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Sample records for cumini seed extract

  1. Spray-dried extracts from Syzygium cumini seeds: physicochemical and biological evaluation

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    Maria Paula G. Peixoto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extract from seeds of Syzygium cumini (L. Skeels, Myrtaceae, obtained by dynamic maceration was spray-dried and characterized by its physico-chemical and antihyperglycaemic action. The extract showed to possess high amount of polyphenols, significant in vitro free radical scavenger activity using the DPPH method and an antihyperglycaemic effect in alloxan-induced experimental diabetes. S. cumini spray-dried extracts were obtained using silicon dioxide and cassava starch as adjuvants. The powders showed acceptable flowability, compactability, and low hygroscopicity at 43% relative humidity. Besides, the spray-dried extracts showed in vivo antihyperglycaemic and in vitro scavenger activity comparable to the lyophilized extract. Thus, experimental data indicates that the extract from S. cumini has a relevant activity and that spray-drying could be adequately used to perform the technological processing of S. cumini fluid extracts.

  2. Spray-dried extracts from Syzygium cumini seeds: physicochemical and biological evaluation

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    Maria Paula G. Peixoto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extract from seeds of Syzygium cumini (L. Skeels, Myrtaceae, obtained by dynamic maceration was spray-dried and characterized by its physico-chemical and antihyperglycaemic action. The extract showed to possess high amount of polyphenols, significant in vitro free radical scavenger activity using the DPPH method and an antihyperglycaemic effect in alloxan-induced experimental diabetes. S. cumini spray-dried extracts were obtained using silicon dioxide and cassava starch as adjuvants. The powders showed acceptable flowability, compactability, and low hygroscopicity at 43% relative humidity. Besides, the spray-dried extracts showed in vivo antihyperglycaemic and in vitro scavenger activity comparable to the lyophilized extract. Thus, experimental data indicates that the extract from S. cumini has a relevant activity and that spray-drying could be adequately used to perform the technological processing of S. cumini fluid extracts.

  3. Syzygium Cumini (L. Seeds Extract Ameliorates Cisplatin Induced Hepatotoxicity in Male Wistar Rats

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    R.Maheswari

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of cisplatin, cis-[Pt(II(NH(3(2Cl(2] ([PtCl2(NH32] or CDDP, was a corner stone which triggered the interest in platinum(II-and other metal-containing compounds as potential anticancer drugs. Cisplatin, is one of the most potent chemotherapy drugs widely used for cancer treatment. In our present study, an attempt has been made to study the effect of Cisplatin on biochemical and histopathological parameters and ameliorating effects of the Syzygium cumini (L. aqueous seeds extract or Eugena Jambolana in male wistar rats. Adult male wistar rats were divided into four different groups. Group I Served as vehicle treated normal saline (Control, Group II Rats received single intra-peritoneal (Ip injection of cisplatin (7mg/kg bw, Group III received Syzygium cumini (L. aqueous seeds extract 400mg/kg/bw orally for 7 days beginning one day prior to cisplatin (CP injection. Group IV Rats received alone Syzygium cumini (L. aqueous seeds extract (400mg/kg bw treated. Cisplatin exposure leads to adverse effects on hematological, hepatotoxic parameters including Erythrocytes (RBCs. Cisplatin induction leads to reduction in the levels of Enzymic and Non-Enzymic antioxidants levels. However, on treatment with Syzygium cumini (L. aqueous seeds extract normalized the levels of all the biochemical and hematological parameters. These findings highlight the efficacy of Syzygium cumini (L. aqueous seeds extract as protective effects Cisplatin induced hepatotoxicity.

