes for affected personnel, including detrimental fatigue, performance degradation, injuries, or illness. Strategies to mitigate PICO include focusing administration and logistic practices during the development and ongoing management of a trainee program and implementing known musculoskeletal injury prevention strategies. More training is not always better, and trainers need to consider the total amount of physical activity that military personnel experience across both operational training and physical training if PICO is to be mitigated.

  4. Sharing a quota on cumulative carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raupach, Michael R.; Davis, Steven J.; Peters, Glen P.; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Ciais, Philippe; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Jotzo, Frank; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Le Quéré, Corinne

    2014-10-01

    Any limit on future global warming is associated with a quota on cumulative global CO2 emissions. We translate this global carbon quota to regional and national scales, on a spectrum of sharing principles that extends from continuation of the present distribution of emissions to an equal per-capita distribution of cumulative emissions. A blend of these endpoints emerges as the most viable option. For a carbon quota consistent with a 2 °C warming limit (relative to pre-industrial levels), the necessary long-term mitigation rates are very challenging (typically over 5% per year), both because of strong limits on future emissions from the global carbon quota and also the likely short-term persistence in emissions growth in many regions.

  5. Structural Vibration Monitoring Using Cumulative Spectral Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Goto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a resonance decay estimation for structural health monitoring in the presence of nonstationary vibrations. In structural health monitoring, the structure's frequency response and resonant decay characteristics are very important for understanding how the structure changes. Cumulative spectral analysis (CSA estimates the frequency decay by using the impulse response. However, measuring the impulse response of buildings is impractical due to the need to shake the building itself. In a previous study, we reported on system damping monitoring using cumulative harmonic analysis (CHA, which is based on CSA. The current study describes scale model experiments on estimating the hidden resonance decay under non-stationary noise conditions by using CSA for structural condition monitoring.

  6. Cumulative carbon emissions and the Green Paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Ploeg, Frederick Van der

    2013-01-01

    The green paradox states that a gradually more ambitious climate policy such as a renewables subsidy or an anticipated carbon tax induces fossil fuel owners to extract more rapidly and accelerate global warming. However, if extraction becomes more costly as reserves are depleted, such policies also shorten the fossil fuel era, induce more fossil fuel to be left in the earth, and thus curb cumulative carbon emissions. These consequences are relevant, as global warming depends primarily on cumu...

  7. Editorial ~ CIDER is Born

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Anderson, Canada Research Chair in Distance Education

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available With significant male trepidation, I want to share a birth story with IRRODL readers. This month, after a seemingly endless gestation, the Canadian Institute for Distance Education Research (CIDER was born. Like most births, this new presence began with a blissful consummation, when I accepted the Canada Research Chair in Distance education at Athabasca University. After a very short honeymoon, a couple of miscarriages, and a few lover's spats that marked the relationship between the Center for Distance Education and myself, we struggled to determine the type of protégée we wanted to birth. The within the womb (in house development of the visible image and website took shape, which like all gestations, was marked by some lower backache, punctuated by a few graphic images that turned out to be false labour.

  8. Expansive Soil Crack Depth under Cumulative Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei-xiao Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The crack developing depth is a key problem to slope stability of the expansive soil and its project governance and the crack appears under the roles of dry-wet cycle and gradually develops. It is believed from the analysis that, because of its own cohesion, the expansive soil will have a certain amount of deformation under pulling stress but without cracks. The soil body will crack only when the deformation exceeds the ultimate tensile strain that causes cracks. And it is also believed that, due to the combined effect of various environmental factors, particularly changes of the internal water content, the inherent basic physical properties of expansive soil are weakened, and irreversible cumulative damages are eventually formed, resulting in the development of expansive soil cracks in depth. Starting from the perspective of volumetric strain that is caused by water loss, considering the influences of water loss rate and dry-wet cycle on crack developing depth, the crack developing depth calculation model which considers the water loss rate and the cumulative damages is established. Both the proposal of water loss rate and the application of cumulative damage theory to the expansive soil crack development problems try to avoid difficulties in matrix suction measurement, which will surely play a good role in promoting and improving the research of unsaturated expansive soil.

  9. EPA Workshop on Epigenetics and Cumulative Risk ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agenda Download the Workshop Agenda (PDF) The workshop included presentations and discussions by scientific experts pertaining to three topics (i.e., epigenetic changes associated with diverse stressors, key science considerations in understanding epigenetic changes, and practical application of epigenetic tools to address cumulative risks from environmental stressors), to address several questions under each topic, and included an opportunity for attendees to participate in break-out groups, provide comments and ask questions. Workshop Goals The workshop seeks to examine the opportunity for use of aggregate epigenetic change as an indicator in cumulative risk assessment for populations exposed to multiple stressors that affect epigenetic status. Epigenetic changes are specific molecular changes around DNA that alter expression of genes. Epigenetic changes include DNA methylation, formation of histone adducts, and changes in micro RNAs. Research today indicates that epigenetic changes are involved in many chronic diseases (cancer, cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, mental health disorders, and asthma). Research has also linked a wide range of stressors including pollution and social factors with occurrence of epigenetic alterations. Epigenetic changes have the potential to reflect impacts of risk factors across multiple stages of life. Only recently receiving attention is the nexus between the factors of cumulative exposure to environmental

  10. HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden Past Issues / Summer 2009 ... high-risk category, emphasizes Dr. Cargill. Photo: iStock HIV and Pregnancy Are there ways to help HIV- ...

  11. Campylobacter in primary animal production and control strategies to reduce the burden of human campylobacteriosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, J.A.; Mevius, D.J.; Havelaar, A.H.

    2006-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is one of the most important bacterial food-borne illnesses in humans. One significant source of infection is the handling and consumption of poultry meat, although other sources also contribute considerably. Controlling Campylobacter in broilers reduces the human burden of

  12. Socioeconomic burden of hereditary angioedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aygören-Pürsün, Emel; Bygum, Anette; Beusterien, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    who were working or in school (n = 120), 72 provided work/school absenteeism data, resulting in an estimated 20 days missing from work/school on average per year; 51% (n = 84) indicated that HAE has hindered their career/educational advancement. CONCLUSION: HAE poses a considerable burden on patients...... and their families in terms of direct medical costs and indirect costs related to lost productivity. This burden is substantial at the time of attacks and in between attacks....

  13. The burden of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Alistair

    2000-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) imposes a severe burden upon patients and their carers. In particular, family carers of AD patients face extreme hardship and distress that represents a major but often hidden burden on healthcare systems. Carers often experience clinically significant alterations in physical and mental health, particularly depression. A number of individual features of the dementia syndrome that are known to be particularly burdensome to carers include the degree of cognitive impairment, amount of help required with activities of daily living, personality changes and the presence of psychiatric symptoms and behavioural disturbances. The neuropsychiatric features of AD patients can adversely impact the relationship between the patient and caregiver generating feelings of strain, burden and social isolation. Individual characteristics of the caregiver including personality, gender, degree of formal and informal support and physical and mental health, as well as attributional style ('coping style') and expressed emotion (critical or hostile attitudes), also dictate carer burden. As informal caregivers play such a crucial role in the care of AD patients, appropriate management strategies that incorporate interventions which address the specific burdens of the individual caregiver are essential. Reducing the burden of care can be achieved by the combination of a number of individual and general measures, including education, respite and emotion-focused interventions. These measures, accompanied by non-pharmacological strategies, are extremely important in the total care of the AD patient, with the emphasis on maintaining people in the community as long as possible.

  14. Cumulative risks of foster care placement for Danish children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fallesen, Peter; Emanuel, Natalia; Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Although recent research suggests that the cumulative risk of foster care placement is far higher for American children than originally suspected, little is known about the cumulative risk of foster...

  15. Recursive Numerical Evaluation of the Cumulative Bivariate Normal Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Christian

    2010-01-01

    We propose an algorithm for evaluation of the cumulative bivariate normal distribution, building upon Marsaglia's ideas for evaluation of the cumulative univariate normal distribution. The algorithm is mathematically transparent, delivers competitive performance and can easily be extended to arbitrary precision.

  16. Climate mitigation: sustainable preferences and cumulative carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckle, Simon

    2010-05-01

    We develop a stylized AK growth model with both climate damages to ecosystem goods and services and sustainable preferences that allow trade-offs between present discounted utility and long-run climate damages. The simplicity of the model permits analytical solutions. Concern for the long-term provides a strong driver for mitigation action. One plausible specification of sustainable preferences leads to the result that, for a range of initial parameter values, an optimizing agent would choose a level of cumulative carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions independent of initial production capital endowment and CO2 levels. There is no technological change so, for economies with sufficiently high initial capital and CO2 endowments, optimal mitigation will lead to disinvestment. For lower values of initial capital and/or CO2 levels, positive investment can be optimal, but still within the same overall level of cumulative emissions. One striking aspect of the model is the complexity of possible outcomes, in addition to these optimal solutions. We also identify a resource constrained region and several regions where climate damages exceed resources available for consumption. Other specifications of sustainable preferences are discussed, as is the case of a hard constraint on long-run damages. Scientists are currently highlighting the potential importance of the cumulative carbon emissions concept as a robust yet flexible target for climate policymakers. This paper shows that it also has an ethical interpretation: it embodies an implicit trade off in global welfare between present discounted welfare and long-term climate damages. We hope that further development of the ideas presented here might contribute to the research and policy debate on the critical areas of intra- and intergenerational welfare.

  17. Long and Short Term Cumulative Structural Priming Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Kaschak, Michael P.; Kutta, Timothy J.; Coyle, Jacqueline M.

    2012-01-01

    We present six experiments that examine cumulative structural priming effects (i.e., structural priming effects that accumulate across many utterances). Of particular interest is whether (1) cumulative priming effects transfer across language production tasks and (2) the transfer of cumulative priming effects across tasks persists over the course of a week. Our data suggest that cumulative structural priming effects do transfer across language production tasks (e.g., from written stem complet...

  18. Preserved cumulative semantic interference despite amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Michael Oppenheim

    2015-05-01

    As predicted by Oppenheim et al’s (2010 implicit incremental learning account, WRP’s BCN RTs demonstrated strong (and significant repetition priming and semantic blocking effects (Figure 1. Similar to typical results from neurally intact undergraduates, WRP took longer to name pictures presented in semantically homogeneous blocks than in heterogeneous blocks, an effect that increased with each cycle. This result challenges accounts that ascribe cumulative semantic interference in this task to explicit memory mechanisms, instead suggesting that the effect has the sort of implicit learning bases that are typically spared in hippocampal amnesia.

  19. Cumulant matching for independent source extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phlypo, Ronald; Zarzoso, Vicente; Comon, Pierre; Lemahieu, Ignace

    2008-01-01

    In this work we show how one can make use of priors on signal statistics under the form of cumulant guesses to extract an independent source from an observed mixture. The advantage of using statistical priors on the signal lies in the fact that no specific knowledge is needed about its temporal behavior, neither about its spatial distribution. We show that these statistics can be obtained either by reasoning on the theoretical values of a supposed waveform, either by using a subset of the observations from which we know that their statistics are merely hindered by interferences. Results on an electro-cardiographic recording confirm the above assumptions.

  20. Early Recollections of First-Borns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakouri, M. Ebrahim; Hafner, James L.

    1984-01-01

    Compared the early recollections of 50 first-borns and 98 later-borns. The first-borns mentioned significantly more nonfamily members, illness/injury, hospital/doctor's office. Later-borns mentioned significantly more siblings than did first-borns. Findings were discussed in the context of Adler's personality theory. (JAC)

  1. A Missing Link in the Evolution of the Cumulative Recorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Toshio; Lattal, Kennon A.

    2012-01-01

    A recently recovered cumulative recorder provides a missing link in the evolution of the cumulative recorder from a modified kymograph to a reliably operating, scientifically and commercially successful instrument. The recorder, the only physical evidence of such an early precommercial cumulative recorder yet found, was sent to Keio University in…

  2. Original and cumulative prospect theory: a discussion of empirical differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P. Wakker; H. Fennema

    1997-01-01

    This note discusses differences between prospect theory and cumulative prospect theory. It shows that cumulative prospect theory is not merely a formal correction of some theoretical problems in prospect theory, but it also gives different predictions. Experiments are described that favor cumulative

  3. Caregivers' burden in patients with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miravitlles, Marc; Peña-Longobardo, Luz María; Oliva-Moreno, Juan; Hidalgo-Vega, Álvaro

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a very prevalent and invalidating disease. The aim of this study was to analyze the burden borne by informal caregivers of patients with COPD. We used the Survey on Disabilities, Personal Autonomy, and Dependency Situations (Encuesta sobre Discapacidad, Autonomía personal y Situaciones de Dependencia [EDAD]-2008) to obtain information on the characteristics of disabled individuals with COPD and their caregivers in Spain. Additionally, statistical multivariate analyses were performed to analyze the impact that an increase in dependence would have on the problems for which caregivers provide support, in terms of health, professional, and leisure/social dimensions. A total of 461,884 individuals with one or more disabilities and with COPD were identified, and 220,892 informal caregivers were estimated. Results showed that 35% of informal caregivers had health-related problems due to the caregiving provided; 83% had leisure/social-related problems; and among caregivers of working age, 38% recognized having profession-related problems. The probability of a problem arising was significantly associated with the degree of dependence of the patient receiving care. Caregivers of patients with great dependence showed a 39% higher probability of presenting health-related problems, 27% more professional problems, and 23% more leisure problems compared with those with nondependent patients. The results show the large impact on society in terms of the welfare of informal caregivers of patients with COPD. A higher level of dependence was associated with more severe problems in caregivers, in all dimensions.

  4. Joint audits - benefit or burden?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus; Thinggaard, Frank

    In this paper we examine whether there are perceived and observed benefits or burdens from using two audit firms instead of one. In 2005 the mandatory joint audit requirement was abolished in Denmark. This provides a unique setting for studying the consequences and implications of going from...... a joint audit regime to a single auditor/voluntary joint audit regime. The dataset used in this paper has been collected for the full population of non-financial Danish companies listed on the Copenhagen Stock Exchange (CSE) in the years 2004 and 2005. We find that a majority of firms perceive joint...... audits to be a net burden. Furthermore, based on DeAngelo's (1981) initial audit pricing model and legislators' claim that joint audits are an unnecessary economic burden to the companies we predict and find discounts (of around 25%) in audit fees in companies that change to single audits. The primary...

  5. Burden of Proof in Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koplin, Julian J; Selgelid, Michael J

    2015-11-01

    A common strategy in bioethics is to posit a prima facie case in favour of one policy, and to then claim that the burden of proof (that this policy should be rejected) falls on those with opposing views. If the burden of proof is not met, it is claimed, then the policy in question should be accepted. This article illustrates, and critically evaluates, examples of this strategy in debates about the sale of organs by living donors, human enhancement, and the precautionary principle. We highlight general problems with this style of argument, and particular problems with its use in specific cases. We conclude that the burden ultimately falls on decision-makers (i.e. policy-makers) to choose the policy supported by the best reasons.

  6. Cumulative Environmental Management Association : Wood Buffalo Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friesen, B. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    The recently announced oil sands development of the Wood Buffalo Region in Alberta was the focus of this power point presentation. Both mining and in situ development is expected to total $26 billion and 2.6 million barrels per day of bitumen production. This paper described the economic, social and environmental challenges facing the resource development of this region. In addition to the proposed oil sands projects, this region will accommodate the needs of conventional oil and gas production, forestry, building of pipelines and power lines, municipal development, recreation, tourism, mining exploration and open cast mining. The Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA) was inaugurated as a non-profit association in April 2000, and includes 41 members from all sectors. Its major role is to ensure a sustainable ecosystem and to avoid any cumulative impacts on wildlife. Other work underway includes the study of soil and plant species diversity, and the effects of air emissions on human health, wildlife and vegetation. The bioaccumulation of heavy metals and their impacts on surface water and fish is also under consideration to ensure the quality and quantity of surface water and ground water. 3 figs.

  7. Cumulative environmental management and the oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    In response to concerns regarding the cumulative environmental impacts of oil sands development within the Athabasca oil sands deposit, the government of Alberta established a Regional Sustainable Development Strategy (RSDS) to balance development with environmental protection. The environmental issues identified through the RSDS were addressed by the Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA). CEMA's boundary is the Wood Buffalo region of northeastern Alberta. It identifies existing and future environmental effects in the region and proposes recommendations to regulatory bodies for reducing environmental impacts associated with oil sands development. This presentation outlined some of the 55 stakeholder representatives of CEMA, including Alberta government departments associated with resource development, oil sand developers within the region, and Aboriginal communities and First Nations. These stakeholders provide input on sector priorities and agree on environmental thresholds. Established working groups also address technical and scientific research issues identified in the RSDS such as sustainable ecosystems; surface waters; trace metals and air contaminants; nitrogen oxides and sulphur dioxides; and land reclamation. To date, CEMA has submitted more than 50 reports and has made 4 major environmental recommendations for trace metal management, ecosystem management tools, a framework for acid deposition management, and a landscape design checklist. tabs., figs.

  8. Higher Order Cumulants in Colorless Partonic Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Cherif, S; Ladrem, M

    2016-01-01

    Any physical system considered to study the QCD deconfinement phase transition certainly has a finite volume, so the finite size effects are inevitably present. This renders the location of the phase transition and the determination of its order as an extremely difficult task, even in the simplest known cases. In order to identify and locate the colorless QCD deconfinement transition point in finite volume $T_{0}(V)$, a new approach based on the finite-size cumulant expansion of the order parameter and the $\\mathscr{L}_{m,n}$-Method is used.We have shown that both cumulants of higher order and their ratios, associated to the thermodynamical fluctuations of the order parameter, in QCD deconfinement phase transition behave in a particular enough way revealing pronounced oscillations in the transition region. The sign structure and the oscillatory behavior of these in the vicinity of the deconfinement phase transition point might be a sensitive probe and may allow one to elucidate their relation to the QCD phase...

  9. Innovativeness, population size and cumulative cultural evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yutaka; Aoki, Kenichi

    2012-08-01

    Henrich [Henrich, J., 2004. Demography and cultural evolution: how adaptive cultural processes can produce maladaptive losses-the Tasmanian case. Am. Antiquity 69, 197-214] proposed a model designed to show that larger population size facilitates cumulative cultural evolution toward higher skill levels. In this model, each newborn attempts to imitate the most highly skilled individual of the parental generation by directly-biased social learning, but the skill level he/she acquires deviates probabilistically from that of the exemplar (cultural parent). The probability that the skill level of the imitator exceeds that of the exemplar can be regarded as the innovation rate. After reformulating Henrich's model rigorously, we introduce an overlapping-generations analog based on the Moran model and derive an approximate formula for the expected change per generation of the highest skill level in the population. For large population size, our overlapping-generations model predicts a much larger effect of population size than Henrich's discrete-generations model. We then investigate by way of Monte Carlo simulations the case where each newborn chooses as his/her exemplar the most highly skilled individual from among a limited number of acquaintances. When the number of acquaintances is small relative to the population size, we find that a change in the innovation rate contributes more than a proportional change in population size to the cumulative cultural evolution of skill level.

  10. Born : vastutustundlikud tulevikus edukad / Kerstin Born ; interv. Kristo Kiviorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Born, Kerstin

    2007-01-01

    Vastutustundliku ettevõtluse Euroopa organisatsiooni CSR Europe'i juht Kerstin Born vastab küsimustele ettevõtete vastutustundlikkuse kohta ühiskonnas. Vt. samas: Käivitus vastutustundliku ettevõtluse indeks

  11. Born-Infeld cosmology with scalar Born-Infeld matter

    CERN Document Server

    Jana, Soumya

    2016-01-01

    Cosmology in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity is investigated using a scalar Born-Infeld field (eg. tachyon condensate) as matter. In this way, both in the gravity and matter sectors we have Born-Infeld-like structures characterised by their actions and via two separate constants, $\\kappa$ and $\\alpha_T^2$ respectively. With a particular choice of the form of $\\dot{\\phi}$ (time derivative of the Born-Infeld scalar), analytical cosmological solutions are found. Thereafter, we explore some of the unique features of the corresponding cosmological spacetimes. For $\\kappa>0$, our solution has a de Sitter-like expansion both at early and late times, with an intermediate deceleration sandwiched between the accelerating phases. On the other hand, when $\\kappa0$ solution, are as good as in $\\Lambda$CDM cosmology. However, the $\\kappa<0$ solution has to be discarded due to the occurrence of a bounce at an unacceptably low redshift.

  12. Born-Infeld cosmology with scalar Born-Infeld matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Soumya; Kar, Sayan

    2016-09-01

    Cosmology in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity is investigated using a scalar Born-Infeld field (e.g. tachyon condensate) as matter. In this way, both in the gravity and matter sectors we have Born-Infeld-like structures characterized by their actions and via two separate constants, κ and αT2 , respectively. With a particular choice of the form of ϕ ˙ (the time derivative of the Born-Infeld scalar), analytical cosmological solutions are found. Thereafter, we explore some of the unique features of the corresponding cosmological spacetimes. For κ >0 , our solution has a de Sitter-like expansion both at early and late times, with an intermediate deceleration sandwiched between the accelerating phases. On the other hand, when κ 0 solution are as good as in Λ CDM cosmology. However, the κ <0 solution has to be discarded due to the occurrence of a bounce at an unacceptably low redshift.

  13. Born : vastutustundlikud tulevikus edukad / Kerstin Born ; interv. Kristo Kiviorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Born, Kerstin

    2007-01-01

    Vastutustundliku ettevõtluse Euroopa organisatsiooni CSR Europe'i juht Kerstin Born vastab küsimustele ettevõtete vastutustundlikkuse kohta ühiskonnas. Vt. samas: Käivitus vastutustundliku ettevõtluse indeks

  14. Burden of allergic respiratory disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, A; Petersen, Karin Dam; Hahn-Pedersen, J

    2016-01-01

    ; there was little or no evidence of increasing or decreasing cost trends. Increased awareness of the detrimental effects of AR and/or AA on patients' HRQL and its considerable cost burden might encourage early diagnosis and treatment, in order to minimize the disease burden and ensure beneficial and cost-effective...... the disease-specific rhinitis quality of life questionnaire or generic instruments (SF-36 and SF-12). Summary estimates obtained by meta-analysis showed that HRQL in patients with perennial HDM allergy was significantly worse than that of patients with seasonal pollen allergy, when measured by both disease...

  15. Indigenous identity: burden or liberation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steur, Luisa Johanna

    2010-01-01

    With the rise of ‘adivasi’ (‘indigenous’ or ‘tribal’) movements in different parts of South Asia in the past two decades, the question of how to understand ‘adivasi identity’ has become hotly debated: is it a burden, inviting distorted stereotypical depictions of subaltern people, or is it a prom......With the rise of ‘adivasi’ (‘indigenous’ or ‘tribal’) movements in different parts of South Asia in the past two decades, the question of how to understand ‘adivasi identity’ has become hotly debated: is it a burden, inviting distorted stereotypical depictions of subaltern people...

  16. Common themes in changing vector-borne disease scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molyneux, David H

    2003-01-01

    The impact of climate change on disease patterns is controversial. However, global burden of disease studies suggest that infectious diseases will contribute a proportionately smaller burden of disease over the next 2 decades as non-communicable diseases emerge as public health problems. However, infectious diseases contribute proportionately more in the poorest quintile of the population. Notwithstanding the different views of the impact of global warming on vector-borne infections this paper reviews the conditions which drive the changing epidemiology of these infections and suggests that such change is linked by common themes including interactions of generalist vectors and reservoir hosts at interfaces with humans, reduced biodiversity associated with anthropogenic environmental changes, increases in Plasmodium falciparum: P. vivax ratios and well-described land use changes such as hydrological, urbanization, agricultural, mining and forest-associated impacts (extractive activities, road building, deforestation and migration) which are seen on a global scale.

  17. The neonate was born with holoprosencephaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    reza saeidi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available holoprosencephaly is a rare congenital brain malformation resulting from failure of diverticulation and cleavage of primitive prosencephalon which occurs at 4 - 8th week of gestation and is usually associated with multiple midline facial anomalies. it is the most common forebrain developmental anomaly in humans with prevalence of 1/16,000 in live borns, an incidence as high as 1:250 in conceptuses, and a worldwide distribution6. The etiology of HPE is very heterogeneous. First, this pathology can be caused by environmental or metabolic factors. The only formally recognized environmental factors are insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (1% risk of HPE and maternal alcoholism with a risk that cumulates with smoking . Clinical expression is variable, extending in unbroken sequence from a small brain with a single cerebral ventricle and cyclopia to clinically unaffected carriers in familial holoprosencephaly. Here. we report a boy 39 weeks neonatal case of holoprosencephaly with Antenatal ultrasonographic diagnosis, with microcephaly, hypotelorism, flat nose, a single nostril, a midline cleft lip and palate microcephaly.

  18. Born Pupils? Natural Pedagogy and Cultural Pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2016-03-01

    The theory of natural pedagogy is an important focus of research on the evolution and development of cultural learning. It proposes that we are born pupils; that human children genetically inherit a package of psychological adaptations that make them receptive to teaching. In this article, I first examine the components of the package-eye contact, contingencies, infant-directed speech, gaze cuing, and rational imitation-asking in each case whether current evidence indicates that the component is a reliable feature of infant behavior and a genetic adaptation for teaching. I then discuss three fundamental insights embodied in the theory: Imitation is not enough for cumulative cultural inheritance, the extra comes from blind trust, and tweaking is a powerful source of cognitive change. Combining the results of the empirical review with these insights, I argue that human receptivity to teaching is founded on nonspecific genetic adaptations for social bonding and social learning and acquires its species- and functionally specific features through the operation of domain-general processes of learning in sociocultural contexts. We engage, not in natural pedagogy, but in cultural pedagogy.

  19. The neonate was born with holoprosencephaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    reza saeidi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available holoprosencephaly is a rare congenital brain malformation resulting from failure of diverticulation and cleavage of primitive prosencephalon which occurs at 4 - 8th week of gestation and is usually associated with multiple midline facial anomalies. it is the most common forebrain developmental anomaly in humans with prevalence of 1/16,000 in live borns, an incidence as high as 1:250 in conceptuses, and a worldwide distribution6. The etiology of HPE is very heterogeneous. First, this pathology can be caused by environmental or metabolic factors. The only formally recognized environmental factors are insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (1% risk of HPE and maternal alcoholism with a risk that cumulates with smoking . Clinical expression is variable, extending in unbroken sequence from a small brain with a single cerebral ventricle and cyclopia to clinically unaffected carriers in familial holoprosencephaly. Here. we report a boy 39 weeks neonatal case of holoprosencephaly with Antenatal ultrasonographic diagnosis, with microcephaly, hypotelorism, flat nose, a single nostril, a midline cleft lip and palate microcephaly.

  20. Ion cumulation by conical cathode electrolysis.

    CERN Document Server

    Grishin, V G

    2002-01-01

    Results of solid-state sodium stearate electrolysis with conical and cylindrical cathodes is presented here. Both electric measurement and conical samples destruction can be explained if a stress developing inside the conical sample is much bigger than in the cylindrical case and there is its unlimited amplification along cone slopes. OTHER KEYWORDS: ion, current, solid, symmetry, cumulation, polarization, depolarization, ionic conductor,superionic conductor, ice, crystal, strain, V-center, V-centre, doped crystal, interstitial impurity, intrinsic color center, high pressure technology, Bridgman, anvil, experiment, crowdion, dielectric, proton, layer, defect, lattice, dynamics, electromigration, mobility, muon catalysis, concentration, doping, dopant, conductivity, pycnonuclear reaction, permittivity, dielectric constant, point defects, interstitials, polarizability, imperfection, defect centers, glass, epitaxy, sodium hydroxide, metallic substrate, crystallization, point, tip, susceptibility, ferroelectric, ...

  1. [Cumulative trauma disorders: work or professional disease?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Marcus Vitor Diniz; Cavalcanti, Francisco Ivo Dantas; Soriano, Evelyne Pessoa; de Miranda, Hênio Ferreira

    2009-06-01

    This study aimed at reviewing the Brazilian legislation applied to occupational health. It refers to the diseases embodied in the Repetition Strain Injury (RSI) and Cumulative Trauma Disorders (CTD) regarded as work or professional diseases. This analysis allowed to perform the historical evolution of legislation concerning the issue, noting that the state of the art of regulation on RSI-CTD is anchored in specific regulation present in the Normative Instruction 98/2003, that establishes the diagnostic criteria and classification of RSI-CTD. It was concluded that according to the existing legislation in Brazil, the pathologies related to RSI-CTD are considered as work diseases and their legal effects are similar to the work-related accidents.

  2. Cumulative Time Series Representation for Code Blue prediction in the Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Boni, Rebeca; Bai, Yong; Hu, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Patient monitors in hospitals generate a high number of false alarms that compromise patients care and burden clinicians. In our previous work, an attempt to alleviate this problem by finding combinations of monitor alarms and laboratory test that were predictive of code blue events, called SuperAlarms. Our current work consists of developing a novel time series representation that accounts for both cumulative effects and temporality was developed, and it is applied to code blue prediction in the intensive care unit (ICU). The health status of patients is represented both by a term frequency approach, TF, often used in natural language processing; and by our novel cumulative approach. We call this representation "weighted accumulated occurrence representation", or WAOR. These two representations are fed into a L1 regularized logistic regression classifier, and are used to predict code blue events. Our performance was assessed online in an independent set. We report the sensitivity of our algorithm at different time windows prior to the code blue event, as well as the work-up to detect ratio and the proportion of false code blue detections divided by the number of false monitor alarms. We obtained a better performance with our cumulative representation, retaining a sensitivity close to our previous work while improving the other metrics.

  3. The Economic Burden Attributable to a Child's Inpatient Admission for Diarrheal Disease in Rwanda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidele Ngabo

    Full Text Available Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of childhood morbidity and mortality. Hospitalization for diarrhea can pose a significant burden to health systems and households. The objective of this study was to estimate the economic burden attributable to hospitalization for diarrhea among children less than five years old in Rwanda. These data can be used by decision-makers to assess the impact of interventions that reduce diarrhea morbidity, including rotavirus vaccine introduction.This was a prospective costing study where medical records and hospital bills for children admitted with diarrhea at three hospitals were collected to estimate resource use and costs. Hospital length of stay was calculated from medical records. Costs incurred during the hospitalization were abstracted from the hospital bills. Interviews with the child's caregivers provided data to estimate household costs which included transport costs and lost income. The portion of medical costs borne by insurance and household were reported separately. Annual economic burden before and after rotavirus vaccine introduction was estimated by multiplying the reported number of diarrhea hospitalizations in public health centers and district hospitals by the estimated economic burden per hospitalization. All costs are presented in 2014 US$.Costs for 203 children were analyzed. Approximately 93% of the children had health insurance coverage. Average hospital length of stay was 5.3 ± 3.9 days. Average medical costs for each child for the illness resulting in a hospitalization were $44.22 ± $23.74 and the total economic burden was $101, of which 65% was borne by the household. For households in the lowest income quintile, the household costs were 110% of their monthly income. The annual economic burden to Rwanda attributable to diarrhea hospitalizations ranged from $1.3 million to $1.7 million before rotavirus vaccine introduction.Households often bear the largest share of the economic burden

  4. Born-Infeld gravity coupled to Born-Infeld electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Jana, Soumya

    2015-01-01

    We investigate spherically symmetric, static spacetimes in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity coupled to Born-Infeld electrodynamics. The two constants, $b^2$ and $\\kappa$ which parametrise the Born-Infeld structures in the electrodynamics (matter) and gravity sectors, characterise the features of our analytical solutions. Black holes or naked singularities are found to arise, depending on the values of $b^2$ and $\\kappa$, as well as charge and mass. Several such solutions are classified and understood through the analysis of the associated metric functions. Interestingly, for a particular relation between these two parameters, $b^2=1/{4\\kappa},\\, \\kappa >0$, we obtain a solution resembling the well-known Reissner-Nordstr\\" om line element, albeit some modifications. We study null geodesics and gravitational lensing using this particular solution. Among interesting features we note $(i)$ a decrease in the radius of the photon sphere with increasing $\\kappa$ and $(ii)$ a net negative contribution in the le...

  5. Burden of chikungunya in India: estimates of disability adjusted life years (DALY lost in 2006 epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Krishnamoorthy

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: During 2006, chikungunya emerged as a major ever known epidemic in India. Disability adjusted life years (DALY is an appropriate summary measure of population health to express epidemiological burden of diseases. We estimated the burden due to suspected chikungunya using DALYs for the first time and compared between the states and also with the burden due to other vector-borne diseases in India. The economic burden was also assessed in terms of productivity loss.Methods: Data on the reported cases of fever/suspected cases of chikungunya from different states during 2006 in India were used. Years lived with disability (YLD were calculated for non-fatal cases to estimate DALY. Since the disability weight for chikungunya is not available, the weights available for rheumatic arthritis, comparable to the disease outcome of chikungunya were used for the estimation. The burden was estimated for both acute and chronic cases. It is considered that about 11.5% of cases were reported to have extended morbidity with persisting arthralgia. For acute disease, the average duration of illness was considered to be nine days and for chronic cases it was six months on an average. The productivity loss due to income foregone by the working class was calculated using minimum official wage.Results: National burden of chikungunya was estimated to be 25,588 DALYs lost during 2006 epidemic, with an overall burden of 45.26 DALYs per million. It varied from 0.01 to 265.62 per million in different states. Karnataka alone contributed as high as 55% of the national burden. Persistent arthralgia was found to impose heavy burden, accounting for 69% of the total DALYs. The productivity loss in terms of income foregone was estimated to be a minimum of Rs. 391 million. Interpretation & conclusion: The chikungunya epidemic in the year 2006 imposed heavy epidemiological burden and productivity loss to the community. The burden of chikungunya in terms of

  6. The Burden of Musculoskeletal Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Clémence Palazzo; Jean-François Ravaud; Agathe Papelard; Philippe Ravaud; Serge Poiraudeau

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite the burden of rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMDs), these conditions probably deserve more attention from public health authorities in several countries including developed ones. We assessed their contribution to disability. METHODS: Data on disabilities associated with RMDs were extracted from the national 2008-2009 Disability-Health Survey of 29,931 subjects representative of the population in France. We used the core set of disability categories for RMDs of the ...

  7. Burden of Osteoporosis in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Abolhassani

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disease. In addition to morbidity, osteoporotic fractures also increase mortality risk in affected patients. Enough evidence is not available to indicate that, like western countries, osteoporosis is a public health problem in Iran. Therefore EMRC planned to estimate the burden of osteoporotic fractures in year 2001 based on existing sources of data. The EMRC study on bone density, the MOH study on unintentional injuries, and international literature on mortality risk following osteoporotic fractures were the main sources of information used for this study. To estimate burden of osteoporotic fractures, the prevalence of osteoporosis, the incidence of osteoporotic fractures, and the relative risk of mortality following these fractures were approximated. The mean duration of disability following major osteoporotic fractures was estimated through epidemiologic modeling. Assumptions on the disability weights of morbid conditions resulting from osteoporotic fractures were made through comparing these conditions with similar ones in Global Burden of Disease Study. Based on mortality and incidence rates, mean durations of disability, and disability weights; the DALYs indicator was calculated for Spine, Hip, and Forearm fractures. In women hip, spine, and forearm fractures were responsible for 15880, 1269, and 121 mortality- and morbidity-related lost years of life respectively. Similar figures in men were 16495, 2225, and 37 years. Collectively osteoporosis deprived Iranian population from 36026 healthy years of life (18757 in men and 17270 in women in 2001. Higher burden of osteoporosis in men, mainly results from higher risk of mortality following fractures in male sex. The national study on unintentional injuries indicates that the incidence of osteoporotic hip fractures in Iranian population is much less than other populations. Higher bone mineral density and other probable differences between Iranians

  8. Long and Short Term Cumulative Structural Priming Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaschak, Michael P; Kutta, Timothy J; Coyle, Jacqueline M

    We present six experiments that examine cumulative structural priming effects (i.e., structural priming effects that accumulate across many utterances). Of particular interest is whether (1) cumulative priming effects transfer across language production tasks and (2) the transfer of cumulative priming effects across tasks persists over the course of a week. Our data suggest that cumulative structural priming effects do transfer across language production tasks (e.g., from written stem completion to picture description, and from picture description to written stem completion), but only when both tasks are presented in the same experimental session. When cumulative priming effects are established in one task, and the second (changed) task is not presented until a week later, the cumulative priming effects are not observed.

  9. Why Veterinary Medical Educators Should Embrace Cumulative Final Exams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, Kenneth D

    2017-01-03

    The topic of cumulative final examinations often elicits polarizing opinions from veterinary medical educators. While some faculty prefer cumulative finals, there are many who perceive these types of examinations as problematic. Specifically, faculty often cite cumulative examinations are more likely to cause students' greater stress, which may in turn result in negative student evaluations of teaching. Cumulative finals also restrict the number of items one may present to students on most recent material. While these cited disadvantages may have some merit, the advantages of cumulative examinations far exceed the disadvantages. The purpose of this article is to discuss the advantages of cumulative examinations with respect to learning evidence, grade/score validity, fairness issues, and implications for academic policy.

  10. Evaluation of cumulative PCB exposure estimated by a job exposure matrix versus PCB serum concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopf, Nancy B; Ruder, Avima M; Succop, Paul; Waters, Martha A

    2014-05-01

    Although polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been banned in many countries for more than three decades, exposures to PCBs continue to be of concern due to their long half-lives and carcinogenic effects. In National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health studies, we are using semiquantitative plant-specific job exposure matrices (JEMs) to estimate historical PCB exposures for workers (n = 24,865) exposed to PCBs from 1938 to 1978 at three capacitor manufacturing plants. A subcohort of these workers (n = 410) employed in two of these plants had serum PCB concentrations measured at up to four times between 1976 and 1989. Our objectives were to evaluate the strength of association between an individual worker's measured serum PCB levels and the same worker's cumulative exposure estimated through 1977 with the (1) JEM and (2) duration of employment, and to calculate the explained variance the JEM provides for serum PCB levels using (3) simple linear regression. Consistent strong and statistically significant associations were observed between the cumulative exposures estimated with the JEM and serum PCB concentrations for all years. The strength of association between duration of employment and serum PCBs was good for highly chlorinated (Aroclor 1254/HPCB) but not less chlorinated (Aroclor 1242/LPCB) PCBs. In the simple regression models, cumulative occupational exposure estimated using the JEMs explained 14-24% of the variance of the Aroclor 1242/LPCB and 22-39% for Aroclor 1254/HPCB serum concentrations. We regard the cumulative exposure estimated with the JEM as a better estimate of PCB body burdens than serum concentrations quantified as Aroclor 1242/LPCB and Aroclor 1254/HPCB.

  11. Overlooking Informal Dementia Caregivers' Burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Oliver; Klotsche, Jens; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2016-07-01

    Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) need early caregiver support. Caregivers often have poor health, but usually do not have time to seek medical advice for their own conditions. Patients' physicians, who are frequently the sole medical practitioner caregivers contact regularly, have an important function in recognizing family caregivers' burdens. The current study investigated to what extent medical practitioners recognized family caregivers' problems. In a two-staged survey in neurology outpatient care, caregivers of patients with mild or moderate AD were enrolled and assessed by physicians regarding their physical and mental burden, as well as need for help and advice about AD. Subsequently, caregivers' mental health was evaluated in a comprehensive diagnostic interview by blinded psychologists. Overall, 73.7% of caregivers had at least one somatic condition and 43.7% had clinically relevant depressive symptoms (of these, 37.5% met criteria for major depression). The findings suggest that the burden of a substantial proportion of affected family caregivers is overlooked. [Res Gerontol Nurs. 2016; 9(4):167-174.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Analysis of experimental data on correlations between cumulative particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlasov, A.V.; Doroshkevich, E.A.; Leksin, G.A. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    Experimental data on correlations between cumulative particles are analyzed. A space-time and energy-transfer pattern of hadron-nucleus interaction based on both correlation data and data on the inclusive spectra of cumulative particles is considered. A new variable that is convenient for describing the production of cumulative particles is proposed using the concept of symmetry between the one-particle and multiparticle distributions. 32 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Analysis of Memory Codes and Cumulative Rehearsal in Observational Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, Albert; And Others

    1974-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of memory codes varying in meaningfulness and retrievability and cumulative rehearsal on retention of observationally learned responses over increasing temporal intervals. (Editor)

  14. Continuously Cumulating Meta-Analysis and Replicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braver, Sanford L; Thoemmes, Felix J; Rosenthal, Robert

    2014-05-01

    The current crisis in scientific psychology about whether our findings are irreproducible was presaged years ago by Tversky and Kahneman (1971), who noted that even sophisticated researchers believe in the fallacious Law of Small Numbers-erroneous intuitions about how imprecisely sample data reflect population phenomena. Combined with the low power of most current work, this often leads to the use of misleading criteria about whether an effect has replicated. Rosenthal (1990) suggested more appropriate criteria, here labeled the continuously cumulating meta-analytic (CCMA) approach. For example, a CCMA analysis on a replication attempt that does not reach significance might nonetheless provide more, not less, evidence that the effect is real. Alternatively, measures of heterogeneity might show that two studies that differ in whether they are significant might have only trivially different effect sizes. We present a nontechnical introduction to the CCMA framework (referencing relevant software), and then explain how it can be used to address aspects of replicability or more generally to assess quantitative evidence from numerous studies. We then present some examples and simulation results using the CCMA approach that show how the combination of evidence can yield improved results over the consideration of single studies.

  15. Caregivers’ burden in patients with COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miravitlles, Marc; Peña-Longobardo, Luz María; Oliva-Moreno, Juan; Hidalgo-Vega, Álvaro

    2015-01-01

    Objective Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a very prevalent and invalidating disease. The aim of this study was to analyze the burden borne by informal caregivers of patients with COPD. Methods We used the Survey on Disabilities, Personal Autonomy, and Dependency Situations (Encuesta sobre Discapacidad, Autonomía personal y Situaciones de Dependencia [EDAD]-2008) to obtain information on the characteristics of disabled individuals with COPD and their caregivers in Spain. Additionally, statistical multivariate analyses were performed to analyze the impact that an increase in dependence would have on the problems for which caregivers provide support, in terms of health, professional, and leisure/social dimensions. Results A total of 461,884 individuals with one or more disabilities and with COPD were identified, and 220,892 informal caregivers were estimated. Results showed that 35% of informal caregivers had health-related problems due to the caregiving provided; 83% had leisure/social-related problems; and among caregivers of working age, 38% recognized having profession-related problems. The probability of a problem arising was significantly associated with the degree of dependence of the patient receiving care. Caregivers of patients with great dependence showed a 39% higher probability of presenting health-related problems, 27% more professional problems, and 23% more leisure problems compared with those with nondependent patients. Conclusion The results show the large impact on society in terms of the welfare of informal caregivers of patients with COPD. A higher level of dependence was associated with more severe problems in caregivers, in all dimensions. PMID:25709429

  16. Investigating the burden of parasitic zoonotic diseases

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Although the global burden for most parasitic zoonoses is not yet known, it is clear that collectively parasitic zoonoses have a similar human disease burden to any one of the big three human infectious diseases: malaria, tuberculosis or HIV. In addition many also have a substantial animal health and economic burden.

  17. Cumulative Effect of Depression on Dementia Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Olazarán

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze a potential cumulative effect of life-time depression on dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD, with control of vascular factors (VFs. Methods. This study was a subanalysis of the Neurological Disorders in Central Spain (NEDICES study. Past and present depression, VFs, dementia status, and dementia due to AD were documented at study inception. Dementia status was also documented after three years. Four groups were created according to baseline data: never depression (nD, past depression (pD, present depression (prD, and present and past depression (prpD. Logistic regression was used. Results. Data of 1,807 subjects were investigated at baseline (mean age 74.3, 59.3% women, and 1,376 (81.6% subjects were evaluated after three years. The prevalence of dementia at baseline was 6.7%, and dementia incidence was 6.3%. An effect of depression was observed on dementia prevalence (OR [CI 95%] 1.84 [1.01–3.35] for prD and 2.73 [1.08–6.87] for prpD, and on dementia due to AD (OR 1.98 [0.98–3.99] for prD and OR 3.98 [1.48–10.71] for prpD (fully adjusted models, nD as reference. Depression did not influence dementia incidence. Conclusions. Present depression and, particularly, present and past depression are associated with dementia at old age. Multiple mechanisms, including toxic effect of depression on hippocampal neurons, plausibly explain these associations.

  18. Cumulative social disadvantage and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Laurie J; Silver, Ellen J; Stein, Ruth E K

    2006-04-01

    Disparities in child health are a major public health concern. However, it is unclear whether these are predominantly the result of low income, race, or other social risk factors that may contribute to their health disadvantage. Although others have examined the effects of the accumulation of risk factors, this methodology has not been applied to child health. We tested 4 social risk factors (poverty, minority race/ethnicity, low parental education, and not living with both biological parents) to assess whether they have cumulative effects on child health and examined whether access to health care reduced health disparities. We analyzed data on 57,553 children low parental education, and single-parent household) were consistently associated with child health. These were summed, generating the Social Disadvantage Index (range: 0-3). A total of 43.6% of children had no social disadvantages, 30.8% had 1, 15.6% had 2, and 10.0% had all 3. Compared with those with no social disadvantages, the odds ratios (ORs) of being in "good, fair, or poor health" (versus "excellent or very good") were 1.95 for 1 risk, 3.22 for 2 risks, and 4.06 for 3 risks. ORs of having a chronic condition increased from 1.25 (1 risk) to 1.60 (2 risks) to 2.11 (3 risks). ORs for activity limitation were 1.51 (1 risk) to 2.14 (2 risks) and 2.88 (3 risks). Controlling for health insurance did not affect these findings. The accumulation of social disadvantage among children was strongly associated with poorer child health and having insurance did not reduce the observed health disparities.

  19. 45 CFR 672.17 - Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion. 672.17 Section 672.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT AND HEARING PROCEDURES § 672.17 Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion. The...

