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Sample records for cumulative adverse financial

  1. Cumulative Adverse Financial Circumstances: Associations with Patient Health Status and Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisgaier, Joanna; Rhodes, Karin V.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines associations between cumulative adverse financial circumstances and patient health in a sample of 1,506 urban emergency department (ED) patients. Study participants completed a previously validated Social Health Survey between May and October 2009. Five categories of economic deprivation were studied: food insecurity, housing…

  2. Cumulative early life adversity predicts longevity in wild baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Jenny; Archie, Elizabeth A; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C

    2016-04-19

    In humans and other animals, harsh circumstances in early life predict morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Multiple adverse conditions are thought to be especially toxic, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested in a prospective, longitudinal framework, especially in long-lived mammals. Here we use prospective data on 196 wild female baboons to show that cumulative early adversity predicts natural adult lifespan. Females who experience ≥3 sources of early adversity die a median of 10 years earlier than females who experience ≤1 adverse circumstances (median lifespan is 18.5 years). Females who experience the most adversity are also socially isolated in adulthood, suggesting that social processes partially explain the link between early adversity and adult survival. Our results provide powerful evidence for the developmental origins of health and disease and indicate that close ties between early adversity and survival arise even in the absence of health habit and health care-related explanations.

  3. Separate and Cumulative Effects of Adverse Childhood Experiences in Predicting Adult Health and Health Care Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Mariette J.; Walker, John R.; Naimark, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Objectives of this population-based study were: (1) to examine the relative contribution of childhood abuse and other adverse childhood experiences to poor adult health and increased health care utilization and (2) to examine the cumulative effects of adverse childhood experiences on adult health and health care utilization. Methods:…

  4. Separate and Cumulative Effects of Adverse Childhood Experiences in Predicting Adult Health and Health Care Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Mariette J.; Walker, John R.; Naimark, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Objectives of this population-based study were: (1) to examine the relative contribution of childhood abuse and other adverse childhood experiences to poor adult health and increased health care utilization and (2) to examine the cumulative effects of adverse childhood experiences on adult health and health care utilization. Methods:…

  5. An upside to adversity?: moderate cumulative lifetime adversity is associated with resilient responses in the face of controlled stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seery, Mark D; Leo, Raphael J; Lupien, Shannon P; Kondrak, Cheryl L; Almonte, Jessica L

    2013-07-01

    Despite common findings suggesting that lack of negative life events should be optimal, recent work has revealed a curvilinear pattern, such that some cumulative lifetime adversity is instead associated with optimal well-being. This work, however, is limited in that responses to specific stressors as they occurred were not assessed, thereby precluding investigation of resilience. The current research addressed this critical gap by directly testing the relationship between adversity history and resilience to stressors. Specifically, we used a multimethod approach across two studies to assess responses to controlled laboratory stressors (respectively requiring passive endurance and active instrumental performance). Results revealed hypothesized U-shaped relationships: Relative to a history of either no adversity or nonextreme high adversity, a moderate number of adverse life events was associated with less negative responses to pain and more positive psychophysiological responses while taking a test. These results provide novel evidence in support of adversity-derived propensity for resilience that generalizes across stressors.

  6. Early life adversity potentiates the effects of later life stress on cumulative physiological dysregulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Nadya; Hansen, Åse Marie; Avlund, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Previous research indicates that early life adversity may heighten stress reactivity and impair mechanisms for adaptive coping, suggesting that experience of stress in early life may also potentiate adults' physiological vulnerability to stress in later life. The study...... tested this hypothesis by investigating whether experience of stressful events and circumstances (SEC) in childhood or adolescence amplified the effect of adulthood SEC on physiological dysregulation (allostatic load, AL) in later midlife. Design: Observational data were used in the present study......: The results provide further insight into the mechanisms behind the "biological embedding" of childhood stress....

  7. Serum progesterone elevation adversely affects cumulative live birth rate in different ovarian responders during in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer: a large retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Zhiqin; Zhao, Feifei; Wang, Keyan; Guo, Yihong; Su, Yingchun; Zhai, Jun; Sun, Yingpu

    2014-01-01

    In order to explore the relationship between serum progesterone (P) level on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) administration and cumulative live birth rate in patients with different ovarian response during in vitro fertilization (IVF), we carried out this retrospective cohort study including a total of 4,651 patients undergoing their first IVF cycles from January 2011 to December 2012. All patients with a final live birth outcome (4,332 patients) were divided into three groups according to ovarian response: poor ovarian responder (≤5 oocytes, 785 patients), intermediate ovarian responder (6-19 oocytes, 3065 patients) and high ovarian responder (≥20 oocytes, 482 patients). The thresholds for serum P elevation were 1.60 ng/ml, 2.24 ng/ml, and 2.50 ng/ml for poor, intermediate, and high ovarian responders, respectively. Cumulative live birth rate per oocyte retrieval cycle was calculated in each group. The relationship between serum P level and cumulative live birth rate was evaluated by both univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Cumulative live birth rate per oocyte retrieval cycle was inversely associated with serum P level in patients with different ovarian response. For all responders, patients with elevated P level had significantly higher number of oocytes retrieved, but lower high quality embryo rate, and lower cumulative live birth rate compared with patients with normal serum P level. In addition, serum P level adversely affected cumulative live birth rate by both univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis, independent of ovarian response. Serum P elevation on the day of HCG administration adversely affects cumulative live birth rate per oocyte retrieval cycle in patients with different ovarian response.

  8. Cumulative Effects of Prenatal Substance Exposure and Early Adversity on Foster Children's HPA-Axis Reactivity during a Psychosocial Stressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Philip A.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Bruce, Jacqueline; Pears, Katherine C.

    2012-01-01

    Dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis stress response has been reported among individuals with prenatal substance exposure and those with early adversity exposure. However, few researchers have examined the combined effects of these risk factors. Patterns of HPA reactivity among maltreated foster children with and without…

  9. Cumulative Effects of Prenatal Substance Exposure and Early Adversity on Foster Children's HPA-Axis Reactivity during a Psychosocial Stressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Philip A.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Bruce, Jacqueline; Pears, Katherine C.

    2012-01-01

    Dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis stress response has been reported among individuals with prenatal substance exposure and those with early adversity exposure. However, few researchers have examined the combined effects of these risk factors. Patterns of HPA reactivity among maltreated foster children with and without…

  10. FINANCIAL SECTOR AND GROWTH PROCESS IN SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPE'S FORMER SOCIALIST COUNTRIES: COULD A KALDORIAN CUMULATIVE CAUSATION APPROACH HELP TO BETTER UNDERSTAND THE LINKS BETWEEN THEM?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavroula DIMKOU

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The reform and development of the financial sector was one of the most significant challenges that the former socialist countries faced during their transition to a market economy. At the start of this transition, their financial system was underdeveloped and centralised (monobank, where the central bank of each economy also functioned as a commercial bank. The restructuring, integration and development of the financial sector to enhance viability and enable it to respond to new demands was imperative, particularly for economic growth and the convergence of these economies with the developed economies of the region. This process of financial integration suffered a powerful shock with the economic crisis transmitted to the region in 2009. The initial aim of this paper is to highlight the problems created after the global economic crisis affecting the financial institutions of the former socialist countries of South-eastern Europe, as well as the problems that already existed, though not apparent, and were nevertheless exacerbated by the outbreak of the crisis. An attempt to investigate the role of the financial sector, dominated by the banking sector, follows, with regard to achieving macroeconomic equilibrium among the economies of the countries in the region and the potential for sustaining it in future as part of a path to growth. To fully satisfy this goal, we propose that it is preferable to avoid a linear approach to the issue, abandoning equilibrium theory to adopt an analysis inspired by the method of cumulative causation, based on the work of Nicholas Kaldor. Our analysis allows us to postulate that, in a post-crisis period, conditions prevail for the potential appearance of future structural impasses of a cumulative nature, which could lead to a systemic crisis and leave the development process of the region's economies exposed.

  11. Cumulative exposure to childhood adversity, and treated attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a cohort study of 543 650 adolescents and young adults in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkenstam, E; Björkenstam, C; Jablonska, B; Kosidou, K

    2017-07-25

    Though childhood adversity (CA) has been associated with the risk of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), little is known about the effect of cumulative CAs and whether there are clusters of CAs that are more closely related with ADHD. We used a Swedish cohort of 543 650 individuals born 1987-1991. Register-based CAs included familial death, substantial parental substance abuse and psychiatric disorder, substantial parental criminality, parental separation, household public assistance recipiency, and residential instability. Individuals were followed from year 2006 when they were 15-19 years of age, for treated ADHD, defined as a registered ICD diagnosis and/or prescription of medications to treat ADHD. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Latent Class Analyses (LCA) were used to identify clusters based on the different CAs. All CAs increased the odds of ADHD in late adolescence and early adulthood; ORs ranged from 1.6 (95% CI 1.5-1.8) for familial death to 2.7 (95% CI 2.6-2.9) for household public assistance. We found a dose-response relationship between cumulative CA and ADHD; individuals with 4+ CAs had a markedly increased risk for ADHD (OR 5.5, 95% CI 5.0-6.0). LCA analyses revealed six distinct classes of CA associated with ADHD, of which 'exposure to most adversities' entailed highest risk. CA is a strong risk factor for ADHD, particularly when accumulated. Early and efficient detection of CA is of importance for interventions targeted to improve long-term mental health outcomes among disadvantaged children.

  12. The nature, patterns, clinical outcomes, and financial impact of intraoperative adverse events in emergency surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramly, Elie P; Bohnen, Jordan D; Farhat, Maha R; Razmdjou, Shadi; Mavros, Michael N; Yeh, Daniel D; Lee, Jarone; Butler, Kathryn; De Moya, Marc; Velmahos, George C; Kaafarani, Haytham M A

    2016-07-01

    Little is known about intraoperative adverse events (iAEs) in emergency surgery (ES). We sought to describe iAEs in ES and to investigate their clinical and financial impact. The 2007 to 2012 administrative and American College of Surgeons-National Surgical Quality Improvement Program databases at our tertiary academic center were: (1) linked, (2) queried for all ES procedures, and then (3) screened for iAEs using the ICD-9-CM-based Patient Safety Indicator "accidental puncture/laceration". Flagged cases were systematically reviewed to: (1) confirm or exclude the occurrence of iAEs (defined as inadvertent injuries during the operation) and (2) extract additional variables such as procedure type, approach, complexity (measured by relative value units), need for adhesiolysis, and extent of repair. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the independent impact of iAEs on 30-day morbidity, mortality, and hospital charges. Of a total of 9,288 patients, 1,284 (13.8%) patients underwent ES, of which 23 had iAEs (1.8%); 18 of 23 (78.3%) of the iAEs involved the small bowel or spleen, 10 of 23 (43.5%) required suture repair, and 8 of 23 (34.8%) required tissue or organ resection. Compared with those without iAEs, patients with iAEs were older (median age 62 vs 50; P = .04); their procedures were more complex (total relative value unit 46.7, interquartile range [27.5 to 52.6] vs 14.5 [.5 to 30.2]; P 3 hours: 52% vs 8%; P 7 days; odds ratio, 5.60 [1.54 to 20.35]; P = .01]. A trend toward increased mortality did not reach statistical significance. In ES, iAEs are independently associated with significantly higher postoperative morbidity and prolonged LOS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Financial barriers and adverse clinical outcomes among patients with cardiovascular-related chronic diseases: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, David J T; Manns, Braden J; Weaver, Robert G; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; King-Shier, Kathryn M; Sanmartin, Claudia

    2017-02-15

    Some patients with cardiovascular-related chronic diseases such as diabetes and heart disease report financial barriers to achieving optimal health. Previous surveys report that the perception of having a financial barrier is associated with self-reported adverse clinical outcomes. We sought to confirm these findings using linked survey and administrative data to determine, among patients with cardiovascular-related chronic diseases, if there is an association between perceived financial barriers and the outcomes of: (1) disease-related hospitalizations, (2) all-cause mortality and (3) inpatient healthcare costs. We used ten cycles of the nationally representative Canadian Community Health Survey (administered between 2000 and 2011) to identify a cohort of adults aged 45 and older with hypertension, diabetes, heart disease or stroke. Perceived financial barriers to various aspects of chronic disease care and self-management were identified (including medications, healthful food and home care) from the survey questions, using similar questions to those used in previous studies. The cohort was linked to administrative data sources for outcome ascertainment (Discharge Abstract Database, Canadian Mortality Database, Patient Cost Estimator). We utilized Poisson regression techniques, adjusting for potential confounding variables (age, sex, education, multimorbidity, smoking status), to assess for associations between perceived financial barriers and disease-related hospitalization and all-cause mortality. We used gross costing methodology and a variety of modelling approaches to assess the impact of financial barriers on hospital costs. We identified a cohort of 120,752 individuals over the age of 45 years with one or more of the following: hypertension, diabetes, heart disease or stroke. One in ten experienced financial barriers to at least one aspect of their care, with the two most common being financial barriers to accessing medications and healthful food. Even

  14. The emerging post-crisis financial architecture: the path-dependency of ideational adverse selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Underhill, G.R.D.

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on two cases of transnational financial governance that confirm that ideas and material interests are closely aligned in the construction of regulatory institutions at the international level: the Basel-II/III international capital adequacy standards and the IOSCO-based regulato

  15. The emerging post-crisis financial architecture: the path-dependency of ideational adverse selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.R.D. Underhill

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on two cases of transnational financial governance that confirm that ideas and material interests are closely aligned in the construction of regulatory institutions at the international level: the Basel-II/III international capital adequacy standards and the IOSCO-based regulato

  16. The emerging post-crisis financial architecture: the path-dependency of ideational adverse selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Underhill, G.R.D.

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on two cases of transnational financial governance that confirm that ideas and material interests are closely aligned in the construction of regulatory institutions at the international level: the Basel-II/III international capital adequacy standards and the IOSCO-based

  17. A cross-cultural longitudinal examination of the effect of cumulative adversity on the mental and physical health of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palgi, Yuval; Shrira, Amit

    2016-03-01

    Self-oriented adversity refers to traumatic events that primarily inflict the self, whereas other-oriented adversity refers to events that affect the self by primarily targeting others. The present study aimed to examine whether cultural background moderates the effects of self-oriented and other-oriented adversity on mental and physical health of older adults. Using longitudinal data from the Israeli component of the Survey of Health and Retirement, we focused on 370 Jews and 239 Arabs who reported their exposure to various adversities across the life span, and completed questionnaires regarding mental and physical health. Results showed that the effect of self-oriented adversity on health did not differ among Jews and Arabs. However, other-oriented adversity showed a stronger effect on Arabs' mental and physical health than on Jews' health. Our findings suggest that the accumulation of adverse events that affect the self by primarily targeting others may have a stronger impact in collectivist cultures than in individualist cultures.

  18. The Impacts of Household Financial Stress, Resilience, Social Support, and Other Adversities on the Psychological Distress of Western Sydney Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Taylor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the prevalence of psychological distress among parents in Western Sydney households and examined its relationship with household financial, family and life stressors, and potential resilience factors. As part of a longer-term study, parents from Western Sydney, New South Wales (NSW, completed computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI in May 2011 (N=439. Respondents were primary caregivers of at least one child (aged 4–16. Responses were weighted to reflect the Western Sydney population. Multivariate analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between parent experiences of stressor and resilience factors and reported psychological distress. Overall, 10.7% (95% CI: 7.8, 14.5 reported experiencing high/very high levels of psychological distress. Multivariate analysis indicated that financial hardship factors formed the strongest associations with psychological distress particularly housing and job security factors and, specifically, inability to meet mortgage/rent payments (OR=5.15, 95% CI: 1.74–15.25, p=0.003, poor self-rated health (OR=4.48, 95% CI: 1.88–10.64, p=0.001, adult job loss (OR=3.77, 95% CI: 1.33–10.66, p=0.013, and other family/life events (OR=2.30, 95% CI: 1.05–5.03, p=0.037. High personal resilience was common within this parent population and was a significant protective factor for high psychological distress (OR=0.14, 95% CI: 0.06–0.34, p<0.001. The findings support the development of targeted interventions to promote parent coping strategies in the context of household financial hardship.

  19. The Soft Cumulative Constraint

    CERN Document Server

    Petit, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    This research report presents an extension of Cumulative of Choco constraint solver, which is useful to encode over-constrained cumulative problems. This new global constraint uses sweep and task interval violation-based algorithms.

  20. Cumulative stress and autonomic dysregulation in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Rachel; Tuit, Keri; Hong, Kwang-Ik; Donovan, Theresa; Lee, Forrester; Sinha, Rajita

    2016-05-01

    Whether cumulative stress, including both chronic stress and adverse life events, is associated with decreased heart rate variability (HRV), a non-invasive measure of autonomic status which predicts poor cardiovascular outcomes, is unknown. Healthy community dwelling volunteers (N = 157, mean age 29 years) participated in the Cumulative Stress/Adversity Interview (CAI), a 140-item event interview measuring cumulative adversity including major life events, life trauma, recent life events and chronic stressors, and underwent 24-h ambulatory ECG monitoring. HRV was analyzed in the frequency domain and standard deviation of NN intervals (SDNN) calculated. Initial simple regression analyses revealed that total cumulative stress score, chronic stressors and cumulative adverse life events (CALE) were all inversely associated with ultra low-frequency (ULF), very low-frequency (VLF) and low-frequency (LF) power and SDNN (all p stress and chronic stress each was significantly associated with SDNN and ULF even after the highly significant contributions of age and sex, with no other covariates accounting for additional appreciable variance. For VLF and LF, both total cumulative stress and chronic stress significantly contributed to the variance alone but were not longer significant after adjusting for race and health behaviors. In summary, total cumulative stress, and its components of adverse life events and chronic stress were associated with decreased cardiac autonomic function as measured by HRV. Findings suggest one potential mechanism by which stress may exert adverse effects on mortality in healthy individuals. Primary preventive strategies including stress management may prove beneficial.

  1. Adverse Opinion on the Financial Statements of the Student Loan Insurance Fund for the Fiscal Year Ended September 30, 1980. Report to the Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    Results are presented of a General Accounting Office audit of the Student Loan Insurance Fund (SLIF) financial statements for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1980. SLIF finances the Guaranteed Student Loan Program by reimbursing lenders and state guarantee agencies when students default on their loans. The fund, which is managed by the…

  2. Mismatch or cumulative stress : Toward an integrated hypothesis of programming effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhof, Esther; Schmidt, Mathias V.

    2012-01-01

    This paper integrates the cumulative stress hypothesis with the mismatch hypothesis, taking into account individual differences in sensitivity to programming. According to the cumulative stress hypothesis, individuals are more likely to suffer from disease as adversity accumulates. According to the

  3. Cumulative fatigue damage models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgaw, Michael A.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of calculating expected component life under fatigue loading conditions is complicated by the fact that component loading histories contain, in many cases, cyclic loads of widely varying amplitudes. In such a case a cumulative damage model is required, in addition to a fatigue damage criterion, or life relationship, in order to compute the expected fatigue life. The traditional cumulative damage model used in design is the linear damage rule. This model, while being simple to use, can yield grossly unconservative results under certain loading conditions. Research at the NASA Lewis Research Center has led to the development of a nonlinear cumulative damage model, named the double damage curve approach (DDCA), that has greatly improved predictive capability. This model, which considers the life (or loading) level dependence of damage evolution, was applied successfully to two polycrystalline materials, 316 stainless steel and Haynes 188. The cumulative fatigue behavior of the PWA 1480 single-crystal material is currently being measured to determine the applicability of the DDCA for this material.

  4. Avoiding Program-Induced Cumulative Overload (PICO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Robin; Knapik, Joseph J; Pope, Rodney

    2016-01-01

    This article defines the concept of program-induced cumulative overload (PICO), provides examples, and advises ways to mitigate the adverse effects. PICO is the excessive cumulative physical workload that can be imparted to military personnel by a military training program with an embedded physical training component. PICO can be acute (accumulating within a single day) or chronic (accumulating across the entirety of the program) and results in adverse outcomes for affected personnel, including detrimental fatigue, performance degradation, injuries, or illness. Strategies to mitigate PICO include focusing administration and logistic practices during the development and ongoing management of a trainee program and implementing known musculoskeletal injury prevention strategies. More training is not always better, and trainers need to consider the total amount of physical activity that military personnel experience across both operational training and physical training if PICO is to be mitigated.

  5. Cumulative Timers for Microprocessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battle, John O.

    2007-01-01

    It has been proposed to equip future microprocessors with electronic cumulative timers, for essentially the same reasons for which land vehicles are equipped with odometers (total-distance-traveled meters) and aircraft are equipped with Hobbs meters (total-engine-operating time meters). Heretofore, there has been no way to determine the amount of use to which a microprocessor (or a product containing a microprocessor) has been subjected. The proposed timers would count all microprocessor clock cycles and could only be read by means of microprocessor instructions but, like odometers and Hobbs meters, could never be reset to zero without physically damaging the chip.

  6. Cumulative Vehicle Routing Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Kara, &#;mdat; Kara, Bahar Yeti&#;; Yeti&#;, M. Kadri

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a new objective function and corresponding formulations for the vehicle routing problem. The new cost function defined as the product of the distance of the arc and the flow on that arc. We call a vehicle routing problem with this new objective function as the Cumulative Vehicle Routing Problem (CumVRP). Integer programming formulations with O(n2) binary variables and O(n2) constraints are developed for both collection and delivery cases. We show that the CumVRP is a gener...

  7. Financialization and financial profit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Guillén

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article starts from the critical review of the concept of financial capital. I consider it is necessary not to confuse this category with of financialization, which has acquired a certificate of naturalization from the rise of neoliberalism. Although financial monopoly-financial capital is the hegemonic segment of the bourgeoisie in the major capitalist countries, their dominance does not imply, a fortiori, financialization of economic activity, since it depends of the conditions of the process reproduction of capital. The emergence of joint stock companies modified the formation of the average rate of profit. The "promoter profit" becomes one of the main forms of income of monopoly-financial capital. It is postulated that financial profit is a kind of "extraordinary surplus-value" which is appropriated by monopoly-financial capital by means of the monopolistic control it exerts on the issue and circulation of fictitious capital.

  8. A time series analysis of the effects of financial incentives and mandatory clinical applications as interventions to improve spontaneous adverse drug reaction reporting by hospital medical staff in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Feng; Xi, Yue; Zhao, Jie; Zhang, Xiaojian; Lu, Yun

    2017-07-04

    Spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in hospitals is often under-reported, which may lead to problems in patient management. This study was aimed to assess the effectiveness of a financial intervention based on a fine and a bonus for improving spontaneous reporting of ADRs by physicians in a hospital setting. This study was conducted at the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University (China). Starting in 2009, a bonus of 20 RMB (Chinese currency) was given for each spontaneous ADR report, and a fine of 50 RMB was given for any withheld ADR report. A time series analysis using autoregressive integrated moving average models was performed to assess the changes in the total number of spontaneous ADR reports between the preintervention period (2006-2008) and during the first (2009-2011) and second (2012-2014) intervention periods. The median number of reported ADRs per year increased from 29 (range 27-72) in the preintervention period to 277 (range 199-284) in the first intervention period and to 666 in the second (range 644-691). The monthly number of reported ADRs was stable during the 3 periods: 3.56 ± 3.60/month (95% confidence interval (CI), 2.42-4.75) during the preintervention period, 21 ± 13/month (95% CI, 16.97-25.80) in the first intervention period, and 56 ± 20/month (95% CI, 48.81-62.17) in the second intervention period. A financial incentive and ADR management regulations had a significant effect on the increase of reported ADRs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Cumulative environmental effects. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This report presents a compilation of knowledge about the state of the environment and human activity in the Norwegian part of the North Sea and Skagerrak. The report gives an overview of pressures and impacts on the environment from normal activity and in the event of accidents. This is used to assess the cumulative environmental effects, which factors have most impact and where the impacts are greatest, and to indicate which problems are expected to be most serious in the future. The report is intended to provide relevant information that can be used in the management of the marine area in the future. It also provides input for the identification of environmental targets and management measures for the North Sea and Skagerrak.(Author)

  10. UBIQUITOUS POLLUTANTS FROM CUMULATIVE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPS) as environmental pollutants is a multifaceted issue whose scope continues to become better delineated since the escalation of concerted attention beginning in the 1980s. PPCPs typically occur as trace environmental pollutants (primarily in surface but also in ground waters) as a result of their widespread, continuous, combined usage in a broad range of human and veterinary therapeutic activities and practices. With respect to the risk-assessment paradigm, the growing body of published work has focused primarily on the origin and occurrence of these substances. Comparatively less is known about human and ecological exposure, and even less about the known or even potential hazards associated with exposure to these anthropogenic substances, many of which are highly bioactive. The continually growing, worldwide importance of freshwater resources underscores the need for ensuring that any aggregate or cumulative impacts on water supplies and resultant potential for human or ecological exposure be minimized. This has prompted the more recent investigations on waste treatment processes for one of the major sources of environmental disposition, namely sewage. Despite the paucity of health effects data for long-term, simultaneous exposure to multiple xenobiotics (particularly PPCPS) at low doses (a major toxicological issue that can be described by the

  11. Financial history and financial economics

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, John D.

    2014-01-01

    This essay looks at the bidirectional relationship between financial history and financial economics. It begins by giving a brief history of financial economics by outlining the main topics of interest to financial economists. It then documents and explains the increasing influence of financial economics upon financial history, and warns of the dangers of applying financial economics unthinkingly to the study of financial history. The essay proceeds to highlight the many insights that financi...

  12. Financial history and financial economics

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, John D.

    2014-01-01

    This essay looks at the bidirectional relationship between financial history and financial economics. It begins by giving a brief history of financial economics by outlining the main topics of interest to financial economists. It then documents and explains the increasing influence of financial economics upon financial history, and warns of the dangers of applying financial economics unthinkingly to the study of financial history. The essay proceeds to highlight the many insights that financi...

  13. Vaccine adverse events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follows, Jill

    2012-01-01

    Millions of adults are vaccinated annually against the seasonal influenza virus. An undetermined number of individuals will develop adverse events to the influenza vaccination. Those who suffer substantiated vaccine injuries, disabilities, and aggravated conditions may file a timely, no-fault and no-cost petition for financial compensation under the National Vaccine Act in the Vaccine Court. The elements of a successful vaccine injury claim are described in the context of a claim showing the seasonal influenza vaccination was the cause of Guillain-Barré syndrome.

  14. Financial Stability and Financial Inclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Peter J; Pontines, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Developing economies are seeking to promote financial inclusion, i.e., greater access to financial services for low-income households and firms, as part of their overall strategies for economic and financial development. This raises the question of whether financial stability and financial inclusion are, broadly speaking, substitutes or complements. In other words, does the move toward greater financial inclusion tend to increase or decrease financial stability? A number of studies have sugge...

  15. Radiology applications of financial accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibenhaut, Mark H

    2005-03-01

    A basic knowledge of financial accounting can help radiologists analyze business opportunities and examine the potential impacts of new technology or predict the adverse consequences of new competitors entering their service area. The income statement, balance sheet, and cash flow statement are the three basic financial statements that document the current financial position of the radiology practice and allow managers to monitor the ongoing financial operations of the enterprise. Pro forma, or hypothetical, financial statements can be generated to predict the financial impact of specific business decisions or investments on the profitability of the practice. Sensitivity analysis, or what-if scenarios, can be performed to determine the potential impact of changing key revenue, investment, operating cost or financial assumptions. By viewing radiology as both a profession and a business, radiologists can optimize their use of scarce economic resources and maximize the return on their financial investments.

  16. On the Welfare Implications of Financial Globalization without Financial Development

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique G. Mendoza; Vincenzo Quadrini; José-Víctor Ríos-Rull

    2007-01-01

    It is widely argued that countries can reap large gains from liberalizing their capital accounts if financial globalization is accompanied by the development of domestic institutions and financial markets. However, if liberalization does not lead to financial development, globalization can result in adverse effects on social welfare and the distribution of wealth. We use a multi-country model with non-insurable idiosyncratic risk to show that, if countries differ in the degree of asset market...

  17. Financial Benchmarking

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This bachelor's thesis is focused on financial benchmarking of TULIPA PRAHA s.r.o. The aim of this work is to evaluate financial situation of the company, identify its strengths and weaknesses and to find out how efficient is the performance of this company in comparison with top companies within the same field by using INFA benchmarking diagnostic system of financial indicators. The theoretical part includes the characteristic of financial analysis, which financial benchmarking is based on a...

  18. Optimal Investment by Financially Xenophobic Managers

    OpenAIRE

    Cummins, Jason G; Ingmar Nyman

    2000-01-01

    Case studies show that corporate managers seek financial independence to avoid interference by outside financiers. We incorporate this financial xenophobia as a fixed cost in a simple dynamic model of financing and investment. To avoid refinancing in the future, the firm alters its behavior depending on the extent of its financial xenophobia and the realization of a revenue shock. With a sufficiently adverse shock, the firm holds no liquidity. Otherwise, the firm precautionarily saves and hol...

  19. Cumulant expansions for atmospheric flows

    CERN Document Server

    Ait-Chaalal, Farid; Meyer, Bettina; Marston, J B

    2015-01-01

    The equations governing atmospheric flows are nonlinear, and consequently the hierarchy of cumulant equations is not closed. But because atmospheric flows are inhomogeneous and anisotropic, the nonlinearity may manifests itself only weakly through interactions of mean fields with disturbances such as thermals or eddies. In such situations, truncations of the hierarchy of cumulant equations hold promise as a closure strategy. We review how truncations at second order can be used to model and elucidate the dynamics of turbulent atmospheric flows. Two examples are considered. First, we study the growth of a dry convective boundary layer, which is heated from below, leading to turbulent upward energy transport and growth of the boundary layer. We demonstrate that a quasilinear truncation of the equations of motion, in which interactions of disturbances among each other are neglected but interactions with mean fields are taken into account, can successfully capture the growth of the convective boundary layer. Seco...

  20. Electro-cumulation CNF project

    CERN Document Server

    Grishin, V G

    2000-01-01

    bound or free ion current within solid substances; non-plain symmetry; cumulation of the ion interaction. Experimental result: an Ice SuperPolarization. Cold nuclear fusion ? At http://www.shortway.to/to2084 . Keywords: ion, current, solid, symmetry, cumulation, cold nuclear fusion, polarization, depolarization, ionic conductor, superionic conductor, ice, crystal, strain, V-center, V-centre, doped crystal, interstitial impurity, intrinsic color center, high pressure technology, Bridgman, experiment, crowdion, dielectric, proton, layer, defect, lattice, dynamics, electromigration, mobility, muon catalysis, concentration, doping, dopant, conductivity, pycnonuclear reaction, permittivity, dielectric constant, point defects, interstitials, polarizability, imperfection, defect centers, glass, epitaxy, sodium hydroxide, metallic substrate, crystallization, point, tip, susceptibility, ferroelectric, ordering, force, correlation, collective, shift, distortion, coalescence, crowdions, electrolysis.

  1. Cumulative Paired φ-Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo Klein

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A new kind of entropy will be introduced which generalizes both the differential entropy and the cumulative (residual entropy. The generalization is twofold. First, we simultaneously define the entropy for cumulative distribution functions (cdfs and survivor functions (sfs, instead of defining it separately for densities, cdfs, or sfs. Secondly, we consider a general “entropy generating function” φ, the same way Burbea et al. (IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 1982, 28, 489–495 and Liese et al. (Convex Statistical Distances; Teubner-Verlag, 1987 did in the context of φ-divergences. Combining the ideas of φ-entropy and cumulative entropy leads to the new “cumulative paired φ-entropy” ( C P E φ . This new entropy has already been discussed in at least four scientific disciplines, be it with certain modifications or simplifications. In the fuzzy set theory, for example, cumulative paired φ-entropies were defined for membership functions, whereas in uncertainty and reliability theories some variations of C P E φ were recently considered as measures of information. With a single exception, the discussions in the scientific disciplines appear to be held independently of each other. We consider C P E φ for continuous cdfs and show that C P E φ is rather a measure of dispersion than a measure of information. In the first place, this will be demonstrated by deriving an upper bound which is determined by the standard deviation and by solving the maximum entropy problem under the restriction of a fixed variance. Next, this paper specifically shows that C P E φ satisfies the axioms of a dispersion measure. The corresponding dispersion functional can easily be estimated by an L-estimator, containing all its known asymptotic properties. C P E φ is the basis for several related concepts like mutual φ-information, φ-correlation, and φ-regression, which generalize Gini correlation and Gini regression. In addition, linear rank tests for scale that

  2. Financial Education

    OpenAIRE

    Udo Reifner; Anne Schelhowe

    2010-01-01

    New, more or better financial education and financial literacy programmes should lead to improved financial capability, knowledge and outcomes. Yet we do not even know which terminology is most suitable for those projects who all intend to give an answer to a question which is less than clear. What is meant by the term “financial education”? Why did the “demand” for financial education suddenly increase? Have the numerous tasks which consumers in a modern society have to fulfill created this ...

  3. Synergistic childhood adversities and complex adult psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Karen T; Harris, William W; Putnam, Frank W

    2013-08-01

    Numerous studies find a cumulative effect of different types of childhood adversities on increasing risk for serious adult mental and medical outcomes. This study uses the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication sample to investigate the cumulative impact of 8 childhood adversities on complex adult psychopathology as indexed by (a) number of lifetime diagnoses according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994); (b) number of 4 DSM-IV disorder categories (mood, anxiety, impulse control, and substance abuse disorders); and (c) coexistence of internalizing and externalizing disorders. Seven of the 8 childhood adversities were significantly associated with complex adult psychopathology. Individuals with 4 or more childhood adversities had an odds ratio of 7.3, 95% confidence interval [4.7, 11.7] for 4 disorder categories. Additive and multiplicative synergistic effects increasing adult psychopathology were found for specific pairwise combinations of childhood adversities. Synergistic patterns differed by gender suggesting that women are more impacted by sexual abuse and men by economic hardship. The absence of childhood adversities was protective, in that it significantly decreased an individual's risk for subsequent adult mental illness. The results support the clinical impression that increased childhood adversity is associated with more complex adult psychopathology.

  4. Financial Stress, Financial Literacy, Counselling and the Risk of Homelessness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Steen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Poor financial literacy may lead to poor life choices. These life choices can create or contribute to financial stress with adverse consequences - not the least of which may be homelessness. These issues are relatively well understood, but there is limited research on the link between financial stress, financial literacy and counselling, and homelessness. Specifically, there has been little research on how improved financial literacy and appropriate financial counselling might help to prevent homelessness. This paper synthesises existing literature on this topic and considers these issues using the ABCX family stress model of Hill (1958 using data from an Australian program aimed at alleviating family homelessness, the Home Advice Program. We provide evidence that suggests that case management and support which incorporates financial counselling and financial literacy can assist in moderating the impact of financial stress and help those at risk of homelessness. The findings have implications for public policy in the areas of financial education, consumer finance, and social services provision.

  5. 76 FR 30396 - Deloitte Financial Advisory Services LLP, Real Estate Consulting, Houston, TX; Amended...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    ... Financial Advisory Services LLP, Real Estate Consulting, Houston, TX; Amended Certification Regarding... of Deloitte Financial Advisory Services LLP, Real Estate Consulting, Houston, Texas (subject firm... Financial Advisory Services LLP, Real Estate Consulting, Houston, Texas who were adversely affected by a...

  6. The Algebra of the Cumulative Percent Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Andrew J.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to help students avoid some pervasive reasoning errors in solving cumulative percent problems. Discusses the meaning of ."%+b%." the additive inverse of ."%." and other useful applications. Emphasizes the operational aspect of the cumulative percent concept. (KHR)

  7. Adaptive strategies for cumulative cultural learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehn, Micael; Laland, Kevin

    2012-05-21

    The demographic and ecological success of our species is frequently attributed to our capacity for cumulative culture. However, it is not yet known how humans combine social and asocial learning to generate effective strategies for learning in a cumulative cultural context. Here we explore how cumulative culture influences the relative merits of various pure and conditional learning strategies, including pure asocial and social learning, critical social learning, conditional social learning and individual refiner strategies. We replicate the Rogers' paradox in the cumulative setting. However, our analysis suggests that strategies that resolved Rogers' paradox in a non-cumulative setting may not necessarily evolve in a cumulative setting, thus different strategies will optimize cumulative and non-cumulative cultural learning.

  8. "Buddha's Light" of Cumulative Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Kopeliovich, Vladimir B; Potashnikova, Irina K

    2014-01-01

    We show analytically that in the cumulative particles production off nuclei multiple interactions lead to a glory-like backward focusing effect. Employing the small phase space method we arrived at a characteristic angular dependence of the production cross section $d\\sigma \\sim 1/ \\sqrt {\\pi - \\theta}$ near the strictly backward direction. This effect takes place for any number $n\\geq 3 $ of interactions of rescattered particle, either elastic or inelastic (with resonance excitations in intermediate states), when the final particle is produced near corresponding kinematical boundary. Such a behaviour of the cross section near the backward direction is in qualitative agreement with some of available data.

  9. A Resource Cost Aware Cumulative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonis, Helmut; Hadzic, Tarik

    We motivate and introduce an extension of the well-known cumulative constraint which deals with time and volume dependent cost of resources. Our research is primarily interested in scheduling problems under time and volume variable electricity costs, but the constraint equally applies to manpower scheduling when hourly rates differ over time and/or extra personnel incur higher hourly rates. We present a number of possible lower bounds on the cost, including a min-cost flow, different LP and MIP models, as well as greedy algorithms, and provide a theoretical and experimental comparison of the different methods.

  10. FINANCIAL MECHANISMS OF FINANCIAL CRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan LUCHIAN

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The actuality of this article is determined by the need to demonstrate that financial crisis is not just an issue of economic disaster caused by contagion effect of financial cataclysm, expressed in national currency depreciation, depletion of foreign exchange reserves, mass bankruptcy of financial institutions, non-market entities insolvency and impossibility of sovereign debt servicing, but a special investment opportunity with associated characteristics of profitability. Central aims of article is research of financial crisis essence, investment mechanisms linked to existing fundamental laws of its conduct and determination of investment opportunities manifested in various segments of financial market and related sectors. Main research methods were: systemic analysis, statistical analysis, monographic and logic synthesis, etc. Main scientific results obtained in the article, due to research are to identify, analyze and demonstrate investment opportunities of international financial crisis and financial crises in Moldova.

  11. A paradox of cumulative culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yutaka; Wakano, Joe Yuichiro; Ohtsuki, Hisashi

    2015-08-21

    Culture can grow cumulatively if socially learnt behaviors are improved by individual learning before being passed on to the next generation. Previous authors showed that this kind of learning strategy is unlikely to be evolutionarily stable in the presence of a trade-off between learning and reproduction. This is because culture is a public good that is freely exploited by any member of the population in their model (cultural social dilemma). In this paper, we investigate the effect of vertical transmission (transmission from parents to offspring), which decreases the publicness of culture, on the evolution of cumulative culture in both infinite and finite population models. In the infinite population model, we confirm that culture accumulates largely as long as transmission is purely vertical. It turns out, however, that introduction of even slight oblique transmission drastically reduces the equilibrium level of culture. Even more surprisingly, if the population size is finite, culture hardly accumulates even under purely vertical transmission. This occurs because stochastic extinction due to random genetic drift prevents a learning strategy from accumulating enough culture. Overall, our theoretical results suggest that introducing vertical transmission alone does not really help solve the cultural social dilemma problem. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Financial mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Jothi, A Lenin

    2009-01-01

    Financial services, particularly banking and insurance services is the prominent sector for the development of a nation. After the liberalisation of financial sector in India, the scope of getting career opportunities has been widened. It is heartening to note that various universities in India have introduced professional courses on banking and insurance. A new field of applied mathematics has come into prominence under the name of Financial Mathematics. Financial mathematics has attained much importance in the recent years because of the role played by mathematical concepts in decision - m

  13. FINANCIAL STABILITY AS A FACTOR ECONOMIC SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Endovitskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The article examines the linkages between financial stability and the level of its economic security. Considered the content of financial stability, represented by its own definition, we studied the basic conditions to achieve it. The logic diagram showing the location of financial stability and financial security to ensure the economic security of the business entity. A system of internal and external factors affecting the financial stability and endanger financial stability and financial security company. It has been established that it is the internal factors such as the availability of financial resources and financial position, capital structure, the company's ability to generate profits determine the level of economic security and its ability to withstand the negative impact of external and internal threats. The necessity of improving the financial sustainability in order to improve the economic security of the enterprise. On the basis of the research proposed matrix of risks affecting the financial stability and economic security, which allows to determine the probability of their occurrence and impact. It presents the economic, social, human, financial, organizational, economic, innovative and productive tools to increase the stability and financial security of an economic entity. List considered standard measures will make a plan of action to minimize the adverse impacts and enhance financial stability and security. Therefore, a prerequisite for the economic security of the enterprise is the attainment of financial stability.

  14. Cumulative dietary exposure of the population of Denmark to pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Nielsen, Elsa

    2015-01-01

    We used the Hazard Index (HI) method to carry out a cumulative risk assessment after chronic dietary exposure to all monitored pesticides in fruit, vegetables and cereals for various consumer groups in Denmark. Residue data for all the pesticides were obtained from the Danish monitoring programme...... that included processing factors and set non-detects to ½ LOR, but limited the correction (Model 3), gave the most realistic exposure estimate. With Model 3 the HI was calculated to be 0.44 for children and 0.18 for adults, indicating that there is no risk of adverse health effects following chronic cumulative...... exposure to the pesticides found in fruit, vegetables and cereals on the Danish market. The HI was below 1 even for consumers who eat more than 550 g of fruit and vegetables per day, corresponding to 1/3 of the population. Choosing Danish-produced commodities whenever possible could reduce the HI...