  4. Elimination of deleterious effects of DMBA-induced skin carcinogenesis in mice by Syzygium cumini seed extract.

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    Parmar, Jyoti; Sharma, Priyanka; Verma, Preeti; Sharma, Priyanka; Goyal, Pradeep K

    2011-09-01

    The inhibition of tumor incidence by hydro-alcoholic extract of S.cumini seed was evaluated in mice on two stage process of skin carcinogenesis induced by single application of 7, 12-dimethyl benz(a)anthracene (100 µg/100µl of acetone), and 2 weeks later promoted by repeated application of croton oil (1% acetone/thrice in a week) till the end of the experiment (i.e. 16 weeks). Oral administration of extract at a dose of 250mg/kg b.wt./day at the peri-initiational stage (i.e. 7 days before and 7 days after DMBA application), promotional stage (i.e. from the time of croton oil application) and at both the stages (i.e. 7 days prior to DMBA application & continued till the end of experiment) to the mice, recorded a significant reduction in tumor incidence to 37.5, 50 & 25% respectively in comparison to the carcinogen treated control, where tumor incidence was found as 100%. Tumor yield and Tumor burden were also significantly reduced by SCE. Similarly, the cumulative number of papillomas after 16 weeks was 68 in the control group, which was reduced to 15, 21 & 8 in the animals treated with the SCE continuously at peri-, post- and peri- & post- initiation stage respectively. A significant impairment was noticed in the levels of reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase & protein and enhancement in LPO in liver and skin of carcinogen treated control mice as compared with vehicle treated mice. All such parameters were returned to near normal value by administration of SCE to DMBA treated mice. These results suggest a possible chemopreventive property of S.cumini against DMBA induced skin carcinogenesis in mice.

  5. Comparative evaluation of the medicinal activities of methanolic extract of seeds, fruit pulps and fresh juice of Syzygium cumini in vitro

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    Repon Kumer Saha

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To establish the health benefits of Syzgium cumin to discover functional components present in the seeds, fruit pulps and fresh juice of this fruit grown in Bangladesh. Methods: Thin layer chromatography and ultra-violet spectroscopy were used to detect the presence of various types of compound in seeds and juice. Antioxidant effects were measured by DPPH scavenging assay and total reducing assay. Receptor binding activities was performed by hemagglutination inhibition assay. Anti-inflammatory assay and hydrogen peroxide induced hemolysis assay was also investigated. Disc diffusion assay was performed to show the antibacterial effect using Gram positive, Gram negative strains of bacteria and fungi. Results: Methanolic extract of the seeds showed stronger antioxidant, hydrogen peroxide induced hemolysis activities, hemagglutination inhibition activities and membrane stabilization activities than those of fresh juice. However, fresh juice showed stronger antibacterial and antifungal activities than those of methanolic seed extract. The seed contains higher amount of polyphenols and flavanoids than those of fruit juice. Conclusions: Therefore, fruit juice, fruit pulp and seed of Syzygium cumini contain medicinal active components in different ratios.

  6. Comparative evaluation of the medicinal activities of methanolic extract of seeds, fruit pulps and fresh juice of Syzygium cumini in vitro

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    Repon Kumer Saha; Naveed Mahmood Zaman; Priyanka Roy

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To establish the health benefits of Syzgium cumin to discover functional present in the seeds, fruit pulps and fresh juice of this fruit grown in Bangladesh. components Methods: Thin layer chromatography and ultra-violet spectroscopy were used to detect the bpyre DsePnPcHe socfa vveanrigoiunsg tayspseasy oafn cdo mtoptaolu rnedd uinci nsege adsss aayn.d R jeuciecpe.t oAr nbtiinodxiidnagn at cetifvfeitcitess wwearse pmeerfaosrumreedd binyd uhceemd ahgegmluotliynsaist iaosns aiyn hwiabsi tailosno iansvseasyti.g Aatnedti.- Dinisfcla dmifmfuastioonry a asssasya yw aasn dp ehrfyodrmroegde nto psehroowx itdhee antibacterial effect using Gram positive, Gram negative strains of bacteria and fungi. Results: Methanolic extract of the seeds showed stronger antioxidant, hydrogen peroxide induced thheamno ltyhsoisse a octfi vfriteisehs, jhueimcea.g Hglouwtienvaetiro, nf rienshhi bjiutiiocne aschtoivwiteide ss atrnodn gmeerm abnrtaibnaec sttearbiailli zaantido na natcitfiuvnitgieasl aacntdiv filtaiveas ntohiadns tthhoasne tohfo smee othf afrnuoilti cju siceee.d extract. The seed contains higher amount of polyphenols Conclusions: Therefore, fruit juice, fruit pulp and seed of Syzygium cumini contain medicinal active components in different ratios.