  20. 40 CFR 305.33 - Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... persuasion. 305.33 Section 305.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Hearing Procedure § 305.33 Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion. The Requestor has the burden of... justified. Accordingly, the Requestor bears the burdens of presentation and persuasion. Following the...

  1. The increasing burden of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lépine J-P

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Pierre Lépine1, Mike Briley21Hôpital Lariboisière Fernand Widal, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris Unité INSERM 705 CNRS UMR 8206, Université Paris Diderot, Paris, France; 2NeuroBiz Consulting and Communication, Castres, FranceAbstract: Recent epidemiological surveys conducted in general populations have found that the lifetime prevalence of depression is in the range of 10% to 15%. Mood disorders, as defined by the World Mental Health and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, have a 12-month prevalence which varies from 3% in Japan to over 9% in the US. A recent American survey found the prevalence of current depression to be 9% and the rate of current major depression to be 3.4%. All studies of depressive disorders have stressed the importance of the mortality and morbidity associated with depression. The mortality risk for suicide in depressed patients is more than 20-fold greater than in the general population. Recent studies have also shown the importance of depression as a risk factor for cardiovascular death. The risk of cardiac mortality after an initial myocardial infarction is greater in patients with depression and related to the severity of the depressive episode. Greater severity of depressive symptoms has been found to be associated with significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality including cardiovascular death and stroke. In addition to mortality, functional impairment and disability associated with depression have been consistently reported. Depression increases the risk of decreased workplace productivity and absenteeism resulting in lowered income or unemployment. Absenteeism and presenteeism (being physically present at work but functioning suboptimally have been estimated to result in a loss of $36.6 billion per year in the US. Worldwide projections by the World Health Organization for the year 2030 identify unipolar major depression as the leading cause of disease burden

  2. Joint audits - benefit or burden?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus; Thinggaard, Frank

    In this paper we examine whether there are perceived and observed benefits or burdens from using two audit firms instead of one. In 2005 the mandatory joint audit requirement was abolished in Denmark. This provides a unique setting for studying the consequences and implications of going from...... a joint audit regime to a single auditor/voluntary joint audit regime. The dataset used in this paper has been collected for the full population of non-financial Danish companies listed on the Copenhagen Stock Exchange (CSE) in the years 2004 and 2005. We find that a majority of firms perceive joint...

  3. A Framework for Treating Cumulative Trauma with Art Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naff, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Cumulative trauma is relatively undocumented in art therapy practice, although there is growing evidence that art therapy provides distinct benefits for resolving various traumas. This qualitative study proposes an art therapy treatment framework for cumulative trauma derived from semi-structured interviews with three art therapists and artistic…

  4. Cumulative Effects of Human Activities on Marine Mammal Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Cumulative Effects of Human Activities on Marine Mammal ...marine mammals . OBJECTIVES The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine has convened a volunteer committee that will...Review the present scientific understanding of cumulative effects of anthropogenic stressors on marine mammals with a focus on anthropogenic sound

  5. A Framework for Treating Cumulative Trauma with Art Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naff, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Cumulative trauma is relatively undocumented in art therapy practice, although there is growing evidence that art therapy provides distinct benefits for resolving various traumas. This qualitative study proposes an art therapy treatment framework for cumulative trauma derived from semi-structured interviews with three art therapists and artistic…

  6. Cumulative Estrogen Exposure and Prospective Memory in Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesson, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    This study looked at cumulative lifetime estrogen exposure, as estimated with a mathematical index (Index of Cumulative Estrogen Exposure (ICEE)) that included variables (length of time on estrogen therapy, age at menarche and menopause, postmenopausal body mass index, time since menopause, nulliparity and duration of breastfeeding) known to…

  7. Lattice QCD results on cumulant ratios at freeze-out

    CERN Document Server

    Karsch, Frithjof

    2016-01-01

    Ratios of cumulants of net proton-number fluctuations measured by the STAR Collaboration show strong deviations from a skellam distribution, which should describe thermal properties of cumulant ratios, if proton-number fluctuations are generated in equilibrium and a hadron resonance gas (HRG) model would provide a suitable description of thermodynamics at the freeze-out temperature. We present some results on sixth order cumulants entering the calculation of the QCD equation of state at non-zero values of the baryon chemical potential (mu_B) and discuss limitations on the applicability of HRG thermodynamics deduced from a comparison between QCD and HRG model calculations of cumulants of conserved charge fluctuations. We show that basic features of the $\\mu_B$-dependence of skewness and kurtosis ratios of net proton-number fluctuations measured by the STAR Collaboration resemble those expected from a O(mu_B^2) QCD calculation of the corresponding net baryon-number cumulant ratios.

  8. A new family of cumulative indexes for measuring scientific performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Kozak

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a new family of cumulative indexes for measuring scientific performance which can be applied to many metrics, including h index and its variants (here we apply it to the h index, h(2 index and Google Scholar's i10 index. These indexes follow the general principle of repeating the index calculation for the same publication set. Using bibliometric data and reviewer scores for accepted and rejected fellowship applicants we examine how valid the cumulative variant is compared to the original variant. These analyses showed that the cumulative indexes result in higher correlations with the reviewer scores than their original variants. Thus, the cumulative indexes better reflect the assessments by peers than the original variants and are useful extensions of the original indexes. In contrast to many other measures of scientific performance proposed up to now, the cumulative indexes seem not only to be effective, but they are also easy to understand and calculate.

  9. The cumulative effect of smoking at age 50, 60, and 70 on functional ability at age 75

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støvring, Nina; Avlund, Kirsten; Schultz-Larsen, Kirsten

    2004-01-01

    AIMS: As elderly people form a steadily growing part of the population in most parts of the world we are in need of knowledge of the influence of modifiable lifestyle factors on functional ability late in life. This study aims to examine the cumulative impact of smoking from age 50 to 70...... on functional ability at age 75. METHODS: 387 men and women born in 1914 and living in seven municipalities in the western part of the County of Copenhagen were followed for 25 years with examinations in 1964, 1974, 1984, and 1989. Associations between smoking and functional ability were examined using multiple...... logistic regression analyses with cumulative smoking as determinant and physical activity, sex, basic school education, and household composition as possible confounders. RESULTS: There is an adverse relation between smoking and functional ability regardless of the time of examination or the ways...

  10. A bivariate optimal replacement policy with cumulative repair cost limit under cumulative damage model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MIN-T SAI LAI; SHIH-CHIH CHEN

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a bivariate replacement policy (n, T) for a cumulative shock damage process is presented that included the concept of cumulative repair cost limit. The arrival shocks can be divided into two kinds of shocks. Each type-I shock causes a random amount of damage and these damages are additive. When the total damage exceeds a failure level, the system goes into serious failure. Type-II shock causes the system into minor failure and such a failure can be corrected by minimal repair. When a minor failure occurs, the repaircost will be evaluated and minimal repair is executed if the accumulated repair cost is less than a predetermined limit L. The system is replaced at scheduled time T, at n-th minor failure, or at serious failure. The long-term expected cost per unit time is derived using the expected costs as the optimality criterion. The minimum-cost policy is derived, and existence and uniqueness of the optimal n* and T* are proved. This bivariate optimal replacement policy (n, T) is showed to be better than the optimal T* and the optimal n* policy.

  11. Longhi Games, Internal Reservoirs, and Cumulate Porosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, S. A.

    2009-05-01

    Fe in plagioclase at an early age, T-rollers (or not) on the Di-Trid boundary in Fo-Di-Sil, the mantle solidus, origins of anorthosites, esoteric uses of Schreinemakers rules and many more topics are all fresh and pleasant memories of John Longhi's prolific and creative work. The Fram-Longhi experimental effect of pressure on plagioclase partitioning with liquid in mafic rocks became essential to an understanding of multiphase Rayleigh fractionation of plagioclase in big layered intrusions. Only by using the pressure effect could I find a good equation through the data for the Kiglapait intrusion, and that result among others required the existence with probability 1.0 of an internal reservoir (Morse, JPet 2008). Knowledge of cumulate porosity is a crucial key to the understanding of layered igneous rocks. We seek both the initial (inverse packing fraction) and residual porosity to find the time and process path from sedimentation to solidification. In the Kiglapait Lower Zone we have a robust estimate of mean residual porosity from the modes of the excluded phases augite, oxides, sulfide, and apatite. To this we apply the maximum variance of plagioclase composition (the An range) to find an algorithm that extends through the Upper Zone and to other intrusions. Of great importance is that all these measurements were made in grain mounts concentrated from typically about 200 g of core or hand specimen, hence the represented sample volume is thousands of times greater than for a thin section. The resulting distribution and scatter of the An range is novel and remarkable. It is V-shaped in the logarithmic representation of stratigraphic height, running from about 20 mole % at both ends (base to top of the Layered Series) to near-zero at 99 PCS. The intercept of the porosity-An range relation gives An range = 3.5 % at zero residual porosity. Petrographic analysis reveals that for PCS less than 95 and greater than 99.9, the An range is intrinsic, i.e. pre-cumulus, for

  12. Emerging food-borne parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorny, P; Praet, N; Deckers, N; Gabriel, S

    2009-08-07

    Parasitic food-borne diseases are generally underrecognised, however they are becoming more common. Globalization of the food supply, increased international travel, increase of the population of highly susceptible persons, change in culinary habits, but also improved diagnostic tools and communication are some factors associated with the increased diagnosis of food-borne parasitic diseases worldwide. This paper reviews the most important emerging food-borne parasites, with emphasis on transmission routes. In a first part, waterborne parasites transmitted by contaminated food such as Cyclospora cayetanensis, Cryptosporidium and Giardia are discussed. Also human fasciolosis, of which the importance has only been recognised in the last decades, with total numbers of reported cases increasing from less than 3000 to 17 million, is looked at. Furthermore, fasciolopsiosis, an intestinal trematode of humans and pigs belongs to the waterborne parasites as well. A few parasites that may be transmitted through faecal contamination of foods and that have received renewed attention, such as Toxoplasma gondii, or that are (re-)emerging, such as Trypanosoma cruzi and Echinococcus spp., are briefly reviewed. In a second part, meat-borne parasite infections are reviewed. Humans get infected by eating raw or undercooked meat infected with cyst stages of these parasites. Meat inspection is the principal method applied in the control of Taenia spp. and Trichinella spp. However, it is often not very sensitive, frequently not practised, and not done for T. gondii and Sarcocystis spp. Meat of reptiles, amphibians and fish can be infected with a variety of parasites, including trematodes (Opisthorchis spp., Clonorchis sinensis, minute intestinal flukes), cestodes (Diphyllobothrium spp., Spirometra), nematodes (Gnathostoma, spp., anisakine parasites), and pentastomids that can cause zoonotic infections in humans when consumed raw or not properly cooked. Another important zoonotic food-borne

  13. Burden and nutritional deficiencies in opiate addiction- systematic review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabipour, Sepideh; Ayu Said, Mas; Hussain Habil, Mohd

    2014-08-01

    Addiction to the illicit and prescribed use of opiate is an alarming public health issue. Studies on addictive disorders have demonstrated severe nutritional deficiencies in opiate abusers with behavioral, physiological and cognitive symptoms. Opiate addiction is also link with a significant number of diseases including Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and other blood borne diseases generally stem from the use of needles to inject heroin. The use of medication assisted treatment for opioid addicts in combination with behavioural therapies has been considered as a highly effective treatment. Methadone is a long-lasting μ-opioid agonist and a pharmacological tool which attenuates withdrawal symptoms effectively replacement therapies. This review article aims to explain opiate addiction mechanisms, epidemiology and disease burden with emphasis on dietary and nutritional status of opiate dependent patients in methadone maintenance therapy.

  14. Burden and nutritional deficiencies in opiate addiction- systematic review article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Nabipour

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Addiction to the illicit and prescribed use of opiate is an alarming public health issue. Studies on addictive disorders have demonstrated severe nutritional deficiencies in opiate abusers with behavioral, physiological and cognitive symptoms. Opiate addiction is also link with a significant number of diseases including Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV, Hepatitis C Virus (HCV and other blood borne diseases generally stem from the use of needles to inject heroin. The use of medication assisted treatment for opioid addicts in combination with behavioural therapies has been considered as a highly effective treatment. Methadone is a long-lasting μ-opioid agonist and a pharmacological tool which attenuates withdrawal symptoms effectively replacement therapies. This review article aims to explain opiate addiction mechanisms, epidemiology and disease burden with emphasis on dietary and nutritional status of opiate dependent patients in methadone maintenance therapy.

  15. Cumulative stress and autonomic dysregulation in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Rachel; Tuit, Keri; Hong, Kwang-Ik; Donovan, Theresa; Lee, Forrester; Sinha, Rajita

    2016-05-01

    Whether cumulative stress, including both chronic stress and adverse life events, is associated with decreased heart rate variability (HRV), a non-invasive measure of autonomic status which predicts poor cardiovascular outcomes, is unknown. Healthy community dwelling volunteers (N = 157, mean age 29 years) participated in the Cumulative Stress/Adversity Interview (CAI), a 140-item event interview measuring cumulative adversity including major life events, life trauma, recent life events and chronic stressors, and underwent 24-h ambulatory ECG monitoring. HRV was analyzed in the frequency domain and standard deviation of NN intervals (SDNN) calculated. Initial simple regression analyses revealed that total cumulative stress score, chronic stressors and cumulative adverse life events (CALE) were all inversely associated with ultra low-frequency (ULF), very low-frequency (VLF) and low-frequency (LF) power and SDNN (all p stress and chronic stress each was significantly associated with SDNN and ULF even after the highly significant contributions of age and sex, with no other covariates accounting for additional appreciable variance. For VLF and LF, both total cumulative stress and chronic stress significantly contributed to the variance alone but were not longer significant after adjusting for race and health behaviors. In summary, total cumulative stress, and its components of adverse life events and chronic stress were associated with decreased cardiac autonomic function as measured by HRV. Findings suggest one potential mechanism by which stress may exert adverse effects on mortality in healthy individuals. Primary preventive strategies including stress management may prove beneficial.

  16. Born Reciprocity and Cosmic Accelerations

    CERN Document Server

    Bolognesi, S

    2015-01-01

    The trans-Planckian theory is a model that realizes concretely the Born reciprocity idea, which is the postulate of absolute equivalence between coordinate $x$ and momenta $p$. This model is intrinsically global, and thus it is naturally implemented in a cosmological setting. Cosmology and Born reciprocity are made for each other. Inflation provides the essential mechanism to suppress the terms coming from the dual part of the action. The trans-Planckian theory, on the other hand, provides an explanation for the accelerated periods of the universe scale factor, both the inflationary period and the present period dominated by dark energy. All of this is possible just considering a simple model that contains gravity, one gauge field plus one matter field (to be identified with dark matter) together with the reciprocity principle.

  17. Burden of stroke in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Keat Wei; Gan, Siew Hua

    2012-02-01

    Stroke is one of the top five leading causes of death and one of the top 10 causes for hospitalization in Malaysia. Stroke is also in the top five diseases with the greatest burden of disease, based on disability-adjusted life years. However, prospective studies on stroke in Malaysia are limited. To date, neither the prevalence of stroke nor its incidence nationally has been recorded. Hypertension is the major risk factor for stroke. The mean age of stroke patients in Malaysia is between 54.5 and 62.6 years. Traditional medicine is commonly practiced. With the increasing number of stroke cases annually, more government and nongovernment organizations should be involved in primary and secondary prevention strategies.

  18. Obesity associated noncommunicable disease burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Bala Banjare

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available World is facing rapid transition in health sector for under nutrition and over nutrition. Obesity is a challenging epidemic and increased Body Mass Index (BMI influences on almost all body systems leading to development of non-communicable diseases. Chronic but slow growing non-infectious pathology of body organization give upsurge onset of non-communicable disorders. Obesity related Non-communicable diseases (NCDs leads to millions of deaths all around the world, rapidly becoming economic burden worldwide. Pathophysiology and extend of obesity is responsible for ill effects of health. In obesity Low grade Inflammation and antioxidant disproportion plays vital role in development of NCDs. Effective health education, professional counselling from public health authorities, free health care, and social insurance can be effective in controlling growing non communicable disease globally. The present analysis attempts to study association of obesity with different NCDs in terms of prevalence and underlying mechanisms.

  19. Evaluation of Burden Descent Model for Burden Distribution in Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping ZHOU; Peng-yu SHI; Yan-po SONG; Kai-le TANG; Dong FU; Chenn QZHOU

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical models for burden descending process have been applied to obtain whole burden structures in blast furnace,whereas the accuracy of those burden descent models has not been sufficiently investigated.Special evaluation method based on timeline burden profiles was established to quantitatively evaluate the error between ex-perimental and modeled burden structures.Four existing burden descent models were utilized to describe the burden structure of a 1/20 scaled warm blast furnace.Input modeling conditions including initial burden profile,descending volumes in each time interval,and normalized descending velocity distribution were determined via special image pro-cessing technology.Modeled burden structures were evaluated combined with the published experimental data.It is found that all the models caught the main profile of the burden structure.Furthermore,the improved nonuniform de-scent model (Model IV)shows the highest level of precision especially when burden descends with unstable velocity distribution tendency.Meanwhile,the traditional nonuniform descent model (Model III)may also be desirable to model the burden descending process when the burden descending velocity presents a linear tendency.Finally,the uni-form descent model (Model I)might be the first option for roughly predicting burden structure.

  20. The global burden of cholera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Anna Lena; You, Young Ae; Kim, Young Eun; Sah, Binod; Maskery, Brian; Clemens, John

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the global burden of cholera using population-based incidence data and reports. Methods Countries with a recent history of cholera were classified as endemic or non-endemic, depending on whether they had reported cholera cases in at least three of the five most recent years. The percentages of the population in each country that lacked access to improved sanitation were used to compute the populations at risk for cholera, and incidence rates from published studies were applied to groups of countries to estimate the annual number of cholera cases in endemic countries. The estimates of cholera cases in non-endemic countries were based on the average numbers of cases reported from 2000 to 2008. Literature-based estimates of cholera case-fatality rates (CFRs) were used to compute the variance-weighted average cholera CFRs for estimating the number of cholera deaths. Findings About 1.4 billion people are at risk for cholera in endemic countries. An estimated 2.8 million cholera cases occur annually in such countries (uncertainty range: 1.4–4.3) and an estimated 87 000 cholera cases occur in non-endemic countries. The incidence is estimated to be greatest in children less than 5 years of age. Every year about 91 000 people (uncertainty range: 28 000 to 142 000) die of cholera in endemic countries and 2500 people die of the disease in non-endemic countries. Conclusion The global burden of cholera, as determined through a systematic review with clearly stated assumptions, is high. The findings of this study provide a contemporary basis for planning public health interventions to control cholera. PMID:22461716

  1. The global burden of cholera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad; Lopez, Anna Lena; You, Young Ae; Kim, Young Eun; Sah, Binod; Maskery, Brian; Clemens, John

    2012-03-01

    To estimate the global burden of cholera using population-based incidence data and reports. Countries with a recent history of cholera were classified as endemic or non-endemic, depending on whether they had reported cholera cases in at least three of the five most recent years. The percentages of the population in each country that lacked access to improved sanitation were used to compute the populations at risk for cholera, and incidence rates from published studies were applied to groups of countries to estimate the annual number of cholera cases in endemic countries. The estimates of cholera cases in non-endemic countries were based on the average numbers of cases reported from 2000 to 2008. Literature-based estimates of cholera case-fatality rates (CFRs) were used to compute the variance-weighted average cholera CFRs for estimating the number of cholera deaths. About 1.4 billion people are at risk for cholera in endemic countries. An estimated 2.8 million cholera cases occur annually in such countries (uncertainty range: 1.4-4.3) and an estimated 87,000 cholera cases occur in non-endemic countries. The incidence is estimated to be greatest in children less than 5 years of age. Every year about 91,000 people (uncertainty range: 28,000 to 142,000) die of cholera in endemic countries and 2500 people die of the disease in non-endemic countries. The global burden of cholera, as determined through a systematic review with clearly stated assumptions, is high. The findings of this study provide a contemporary basis for planning public health interventions to control cholera.

  2. Brand Building of Born Globals

    OpenAIRE

    Cederäng, Jesper; Norberg, Markus

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this thesis was to increase the understanding of two early internationalizing firms (Born Globals) brand building efforts. By performing case studies on these companies we wished to discover similarities and differences in their marketing efforts. The companies that we studied were CTEK Sweden AB, a battery charger manufacturer and POC Sweden AB, who designs advanced protective gear for the alpine ski market. The theoretical framework was divided according to the four ...

  3. Entanglement entropy and particle number cumulants of disordered fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmistrov, I. S.; Tikhonov, K. S.; Gornyi, I. V.; Mirlin, A. D.

    2017-08-01

    We study the entanglement entropy and particle number cumulants for a system of disordered noninteracting fermions in d dimensions. We show, both analytically and numerically, that for a weak disorder the entanglement entropy and the second cumulant (particle number variance) are proportional to each other with a universal coefficient. The corresponding expressions are analogous to those in the clean case but with a logarithmic factor regularized by the mean free path rather than by the system size. We also determine the scaling of higher cumulants by analytical (weak disorder) and numerical means. Finally, we predict that the particle number variance and the entanglement entropy are nonanalytic functions of disorder at the Anderson transition.

  4. World Health Organization Global Estimates and Regional Comparisons of the Burden of Foodborne Disease in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelaar, Arie H; Kirk, Martyn D; Torgerson, Paul R; Gibb, Herman J; Hald, Tine; Lake, Robin J; Praet, Nicolas; Bellinger, David C; de Silva, Nilanthi R; Gargouri, Neyla; Speybroeck, Niko; Cawthorne, Amy; Mathers, Colin; Stein, Claudia; Angulo, Frederick J; Devleesschauwer, Brecht

    2015-12-01

    Illness and death from diseases caused by contaminated food are a constant threat to public health and a significant impediment to socio-economic development worldwide. To measure the global and regional burden of foodborne disease (FBD), the World Health Organization (WHO) established the Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG), which here reports their first estimates of the incidence, mortality, and disease burden due to 31 foodborne hazards. We find that the global burden of FBD is comparable to those of the major infectious diseases, HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis. The most frequent causes of foodborne illness were diarrheal disease agents, particularly norovirus and Campylobacter spp. Diarrheal disease agents, especially non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica, were also responsible for the majority of deaths due to FBD. Other major causes of FBD deaths were Salmonella Typhi, Taenia solium and hepatitis A virus. The global burden of FBD caused by the 31 hazards in 2010 was 33 million Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs); children under five years old bore 40% of this burden. The 14 subregions, defined on the basis of child and adult mortality, had considerably different burdens of FBD, with the greatest falling on the subregions in Africa, followed by the subregions in South-East Asia and the Eastern Mediterranean D subregion. Some hazards, such as non-typhoidal S. enterica, were important causes of FBD in all regions of the world, whereas others, such as certain parasitic helminths, were highly localised. Thus, the burden of FBD is borne particularly by children under five years old-although they represent only 9% of the global population-and people living in low-income regions of the world. These estimates are conservative, i.e., underestimates rather than overestimates; further studies are needed to address the data gaps and limitations of the study. Nevertheless, all stakeholders can contribute to improvements in food safety

  5. Online Scheduling in Manufacturing A Cumulative Delay Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Suwa, Haruhiko

    2013-01-01

    Online scheduling is recognized as the crucial decision-making process of production control at a phase of “being in production" according to the released shop floor schedule. Online scheduling can be also considered as one of key enablers to realize prompt capable-to-promise as well as available-to-promise to customers along with reducing production lead times under recent globalized competitive markets. Online Scheduling in Manufacturing introduces new approaches to online scheduling based on a concept of cumulative delay. The cumulative delay is regarded as consolidated information of uncertainties under a dynamic environment in manufacturing and can be collected constantly without much effort at any points in time during a schedule execution. In this approach, the cumulative delay of the schedule has the important role of a criterion for making a decision whether or not a schedule revision is carried out. The cumulative delay approach to trigger schedule revisions has the following capabilities for the ...

  6. Cumulative Risks of Foster Care Placement for Danish Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallesen, Peter; Emanuel, Natalia; Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Although recent research suggests that the cumulative risk of foster care placement is far higher for American children than originally suspected, little is known about the cumulative risk of foster care placement in other countries, which makes it difficult to gauge the degree to which factor...... is for Danish children. Results suggest that at the beginning of the study period (in 1998) the cumulative risk of foster care placement for Danish children was roughly in line with the risk for American children. Yet, by the end of the study period (2010), the risk had declined to half the risk for American...... foster care placement is salient in other contexts. In this article, we provide companion estimates to those provided in recent work on the US by using Danish registry data and synthetic cohort life tables to show how high and unequally distributed the cumulative risk of foster care placement...

  7. Mapping cumulative human impacts in the eastern North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stock, A.; Andersen, Jesper; Heinänen, S.

    of the MSFD; and 3) to deepen the understanding of how errors in expert judgment affect the resulting cumulative human impact maps by means of Monte Carlo simulations. We combined existing data sets on the spatial distribution of 33 anthropogenic stressors (linked to the MSFD pressures) and 28 key habitats....... In contrast, the predicted impacts for much of the Norwegian EEZ and areas far offshore were lower. The Monte Carlo simulations confirmed earlier findings that mapping cumulative impacts is generally "robust", but also showed that specific combinations of errors can seriously change local and regional...... on marine ecosystems have only recently been developed. The aims of our study were: 1) to develop a map of cumulative human impacts for the Danish, Swedish, Norwegian and German parts of the Greater North Sea; 2) to adjust the existing methods for mapping cumulative human impacts to fit the requirements...

  8. Cumulative Production Per Township - SaMiRa

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset contains a selected township grid within the Sagebrush Mineral Resource Assessment project (SaMiRa) study area attributed with cumulative oil and gas...

  9. Cumulative radiation exposure in children with cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Reilly, R

    2010-02-01

    This retrospective study calculated the cumulative radiation dose for children with cystic fibrosis (CF) attending a tertiary CF centre. Information on 77 children with a mean age of 9.5 years, a follow up time of 658 person years and 1757 studies including 1485 chest radiographs, 215 abdominal radiographs and 57 computed tomography (CT) scans, of which 51 were thoracic CT scans, were analysed. The average cumulative radiation dose was 6.2 (0.04-25) mSv per CF patient. Cumulative radiation dose increased with increasing age and number of CT scans and was greater in children who presented with meconium ileus. No correlation was identified between cumulative radiation dose and either lung function or patient microbiology cultures. Radiation carries a risk of malignancy and children are particularly susceptible. Every effort must be made to avoid unnecessary radiation exposure in these patients whose life expectancy is increasing.

  10. Macroscopic cumulative fatigue damage of material under nonsymmetrical cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盖秉政

    2002-01-01

    Hashin's macroscopic theory of fatigue damage is further discussed and a new method has been proposed for prediction of cumulative fatigue damage of material and its lifetime under nonsymmetrical cyclic loading.

  11. Translation-Invariant Representation for Cumulative Foot Pressure Images

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Shuai; Tan, Tieniu

    2010-01-01

    Human can be distinguished by different limb movements and unique ground reaction force. Cumulative foot pressure image is a 2-D cumulative ground reaction force during one gait cycle. Although it contains pressure spatial distribution information and pressure temporal distribution information, it suffers from several problems including different shoes and noise, when putting it into practice as a new biometric for pedestrian identification. In this paper, we propose a hierarchical translation-invariant representation for cumulative foot pressure images, inspired by the success of Convolutional deep belief network for digital classification. Key contribution in our approach is discriminative hierarchical sparse coding scheme which helps to learn useful discriminative high-level visual features. Based on the feature representation of cumulative foot pressure images, we develop a pedestrian recognition system which is invariant to three different shoes and slight local shape change. Experiments are conducted on...

  12. Born too soon: accelerating actions for prevention and care of 15 million newborns born too soon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawn, Joy E; Kinney, Mary V; Belizan, José M; Mason, Elizabeth Mary; McDougall, Lori; Larson, Jim; Lackritz, Eve; Friberg, Ingrid K; Howson, Christopher P

    2013-01-01

    Preterm birth complication is the leading cause of neonatal death resulting in over one million deaths each year of the 15 million babies born preterm. To accelerate change, we provide an overview of the comprehensive strategy required, the tools available for context-specifi c health system implementation now, and the priorities for research and innovation. There is an urgent need for action on a dual track: (1) through strategic research to advance the prevention of preterm birth and (2) improved implementation and innovation for care of the premature neonate. We highlight evidence-based interventions along the continuum of care, noting gaps in coverage, quality, equity and implications for integration and scale up. Improved metrics are critical for both burden and tracking programmatic change. Linked to the United Nation’s Every Women Every Child strategy, a target was set for 50% reduction in preterm deaths by 2025. Three analyses informed this target: historical change in high income countries, recent progress in best performing countries, and modelling of mortality reduction with high coverage of existing interventions. If universal coverage of selected interventions were to be achieved, then 84% or more than 921,000 preterm neonatal deaths could be prevented annually, with antenatal corticosteroids and Kangaroo Mother Care having the highest impact. Everyone has a role to play in reaching this target including government leaders, professionals, private sector, and of course families who are aff ected the most and whose voices have been critical for change in many of the countries with the most progress.

  13. Some Characterization Results on Dynamic Cumulative Residual Tsallis Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madan Mohan Sati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a generalized cumulative residual information measure based on Tsallis entropy and its dynamic version. We study the characterizations of the proposed information measure and define new classes of life distributions based on this measure. Some applications are provided in relation to weighted and equilibrium probability models. Finally the empirical cumulative Tsallis entropy is proposed to estimate the new information measure.

  14. Steps and pips in the history of the cumulative recorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Lattal, Kennon A.

    2004-01-01

    From its inception in the 1930s until very recent times, the cumulative recorder was the most widely used measurement instrument in the experimental analysis of behavior. It was an essential instrument in the discovery and analysis of schedules of reinforcement, providing the first real-time analysis of operant response rates and patterns. This review traces the evolution of the cumulative recorder from Skinner's early modified kymographs through various models developed by Skinner and his co...

  15. Resonant-state expansion Born Approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Doost, M B

    2015-01-01

    The Born Approximation is a fundamental formula in Physics, it allows the calculation of weak scattering via the Fourier transform of the scattering potential. I extend the Born Approximation by including in the formula the Fourier transform of a truncated basis of the infinite number of appropriately normalised resonant states. This extension of the Born Approximation is named the Resonant-State Expansion Born Approximation or RSE Born Approximation. The resonant-states of the system can be calculated using the recently discovered RSE perturbation theory for electrodynamics and normalised correctly to appear in spectral Green's functions via the flux volume normalisation.

  16. Childhood Cumulative Risk Exposure and Adult Amygdala Volume and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gary W; Swain, James E; King, Anthony P; Wang, Xin; Javanbakht, Arash; Ho, S Shaun; Angstadt, Michael; Phan, K Luan; Xie, Hong; Liberzon, Israel

    2016-06-01

    Considerable work indicates that early cumulative risk exposure is aversive to human development, but very little research has examined the neurological underpinnings of these robust findings. This study investigates amygdala volume and reactivity to facial stimuli among adults (mean 23.7 years of age, n = 54) as a function of cumulative risk exposure during childhood (9 and 13 years of age). In addition, we test to determine whether expected cumulative risk elevations in amygdala volume would mediate functional reactivity of the amygdala during socioemotional processing. Risks included substandard housing quality, noise, crowding, family turmoil, child separation from family, and violence. Total and left hemisphere adult amygdala volumes were positively related to cumulative risk exposure during childhood. The links between childhood cumulative risk exposure and elevated amygdala responses to emotionally neutral facial stimuli in adulthood were mediated by the corresponding amygdala volumes. Cumulative risk exposure in later adolescence (17 years of age), however, was unrelated to subsequent adult amygdala volume or function. Physical and socioemotional risk exposures early in life appear to alter amygdala development, rendering adults more reactive to ambiguous stimuli such as neutral faces. These stress-related differences in childhood amygdala development might contribute to the well-documented psychological distress as a function of early risk exposure.

  17. The global burden of melanoma: Results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Karimkhani (Chante); A. Green (A.); T.E.C. Nijsten (Tamar); Weinstock, M.A.; R.P. Dellavalle (Robert P.); M. Naghavi (Morteza); Fitzmaurice, C.

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Despite recent improvements in prevention, diagnosis and treatment, vast differences in melanoma burden still exist between populations. Comparative data can highlight these differences and lead to focused efforts to reduce the burden of melanoma. Objectives: To assess

  18. Neuropsychiatric Burden in Huntington's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Ricardo Augusto; Botturi, Andrea; Ciammola, Andrea; Silani, Vincenzo; Prunas, Cecilia; Lucchiari, Claudio; Zugno, Elisa; Caletti, Elisabetta

    2017-06-16

    Huntington's disease is a disorder that results in motor, cognitive, and psychiatric problems. The symptoms often take different forms and the presence of disturbances of the psychic sphere reduces patients' autonomy and quality of life, also impacting patients' social life. It is estimated that a prevalence between 33% and 76% of the main psychiatric syndromes may arise in different phases of the disease, often in atypical form, even 20 years before the onset of chorea and dementia. We present a narrative review of the literature describing the main psychopathological patterns that may be found in Huntington's disease, searching for a related article in the main database sources (Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge, Scopus, and Medscape). Psychiatric conditions were classified into two main categories: affective and nonaffective disorders/symptoms; and anxiety and neuropsychiatric features such as apathy and irritability. Though the literature is extensive, it is not always convergent, probably due to the high heterogeneity of methods used. We summarize main papers for pathology and sample size, in order to present a synoptic vision of the argument. Since the association between Huntington's disease and psychiatric symptoms was demonstrated, we argue that the prevalent and more invalidating psychiatric components should be recognized as early as possible during the disease course in order to best address psychopharmacological therapy, improve quality of life, and also reduce burden on caregivers.

  19. Detection of Water Borne Protozoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Enemark, Heidi L.; Kurtzhals, J.A.L.

    Protozoa of several species play a key role in water borne outbreaks of diarrhea worldwide. Identification of such protozoa depends mainly on parasite detection. However, water contains several hundreds of thousands of microorganisms belonging to different taxa. The exact identification...... of pathogenic protozoa relies on selective isolation and detection that is conducted by experienced technicians. Advanced techniques such as immuno-fluorescent dyes, polymerase chain reaction, and many other techniques, may be used for species-specific identification of pathogenic protozoa. Each diagnostic...... parasitic protozoa from other organisms in the aquatic environment....

  20. Guardians of New-Borns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    WITH 38 years of history, the Beijing Maternity Hospital gained fame as the birthplace of one-fifth of all Beijingers in the 1960s. Today, some 5,000 babies are born here each year. As Beijing’s oldest hospital specializing in gynaecology and obstetrics treatment and research, the Beijing Maternity Hospital ranks top among all maternity hospitals in China. Chen Wenshan. 52. oversees 272 nurses working at BMH. A vigorous and extremely strict woman. Chen is both respected and feared by the nurses on her staff. As the director of the Nursing

  1. Detection of Water Borne Protozoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Enemark, Heidi L.; Kurtzhals, J.A.L.

    Protozoa of several species play a key role in water borne outbreaks of diarrhea worldwide. Identification of such protozoa depends mainly on parasite detection. However, water contains several hundreds of thousands of microorganisms belonging to different taxa. The exact identification...... of pathogenic protozoa relies on selective isolation and detection that is conducted by experienced technicians. Advanced techniques such as immuno-fluorescent dyes, polymerase chain reaction, and many other techniques, may be used for species-specific identification of pathogenic protozoa. Each diagnostic...... parasitic protozoa from other organisms in the aquatic environment....

  2. Formalising arguments about the burden of persuasion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prakken, H.; Sartor, G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an argument-based logic for reasoning about allocations of the burden of persuasion. The logic extends the system of Prakken (2001), which in turn modified the system of Prakken & Sartor (1996) with the possibility to distribute the burden of proof over both sides in an argument

  3. 40 CFR 179.91 - Burden of going forward; burden of persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... persuasion. 179.91 Section 179.91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...; burden of persuasion. (a) The party whose request for an evidentiary hearing was granted has the burden... FFDCA has the burden of persuasion in the hearing on that issue, whether the proceeding concerns the...

  4. 40 CFR 22.24 - Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion; preponderance of the evidence standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... persuasion; preponderance of the evidence standard. 22.24 Section 22.24 Protection of Environment... Burden of presentation; burden of persuasion; preponderance of the evidence standard. (a) The complainant has the burdens of presentation and persuasion that the violation occurred as set forth in the...

  5. The global burden of dengue: an analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D. Stanaway (Jeffrey D.); D.S. Shepard (Donald); E.A. Undurraga (Eduardo); Halasa, Y.A. (Yara A); L.E. Coffeng (Luc); Brady, O.J. (Oliver J); Hay, S.I. (Simon I); Bedi, N. (Neeraj); I.M. Bensenor (Isabela M.); C.A. Castañeda-Orjuela (Carlos A); T.-W. Chuang (Ting-Wu); K.B. Gibney (Katherine B); Z.A. Memish (Ziad); A. Rafay (Anwar); K.N. Ukwaja (Kingsley N); N. Yonemoto (Naohiro); C.J.L. Murray (Christopher)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground Dengue is the most common arbovirus infection globally, but its burden is poorly quantified. We estimated dengue mortality, incidence, and burden for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Methods We modelled mortality from vital registration, verbal autopsy, and surveillanc

  6. The global burden of dengue: an analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D. Stanaway (Jeffrey D.); D.S. Shepard (Donald); E.A. Undurraga (Eduardo); Halasa, Y.A. (Yara A); L.E. Coffeng (Luc); Brady, O.J. (Oliver J); Hay, S.I. (Simon I); Bedi, N. (Neeraj); I.M. Bensenor (Isabela M.); C.A. Castañeda-Orjuela (Carlos A); T.-W. Chuang (Ting-Wu); K.B. Gibney (Katherine B); Z.A. Memish (Ziad); A. Rafay (Anwar); K.N. Ukwaja (Kingsley N); N. Yonemoto (Naohiro); C.J.L. Murray (Christopher)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground Dengue is the most common arbovirus infection globally, but its burden is poorly quantified. We estimated dengue mortality, incidence, and burden for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Methods We modelled mortality from vital registration, verbal autopsy, and

  7. Wolbachia and the biological control of mosquito-borne disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturbe-Ormaetxe, Iñaki; Walker, Thomas; O' Neill, Scott L

    2011-06-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue fever and filariasis cause an enormous health burden to people living in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Despite years of intense effort to control them, many of these diseases are increasing in prevalence, geographical distribution and severity, and options to control them are limited. The transinfection of mosquitos with the maternally inherited, endosymbiotic bacteria Wolbachia is a promising new biocontrol approach. Fruit fly Wolbachia strains can invade and sustain themselves in mosquito populations, reduce adult lifespan, affect mosquito reproduction and interfere with pathogen replication. Wolbachia-infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes have been released in areas of Australia in which outbreaks of dengue fever occur, as a prelude to the application of this technology in dengue-endemic areas of south-east Asia.

  8. We have "born digital" - now what about "born semantic"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadbetter, Adam; Fredericks, Janet

    2014-05-01

    The phrase "born-digital" refers to those materials which originate in a digital form. In Earth and Space Sciences, this is now very much the norm for data: analogue to digital converters sit on instrument boards and produce a digital record of the observed environment. While much effort has been put in to creating and curating these digital data, there has been little work on using semantic mark up of data from the point of collection - what we term 'born semantic'. In this presentation we report on two efforts to expand this area: Qartod-to-OGC (Q2O) and SenseOCEAN. These projects have taken a common approach to 'born semantic': create or reuse appropriate controlled vocabularies, published to World Wide Web Commission (W3C) standards use standards from the Open Geospatial Consortium's Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) initiative to describe instrument setup, deployment and/or outputs using terms from those controlled vocabularies embed URLs from the controlled vocabularies within the SWE documents in a "Linked Data" conformant approach Q2O developed best practices examples of SensorML descriptions of Original Equipment Manufacturers' metadata (model characteristics, capabilities, manufacturer contact, etc ...) set-up and deployment SensorML files; and data centre process-lineage using registered vocabularies to describe terms (including input, output, processes, parameters, quality control flags) One Q2O use case, the Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory ADCP Waves instance, uses SensorML and registered vocabularies to fully describe the process of computing wave parameters from sensed properties, including quality control tests and associated results. The European Commission Framework Programme 7 project SenseOCEAN draws together world leading marine sensor developers to create a highly integrated multifunction and cost-effective in situ marine biogeochemical sensor system. This project will provide a quantum leap in the ability to measure crucial biogeochemical

  9. The burden of musculoskeletal conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clémence Palazzo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Despite the burden of rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMDs, these conditions probably deserve more attention from public health authorities in several countries including developed ones. We assessed their contribution to disability. METHODS: Data on disabilities associated with RMDs were extracted from the national 2008-2009 Disability-Health Survey of 29,931 subjects representative of the population in France. We used the core set of disability categories for RMDs of the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health for analysis. Diagnosis and disabilities were self-reported. We assessed the risk of disability associated with RMDs using odds ratios (ORs and the societal impact of RMDs using the average attributable fraction (AAF. RESULTS: Overall 27.7% (about 17.3 million people (95% CI 26.9-28.4% of the population reported having RMDs. The most prevalent RMDs were low back pain (12.5%, 12.1-13.1 and osteoarthritis (12.3%, 11.8-12.7. People reporting osteoarthritis were more disabled in walking (adjusted OR 1.9, 1.7-2.2 than those without. People reporting inflammatory arthritis were more limited in activities of daily living (from 1.4, 1.2-1.8 for walking to 2.1, 1.5-2.9 for moving around. From a societal perspective, osteoarthritis was the main contributor to activity limitations (AAF 22% for walking difficulties. Changing jobs was mainly attributed to neck pain (AAF 13% and low back pain (11.5%. CONCLUSION: RMDs are highly prevalent and significantly affect activity limitations and participation restrictions. More effort is needed to improve care and research in this field.

  10. Cumulative risks of foster care placement for Danish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallesen, Peter; Emanuel, Natalia; Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Although recent research suggests that the cumulative risk of foster care placement is far higher for American children than originally suspected, little is known about the cumulative risk of foster care placement in other countries, which makes it difficult to gauge the degree to which factor foster care placement is salient in other contexts. In this article, we provide companion estimates to those provided in recent work on the US by using Danish registry data and synthetic cohort life tables to show how high and unequally distributed the cumulative risk of foster care placement is for Danish children. Results suggest that at the beginning of the study period (in 1998) the cumulative risk of foster care placement for Danish children was roughly in line with the risk for American children. Yet, by the end of the study period (2010), the risk had declined to half the risk for American children. Our results also show some variations by parental ethnicity and sex, but these differences are small. Indeed, they appear quite muted relative to racial/ethnic differences in these risks in the United States. Last, though cumulative risks are similar between Danish and American children (especially at the beginning of the study period), the age-specific risk profiles are markedly different, with higher risks for older Danish children than for older American children.

  11. USING CUMULATIVE NUMBER DENSITIES TO COMPARE GALAXIES ACROSS COSMIC TIME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behroozi, Peter S.; Wechsler, Risa H. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Marchesini, Danilo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Muzzin, Adam [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Papovich, Casey [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Stefanon, Mauro [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Comparing galaxies across redshifts at fixed cumulative number density is a popular way to estimate the evolution of specific galaxy populations. This method ignores scatter in mass accretion histories and galaxy-galaxy mergers, which can lead to errors when comparing galaxies over large redshift ranges (Δz > 1). We use abundance matching in the ΛCDM paradigm to estimate the median change in cumulative number density with redshift and provide a simple fit (+0.16 dex per unit Δz) for progenitors of z = 0 galaxies. We find that galaxy descendants do not evolve in the same way as galaxy progenitors, largely due to scatter in mass accretion histories. We also provide estimates for the 1σ range of cumulative number densities corresponding to galaxy progenitors and descendants. Finally, we discuss some limits on cumulative number density comparisons, which arise due to difficulties measuring physical quantities (e.g., stellar mass) consistently across redshifts. A public tool to calculate cumulative number density evolution for galaxies, as well as approximate halo masses, is available online.

  12. Maintenance hemodialysis patients have high cumulative radiation exposure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kinsella, Sinead M

    2010-10-01

    Hemodialysis is associated with an increased risk of neoplasms which may result, at least in part, from exposure to ionizing radiation associated with frequent radiographic procedures. In order to estimate the average radiation exposure of those on hemodialysis, we conducted a retrospective study of 100 patients in a university-based dialysis unit followed for a median of 3.4 years. The number and type of radiological procedures were obtained from a central radiology database, and the cumulative effective radiation dose was calculated using standardized, procedure-specific radiation levels. The median annual radiation dose was 6.9 millisieverts (mSv) per patient-year. However, 14 patients had an annual cumulative effective radiation dose over 20 mSv, the upper averaged annual limit for occupational exposure. The median total cumulative effective radiation dose per patient over the study period was 21.7 mSv, in which 13 patients had a total cumulative effective radiation dose over 75 mSv, a value reported to be associated with a 7% increased risk of cancer-related mortality. Two-thirds of the total cumulative effective radiation dose was due to CT scanning. The average radiation exposure was significantly associated with the cause of end-stage renal disease, history of ischemic heart disease, transplant waitlist status, number of in-patient hospital days over follow-up, and death during the study period. These results highlight the substantial exposure to ionizing radiation in hemodialysis patients.

  13. Methodological Considerations in Screening for Cumulative Environmental Health Impacts: Lessons Learned from a Pilot Study in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Zeise

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Polluting facilities and hazardous sites are often concentrated in low-income communities of color already facing additional stressors to their health. The influence of socioeconomic status is not considered in traditional models of risk assessment. We describe a pilot study of a screening method that considers both pollution burden and population characteristics in assessing the potential for cumulative impacts. The goal is to identify communities that warrant further attention and to thereby provide actionable guidance to decision- and policy-makers in achieving environmental justice. The method uses indicators related to five components to develop a relative cumulative impact score for use in comparing communities: exposures, public health effects, environmental effects, sensitive populations and socioeconomic factors. Here, we describe several methodological considerations in combining disparate data sources and report on the results of sensitivity analyses meant to guide future improvements in cumulative impact assessments. We discuss criteria for the selection of appropriate indicators, correlations between them, and consider data quality and the influence of choices regarding model structure. We conclude that the results of this model are largely robust to changes in model structure.