  15. Financial Literacy, Financial Education, and Economic Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Justine S.; Madrian, Brigitte C.; Skimmyhorn, William L.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we review the literature on financial literacy, financial education, and consumer financial outcomes. We consider how financial literacy is measured in the current literature and examine how well the existing literature addresses whether financial education improves financial literacy or personal financial outcomes. We discuss the…

  16. Financial Literacy, Financial Education, and Economic Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Justine S.; Madrian, Brigitte C.; Skimmyhorn, William L.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we review the literature on financial literacy, financial education, and consumer financial outcomes. We consider how financial literacy is measured in the current literature and examine how well the existing literature addresses whether financial education improves financial literacy or personal financial outcomes. We discuss the…

  17. Low Fruit/Vegetable Consumption in the Home: Cumulative Risk Factors in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Wendy L.; Swindle, Taren M.; Kyzer, Angela L.; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    Cumulative risk theory suggests that a variety of social risk factors would have an additive effect on obesity risk. Multiple studies have suggested that obesity is related to basic resources such as transportation and financial resources. Additional research points to parental engagement and parental monitoring as additional sources of risk. This…

  18. Trust and Financial Crisis Experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, Carin; de Haan, Jakob; Jansen, David-Jan

    2016-01-01

    Using eight annual household surveys for the Netherlands between 2006 and 2013, we find that respondents' personal adverse financial crisis experiences do not only reduce their trust in banks, but also have an immediate negative effect on generalized trust. Respondents who were customers of a bank t

  19. Financial Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄骅

    2012-01-01

      Financial crisis started from America and soon spread all over the world. How did this happen? What government has done to rescue the economy and what should we do to help? Is financial crisis inevitable? These questions have bothered me for a long time. However, if we use a macroeconomist eye to view the world, all the questions seemed clear and crystal.

  20. Fighting the Financial Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer

    2015-01-01

    This paper is concerned to show how the Danish political elite interpreted and responded to the consequences of the 2008 financial crisis for the Danish economy. In particular, the paper describes how this interpretive construction focused primarily on three features of the Danish context...... to the exclusion of other perspectives; the first was an emphasis on the problems of the financial sector, of interest rates and state finances; the second was that Danish productivity increases were falling behind other comparable countries and part of the solution required new strategies towards labour...... and unemployment benefits; thirdly, the adverse effects of the crisis were causing an increase in government expenditure and a decline in government revenues which was rapidly becoming unsustainable. As a consequence, the Danish elite fell into the broader interpretation of the crisis embedded in the dominant view...

  1. Cumulate Fragments in Silicic Ignimbrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, O.; Ellis, B. S.; Wolff, J.

    2014-12-01

    Increasingly, studies are concluding that silicic ignimbrites are the result of the amalgamation of multiple discrete magma batches. Yet the existence of discrete batches presents a conundrum for magma generation and storage; if silicic magma batches are not generated nearly in situ in the upper crust, they must traverse, and reside within, a thermally hostile environment with large temperature gradients, resulting in low survivability in their shallow magmatic hearths. The Snake River Plain (Idaho, USA) is a type example of this 'multi-batch' assembly with ignimbrites containing multiple populations of pyroxene crystals, glass shards, and crystal aggregates. The ubiquitous crystal aggregates hint at a mechanism to facilitate the existence of multiple, relatively small batches of rhyolite in the upper crust. These aggregates contain the same plagioclase, pyroxene, and oxide mineral compositions as single phenocrysts of the same minerals in their host rocks, but they have significantly less silicic bulk compositions and lack quartz and sanidine, which occur as single phenocrysts in the deposits. This implies significant crystallization followed by melt extraction from mushy reservoir margins. The extracted melt then continues to evolve (crystallizing sanidine and quartz) while the melt-depleted margins provide an increasingly rigid and refractory network segregating the crystal-poor batches of magma. The hot, refractory, margins insulate the crystal-poor lenses, allowing (1) extended residence in the upper crust, and (2) preservation of chemical heterogeneities among batches. In contrast, systems that produce cumulates richer in low-temperature phases (quartz, K-feldspars, and/or biotite) favour remelting upon recharge, leading to less segregation of eruptible melt pockets and the formation of gradationally zoned ignimbrites. The occurrence of similar crystal aggregates from a variety of magmatic lineages suggests the generality of this process.

  2. Cumulative human impacts on marine predators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maxwell, Sara M; Hazen, Elliott L; Bograd, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Stressors associated with human activities interact in complex ways to affect marine ecosystems, yet we lack spatially explicit assessments of cumulative impacts on ecologically and economically key components such as marine predators. Here we develop a metric of cumulative utilization and impact...

  3. Identification and Quantification of Cumulative Factors that Increase Environmental Exposures and Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluating the combined adverse effects of multiple stressors upon human health is an imperative component of cumulative risk assessment (CRA)1. In addition to chemical stressors, other non-chemical factors are also considered. For examples, smoking will elevate the risks of havi...

  4. Relationship between cumulative BMI and symptomatic, psychosocial, and medical outcomes in patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenburg, Frances R; Zanarini, Mary C

    2011-08-01

    We examined the relationship between cumulative body mass index (BMI) and symptomatic, psychosocial, and medical outcomes in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Two hundred female borderline patients were weighed and measured during their index admission. They were subsequently interviewed at six-, eight-, and 10-year intervals. Over 10 years of prospective follow-up, increases in cumulative BMI were significantly associated with self-mutilation and dissociation (but not suicide attempts). Increases in cumulative BMI were also significantly associated with having no life partner, a poor work or school history, being on disability, being rated with a GAF score in the fair or poor range, and having a low income. In addition, increases in BMI were related to having two or more other medical conditions and using costly forms of health care. Increases in cumulative BMI may be a marker for adverse symptomatic, functional, and medical outcomes in patients with BPD.

  5. FINANCIAL LITERACY, FINANCIAL EDUCATION AND ECONOMIC OUTCOMES

    OpenAIRE

    Hastings, Justine S.; Brigitte C. Madrian; Skimmyhorn, William L.

    2013-01-01

    In this article we review the literature on financial literacy, financial education, and consumer financial outcomes. We consider how financial literacy is measured in the current literature, and examine how well the existing literature addresses whether financial education improves financial literacy or personal financial outcomes. We discuss the extent to which a competitive market provides incentives for firms to educate consumers or offer products that facilitate informed choice. We revie...

  6. Financial Stability: the Problem of Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romaniak Mykola M.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with studying the problem of interpretation of the concept of «financial stability», allocating the major groups of approaches to its interpretation and clarifying the reasons for absence of a single uniform definition. On the basis of an analysis, approaches to interpretation of the category of «financial stability» have been divided into three main groups. In the definitions by central banks (the first group emphasis is more often placed upon the matter that a system (not necessarily financial is considered stable if it is able to perform all their functions even under conditions of minor adverse shocks and upheavals. The second way to interpretation – by contradiction – must be taken into consideration in the process of studying the financial stability. According to the third group of views, a system can be considered financially stable until the process of transforming savings into investments remains unbroken. The main reasons for the absence of a single clear formulation of the concept of «financial stability» have been identified, namely: different approaches used by scientists to understanding the content of financial system; refocusing from studying the financial stability towards financial crises; accounting the indicator of financial stability in place of the indicator of financial disturbances. A prospective direction for further research is assessment of financial stability through practical consideration of quantitative characteristics that influence on such stability

  7. Nonlinear cumulative damage model for multiaxial fatigue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG De-guang; SUN Guo-qin; DENG Jing; YAN Chu-liang

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of the continuum fatigue damage theory,a nonlinear uniaxial fatigue cumulative damage model is first proposed.In order to describe multiaxial fatigue damage characteristics,a nonlinear multiaxial fatigue cumulative damage model is developed based on the critical plane approach,The proposed model can consider the multiaxial fatigue limit,mean hydrostatic pressure and the unseparated characteristic for the damage variables and loading parameters.The recurrence formula of fatigue damage model was derived under multilevel loading,which is used to predict multiaxial fatigue life.The results showed that the proposed nonlinear multiaxial fatigue cumulative damage model is better than Miner's rule.

  8. Is uveitis associated with topiramate use? A cumulative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldberg JL

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey L Goldberg,1 Amy G Lau,2 Bo Fan,2 Lisa Ford,3 Howard E Greenberg3 1Byers Eye Institute, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, 2Janssen Research & Development, LLC, Horsham, PA, 3Janssen Research & Development, LLC, Titusville, NJ, USA Abstract: Occasional reports of uveitis following topiramate use necessitated an investigation of relevant cases from safety databases and published biomedical literature. Data mining of the Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System and cumulative review of cases from the global safety database (sponsor database and published literature were conducted to assess association between topiramate use and uveitis. The Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System search identified disproportional reporting of uveitis (n=23 and related terms (choroidal detachment, n=25; iridocyclitis, n=17. The postmarketing reporting frequency of uveitis and related events from the global safety database and based on an estimated topiramate exposure of 11,185,740 person-years from launch to April 2015 was 0.38 per 100,000 person-years and assigned as very rare. A total of 14 potential uveitis cases were identified from the cumulative review. Seven of these 14 cases were complicated by inadequate documentation, appearance of uveitic signs following drug withdrawal, or concurrent use of other sulfonamides. In acute angle-closure glaucoma and uveal effusions cases, insufficient evidence for underlying inflammation suggested that uveitis was not a component. Only seven of 14 cases were well documented, potentially topiramate-associated uveitis cases. Uveitis may occur in the setting of topiramate use only in very rare instances. Current evidence did not reveal a dose- or duration-dependent relationship between uveitis and topiramate use. Keywords: topiramate, uveitis, acute angle-closure glaucoma, drug safety, Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System, postmarketing 

  9. Cumulative cultural learning: Development and diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legare, Cristine H

    2017-07-24

    The complexity and variability of human culture is unmatched by any other species. Humans live in culturally constructed niches filled with artifacts, skills, beliefs, and practices that have been inherited, accumulated, and modified over generations. A causal account of the complexity of human culture must explain its distinguishing characteristics: It is cumulative and highly variable within and across populations. I propose that the psychological adaptations supporting cumulative cultural transmission are universal but are sufficiently flexible to support the acquisition of highly variable behavioral repertoires. This paper describes variation in the transmission practices (teaching) and acquisition strategies (imitation) that support cumulative cultural learning in childhood. Examining flexibility and variation in caregiver socialization and children's learning extends our understanding of evolution in living systems by providing insight into the psychological foundations of cumulative cultural transmission-the cornerstone of human cultural diversity.

  10. Calculating Cumulative Binomial-Distribution Probabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuer, Ernest M.; Bowerman, Paul N.

    1989-01-01

    Cumulative-binomial computer program, CUMBIN, one of set of three programs, calculates cumulative binomial probability distributions for arbitrary inputs. CUMBIN, NEWTONP (NPO-17556), and CROSSER (NPO-17557), used independently of one another. Reliabilities and availabilities of k-out-of-n systems analyzed. Used by statisticians and users of statistical procedures, test planners, designers, and numerical analysts. Used for calculations of reliability and availability. Program written in C.

  11. Cumulative cultural evolution: the role of teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Laureano; Toro, Miguel A

    2014-04-21

    In humans, cultural transmission occurs usually by cumulative inheritance, generating complex adaptive behavioral features. Cumulative culture requires key psychological processes (fundamentally imitation and teaching) that are absent or impoverished in non-human primates. In this paper we analyze the role that teaching has played in human cumulative cultural evolution. We assume that a system of cumulative culture generates increasingly adaptive behaviors, that are also more complex and difficult to imitate. Our thesis is that, as cultural traits become more complex, cumulative cultural transmission requires teaching to ensure accurate transmission from one generation to the next. In an increasingly complex cultural environment, we consider that individuals commit errors in imitation. We develop a model of cumulative cultural evolution in a changing environment and show that these errors hamper the process of cultural accumulation. We also show that a system of teaching between parents and offspring that increases the fidelity of imitation unblocks the accumulation and becomes adaptive whenever the gain in fitness compensates the cost of teaching.

  12. Human cumulative culture: a comparative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Lewis G; Vale, Gill L; Laland, Kevin N; Flynn, Emma; Kendal, Rachel L

    2014-05-01

    Many animals exhibit social learning and behavioural traditions, but human culture exhibits unparalleled complexity and diversity, and is unambiguously cumulative in character. These similarities and differences have spawned a debate over whether animal traditions and human culture are reliant on homologous or analogous psychological processes. Human cumulative culture combines high-fidelity transmission of cultural knowledge with beneficial modifications to generate a 'ratcheting' in technological complexity, leading to the development of traits far more complex than one individual could invent alone. Claims have been made for cumulative culture in several species of animals, including chimpanzees, orangutans and New Caledonian crows, but these remain contentious. Whilst initial work on the topic of cumulative culture was largely theoretical, employing mathematical methods developed by population biologists, in recent years researchers from a wide range of disciplines, including psychology, biology, economics, biological anthropology, linguistics and archaeology, have turned their attention to the experimental investigation of cumulative culture. We review this literature, highlighting advances made in understanding the underlying processes of cumulative culture and emphasising areas of agreement and disagreement amongst investigators in separate fields.

  13. Financial Inclusion, Financial Regulation, and Financial Education in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Tambunlertchai, Kanittha

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of financial inclusion in Thailand through the lens of an institutional analysis, which takes into consideration the desired outcomes, the service providers and enabling agencies, and the regulatory context that shape the existing provision of financial inclusion in Thailand. In discussing the achievement of the desired outcomes in terms of financial inclusion, the issues of financial education and financial regulation, which provide the contexts within which th...

  14. Integrating physical and financial approaches to manage environmental financial risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Characklis, Gregory; Meyer, Eliot; Foster, Benjamin

    2017-04-01

    Physical and/or engineered solutions have long been used to manage risks associated with adverse environmental events. Examples include reservoirs as a tool for mitigating drought-related supply risk, levees for managing flood risk and dredging of inland waterways to ensure navigability during low flow periods. These measures can reduce many types of risk (e.g., loss of life), but are often employed as a means of protecting against financial losses. When the focus is on managing environmental financial risk, physical solutions can be effective, but also costly. In many cases, non-physical tools can provide a less expensive means of managing financial risk, with these often taking the form of financial instruments such as hedging contracts, contingency funds or insurance. Some of these instruments, such as flood insurance, are widely available, but historically many environmental financial risks have been managed primarily (or solely) via physical solutions without much consideration of alternatives, thereby opening opportunities for innovation in developing financial solutions. Recent research has demonstrated that financial instruments can play a significant role in managing drought-related financial risk in sectors as diverse as water utilities, energy generation and inland navigation. Nonetheless, this work has largely considered the use of these instruments within systems in which physical solutions are already in place (but failing to achieve desired performance). The next step in the evolution of managing environmental financial risk involves developing methods for designing risk management strategies that do not assume an established physical system. Here the goal is to identify the relative role that physical solutions and financial instruments should play as they are integrated into a comprehensive risk management strategy. This is not a straightforward challenge as one approach reduces the risk of financial losses and the other redistributes those losses

  15. Adverse childhood experiences and health anxiety in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, Sarah J; McMillan, Katherine A; Wright, Kristi D; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2014-03-01

    Childhood experiences are thought to predispose a person to the development of health anxiety later in life. However, there is a lack of research investigating the influence of specific adverse experiences (e.g., childhood abuse, household dysfunction) on this condition. The current study examined the cumulative influence of multiple types of childhood adversities on health anxiety in adulthood. Adults 18-59 years of age (N=264) completed a battery of measures to assess adverse childhood experiences, health anxiety, and associated constructs (i.e., negative affect and trait anxiety). Significant associations were observed between adverse childhood experiences, health anxiety, and associated constructs. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicted that adverse childhood experiences were predictive of health anxiety in adulthood; however, the unique contribution of these experience were no longer significant following the inclusion of the other variables of interest. Subsequently, mediation analyses indicated that both negative affect and trait anxiety independently mediated the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and health anxiety in adulthood. Increased exposure to adverse childhood experiences is associated with higher levels of health anxiety in adulthood; this relationship is mediated through negative affect and trait anxiety. Findings support the long-term negative impact of cumulative adverse childhood experiences and emphasize the importance of addressing negative affect and trait anxiety in efforts to prevent and treat health anxiety.

  16. The impact of cumulative family risks on various levels of food insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Daphne C

    2015-03-01

    The study uses the Fragile Families and Child Well-being Study (N=2025) to examine the relationship between four cumulative family risk indices and refined measures of food hardship: marginal food security, low food security, and very low food security. Regression analyses indicate that cumulative family risk indices are useful in differentiating various levels of food insecurity. Specifically, the maternal poor health and risky health behaviors index is pertinent for distinguishing (1) food insecure from marginal food secure households and (2) very low food secure from low food secure households. In addition, the financial strain index is pertinent for differentiating between marginal food secure families from food secure families among non-poor households. Connecting food assistance programs with established social services may decrease the negative impact that cumulative family-level risk factors have on families' varying levels of food insecurity.

  17. Adverse drug reactions in hospitalized Colombian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Las Salas, Roxana; Díaz-Agudelo, Daniela; Burgos-Flórez, Francisco Javier; Vaca, Claudia; Serrano-Meriño, Dolores Vanessa

    2016-09-30

    The occurrence of adverse drug reactions is an important issue due to the lack of drug safety data in children. To describe the Adverse Drug Reactions in inpatient children under 6 years of age in two general pediatrics wards located in Barranquilla, Colombia. A prospective cohort study based on intensive pharmacovigilance was conducted during six months in order to monitor the emergence of Adverse Drug Reactions in inpatients children under 6 years of age with at least one medication prescribed. The study was conducted in two pediatric wards of two hospitals located in Barranquilla, Colombia. Naranjo´s Algorithm was used to evaluate imputability, the modified Hartwig and Siegel assessment scale to establish severity and the Schumock and Thornton criteria to determine preventability. Of a total of 772 monitored patients, 156 Adverse Drug Reactions were detected on 147 children. The cumulative incidence of Adverse Drug Reactions was 19.0% (147/772); the incidence density was 37.6 Adverse Drug Reactions per 1,000 patients-days (147/3,913). The frequency was higher in children under 2 years of age (12.7%). Emergence of Adverse Drug Reactions was higher in male patients (RR= 1.66; 95% CI= 1.22-2.22, p= 0.001) and in those who used systemic antibiotics (RR= 1.82; 95% CI= 1.17-2.82, p= 0.005). Adverse Drug Reactions are common among hospitalized children and represent an additional burden of morbidity and risk, particularly in those who used several medicines, including antibiotics.

  18. Financial Statements Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on analyzing of a consolidated financial statements of a hypothetically SME. The interpretation of the financial position and performances is based on the more than 40 financial key ratios computed by using financial data from consolidated income statement, consolidated financial position and cash flow. However additional data from notes to financial statements are provided.

  19. Financial Statements Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on analyzing of a consolidated financial statements of a hypothetically SME. The interpretation of the financial position and performances is based on the more than 40 financial key ratios computed by using financial data from consolidated income statement, consolidated financial position and cash flow. However additional data from notes to financial statements are provided.

  20. Gender disparities among the association between cumulative family-level stress & adolescent weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Daphne C; Pressler, Emily

    2015-04-01

    To investigate precursors to gender-related obesity disparities by examining multiple family-level stress indices. Analyses was based on adolescents born between 1975 and 1991 to women from the 1979 National Longitudinal Study of Youth data set (N=4762). Three types of family-level stressors were captured from birth to age 15: family disruption and conflict, financial strain, and maternal risky health behaviors, along with a total cumulative risk index. Body mass index was constructed on reference criteria for children outlined by the Centers for Disease Control. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted for the three types of family stressors and for the total cumulative index. The accumulation of family disruption and conflict and financial stress was positively related to female adolescents being overweight/obese. Childhood exposure to maternal risky health behaviors was positively associated with higher weight status for male adolescents. Total cumulative stress was related to overweight/obesity for females, but not males. Different family-level stress indices are associated with the weight status of female and male adolescents. Combining types of family-level stress into one cumulative index appears to mask these differences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. 78 FR 12358 - UBS Financial Services, Inc., Wealth Management Americas Operations, Including On-Site Leased...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... Employment and Training Administration UBS Financial Services, Inc., Wealth Management Americas Operations..., applicable to workers of UBS Financial Services, Inc., Wealth Management Americas Operations (UBS), Weehawken... Management Americas Operations (UBS), Weehawken, New Jersey, who were all adversely affected by the...

  2. Predicting Cumulative Incidence Probability by Direct Binomial Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas H.; Zhang, Mei-Jie

    Binomial modelling; cumulative incidence probability; cause-specific hazards; subdistribution hazard......Binomial modelling; cumulative incidence probability; cause-specific hazards; subdistribution hazard...

  3. Practical management of cumulative anthropogenic impacts with working marine examples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyhn, Line Anker; Wright, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    for petroleum. Human disturbances, including the noise almost ubiquitously associated with human activity, are likely to increase the incidence, magnitude, and duration of adverse effects on marine life, including stress responses. Stress responses have the potential to induce fitness consequences...... for individuals, which add to more obvious directed takes (e.g., hunting or fishing) to increase the overall population-level impact. To meet the requirements of marine spatial planning and ecosystem-based management, many efforts are ongoing to quantify the cumulative impacts of all human actions on marine...... species or populations. Meanwhile, regulators face the challenge of managing these accumulating and interacting impacts with limited scientific guidance. We believe there is scientific support for capping the level of impact for (at a minimum) populations in decline or with unknown statuses. This cap...

  4. Cumulative dietary exposure of the population of Denmark to pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Nielsen, Elsa; Christensen, Tue; Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Andersen, Jens Hinge

    2015-09-01

    We used the Hazard Index (HI) method to carry out a cumulative risk assessment after chronic dietary exposure to all monitored pesticides in fruit, vegetables and cereals for various consumer groups in Denmark. Residue data for all the pesticides were obtained from the Danish monitoring programme during the period 2004-2011. Food consumption data were obtained from DANSDA (the DAnish National Survey of Diet and physical Activity) for the period 2005-2008. The calculations were made using three different models to cope with residues below the limit of reporting (LOR). We concluded that a model that included processing factors and set non-detects to ½ LOR, but limited the correction (Model 3), gave the most realistic exposure estimate. With Model 3 the HI was calculated to be 0.44 for children and 0.18 for adults, indicating that there is no risk of adverse health effects following chronic cumulative exposure to the pesticides found in fruit, vegetables and cereals on the Danish market. The HI was below 1 even for consumers who eat more than 550 g of fruit and vegetables per day, corresponding to 1/3 of the population. Choosing Danish-produced commodities whenever possible could reduce the HI by a factor of 2.

  5. THE ORDER OF CALCULATION OF THE TOTAL FINANCIAL RESULT OF THE ACCOUNTING REPORTING OF THE ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashkatov V. V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes which have happened in the structure and the contents of accounting reports are presented in the article, and the procedure of payments indicator "Cumu-lative financial result of the period" is considered in detail

  6. FINANCIAL LEASING

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This essay deals with the several financial resources an enterprise counts on to purchase assets of the kind real state or chattels. A resource that does not risk solvency is the lease, through the retro-leasing variant that allows to obtain working capital by selling one of its fixed assets without giving its use up. El ensayo, trata sobre las fuentes de fondeo que tiene la empresa para adquirir un activo mueble o inmueble son diversas, una de ellas que no compromete la liquidez es el con...

  7. Cumulative Culture and Future Thinking: Is Mental Time Travel a Prerequisite to Cumulative Cultural Evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, G. L.; Flynn, E. G.; Kendal, R. L.

    2012-01-01

    Cumulative culture denotes the, arguably, human capacity to build on the cultural behaviors of one's predecessors, allowing increases in cultural complexity to occur such that many of our cultural artifacts, products and technologies have progressed beyond what a single individual could invent alone. This process of cumulative cultural evolution…

  8. Cumulative childhood adversity, educational attainment, and active life expectancy among U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montez, Jennifer Karas; Hayward, Mark D

    2014-04-01

    Studies of the early-life origins of adult physical functioning and mortality have found that childhood health and socioeconomic context are important predictors, often irrespective of adult experiences. However, these studies have generally assessed functioning and mortality as distinct processes and used cross-sectional prevalence estimates that neglect the interplay of disability incidence, recovery, and mortality. Here, we examine whether early-life disadvantages both shorten lives and increase the number and fraction of years lived with functional impairment. We also examine the degree to which educational attainment mediates and moderates the health consequences of early-life disadvantages. Using the 1998-2008 Health and Retirement Study, we examine these questions for non-Hispanic whites and blacks aged 50-100 years using multistate life tables. Within levels of educational attainment, adults from disadvantaged childhoods lived fewer total and active years, and spent a greater portion of life impaired compared with adults from advantaged childhoods. Higher levels of education did not ameliorate the health consequences of disadvantaged childhoods. However, because education had a larger impact on health than did childhood socioeconomic context, adults from disadvantaged childhoods who achieved high education levels often had total and active life expectancies that were similar to or better than those of adults from advantaged childhoods who achieved low education levels.

  9. Is cumulated pyrethroid exposure associated with prediabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Rune; Jørs, Erik; Lander, Flemming;

    2014-01-01

    , cumulative exposure) was assessed from questionnaire data. Participants were asked about symptoms of diabetes. Blood samples were analyzed for glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), a measure of glucose regulation. No association was found between pyrethroid exposure and diabetes symptoms. The prevalence...

  10. Cumulative Disadvantage among the Highly Ambitious.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Katherine

    1990-01-01

    Using a social reproduction theory framework, analyzes the process by which high school seniors aspiring to high-level positions are sorted out after graduation. Analyzes early educational attainments and changes in occupational expectations. Shows a process of cumulative disadvantage in which White males are more likely to achieve their goals.…

  11. Pavlovian conditioning and cumulative reinforcement rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Justin A; Patterson, Angela E; Gharaei, Saba

    2015-04-01

    In 5 experiments using delay conditioning of magazine approach with rats, reinforcement rate was varied either by manipulating the mean interval between onset of the conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US) or by manipulating the proportion of CS presentations that ended with the US (trial-based reinforcement rate). Both manipulations influenced the acquisition of responding. In each experiment, a specific comparison was made between 2 CSs that differed in their mean CS-US interval and in their trial-based reinforcement rate, such that the cumulative reinforcement rate-the cumulative duration of the CS between reinforcements-was the same for the 2 CSs. For example, a CS reinforced on 100% of trials with a mean CS-US interval of 60 s was compared with a CS reinforced on 33% of trials and a mean duration of 20 s. Across the 5 experiments, conditioning was virtually identical for the 2 CSs with matched cumulative reinforcement rate. This was true as long as the timing of the US was unpredictable and, thus, response rates were uniform across the length of the CS. We conclude that the effects of CS-US interval and of trial-based reinforcement rate are reducible entirely to their common effect on cumulative reinforcement rate. We discuss the implications of this for rate-based, trial-based, and real-time associative models of conditioning.

  12. An Axiomatization of Cumulative Prospect Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, P.P.; Tversky, A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a method for axiomatizing a variety of models for decision making under uncertainty, including Expected Utility and Cumulative Prospect Theory. This method identifies, for each model, the situations that permit consistent inferences about the ordering of value differences. Exampl

  13. Cumulative Disadvantage among the Highly Ambitious.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Katherine

    1990-01-01

    Using a social reproduction theory framework, analyzes the process by which high school seniors aspiring to high-level positions are sorted out after graduation. Analyzes early educational attainments and changes in occupational expectations. Shows a process of cumulative disadvantage in which White males are more likely to achieve their goals.…

  14. Managing the Financial Risks of Water Scarcity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Characklis, Greg; Foster, Ben; Kern, Jordan; Meyer, Eliot; Zeff, Harrison

    2015-04-01

    Environmental uncertainty poses a growing number of financial risks to society, with droughts, floods, extreme temperatures and violent storms imposing costs that approach 500 billion per year. While structural forms of mitigation (i.e. levees, dams) will certainly play a role in limiting financial impacts, these are large investments whose full value is only rarely realized. Furthermore, the value of such long-lived measures becomes increasingly uncertain in a changing climate, raising the issue of whether they will be effective 20-30 years hence. Financial instruments, such as index insurance, can provide increased flexibility by providing compensation for losses only when they occur, and limited contract periods allow terms to be periodically rewritten in response to changing conditions. Financial instruments can also be effectively combined with other economic tools and infrastructure to create integrated solutions in which infrastructure mitigates losses from moderate events, while financial products compensate for more rare, but extreme, events. There is a long history of environmentally-related insurance and hedging instruments, but to date the actuarial analyses that underlie contract structure and pricing have been based on straightforward observations, such as cumulative rainfall. More recently, simple correlations between two time series have been used to develop index-based contracts. Links between temperature and electricity demand, for example, provide a basis for contracts that are used to limit the financial exposure of power generators to low revenues during unseasonably warm winters or cool summers. Unfortunately, few environmental risks can be so quickly and easily linked to a financial impact. However, with a more advanced understanding of the environmental systems that give rise to financial losses, opportunities exist to develop innovative contracts for a range of new applications. Recent research describes the characterization and mitigation

  15. FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE IN CREDIT INSTITUTION MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOV DANIELA RODICA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Information concerning financial performance is one of the objectives of the annual financial statements of credit institutions. The main source containing this information is profit and loss statement. A correct and complete information can not be limited to this annual report. Understanding the concept of financial performance requires a holistic approach of the entity. An overview of information on financial performance will be achieved by coordinating information about the profit of the entity, rates of return, cash flows, financing cost and risk. For the economic and financial analysis we often use to separate financial equilibrium indicators of outcome indicators and management indicators. The study upon the financial performance may be based on the income statement, balance sheet and explanatory notes. It may use tools such as: income, interest rates, rates of return, rates of structure, liquidity and solvency rates, rotation rates, cash flows, debt coverage rates and more. Management of banking assets, liabilities and bank risk management must be assembled into a whole. In an uncertain environment, continuously changing, under conditions of the economic and financial crisis, the binomial profitability - risk is increasingly difficult to manage. Under these conditions, the boundary between courage and unconsciousness is also more fragile. On the other hand, the prudence, mandatory rules could be understood as some constraint measures on bank management, that may adversely affect the financial performance of the credit institution.

  16. Adverse reactions to sulfites

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, William H; Purchase, Emerson C.R.

    1985-01-01

    Sulfites are widely used as preservatives in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In the United States more than 250 cases of sulfite-related adverse reactions, including anaphylactic shock, asthmatic attacks, urticaria and angioedema, nausea, abdominal pain and diarrhea, seizures and death, have been reported, including 6 deaths allegedly associated with restaurant food containing sulfites. In Canada 10 sulfite-related adverse reactions have been documented, and 1 death suspected to be su...

  17. Consumer Financial Protection Bureau

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more. Find answers to common questions Reach your financial goals For the big financial decisions in your life, we offer free tools ... 2016 Events Field hearing on consumer access to financial records in Salt Lake City, Utah NOV 03, ...

  18. Financial Assistance Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Sites: Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Financial Assistance Information The National Institutes of Health (NIH) ... area call 900-638-0742. Top of page Financial Aid for Medical Treatments Information on financial aid ...

  19. Is product diversification the Ultimate Quid Pro Quo for Gender sensitive Poverty Alleviation? Adverse Social Externalities from Combined Microfinance in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSSEL-CAMBIER, Koen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Documented deficiencies in traditional social transfer mechanisms have led to the emergence of alternative methods for reducing poverty. In many countries, microfinance institutions (MFIs have become popular instruments for redistributive propoor policies. However, they are also criticised for not being inclusive enough. This paper explores if product diversification has an effect on poverty outreach, in particular when combining micro- credit with savings and insurance. It applies cross-sectional analysis of 250 microfinance schemes in Latin America and the Caribbean. By focusing on elements of the depth of poverty outreach, the research highlights a number of possible effects of combined microfinance (CMF. Product diversification can significantly contribute to increased social outreach («breadth» of poverty outreach. However, the findings suggest that, in the case of combining credit with savings, this is leading to a relatively lower participation of poor and female clients («depth» of poverty outreach. Exclusionary and discriminatory vulnerabilities and dynamics, linked to specific financial products, may apply double or even reinforce each other. Cumulative financial, cultural, geographical or communication barriers can make participation in multiple financial products more challenging. These findings have not been adequately tackled by academic literature, but are most relevant for MFI stakeholders and policy makers. If gender-sensitive or pro-poor income generation is at the heart of the mission of MFIs, corrective measures to these forms of adverse externalities should be considered.

  20. Financial Literacy and Financial Planning in France.

    OpenAIRE

    Luc Arrondel; Majdi Debbich; Frédérique Savignac

    2013-01-01

    How are people financially literate in France? We address this question using the PATER survey and following the Lusardi and Mitchell (2011c) approach. We find that some subpopulations are less financially literate than others: women, young and old people as well as less-educated people are more likely to face difficulties when dealing with fundamental financial concepts such as risk diversification, inflation and interest compounding. We also find some differences in financial knowledge depe...

  1. Financial Village Standing in Indonesian Financial System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herry Purnomo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Financial resources of the village that are sourced from a country or a Regional Finance Financial based Law Number 6 Year 2014 of The Village is the mandate of the law that must be allocated to the village. The interconnectedness of the financial position of the village in the financial system of the country or Region concerned the Financial administrative and territorial relations, and there is no setting directly regarding the finances of the village as part of the financial system of the country or the financial area. In respect of the elements of the crime of corruption deeds against financial irregularities of the village there are still disagreements on the interpretation of the law in trapping the perpetrators of corruption on the village chief that implies not satisfy the principle of legality and legal certainty in the ruling of the matter of financial irregularities. In fact, many of the village chief or Councilor caught the criminal offence of corruption over the use of financial irregularities. This research analyzes How the financial position of the village in the financial system of the country or region, as well as whether the financial resources of the village is derived from the state budget or region budget managed in village budget belongs to the category of village finances and whether tort against the financial management of the village can be categorized as a criminal act corruption. How To Cite: Purnomo, H. (2015. Financial Village Standing in Indonesian Financial System. Rechtsidee, 2(2, 121-140. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v2i2.81

  2. Complexity and demographic explanations of cumulative culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Querbes

    Full Text Available Formal models have linked prehistoric and historical instances of technological change (e.g., the Upper Paleolithic transition, cultural loss in Holocene Tasmania, scientific progress since the late nineteenth century to demographic change. According to these models, cumulation of technological complexity is inhibited by decreasing--while favoured by increasing--population levels. Here we show that these findings are contingent on how complexity is defined: demography plays a much more limited role in sustaining cumulative culture in case formal models deploy Herbert Simon's definition of complexity rather than the particular definitions of complexity hitherto assumed. Given that currently available empirical evidence doesn't afford discriminating proper from improper definitions of complexity, our robustness analyses put into question the force of recent demographic explanations of particular episodes of cultural change.

  3. Sharing a quota on cumulative carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raupach, Michael R.; Davis, Steven J.; Peters, Glen P.; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Ciais, Philippe; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Jotzo, Frank; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Le Quéré, Corinne

    2014-10-01

    Any limit on future global warming is associated with a quota on cumulative global CO2 emissions. We translate this global carbon quota to regional and national scales, on a spectrum of sharing principles that extends from continuation of the present distribution of emissions to an equal per-capita distribution of cumulative emissions. A blend of these endpoints emerges as the most viable option. For a carbon quota consistent with a 2 °C warming limit (relative to pre-industrial levels), the necessary long-term mitigation rates are very challenging (typically over 5% per year), both because of strong limits on future emissions from the global carbon quota and also the likely short-term persistence in emissions growth in many regions.

  4. Structural Vibration Monitoring Using Cumulative Spectral Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Goto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a resonance decay estimation for structural health monitoring in the presence of nonstationary vibrations. In structural health monitoring, the structure's frequency response and resonant decay characteristics are very important for understanding how the structure changes. Cumulative spectral analysis (CSA estimates the frequency decay by using the impulse response. However, measuring the impulse response of buildings is impractical due to the need to shake the building itself. In a previous study, we reported on system damping monitoring using cumulative harmonic analysis (CHA, which is based on CSA. The current study describes scale model experiments on estimating the hidden resonance decay under non-stationary noise conditions by using CSA for structural condition monitoring.

  5. Financial Stress Indices and Financial Crises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Robert; Hoeberichts, Marco; Vasicek, Borek; Zigraiova, Diana; Smidkova, Katerina; de Haan, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops a Financial Stress Index (FSI) for 28 OECD countries and examines its relationship to crises using a novel database for financial crises. A stress index measures the current state of stress in the financial system and summarizes it in a single statistic. Our results suggest that

  6. Cumulative carbon emissions and the Green Paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Ploeg, Frederick Van der

    2013-01-01

    The green paradox states that a gradually more ambitious climate policy such as a renewables subsidy or an anticipated carbon tax induces fossil fuel owners to extract more rapidly and accelerate global warming. However, if extraction becomes more costly as reserves are depleted, such policies also shorten the fossil fuel era, induce more fossil fuel to be left in the earth, and thus curb cumulative carbon emissions. These consequences are relevant, as global warming depends primarily on cumu...

  7. Expansive Soil Crack Depth under Cumulative Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei-xiao Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The crack developing depth is a key problem to slope stability of the expansive soil and its project governance and the crack appears under the roles of dry-wet cycle and gradually develops. It is believed from the analysis that, because of its own cohesion, the expansive soil will have a certain amount of deformation under pulling stress but without cracks. The soil body will crack only when the deformation exceeds the ultimate tensile strain that causes cracks. And it is also believed that, due to the combined effect of various environmental factors, particularly changes of the internal water content, the inherent basic physical properties of expansive soil are weakened, and irreversible cumulative damages are eventually formed, resulting in the development of expansive soil cracks in depth. Starting from the perspective of volumetric strain that is caused by water loss, considering the influences of water loss rate and dry-wet cycle on crack developing depth, the crack developing depth calculation model which considers the water loss rate and the cumulative damages is established. Both the proposal of water loss rate and the application of cumulative damage theory to the expansive soil crack development problems try to avoid difficulties in matrix suction measurement, which will surely play a good role in promoting and improving the research of unsaturated expansive soil.

  8. EPA Workshop on Epigenetics and Cumulative Risk ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agenda Download the Workshop Agenda (PDF) The workshop included presentations and discussions by scientific experts pertaining to three topics (i.e., epigenetic changes associated with diverse stressors, key science considerations in understanding epigenetic changes, and practical application of epigenetic tools to address cumulative risks from environmental stressors), to address several questions under each topic, and included an opportunity for attendees to participate in break-out groups, provide comments and ask questions. Workshop Goals The workshop seeks to examine the opportunity for use of aggregate epigenetic change as an indicator in cumulative risk assessment for populations exposed to multiple stressors that affect epigenetic status. Epigenetic changes are specific molecular changes around DNA that alter expression of genes. Epigenetic changes include DNA methylation, formation of histone adducts, and changes in micro RNAs. Research today indicates that epigenetic changes are involved in many chronic diseases (cancer, cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, mental health disorders, and asthma). Research has also linked a wide range of stressors including pollution and social factors with occurrence of epigenetic alterations. Epigenetic changes have the potential to reflect impacts of risk factors across multiple stages of life. Only recently receiving attention is the nexus between the factors of cumulative exposure to environmental

  9. THE IMPACT OF CAPITAL STRUCTURE ON THE ENTERPRISE FINANCIAL STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Ivanyshcheva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Functioning of production enterprises in the conditions of continuous change of market environment require a special attention of management system to providing their activities. The enterprise financial stability management is one of integral parts of the management system. The increased or insufficient financial stability adversely affects the enterprise competition ability that leads to decreasing the profitability and worsening the financial results of its activities.

  10. Repeated Radionuclide therapy in metastatic paraganglioma leading to the highest reported cumulative activity of 131I-MIBG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezziddin Samer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract 131I-MIBG therapy for neuroendocrine tumours may be dose limited. The common range of applied cumulative activities is 10-40 GBq. We report the uneventful cumulative administration of 111 GBq (= 3 Ci 131I-MIBG in a patient with metastatic paraganglioma. Ten courses of 131I-MIBG therapy were given within six years, accomplishing symptomatic, hormonal and tumour responses with no serious adverse effects. Chemotherapy with cisplatin/vinblastine/dacarbazine was the final treatment modality with temporary control of disease, but eventually the patient died of progression. The observed cumulative activity of 131I-MIBG represents the highest value reported to our knowledge, and even though 12.6 GBq of 90Y-DOTATOC were added intermediately, no associated relevant bone marrow, hepatic or other toxicity were observed. In an individual attempt to palliate metastatic disease high cumulative activity alone should not preclude the patient from repeat treatment.

  11. Adverse reactions to sulfites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, William H.; Purchase, Emerson C.R.

    1985-01-01

    Sulfites are widely used as preservatives in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In the United States more than 250 cases of sulfite-related adverse reactions, including anaphylactic shock, asthmatic attacks, urticaria and angioedema, nausea, abdominal pain and diarrhea, seizures and death, have been reported, including 6 deaths allegedly associated with restaurant food containing sulfites. In Canada 10 sulfite-related adverse reactions have been documented, and 1 death suspected to be sulfite-related has occurred. The exact mechanism of sulfite-induced reactions is unknown. Practising physicians should be aware of the clinical manifestations of sulfite-related adverse reactions as well as which foods and pharmaceuticals contain sulfites. Cases should be reported to health officials and proper advice given to the victims to prevent further exposure to sulfites. The food industry, including beer and wine manufacturers, and the pharmaceutical industry should consider using alternative preservatives. In the interim, they should list any sulfites in their products. PMID:4052897

  12. Financial Literacy and Financial Planning in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Arrondel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We study financial literacy in France using the PATER survey and following the Lusardi and Mitchell (2011c approach. We find that some subpopulations are less financially literate than others: women, young and old people as well as less-educated people are more likely to face difficulties when dealing with fundamental financial concepts such as risk diversification and inflation and interest compounding. We also find some differences in financial knowledge depending on the political opinion of the respondents. Finally we show that these differences in financial knowledge are correlated with differences in the propensity to plan: people who score higher on the financial literacy questions are more likely to be engaged in the preparation of a clearly defined financial plan.