  7. Antioxidant activity of Syzygium cumini leaf gall extracts

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    Ravi Shankara Birur Eshwarappa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Free radicals are implicated in several metabolic diseases and the medicinal properties of plants have been explored for their potent antioxidant activities to counteract metabolic disorders. This research highlights the chemical composition and antioxidant potential of leaf gall extracts (aqueous and methanol of Syzygium cumini S. cumini, which have been extensively used in traditional medications to treat various metabolic diseases. Methods: The antioxidant activities of leaf gall extracts were examined using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH, nitric oxide scavenging, hydroxyl scavenging and ferric reducing power (FRAP methods. Results: In all the methods, the methanolic extract showed higher antioxidant potential than the standard ascorbic acid. The presence of phenolics, flavonoids, phytosterols, terpenoids, and reducing sugars was identified in both the extracts. When compared, the methanol extract had the highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents at 474±2.2 mg of GAE/g d.w and 668±1.4 mg of QUE/g d.w, respectively. The significant high antioxidant activity can be positively correlated to the high content of total polyphenols/flavonoids of the methanol extract. Conclusion: The present study confirms the folklore use of S. cumini leaves gall extracts as a natural antioxidant and justifies its ethnobotanical use. Further, the result of antioxidant properties encourages the use of S. cumini leaf gall extracts for medicinal health, functional food and nutraceuticals applications.

  8. Modulatory Effect of Syzygium cumini Seeds and its Isolated Compound on biochemical parameters in Diabetic Rats

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    Mamta Farswan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Many herbal remedies individually or in combination have been recommended in various medical treatises for the cure of different diseases. In the search of natural hypoglycemic agents as alternatives to synthetic ones and to justify the use of Syzygium cumini seeds in folklore system of medicine for diabetes, the hypoglycemic and hypolipidernic activity of Syzygium cumini seeds were investigated in normal and non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin in neonates. Administration of petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone, methanol and water extracts of Syzygium cumini seeds (100 mg/kg, p.o. for 21 days caused a decrease in fasting blood sugar in diabetic rats (FBS. Among all the extracts methanol extract was found to lower the FBS significantly in diabetic rats. Glibenclamide at a dose of 5 mg/kg p.o was used for comparision. Methanol extract was subjected to column chromatography which led to the isolation of an active principle, which was given trivial name Cuminoside. Cuminoside (50 mg/kg, p.o. caused significant reduction in fasting blood sugar in diabetic rats. Further it also caused a significant reduction in cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein (LDL, hepatic enzymes such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH level and improvement in the level of high density lipoproteins (HDL in diabetic rats. Reduction in the fasting blood sugar, normalization of liver enzymes level and improvement in the lipid profile by Cuminoside indicates that Cuminoside has cardio protective potential with antidiabetic activity and provides a scientific rationale for the use of Cuminoside as an antidiabetic agent.

  9. EVALUATION OF SYZYGIUM CUMINI LINN. SEED FORMULATIONS AVAILABLE IN THE MARKET USING SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC AND CHROMATOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUES

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    K. S. Chitnis et al.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Most of the plant parts of Syzygium cumini are documented in the traditional systems of medicine in India for their key usage as a hypoglycemic in the management of diabetes. Many such formulations of Jamun fruits/seed powder are available in the market. Hence, in the present investigation, the detailed pharmacognostic evaluation of Syzygium cumini seed powders has been carried out to develop a fast, easy and efficient protocol for the authentication of the formulations of Jamun available in the market. Also, an effort has been made to quantitate the gallic acid component of tannins using different chromatographic and spectrophotometric techniques.

  10. Acaricidal activity of different extracts from Syzygium cumini L. Skeels (Pomposia) against Tetranychus urticae Koch

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    Abd El-Moneim MR Afify; Hossam S El-Beltagi; Sayed A Fayed; Emad A Shalaby

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the acaricidal activity of different extracts from Syzygium cumini (S.cumini) (Pomposia) againsst Tetranychus urticae Koch (T. urticae) and the biochemical changes in antioxidants enzymes. Methods: Six extracts of S. cumini (Pomposia) at concentrations of 75, 150 and 300μg/mL were used to control T. urticae (Koch). Results: The ethanol extract showed the most efficient acaricidal activity agent against T. urticae (98.5%) followed by hexane extract (94.0%), ether and ethyl acetate extract (90.0%). The LC50 values of the promising extract were 85.0, 101.0, 102.0 and 98.0μg/mL, respectively. The activities of enzymes including ascorbate peroxidase (APX), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in susceptible mites were increased. The activities of all antioxidant enzymes reach the maximum value in mites at LC50 with ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts, respectively. Conclusions: The extract of S. cumini has acaricidal acivity against T. urticae, and the ethanol extract is the most efficient.