  14. The Burden of Schizophrenia on Caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Adana

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Caregivers’ burden in schizophrenia is a complex concept often with negative connotations. The concept refers to the impact of having a schizophrenia patient in the family including emotional, psychological, physical, economic distress and feelings of shame, embarrassment, guilt, and self-blame expe-rienced by the caregivers. There are objective and subjective aspects of care-givers’ burden. The objective burden refers to observed and verifiable impact of the diseased person in the family such as the patients disturbing behaviors, economic difficulties, and loss of income, restricted social activities, distressed household atmosphere, and undesirable influences on physical and mental health of the family members. The subjective burden refers to the extent of emotional distress caused by the objective burden. The data in the pertinent literature suggest an association between caregivers’ burden and sex, ethnicity, culture, caregivers’ health and quality of life, social support, and the symptomatology as presented by the patient. In order to promote mental health of schizophrenia patients along with their caregivers, the mental health workers should strive to find the means of supporting, informing, and cooperating with the family members. Psychosocial interventions designed for families and psychosocial rehabilitations programs designed for schizophrenia patients are effective means of easing caregivers’ burden.

  15. Born series for the Robin boundary condition

    OpenAIRE

    Machida, Manabu; Nakamura, Gen

    2017-01-01

    We solve the diffusion equation by constructing the Born series for the Robin boundary condition. We develop a general theory for arbitrary domains with smooth enough boundaries and explore the convergence. The proposed Born series is validated by numerical calculation in the three-dimensional half space. We show that in this case the Born series converges regardless the value of the impedance term in the Robin boundary condition. We point out that the solution from the so-called extrapolated...

  16. Cumulative Trauma Among Mayas Living in Southeast Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millender, Eugenia I; Lowe, John

    2016-01-04

    Mayas, having experienced genocide, exile, and severe poverty, are at high risk for the consequences of cumulative trauma that continually resurfaces through current fear of an uncertain future. Little is known about the mental health and alcohol use status of this population. This correlational study explored t/he relationship of cumulative trauma as it relates to social determinants of health (years in the United States, education, health insurance status, marital status, and employment), psychological health (depression symptoms), and health behaviors (alcohol use) of 102 Guatemalan Mayas living in Southeast Florida. The results of this study indicated that, as specific social determinants of health and cumulative trauma increased, depression symptoms (particularly among women) and the risk for harmful alcohol use (particularly among men) increased. Identifying risk factors at an early stage before serious disease or problems are manifest provides room for early screening leading to early identification, early treatment, and better outcomes.

  17. Analysis of sensory ratings data with cumulative link models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen; Brockhoff, Per B.

    2013-01-01

    Examples of categorical rating scales include discrete preference, liking and hedonic rating scales. Data obtained on these scales are often analyzed with normal linear regression methods or with omnibus Pearson chi2 tests. In this paper we propose to use cumulative link models that allow...... for regression methods similar to linear models while respecting the categorical nature of the observations. We describe how cumulative link models are related to the omnibus chi2 tests and how they can lead to more powerful tests in the non-replicated setting. For replicated categorical ratings data we present...... a quasi-likelihood approach and a mixed effects approach both being extensions of cumulative link models. We contrast population-average and subject-specific interpretations based on these models and discuss how different approaches lead to different tests. In replicated settings, naive tests that ignore...

  18. Cumulative pion production via successive collisions in nuclear medium

    CERN Document Server

    Motornenko, A

    2016-01-01

    Production of pions in proton-nucleus (p+A) reactions outside of a kinematical boundary of proton-nucleon collisions, the so-called cumulative effect, is studied. The kinematical restrictions on pions emitted in backward direction in the target rest frame are analyzed. It is shown that cumulative pion production requires a presence of massive baryonic resonances that are produced during successive collisions of projectile with nuclear nucleons. After each successive collision the mass of created resonance may increase and, simultaneously, its longitudinal velocity decreases. Simulations within Ultra relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics model reveals that successive collisions of baryonic resonances with nuclear nucleons plays the dominant role in cumulative pion production in p+A reactions.

  19. Solid-state electro-cumulation effect numerical simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Grishin, V G

    2001-01-01

    It is an attempt to simulate as really as possible a crystal's interatomic interaction under conditions of "Solid-state electro-cumulation (super-polarization) effect". Some theoretical and experimental reasons to believe that within solid substances an interparticles interaction could concentrate from the surface to a centre were given formerly. Now, numerical results show the conditions that could make the cumulation more effective. Another keywords: ion, current, solid, symmetry, cumulation, polarization, depolarization, ionic conductor,superionic conductor, ice, crystal, strain, V-center, V-centre, doped crystal, interstitial impurity, intrinsic color center, high pressure technology, Bridgman, anvil, experiment, crowdion, dielectric, proton, layer, defect, lattice, dynamics, electromigration, mobility, muon catalysis, concentration, doping, dopant, conductivity, pycnonuclear reaction, permittivity, dielectric constant, point defects, interstitials, polarizability, imperfection, defect centers, glass, epi...

  20. Association between diastolic blood pressure and cumulative work time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cordeiro

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Diastolic blood pressure was viewed as a generic indicator of aging, and its association with cumulative work time was studied after controlling for age as a potential confounding factor. The study was conducted among production line workers at a Brazilian tannery in July 1993. The association between diastolic blood pressure and cumulative work time was verified by fitting a second-order linear regression model, where diastolic blood pressure was a function of worker's age and cumulative work time. By fitting the model, one can predict that, in the beginning of working life at the tannery, on average each 1-year period is associated with an increase of about 1.5 mmHg in diastolic blood pressure. The fit obtained highlights one component directly associated with work as part of the rate of pressure increase in the study group. This component is twice as high as that directly associated with age.

  1. Baltic Sea biodiversity status vs. cumulative human pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper H.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Korpinen, Samuli

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Many studies have tried to explain spatial and temporal variations in biodiversity status of marine areas from a single-issue perspective, such as fishing pressure or coastal pollution, yet most continental seas experience a wide range of human pressures. Cumulative impact assessments have...... been developed to capture the consequences of multiple stressors for biodiversity, but the ability of these assessments to accurately predict biodiversity status has never been tested or ground-truthed. This relationship has similarly been assumed for the Baltic Sea, especially in areas with impaired...... status, but has also never been documented. Here we provide a first tentative indication that cumulative human impacts relate to ecosystem condition, i.e. biodiversity status, in the Baltic Sea. Thus, cumulative impact assessments offer a promising tool for informed marine spatial planning, designation...

  2. Session: What do we know about cumulative or population impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerlinger, Paul; Manville, Al; Kendall, Bill

    2004-09-01

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of a panel discussion followed by a discussion/question and answer period. The panelists were Paul Kerlinger, Curry and Kerlinger, LLC, Al Manville, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and Bill Kendall, US Geological Service. The panel addressed the potential cumulative impacts of wind turbines on bird and bat populations over time. Panel members gave brief presentations that touched on what is currently known, what laws apply, and the usefulness of population modeling. Topics addressed included which sources of modeling should be included in cumulative impacts, comparison of impacts from different modes of energy generation, as well as what research is still needed regarding cumulative impacts of wind energy development on bird and bat populations.

  3. Cumulant dynamics in a finite population linkage equilibrium theory

    CERN Document Server

    Rattray, M; Rattray, Magnus; Shapiro, Jonathan L.

    1999-01-01

    The evolution of a finite population at linkage equilibrium is described in terms of the dynamics of phenotype distribution cumulants. This provides a powerful method for describing evolutionary transients and we elucidate the relationship between the cumulant dynamics and the diffusion approximation. A separation of time-scales between the first and higher cumulants for low mutation rates is demonstrated in the diffusion limit and provides a significant simplification of the dynamical system. However, the diffusion limit may not be appropriate for strong selection as the standard Fisher-Wright model of genetic drift can break down in this case. Two novel examples of this effect are considered: we shown that the dynamics may depend on the number of loci under strong directional selection and that environmental variance results in a reduced effective population size. We also consider a simple model of a changing environment which cannot be described by a diffusion equation and we derive the optimal mutation ra...

  4. Effect of correlation on cumulants in heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, D K; Netrakanti, P K

    2015-01-01

    We study the effects of correlation on cumulants and their ratios of net-proton multiplicity distribution which have been measured for central (0-5\\%) Au+Au collisions at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This effect has been studied assuming individual proton and anti-proton distributions as Poisson or Negative Binomial Distribution (NBD). In-spite of significantly correlated production due to baryon number, electric charge conservation and kinematical correlations of protons and anti-protons, the measured cumulants of net-proton distribution follow the independent production model. In the present work we demonstrate how the introduction of correlations will affect the cumulants and their ratios for the difference distributions. We have also demonstrated this study using the proton and anti-proton distributions obtained from HIJING event generator.

  5. Conceptualizing Innovation in Born Global Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zijdemans, Erik; Tanev, Stoyan

    2014-01-01

    This research provides insights from recent literature on innovativeness in the environment of born globals. This article will be relevant to researchers interested in born globals and their business environments and, more specifically, the role that innovation plays in their foundation...... and development. After discussing the internationalization of born globals as an innovation itself and the positive effect that innovation and internationalization have on each other, this article elaborates on the effect of innovativeness on the development of the company and, more in depth, the role...... of knowledge acquisition, networking capabilities and the lean startup approach in born global innovation. Finally, the article addresses the issue of quantifying and measuring innovativeness....

  6. System Dynamics and Modified Cumulant Neglect Closure Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köylüoglu, H. Ugur; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    Dealing with multipeaked problems, the goal of the paper is to improve the quality of the approximations for the expectations appearing in the differential equations written for the statistical moments of the state vector, guided by insight in the system dynamics. For systems with polynomial non......-linearities, modifications in the cumulant neglect closure scheme are suggested. The methodology is illustrated using the two wells oscillator. An error analysis is performed to compare the modified and ordinary cumulant neglect closure schemes applied at the second and fourth order levels with the exact results available....

  7. Baltic Sea biodiversity status vs. cumulative human pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper H.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Korpinen, Samuli

    2015-01-01

    been developed to capture the consequences of multiple stressors for biodiversity, but the ability of these assessments to accurately predict biodiversity status has never been tested or ground-truthed. This relationship has similarly been assumed for the Baltic Sea, especially in areas with impaired...... status, but has also never been documented. Here we provide a first tentative indication that cumulative human impacts relate to ecosystem condition, i.e. biodiversity status, in the Baltic Sea. Thus, cumulative impact assessments offer a promising tool for informed marine spatial planning, designation...

  8. Aspect of cumulative fatigue damage under multiaxial strain cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamrik, S. Y.; Tang, P. Y.

    1972-01-01

    The concept of order of loading and its effect on cumulative fatigue damage under multiaxial strain cyclings was investigated. The effect is illustrated through nonlinear relationships between biaxial fatigue damage and cycle-ratio diagrams. Uniaxial theories such as Miner's method, the convergence method, and the double linear damage rule in its special and generalized form, were examined and extended to the biaxial case through the octahedral shear strain theory. The generalized double linear damage rule was found more applicable to biaxial cumulative fatigue damage.

  9. Cumulative Incidence of Cancer After Solid Organ Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Erin C.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Segev, Dorry L.; Engels, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Solid organ transplantation recipients have elevated cancer incidence. Estimates of absolute cancer risk after transplantation can inform prevention and screening. METHODS The Transplant Cancer Match Study links the US transplantation registry with 14 state/regional cancer registries. The authors used nonparametric competing risk methods to estimate the cumulative incidence of cancer after transplantation for 2 periods (1987–1999 and 2000–2008). For recipients from 2000 to 2008, the 5-year cumulative incidence, stratified by organ, sex, and age at transplantation, was estimated for 6 preventable or screen-detectable cancers. For comparison, the 5-year cumulative incidence was calculated for the same cancers in the general population at representative ages using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data. RESULTS Among 164,156 recipients, 8520 incident cancers were identified. The absolute cancer risk was slightly higher for recipients during the period from 2000 to 2008 than during the period from 1987 to 1999 (5-year cumulative incidence: 4.4% vs 4.2%; P =.006); this difference arose from the decreasing risk of competing events (5-year cumulative incidence of death, graft failure, or retransplantation: 26.6% vs 31.9%; P 50 years; range, 0.36%–2.22%). For recipients aged >50 years, the 5-year cumulative incidence was higher for colorectal cancer (range, 0.33%–1.94%) than for the general population at the recommended screening age (aged 50 years: range, 0.25%–0.33%). For recipients aged >50 years, the 5-year cumulative incidence was high for lung cancer among thoracic organ recipients (range, 1.16%–3.87%) and for kidney cancer among kidney recipients (range, 0.53%–0.84%). The 5-year cumulative incidence for prostate cancer and breast cancer was similar or lower in transplantation recipients than at the recommended ages of screening in the general population. CONCLUSIONS Subgroups of transplantation recipients have a high absolute risk

  10. A study of cumulative fatigue damage in AISI 4130 steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeelani, S.; Musial, M.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental data were obtained using AISI 4130 steel under stress ratios of -1 and 0. A study of cumulative fatigue damage using Miner's and Kramer's equations for stress ratios of -1 and 0 for low-high, low-high-mixed, high-low, and high-low-mixed stress sequences has revealed that there is a close agreement between the theoretical and experimental values of fatigue damage and fatigue life. Kramer's equation predicts less conservative and more realistic cumulative fatigue damage than the popularly used Miner's rule does.

  11. Effects of Climate Change on Ticks and Tick-Borne Diseases in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Gray

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Zoonotic tick-borne diseases are an increasing health burden in Europe and there is speculation that this is partly due to climate change affecting vector biology and disease transmission. Data on the vector tick Ixodes ricinus suggest that an extension of its northern and altitude range has been accompanied by an increased prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis. Climate change may also be partly responsible for the change in distribution of Dermacentor reticulatus. Increased winter activity of  I. ricinus is probably due to warmer winters and a retrospective study suggests that hotter summers will change the dynamics and pattern of seasonal activity, resulting in the bulk of the tick population becoming active in the latter part of the year. Climate suitability models predict that eight important tick species are likely to establish more northern permanent populations in a climate-warming scenario. However, the complex ecology and epidemiology of such tick-borne diseases as Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis make it difficult to implicate climate change as the main cause of their increasing prevalence. Climate change models are required that take account of the dynamic biological processes involved in vector abundance and pathogen transmission in order to predict future tick-borne disease scenarios.

  12. The global burden of typhoid fever

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crump, John A; Luby, Stephen P; Mintz, Eric D

    2004-01-01

    To use new data to make a revised estimate of the global burden of typhoid fever, an accurate understanding of which is necessary to guide public health decisions for disease control and prevention efforts...

  13. Economic Study of Global Tobacco Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an interview on Cancer Currents, Dr. Mark Parascandola discusses findings from an economics study showing that, globally, tobacco use burdens economies with more than US $1 trillion annually in health care costs and lost productivity.

  14. Application of Optimal Sinter Burden Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The application of the optimal sinter burden design in the sinter shop of No.1 Iron-making Plant in Tangshan Iron & Steel Corp was reported. By using burden calculation and simulating production under different situations, it is demonstrated that the technology can provide the relevant information in product quality and cost etc. for decision-makers. The technology has been used to guide production of the Sinter Shop since 2000, and a remarkable achievement has been obtained.

  15. The Psychological Burden of Skin Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgard, Florence J; Gieler, Uwe; Tomas-Aragones, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of psychological disorders to the burden of skin disease has been poorly explored, and this is a large-scale study to ascertain the association between depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation with various dermatological diagnoses. This international multicenter observational...... with depression and anxiety was highest for patients with psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, hand eczema, and leg ulcers. These results identify a major additional burden of skin disease and have important clinical implications....

  16. The injury mortality burden in Guinea

    OpenAIRE

    Mamady Keita; Yao Hongyan; Zhang Xujun; Xiang Huiyun; Tan Hongzhuan; Hu Guoqing

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The injury mortality burden of Guinea has been rarely addressed. The paper aimed to report patterns of injury mortality burden in Guinea. Methods We retrieved the mortality data from the Guinean Annual Health Statistics Report 2007. The information about underlying cause of deaths was collected based on Guinean hospital discharge data, Hospital Mortuary and City Council Mortuary data. The causes of death are coded in the 9th International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9)...

  17. Economic burden of colorectal cancer in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Ju-Young; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Oh, In-Hwan; Kim, Young Ae; Seo, Hye-Young; Lee, Yo-Han

    2014-03-01

    The incidence and survival rate of colorectal cancer in Korea are increasing because of improved screening, treatment technologies, and lifestyle changes. In this aging population, increases in economic cost result. This study was conducted to estimate the economic burden of colorectal cancer utilizing claims data from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. Economic burdens of colorectal cancer were estimated using prevalence data and patients were defined as those who received ambulatory treatment from medical institutions or who had been hospitalized due to colorectal cancer under the International Classification of Disease 10th revision codes from C18-C21. The economic burdens of colorectal cancer were calculated as direct costs and indirect costs. The prevalence rate (per 100 000 people) of those who were treated for colorectal cancer during 2010 was 165.48. The economic burdens of colorectal cancer in 2010 were 3 trillion and 100 billion Korean won (KRW), respectively. Direct costs included 1 trillion and 960 billion KRW (62.85%), respectively and indirect costs were 1 trillion and 160 billion (37.15%), respectively. Colorectal cancer has a large economic burden. Efforts should be made to reduce the economic burden of the disease through primary and secondary prevention.

  18. Embryo quality is the main factor affecting cumulative live birth rate after elective single embryo transfer in fresh stimulation cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinimäki, Maarit; Veleva, Zdravka; Martikainen, Hannu

    2015-11-01

    The study was aimed to evaluate which factors affect the cumulative live birth rate after elective single embryo transfer in women younger than 36 years. Additionally, number of children in women with more than one delivery per ovum pick-up after fresh elective single embryo transfer and subsequent frozen embryo transfers was assessed. Retrospective cohort study analysing data of a university hospital's infertility clinic in 2001-2010. A total of 739 IVF/ICSI cycles with elective single embryo transfer were included. Analyses were made per ovum pick-up including fresh and subsequent frozen embryo transfers. Factors affecting cumulative live birth rates were examined in uni- and multivariate analyses. A secondary endpoint was the number of children born after all treatments. In the fresh cycles, the live birth rate was 29.2% and the cumulative live birth rate was 51.3%, with a twin rate of 3.4%. In the multivariate analysis, having two (odds ratio (OR) 1.73; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12-2.67) or ≥3 top embryos (OR 2.66; 95% CI 1.79-3.95) was associated with higher odds for live birth after fresh and frozen embryo cycles. Age, body mass index, duration of infertility, diagnosis or total gonadotropin dose were not associated with the cumulative live birth rate. In cycles with one top embryo, the cumulative live birth rate was 40.2%, whereas it was 64.1% in those with at least three top embryos. Of women who had a live birth in the fresh cycle, 20.4% had more than one child after all frozen embryo transfers. Among women with three or more top embryos after ovum pick-up, 16.1% gave birth to more than one child. The cumulative live birth rate in this age group varies from 40% to 64% and is dependent on the quality of embryos. Women with three or more top embryos have good chance of having more than one child per ovum pick-up without elevated risk of multiple pregnancies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Non-abelian Born-Infeld revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roo, M. de

    2002-01-01

    We discuss the non-abelian Born-Infeld action, including fermions, as a series in α'. We review recent work establishing the complete result to α'2, and its impact on our earlier attempts to derive the Born-Infeld action using κ-symmetry.

  20. Thermodynamics of Born-Infeld black holes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chemissany, Wissam A.; de Roo, Mees; Panda, Sudhakar

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the horizon structure for Born-Infeld black holes in the context of Einstein-Born-Infeld gravity. We show that the entropy function formalism agrees with a direct calculation of the entropy. With the entropy function formalism we also obtain the entropy when an axion-dilaton system as wel

  1. Literacy Skills of Children Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Alison; Crosbie, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Most children born preterm are considered neurologically normal and free of disability. However in follow-up studies at school age, preterm children, born without major impairment, have been shown to have lower cognitive abilities and associated academic, social and behavioural difficulties. This study investigated the literacy, phonological…

  2. Literacy Skills of Children Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Alison; Crosbie, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Most children born preterm are considered neurologically normal and free of disability. However in follow-up studies at school age, preterm children, born without major impairment, have been shown to have lower cognitive abilities and associated academic, social and behavioural difficulties. This study investigated the literacy, phonological…

  3. PEOPLE BORN IN AUTUMN LIVE LONGER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梦华

    2004-01-01

    People born in the autumn live longer an those born in the spring and are less likely to fall chronically ill when they are older,according to an Austrian scientist.Using census data for more than one million people in Austria,Denmark and Australia,scien-

  4. A Parametric Cumulative Sum Statistic for Person Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Ronald D.; Shi, Min

    2009-01-01

    This article develops a new cumulative sum (CUSUM) statistic to detect aberrant item response behavior. Shifts in behavior are modeled with quadratic functions and a series of likelihood ratio tests are used to detect aberrancy. The new CUSUM statistic is compared against another CUSUM approach as well as traditional person-fit statistics. A…

  5. RECURSIVE CLASSIFICATION OF MQAM SIGNALS BASED ON HIGHER ORDER CUMULANTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Weidong; Yang Shaoquan

    2002-01-01

    A new feature based on higher order cumulants is proposed for classification of MQAM signals. Theoretical analysis justify that the new feature is invariant with respect to translation (shift), scale and rotation transform of signal constellations, and can suppress color or white additive Gaussian noise. Computer simulation shows that the proposed recursive orderreduction based classification algorithm can classify MQAM signals with any order.

  6. Hierarchical Bayesian parameter estimation for cumulative prospect theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nilsson, H.; Rieskamp, J.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.

    2011-01-01

    Cumulative prospect theory (CPT Tversky & Kahneman, 1992) has provided one of the most influential accounts of how people make decisions under risk. CPT is a formal model with parameters that quantify psychological processes such as loss aversion, subjective values of gains and losses, and

  7. Cumulative psychosocial stress, coping resources, and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Sheila W; Kingston, Dawn; Bayrampour, Hamideh; Dolan, Siobhan M; Tough, Suzanne C

    2014-12-01

    Preterm birth constitutes a significant international public health issue, with implications for child and family well-being. High levels of psychosocial stress and negative affect before and during pregnancy are contributing factors to shortened gestation and preterm birth. We developed a cumulative psychosocial stress variable and examined its association with early delivery controlling for known preterm birth risk factors and confounding environmental variables. We further examined this association among subgroups of women with different levels of coping resources. Utilizing the All Our Babies (AOB) study, an ongoing prospective pregnancy cohort study in Alberta, Canada (n = 3,021), multinomial logistic regression was adopted to examine the independent effect of cumulative psychosocial stress and preterm birth subgroups compared to term births. Stratified analyses according to categories of perceived social support and optimism were undertaken to examine differential effects among subgroups of women. Cumulative psychosocial stress was a statistically significant risk factor for late preterm birth (OR = 1.73; 95 % CI = 1.07, 2.81), but not for early preterm birth (OR = 2.44; 95 % CI = 0.95, 6.32), controlling for income, history of preterm birth, pregnancy complications, reproductive history, and smoking in pregnancy. Stratified analyses showed that cumulative psychosocial stress was a significant risk factor for preterm birth at psychosocial stress on the risk for early delivery.

  8. The proportional odds cumulative incidence model for competing risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Frank; Li, Jianing; Scheike, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We suggest an estimator for the proportional odds cumulative incidence model for competing risks data. The key advantage of this model is that the regression parameters have the simple and useful odds ratio interpretation. The model has been considered by many authors, but it is rarely used in pr...

  9. Is learning in problem-based learning cumulative?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.H.J. Yew (Elaine); E. Chng (Esther); H.G. Schmidt (Henk)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractProblem-based learning (PBL) is generally organized in three phases, involving collaborative and self-directed learning processes. The hypothesis tested here is whether learning in the different phases of PBL is cumulative, with learning in each phase depending on that of the previous ph

  10. Cumulative assessment : Strategic choices to influence students' study effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerdijk, Wouter; Tio, Rene A.; Mulder, B. Florentine; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2013-01-01

    Background: It has been asserted that assessment can and should be used to drive students' learning. In the current study, we present a cumulative assessment program in which test planning, repeated testing and compensation are combined in order to influence study effort. The program is aimed at hel

  11. Repeated mild injury causes cumulative damage to hippocampal cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. Matser (Amy); C.I. de Zeeuw (Chris); J.T. Weber (John)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractAn interesting hypothesis in the study of neurotrauma is that repeated traumatic brain injury may result in cumulative damage to cells of the brain. However, post-injury sequelae are difficult to address at the cellular level in vivo. Therefore, it is necessary to compl

  12. The effects of cumulative practice on mathematics problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, Kristin H; Chase, Philip N

    2002-01-01

    This study compared three different methods of teaching five basic algebra rules to college students. All methods used the same procedures to teach the rules and included four 50-question review sessions interspersed among the training of the individual rules. The differences among methods involved the kinds of practice provided during the four review sessions. Participants who received cumulative practice answered 50 questions covering a mix of the rules learned prior to each review session. Participants who received a simple review answered 50 questions on one previously trained rule. Participants who received extra practice answered 50 extra questions on the rule they had just learned. Tests administered after each review included new questions for applying each rule (application items) and problems that required novel combinations of the rules (problem-solving items). On the final test, the cumulative group outscored the other groups on application and problem-solving items. In addition, the cumulative group solved the problem-solving items significantly faster than the other groups. These results suggest that cumulative practice of component skills is an effective method of training problem solving.

  13. A Parametric Cumulative Sum Statistic for Person Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Ronald D.; Shi, Min

    2009-01-01

    This article develops a new cumulative sum (CUSUM) statistic to detect aberrant item response behavior. Shifts in behavior are modeled with quadratic functions and a series of likelihood ratio tests are used to detect aberrancy. The new CUSUM statistic is compared against another CUSUM approach as well as traditional person-fit statistics. A…

  14. Variable cultural acquisition costs constrain cumulative cultural evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Mesoudi

    Full Text Available One of the hallmarks of the human species is our capacity for cumulative culture, in which beneficial knowledge and technology is accumulated over successive generations. Yet previous analyses of cumulative cultural change have failed to consider the possibility that as cultural complexity accumulates, it becomes increasingly costly for each new generation to acquire from the previous generation. In principle this may result in an upper limit on the cultural complexity that can be accumulated, at which point accumulated knowledge is so costly and time-consuming to acquire that further innovation is not possible. In this paper I first review existing empirical analyses of the history of science and technology that support the possibility that cultural acquisition costs may constrain cumulative cultural evolution. I then present macroscopic and individual-based models of cumulative cultural evolution that explore the consequences of this assumption of variable cultural acquisition costs, showing that making acquisition costs vary with cultural complexity causes the latter to reach an upper limit above which no further innovation can occur. These models further explore the consequences of different cultural transmission rules (directly biased, indirectly biased and unbiased transmission, population size, and cultural innovations that themselves reduce innovation or acquisition costs.

  15. Cumulative index 1981-1985, Volumes 138-157.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    This cumulative index also includes listings of all major papers from the American Journal of Neuroradiology, American Journal of Roentgenology, Clinics in Diagnostic Ultrasound, Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography, Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine, RadioGraphics, Radiologic Clinics of North America, Seminars in Nuclear Medicine, Seminars in Roentgenology, and Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MR.

  16. Cumulative index 1981-1985, Volumes 138-157

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    This cumulative index also includes listings of all major papers from the American Journal of Neuroradiology, American Journal of Roentgenology, Clinics in Diagnostic Ultrasound, Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography, Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine, RadioGraphics, Radiologic Clinics of North America, Seminars in Nuclear Medicine, Seminars in Roentgenology, and Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MR.

  17. Anticholinergic prescription: are healthcare professionals the real burden?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araklitis, George; Thiagamoorthy, Ganesh; Hunter, Jo; Rantell, Angie; Robinson, Dudley; Cardozo, Linda

    2017-08-01

    Anticholinergic medication is the medical treatment for overactive bladder (OAB). These drugs can act on the central nervous system and can lead to cognitive decline, dementia, and potentially death. Patients taking drugs with anticholinergic effects increase their anticholinergic burden-defined as the cumulative effect of taking one or more drugs that can have adverse effects. When prescribing anticholinergic medication for the elderly, we must choose the right drug. We aimed to discover the level of understanding on this subject and its application to real clinical practice amongst our healthcare professionals (HCPs). An 18-point questionnaire was distributed to urogynaecologists, general gynaecologists, urologists, geriatricians, general practitioners (GPs), and nurse specialists to assess knowledge on the subject. A total of 96 HCPs completed the questionnaire. The nurse specialists had the highest score in identifying that oxybutynin was the drug most likely to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The urogynaecologists had the highest score in identifying that trospium chloride was least likely to cross the BBB, whereas the GPs had the lowest score. Solifenacin was the most popular anticholinergic drug prescribed in the elderly without dementia. Trospium chloride was the most popular drug prescribed in the elderly with dementia. We have found that knowledge is lacking amongst all our HCPs, but especially amongst our first-line doctors, our GPs. Education is key in developing knowledge and safe prescribing, to improve the care we give to our patients.

  18. Validation of the Burden Index of Caregivers (BIC, a multidimensional short care burden scale from Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagiwara Akiko

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We constructed a concise multidimensional care burden scale that reflects circumstances unique to Japan, with a focus on intractable neurological diseases. We surveyed 646 family caregivers of patients with intractable neurological diseases or stroke using 28 preliminary care burden scale items obtained from qualitative research. The results were used to finalize the feeling of care burden scale (BIC: burden index of caregivers, and verify its reliability and validity. Methods The survey was conducted among caregivers providing home health care to patients with intractable neurological diseases (PD [Parkinson's disease], SCD [spinocerebellar degeneration], MSA [multiple system atrophy], and ALS [amyotrophic lateral sclerosis] or CVA (cerebrovascular accident using a mailed, self-administered questionnaire between November, 2003 and May, 2004. Results Response rates for neurological and CVA caregivers were 50% and 67%, respectively, or 646 in total (PD, 279; SCD, 78; MSA, 39; ALS, 30; and CVA, 220. Item and exploratory factor analyses led to a reduction to 11 items, comprising 10 items from the 5 domains of time-dependent burden, emotional burden, existential burden, physical burden, and service-related burden; and 1 item on total burden. Examination of validity showed a moderate correlation between each domain of the BIC and the SF-8 (Health related quality of life scale, Short Form-8, while the correlation coefficient of the overall BIC and CES-D was 0.62. Correlation between the BIC and ZBI, a preexisting care burden scale, was high (r = 0.84, while that with the time spent on providing care was 0.47. The ICC (Intraclass correlation coefficient by test-retest reliability was 0.83, and 0.68 to 0.80 by individual domain. Conclusion These results show that the BIC, a new care burden scale comprising 11 items, is highly reliable and valid.

  19. CUMULANTS OF STOCHASTIC RESPONSE FOR A CLASS OF SPECIAL NONHOLONOMIC SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG MEI; ZHANG YI

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies the response cumulants for a kind of special nonholonomic systems under non-Gaussian, delta- correlated excitations. We present a new methodology for formulating the equations governing the evolution of the response cumulants of the stochastic dynamic systems. The response cumulant differential equations (CDEs) derived can be used to calculate the response cumulants for both linear and nonlinear systems. One example is given to illustrate how to use the CDEs for calculating response cumulants.

  20. Long-Term Survival of Individuals Born Small and Large for Gestational Age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Christina M Wennerström

    Full Text Available Little is known on long-term survival and causes of death among individuals born small or large for gestational age. This study investigates birth weight in relation to survival and causes of death over time.A national cohort of 1.7 million live-born singletons in Denmark was followed during 1979-2011, using the Danish Civil Registration System, the Medical Birth Registry and the Cause of Death Registry. Cox proportional hazards were estimated for the impact of small (SGA and large (LGA gestation weight and mortality overall, by age group and birth cohort.Compared to normal weight children, SGA children were associated with increased risk of dying over time. Though most of the deaths occurred during the first year of life, the cumulative mortality risk was increased until 30 years of age. The hazard ratios [HR] for dying among SGA children ages <2 years were: 3.47 (95% CI, 3.30-3.64 and 1.06 (95% CI, 0.60-1.87 in 30 years and older. HR for dying among SGA adults (20-29 years were: 1.20 (95% CI, 0.99-1.46 in years 1979-1982 and 1.61 (95% CI, 1.04-2.51 in years 1989-1994. The SGA born had increased risk of dying from infection, heart disease, respiratory disease, digestive disease, congenital malformation, perinatal conditions, and accidents, suicide, and homicide. Individuals born LGA were associated with decreased mortality risk, but with increased risk of dying from malignant neoplasm.Survival has improved independently of birth weight the past 30 years. However, children born SGA remain at significantly increased risk of dying up till they turn 30 years of age. Individuals born LGA have lower mortality risk but only in the first two years of life.

  1. Burden of childhood-onset arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassett Afton L

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Juvenile arthritis comprises a variety of chronic inflammatory diseases causing erosive arthritis in children, often progressing to disability. These children experience functional impairment due to joint and back pain, heel pain, swelling of joints and morning stiffness, contractures, pain, and anterior uveitis leading to blindness. As children who have juvenile arthritis reach adulthood, they face possible continuing disease activity, medication-associated morbidity, and life-long disability and risk for emotional and social dysfunction. In this article we will review the burden of juvenile arthritis for the patient and society and focus on the following areas: patient disability; visual outcome; other medical complications; physical activity; impact on HRQOL; emotional impact; pain and coping; ambulatory visits, hospitalizations and mortality; economic impact; burden on caregivers; transition issues; educational occupational outcomes, and sexuality. The extent of impact on the various aspects of the patients', families' and society's functioning is clear from the existing literature. Juvenile arthritis imposes a significant burden on different spheres of the patients', caregivers' and family's life. In addition, it imposes a societal burden of significant health care costs and utilization. Juvenile arthritis affects health-related quality of life, physical function and visual outcome of children and impacts functioning in school and home. Effective, well-designed and appropriately tailored interventions are required to improve transitioning to adult care, encourage future vocation/occupation, enhance school function and minimize burden on costs.

  2. Subjective burden on spouses of schizophrenia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha Kumari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : There is limited information from India on subjective burden on spouses of schizophrenia patients. The aim of the present study was to assess and compare patterns of subjective burden on spouses of schizophrenia patients. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted at the OPD level, and follow-up was done at the Ranchi Institute of Neuropsychiatry and Sciences (RINPAS during the period May 2008 to November 2008. Tools utilized were sociodemographic data sheet, Family Burden Interview Schedule developed by Pai and R. L. Kapur (1981. The sample comprised of 50 samples of spouses (25 male and 25 female spouses of schizophrenia patients. Results: The findings suggest that both the groups, viz., male and female spouses of schizophrenia patients, showed moderate level of subjective burden, i.e., 13 (52% and 15 (60% male and female spouses, respectively, which was statistically found to be insignificant. Conclusion : No significant difference was found between male and female spouses of schizophrenia patients with regard to the level of subjective burden.

  3. The cumulative effects of using fine particles and cyanobacteria for rehabilitation of disturbed active sand dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaady, Eli; Katra, Itzhak; Barkai, Daniel; Knoll, Yaakov; Sarig, Shlomo

    2016-04-01

    One of the main problems in desertified lands worldwide is active wind-borne sand dunes, which lead to covering of fertile soils and agricultural fields. In regions with more than 100 mm of annual rainfall, sand dunes may be naturally stabilized by biocrusts (biological soil crusts). One of the main restraints of biocrust development is the typical lack of fine particles in sand dunes. Our study investigated the combined application of fine particles [coal fly-ash <100 micrometer] and bio-inoculant of filamentous cyanobacteria, isolated from nearby natural stabilized sand dunes, on the soil surface of active sands for increasing resistance to wind erosion. Boundary-layer wind tunnel experiments were conducted in experimental plots within a greenhouse for examining the effects of adding coal fly-ash and bio-inoculant to active sands. The biocrust development was evaluated via several physical and bio-physiological variables. In all the physical measurements and the bio-physiological variables, the treatment of "sand+inoculum+coal fly-ash" showed significant differences from the "sand-control". The combination led to the best results of surface stabilization in boundary-layer wind tunnel experiments, with the lowest sand fluxes. The filamentous cyanobacteria use the fine particles of the coal fly-ash as bridges for growing toward and adhering to the large sand particles. The cumulative effects of biocrusts and coal fly-ash enhance soil surface stabilization and may allow long-term sustainability.

  4. [Climate- and vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, I.C.; Schioler, K.L.; Konradsen, F.

    2009-01-01

    The predicted changes in climate have raised concerns that vector-borne diseases may emerge or expand in tempered regions. Malaria, leishmaniasis and tick-borne illnesses are discussed in terms of climate change and their endemic potential, especially in Denmark. While climate may play an important...... role in disease patterns, it is evident that transmission potential is governed by a complex of factors, including socio-economy, health-care capacity and ecology. In Denmark, malaria and leishmaniasis are unlikely to become public health problems, whereas the potential for tick-borne illnesses may...

  5. [Climate- and vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, I.C.; Schioler, K.L.; Konradsen, F.

    2009-01-01

    The predicted changes in climate have raised concerns that vector-borne diseases may emerge or expand in tempered regions. Malaria, leishmaniasis and tick-borne illnesses are discussed in terms of climate change and their endemic potential, especially in Denmark. While climate may play an important...... role in disease patterns, it is evident that transmission potential is governed by a complex of factors, including socio-economy, health-care capacity and ecology. In Denmark, malaria and leishmaniasis are unlikely to become public health problems, whereas the potential for tick-borne illnesses may...

  6. Influenza-attributable burden in United Kingdom primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, D M; Taylor, R J; Haguinet, F; Schuck-Paim, C; Logie, J; Webb, D J; Lustig, R L; Matias, G

    2016-02-01

    Influenza is rarely laboratory-confirmed and the outpatient influenza burden is rarely studied due to a lack of suitable data. We used the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) and surveillance data from Public Health England in a linear regression model to assess the number of persons consulting UK general practitioners (GP episodes) for respiratory illness, otitis media and antibiotic prescriptions attributable to influenza during 14 seasons, 1995-2009. In CPRD we ascertained influenza vaccination status in each season and risk status (conditions associated with severe influenza outcomes). Seasonal mean estimates of influenza-attributable GP episodes in the UK were 857 996 for respiratory disease including 68 777 for otitis media, with wide inter-seasonal variability. In an average season, 2·4%/0·5% of children aged influenza A/B. Two-thirds of influenza-attributable GP episodes were estimated to result in prescription of antibiotics. These estimates are substantially greater than those derived from clinically reported influenza-like illness in surveillance programmes. Because health service costs of influenza are largely borne in general practice, these are important findings for cost-benefit assessment of influenza vaccination programmes.

  7. Burden of disease of dietary exposure to acrylamide in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Lea Sletting; Granby, Kit; Knudsen, Vibeke Kildegaard; Nauta, Maarten; Pires, Sara Monteiro; Poulsen, Morten

    2016-04-01

    Acrylamide (AA) is a process-contaminant that potentially increases the risk of developing cancer in humans. AA is formed during heat treatment of starchy foods and detected in a wide range of commonly consumed products. Increased focus on risk ranking and prioritization of major causes of disease makes it relevant to estimate the impact that exposure to chemical contaminants and other hazards in food have on health. In this study, we estimated the burden of disease (BoD) caused by dietary exposure to AA, using disability adjusted life years (DALY) as health metric. We applied an exposure-based approach and proposed a model of three components: an exposure, health-outcome, and DALY-module. We estimated BoD using two approaches for estimating cancer risk based on toxicological data and two approaches for estimating DALY. In Denmark, 1.8 healthy life years per 100.000 inhabitants are lost each year due to exposure to AA through foods, as estimated by the most conservative approach. This result should be used to inform risk management decisions and for comparison with BoD of other food-borne hazards for prioritizing policies. However, our study shows that careful evaluation of methodological choices and assumptions used in BoD studies is necessary before use in policy making.

  8. The unrecognized burden of typhoid fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obaro, Stephen K; Iroh Tam, Pui-Ying; Mintz, Eric Daniel

    2017-03-01

    Typhoid fever (TF), caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, is the most common cause of enteric fever, responsible for an estimated 129,000 deaths and more than 11 million cases annually. Although several reviews have provided global and regional TF disease burden estimates, major gaps in our understanding of TF epidemiology remain. Areas covered: We provide an overview of the gaps in current estimates of TF disease burden and offer suggestions for addressing them, so that affected communities can receive the full potential of disease prevention offered by vaccination and water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions. Expert commentary: Current disease burden estimates for TF do not capture cases from certain host populations, nor those with atypical presentations of TF, which may lead to substantial underestimation of TF cases and deaths. These knowledge gaps pose major obstacles to the informed use of current and new generation typhoid vaccines.

  9. Cumulative life course impairment: the imprint of psoriasis on the patient's life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, S; Puig, L; Carrascosa, J M

    2014-03-01

    We now realize that moderate to severe psoriasis takes a toll on the patient's overall health beyond the effects on the skin itself, and so we use quality of life (QOL) measures to assess how the individual perceives both the impact of disease and the response to treatment. However, available instruments give us a cross-sectional assessment of QOL at a specific moment, and we lack longitudinal studies of how a disease affects each and every aspect of a patient's life over time-including physical and psychological wellbeing, social and emotional relationships, vocational and employment decisions, and how they change the individual's outlook. A new concept, cumulative life course impairment (CLCI), captures the notion of the ongoing effect of a disease, providing us with a new paradigm for assessing the impact of psoriasis on QOL. Unlike conventional measurement tools and scales, which focus on a specific moment in the patient's life, a CLCI tool investigates the repercussions of disease that accumulate over a lifetime, interfering with the individual's full potential development and altering perspectives that might have been different had psoriasis not been present. The accumulated impact will vary from patient to patient depending on circumstances that interact differently over time as the burden of stigmatization, concomitant physical and psychological conditions associated with psoriasis, coping mechanisms, and external factors come into play and are modulated by the individual's personality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  10. Use of the Chi-square Test to Determine Significance of Cumulative Antibiogram Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco J. Perla

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An important function of a hospital’s Infectious Disease and Pharmacy programs is to review and compare the most recent antibiogram with that of the previous year to determine if significant changes in antibiotic susceptibility results are noted and to communicate this information and its consequences to the medical staff. However, there are currently no formal analytical (decision-making models in use to determine if the rate of resistance to an antibiotic from one year to the next has significantly changed more or less than one would expect due to sampling error and test reliability. The purpose of this article, therefore, is to demonstrate the utility of using a well-established and simple nonparametric statistical technique (chi-square for analyzing annual variations in cumulative antibiogram data and to determine whether such variations are significantly different from chance and to what to degree. The chi-square model outlined here is a simple, practical, quick, low burden and easy to understand and execute approach that greatly improves the analysis of antibiogram data and decision-making by practitioners. More work and research is needed to develop additional inferential statistical methods and models that can be applied to antibiogram data.

  11. A cumulative entropy method for distribution recognition of model error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yingjie; Chen, Wen

    2015-02-01

    This paper develops a cumulative entropy method (CEM) to recognize the most suitable distribution for model error. In terms of the CEM, the Lévy stable distribution is employed to capture the statistical properties of model error. The strategies are tested on 250 experiments of axially loaded CFT steel stub columns in conjunction with the four national building codes of Japan (AIJ, 1997), China (DL/T, 1999), the Eurocode 4 (EU4, 2004), and United States (AISC, 2005). The cumulative entropy method is validated as more computationally efficient than the Shannon entropy method. Compared with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and root mean square deviation, the CEM provides alternative and powerful model selection criterion to recognize the most suitable distribution for the model error.

  12. Experience of cumulative effects assessment in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piper Jake

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Cumulative effects assessment (CEA is a development of environmental impact assessment which attempts to take into account the wider picture of what impacts may affect the environment as a result of either multiple or linear projects, or development plans. CEA is seen as a further valuable tool in promoting sustainable development. The broader canvas upon which the assessment is made leads to a suite of issues such as complexity in methods and assessment of significance, the desirability of co-operation between developers and other parties, new ways of addressing mitigation and monitoring. After outlining the legislative position and the process of CEA, this paper looks at three cases studies in the UK where cumulative assessment has been carried out - the cases concern wind farms, major infrastructure and off-shore developments.

  13. Petrogenesis of the nakhlite meteorites - Evidence from cumulate mineral zoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Ralph P.; Mcsween, Harry Y., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to a simple igneous petrogenesis for the meteorite Nakhla, which was previously called into question because Mg/Fe ratios in olivine indicate substantial disequilibrium between the predominant cumulus minerals (olivine and augite). Comparative analyses of simulated diffusive zoning and the observed cumulus mineral zoning for all three nakhlites (Nakhla, Governador Valadares, and Lafayette) show that their current compositions do not necessarily reflect parental magma compositions. Diffusion has altered primary cumulus compositions to varying degrees, Nakhla being the least affected, and Lafayette being almost completely reequilibrated. Since mineral zoning in each meteorite is strongly concentric around mesostasis areas, it is inferred that reaction with intercumulus liquid has controlled the observed zoning. It is argued that the nakhlites appear to be a series of relatively simple cumulate rocks which have undergone various amounts of late-magmatic and subsolidus diffusion, possibly reflecting their relative positions in a cooling cumulate pile.

  14. Cumulative dietary exposure of the population of Denmark to pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Nielsen, Elsa

    2015-01-01

    We used the Hazard Index (HI) method to carry out a cumulative risk assessment after chronic dietary exposure to all monitored pesticides in fruit, vegetables and cereals for various consumer groups in Denmark. Residue data for all the pesticides were obtained from the Danish monitoring programme...... that included processing factors and set non-detects to ½ LOR, but limited the correction (Model 3), gave the most realistic exposure estimate. With Model 3 the HI was calculated to be 0.44 for children and 0.18 for adults, indicating that there is no risk of adverse health effects following chronic cumulative...... exposure to the pesticides found in fruit, vegetables and cereals on the Danish market. The HI was below 1 even for consumers who eat more than 550 g of fruit and vegetables per day, corresponding to 1/3 of the population. Choosing Danish-produced commodities whenever possible could reduce the HI...