  13. The use of the multi-cumulant tensor analysis for the algorithmic optimisation of investment portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domino, Krzysztof

    2017-02-01

    The cumulant analysis plays an important role in non Gaussian distributed data analysis. The shares' prices returns are good example of such data. The purpose of this research is to develop the cumulant based algorithm and use it to determine eigenvectors that represent investment portfolios with low variability. Such algorithm is based on the Alternating Least Square method and involves the simultaneous minimisation 2'nd- 6'th cumulants of the multidimensional random variable (percentage shares' returns of many companies). Then the algorithm was tested during the recent crash on the Warsaw Stock Exchange. To determine incoming crash and provide enter and exit signal for the investment strategy the Hurst exponent was calculated using the local DFA. It was shown that introduced algorithm is on average better that benchmark and other portfolio determination methods, but only within examination window determined by low values of the Hurst exponent. Remark that the algorithm is based on cumulant tensors up to the 6'th order calculated for a multidimensional random variable, what is the novel idea. It can be expected that the algorithm would be useful in the financial data analysis on the world wide scale as well as in the analysis of other types of non Gaussian distributed data.

  14. 13 CFR 120.892 - Certifications of no adverse change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... application, and must furnish interim financial statements, current within 120 days of closing; and (c) The... loan closing: (a) The interim lender must certify to the CDC that it has no knowledge of any unremedied substantial adverse change in the condition of the small business since the application to the interim...

  15. Financial Sector Assessment : Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    Malaysia, as many of its Asian neighbors, experienced significant macro/financial distress in the late 1990s. The transformed and strengthened financial sector has been able to weather the recent global financial crisis well. Financial market intermediaries reliance on cross-border and interbank funding remains limited. Banking institutions are well capitalized and are expected to be able...

  16. Consumer Financial Protection Bureau

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Money as You Grow Navigating the Military Financial Lifecycle Owning a Home Paying for College Planning for Retirement Browse answers to hundreds of financial questions. Ask CFPB Have an issue with a financial product? Submit a complaint Get your financial well-being ...

  17. Financial Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Catalin-Florinel Stanescu; Laurentiu Mircea Simion

    2011-01-01

    Concerns about the financial risk is increasing. In this climate, companies of all types and sizes want a robust framework for financial risk management to meet compliance requirements, contribute to better decision making and increase performance. Financial risk management professionals working with financial institutions and other corporate clients to achieve these objectives.

  18. Adverse outcomes after colposcopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damery Sarah L

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colposcopy is an essential part of the National Health Service Cervical Screening Programme (NHSCSP. It is used for both diagnosis and treatment of pre-cancerous cells of the cervix. Despite colposcopy being a commonly performed and relatively invasive procedure, very little research has explored the potential long-term impacts of colposcopic examination upon patient quality of life. The aim of this study is to investigate and quantify any potential reduction in women's quality of life following a colposcopy procedure. More specifically, the degree of female sexual dysfunction and the excess risk of adverse events in those undergoing colposcopy will be explored. If such risks are identified, these can be communicated to women before undergoing colposcopy. It will also assist in identifying whether there are particular sub-groups at greater risk and if so, this may lead to a re-evaluation of current recommendations concerning colposcopically directed treatments. Methods/design Cohort study using postal surveys to assess sexual function and quality of life in women who have attended for colposcopy (cases, compared with those who have not attended colposcopy (controls. The prevalence and excess risk of female sexual dysfunction will be determined. Logistic regression will identify the predictors of adverse outcomes. Discussion There are more than 400,000 colposcopy appointments each year in England, of which 134,000 are new referrals. There is some evidence that there may be long-term implications for women treated under colposcopy with respect to adverse obstetric outcomes, persisting anxiety, increased rates of sexual dysfunction and reduced quality of life. Reliably establishing whether such adverse outcomes exist and the excess risk of adverse events will facilitate informed decision-making and patient choice.

  19. Cumulative risks of foster care placement for Danish children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fallesen, Peter; Emanuel, Natalia; Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Although recent research suggests that the cumulative risk of foster care placement is far higher for American children than originally suspected, little is known about the cumulative risk of foster...

  20. Recursive Numerical Evaluation of the Cumulative Bivariate Normal Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Christian

    2010-01-01

    We propose an algorithm for evaluation of the cumulative bivariate normal distribution, building upon Marsaglia's ideas for evaluation of the cumulative univariate normal distribution. The algorithm is mathematically transparent, delivers competitive performance and can easily be extended to arbitrary precision.

  1. Climate mitigation: sustainable preferences and cumulative carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckle, Simon

    2010-05-01

    We develop a stylized AK growth model with both climate damages to ecosystem goods and services and sustainable preferences that allow trade-offs between present discounted utility and long-run climate damages. The simplicity of the model permits analytical solutions. Concern for the long-term provides a strong driver for mitigation action. One plausible specification of sustainable preferences leads to the result that, for a range of initial parameter values, an optimizing agent would choose a level of cumulative carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions independent of initial production capital endowment and CO2 levels. There is no technological change so, for economies with sufficiently high initial capital and CO2 endowments, optimal mitigation will lead to disinvestment. For lower values of initial capital and/or CO2 levels, positive investment can be optimal, but still within the same overall level of cumulative emissions. One striking aspect of the model is the complexity of possible outcomes, in addition to these optimal solutions. We also identify a resource constrained region and several regions where climate damages exceed resources available for consumption. Other specifications of sustainable preferences are discussed, as is the case of a hard constraint on long-run damages. Scientists are currently highlighting the potential importance of the cumulative carbon emissions concept as a robust yet flexible target for climate policymakers. This paper shows that it also has an ethical interpretation: it embodies an implicit trade off in global welfare between present discounted welfare and long-term climate damages. We hope that further development of the ideas presented here might contribute to the research and policy debate on the critical areas of intra- and intergenerational welfare.

  2. Forecasting of enterprise’s financial indicators as the basis for financial stability formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Е. Ponomariv

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The issue of company’s financial sustainability ensuring in modern business conditions is very important for enterprises of any size. This article is dedicated to the research of forecasting tools and their role for the formation of company’s stable financial development in Ukrainian realities. The functions and methods of forecasting, the main stages of the research and analysis of predictive values are considered. The recommendations for the financial indicator forecasting development are presented. These forecasts enable modern Ukrainian companies to provide their financial situation ahead. They also allow companies to develop an action plan according to each potential situation in the future and analyze the occurrence of possible threats from both external economic environment and internal environment of the company. The advanced analysis and forecast of the financial condition allow to minimize the impact of adverse factors, and in some cases result in avoiding them generally.

  3. Long and Short Term Cumulative Structural Priming Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Kaschak, Michael P.; Kutta, Timothy J.; Coyle, Jacqueline M.

    2012-01-01

    We present six experiments that examine cumulative structural priming effects (i.e., structural priming effects that accumulate across many utterances). Of particular interest is whether (1) cumulative priming effects transfer across language production tasks and (2) the transfer of cumulative priming effects across tasks persists over the course of a week. Our data suggest that cumulative structural priming effects do transfer across language production tasks (e.g., from written stem complet...

  4. Preserved cumulative semantic interference despite amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Michael Oppenheim

    2015-05-01

    As predicted by Oppenheim et al’s (2010 implicit incremental learning account, WRP’s BCN RTs demonstrated strong (and significant repetition priming and semantic blocking effects (Figure 1. Similar to typical results from neurally intact undergraduates, WRP took longer to name pictures presented in semantically homogeneous blocks than in heterogeneous blocks, an effect that increased with each cycle. This result challenges accounts that ascribe cumulative semantic interference in this task to explicit memory mechanisms, instead suggesting that the effect has the sort of implicit learning bases that are typically spared in hippocampal amnesia.

  5. Cumulant matching for independent source extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phlypo, Ronald; Zarzoso, Vicente; Comon, Pierre; Lemahieu, Ignace

    2008-01-01

    In this work we show how one can make use of priors on signal statistics under the form of cumulant guesses to extract an independent source from an observed mixture. The advantage of using statistical priors on the signal lies in the fact that no specific knowledge is needed about its temporal behavior, neither about its spatial distribution. We show that these statistics can be obtained either by reasoning on the theoretical values of a supposed waveform, either by using a subset of the observations from which we know that their statistics are merely hindered by interferences. Results on an electro-cardiographic recording confirm the above assumptions.

  6. Essays on financial liberalization

    OpenAIRE

    Bumann, Silke

    2015-01-01

    This thesis investigates the effect of financial liberalization on economic growth, income inequality and financial instability. Chapter 1 describes aim and scope of the thesis. Chapter 2 provides a meta-analysis of the literature on financial liberalization and economic growth. It is found that financial liberalization has a positive, albeit weak effect on growth. Chapter 3 presents a theoretical model to study the relationship between financial liberalization and income inequality. The mode...

  7. Index of Financial Inclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Mandira Sarma

    2008-01-01

    The promotion of an inclusive financial system is considered a policy priority in many countries. While the importance of financial inclusion is widely recognized, the literature lacks a comprehensive measure that can be used to measure the extent of financial inclusion across economies. This paper attempts to fill this gap by proposing an index of financial inclusion (IFI). The IFI is a multi-dimensional index that captures information on various dimensions of financial inclusion in one sing...

  8. The Development, Evaluation, and Validation of a Financial Stress Scale for Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northern, Jebediah J.; O'Brien, William H.; Goetz, Paul W.

    2010-01-01

    Financial stress is commonly experienced among college students and is associated with adverse academic, mental health, and physical health outcomes. Surprisingly, no validated measures of financial stress have been developed for undergraduate populations. The present study was conducted to generate and evaluate a measure of financial stress for…

  9. A Missing Link in the Evolution of the Cumulative Recorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Toshio; Lattal, Kennon A.

    2012-01-01

    A recently recovered cumulative recorder provides a missing link in the evolution of the cumulative recorder from a modified kymograph to a reliably operating, scientifically and commercially successful instrument. The recorder, the only physical evidence of such an early precommercial cumulative recorder yet found, was sent to Keio University in…

  10. Original and cumulative prospect theory: a discussion of empirical differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P. Wakker; H. Fennema

    1997-01-01

    This note discusses differences between prospect theory and cumulative prospect theory. It shows that cumulative prospect theory is not merely a formal correction of some theoretical problems in prospect theory, but it also gives different predictions. Experiments are described that favor cumulative

  11. Financial planning

    OpenAIRE

    Χατζηγώγου, Αρτεμις Π.

    2003-01-01

    Σκοπός της μελέτης αυτής, είναι η συγκέντρωση όλων των στοιχείων εκείνων που συνθέτουν μια οργανωμένη διαδικασία έρευνας, που είναι γνωστή ως Financial Planning. Θα μπορούσαμε εναλλακτικά να πούμε, ότι βασικά ο χρηματοοικονομικός σχεδιασμός προγραμματίζει, εξευρίσκει και χρησιμοποιεί τα κεφάλαια με τέτοιο τρόπο ώστε η συνεισφορά τους να είναι μεγαλύτερη στην αποτελεσματική λειτουργία της οικονομικής μονάδας. Παρέχει τις γνώσεις των χρηματιστικών αγορών από όπου αντλούνται τα κεφάλαια. Οδηγεί ...

  12. Fiscal, Monetary, and Reserve Requirement Policy in an Endogenous Growth with Financial Market Imperfections

    OpenAIRE

    Fu-Sheng Hung

    2001-01-01

    A simple endogenous growth model is developed in a framework where informational imperfections in financial markets give rise to adverse selection as well as costly state verification problems and the government needs to intervene financial markets to monetize its deficits. In the model, adverse selection problem raises credit rationing and financial intermediaries arise endogenously due to costly state verification. Inflation is shown to influence the amount of credit rationing and economic ...

  13. Adverse reactions to cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogra A

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Adverse reaction to cosmetics constitute a small but significant number of cases of contact dermatitis with varied appearances. These can present as contact allergic dermatitis, photodermatitis, contact irritant dermatitis, contact urticaria, hypopigmentation, hyperpigmentotion or depigmentation, hair and nail breakage. Fifty patients were included for the study to assess the role of commonly used cosmetics in causing adverse reactions. It was found that hair dyes, lipsticks and surprisingly shaving creams caused more reaction as compared to other cosmetics. Overall incidence of contact allergic dermatitis seen was 3.3% with patients own cosmetics. Patch testing was also done with the basic ingredients and showed positive results in few cases where casual link could be established. It is recommended that labeling of the cosmetics should be done to help the dermatologists and the patients to identify the causative allergen in cosmetic preparation.

  14. Cumulative Environmental Management Association : Wood Buffalo Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friesen, B. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    The recently announced oil sands development of the Wood Buffalo Region in Alberta was the focus of this power point presentation. Both mining and in situ development is expected to total $26 billion and 2.6 million barrels per day of bitumen production. This paper described the economic, social and environmental challenges facing the resource development of this region. In addition to the proposed oil sands projects, this region will accommodate the needs of conventional oil and gas production, forestry, building of pipelines and power lines, municipal development, recreation, tourism, mining exploration and open cast mining. The Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA) was inaugurated as a non-profit association in April 2000, and includes 41 members from all sectors. Its major role is to ensure a sustainable ecosystem and to avoid any cumulative impacts on wildlife. Other work underway includes the study of soil and plant species diversity, and the effects of air emissions on human health, wildlife and vegetation. The bioaccumulation of heavy metals and their impacts on surface water and fish is also under consideration to ensure the quality and quantity of surface water and ground water. 3 figs.

  15. Cumulative environmental management and the oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    In response to concerns regarding the cumulative environmental impacts of oil sands development within the Athabasca oil sands deposit, the government of Alberta established a Regional Sustainable Development Strategy (RSDS) to balance development with environmental protection. The environmental issues identified through the RSDS were addressed by the Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA). CEMA's boundary is the Wood Buffalo region of northeastern Alberta. It identifies existing and future environmental effects in the region and proposes recommendations to regulatory bodies for reducing environmental impacts associated with oil sands development. This presentation outlined some of the 55 stakeholder representatives of CEMA, including Alberta government departments associated with resource development, oil sand developers within the region, and Aboriginal communities and First Nations. These stakeholders provide input on sector priorities and agree on environmental thresholds. Established working groups also address technical and scientific research issues identified in the RSDS such as sustainable ecosystems; surface waters; trace metals and air contaminants; nitrogen oxides and sulphur dioxides; and land reclamation. To date, CEMA has submitted more than 50 reports and has made 4 major environmental recommendations for trace metal management, ecosystem management tools, a framework for acid deposition management, and a landscape design checklist. tabs., figs.

  16. Higher Order Cumulants in Colorless Partonic Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Cherif, S; Ladrem, M

    2016-01-01

    Any physical system considered to study the QCD deconfinement phase transition certainly has a finite volume, so the finite size effects are inevitably present. This renders the location of the phase transition and the determination of its order as an extremely difficult task, even in the simplest known cases. In order to identify and locate the colorless QCD deconfinement transition point in finite volume $T_{0}(V)$, a new approach based on the finite-size cumulant expansion of the order parameter and the $\\mathscr{L}_{m,n}$-Method is used.We have shown that both cumulants of higher order and their ratios, associated to the thermodynamical fluctuations of the order parameter, in QCD deconfinement phase transition behave in a particular enough way revealing pronounced oscillations in the transition region. The sign structure and the oscillatory behavior of these in the vicinity of the deconfinement phase transition point might be a sensitive probe and may allow one to elucidate their relation to the QCD phase...

  17. Innovativeness, population size and cumulative cultural evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yutaka; Aoki, Kenichi

    2012-08-01

    Henrich [Henrich, J., 2004. Demography and cultural evolution: how adaptive cultural processes can produce maladaptive losses-the Tasmanian case. Am. Antiquity 69, 197-214] proposed a model designed to show that larger population size facilitates cumulative cultural evolution toward higher skill levels. In this model, each newborn attempts to imitate the most highly skilled individual of the parental generation by directly-biased social learning, but the skill level he/she acquires deviates probabilistically from that of the exemplar (cultural parent). The probability that the skill level of the imitator exceeds that of the exemplar can be regarded as the innovation rate. After reformulating Henrich's model rigorously, we introduce an overlapping-generations analog based on the Moran model and derive an approximate formula for the expected change per generation of the highest skill level in the population. For large population size, our overlapping-generations model predicts a much larger effect of population size than Henrich's discrete-generations model. We then investigate by way of Monte Carlo simulations the case where each newborn chooses as his/her exemplar the most highly skilled individual from among a limited number of acquaintances. When the number of acquaintances is small relative to the population size, we find that a change in the innovation rate contributes more than a proportional change in population size to the cumulative cultural evolution of skill level.

  18. Adverse Effects of Bisphosphonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Use of bisphosphonates has been growing steadily in the last decade. This follows the introduction of simpler dosing regimes, the availability of lower-priced generics, and concerns about the safety of hormone-replacement therapy. Bisphosphonates have a relatively good safety record and are toler......Use of bisphosphonates has been growing steadily in the last decade. This follows the introduction of simpler dosing regimes, the availability of lower-priced generics, and concerns about the safety of hormone-replacement therapy. Bisphosphonates have a relatively good safety record...... and are tolerated by the majority of patients, but serious adverse events have been recorded in some cases. Only the most common of adverse effects are robustly observable in clinical trials. In general, studies were not powered to detect effects that were lower in incidence than fractures. This review of adverse...... compared with the risk of osteoporotic fractures, at least in patients with the same risk of fractures as those in the phase III trials. It is biologically plausible that atypical fragility fractures could follow from suppression of bone remodeling, but high-quality studies proving causality are lacking...

  19. Adverse effects of bisphosphonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Use of bisphosphonates has been growing steadily in the last decade. This follows the introduction of simpler dosing regimes, the availability of lower-priced generics, and concerns about the safety of hormone-replacement therapy. Bisphosphonates have a relatively good safety record and are toler......Use of bisphosphonates has been growing steadily in the last decade. This follows the introduction of simpler dosing regimes, the availability of lower-priced generics, and concerns about the safety of hormone-replacement therapy. Bisphosphonates have a relatively good safety record...... and are tolerated by the majority of patients, but serious adverse events have been recorded in some cases. Only the most common of adverse effects are robustly observable in clinical trials. In general, studies were not powered to detect effects that were lower in incidence than fractures. This review of adverse...... compared with the risk of osteoporotic fractures, at least in patients with the same risk of fractures as those in the phase III trials. It is biologically plausible that atypical fragility fractures could follow from suppression of bone remodeling, but high-quality studies proving causality are lacking...

  20. Financial analysis as a financial management instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stehlíková Beáta

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The financial market is one of the elements of the market-oriented economy. The financial analysis is a fundamental element of the financial controlling business. The purpose of this article is to inform briefly about horizontal and vertical financial statements analysis as the source of competitive advantage of the firm. The article is divided into two parts. First describes financial analysis and financial statements generally. Second, it presents a practical contribution of the horizontal and vertical financial statements analysis at the controlled businesses as financial management tools, which identify the financial position, market behaviour, correlations between the net profit and the prohibitively cost and operating profit, the financial activities profit, the income tax etc.Business, which the analysed firm operates in asks a provable claim on the high value of fixed assets. The capital composition of the firm is call to typify for the state-owned enterprise that was transformed to private joint-stock companies. Analysis is specially pleading for the needs considering the price of the borrowed capital in the capital structure rating. Fault factor ø value talks about needs for the cost regulation. Stair-step conception used for counting of the net profit in the accountant period indicates the financial profit, alternatively loss, as the distinguished pre-tax profit element. Picture about firm’s financial results can be completed with the information about the income tax value. Form of financial analyses presented in the article entablature the accents on the necessity to compare several accounting period and on the necessity of complex understanding of statements accounting slide “en bloc”.Financial analyse makes the decision makers possible to screen potential partners before the cooperation starts. On the other side, it makes a possibility to influence the production process, sales and financial management during the accounting

  1. Financial Ratios and Perceived Household Financial Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Garrett

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper tests the relative strength of three objective measures of financial health (using the solvency, liquidity, and investment asset ratio in predicting a household’s subjective feeling of current financial satisfaction. Using a sample of 6,923 respondents in the 2008 Health and Retirement Study this paper presents evidence of two main findings: 1 the solvency ratio is most strongly associated with financial satisfaction levels based on a cross-sectional design and 2 changes in the investment asset ratio are most strongly associated with changes in financial satisfaction over time.

  2. Financial Globalization, Financial Crises and Contagion

    OpenAIRE

    Vincenzo Quadrini; Enrique G. Mendoza

    2010-01-01

    Two observations suggest that financial globalization played an important role in the recent financial crisis. First, more than half of the rise in net borrowing of the U.S. nonfinancial sectors since the mid 1980s has been financed by foreign lending. Second, the collapse of the U.S. housing and mortgage-backed-securities markets had worldwide effects on financial institutions and asset markets. Using an open-economy model where financial intermediaries play a central role, we show that fina...

  3. Market Failure, Regulation and Education of Financial Advisors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Steen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the recent series of financial scandals in the Australian financial advice industry. It examines the causes, consequences and responses to theses scandals by financial institutions, investors and regulators through the lens of relevant finance theory and extant literature. Although the paper focuses on the recent Australian experience the discussion and findings presented are of relevance to financial market regulation worldwide. It is proposed that a combination of compensation, education, training and structural reforms are required to reduce the undesirable effects of information asymmetry, adverse selection and moral hazard in the finance sector.

  4. Practical C++ financial programming

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Practical C++ Financial Programming is a hands-on book for programmers wanting to apply C++ to programming problems in the financial industry. The book explains those aspects of the language that are more frequently used in writing financial software, including the STL, templates, and various numerical libraries. The book also describes many of the important problems in financial engineering that are part of the day-to-day work of financial programmers in large investment banks and hedge funds. The author has extensive experience in the New York City financial industry that is now distilled in

  5. Ion cumulation by conical cathode electrolysis.

    CERN Document Server

    Grishin, V G

    2002-01-01

    Results of solid-state sodium stearate electrolysis with conical and cylindrical cathodes is presented here. Both electric measurement and conical samples destruction can be explained if a stress developing inside the conical sample is much bigger than in the cylindrical case and there is its unlimited amplification along cone slopes. OTHER KEYWORDS: ion, current, solid, symmetry, cumulation, polarization, depolarization, ionic conductor,superionic conductor, ice, crystal, strain, V-center, V-centre, doped crystal, interstitial impurity, intrinsic color center, high pressure technology, Bridgman, anvil, experiment, crowdion, dielectric, proton, layer, defect, lattice, dynamics, electromigration, mobility, muon catalysis, concentration, doping, dopant, conductivity, pycnonuclear reaction, permittivity, dielectric constant, point defects, interstitials, polarizability, imperfection, defect centers, glass, epitaxy, sodium hydroxide, metallic substrate, crystallization, point, tip, susceptibility, ferroelectric, ...

  6. [Cumulative trauma disorders: work or professional disease?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Marcus Vitor Diniz; Cavalcanti, Francisco Ivo Dantas; Soriano, Evelyne Pessoa; de Miranda, Hênio Ferreira

    2009-06-01

    This study aimed at reviewing the Brazilian legislation applied to occupational health. It refers to the diseases embodied in the Repetition Strain Injury (RSI) and Cumulative Trauma Disorders (CTD) regarded as work or professional diseases. This analysis allowed to perform the historical evolution of legislation concerning the issue, noting that the state of the art of regulation on RSI-CTD is anchored in specific regulation present in the Normative Instruction 98/2003, that establishes the diagnostic criteria and classification of RSI-CTD. It was concluded that according to the existing legislation in Brazil, the pathologies related to RSI-CTD are considered as work diseases and their legal effects are similar to the work-related accidents.

  7. Financial Literacy, Confidence and Financial Advice Seeking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, Marc M.

    2016-01-01

    We find that people with higher confidence in their own financial literacy are less likely to seek financial advice, but no relation between objective measures of literacy and advice seeking. The negative association between confidence and advice seeking is more pronounced among wealthy households.

  8. Polytraumatization and Trauma Symptoms in Adolescent Boys and Girls: Interpersonal and Noninterpersonal Events and Moderating Effects of Adverse Family Circumstances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Doris Kristina; Gustafsson, Per E.; Svedin, Carl Goran

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the cumulative effect of interpersonal and noninterpersonal traumatic life events (IPEs and nIPEs, respectively) on the mental health of adolescents and to determine if the adverse impacts of trauma were moderated by adverse family circumstances (AFC). Adolescents (mean age 16.7 years) from the…

  9. CMS Financial Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This section contains the annual CMS financial statements as required under the Chief Financial Officers (CFO) Act of 1990 (P.L. 101-576). The CFO Act marked a major...

  10. Halter Financial Summit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>The prolonged financial crisis brought about profound changes in international political and economic patterns. With a focus on China’s place in the post-crisis world situation, the Halter Financial Summit,

  11. Financial Integrity Benchmarks

    Data.gov (United States)

    City of Jackson, Mississippi — This data compiles standard financial integrity benchmarks that allow the City to measure its financial standing. It measure the City's debt ratio and bond ratings....

  12. Domesticizing Financial Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deville, Joe; Lazarus, Jeanne; Luzzi, Mariana

    of research. We use the term “domesticizing financial economies” to collect what we think are four key trajectories. First: “the financialization of the domestic”: certainly debt and finance are more than 5000 years old, but new type of agents and technologies – such as online payday lending, mobile money......, payment cards – characterize the financial ecologies people around the world face. Second; “the domestizisation of finance”: financial technologies do not only financialize the domestic, they are continuously domesticized as many recent studies on ordinary accounting, earmarking, informal circuits of debt...... show. Third, the “domestication of financial economies”: financial literacy programs developed by governmental bodies, international organizations, and banks have become a ubiquitous layer attached to the assemblage of financial economies in many countries. And last but not least, “domesticizing social...

  13. CMS Financial Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This section contains the annual CMS financial statements as required under the Chief Financial Officers (CFO) Act of 1990 (P.L. 101-576). The CFO Act marked a major...

  14. Financial Education Program Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Burk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study illustrates the process of program evaluation using a logic model. Guided by the Transtheoretical Model of Change and a logic model, this study evaluated the effectiveness of a Retirement and Savings Seminar by measuring participant (n = 54 satisfaction, financial knowledge, financial confidence, and financial behavior change compared to a similar group of 134 non-participants. Participants were very satisfied with the seminar. Their financial knowledge and confidence scores significantly increased from pretest to posttest. Financial knowledge and confidence scores improved more than the comparison group while controlling for group differences in age, income, and pretest scores. Two months later, participants were more likely than the comparison group to have adopted positive financial behaviors as measured by the Financial Preparedness for Retirement Scale. Financial educators can use this study as a model for planning, conducting, and evaluating their programs.

  15. Favorable Financial Turf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Tianjin's Binhai New Area lures the financial industry with preferential treatment If you were thinking about doing financial business in Shanghai, Hong Kong or Beijing, think again. Early in June this year, the State Council approved the establishment of a financial experimental zone for Tianjin's Binhai New Area, which will get preferential treatment that other cities can hardly expect to attain. While for a time the area's administration had to actively court financial institu-

  16. Risk in financial reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Tsatsaronis, Kostas; Claudio E. V. Borio

    2015-01-01

    Advances in risk measurement technology have reshaped financial markets and the functioning of the financial system. More recently, they have been reshaping the prudential framework. Looking forward, they have the potential to reshape financial reporting too. Recent initiatives to improve financial reporting standards have brought to the fore significant differences in perspective between accounting standard setters and prudential authorities. Building on previous work, we argue that risk mea...

  17. Korea : Financial Sector Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Monetary Fund

    2003-01-01

    Since the financial crisis in 1997-98, Korea has made major progress in financial, and corporate sector reform - the supervisory and regulatory regime for the financial sector has been substantially strengthened, and recent reforms helped achieve a high degree of observance of international standards, and codes. Moreover, significant consolidation in the banking system took place, with ban...

  18. Essays on financial liberalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bumann, Silke

    2015-01-01

    This thesis investigates the effect of financial liberalization on economic growth, income inequality and financial instability. Chapter 1 describes aim and scope of the thesis. Chapter 2 provides a meta-analysis of the literature on financial liberalization and economic growth. It is found that fin

  19. Invest in Financial Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Sarah B.; McGatha, Maggie B.; Bay-Williams, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01

    The current state of the economy elevates the need to build awareness of financial markets and personal finance among the nation's young people through implementing a financial literacy curriculum in schools. A limited amount of time spent on financial literacy can have a positive effect on students' budgeting skills. This knowledge will only add…

  20. Financial Advice: Who Pays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, Michael S.; Huston, Sandra J.; Winchester, Danielle D.

    2011-01-01

    Using a cost-benefit framework for financial planning services and proprietary data collected in the summer of 2008, the client characteristics that are associated with the likelihood of paying for professional financial advice, as well as the type of financial services purchased, are identified. Results indicate that respondents who pay for…

  1. Essays on financial liberalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bumann, Silke

    2015-01-01

    This thesis investigates the effect of financial liberalization on economic growth, income inequality and financial instability. Chapter 1 describes aim and scope of the thesis. Chapter 2 provides a meta-analysis of the literature on financial liberalization and economic growth. It is found that

  2. Race, Space, and Cumulative Disadvantage: A Case Study of the Subprime Lending Collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugh, Jacob S; Albright, Len; Massey, Douglas S

    2015-05-01

    In this article, we describe how residential segregation and individual racial disparities generate racialized patterns of subprime lending and lead to financial loss among black borrowers in segregated cities. We conceptualize race as a cumulative disadvantage because of its direct and indirect effects on socioeconomic status at the individual and neighborhood levels, with consequences that reverberate across a borrower's life and between generations. Using Baltimore, Maryland as a case study setting, we combine data from reports filed under the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act with additional loan-level data from mortgage-backed securities. We find that race and neighborhood racial segregation are critical factors explaining black disadvantage across successive stages in the process of lending and foreclosure, controlling for differences in borrower credit scores, income, occupancy status, and loan-to-value ratios. We analyze the cumulative cost of predatory lending to black borrowers in terms of reduced disposable income and lost wealth. We find the cost to be substantial. Black borrowers paid an estimated additional 5 to 11 percent in monthly payments and those that completed foreclosure in the sample lost an excess of $2 million in home equity. These costs were magnified in mostly black neighborhoods and in turn heavily concentrated in communities of color. By elucidating the mechanisms that link black segregation to discrimination we demonstrate how processes of cumulative disadvantage continue to undermine black socioeconomic status in the United States today.

  3. Long and Short Term Cumulative Structural Priming Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaschak, Michael P; Kutta, Timothy J; Coyle, Jacqueline M

    We present six experiments that examine cumulative structural priming effects (i.e., structural priming effects that accumulate across many utterances). Of particular interest is whether (1) cumulative priming effects transfer across language production tasks and (2) the transfer of cumulative priming effects across tasks persists over the course of a week. Our data suggest that cumulative structural priming effects do transfer across language production tasks (e.g., from written stem completion to picture description, and from picture description to written stem completion), but only when both tasks are presented in the same experimental session. When cumulative priming effects are established in one task, and the second (changed) task is not presented until a week later, the cumulative priming effects are not observed.

  4. Why Veterinary Medical Educators Should Embrace Cumulative Final Exams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, Kenneth D

    2017-01-03

    The topic of cumulative final examinations often elicits polarizing opinions from veterinary medical educators. While some faculty prefer cumulative finals, there are many who perceive these types of examinations as problematic. Specifically, faculty often cite cumulative examinations are more likely to cause students' greater stress, which may in turn result in negative student evaluations of teaching. Cumulative finals also restrict the number of items one may present to students on most recent material. While these cited disadvantages may have some merit, the advantages of cumulative examinations far exceed the disadvantages. The purpose of this article is to discuss the advantages of cumulative examinations with respect to learning evidence, grade/score validity, fairness issues, and implications for academic policy.

  5. Exposure assessment of the cumulative intake of pesticides with dissimilar mode of action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Christiansen, Sofie

    Risk assessment of pesticides is currently based on the no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) for effects of single compounds. However, humans might be exposed to a mixture of pesticides at the same time and the exposure could occur from more pesticides with endocrine disrupting effects....... In this study the effects of combined exposure from four endocrine disrupting pesticides have been investigated (procymidone, mancozeb, tebuconazole, and prochloraz). The four pesticides have dissimilar mode of actions. On the background of the potency for each pesticide to a given effect, a relative potency...... factor and the cumulative acute exposure of the pesticides have been estimated....

  6. Sources of Financial Sociability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Grahame

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the sources of sociability in modern financial systems as a prelude to assessing the prospects for financial regulation. Three sources are identified: sociality dependent upon contract, upon relational interdependency, and upon the operation of will and passion. Each...... of the article which is to explore further the nature of ‘irrationality’ as manifest in financial crises. When the contours of both these aspects of financial calculation have been elaborated, the article moves on to consider how they might shape regulatory responses to the seeming inevitability of financial...

  7. Financial information processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuo BAI; Shouyang WANG; Lean YU; Aoying ZHOU

    2009-01-01

    @@ The rapid growth in financial data volume has made financial information processing more and more difficult due to the increase in complexity, which has forced businesses and academics alike to turn to sophisticated information processing technologies for better solutions. A typical feature is that high-performance computers and advanced computational techniques play ever-increasingly important roles for business and industries to have competitive advantages. Accordingly, financial information processing has emerged as a new cross-disciplinary field integrating computer science, mathematics, financial economics, intelligent techniques, and computer simulations to make different decisions based on processed financial information.

  8. FINANCIAL INSTABILITY IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian, IONESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to empirically study the concept of financial stability in Romania, from both a monetary policy perspective and a financial perspective. In this paper, I also compute an aggregate index of financial stability, for the period 2008-2013, explaining the correlations between several extremely important macroeconomic and sectorial variables and financial stability. The article also debates the aspect of policy instruments that aim to promote, highlighting the undertaken measures and also giving some measures recommendations, pointing out the main pillars: crises management; cross-sectoral challenges; banking sector; securities markets and capital markets; insurance sector; pensions sector; access to financial services.

  9. COMPANY ACTIVITY FINANCIAL RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caruntu Genu Alexandru

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In economic and financial activity, risk is an inherent financial decisions, encountered in daily agenda of managers of companies. Unexpected changes in the price of a product development not only affect the financial results of a company, but can cause even bankruptcy. In fact, the nature of financial decisions involve uncertainty. Financial decisions are made based on cash flows under future contracts, which are par excellence incerte.Activitatea an enterprise that holds any weight in the industry is subject to risks, since it can not predict with certainty different components of its outcome (cost, quantity, price and operating cycle (purchase, processing, sales.

  10. Financial Lessons Learned

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ As the Wall Street chaos of 2008 swept the globe,China-with little exposure to subprime mortgages-was one of the only calm ports in the growing financial storm.Ifone lesson can be learned from the crisis,it is this: maintain a constant state of financial vigilance against risks even in boom times.China now faces the task of ensuring its financial health as it further opens to the world amid a global financial landscape reshaped by deep recessions.Economists and finance professors discussed these challenges at the Asia-Pacific Economic and Financial Forum recently held in Beijing.Edited excerpts follow:

  11. Financial Lessons Learned

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    As the Wall Street chaos of 2008 swept the globe,China-with little exposure to subprime mortgages-was one of the only calm ports in the growing financial storm.If one lesson can be learned from the crisis,it is this: maintain a constant state of financial vigilance against risks even in boom times.China now faces the task of ensuring its financial health as it further opens to the world amid a global financial landscape reshaped by deep recessions.Economists and finance professors discussed these challenges at the Asia-Pacific Economic and Financial Forum recently held in Beijing.Edited excerpts follow

  12. Analysis of experimental data on correlations between cumulative particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlasov, A.V.; Doroshkevich, E.A.; Leksin, G.A. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    Experimental data on correlations between cumulative particles are analyzed. A space-time and energy-transfer pattern of hadron-nucleus interaction based on both correlation data and data on the inclusive spectra of cumulative particles is considered. A new variable that is convenient for describing the production of cumulative particles is proposed using the concept of symmetry between the one-particle and multiparticle distributions. 32 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Childhood Cumulative Risk and Later Allostatic Load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doan, Stacey N; Dich, Nadya; Evans, Gary W

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study investigated the long-term impact of exposure to poverty-related stressors during childhood on allostatic load, an index of physiological dysregulation, and the potential mediating role of substance use. Method: Participants (n = 162) were rural children from New York...... in health across the life span and of the mechanisms by which adverse childhood environments impact health as children emerge into early adulthood. This knowledge will have implications for early intervention efforts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)....

  14. Presenting practice financial information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Lee Ann H

    2007-01-01

    Medical practice leadership teams, often consisting primarily of physicians with limited financial backgrounds, must make important business decisions and continuously monitor practice operations. In order to competently perform this duty, they need financial reports that are relevant and easy to understand. This article explores financial reporting and decision-making in a physician practice. It discusses reports and tools, such as ratios, graphs, and comparisons, that practices typically include in their reports. Because profitability and cash flow are often the most important financial considerations for physician practices, reports should generally focus on the impact of various activities and potential decisions upon these concerns. This article also provides communication tips for both those presenting practice financial information and those making the decisions. By communicating effectively, these leaders can best use financial information to improve decision-making and maximize financial performance.

  15. Analysis of Memory Codes and Cumulative Rehearsal in Observational Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, Albert; And Others

    1974-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of memory codes varying in meaningfulness and retrievability and cumulative rehearsal on retention of observationally learned responses over increasing temporal intervals. (Editor)

  16. Continuously Cumulating Meta-Analysis and Replicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braver, Sanford L; Thoemmes, Felix J; Rosenthal, Robert

    2014-05-01

    The current crisis in scientific psychology about whether our findings are irreproducible was presaged years ago by Tversky and Kahneman (1971), who noted that even sophisticated researchers believe in the fallacious Law of Small Numbers-erroneous intuitions about how imprecisely sample data reflect population phenomena. Combined with the low power of most current work, this often leads to the use of misleading criteria about whether an effect has replicated. Rosenthal (1990) suggested more appropriate criteria, here labeled the continuously cumulating meta-analytic (CCMA) approach. For example, a CCMA analysis on a replication attempt that does not reach significance might nonetheless provide more, not less, evidence that the effect is real. Alternatively, measures of heterogeneity might show that two studies that differ in whether they are significant might have only trivially different effect sizes. We present a nontechnical introduction to the CCMA framework (referencing relevant software), and then explain how it can be used to address aspects of replicability or more generally to assess quantitative evidence from numerous studies. We then present some examples and simulation results using the CCMA approach that show how the combination of evidence can yield improved results over the consideration of single studies.

  17. Interactive Financial Charts- Agency Financial Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — For a visual depiction of GSA's Balance Sheet and Statement of Net Cost, please use the interactive charts to view the financial results for fiscal years 2007-2013.

  18. Beijing: Next International Financial Hub?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2008-01-01

    @@ Beijing's new financial dream On May 5,the Beijing Municipal Government released a notice regarding its plans to spur the financial industry,vowing to put forth a strong effort to become the national financial decision-making center,financial management center and financial information and services center,and formally announcing its ambitious aspiration to become a financial hub with international influence.

  19. The market effects of the German two-tier enforcement of financial reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Hecker, Renate; Wild, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    This study contributes to the literature by analyzing the potential market penalties due to financial reporting violations detected by the German enforcement regime. Event study results provide evidence that official error announcements lead to significant negative (cumulative) abnormal returns. Investigating the variation between the cumulative abnormal returns, the cross-sectional analysis indicates that companies are able to dilute the (negative) capital market reaction by releasing other ...

  20. Cumulative Effect of Depression on Dementia Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Olazarán

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze a potential cumulative effect of life-time depression on dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD, with control of vascular factors (VFs. Methods. This study was a subanalysis of the Neurological Disorders in Central Spain (NEDICES study. Past and present depression, VFs, dementia status, and dementia due to AD were documented at study inception. Dementia status was also documented after three years. Four groups were created according to baseline data: never depression (nD, past depression (pD, present depression (prD, and present and past depression (prpD. Logistic regression was used. Results. Data of 1,807 subjects were investigated at baseline (mean age 74.3, 59.3% women, and 1,376 (81.6% subjects were evaluated after three years. The prevalence of dementia at baseline was 6.7%, and dementia incidence was 6.3%. An effect of depression was observed on dementia prevalence (OR [CI 95%] 1.84 [1.01–3.35] for prD and 2.73 [1.08–6.87] for prpD, and on dementia due to AD (OR 1.98 [0.98–3.99] for prD and OR 3.98 [1.48–10.71] for prpD (fully adjusted models, nD as reference. Depression did not influence dementia incidence. Conclusions. Present depression and, particularly, present and past depression are associated with dementia at old age. Multiple mechanisms, including toxic effect of depression on hippocampal neurons, plausibly explain these associations.

  1. Cumulative social disadvantage and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Laurie J; Silver, Ellen J; Stein, Ruth E K

    2006-04-01

    Disparities in child health are a major public health concern. However, it is unclear whether these are predominantly the result of low income, race, or other social risk factors that may contribute to their health disadvantage. Although others have examined the effects of the accumulation of risk factors, this methodology has not been applied to child health. We tested 4 social risk factors (poverty, minority race/ethnicity, low parental education, and not living with both biological parents) to assess whether they have cumulative effects on child health and examined whether access to health care reduced health disparities. We analyzed data on 57,553 children low parental education, and single-parent household) were consistently associated with child health. These were summed, generating the Social Disadvantage Index (range: 0-3). A total of 43.6% of children had no social disadvantages, 30.8% had 1, 15.6% had 2, and 10.0% had all 3. Compared with those with no social disadvantages, the odds ratios (ORs) of being in "good, fair, or poor health" (versus "excellent or very good") were 1.95 for 1 risk, 3.22 for 2 risks, and 4.06 for 3 risks. ORs of having a chronic condition increased from 1.25 (1 risk) to 1.60 (2 risks) to 2.11 (3 risks). ORs for activity limitation were 1.51 (1 risk) to 2.14 (2 risks) and 2.88 (3 risks). Controlling for health insurance did not affect these findings. The accumulation of social disadvantage among children was strongly associated with poorer child health and having insurance did not reduce the observed health disparities.