  11. Supplementation of Syzygium cumini seed powder prevented obesity, glucose intolerance, hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress in high carbohydrate high fat diet induced obese rats.

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    Ulla, Anayt; Alam, Md Ashraful; Sikder, Biswajit; Sumi, Farzana Akter; Rahman, Md Mizanur; Habib, Zaki Farhad; Mohammed, Mostafe Khalid; Subhan, Nusrat; Hossain, Hemayet; Reza, Hasan Mahmud

    2017-06-02

    Obesity and related complications have now became epidemic both in developed and developing countries. Cafeteria type diet mainly composed of high fat high carbohydrate components which plays a significant role in the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome. This study investigated the effect of Syzygium cumini seed powder on fat accumulation and dyslipidemia in high carbohydrate high fat diet (HCHF) induced obese rats. Male Wistar rats were fed with HCHF diet ad libitum, and the rats on HCHF diet were supplemented with Syzygium cumini seed powder for 56 days (2.5% w/w of diet). Oral glucose tolerance test, lipid parameters, liver marker enzymes (AST, ALT and ALP) and lipid peroxidation products were analyzed at the end of 56 days. Moreover, antioxidant enzyme activities were also measured in all groups of rats. Supplementation with Syzygium cumini seed powder significantly reduced body weight gain, white adipose tissue (WAT) weights, blood glucose, serum insulin, and plasma lipids such as total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and HDL concentration. Syzygium cumini seed powder supplementation in HCHF rats improved serum aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities. Syzygium cumini seed powder supplementation also reduced the hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and elevated the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities as well as increased glutathione (GSH) concentration. In addition, histological assessment showed that Syzygium cumini seed powder supplementation prevented inflammatory cell infiltration; fatty droplet deposition and fibrosis in liver of HCHFD fed rats. Our investigation suggests that Syzygium cumini seed powder supplementation prevents oxidative stress and showed anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic activity in liver of HCHF diet fed rats. In addition, Syzygium cumini seed powder may be beneficial in ameliorating insulin

  12. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of crude extracts and essential oils of Syzygium cumini leaves.

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    Mohamed, Amal A; Ali, Sami I; El-Baz, Farouk K

    2013-01-01

    This research highlights the chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oils and various crude extracts (using methanol and methylene chloride) from Syzygium cumini leaves. Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).The abundant constituents of the oils were: α-pinene (32.32%), β-pinene (12.44%), trans-caryophyllene (11.19%), 1, 3, 6-octatriene (8.41%), delta-3-carene (5.55%), α-caryophyllene (4.36%), and α-limonene (3.42%).The antioxidant activities of all extracts were examined using two complementary methods, namely diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing power (FRAP). In both methods, the methanol extract exhibited a higher activity than methylene chloride and essential oil extracts. A higher content of both total phenolics and flavonoids were found in the methanolic extract compared with other extracts. Furthermore, the methanol extract had higher antibacterial activity compared to methylene chloride and the essential oil extracts. Due to their antioxidant and antibacterial properties, the leaf extracts from S. cumini may be used as natural preservative ingredients in food and/or pharmaceutical industries.

  13. Antioxidant activity, phenolic-flavonoid content and high-performance liquid chromatography profiling of three different variants of Syzygium cumini seeds: A comparative study

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    Priya, Syama Hari; Prakasan, Nisha; Purushothaman, Jayamurthy