  15. Determination of radionuclides and pathways contributing to cumulative dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, B.A.

    1992-12-01

    A series of scoping calculations has been undertaken to evaluate the absolute and relative contributions of different radionuclides and exposure pathways to doses that may have been received by individuals living in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. This scoping calculation (Calculation 004) examined the contributions of numerous radionuclides to cumulative dose via environmental exposures and accumulation in foods. Addressed in this calculation were the contributions to organ and effective dose of infants and adults from (1) air submersion and groundshine external dose, (2) inhalation, (3) ingestion of soil by humans, (4) ingestion of leafy vegetables, (5) ingestion of other vegetables and fruits, (6) ingestion of meat, (7) ingestion of eggs, and (8) ingestion of cows' milk from Feeding Regime 1, as described in calculation 002. This calculation specifically addresses cumulative radiation doses to infants and adults resulting from releases occurring over the period 1945 through 1972.

  16. Cumulative impacts of oil fields on northern alaskan landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D A; Webber, P J; Binnian, E F; Everett, K R; Lederer, N D; Nordstrand, E A; Walker, M D

    1987-11-06

    Proposed further developments on Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain raise questions about cumulative effects on arctic tundra ecosystems of development of multiple large oil fields. Maps of historical changes to the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field show indirect impacts can lag behind planned developments by many years and the total area eventually disturbed can greatly exceed the planned area of construction. For example, in the wettest parts of the oil field (flat thaw-lake plains), flooding and thermokarst covered more than twice the area directly affected by roads and other construction activities. Protecting critical wildlife habitat is the central issue for cumulative impact analysis in northern Alaska. Comprehensive landscape planning with the use of geographic information system technology and detailed geobotanical maps can help identify and protect areas of high wildlife use.

  17. Effective Carrier Sensing in CSMA Networks under Cumulative Interference

    CERN Document Server

    Fu, Liqun; Huang, Jianwei

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes and investigates the concept of a safe carrier-sensing range that can guarantee interference safe (also termed hidden-node-free) transmissions in CSMA networks under the cumulative interference model. Compared with the safe carrier-sensing range under the commonly assumed but less realistic pairwise interference model, we show that the safe carrier-sensing range required under the cumulative interference model is larger by a constant multiplicative factor. The concept of a safe carrier-sensing range, although amenable to elegant analytical results, is inherently not compatible with the conventional power threshold carrier-sensing mechanism (e.g., that used in IEEE 802.11). Specifically, the absolute power sensed by a node in the conventional mechanism does not contain enough information for it to derive its distances from other concurrent transmitter nodes. We show that, fortunately, a carrier-sensing mechanism called Incremental-Power Carrier-Sensing (IPCS) can realize the carrier-sensing...

  18. Cumulants and Correlation Functions vs the QCD phase diagram

    CERN Document Server

    Bzdak, Adam; Strodthoff, Nils

    2016-01-01

    In this note we discuss the relation of particle number cumulants and correlation functions related to them. It is argued that measuring couplings of the genuine correlation functions could provide cleaner information on possible non-trivial dynamics in heavy-ion collisions. We extract integrated multi-particle correlation functions from the presently available experimental data on proton cumulants. We find that the STAR data contain significant four-particle correlations, at least at the lower energies, with indication of changing dynamics in central collisions. We also find that these correlations are rather long-ranged in rapidity. Finally based on the signs of genuine correlation functions we provide exclusion plots for the QCD phase diagram.

  19. Cumulants of heat transfer across nonlinear quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huanan; Agarwalla, Bijay Kumar; Li, Baowen; Wang, Jian-Sheng

    2013-12-01

    We consider thermal conduction across a general nonlinear phononic junction. Based on two-time observation protocol and the nonequilibrium Green's function method, heat transfer in steady-state regimes is studied, and practical formulas for the calculation of the cumulant generating function are obtained. As an application, the general formalism is used to study anharmonic effects on fluctuation of steady-state heat transfer across a single-site junction with a quartic nonlinear on-site pinning potential. An explicit nonlinear modification to the cumulant generating function exact up to the first order is given, in which the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation symmetry is found still valid. Numerically a self-consistent procedure is introduced, which works well for strong nonlinearity.

  20. Burden attributable to child maltreatment in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sophie E; Scott, James G; Ferrari, Alize J; Mills, Ryan; Dunne, Michael P; Erskine, Holly E; Devries, Karen M; Degenhardt, Louisa; Vos, Theo; Whiteford, Harvey A; McCarthy, Molly; Norman, Rosana E

    2015-10-01

    Child maltreatment is a complex phenomenon, with four main types (childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect) highly interrelated. All types of maltreatment have been linked to adverse health consequences and exposure to multiple forms of maltreatment increases risk. In Australia to date, only burden attributable to childhood sexual abuse has been estimated. This study synthesized the national evidence and quantified the burden attributable to the four main types of child maltreatment. Meta-analyses, based on quality-effects models, generated pooled prevalence estimates for each maltreatment type. Exposure to child maltreatment was examined as a risk factor for depressive disorders, anxiety disorders and intentional self-harm using counterfactual estimation and comparative risk assessment methods. Adjustments were made for co-occurrence of multiple forms of child maltreatment. Overall, an estimated 23.5% of self-harm, 20.9% of anxiety disorders and 15.7% of depressive disorders burden in males; and 33.0% of self-harm, 30.6% of anxiety disorders and 22.8% of depressive disorders burden in females was attributable to child maltreatment. Child maltreatment was estimated to cause 1.4% (95% uncertainty interval 0.4-2.3%) of all disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in males, and 2.4% (0.7-4.1%) of all DALYs in females in Australia in 2010. Child maltreatment contributes to a substantial proportion of burden from depressive and anxiety disorders and intentional self-harm in Australia. This study demonstrates the importance of including all forms of child maltreatment as risk factors in future burden of disease studies.

  1. Estimating the impact of newly arrived foreign-born persons on tuberculosis in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yecai Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Among approximately 163.5 million foreign-born persons admitted to the United States annually, only 500,000 immigrants and refugees are required to undergo overseas tuberculosis (TB screening. It is unclear what extent of the unscreened nonimmigrant visitors contributes to the burden of foreign-born TB in the United States. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We defined foreign-born persons within 1 year after arrival in the United States as "newly arrived", and utilized data from U.S. Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and World Health Organization to estimate the incidence of TB among newly arrived foreign-born persons in the United States. During 2001 through 2008, 11,500 TB incident cases, including 291 multidrug-resistant TB incident cases, were estimated to occur among 20,989,738 person-years for the 1,479,542,654 newly arrived foreign-born persons in the United States. Of the 11,500 estimated TB incident cases, 41.6% (4,783 occurred among immigrants and refugees, 36.6% (4,211 among students/exchange visitors and temporary workers, 13.8% (1,589 among tourists and business travelers, and 7.3% (834 among Canadian and Mexican nonimmigrant visitors without an I-94 form (e.g., arrival-departure record. The top 3 newly arrived foreign-born populations with the largest estimated TB incident cases per 100,000 admissions were immigrants and refugees from high-incidence countries (e.g., 2008 WHO-estimated TB incidence rate of ≥100 cases/100,000 population/year; 235.8 cases/100,000 admissions, 95% confidence interval [CI], 228.3 to 243.3, students/exchange visitors and temporary workers from high-incidence countries (60.9 cases/100,000 admissions, 95% CI, 58.5 to 63.3, and immigrants and refugees from medium-incidence countries (e.g., 2008 WHO-estimated TB incidence rate of 15-99 cases/100,000 population/year; 55.2 cases/100,000 admissions, 95% CI, 51.6 to 58.8. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Newly

  2. Seasonal climate change patterns due to cumulative CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Leduc, Martin; Damon Matthews, H.

    2017-07-01

    Cumulative CO2 emissions are near linearly related to both global and regional changes in annual-mean surface temperature. These relationships are known as the transient climate response to cumulative CO2 emissions (TCRE) and the regional TCRE (RTCRE), and have been shown to remain approximately constant over a wide range of cumulative emissions. Here, we assessed how well this relationship holds for seasonal patterns of temperature change, as well as for annual-mean and seasonal precipitation patterns. We analyzed an idealized scenario with CO2 concentration growing at an annual rate of 1% using data from 12 Earth system models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Seasonal RTCRE values for temperature varied considerably, with the highest seasonal variation evident in the Arctic, where RTCRE was about 5.5 °C per Tt C for boreal winter and about 2.0 °C per Tt C for boreal summer. Also the precipitation response in the Arctic during boreal winter was stronger than during other seasons. We found that emission-normalized seasonal patterns of temperature change were relatively robust with respect to time, though they were sub-linear with respect to emissions particularly near the Arctic. Moreover, RTCRE patterns for precipitation could not be quantified robustly due to the large internal variability of precipitation. Our results suggest that cumulative CO2 emissions are a useful metric to predict regional and seasonal changes in precipitation and temperature. This extension of the TCRE framework to seasonal and regional climate change is helpful for communicating the link between emissions and climate change to policy-makers and the general public, and is well-suited for impact studies that could make use of estimated regional-scale climate changes that are consistent with the carbon budgets associated with global temperature targets.

  3. Heavy metal cumulation in crops after the sewage sludge application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gondová Andrea

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available During 1995 - 1996 the crops samples after the sewage sludge application were collected. The heavy metals cumulation in investigated crops from Bardejov increased in order: Zn > Cu > Pb > Ni > Cr > Cd and Banská Bystrica : Zn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Pb > Cd. Heavy metals contents after the sewage sludge application were increased in comparison with the highest admissible concentration in eatable part of crops. The sewage sludge application were not recommended in soils for the growth of vegetables

  4. Finite-volume cumulant expansion in QCD-colorless plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladrem, M. [Taibah University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Madinah, Al-Munawwarah (Saudi Arabia); Physics Department, Algiers (Algeria); ENS-Vieux Kouba (Bachir El-Ibrahimi), Laboratoire de Physique et de Mathematiques Appliquees (LPMA), Algiers (Algeria); Ahmed, M.A.A. [Taibah University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Madinah, Al-Munawwarah (Saudi Arabia); ENS-Vieux Kouba (Bachir El-Ibrahimi), Laboratoire de Physique et de Mathematiques Appliquees (LPMA), Algiers (Algeria); Taiz University in Turba, Physics Department, Taiz (Yemen); Alfull, Z.Z. [Taibah University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Madinah, Al-Munawwarah (Saudi Arabia); Cherif, S. [ENS-Vieux Kouba (Bachir El-Ibrahimi), Laboratoire de Physique et de Mathematiques Appliquees (LPMA), Algiers (Algeria); Ghardaia University, Sciences and Technologies Department, Ghardaia (Algeria)

    2015-09-15

    Due to the finite-size effects, the localization of the phase transition in finite systems and the determination of its order, become an extremely difficult task, even in the simplest known cases. In order to identify and locate the finite-volume transition point T{sub 0}(V) of the QCD deconfinement phase transition to a colorless QGP, we have developed a new approach using the finite-size cumulant expansion of the order parameter and the L{sub mn}-method. The first six cumulants C{sub 1,2,3,4,5,6} with the corresponding under-normalized ratios (skewness Σ, kurtosis κ, pentosis Π{sub ±}, and hexosis H{sub 1,2,3}) and three unnormalized combinations of them, (O = σ{sup 2}κΣ{sup -1},U = σ{sup -2}Σ{sup -1},N = σ{sup 2}κ) are calculated and studied as functions of (T, V). A new approach, unifying in a clear and consistent way the definitions of cumulant ratios, is proposed.Anumerical FSS analysis of the obtained results has allowed us to locate accurately the finite-volume transition point. The extracted transition temperature value T{sub 0}(V) agrees with that expected T{sub 0}{sup N}(V) from the order parameter and the thermal susceptibility χ{sub T} (T, V), according to the standard procedure of localization to within about 2%. In addition to this, a very good correlation factor is obtained proving the validity of our cumulants method. The agreement of our results with those obtained by means of other models is remarkable. (orig.)

  5. The cumulation of methylmercury in fish (Poecilia reticulata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stary, J.; Kratzer, K.; Havlik, B.; Prasilova, J.; Hanusova, J.

    1980-01-01

    Methylmercury labelled with mercury-203 was used for the investigation of the uptake and the release of methylmercury in fish. It has been found that methylmercury compounds adsorbed on fish food remain completely in fish and that they are released with the biological half-time of 110 days. The cumulation of methylmercury from water is very rapid. Equations for the calculation of the concentration of methylmercury in fish were derived and compared with the uptake of phenylmercury and inorganic mercury.

  6. Erupted cumulate fragments in rhyolites from Lipari (Aeolian Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forni, Francesca; Ellis, Ben S.; Bachmann, Olivier; Lucchi, Federico; Tranne, Claudio A.; Agostini, Samuele; Dallai, Luigi

    2015-12-01

    Over the last ~267 ky, the island of Lipari has erupted magmas ranging in compositions from basaltic andesites to rhyolites, with a notable compositional gap in the dacite field. Bulk geochemical and isotopic compositions of the volcanic succession, in conjunction with major and trace elemental compositions of minerals, indicate that the rhyolites were dominantly generated via crystal fractionation processes, with subordinate assimilation. Radiogenic (Sr, Nd, and Pb) and stable (O) isotopes independently suggest ≤30 % of crustal contamination with the majority of it occurring in mafic compositions, likely relatively deep in the system. Within the rhyolites, crystal-rich, K2O-rich enclaves are common. In contrast to previous interpretations, we suggest that these enclaves represent partial melting, remobilization and eruption of cumulate fragments left-over from rhyolite melt extraction. Cumulate melting and remobilization is supported by the presence of (1) resorbed, low-temperature minerals (biotite and sanidine), providing the potassic signature to these clasts, (2) reacted Fo-rich olivine, marking the presence of mafic recharge, (3) An38-21 plagioclase, filling the gap in feldspar composition between the andesites and the rhyolites and (4) strong enrichment in Sr and Ba in plagioclase and sanidine, suggesting crystallization from a locally enriched melt. Based on Sr-melt partitioning, the high-Sr plagioclase would require ~2300 ppm Sr in the melt, a value far in excess of Sr contents in Lipari and Vulcano magmas (50-1532 ppm) but consistent with melting of a feldspar-rich cumulate. Due to the presence of similar crystal-rich enclaves within the rhyolites from Vulcano, we propose that the eruption of remobilized cumulates associated with high-SiO2 rhyolites may be a common process at the Aeolian volcanoes, as already attested for a variety of volcanic systems around the world.

  7. [Cumulative effect of Coriolis acceleration on coronary hemodynamics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapaev, E V; Bednenko, V S

    1985-01-01

    Time-course variations in coronary circulation and cardiac output were measured in 29 healthy test subjects who performed tests with a continuous cumulation of Coriolis accelerations and in 12 healthy test subjects who were exposed to Coriolis accelerations combined with acute hypoxia. Adaptive changes in coronary circulation were seen. It is recommended to monitor coronary circulation during vestibulometric tests as part of medical expertise of the flying personnel.

  8. The humanistic burden of hereditary angioedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caballero, Teresa; Aygören-Pürsün, Emel; Bygum, Anette

    2014-01-01

    and impact of HAE types I and II from the patient perspective. The HAE Burden of Illness Study in Europe was conducted in Spain, Germany, and Denmark to assess the real-world experience of HAE from the patient perspective via a one-time survey, which included items on clinical characteristics and physical......Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare but potentially life-threatening disease marked by spontaneous, recurrent attacks of swelling. The broad range of consequences of HAE on patients? lives is not well understood. The study objective was to comprehensively characterize the burden of illness...

  9. The economic burden of schizophrenia in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teoh SL

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Siew Li Teoh,1 Huey Yi Chong,1 Salina Abdul Aziz,2 Norliza Chemi,2 Abdul Razak Othman,2 Nurzuriana Md Zaki,2 Possatorn Vanichkulpitak,3 Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk1,4–6 1School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Selangor, 2Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 3Faculty of Pharmacy, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom, 4Center of Pharmaceutical Outcomes Research (CPOR, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, Thailand; 5School of Pharmacy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA; 6Health and Well-being Cluster, Global Asia in the 21st Century (GA21 Platform, Monash University Malaysia, Selangor, MalaysiaIntroduction: Schizophrenia (SCZ is a highly debilitating disease despite its low prevalence. The economic burden associated with SCZ is substantial and mainly attributed to productivity loss. To improve the understanding of economic burden of SCZ in the low- and middle-income country regions, we aimed to determine the economic burden of SCZ in Malaysia.Methods: A retrospective study was conducted using a prevalence-based approach from a societal perspective in Malaysia with a 1 year period from 2013. We used micro-costing technique with bottom-up method and included direct medical cost, direct non-medical cost, and indirect cost. The main data source was medical chart review which was conducted in Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL. The medical charts were identified electronically by matching the unique patient’s identification number registered under the National Mental Health Schizophrenia Registry and the list of patients in HKL in 2013. Other data sources were government documents, literatures, and local websites. To ensure robustness of result, probabilistic sensitivity analysis was conducted.Results: The total estimated number of treated SCZ cases in Malaysia in 2015 was 15,104 with the total economic burden of USD 100 million

  10. Cumulative Risk Assessment Toolbox: Methods and Approaches for the Practitioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret M. MacDonell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The historical approach to assessing health risks of environmental chemicals has been to evaluate them one at a time. In fact, we are exposed every day to a wide variety of chemicals and are increasingly aware of potential health implications. Although considerable progress has been made in the science underlying risk assessments for real-world exposures, implementation has lagged because many practitioners are unaware of methods and tools available to support these analyses. To address this issue, the US Environmental Protection Agency developed a toolbox of cumulative risk resources for contaminated sites, as part of a resource document that was published in 2007. This paper highlights information for nearly 80 resources from the toolbox and provides selected updates, with practical notes for cumulative risk applications. Resources are organized according to the main elements of the assessment process: (1 planning, scoping, and problem formulation; (2 environmental fate and transport; (3 exposure analysis extending to human factors; (4 toxicity analysis; and (5 risk and uncertainty characterization, including presentation of results. In addition to providing online access, plans for the toolbox include addressing nonchemical stressors and applications beyond contaminated sites and further strengthening resource accessibility to support evolving analyses for cumulative risk and sustainable communities.

  11. Finite Volume Cumulant Expansion in QCD-Colorless Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Ladrem, M; Al-Full, Z; Cherif, S

    2015-01-01

    Due to the finite size effects, the localisation of the phase transition in finite systems and the determination of its order, become an extremely difficult task, even in the simplest known cases. In order to identify and locate the finite volume transition point $T_{0}(V)$ of the QCD deconfinement phase transition to a Colorless QGP, we have developed a new approach using the finite size cumulant expansion of the order parameter and the $L_{mn}$-method. The first six cumulants $C_{1,2,3,4,5,6}$ with the corresponding under-normalized ratios(skewness $\\Sigma$, kurtosis $\\kappa$ ,pentosis $\\Pi_{\\pm}$ and hexosis $\\mathcal{H}_{1,2,3}$) and three unnormalized combinations of them ($\\mathcal{O}={\\mathcal{\\sigma }^{2} \\mathcal{\\kappa } }{\\mathbf{\\Sigma }^{-1} }$, $\\mathcal{U} ={\\mathcal{\\sigma }^{-2} \\mathbf{\\Sigma }^{-1} }$, $\\mathcal{N} = \\mathcal{\\sigma }^{2} \\mathcal{\\kappa }$) are calculated and studied as functions of $(T,V)$. A new approach, unifying in a clear and consistent way the definitions of cumulant...

  12. Cumulative Risk Assessment Toolbox: Methods and Approaches for the Practitioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonell, Margaret M.; Haroun, Lynne A.; Teuschler, Linda K.; Rice, Glenn E.; Hertzberg, Richard C.; Butler, James P.; Chang, Young-Soo; Clark, Shanna L.; Johns, Alan P.; Perry, Camarie S.; Garcia, Shannon S.; Jacobi, John H.; Scofield, Marcienne A.

    2013-01-01

    The historical approach to assessing health risks of environmental chemicals has been to evaluate them one at a time. In fact, we are exposed every day to a wide variety of chemicals and are increasingly aware of potential health implications. Although considerable progress has been made in the science underlying risk assessments for real-world exposures, implementation has lagged because many practitioners are unaware of methods and tools available to support these analyses. To address this issue, the US Environmental Protection Agency developed a toolbox of cumulative risk resources for contaminated sites, as part of a resource document that was published in 2007. This paper highlights information for nearly 80 resources from the toolbox and provides selected updates, with practical notes for cumulative risk applications. Resources are organized according to the main elements of the assessment process: (1) planning, scoping, and problem formulation; (2) environmental fate and transport; (3) exposure analysis extending to human factors; (4) toxicity analysis; and (5) risk and uncertainty characterization, including presentation of results. In addition to providing online access, plans for the toolbox include addressing nonchemical stressors and applications beyond contaminated sites and further strengthening resource accessibility to support evolving analyses for cumulative risk and sustainable communities. PMID:23762048

  13. 4D Near-Field Source Localization Using Cumulant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Feng

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new cumulant-based algorithm to jointly estimate four-dimensional (4D source parameters of multiple near-field narrowband sources. Firstly, this approach proposes a new cross-array, and constructs five high-dimensional Toeplitz matrices using the fourth-order cumulants of some properly chosen sensor outputs; secondly, it forms a parallel factor (PARAFAC model in the cumulant domain using these matrices, and analyzes the unique low-rank decomposition of this model; thirdly, it jointly estimates the frequency, two-dimensional (2D directions-of-arrival (DOAs, and range of each near-field source from the matrices via the low-rank three-way array (TWA decomposition. In comparison with some available methods, the proposed algorithm, which efficiently makes use of the array aperture, can localize sources using sensors. In addition, it requires neither pairing parameters nor multidimensional search. Simulation results are presented to validate the performance of the proposed method.

  14. 4D Near-Field Source Localization Using Cumulant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junying Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new cumulant-based algorithm to jointly estimate four-dimensional (4D source parameters of multiple near-field narrowband sources. Firstly, this approach proposes a new cross-array, and constructs five high-dimensional Toeplitz matrices using the fourth-order cumulants of some properly chosen sensor outputs; secondly, it forms a parallel factor (PARAFAC model in the cumulant domain using these matrices, and analyzes the unique low-rank decomposition of this model; thirdly, it jointly estimates the frequency, two-dimensional (2D directions-of-arrival (DOAs, and range of each near-field source from the matrices via the low-rank three-way array (TWA decomposition. In comparison with some available methods, the proposed algorithm, which efficiently makes use of the array aperture, can localize N−3 sources using N sensors. In addition, it requires neither pairing parameters nor multidimensional search. Simulation results are presented to validate the performance of the proposed method.

  15. Cumulative risk: toxicity and interactions of physical and chemical stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, Cynthia V; Boekelheide, Kim; Catlin, Natasha; Gordon, Christopher J; Morata, Thais; Selgrade, Maryjane K; Sexton, Kenneth; Simmons, Jane Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Recent efforts to update cumulative risk assessment procedures to incorporate nonchemical stressors ranging from physical to psychosocial reflect increased interest in consideration of the totality of variables affecting human health and the growing desire to develop community-based risk assessment methods. A key roadblock is the uncertainty as to how nonchemical stressors behave in relationship to chemical stressors. Physical stressors offer a reasonable starting place for measuring the effects of nonchemical stressors and their modulation of chemical effects (and vice versa), as they clearly differ from chemical stressors; and "doses" of many physical stressors are more easily quantifiable than those of psychosocial stressors. There is a commonly held belief that virtually nothing is known about the impact of nonchemical stressors on chemically mediated toxicity or the joint impact of coexposure to chemical and nonchemical stressors. Although this is generally true, there are several instances where a substantial body of evidence exists. A workshop titled "Cumulative Risk: Toxicity and Interactions of Physical and Chemical Stressors" held at the 2013 Society of Toxicology Annual Meeting provided a forum for discussion of research addressing the toxicity of physical stressors and what is known about their interactions with chemical stressors, both in terms of exposure and effects. Physical stressors including sunlight, heat, radiation, infectious disease, and noise were discussed in reference to identifying pathways of interaction with chemical stressors, data gaps, and suggestions for future incorporation into cumulative risk assessments.

  16. Childhood poverty and health: cumulative risk exposure and stress dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gary W; Kim, Pilyoung

    2007-11-01

    A massive literature documents the inverse association between poverty or low socioeconomic status and health, but little is known about the mechanisms underlying this robust relation. We examined longitudinal relations between duration of poverty exposure since birth, cumulative risk exposure, and physiological stress in two hundred seven 13-year-olds. Chronic stress was assessed by basal blood pressure and overnight cortisol levels; stress regulation was assessed by cardiovascular reactivity to a standard acute stressor and recovery after exposure to this stressor. Cumulative risk exposure was measured by multiple physical (e.g., substandard housing) and social (e.g., family turmoil) risk factors. The greater the number of years spent living in poverty, the more elevated was overnight cortisol and the more dysregulated was the cardiovascular response (i.e., muted reactivity). Cardiovascular recovery was not affected by duration of poverty exposure. Unlike the duration of poverty exposure, concurrent poverty (i.e., during adolescence) did not affect these physiological stress outcomes. The effects of childhood poverty on stress dysregulation are largely explained by cumulative risk exposure accompanying childhood poverty.

  17. Multiway Filtering Based on Fourth-Order Cumulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Bourennane

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new multiway filtering based on fourth-order cumulants for the denoising of noisy data tensor with correlated Gaussian noise. The classical multiway filtering is based on the TUCKALS3 algorithm that computes a lower-rank tensor approximation. The presented method relies on the statistics of the analyzed multicomponent signal. We first recall how the well-known lower rank-(K1,…,KN tensor approximation processed by TUCKALS3 alternating least square algorithm exploits second-order statistics. Then, we propose to introduce the fourth-order statistics in the TUCKALS3-based method. Indeed, the use of fourth-order cumulants enables to remove the Gaussian components of an additive noise. In the presented method the estimation of the n-mode projector on the n-mode signal subspace are built from the eigenvectors associated with the largest eigenvalues of a fourth-order cumulant slice matrix instead of a covariance matrix. Each projector is applied by means of the n-mode product operator on the n-mode of the data tensor. The qualitative results of the improved multiway TUCKALS3-based filterings are shown for the case of noise reduction in a color image and multicomponent seismic data.

  18. Cumulative risk hypothesis: Predicting and preventing child maltreatment recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, David; Åsberg, Kia; Peer, Samuel; Prince, Gwendolyn

    2016-08-01

    Although Child Protective Services (CPS) and other child welfare agencies aim to prevent further maltreatment in cases of child abuse and neglect, recidivism is common. Having a better understanding of recidivism predictors could aid in preventing additional instances of maltreatment. A previous study identified two CPS interventions that predicted recidivism: psychotherapy for the parent, which was related to a reduced risk of recidivism, and temporary removal of the child from the parent's custody, which was related to an increased recidivism risk. However, counter to expectations, this previous study did not identify any other specific risk factors related to maltreatment recidivism. For the current study, it was hypothesized that (a) cumulative risk (i.e., the total number of risk factors) would significantly predict maltreatment recidivism above and beyond intervention variables in a sample of CPS case files and that (b) therapy for the parent would be related to a reduced likelihood of recidivism. Because it was believed that the relation between temporary removal of a child from the parent's custody and maltreatment recidivism is explained by cumulative risk, the study also hypothesized that that the relation between temporary removal of the child from the parent's custody and recidivism would be mediated by cumulative risk. After performing a hierarchical logistic regression analysis, the first two hypotheses were supported, and an additional predictor, psychotherapy for the child, also was related to reduced chances of recidivism. However, Hypothesis 3 was not supported, as risk did not significantly mediate the relation between temporary removal and recidivism.

  19. Tick-Borne Diseases: The Big Two

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Ticks and Diseases Tick-borne Diseases: The Big Two Past Issues / Spring - ... on the skin where there has been a tick bite. Photo: CDC/James Gathany Lyme disease Lyme ...

  20. Aircraft propeller induced structure-borne noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, James F.

    1989-01-01

    A laboratory-based test apparatus employing components typical of aircraft construction was developed that would allow the study of structure-borne noise transmission due to propeller induced wake/vortex excitation of in-wake structural appendages. The test apparatus was employed to evaluate several aircraft installation effects (power plant placement, engine/nacelle mass loading, and wing/fuselage attachment methods) and several structural response modifications for structure-borne noise control (the use of wing blocking mass/fuel, wing damping treaments, and tuned mechanical dampers). Most important was the development of in-flight structure-borne noise transmission detection techniques using a combination of ground-based frequency response function testing and in-flight structural response measurement. Propeller wake/vortex excitation simulation techniques for improved ground-based testing were also developed to support the in-flight structure-borne noise transmission detection development.

  1. Born-Infeld action and Supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, G A

    2000-01-01

    In the thesis we analize different problems related to the supersymmetric extension of the Dirac-Born-Infeld action. In chapter 2 we introduce the DBI action and show how it appears in string theory, we discuss also it's connection with Dp-branes. Chapter 3 is a self contained introduction to supersymmetry, with emphasis on BPS states. In chapter 4 we construct the N=2 supersymmetric extension of the Born-Infeld-Higgs in three space-time dimensions and discuss it's BPS states and Bogomol'nyi bounds. In chapter 5 we construct the N=1 supersymmetric extension of the non-abelian Born-Infeld theory in four space-time dimensions. Chapter 6 deals with the analisis of BPS and non-BPS solutions of the Dirac-Born-Infeld action and their interpretation in superstring theory. Chapter 7 is devoted to the conclusions. Three appendix complete the work.

  2. On Born approximation in black hole scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batic, D. [University of West Indies, Department of Mathematics, Kingston (Jamaica); Kelkar, N.G.; Nowakowski, M. [Universidad de los Andes, Departamento de Fisica, Bogota (Colombia)

    2011-12-15

    A massless field propagating on spherically symmetric black hole metrics such as the Schwarzschild, Reissner-Nordstroem and Reissner-Nordstroem-de Sitter backgrounds is considered. In particular, explicit formulae in terms of transcendental functions for the scattering of massless scalar particles off black holes are derived within a Born approximation. It is shown that the conditions on the existence of the Born integral forbid a straightforward extraction of the quasi normal modes using the Born approximation for the scattering amplitude. Such a method has been used in literature. We suggest a novel, well defined method, to extract the large imaginary part of quasinormal modes via the Coulomb-like phase shift. Furthermore, we compare the numerically evaluated exact scattering amplitude with the Born one to find that the approximation is not very useful for the scattering of massless scalar, electromagnetic as well as gravitational waves from black holes. (orig.)

  3. Difficulties in Diagnosing Food-Borne Botulism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Forss

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Botulism is a muscle-paralyzing disease caused by neurotoxins (types A–G produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum. Symptoms of food-borne botulism most commonly appear 12–36 h after eating contaminated food, but the earliest neurological symptoms may in some cases start abruptly. Here, we report the cases of two patients with food-borne botulism who were admitted to the neurological emergency room as candidates for intravenous thrombolysis for acute stroke.

  4. Born-Infeld corrections to Coulombian interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Ferraro, Rafael; Lipchak, Maria Evangelina

    2006-01-01

    Two-dimensional Born-Infeld electrostatic fields behaving as the superposition of two point-like charges in the linearized (Maxwellian) limit are worked out by means of a non-holomorphic mapping of the complex plane. The changes underwent by the Coulombian interaction between two charges in Born-Infeld theory are computed. Remarkably, the force between equal charges goes to zero as they approach each other.

  5. Difficulties in Diagnosing Food-Borne Botulism

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Botulism is a muscle-paralyzing disease caused by neurotoxins (types A–G) produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum. Symptoms of food-borne botulism most commonly appear 12–36 h after eating contaminated food, but the earliest neurological symptoms may in some cases start abruptly. Here, we report the cases of two patients with food-borne botulism who were admitted to the neurological emergency room as candidates for intravenous thrombolysis for acute stroke.

  6. Difficulties in diagnosing food-borne botulism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forss, Nina; Ramstad, Raimo; Bäcklund, Tom; Lindström, Miia; Kolho, Elina

    2012-05-01

    Botulism is a muscle-paralyzing disease caused by neurotoxins (types A-G) produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum. Symptoms of food-borne botulism most commonly appear 12-36 h after eating contaminated food, but the earliest neurological symptoms may in some cases start abruptly. Here, we report the cases of two patients with food-borne botulism who were admitted to the neurological emergency room as candidates for intravenous thrombolysis for acute stroke.

  7. World Health Organization Global Estimates and Regional Comparisons of the Burden of Foodborne Disease in 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie H Havelaar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Illness and death from diseases caused by contaminated food are a constant threat to public health and a significant impediment to socio-economic development worldwide. To measure the global and regional burden of foodborne disease (FBD, the World Health Organization (WHO established the Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG, which here reports their first estimates of the incidence, mortality, and disease burden due to 31 foodborne hazards. We find that the global burden of FBD is comparable to those of the major infectious diseases, HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis. The most frequent causes of foodborne illness were diarrheal disease agents, particularly norovirus and Campylobacter spp. Diarrheal disease agents, especially non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica, were also responsible for the majority of deaths due to FBD. Other major causes of FBD deaths were Salmonella Typhi, Taenia solium and hepatitis A virus. The global burden of FBD caused by the 31 hazards in 2010 was 33 million Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs; children under five years old bore 40% of this burden. The 14 subregions, defined on the basis of child and adult mortality, had considerably different burdens of FBD, with the greatest falling on the subregions in Africa, followed by the subregions in South-East Asia and the Eastern Mediterranean D subregion. Some hazards, such as non-typhoidal S. enterica, were important causes of FBD in all regions of the world, whereas others, such as certain parasitic helminths, were highly localised. Thus, the burden of FBD is borne particularly by children under five years old-although they represent only 9% of the global population-and people living in low-income regions of the world. These estimates are conservative, i.e., underestimates rather than overestimates; further studies are needed to address the data gaps and limitations of the study. Nevertheless, all stakeholders can contribute to improvements in food

  8. Women Are More Susceptible to Caries but Individuals Born with Clefts Are Not

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Jindal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of individuals at a higher risk of developing caries is of great interest. Isolated forms of cleft lip and palate are among the most common craniofacial congenital anomalies in humans. Historically, several reports suggest that individuals born with clefts have a higher risk for caries. Caries continues to be the most common infectious noncontagious disease worldwide and a great burden to any health system. The identification of individuals of higher susceptibility to caries is of great interest. In this paper, we assessed caries experience of 1,593 individuals from three distinct populations. The study included individuals born with clefts, their unaffected relatives, and unrelated unaffected controls that were recruited from areas with similar cultural pressures and limited access to dental care. DMFT/dmft scores were obtained, and caries experience rates were compared among the three groups in each geographic area. Individuals born with clefts did not present higher caries experience in comparison to their unaffected relatives or unrelated unaffected controls. Women tend to present higher caries rates in comparison to men. Our work provides strong evidence that individuals born with clefts are not at higher risk to caries; however, women tend to have more severe caries experience.

  9. El Carreto o Cumulá - Aspidosperma Dugandii Standl El Carreto o Cumulá - Aspidosperma Dugandii Standl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugand Armando

    1944-03-01

    Full Text Available Nombres vulgares: Carreto (Atlántico, Bolívar, Magdalena; Cumulá, Cumulá (Cundinamarca, ToIima. Según el Dr. Emilio Robledo (Lecciones de Bot. ed. 3, 2: 544. 1939 el nombre Carreto también es empleado en Puerto Berrío (Antioquia. El mismo autor (loc. cit. da el nombre Comulá para una especie indeterminada de Viburnum en Mariquita (Tolima y J. M. Duque, refiriendose a la misma planta y localidad (en Bot. Gen. Colomb. 340, 356. 1943 atribuye este nombre vulgar al Aspidosperma ellipticum Rusby.  Sin embargo, las muestras de madera de Cumulá o Comulá que yo he examinado, procedentes de la región de Mariquita -una de las cuales me fue recientemente enviada por el distinguido ictiólogo Sr. Cecil Miles- pertenecen sin duda alguna al A. Dugandii StandI. Por otra parte, Santiago Cortés (FI. Colomb. 206. 1898; ed, 2: 239. 1912 cita el Cumulá "de Anapoima y otros lugares del (rio Magdalena" diciendo que pertenece a las Leguminosas, pero la brevísima descripción que este autor hace de la madera "naranjada y notable por densidad, dureza y resistencia a la humedad", me induce a creer que se trata del mismo Cumula coleccionado recientemente en Tocaima, ya que esta población esta situada a pocos kilómetros de Anapoima. Nombres vulgares: Carreto (Atlántico, Bolívar, Magdalena; Cumulá, Cumulá (Cundinamarca, ToIima. Según el Dr. Emilio Robledo (Lecciones de Bot. ed. 3, 2: 544. 1939 el nombre Carreto también es empleado en Puerto Berrío (Antioquia. El mismo autor (loc. cit. da el nombre Comulá para una especie indeterminada de Viburnum en Mariquita (Tolima y J. M. Duque, refiriendose a la misma planta y localidad (en Bot. Gen. Colomb. 340, 356. 1943 atribuye este nombre vulgar al Aspidosperma ellipticum Rusby.  Sin embargo, las muestras de madera de Cumulá o Comulá que yo he examinado, procedentes de la región de Mariquita -una de las cuales me fue recientemente enviada por el distinguido ictiólogo Sr. Cecil Miles- pertenecen sin

  10. Foreign-born Peers and Academic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Dylan

    2015-04-01

    The academic performance of foreign-born youth in the United States is well studied, yet little is known about whether and how foreign-born students influence their classmates. In this article, I develop a set of expectations regarding the potential consequences of immigrant integration across schools, with a distinction between the effects of sharing schools with immigrants who are designated as English language learners (ELL) and those who are not. I then use administrative data on multiple cohorts of Florida public high school students to estimate the effect of immigrant shares on immigrant and native-born students' academic performance. The identification strategy pays careful attention to the selection problem by estimating the effect of foreign-born peers from deviations in the share foreign-born across cohorts of students attending the same school in different years. The assumption underlying this approach is that students choose schools based on the composition of the entire school, not on the composition of each entering cohort. The results of the analysis, which hold under several robustness checks, indicate that foreign-born peers (both those who are ELL and those who are non-ELL) have no effect on their high school classmates' academic performance.

  11. General Medical Burden in Bipolar Disorder: Findings from the LiTMUS Comparative Effectiveness Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, David E.; Sylvia, Louisa G.; Calabrese, Joseph R.; Nierenberg, Andrew A.; Thase, Michael E.; Reilly-Harrington, Noreen A.; Ostacher, Michael J.; Leon, Andrew C.; Ketter, Terence A.; Friedman, Edward S.; Bowden, Charles L.; Pencina, Michael; Iosifescu, Dan V.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study examined general medical illnesses and their association with clinical features of bipolar disorder. Methods Data were cross-sectional and derived from the Lithium Treatment – Moderate Dose Use Study (LiTMUS), which randomized symptomatic adults (n=264 with available medical comorbidity scores) with bipolar disorder to moderate doses of lithium plus optimized treatment (OPT) or to OPT alone. Clinically significant high and low medical comorbidity burden were defined as a Cumulative Illness Rating Scale (CIRS) score ≥ 4 and < 4, respectively. Results The baseline prevalence of significant medical comorbidity was 53% (n=139). Patients with high medical burden were more likely to present in a major depressive episode (P=.04), meet criteria for obsessive-compulsive disorder (P=.02), and experience a greater number of lifetime mood episodes (P=0.02). They were also more likely to be prescribed a greater number of psychotropic medications (P=.002). Sixty-nine percent of the sample was overweight or obese as defined by body mass index (BMI), with African-Americans representing the racial group with the highest proportion of stage II obesity (BMI ≥ 35; 31%, n=14). Conclusions The burden of comorbid medical illnesses was high in this generalizable sample of treatment-seeking patients and appears associated with worsened course of illness and psychotropic medication patterns. (Funded by NIMH Contract N01MH80001; ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00667745). PMID:23465084

  12. The Global Burden of Cancer 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fitzmaurice, C.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Naghavi, M.R.; et al.,

    2015-01-01

    Importance Cancer is among the leading causes of death worldwide. Current estimates of cancer burden in individual countries and regions are necessary to inform local cancer control strategies. Objective To estimate mortality, incidence, years lived with disability (YLDs), years of life lost (YLLs),

  13. Periodontal inflamed surface area : quantifying inflammatory burden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nesse, Willem; Abbas, Frank; van der Ploeg, Ids; Spijkervet, Frederik Karst Lucien; Dijkstra, Pieter Ubele; Vissink, Arjan

    2008-01-01

    Background: Currently, a large variety of classifications is used for periodontitis as a risk factor for other diseases. None of these classifications quantifies the amount of inflamed periodontal tissue, while this information is needed to assess the inflammatory burden posed by periodontitis. Aim:

  14. 78 FR 42893 - Statement on Regulatory Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... serve the credit needs of its customers, i.e., America's farmers, ranchers, aquatic producers and... CREDIT ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Chapter VI RIN 3052-AC88 Statement on Regulatory Burden AGENCY: Farm Credit Administration. ACTION: Notice of intent; request for comment. SUMMARY: The Farm Credit Administration (FCA,...

  15. OPERATOR BURDEN IN METAL ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Amy M [ORNL; Love, Lonnie J [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is an emerging manufacturing process that creates usable machine parts via layer-by-layer joining of a stock material. With this layer-wise approach, high-performance geometries can be created which are impossible with traditional manufacturing methods. Metal AM technology has the potential to significantly reduce the manufacturing burden of developing custom hardware; however, a major consideration in choosing a metal AM system is the required amount of operator involvement (i.e., operator burden) in the manufacturing process. The operator burden not only determines the amount of operator training and specialization required but also the usability of the system in a facility. As operators of several metal AM processes, the Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) at Oak Ridge National Labs is uniquely poised to provide insight into requirements for operator involvement in each of the three major metal AM processes. The paper covers an overview of each of the three metal AM technologies, focusing on the burden on the operator to complete the build cycle, process the part for final use, and reset the AM equipment for future builds.

  16. Periodontal inflamed surface area : quantifying inflammatory burden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nesse, Willem; Abbas, Frank; van der Ploeg, Ids; Spijkervet, Frederik Karst Lucien; Dijkstra, Pieter Ubele; Vissink, Arjan

    2008-01-01

    Background: Currently, a large variety of classifications is used for periodontitis as a risk factor for other diseases. None of these classifications quantifies the amount of inflamed periodontal tissue, while this information is needed to assess the inflammatory burden posed by periodontitis. Aim:

  17. 77 FR 47328 - Reducing Regulatory Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... health and safety, and other advantages; distributive impacts; and equity). The regulatory process... businesses and the public. Agencies consider low-cost approaches that reduce burdens and maintain flexibility...-regulatory-system . The Department is committed to maintaining a consistent culture of retrospective...

  18. Equity and the Allocation of Miigation Burdens: A Carbon Budgets Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanitkar, T. T. I. O. S. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR5) provides global estimates of future cumulative carbon dioxide emissions of anthropogenic origin, for various representative concentration pathways (RCP). For example, for an approximately 50% probability of limiting the increase in temperature to 2 deg. C, the table shows that the limit on cumulative global carbon-dioxide emissions is 780 Gt of carbon between 2012 and 2100. We can now ask what each nation will get as a share of the globally allowed cumulative emissions. Corresponding to this share of cumulative emissions, every nation will have the flexibility to consider a range of emissions trajectories within its share. This paper calculates the "entitlements" and potential emissions (based on some reasonable growth and reduction rates) using four different methods for all the four RCPs discussed in the IPCC report - i) simply allocating the remaining carbon space (for the period from 2012 to 2100) on a per capita basis amongst the regions; ii) calculating entitlements for the period between 1850 and 2100 based on total emissions emitted in the past and allowed in the future divided among countries on a per capita basis; iii) the entitlements calculated in (ii) are weighted by per capita GDP to include a measure of 'capability' while calculating entitlements; iv) the entitlements calculated in (ii) are weighted by non-income HDI as another measure of 'capability'. The values are benchmarked against the potential emissions for the future resulting from the commitments already made by different countries and regions towards mitigation. The paper then goes on to provide an estimate for the avoided cost of carbon for India given a range of constraints on emissions that it will have to undertake as a part of such a schema of allocating the mitigation burden.

  19. Cumulative Effects of Hypertension, Dyslipidemia, and Chronic Kidney Disease on Carotid Atherosclerosis in Chinese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. The aim of this study is to determine the extent of carotid atherosclerosis in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes in relation to the cumulative atherosclerosis risk factors using ultrasonography. Methods. The presence of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and chronic kidney disease (CKD was documented in 106 Chinese subjects with type 2 diabetes. Subjects with 0, 1, and ≥2 additional atherosclerosis risk factors were assigned into groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively (n=17, 49, and 40, resp.. Using ultrasound, the carotid arteries were assessed for the presence of carotid plaque, plaque score, intima-media thickness (IMT, and carotid arterial stiffness. Results. With the adjustment for age and gender, the presence of plaque and plaque score were significantly higher in groups with more atherosclerosis risk factors (P 60 years old (odds ratio = 2.75; 95% CI: 1.26–6.0 and the presence of hypertension (odds ratio = 2.48; 95% CI: 1.11–5.58, dyslipidemia (odds ratio = 2.41; 95% CI: 1.05–5.51, and CKD (odds ratio = 7.80; 95% CI: 1.46–41.72 could independently predict higher plaque score (P<0.05. Conclusions. Hypertension, dyslipidemia, and CKD in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes have cumulative effects on the burden of carotid plaque.

  20. Mismatch or cumulative stress : Toward an integrated hypothesis of programming effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhof, Esther; Schmidt, Mathias V.