  2. Adversity and Internalizing Problems among Rural Chinese Adolescents: The Roles of Parents and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Shannon; Adams, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the developing world, adolescents living in rural poverty face multiple and inter-related adaptive challenges. Using longitudinal data from the Gansu Survey of Children and Families, we adopt an approach grounded in resilience theory to investigate the relationship between cumulative adversity and internalizing problems among 1,659…

  3. Using Financial Instruments to Transfer the Information Security Risks

    OpenAIRE

    Pankaj Pandey; Einar Snekkenes

    2016-01-01

    For many individuals and organizations, cyber-insurance is the most practical and only way of handling a major financial impact of an information security event. However, the cyber-insurance market suffers from the problem of information asymmetry, lack of product diversity, illiquidity, high transaction cost, and so on. On the other hand, in theory, capital market-based financial instruments can provide a risk transfer mechanism with the ability to absorb the adverse impact of an information...

  4. Strategic business planning linking strategy with financial reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachrodt, Andrew K; Smyth, J Patrick

    2004-11-01

    To succeed in today's complex and often adverse business environment, a healthcare organization's strategic direction must be calculated, focused, and financially sustainable. Strategic business planning is an essential tool to help organizations focus strategic choices within the financial realities of their environment. An effective strategic business planning cycle includes conducting an assessment, identifying business objectives, developing strategy, conducting an impact analysis, and developing an implementation plan.

  5. Adverse selection, market access and inter-market competition

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    We study the role of informed trading in a fragmented financial market under the absence of inter-market price priority. Due to frictions in traders’ market access, liquidity providers on alternative trading platforms may be exposed to an increased adverse selection risk. As a consequence, the main market dominates (offers better quotes) frequently albeit charging higher transaction fees. The empirical analysis of a dataset of trading in French and German stocks suggests that trades on Chi-X,...

  6. A Framework for Treating Cumulative Trauma with Art Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naff, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Cumulative trauma is relatively undocumented in art therapy practice, although there is growing evidence that art therapy provides distinct benefits for resolving various traumas. This qualitative study proposes an art therapy treatment framework for cumulative trauma derived from semi-structured interviews with three art therapists and artistic…

  7. Cumulative Effects of Human Activities on Marine Mammal Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Cumulative Effects of Human Activities on Marine Mammal ...marine mammals . OBJECTIVES The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine has convened a volunteer committee that will...Review the present scientific understanding of cumulative effects of anthropogenic stressors on marine mammals with a focus on anthropogenic sound

  8. A Framework for Treating Cumulative Trauma with Art Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naff, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Cumulative trauma is relatively undocumented in art therapy practice, although there is growing evidence that art therapy provides distinct benefits for resolving various traumas. This qualitative study proposes an art therapy treatment framework for cumulative trauma derived from semi-structured interviews with three art therapists and artistic…

  9. Cumulative Estrogen Exposure and Prospective Memory in Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesson, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    This study looked at cumulative lifetime estrogen exposure, as estimated with a mathematical index (Index of Cumulative Estrogen Exposure (ICEE)) that included variables (length of time on estrogen therapy, age at menarche and menopause, postmenopausal body mass index, time since menopause, nulliparity and duration of breastfeeding) known to…

  10. Lattice QCD results on cumulant ratios at freeze-out

    CERN Document Server

    Karsch, Frithjof

    2016-01-01

    Ratios of cumulants of net proton-number fluctuations measured by the STAR Collaboration show strong deviations from a skellam distribution, which should describe thermal properties of cumulant ratios, if proton-number fluctuations are generated in equilibrium and a hadron resonance gas (HRG) model would provide a suitable description of thermodynamics at the freeze-out temperature. We present some results on sixth order cumulants entering the calculation of the QCD equation of state at non-zero values of the baryon chemical potential (mu_B) and discuss limitations on the applicability of HRG thermodynamics deduced from a comparison between QCD and HRG model calculations of cumulants of conserved charge fluctuations. We show that basic features of the $\\mu_B$-dependence of skewness and kurtosis ratios of net proton-number fluctuations measured by the STAR Collaboration resemble those expected from a O(mu_B^2) QCD calculation of the corresponding net baryon-number cumulant ratios.

  11. A new family of cumulative indexes for measuring scientific performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Kozak

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a new family of cumulative indexes for measuring scientific performance which can be applied to many metrics, including h index and its variants (here we apply it to the h index, h(2 index and Google Scholar's i10 index. These indexes follow the general principle of repeating the index calculation for the same publication set. Using bibliometric data and reviewer scores for accepted and rejected fellowship applicants we examine how valid the cumulative variant is compared to the original variant. These analyses showed that the cumulative indexes result in higher correlations with the reviewer scores than their original variants. Thus, the cumulative indexes better reflect the assessments by peers than the original variants and are useful extensions of the original indexes. In contrast to many other measures of scientific performance proposed up to now, the cumulative indexes seem not only to be effective, but they are also easy to understand and calculate.

  12. INTERCONTINENTAL FINANCIAL STREET BEIJING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGCHUNYUE; FENGJIAYUN

    2005-01-01

    InterContinental Financial Street Beijing opened its doors on May 1st, 2005, just days before the world's business leaders flooded into town for the Fortune Global Forum.The first international luxury hotel in the Chinese capital's new and rapidly growing Financial Street business center, the InterContinental Financial Street Beijing is the flagship property of FnterContinental Hotels and Resorts on the Chinese mainland, and as such a pioneer in Beijing's future,

  13. Financial planning. Budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, S

    1984-01-01

    A short-term financial plan (STFP) is like a road map--you are more likely to reach your destination (financial goals) with one than without. A STFP need not be a drudge; a well-designed plan must be so comprehensive so as to include personal freedom money and even small luxuries. Once started, it actually becomes rewarding and fun to see your financial goals coming to fruition.

  14. Judge Financial, Administrative Judge

    OpenAIRE

    Kurek, Aline

    2010-01-01

    As a specialised administrative judge, the financial judge, understood in the sense of the Auditors Court, of the regional Auditors Courts and of the Court of budgetary and financial discipline, has a ratione materiae jurisdiction. It is the judge's duty to ensure compliance with budgetary and national accounting rules. The perspective tending to view the financial judge as a administrative judge, that is to say as an ordinary administrative judge, may consequently give rise to certain object...

  15. Central bank Financial Independence

    OpenAIRE

    J.Ramon Martinez-Resano

    2004-01-01

    Central bank independence is a multifaceted institutional design. The financial component has been seldom analysed. This paper intends to set a comprehensive conceptual background for central bank financial independence. Quite often central banks are modelled as robot like maximizers of some goal. This perspective neglects the fact that central bank functions are inevitably deployed on its balance sheet and have effects on its income statement. A financially independent central bank exhibits ...

  16. Financial Liberalization Or Repression?

    OpenAIRE

    Ang, James

    2009-01-01

    While financial liberalization has always been advocated in developing countries, experiences with it do not always produce desirable outcomes. In order to evaluate the costs and benefits associated with financial liberalization and repression, this study highlights that the overall effectiveness of the reform programs depends on the relative strength of each financial sector policy implemented. Using India as a case study, the results indicate that interest rate controls, statutory liquidity...

  17. Tier 1 MFIs Financial Performance: Cash-flow statement analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Dumont, Gautier; Schmit, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    When assessing the financial performance of Microfinance institutions, the current literature commonly uses balance sheets and income statements. In order to assess sources of cash generated, if any, we analyse the cash flow statements of the 30 largest MFIs that display audited reports between 2006 and 2010. We find that all the MFIs of the sample had cumulated negative free cash flow over the period and positive cash flow from operations. We propose classification of MFIs based on their inv...

  18. Do Multiple Concussions Lead to Cumulative Cognitive Deficits? A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumul, Joy Noelle; McKinlay, Audrey

    2016-11-01

    A concussion is an important health concern for children and adolescents, particularly in the context of sporting injuries. Some research suggests a cumulative effect from multiple concussions (also referred to as mild traumatic brain injury), which creates a dilemma when considering how to manage children and young persons who may experience multiple concussive events within a sporting season. However, there is very little research regarding the outcomes of multiple concussions and their optimal management. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the evidence regarding the cognitive outcomes of multiple concussions. After assessing the eligibility of the articles from the literature search, 7 studies were identified and included in the review. In most of the available literature, the cognitive outcomes related to multiple concussions are measured during the same developmental age as when the injuries happened. Moreover, most studies that investigated multiple concussions are focused on sports-related injuries, and only some are conducted in children and adolescents in the general population. The current evidence is inconclusive; whereas some studies reported adverse outcomes, others reported null findings. The studies that reported adverse or cumulative effects based their findings on worse cognitive outcomes, more subjective symptoms, and prolonged recovery postinjury. II. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A bivariate optimal replacement policy with cumulative repair cost limit under cumulative damage model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MIN-T SAI LAI; SHIH-CHIH CHEN

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a bivariate replacement policy (n, T) for a cumulative shock damage process is presented that included the concept of cumulative repair cost limit. The arrival shocks can be divided into two kinds of shocks. Each type-I shock causes a random amount of damage and these damages are additive. When the total damage exceeds a failure level, the system goes into serious failure. Type-II shock causes the system into minor failure and such a failure can be corrected by minimal repair. When a minor failure occurs, the repaircost will be evaluated and minimal repair is executed if the accumulated repair cost is less than a predetermined limit L. The system is replaced at scheduled time T, at n-th minor failure, or at serious failure. The long-term expected cost per unit time is derived using the expected costs as the optimality criterion. The minimum-cost policy is derived, and existence and uniqueness of the optimal n* and T* are proved. This bivariate optimal replacement policy (n, T) is showed to be better than the optimal T* and the optimal n* policy.

  20. Financial modeling: Rx for financial success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, D

    2001-01-01

    In an era of managed care, cost cutting and finding ways to increase revenue are key goals in the survival of group practices. Many practices find that they have to boost their revenue by a certain amount (for example, 20-30% within the next three years) to maintain viability in the health care marketplace. Understanding how to generate that revenue and influence short-term and long-term financial outcomes is a far trickier process. This article details how practice administrators can influence a practice's bottom line through a three-step process: (1) identify the components of the practice's financial performance and drivers of performance results, (2) diagnose the practice's current financial situation, and (3) pinpoint benchmarks and targets for success.

  1. Life course adversity in the lives of formerly homeless persons with serious mental illness: context and meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, Deborah K; Smith, Bikki Tran; Henwood, Benjamin F; Tiderington, Emmy

    2012-07-01

    This qualitative study assessed the frequency and subjective meaning of adverse experiences using case study analyses of interviews with 38 formerly homeless adults with co-occurring serious mental illness (SMI) and substance abuse histories. Adverse life events were inventoried using an adaptation of Lloyd and Turner's (2008) 41-item checklist. Participants averaged 8.8 adverse events, with approximately one-third having experienced incarceration (37%), suicidality (32%), abandonment by one or both parents (30%), and death of their mother (34%). Cross-case analyses yielded 3 themes: social losses because of death and estrangement; the significance of chronic stressors as well as acute events; and the cumulative lifetime nature of adversity. Findings suggest that life course experiences of trauma and loss have a cumulative influence in the lives of this population in addition and in relation to SMI, substance abuse, and homelessness. In this context, the mental health recovery movement should address prior adverse experiences beyond comorbid diagnoses in this population.

  2. Longhi Games, Internal Reservoirs, and Cumulate Porosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, S. A.

    2009-05-01

    Fe in plagioclase at an early age, T-rollers (or not) on the Di-Trid boundary in Fo-Di-Sil, the mantle solidus, origins of anorthosites, esoteric uses of Schreinemakers rules and many more topics are all fresh and pleasant memories of John Longhi's prolific and creative work. The Fram-Longhi experimental effect of pressure on plagioclase partitioning with liquid in mafic rocks became essential to an understanding of multiphase Rayleigh fractionation of plagioclase in big layered intrusions. Only by using the pressure effect could I find a good equation through the data for the Kiglapait intrusion, and that result among others required the existence with probability 1.0 of an internal reservoir (Morse, JPet 2008). Knowledge of cumulate porosity is a crucial key to the understanding of layered igneous rocks. We seek both the initial (inverse packing fraction) and residual porosity to find the time and process path from sedimentation to solidification. In the Kiglapait Lower Zone we have a robust estimate of mean residual porosity from the modes of the excluded phases augite, oxides, sulfide, and apatite. To this we apply the maximum variance of plagioclase composition (the An range) to find an algorithm that extends through the Upper Zone and to other intrusions. Of great importance is that all these measurements were made in grain mounts concentrated from typically about 200 g of core or hand specimen, hence the represented sample volume is thousands of times greater than for a thin section. The resulting distribution and scatter of the An range is novel and remarkable. It is V-shaped in the logarithmic representation of stratigraphic height, running from about 20 mole % at both ends (base to top of the Layered Series) to near-zero at 99 PCS. The intercept of the porosity-An range relation gives An range = 3.5 % at zero residual porosity. Petrographic analysis reveals that for PCS less than 95 and greater than 99.9, the An range is intrinsic, i.e. pre-cumulus, for

  3. Modelling the cumulative risk of a false-positive screening test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Rebecca A; Miglioretti, Diana L; Smith, Robert A

    2010-10-01

    The goal of a screening test is to reduce morbidity and mortality through the early detection of disease; but the benefits of screening must be weighed against potential harms, such as false-positive (FP) results, which may lead to increased healthcare costs, patient anxiety, and other adverse outcomes associated with diagnostic follow-up procedures. Accurate estimation of the cumulative risk of an FP test after multiple screening rounds is important for program evaluation and goal setting, as well as informing individuals undergoing screening what they should expect from testing over time. Estimation of the cumulative FP risk is complicated by the existence of censoring and possible dependence of the censoring time on the event history. Current statistical methods for estimating the cumulative FP risk from censored data follow two distinct approaches, either conditioning on the number of screening tests observed or marginalizing over this random variable. We review these current methods, identify their limitations and possibly unrealistic assumptions, and propose simple extensions to address some of these limitations. We discuss areas where additional extensions may be useful. We illustrate methods for estimating the cumulative FP recall risk of screening mammography and investigate the appropriateness of modelling assumptions using 13 years of data collected by the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC). In the BCSC data we found evidence of violations of modelling assumptions of both classes of statistical methods. The estimated risk of an FP recall after 10 screening mammograms varied between 58% and 77% depending on the approach used, with an estimate of 63% based on what we feel are the most reasonable modelling assumptions.

  4. Cumulative high doses of inhaled formoterol have less systemic effects in asthmatic children 6-11 years-old than cumulative high doses of inhaled terbutaline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaae, Rikke; Agertoft, Lone; Pedersen, Sören

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate high dose tolerability and relative systemic dose potency between inhaled clinically equipotent dose increments of formoterol and terbutaline in children. METHODS: Twenty boys and girls (6-11 years-old) with asthma and normal ECGs were studied. Ten doses of formoterol (Oxis......) 4.5 microg (F4.5) or terbutaline (Bricanyl) 500 microg (T500) were inhaled cumulatively via a dry powder inhaler (Turbuhaler) over 1 h (three patients) or 2.5 h (17 patients) and compared to a day of no treatment, in a randomised, double-blind (active treatments only), crossover trial. Blood...... pressure (BP), ECG, plasma potassium, glucose, lactate, and adverse events were monitored up to 10 h to assess tolerability and relative systemic dose potency. RESULTS: Formoterol and terbutaline had significant beta2-adrenergic effects on most outcomes. Apart from the effect on systolic BP, QRS duration...

  5. Parameters from preoperative overnight oximetry predict postoperative adverse events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, F; Zhou, L; Liao, P

    2014-10-01

    Continuous home monitoring of oxygen saturation has become a reliable and feasible practice. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of preoperative overnight oximetry in predicting postoperative adverse events. Following research ethics board approval, consented patients underwent a preoperative overnight monitoring of oxygen saturation with a portable oximeter. Parameters from the oximetry data were extracted and their predictive performance for postoperative adverse events was evaluated. A total of 573 patients were studied with age: 60±12 years and 45% male. Oxygen desaturation index (ODI), cumulative time percentage with SpO2 3.0 events/h, >9.2 events/h and > 28.5 events/h; CT90: >0.1%, >1.1% and >7.2%; mean SpO2: rate of postoperative adverse events. For ODI >28.5 vs. ODI ⋝28.5 events/h, the odds ratio adjusted with age, gender, body mass index and American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status was 2.2 (95% CI: 1.3-3.9). Patients with mean preoperative overnight SpO2 28.5 events/h or CT90 >7.2% are at higher risk for postoperative adverse events. Overnight oximetry could be a useful tool to stratify patients for the risk of postoperative adverse events.

  6. Ranking Adverse Drug Reactions With Crowdsourcing

    KAUST Repository

    Gottlieb, Assaf

    2015-03-23

    Background: There is no publicly available resource that provides the relative severity of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Such a resource would be useful for several applications, including assessment of the risks and benefits of drugs and improvement of patient-centered care. It could also be used to triage predictions of drug adverse events. Objective: The intent of the study was to rank ADRs according to severity. Methods: We used Internet-based crowdsourcing to rank ADRs according to severity. We assigned 126,512 pairwise comparisons of ADRs to 2589 Amazon Mechanical Turk workers and used these comparisons to rank order 2929 ADRs. Results: There is good correlation (rho=.53) between the mortality rates associated with ADRs and their rank. Our ranking highlights severe drug-ADR predictions, such as cardiovascular ADRs for raloxifene and celecoxib. It also triages genes associated with severe ADRs such as epidermal growth-factor receptor (EGFR), associated with glioblastoma multiforme, and SCN1A, associated with epilepsy. Conclusions: ADR ranking lays a first stepping stone in personalized drug risk assessment. Ranking of ADRs using crowdsourcing may have useful clinical and financial implications, and should be further investigated in the context of health care decision making.

  7. Financial Wealth Distribution in Revised Financial Accounts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Rybáček

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Financial statistics undergo dynamic evolution as apparent consequence of their rising importance. Structureof assets, source of fi nancing, price changes or net fi nancial position, all these indicators can detect oncomingfi nancial instability. Financial statistics as a logical extension of the national accounts provide such information.Th e aim of the following text is to present fi nancial statistics, relation between particular accounts, the impact of extraordinary revision carried out in 2011, and also to analyse current wealth distribution as described by fi nancial statistics.

  8. Late Financial Distress Process Stages and Financial Ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sormunen, Nina; Laitinen, Teija

    2012-01-01

    and usefulness of single financial ratios in short-term financial distress prediction when the effect of each different financial distress process stage is considered; (2) the effects of recognition of the financial distress process stage on the financial distress prediction model. The time horizon...... stage affects the classification ability of single financial ratios and financial distress prediction models in short-term financial distress prediction. The study shows that the auditor's GC task could be supported by paying attention to the financial distress process stage. The implications......The present study adds to our understanding and knowledge of financial distress predictions regarding the usefulness of financial ratios in the late stages of the financial distress process. The study contributes to previous research by generating information concerning: (1) the behavior...

  9. Household financial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brounen, Dirk; Koedijk, Kees; Pownall, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Greater personal responsibility toward financial decision-making is being advocated on a global basis. Individuals and households are encouraged to take a more active approach to personal finance. In this paper, we examine behavioral factors, which lead households toward savings and financial planni

  10. Financial Key Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on computing techniques starting from trial balance data regarding financial key ratios. There are presented activity, liquidity, solvency and profitability financial key ratios. It is presented a computing methodology in three steps based on a trial balance.

  11. Household financial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brounen, Dirk; Koedijk, Kees; Pownall, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Greater personal responsibility toward financial decision-making is being advocated on a global basis. Individuals and households are encouraged to take a more active approach to personal finance. In this paper, we examine behavioral factors, which lead households toward savings and financial

  12. Consolidating Financial Statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Marcia R.

    This publication is designed to be a desktop reference and assist financial officers in both public and independent institutions of higher education in the preparation of consolidated financial statements. Chapter 1 covers generally accepted accounting principles and other accounting literature, and summarizes reporting rules of the Financial…

  13. Financial Crisis Redux?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Observers refute the start of a new Asian financial crisis sparked by Viet Nam’s financial and economic troubles It looked like a sudden nightmare when stockholders with hundreds of millions of Vietnamese dong found their pockets half empty overnight. The once prosper- ous bull market in Viet Nam plummeted to

  14. Adverse Reactions to Hallucinogenic Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Roger E. , Ed.

    This reports a conference of psychologists, psychiatrists, geneticists and others concerned with the biological and psychological effects of lysergic acid diethylamide and other hallucinogenic drugs. Clinical data are presented on adverse drug reactions. The difficulty of determining the causes of adverse reactions is discussed, as are different…

  15. Entanglement entropy and particle number cumulants of disordered fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmistrov, I. S.; Tikhonov, K. S.; Gornyi, I. V.; Mirlin, A. D.

    2017-08-01

    We study the entanglement entropy and particle number cumulants for a system of disordered noninteracting fermions in d dimensions. We show, both analytically and numerically, that for a weak disorder the entanglement entropy and the second cumulant (particle number variance) are proportional to each other with a universal coefficient. The corresponding expressions are analogous to those in the clean case but with a logarithmic factor regularized by the mean free path rather than by the system size. We also determine the scaling of higher cumulants by analytical (weak disorder) and numerical means. Finally, we predict that the particle number variance and the entanglement entropy are nonanalytic functions of disorder at the Anderson transition.

  16. Interconnectedness of Financial Conglomerates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaël Hauton

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Being active in both the insurance sector and the banking sector, financial conglomerates intrinsically increase the interconnections between the banking sector and the insurance sector. We address two main concerns about financial conglomerates using a unique database on bilateral exposures between 21 French financial institutions. First, we investigate to what extent to which the insurers that are part of financial conglomerates differ from pure insurers. Second, we show that in the presence of sovereign risk, the components of a financial conglomerate are better off than if they were distinct entities. Our empirical findings bring a new perspective to the previous results of the literature based on using different types of data.

  17. Trusts and Financialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrington, Brooke

    2016-01-01

    the global spread of financialization: by privileging the rentier–investor within the 15 world economy; by perpetuating a distinctively Anglo-American approach to finance internationally; and by increasing the autonomy of finance vis-a-vis the nation-state. This study shares the primarily descriptive...... and conceptual intent of Krippner’s work on financialization, but extends it in two ways: by comparing trusts to the better- known corporate form of organizing financial activity, and by showing how private 20 capital is implicated in the financialized economy alongside corporate wealth.......This article identifies trusts as a legal structure associated with the global spread of financialization. Although trusts originated in Medieval England, they have acquired a new significance in contemporary finance by virtue of their advantages in terms of 10 profit maximization and capital...

  18. Financial Analysts’ Forecasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stæhr, Simone

    in the financial forecasts on which they base investment decisions they may end up losing money as a consequence of biased forecasts. Thus, relying primarily on decision theories such as social comparison theory and theories on confirmation bias this thesis investigates how and why pronounced biases in financial......This thesis is broadly concentrated on decision making under uncertainty. It seeks to investigate how agents in financial markets make decisions at the individual level and how these decisions can sometimes be affected by personal traits and cognitive biases rather than being perfectly rational....... The primary focus is on financial analysts in the task of conducting earnings forecasts while a secondary focus is on investors’ abilities to interpret and make use of these forecasts. Simply put, financial analysts can be seen as information intermediators receiving inputs to their analyses from firm...

  19. Financial Openness and Financial Development: An Analysis Using Indices

    OpenAIRE

    Ozkok, Zeynep

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the link between financial openness and financial development through panel data analysis on advanced and emerging market countries. Using indices, financial openness together with institutional and educational variables explains a large part of the variation in financial development across countries and over time. Our analysis demonstrates that different indexing strategies serve in finding better measures for financial openness and financial development in comparison to ...

  20. Association between serotonin cumulative genetic score and the Behavioral Approach System (BAS): Moderation by early life environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Rahel; McGeary, John E; Beevers, Christopher G

    2014-11-01

    The present study investigates if genetic variation in the serotonergic system interacts with early adversity to predict changes in the Behavioral Approach System (BAS), a system that taps into reward processing. In a sample of community adults (N= 236) the influence of single serotonergic candidate polymorphisms on BAS was analyzed, we also examined the aggregate contribution of these genetic variants by creating a Cumulative Genetic Score (CGS). A CGS quantifies an individual's cumulative risk by aggregating the number of risk alleles across the candidate polymorphisms. After individual gene analysis, three candidate genes rs7305115 (TPH2), rs6311 (HTR2A), and rs6295 (HTR1A) were combined into the CGS. There were no significant interactions between individual candidate polymorphisms and childhood adversity, but the CGS interacted with childhood adversity to explain a significant amount of variance (11.6%) in the BAS. Findings suggest that genetic variations in the serotonergic system in combination with childhood adversity contribute to individual differences in reward sensitivity.

  1. Financial Declines, Financial Behaviors, and Relationship Satisfaction during the Recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey P. Dew

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Using nationally-representative data collected during the summer of 2009 (N = 575, this study examines how reports of financial declines are associated with financial behaviors and how financial behaviors are associated with relationship satisfaction among cohabiting and married participants. Findings suggested that financial declines were only negatively associated with sound financial management behavior if participants also experienced feelings of economic pressure. Sound financial management behavior was found to be positively associated with marital satisfaction. Finally, sound financial management behavior also moderated the association between financial declines, economic pressure, and relationship satisfaction.

  2. Predicting Cumulative Watershed Effects using Spatially Explicit Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, L. H.; Litschert, S.

    2004-12-01

    Cumulative watershed effects /(CWEs/) result from the combined effects of land disturbances distributed over both space and time. They are of concern because changes in flow and sediment yields can adversely affect aquatic habitat, channel morphology, water yields, and water quality. The assessment procedures currently used by agencies such as the U.S. Forest Service generally rely on a lumped approach to quantify disturbance, despite the widespread recognition that site conditions and location do matter! The overall goal of our work is to develop spatially-explicit models to quantify changes in flow and sediment yields. Key objectives include: use of readily available GIS data; ease of use for resource managers with minimal GIS experience; modularity so that models can be added or updated; and allowing users to select the models and values for key parameters. The DeltaQ model calculates changes in peak, median, and low flows due to forest management activities and fires. Inputs include GIS data with disturbance polygons, an initial change in flow rate, and the time to recovery. Data from paired watershed studies are provided to help guide the user. The initial version of FORest Erosion Simulation Tools /(FOREST/) calculates sediment production from forest harvest, fires, and unpaved roads. Additional modules are being developed to deliver this sediment to the stream channel and route it to downstream locations. In accordance with our objectives, the user can predict sediment production rates using different empirical equations, assign an initial sediment production rate and a specified linear recovery period, or develop a look-up table based on local knowledge, published values, or data from other models such as WEPP. The required GIS layers vary according to the model/(s/) selected, but generally include past disturbances /(e.g., fires and timber harvest/), roads, and elevation. Outputs include GIS layers and text files that can be subjected to additional

  3. The instruments of financial planning

    OpenAIRE

    Durnov, V.

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyzes financial planning efficiency for enterprise management improvement. The author describes the system of financial tools and considers in detail financial planning methods, their strengths and weaknesses

  4. Online Scheduling in Manufacturing A Cumulative Delay Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Suwa, Haruhiko

    2013-01-01

    Online scheduling is recognized as the crucial decision-making process of production control at a phase of “being in production" according to the released shop floor schedule. Online scheduling can be also considered as one of key enablers to realize prompt capable-to-promise as well as available-to-promise to customers along with reducing production lead times under recent globalized competitive markets. Online Scheduling in Manufacturing introduces new approaches to online scheduling based on a concept of cumulative delay. The cumulative delay is regarded as consolidated information of uncertainties under a dynamic environment in manufacturing and can be collected constantly without much effort at any points in time during a schedule execution. In this approach, the cumulative delay of the schedule has the important role of a criterion for making a decision whether or not a schedule revision is carried out. The cumulative delay approach to trigger schedule revisions has the following capabilities for the ...

  5. Cumulative Risks of Foster Care Placement for Danish Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallesen, Peter; Emanuel, Natalia; Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Although recent research suggests that the cumulative risk of foster care placement is far higher for American children than originally suspected, little is known about the cumulative risk of foster care placement in other countries, which makes it difficult to gauge the degree to which factor...... is for Danish children. Results suggest that at the beginning of the study period (in 1998) the cumulative risk of foster care placement for Danish children was roughly in line with the risk for American children. Yet, by the end of the study period (2010), the risk had declined to half the risk for American...... foster care placement is salient in other contexts. In this article, we provide companion estimates to those provided in recent work on the US by using Danish registry data and synthetic cohort life tables to show how high and unequally distributed the cumulative risk of foster care placement...

  6. Mapping cumulative human impacts in the eastern North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stock, A.; Andersen, Jesper; Heinänen, S.

    of the MSFD; and 3) to deepen the understanding of how errors in expert judgment affect the resulting cumulative human impact maps by means of Monte Carlo simulations. We combined existing data sets on the spatial distribution of 33 anthropogenic stressors (linked to the MSFD pressures) and 28 key habitats....... In contrast, the predicted impacts for much of the Norwegian EEZ and areas far offshore were lower. The Monte Carlo simulations confirmed earlier findings that mapping cumulative impacts is generally "robust", but also showed that specific combinations of errors can seriously change local and regional...... on marine ecosystems have only recently been developed. The aims of our study were: 1) to develop a map of cumulative human impacts for the Danish, Swedish, Norwegian and German parts of the Greater North Sea; 2) to adjust the existing methods for mapping cumulative human impacts to fit the requirements...

  7. Cumulative Production Per Township - SaMiRa

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset contains a selected township grid within the Sagebrush Mineral Resource Assessment project (SaMiRa) study area attributed with cumulative oil and gas...

  8. Cumulative radiation exposure in children with cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Reilly, R

    2010-02-01

    This retrospective study calculated the cumulative radiation dose for children with cystic fibrosis (CF) attending a tertiary CF centre. Information on 77 children with a mean age of 9.5 years, a follow up time of 658 person years and 1757 studies including 1485 chest radiographs, 215 abdominal radiographs and 57 computed tomography (CT) scans, of which 51 were thoracic CT scans, were analysed. The average cumulative radiation dose was 6.2 (0.04-25) mSv per CF patient. Cumulative radiation dose increased with increasing age and number of CT scans and was greater in children who presented with meconium ileus. No correlation was identified between cumulative radiation dose and either lung function or patient microbiology cultures. Radiation carries a risk of malignancy and children are particularly susceptible. Every effort must be made to avoid unnecessary radiation exposure in these patients whose life expectancy is increasing.

  9. Macroscopic cumulative fatigue damage of material under nonsymmetrical cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盖秉政

    2002-01-01

    Hashin's macroscopic theory of fatigue damage is further discussed and a new method has been proposed for prediction of cumulative fatigue damage of material and its lifetime under nonsymmetrical cyclic loading.

  10. Translation-Invariant Representation for Cumulative Foot Pressure Images

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Shuai; Tan, Tieniu

    2010-01-01

    Human can be distinguished by different limb movements and unique ground reaction force. Cumulative foot pressure image is a 2-D cumulative ground reaction force during one gait cycle. Although it contains pressure spatial distribution information and pressure temporal distribution information, it suffers from several problems including different shoes and noise, when putting it into practice as a new biometric for pedestrian identification. In this paper, we propose a hierarchical translation-invariant representation for cumulative foot pressure images, inspired by the success of Convolutional deep belief network for digital classification. Key contribution in our approach is discriminative hierarchical sparse coding scheme which helps to learn useful discriminative high-level visual features. Based on the feature representation of cumulative foot pressure images, we develop a pedestrian recognition system which is invariant to three different shoes and slight local shape change. Experiments are conducted on...

  11. Some Characterization Results on Dynamic Cumulative Residual Tsallis Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madan Mohan Sati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a generalized cumulative residual information measure based on Tsallis entropy and its dynamic version. We study the characterizations of the proposed information measure and define new classes of life distributions based on this measure. Some applications are provided in relation to weighted and equilibrium probability models. Finally the empirical cumulative Tsallis entropy is proposed to estimate the new information measure.

  12. Steps and pips in the history of the cumulative recorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Lattal, Kennon A.

    2004-01-01

    From its inception in the 1930s until very recent times, the cumulative recorder was the most widely used measurement instrument in the experimental analysis of behavior. It was an essential instrument in the discovery and analysis of schedules of reinforcement, providing the first real-time analysis of operant response rates and patterns. This review traces the evolution of the cumulative recorder from Skinner's early modified kymographs through various models developed by Skinner and his co...

  13. Financial Reforms and Financial Fragility: A Panel Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Faizan Iftikhar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the relationship between financial reforms, financial liberalization and the quality of banking regulation and supervision for financial fragility by applying a dynamic two-step system generalized method of moments GMM panel estimator technique. The finding of this study is that the financial vulnerability of the banking sector could be affected, not only by bank-specific and macro-specific variables; but also by financial liberalization and banking regulations and supervision policies. The empirical results of this study confirm the evidence that financial reforms and financial liberalization significantly enhance the likelihood of financial fragility while strong banking regulations and supervision have an inverse relationship with financial fragility. The results of this study also explain that the lag value of loan growth and unemployment contribute to enhancing financial fragility while equity to assets ratio, natural log of total assets and share of foreign banks reduce financial vulnerability.

  14. Childhood Cumulative Risk Exposure and Adult Amygdala Volume and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gary W; Swain, James E; King, Anthony P; Wang, Xin; Javanbakht, Arash; Ho, S Shaun; Angstadt, Michael; Phan, K Luan; Xie, Hong; Liberzon, Israel

    2016-06-01

    Considerable work indicates that early cumulative risk exposure is aversive to human development, but very little research has examined the neurological underpinnings of these robust findings. This study investigates amygdala volume and reactivity to facial stimuli among adults (mean 23.7 years of age, n = 54) as a function of cumulative risk exposure during childhood (9 and 13 years of age). In addition, we test to determine whether expected cumulative risk elevations in amygdala volume would mediate functional reactivity of the amygdala during socioemotional processing. Risks included substandard housing quality, noise, crowding, family turmoil, child separation from family, and violence. Total and left hemisphere adult amygdala volumes were positively related to cumulative risk exposure during childhood. The links between childhood cumulative risk exposure and elevated amygdala responses to emotionally neutral facial stimuli in adulthood were mediated by the corresponding amygdala volumes. Cumulative risk exposure in later adolescence (17 years of age), however, was unrelated to subsequent adult amygdala volume or function. Physical and socioemotional risk exposures early in life appear to alter amygdala development, rendering adults more reactive to ambiguous stimuli such as neutral faces. These stress-related differences in childhood amygdala development might contribute to the well-documented psychological distress as a function of early risk exposure.

  15. Control charts for monitoring accumulating adverse event count frequencies from single and multiple blinded trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, A Lawrence

    2016-12-30

    Conventional practice monitors accumulating information about drug safety in terms of the numbers of adverse events reported from trials in a drug development program. Estimates of between-treatment adverse event risk differences can be obtained readily from unblinded trials with adjustment for differences among trials using conventional statistical methods. Recent regulatory guidelines require monitoring the cumulative frequency of adverse event reports to identify possible between-treatment adverse event risk differences without unblinding ongoing trials. Conventional statistical methods for assessing between-treatment adverse event risks cannot be applied when the trials are blinded. However, CUSUM charts can be used to monitor the accumulation of adverse event occurrences. CUSUM charts for monitoring adverse event occurrence in a Bayesian paradigm are based on assumptions about the process generating the adverse event counts in a trial as expressed by informative prior distributions. This article describes the construction of control charts for monitoring adverse event occurrence based on statistical models for the processes, characterizes their statistical properties, and describes how to construct useful prior distributions. Application of the approach to two adverse events of interest in a real trial gave nearly identical results for binomial and Poisson observed event count likelihoods. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Preventing Financial Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    This paper investigates the Swedish tax authority’s (Skatteverkets) compliance initiative called Preventing Financial Crime. In Sweden tax evasion related to organised moon-lighting is defined as a major risk to the revenue collection and to the legitimacy of Skatteverket. The traditional approach...... to abating such tax evasion has been reformed and a new mix-method approach adopted. This approach combines a proactive strategy—Preventing Financial Crime—with a reactive inspection strategy. During one a month of intensive fieldwork in Sweden, I studied the daily work in Preventing Financial Crime. Based...

  17. Framing financial culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Just, Sine Nørholm; Mouton, Nicolaas T.O.

    2014-01-01

    between competing frames leads to the conclusion that this political “blame game” is related to struggles over how to define the scandal, how to conceptualize its causes, and policy recommendations. Banks may have lost the battle of “Liborgate,” but the war over the meaning of financial culture is far...... from over. Originality/value – The paper is theoretically and methodologically original in its combination of the theories of framing and stasis, and it provides analytical insights into how sense is made of financial culture in the wake of the financial crisis....

  18. Financial Hub? Be Patient!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2009-01-01

    @@ In 2009,the central government confirmed the strategic significance of Shanghai as an international financial center.Until now.Shanghai's financial cluster has attracted more and more foreign banks to establish roots jn Shanghai,which has contributed to their rapid development in recent years.The announcement undoubtedly made foreign banks confident of great development potential in the future.But what opportunities could they catch?Also,will this weaken the position of Hong Kong as an International financial center?China's Foreign Trade invited Ms.Katherine Tsang,chief executive officer of Standard Chartered China to share with us her point of view.

  19. Financial Markets and Persistence

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, S

    2005-01-01

    Persistence is studied in a financial context by mapping the time evolution of the values of the shares quoted on the London Financial Times Stock Exchange 100 index (FTSE 100) onto Ising spins. By following the time dependence of the spins, we find evidence for power law decay of the proportion of shares that remain either above or below their ` starting\\rq values. As a result, we estimate a persistence exponent for the underlying financial market to be $\\theta_f\\sim 0.5$.

  20. Persistence in financial markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, S.; Buckley, P.

    2006-03-01

    Persistence is studied in a financial context by mapping the time evolution of the values of the shares quoted on the London Financial Times Stock Exchange 100 index (FTSE 100) onto Ising spins. By following the time dependence of the spins, we find evidence for power law decay of the proportion of shares that remain either above or below their 'starting' values. As a result, we estimate a persistence exponent for the underlying financial market to be θf˜0.5.

  1. Egypt & Financial Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Financial crisis that occurred in August 2008 was unforeseen, sudden, sharp, and had a great impact on the global financial market. Egypt is one of the countries was affected by this financial crisis as a market economy country, and WTO member. in this paper I will try to study the implication of such crisis on the Egyptian economy in the fields of tourism, Suez canal, oil field, and GDP, not only the economy factor were effected, but also the Egyptian market represented in its compon...

  2. Financial fragility and natural disasters: An empirical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, J.G.

    2014-01-01

    Using data for more than 160 countries in the period 1997-2010, we explore the impact of large-scale natural disasters on the distance-to-default of commercial banks. The financial consequences of natural catastrophes may stress and threaten the existence of a bank by adversely affecting their solve

  3. Are financial benefits of financial globalization questionable until greater domestic financial development has taken place?

    OpenAIRE

    Simplice A., Asongu

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The issue of which financial initial conditions are necessary to materialize the benefits of financial globalization remains open to debate in the literature. In this paper, we try to put some empirical structure on the concept of financial threshold conditions in order to give policymakers guidance on the Kose et al.(2011) and Henry(2007) hypothesis. Its object is to assess if financial benefits of financial globalization are questionable until greater domestic financial developme...

  4. Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) is a computerized information database designed to support the FDA's post-marketing safety surveillance program for all...

  5. Financial Regulatory Reform: Consumer Financial Protection Proposals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    decisions subject to judicial review.40 Any generally applicable state consumer law would apply to national banks and thrifts unless it discriminates...provided by existing powers that the bill would transfer from another regulator to the CFPA or an enumerated consumer law , such as the Truth in Lending Act...against them (presumably to the benefit of state-chartered financial institutions) or conflicts with the Act.41 Additionally, any state consumer

  6. Pollution adverse tourists and growth

    OpenAIRE

    Cerina, Fabio; Giannoni, Sauveur

    2008-01-01

    We build a growth model in which tourism development generates pollution while tourists are pollution adverse. We establish that long run positive growth exists only for a particular value of tourists pollution adversion. Furthermore, we show that an intensive use of facilities is associated with a lower growth rate for destinations specialized in green tourism. We also see that if the destination can choose the degree of use of facilities, tourism will generate positive growth only if touris...

  7. Reverse Engineering Adverse Outcome Pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, Edward; Chipman, J.K.; Edwards, Stephen; Habib, Tanwir; Falciani, Francesco; Taylor, Ronald C.; Van Aggelen, Graham; Vulpe, Chris; Antczak, Philipp; Loguinov, Alexandre

    2011-01-30

    The toxicological effects of many stressors are mediated through unknown, or poorly characterized, mechanisms of action. We describe the application of reverse engineering complex interaction networks from high dimensional omics data (gene, protein, metabolic, signaling) to characterize adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) for chemicals that disrupt the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal endocrine axis in fathead minnows. Gene expression changes in fathead minnow ovaries in response to 7 different chemicals, over different times, doses, and in vivo versus in vitro conditions were captured in a large data set of 868 arrays. We examined potential AOPs of the antiandrogen flutamide using two mutual information theory methods, ARACNE and CLR to infer gene regulatory networks and potential adverse outcome pathways. Representative networks from these studies were used to predict a network path from stressor to adverse outcome as a candidate AOP. The relationship of individual chemicals to an adverse outcome can be determined by following perturbations through the network in response to chemical treatment leading to the nodes associated with the adverse outcome. Identification of candidate pathways allows for formation of testable hypotheses about key biologic processes, biomarkers or alternative endpoints, which could be used to monitor an adverse outcome pathway. Finally, we identify the unique challenges facing the application of this approach in ecotoxicology, and attempt to provide a road map for the utilization of these tools. Key Words: mechanism of action, toxicology, microarray, network inference

  8. Project financial evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The project financial section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes structures and models to support the technical and economic status of emerging renewable energy options for electricity supply.