    2017-01-01

    Background: The medicinally important phytochemicals present in Syzygium cumini seeds probably accounts for its wide use in traditional systems of medicines in India, like Ayurveda, Unani, and Siddha. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the antioxidant potential of three different geographical variants of S. cumini seeds and to compare the phenolic profiling to know the effect of geographical variation in phenolic composition. Materials and Methods: Total phenolic and flavonoid content of S. cumini seeds were analyzed. Antioxidant activities in terms of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid), nitric oxide and superoxide radical scavenging assays were performed. The most active fractions were subjected to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) profiling to identify the phenolic composition. Results: Among all the fractions, 70% methanol fraction of S. cumini seed showed significant antioxidant potential. There existed a linear correlation between phenolic content and antioxidant activity. HPLC profiling of 70% methanol (ME) fractions of all the variants revealed the presence of phenolic compounds with high concentrations of ellagic acid and gallic acid. The differences in phenolic concentration due to geographical changes might be the reason for higher antioxidant potential showed by 70% ME of Trivandrum variant. Conclusion: 70% methanolic fraction of S. cumini can act as a novel source of natural antioxidant. PMID:28163968

  14. Polyphenol-rich extract of Syzygium cumini leaf dually improves peripheral insulin sensitivity and pancreatic islet function in monosodium L-glutamate-induced obese rats

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    Jonas Rodrigues Sanches

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Syzygium cumini (L. Skeels (Myrtaceae has been traditionally used to treat a number of illnesses. Ethnopharmacological studies have particularly addressed antidiabetic and metabolic-related effects of extracts prepared from its different parts, especially seed and pulp-fruit, however there is a lack of studies on phytochemical profile and biological properties of its leaf. As there is considerable interest in bioactive compounds to treat metabolic syndrome and its clustered risk factors, we sought to characterize the metabolic effects of hydroethanolic extract of S. cumini leaf (HESc on lean and monosodium L-glutamate (MSG-induced obese rats. HPLC-MS/MS characterization of the HESc polyphenolic profile, at 254 nm, identified 15 compounds pertaining to hydrolysable tannin and flavanol subclasses. At 60 days of age, both groups were randomly assigned to receive HESc (500 mg/kg or vehicle for 30 days. At the end of treatment, obese+HESc exhibited significantly lower body weight gain, body mass index, and white adipose tissue mass, compared to obese rats receiving vehicle. Obese rats treated with HESc showed a 2-fold increase in lipolytic activity in the periepididymal fat pad, as well as, brought triglyceride levels in serum, liver and skeletal muscle back to levels close those found in lean animals. Furthermore, HESc also improved hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in obese+HESc rats, which resulted in partial reversal of glucose intolerance, as compared to obese rats. HESc had no effect in lean rats. Assessment of ex vivo glucose-stimulated insulin secretion showed HESc potentiated pancreatic function in islets isolated from both lean and obese rats treated with HESc. In addition, HESc (10 – 1000 ug/mL increased glucose stimulated insulin secretion from both isolated rat islets and INS-1E beta cells. These data demonstrate that S. cumini leaf improved peripheral insulin sensitivity via stimulating/modulating beta cell insulin release

  15. Efeito do extrato da casca de Syzygium cumini sobre a atividade da acetilcolinesterase em ratos normais e diabéticos Syzygium cumini bark extract effect on acetylcholinesterase activity in normal and diabetic rats

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    Cinthia Melazzo Mazzanti

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo verificou a eficiência do extrato etanólico da casca de Syzygium cumini sobre o sistema colinérgico de ratos normais e diabéticos induzidos com aloxano. Os animais foram divididos em grupo controle (C, tratado com Syzygium cumini (TS, diabético (D e diabético tratado com Syzygium cumini (DS. A atividade da acetilcolinesterase (AChE foi analisada nas seguintes estruturas cerebrais: cerebelo, córtex, estriado e hipocampo. O extrato etanólico da casca de Syzygium cumini na dose de 1g.kg-1 foi administrado diariamente por um período de trinta dias. Foi verificado após este período que o extrato inibiu a atividade da AChE no cerebelo e córtex cerebral dos ratos do grupo DS (PThe present study verified the efficiency of the bark ethanol extract of Syzygium cumini on the cholinergic system of normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Thirty-nine female rats were divided in control (C, treated with Syzygium cumini (TS, diabetic (D and diabetic treated with Syzygium cumini (DS. The activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE was analyzed in the following cerebral structures: cerebellum, cortex, striatum and hippocampus. The extract of the bark of Syzygium cumini in the dose of 1g.kg-1 was administered orally daily for a period of thirty days. After this period the extract inhibited the activity of the AChE in the cerebellum and cerebral cortex of the rats in the DS group (P<0.05 as, compared to TS. In the striatum there was a significant increase in the activity of the AChE in rats of the TS group (P<0.01 when compared to the C group, and in the hippocampus there was no significant variation. These results indicate that the bark extract of "Jambolão"has an inhibitory effect on AChE in the cerebellum and cerebral cortex and an stimulatory effect on striatum, indicating a possible alteration in the functionality of the cholinergic system in such cerebral structures.