    2012-01-01

    This paper integrates the cumulative stress hypothesis with the mismatch hypothesis, taking into account individual differences in sensitivity to programming. According to the cumulative stress hypothesis, individuals are more likely to suffer from disease as adversity accumulates. According to the

  1. Caregiver Burden: Looking Beyond the Unidimensional Total Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Sabrina; Chong, Mei Sian; Ali, Noorhazlina; Chan, Mark; Chua, Kia Chong; Lim, Wee Shiong

    2015-01-01

    The Zarit Burden Interview allows caregiver burden to be interpreted from a total score. However, recent studies propose a multidimensional Zarit Burden Interview model. This study aims to determine the agreement between unidimensional (UD) and multidimensional (MD) classification of burden, and differences in predictors among identified groups. We studied 165 dyads of dementia patients and primary caregivers. Caregivers were dichotomized into low-burden and high-burden groups based upon: (1) UD score using quartile cutoffs; and (2) MD model via exploratory cluster analysis. We compared UD versus MD 2×2 classification of burden using κ statistics. Caregivers not showing agreement by either definition were classified as "intermediate" burden. We performed binary logistic regression to ascertain differences in predictive factors. The 2 models showed moderate agreement (κ=0.72, P<0.01), yielding 104 low, 20 intermediate (UD "low burden"/MD "high burden"), and 41 high-burden caregivers. Neuropsychiatric symptoms [odds ratio (OR)=1.27, P=0.003], coresidence (OR=6.32, P=0.040), and decreased caregiving hours (OR=0.99, P=0.018) were associated with intermediate burden, whereas neuropsychiatric symptoms (OR=1.21, P=0.001) and adult children caregivers (OR=2.80, P=0.055) were associated with high burden. Our results highlight the differences between UD and MD classification of caregiver burden. Future studies should explore the significance of the noncongruent intermediate group and its predictors.

  2. Estimating total cerebral microinfarct burden from diffusion-weighted imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auriel, Eitan; Westover, M. Brandon; Bianchi, Matt T; Reijmer, Yael; Martinez-Ramirez, Sergi; Ni, Jun; Van Etten, Ellis; Frosch, Matthew P; Fotiadis, Panagiotis; Schwab, Kris; Vashkevich, Anastasia; Boulouis, Grégoire; Younger, Alayna P; Johnson, Keith A; Sperling, Reisa A; Hedden, Trey; Gurol, M. Edip; Viswanathan, Anand; Greenberg, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Cerebral microinfarcts (CMI) are important contributors to vascular cognitive impairment. MRI diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) hyperintensities have been suggested to represent acute CMI. We aim to describe a mathematical method for estimating total number of CMI based on the presence of incidental DWI lesions. Methods We reviewed MRI scans of subjects with cognitive decline, cognitively normal subjects and previously reported subjects with past intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Based on temporal and spatial characteristics of DWI lesions we estimated the annual rate of CMI needed to explain the observed rate of DWI lesion detection in each group. To confirm our estimates we performed extensive sampling for CMI in the brain of a deceased subject with past lobar ICH who found to have a DWI lesion during life. Results Clinically silent DWI lesions were present in 13 of 343 (3.8%) cognitively impaired, and 10 of 199 (5%) cognitively intact normal non-ICH patients, both lower than the incidence in the past ICH patients (23 of 178, 12.9%, p<0.0006). The predicted annual incidence of CMI ranges from 16 to 1566 for non-ICH and 50 to 5041 for ICH individuals. Histologic sampling revealed a total of 60 lesions in 32 sections. Based on previously reported methods, this density of CMI yields an estimated total brain burden MLE of 9321 CMIs (95% CI 7255–11990). Conclusions Detecting even a single DWI lesion suggests an annual incidence of hundreds of new CMI. The cumulative effects of these lesions may directly contribute to small-vessel-related vascular cognitive impairment PMID:26159796

  3. Mapping cumulative noise from shipping to inform marine spatial planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbe, Christine; MacGillivray, Alexander; Williams, Rob

    2012-11-01

    Including ocean noise in marine spatial planning requires predictions of noise levels on large spatiotemporal scales. Based on a simple sound transmission model and ship track data (Automatic Identification System, AIS), cumulative underwater acoustic energy from shipping was mapped throughout 2008 in the west Canadian Exclusive Economic Zone, showing high noise levels in critical habitats for endangered resident killer whales, exceeding limits of "good conservation status" under the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Error analysis proved that rough calculations of noise occurrence and propagation can form a basis for management processes, because spending resources on unnecessary detail is wasteful and delays remedial action.

  4. The Carvedilol Prospective Randomized Cumulative Survival (COPERNICUS) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, Eric J; Bristow, Michael R

    2001-01-01

    Previous trials (Metoprolol CR/XL Randomised Intervention Trial in Congestive Heart Failure [MERIT-HF], Cardiac Insufficiency Bisoprolol Study [CIBIS] II) have demonstrated a mortality benefit of beta-adrenergic blockade in patients with mild to moderate heart failure. The recent Carvedilol Prospective Randomized Cumulative Survival (COPERNICUS) trial has extended these results to a more advanced patient population. This trial did not, however, include patients who could not reach compensation, patients with far advanced heart failure symptoms, or a significant number of black patients. Future studies of beta-blockade may focus on these patients or patients with asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction.

  5. Neutron source capability assessment for cumulative fission yields measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Descalle, M A; Dekin, W; Kenneally, J

    2011-04-06

    A recent analysis of high-quality cumulative fission yields data for Pu-239 published in the peer-reviewed literature showed that the quoted experimental uncertainties do not allow a clear statement on how the fission yields vary as a function of energy. [Prussin2009] To make such a statement requires a set of experiments with well 'controlled' and understood sources of experimental errors to reduce uncertainties as low as possible, ideally in the 1 to 2% range. The Inter Laboratory Working Group (ILWOG) determined that Directed Stockpile Work (DSW) would benefit from an experimental program with the stated goal to reduce the measurement uncertainties significantly in order to make a definitive statement of the relationship of energy dependence to the cumulative fission yields. Following recent discussions between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), there is a renewed interest in developing a concerted experimental program to measure fission yields in a neutron energy range from thermal energy (0.025 eV) to 14 MeV with an emphasis on discrete energies from 0.5 to 4 MeV. Ideally, fission yields would be measured at single energies, however, in practice there are only 'quasi-monoenergetic' neutrons sources of finite width. This report outlines a capability assessment as of June 2011 of available neutron sources that could be used as part of a concerted experimental program to measure cumulative fission yields. In a framework of international collaborations, capabilities available in the United States, at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) in the United Kingdom and at the Commissariat Energie Atomique (CEA) in France are listed. There is a need to develop an experimental program that will reduce the measurement uncertainties significantly in order to make a definitive statement of the relationship of energy dependence to the cumulative fission yields. Fission and monoenergetic neutron sources

  6. The Carvedilol Prospective Randomized Cumulative Survival (COPERNICUS trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bristow Michael R

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Previous trials (Metoprolol CR/XL Randomised Intervention Trial in Congestive Heart Failure [MERIT-HF], Cardiac Insufficiency Bisoprolol Study [CIBIS] II have demonstrated a mortality benefit of β-adrenergic blockade in patients with mild to moderate heart failure. The recent Carvedilol Prospective Randomized Cumulative Survival (COPERNICUS trial has extended these results to a more advanced patient population. This trial did not, however, include patients who could not reach compensation, patients with far advanced heart failure symptoms, or a significant number of black patients. Future studies of β-blockade may focus on these patients or patients with asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction.

  7. Generalized Cumulative Residual Entropy for Distributions with Unrestricted Supports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noomane Drissi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the cumulative residual entropy (CRE a recently introduced measure of entropy. While in previous works distributions with positive support are considered, we generalize the definition of CRE to the case of distributions with general support. We show that several interesting properties of the earlier CRE remain valid and supply further properties and insight to problems such as maximum CRE power moment problems. In addition, we show that this generalized CRE can be used as an alternative to differential entropy to derive information-based optimization criteria for system identification purpose.

  8. Wavefield separation by energy norm Born scattering

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Bingbing

    2017-08-17

    In Reflection Based Waveform Inversion, the gradient is computed by cross-correlating the direct and Born scattered wavefield with their adjoints applied to the data residuals. In this case, the transmitted part of the Born scattered wavefield produces high wavenumber artifacts, which would harm the convergence of the inversion process. We propose an efficient Energy Norm Born Scattering (ENBS) to attenuate the transmission components of the Born modeling, and allow it to produce only reflections. ENBS is derived from the adjoint of the Energy Norm (inverse scattering) imaging condition and in order to get deeper insights of how this method works, we show analytically that given an image, in which reflectivity is represented by a Dirac delta function, ENBS attenuates transmission energy perfectly. We use numerical examples to demonstrate that ENBS works in both the time and the frequency domain. We also show that in reflection waveform inversion (RWI) the wave path constructed by ENBS would be cleaner and free of high wavenumber artifacts associated with conventional Born scattering.

  9. Determining source cumulants in femtoscopy with Gram-Charlier and Edgeworth series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eggers, H. C.; De Kock, M. B.; Schmiegel, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Lowest-order cumulants provide important information on the shape of the emission source in femtoscopy. For the simple case of noninteracting identical particles, we show how the fourth-order source cumulant can be determined from measured cumulants in momentum space. The textbook Gram–Charlier s...

  10. High-resolution harmonic retrieval using the full fourth-order cumulant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, S.H.J.A.; Naus, H.W.L.; Zwamborn, A.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    The harmonic retrieval (HR) problem concerns the estimation of the frequencies in a sum of real or complex harmonics. Both correlation and cumulant-based approaches are used for this purpose. Cumulant-based HR algorithms use a single 1-D slice of the fourth-order cumulant that is estimated directly

  11. 75 FR 69662 - Workshop: Cumulative Mixtures Risk of Six Selected Phthalates in Support of Summary Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... AGENCY Workshop: Cumulative Mixtures Risk of Six Selected Phthalates in Support of Summary Information on...: Notice of Peer Consultation Workshop on the Cumulative Mixtures Risk of Six Selected Phthalates; Request... phthalates as set forth in the National Academies of Science (NAS) report ``Phthalates and Cumulative...

  12. Blood Pressure in Young Adults Born at Very Low Birth Weight: Adults Born Preterm International Collaboration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovi, P.; Vohr, B.; Ment, L.R.; Doyle, L.W.; McGarvey, L.; Morrison, K.M.; Evensen, K.A.I.; Pal, S. van der; Grunau, R.E.; Brubakk, A.M.; Andersson, S.; Saigal, S.; Kajantie, E.

    2016-01-01

    Adults born preterm at very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 g) have higher blood pressure than those born at term. It is not known whether all VLBW adults are at risk or whether higher blood pressure could be attributed to some of the specific conditions underlying or accompanying preterm birth. To

  13. Blood Pressure in Young Adults Born at Very Low Birth Weight: Adults Born Preterm International Collaboration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovi, P.; Vohr, B.; Ment, L.R.; Doyle, L.W.; McGarvey, L.; Morrison, K.M.; Evensen, K.A.I.; Pal, S. van der; Grunau, R.E.; Brubakk, A.M.; Andersson, S.; Saigal, S.; Kajantie, E.

    2016-01-01

    Adults born preterm at very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 g) have higher blood pressure than those born at term. It is not known whether all VLBW adults are at risk or whether higher blood pressure could be attributed to some of the specific conditions underlying or accompanying preterm birth. To id

  14. Estimating the Burden of Chagas Disease in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Manne-Goehler

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been growing awareness of the significant burden of Chagas disease in the United States (US. However, epidemiological data on both prevalence and access to care for this disease are limited. The objective of this study is to provide an updated national estimate of Chagas disease prevalence, the first state-level estimates of cases of T. cruzi infection in the US and to analyze these estimates in the context of data on confirmed cases of infection in the US blood supply.In this study, we calculated estimates of the state and national prevalence of Chagas disease. The number of residents originally from Chagas disease endemic countries were computed using data on Foreign-Born Hispanic populations from the American Community Survey, along with recent prevalence estimates for Chagas disease in Latin America from the World Health Organization that were published in 2006 and updated in 2015. We then describe the distribution of estimated cases in each state in relation to the number of infections identified in the donated blood supply per data from the AABB (formerly American Association of Blood Banks.The results of this analysis offer an updated national estimate of 238,091 cases of T. cruzi infection in the United States as of 2012, using the same method as was used by Bern and Montgomery to estimate cases in 2005. This estimate indicates that there are 62,070 cases less than the most recent prior estimate, though it does not include undocumented immigrants who may account for as many as 109,000 additional cases. The state level results show that four states (California, Texas, Florida and New York have over 10,000 cases and an additional seven states have over 5,000 cases. Moreover, since 2007, the AABB has reported 1,908 confirmed cases of T. cruzi infection identified through screening of blood donations.This study demonstrates a substantial burden of Chagas disease in the US, with state variation that reflects the

  15. Estimating the Burden of Chagas Disease in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne-Goehler, Jennifer; Umeh, Chukwuemeka A; Montgomery, Susan P; Wirtz, Veronika J

    2016-11-01

    In recent years, there has been growing awareness of the significant burden of Chagas disease in the United States (US). However, epidemiological data on both prevalence and access to care for this disease are limited. The objective of this study is to provide an updated national estimate of Chagas disease prevalence, the first state-level estimates of cases of T. cruzi infection in the US and to analyze these estimates in the context of data on confirmed cases of infection in the US blood supply. In this study, we calculated estimates of the state and national prevalence of Chagas disease. The number of residents originally from Chagas disease endemic countries were computed using data on Foreign-Born Hispanic populations from the American Community Survey, along with recent prevalence estimates for Chagas disease in Latin America from the World Health Organization that were published in 2006 and updated in 2015. We then describe the distribution of estimated cases in each state in relation to the number of infections identified in the donated blood supply per data from the AABB (formerly American Association of Blood Banks). The results of this analysis offer an updated national estimate of 238,091 cases of T. cruzi infection in the United States as of 2012, using the same method as was used by Bern and Montgomery to estimate cases in 2005. This estimate indicates that there are 62,070 cases less than the most recent prior estimate, though it does not include undocumented immigrants who may account for as many as 109,000 additional cases. The state level results show that four states (California, Texas, Florida and New York) have over 10,000 cases and an additional seven states have over 5,000 cases. Moreover, since 2007, the AABB has reported 1,908 confirmed cases of T. cruzi infection identified through screening of blood donations. This study demonstrates a substantial burden of Chagas disease in the US, with state variation that reflects the distribution of

  16. RNA Interference for Mosquito and Mosquito-Borne Disease Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M. Airs

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available RNA interference (RNAi is a powerful tool to silence endogenous mosquito and mosquito-borne pathogen genes in vivo. As the number of studies utilizing RNAi in basic research grows, so too does the arsenal of physiological targets that can be developed into products that interrupt mosquito life cycles and behaviors and, thereby, relieve the burden of mosquitoes on human health and well-being. As this technology becomes more viable for use in beneficial and pest insect management in agricultural settings, it is exciting to consider its role in public health entomology. Existing and burgeoning strategies for insecticide delivery could be adapted to function as RNAi trigger delivery systems and thereby expedite transformation of RNAi from the lab to the field for mosquito control. Taken together, development of RNAi-based vector and pathogen management techniques & strategies are within reach. That said, tools for successful RNAi design, studies exploring RNAi in the context of vector control, and studies demonstrating field efficacy of RNAi trigger delivery have yet to be honed and/or developed for mosquito control.

  17. The multiple burdens of zoonotic disease and an Ecohealth approach to their assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Delia; Gilbert, Jeff; Randolph, Thomas; Kang'ethe, Erastus

    2012-09-01

    Zoonoses occur at the interface of human and animal disease and partly because their impact and management fall across two sectors they are often neglected. The Global Burden of Disease captures the impact of zoonoses on human health in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Based on this, we estimate that in low income countries, zoonoses and diseases which recently emerged from animals make up 26 % of the DALYs lost to infectious disease and 10 % of the total DALYs lost. In contrast, in high income countries, zoonoses and diseases recently which emerged from animals represent less than 1 % of DALYs lost to infectious disease and only 0.02 % of the total disease burden. We present a framework that captures the costs of zoonoses and emerging disease to human, animal and ecosystem health in terms of cost of treatment, cost of prevention, health burden and intangible and opportunity costs. We also discuss how ecohealth concepts of transdisciplinarity, participation and equity can help in assessing the importance of zoonoses in developing countries and illustrate these with an example of assessing milk-borne disease.

  18. Caregiver Burden in Fragile X Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iosif, Ana-Maria; Sciolla, Andres F; Brahmbhatt, Khyati; Seritan, Andreea L

    2013-02-01

    Complex caregiving issues occur in multigenerational families carrying the fragile X mutation and premutation. The same family members may care for children or siblings with fragile X syndrome (FXS) and for elderly parents with fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS). Family caregivers experience anxiety, depression, neglect of personal health care needs, employment difficulties, and loss of social support, leading to isolation and further psychiatric consequences. There is growing awareness of caregiver burden with regard to parents of children with FXS, but much less is known about the needs of informal caregivers of patients with FXTAS. In this paper, we review the available literature to date and provide suggestions for further exploration of caregivers' needs. Evidence-based strategies to address these needs are included. Many more research studies exploring caregiver burden in multigenerational fragile X families are needed, as well as studies aimed at investigating interventions and their impact on reduction.

  19. Rising Burden of Obesity in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambady Ramachandran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Overweight and obesity have reached epidemic proportions in many Asian countries. These countries also face a grave burden of obesity-related disorders such as diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases, which develop at a younger age than in Western populations. These disorders are also manifested in childhood. The major causative factors are related to the lifestyle changes occurring due to rapid socioeconomic transition. Asian populations show several differences in genetic factors when compared with the white population, and they also have lower cut points for environmental risk factors. National programmes targeting public awareness, education and improved structural facilities to facilitate healthy lifestyle are the keys to alleviate the economic and health care burden of the obesity-related disorders.

  20. Functional connectivity of primary motor cortex is dependent on genetic burden in prodromal Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Katherine A; Lowe, Mark J; Harrington, Deborah L; Lin, Jian; Durgerian, Sally; Mourany, Lyla; Paulsen, Jane S; Rao, Stephen M

    2014-09-01

    Subtle changes in motor function have been observed in individuals with prodromal Huntington disease (prHD), but the underlying neural mechanisms are not well understood nor is the cumulative effect of the disease (disease burden) on functional connectivity. The present study examined the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) connectivity of the primary motor cortex (M1) in 16 gene-negative (NEG) controls and 48 gene-positive prHD participants with various levels of disease burden. The results showed that the strength of the left M1 connectivity with the ipsilateral M1 and somatosensory areas decreased as disease burden increased and correlated with motor symptoms. Weakened M1 connectivity within the motor areas was also associated with abnormalities in long-range connections that evolved with disease burden. In this study, M1 connectivity was decreased with visual centers (bilateral cuneus), but increased with a hub of the default mode network (DMN; posterior cingulate cortex). Changes in connectivity measures were associated with worse performance on measures of cognitive-motor functioning. Short- and long-range functional connectivity disturbances were also associated with volume loss in the basal ganglia, suggesting that weakened M1 connectivity is partly a manifestation of striatal atrophy. Altogether, the results indicate that the prodromal phase of HD is associated with abnormal interhemispheric interactions among motor areas and disturbances in the connectivity of M1 with visual centers and the DMN. These changes may, respectively, contribute to increased motor symptoms, visuomotor integration problems, and deficits in the executive control of movement as individuals approach a manifest diagnosis.

  1. Administrative burdens and dairy industry competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Bremmers, H.J.; Poppe, K.J.; Wijnands, J.H.M.; Meulen, van der, GG George

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to assess the effect of regulatory burdens in the European dairy industry on its competitiveness. A theoretical foundation is provided by transaction cost economics and total quality management insights. The effects of legislation on administrative requirements and competitiveness are supposed to be mediated by impacts on innovativeness, company strategy, food safety system availability, as well as the available information & communication capabilities. We will conne...

  2. Marine Corps expeditionary rifle platoon energy burden

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited In 2009, the Commandant of the Marine Corps declared energy a top priority and created the U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) Expeditionary Energy Office to develop an energy strategy to reduce and optimize energy usage throughout the Marine Corps. This thesis examines the operational tasks and capabilities that drive the current USMC rifle platoon’s energy burdens using an Expeditionary Warrior 2012 war-game scenario. The primary conclusion of ...

  3. The seven-year cumulative survival rate of Osstem implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Kyun; Kim, Bum-Su; Yun, Pil-Young; Mun, Sang-Un; Yi, Yang-Jin; Jeong, Kyung-In

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study was performed to analyze the cumulative survival rate of Osstem implants (Osstem Implant Co., Ltd.) over a seven-year period. Materials and Methods A total of 105 patients who had 467 Osstem implants that were placed at the Section of Dentistry, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital (Seongnam, Korea) from June 2003 through December 2005 were analyzed. The life table method and a cross-tubulation analysis, log rank test were used to evaluate the survival curve and the influence that the prognostic factors. The prognostic factors, i.e., age and gender of patients, diameter and length, type of implants, bone graft history and loading time were determined with a Cox proportional hazard model based on logistic regression analysis. Results The seven-year cumulative survival rate of Osstem implants was 95.37%. The Cox proportional hazard model revealed that the following factors had a significant influence on survival rate; increased diameter, reduced prosthetic loading period and performance of bone grafting. Conclusion The osstem implants showed satisfactory results over the seven-year study period. PMID:24868503

  4. Cumulative human threats on fish biodiversity components in Tunisian waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. BEN RAIS LASRAM

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Human activities are increasingly impacting biodiversity. To improve conservation planning measures in an ecosystem-based management context, we need to explore how the effects of these activities interact with different biodiversity components. In this study, we used a semi-quantitative method to assess the cumulative impacts of human activities on three biodiversity components (species richness, phylogenetic diversity, and functional diversity in Tunisia’s exclusive economic zone. For each of the nine activities considered, we developed an understanding of their effects from local studies and the expert opinion of stakeholders with country-specific experience. We mapped the cumulative effects and the three biodiversity components and then assessed the degree to which these elements overlapped using an overlap index. This is the first time such an assessment has been made for Tunisia’s marine ecosystems and our assessment highlight the inappropriateness of current conservation measures. The results of this study have specific application for the prioritization of future management actions.

  5. Cumulative human threats on fish biodiversity components in Tunisian waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. BEN RAIS LASRAM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Human activities are increasingly impacting biodiversity. To improve conservation planning measures in an ecosystem-based management context, we need to explore how the effects of these activities interact with different biodiversity components. In this study, we used a semi-quantitative method to assess the cumulative impacts of human activities on three biodiversity components (species richness, phylogenetic diversity, and functional diversity in Tunisia’s exclusive economic zone. For each of the nine activities considered, we developed an understanding of their effects from local studies and the expert opinion of stakeholders with country-specific experience. We mapped the cumulative effects and the three biodiversity components and then assessed the degree to which these elements overlapped using an overlap index. This is the first time such an assessment has been made for Tunisia’s marine ecosystems and our assessment highlight the inappropriateness of current conservation measures. The results of this study have specific application for the prioritization of future management actions.

  6. Cumulative dietary exposure of the population of Denmark to pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Nielsen, Elsa; Christensen, Tue; Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Andersen, Jens Hinge

    2015-09-01

    We used the Hazard Index (HI) method to carry out a cumulative risk assessment after chronic dietary exposure to all monitored pesticides in fruit, vegetables and cereals for various consumer groups in Denmark. Residue data for all the pesticides were obtained from the Danish monitoring programme during the period 2004-2011. Food consumption data were obtained from DANSDA (the DAnish National Survey of Diet and physical Activity) for the period 2005-2008. The calculations were made using three different models to cope with residues below the limit of reporting (LOR). We concluded that a model that included processing factors and set non-detects to ½ LOR, but limited the correction (Model 3), gave the most realistic exposure estimate. With Model 3 the HI was calculated to be 0.44 for children and 0.18 for adults, indicating that there is no risk of adverse health effects following chronic cumulative exposure to the pesticides found in fruit, vegetables and cereals on the Danish market. The HI was below 1 even for consumers who eat more than 550 g of fruit and vegetables per day, corresponding to 1/3 of the population. Choosing Danish-produced commodities whenever possible could reduce the HI by a factor of 2.

  7. Extraction of Facial Feature Points Using Cumulative Histogram

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, Sushil Kumar; Bouakaz, Saida

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel adaptive algorithm to extract facial feature points automatically such as eyebrows corners, eyes corners, nostrils, nose tip, and mouth corners in frontal view faces, which is based on cumulative histogram approach by varying different threshold values. At first, the method adopts the Viola-Jones face detector to detect the location of face and also crops the face region in an image. From the concept of the human face structure, the six relevant regions such as right eyebrow, left eyebrow, right eye, left eye, nose, and mouth areas are cropped in a face image. Then the histogram of each cropped relevant region is computed and its cumulative histogram value is employed by varying different threshold values to create a new filtering image in an adaptive way. The connected component of interested area for each relevant filtering image is indicated our respective feature region. A simple linear search algorithm for eyebrows, eyes and mouth filtering images and contour algorithm for nos...

  8. A Cumulant-based Analysis of Nonlinear Magnetospheric Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay R. Johnson; Simon Wing

    2004-01-28

    Understanding magnetospheric dynamics and predicting future behavior of the magnetosphere is of great practical interest because it could potentially help to avert catastrophic loss of power and communications. In order to build good predictive models it is necessary to understand the most critical nonlinear dependencies among observed plasma and electromagnetic field variables in the coupled solar wind/magnetosphere system. In this work, we apply a cumulant-based information dynamical measure to characterize the nonlinear dynamics underlying the time evolution of the Dst and Kp geomagnetic indices, given solar wind magnetic field and plasma input. We examine the underlying dynamics of the system, the temporal statistical dependencies, the degree of nonlinearity, and the rate of information loss. We find a significant solar cycle dependence in the underlying dynamics of the system with greater nonlinearity for solar minimum. The cumulant-based approach also has the advantage that it is reliable even in the case of small data sets and therefore it is possible to avoid the assumption of stationarity, which allows for a measure of predictability even when the underlying system dynamics may change character. Evaluations of several leading Kp prediction models indicate that their performances are sub-optimal during active times. We discuss possible improvements of these models based on this nonparametric approach.

  9. Cumulative Effects Assessment: Linking Social, Ecological, and Governance Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Weber

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Setting social, economic, and ecological objectives is ultimately a process of social choice informed by science. In this special feature we provide a multidisciplinary framework for the use of cumulative effects assessment in land use planning. Forest ecosystems are facing considerable challenges driven by population growth and increasing demands for resources. In a suite of case studies that span the boreal forest of Western Canada to the interior Atlantic forest of Paraguay we show how transparent and defensible methods for scenario analysis can be applied in data-limited regions and how social dimensions of land use change can be incorporated in these methods, particularly in aboriginal communities that have lived in these ecosystems for generations. The case studies explore how scenario analysis can be used to evaluate various land use options and highlight specific challenges with identifying social and ecological responses, determining thresholds and targets for land use, and integrating local and traditional knowledge in land use planning. Given that land use planning is ultimately a value-laden and often politically charged process we also provide some perspective on various collective and expert-based processes for identifying cumulative impacts and thresholds. The need for good science to inform and be informed by culturally appropriate democratic processes calls for well-planned and multifaceted approaches both to achieve an informed understanding of both residents and governments of the interactive and additive changes caused by development, and to design action agendas to influence such change at the ecological and social level.

  10. Cumulative hierarchies and computability over universes of sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Cantone

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Various metamathematical investigations, beginning with Fraenkel’s historical proof of the independence of the axiom of choice, called for suitable definitions of hierarchical universes of sets. This led to the discovery of such important cumulative structures as the one singled out by von Neumann (generally taken as the universe of all sets and Godel’s universe of the so-called constructibles. Variants of those are exploited occasionally in studies concerning the foundations of analysis (according to Abraham Robinson’s approach, or concerning non-well-founded sets. We hence offer a systematic presentation of these many structures, partly motivated by their relevance and pervasiveness in mathematics. As we report, numerous properties of hierarchy-related notions such as rank, have been verified with the assistance of the ÆtnaNova proof-checker.Through SETL and Maple implementations of procedures which effectively handle the Ackermann’s hereditarily finite sets, we illustrate a particularly significant case among those in which the entities which form a universe of sets can be algorithmically constructed and manipulated; hereby, the fruitful bearing on pure mathematics of cumulative set hierarchies ramifies into the realms of theoretical computer science and algorithmics.

  11. Prefiltering and Cumulant Based Harmonic Retrieval in Mixed ARMA Noises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIShenghong; LIJianhua; XUEZhi; CHENLiya

    2005-01-01

    Harmonic retrieval is an important issue in the the field of statistical signal processing. However, in the case of harmonic retrieval in mixed colored Gaussian and Non-Gaussian Autoregressive movingaverage (ARMA) noises, the corresponding existing approaches can not retrieve a harmonic signal either with quadratic phase coupling components, or with cubic phase coupling components, or when the colored non-Gaussian ARMA noise is symmetrically distributed. In this paper, a new general approach is proposed to retrieve a one-dimensional real harmonic signal in the above mixed ARMA noises. A suitable filter is first used to remove all the sharp power spectrum peaks of the noisy observed process, then some kind of fourth-order cumulant is employed to identify the Autoregressive (AR) parameter values of the colored non-Gaussian ARMA noise model. After the real noisy observed data are filtered with the identified AR parameter values again, cumulant based methods can be made use of to retrieve the harmonics. The proposed new approach can be applied to retrieve a one-dimensional real harmonic signal in the above mixed colored Gaussian and non-Gaussian ARMA noises with no restrictions on the phase coupling of the harmonics and the distribution of the colored non-Gaussian ARMA noise. Simulation examples are presented to demonstrate its effectiveness.

  12. Petrogenesis of the nakhlite meteorites: Evidence from cumulate mineral zoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, R.P.; McSween, H.Y. Jr. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States))

    1992-04-01

    A simple igneous petrogenesis for the meteorite Nakhla has previously been called into question because Mg/Fe ratios in olivine indicate substantial disequilibrium between the predominant cumulus minerals (olivine and augite). Comparative analyses of simulated diffusive zoning and the observed cumulus mineral zoning for all three nakhlites (Nakhla, Governador Valadares, and Lafayette) show that their current compositions do not necessarily reflect parental magma compositions. Instead, diffusion has altered primary cumulus compositions to varying degrees, Nakhla being the least affected, and Lafayette being almost completely re-equilibrated. Only the cores of augite grains in Nakhla and Governador Valadares appear to have preserved their original compositions. Mineral zoning in each meteorite is strongly concentric around mesostasis areas, suggesting that reaction with intercumulus liquid has controlled the observed zoning. The presence of pigeonite and orthopyroxene overgrowths in Nakhla and Governador Valadares, and of poikilitic orthopyroxene enclosing olivine relicts in Lafayette, indicate substantial late-magmatic reactions. Two-pyroxene geothermometry for Lafayette indicates temperatures around 95C, suggesting subsolidus equilibration as well. The nakhlites appear to be a series of relatively simple cumulate rocks which have undergone various amounts of late-magmatic and subsolidus diffusion, possibly reflecting their relative positions in a cooling cumulate pile.

  13. Tobacco and the Escalating Global Cancer Burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard F. Oppeltz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The global burden of cancer is escalating as a result of dramatic increases in the use of tobacco in the developing world. The use of tobacco is linked to the development of a broad variety of cancers, mainly lung cancer, the single most common cancer in the world. Tobacco smoking-attributable deaths extends beyond cancer and include stroke, heart attack and COPD. Widening disparities in cancer-related mortality have shifted towards a more dramatic burden in the developing world. Appropriate interventions must be implemented to reduce tobacco use and prevent global mortality that has escalated to epidemic levels. Tobacco control policies, including public health advertisement campaigns, warning labels, adoption of smoke-free laws, comprehensive bans and tax policies are highly effective measures to control tobacco use. Clinicians and academic institutions have to be actively committed to support tobacco control initiatives. The reduction in cancer related morbidity and mortality should be viewed as a global crisis and definitive results will depend on a multilevel effort to effectively reduce the burden of cancer, particularly in underprivileged regions of the world.

  14. Fear of future terrorism: Associated psychiatric burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiola, T; Udofia, O; Sheikh, T L; Yusuf, D A

    2017-02-04

    The mental health burden from fear of future terrorism has not been given much research attention compared to the immediate mental distress such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Such neglected ongoing mental health morbidity associated with threats of terrorism had been described as pre-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSS). The study highlighted this phenomenon (PTSS) in Nigeria by examining the catastrophic burden of the fear of future terrorism and associated psychiatric burden among adult population in Kaduna city. Participants were students and staff of Kaduna State University (KASU), Kaduna Polytechnic, and students awaiting admission into Kaduna State University. They responded to the following instruments after obtaining their informed consents: a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Terrorism Catastrophising Scale (TCS), and the depression and Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD) portion of Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). The TCS showed that 78.8% of the participants had from moderate to severe clinical distress on fear of terrorism. The TCS has a Cronbach's alpha of 0.721 and also had significant moderate correlation with depression (r=0.278; pterrorism was high and this was relatively related to depression and GAD. This highlighted the need for ongoing monitoring and called for their effective prevention from the identified underlying cognitive mechanisms. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Caregiver Burden in Epilepsy: Determinants and Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Karakis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Caregiver burden (CB in epilepsy constitutes an understudied area. Here we attempt to identify the magnitude of this burden, the factors associated with it, and its impact to caregiver quality of life (QOL. Methods. 48 persons with epilepsy (PWE underwent video-EEG monitoring and their caregivers completed questionnaires providing demographic, disease-related, psychiatric, cognitive, sleep, QOL, and burden information. Results. On regression analysis, higher number of antiepileptic drugs, poorer patient neuropsychological performance, lower patient QOL score, and lower caregiver education level were associated with higher CB. Time allocated to patient care approximated but did not attain statistical significance. A moderate inverse correlation between CB and caregiver QOL physical component summary score and a stronger inverse correlation between CB and caregiver QOL mental component summary score were seen. Conclusion. In a selected cohort of PWE undergoing video-EEG monitoring, we identified modest degree of CB, comparable to that reported in the literature for other chronic neurological conditions. It is associated with specific patient and caregiver characteristics and has a negative effect on caregiver QOL.

  16. Immunity and the burden of herpes zoster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won Suk; Kwon, Soon Sun; Lee, Jacob; Choi, Su-Mi; Lee, Jin Soo; Eom, Joong Sik; Sohn, Jang Wook; Choeng, Hee Jin

    2014-03-01

    The burden of herpes zoster may be related to patients' immunity, although this has not been studied extensively. This hypothesis was tested in a matched case-control study of patients with herpes zoster who sought treatment at one of seven university hospitals in Korea from January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2010. Patients diagnosed with herpes zoster were placed into three groups based on their immune status: severely immunocompromised, mild-to-moderately immunocompromised, and normal immunity. Each patient in the severely immunocompromised group was matched with one patient in the mild-to-moderately immunocompromised group and one patient in the normal immunity group in the same hospital based on age, sex, and date of herpes zoster onset. A total of 582 patients with herpes zoster were included in the analysis: 194 in each of the three groups. Patients in the severely immunocompromised group had the highest herpes zoster-related hospitalization rate as compared to patients in the mild-to-moderately immunocompromised and normal immune groups (P herpes zoster-related medical cost increased significantly with the deterioration of patients' immunity (P herpes zoster burden was observed as the patients' immunity decreased. Therefore, effective measures are necessary to prevent herpes zoster and reduce its burden in severely immunocompromised patients.

  17. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of biosolids-borne triclocarban (TCC) in terrestrial organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Elizabeth Hodges; O'Connor, George A; McAvoy, Drew C

    2011-01-01

    Triclocarban (TCC) toxicity and bioaccumulation data are primarily limited to direct human and animal dermal exposures, animal ingestion exposures to neat and feed-spiked TCC, and/or aquatic organism exposures. Three non-human, terrestrial organism groups anticipated to be the most highly exposed to land-applied, biosolids-borne TCC are soil microbes, earthworms, and plants. The three ecological receptors are expected to be at particular risk due to unique modes of exposure (e.g. constant, direct contact with soil; uptake of amended soil and pore water), inherently greater sensitivity to environmental contaminants (e.g. increased body burdens, permeable membranes), and susceptibility to minute changes in the soil environment. The toxicities of biosolids-borne TCC to Eisenia fetida earthworms and soil microbial communities were characterized using adaptations of the USEPA Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances (OPPTS) Guidelines 850.6200 (Earthworm Subchronic Toxicity Test) and 850.5100 (Soil Microbial Community Toxicity Test), respectively. The resultant calculated TCC LC50 value for E. fetida was 40 mg TCC kg amended fine sand(-1). Biosolids-borne TCC in an amended fine sand had no significant effect on soil microbial community respiration, ammonification, or nitrification. Bioaccumulation of biosolids-borne TCC by E. fetida and Paspulum notatum was measured to characterize potential biosolids-borne TCC movement through the food chain. Dry-weight TCC bioaccumulation factor (BAF) values in E. fetida and P. notatum ranged from 5.2-18 and 0.00041-0.007 (gsoil gtissue(-1)), respectively.

  18. Projectile-Borne Video Reconnaissance System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海福; 张锋; 李向荣

    2004-01-01

    Aiming at applications as a projectile-borne video reconnaissance system, the overall design and prototype in principle of a mortar video reconnaissance system bomb were developed. Mortar launched test results show that the initial integrated system was capable of transmitting images through tens of kilometers with the image resolution identifying effectively tactical targets such as roads, hills, caverns, trees and rivers. The projectile-borne video reconnaissance system is able to meet the needs of tactical target identification and battle dage assessment for tactical operations. The study will provide significant technological support for further independent development.

  19. [Conflicts and vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, Ib Christian

    2010-01-01

    Based on literature and personal experiences, vector-borne diseases and conflicts are reviewed. Simple rapid diagnostic tests for three important parasitoses are available. Resort is often made to case definitions and to presumptive treatment. Resistance is an emerging problem. Vaccines are still...... not available for most diseases. Promising preventive methods, including long-lasting impregnated bed-nets and tents, are available. War has been an impetus for disclosing life-cycles of vector-borne diseases and for control methods; peace, reconciliation and poverty reduction are required to achieve lasting...

  20. Pap Tests and Foreign-Born Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-26

    Foreign-born women living in the U.S. are less likely to have Pap tests to detect cervical cancer than women born in this country. The problem is worse for women from certain countries or regions. Find out why this is a disturbing trend, who these women are and why they are less likely to get a Pap test, and what CDC is doing about it.  Created: 11/26/2007 by National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.   Date Released: 12/7/2007.

  1. The Tax Burden on Tobacco Volume 49, 1970-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1970-2014. Orzechowski and Walker. Tax Burden on Tobacco. Tax burden data was obtained from the annual compendium on tobacco revenue and industry statistics, The...

  2. 20 CFR 726.312 - Burdens of proof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Money Penalties § 726.312 Burdens of proof. (a) The Director shall bear the burden of proving the... Director has requested the operator to supply information with respect to its size under § 726.303 and the...

  3. Burdens of Proof, Presumptions and Standards of Proof in Criminal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Worku_Y

    This note highlights how issues of burden and standard of proof are ..... proof. The prosecutor is duty bound to convince that the accused has committed .... Burdens of proof and presumptions are intimately related concepts.33 The latter.

  4. The Tax Burden on Tobacco Volume 49, 1970-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1970-2014. Orzechowski and Walker. Tax Burden on Tobacco. Tax burden data was obtained from the annual compendium on tobacco revenue and industry statistics, The Tax...

  5. Use of a Cumulative Risk Scale to Predict Poor Intellectual and Academic Outcomes in Childhood Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, Brian C; Scarborough, Vanessa Ramos; Salorio, Cynthia F

    2016-06-01

    Discrete risk factors for poor outcomes in childhood epilepsy have been identified, but it is unclear whether the combined effect of several risk factors better predicts outcome. The Epilepsy Cumulative Risk Scale was developed to quantify cumulative risk for poor outcomes in childhood epilepsy. Participants included 156 clinic-referred children with epilepsy. The Epilepsy Cumulative Risk Scale was developed using variables previously associated with functional outcomes. Scale utility was examined through its association with intellectual and academic functioning. All Epilepsy Cumulative Risk Scale variables were significantly associated with functioning. The Total Score (ie, cumulative effect) was most strongly correlated with cognition and academic skills. A Total Score ≥ 5 had the best sensitivity and specificity for differentiating those at high risk for poor outcomes. The Epilepsy Cumulative Risk Scale shows promise as a practical, data-driven tool for quantification of cumulative risk for poor outcomes in childhood epilepsy and may be helpful in detecting those needing referral for additional services.

  6. A network-patch methodology for adapting agent-based models for directly transmitted disease to mosquito-borne disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manore, Carrie A; Hickmann, Kyle S; Hyman, James M; Foppa, Ivo M; Davis, Justin K; Wesson, Dawn M; Mores, Christopher N

    2015-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases cause significant public health burden and are widely re-emerging or emerging. Understanding, predicting, and mitigating the spread of mosquito-borne disease in diverse populations and geographies are ongoing modelling challenges. We propose a hybrid network-patch model for the spread of mosquito-borne pathogens that accounts for individual movement through mosquito habitats, extending the capabilities of existing agent-based models (ABMs) to include vector-borne diseases. The ABM are coupled with differential equations representing 'clouds' of mosquitoes in patches accounting for mosquito ecology. We adapted an ABM for humans using this method and investigated the importance of heterogeneity in pathogen spread, motivating the utility of models of individual behaviour. We observed that the final epidemic size is greater in patch models with a high risk patch frequently visited than in a homogeneous model. Our hybrid model quantifies the importance of the heterogeneity in the spread of mosquito-borne pathogens, guiding mitigation strategies.

  7. 12 CFR 508.10 - Burden of persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Burden of persuasion. 508.10 Section 508.10 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REMOVALS, SUSPENSIONS, AND PROHIBITIONS WHERE A CRIME IS CHARGED OR PROVEN § 508.10 Burden of persuasion. The petitioner has the burden of...

  8. Double burden of disease in the slums of Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oti, S.O.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this thesis was to provide evidence of a double burden of disease in the slums of Nairobi and to make a case for an integrated health systems approach to tackling this situation. A double burden of disease refers to the coexistence of a high burden of communicable and non-communicable

  9. Inpatient Financial Burden of Atopic Dermatitis in the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narla, Shanthi; Hsu, Derek Y; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the inpatient burden of atopic dermatitis (AD). We sought to determine the risk factors and financial burden of hospitalizations for AD in the United States. Data were analyzed from the 2002-2012 National Inpatient Sample, including a 20% representative sample of all......, there is a substantial inpatient financial burden of AD in the United States....

  10. [The state of vector-borne diseases in Indonesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodhain, F

    2000-01-01

    From epidemiological point of view, Indonesia is an extremely interesting area owing its insular structure and ecological, anthropological, cultural and economical diversity. As everywhere, vector-borne diseases are the result of complex and variable epidemiological systems, subject both to biogeographical rules and human activity. Two main arboviroses are present in Indonesia: dengue and Japanese encephalitis. Dengue appears as an endemoepidemic disease and is mostly circumscribed to urban areas. Haemorrhagic cases were first observed in 1968; since then, the incidence has been constantly increasing and the disease is now one of the principal causes of child lethality. Japanese encephalitis is a rural endemic disease transmitted by rice-field mosquitoes; its incidence remains relatively low since pigs, which are usual link-hosts for the virus, are uncommon in this mainly Muslem country. Human clinical cases are recorded from non-Muslem islands such as Bali or Irian Jaya which raises the question of immunisation for travellers. Recently, Japanese encephalitis was observed on east of the Wallace line which had been considered as the eastern cut-off line. Malaria is common throughout the country, Plasmodium vivax being the most frequent species. Some of the Anopheline vectors are related to brackish water as are coastal species; others have been favoured by rice growing. Several species bite and rest outdoors, rendering control measures complex. Moreover, chloroquine resistance is increasing in both P. falciparum and P. vivax. All three filaria species responsible for human lymphatic filariasis exist in Indonesia. Bancroft filariasis is present in rather limited foci on most of the islands; malayan filariasis is very prevalent on many islands, mostly in coastal areas, and Timor filariasis exist only on a few small islands. These parasitic diseases are cumulative and do not practically endanger the health of travellers. In the past, plague was common on Java island

  11. Long-Term Effects of Prematurity, Cumulative Medical Risk, and Proximal and Distal Social Forces on Individual Differences in Diurnal Cortisol at Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, Suzy B; Sullivan, Mary C; Roberts, Mary B; Bryce, Crystal I; Granger, Douglas A

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of prematurity, cumulative medical risk, and proximal and distal social forces on individual differences in the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in young adulthood. A prospective sample of 149 infants born healthy preterm (PT; n = 22), sick PT ( n = 93, medical illness, neurological illness, small for gestational age), and full term ( n = 34) was recruited from a Level III neonatal intensive care unit in southern New England between 1985 and 1989 and followed to age 23 years. Cumulative medical risk was indexed across seven assessment waves (spanning 17 years) using medical and neurological health status at birth, toddlerhood (ages 18 and 30 months), childhood (ages 4 and 8 years), and adolescence (ages 12 and 17 years). Distal risk included socioeconomic status (SES) at birth. Proximal social factors were indexed from assessments of the home environment and measures of child vulnerability and maternal self-esteem, involvement, and control style from birth, 4 years, 8 years, and 12 years. At age 23 years, five saliva samples were collected upon awakening, 45 min after waking, 4 hr after waking, 8 hr after waking, and bedtime (later assayed for cortisol). Results reveal effects of cumulative medical risk on the diurnal pattern of HPA axis activity, with moderating effects of SES and proximal social factors. Findings are discussed in terms of implications for contemporary theories related to developmental sensitivity and susceptibility to context and the developmental origins of health and disease theory.

  12. [Conflicts and vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, Ib Christian

    2010-01-01

    not available for most diseases. Promising preventive methods, including long-lasting impregnated bed-nets and tents, are available. War has been an impetus for disclosing life-cycles of vector-borne diseases and for control methods; peace, reconciliation and poverty reduction are required to achieve lasting...