  9. Basic Financial Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiborg, Karsten

    This textbook on Basic Financial Accounting is targeted students in the economics studies at universities and business colleges having an introductory subject in the external dimension of the company's economic reporting, including bookkeeping, etc. The book includes the following subjects...

  10. Basic Financial Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiborg, Karsten

    This textbook on Basic Financial Accounting is targeted students in the economics studies at universities and business colleges having an introductory subject in the external dimension of the company's economic reporting, including bookkeeping, etc. The book includes the following subjects...

  11. Morocco - Financial Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The final evaluation of the Financial Services Project (FSP), undertaken by North South Consultants Exchange (NSCE), was undertaken from 17 April to end of September...

  12. Financial Coaching's Potential for Enhancing Family Financial Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, J. Michael; Olive, Peggy; O'Rourke, Collin M.

    2013-01-01

    Financial coaching is an emerging complement to financial education and counseling. As defined in this article, financial coaching is a process whereby participants set goals, commit to taking certain actions by specific dates, and are then held accountable by the coach. In this way, financial coaching is designed to help participants bridge the…

  13. Financial Literacy as the Foundation for Individual Financial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwiastanti, Anis

    2015-01-01

    Research that is dealing with financial literacy turns to be such an important thing to be conducted. It is due to the fact that financial literacy level of Indonesian society is still very low. A good financial literacy is necessary for every individual to manage his/her finances to achieve prosperity. To have a good level of financial literacy,…

  14. Financial Coaching's Potential for Enhancing Family Financial Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, J. Michael; Olive, Peggy; O'Rourke, Collin M.

    2013-01-01

    Financial coaching is an emerging complement to financial education and counseling. As defined in this article, financial coaching is a process whereby participants set goals, commit to taking certain actions by specific dates, and are then held accountable by the coach. In this way, financial coaching is designed to help participants bridge the…

  15. Effects of the financial crisis on the wealth distribution of Korea's companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kyuseong; Kim, Soo Yong; Swanson, Todd; Kim, Jooyun

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the distribution functions of Korea's top-rated companies during two financial crises. A power-law scaling for rank distribution, as well as cumulative probability distribution, was found and observed as a general pattern. Similar distributions can be shown in other studies of wealth and income distributions. In our study, the Pareto exponents designating the distribution differed before and after the crisis. The companies covered in this research are divided into two subgroups during a period when the subprime mortgage crisis occurred. Various industrial sectors of Korea's companies were found to respond differently during the two financial crises, especially the construction sector, financial sectors, and insurance groups.

  16. The associations of cumulative adverse childhood experiences and irritability with mental disorders in detained male adolescent offenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bielas, Hannes; Barra, Steffen; Skrivanek, Christine

    2016-01-01

    -reported irritability. The ACE total score predicted depressive disorders, suicidality, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and anxiety disorders. Irritability was positively related to depressive disorders, suicidality, disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), substance use disorder (SUD), and attention deficit...... and SUD, the training of emotion regulation techniques appears most promising. Approaches focusing on both, ACEs and emotion-focused contents may be implemented in the treatment of depressive disorders and suicidality....

  17. Vanishing Financial Contagion?

    OpenAIRE

    Didier, Tatiana; Mauro, Paolo; Schmukler, Sergio L.

    2008-01-01

    While a number of crises in emerging markets generated widespread contagion in financial markets during the 1990s, more recent crises (notably, in Argentina) have been mostly contained within national borders. This has led some observers to wonder whether contagion might have become a feature of the past, with financial markets now better discriminating between emerging countries with good and bad fundamentals. Available data suggest that the main channels that contribute to transmitting fina...

  18. Chaotic Financial Tornadoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakimowicz, Aleksander

    In contemporary economies classic business cycles are increasingly changing their form undergoing a transformation into phenomena that have been nicknamed financial tornados. A generalization of the Lotka-Volterra model can be used to describe these fast-changing processes. Economically speaking, the most useful are such dynamical systems in which wormholes appear. This article features application of a model with one population of prey and two populations of predators in order to explain the global financial crisis and the consequent phenomena.

  19. Steps Toward Financial Viability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ If the world learns one lesson from the financial crisis,it should be this: The global economy needs a more disciplined financial system.To accomplish this,more reforms should be carried out.The World Economic and Social Survey 2010,a recent report by the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations,outlined this issue.Edited excerpts follow:

  20. THE FINANCIAL SECTOR IN THE FINANCIAL SYSTEM ECONOMY: THEORETICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Kovalenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Broad and narrow approaches of the financial system are obtained. The difference between the financial system and the financial sector (the fi-nancial corporations sector is shown. Organizational and institutional matrix of the financial system of the economy is proposed. Key positions of institutional sectors classification of Ukraine’s economy are analyzed, as well as the System of National Accounts with respect to the financial sec-tor of corporations. The structure of the sector of financial corporations in Ukraine is defined.

  1. East Asian Financial Cycles: Asian vs. Global Financial Crises

    OpenAIRE

    Akira Kohsaka; Jun-ichi Shinkai

    2014-01-01

    We examine the role of financial shocks in business cycles in general and in financial crises in particular in East Asia (Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia and Thailand) since the 1990s. Estimating a Financial Conditions Index, we found that financial shocks explain most of business downturns in all the economies in the Asian Financial Crisis (AFC) in 1997-98, but that the effects of financial shocks are diverse across economies in the Global Financial Crisis (GFC) in 2008-09. In the GFC, the financ...

  2. Financial Performance Analysis Of Financial Service Cooperative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyo Asro Sasmita

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to test and identify empirical evidence regarding the effect of capital structure and loan to financial performance of cooperative where the relationship between loan and financial performance is moderated by non-performing loan. The population of this research is 257 Financial Service Cooperative hereinafter referred to as KJK as the abbreviation for Koperasi Jasa Keuangan of Urban Village Community Economic Empowerment hereinafter referred to as PEMK as the abbreviation for Pemberdayaan Ekonomi Masyarakat Kelurahan in Jakarta 2011 to 2013. Sample is determined by using purposive sampling method. The data is secondary data which is obtained from the Revolving Fund Management Unit hereinafter referred to as UPDB as the abbreviation for Unit Pengelola Dana Bergulir Jakarta. Hypothesis is tested by using multiple linear regression analysis with SPSS 20.00. The number of sample used in this research is 120. Research findings explain that 1 Capital Structure hereinafter referred to as SM as the abbreviation for Struktur Modal has positive and significant impact on financial performance hereinafter referred to as KIN as the abbreviation for Kinerja Keuangan because the probability value of 0000 is smaller than amp945 0.05. Calculation shows that if the capital structure rises 1 assuming that the loan and non-performing loan variables remain the same then the financial performance will increase 0.017. 2 Loans hereinafter referred to as PIN as the abbreviation for Pinjaman given has positive and significant impact on KIN because the probability value of 0001 is smaller than amp945 0.05. If the loan rises 1 assuming that the capital structure and non-performing loan variables remain the same then the KIN will increase 0.013. 3 Non-performing loan has negative and significant effect on KIN because the probability value of 0000 is smaller than amp945 0.05. PBR varible increase 1 assuming that the loan and capital structure variables

  3. Financial burden in recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khera, Nandita; Chang, Yu-hui; Hashmi, Shahrukh; Slack, James; Beebe, Timothy; Roy, Vivek; Noel, Pierre; Fauble, Veena; Sproat, Lisa; Tilburt, Jon; Leis, Jose F; Mikhael, Joseph

    2014-09-01

    Although allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is an expensive treatment for hematological disorders, little is known about the financial consequences for the patients who undergo this procedure. We analyzed factors associated with its financial burden and its impact on health behaviors of allogeneic HCT recipients. A questionnaire was retrospectively mailed to 482 patients who underwent allogeneic HCT from January 2006 to June 2012 at the Mayo Clinic, to collect information regarding current financial concerns, household income, employment, insurance, out-of-pocket expenses, and health and functional status. A multivariable logistic regression analysis identified factors associated with financial burden and treatment nonadherence. Of the 268 respondents (56% response rate), 73% reported that their sickness had hurt them financially. All patients for whom the insurance information was available (missing, n = 13) were insured. Forty-seven percent of respondents experienced financial burden, such as household income decreased by >50%, selling/mortgaging home, or withdrawing money from retirement accounts. Three percent declared bankruptcy. Younger age and poor current mental and physical functioning increased the likelihood of financial burden. Thirty-five percent of patients reported deleterious health behaviors because of financial constraints. These patients were likely to be younger, have lower education, and with a longer time since HCT. Being employed decreased the likelihood of experiencing financial burden and treatment nonadherence due to concern about costs. A significant proportion of allogeneic HCT survivors experience financial hardship despite insurance coverage. Future research should investigate potential interventions to help at-risk patients and prevent adverse financial outcomes after this life-saving procedure. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Revisiting the financial crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄明

    2009-01-01

    Recently,the media and commentators have saturated us with talk of the subprimeinduced financial debacle. Yet,some basic questions remain unanswered:why did almost all of the"market doorkeepers"fail to function in the crisis? Why did the financial intermediaries,such as investment banks selling complex derivatives,go under? Why did the crisis cause such far-reaching repercussions? What seed did U.S.Treasury Secretary Henry Paulson sow for the fiasco to rage globally? What does the future hold for financial regulation? In the face of the tempestuous"financial tsunami,"what lessons should China learn and how should the country develop a more secure capital market? Unlike other macroeconomists, Dr.Huang Ming proceeds from a micro perspective to sort out the financial mess along the logical chain within the capital market.In this interview,Dr.Huang presents a clear and unsettling look at the breakout,transmission and spreading path of the financial crisis

  5. Impact of Financial Liberalization on Financial Depth in Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Ammar Hamad Khalaf

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the Mackinnon-Show hypothesis i.e. financial liberalization promotes financial depth in case of Iraq. Iraq launched a comprehensive program of economic and financial liberalization since 2003. Thus, this paper aims to answer the key question that “is financial liberalization stimulated the financial depth in Iraq?”. By applying the ARDL Autoregressive Distributed Lag model on quarterly data during the period 2005- 2010, the paper finds that the liberalization of interest r...

  6. Framework for financial ratio analysis of audited federal financial reports

    OpenAIRE

    Brady, Richard T.

    1999-01-01

    Federal agencies have traditionally prepared financial reports to monitor and report the obligation and expenditure of federal funding. With the passage of the Chief Financial Officers Act of 1990, Congress called for the production of financial statements that fully disclose a federal entity's financial position and results of operations. The disclosure of this type of information, it was believed, would enable decision-makers to understand the financial implications of budgetary, policy and...

  7. The cumulative effect of smoking at age 50, 60, and 70 on functional ability at age 75

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støvring, Nina; Avlund, Kirsten; Schultz-Larsen, Kirsten

    2004-01-01

    AIMS: As elderly people form a steadily growing part of the population in most parts of the world we are in need of knowledge of the influence of modifiable lifestyle factors on functional ability late in life. This study aims to examine the cumulative impact of smoking from age 50 to 70...... on functional ability at age 75. METHODS: 387 men and women born in 1914 and living in seven municipalities in the western part of the County of Copenhagen were followed for 25 years with examinations in 1964, 1974, 1984, and 1989. Associations between smoking and functional ability were examined using multiple...... logistic regression analyses with cumulative smoking as determinant and physical activity, sex, basic school education, and household composition as possible confounders. RESULTS: There is an adverse relation between smoking and functional ability regardless of the time of examination or the ways...

  8. Cumulative risks of foster care placement for Danish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallesen, Peter; Emanuel, Natalia; Wildeman, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Although recent research suggests that the cumulative risk of foster care placement is far higher for American children than originally suspected, little is known about the cumulative risk of foster care placement in other countries, which makes it difficult to gauge the degree to which factor foster care placement is salient in other contexts. In this article, we provide companion estimates to those provided in recent work on the US by using Danish registry data and synthetic cohort life tables to show how high and unequally distributed the cumulative risk of foster care placement is for Danish children. Results suggest that at the beginning of the study period (in 1998) the cumulative risk of foster care placement for Danish children was roughly in line with the risk for American children. Yet, by the end of the study period (2010), the risk had declined to half the risk for American children. Our results also show some variations by parental ethnicity and sex, but these differences are small. Indeed, they appear quite muted relative to racial/ethnic differences in these risks in the United States. Last, though cumulative risks are similar between Danish and American children (especially at the beginning of the study period), the age-specific risk profiles are markedly different, with higher risks for older Danish children than for older American children.

  9. Latino Mothers' Cumulative Food Insecurity Exposure and Child Body Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Daphne C

    2016-01-01

    To document whether an intergenerational transmission of food insecurity is occurring by assessing low-income foreign-born Latino mothers' experiences with food insecurity as none, once (either childhood or adulthood) or twice (during both childhood and adulthood). Also the association between maternal cumulative food insecurity and children's body composition was examined. Maternal self-reported surveys on retrospective measures of food insecurity during childhood, current measures of food insecurity, and demographics were collected from Houston-area community centers (N = 96). Children's body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were directly assessed. Covariate-adjusted logistic regression models analyzed the association between cumulative food insecurity experiences and children's body composition. Fifty-eight percent of mothers experienced food insecurity both as a child and as an adult and 31% of the mothers experienced food insecurity either as a child or adult. Maternal cumulative exposure to food insecurity was unrelated to BMI but was negatively related to elevated WC. Although an intergenerational transmission of food insecurity does exist, maternal cumulative exposure to food insecurity does not impact children's body composition negatively in the short term. Studying the long-term effects of cumulative food insecurity exposure can provide information for the development and timing of obesity interventions.

  10. USING CUMULATIVE NUMBER DENSITIES TO COMPARE GALAXIES ACROSS COSMIC TIME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behroozi, Peter S.; Wechsler, Risa H. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Marchesini, Danilo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Muzzin, Adam [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Papovich, Casey [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Stefanon, Mauro [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Comparing galaxies across redshifts at fixed cumulative number density is a popular way to estimate the evolution of specific galaxy populations. This method ignores scatter in mass accretion histories and galaxy-galaxy mergers, which can lead to errors when comparing galaxies over large redshift ranges (Δz > 1). We use abundance matching in the ΛCDM paradigm to estimate the median change in cumulative number density with redshift and provide a simple fit (+0.16 dex per unit Δz) for progenitors of z = 0 galaxies. We find that galaxy descendants do not evolve in the same way as galaxy progenitors, largely due to scatter in mass accretion histories. We also provide estimates for the 1σ range of cumulative number densities corresponding to galaxy progenitors and descendants. Finally, we discuss some limits on cumulative number density comparisons, which arise due to difficulties measuring physical quantities (e.g., stellar mass) consistently across redshifts. A public tool to calculate cumulative number density evolution for galaxies, as well as approximate halo masses, is available online.

  11. Maintenance hemodialysis patients have high cumulative radiation exposure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kinsella, Sinead M

    2010-10-01

    Hemodialysis is associated with an increased risk of neoplasms which may result, at least in part, from exposure to ionizing radiation associated with frequent radiographic procedures. In order to estimate the average radiation exposure of those on hemodialysis, we conducted a retrospective study of 100 patients in a university-based dialysis unit followed for a median of 3.4 years. The number and type of radiological procedures were obtained from a central radiology database, and the cumulative effective radiation dose was calculated using standardized, procedure-specific radiation levels. The median annual radiation dose was 6.9 millisieverts (mSv) per patient-year. However, 14 patients had an annual cumulative effective radiation dose over 20 mSv, the upper averaged annual limit for occupational exposure. The median total cumulative effective radiation dose per patient over the study period was 21.7 mSv, in which 13 patients had a total cumulative effective radiation dose over 75 mSv, a value reported to be associated with a 7% increased risk of cancer-related mortality. Two-thirds of the total cumulative effective radiation dose was due to CT scanning. The average radiation exposure was significantly associated with the cause of end-stage renal disease, history of ischemic heart disease, transplant waitlist status, number of in-patient hospital days over follow-up, and death during the study period. These results highlight the substantial exposure to ionizing radiation in hemodialysis patients.

  12. Network externalities across financial institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Castro Iragorri, Carlos Alberto; Preciado Pua, Sergio Andrés; Ordóñez Herrera, Juan Sebastián

    2016-01-01

    We propose and estimate a financial distress model that explicitly accounts for the interactions or spill-over effects between financial institutions, through the use of a spatial continuity matrix that is build from financial network data of inter bank transactions. Such setup of the financial distress model allows for the empirical validation of the importance of network externalities in determining financial distress, in addition to institution specific and macroeconomic covariates. The re...

  13. Balancing Responsibilities – Financial Literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Gail Pearson; Philip N Stoop; Michelle Kelly-Louw

    2017-01-01

    In Australia there is an obligation to promote the informed participation of financial consumers while in South Africa there is an obligation to educate consumers. The Australian obligation is concerned with the financial system as a whole while the South African obligation has generally been focused on general financial education as a tool to promote financial inclusion. There is no obligation for consumers to attain a minimum standard of literacy in credit or finance generally. Financial li...

  14. Labour's Record on Financial Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Daripa, Arup; Kapur, Sandeep; Wright, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    In 1997 the new Labour government launched major initiatives in the area of financial regulation, setting up the Financial Services Authority as a comprehensive regulatory body, supported by the legislative framework of the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000. We evaluate the Labour government’s record on financial regulation in terms of its achievements and failures, especially in dealing with the global financial crisis that started in 2007. While we identify some clear flaws in regulat...

  15. The Structure of Financial Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Bratu Renate Doina; Petria Nicolae

    2011-01-01

    During the current global financial crisis has called into question the role and objectives of the regulation of financial markets and its scope of action. Liberalization of financial services under the impact of globalization and strong innovative character of the financial system, architecture of regulation has generated a change. In this sense, this paper aims to present and evaluate the structure of financial system regulation in the current international context.

  16. Morocco; Financial System Stability Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2003-01-01

    The Financial System Stability Assessment of Morocco reviews the reform program that is aimed at establishing a modern, market-oriented financial system that optimizes the mobilization of savings and the allocation of financial resources. It reviews the modernization of the banking sector and the development of competition within the sector, development of financial markets, and removal of constraints on financial system activity. It also provides reports on the Observance of Standards and Co...

  17. Cumulative Trauma Among Mayas Living in Southeast Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millender, Eugenia I; Lowe, John

    2016-01-04

    Mayas, having experienced genocide, exile, and severe poverty, are at high risk for the consequences of cumulative trauma that continually resurfaces through current fear of an uncertain future. Little is known about the mental health and alcohol use status of this population. This correlational study explored t/he relationship of cumulative trauma as it relates to social determinants of health (years in the United States, education, health insurance status, marital status, and employment), psychological health (depression symptoms), and health behaviors (alcohol use) of 102 Guatemalan Mayas living in Southeast Florida. The results of this study indicated that, as specific social determinants of health and cumulative trauma increased, depression symptoms (particularly among women) and the risk for harmful alcohol use (particularly among men) increased. Identifying risk factors at an early stage before serious disease or problems are manifest provides room for early screening leading to early identification, early treatment, and better outcomes.

  18. Analysis of sensory ratings data with cumulative link models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen; Brockhoff, Per B.

    2013-01-01

    Examples of categorical rating scales include discrete preference, liking and hedonic rating scales. Data obtained on these scales are often analyzed with normal linear regression methods or with omnibus Pearson chi2 tests. In this paper we propose to use cumulative link models that allow...... for regression methods similar to linear models while respecting the categorical nature of the observations. We describe how cumulative link models are related to the omnibus chi2 tests and how they can lead to more powerful tests in the non-replicated setting. For replicated categorical ratings data we present...... a quasi-likelihood approach and a mixed effects approach both being extensions of cumulative link models. We contrast population-average and subject-specific interpretations based on these models and discuss how different approaches lead to different tests. In replicated settings, naive tests that ignore...

  19. Cumulative pion production via successive collisions in nuclear medium

    CERN Document Server

    Motornenko, A

    2016-01-01

    Production of pions in proton-nucleus (p+A) reactions outside of a kinematical boundary of proton-nucleon collisions, the so-called cumulative effect, is studied. The kinematical restrictions on pions emitted in backward direction in the target rest frame are analyzed. It is shown that cumulative pion production requires a presence of massive baryonic resonances that are produced during successive collisions of projectile with nuclear nucleons. After each successive collision the mass of created resonance may increase and, simultaneously, its longitudinal velocity decreases. Simulations within Ultra relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics model reveals that successive collisions of baryonic resonances with nuclear nucleons plays the dominant role in cumulative pion production in p+A reactions.

  20. Solid-state electro-cumulation effect numerical simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Grishin, V G

    2001-01-01

    It is an attempt to simulate as really as possible a crystal's interatomic interaction under conditions of "Solid-state electro-cumulation (super-polarization) effect". Some theoretical and experimental reasons to believe that within solid substances an interparticles interaction could concentrate from the surface to a centre were given formerly. Now, numerical results show the conditions that could make the cumulation more effective. Another keywords: ion, current, solid, symmetry, cumulation, polarization, depolarization, ionic conductor,superionic conductor, ice, crystal, strain, V-center, V-centre, doped crystal, interstitial impurity, intrinsic color center, high pressure technology, Bridgman, anvil, experiment, crowdion, dielectric, proton, layer, defect, lattice, dynamics, electromigration, mobility, muon catalysis, concentration, doping, dopant, conductivity, pycnonuclear reaction, permittivity, dielectric constant, point defects, interstitials, polarizability, imperfection, defect centers, glass, epi...

  1. Association between diastolic blood pressure and cumulative work time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cordeiro

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Diastolic blood pressure was viewed as a generic indicator of aging, and its association with cumulative work time was studied after controlling for age as a potential confounding factor. The study was conducted among production line workers at a Brazilian tannery in July 1993. The association between diastolic blood pressure and cumulative work time was verified by fitting a second-order linear regression model, where diastolic blood pressure was a function of worker's age and cumulative work time. By fitting the model, one can predict that, in the beginning of working life at the tannery, on average each 1-year period is associated with an increase of about 1.5 mmHg in diastolic blood pressure. The fit obtained highlights one component directly associated with work as part of the rate of pressure increase in the study group. This component is twice as high as that directly associated with age.

  2. Baltic Sea biodiversity status vs. cumulative human pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper H.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Korpinen, Samuli

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Many studies have tried to explain spatial and temporal variations in biodiversity status of marine areas from a single-issue perspective, such as fishing pressure or coastal pollution, yet most continental seas experience a wide range of human pressures. Cumulative impact assessments have...... been developed to capture the consequences of multiple stressors for biodiversity, but the ability of these assessments to accurately predict biodiversity status has never been tested or ground-truthed. This relationship has similarly been assumed for the Baltic Sea, especially in areas with impaired...... status, but has also never been documented. Here we provide a first tentative indication that cumulative human impacts relate to ecosystem condition, i.e. biodiversity status, in the Baltic Sea. Thus, cumulative impact assessments offer a promising tool for informed marine spatial planning, designation...

  3. Session: What do we know about cumulative or population impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerlinger, Paul; Manville, Al; Kendall, Bill

    2004-09-01

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of a panel discussion followed by a discussion/question and answer period. The panelists were Paul Kerlinger, Curry and Kerlinger, LLC, Al Manville, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and Bill Kendall, US Geological Service. The panel addressed the potential cumulative impacts of wind turbines on bird and bat populations over time. Panel members gave brief presentations that touched on what is currently known, what laws apply, and the usefulness of population modeling. Topics addressed included which sources of modeling should be included in cumulative impacts, comparison of impacts from different modes of energy generation, as well as what research is still needed regarding cumulative impacts of wind energy development on bird and bat populations.

  4. Cumulant dynamics in a finite population linkage equilibrium theory

    CERN Document Server

    Rattray, M; Rattray, Magnus; Shapiro, Jonathan L.

    1999-01-01

    The evolution of a finite population at linkage equilibrium is described in terms of the dynamics of phenotype distribution cumulants. This provides a powerful method for describing evolutionary transients and we elucidate the relationship between the cumulant dynamics and the diffusion approximation. A separation of time-scales between the first and higher cumulants for low mutation rates is demonstrated in the diffusion limit and provides a significant simplification of the dynamical system. However, the diffusion limit may not be appropriate for strong selection as the standard Fisher-Wright model of genetic drift can break down in this case. Two novel examples of this effect are considered: we shown that the dynamics may depend on the number of loci under strong directional selection and that environmental variance results in a reduced effective population size. We also consider a simple model of a changing environment which cannot be described by a diffusion equation and we derive the optimal mutation ra...

  5. Effect of correlation on cumulants in heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, D K; Netrakanti, P K

    2015-01-01

    We study the effects of correlation on cumulants and their ratios of net-proton multiplicity distribution which have been measured for central (0-5\\%) Au+Au collisions at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This effect has been studied assuming individual proton and anti-proton distributions as Poisson or Negative Binomial Distribution (NBD). In-spite of significantly correlated production due to baryon number, electric charge conservation and kinematical correlations of protons and anti-protons, the measured cumulants of net-proton distribution follow the independent production model. In the present work we demonstrate how the introduction of correlations will affect the cumulants and their ratios for the difference distributions. We have also demonstrated this study using the proton and anti-proton distributions obtained from HIJING event generator.

  6. Financial information processing and development of emerging financial markets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuo BAI; Shouyang WANG; Lean YU; Aoying ZHOU

    2010-01-01

    @@ With the rapid development and globalization of financial markets (especially emerging financial markets), financial information processing has become a hot research area due to its immense practical applications. Such applications include stock market analysis, foreign exchange rate forecasting, option pricing, bank failure prediction, financial risk management, credit rating and scoring, bank loan management, customer relationship management, and antimoney laundering. Accordingly, there has been an increasing demand in using financial information processing techniques for many core financial tasks. Nevertheless, as a new cross-disciplinary field, the existing financial information processing methods are far from practical for scenarios in the global financial market; it is currently not clear how the information processing techniques, which are rapidly emerging, can be used to improve the quality of financial information processing.

  7. Late Financial Distress Process Stages and Financial Ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sormunen, Nina; Laitinen, Teija

    2012-01-01

    The present study adds to our understanding and knowledge of financial distress predictions regarding the usefulness of financial ratios in the late stages of the financial distress process. The study contributes to previous research by generating information concerning: (1) the behavior...... and usefulness of single financial ratios in short-term financial distress prediction when the effect of each different financial distress process stage is considered; (2) the effects of recognition of the financial distress process stage on the financial distress prediction model. The time horizon...... for prediction is less than one year, and the empirical data consist of financial statement information from 106 distressed firms undergoing reorganization and their matched counterparts for 2003-2007. To analyze the effects of the specific distress process stage, the sample has been divided into two groups...

  8. Financial Economy and Financial System: Basis of Structural Interconnection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khorosheva Olena I.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in identification of grounds of interconnection of the financial economy and financial system. The study was conducted with consideration of main provisions of the theory of finance and concept of financial economy, which is a set of means used in the process of reproduction of finance by their owner for formation and / or maintenance of the own system of values in the viable state. For the first time ever the structure of the financial system is identified as an aggregate of financial economies and financial market. The article justifies a necessity of expansion of boundaries of perception of the state financial economy, which is offered to include public financial economy of the state level and the set of financial economies of the state as a subject of economic activity. Such an approach forms a base for justification of the synthesis of participation of the state in financial relations as the owner and as the basic macro-economic regulator. Prospects of further study in this direction are: development of classification of financial economies; revelation of specific features of impact of shadow finance on development of the national financial economy; and assessment of possibilities of inclusion of structured financial products into the system of values of financial economies in Ukraine.

  9. On financial innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. VACIAGO

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, in all countries - albeit to varying degrees - many changes have taken place in the financial structure which have accompanied the development of new instruments, markets and financial intermediaries. A growing literature describes and analyses these changes, generically grouped together under the label of "financial innovation". In order to clarify the costs and benefits of what is meant by financial innovation, it is necessary to jointly examine both its causes and its effects. To this end, it is first necessary to consider some very general questions that thus far have yet to be answered in any certain or unambiguous way, if they have been considered in the scientific literature at all. The present work examines the current state of the theory of financial innovation, to then illustrate the main features of the innovation process currently taking place. This leads to some considerations on the resulting implications for the modus operandi of monetary policy and, more generally, for the definition of this policy’s transmission mechanisms.

  10. PROFITABILITY AND FINANCIAL STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CĂRUNTU CONSTANTIN

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The business activity allows identifying two categories of flows: flows of results and cash flows. Flows affect the income and expenses, participating in training result, the company's profitability. Financial flows involved in their formation both monetary items (which drive the monetary input or output and thus implies a cash flow, and non-cash items (affecting the result, without leading to a cash flow. Are equally identifiable cash flows that do not involve an immediate effect on the outcome or effect on the result equivalent to that spread on the treasury. Financial equilibrium in a general manner evokes the idea of harmony between different elements of a system, which in finance is harmonization of resources with the needs. Financial equilibrium can be defined by the company's ability to secure payment of its proceeds without interruption to current liabilities incurred in implementing its object of activity or tax laws, so it can avoid the risk of bankruptcy. Maintaining financial stability is the essential condition of survival of the enterprise, financial and balanced assessment must take into account the concrete conditions of the occurrence of default.

  11. System Dynamics and Modified Cumulant Neglect Closure Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köylüoglu, H. Ugur; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    Dealing with multipeaked problems, the goal of the paper is to improve the quality of the approximations for the expectations appearing in the differential equations written for the statistical moments of the state vector, guided by insight in the system dynamics. For systems with polynomial non......-linearities, modifications in the cumulant neglect closure scheme are suggested. The methodology is illustrated using the two wells oscillator. An error analysis is performed to compare the modified and ordinary cumulant neglect closure schemes applied at the second and fourth order levels with the exact results available....

  12. Baltic Sea biodiversity status vs. cumulative human pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper H.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Korpinen, Samuli

    2015-01-01

    been developed to capture the consequences of multiple stressors for biodiversity, but the ability of these assessments to accurately predict biodiversity status has never been tested or ground-truthed. This relationship has similarly been assumed for the Baltic Sea, especially in areas with impaired...... status, but has also never been documented. Here we provide a first tentative indication that cumulative human impacts relate to ecosystem condition, i.e. biodiversity status, in the Baltic Sea. Thus, cumulative impact assessments offer a promising tool for informed marine spatial planning, designation...

  13. Aspect of cumulative fatigue damage under multiaxial strain cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamrik, S. Y.; Tang, P. Y.

    1972-01-01

    The concept of order of loading and its effect on cumulative fatigue damage under multiaxial strain cyclings was investigated. The effect is illustrated through nonlinear relationships between biaxial fatigue damage and cycle-ratio diagrams. Uniaxial theories such as Miner's method, the convergence method, and the double linear damage rule in its special and generalized form, were examined and extended to the biaxial case through the octahedral shear strain theory. The generalized double linear damage rule was found more applicable to biaxial cumulative fatigue damage.

  14. Cumulative Incidence of Cancer After Solid Organ Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Erin C.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Segev, Dorry L.; Engels, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Solid organ transplantation recipients have elevated cancer incidence. Estimates of absolute cancer risk after transplantation can inform prevention and screening. METHODS The Transplant Cancer Match Study links the US transplantation registry with 14 state/regional cancer registries. The authors used nonparametric competing risk methods to estimate the cumulative incidence of cancer after transplantation for 2 periods (1987–1999 and 2000–2008). For recipients from 2000 to 2008, the 5-year cumulative incidence, stratified by organ, sex, and age at transplantation, was estimated for 6 preventable or screen-detectable cancers. For comparison, the 5-year cumulative incidence was calculated for the same cancers in the general population at representative ages using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data. RESULTS Among 164,156 recipients, 8520 incident cancers were identified. The absolute cancer risk was slightly higher for recipients during the period from 2000 to 2008 than during the period from 1987 to 1999 (5-year cumulative incidence: 4.4% vs 4.2%; P =.006); this difference arose from the decreasing risk of competing events (5-year cumulative incidence of death, graft failure, or retransplantation: 26.6% vs 31.9%; P 50 years; range, 0.36%–2.22%). For recipients aged >50 years, the 5-year cumulative incidence was higher for colorectal cancer (range, 0.33%–1.94%) than for the general population at the recommended screening age (aged 50 years: range, 0.25%–0.33%). For recipients aged >50 years, the 5-year cumulative incidence was high for lung cancer among thoracic organ recipients (range, 1.16%–3.87%) and for kidney cancer among kidney recipients (range, 0.53%–0.84%). The 5-year cumulative incidence for prostate cancer and breast cancer was similar or lower in transplantation recipients than at the recommended ages of screening in the general population. CONCLUSIONS Subgroups of transplantation recipients have a high absolute risk

  15. A study of cumulative fatigue damage in AISI 4130 steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeelani, S.; Musial, M.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental data were obtained using AISI 4130 steel under stress ratios of -1 and 0. A study of cumulative fatigue damage using Miner's and Kramer's equations for stress ratios of -1 and 0 for low-high, low-high-mixed, high-low, and high-low-mixed stress sequences has revealed that there is a close agreement between the theoretical and experimental values of fatigue damage and fatigue life. Kramer's equation predicts less conservative and more realistic cumulative fatigue damage than the popularly used Miner's rule does.

  16. Persistence and financial markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, S.

    2007-09-01

    The persistence phenomenon is studied in a financial context by using a novel mapping of the time evolution of the values of shares in a portfolio onto Ising spins. The method is applied to historical data from the London Financial Times Stock Exchange 100 index (FTSE 100) over an arbitrarily chosen period. By following the time dependence of the spins, we find evidence for a power law decay of the proportion of shares that remain either above or below their ‘starting’ values. As a result, we estimate a persistence exponent for the underlying financial market to be ≈0.5. Preliminary results from computer simulations on persistence in the economic dynamics of a toy model appear to reproduce the behaviour observed in real markets.

  17. ISSUERS OF FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian GHEORGHE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The rules laid down by Romanian Capital Market Law and the regulations put in force for its implementation apply to issuers of financial instruments admitted to trading on the regulated market established in Romania. But the issuers remain companies incorporated under Company Law of 1990. Such dual regulations need increased attention in order to observe the legal status of the issuers/companies and financial instruments/shares. Romanian legislator has chosen to implement in Capital Market Law special rules regarding the administration of the issuers of financial instruments, not only rules regarding admitting and maintaining to a regulated market. Thus issuers are, in Romanian Law perspective, special company that should comply special rule regarding board of administration and general shareholders meeting.

  18. Turbocharging the Financial Markets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Introduction of new financial instruments may not put China’s markets in the fast lane just yet, a market analyst warns China has introduced new sources of leverage into the financial system, which will enable participants to have "new opportunities both to hedge their bets and lever them up using futures, options and margin trading," according to Mark A DeWeaver, a research analyst in Shenzhen who now manages a fund investing in Asian equities called Quantrarian Asia Hedge. He compares these measures to "turbocharging a car," which he says can damage it if the engine’s basic structure cannot handle the pressure. His main ideas follow:

  19. Basic Financial Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiborg, Karsten

    This textbook on Basic Financial Accounting is targeted students in the economics studies at universities and business colleges having an introductory subject in the external dimension of the company's economic reporting, including bookkeeping, etc. The book includes the following subjects: busin......: business entities, the transformation process, types of businesses, stakeholders, legislation, the annual report, the VAT system, double-entry bookkeeping, inventories, and year-end cast flow analysis.......This textbook on Basic Financial Accounting is targeted students in the economics studies at universities and business colleges having an introductory subject in the external dimension of the company's economic reporting, including bookkeeping, etc. The book includes the following subjects...

  20. Collaborative financial infrastructure protection

    CERN Document Server

    Baldoni, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    The Critical Infrastructure Protection Survey recently released by Symantec found that 53% of interviewed IT security experts from international companies experienced at least ten cyber attacks in the last five years, and financial institutions were often subject to some of the most sophisticated and large-scale cyber attacks and frauds. The book by Baldoni and Chockler analyzes the structure of software infrastructures found in the financial domain, their vulnerabilities to cyber attacks and the existing protection mechanisms. It then shows the advantages of sharing information among financia

  1. Dynamic Insurance and Adverse Selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten); V.A. Karamychev (Vladimir)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractWe take a dynamic perspective on insurance markets under adverse selection and study a generalized Rothschild and Stiglitz model where agents may differ with respect to the accidental probability and their expenditure levels in case an accident occurs. We investigate the nature of dynami

  2. Adverse Effects of Hormonal Contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabatini R

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available contraception acceptability, compliance and continuation. Despite the safety profile of current COCs, fears of adverse metabolic and vascular effects caused by estrogen component, and possible neoplastic effects of these formulations remain. Misperceptions and concerns about side-effects, especially those affecting the menstrual cycle and increased body weight, are often given as reason for discontinuation. Besides, severe adverse effects exist; perhaps they are very rare, but it might be that other cases were underestimated or ignored. It is important to take into account that COCs, as all medications, have some contraindications, which is mandatory to consider. The „pill“ could be not for everyone. In any case, also mild or moderate adverse effects of COCs may impair the woman’s quality of life. It is well known that even small increases in frequency of adverse effects, in COCs-users, could have a general critical health impact because of their widespread use, which is currently expanding to potential risk groups. To avoid adverse events by COC use the exclusion of patients with known risk factors including patient history and family history is necessary. Furthermore the patient should be informed about possible side effects and side effects during OC use should be carefully monitored. Finally the risk benefit analysis for oral contraceptive pills which are worldwide used since more than 50 years for healthy patients is positive. Most women will benefit from additional noncontraceptive benefits such as improvement of acne vulgaris, dysmenorrhoea, stabilization of menstrual bleeding pattern, less ovarian cysts and finally a lower risk for ovarian and breast cancer, which persists even after withdrawl of COC for several years.

  3. Continued Statin Prescriptions After Adverse Reactions and Patient Outcomes: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huabing; Plutzky, Jorge; Shubina, Maria; Turchin, Alexander

    2017-08-15

    Many patients discontinue statin treatment, often after having a possible adverse reaction. The risks and benefits of continued statin therapy after an adverse reaction are not known. To examine the relationship between continuation of statin therapy (any prescription within 12 months after an adverse reaction) and clinical outcomes. Retrospective cohort study. Primary care practices affiliated with 2 academic medical centers. Patients with a presumed adverse reaction to a statin between 2000 and 2011. Information on adverse reactions to statins was obtained from structured electronic medical record data or natural-language processing of narrative provider notes. The primary composite outcome was time to a cardiovascular event (myocardial infarction or stroke) or death. Most (81%) of the adverse reactions to statins were identified from the text of electronic provider notes. Among 28 266 study patients, 19 989 (70.7%) continued receiving statin prescriptions after the adverse reaction. Four years after the presumed adverse event, the cumulative incidence of the composite primary outcome was 12.2% for patients with continued statin prescriptions, compared with 13.9% for those without them (difference, 1.7% [95% CI, 0.8% to 2.7%]; P statin was prescribed after the adverse reaction, 2014 (26.5%) had a documented adverse reaction to the second statin, but 1696 (84.2%) of those patients continued receiving statin prescriptions. The risk for recurrent adverse reactions to statins could not be established for the entire sample. It was also not possible to determine whether patients actually took the statins. Continued statin prescriptions after an adverse reaction were associated with a lower incidence of death and cardiovascular events. Chinese National Key Program of Clinical Science, National Natural Science Foundation of China, and Young Scientific Research Fund of Peking Union Medical College Hospital.

  4. A Parametric Cumulative Sum Statistic for Person Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Ronald D.; Shi, Min

    2009-01-01

    This article develops a new cumulative sum (CUSUM) statistic to detect aberrant item response behavior. Shifts in behavior are modeled with quadratic functions and a series of likelihood ratio tests are used to detect aberrancy. The new CUSUM statistic is compared against another CUSUM approach as well as traditional person-fit statistics. A…

  5. RECURSIVE CLASSIFICATION OF MQAM SIGNALS BASED ON HIGHER ORDER CUMULANTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Weidong; Yang Shaoquan

    2002-01-01

    A new feature based on higher order cumulants is proposed for classification of MQAM signals. Theoretical analysis justify that the new feature is invariant with respect to translation (shift), scale and rotation transform of signal constellations, and can suppress color or white additive Gaussian noise. Computer simulation shows that the proposed recursive orderreduction based classification algorithm can classify MQAM signals with any order.

  6. Hierarchical Bayesian parameter estimation for cumulative prospect theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nilsson, H.; Rieskamp, J.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.

    2011-01-01

    Cumulative prospect theory (CPT Tversky & Kahneman, 1992) has provided one of the most influential accounts of how people make decisions under risk. CPT is a formal model with parameters that quantify psychological processes such as loss aversion, subjective values of gains and losses, and

  7. Cumulative psychosocial stress, coping resources, and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Sheila W; Kingston, Dawn; Bayrampour, Hamideh; Dolan, Siobhan M; Tough, Suzanne C

    2014-12-01

    Preterm birth constitutes a significant international public health issue, with implications for child and family well-being. High levels of psychosocial stress and negative affect before and during pregnancy are contributing factors to shortened gestation and preterm birth. We developed a cumulative psychosocial stress variable and examined its association with early delivery controlling for known preterm birth risk factors and confounding environmental variables. We further examined this association among subgroups of women with different levels of coping resources. Utilizing the All Our Babies (AOB) study, an ongoing prospective pregnancy cohort study in Alberta, Canada (n = 3,021), multinomial logistic regression was adopted to examine the independent effect of cumulative psychosocial stress and preterm birth subgroups compared to term births. Stratified analyses according to categories of perceived social support and optimism were undertaken to examine differential effects among subgroups of women. Cumulative psychosocial stress was a statistically significant risk factor for late preterm birth (OR = 1.73; 95 % CI = 1.07, 2.81), but not for early preterm birth (OR = 2.44; 95 % CI = 0.95, 6.32), controlling for income, history of preterm birth, pregnancy complications, reproductive history, and smoking in pregnancy. Stratified analyses showed that cumulative psychosocial stress was a significant risk factor for preterm birth at psychosocial stress on the risk for early delivery.