  16. EVALUATION OF BEHAVIORAL ACTIVITY OF BACOPA MONNIERA AND SYZYGIUM CUMINI IN COMBINATION

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    Dalal Pramod Homdeo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a major factor responsible for behavioral disorder. The main objective of the present work is to investigate the evaluation of behavioral activity of Bacopa monniera (aerial part and Syzygium cumini (seed coat, individually and in combination by using different extracts (viz; ethyl acetate, acetone, methanol and methanol: water. Three different models which are used for behivoral activity such as Forced swim test (FST, Elevated plus maze method (EPM, Open field test (OFT. The result of FST indicated that immobility time significantly decreased in group treated with combination of methanolic extract of Bacopa monniera and ethyl acetate extract of Syzygium cumini in dose (200/40 mg/kg as compared to control. The result of EPM indicated that percent no of open arm entries and time spent in group treated with combination of methanolic extract of Bacopa monniera and ethyl acetate extract of Syzygium cumini in dose (200/40 mg/kg as compared to control. OFT indicates that number of occurrences at center and duration at center significantly increased in group treated with combination of methanolic extract of Bacopa monniera and ethyl acetate extract of Syzygium cumini in dose (200/40 mg/kg as compared to control group. Therefore it is clearly proved that Bacopa monniera and Syzygium cumini plant in combination showed promising behavioral activity.

  17. EKSTRAKSI DAN STABILITAS ANTOSIANIN DARI KULIT BUAH DUWET (Syzgium cumini [Extraction and Stability of Anthocyanins From Jambolan (Syzgium cumini Skins

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    Mukhamad Fauzi1

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins were extracted from jambolan skins using neutral solvents e.i water, ethanol, sopropanol, water ; ethanol (1:1, water : isopropanol (1:1, ethanol : isopropanol (1:1, and water, ethanol, isoppropanol (1:1:1 at 5 and 270>C. the stability of the anthocyanins was as effected by pH, heat, oxidator, and light was investigated. The extraction using combination of water and isopropanol at 270C showed the highest total yield, i.e 71.54% (db. Furthermore, the highest anthocyanin concentration and yield were obtained in the extracts using combination of water and ethanol at 270>C i.e. 10 007.03 mg/L (db and 2.78% (db, respectively. At low pH, the pigment extracts sowed high stability; and gradually decreased and lost color when the pH was increased. The greatest color intensity (red was obtained at pHs values less than 3.5. The anthocyanins were relatively stable during heating temperature of 40 and 600C in which more than 80% of pigment could be maintained for 4 hour of heating. Heating at high temperatures (80 and 1000C decreased the color stability more than 80%. Presence of oxidator H2O2 reduced the stability up to 73.52%. The UV and flouresecent light exposure for 7 days also reduced the stability by 11.47% and 10.62%, respectively.

  18. Grape Seed Extract

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    ... to reduce inflammation. Grape seed extract contains the antioxidant compound oligomeric proanthocyanidin (OPC), which has been studied for a variety of health conditions. OPCs are found in extracts of grape skin and seeds, which are by-products of the ...