  13. Risk based surveillance for vector borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Rene

    of samples and hence early detection of outbreaks. Models for vector borne diseases in Denmark have demonstrated dramatic variation in outbreak risk during the season and between years. The Danish VetMap project aims to make these risk based surveillance estimates available on the veterinarians smart phones...

  14. Topics in Born-Infeld Electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kerner, R; Galtsov, D V

    2001-01-01

    Classical version of Born-Infeld electrodynamics is recalled and its most important properties discussed. Then we analyze possible abelian and non-abelian generalizations of this theory, and show how certain soliton-like configurations can be obtained. The relationship with the Standard Model of electroweak interactions is also mentioned.

  15. Suppression of soil-borne plant pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agtmaal, van M.

    2015-01-01

    Soil borne plant pathogens considerably reduce crop yields worldwide and are difficult to control due to their ”masked” occurrence  in the heterogeneous soil environment. This hampers the efficacy of chemical - and microbiological control agents.   Outbreaks of crop diseas

  16. Dyons in Nonabelian Born-Infeld Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Balaz, A; Radovanovic, Voja

    2002-01-01

    We analyze a nonabelian extension of Born--Infeld action for the SU(2) group. In the class of spherically symmetric solutions we find that, besides the Gal'tsov--Kerner glueballs, only the analytic dyons have finite energy. The presented analytic and numerical investigation excludes the existence of pure magnetic monopoles of 't Hooft--Polyakov type.

  17. Extra-symmetric Born--Infeld theory

    CERN Document Server

    Palatnik, D

    2002-01-01

    This paper suggests a generalization of the Born--Infeld action (1932) for the case of electroweak and gravitational fields. Basic notions one deals with are Dirac matrices, $\\gamma_{a}$, and dimensionless covariant derivatives, $\\pi_{a} = - i\\ell \

  18. Laterality in Prematurely-Born Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segalwitz, Sidney J.; Chapman, Jacqueline S.

    The study examined the relationship between perinatal stress and decreased right handedness and decreased left cerebral dominance for speech with 215 children born prematurely, followed from birth, and tested at age 5. Results indicated that neither hand preference nor hand performance correlated with degree of perinatal stress and that eye…

  19. Neglected tropical diseases in sub-saharan Africa: review of their prevalence, distribution, and disease burden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Hotez

    Full Text Available The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs are the most common conditions affecting the poorest 500 million people living in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, and together produce a burden of disease that may be equivalent to up to one-half of SSA's malaria disease burden and more than double that caused by tuberculosis. Approximately 85% of the NTD disease burden results from helminth infections. Hookworm infection occurs in almost half of SSA's poorest people, including 40-50 million school-aged children and 7 million pregnant women in whom it is a leading cause of anemia. Schistosomiasis is the second most prevalent NTD after hookworm (192 million cases, accounting for 93% of the world's number of cases and possibly associated with increased horizontal transmission of HIV/AIDS. Lymphatic filariasis (46-51 million cases and onchocerciasis (37 million cases are also widespread in SSA, each disease representing a significant cause of disability and reduction in the region's agricultural productivity. There is a dearth of information on Africa's non-helminth NTDs. The protozoan infections, human African trypanosomiasis and visceral leishmaniasis, affect almost 100,000 people, primarily in areas of conflict in SSA where they cause high mortality, and where trachoma is the most prevalent bacterial NTD (30 million cases. However, there are little or no data on some very important protozoan infections, e.g., amebiasis and toxoplasmosis; bacterial infections, e.g., typhoid fever and non-typhoidal salmonellosis, the tick-borne bacterial zoonoses, and non-tuberculosis mycobaterial infections; and arboviral infections. Thus, the overall burden of Africa's NTDs may be severely underestimated. A full assessment is an important step for disease control priorities, particularly in Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of Congo, where the greatest number of NTDs may occur.

  20. Mathematical modeling of detonation initiation via flow cumulation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, I.; Utkin, P.; Akhmedyanov, I.

    2016-07-01

    The paper concerns two problems connected with the idea of gaseous detonation initiation via flow cumulation effects and convergence of relatively weak shock waves (SW). The first one is the three-dimensional (3D) numerical investigation of shock-to-detonation transition (SDT) in methane-air mixture in a tube with parabolic contraction followed by the tube section of narrow diameter and conical expansion. The second problem is the numerical study of the start-up of the model small-scale hydrogen electrochemical pulse detonation engine with the use of electrical discharge generating the toroidal SW. The investigation is performed by means of numerical simulation with the use of modern high-performance computing systems.

  1. Practical management of cumulative anthropogenic impacts with working marine examples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyhn, Line Anker; Wright, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    for petroleum. Human disturbances, including the noise almost ubiquitously associated with human activity, are likely to increase the incidence, magnitude, and duration of adverse effects on marine life, including stress responses. Stress responses have the potential to induce fitness consequences...... for individuals, which add to more obvious directed takes (e.g., hunting or fishing) to increase the overall population-level impact. To meet the requirements of marine spatial planning and ecosystem-based management, many efforts are ongoing to quantify the cumulative impacts of all human actions on marine...... species or populations. Meanwhile, regulators face the challenge of managing these accumulating and interacting impacts with limited scientific guidance. We believe there is scientific support for capping the level of impact for (at a minimum) populations in decline or with unknown statuses. This cap...

  2. Effects of Surface Emitting and Cumulative Collisions on Elliptic Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-Li; WU Feng-Juan; ZHANG Jing-Bo; TANG Gui-Xin; HUO Lei

    2008-01-01

    @@ The integral and differential elliptic flow of partons is calculated using the multiphase transport model for Au+Au collisions at centre-of-mass energy √SNN=200 GeV.It is shown that elliptic flow of partons freezing out at early time,which is affected mainly by surface emittance,decreases with time and elliptic flow of partons freezing out at late time,which is dominated by cumulative collisions,increases with time.The elliptic flow of partons freezing out early has a large contribution to the flatting of curve of final differential elliptic flow at large transverse momentum.It is argued that the effect of surface emittance is not neglectable.

  3. Modelling the evolution and diversity of cumulative culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enquist, Magnus; Ghirlanda, Stefano; Eriksson, Kimmo

    2011-01-01

    Previous work on mathematical models of cultural evolution has mainly focused on the diffusion of simple cultural elements. However, a characteristic feature of human cultural evolution is the seemingly limitless appearance of new and increasingly complex cultural elements. Here, we develop a general modelling framework to study such cumulative processes, in which we assume that the appearance and disappearance of cultural elements are stochastic events that depend on the current state of culture. Five scenarios are explored: evolution of independent cultural elements, stepwise modification of elements, differentiation or combination of elements and systems of cultural elements. As one application of our framework, we study the evolution of cultural diversity (in time as well as between groups). PMID:21199845

  4. Ratcheting up the ratchet: on the evolution of cumulative culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennie, Claudio; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2009-08-27

    Some researchers have claimed that chimpanzee and human culture rest on homologous cognitive and learning mechanisms. While clearly there are some homologous mechanisms, we argue here that there are some different mechanisms at work as well. Chimpanzee cultural traditions represent behavioural biases of different populations, all within the species' existing cognitive repertoire (what we call the 'zone of latent solutions') that are generated by founder effects, individual learning and mostly product-oriented (rather than process-oriented) copying. Human culture, in contrast, has the distinctive characteristic that it accumulates modifications over time (what we call the 'ratchet effect'). This difference results from the facts that (i) human social learning is more oriented towards process than product and (ii) unique forms of human cooperation lead to active teaching, social motivations for conformity and normative sanctions against non-conformity. Together, these unique processes of social learning and cooperation lead to humans' unique form of cumulative cultural evolution.

  5. Cumulative Laws,Team Assembling Mechanisms Determining Network Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Bin; LIU Qi; YE Qi

    2008-01-01

    A number of researching works have shed light on the field of complex networks recently.We investigate a wide range of real-world networks and find several interesting phenomena.Firstly,almost all of these networks evolve by overlapping new small graphs on former networks.Secondly,not only the degree sequence of the mature network follows a power-law distribution,but also the distribution of the cumulative occurrence times during the growing process are revealed to have a heavy tail.Existing network evolving models do not provide interpretation to these phenomena.We suggest a model based on the team assembling mechanism,which is extracted from the growing processes of real-world networks and requires simple parameters,and produces networks exhibiting these properties observed in the present study and in previous works.

  6. Modelling the evolution and diversity of cumulative culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enquist, Magnus; Ghirlanda, Stefano; Eriksson, Kimmo

    2011-02-12

    Previous work on mathematical models of cultural evolution has mainly focused on the diffusion of simple cultural elements. However, a characteristic feature of human cultural evolution is the seemingly limitless appearance of new and increasingly complex cultural elements. Here, we develop a general modelling framework to study such cumulative processes, in which we assume that the appearance and disappearance of cultural elements are stochastic events that depend on the current state of culture. Five scenarios are explored: evolution of independent cultural elements, stepwise modification of elements, differentiation or combination of elements and systems of cultural elements. As one application of our framework, we study the evolution of cultural diversity (in time as well as between groups).

  7. Cumulative early life adversity predicts longevity in wild baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Jenny; Archie, Elizabeth A; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C

    2016-04-19

    In humans and other animals, harsh circumstances in early life predict morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Multiple adverse conditions are thought to be especially toxic, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested in a prospective, longitudinal framework, especially in long-lived mammals. Here we use prospective data on 196 wild female baboons to show that cumulative early adversity predicts natural adult lifespan. Females who experience ≥3 sources of early adversity die a median of 10 years earlier than females who experience ≤1 adverse circumstances (median lifespan is 18.5 years). Females who experience the most adversity are also socially isolated in adulthood, suggesting that social processes partially explain the link between early adversity and adult survival. Our results provide powerful evidence for the developmental origins of health and disease and indicate that close ties between early adversity and survival arise even in the absence of health habit and health care-related explanations.

  8. The cumulative effect of risk compensation on infection preventive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxin, Daniel; Sega, Laurentiu; Eaton, Lisa

    2016-12-01

    We study several epidemic models (with and without gender structure) that incorporate risk compensation behavior in response to a lower chance of acquiring the infection as a result of preventive measures that are only partially effective. We show that the cumulative risk compensation that occurs between a high risk susceptible and infectious individual may play an important role in whether the implementation of these measures is successful in lowering the epidemic reproductive number. In addition, we show that certain levels of risk compensation may cancel the benefit of the low infection risk practiced by diagnosed infectious individuals when the goal is a reduction of the epidemic reproductive number. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cumulative semantic interference for associative relations in language production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Sebastian Benjamin; Abdel Rahman, Rasha

    2016-07-01

    Associations between conceptual representations and thematic relations play an important role in the organization of semantic memory. However, language production research on semantic context effects shows that associative (e.g., dog and bone) and categorical relations (dog and horse) seem to diverge. While categorical contexts typically induce semantic interference that has traditionally been taken to reflect competitive lexical selection, evidence for comparable associative modulations is rare. In three experiments we tested whether thematic associations between objects induce cumulative interference in the continuous naming paradigm, assuming that this paradigm hampers lexical selection via the activation of highly active lexical cohorts steadily increasing in size. Indeed, naming times increased linearly with each newly named member of thematic contexts irrespective of the pre-activation of associations before the naming task (Experiment 1), and irrespective of whether categorical links were partially included (Experiments 1 and 2) or entirely absent (Experiment 3). These findings demonstrate that different types of semantic relations induce interference.

  10. EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION OF CUMULATIVE SURFACE LOCATION ERROR FOR TURNING PROCESSES

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    Adam K. Kiss

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to create a mechanical model which is suitable to investigate the surface quality in turning processes, based on the Cumulative Surface Location Error (CSLE, which describes the series of the consecutive Surface Location Errors (SLE in roughing operations. In the established model, the investigated CSLE depends on the currently and the previously resulted SLE by means of the variation of the width of cut. The phenomenon of the system can be described as an implicit discrete map. The stationary Surface Location Error and its bifurcations were analysed and flip-type bifurcation was observed for CSLE. Experimental verification of the theoretical results was carried out.

  11. Cumulative protons in 12C fragmentation at intermediate energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramov B.M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the FRAGM experiment at heavy ion accelerator complex TWAC-ITEP, the proton yields at an angle 3.5° have been measured in fragmentation of carbon ions at T0 = 0.3, 0.6, 0.95 and 2.0 GeV/nucleon on beryllium target. The data are presented as invariant proton yields on cumulative variable x in the range 0.9 < x < 2.4. Proton spectra cover six orders of invariant cross section magnitude. They have been analyzed in the framework of quark cluster fragmentation model. Fragmentation functions of quarkgluon string model are used. The probabilities of the existence of multi-quark clusters in carbon nuclei are estimated to be 8–12% for six-quark clusters and 0.2–0.6% for ninequark clusters.

  12. The modified cumulant expansion for two-dimensional isotropic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi, T.; Yanase, S.

    1981-09-01

    The two-dimensional isotropic turbulence in an incompressible fluid is investigated using the modified zero fourth-order cumulant approximation. The dynamical equation for the energy spectrum obtained under this approximation is solved numerically and the similarity laws governing the solution in the energy-containing and enstrophy-dissipation ranges are derived analytically. At large Reynolds numbers the numerical solutions yield the k to the -3rd power inertial subrange spectrum which was predicted by Kraichnan (1967), Leith (1968) and Batchelor (1969), assuming a finite enstrophy dissipation in the inviscid limit. The energy-containing range is found to satisfy an inviscid similarity while the enstrophy-dissipation range is governed by the quasi-equilibrium similarity with respect to the enstrophy dissipation as proposed by Batchelor (1969). There exists a critical time which separates the initial period and the similarity period in which the enstrophy dissipation vanishes and remains non-zero respectively in the inviscid limit.

  13. Cumulative Incidence Association Models for Bivariate Competing Risks Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu; Fine, Jason P

    2012-03-01

    Association models, like frailty and copula models, are frequently used to analyze clustered survival data and evaluate within-cluster associations. The assumption of noninformative censoring is commonly applied to these models, though it may not be true in many situations. In this paper, we consider bivariate competing risk data and focus on association models specified for the bivariate cumulative incidence function (CIF), a nonparametrically identifiable quantity. Copula models are proposed which relate the bivariate CIF to its corresponding univariate CIFs, similarly to independently right censored data, and accommodate frailty models for the bivariate CIF. Two estimating equations are developed to estimate the association parameter, permitting the univariate CIFs to be estimated either parametrically or nonparametrically. Goodness-of-fit tests are presented for formally evaluating the parametric models. Both estimators perform well with moderate sample sizes in simulation studies. The practical use of the methodology is illustrated in an analysis of dementia associations.

  14. County-level cumulative environmental quality associated with cancer incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagai, Jyotsna S; Messer, Lynne C; Rappazzo, Kristen M; Gray, Christine L; Grabich, Shannon C; Lobdell, Danelle T

    2017-08-01

    Individual environmental exposures are associated with cancer development; however, environmental exposures occur simultaneously. The Environmental Quality Index (EQI) is a county-level measure of cumulative environmental exposures that occur in 5 domains. The EQI was linked to county-level annual age-adjusted cancer incidence rates from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program state cancer profiles. All-site cancer and the top 3 site-specific cancers for male and female subjects were considered. Incident rate differences (IRDs; annual rate difference per 100,000 persons) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using fixed-slope, random intercept multilevel linear regression models. Associations were assessed with domain-specific indices and analyses were stratified by rural/urban status. Comparing the highest quintile/poorest environmental quality with the lowest quintile/best environmental quality for overall EQI, all-site county-level cancer incidence rate was positively associated with poor environmental quality overall (IRD, 38.55; 95% CI, 29.57-47.53) and for male (IRD, 32.60; 95% CI, 16.28-48.91) and female (IRD, 30.34; 95% CI, 20.47-40.21) subjects, indicating a potential increase in cancer incidence with decreasing environmental quality. Rural/urban stratified models demonstrated positive associations comparing the highest with the lowest quintiles for all strata, except the thinly populated/rural stratum and in the metropolitan/urbanized stratum. Prostate and breast cancer demonstrated the strongest positive associations with poor environmental quality. We observed strong positive associations between the EQI and all-site cancer incidence rates, and associations differed by rural/urban status and environmental domain. Research focusing on single environmental exposures in cancer development may not address the broader environmental context in which cancers develop, and future research should address cumulative environmental

  15. Is uveitis associated with topiramate use? A cumulative review

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    Goldberg JL

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey L Goldberg,1 Amy G Lau,2 Bo Fan,2 Lisa Ford,3 Howard E Greenberg3 1Byers Eye Institute, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, 2Janssen Research & Development, LLC, Horsham, PA, 3Janssen Research & Development, LLC, Titusville, NJ, USA Abstract: Occasional reports of uveitis following topiramate use necessitated an investigation of relevant cases from safety databases and published biomedical literature. Data mining of the Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System and cumulative review of cases from the global safety database (sponsor database and published literature were conducted to assess association between topiramate use and uveitis. The Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System search identified disproportional reporting of uveitis (n=23 and related terms (choroidal detachment, n=25; iridocyclitis, n=17. The postmarketing reporting frequency of uveitis and related events from the global safety database and based on an estimated topiramate exposure of 11,185,740 person-years from launch to April 2015 was 0.38 per 100,000 person-years and assigned as very rare. A total of 14 potential uveitis cases were identified from the cumulative review. Seven of these 14 cases were complicated by inadequate documentation, appearance of uveitic signs following drug withdrawal, or concurrent use of other sulfonamides. In acute angle-closure glaucoma and uveal effusions cases, insufficient evidence for underlying inflammation suggested that uveitis was not a component. Only seven of 14 cases were well documented, potentially topiramate-associated uveitis cases. Uveitis may occur in the setting of topiramate use only in very rare instances. Current evidence did not reveal a dose- or duration-dependent relationship between uveitis and topiramate use. Keywords: topiramate, uveitis, acute angle-closure glaucoma, drug safety, Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System, postmarketing 

  16. Economic and policy implications of the cumulative carbon budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M. R.; Otto, F. E. L.; Otto, A.; Hepburn, C.

    2014-12-01

    The importance of cumulative carbon emissions in determining long-term risks of climate change presents considerable challenges to policy makers. The traditional notion of "total CO2-equivalent emissions", which forms the backbone of agreements such as the Kyoto Protocol and the European Emissions Trading System, is fundamentally flawed. Measures to reduce short-lived climate pollutants benefit the current generation, while measures to reduce long-lived climate pollutants benefit future generations, so there is no sense in which they can ever be considered equivalent. Debates over the correct metric used to compute CO2-equivalence are thus entirely moot: both long-lived and short-lived emissions will need to be addressed if all generations are to be protected from dangerous climate change. As far as long-lived climate pollutants are concerned, the latest IPCC report highlights the overwhelming importance of carbon capture and storage in determining the cost of meeting the goal of limiting anthropogenic warming to two degrees. We will show that this importance arises directly from the cumulative carbon budget and the role of CCS as the technology of last resort before economic activity needs to be restricted to meet ambitious climate targets. It highlights the need to increase the rate of CCS deployment by orders of magnitude if the option of avoiding two degrees is to be retained. The difficulty of achieving this speed of deployment through conventional incentives and carbon-pricing mechanisms suggests a need for a much more direct mandatory approach. Despite their theoretical economic inefficiency, the success of recent regulatory measures in achieving greenhouse gas emissions reductions in jurisdictions such as the United States suggests an extension of the regulatory approach could be a more effective and politically acceptable means of achieving adequately rapid CCS deployment than conventional carbon taxes or cap-and-trade systems.

  17. [TUBERCULOSIS ANNUAL REPORT 2014--(1) Summary of Statistics on Tuberculosis Notification and Foreign-born Tuberculosis Patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This brief is the first of a series of documents based on the Tuberculosis Annual Report 2014. It includes a summary of tuberculosis (TB) statistics, including data on foreign-born TB patients notified and registered in Japan in 2014. For the first time, the number of newly notified cases (all forms of TB) fell below 20,000. In 2014, a total of 19,615 patients were notified, a rate of 15.4 per 100,000 population The number of sputum-smear positive pulmonary. TB patients notified was 7,651, a rate of 6.0 per 100,000 population. The number of patients with latent TB infections increased slightly from 7,147 in 2013 to 7,562 in 2014. The proportion of miliary TB cases has constantly increased over the past 10 years, especially among women aged 80 years and older. The number of foreign-born TB patients continued to increase from 1,064 in 2013 to 1,101 in 2014. In 2014, new foreign-born TB patients aged 20-29 years accounted for 44.1% of all new TB patients in that age group. Among foreign-born TB patients, half were from the Philippines (26.5%) and China (23.5%). However, the number of patients from Vietnam and Nepal is increasing. Among foreign-born TB patients, 28% were regular employees, 26% were students, and 20% were unemployed. The changing trend in the nationality of foreign students entering Japan may at least partially explain the differences in TB burden among foreign-born patients, by country of birth. As we expect to see the proportion of foreign-born TB patients continue to rise, more tailored case identification and treatment support activities are needed.

  18. The real stroke burden in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Jose C; Baroque, Alejandro C; Lokin, Johnny K; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy

    2014-07-01

    Stroke is the Philippines' second leading cause of death. It has a prevalence of 0·9%; ischemic stroke comprises 70% while hemorrhagic stroke comprises 30%. Age-adjusted hypertension prevalence is 20·6%, diabetes 6·0%, dyslipidemia 72·0%, smoking 31%, and obesity 4·9%. The neurologist-to-patient ratio is 1:330·000, with 67% of neurologists practicing in urban centers. Health care is largely private and the cost is borne out-of-pocket by patients and their families. Challenges include delivering adequate support to the rural communities and to the underprivileged sectors.

  19. Epidemiology and burden of nasal congestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Stewart

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Michael Stewart1, BJ Ferguson2, Len Fromer31Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center, USA; 2Department of Otolaryngology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, USA; 3University of California, Los Angeles; David Geffen School of Medicine Los Angeles, California, USAAbstract: Nasal congestion, which may be described as fullness, obstruction, reduced airflow, or being “stuffed up,” is a commonly encountered symptom in clinical practice. Systematic study of congestion has largely considered it as a component of a disease state. Conditions associated with congestion include nasal polyposis, obstructive sleep apnea, and anatomic variation; however, most information on the burden of congestion comes from studies of allergic rhinitis and rhinosinusitis, diseases of which congestion is the major symptom. Congestion can be caused by other rhinologic conditions, such as non-allergic rhinitis, viral or bacterial rhinitis, and vasomotor rhinitis. Allergic rhinitis affects as much as one quarter of the population worldwide and imposes a significant economic burden. Additionally, allergic rhinitis significantly impairs quality of life; congestion causes allergic rhinitis sufferers decreased daytime productivity at work or school and reduces night-time sleep time and quality. Annually, rhinosinusitis affects tens of millions of Americans and leads to approximately $6 billion in overall health care expenditures; it has been found to be one of the most costly physical conditions for US employers. Given the high prevalence and significant social and economic burden of nasal congestion, this symptom should be a key consideration in treating patients with rhinologic disease, and there continues to be a significant unmet medical need for effective treatment options for this condition.Keywords: allergic rhinitis, congestion, epidemiology, obstruction, rhinosinusitis

  20. National Burden of Eye Diseases in Iran, 1990–2010; findings from the global burden of diseases study 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Hatef

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Epidemiologic transition is reflected in major ophthalmic and blinding diseases in the GBD data for Iran. The burden of macular degeneration is rising, followed by glaucoma. The burden of presbyopia affected individuals past their middle age. The burden of cataract manifested as a slower increase that could be attributable to better access to treatment.

  1. Global Economic Burden of Norovirus Gastroenteritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M Bartsch

    Full Text Available Despite accounting for approximately one fifth of all acute gastroenteritis illnesses, norovirus has received comparatively less attention than other infectious pathogens. With several candidate vaccines under development, characterizing the global economic burden of norovirus could help funders, policy makers, public health officials, and product developers determine how much attention and resources to allocate to advancing these technologies to prevent and control norovirus.We developed a computational simulation model to estimate the economic burden of norovirus in every country/area (233 total stratified by WHO region and globally, from the health system and societal perspectives. We considered direct costs of illness (e.g., clinic visits and hospitalization and productivity losses.Globally, norovirus resulted in a total of $4.2 billion (95% UI: $3.2-5.7 billion in direct health system costs and $60.3 billion (95% UI: $44.4-83.4 billion in societal costs per year. Disease amongst children <5 years cost society $39.8 billion, compared to $20.4 billion for all other age groups combined. Costs per norovirus illness varied by both region and age and was highest among adults ≥55 years. Productivity losses represented 84-99% of total costs varying by region. While low and middle income countries and high income countries had similar disease incidence (10,148 vs. 9,935 illness per 100,000 persons, high income countries generated 62% of global health system costs. In sensitivity analysis, the probability of hospitalization had the largest impact on health system cost estimates ($2.8 billion globally, assuming no hospitalization costs, while the probability of missing productive days had the largest impact on societal cost estimates ($35.9 billion globally, with a 25% probability of missing productive days.The total economic burden is greatest in young children but the highest cost per illness is among older age groups in some regions. These large

  2. Burden of ketamine cystitis in Chinese society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai-Kit Ma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ketamine cystitis, also referred to as ketamine-induced uropathy, is a new clinical syndrome affecting primarily young to middle-aged ketamine abusers and has become a global phenomenon since its first reported series in 2007. A spectrum of urological destructions ranging from mild cystitis to severely contracted bladder, ureteric stricture, upper tract damage, and irreversible renal failure has been reported. This review considers the scope and burden of ketamine cystitis in the Chinese population in Asia, stating the current status of management pathway, and reviews our current understanding on the pathophysiology of ketamine-induced uropathy.

  3. Seven challenges for modelling indirect transmission: Vector-borne diseases, macroparasites and neglected tropical diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Déirdre Hollingsworth

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many of the challenges which face modellers of directly transmitted pathogens also arise when modelling the epidemiology of pathogens with indirect transmission – whether through environmental stages, vectors, intermediate hosts or multiple hosts. In particular, understanding the roles of different hosts, how to measure contact and infection patterns, heterogeneities in contact rates, and the dynamics close to elimination are all relevant challenges, regardless of the mode of transmission. However, there remain a number of challenges that are specific and unique to modelling vector-borne diseases and macroparasites. Moreover, many of the neglected tropical diseases which are currently targeted for control and elimination are vector-borne, macroparasitic, or both, and so this article includes challenges which will assist in accelerating the control of these high-burden diseases. Here, we discuss the challenges of indirect measures of infection in humans, whether through vectors or transmission life stages and in estimating the contribution of different host groups to transmission. We also discuss the issues of “evolution-proof” interventions against vector-borne disease.

  4. Differences in the self-reported racism experiences of US-born and foreign-born Black pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Tyan Parker; Strong, Emily Ficklin; Krieger, Nancy; Gillman, Matthew W; Rich-Edwards, Janet W

    2009-07-01

    Differential exposure to minority status stressors may help explain differences in United States (US)-born and foreign-born Black women's birth outcomes. We explored self-reports of racism recorded in a survey of 185 US-born and 114 foreign-born Black pregnant women enrolled in Project Viva, a prospective cohort study of pregnant women in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Self-reported prevalence of personal racism and group racism was significantly higher among US-born than foreign-born Black pregnant women, with US-born women having 4.1 and 7.8 times the odds, respectively, of childhood exposure. In multivariate analyses, US-born women's personal and group racism exposure also was more pervasive across the eight life domains we queried. Examined by immigrant subgroups, US-born women were more similar in their self-reports of racism to foreign-born women who moved to the US before age 18 than to women who immigrated after age 18. Moreover, US-born women more closely resembled foreign-born women from the Caribbean than those from Africa. Differential exposure to self-reported racism over the life course may be a critically important factor that distinguishes US-born Black women from their foreign-born counterparts.

  5. Cumulative Interarrival Time Distributions of Freeway Entrance Ramp Traffic for Traffic Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdinç Öner

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cumulative interarrival time (IAT distributions for signalized and non-signalized freeway entrance ramps were developed to be used in digital computer traffic simulation models. The data from four different non-signalized entrance ramps (three ramps with a single lane, one ramp with two lanes and two different signalized entrance ramps (both with a single lane were used for developing the cumulative IAT distributions. The cumulative IAT distributions for the signalized and non-signalized entrance ramps were compared with each other and with the cumulative IAT distributions of the lanes for freeways. The comparative results showed that the cumulative IAT distributions for non-signalized entrance ramps are very close to the leftmost lane of a 3-lane freeway where the maximum absolute difference between the cumulative IAT distribution of the leftmost lane of a 3-lane freeway and the entrance ramps cumulative IAT distribution was 3%. The cumulative IAT distribution for the signalized entrance ramps was found to be different from the non-signalized entrance ramp cumulative IAT distribution. The approximated cumulative IAT distributions for signalized and non-signalized entrance ramp traffic for any hourly traffic volume from a few vehicles/hour up to 2,500 vehicles/hour can be obtained at http://www.ohio.edu/orite/research/uitds.cfm.

  6. Perinatal outcomes among foreign-born and US-born Chinese Americans, 1995-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Keith, Louis G; Kirby, Russell S

    2010-06-01

    This paper examines nativity differences in adverse perinatal outcomes of Chinese-American mothers. Singleton live births to US-resident Chinese women (150,620 foreign-born, 15,040 US-born) and a random sample of 150,620 non-Hispanic White mothers were selected from 1995 to 2000 national linked birth/infant death certificate files. Associations between maternal nativity status and adverse perinatal outcomes were assessed using multivariable logistic regressions. Compared to US-born Chinese mothers, foreign-born Chinese mothers were less likely to be unmarried, teen mothers, have a non-Hispanic White or other race partner, be rural residents, and more likely to be less educated, or utilize prenatal care inadequately. Controlling for these factors, foreign-born Chinese-American mothers had significantly lower risks for low birth weight, preterm birth, and small-for-gestational age, whereas risks for infant mortality, neonatal mortality, and post-neonatal mortality did not differ significantly from those of infants of US-born Chinese mothers. Chinese Americans exhibited clear nativity differentials for adverse birth outcomes.

  7. Differences in the self-reported racism experiences of US-born and foreign-born Black pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Dominguez, Tyan Parker; Strong, Emily Ficklin; Krieger, Nancy; Gillman, Matthew W.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.

    2009-01-01

    Differential exposure to minority status stressors may help explain differences in United States (US)-born and foreign-born Black women’s birth outcomes. We explored self-reports of racism recorded in a survey of 185 US-born and 114 foreign-born Black pregnant women enrolled in Project Viva, a prospective cohort study of pregnant women in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Self-reported prevalence of personal racism and group racism was significantly higher among US-born than foreign-born Black preg...

  8. Chinese Caregiving Burden and the Future Burden of Elder Care in Life-Course Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Heying Jenny

    2002-01-01

    This article uses the life course perspective to combine micro- and macro-levels of analysis of caregiving burdens experienced by Chinese baby-boom cohort and then explores their elder care prospects. Based on survey interviews during 1997 and 1998 with 110 caregivers providing care to dependent parents or parents-in-law, this study finds that…

  9. Sensitivity Tests for Cumulative Damage Function (CDF) for the PGSFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chiwoong; Ha, Kwiseok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    A safety analysis including the design basis and beyond design basis events has been conducted using MARS-LMR. Previous safety limits were based on temperature and the duration time. However, the cumulative damage function (CDF) will be used as the safety limit to evaluate the fuel cladding integrity. Recently, a 4S reactor developed by Toshiba used the same approach for a safety analysis. Therefore, the development a CDF is necessary to evaluate the safety limit for the PGSFR safety analyses. The major keys in the CDF model are behavior of fuel and cladding. It is not easy to obtain a metallic fuel database for a CDF model including the cladding materials. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in the United States is the only major leading group for metallic fuel experiments. They conducted various experiments with various facilities and experimental reactors, for example, EBR-II, FFTF, and TREAT. In addition, they have recently been trying to extend their oxide fuel based a severe accident code, SAS4A/SASSYS, to a metallic fuel version using their metallic fuel database. In this study, the preliminary CDF model was supplemented in the MARS-LMR code. The major source was the SAS4A/SASSYS modules related to fuel and cladding transient behaviors.. In addition, a sensitivity test for some parameters in the CDF model was conducted to evaluate the capability of these models and to find the major parameter of fuel failure. The Cumulative Damage Function is a good indicator for a fuel failure. The major parameters for the CDF model are selected including cladding and fuel temperatures, initial pressure and volume in the gas plenum, clad thickness, and fission power in the fuel pin. The most sensitive parameter is the cladding temperature. Also, cladding thickness and gas pressure in the fuel pin are effective parameters on the CDF. During an actual transient, various parameter including sensitivity test parameters in this study will be changed simultaneously. This study can

  10. Quantitative PCR analysis of salivary pathogen burden in periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Aino; Kopra, K A Elisa; Hyvärinen, Kati; Paju, Susanna; Mäntylä, Päivi; Buhlin, Kåre; Nieminen, Markku S; Sinisalo, Juha; Pussinen, Pirkko J

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the value of salivary concentrations of four major periodontal pathogens and their combination in diagnostics of periodontitis. The Parogene study included 462 dentate subjects (mean age 62.9 ± 9.2 years) with coronary artery disease (CAD) diagnosis who underwent an extensive clinical and radiographic oral examination. Salivary levels of four major periodontal bacteria were measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Median salivary concentrations of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Prevotella intermedia, as well as the sum of the concentrations of the four bacteria, were higher in subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis compared to subjects with no to mild periodontitis. Median salivary Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans concentrations did not differ significantly between the subjects with no to mild periodontitis and subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis. In logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, diabetes, and the number of teeth and implants, high salivary concentrations of P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, and P. intermedia were significantly associated with moderate to severe periodontitis. When looking at different clinical and radiographic parameters of periodontitis, high concentrations of P. gingivalis and T. forsythia were significantly associated with the number of 4-5 mm periodontal pockets, ≥6 mm pockets, and alveolar bone loss (ABL). High level of T. forsythia was associated also with bleeding on probing (BOP). The combination of the four bacteria, i.e., the bacterial burden index, was associated with moderate to severe periodontitis with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.40 (95% CI 1.39-4.13). When A. actinomycetemcomitans was excluded from the combination of the bacteria, the OR was improved to 2.61 (95% CI 1.51-4.52). The highest OR 3.59 (95% CI 1.94-6.63) was achieved when P. intermedia was further excluded from the combination and only the levels of P. gingivalis and T

  11. Quantitative PCR analysis of salivary pathogen burden in periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aino eSalminen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to investigate the value of salivary concentrations of four major periodontal pathogens and their combination in diagnostics of periodontitis. The Parogene study included 462 dentate subjects (mean age 62.9±9.2 years with coronary artery disease diagnosis who underwent an extensive clinical and radiographic oral examination. Salivary levels of four major periodontal bacteria were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Median salivary concentrations of P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, and P. intermedia, as well as the sum of the concentrations of the four bacteria, were higher in subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis compared to subjects with no to mild periodontitis. Median salivary A. actinomycetemcomitans concentrations did not differ significantly between the subjects with no to mild periodontitis and subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis. In logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, diabetes, and the number of teeth and implants, high salivary concentrations of P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, and P. intermedia were significantly associated with moderate to severe periodontitis. When looking at different clinical and radiographic parameters of periodontitis, high concentrations of P. gingivalis and T. forsythia were significantly associated with the number of 4-5 mm periodontal pockets, ≥ 6 mm pockets, and alveolar bone loss (ABL. High level of T. forsythia was associated also with bleeding on probing (BOP. The combination of the four bacteria, i.e. the bacterial burden index, was associated with moderate to severe periodontitis with an odds ratio (OR of 2.40 (95% CI 1.39–4.13. When A. actinomycetemcomitans was excluded from the combination of the bacteria, the OR was improved to 2.61 (95% CI 1.51–4.52. The highest odds ratio 3.59 (95% CI 1.94–6.63 was achieved when P. intermedia was further excluded from the combination and only the levels of P. gingivalis and T. forsythia were used. Salivary

  12. Geometrical dynamics of Born-Infeld objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordero, Ruben [Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del I.P.N., Unidad Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Edificio 9, 07738 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Molgado, Alberto [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal DIaz del Castillo 340, Col. Villas San Sebastian, Colima (Mexico); Rojas, Efrain [Facultad de Fisica e Inteligencia Artificial, Universidad Veracruzana, 91000 Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2007-03-21

    We present a geometrically inspired study of the dynamics of Dp-branes. We focus on the usual non-polynomial Dirac-Born-Infeld action for the worldvolume swept out by the brane in its evolution in general background spacetimes. We emphasize the form of the resulting equations of motion which are quite simple and resemble Newton's second law, complemented with a conservation law for a worldvolume bicurrent. We take a closer look at the classical Hamiltonian analysis which is supported by the ADM framework of general relativity. The constraints and their algebra are identified as well as the geometrical role they play in phase space. In order to illustrate our results, we review the dynamics of a D1-brane immersed in a AdS{sub 3} x S{sup 3} background spacetime. We exhibit the mechanical properties of Born-Infeld objects paving the way to a consistent quantum formulation.

  13. Scalar geons in Born-Infeld gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, V. I.; Olmo, Gonzalo J.; Rubiera-Garcia, D.

    2017-08-01

    The existence of static, spherically symmetric, self-gravitating scalar field solutions in the context of Born-Infeld gravity is explored. Upon a combination of analytical approximations and numerical methods, the equations for a free scalar field (without a potential term) are solved, verifying that the solutions recover the predictions of General Relativity far from the center but finding important new effects in the central regions. We find two classes of objects depending on the ratio between the Schwarzschild radius and a length scale associated to the Born-Infeld theory: massive solutions have a wormhole structure, with their throat at r≈ 2M, while for the lighter configurations the topology is Euclidean. The total energy density of these solutions exhibits a solitonic profile with a maximum peaked away from the center, and located at the throat whenever a wormhole exists. The geodesic structure and curvature invariants are analyzed for the various configurations considered.

  14. Born-Infeld-$f(R)$ gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Makarenko, Andrey N; Olmo, Gonzalo J

    2014-01-01

    We work out a gravity theory that combines the Born-Infeld gravity Lagrangian with an $f(R)$ piece. The theory is formulated within the Palatini approach. This construction provides more freedom to address a number of important questions such as the dynamics of the early universe and the cosmic accelerated expansion, among others. In particular, we consider the effect that adding an $f(R)=a R^2$ term has on the early-time cosmology. We find that bouncing solutions are robust against these modifications of the Lagrangian whereas the solutions with loitering behavior of the original Born-Infeld theory are very sensitive to the $R^2$ term. In fact, these solutions are modified in such a way that a plateau in the $H^2$ function may arise yielding a period of (approximately) de Sitter inflationary expansion. This inflationary behavior may be found even in a radiation dominated universe.

  15. Approximated solutions to Born-Infeld dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraro, Rafael [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA),Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires,Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Nigro, Mauro [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires,Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2016-02-01

    The Born-Infeld equation in the plane is usefully captured in complex language. The general exact solution can be written as a combination of holomorphic and anti-holomorphic functions. However, this solution only expresses the potential in an implicit way. We rework the formulation to obtain the complex potential in an explicit way, by means of a perturbative procedure. We take care of the secular behavior common to this kind of approach, by resorting to a symmetry the equation has at the considered order of approximation. We apply the method to build approximated solutions to Born-Infeld electrodynamics. We solve for BI electromagnetic waves traveling in opposite directions. We study the propagation at interfaces, with the aim of searching for effects susceptible to experimental detection. In particular, we show that a reflected wave is produced when a wave is incident on a semi-space containing a magnetostatic field.

  16. Attitude determination for balloon-borne experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Gandilo, N N; Amiri, M; Angile, F E; Benton, S J; Bock, J J; Bond, J R; Bryan, S A; Chiang, H C; Contaldi, C R; Crill, B P; Devlin, M J; Dober, B; Dore, O P; Farhang, M; Filippini, J P; Fissel, L M; Fraisse, A A; Fukui, Y; Galitzki, N; Gambrel, A E; Golwala, S; Gudmundsson, J E; Halpern, M; Hasselfield, M; Hilton, G C; Holmes, W A; Hristov, V V; Irwin, K D; Jones, W C; Kermish, Z D; Klein, J; Korotkov, A L; Kuo, C L; MacTavish, C J; Mason, P V; Matthews, T G; Megerian, K G; Moncelsi, L; Morford, T A; Mroczkowski, T K; Nagy, J M; Netterfield, C B; Novak, G; Nutter, D; O'Brient, R; Pascale, E; Poidevin, F; Rahlin, A S; Reintsema, C D; Ruhl, J E; Runyan, M C; Savini, G; Scott, D; Shariff, J A; Soler, J D; Thomas, N E; Trangsrud, A; Truch, M D; Tucker, C E; Tucker, G S; Tucker, R S; Turner, A D; Ward-Thompson, D; Weber, A C; Wiebe, D V; Young, E Y

    2014-01-01

    An attitude determination system for balloon-borne experiments is presented. The system provides pointing information in azimuth and elevation for instruments flying on stratospheric balloons over Antarctica. In-flight attitude is given by the real-time combination of readings from star cameras, a magnetometer, sun sensors, GPS, gyroscopes, tilt sensors and an elevation encoder. Post-flight attitude reconstruction is determined from star camera solutions, interpolated by the gyroscopes using an extended Kalman Filter. The multi-sensor system was employed by the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol), an experiment that measures polarized thermal emission from interstellar dust clouds. A similar system was designed for the upcoming flight of SPIDER, a Cosmic Microwave Background polarization experiment. The pointing requirements for these experiments are discussed, as well as the challenges in designing attitude reconstruction systems for high altitude balloon flights. ...

  17. Tick-borne relapsing fever in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, C T

    1980-12-01

    Three cases of tick-borne fever diagnosed during the summer of 1979 are reported and the ecoepidemiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment of this infection are reviewed. Although challenging, the diagnosis can be made easily if specific historical clues are sought and the patient's blood smear is carefully examined. The diagnosis of this condition early in its course can save clinicians and patients the anxiety and cost of the work-up of a "fever of unknown origin." Since vacationing in the national parks and forests has become increasingly popular among many American families, tick-borne relapsing fever should be considered in any patient with an acute or recurrent fever of unknown origin who exhibits nonspecific symptoms of an undifferentiated "viral illness," and who gives a history of sleeping overnight in log cabins in the coniferous forests of the Western mountains of the United States.

  18. Existence of Solutions of a Riccati Differential System from a General Cumulant Control Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley R. Liberty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a system of infinitely many Riccati equations that arise from a cumulant control problem, which is a generalization of regulator problems, risk-sensitive controls, minimal cost variance controls, and k-cumulant controls. We obtain estimates for the existence intervals of solutions of the system. In particular, new existence conditions are derived for solutions on the horizon of the cumulant control problem.

  19. Integrated epidemiology for vector-borne zoonoses

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The development and application of interventions for the control of vector-borne zoonoses requires broad understanding of epidemiological linkages between vector, animal infection and human infection. However, there are significant gaps in our understanding of these linkages and a lack of appropriate data poses a considerable barrier to addressing this issue. A move towards strengthened surveillance of vectors and disease in both animal and human hosts, in combination with linked human-animal...

  20. Dynamics of Born-Infeld membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordero, R [Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del I.P.N., Unidad Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Edificio 9, 07738 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Molgado, A [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal DIaz del Castillo 340, Col. Villas San Sebastian, Colima (Mexico); Rojas, E [Facultad de Fisica e Inteligencia Artificial, Universidad Veracruzana, 91000 Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    We present a geometrical inspired study of the dynamics of Dp-branes. We focus on the usual nonpolynomial Dirac-Born-Infeld action for the worldvolume swept out by the brane in its evolution in general background spacetimes. We emphasize the form of the resulting equations of motion which are quite simple and resemble Newton's second law, complemented with a conservation law for a worldvolume bicurrent.

  1. Gravity a la Born-Infeld

    CERN Document Server

    Wohlfarth, M N R

    2004-01-01

    A simple technique for the construction of gravity theories in Born-Infeld style is presented, and the properties of some of these novel theories are investigated. They regularize the positive energy Schwarzschild singularity, and a large class of models allows for the cancellation of ghosts. The possible correspondence to low energy string theory is discussed. By including curvature corrections to all orders in alpha', the new theories nicely illustrate a mechanism that string theory might use to regularize gravitational singularities.

  2. Spectrophotometric determination of substrate-borne polyacrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianhang; Wu, Laosheng

    2002-08-28

    Polyacrylamides (PAMs) have wide application in many industries and in agriculture. Scientific research and industrial applications manifested a need for a method that can quantify substrate-borne PAM. The N-bromination method (a PAM analytical technique based on N-bromination of amide groups and spectrophotometric determination of the formed starch-triiodide complex), which was originally developed for determining PAM in aqueous solutions, was modified to quantify substrate-borne PAM. In the modified method, the quantity of substrate-borne PAM was converted to a concentration of starch-triiodide complex in aqueous solution that was then measured by spectrophotometry. The method sensitivity varied with substrates due to sorption of reagents and reaction intermediates on the substrates. Therefore, separate calibration for each substrate was required. Results from PAM samples in sand, cellulose, organic matter burnt soils, and clay minerals showed that this method had good accuracy and reproducibility. The PAM recoveries ranged from 95.8% to 103.7%, and the relative standard deviations (n = 4) were <7.5% in all cases. The optimum range of PAM in each sample is 10-80 microg. The technique can serve as an effective tool in improving PAM application and facilitating PAM-related research.