  8. The proportional odds cumulative incidence model for competing risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Frank; Li, Jianing; Scheike, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We suggest an estimator for the proportional odds cumulative incidence model for competing risks data. The key advantage of this model is that the regression parameters have the simple and useful odds ratio interpretation. The model has been considered by many authors, but it is rarely used in pr...

  9. Is learning in problem-based learning cumulative?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.H.J. Yew (Elaine); E. Chng (Esther); H.G. Schmidt (Henk)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractProblem-based learning (PBL) is generally organized in three phases, involving collaborative and self-directed learning processes. The hypothesis tested here is whether learning in the different phases of PBL is cumulative, with learning in each phase depending on that of the previous ph

  10. Cumulative assessment : Strategic choices to influence students' study effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerdijk, Wouter; Tio, Rene A.; Mulder, B. Florentine; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2013-01-01

    Background: It has been asserted that assessment can and should be used to drive students' learning. In the current study, we present a cumulative assessment program in which test planning, repeated testing and compensation are combined in order to influence study effort. The program is aimed at hel

  11. Repeated mild injury causes cumulative damage to hippocampal cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. Matser (Amy); C.I. de Zeeuw (Chris); J.T. Weber (John)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractAn interesting hypothesis in the study of neurotrauma is that repeated traumatic brain injury may result in cumulative damage to cells of the brain. However, post-injury sequelae are difficult to address at the cellular level in vivo. Therefore, it is necessary to compl

  12. The effects of cumulative practice on mathematics problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, Kristin H; Chase, Philip N

    2002-01-01

    This study compared three different methods of teaching five basic algebra rules to college students. All methods used the same procedures to teach the rules and included four 50-question review sessions interspersed among the training of the individual rules. The differences among methods involved the kinds of practice provided during the four review sessions. Participants who received cumulative practice answered 50 questions covering a mix of the rules learned prior to each review session. Participants who received a simple review answered 50 questions on one previously trained rule. Participants who received extra practice answered 50 extra questions on the rule they had just learned. Tests administered after each review included new questions for applying each rule (application items) and problems that required novel combinations of the rules (problem-solving items). On the final test, the cumulative group outscored the other groups on application and problem-solving items. In addition, the cumulative group solved the problem-solving items significantly faster than the other groups. These results suggest that cumulative practice of component skills is an effective method of training problem solving.

  13. A Parametric Cumulative Sum Statistic for Person Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Ronald D.; Shi, Min

    2009-01-01

    This article develops a new cumulative sum (CUSUM) statistic to detect aberrant item response behavior. Shifts in behavior are modeled with quadratic functions and a series of likelihood ratio tests are used to detect aberrancy. The new CUSUM statistic is compared against another CUSUM approach as well as traditional person-fit statistics. A…

  14. Variable cultural acquisition costs constrain cumulative cultural evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Mesoudi

    Full Text Available One of the hallmarks of the human species is our capacity for cumulative culture, in which beneficial knowledge and technology is accumulated over successive generations. Yet previous analyses of cumulative cultural change have failed to consider the possibility that as cultural complexity accumulates, it becomes increasingly costly for each new generation to acquire from the previous generation. In principle this may result in an upper limit on the cultural complexity that can be accumulated, at which point accumulated knowledge is so costly and time-consuming to acquire that further innovation is not possible. In this paper I first review existing empirical analyses of the history of science and technology that support the possibility that cultural acquisition costs may constrain cumulative cultural evolution. I then present macroscopic and individual-based models of cumulative cultural evolution that explore the consequences of this assumption of variable cultural acquisition costs, showing that making acquisition costs vary with cultural complexity causes the latter to reach an upper limit above which no further innovation can occur. These models further explore the consequences of different cultural transmission rules (directly biased, indirectly biased and unbiased transmission, population size, and cultural innovations that themselves reduce innovation or acquisition costs.

  15. Cumulative index 1981-1985, Volumes 138-157.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    This cumulative index also includes listings of all major papers from the American Journal of Neuroradiology, American Journal of Roentgenology, Clinics in Diagnostic Ultrasound, Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography, Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine, RadioGraphics, Radiologic Clinics of North America, Seminars in Nuclear Medicine, Seminars in Roentgenology, and Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MR.

  16. Cumulative index 1981-1985, Volumes 138-157

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    This cumulative index also includes listings of all major papers from the American Journal of Neuroradiology, American Journal of Roentgenology, Clinics in Diagnostic Ultrasound, Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography, Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine, RadioGraphics, Radiologic Clinics of North America, Seminars in Nuclear Medicine, Seminars in Roentgenology, and Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MR.

  17. Financial literacy: an interface between financial information and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Business Review Volume 13 Number 2 2009. Financial ... connection between the financial numbers and the real business world context. ...... 'The knowledge-creating company', Harvard Business Review, November/.

  18. Financial market contagion

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Morgan

    2008-01-01

    The power of the metaphor of contagion—that beliefs, actions, and strategies spread among economic agents like pathogens among biological organisms— causes it to recur in disparate areas of economics. This article focusses on four applications of contagion to economics: social influence or memoryless learning; Bayesian social learning; strategy choice in coordination games; and the spread of crises in international financial markets.

  19. Coping with Financial Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabotar, Kent John

    2007-01-01

    Colleges and universities, like corporations and other nonprofit organizations, are subject to periodic fluctuations in the economy and public support. Thus, the question is not whether they will confront financial problems but rather when and how. This article describes how institutions and boards can detect budgets in crisis, provides principles…

  20. Offshore Financial Centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigan, Duncan

    2014-01-01

    of ‘tax havens’. The chapter argues in consequence that policy success relies on an admixture of unilateral innovation and mutually reinforcing policy instruments. In the context of the global financial crisis and acute concerns regarding fiscal capacity US intervention has had a catalytic effect. EU...... this analysis of creeping policy competence in the EU and an emergent regulatory assemblage....

  1. Financial Disclosure Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Carol

    1983-01-01

    A study of school board presidents and superintendents in Washington, Missouri, and New Jersey reveals that strict financial disclosure laws tend to reduce the number of professionals on boards; however, board members with professional occupations differ from other board members on a number of measures. (MLF)

  2. New Financial Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Michael G.

    1991-01-01

    This report synthesizes experiences in a number of countries (United Kingdom, Netherlands, Germany, Australia, Japan) on the market economy in higher education. Considered are market forces, various financial structures (institutional budgets, student funding, research infrastructure, other income, staffing), and implications for the future. (MSE)

  3. L'archipel financier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian MILELLI

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available Un nouveau système financier, à la fois concentré et autonome, se met en place. Ses «lieux sacrés» sont cartographiés: «centres universels» majeurs (2 ou 3, centres régionaux, centres «spécialisés» en archipel.

  4. Financial Derivatives in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Francis Repka sees bright prospects for the future development of the financial derivatives market in China. Repka,Vice President of the Asian Bond Finance Department of Societe Generale, says the situation in France just after the birth of derivatives was very similar to the situation in China today.

  5. Tentamentraining financial accounting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankers, C.H.A.M.; Langendijk, H.P.A.J.; Epe, P.

    2005-01-01

    NIVRA-Nyenrode verzorgt een opleiding tot registeraccountant. Hiervoor wordt college- en studiemateriaal ontwikkeld. Sedert 1974 stelt een kerngroep/examencommissie opgaven en uitwerkingen samen voor de tentamens van het vak Financial Accounting (voorheen Waarde & Winst c.q. Elementaire kennis Exter

  6. Financial Giffen Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Rolf; Rasmussen, Kourosh Marjani

    2008-01-01

    In the basic Markowitz and Merton models, a stock’s weight in efficient portfolios goes up if its expected rate of return goes up. Put differently, there are no financial Giffen goods. By an example from mortgage choice we illustrate that for more complicated portfolio problems Giffen effects do...

  7. International Financial Reporting Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam

    2011-01-01

    The advance of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) across the globe has accelerated over the last few years. This is placing increasing demands on educators to respond to these changes by an increased focus on IFRS in the curricula of accounting students. This paper reviews a range...... of educational texts covering IFRS within the context of a review of the progress of IFRS themselves....

  8. The case for financialization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, E.

    2008-01-01

    The tempestuous rise of finance in contemporary capitalism has incited a frantic search for new conceptual tools to make empirical and theoretical sense of it. Financialization and the theoretical connotations it carries, is one such new conceptual tool. Although a growing number of scholars are usi

  9. Consumer financial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Raaij, W.F.

    2014-01-01

    Consumer financial behavior is a domain between micro-economics, behavioral finance, and marketing. It is based on insights and behavioral theories from cognitive, economic, and social psychology (biases, heuristics, social influences), in the context of and sometimes in conflict with micro-economic

  10. Financial Analysis of HRD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995

    These five papers are from a symposium facilitated by Ronald L. Jacobs on financial analysis of human resource development (HRD) at the 1995 Academy of Human Resource Development conference. "Return on Investment--Beyond the Four Levels!" (Jack J. Phillips) offers a modification of the Kirkpatrick model of evaluation for HRD in…

  11. International Financial Reporting Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam

    2011-01-01

    The advance of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) across the globe has accelerated over the last few years. This is placing increasing demands on educators to respond to these changes by an increased focus on IFRS in the curricula of accounting students. This paper reviews a range...

  12. A Financial Marriage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN XINZHEN

    2010-01-01

    @@ Love is in the air as financial church bells ring,ushering in a bonding between CITIC Securities Co.Ltd.land Crédit Agricole S.A.(CASA).The Chinese company and the French bank are planning to establish a global investment bank and strategic brokerage alliance,said a memorandum of understanding signed by the two sides on May 3.

  13. The US Financial Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, John L.

    2011-01-01

    for each other's shortcomings rather than reinforce each other's incentives. This paper uses evidence from the US financial crisis of 2008 to adjudicate this debate. It argues that different types of institutional complementarities are necessary in combination to ensure market stability and successful...

  14. Cumulative risk assessment for plasticizer-contaminated food using the hazard index approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J W; Chen, C Y; Yan, B R; Chang, M H; Tseng, S H; Kao, Y M; Chen, J C; Lee, C C

    2014-06-01

    Phthalates strongly and adversely affect reproduction, development and liver function. We did a cumulative risk assessment for simultaneous exposure to nine phthalates using the hazard index (HI) and the levels of nine phthalates in 1200 foodstuff samples. DEHP (di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate) present the highest level (mean: 0.443 mg/kg) in 1200 samples, and the highest average daily dose (ADD) was found in DEHP, ΣDBP(i + n) (the sum of dibutyl phthalate [DBP] isomers [DnBP + DiBP]) posed the highest risk potential of all the phthalates. In seven phthalates, the 95th percentiles of the ADDs for ΣDBP(i + n) in 0-6-yr-old children accounted for 91% (79-107%) of the tolerable daily intake, and the 95th percentiles of the HIs for the anti-androgenic effects of five phthalates in 0-3-yr-old children and 4-6-yr-old girls were >1. We conclude that the health of younger Taiwanese may be adversely affected by overexposure of phthalate-contaminated foods.

  15. FINANCIAL INFORMATION, EFFECTS OF FINANCIAL INFORMATION ON ECONOMIC DECISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAK ISA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Financial information has, indisputably, an important effect in economics. To form an effective capital market, financial information must be reliable and accurate. Misleading financial information always has a negative impact on economic decision taken by users. It is known that financial information as the cornerstone of financial markets, can improve economic performance in several ways. Nowadays we are facing economic crisis due to irregularities of presentation of financial statements to users. Misunderstandings cause economic recession. Detection of fraudulent financial information, is an important issue facing the auditing profession. Currently, bankruptcy of companies around the world, leaves millions of people without jobs, this is caused by financial information which is manipulated by companies. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effects of errors and manipulation committed in the financial information sector on the real economy. Also one of the purposes of this paper is to analyze error and fraud in financial statements how it effects the real economy and the reasons for committing fraud in financial statements. Also, several suggestions are included in this study about actions that can be taken to prevent errors and manipulation in financial information.

  16. Inmate Perceptions of Financial Education Needs: Suggestions for Financial Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Call, Lindsay Larson; Dyer, W. Justin; Wiley, Angela R.; Day, Randal D.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, national attention has turned to the need for increased financial education, particularly for low-income populations. Incarcerated individuals represent a growing low-income group with unique needs that could likely benefit from financial education. However, few studies have examined the specific financial education needs of inmates,…

  17. Workplace Financial Education Facilitates Improvement in Personal Financial Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prawitz, Aimee D.; Cohart, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Based on the life-cycle theory of consumption, this quasi-experimental study of 995 employees examined changes in financial behaviors following employee-needs-driven workplace financial education. Repeated-measures ANOVA compared participants and non-participants on perceived financial wellness and savings ratios; main effects indicated that both…

  18. Financial Stress and Financial Counseling: Helping College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, Sonya L.; Canale, Anthony; Fernatt, Fred; Stutz, Kristen; Tibbetts, Racquel

    2015-01-01

    This study had two distinct purposes. First, to determine the predictors of financial stress among college students who sought free peer-based financial counseling from a large Midwestern university (N = 675). Secondly, to determine the effectiveness of the particular financial counseling center from a subsample of those who sought help (N = 97).…

  19. Financial Planners: Educating Widows in Personal Financial Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korb, Brian R.

    2010-01-01

    Widows constitute a growing segment of the U.S. population; however, very little has been done to educate them on the basics of personal financial planning. The creation and implementation of financial planning education programs for widows can help them become more financially literate and free them from anxiety and fear. Interviews with eight…

  20. Financial Inclusion and Financial Fragility: An Empirical Note

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Saibal

    2008-01-01

    Using data on Indian state-owned banks for 1997-2007, the article tests the relationship between financial inclusion and financial fragility. The findings reveal that these variables are intertwined, with each tending to reinforce the other. More importantly, financial fragility is a non-linear determinant of both availability and use of banking services.

  1. CUMULANTS OF STOCHASTIC RESPONSE FOR A CLASS OF SPECIAL NONHOLONOMIC SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG MEI; ZHANG YI

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies the response cumulants for a kind of special nonholonomic systems under non-Gaussian, delta- correlated excitations. We present a new methodology for formulating the equations governing the evolution of the response cumulants of the stochastic dynamic systems. The response cumulant differential equations (CDEs) derived can be used to calculate the response cumulants for both linear and nonlinear systems. One example is given to illustrate how to use the CDEs for calculating response cumulants.

  2. Financial structure signalling to auditors` pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etumudon Ndidi ASIEN

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically examines capital structure signalling to auditors. Financial structure has adverse selection that can negatively affect auditors’ perception of firm value or risk, which can lead the auditor to charge high price. We expect firms’ financial structure to positively relate with auditors’ pricing. Using panel data analysis methodology to analyse data of 311 firm-year observations of non-finance firms covering the period 2012-2015, pooled OLS regression results suggest that financial structure is positively related to auditors’ price. We find that equity, but not debt, is significantly related to auditors’ price. These results hold after controlling for auditor type. The positive relations suggest lower perceptions of firm value (hence high risk by auditors, thereby making firms to pay higher auditors’ price. This suggests that auditors penalise equity financed firms more than debt financed firms, probably because auditors interpret equity financing as firms’ inability to raise debt. Based on the findings, we recommend that auditors should monitor the capital structure of their clients to guide them in pricing their services. We also recommend that corporate finance managers should rebalance their firms’ capital structure cognisant of the fact that it signals to auditors.

  3. Financial Management: An Organic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Judy

    2013-01-01

    Although textbooks present corporate finance using a topical approach, good financial management requires an organic approach that integrates the various assignments financial managers confront every day. Breaking the tasks into meaningful subcategories, the current article offers one approach.

  4. For a Better Financial Order

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Chinese leaders and scholars suggest reforms to strengthen the international financial system As the international financial crisis plunges many countries into economic turmoil, China’s relatively stable economic growth is reassuring to the

  5. Financial Literacy Education for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarecke, Jodi; Taylor, Edward W.; Hira, Tahira K.

    2014-01-01

    Exploring the pedagogical approaches of four women's financial literacy education programs, this chapter provides an overview of trends and needs in financial education for women and offers pedagogical strategies for teaching women about finance.

  6. Financial Literacy Education for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarecke, Jodi; Taylor, Edward W.; Hira, Tahira K.

    2014-01-01

    Exploring the pedagogical approaches of four women's financial literacy education programs, this chapter provides an overview of trends and needs in financial education for women and offers pedagogical strategies for teaching women about finance.

  7. Optimal Contracting under Adverse Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenells, Jonatan; Stea, Diego; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2015-01-01

    We study a model of adverse selection, hard and soft information, and mentalizing ability--the human capacity to represent others' intentions, knowledge, and beliefs. By allowing for a continuous range of different information types, as well as for different means of acquiring information, we dev...... of that information. This strategy affects the properties of the optimal contract, which grows closer to the first best. This research provides insights into the implications of mentalizing for agency theory....

  8. Market liquidity and financial stability.

    OpenAIRE

    CROCKETT, A.

    2008-01-01

    Stability in financial institutions and in financial markets are closely intertwined. Banks and other financial institutions need liquid markets through which to conduct risk management. And markets need the back-up liquidity lines provided by financial institutions. Market liquidity depends not only on objective, exogenous factors, but also on endogenous market dynamics. Central banks responsible for systemic stability need to consider how far their traditional responsibility for the health ...

  9. Gender issues of financial analysts

    OpenAIRE

    Jingwen Ge

    2013-01-01

    Increased attention has been drawn to the gender disparity in workplace. This dissertation is dedicated to provide sight to the gender issues in financial analysts. Profound literature reviews are conducted about gender issues and financial analysts, respectively in order to comprehend the existing gender concerns in the business world, and role and functions of financial analysts. Research proposals are described to answer the following question: whether women financial analysts are more lik...

  10. SIMPLE INNOVATION OF FINANCIAL ASSET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shunming

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a simple two-period model of the innovationof financial asset by commission-revenue maximization exchange. The economic agents with meanvariance preferences take transaction costs in the process of trading the financial asset, the buying per-unit commission of the futures contract and the selling per-unit commission of the financial asset. The commission-revenue maximization exchange innovates financial asset.

  11. Social Knowledge for Financial Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Gertraude Mikl-Horke

    2010-01-01

    Financial literacy is an important issue today, but it is directed/limited to improve the practical skills of people taking financial markets and their present working for granted. However, financial markets are social institutions and social processes involving network relations as well as rules and norms. Globalization has resulted in a dominating role of financial markets over the economy with importance for the transformation of capitalistic society. The sociological perspectives on finan...

  12. Financial Market: Sector Strategy (2000)

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    This Financial Market Development Strategy (GN-1948-3) has been prepared to assist IDB staff in the process of supporting financial market development, as financial markets provide the appropriate environment for capital mobilization to profitable investment opportunities. The IDB must strive for balance with a continued concentration on the establishment of efficient and effective, safe and sound banking systems, while pursuing opportunities to motivate nonbank financial markets, institution...

  13. Strategic Planning and Financial Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conneely, James F.

    2010-01-01

    Strong financial management is a strategy for strategic planning success in student affairs. It is crucial that student affairs professionals understand the necessity of linking their strategic planning with their financial management processes. An effective strategic planner needs strong financial management skills to implement the plan over…

  14. Financial globalization and crises: overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.; Claessens, S.; Schmukler, S.L.; Caprio, G.; Beck, T.; Claessens, S.; Schmukler, S.L.

    2013-01-01

    Financial globalization, the integration of countries with the global financial system, has increased substantially since the 1970s and particularly with more force since the 1990s. Financial globalization has shown to pose both benefits and risks to developed countries and developing countries alik

  15. "Financial Bubbles" and Monetary Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, Yuriy A.; Pudovkina, Olga E.; Permjakova, Juliana V.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of this research is caused by the need of strengthening a role of monetary regulators to prevent financial bubbles in the financial markets. The aim of the article is the analysis of a problem of crisis phenomena in the markets of financial assets owing to an inadequate growth of their cost, owing to subjective reasons. The leading…

  16. Financial integration and liquidity crises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castiglionesi, Fabio; Feriozzi, F.; Lorenzoni, G.

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of financial integration on the stability of the banking system. Financial integration allows banks in different regions to smooth local liquidity shocks by borrowing and lending on a common interbank market. We show under which conditions financial integration

  17. Senegal : Country Financial Accountability Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    This Country Financial Accountability Assessment (CFAA) examines the financial management in both the public and private sectors, aimed as an evaluation, not an audit, and, identifies financial risks within current practices, and procedures in Senegal. It does not however, intend to suggest an accurate, final allocation of public resources, though it facilitates implementation of action pl...

  18. Financial globalization and crises: overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.; Claessens, S.; Schmukler, S.L.; Caprio, G.; Beck, T.; Claessens, S.; Schmukler, S.L.

    2013-01-01

    Financial globalization, the integration of countries with the global financial system, has increased substantially since the 1970s and particularly with more force since the 1990s. Financial globalization has shown to pose both benefits and risks to developed countries and developing countries

  19. Financial crisis and monetary policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karatas, B.

    2014-01-01

    Written in the midst of the Global Financial Crisis, the goal of this dissertation is to investigate causes of financial crises in general in order to provide empirical evidence of the driving forces of various crises types. Specifically, this thesis analyses the most common types of financial

  20. Financial crisis and monetary policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karatas, B.

    2014-01-01

    Written in the midst of the Global Financial Crisis, the goal of this dissertation is to investigate causes of financial crises in general in order to provide empirical evidence of the driving forces of various crises types. Specifically, this thesis analyses the most common types of financial crise

  1. Erecting a Sturdy Financial Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Jeffrey J.

    1998-01-01

    Explanation of the technological setting in which college and university financial systems have developed is provided for financial officers, to aid in devising a plan for the chart of accounts and erecting an efficient, logical, flexible financial structure. Topics include software/hardware advances, understanding the demand for financial…

  2. Farm and Ranch Financial Statements

    OpenAIRE

    Israelsen, Clark; Feuz, Dillon

    2014-01-01

    This fact sheet is a brief overview of the financial statements and budgeting tools that are likely a part of most farm financial record keeping systems. Links are provided for additional detail on any one financial report or topic. A brief description of a Balance Sheet, a Profit Loss Statement or Income Statement, Statement of Cash Flows and Enterprise Analysis is included.

  3. Director of Financial Aid Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Lynn D.

    Although many independent schools are seeing a diversification in their student bodies, existing structures, such as financial aid awards, have not been modified. In addition, many financial-aid managers in independent schools have 0-5 years of experience in student financial aid. This handbook profiles the overall step-by-step process for…

  4. Strategic Planning and Financial Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conneely, James F.

    2010-01-01

    Strong financial management is a strategy for strategic planning success in student affairs. It is crucial that student affairs professionals understand the necessity of linking their strategic planning with their financial management processes. An effective strategic planner needs strong financial management skills to implement the plan over…

  5. Global financial crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Jusuf Qarkaxhija

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The most recent developments in economy are a clear indicator of many changes, which are a result of this high rate pacing, which also demonstrates as such. Market economy processes occur as a result of intertwining of many potential technological and human factors, thereby creating a system of numerous diver-gences and turbulences. Economics, a social science, is characteri-sed with movements from a system to another system, and is har-monized with elements or components which have impacted the development and application of economic policies as a result. This example can be illustrated with the passing from a commanded system (centralized to a self-governing (decentrali-zed system, while the movement from a system to another is known as transi-tion. Such transition in its own nature bears a number of problems of almost any kind (political, economic, social, etc., and is charac-terised with differences from a country to another. Financial crisis is a phenomenon consisting of a perception of economic policies and creation of an economic and financial stabi-lity in regional and global structures. From this, one may assume that each system has its own changes in its nature, and as a result of these changes, we have the crisis of such a system. Even in the economic field, if we look closely, we have such a problem, where development trends both in human and technological fields have created a large gap between older times and today, thereby crea-ting dynamics with a high intensity of action. If we dwell on the problem, and enter into the financial world, we can see that the so-called industrialized countries have made giant leaps in deve-lopment, while countries in transition have stalled in many fields, as a result of a high rate of corruption and unemployment in these countries, and obviously these indicators are directly connected, thereby stroking the financial system in these countries. Corruption is an element, which directly and indirectly

  6. Gain and loss learning differentially contribute to life financial outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Knutson

    Full Text Available Emerging findings imply that distinct neurobehavioral systems process gains and losses. This study investigated whether individual differences in gain learning and loss learning might contribute to different life financial outcomes (i.e., assets versus debt. In a community sample of healthy adults (n = 75, rapid learners had smaller debt-to-asset ratios overall. More specific analyses, however, revealed that those who learned rapidly about gains had more assets, while those who learned rapidly about losses had less debt. These distinct associations remained strong even after controlling for potential cognitive (e.g., intelligence, memory, and risk preferences and socioeconomic (e.g., age, sex, ethnicity, income, education confounds. Self-reported measures of assets and debt were additionally validated with credit report data in a subset of subjects. These findings support the notion that different gain and loss learning systems may exert a cumulative influence on distinct life financial outcomes.

  7. A financial network perspective of financial institutions' systemic risk contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Qiang; Zhuang, Xin-Tian; Yao, Shuang; Uryasev, Stan

    2016-08-01

    This study considers the effects of the financial institutions' local topology structure in the financial network on their systemic risk contribution using data from the Chinese stock market. We first measure the systemic risk contribution with the Conditional Value-at-Risk (CoVaR) which is estimated by applying dynamic conditional correlation multivariate GARCH model (DCC-MVGARCH). Financial networks are constructed from dynamic conditional correlations (DCC) with graph filtering method of minimum spanning trees (MSTs). Then we investigate dynamics of systemic risk contributions of financial institution. Also we study dynamics of financial institution's local topology structure in the financial network. Finally, we analyze the quantitative relationships between the local topology structure and systemic risk contribution with panel data regression analysis. We find that financial institutions with greater node strength, larger node betweenness centrality, larger node closeness centrality and larger node clustering coefficient tend to be associated with larger systemic risk contributions.

  8. 76 FR 23859 - Financial Management Service Proposed Collection of Information; Financial Institution Agreement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ... Fiscal Service Financial Management Service Proposed Collection of Information; Financial Institution... the Financial Institution Agreement and Application AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: The Financial Management Service, as...

  9. THE ROLE OF FINANCIAL EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING THE FINANCIAL SERVICES MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanka Daneva

    2015-01-01

    Considering the current complexity of financial markets and of financial instruments and services, financial education is part of population’s financial literacy and it ranks as paramount factor in the complex for the financial markets development.

  10. THE ROLE OF FINANCIAL EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING THE FINANCIAL SERVICES MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanka Daneva

    2015-01-01

    Considering the current complexity of financial markets and of financial instruments and services, financial education is part of population’s financial literacy and it ranks as paramount factor in the complex for the financial markets development.

  11. Prevention and Detection of Financial Statement Fraud – An Implementation of Data Mining Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan Gupta

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Every day, news of financial statement fraud is adversely affecting the economy worldwide. Considering the influence of the loss incurred due to fraud, effective measures and methods should be employed for prevention and detection of financial statement fraud. Data mining methods could possibly assist auditors in prevention and detection of fraud because data mining can use past cases of fraud to build models to identify and detect the risk of fraud and can design new techniques for preventing fraudulent financial reporting. In this study we implement a data mining methodology for preventing fraudulent financial reporting at the first place and for detection if fraud has been perpetrated. The association rules generated in this study are going to be of great importance for both researchers and practitioners in preventing fraudulent financial reporting. Decision rules produced in this research complements the prevention mechanism by detecting financial statement fraud.

  12. Trusts and Financialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrington, Brooke

    2016-01-01

    This article identifies trusts as a legal structure associated with the global spread of financialization. Although trusts originated in Medieval England, they have acquired a new significance in contemporary finance by virtue of their advantages in terms of 10 profit maximization and capital...... mobility. As a result, trusts have become common in contemporary structured finance for corporations, in addition to their traditional functions as estate planning and asset protection vehicles for high-net-worth individuals. This article specifies three ways in which the trust structure has facilitated...... the global spread of financialization: by privileging the rentier–investor within the 15 world economy; by perpetuating a distinctively Anglo-American approach to finance internationally; and by increasing the autonomy of finance vis-a-vis the nation-state. This study shares the primarily descriptive...

  13. Trusts and Financialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrington, Brooke

    2017-01-01

    This article identifies trusts as a legal structure associated with the global spread of financialization. Although trusts originated in Medieval England, they have acquired a new significance in contemporary finance by virtue of their advantages in terms of 10 profit maximization and capital...... mobility. As a result, trusts have become common in contemporary structured finance for corporations, in addition to their traditional functions as estate planning and asset protection vehicles for high-net-worth individuals. This article specifies three ways in which the trust structure has facilitated...... the global spread of financialization: by privileging the rentier–investor within the 15 world economy; by perpetuating a distinctively Anglo-American approach to finance internationally; and by increasing the autonomy of finance vis-a-vis the nation-state. This study shares the primarily descriptive...

  14. 77 FR 16894 - Financial Research Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... recognized experts in the fields of economics, financial institutions and markets, statistical analysis, financial markets analysis, econometrics, applied sciences, risk management, data, information standards... Financial Research Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Financial Research, Treasury. ACTION: Notice...

  15. A cumulative entropy method for distribution recognition of model error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yingjie; Chen, Wen

    2015-02-01

    This paper develops a cumulative entropy method (CEM) to recognize the most suitable distribution for model error. In terms of the CEM, the Lévy stable distribution is employed to capture the statistical properties of model error. The strategies are tested on 250 experiments of axially loaded CFT steel stub columns in conjunction with the four national building codes of Japan (AIJ, 1997), China (DL/T, 1999), the Eurocode 4 (EU4, 2004), and United States (AISC, 2005). The cumulative entropy method is validated as more computationally efficient than the Shannon entropy method. Compared with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and root mean square deviation, the CEM provides alternative and powerful model selection criterion to recognize the most suitable distribution for the model error.

  16. Experience of cumulative effects assessment in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piper Jake

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Cumulative effects assessment (CEA is a development of environmental impact assessment which attempts to take into account the wider picture of what impacts may affect the environment as a result of either multiple or linear projects, or development plans. CEA is seen as a further valuable tool in promoting sustainable development. The broader canvas upon which the assessment is made leads to a suite of issues such as complexity in methods and assessment of significance, the desirability of co-operation between developers and other parties, new ways of addressing mitigation and monitoring. After outlining the legislative position and the process of CEA, this paper looks at three cases studies in the UK where cumulative assessment has been carried out - the cases concern wind farms, major infrastructure and off-shore developments.

  17. Petrogenesis of the nakhlite meteorites - Evidence from cumulate mineral zoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Ralph P.; Mcsween, Harry Y., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to a simple igneous petrogenesis for the meteorite Nakhla, which was previously called into question because Mg/Fe ratios in olivine indicate substantial disequilibrium between the predominant cumulus minerals (olivine and augite). Comparative analyses of simulated diffusive zoning and the observed cumulus mineral zoning for all three nakhlites (Nakhla, Governador Valadares, and Lafayette) show that their current compositions do not necessarily reflect parental magma compositions. Diffusion has altered primary cumulus compositions to varying degrees, Nakhla being the least affected, and Lafayette being almost completely reequilibrated. Since mineral zoning in each meteorite is strongly concentric around mesostasis areas, it is inferred that reaction with intercumulus liquid has controlled the observed zoning. It is argued that the nakhlites appear to be a series of relatively simple cumulate rocks which have undergone various amounts of late-magmatic and subsolidus diffusion, possibly reflecting their relative positions in a cooling cumulate pile.

  18. Determination of radionuclides and pathways contributing to cumulative dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, B.A.

    1992-12-01

    A series of scoping calculations has been undertaken to evaluate the absolute and relative contributions of different radionuclides and exposure pathways to doses that may have been received by individuals living in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. This scoping calculation (Calculation 004) examined the contributions of numerous radionuclides to cumulative dose via environmental exposures and accumulation in foods. Addressed in this calculation were the contributions to organ and effective dose of infants and adults from (1) air submersion and groundshine external dose, (2) inhalation, (3) ingestion of soil by humans, (4) ingestion of leafy vegetables, (5) ingestion of other vegetables and fruits, (6) ingestion of meat, (7) ingestion of eggs, and (8) ingestion of cows' milk from Feeding Regime 1, as described in calculation 002. This calculation specifically addresses cumulative radiation doses to infants and adults resulting from releases occurring over the period 1945 through 1972.

  19. Cumulative impacts of oil fields on northern alaskan landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D A; Webber, P J; Binnian, E F; Everett, K R; Lederer, N D; Nordstrand, E A; Walker, M D

    1987-11-06

    Proposed further developments on Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain raise questions about cumulative effects on arctic tundra ecosystems of development of multiple large oil fields. Maps of historical changes to the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field show indirect impacts can lag behind planned developments by many years and the total area eventually disturbed can greatly exceed the planned area of construction. For example, in the wettest parts of the oil field (flat thaw-lake plains), flooding and thermokarst covered more than twice the area directly affected by roads and other construction activities. Protecting critical wildlife habitat is the central issue for cumulative impact analysis in northern Alaska. Comprehensive landscape planning with the use of geographic information system technology and detailed geobotanical maps can help identify and protect areas of high wildlife use.

  20. Effective Carrier Sensing in CSMA Networks under Cumulative Interference

    CERN Document Server

    Fu, Liqun; Huang, Jianwei

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes and investigates the concept of a safe carrier-sensing range that can guarantee interference safe (also termed hidden-node-free) transmissions in CSMA networks under the cumulative interference model. Compared with the safe carrier-sensing range under the commonly assumed but less realistic pairwise interference model, we show that the safe carrier-sensing range required under the cumulative interference model is larger by a constant multiplicative factor. The concept of a safe carrier-sensing range, although amenable to elegant analytical results, is inherently not compatible with the conventional power threshold carrier-sensing mechanism (e.g., that used in IEEE 802.11). Specifically, the absolute power sensed by a node in the conventional mechanism does not contain enough information for it to derive its distances from other concurrent transmitter nodes. We show that, fortunately, a carrier-sensing mechanism called Incremental-Power Carrier-Sensing (IPCS) can realize the carrier-sensing...

  1. Cumulants and Correlation Functions vs the QCD phase diagram

    CERN Document Server

    Bzdak, Adam; Strodthoff, Nils

    2016-01-01

    In this note we discuss the relation of particle number cumulants and correlation functions related to them. It is argued that measuring couplings of the genuine correlation functions could provide cleaner information on possible non-trivial dynamics in heavy-ion collisions. We extract integrated multi-particle correlation functions from the presently available experimental data on proton cumulants. We find that the STAR data contain significant four-particle correlations, at least at the lower energies, with indication of changing dynamics in central collisions. We also find that these correlations are rather long-ranged in rapidity. Finally based on the signs of genuine correlation functions we provide exclusion plots for the QCD phase diagram.

  2. Cumulants of heat transfer across nonlinear quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huanan; Agarwalla, Bijay Kumar; Li, Baowen; Wang, Jian-Sheng

    2013-12-01

    We consider thermal conduction across a general nonlinear phononic junction. Based on two-time observation protocol and the nonequilibrium Green's function method, heat transfer in steady-state regimes is studied, and practical formulas for the calculation of the cumulant generating function are obtained. As an application, the general formalism is used to study anharmonic effects on fluctuation of steady-state heat transfer across a single-site junction with a quartic nonlinear on-site pinning potential. An explicit nonlinear modification to the cumulant generating function exact up to the first order is given, in which the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation symmetry is found still valid. Numerically a self-consistent procedure is introduced, which works well for strong nonlinearity.

  3. Communication impacting financial markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitting Andersen, Jørgen; Vrontos, Ioannis; Dellaportas, Petros; Galam, Serge

    2014-10-01

    Since the attribution of the Nobel prize in 2002 to Kahneman for prospect theory, behavioral finance has become an increasingly important subfield of finance. However the main parts of behavioral finance, prospect theory included, understand financial markets through individual investment behavior. Behavioral finance thereby ignores any interaction between participants. We introduce a socio-financial model (Vitting Andersen J. and Nowak A., An Introduction to Socio-Finance (Springer, Berlin) 2013) that studies the impact of communication on the pricing in financial markets. Considering the simplest possible case where each market participant has either a positive (bullish) or negative (bearish) sentiment with respect to the market, we model the evolution of the sentiment in the population due to communication in subgroups of different sizes. Nonlinear feedback effects between the market performance and changes in sentiments are taken into account by assuming that the market performance is dependent on changes in sentiments (e.g., a large sudden positive change in bullishness would lead to more buying). The market performance in turn has an impact on the sentiment through the transition probabilities to change an opinion in a group of a given size. The idea is that if for example the market has observed a recent downturn, it will be easier for even a bearish minority to convince a bullish majority to change opinion compared to the case where the meeting takes place in a bullish upturn of the market. Within the framework of our proposed model, financial markets stylized facts such as volatility clustering and extreme events may be perceived as arising due to abrupt sentiment changes via ongoing communication of the market participants. The model introduces a new volatility measure which is apt of capturing volatility clustering and from maximum-likelihood analysis we are able to apply the model to real data and give additional long term insight into where a market is

  4. Basic Financial Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiborg, Karsten

    This textbook on Basic Financial Accounting is targeted students in the economics studies at universities and business colleges having an introductory subject in the external dimension of the company's economic reporting, including bookkeeping, etc. The book includes the following subjects......: business entities, the transformation process, types of businesses, stakeholders, legislation, the annual report, the VAT system, double-entry bookkeeping, inventories, and year-end cast flow analysis....

  5. Weathering the financial storm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsson, Tjörvi; Pétursson, Thórarinn G.

    2011-01-01

    to explain a significant share of the cross-country variation in the depth and duration of the crisis and provide quite sharp predictions of the incidence of banking and currency crises. This suggests that country-specific initial conditions played an important role in determining the economic impact...... of the crisis and, in particular, that countries with sound fundamentals and flexible economic frameworks were better able to weather the financial storm....

  6. Seasonal climate change patterns due to cumulative CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Leduc, Martin; Damon Matthews, H.

    2017-07-01

    Cumulative CO2 emissions are near linearly related to both global and regional changes in annual-mean surface temperature. These relationships are known as the transient climate response to cumulative CO2 emissions (TCRE) and the regional TCRE (RTCRE), and have been shown to remain approximately constant over a wide range of cumulative emissions. Here, we assessed how well this relationship holds for seasonal patterns of temperature change, as well as for annual-mean and seasonal precipitation patterns. We analyzed an idealized scenario with CO2 concentration growing at an annual rate of 1% using data from 12 Earth system models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Seasonal RTCRE values for temperature varied considerably, with the highest seasonal variation evident in the Arctic, where RTCRE was about 5.5 °C per Tt C for boreal winter and about 2.0 °C per Tt C for boreal summer. Also the precipitation response in the Arctic during boreal winter was stronger than during other seasons. We found that emission-normalized seasonal patterns of temperature change were relatively robust with respect to time, though they were sub-linear with respect to emissions particularly near the Arctic. Moreover, RTCRE patterns for precipitation could not be quantified robustly due to the large internal variability of precipitation. Our results suggest that cumulative CO2 emissions are a useful metric to predict regional and seasonal changes in precipitation and temperature. This extension of the TCRE framework to seasonal and regional climate change is helpful for communicating the link between emissions and climate change to policy-makers and the general public, and is well-suited for impact studies that could make use of estimated regional-scale climate changes that are consistent with the carbon budgets associated with global temperature targets.

  7. Heavy metal cumulation in crops after the sewage sludge application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gondová Andrea

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available During 1995 - 1996 the crops samples after the sewage sludge application were collected. The heavy metals cumulation in investigated crops from Bardejov increased in order: Zn > Cu > Pb > Ni > Cr > Cd and Banská Bystrica : Zn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Pb > Cd. Heavy metals contents after the sewage sludge application were increased in comparison with the highest admissible concentration in eatable part of crops. The sewage sludge application were not recommended in soils for the growth of vegetables

  8. Finite-volume cumulant expansion in QCD-colorless plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladrem, M. [Taibah University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Madinah, Al-Munawwarah (Saudi Arabia); Physics Department, Algiers (Algeria); ENS-Vieux Kouba (Bachir El-Ibrahimi), Laboratoire de Physique et de Mathematiques Appliquees (LPMA), Algiers (Algeria); Ahmed, M.A.A. [Taibah University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Madinah, Al-Munawwarah (Saudi Arabia); ENS-Vieux Kouba (Bachir El-Ibrahimi), Laboratoire de Physique et de Mathematiques Appliquees (LPMA), Algiers (Algeria); Taiz University in Turba, Physics Department, Taiz (Yemen); Alfull, Z.Z. [Taibah University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Madinah, Al-Munawwarah (Saudi Arabia); Cherif, S. [ENS-Vieux Kouba (Bachir El-Ibrahimi), Laboratoire de Physique et de Mathematiques Appliquees (LPMA), Algiers (Algeria); Ghardaia University, Sciences and Technologies Department, Ghardaia (Algeria)

    2015-09-15

    Due to the finite-size effects, the localization of the phase transition in finite systems and the determination of its order, become an extremely difficult task, even in the simplest known cases. In order to identify and locate the finite-volume transition point T{sub 0}(V) of the QCD deconfinement phase transition to a colorless QGP, we have developed a new approach using the finite-size cumulant expansion of the order parameter and the L{sub mn}-method. The first six cumulants C{sub 1,2,3,4,5,6} with the corresponding under-normalized ratios (skewness Σ, kurtosis κ, pentosis Π{sub ±}, and hexosis H{sub 1,2,3}) and three unnormalized combinations of them, (O = σ{sup 2}κΣ{sup -1},U = σ{sup -2}Σ{sup -1},N = σ{sup 2}κ) are calculated and studied as functions of (T, V). A new approach, unifying in a clear and consistent way the definitions of cumulant ratios, is proposed.Anumerical FSS analysis of the obtained results has allowed us to locate accurately the finite-volume transition point. The extracted transition temperature value T{sub 0}(V) agrees with that expected T{sub 0}{sup N}(V) from the order parameter and the thermal susceptibility χ{sub T} (T, V), according to the standard procedure of localization to within about 2%. In addition to this, a very good correlation factor is obtained proving the validity of our cumulants method. The agreement of our results with those obtained by means of other models is remarkable. (orig.)