  3. Psychological Stressors and Burden of Medical Conditions in Older Adults: A Psychosomatic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Mani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "n  "n  "nObjective: "nIn geriatric practice, the impact of psychological distress on health status has been undermined due to ageism, atypical presentation and less tendency to report negative affect among elderly people. Few studies have examined the impact of psychological stressors on medical burden in older adults. The current study has investigated the correlation of psychological distress and burden of medical conditions in a sample of older people .     "n  "n  "nMethod: A convenient study sample of 120 elderly subjects was recruited from the places where there was greater chance for the elderly people to attend. Data were collected by a trained research assistant using perceived stress scale, cumulative illness rating scale, geriatric depressive scale and a demographic questionnaire.     "n  "n  "nResults: "nOur participants perceived more level of stress than the average for their age. In the current study, the burden of medical condition was significantly correlated with the level of perceived stress(r = .197, p = .044. Moreover, in regression analysis, perceived stress was the strongest predictor for physical health morbidity (R2 =.049, significant f= .03.     "n  "n  "nConclusions: "nThe result of this study suggested that the psychological stressors contribute to poor health outcome in older adults ; the area that is usually overlooked due to ageism and its physiological related changes. The medical practitioners should consider the psychological distress as a part of etiological factors implicating in health morbidity among their aged patients.

  4. Scenario dependency of the transient climate response to cumulative emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Katherine; Williams, Ric; Oschlies, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    The transient climate response to emissions (TCRE), in relating surface temperature changes to cumulative carbon emissions, provides a means of estimating carbon budgets from global warming benchmarks. Current Earth System Model results indicate that the TCRE is linear and scenario-independent. We explore the sensitivity of the TCRE to scenario and model parameter uncertainties using 8 configurations of the UVic Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity, forced by 2 twenty-first-century emissions scenarios (RCP 4.5 and 8.5). We find that the TCRE is higher under RCP 4.5 than 8.5 by 0.3-0.8 K/1000 Pg C and shows opposing nonlinear tendencies in these scenarios: an increase of 0.15-0.5 K/1000 Pg C over RCP 4.5 and a decrease of 0-0.7 K/1000 Pg C over RCP 8.5. These differences are robust across model configurations with perturbed land and ocean parametrizations and are the result of the decreased efficiency of heat transport into the deep ocean under decelerating emissions.

  5. High selection pressure promotes increase in cumulative adaptive culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Vegvari

    Full Text Available The evolution of cumulative adaptive culture has received widespread interest in recent years, especially the factors promoting its occurrence. Current evolutionary models suggest that an increase in population size may lead to an increase in cultural complexity via a higher rate of cultural transmission and innovation. However, relatively little attention has been paid to the role of natural selection in the evolution of cultural complexity. Here we use an agent-based simulation model to demonstrate that high selection pressure in the form of resource pressure promotes the accumulation of adaptive culture in spite of small population sizes and high innovation costs. We argue that the interaction of demography and selection is important, and that neither can be considered in isolation. We predict that an increase in cultural complexity is most likely to occur under conditions of population pressure relative to resource availability. Our model may help to explain why culture change can occur without major environmental change. We suggest that understanding the interaction between shifting selective pressures and demography is essential for explaining the evolution of cultural complexity.

  6. INTERACTIVE VISUALIZATION OF PROBABILITY AND CUMULATIVE DENSITY FUNCTIONS

    KAUST Repository

    Potter, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    The probability density function (PDF), and its corresponding cumulative density function (CDF), provide direct statistical insight into the characterization of a random process or field. Typically displayed as a histogram, one can infer probabilities of the occurrence of particular events. When examining a field over some two-dimensional domain in which at each point a PDF of the function values is available, it is challenging to assess the global (stochastic) features present within the field. In this paper, we present a visualization system that allows the user to examine two-dimensional data sets in which PDF (or CDF) information is available at any position within the domain. The tool provides a contour display showing the normed difference between the PDFs and an ansatz PDF selected by the user and, furthermore, allows the user to interactively examine the PDF at any particular position. Canonical examples of the tool are provided to help guide the reader into the mapping of stochastic information to visual cues along with a description of the use of the tool for examining data generated from an uncertainty quantification exercise accomplished within the field of electrophysiology.

  7. Model-checking techniques based on cumulative residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, D Y; Wei, L J; Ying, Z

    2002-03-01

    Residuals have long been used for graphical and numerical examinations of the adequacy of regression models. Conventional residual analysis based on the plots of raw residuals or their smoothed curves is highly subjective, whereas most numerical goodness-of-fit tests provide little information about the nature of model misspecification. In this paper, we develop objective and informative model-checking techniques by taking the cumulative sums of residuals over certain coordinates (e.g., covariates or fitted values) or by considering some related aggregates of residuals, such as moving sums and moving averages. For a variety of statistical models and data structures, including generalized linear models with independent or dependent observations, the distributions of these stochastic processes tinder the assumed model can be approximated by the distributions of certain zero-mean Gaussian processes whose realizations can be easily generated by computer simulation. Each observed process can then be compared, both graphically and numerically, with a number of realizations from the Gaussian process. Such comparisons enable one to assess objectively whether a trend seen in a residual plot reflects model misspecification or natural variation. The proposed techniques are particularly useful in checking the functional form of a covariate and the link function. Illustrations with several medical studies are provided.

  8. Microcanonical thermostatistics analysis without histograms: cumulative distribution and Bayesian approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Alves, Nelson A; Rizzi, Leandro G

    2015-01-01

    Microcanonical thermostatistics analysis has become an important tool to reveal essential aspects of phase transitions in complex systems. An efficient way to estimate the microcanonical inverse temperature $\\beta(E)$ and the microcanonical entropy $S(E)$ is achieved with the statistical temperature weighted histogram analysis method (ST-WHAM). The strength of this method lies on its flexibility, as it can be used to analyse data produced by algorithms with generalised sampling weights. However, for any sampling weight, ST-WHAM requires the calculation of derivatives of energy histograms $H(E)$, which leads to non-trivial and tedious binning tasks for models with continuous energy spectrum such as those for biomolecular and colloidal systems. Here, we discuss two alternative methods that avoid the need for such energy binning to obtain continuous estimates for $H(E)$ in order to evaluate $\\beta(E)$ by using ST-WHAM: (i) a series expansion to estimate probability densities from the empirical cumulative distrib...

  9. Cumulative sum quality control for calibrated breast density measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heine, John J.; Cao Ke; Beam, Craig [Cancer Prevention and Control Division, Moffitt Cancer Center, 12902 Magnolia Drive, Tampa, Florida 33612 (United States); Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1603 W. Taylor St., Chicago, Illinois 60612 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Purpose: Breast density is a significant breast cancer risk factor. Although various methods are used to estimate breast density, there is no standard measurement for this important factor. The authors are developing a breast density standardization method for use in full field digital mammography (FFDM). The approach calibrates for interpatient acquisition technique differences. The calibration produces a normalized breast density pixel value scale. The method relies on first generating a baseline (BL) calibration dataset, which required extensive phantom imaging. Standardizing prospective mammograms with calibration data generated in the past could introduce unanticipated error in the standardized output if the calibration dataset is no longer valid. Methods: Sample points from the BL calibration dataset were imaged approximately biweekly over an extended timeframe. These serial samples were used to evaluate the BL dataset reproducibility and quantify the serial calibration accuracy. The cumulative sum (Cusum) quality control method was used to evaluate the serial sampling. Results: There is considerable drift in the serial sample points from the BL calibration dataset that is x-ray beam dependent. Systematic deviation from the BL dataset caused significant calibration errors. This system drift was not captured with routine system quality control measures. Cusum analysis indicated that the drift is a sign of system wear and eventual x-ray tube failure. Conclusions: The BL calibration dataset must be monitored and periodically updated, when necessary, to account for sustained system variations to maintain the calibration accuracy.

  10. Enhanced cumulative sum charts for monitoring process dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abujiya, Mu'azu Ramat; Riaz, Muhammad; Lee, Muhammad Hisyam

    2015-01-01

    The cumulative sum (CUSUM) control chart is widely used in industry for the detection of small and moderate shifts in process location and dispersion. For efficient monitoring of process variability, we present several CUSUM control charts for monitoring changes in standard deviation of a normal process. The newly developed control charts based on well-structured sampling techniques - extreme ranked set sampling, extreme double ranked set sampling and double extreme ranked set sampling, have significantly enhanced CUSUM chart ability to detect a wide range of shifts in process variability. The relative performances of the proposed CUSUM scale charts are evaluated in terms of the average run length (ARL) and standard deviation of run length, for point shift in variability. Moreover, for overall performance, we implore the use of the average ratio ARL and average extra quadratic loss. A comparison of the proposed CUSUM control charts with the classical CUSUM R chart, the classical CUSUM S chart, the fast initial response (FIR) CUSUM R chart, the FIR CUSUM S chart, the ranked set sampling (RSS) based CUSUM R chart and the RSS based CUSUM S chart, among others, are presented. An illustrative example using real dataset is given to demonstrate the practicability of the application of the proposed schemes.

  11. Detection of abrupt baseline length changes using cumulative sums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Volker

    2009-06-01

    Dynamic processes are usually monitored by collecting a time series of observations, which is then analysed in order to detect any motion or non-standard behaviour. Geodetic examples include the monitoring of dams, bridges, high-rise buildings, landslides, volcanoes and tectonic motion. The cumulative sum (CUSUM) test is recognised as a popular means to detect changes in the mean and/or the standard deviation of a time series and has been applied to various monitoring tasks. This paper briefly describes the CUSUM technique and how it can be utilised for the detection of small baseline length changes by differencing two perpendicular baselines sharing a common site. A simulation is carried out in order to investigate the expected behaviour of the resulting CUSUM charts for a variety of typical deformation monitoring scenarios. This simulation shows that using first differences (between successive epochs) as input, rather than the original baseline lengths, produces clear peaks or jumps in the differenced CUSUM time series when a sudden change in baseline length occurs. These findings are validated by analysing several GPS baseline pairs of a network deployed to monitor the propagation of an active ice shelf rift on the Amery Ice Shelf, East Antarctica.

  12. Estimation of cumulative cadmium intake causing Itai-itai disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Takeya; Kobayashi, Etsuko; Suwazono, Yasushi; Uetani, Mirei; Oishi, Mitsuhiro; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Nogawa, Koji

    2005-11-15

    This study was undertaken to estimate the amount of cadmium (Cd) exposure needed for the development of Itai-itai disease. The investigated subjects comprised 82 Itai-itai disease patients and 11 persons requiring observation who were admitted in 1977 and 1978 for medical testing. With the period when the Itai-itai disease patients started to perceive leg/back pain defined as the 'mild disease onset', and the period when they experienced the most severe manifestations such as ambulatory disturbance and bone fractures defined as 'severe disease onset'. Relative cumulative person number distribution according to life time cadmium intake (LCD) at mild disease onset, severe disease onset, and time of death was depicted as an sigmoid curve and the establishment of probit regression lines was demonstrated between them. LCD at the time when mild disease onset and severe disease onset were recognized in half of the Itai-itai disease patients was 3.1 and 3.8 g, respectively. Furthermore, LCD at the time when mild disease onset and severe disease onset were recognized in 5% of the Itai-itai disease patients was calculated to be 2.6 and 3.3 g, respectively. The present results clarify that Itai-itai disease, the most severe stage of chronic Cd poisoning, occurs at levels of Cd consumption amounting to approximately three-fold of those currently seen in Japan.

  13. LINGUISTIC DETERMINISM, CUMULATIVE EVOLUTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhoverkhov A. V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to examine how language and its historically inherited content and structure allows accumulating knowledge and determines the development of the individuals, culture and science. The article shows the theoretical drawbacks of modern "pragmatic turn" in which language is depicted only as a derivate of natural, cultural and cognitive systems. Instead, it is stated that language, in addition to all of the above, have to be considered also as a relatively independent basis and one of the causes that determine individual and social development. For that reason, the study examines the system nature of language, thought and culture, their environmental and social "embeddiness", a close relationship with other sign systems and with various forms of social activities. From that point, theoretical reduction of multiple relations and varying causes in complex ecological and social systems only to bilateral relations of language-thought, language-culture are revised. Particular attention is paid to the role of language in the accumulation and systematization of scientific knowledge and the transmission of cultural traditions. In that context, language is seen as part of the non-genetic inheritance systems, "social a priori" that determines the content and creates conditions for cumulative social evolution. Therefore, it is maintained that the comprehensive studies of language and its significance for culture and science have to embrace within a systems approach both the linguistic and pragmatic "turns"

  14. Simulation of the cumulative hydrological response to green infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avellaneda, P. M.; Jefferson, A. J.; Grieser, J. M.; Bush, S. A.

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we evaluated the cumulative hydrologic performance of green infrastructure in a residential area of the city of Parma, Ohio, draining to a tributary of the Cuyahoga River. Green infrastructure included the following spatially distributed devices: 16 street-side bioretention cells, 7 rain gardens, and 37 rain barrels. Data consisted of rainfall and outfall flow records for a wide range of storm events, including pretreatment and treatment periods. The Stormwater Management Model was calibrated and validated to predict the hydrologic response of green infrastructure. The calibrated model was used to quantify annual water budget alterations and discharge frequency over a 6 year simulation period. For the study catchment, we observed a treatment effect with increases of 1.4% in evaporation, 7.6% in infiltration, and a 9.0% reduction in surface runoff. The hydrologic performance of green infrastructure was evaluated by comparing the flow duration curve for pretreatment and treatment outfall flow scenarios. The flow duration curve shifted downward for the green infrastructure scenario. Discharges with a 0.5, 1, 2, and 5 year return period were reduced by an average of 29%. Parameter and predictive uncertainties were inspected by implementing a Bayesian statistical approach.

  15. A New Tool for Seismology--the Cumulative Spectral Power

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, Randall D

    2007-01-01

    The power spectral density (PSD) function is commonly used to specify seismometer performance. It is derived from the FFT of acceleration and correction is made for the transfer function of the instrument that generated the data. As with any such spectrum of density (`per Hz') type, the noise inherent to a PSD is large. This article illustrates the value of a function that is derived from the PSD and for which the influence of noise is significantly reduced. Called the cumulative spectral power (CSP), it is obtained from the PSD through the noise-reducing process of integration. The maximum of the CSP (corresponding to the longest graphed value of the period) provides a means for estimating the total vibrational power of the earth. The present author has significantly simplified the process of PSD generation. Thus routine graphing is straightforwared-of first the FFT, followed by the generation of both a PSD and its associated CSP. The unique properties of the CSP make it valuable for the study of a variety o...

  16. A shock process with a non-cumulative damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkelstein, M.S.; Zarudnij, V.I

    2001-01-01

    Two types of non-cumulative damage shock models are considered. Based on the distribution of damage, caused by a shock effecting a system, the intervals with small, intermediate and large damage are introduced. The initial homogeneous Poisson shock process is split into three homogeneous Poisson processes and studied independently. Several criteria of failure are considered, based on the assumption that shocks with a small level of damage are harmless for a system, shocks with a large level of damage results in the system's failure and shocks with an intermediate level of damage can result in the system's failure only with some probability. The second model is based on an assumption that shocks with a small level of damage are harmless to a system, if they are not too close to each other. The probability of the system's failure-free performance in [0,t) is derived explicitly. Simple asymptotic exponential approximations are obtained The accuracy of this method is analyzed. Possible generalizations are discussed.

  17. Cumulative signal transmission in nonlinear reaction-diffusion networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego A Oyarzún

    Full Text Available Quantifying signal transmission in biochemical systems is key to uncover the mechanisms that cells use to control their responses to environmental stimuli. In this work we use the time-integral of chemical species as a measure of a network's ability to cumulatively transmit signals encoded in spatiotemporal concentrations. We identify a class of nonlinear reaction-diffusion networks in which the time-integrals of some species can be computed analytically. The derived time-integrals do not require knowledge of the solution of the reaction-diffusion equation, and we provide a simple graphical test to check if a given network belongs to the proposed class. The formulae for the time-integrals reveal how the kinetic parameters shape signal transmission in a network under spatiotemporal stimuli. We use these to show that a canonical complex-formation mechanism behaves as a spatial low-pass filter, the bandwidth of which is inversely proportional to the diffusion length of the ligand.

  18. New tests of cumulative prospect theory and the priority heuristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Birnbaum

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous tests of cumulative prospect theory (CPT and of the priority heuristic (PH found evidence contradicting these two models of risky decision making. However, those tests were criticized because they had characteristics that might ``trigger'' use of other heuristics. This paper presents new tests that avoid those characteristics. Expected values of the gambles are nearly equal in each choice. In addition, if a person followed expected value (EV, expected utility (EU, CPT, or PH in these tests, she would shift her preferences in the same direction as shifts in EV or EU. In contrast, the transfer of attention exchange model (TAX and a similarity model predict that people will reverse preferences in the opposite direction. Results contradict the PH, even when PH is modified to include a preliminary similarity evaluation using the PH parameters. New tests of probability-consequence interaction were also conducted. Strong interactions were observed, contrary to PH. These results add to the growing bodies of evidence showing that neither CPT nor PH is an accurate description of risky decision making.

  19. Cumulative creep fatigue damage in 316 stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgaw, Michael A.

    1989-01-01

    The cumulative creep-fatigue damage behavior of 316 stainless steel at 1500 F was experimentally established for the two-level loading cases of fatigue followed by fatigue, creep fatigue followed by fatigue, and fatigue followed by creep fatigue. The two-level loadings were conducted such that the lower life (high strain) cycling was applied first for a controlled number of cycles and the higher life (low strain) cycling was conducted as the second level to failure. The target life levels in this study were 100 cycles to failure for both the fatigue and creep-fatigue lowlife loading, 5000 cycles to failure for the higher life fatigue loading and 10,000 cycles to failure for the higher life creep-fatigue loading. The failed specimens are being examined both fractographically and metallographically to ascertain the nature of the damaging mechanisms that produced failure. Models of creep-fatigue damage accumulation are being evaluated and knowledge of the various damaging mechanisms is necessary to ensure that predictive capability is instilled in the final failure model.

  20. Cumulative biological impacts of The Geysers geothermal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brownell, J.A.

    1981-10-01

    The cumulative nature of current and potential future biological impacts from full geothermal development in the steam-dominated portion of The Geysers-Calistoga KGRA are identified by the California Energy Commission staff. Vegetation, wildlife, and aquatic resources information have been reviewed and evaluated. Impacts and their significance are discussed and staff recommendations presented. Development of 3000 MW of electrical energy will result in direct vegetation losses of 2790 acres, based on an estimate of 11.5% loss per lease-hold of 0.93 acres/MW. If unmitigated, losses will be greater. Indirect vegetation losses and damage occur from steam emissions which contain elements (particularly boron) toxic to vegetation. Other potential impacts include chronic low-level boron exposure, acid rain, local climate modification, and mechanical damage. A potential exists for significant reduction and changes in wildlife from direct habitat loss and development influences. Highly erosive soils create the potential for significant reduction of aquatic resources, particularly game fish. Toxic spills have caused some temporary losses of aquatic species. Staff recommends monitoring and implementation of mitigation measures at all geothermal development stages.

  1. Cumulative Causation, Market Transition, and Emigration from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zai; Chunyu, Miao David; Zhuang, Guotu; Ye, Wenzhen

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we report findings from a recent survey of international migration from China's Fujian province to the United States. We take advantage of the ethnosurvey approach as used in the Mexican Migration Project. Surveys were done in migrant-sending communities in China as well as in destination communities of New York City. We derive hypotheses from two strands of recent studies-the international migration literature and the market transition debate. Our results are in general consistent with hypotheses derived from cumulative causation of migration. However, because of the geographical location of China as compared to Mexico, there are some differences between the two countries in terms of particular migration patterns to the United States. As expected, at the community level, migration prevalence ratio (measuring migration networks) increases the propensity of migration for other members in the community. In contrast, having a household member migrated previously does not increase the propensity of migration of other household members until debt for previous migration is paid off. Our research clearly demonstrates the value of bringing the case of China into the comparative study of international migration. With respect to market transition theory, we find that political power continues to be an important factor in the order of social stratification in the coastal Fujian province. PMID:19569396

  2. The cumulative energy effect for improved ignition timing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markhotok, A., E-mail: amarhotk@phys.washington.edu [Physics Department, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    A technique capable of improving timing in ignition applications is proposed. It is based on the use of shock waves propagating in a specific medium that allows achieving extremely high speeds and energies. The model uses the energy cumulation effect in the presence of the shock wave refraction on an interface with plasma. The problem was solved analytically and the effects were demonstrated for a cylindrically symmetrical geometry. Numerical results show very quick and uneven acceleration of different portions of the shock front. Its strong distortions lead to formation of a sharply focused jet near the axis of symmetry. The ability of the shock to achieve extremely high speeds and energies can be useful in design of efficient combustors for hypersonic systems, and possibly offers an alternative way of construction of a nuclear fusion reactor. Recommendations are given in terms of adjustment parameters and can be applied at any problem scale and for various combinations of the strengths of the effects involved in the problem.

  3. Cumulative life course impairment in melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piaserico, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Patients with skin cancer remain at risk for disease progression or relapse for many years. Therefore, skin cancer may be considered a chronic, life-threatening disease. It could impact on patients lifestyles and social and professional activities. Although no direct study of cumulative life course impairment (CLCI) in skin cancer patients has been carried out, a few studies suggest that skin cancer may strongly impair quality of life and eventually determine a significant CLCI (melanoma more than nonmelanoma skin cancer). Obviously, the life course of patients with melanoma at an advanced stage of the disease may change considerably. A number of cancer-associated problems may determine a CLCI, including familial or professional changes and a reduction of life expectancy may eventually lead to social withdrawal and depressive disorders. Even patients with a low stage disease may experience an important impairment of quality of life and in some cases a CLCI. Some skin cancer patients may have physical and psychological after effects from their cancer surgery. Several patients complain about lymphedema, discomfort experienced from wearing surgical stockings, and diminished range of physical motion postsurgery. A few are concerned about their body image due to surgical scars, and they may consider changing their job position because of the supposed negative impact of scars in visible sites on their ability to perform their job. Some female melanoma survivors may have a reduced desire of having children in the future.

  4. Alterations in Functional Connectivity for Language in Prematurely Born Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Robin J.; Lacadie, Cheryl; Vohr, Betty; Kesler, Shelli R.; Katz, Karol H.; Schneider, Karen C.; Pugh, Kenneth R.; Makuch, Robert W.; Reiss, Allan L.; Constable, R. Todd; Ment, Laura R.

    2009-01-01

    Recent data suggest recovery of language systems but persistent structural abnormalities in the prematurely born. We tested the hypothesis that subjects who were born prematurely develop alternative networks for processing language. Subjects who were born prematurely (n = 22; 600-1250 g birth weight), without neonatal brain injury on neonatal…

  5. The wild life of tick-borne pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeester, Tim R.

    2016-01-01

    Diseases that are transmitted by arthropod vectors from animal hosts to humans – so called zoonotic vector-borne diseases – have increased in incidence in the last decades. In North America and Europe, tick-borne pathogens cause the majority of vector-borne diseases, including Lyme borre

  6. On Duality in the Born-Infeld Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Khoudeir, Adel; Parra, Yoan

    1997-01-01

    The $SL(2,R)$ duality symmetric action for the Born-Infeld theory in terms of two potentials, coupled with non-trivial backgroud fields in four dimensions is established. This construction is carried out in detail by analysing the hamiltonian structure of the Born-Infeld theory. The equivalence with the usual Born-Infeld theory is shown.

  7. The wild life of tick-borne pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeester, Tim R.

    2016-01-01

    Diseases that are transmitted by arthropod vectors from animal hosts to humans – so called zoonotic vector-borne diseases – have increased in incidence in the last decades. In North America and Europe, tick-borne pathogens cause the majority of vector-borne diseases, including Lyme

  8. Toxoplasmosis in humans and animals in Brazil: high prevalence, high burden of disease, and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Lago, E G; Gennari, S M; Su, C; Jones, J L

    2012-09-01

    Infections by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii are widely prevalent in humans and animals in Brazil. The burden of clinical toxoplasmosis in humans is considered to be very high. The high prevalence and encouragement of the Brazilian Government provides a unique opportunity for international groups to study the epidemiology and control of toxoplasmosis in Brazil. Many early papers on toxoplasmosis in Brazil were published in Portuguese and often not available to scientists in English-speaking countries. In the present paper we review prevalence, clinical spectrum, molecular epidemiology, and control of T. gondii in humans and animals in Brazil. This knowledge should be useful to biologists, public health workers, veterinarians, and physicians. Brazil has a very high rate of T. gondii infection in humans. Up to 50% of elementary school children and 50-80% of women of child-bearing age have antibodies to T. gondii. The risks for uninfected women to acquire toxoplasmosis during pregnancy and fetal transmission are high because the environment is highly contaminated with oocysts. The burden of toxoplasmosis in congenitally infected children is also very high. From limited data on screening of infants for T. gondii IgM at birth, 5-23 children are born infected per 10 000 live births in Brazil. Based on an estimate of 1 infected child per 1000 births, 2649 children with congenital toxoplasmosis are likely to be born annually in Brazil. Most of these infected children are likely to develop symptoms or signs of clinical toxoplasmosis. Among the congenitally infected children whose clinical data are described in this review, several died soon after birth, 35% had neurological disease including hydrocephalus, microcephaly and mental retardation, 80% had ocular lesions, and in one report 40% of children had hearing loss. The severity of clinical toxoplasmosis in Brazilian children may be associated with the genetic characteristics of T. gondii isolates prevailing in

  9. Reviewing disease burden among rural Indian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramanakumar AV

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The disease burden of rural Indian women is reviewed by utilizing the data from the 'Survey of Causes of Death (rural' annual reports of Registrar General of India supplemented with National family health survey (NFHS-II. The review indicates that bronchitis and asthma are the leading causes while prematurity and heart attacks are second and third respectively. Most of the maternal deaths are concentrated in the age group 20-24 and bleeding is the main cause of maternal death. Tuberculosis of the lungs, malaria and burns are also important causes of death in the early reproductive ages. Rate of suicide, burn, and anaemia diminishes with age. Though nationwide health plans have succeeded in reducing the fatality of women's diseases to a entrain extent, there is however, a great need for improved and effective area-specific health programs to achieve the desired goals.

  10. Hepatitis B virus burden in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampino, Rosa; Boemio, Adriana; Sagnelli, Caterina; Alessio, Loredana; Adinolfi, Luigi Elio; Sagnelli, Evangelista; Coppola, Nicola

    2015-11-14

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has shown an intermediate or high endemicity level in low-income countries over the last five decades. In recent years, however, the incidence of acute hepatitis B and the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen chronic carriers have decreased in several countries because of the HBV universal vaccination programs started in the nineties. Some countries, however, are still unable to implement these programs, particularly in their hyperendemic rural areas. The diffusion of HBV infection is still wide in several low-income countries where the prevention, management and treatment of HBV infection are a heavy burden for the governments and healthcare authorities. Of note, the information on the HBV epidemiology is scanty in numerous eastern European and Latin-American countries. The studies on molecular epidemiology performed in some countries provide an important contribution for a more comprehensive knowledge of HBV epidemiology, and phylogenetic studies provide information on the impact of recent and older migratory flows.

  11. The global burden of periodontal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul E; Ogawa, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    is a component of the global burden of chronic disease, and chronic disease and periodontal disease have the same essential risk factors. In addition, severe periodontal disease is related to poor oral hygiene and to poor general health (e.g. the presence of diabetes mellitus and other systemic diseases...... periodontal pockets (≥6 mm) varies from 10% to 15% in adult populations. Intercountry and intracountry variations are found in the prevalence of periodontal disease, and these variations relate to socio-environmental conditions, behavioral risk factors, general health status of people (e.g. diabetes and HIV......Chronic diseases are accelerating globally, advancing across all regions and pervading all socioeconomic classes. Unhealthy diet and poor nutrition, physical inactivity, tobacco use, excessive use of alcohol and psychosocial stress are the most important risk factors. Periodontal disease...

  12. Epidemiology and Burden of Chronic Constipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ines Pinto Sanchez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic constipation is an important component of clinical gastroenterology practice worldwide. Based on the definition, either self-reported or using Rome criteria, chronic constipation can affect from 2% to 27% of the population. Constipation is physically and mentally troublesome for many patients, and can significantly interfere with their daily living and well-being. Although only a proportion of patients with constipation seek medical care, most of them use prescribed or over-the-counter medication to improve their condition. The health care costs of constipation are significant as evidenced by the hundreds of million dollars spent yearly on laxatives alone. Because constipation is more common in older patients and life expectancy is increasing, an increase in the prevalence of constipation is expected in the years to come, with the associated impact on quality of life and socioeconomic burden.

  13. Estimated burden of fungal infections in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guto, John Abuga; Bii, Christine C; Denning, David W

    2016-08-31

    Kenya is a developing country with a high rate of tuberculosis (TB) and a moderate HIV infection burden. No estimate of the burden of fungal diseases in Kenya is published. We used specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies from the literature to estimate national incidence or prevalence of serious fungal infections. Used sources were: 2010 WHO TB statistics, Kenya Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Epidemic Update 2012, Kenya Facts and figures 2012, Kenya Demographic and Health Survey 2008-2009. Of Kenya's population of ~40 million, 43% are under 15 years old and approximately 594,660 Kenyan women get >4 episodes Candida vulvovaginitis annually (2,988/100,000). The HIV/AIDS population at risk of opportunistic infections (OI) is 480,000 and the OI estimates include 306,000 patients with oral thrush (768/100,000), 114,000 with oesophageal candidiasis (286/100,000), 11,900 with cryptococcal meningitis (29/100,000) and 17,000 patients with Pneumocystis pneumonia (42/100,000). Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis following TB has a prevalence of 10,848 cases (32/100,000). The adult asthma prevalence is 3.1% and assuming 2.5% have allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis then 17,696 (44/100,000) are affected.  Invasive aspergillosis, candidaemia and Candida peritonitis are probably uncommon. Tinea capitis infects 9.6% of children in Kenya, while fungal keratitis and otomycoses are difficult to estimate. At any one time, about 7% of the Kenyan population suffers from a significant fungal infection, with recurrent vaginitis and tinea capitis accounting for 82% of the infections. These estimates require further epidemiological studies for validation.

  14. The Burden of Cholera in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwire, Godfrey; Malimbo, Mugagga; Maskery, Brian; Kim, Young Eun; Mogasale, Vittal; Levin, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In 2010, the World Health Organization released a new cholera vaccine position paper, which recommended the use of cholera vaccines in high-risk endemic areas. However, there is a paucity of data on the burden of cholera in endemic countries. This article reviewed available cholera surveillance data from Uganda and assessed the sufficiency of these data to inform country-specific strategies for cholera vaccination. Methods The Uganda Ministry of Health conducts cholera surveillance to guide cholera outbreak control activities. This includes reporting the number of cases based on a standardized clinical definition plus systematic laboratory testing of stool samples from suspected cases at the outset and conclusion of outbreaks. This retrospective study analyzes available data by district and by age to estimate incidence rates. Since surveillance activities focus on more severe hospitalized cases and deaths, a sensitivity analysis was conducted to estimate the number of non-severe cases and unrecognized deaths that may not have been captured. Results Cholera affected all ages, but the geographic distribution of the disease was very heterogeneous in Uganda. We estimated that an average of about 11,000 cholera cases occurred in Uganda each year, which led to approximately 61–182 deaths. The majority of these cases (81%) occurred in a relatively small number of districts comprising just 24% of Uganda's total population. These districts included rural areas bordering the Democratic Republic of Congo, South Sudan, and Kenya as well as the slums of Kampala city. When outbreaks occurred, the average duration was about 15 weeks with a range of 4–44 weeks. Discussion There is a clear subdivision between high-risk and low-risk districts in Uganda. Vaccination efforts should be focused on the high-risk population. However, enhanced or sentinel surveillance activities should be undertaken to better quantify the endemic disease burden and high-risk populations

  15. The burden of cholera in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Bwire

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In 2010, the World Health Organization released a new cholera vaccine position paper, which recommended the use of cholera vaccines in high-risk endemic areas. However, there is a paucity of data on the burden of cholera in endemic countries. This article reviewed available cholera surveillance data from Uganda and assessed the sufficiency of these data to inform country-specific strategies for cholera vaccination. METHODS: The Uganda Ministry of Health conducts cholera surveillance to guide cholera outbreak control activities. This includes reporting the number of cases based on a standardized clinical definition plus systematic laboratory testing of stool samples from suspected cases at the outset and conclusion of outbreaks. This retrospective study analyzes available data by district and by age to estimate incidence rates. Since surveillance activities focus on more severe hospitalized cases and deaths, a sensitivity analysis was conducted to estimate the number of non-severe cases and unrecognized deaths that may not have been captured. RESULTS: Cholera affected all ages, but the geographic distribution of the disease was very heterogeneous in Uganda. We estimated that an average of about 11,000 cholera cases occurred in Uganda each year, which led to approximately 61-182 deaths. The majority of these cases (81% occurred in a relatively small number of districts comprising just 24% of Uganda's total population. These districts included rural areas bordering the Democratic Republic of Congo, South Sudan, and Kenya as well as the slums of Kampala city. When outbreaks occurred, the average duration was about 15 weeks with a range of 4-44 weeks. DISCUSSION: There is a clear subdivision between high-risk and low-risk districts in Uganda. Vaccination efforts should be focused on the high-risk population. However, enhanced or sentinel surveillance activities should be undertaken to better quantify the endemic disease burden and high

  16. Economic burden of cervical cancer in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifa E.W. Puteh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancers form the second highest number of female cancers in Malaysia, imposing a substantial amount of cost burden on its management. However, an estimation of cost burden of abnormal smears, cervical pre-invasive and invasive diseases needs to be done to show how much spending has been allocated to the problem. An expert panel committee came up with the clinical pathway and management algorithm of  cervical pre invasive and invasive diseases from July-December 2006 Malaysia. An activity based costing for each clinical pathway was done. Results were converted to USD. The cost of managing pre-invasive cervical cancers stage is USD 420,150 (Range: USD 197,158-879,679. Management of invasive cancer (new cases costs USD 51,533,233.44 (Range: USD 32,405,399.69 - USD 129,014,768.40. The cost of managing existing cases is USD 17,005,966.87 (Range: USD 10,693,781.90 - USD  28,901,587.12. The total cost of managing cervical cancers by health care providers in a public setting is around USD 75,888,329.45 (Range: USD 48,083,804.60 - USD 48,083,804.60. The outcome of this study has shown that preventive modalities such as screening have only contributed to 10.3 % of the total management cost of cervical cancer. The major cost contribution (67% came from treatment of invasive cancer especially at more advanced stages of cancer, followed by treatment of existing cases (22% and lastly on pre-invasive disease (0.6%. This study revealed that proportion of preventive modality in this country was still low, and the major cost came from actual treatment cost of cervical cancer. Therefore, heightened public cervical cancer screening in the country is needed. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 272-80Keywords: cervical cancers, pre invasive disease, HPV vaccination

  17. The Humanistic and Economic Burden of Narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Natalia M; Villa, Kathleen F; Black, Jed; Chervin, Ronald D; Witt, Edward A

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the burden of narcolepsy--with respect to psychiatric comorbidities, Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL), direct costs for healthcare resource utilization, and indirect costs for reported work loss-through comparison of patients to matched controls. This analysis was conducted on data from the 2011, 2012, and 2013 US National Health and Wellness Survey (NHWS; 2011 NHWS n = 75,000, 2012 NHWS n = 71,157, and 2013 NHWS n = 75,000). Patients who reported a narcolepsy diagnosis (n = 437) were matched 1:2 with controls (n = 874) on age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, education, household income, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol use, exercise, and physical comorbidity. Chi-square tests and one-way analyses of variance were used to assess whether the narcolepsy and control groups differed on psychiatric comorbidities, HRQoL, labor force participation, work productivity, and healthcare resource utilization. Patients with narcolepsy, in comparison to matched controls, reported substantially (two to four times) greater psychiatric comorbidity, HRQoL impairment, prevalence of long-term disability, absenteeism, and presenteeism, and greater resource use in the past 6 mo as indicated by higher mean number of hospitalizations, emergency department visits, traditional healthcare professional visits, neurologist visits, and psychiatrist visits (each p narcolepsy diagnosis is associated with substantial adverse impact on mental health, HRQoL, and key economic burdens that include work impairment, resource use, and both direct and indirect costs. Although this study is cross-sectional, the results highlight the magnitude of the potential opportunity to improve mental health, lower costs, and augment work-related productivity through effective assessment and treatment of narcolepsy. © 2016 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  18. Measuring the burden of arboviral diseases: the spectrum of morbidity and mortality from four prevalent infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir Fatima

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, arthropod-borne virus infections are increasingly common causes of severe febrile disease that can progress to long-term physical or cognitive impairment or result in early death. Because of the large populations at risk, it has been suggested that these outcomes represent a substantial health deficit not captured by current global disease burden assessments. Methods We reviewed newly available data on disease incidence and outcomes to critically evaluate the disease burden (as measured by disability-adjusted life years, or DALYs caused by yellow fever virus (YFV, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV, chikungunya virus (CHIKV, and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV. We searched available literature and official reports on these viruses combined with the terms "outbreak(s," "complication(s," "disability," "quality of life," "DALY," and "QALY," focusing on reports since 2000. We screened 210 published studies, with 38 selected for inclusion. Data on average incidence, duration, age at onset, mortality, and severity of acute and chronic outcomes were used to create DALY estimates for 2005, using the approach of the current Global Burden of Disease framework. Results Given the limitations of available data, nondiscounted, unweighted DALYs attributable to YFV, JEV, CHIKV, and RVFV were estimated to fall between 300,000 and 5,000,000 for 2005. YFV was the most prevalent infection of the four viruses evaluated, although a higher proportion of the world's population lives in countries at risk for CHIKV and JEV. Early mortality and long-term, related chronic conditions provided the largest DALY components for each disease. The better known, short-term viral febrile syndromes caused by these viruses contributed relatively lower proportions of the overall DALY scores. Conclusions Limitations in health systems in endemic areas undoubtedly lead to underestimation of arbovirus incidence and related complications. However, improving

  19. The Burden of Dengue and the Financial Cost to Colombia, 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Rodríguez, Raúl; Carrasquilla, Gabriel; Porras, Alexandra; Galera-Gelvez, Katia; Lopez Yescas, Juan Guillermo; Rueda-Gallardo, Jorge A

    2016-05-01

    Data on the burden of dengue and its economic costs can help guide health policy decisions. However, little reliable information is available for Colombia. We therefore calculated the burden of the disease, expressed in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), for two scenarios: endemic years (average number of cases in non-epidemic years 2011 and 2012) and an epidemic year (2010, when the highest number of dengue cases was reported in the study period). We also estimated the total economic cost of the disease (U.S. dollars at the average exchange rate for 2012), including indirect costs to households derived from expenses such as preventing entry of mosquitos into the home and costs to government arising from direct, indirect, and prevention and monitoring activities, as well as the direct medical and non-medical costs. In the epidemic year 2010, 1,198.73 DALYs were lost per million inhabitants versus 83.88 in endemic years. The total financial cost of the disease in Colombia from a societal perspective was US$167.8 million for 2010, US$129.9 million for 2011, and US$131.7 million for 2012. The cost of mosquito prevention borne by households was a major cost driver (accounting for 46% of the overall cost in 2010, 62% in 2011, and 64% in 2012).

  20. The Burden of Dengue and the Financial Cost to Colombia, 2010–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Raúl Castro; Carrasquilla, Gabriel; Porras, Alexandra; Galera-Gelvez, Katia; Yescas, Juan Guillermo Lopez; Rueda-Gallardo, Jorge A.

    2016-01-01

    Data on the burden of dengue and its economic costs can help guide health policy decisions. However, little reliable information is available for Colombia. We therefore calculated the burden of the disease, expressed in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), for two scenarios: endemic years (average number of cases in non-epidemic years 2011 and 2012) and an epidemic year (2010, when the highest number of dengue cases was reported in the study period). We also estimated the total economic cost of the disease (U.S. dollars at the average exchange rate for 2012), including indirect costs to households derived from expenses such as preventing entry of mosquitos into the home and costs to government arising from direct, indirect, and prevention and monitoring activities, as well as the direct medical and non-medical costs. In the epidemic year 2010, 1,198.73 DALYs were lost per million inhabitants versus 83.88 in endemic years. The total financial cost of the disease in Colombia from a societal perspective was US$167.8 million for 2010, US$129.9 million for 2011, and US$131.7 million for 2012. The cost of mosquito prevention borne by households was a major cost driver (accounting for 46% of the overall cost in 2010, 62% in 2011, and 64% in 2012). PMID:26928834

  1. The economic burden of end-stage renal disease in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelmer, J L

    2007-11-01

    End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is a serious illness with significant health consequences and high-cost treatment options. This study estimates direct and indirect cost associated with ESRD from a societal perspective. A prevalence-based approach was used to estimate direct health-care costs and productivity losses from short- and long-term disability. An incident-based human capital approach was used to estimate mortality costs as the sum of the discounted present value of current and future productivity losses from premature deaths. Less than 0.1% of Canadians have ESRD; however, the disease generated direct health-care costs of $1.3 billion in the year 2000. The amount of direct spending per person with ESRD is much more than the average spending per person for all health-care conditions. Adding indirect morbidity and mortality cost brings the total burden associated with ESRD to $1.9 billion. This economic impact is higher than that for skin or infectious diseases, about the same as for genitourinary or endocrine diseases, but lower than that for conditions such as cancer or stroke. This economic weight is borne by a relatively small number of individuals. With the rapid increase in the incidence of ESRD, these findings may be useful in setting priorities for research, prevention programs, and in the planning of treatments. A better understanding of the scope and magnitude of the total economic burden of ESRD would help to inform those making policy decisions.

  2. The global burden of foodborne parasitic diseases: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgerson, Paul R; de Silva, Nilanthi R; Fèvre, Eric M; Kasuga, Fumiko; Rokni, Mohammad B; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Sripa, Banchob; Gargouri, Neyla; Willingham, Arve Lee; Stein, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Foodborne diseases (FBDs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the human population. Accurate information on the burden of FBDs is needed to inform policy makers and allocate appropriate resources for food safety control and intervention. Consequently, in 2006 the WHO launched an initiative to estimate the global burden of FBDs in terms of Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). This review gives an update of the progress on evaluating the burden of foodborne parasitic diseases that has been generated by this study. Results to date indicate that parasitic diseases that can be transmitted through food make a substantial contribution to the global burden of disease.

  3. On the duration and intensity of cumulative advantage competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bo; Sun, Liyuan; Figueiredo, Daniel R.; Ribeiro, Bruno; Towsley, Don

    2015-11-01

    Network growth can be framed as a competition for edges among nodes in the network. As with various other social and physical systems, skill (fitness) and luck (random chance) act as fundamental forces driving competition dynamics. In the context of networks, cumulative advantage (CA)—the rich-get-richer effect—is seen as a driving principle governing the edge accumulation process. However, competitions coupled with CA exhibit non-trivial behavior and little is formally known about duration and intensity of CA competitions. By isolating two nodes in an ideal CA competition, we provide a mathematical understanding of how CA exacerbates the role of luck in detriment of skill. We show, for instance, that when nodes start with few edges, an early stroke of luck can place the less skilled in the lead for an extremely long period of time, a phenomenon we call ‘struggle of the fittest’. We prove that duration of a simple skill and luck competition model exhibit power-law tails when CA is present, regardless of skill difference, which is in sharp contrast to the exponential tails when fitness is distinct but CA is absent. We also prove that competition intensity is always upper bounded by an exponential tail, irrespective of CA and skills. Thus, CA competitions can be extremely long (infinite mean, depending on fitness ratio) but almost never very intense. The theoretical results are corroborated by extensive numerical simulations. Our findings have important implications to competitions not only among nodes in networks but also in contexts that leverage socio-physical models embodying CA competitions.

  4. Cumulative phase delay imaging - A new contrast enhanced ultrasound modality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demi, Libertario, E-mail: l.demi@tue.nl; Sloun, Ruud J. G. van; Mischi, Massimo [Lab. of Biomedical Diagnostics, Dept. of Electrical Eng., Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Wijkstra, Hessel [Lab. of Biomedical Diagnostics, Dept. of Electrical Eng., Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Academic Medical Center, Urology Dept., University of Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-10-28

    Recently, a new acoustic marker for ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) has been introduced. A cumulative phase delay (CPD) between the second harmonic and fundamental pressure wave field components is in fact observable for ultrasound propagating through UCAs. This phenomenon is absent in the case of tissue nonlinearity and is dependent on insonating pressure and frequency, UCA concentration, and propagation path length through UCAs. In this paper, ultrasound images based on this marker are presented. The ULA-OP research platform, in combination with a LA332 linear array probe (Esaote, Firenze Italy), were used to image a gelatin phantom containing a PVC plate (used as a reflector) and a cylindrical cavity measuring 7 mm in diameter (placed in between the observation point and the PVC plate). The cavity contained a 240 µL/L SonoVueO{sup ®} UCA concentration. Two insonating frequencies (3 MHz and 2.5 MHz) were used to scan the gelatine phantom. A mechanical index MI = 0.07, measured in water at the cavity location with a HGL-0400 hydrophone (Onda, Sunnyvale, CA), was utilized. Processing the ultrasound signals backscattered from the plate, ultrasound images were generated in a tomographic fashion using the filtered back-projection method. As already observed in previous studies, significantly higher CPD values are measured when imaging at a frequency of 2.5 MHz, as compared to imaging at 3 MHz. In conclusion, these results confirm the applicability of the discussed CPD as a marker for contrast imaging. Comparison with standard contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging modalities will be the focus of future work.

  5. CUMULATIVE IMPACT OF YOGA PRACTICE ON QUALITY OF LI FE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Rani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted with two main objec tives. First it aims to experiment whether the ancient system of yoga can bring about change in the quality of life of its practitioners. The second objective was to study the cumulative im pact of yoga practice on Quality of Life. The study was conducted on four independent groups of y oga practitioners that varied in their length of experience in yoga practice. The first group compri sed of 76 subjects (49 male and 27 female with a mean age of 39 years (SD=9.8. All the participan ts in this group are novice practitioners. They have participated in the study immediately after th eir admission into yoga class. The second group comprised of 23 subjects (14 male and 9 female wit h a mean age of 34.2 years (SD= 11.07. Their length of experience in yoga practice is 3 months. The third group comprised of 18 subjects (11male and 7 female with a mean age of 33.83 year s (SD=9.33. Their length of experience in yoga practice is six months. The fourth group comprised of 17 subjects (11 male and 6 female with a mean age of 32.8 years (SD=9.5. Their length exper ience is 12 months. All the four independent groups were administered a questionnaire on Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF. The results on QOL gave scores on to tal quality of life and separate scores on Domain 1 (dealing with physical health Domain 2 (d ealing with psychological aspects, Domain 3 (dealing with social relationships and Domain 4 (d ealing with environmental aspects.

  6. Measuring a fair and ambitious climate agreement using cumulative emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Glen P.; Andrew, Robbie M.; Solomon, Susan; Friedlingstein, Pierre

    2015-10-01

    Policy makers have called for a ‘fair and ambitious’ global climate agreement. Scientific constraints, such as the allowable carbon emissions to avoid exceeding a 2 °C global warming limit with 66% probability, can help define ambitious approaches to climate targets. However, fairly sharing the mitigation challenge to meet a global target involves human values rather than just scientific facts. We develop a framework based on cumulative emissions of carbon dioxide to compare the consistency of countries’ current emission pledges to the ambition of keeping global temperatures below 2 °C, and, further, compare two alternative methods of sharing the remaining emission allowance. We focus on the recent pledges and other official statements of the EU, USA, and China. The EU and US pledges are close to a 2 °C level of ambition only if the remaining emission allowance is distributed based on current emission shares, which is unlikely to be viewed as ‘fair and ambitious’ by others who presently emit less. China’s stated emissions target also differs from measures of global fairness, owing to emissions that continue to grow into the 2020s. We find that, combined, the EU, US, and Chinese pledges leave little room for other countries to emit CO2 if a 2 °C limit is the objective, essentially requiring all other countries to move towards per capita emissions 7 to 14 times lower than the EU, USA, or China by 2030. We argue that a fair and ambitious agreement for a 2 °C limit that would be globally inclusive and effective in the long term will require stronger mitigation than the goals currently proposed. Given such necessary and unprecedented mitigation and the current lack of availability of some key technologies, we suggest a new diplomatic effort directed at ensuring that the necessary technologies become available in the near future.

  7. Cumulative Effects of Barriers on the Movements of Forest Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Bélisle

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there is a consensus of opinion that habitat fragmentation has deleterious effects on animal populations, primarily by inhibiting dispersal among remaining patches, there have been few explicit demonstrations of the ways by which degraded habitats actually constrain individual movement. Two impediments are primarily responsible for this paucity: it is difficult to separate the effects of habitat fragmentation (configuration from habitat loss (composition, and conventional measures of fragmented habitats are assumed to be, but probably are not, isotropic. We addressed these limitations by standardizing differences in forest cover in a clearly anisotropic configuration of habitat fragmentation by conducting a homing experiment with three species of forest birds in the Bow Valley of Banff National Park, Canada. Birds were translocated (1.2-3.5  km either parallel or perpendicular to four/five parallel barriers that are assumed to impede the cross-valley travel of forest-dependent animals. Taken together, individuals exhibited longer return times when they were translocated across these barriers, but differences among species suggest a more complex interpretation. A long-distance migrant (Yellow-rumped Warbler, Dendroica coronata behaved as predicted, but a short-distance migrant (Golden-crowned Kinglet, Regulus satrapa was indifferent to barrier configuration. A resident (Red-breasted Nuthatch, Sitta canadensis exhibited longer return times when it was translocated parallel to the barriers. Our results suggest that an anisotropic arrangement of small, open areas in fragmented landscapes can have a cumulative barrier effect on the movement of forest animals, but that both modelers and managers will have to acknowledge potentially counterintuitive differences among species to predict the effect that these may have on individual movement and, ultimately, dispersal.

  8. Beyond Attributable Burden: Estimating the Avoidable Burden of Disease Associated with Household Air Pollution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall Kuhn

    Full Text Available The Global Burden of Disease (GBD studies have transformed global understanding of health risks by producing comprehensive estimates of attributable disease burden, or the current disease that would be eliminated if a risk factor did not exist. Yet many have noted the greater policy significance of avoidable burden, or the future disease that could actually be eliminated if a risk factor were eliminated today. Avoidable risk may be considerably lower than attributable risk if baseline levels of exposure or disease are declining, or if a risk factor carries lagged effects on disease. As global efforts to deliver clean cookstoves accelerate, a temporal estimation of avoidable risk due to household air pollution (HAP becomes increasingly important, particularly in light of the rapid uptake of modern stoves and ongoing epidemiologic transitions in regions like South and Southeast Asia.We estimate the avoidable burden associated with HAP using International Futures (IFs, an integrated forecasting system that has been used to model future global disease burdens and risk factors. Building on GBD and other estimates, we integrated a detailed HAP exposure estimation and exposure-response model into IFs. We then conducted a counterfactual experiment in which HAP exposure is reduced to theoretical minimum levels in 2015. We evaluated avoidable mortality and DALY reductions for the years 2015 to 2024 relative to a Base Case scenario in which only endogenous changes occurred. We present results by cause and region, looking at impacts on acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI and four noncommunicable diseases (NCDs. We found that just 2.6% of global DALYs would be averted between 2015 and 2024, compared to 4.5% of global DALYs attributed to HAP in the 2010 GBD study, due in large part to the endogenous tendency towards declining traditional stove usage in the IFs base case forecast. The extent of diminished impact was comparable for ALRI and affected NCDs

  9. Improved master equation approach to quantum transport: From Born to self-consistent Born approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Jinshuang, E-mail: jsjin@hznu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036 (China); Li, Jun [Department of Physics, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036 (China); College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Dezhou University, Dezhou 253023 (China); Liu, Yu [State Key Laboratory for Superlattices and Microstructures, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Li, Xin-Qi, E-mail: lixinqi@bnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Superlattices and Microstructures, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Yan, YiJing, E-mail: yyan@ust.hk [Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2014-06-28

    Beyond the second-order Born approximation, we propose an improved master equation approach to quantum transport under self-consistent Born approximation. The basic idea is to replace the free Green's function in the tunneling self-energy diagram by an effective reduced propagator under the Born approximation. This simple modification has remarkable consequences. It not only recovers the exact results for quantum transport through noninteracting systems under arbitrary voltages, but also predicts the challenging nonequilibrium Kondo effect. Compared to the nonequilibrium Green's function technique that formulates the calculation of specific correlation functions, the master equation approach contains richer dynamical information to allow more efficient studies for such as the shot noise and full counting statistics.

  10. Improved master equation approach to quantum transport: from Born to self-consistent Born approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jinshuang; Li, Jun; Liu, Yu; Li, Xin-Qi; Yan, YiJing

    2014-06-28

    Beyond the second-order Born approximation, we propose an improved master equation approach to quantum transport under self-consistent Born approximation. The basic idea is to replace the free Green's function in the tunneling self-energy diagram by an effective reduced propagator under the Born approximation. This simple modification has remarkable consequences. It not only recovers the exact results for quantum transport through noninteracting systems under arbitrary voltages, but also predicts the challenging nonequilibrium Kondo effect. Compared to the nonequilibrium Green's function technique that formulates the calculation of specific correlation functions, the master equation approach contains richer dynamical information to allow more efficient studies for such as the shot noise and full counting statistics.

  11. Burden differentiation of greenhouse gas abatement: Criteria for evaluation and development of burden-sharing rules

    OpenAIRE

    Torvanger, Asbjørn; RINGIUS, Lasse

    2000-01-01

    This article discusses nine criteria for evaluation of potential Burden Sharing Rules (BSRs) in climate policy agreements. Three of the criteria reflect fairness principles while six of them are operational requirements. These criteria are useful for identifying potential BSRs that could be promising in future climate policy negotiations. The two sector approaches, Multi-sector Convergence Approach and Triptych, received the highest score according to the criteria presented in this article. T...

  12. Measuring the burden of neglected tropical diseases: the global burden of disease framework.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin D Mathers

    Full Text Available Reliable, comparable information about the main causes of disease and injury in populations, and how these are changing, is a critical input for debates about priorities in the health sector. Traditional sources of information about the descriptive epidemiology of diseases, injuries, and risk factors are generally incomplete, fragmented, and of uncertain reliability and comparability. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD study has provided a conceptual and methodological framework to quantify and compare the health of populations using a summary measure of both mortality and disability, the disability-adjusted life year (DALY.This paper describes key features of the Global Burden of Disease analytic approach, which provides a standardized measurement framework to permit comparisons across diseases and injuries, as well as risk factors, and a systematic approach to the evaluation of data. The paper describes the evolution of the GBD, starting from the first study for the year 1990, summarizes the methodological improvements incorporated into GBD revisions for the years 2000-2004 carried out by the World Health Organization, and examines priorities and issues for the next major GBD study, funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and commencing in 2007.The paper presents an overview of summary results from the Global Burden of Disease study 2002, with a particular focus on the neglected tropical diseases, and also an overview of the comparative risk assessment for 26 global risk factors. Taken together, trypanosomiasis, Chagas disease, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, intestinal nematode infections, Japanese encephalitis, dengue, and leprosy accounted for an estimated 177,000 deaths worldwide in 2002, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, and about 20 million DALYs, or 1.3% of the global burden of disease and injuries. Further research is currently underway to revise and update these estimates.

  13. Background Noise Distribution before and afterHigh-Resolution Processing in Ship-borne Radar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGZhong

    2005-01-01

    When high-resolution algorithm is applied in ship-borne radar~ high-resolution algorithm's nonlinearity and distributional characteristics before highresolution processing determine background clutter's distributional characteristics after high-resolution and detector design afterwards. Because background noise before high-resolution has physical significance, the statistical model of first-order Bragg lines and second order components of sea clutter is put forward. Then by using higher-order cumulative quantity's statistical verification of actually measured data, it is concluded that background noise before high-resolution conforms to normal distribution in ship-borne radar. The non-linearity of high-resolution algorithm determines that background noise after high-resolution processing conforms to non-normal distribution. Non-normal distributed clutter mainly include Weibull, Lognormal and K clutter. Rayleigh clutter can be seen as special case of Weibull clutter. These clutter have differently statistical characteristics and can be discriminated by clutter characteristics recognition. The numerical domain's distribution after high-resolution processing is determined by improved minimum entropy clutter characteristics recognition method based on rule AIC, namely two-parameter domain scanning method. This identification method has higher recognition rate. It is verified that background noise after high-resolution by pre-whitenedMUSIC conforms to lognormal distribution.

  14. Blood Pressure in Young Adults Born at Very Low Birth Weight: Adults Born Preterm International Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovi, Petteri; Vohr, Betty; Ment, Laura R; Doyle, Lex W; McGarvey, Lorcan; Morrison, Katherine M; Evensen, Kari Anne I; van der Pal, Sylvia; Grunau, Ruth E; Brubakk, Ann-Mari; Andersson, Sture; Saigal, Saroj; Kajantie, Eero

    2016-10-01

    Adults born preterm at very low birth weight (VLBW; blood pressure than those born at term. It is not known whether all VLBW adults are at risk or whether higher blood pressure could be attributed to some of the specific conditions underlying or accompanying preterm birth. To identify possible risk or protective factors, we combined individual-level data from 9 cohorts that measured blood pressure in young adults born at VLBW or with a more stringent birth weight criterion. In the absence of major heterogeneity, we performed linear regression analysis in our pooled sample of 1571 adults born at VLBW and 777 controls. Adults born at VLBW had 3.4 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, 2.2-4.6) higher systolic and 2.1 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, 1.3-3.0) higher diastolic pressure, with adjustment for age, sex, and cohort. The difference in systolic pressure was present in men (1.8 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 0.1-3.5) but was stronger in women (4.7 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 3.2-6.3). Among the VLBW group, blood pressure was unrelated to gestational age, maternal smoking, multiple pregnancy, retinopathy of prematurity, or bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Blood pressure was higher than that of controls among VLBW adults unexposed to maternal preeclampsia. Among those exposed, it was even higher, especially if born appropriate for gestational age. In conclusion, although female sex and maternal preeclampsia are additional risk factors, the risk of higher blood pressure is not limited to any etiologic subgroup of VLBW adults, arguing for vigilance in early detection of high blood pressure in all these individuals. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Burden of Six Healthcare-Associated Infections on European Population Health: Estimating Incidence-Based Disability-Adjusted Life Years through a Population Prevalence-Based Modelling Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Cassini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the burden of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs compared to other communicable diseases is an ongoing challenge given the need for good quality data on the incidence of these infections and the involved comorbidities. Based on the methodology of the Burden of Communicable Diseases in Europe (BCoDE project and 2011-2012 data from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC point prevalence survey (PPS of HAIs and antimicrobial use in European acute care hospitals, we estimated the burden of six common HAIs.The included HAIs were healthcare-associated pneumonia (HAP, healthcare-associated urinary tract infection (HA UTI, surgical site infection (SSI, healthcare-associated Clostridium difficile infection (HA CDI, healthcare-associated neonatal sepsis, and healthcare-associated primary bloodstream infection (HA primary BSI. The burden of these HAIs was measured in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs. Evidence relating to the disease progression pathway of each type of HAI was collected through systematic literature reviews, in order to estimate the risks attributable to HAIs. For each of the six HAIs, gender and age group prevalence from the ECDC PPS was converted into incidence rates by applying the Rhame and Sudderth formula. We adjusted for reduced life expectancy within the hospital population using three severity groups based on McCabe score data from the ECDC PPS. We estimated that 2,609,911 new cases of HAI occur every year in the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA. The cumulative burden of the six HAIs was estimated at 501 DALYs per 100,000 general population each year in EU/EEA. HAP and HA primary BSI were associated with the highest burden and represented more than 60% of the total burden, with 169 and 145 DALYs per 100,000 total population, respectively. HA UTI, SSI, HA CDI, and HA primary BSI ranked as the third to sixth syndromes in terms of burden of disease. HAP and HA primary BSI were

  16. Use of expansion factors to estimate the burden of dengue in Southeast Asia: a systematic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A Undurraga

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue virus infection is the most common arthropod-borne disease of humans and its geographical range and infection rates are increasing. Health policy decisions require information about the disease burden, but surveillance systems usually underreport the total number of cases. These may be estimated by multiplying reported cases by an expansion factor (EF. METHODS AND FINDINGS: As a key step to estimate the economic and disease burden of dengue in Southeast Asia (SEA, we projected dengue cases from 2001 through 2010 using EFs. We conducted a systematic literature review (1995-2011 and identified 11 published articles reporting original, empirically derived EFs or the necessary data, and 11 additional relevant studies. To estimate EFs for total cases in countries where no empirical studies were available, we extrapolated data based on the statistically significant inverse relationship between an index of a country's health system quality and its observed reporting rate. We compiled an average 386,000 dengue episodes reported annually to surveillance systems in the region, and projected about 2.92 million dengue episodes. We conducted a probabilistic sensitivity analysis, simultaneously varying the most important parameters in 20,000 Monte Carlo simulations, and derived 95% certainty level of 2.73-3.38 million dengue episodes. We estimated an overall EF in SEA of 7.6 (95% certainty level: 7.0-8.8 dengue cases for every case reported, with an EF range of 3.8 for Malaysia to 19.0 in East Timor. CONCLUSION: Studies that make no adjustment for underreporting would seriously understate the burden and cost of dengue in SEA and elsewhere. As the sites of the empirical studies we identified were not randomly chosen, the exact extent of underreporting remains uncertain. Nevertheless, the results reported here, based on a systematic analysis of the available literature, show general consistency and provide a reasonable empirical basis to

  17. Use of Cumulative Examinations at U.S. Schools of Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Gina J.; Nykamp, Diane

    2000-01-01

    Surveyed department of pharmacy chairs at 77 schools of pharmacy about current use of cumulative exams. Found that more than 80 percent do not administer cumulative exams and that the primary rationale for such exams is to encourage students to review material prior to advancement; they are rarely used to determine advancement. (EV)

  18. The Scarring Effects of Bankruptcy: Cumulative Disadvantage across Credit and Labor Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroto, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    As the recent economic crisis has demonstrated, inequality often spans credit and labor markets, supporting a system of cumulative disadvantage. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this research draws on stigma, cumulative disadvantage and status characteristics theories to examine whether credit and labor markets intersect…

  19. Radiologic imaging in cystic fibrosis: cumulative effective dose and changing trends over 2 decades.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, Oisin J

    2012-06-01

    With the increasing life expectancy for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), and a known predisposition to certain cancers, cumulative radiation exposure from radiologic imaging is of increasing significance. This study explores the estimated cumulative effective radiation dose over a 17-year period from radiologic procedures and changing trends of imaging modalities over this period.

  20. Origin of path independence between cumulative CO2 emissions and global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadri, Ashwin K.

    2017-02-01

    Observations and GCMs exhibit approximate proportionality between cumulative carbon dioxide (CO2 ) emissions and global warming. Here we identify sufficient conditions for the relationship between cumulative CO2 emissions and global warming to be independent of the path of CO2 emissions; referred to as "path independence". Our starting point is a closed form expression for global warming in a two-box energy balance model (EBM), which depends explicitly on cumulative emissions, airborne fraction and time. Path independence requires that this function can be approximated as depending on cumulative emissions alone. We show that path independence arises from weak constraints, occurring if the timescale for changes in cumulative emissions (equal to ratio between cumulative emissions and emissions rate) is small compared to the timescale for changes in airborne fraction (which depends on CO2 uptake), and also small relative to a derived climate model parameter called the damping-timescale, which is related to the rate at which deep-ocean warming affects global warming. Effects of uncertainties in the climate model and carbon cycle are examined. Large deep-ocean heat capacity in the Earth system is not necessary for path independence, which appears resilient to climate modeling uncertainties. However long time-constants in the Earth system carbon cycle are essential, ensuring that airborne fraction changes slowly with timescale much longer than the timescale for changes in cumulative emissions. Therefore path independence between cumulative emissions and warming cannot arise for short-lived greenhouse gases.

  1. Short- and Long-Term Effects of Cumulative Finals on Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Maya M.; Brack, Amy S. Badura; Finken, Laura L.

    2013-01-01

    In two experiments, we examined the benefits of cumulative and noncumulative finals on students' short- and long-term course material retention. In Experiment 1, we examined results from course content exams administered immediately after course finals. Course sections including cumulative finals had higher content exam scores than sections…

  2. Cumulative effects of planned industrial development and climate change on marine ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathryn Clarke Murray

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available With increasing human population, large scale climate changes, and the interaction of multiple stressors, understanding cumulative effects on marine ecosystems is increasingly important. Two major drivers of change in coastal and marine ecosystems are industrial developments with acute impacts on local ecosystems, and global climate change stressors with widespread impacts. We conducted a cumulative effects mapping analysis of the marine waters of British Columbia, Canada, under different scenarios: climate change and planned developments. At the coast-wide scale, climate change drove the largest change in cumulative effects with both widespread impacts and high vulnerability scores. Where the impacts of planned developments occur, planned industrial and pipeline activities had high cumulative effects, but the footprint of these effects was comparatively localized. Nearshore habitats were at greatest risk from planned industrial and pipeline activities; in particular, the impacts of planned pipelines on rocky intertidal habitats were predicted to cause the highest change in cumulative effects. This method of incorporating planned industrial development in cumulative effects mapping allows explicit comparison of different scenarios with the potential to be used in environmental impact assessments at various scales. Its use allows resource managers to consider cumulative effect hotspots when making decisions regarding industrial developments and avoid unacceptable cumulative effects. Management needs to consider both global and local stressors in managing marine ecosystems for the protection of biodiversity and the provisioning of ecosystem services.

  3. Aging and Cumulative Inequality: How Does Inequality Get Under the Skin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Kenneth F.; Shippee, Tetyana Pylypiv

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article draws from cumulative disadvantage and life course theories to develop a new theory for the social scientific study of aging. Design and Methods: Five axioms of "cumulative inequality (CI) theory" are articulated to identify how life course trajectories are influenced by early and accumulated inequalities but can be modified…

  4. The Scarring Effects of Bankruptcy: Cumulative Disadvantage across Credit and Labor Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroto, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    As the recent economic crisis has demonstrated, inequality often spans credit and labor markets, supporting a system of cumulative disadvantage. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this research draws on stigma, cumulative disadvantage and status characteristics theories to examine whether credit and labor markets intersect…

  5. Cumulative Advantage and Success-Breeds-Success: The Value of Time Pattern Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, John C.

    1998-01-01

    For the case of the distribution of papers across authors, the Success-Breeds-Success or Cumulative Advantage model is a popular candidate for informetrics. The method of time pattern of publication for individual authors can be used to discriminate between Cumulative Advantage and non-uniform giftedness models. The non-uniform giftedness model is…

  6. 43 CFR 46.115 - Consideration of past actions in the analysis of cumulative effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Environmental Quality § 46.115 Consideration of past actions in the analysis of cumulative effects. When... Memorandum on Consideration of Past Actions in Cumulative Effects Analysis” dated June 24, 2005, or any... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Consideration of past actions in...

  7. UNIDIMENSIONALITY AND CUMULATIVENESS OF THE LONELINESS SCALE USING MOKKEN-SCALE-ANALYSIS FOR POLYCHOTOMOUS ITEMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MOORER, P; SUURMEIJER, TPBM

    1993-01-01

    The unidimensionality and cumulativeness of the Loneliness Scale of De Jong-Gierveld was investigated using the Mokken Scale Analysis for polychotomous items. 10 of the 11 items of the original Loneliness Scale constituted a unidimensional, cumulative scale, with a homogeneity coefficient H of 0.37

  8. The effects of antipoverty programs on children's cumulative level of poverty-related risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassman-Pines, Anna; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2006-11-01

    The authors examined the effects of antipoverty programs on children's cumulative poverty-related risk and the relationship between cumulative poverty-related risk and child outcomes among low-income families. Samples included 419 children ages 3-10 years in the New Hope program and 759 children ages 2-9 years in the Minnesota Family Investment Program (MFIP), which tested 2 program approaches. Nine poverty-related risks made up the measure of cumulative risk. Both MFIP program approaches reduced cumulative poverty-related risk. New Hope reduced cumulative poverty-related risk among long-term welfare recipients. In both New Hope and MFIP, significant linear relationships between cumulative poverty-related risk and parent-reported behavior problems and school achievement were found. Cumulative poverty-related risk partially mediated the impacts of the MFIP programs on children's behavior problems. Among long-term welfare recipients, cumulative poverty-related risk partially mediated New Hope's impact on parent-reported school achievement.

  9. 14 CFR Section 18 - Objective Classification-Cumulative Effect of Changes in Accounting Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of Changes in Accounting Principles Section 18 Section 18 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... Objective Classification—Cumulative Effect of Changes in Accounting Principles 98Cumulative Effect of Changes in Accounting Principles. Record here the difference between the amount of retained earnings...

  10. Asymptotic growth of cumulative and regenerative beam break-up instabilities in accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Y. Y.

    1988-06-01

    It is found that the asymptotic growth of the cumulative beam break up instability is independent of the focusing magnetic field, according to the model of Panofsky and Bander. The analysis is extended to include the transition from the cumulative to the regenerative type, both in the presence and absence of a focusing magnetic field.

  11. A Cumulative Damage Reliability Model on the Basis of Contact Fatigue of the Rolling Bearing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Li

    2006-01-01

    A cumulative damage reliability model of contact fatigue of the rolling bearing is more identical with the actual conditions. It is put forward on the basis of contact fatigue life probability distribution of the rolling bearing that obey Weibull distribution and rest on the Miner cumulative damage theory. Finally a case is given to predict the reliability of bearing roller by using these models.

  12. Estimating multi-factor cumulative watershed effects on fish populations with an individual-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bret C. Harvey; Steven F. Railsback

    2007-01-01

    While the concept of cumulative effects is prominent in legislation governing environmental management, the ability to estimate cumulative effects remains limited. One reason for this limitation is that important natural resources such as fish populations may exhibit complex responses to changes in environmental conditions, particularly to alteration of multiple...

  13. Non-Abelian Born--Infeld cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Dyadichev, V V; Zorin, A G; Zotov, M Yu

    2002-01-01

    We investigate homogeneous and isotropic cosmological solutions supported by the SU(2) gauge field governed by the Born-Infeld lagrangian. In the framework of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology, with or without cosmological constant $\\lambda$, we derive dynamical systems that give rather complete description of the space of solutions. For $\\lambda=0$ the effective equation of state $\\ve(p)$ is shown to interpolate between $p=-\\ve/3$ in the regime of the strong field and $p=\\ve/3$ for the weak field. Correspondingly, the Universe starts with zero acceleration and gradually enters the decelerating regime, asymptotically approaching the Tolman solution.

  14. Born with Protection against Whooping Cough

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-22

    This podcast provides information about whooping cough, a disease that can be deadly for babies, and CDC’s recommendation that all women receive the Tdap vaccine during the third trimester of every pregnancy so their babies can be born with protection from this serious disease.  Created: 1/22/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Meningitis and Vaccine Preventable Diseases Branch (MVPDB).   Date Released: 1/22/2015.

  15. A balloon-borne integrating nephelometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G.S.; Apple, M.L. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Weiss, R.E. (Radiance Research, Seattle, WA (USA))

    1990-09-01

    A balloon-borne integrating nephelometer has been successfully developed and flown by Sandia National Laboratories and Radiance Research. This report details instrument design, calibration and data conversion procedure. Free and tethered balloon transport and telemetry systems are described. Data taken during March 1989 South-Central New Mexico free flight ascents are presented as vertical profiles of atmospheric particle scattering coefficient, temperature and balloon heading. Data taken during December 1989 Albuquerque, New Mexico tethered flights are also presented as vertical profiles. Data analysis shows superior instrument performance. 5 refs., 22 figs.

  16. Gravity a la Born-Infeld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlfarth, Mattias N R [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2004-04-21

    A simple technique for the construction of gravity theories in Born-Infeld style is presented, and the properties of some of these novel theories are investigated. They regularize the positive energy Schwarzschild singularity, and a large class of models allows for the cancellation of ghosts. The possible correspondence with low-energy string theory is discussed. By including curvature corrections to all orders in {alpha}', the new theories nicely illustrate a mechanism that string theory might use to regularize gravitational singularities.

  17. Cumulative second-harmonic generation of Lamb waves propagating in a two-layered solid plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Yan-Xun; Deng Ming-Xi

    2008-01-01

    The physical process of cumulative second-harmonic generation of Lamb waves propagating in a two-layered solid plate is presented by using the second-order perturbation and the technique of nonlinear reflection of acoustic waves at an interface.In general,the cumulative second-harmonic generation of a dispersive guided wave propagation does not occur.However,the present paper shows that the second-harmonic of Lamb wave propagation arising from the nonlinear interaction of the partial bulk acoustic waves and the restriction of the three boundaries of the solid plates does have a cumulative growth effect if some conditions are satisfied.Through boundary condition and initial condition of excitation,the analytical expression of cumulative second-harmonic of Lamb waves propagation is determined.Numerical results show the cumulative effect of Lamb waves on second-harmonic field patterns.

  18. Pulmonary impairment after tuberculosis and its contribution to TB burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munguia Guadalupe

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health impacts of pulmonary impairment after tuberculosis (TB treatment have not been included in assessments of TB burden. Therefore, previous global and national TB burden estimates do not reflect the full consequences of surviving TB. We assessed the burden of TB including pulmonary impairment after tuberculosis in Tarrant County, Texas using Disability-adjusted Life Years (DALYs. Methods TB burden was calculated for all culture-confirmed TB patients treated at Tarrant County Public Health between January 2005 and December 2006 using identical methods and life tables as the Global Burden of Disease Study. Years of life-lost were calculated as the difference between life expectancy using standardized life tables and age-at-death from TB. Years lived-with-disability were calculated from age and gender-specific TB disease incidence using published disability weights. Non-fatal health impacts of TB were divided into years lived-with-disability-acute and years lived-with-disability-chronic. Years lived-with-disability-acute was defined as TB burden resulting from illness prior to completion of treatment including the burden from treatment-related side effects. Years lived-with-disability-chronic was defined as TB burden from disability resulting from pulmonary impairment after tuberculosis. Results There were 224 TB cases in the time period, of these 177 were culture confirmed. These 177 subjects lost a total of 1189 DALYs. Of these 1189 DALYs 23% were from years of life-lost, 2% were from years lived-with-disability-acute and 75% were from years lived-with-disability-chronic. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that the disease burden from TB is greater than previously estimated. Pulmonary impairment after tuberculosis was responsible for the majority of the burden. These data demonstrate that successful TB control efforts may reduce the health burden more than previously recognized.

  19. EFFECT OF WATER BORNE DISEASES ON INDIAN ECONOMY: A COST- BENEFIT ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATHAK Hemant

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper expressed the effect of water borne diseases, risk assessment and potential consequences on Indian economy. In Indian sub-continent higher burden of waterborne diseases due to a deteriorating public drinking water distribution system, increasing numbers of unregulated private water systems, and a limited, passive waterborne disease surveillance system. This shows that degraded water quality can contribute to water scarcity as it limits its availability for both human use and for the ecosystem. It isn’t cheap to treat water so that it is safe to drink. But it also isn’t cheap to treat everyone who becomes ill during a waterborne illness outbreak. As the level of protection becomes more effective, the cost of water treatment generally rises, as well. Unfortunately, government agencies generally attempt to minimize costs while the health effects have not been properly assessed.

  20. Burden of fungal infections in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekiri-Talbi, M; Denning, D W

    2017-02-21

    We report for the first time in Algeria and provide burden estimates. We searched for existing data and estimated the incidence and prevalence of fungal diseases based on the population at risk and available epidemiological data. Demographic data were derived from the National Office of Statistics (Office National des Statistiques: ONS), World Health Organization (WHO), The Joint Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and national published reports. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies of fungal infections, using previously described methodology. Algeria has 40.4 million inhabitants, and probably at least 568,900 (1.41%) of Algerians have a serious fungal infection each year. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (485,000) and fungal asthma (72,000) are probably the commonest problems, as there are over 1 million adult asthmatics. Candidaemia is estimated in 2,020 people, invasive aspergillosis in 2,865 people, and intra-abdominal candidiasis in 303 people; these are the most common life-threatening problems. AIDS is uncommon, but cancer is not (45,000 new cases of cancer including 1,500 in children), nor is COPD (an estimated 317,762 patients, of whom 20.3% are admitted to hospital each year). A focus on improving the diagnosis and epidemiological data related to fungal infection is necessary in Algeria.

  1. The economic burden of sunscreen usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johal, Ritika; Leo, Michael S; Ma, Brian; Sivamani, Raja K

    2014-06-15

    Excessive sun exposure is known to be the leading cause of skin cancer. The direct cellular damage inflicted by the ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun results in premature aging, DNA damage, and mutations that ultimately lead to skin cancer. Sunscreens are highly recommended to protect against UV radiation. However, little research has been conducted on the economic burden of sunscreen use. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the annual cost of sunscreen under both ideal and actual use conditions while stratifying for the sun protection factor (SPF) and by the name brand or equivalent store brand sunscreen. Pricing data was collected for sunscreens of SPF 30, 50, 70, and 100. For each type of sunscreen, the size and price of the container were recorded. Our results demonstrated that sunscreen prices increased with SPF but purchasing a generic sunscreen resulted in savings of 40%-50%. Our estimates reveal that sunscreens are affordable with annual expenditures ranging from $30.21 to $61.94, depending on brand, for SPF 50 sunscreens used with minimal application density for the average person.

  2. Mortality burden and socioeconomic status in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June Y T Po

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The dimensions along which mortality is patterned in India remains unclear. We examined the specific contribution of social castes, household income, assets, and monthly per capita consumption to mortality differentials in India. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Cross-sectional data on 217,363 individuals from 41,554 households from the 2004-2005 India Human Development Survey was analyzed using multiple logistic regressions. Mortality differentials across social castes were attenuated after adjusting for household economic factors such as income and assets. Individuals living in the lowest income and assets quintiles had an increased risk of mortality with odds ratio (OR of 1.66 (95% CI  =  1.23-2.24 in the bottom income quintile and OR of 2.94 (95% CI  =  1.66-5.22 in the bottom asset quintile. Counter-intuitively, individuals living in households with lowest monthly consumption per capita had significantly lower probability of death (OR  =  0.27, 95% CI  =  0.20-0.38. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality burden in India is largely patterned on economic dimensions as opposed to caste dimensions, though caste may play an important role in predicting economic opportunities.

  3. Prediction of Hepatitis C Burden in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimian Zou

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the risk of hepatitis C in Canada and to predict the burden that this disease may pose to the Canadian society in the near future, expected numbers of persons at different stages of the disease currently and in the next decade were estimated by simulation using a published hepatitis C natural history model with no treatment effect being applied. Based on the estimate of 240,000 persons who are currently infected with the hepatitis C virus in Canada, the simulation analysis demonstrated that the number of hepatitis C cirrhosis cases would likely increase by 92% from 1998 to the year 2008. It was also projected that the number of liver failures and hepatocellular carcinomas related to hepatitis C would increase by 126% and 102%, respectively, in the next decade. The number of liver-related deaths associated with hepatitis C is expected to increase by 126% in 10 years. The medical and social care systems in Canada may not be ready to support these large increases. These results highlight the importance of both the control of disease progression of hepatitis C virus-infected persons and the primary prevention of hepatitis C infections in Canada.

  4. Predicting Cumulative Watershed Effects using Spatially Explicit Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, L. H.; Litschert, S.

    2004-12-01

    Cumulative watershed effects /(CWEs/) result from the combined effects of land disturbances distributed over both space and time. They are of concern because changes in flow and sediment yields can adversely affect aquatic habitat, channel morphology, water yields, and water quality. The assessment procedures currently used by agencies such as the U.S. Forest Service generally rely on a lumped approach to quantify disturbance, despite the widespread recognition that site conditions and location do matter! The overall goal of our work is to develop spatially-explicit models to quantify changes in flow and sediment yields. Key objectives include: use of readily available GIS data; ease of use for resource managers with minimal GIS experience; modularity so that models can be added or updated; and allowing users to select the models and values for key parameters. The DeltaQ model calculates changes in peak, median, and low flows due to forest management activities and fires. Inputs include GIS data with disturbance polygons, an initial change in flow rate, and the time to recovery. Data from paired watershed studies are provided to help guide the user. The initial version of FORest Erosion Simulation Tools /(FOREST/) calculates sediment production from forest harvest, fires, and unpaved roads. Additional modules are being developed to deliver this sediment to the stream channel and route it to downstream locations. In accordance with our objectives, the user can predict sediment production rates using different empirical equations, assign an initial sediment production rate and a specified linear recovery period, or develop a look-up table based on local knowledge, published values, or data from other models such as WEPP. The required GIS layers vary according to the model/(s/) selected, but generally include past disturbances /(e.g., fires and timber harvest/), roads, and elevation. Outputs include GIS layers and text files that can be subjected to additional

  5. Treecode-Based Generalized Born Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhenli [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai; Cheng, Xiaolin [ORNL; Yang, Shihui [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a treecode-based O(Nlog N) algorithm for the generalized Born (GB) implicit solvation model. Our treecode-based GB (tGB) is based on the GBr6 [J. Phys. Chem. B 111, 3055 (2007)], an analytical GB method with a pairwise descreening approximation for the R6 volume integral expression. The algorithm is composed of a cutoff scheme for the effective Born radii calculation, and a treecode implementation of the GB charge charge pair interactions. Test results demonstrate that the tGB algorithm can reproduce the vdW surface based Poisson solvation energy with an average relative error less than 0.6% while providing an almost linear-scaling calculation for a representative set of 25 proteins with different sizes (from 2815 atoms to 65456 atoms). For a typical system of 10k atoms, the tGB calculation is three times faster than the direct summation as implemented in the original GBr6 model. Thus, our tGB method provides an efficient way for performing implicit solvent GB simulations of larger biomolecular systems at longer time scales.

  6. CMB-lensing beyond the Born approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marozzi, Giovanni; Fanizza, Giuseppe; Di Dio, Enea; Durrer, Ruth

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the weak lensing corrections to the cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropies considering effects beyond the Born approximation. To this aim, we use the small deflection angle approximation, to connect the lensed and unlensed power spectra, via expressions for the deflection angles up to third order in the gravitational potential. While the small deflection angle approximation has the drawback to be reliable only for multipoles l lesssim 2500, it allows us to consistently take into account the non-Gaussian nature of cosmological perturbation theory beyond the linear level. The contribution to the lensed temperature power spectrum coming from the non-Gaussian nature of the deflection angle at higher order is a new effect which has not been taken into account in the literature so far. It turns out to be the leading contribution among the post-Born lensing corrections. On the other hand, the effect is smaller than corrections coming from non-linearities in the matter power spectrum, and its imprint on CMB lensing is too small to be seen in present experiments.

  7. CMB-lensing beyond the Born approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Marozzi, Giovanni; Di Dio, Enea; Durrer, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the weak lensing corrections to the cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropies considering effects beyond the Born approximation. To this aim, we use the small deflection angle approximation, to connect the lensed and unlensed power spectra, via expressions for the deflection angles up to third order in the gravitational potential. While the small deflection angle approximation has the drawback to be reliable only for multipoles $\\ell\\lesssim 2500$, it allows us to consistently take into account the non-Gaussian nature of cosmological perturbation theory beyond the linear level. The contribution to the lensed temperature power spectrum coming from the non-Gaussian nature of the deflection angle at higher order is a new effect which has not been taken into account in the literature so far. It turns out to be the leading contribution among the post-Born lensing corrections. On the other hand, the effect is smaller than corrections coming from non-linearities in the matter power spectrum...

  8. Tackling burden in ART: an integrated approach for medical staff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boivin, J.; Domar, A.D.; Shapiro, D.B.; Wischmann, T.H.; Fauser, B.C.J.M.; Verhaak, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Discontinuation is a problem in fertility clinics. Many couples discontinue assisted reproductive technologies (ART) without achieving a live birth for reasons other than poor prognosis or the cost of treatment. Discontinuation has been attributed to the burden of treatment. The causes of burden can

  9. Tackling burden in ART: an integrated approach for medical staff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boivin, J.; Domar, A.D.; Shapiro, D.B.; Wischmann, T.H.; Fauser, B.C.J.M.; Verhaak, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Discontinuation is a problem in fertility clinics. Many couples discontinue assisted reproductive technologies (ART) without achieving a live birth for reasons other than poor prognosis or the cost of treatment. Discontinuation has been attributed to the burden of treatment. The causes of burden can

  10. Tackling burden in ART: an integrated approach for medical staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, Jacky; Domar, Alice D; Shapiro, Daniel B; Wischmann, Tewes H; Fauser, Bart C J M; Verhaak, Christianne

    2012-04-01

    Discontinuation is a problem in fertility clinics. Many couples discontinue assisted reproductive technologies (ART) without achieving a live birth for reasons other than poor prognosis or the cost of treatment. Discontinuation has been attributed to the burden of treatment. The causes of burden can be broadly classified according to whether they originate in the patient, clinic or treatment. Interventions to alleviate these burdens include provision of comprehensive educational material, screening to identify highly distressed patients, provision of tailored coping tools and improvements in the clinic environment and medical interventions. Practical interventions to reduce the different causes of burden in ART exist, but further development and evaluation of the efficacy of these interventions requires more precise definition of terms and theory. In this paper, we propose a general integrated approach to cover different perspectives in dealing with burden in ART clinics. We firstly describe the integrated approach and present common sources of burden. We then describe interventions that could help reduce the burden in ART. Our paper is aimed at fertility clinic staff because of their day-to-day involvement with patients. However, this discussion should also be relevant to companies that develop treatments and to psychosocial experts. Reducing the burden of treatment should lead to improved outcomes, namely better quality of life during treatment and lower discontinuation rates.

  11. Burden and Stress among Psychiatry Residents and Psychiatric Healthcare Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Ishara, Sergio; Bandeira, Marina

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The authors compared the levels of job burden and stress in psychiatry residents with those of other healthcare professionals at inpatient and outpatient psychiatric hospitals in a medium-sized Brazilian city. Method: In this study, the levels of job burden and stress of 136 healthcare workers and 36 psychiatry residents from six various…

  12. 43 CFR 4.1307 - Elements; burdens of proof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... individual shall have the ultimate burden of persuasion by a preponderance of the evidence as to the elements... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Elements; burdens of proof. 4.1307 Section... Review of Proposed Individual Civil Penalty Assessments Under Section 518(f) of the Act § 4.1307 Elements...

  13. Reflections on the global burden of disease 2010 estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byass, Peter; de Courten, Maximilian; Graham, Wendy J;

    2013-01-01

    Peter Byass and colleagues raise questions about the recent, high-profile Global Burden of Disease estimates. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.......Peter Byass and colleagues raise questions about the recent, high-profile Global Burden of Disease estimates. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary....

  14. Tuberculous Pericarditis is Multibacillary and Bacterial Burden Drives High Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jotam G. Pasipanodya

    2015-11-01

    Interpretation: Patients with culture confirmed tuberculous pericarditis have a high bacillary burden, and this bacterial burden drives mortality. Thus proven tuberculosis pericarditis is not a paucibacillary disease. Moreover, the severe immunosuppression suggests limited inflammation. There is a need for the design of a highly bactericidal regimen for this condition.

  15. The burden of proof in dealing with political accountability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andone, C.; Săftoiu, R.; Neagu, M.-L.; Măda, S.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explain from a pragma-dialectical argumentative perspective the use of the concept of burden of proof in dealing with political accountability. In the first part of the paper, a procedural view of the burden of proof is sketched which is fundamental for understanding its

  16. Burden and Stress among Psychiatry Residents and Psychiatric Healthcare Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Ishara, Sergio; Bandeira, Marina

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The authors compared the levels of job burden and stress in psychiatry residents with those of other healthcare professionals at inpatient and outpatient psychiatric hospitals in a medium-sized Brazilian city. Method: In this study, the levels of job burden and stress of 136 healthcare workers and 36 psychiatry residents from six various…

  17. Family rituals, financial burden, and mothers' adjustment in pediatric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Susana; Crespo, Carla; Canavarro, M Cristina; Alderfer, Melissa A; Kazak, Anne E

    2016-12-01

    The financial burden of childhood cancer may contribute to the distress that parents experience during and after treatment. Inconsistent relationships between financial burden and parental psychological distress highlight the need to identify psychosocial factors that may moderate this relationship. In this study, we aimed to determine if family ritual meaning moderates the relationship between financial burden and anxiety and depression symptoms among mothers of children with cancer. Portuguese mothers of children with cancer on-treatment and off-treatment (N = 244) completed measures of financial burden, anxiety and depression symptoms, and family ritual meaning. Moderating effects were tested using hierarchical multiple regression analyses. Family ritual meaning buffered the effect of financial burden on anxiety, but not on depression symptoms. The relationship between financial burden and anxiety symptoms was not significant when mothers endorsed higher levels of family ritual meaning. Although preliminary, the current findings suggest that high levels of perceived family ritual meaning may constitute a protective factor against the effect of financial burden on mothers' anxiety symptoms. Promoting family ritual meaning might be an effective approach to reducing anxiety symptoms of mothers of children with cancer in the context of financial burden. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. The disease burden of congenital toxoplasmosis in Denmark, 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Ioanna; Jokelainen, Pikka; Stensvold, Christen Rune

    2017-01-01

    of 12. CT resulted in a total disease burden of 123 DALYs (95% uncertainty interval [UI], 100–148), of which 78 (95% UI, 64–94) were due to foetal loss and 2 (95% UI, 1–3) were due to neonatal death; the remaining burden was due to moderate to severe life-long sequelae. A comparison of the estimated...

  19. Hydroclimatic drivers, Water-borne Diseases, and Population Vulnerability in Bengal Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanda, A. S.; Jutla, A. S.

    2012-04-01

    Water-borne diarrheal disease outbreaks in the Bengal Delta region, such as cholera, rotavirus, and dysentery, show distinct seasonal peaks and spatial signatures in their origin and progression. However, the mechanisms behind these seasonal phenomena, especially the role of regional climatic and hydrologic processes behind the disease outbreaks, are not fully understood. Overall diarrheal disease prevalence and the population vulnerability to transmission mechanisms thus remain severely underestimated. Recent findings suggest that diarrheal incidence in the spring is strongly associated with scarcity of freshwater flow volumes, while the abundance of water in monsoon show strong positive correlation with autumn diarrheal burden. The role of large-scale ocean-atmospheric processes that tend to modulate meteorological, hydrological, and environmental conditions over large regions and the effects on the ecological states conducive to the vectors and triggers of diarrheal outbreaks over large geographic regions are not well understood. We take a large scale approach to conduct detailed diagnostic analyses of a range of climate, hydrological, and ecosystem variables to investigate their links to outbreaks, occurrence, and transmission of the most prevalent water-borne diarrheal diseases. We employ satellite remote sensing data products to track coastal ecosystems and plankton processes related to cholera outbreaks. In addition, we investigate the effect of large scale hydroclimatic extremes (e.g., droughts and floods, El Nino) to identify how diarrheal transmission and epidemic outbreaks are most likely to respond to shifts in climatic, hydrologic, and ecological changes over coming decades. We argue that controlling diarrheal disease burden will require an integrated predictive surveillance approach - a combination of prediction and prevention - with recent advances in climate-based predictive capabilities and demonstrated successes in primary and tertiary prevention

  20. On Multifield Born and Born-Infeld Theories and their non-Abelian Generalizations

    CERN Document Server

    Cerchiai, B L

    2016-01-01

    Starting from a recently proposed linear formulation in terms of auxiliary fields, we study $n$-field generalizations of Born and Born-Infeld theories. In this description the Lagrangian is quadratic in the vector field strengths and the symmetry properties (including the characteristic self-duality) of the corresponding non-linear theory are manifest as on-shell duality symmetries and depend on the choice of the (homogeneous) manifold spanned by the auxiliary scalar fields and the symplectic frame. By suitably choosing these defining properties of the quadratic Lagrangian, we are able to reproduce some known multi-field Born-Infeld theories and to derive new non-linear models, such as the $n$-field Born theory. We also discuss non-Abelian generalizations of these theories obtained by choosing the vector fields in the adjoint representation of an off-shell compact global symmetry group $K$ and replacing them by non-Abelian, $K$-covariant field strengths, thus promoting $K$ to a gauge group.