  9. The cumulation of methylmercury in fish (Poecilia reticulata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stary, J.; Kratzer, K.; Havlik, B.; Prasilova, J.; Hanusova, J.

    1980-01-01

    Methylmercury labelled with mercury-203 was used for the investigation of the uptake and the release of methylmercury in fish. It has been found that methylmercury compounds adsorbed on fish food remain completely in fish and that they are released with the biological half-time of 110 days. The cumulation of methylmercury from water is very rapid. Equations for the calculation of the concentration of methylmercury in fish were derived and compared with the uptake of phenylmercury and inorganic mercury.

  10. Erupted cumulate fragments in rhyolites from Lipari (Aeolian Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forni, Francesca; Ellis, Ben S.; Bachmann, Olivier; Lucchi, Federico; Tranne, Claudio A.; Agostini, Samuele; Dallai, Luigi

    2015-12-01

    Over the last ~267 ky, the island of Lipari has erupted magmas ranging in compositions from basaltic andesites to rhyolites, with a notable compositional gap in the dacite field. Bulk geochemical and isotopic compositions of the volcanic succession, in conjunction with major and trace elemental compositions of minerals, indicate that the rhyolites were dominantly generated via crystal fractionation processes, with subordinate assimilation. Radiogenic (Sr, Nd, and Pb) and stable (O) isotopes independently suggest ≤30 % of crustal contamination with the majority of it occurring in mafic compositions, likely relatively deep in the system. Within the rhyolites, crystal-rich, K2O-rich enclaves are common. In contrast to previous interpretations, we suggest that these enclaves represent partial melting, remobilization and eruption of cumulate fragments left-over from rhyolite melt extraction. Cumulate melting and remobilization is supported by the presence of (1) resorbed, low-temperature minerals (biotite and sanidine), providing the potassic signature to these clasts, (2) reacted Fo-rich olivine, marking the presence of mafic recharge, (3) An38-21 plagioclase, filling the gap in feldspar composition between the andesites and the rhyolites and (4) strong enrichment in Sr and Ba in plagioclase and sanidine, suggesting crystallization from a locally enriched melt. Based on Sr-melt partitioning, the high-Sr plagioclase would require ~2300 ppm Sr in the melt, a value far in excess of Sr contents in Lipari and Vulcano magmas (50-1532 ppm) but consistent with melting of a feldspar-rich cumulate. Due to the presence of similar crystal-rich enclaves within the rhyolites from Vulcano, we propose that the eruption of remobilized cumulates associated with high-SiO2 rhyolites may be a common process at the Aeolian volcanoes, as already attested for a variety of volcanic systems around the world.

  11. [Cumulative effect of Coriolis acceleration on coronary hemodynamics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapaev, E V; Bednenko, V S

    1985-01-01

    Time-course variations in coronary circulation and cardiac output were measured in 29 healthy test subjects who performed tests with a continuous cumulation of Coriolis accelerations and in 12 healthy test subjects who were exposed to Coriolis accelerations combined with acute hypoxia. Adaptive changes in coronary circulation were seen. It is recommended to monitor coronary circulation during vestibulometric tests as part of medical expertise of the flying personnel.

  12. Understanding Trust in Financial Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    , respectively. In addition, the results marginally indicate that broad-scope trust negatively moderates the relationship between consumer financial knowledge and narrow-scope trust. This study encourages public policy makers, consumer organizations, and financial service providers to continue, improve, and...... their customers and/or in improving their financial healthiness........ This research extends prior research by developing a conceptual framework explaining how these constructs affect consumers' trust in their financial service provider. Based on two surveys comprising 764 pension consumers and 892 mortgage consumers, respectively, the results of this study indicate that financial...

  13. Weathering the financial storm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsson, Tjörvi; Pétursson, Thórarinn G.

    2011-01-01

    The recent global financial tsunami has had economic consequences that have not been witnessed since the Great Depression. But while some countries suffered a particularly large contraction in economic activity on top of a system-wide banking collapse, others came off relatively lightly. In this ......The recent global financial tsunami has had economic consequences that have not been witnessed since the Great Depression. But while some countries suffered a particularly large contraction in economic activity on top of a system-wide banking collapse, others came off relatively lightly...... and severity of the crisis. In particular, we find that the pre-crisis rate of inflation is important in explaining the post-crisis experience. Our results also suggest an important role for financial factors. In particular, we find that large banking systems tended to be associated with a deeper and more...... protracted consumption contraction and a higher risk of a systemic banking or currency crisis. Our results suggest that greater exchange rate flexibility coincided with a smaller and shorter contraction, but at the same time increased the risk of a banking and currency crisis. Countries with exchange rate...

  14. Preventing Financial Risks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    International crisis The global financial crisis can be divided into several stages:From August 2008 to the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers in September 2008 was the U.S.sub-prime mortgage crisis;after September 2008 it became the intemational financial crisis;and as of October 2009 when Greek sovereign debt crisis broke out,the crisis became a sovereign debt crisis.The question is:Is the European currency crisis now in a new stage? And what comes next?We think the present U.S.and European sovereign debt crisis is the aftershock of the U.S.sub-prime crisis,and also the pre-shock that will bring future international financial market more turmoil and push the world economy into another recession.Recently Standard & Poor's placed the European Union on its watch list,and some countries are preparing for the EU to balkanize,so we must be prepared for this crisis.As for the euro crisis,I think we need to decide whether to come to the rescue or not.In rescuing the EU,there are three methods:The European Central Bank issues banknotes to rescue the euro;the euro zone issues euro bonds;or it creates a Europe rescue fund.However,these methods are all difficult to carry out and may trigger inflation.

  15. Fibrations of financial events

    CERN Document Server

    Carf\\i, David

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we shall prove that the plane of financial events, introduced and applied to financial problems by the author himself (see [2], [3] and [4]) can be considered as a fibration in two different ways. The first one, the natural one, reveals itself to be isomorphic to the tangent- bundle of the real line, when the last one is considered as a differentiable manifold in the natural way; the second one is a fibration induced by the status of compound interest capitalization at a given rate i in the interval ] - 1, \\rightarrow [. Moreover, in the paper we define on the first fibration an affine connection, also in this case induced by the status of compound interest at a given rate i. The final goal of this paper is the awareness that all the effects determined by the status of compound interest are nothing but the consequences of the fact that the space of financial events is a fibration endowed with a particular affine connection, so they are consequences of purely geometric properties, at last, depend...

  16. College Students and Financial Distress: Exploring Debt, Financial Satisfaction, and Financial Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archuleta, Kristy L.; Dale, Anita; Spann, Scott M.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of financial concerns on overall mental health has become a popular topic among researchers and practitioners. In this exploratory study, possible associations of financial anxiety were explored using a sample of 180 college students who sought services at a university peer financial counseling center in a Midwestern state. Of…

  17. Cumulative Risk Assessment Toolbox: Methods and Approaches for the Practitioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret M. MacDonell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The historical approach to assessing health risks of environmental chemicals has been to evaluate them one at a time. In fact, we are exposed every day to a wide variety of chemicals and are increasingly aware of potential health implications. Although considerable progress has been made in the science underlying risk assessments for real-world exposures, implementation has lagged because many practitioners are unaware of methods and tools available to support these analyses. To address this issue, the US Environmental Protection Agency developed a toolbox of cumulative risk resources for contaminated sites, as part of a resource document that was published in 2007. This paper highlights information for nearly 80 resources from the toolbox and provides selected updates, with practical notes for cumulative risk applications. Resources are organized according to the main elements of the assessment process: (1 planning, scoping, and problem formulation; (2 environmental fate and transport; (3 exposure analysis extending to human factors; (4 toxicity analysis; and (5 risk and uncertainty characterization, including presentation of results. In addition to providing online access, plans for the toolbox include addressing nonchemical stressors and applications beyond contaminated sites and further strengthening resource accessibility to support evolving analyses for cumulative risk and sustainable communities.

  18. Finite Volume Cumulant Expansion in QCD-Colorless Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Ladrem, M; Al-Full, Z; Cherif, S

    2015-01-01

    Due to the finite size effects, the localisation of the phase transition in finite systems and the determination of its order, become an extremely difficult task, even in the simplest known cases. In order to identify and locate the finite volume transition point $T_{0}(V)$ of the QCD deconfinement phase transition to a Colorless QGP, we have developed a new approach using the finite size cumulant expansion of the order parameter and the $L_{mn}$-method. The first six cumulants $C_{1,2,3,4,5,6}$ with the corresponding under-normalized ratios(skewness $\\Sigma$, kurtosis $\\kappa$ ,pentosis $\\Pi_{\\pm}$ and hexosis $\\mathcal{H}_{1,2,3}$) and three unnormalized combinations of them ($\\mathcal{O}={\\mathcal{\\sigma }^{2} \\mathcal{\\kappa } }{\\mathbf{\\Sigma }^{-1} }$, $\\mathcal{U} ={\\mathcal{\\sigma }^{-2} \\mathbf{\\Sigma }^{-1} }$, $\\mathcal{N} = \\mathcal{\\sigma }^{2} \\mathcal{\\kappa }$) are calculated and studied as functions of $(T,V)$. A new approach, unifying in a clear and consistent way the definitions of cumulant...

  19. Cumulative Risk Assessment Toolbox: Methods and Approaches for the Practitioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonell, Margaret M.; Haroun, Lynne A.; Teuschler, Linda K.; Rice, Glenn E.; Hertzberg, Richard C.; Butler, James P.; Chang, Young-Soo; Clark, Shanna L.; Johns, Alan P.; Perry, Camarie S.; Garcia, Shannon S.; Jacobi, John H.; Scofield, Marcienne A.

    2013-01-01

    The historical approach to assessing health risks of environmental chemicals has been to evaluate them one at a time. In fact, we are exposed every day to a wide variety of chemicals and are increasingly aware of potential health implications. Although considerable progress has been made in the science underlying risk assessments for real-world exposures, implementation has lagged because many practitioners are unaware of methods and tools available to support these analyses. To address this issue, the US Environmental Protection Agency developed a toolbox of cumulative risk resources for contaminated sites, as part of a resource document that was published in 2007. This paper highlights information for nearly 80 resources from the toolbox and provides selected updates, with practical notes for cumulative risk applications. Resources are organized according to the main elements of the assessment process: (1) planning, scoping, and problem formulation; (2) environmental fate and transport; (3) exposure analysis extending to human factors; (4) toxicity analysis; and (5) risk and uncertainty characterization, including presentation of results. In addition to providing online access, plans for the toolbox include addressing nonchemical stressors and applications beyond contaminated sites and further strengthening resource accessibility to support evolving analyses for cumulative risk and sustainable communities. PMID:23762048

  20. 4D Near-Field Source Localization Using Cumulant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Feng

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new cumulant-based algorithm to jointly estimate four-dimensional (4D source parameters of multiple near-field narrowband sources. Firstly, this approach proposes a new cross-array, and constructs five high-dimensional Toeplitz matrices using the fourth-order cumulants of some properly chosen sensor outputs; secondly, it forms a parallel factor (PARAFAC model in the cumulant domain using these matrices, and analyzes the unique low-rank decomposition of this model; thirdly, it jointly estimates the frequency, two-dimensional (2D directions-of-arrival (DOAs, and range of each near-field source from the matrices via the low-rank three-way array (TWA decomposition. In comparison with some available methods, the proposed algorithm, which efficiently makes use of the array aperture, can localize sources using sensors. In addition, it requires neither pairing parameters nor multidimensional search. Simulation results are presented to validate the performance of the proposed method.

  1. 4D Near-Field Source Localization Using Cumulant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junying Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new cumulant-based algorithm to jointly estimate four-dimensional (4D source parameters of multiple near-field narrowband sources. Firstly, this approach proposes a new cross-array, and constructs five high-dimensional Toeplitz matrices using the fourth-order cumulants of some properly chosen sensor outputs; secondly, it forms a parallel factor (PARAFAC model in the cumulant domain using these matrices, and analyzes the unique low-rank decomposition of this model; thirdly, it jointly estimates the frequency, two-dimensional (2D directions-of-arrival (DOAs, and range of each near-field source from the matrices via the low-rank three-way array (TWA decomposition. In comparison with some available methods, the proposed algorithm, which efficiently makes use of the array aperture, can localize N−3 sources using N sensors. In addition, it requires neither pairing parameters nor multidimensional search. Simulation results are presented to validate the performance of the proposed method.

  2. Cumulative risk: toxicity and interactions of physical and chemical stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, Cynthia V; Boekelheide, Kim; Catlin, Natasha; Gordon, Christopher J; Morata, Thais; Selgrade, Maryjane K; Sexton, Kenneth; Simmons, Jane Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Recent efforts to update cumulative risk assessment procedures to incorporate nonchemical stressors ranging from physical to psychosocial reflect increased interest in consideration of the totality of variables affecting human health and the growing desire to develop community-based risk assessment methods. A key roadblock is the uncertainty as to how nonchemical stressors behave in relationship to chemical stressors. Physical stressors offer a reasonable starting place for measuring the effects of nonchemical stressors and their modulation of chemical effects (and vice versa), as they clearly differ from chemical stressors; and "doses" of many physical stressors are more easily quantifiable than those of psychosocial stressors. There is a commonly held belief that virtually nothing is known about the impact of nonchemical stressors on chemically mediated toxicity or the joint impact of coexposure to chemical and nonchemical stressors. Although this is generally true, there are several instances where a substantial body of evidence exists. A workshop titled "Cumulative Risk: Toxicity and Interactions of Physical and Chemical Stressors" held at the 2013 Society of Toxicology Annual Meeting provided a forum for discussion of research addressing the toxicity of physical stressors and what is known about their interactions with chemical stressors, both in terms of exposure and effects. Physical stressors including sunlight, heat, radiation, infectious disease, and noise were discussed in reference to identifying pathways of interaction with chemical stressors, data gaps, and suggestions for future incorporation into cumulative risk assessments.

  3. Childhood poverty and health: cumulative risk exposure and stress dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gary W; Kim, Pilyoung

    2007-11-01

    A massive literature documents the inverse association between poverty or low socioeconomic status and health, but little is known about the mechanisms underlying this robust relation. We examined longitudinal relations between duration of poverty exposure since birth, cumulative risk exposure, and physiological stress in two hundred seven 13-year-olds. Chronic stress was assessed by basal blood pressure and overnight cortisol levels; stress regulation was assessed by cardiovascular reactivity to a standard acute stressor and recovery after exposure to this stressor. Cumulative risk exposure was measured by multiple physical (e.g., substandard housing) and social (e.g., family turmoil) risk factors. The greater the number of years spent living in poverty, the more elevated was overnight cortisol and the more dysregulated was the cardiovascular response (i.e., muted reactivity). Cardiovascular recovery was not affected by duration of poverty exposure. Unlike the duration of poverty exposure, concurrent poverty (i.e., during adolescence) did not affect these physiological stress outcomes. The effects of childhood poverty on stress dysregulation are largely explained by cumulative risk exposure accompanying childhood poverty.

  4. Multiway Filtering Based on Fourth-Order Cumulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Bourennane

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new multiway filtering based on fourth-order cumulants for the denoising of noisy data tensor with correlated Gaussian noise. The classical multiway filtering is based on the TUCKALS3 algorithm that computes a lower-rank tensor approximation. The presented method relies on the statistics of the analyzed multicomponent signal. We first recall how the well-known lower rank-(K1,…,KN tensor approximation processed by TUCKALS3 alternating least square algorithm exploits second-order statistics. Then, we propose to introduce the fourth-order statistics in the TUCKALS3-based method. Indeed, the use of fourth-order cumulants enables to remove the Gaussian components of an additive noise. In the presented method the estimation of the n-mode projector on the n-mode signal subspace are built from the eigenvectors associated with the largest eigenvalues of a fourth-order cumulant slice matrix instead of a covariance matrix. Each projector is applied by means of the n-mode product operator on the n-mode of the data tensor. The qualitative results of the improved multiway TUCKALS3-based filterings are shown for the case of noise reduction in a color image and multicomponent seismic data.

  5. Cumulative risk hypothesis: Predicting and preventing child maltreatment recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, David; Åsberg, Kia; Peer, Samuel; Prince, Gwendolyn

    2016-08-01

    Although Child Protective Services (CPS) and other child welfare agencies aim to prevent further maltreatment in cases of child abuse and neglect, recidivism is common. Having a better understanding of recidivism predictors could aid in preventing additional instances of maltreatment. A previous study identified two CPS interventions that predicted recidivism: psychotherapy for the parent, which was related to a reduced risk of recidivism, and temporary removal of the child from the parent's custody, which was related to an increased recidivism risk. However, counter to expectations, this previous study did not identify any other specific risk factors related to maltreatment recidivism. For the current study, it was hypothesized that (a) cumulative risk (i.e., the total number of risk factors) would significantly predict maltreatment recidivism above and beyond intervention variables in a sample of CPS case files and that (b) therapy for the parent would be related to a reduced likelihood of recidivism. Because it was believed that the relation between temporary removal of a child from the parent's custody and maltreatment recidivism is explained by cumulative risk, the study also hypothesized that that the relation between temporary removal of the child from the parent's custody and recidivism would be mediated by cumulative risk. After performing a hierarchical logistic regression analysis, the first two hypotheses were supported, and an additional predictor, psychotherapy for the child, also was related to reduced chances of recidivism. However, Hypothesis 3 was not supported, as risk did not significantly mediate the relation between temporary removal and recidivism.

  6. MODERN FEATURES OF FINANCIAL GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALENTINA FETINIUC

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, financial globalization as latest stage of financial internationalization process becomes to be the most discussed subject by economic scientists. It has many forms of manifestation and directions of development. One of the main features of financial globalization is increasing the role of the financial sector, linked with the expansion of the scope and complexity of foreign economic relations. The financial system has increasingly become a means of redistribution of financial resources in accordance with the needs and possibilities of development of production not only at national but also at the global level. In this work are presented modern views on financial globalization under aspect of concepts, trends, effects and perspectives.

  7. Adverse responses to local anaesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, M M; Graham, R

    1984-11-01

    Progressive challenge was used to investigate twenty-seven patients with a history of an adverse response to local anaesthesia. True allergy was detected in only one patient. The method does not exclude reactions to additives and preservatives in local anaesthetics. If preservative-free local anaesthetics are used for subsequent exposure in patients with no response to progressive challenge, subsequent exposure is safe. The possibility that some of these patients may be reacting to preservatives in the solutions cannot be excluded by such testing. Where possible preservative-free local anaesthetic preparations should be used for subsequent anaesthesia.

  8. [Adverse ocular effects of vaccinations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, T; Hengel, H

    2016-07-01

    Vaccinations are very effective measures for prevention of infections but are also associated with a long list of possible side effects. Adverse ocular effects following vaccination have been rarely reported or considered to be related to vaccinations. Conjunctivitis is a frequent sequel of various vaccinations. Oculorespiratory syndrome and serum sickness syndrome are considered to be related to influenza vaccinations. The risk of reactivation or initiation of autoimmune diseases (e. g. uveitis) cannot be excluded but has not yet been proven. Overall the benefit of vaccination outweighs the possible but very low risk of ocular side effects.

  9. Family skills for overcoming adversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Patricia Ardila Hernández

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This section draws on research four families in displacement in Tunja Boyacá step of this research is to present the problem of displacement from another different look that has embargoed regarding this topic. Critical reflection was raised from resilient approach Parsons theory in order to understand families immersed in this conflict as change agents capable of adapting to a new system and overcome adversity. Within this scheme is used to obtain qualitative research of the following categories : adaptation to the new social context risk factors present in families and protective factors.

  10. Integrated Financial Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pho, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Having worked in the Employees and Commercial Payments Branch of the Financial Management Division for the past 3 summers, I have seen the many changes that have occurred within the NASA organization. As I return each summer, I find that new programs and systems have been adapted to better serve the needs of the Center and of the Agency. The NASA Agency has transformed itself the past couple years with the implementation of the Integrated Financial Management Program (IFMP). IFMP is designed to allow the Agency to improve its management of its Financial, Physical, and Human Resources through the use of multiple enterprise module applications. With my mentor, Joseph Kan, being the branch chief of the Employees and Commercial Payments Branch, I have been exposed to several modules, such as Travel Manager, WebTads, and Core Financial/SAP, which were implemented in the last couple of years under the IFMP. The implementation of these agency-wide systems has sometimes proven to be troublesome. Prior to IFMP, each NASA Center utilizes their own systems for Payroll, Travel, Accounts Payable, etc. But with the implementation of the Integrated Financial Management Program, all the "legacy" systems had to be eliminated. As a result, a great deal of enhancement and preparation work is necessary to ease the transformation from the old systems to the new. All this work occurs simultaneously; for example, e-Payroll will "go live" in several months, but a system like Travel Manager will need to have information upgraded within the system to meet the requirements set by Headquarters. My assignments this summer have given me the opportunity to become involved with such work. So far, I have been given the opportunity to participate in projects resulting from a congressional request, several bankcard reconciliations, updating routing lists for Travel Manager, updating the majordomo list for Travel Manager approvers and point of contacts, and a NASA Headquarters project involving

  11. Measuring financial performance: an overview of financial statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalsted, N L

    1995-07-01

    Financial management has emerged as a critical component in the long-term viability of today's ranches and farms. Proper and timely financial reporting and analysis of financial statements are valuable tools that agricultural producers can use to monitor, coordinate, and plan their operational production and marketing schemes and strategies. A side note to preparation of financial statements. With the concerns over lender liability issues associated with statements either assisted with or prepared by a lending officer, agricultural producers will be responsible for preparing their own statements. The lending institutions may prepare their own statements in their assessment of the financial condition of a business and or individual, but, ultimately, the responsibility of financial statements is the borrower's. Some of the material presented in this article provides important input for use in such analytical programs as the National Cattlemen's Association, Integrated Resource Committees, and Standard Performance Analysis (SPA). SPA techniques and associated software have been or currently are under development for cow-calf, stocker, seedstock, and sheep enterprises. Critical to the analysis is having complete and correct financial statements. These analytical programs build on the financial statements. These analytical programs build on the financial statements as recommended by the FFSTF. Proper financial reporting is critical not only to a SPA assessment but also to the overall financial management of today's farms and ranches. Recognizing the importance of financial management in production agriculture is not enough, taking a proactive stance in one's financial plan is paramount to success. Failure to do so will only enhance the exit rates of producers from production agriculture.

  12. El Carreto o Cumulá - Aspidosperma Dugandii Standl El Carreto o Cumulá - Aspidosperma Dugandii Standl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugand Armando

    1944-03-01

    Full Text Available Nombres vulgares: Carreto (Atlántico, Bolívar, Magdalena; Cumulá, Cumulá (Cundinamarca, ToIima. Según el Dr. Emilio Robledo (Lecciones de Bot. ed. 3, 2: 544. 1939 el nombre Carreto también es empleado en Puerto Berrío (Antioquia. El mismo autor (loc. cit. da el nombre Comulá para una especie indeterminada de Viburnum en Mariquita (Tolima y J. M. Duque, refiriendose a la misma planta y localidad (en Bot. Gen. Colomb. 340, 356. 1943 atribuye este nombre vulgar al Aspidosperma ellipticum Rusby.  Sin embargo, las muestras de madera de Cumulá o Comulá que yo he examinado, procedentes de la región de Mariquita -una de las cuales me fue recientemente enviada por el distinguido ictiólogo Sr. Cecil Miles- pertenecen sin duda alguna al A. Dugandii StandI. Por otra parte, Santiago Cortés (FI. Colomb. 206. 1898; ed, 2: 239. 1912 cita el Cumulá "de Anapoima y otros lugares del (rio Magdalena" diciendo que pertenece a las Leguminosas, pero la brevísima descripción que este autor hace de la madera "naranjada y notable por densidad, dureza y resistencia a la humedad", me induce a creer que se trata del mismo Cumula coleccionado recientemente en Tocaima, ya que esta población esta situada a pocos kilómetros de Anapoima. Nombres vulgares: Carreto (Atlántico, Bolívar, Magdalena; Cumulá, Cumulá (Cundinamarca, ToIima. Según el Dr. Emilio Robledo (Lecciones de Bot. ed. 3, 2: 544. 1939 el nombre Carreto también es empleado en Puerto Berrío (Antioquia. El mismo autor (loc. cit. da el nombre Comulá para una especie indeterminada de Viburnum en Mariquita (Tolima y J. M. Duque, refiriendose a la misma planta y localidad (en Bot. Gen. Colomb. 340, 356. 1943 atribuye este nombre vulgar al Aspidosperma ellipticum Rusby.  Sin embargo, las muestras de madera de Cumulá o Comulá que yo he examinado, procedentes de la región de Mariquita -una de las cuales me fue recientemente enviada por el distinguido ictiólogo Sr. Cecil Miles- pertenecen sin

  13. A climate stress-test of the financial system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battiston, Stefano; Mandel, Antoine; Monasterolo, Irene; Schütze, Franziska; Visentin, Gabriele

    2017-03-01

    The urgency of estimating the impact of climate risks on the financial system is increasingly recognized among scholars and practitioners. By adopting a network approach to financial dependencies, we look at how climate policy risk might propagate through the financial system. We develop a network-based climate stress-test methodology and apply it to large Euro Area banks in a `green' and a `brown' scenario. We find that direct and indirect exposures to climate-policy-relevant sectors represent a large portion of investors' equity portfolios, especially for investment and pension funds. Additionally, the portion of banks' loan portfolios exposed to these sectors is comparable to banks' capital. Our results suggest that climate policy timing matters. An early and stable policy framework would allow for smooth asset value adjustments and lead to potential net winners and losers. In contrast, a late and abrupt policy framework could have adverse systemic consequences.

  14. The impact of childhood adversities on anxiety and depressive disorders in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marackova, Marketa; Prasko, Jan; Matousek, Stanislav; Latalova, Klara; Hruby, Radovan; Holubova, Michaela; Slepecky, Milos; Vrbova, Kristyna; Grambal, Ales

    2016-12-01

    The childhood adversities model is generally accepted as a predictor of adult psychopathology vulnerability. It stems from child development theories, but the question remains as of how well solid research supports it. The aim of this article is to give a review of the studies concerning childhood adversities and their impact on the development of anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder in adulthood. A computerized search of the MEDLINE database of publications up to 31 March 2016 was done, using the keywords "childhood adversities, abuse, maltreatment, bullying" and "anxiety disorders, depressive disorder". No backward time constraints were used. Non-original studies, conference abstracts, books and book chapters, commentaries, and dissertations were excluded. The influence of childhood adversities on later age psychopathology is examined in five categories: the negative family atmosphere, abuse, loss of a close person, the social difficulties, and problems at school (including, most importantly bullying). The majority of studies confirmed the connection between childhood adversities and anxiety and depression disorders in adulthood. The character of the adversities is not, apparently, a specific predictor for a concrete psychopathology. Multiple adversities are more frequently connected with depressive and anxiety disorders in adulthood, cumulating together in broader adverse context. Childhood adversities were found to increase vulnerability to the distress, depression, fear and anxiety later in the life. However, specific correlations between a given childhood adversity and a specific form of depression or anxiety disorder were either not found or weak. This is in line with the generally accepted view considering each of these factors a non-specific stressor increasing vulnerability to mood and affect disorders later in life.

  15. Co-occurrence between marital aggression and parents' child abuse potential: the impact of cumulative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolin, Gayla; Gordis, Elana B

    2003-06-01

    Evidence suggests that marital aggression and parent-to-child aggression sometimes occur within the same family, but little is known about why certain families are vulnerable to multiple forms of family aggression. According to family systems theory, negative affect in one family relationship can spread to other family relationships. According to family stress theory, aversive circumstances increase families' vulnerability to disruption and conflict. Based on these theories, the present study tests the hypothesis that cumulative family stresses potentiate the association between marital aggression and parents' child abuse potential. In a series of additive interactional models, husband-to-wife aggression was linked to husbands' and wives' child abuse potential in a context of both high financial stress and high parenting stress but was not linked in a context of low stress. Wife-to-husband aggression was linked to wives', but not husbands', child abuse potential in a context of high stress. These results highlight the potential role of contextual factors in the pervasiveness of aggressive exchanges across multiple family subsystems.

  16. Genesis nature of financial strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Pashchenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of the origin and history of the interpretation of the genesis of «strategy», «financial strategy», its elements and composite types. Scientists studied different views on the concept of strategy. Several specific positions founders of different approaches to define the strategy of schools operating strategies involved in the formulation and implementation of the concept of «strategy». Evaluation of different schools of strategies that deepened understanding of the industry and its strategy in the early stages of formation. Based on the works of various scholars studied by the author actually proposed interpretation of the concept strategy. The general industry and functional strategies which include the following strategies: innovation, resource, financial, production, marketing and human resources. Allocated financial strategy and its significant impact on other strategies. Author developed financial sector strategy and financial strategy of competitive enterprise. The importance of financial strategies under conditions of companies and the industry as a whole, as well as components of development of financial strategy. Deals with the factors that must be considered in the development and implementation of financial strategies. The systems analysis strategies and the impact on financial results, the estimation of their attractiveness and risk. Considered classification on the basis of financial strategies and sectoral orientation of the financial sector strategy based on company size, its form and noted the importance of this trait in systematizing strategies. The expediency of the financial strategy. Defined competitive advantage and efficiency of business and industry through the implementation of various financial strategies.

  17. Financial Statements in Providing Financial Security of Agricultural Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Olha Vdovenko

    2014-01-01

    In conditions of severe market competition and economic turmoil financial security of agricultural businesses largely depends on the effectiveness of management decisions, reporting being the information support to ensure such decision making. Thus, the practice of preparing accounting figures and their adjustment has a direct effect on agricultural businesses financial security. Having been generalized at the industry level, statistical and financial statements are used for the development o...

  18. Financial Development, Financial Structure, and Domestic Investment: International Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Ndikumana, Léonce

    2003-01-01

    Does it matter for domestic investment whether a country’s financial system is bank based or stock-market based? This paper posits that financial intermediation affects domestic investment notably by alleviating financing constraints, allowing firms to increase investment in response to increased demand for output. The key result is that the structure of the financial system has no independent effect on investment, in the sense that it does not enhance the response of investment to changes in...

  19. CDC Wonder Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) online database on CDC WONDER provides counts and percentages of adverse event case reports after vaccination,...

  20. "Adversative Conjunction": The Poetics of Linguistic Opposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallerstein, Nicholas

    1992-01-01

    The general use of adversative conjunction in (primarily) English and U.S. poetry is outlined. The contention is that the adversative is not merely a grammatical convenience but sometimes a highly functional tool of rhetorical strategy. (36 references) (LB)

  1. Large-Scale Simulation of Multi-Asset Ising Financial Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaishi, Tetsuya

    2017-03-01

    We perform a large-scale simulation of an Ising-based financial market model that includes 300 asset time series. The financial system simulated by the model shows a fat-tailed return distribution and volatility clustering and exhibits unstable periods indicated by the volatility index measured as the average of absolute-returns. Moreover, we determine that the cumulative risk fraction, which measures the system risk, changes at high volatility periods. We also calculate the inverse participation ratio (IPR) and its higher-power version, IPR6, from the absolute-return cross-correlation matrix. Finally, we show that the IPR and IPR6 also change at high volatility periods.

  2. Reconfiguring the Financial Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Bucur

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The debut of the new millennium is marked by the increased economic and social imbalances. An important task of economic science is to identify the causes and factors that contributed to the radical transformation of the unfolding conditions of economic activity. The existence of different perspectives to approach the new realities may offer greater opportunities for decrypting the conditions that generated so far unknown developments, as well as for shaping solutions to promote new paths of progress and civilization. The defining with profound implications on the economy and society is represented by the globalization. From this perspective, we have analysed the new dimensions of capital accumulation and economic growth in the context of deregulation and liberalization of the international capital movements. In this context, we have noticed the increasing influence of the financial markets on the economy, the tendency to remove the finances from the real economy requirements, the growing role of external financing using more volatile capital goods, increased competition regarding the access to financing, the significant increase of power of the international capital markets whose characteristic is represented by the increased instability, the implications of the investors’ obsession with an excessive profitableness of their own funds and the expansion of using sophisticated financial products. Realities of today’s financial markets, which are the subject of numerous studies and analysis, have contributed to the association of the arguments that are contesting the thesis on the virtues of self-regulation markets and promoting a new paradigm, within which finances should subordinate the requirements of a balanced and sustained economic growth.

  3. Financial Literacy, Financial Education and Economic Outcomes. NBER Working Paper No. 18412

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Justine S.; Madrian, Brigitte C.; Skimmyhorn, William L.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we review the literature on financial literacy, financial education, and consumer financial outcomes. We consider how financial literacy is measured in the current literature, and examine how well the existing literature addresses whether financial education improves financial literacy or personal financial outcomes. We discuss the…

  4. Financial Literacy, Financial Education and Economic Outcomes. NBER Working Paper No. 18412

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Justine S.; Madrian, Brigitte C.; Skimmyhorn, William L.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we review the literature on financial literacy, financial education, and consumer financial outcomes. We consider how financial literacy is measured in the current literature, and examine how well the existing literature addresses whether financial education improves financial literacy or personal financial outcomes. We discuss the…

  5. Borrowing to cope with adverse health events: liquidity constraints, insurance coverage, and unsecured debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiarz, Patryk; Widdows, Richard; Yilmazer, Tansel

    2013-10-01

    This article uses data from the Health and Retirement Study for 1998-2010 to investigate whether households respond to the financial stress caused by health problems by increasing their unsecured debt. Results show both the probability of having unsecured debt and the amount of debt increase after an adverse health event among households with low financial assets, who are uninsured, or who have less generous health insurance. The effect of health problems on borrowing is caused by both medical expenditures and disruptions to the income stream. Unsecured debt seems to remain on some households' balance sheets for an extended period.

  6. Offshoring and financial markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Battisti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the nature and extent of the offshore world, a grey area that is playing a major role in present-day economy. The main institutions moulding this peculiar environment are discussed: preferential tax regimes, tax havens and offshore financial centers. Their role in the globalised world is outlined after a scrutiny of the specialized literature, reports by non-governmental bodies and companies’ advertisings. Finally, we present a tentative reconstruction of its geographical organization, inclusive of cartographic representations of the main international networks.

  7. Analyzing Chinese Financial Reporting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SABRINA; ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    If the world’s capital markets could use a harmonized accounting framework it would not be necessary for a comparison between two or more sets of accounting standards. However,there is much to do before this becomes reality.This article aims to pres- ent a general overview of China’s General Accepted Accounting Principles(GAAP), U.S.General Accepted Accounting Principles and International Financial Reporting Standards(IFRS),and to analyze the differ- ences among IFRS,U.S.GAAP and China GAAP using fixed assets as an example.

  8. Prevention and Detection of Financial Statement Fraud – An Implementation of Data Mining Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Rajan Gupta; Nasib Singh Gill

    2012-01-01

    Every day, news of financial statement fraud is adversely affecting the economy worldwide. Considering the influence of the loss incurred due to fraud, effective measures and methods should be employed for prevention and detection of financial statement fraud. Data mining methods could possibly assist auditors in prevention and detection of fraud because data mining can use past cases of fraud to build models to identify and detect the risk of fraud and can design new techniques for preventin...

  9. Optimal Contracting under Adverse Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenells, Jonatan; Stea, Diego; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2015-01-01

    We study a model of adverse selection, hard and soft information, and mentalizing ability--the human capacity to represent others' intentions, knowledge, and beliefs. By allowing for a continuous range of different information types, as well as for different means of acquiring information, we dev...... of that information. This strategy affects the properties of the optimal contract, which grows closer to the first best. This research provides insights into the implications of mentalizing for agency theory....... develop a model that captures how principals differentially obtain information on agents. We show that principals that combine conventional data collection techniques with mentalizing benefit from a synergistic effect that impacts both the amount of information that is accessed and the overall cost...

  10. Adverse reactions to drug additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, R A

    1984-10-01

    There is a long list of additives used by the pharmaceutical industry. Most of the agents used have not been implicated in hypersensitivity reactions. Among those that have, only reactions to parabens and sulfites have been well established. Parabens have been shown to be responsible for rare immunoglobulin E-mediated reactions that occur after the use of local anesthetics. Sulfites, which are present in many drugs, including agents commonly used to treat asthma, have been shown to provoke severe asthmatic attacks in sensitive individuals. Recent studies indicate that additives do not play a significant role in "hyperactivity." The role of additives in urticaria is not well established and therefore the incidence of adverse reactions in this patient population is simply not known. In double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, reactions to tartrazine or additives other than sulfites, if they occur at all, are indeed quite rare for the asthmatic population, even for the aspirin-sensitive subpopulation.

  11. Statistical inference for financial engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Taniguchi, Masanobu; Ogata, Hiroaki; Taniai, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    This monograph provides the fundamentals of statistical inference for financial engineering and covers some selected methods suitable for analyzing financial time series data. In order to describe the actual financial data, various stochastic processes, e.g. non-Gaussian linear processes, non-linear processes, long-memory processes, locally stationary processes etc. are introduced and their optimal estimation is considered as well. This book also includes several statistical approaches, e.g., discriminant analysis, the empirical likelihood method, control variate method, quantile regression, realized volatility etc., which have been recently developed and are considered to be powerful tools for analyzing the financial data, establishing a new bridge between time series and financial engineering. This book is well suited as a professional reference book on finance, statistics and statistical financial engineering. Readers are expected to have an undergraduate-level knowledge of statistics.

  12. Macroprudential policy and financial stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan CHIRIACESCU

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries a conceptual framing of the issue of financial stability in economic theory and also to identify solutions to address episodes of financial instability. An essential reference is Minsky's financial instability hypothesis, which argues that a fundamental feature of the financial system is that it swings between robustness and fragility and these pendulum swings are an integral part of the process that generates the business cycle. Studies show that the effects of banking crises on economic activity are important both in magnitude and duration. Recently, macroprudential policy stood out as a central pillar in promoting financial stability in a broad sense. Regarding specific objectives of macroprudential policy, the prevalent vision refers to limiting systemic risk and macroeconomic costs of financial crises, but there are also important nuances.

  13. Financial issues for hospital auxiliaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, L A

    1986-01-01

    Auxiliaries can serve a more important financial role in today's environment than ever before. Hospitals are searching for positive avenues to promote themselves to the community and to generate more financial support to help offset the losses created by decreasing inpatient utilization and payments from third-party payers. Auxiliaries should recognize that their financial role has never been more important to the financial viability of their hospitals. Auxiliaries should communicate closely with hospital administration so that both organizations work to achieve compatible goals. Auxiliaries should be operated more like businesses, which means establishing goals and objectives, preparing effective budgets and interim financial statements, thinking and planning innovatively, and establishing adequate inventory controls, investment policies, and pricing structures. If auxiliaries follow these steps, they will not only succeed in providing more financial support to hospitals than ever before but will also receive the recognition and support they deserve for their effort.

  14. Mapping cumulative noise from shipping to inform marine spatial planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbe, Christine; MacGillivray, Alexander; Williams, Rob

    2012-11-01

    Including ocean noise in marine spatial planning requires predictions of noise levels on large spatiotemporal scales. Based on a simple sound transmission model and ship track data (Automatic Identification System, AIS), cumulative underwater acoustic energy from shipping was mapped throughout 2008 in the west Canadian Exclusive Economic Zone, showing high noise levels in critical habitats for endangered resident killer whales, exceeding limits of "good conservation status" under the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Error analysis proved that rough calculations of noise occurrence and propagation can form a basis for management processes, because spending resources on unnecessary detail is wasteful and delays remedial action.

  15. The Carvedilol Prospective Randomized Cumulative Survival (COPERNICUS) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, Eric J; Bristow, Michael R

    2001-01-01

    Previous trials (Metoprolol CR/XL Randomised Intervention Trial in Congestive Heart Failure [MERIT-HF], Cardiac Insufficiency Bisoprolol Study [CIBIS] II) have demonstrated a mortality benefit of beta-adrenergic blockade in patients with mild to moderate heart failure. The recent Carvedilol Prospective Randomized Cumulative Survival (COPERNICUS) trial has extended these results to a more advanced patient population. This trial did not, however, include patients who could not reach compensation, patients with far advanced heart failure symptoms, or a significant number of black patients. Future studies of beta-blockade may focus on these patients or patients with asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction.

  16. Neutron source capability assessment for cumulative fission yields measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Descalle, M A; Dekin, W; Kenneally, J

    2011-04-06

    A recent analysis of high-quality cumulative fission yields data for Pu-239 published in the peer-reviewed literature showed that the quoted experimental uncertainties do not allow a clear statement on how the fission yields vary as a function of energy. [Prussin2009] To make such a statement requires a set of experiments with well 'controlled' and understood sources of experimental errors to reduce uncertainties as low as possible, ideally in the 1 to 2% range. The Inter Laboratory Working Group (ILWOG) determined that Directed Stockpile Work (DSW) would benefit from an experimental program with the stated goal to reduce the measurement uncertainties significantly in order to make a definitive statement of the relationship of energy dependence to the cumulative fission yields. Following recent discussions between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), there is a renewed interest in developing a concerted experimental program to measure fission yields in a neutron energy range from thermal energy (0.025 eV) to 14 MeV with an emphasis on discrete energies from 0.5 to 4 MeV. Ideally, fission yields would be measured at single energies, however, in practice there are only 'quasi-monoenergetic' neutrons sources of finite width. This report outlines a capability assessment as of June 2011 of available neutron sources that could be used as part of a concerted experimental program to measure cumulative fission yields. In a framework of international collaborations, capabilities available in the United States, at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) in the United Kingdom and at the Commissariat Energie Atomique (CEA) in France are listed. There is a need to develop an experimental program that will reduce the measurement uncertainties significantly in order to make a definitive statement of the relationship of energy dependence to the cumulative fission yields. Fission and monoenergetic neutron sources

  17. The Carvedilol Prospective Randomized Cumulative Survival (COPERNICUS trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bristow Michael R

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Previous trials (Metoprolol CR/XL Randomised Intervention Trial in Congestive Heart Failure [MERIT-HF], Cardiac Insufficiency Bisoprolol Study [CIBIS] II have demonstrated a mortality benefit of β-adrenergic blockade in patients with mild to moderate heart failure. The recent Carvedilol Prospective Randomized Cumulative Survival (COPERNICUS trial has extended these results to a more advanced patient population. This trial did not, however, include patients who could not reach compensation, patients with far advanced heart failure symptoms, or a significant number of black patients. Future studies of β-blockade may focus on these patients or patients with asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction.

  18. Generalized Cumulative Residual Entropy for Distributions with Unrestricted Supports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noomane Drissi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the cumulative residual entropy (CRE a recently introduced measure of entropy. While in previous works distributions with positive support are considered, we generalize the definition of CRE to the case of distributions with general support. We show that several interesting properties of the earlier CRE remain valid and supply further properties and insight to problems such as maximum CRE power moment problems. In addition, we show that this generalized CRE can be used as an alternative to differential entropy to derive information-based optimization criteria for system identification purpose.

  19. A comparison of peak vs cumulative physical work exposure risk factors for the reporting of low back pain in the automotive industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, R.; Wells, R.; Neumann, P.; Frank, J.; Shannon, H.; Kerr, M.

    1998-12-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the relative importance of modelled peak spine loads, hand loads, trunk kinematics and cumulative spine loads as predictors of reported low back pain (LBP). BACKGROUND: The authors have recently shown that both biomechemical and psychosocial variables are important in the reporting of LBP. In previous studies, peak spinal load risk factors have been identified and while there is in vitro evidence for adverse effects of excessive cumulative load on tissue, there is little epidemiological evidence. METHODS: Physical exposures to peak and cumulative lumbar spine moment, compression and shear forces, trunk kinematics, and forces on hands were analyzed on 130 randomly selected controls and 104 cases. Univariable and multivariable odds ratios of the risk of reporting were calculated from a backwards logistic regression analysis. Interrelationships among variables were examined by factor analysis. RESULTS: Cases showed significantly higher loading on all biomechanical variables. Four independent risk factors were identified: integrated lumbar moment (over a shift), 'usual' hand force, peak shear force at the level of L(4)/L(5) and peak trunk velocity. Substituting lumbar compression or moment for shear did not appreciably alter odds ratios because of high correlations among these variables. CONCLUSIONS: Cumulative biomechanical variables are important risk factors in the reporting of LBP. Spinal tissue loading estimates from a biomechanical model provide information not included in the trunk kinematics and hand force inputs to the model alone. Workers in the top 25% of loading exposure on all risk factors are at about six times the risk of reporting LBP when compared with those in the bottom 25%. RELEVANCE: Primary prevention, treatment, and return to work efforts for individuals reporting LBP all require understanding of risk factors. The results suggest that cumulative loading of the low back is important etiologically and highlight the need for

  20. Financial crisis: theory and practice

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez Sarrió, Dídac; Ceballos Hornero, David; Rodriguez, Martha; Cortez, Klender; Cantarero Prieto, David; CASTILLO, Jorge; Fuenzalida, Darcy; Garcia, Heriberto; Mongrut, Samuel; Nash, Mauricio; Rosales, Luis Francisco; Torres, Gabriela; Treviño, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    In the last 50 years, we have had approximately 40 events with characteristics related to financial crisis. The most severe crisis was in 1929, when the financial markets plummet and the US gross domestic product decline in more than 30 percent. Recently some years ago, a new crisis developed in the United States, but instantly caused consequences and effects in the rest of the world. This new economic and financial crisis has increased the interest and motivation for the academic communit...

  1. Essays on financial analysts' forecasts

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation contains three self-contained chapters dealing with specific aspects of financial analysts' earnings forecasts. After recent accounting scandals, much attention has turned to the incentives present in the career of professional financial analysts. The literature points to several reasons why financial analysts behave overoptimistically when providing their predictions. In particular, analysts may wish to maintain good relations with firm management, to please the underwriter...

  2. Financial accounting for radiology executives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidmann, Abraham; Mehta, Tushar

    2005-03-01

    The authors review the role of financial accounting information from the perspective of a radiology executive. They begin by introducing the role of pro forma statements. They discuss the fundamental concepts of accounting, including the matching principle and accrual accounting. The authors then explore the use of financial accounting information in making investment decisions in diagnostic medical imaging. The paper focuses on critically evaluating the benefits and limitations of financial accounting for decision making in a radiology practice.

  3. What are financial journalists for?

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In order to understand why so little media attention was paid to risks in the banking sector in the run up to the financial crisis, we need to understand the framework of law, regulation, self-regulation and professional incentives that structure the practice of financial and business journalism. This paper focuses in particular on what role financial journalists play in the system of corporate governance, the ways in which law and regulation recognize that role, and the extent to which this ...

  4. FINANCIAL DIAGNOSIS OF STOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCIU GHEORGHE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Financial diagnosis is a part of a company’s general diagnosis. The role of the financial diagnosis is to establish the situation of the company at a given time, to see if it is viable, to help the decision-makers to take the best measures to continue or cease the activity, or to sell, buy or liquidate the company. Each entity is unique and arbitrarily applying some analysis models used by other companies can lead to significant errors. One cannot analyze in the same way a company that produces household products and a trade company. In the first one, the working capital must be positive, because permanent capitals must finance the fixed assets which have a high value, and the working capital will finance the operating cycle. In case of a trade company, a negative working capital might represent a positive activity, because the duration of the operating cycle is much shorter, and short term sources can also finance the company’s tangible assets.

  5. What Role Have Banks in Financial Crises?

    OpenAIRE

    Andries, Alin Marius

    2009-01-01

    Financial crises mainly manifest themselves at the level of financial institutions. Although financial crises can also be generated within non-financial institutions, the role of banking institutions in the occurrence, transmitting and solving of financial crises is a deciding one. Banks play a deciding role in the development of financial crises as financial intermediaries who contribute to the efficient transfer of funds from the abundant agent towards the deficit agents. Banks can facilita...

  6. The Company Financial Diagnosis Informatic System

    OpenAIRE

    Alin Isac; Claudia Isac

    2005-01-01

    Specialists consider a financial diagnosis necessary for measuring the profitableness of invested capital and for estimating the economic and financial equilibrium, which has a certain influence on the economic, financial, and bankruptcy risk rate. Thus, the main purpose of any financial diagnosis is to point out the financial state of the company in order to identify possible causes and effects. A financial diagnosis starts with determining and interpreting a set of economic- financial indic...

  7. Determining source cumulants in femtoscopy with Gram-Charlier and Edgeworth series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eggers, H. C.; De Kock, M. B.; Schmiegel, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Lowest-order cumulants provide important information on the shape of the emission source in femtoscopy. For the simple case of noninteracting identical particles, we show how the fourth-order source cumulant can be determined from measured cumulants in momentum space. The textbook Gram–Charlier s...

  8. High-resolution harmonic retrieval using the full fourth-order cumulant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, S.H.J.A.; Naus, H.W.L.; Zwamborn, A.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    The harmonic retrieval (HR) problem concerns the estimation of the frequencies in a sum of real or complex harmonics. Both correlation and cumulant-based approaches are used for this purpose. Cumulant-based HR algorithms use a single 1-D slice of the fourth-order cumulant that is estimated directly

  9. 75 FR 69662 - Workshop: Cumulative Mixtures Risk of Six Selected Phthalates in Support of Summary Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... AGENCY Workshop: Cumulative Mixtures Risk of Six Selected Phthalates in Support of Summary Information on...: Notice of Peer Consultation Workshop on the Cumulative Mixtures Risk of Six Selected Phthalates; Request... phthalates as set forth in the National Academies of Science (NAS) report ``Phthalates and Cumulative...

  10. Endogenous money, circuits and financialization

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm Sawyer

    2013-01-01

    This paper locates the endogenous money approach in a circuitist framework. It argues for the significance of the credit creation process for the evolution of the economy and the absence of any notion of ‘neutrality of money’. Clearing banks are distinguished from other financial institutions as the providers of initial finance in a circuit whereas other financial institutions operate in a final finance circuit. Financialization is here viewed in terms of the growth of financial assets an...

  11. Genesis of enterprise financial security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davydenko N. M.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the scientific approaches to the definition of «financial security of entities», advantages and disadvantages of these approaches are highlighted. The own definition of financial security of entities is given. The composition of elements of enterprise financial security and principles of its provision are defined. Тhe role of individual elements of financial security to ensure high efficiency operation and development of enterprises is significant and has a direct impact on their solvency, liquidity and profitability.

  12. Balancing Responsibilities – Financial Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail Pearson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In Australia there is an obligation to promote the informed participation of financial consumers while in South Africa there is an obligation to educate consumers. The Australian obligation is concerned with the financial system as a whole while the South African obligation has generally been focused on general financial education as a tool to promote financial inclusion. There is no obligation for consumers to attain a minimum standard of literacy in credit or finance generally. Financial literacy is one among a number of strategies directed towards inducing changes in consumer behaviour. It sits between the old regulatory model which relies on disclosure of information for effective and rational decision-making and a newer regulatory model which takes into account individuals' perceptions and behavioural biases and may seek to accommodate for these by imposing obligations on financial services providers beyond the mere disclosure of information. Financial literacy is generally the ability to understand how money works, how a person can earn money or make it more. It specifically refers to the set of skills and knowledge that allows people to make informed and effective decisions with all of their financial resources. This article discusses Australian and South African legal obligations and social responsibilities aimed at promoting the financial literacy of consumers.

  13. Welfare Gains from Financial Liberalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Robert M; Ueda, Kenichi

    2010-08-01

    Financial liberalization has been a controversial issue, as empirical evidence for growth enhancing effects is mixed. Here, we find sizable welfare gains from liberalization (cost to repression), though the gain in economic growth is ambiguous. We take the view that financial liberalization is a government policy that alters the path of financial deepening, while financial deepening is endogenously chosen by agents given a policy and occurs in transition towards a distant steady state. This history-dependent view necessitates the use of simulation analysis based on a growth model. Our application is a specific episode: Thailand from 1976 to 1996.

  14. Benin - Access to Financial Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The performance evaluation undertaken included administrative financial data from MFIs and MSMEs which received grants under the Benin Compact as well as survey data...

  15. Australian Infrastructure Financial Management Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Champion

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The Institute of Public Works Engineering Australia (IPWEA has recently published the Australian Infrastructure Financial Management Guidelines. The Guidelines provide new assistance to link the technical (engineering and financial aspects of managing infrastructure and services, and to assist infrastructure owners such as local government to develop sustainable long-term asset and financial management plans. Financial management for long-life infrastructure assets (such as roads, water, sewerage, and stormwater networks, and community buildings is about ensuring sustainability in the provision of services required by the community. These new Guidelines offer advice for every organisation and individual with responsibility for the management of infrastructure assets. They assist in defining best practice approaches for: • Accounting for infrastructure • Depreciation, valuation, useful life, fair value • Managing financial sustainability • Integrating asset management planning and long term financial planning • Meeting requirements for financial reporting The project was a joint initiative of IPWEA and the National Local Government Financial Management Forum. A steering committee representing national and state governments, technical and financial professionals, local government associations and auditors oversaw it.

  16. The Ethics of the Financial Crisis and Financial Reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe paper analyses the financial crisis and financial reform from two alternative ethical perspectives as compared to the mainstream one in economics, utilitarianism. It contrasts deontology with the ethics of care and argues that the rule-based deontological approach is not able to

  17. Wealth Financialization: Operating Profit as Conditioning of Financial Revenue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Ribeiro Da Luz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Due to the deregulation of the financial market in 80s decade, the financialization of wealth has become a globalized systemic pattern, giving companies greater access to financial innovations. In view of the above, the objective is to analyze whether the appreciation of capital through the financial system is preferred over the capital appreciation through production.Methodology. This is a descriptive research slitting with cross-sectional perspective, in which we considered information belonging to 106 listed non-financial companies in Brazil (2004–2012.Findings. This study suggests that operating income influences financial income positively.Limitations. The study includes just industrial sector companies in a specific period.Originality/Value. We discuss measuring instruments for analyzing the wealth financialization as a condition of operating profit gains from the financial market.Copyright © 2015 Instituto Brasileiro de Inovação Financeira All rights reserved.

  18. Understanding Financial Innovation: An Introduction to Derivative Financial Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J. N.

    1992-01-01

    Explains the use of forwards, futures, swaps, and options in international currency trading. Argues that pricing options are based on the same basic principles as pricing other financial instruments. Concludes that, although financial markets have developed several new products, hedging and speculation involve similar processes. (CFR)

  19. The Ethics of the Financial Crisis and Financial Reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe paper analyses the financial crisis and financial reform from two alternative ethical perspectives as compared to the mainstream one in economics, utilitarianism. It contrasts deontology with the ethics of care and argues that the rule-based deontological approach is not able to prev

  20. Financial Development, Financial Structure, and Macroeconomic Volatility: Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Using annual data from 1997–2014 of 30 provinces, municipalities, and autonomous regions, subdividing trended and cyclical volatility of macroeconomics and inflation, considering different indicators of financial development and financial structure, this paper investigated the impact of financial development and financial structure on macroeconomic volatility. The empirical results found that (1 the trended and cyclical volatility of the previous macroeconomic period had a significantly positive impact on that of the current period, and the impact of trended volatility was greater than that of cyclical volatility; (2 financial development had a significantly negative impact on macroeconomic cyclical volatility through inflation cyclical volatility, but inflation trended volatility would amplify macroeconomic volatility; financial markets have no significant effect on macroeconomic volatility; financial structure measured with the ratio of stock market turnover and the efficiency of the financial development had a significant positive impact on macroeconomic cyclical volatility; and (3 inflation trended volatility had a significantly negative impact on macroeconomic cyclical volatility and trended volatility, while inflation cyclical volatility had a significantly positive impact on macroeconomic cyclical volatility.

  1. Financial regulation and financial system architecture in Central Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, B

    At the beginning of the transition, advice to Central European countries with respect to how to set up their financial systems was based on models used in western economies. This paper analyzes the experiences to set up a financial system in Central Europe. The experience in the first transition

  2. IMPROVING FINANCIAL INCLUSION: TOWARDS A CRITICAL FINANCIAL EDUCATION FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renê Birochi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Empirical research suggests that financial inclusion initiatives – such as facilitating access to financial resources or providing microcredit – are alone not enough to lower socioeconomic disparities. In this article, we adopt a critical stance as a guide for our empirical investigation. Our aim is to propose a financial education framework, tailored to low-income micro-entrepreneurs, that embraces new information and communication technologies (ICTs and seeks to improve financial inclusion and social emancipation. This empirical study was conducted in an Amazonian municipality in Brazil where recent access to ICTs has brought about important and varied socioeconomic changes. Results show that ICT-supported and tailored critical financial education can play a dual role: on the one hand, access to financial education might decrease the effects of generative mechanisms on global/local tensions, triggered by standardized ICT applications; on the other hand, such access might increase financial inclusion and social transformation through the integration of guiding principles into financial education programs.

  3. Planning principles as integral tool of financial planning implementation at enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Overchuk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The main problems of using financial planning tools, namely its principles, in order to achieve an effective system of financial planning at the enterprise are considered. Planning is an integral part of management and provides achievement of sustainable enterprise development, that is why, effective financial planning is the necessary means of realization of the main objective of the company – profit maximization. It is determined that the principles of financial planning are the objective category of planning science, which serves as a starting fundamental concept that expresses the cumulative effect of a number of laws. In addition, on the base of the aggregation and analysis of planning principles the system of financial planning principles is specified, providing efficient financial planning and control functions use, achievement of the mission and objectives of the economic entity activity management and ensuring of its profitability. The scientific novelty of the research lies in the specification of financial planning principles defining at the enterprise and their semantic characteristics

  4. The seven-year cumulative survival rate of Osstem implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Kyun; Kim, Bum-Su; Yun, Pil-Young; Mun, Sang-Un; Yi, Yang-Jin; Jeong, Kyung-In

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study was performed to analyze the cumulative survival rate of Osstem implants (Osstem Implant Co., Ltd.) over a seven-year period. Materials and Methods A total of 105 patients who had 467 Osstem implants that were placed at the Section of Dentistry, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital (Seongnam, Korea) from June 2003 through December 2005 were analyzed. The life table method and a cross-tubulation analysis, log rank test were used to evaluate the survival curve and the influence that the prognostic factors. The prognostic factors, i.e., age and gender of patients, diameter and length, type of implants, bone graft history and loading time were determined with a Cox proportional hazard model based on logistic regression analysis. Results The seven-year cumulative survival rate of Osstem implants was 95.37%. The Cox proportional hazard model revealed that the following factors had a significant influence on survival rate; increased diameter, reduced prosthetic loading period and performance of bone grafting. Conclusion The osstem implants showed satisfactory results over the seven-year study period. PMID:24868503

  5. Cumulative human threats on fish biodiversity components in Tunisian waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. BEN RAIS LASRAM

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Human activities are increasingly impacting biodiversity. To improve conservation planning measures in an ecosystem-based management context, we need to explore how the effects of these activities interact with different biodiversity components. In this study, we used a semi-quantitative method to assess the cumulative impacts of human activities on three biodiversity components (species richness, phylogenetic diversity, and functional diversity in Tunisia’s exclusive economic zone. For each of the nine activities considered, we developed an understanding of their effects from local studies and the expert opinion of stakeholders with country-specific experience. We mapped the cumulative effects and the three biodiversity components and then assessed the degree to which these elements overlapped using an overlap index. This is the first time such an assessment has been made for Tunisia’s marine ecosystems and our assessment highlight the inappropriateness of current conservation measures. The results of this study have specific application for the prioritization of future management actions.

  6. Cumulative human threats on fish biodiversity components in Tunisian waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. BEN RAIS LASRAM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Human activities are increasingly impacting biodiversity. To improve conservation planning measures in an ecosystem-based management context, we need to explore how the effects of these activities interact with different biodiversity components. In this study, we used a semi-quantitative method to assess the cumulative impacts of human activities on three biodiversity components (species richness, phylogenetic diversity, and functional diversity in Tunisia’s exclusive economic zone. For each of the nine activities considered, we developed an understanding of their effects from local studies and the expert opinion of stakeholders with country-specific experience. We mapped the cumulative effects and the three biodiversity components and then assessed the degree to which these elements overlapped using an overlap index. This is the first time such an assessment has been made for Tunisia’s marine ecosystems and our assessment highlight the inappropriateness of current conservation measures. The results of this study have specific application for the prioritization of future management actions.

  7. Extraction of Facial Feature Points Using Cumulative Histogram

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, Sushil Kumar; Bouakaz, Saida

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel adaptive algorithm to extract facial feature points automatically such as eyebrows corners, eyes corners, nostrils, nose tip, and mouth corners in frontal view faces, which is based on cumulative histogram approach by varying different threshold values. At first, the method adopts the Viola-Jones face detector to detect the location of face and also crops the face region in an image. From the concept of the human face structure, the six relevant regions such as right eyebrow, left eyebrow, right eye, left eye, nose, and mouth areas are cropped in a face image. Then the histogram of each cropped relevant region is computed and its cumulative histogram value is employed by varying different threshold values to create a new filtering image in an adaptive way. The connected component of interested area for each relevant filtering image is indicated our respective feature region. A simple linear search algorithm for eyebrows, eyes and mouth filtering images and contour algorithm for nos...

  8. A Cumulant-based Analysis of Nonlinear Magnetospheric Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay R. Johnson; Simon Wing

    2004-01-28

    Understanding magnetospheric dynamics and predicting future behavior of the magnetosphere is of great practical interest because it could potentially help to avert catastrophic loss of power and communications. In order to build good predictive models it is necessary to understand the most critical nonlinear dependencies among observed plasma and electromagnetic field variables in the coupled solar wind/magnetosphere system. In this work, we apply a cumulant-based information dynamical measure to characterize the nonlinear dynamics underlying the time evolution of the Dst and Kp geomagnetic indices, given solar wind magnetic field and plasma input. We examine the underlying dynamics of the system, the temporal statistical dependencies, the degree of nonlinearity, and the rate of information loss. We find a significant solar cycle dependence in the underlying dynamics of the system with greater nonlinearity for solar minimum. The cumulant-based approach also has the advantage that it is reliable even in the case of small data sets and therefore it is possible to avoid the assumption of stationarity, which allows for a measure of predictability even when the underlying system dynamics may change character. Evaluations of several leading Kp prediction models indicate that their performances are sub-optimal during active times. We discuss possible improvements of these models based on this nonparametric approach.

  9. Cumulative Effects Assessment: Linking Social, Ecological, and Governance Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Weber

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Setting social, economic, and ecological objectives is ultimately a process of social choice informed by science. In this special feature we provide a multidisciplinary framework for the use of cumulative effects assessment in land use planning. Forest ecosystems are facing considerable challenges driven by population growth and increasing demands for resources. In a suite of case studies that span the boreal forest of Western Canada to the interior Atlantic forest of Paraguay we show how transparent and defensible methods for scenario analysis can be applied in data-limited regions and how social dimensions of land use change can be incorporated in these methods, particularly in aboriginal communities that have lived in these ecosystems for generations. The case studies explore how scenario analysis can be used to evaluate various land use options and highlight specific challenges with identifying social and ecological responses, determining thresholds and targets for land use, and integrating local and traditional knowledge in land use planning. Given that land use planning is ultimately a value-laden and often politically charged process we also provide some perspective on various collective and expert-based processes for identifying cumulative impacts and thresholds. The need for good science to inform and be informed by culturally appropriate democratic processes calls for well-planned and multifaceted approaches both to achieve an informed understanding of both residents and governments of the interactive and additive changes caused by development, and to design action agendas to influence such change at the ecological and social level.

  10. Cumulative hierarchies and computability over universes of sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Cantone

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Various metamathematical investigations, beginning with Fraenkel’s historical proof of the independence of the axiom of choice, called for suitable definitions of hierarchical universes of sets. This led to the discovery of such important cumulative structures as the one singled out by von Neumann (generally taken as the universe of all sets and Godel’s universe of the so-called constructibles. Variants of those are exploited occasionally in studies concerning the foundations of analysis (according to Abraham Robinson’s approach, or concerning non-well-founded sets. We hence offer a systematic presentation of these many structures, partly motivated by their relevance and pervasiveness in mathematics. As we report, numerous properties of hierarchy-related notions such as rank, have been verified with the assistance of the ÆtnaNova proof-checker.Through SETL and Maple implementations of procedures which effectively handle the Ackermann’s hereditarily finite sets, we illustrate a particularly significant case among those in which the entities which form a universe of sets can be algorithmically constructed and manipulated; hereby, the fruitful bearing on pure mathematics of cumulative set hierarchies ramifies into the realms of theoretical computer science and algorithmics.

  11. Prefiltering and Cumulant Based Harmonic Retrieval in Mixed ARMA Noises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIShenghong; LIJianhua; XUEZhi; CHENLiya

    2005-01-01

    Harmonic retrieval is an important issue in the the field of statistical signal processing. However, in the case of harmonic retrieval in mixed colored Gaussian and Non-Gaussian Autoregressive movingaverage (ARMA) noises, the corresponding existing approaches can not retrieve a harmonic signal either with quadratic phase coupling components, or with cubic phase coupling components, or when the colored non-Gaussian ARMA noise is symmetrically distributed. In this paper, a new general approach is proposed to retrieve a one-dimensional real harmonic signal in the above mixed ARMA noises. A suitable filter is first used to remove all the sharp power spectrum peaks of the noisy observed process, then some kind of fourth-order cumulant is employed to identify the Autoregressive (AR) parameter values of the colored non-Gaussian ARMA noise model. After the real noisy observed data are filtered with the identified AR parameter values again, cumulant based methods can be made use of to retrieve the harmonics. The proposed new approach can be applied to retrieve a one-dimensional real harmonic signal in the above mixed colored Gaussian and non-Gaussian ARMA noises with no restrictions on the phase coupling of the harmonics and the distribution of the colored non-Gaussian ARMA noise. Simulation examples are presented to demonstrate its effectiveness.

  12. Petrogenesis of the nakhlite meteorites: Evidence from cumulate mineral zoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, R.P.; McSween, H.Y. Jr. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States))

    1992-04-01

    A simple igneous petrogenesis for the meteorite Nakhla has previously been called into question because Mg/Fe ratios in olivine indicate substantial disequilibrium between the predominant cumulus minerals (olivine and augite). Comparative analyses of simulated diffusive zoning and the observed cumulus mineral zoning for all three nakhlites (Nakhla, Governador Valadares, and Lafayette) show that their current compositions do not necessarily reflect parental magma compositions. Instead, diffusion has altered primary cumulus compositions to varying degrees, Nakhla being the least affected, and Lafayette being almost completely re-equilibrated. Only the cores of augite grains in Nakhla and Governador Valadares appear to have preserved their original compositions. Mineral zoning in each meteorite is strongly concentric around mesostasis areas, suggesting that reaction with intercumulus liquid has controlled the observed zoning. The presence of pigeonite and orthopyroxene overgrowths in Nakhla and Governador Valadares, and of poikilitic orthopyroxene enclosing olivine relicts in Lafayette, indicate substantial late-magmatic reactions. Two-pyroxene geothermometry for Lafayette indicates temperatures around 95C, suggesting subsolidus equilibration as well. The nakhlites appear to be a series of relatively simple cumulate rocks which have undergone various amounts of late-magmatic and subsolidus diffusion, possibly reflecting their relative positions in a cooling cumulate pile.

  13. Documenting the birth of a financial economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suri, Tavneet; Jack, William; Stoker, Thomas M

    2012-06-26

    The birth and explosive growth of mobile money in Kenya has provided economists with an opportunity to study the evolution and impact of a new financial system. Mobile money is an innovation that allows individuals to store, send, and receive money on their mobile phone via text message. This system has opened up basic financial services to many who were previously excluded, and has had real and measurable impacts on the ability of households to protect themselves against health risks. Using a unique survey instrument covering nearly 2,300 households over 2008-2010, we first document the lightning-fast adoption of mobile money in Kenya, which was faster than most documented modern technologies in the United States. We then present evidence on how this innovation allows households to respond better to unexpected adverse health events. We find that in the face of these events, users of mobile money are better able to tap into remittances to finance additional health care costs without having to forego necessary expenditures on education, food, and other consumption needs.

  14. Reorienting India's financial system: In conversation with Dr Duvvuri Subbarao, Governor, Reserve Bank of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Moorthy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Confronted by a slowing economy, the Reserve Bank of India has undertaken steps to revive it. These measures, however, run the risk of worsening current high levels of inflation. This paper examines certain aspects of India's financial system that have contributed to this situation. It argues that unduly low yields on Government bonds have prevented a healthy financial system from developing, with adverse impact upon inflation and other macroeconomic outcomes. It suggests that India should focus far more on domestic, and less on external, financial liberalisation. Specifically, yields on non-market borrowing, such as Provident Fund deposits, should be benchmarked to a low frequency measure of consumer price inflation.

  15. PARALLELS OF RADIATION- AND FINANCIAL-RISK MANAGEMENT ON PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogue, M.

    2010-01-04

    The financial collapse of 2007 provides an opportunity for a cross-discipline comparison of risk assessments. Flaws in financial risk assessments bear part of the blame for the financial collapse. There may be a potential for similar flaws to be made in radiological risk assessments. Risk assessments in finance and health physics are discussed in the context of a broader view of the risk management environment. Flawed risk assessments can adversely influence public acceptance of radiological technologies, so the importance of quality is magnified.

  16. Growing Up to Stability? Financial Globalization, Financial Development and Financial Crises

    OpenAIRE

    Bordo, Michael D.; Christopher M. Meissner

    2015-01-01

    Why did some countries learn to grow up to financial stability and others not? We explore this question by surveying the key determinants and major policy responses to banking, currency, and debt crises between 1880 and present. We divide countries into three groups: leaders, learners, and non-learners. Each of these groups had very different experiences in terms of long-run economic outcomes, financial development, financial stability, crisis frequency, and their policy responses to crises. ...

  17. The Effects of Financial Aid in High School on Academic and Labor Market Outcomes: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humlum, Maria Knoth; Vejlin, Rune Majlund

    We investigate the effects of financial aid on student employment and academic outcomes in high school. We exploit administrative differences in the amount of financial aid received based on timing of birth to identify the causal effects of interest. Specifically, individuals born early...... in a quarter receive less financial aid than comparable individuals born late in the previous quarter. We find that receiving less aid induces individuals to work more during high school. However, we do not find any evidence that receiving less financial aid and thereby working more is associated with any...... adverse outcomes, such as a lower high school grade point average....

  18. Financial Literacy and Financial Sophistication in the Older Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusardi, Annamaria; Mitchell, Olivia S; Curto, Vilsa

    2014-10-01

    Using a special-purpose module implemented in the Health and Retirement Study, we evaluate financial sophistication in the American population over the age of 50. We combine several financial literacy questions into an overall index to highlight which questions best capture financial sophistication and examine the sensitivity of financial literacy responses to framing effects. Results show that many older respondents are not financially sophisticated: they fail to grasp essential aspects of risk diversification, asset valuation, portfolio choice, and investment fees. Subgroups with notable deficits include women, the least educated, non-Whites, and those over age 75. In view of the fact that retirees increasingly must take on responsibility for their own retirement security, such meager levels of knowledge have potentially serious and negative implications.

  19. Financial Literacy and Financial Sophistication in the Older Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusardi, Annamaria; Mitchell, Olivia S.; Curto, Vilsa

    2017-01-01

    Using a special-purpose module implemented in the Health and Retirement Study, we evaluate financial sophistication in the American population over the age of 50. We combine several financial literacy questions into an overall index to highlight which questions best capture financial sophistication and examine the sensitivity of financial literacy responses to framing effects. Results show that many older respondents are not financially sophisticated: they fail to grasp essential aspects of risk diversification, asset valuation, portfolio choice, and investment fees. Subgroups with notable deficits include women, the least educated, non-Whites, and those over age 75. In view of the fact that retirees increasingly must take on responsibility for their own retirement security, such meager levels of knowledge have potentially serious and negative implications. PMID:28553191

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana MIHAI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available From a company’s perspective, there seem to be two underlying forces driving company interest in various kinds of environmental performance data that might be considered varieties of accounting. The first is a growing demand from company stakeholders, based on an increased interest in environmental issues. Interested stakeholders are not only the consumers, but also industrial customers, financialinstitutions and others. For this reason, more and more companies are producing environmental reports, but these are often low on data content, which adversely affects company credibility on environmental issues.

  1. Do self-reported concussions have cumulative or enduring effects on drivers' anticipation of traffic hazards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Megan H W; Horswill, Mark S; Ownsworth, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the cumulative effect of multiple self-reported concussions and the enduring effect of concussion on drivers' hazard perception ability. It was hypothesized: (1) that individuals reporting multiple previous concussions would be slower to anticipate traffic hazards than individuals reporting either one previous concussion or none; and (2) that individuals reporting a concussion within the past 3 months would be slower to anticipate traffic hazards than individuals reporting either an earlier concussion or no prior concussion. Two hundred and eighty-two predominantly young drivers (nconcussed = 68, Mage = 21.57 years, SDage = 6.99 years, 66% female) completed a validated hazard perception test (HPT) and measures of emotional, cognitive, health and driving status. A one-way analysis of variance showed that there was no significant effect of concussion number on HPT response times. Similarly, pairwise comparisons showed no significant differences between the HPT response times of individuals reporting a concussion within the previous 3 months, individuals reporting an earlier concussion and the never concussed group. The findings suggest that previous concussions do not adversely affect young drivers' ability to anticipate traffic hazards; however, due to reliance on self-reports of concussion history, further prospective longitudinal research is needed.

  2. Financial stress in emerging markets: Patterns, real effects, and cross-country spillovers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Stolbov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We extend the conventional approach to the construction of financial stress indices (FSI for emerging economies proposed by Balakrishnan et al. (2011. Based on the principal component analysis, our index accounts for developments in the residential real estate market, adopts distinctive indicators for the banking sector and sovereign debt risks, covering the period from February 2008 to September 2015 for 14 emerging economies. The FSIs accurately capture the periods of impaired financial intermediation. The hierarchical cluster analysis identifies five country groups, revealing similarities in the national structures of financial stress. We find an adverse impact of financial stress on economic activity in 9 countries. A Bayesian VAR model is also specified to test for cross-country spillovers of financial stress.

  3. The Origins of the Global Financial Crisis and Its Impact on Romanian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina SBUGHEA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric information theory says that individuals who cooperate in different situations have different levels of knowledge on a subject. The main role of a financial system is to direct funds to individuals and companies that have good money investments. To do this correctly, participants in financial markets should be able to make correct opinions on which investment opportunities are in some measure efficient. This is where the problems of information asymmetry occur: moral hazard and adverse selection. So financial crisis are triggered when these problems become particularly acute, and financial markets are unable to perform this crucial role of channeling funds to those who have the most efficient investments. Recent financial crisis, triggered in the U.S. and spread globally, has not spared Romania, and the present paper tried to highlight its main effects on our economy.

  4. Adverse effects of antihypertensive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husserl, F E; Messerli, F H

    1981-09-01

    Early essential hypertension is asymptomatic and should remain so throughout treatment. In view of the increasing number of available antihypertensive agents, clinicians need to become familiar with the potential side effects of these drugs. By placing more emphasis on non-pharmacological treatment (sodium restriction, weight loss, exercise) and thoroughly evaluating each case in particular, the pharmacological regimen can be optimally tailored to the patient's needs. Potential side effects should be predicted and can often be avoided; if they become clinically significant they should be rapidly recognised and corrected. These side effects can be easily remembered in most instances, as they fall into 3 broad categories: (a) those caused by an exaggerated therapeutic effect; (b) those due to a non-therapeutic pharmacological effect; and (c) those caused by a non-therapeutic, non-pharmacological effect probably representing idiosyncratic reactions. This review focuses mainly on adverse effects of the second and third kind. Each group of drugs in general shares the common side effects of the first two categories, while each individual drug has its own idiosyncratic side effects.

  5. Linking XBRL Financial Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Roberto; Gil, Rosa

    One of the main ways of populating the Web of Data is by translating existing data sources. One interesting candidate for this approach is data based on the eXtensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL), a standard for business and financial reporting. Many institutions are making available or requiring data in this format, e.g. the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) through the EDGAR program. However, XBRL data is loosely interconnected and it is difficult to mix and query it. Our contribution is a translation from XBRL filings to Semantic Web technologies, which we have applied to more than 1000 filings obtaining more than 2 million triples. The resulting semantic data is easier to integrate and cross query. Moreover, it can be interconnected with the rest of the Web of Data in order to extract its full potential.

  6. Terrorism and financial supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoli van der Krans

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of how legislators on international, European and national level combat the financing of terrorism. The central question in this article is whether European regulations concerning the prevention of money laundering and the financing of terrorism, are effective, proportional and mutually harmonious. Now that many regulations in this field have been established by intra-national bodies, it is important to examine how these regulations are further elaborated in the respective national systems. This article gives a broad overview of legislative initiatives of the UN, USA, FATF, EU and Council of Europe. The Netherlands for numerous reasons serves as a legal example. It is concluded that measures taken or proposed to avoid or at least reduce the financing of terrorism are quite effective to prevent abuse of the financial system. On the other hand, these measures increase the risk of underground or illegal financing, which is even more difficult to control.

  7. Financial market dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Fredrick; Johnson, M. D.

    2003-03-01

    A necessary precondition for modeling financial markets is a complete understanding of their statistics, including dynamics. Distributions derived from nonextensive Tsallis statistics are closely connected with dynamics described by a nonlinear Fokker-Planck equation. The combination shows promise in describing stochastic processes with power-law distributions and superdiffusive dynamics. We investigate intra-day price changes in the S& P500 stock index within this framework. We find that the power-law tails of the distributions, and the index's anomalously diffusing dynamics, are very accurately described by this approach. Our results show good agreement between market data and Fokker-Planck dynamics. This approach may be applicable in any anomalously diffusing system in which the correlations in time can be accounted for by an Ito-Langevin process with a simple time-dependent diffusion coefficient.

  8. Terrorism and financial supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoli van der Krans

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of how legislators on international, European and national level combat the financing of terrorism. The central question in this article is whether European regulations concerning the prevention of money laundering and the financing of terrorism, are effective, proportional and mutually harmonious. Now that many regulations in this field have been established by intra-national bodies, it is important to examine how these regulations are further elaborated in the respective national systems. This article gives a broad overview of legislative initiatives of the UN, USA, FATF, EU and Council of Europe. The Netherlands for numerous reasons serves as a legal example. It is concluded that measures taken or proposed to avoid or at least reduce the financing of terrorism are quite effective to prevent abuse of the financial system. On the other hand, these measures increase the risk of underground or illegal financing, which is even more difficult to control.

  9. Financial Knowledge and Best Practice Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Cliff A.; Woodyard, Ann S.

    2011-01-01

    The current research examines the relationship between personal financial knowledge (both objective and subjective), financial satisfaction, and selected demographic variables in terms of best practice financial behavior. Data are taken from the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority's (FINRA) National Financial Capability Study, a nationally…

  10. 75 FR 22680 - Financial Management Service; Proposed Collection of Information: Annual Financial Statement of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... Fiscal Service Financial Management Service; Proposed Collection of Information: Annual Financial Statement of Surety Companies--Schedule F AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Treasury. ACTION: Notice and Request for comments. SUMMARY: The Financial Management Service, as part of its...

  11. Greed and adolescent financial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seuntjens, T.G.; van de Ven, Niels; Zeelenberg, M.; van der Schors, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Financial problems in adolescents have increased over the last decades. We investigated if individual differences in greed relate to financial behavior. Greed is an important motive for economic behavior and refers to the tendency to never be satisfied and to always want more. We developed a short v

  12. Financial Services and Emerging Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Karreman (Bas)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis study addresses the organization and strategy of firms in emerging markets with an explicit application to financial services. Given the relevance of a well-functioning financial system for economic growth, understanding the organization and strategy of firms contributing to the dev

  13. Financial Planning with Fractional Goals

    OpenAIRE

    Goedhart, M.H.; Spronk, Jaap

    1995-01-01

    textabstractWhen solving financial planning problems with multiple goals by means of multiple objective programming, the presence of fractional goals leads to technical difficulties. In this paper we present a straightforward interactive approach for solving such linear fractional programs with multiple goal variables. The approach is illustrated by means of an example in financial planning.

  14. Stakeholder relations and financial performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, B.; Zhou, Y.

    2008-01-01

    We analyze how shareholder performance can be associated with stakeholder relations. As such, we try to find out whether there is an association between financial performance and stakeholder relations with respect to different theoretical notions about the firm. Financial performance is operationali

  15. Teaching OOP with Financial Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongwei

    2011-01-01

    Students lose interest in learning programming when the materials are not related to their lives. A challenge facing most students is that they lack the financial literacy necessary to manage their debts. An approach is developed to integrate financial literacy into an object-oriented programming (OOP) course. The approach is effective in…

  16. Certification of Financial Aid Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Stacey A.

    2011-01-01

    The certification of financial aid administrators has been debated for over 37 years. A job satisfaction survey conducted by the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NASFAA, 2008a) revealed that college and university administrators' perceptions of the efficiency, effectiveness, and quality of the services provided by the…

  17. Financial Scandals and Student Loans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Meyer; Franke, Ann H.

    2007-01-01

    The investigations of student-loan programs around the country echo previous scandals in the financial world involving stock offerings and mutual funds. The relationships between lenders and financial-aid officers seem to raise the same questions about impropriety, conflict of interest, and possible fraud. Indeed, lessons from Wall Street can…

  18. Bulgaria Financial Sector Assessment Program

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    This technical note results from the Financial Sector Assessment (FSAP) conducted in the period 17 January 2017 and 1 February 2017. The note covers the activities of the Financial Supervision Commission (FSC), the state of the pension and insurance sectors and the challenges to their development. The exercise for insurance did not involve a full assessment against the Insurance Core Princ...

  19. Jordan Banks Financial Soundness Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imad Kutum

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research paper is to examine the Jordanian banks using financial soundness indicators. This is to establish if Jordanian banks were affected because of the 2007/2008 financial crisis and determine the underlying reasons. The research paper was conducted on 25 banks in Jordan listed in the countries securities exchange. The research methodology used consisted of examining the banks financial records in order to derive four crucial Basel III ratio such as the capital adequacy ratio, the leverage ratio, the liquidity ratio and finally the Total Provisions (As % Of Non-Performing Loans %. The results revealed that out of the four hypotheses under examination Jordan Banks do not meet Basel financial Indicators for Capital Adequacy Ratio, Jordan Banks does not meet Basel financial Indicators for Liquidity Ratio , Jordan Banks do not meet Basel financial Indicators for Leverage Ratio and Jordan Banks do not meet Basel financial Indicators for Total Provisions (As % Of Non-Performing Loans ratio. Only one hypothesis was accepted based on the research outcomes. The rest of the hypothesis was rejected since the average trend line did not go below the Basel III required ratio level. The general outcome of the research revealed that Jordanian banks were not affected significantly by the financial crisis.

  20. Theories about the financial crises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Busuioc-Witowschi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The financial crises are generally associated with banking crises due to the role they play in their production, transmission and settlement. This paper presents a number of different approaches taken from the specialized literature on the causes that led to the outbreak of the financial crises.