  19. Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels:A review of its phytochemical constituents and traditional uses

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    Muniappan Ayyanar; Pandurangan Subash-Babu

    2012-01-01

    Syzygium cumini (S. cumini) (L.) Skeels (jambolan) is one of the widely used medicinal plants in the treatment of various diseases in particular diabetes. The present review has been primed to describe the existing data on the information on botany, phytochemical constituents, traditional uses and pharmacological actions of S. cumini (L.) Skeels (jambolan). Electronic database search was conducted with the search terms of Eugenia jambolana, S. cumini, jambolan, common plum and java plum. The plant has been viewed as an antidiabetic plant since it became commercially available several decades ago. During last four decades, numerous folk medicine and scientific reports on the antidiabetic effects of this plant have been cited in the literature. The plant is rich in compounds containing anthocyanins, glucoside, ellagic acid, isoquercetin, kaemferol and myrecetin. The seeds are claimed to contain alkaloid, jambosine, and glycoside jambolin or antimellin, which halts the diastatic conversion of starch into sugar. The vast number of literatures found in the database revealed that the extracts of different parts of jambolan showed significant pharmacological actions. We suggest that there is a need for further investigation to isolate active principles which confer the pharmacological action. Hence identification of such active compounds is useful for producing safer drugs in the treatment of various ailments including diabetes.

  20. Antibacterial Activity of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized by Bark Extract of Syzygium cumini

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    Ram Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The unique property of the silver nanoparticles having the antimicrobial activity drags the major attention towards the present nanotechnology. The environmentally nontoxic, ecofriendly, and cost-effective method that has been developed for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using plant extracts creates the major research interest in the field of nanobiotechnology. The synthesized silver nanoparticles have been characterized by the UV-visible spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Further, the antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles was evaluated by well diffusion method, and it was found that the biogenic silver nanoparticles have antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853, Azotobacter chroococcum WR 9, and Bacillus licheniformis (MTCC 9555.

  1. AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN EKSTRAK BIJI DUWET (Syzygium cumini Linn. PADA PEROKSIDASI LIPIDA SECARA IN VITRO

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    Rohadi Rohadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available All parts of Syzygium cumini Linn. (duwet were widely used for medicinal plant in the treatment of various deseases. The seed extract was used to lower blood glucose. Cumini's seed had higher phenolic fractions than others. It were prepared by extracted of duwet seed "Genthong" varieties, using various extractants such as 85% ethyl acetate, 50% methanol and 50% ethanol. Duwet seed extract collected then was determined of phenolics compound and antioxidant activity assayed by measuring 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazylradical (DPPH scavenging activity, reducing Ferric ion (Fe3+ power and inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation. The objective was to select one of the extractant which gave highest yield and polyphenolic content and its stronger antioxidant activity. Extractant 50% methanol gave highest the extract yields was 16.29 % (db. and phenolics compounds of extract was composed: total phenolic 45.99±0.25 g-GAE/100 g-extract; total flavonoid 2.28±0.07 g-QE/100 g-extract and total tannin 26.9±0.07 g-TAE/100 g-extract. All of extract exhibited strong on behalf of RSA-DPPH assay 87-95% (100  g-mL-l and reducing power, nevertheless in inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation was moderate 49-55% (400  g-mL-l. Keywords: Syzygium cumini Linn, seed, antioxidant, extraction   ABSTRAK Tanaman duwet (Syzygium cumini Linn. pada semua kompartemennya dimanfaatkan masyarakat untuk pengobatan suatu penyakit. Ekstrak bijinya dimanfaatkan untuk penurun gula darah. Bijinya merupakan bagian tanaman yang kaya senyawa polifenol. Fraksi kaya senyawa fenolik dipreparasi dengan mengekstraksi biji duwet varietas "Genthong", dengan tiga jenis ekstraktan; etil acetat 85%, metanol 50% dan etanol 50%. Ekstrak biji duwet (EBD yang diperoleh dianalisis kelompok senyawa fenolik dan aktivitas antioksidan menggunakan metode uji penangkapan radikal DPPH (2,2-diphenil 1-picrylhydrazyl, uji reduksi ion Feri (ferric reduction antioxidant power-FRAP dan uji penghambatan peroksidasi

  2. Antimicrobial screening of Cichorium intybus seed extracts

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    Tauseef shaikh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants play an important role in the field of natural products and human health care system. Chemical constituents present in the various parts of the plants can resist to parasitic attack by using several defense mechanisms. One such mechanism is the synthesis of antimicrobial compound. Cichorium intybus is one of the important medicinal plants which belong to Asteraceae family. In the present work, antimicrobial screening of C. intybus seed extract was studied by agar well diffusion assay by using aqueous and organic extracts. The pathogenic microorganisms tested include Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Escherichia coli. All the seed extracts showed antimicrobial activity against tested microorganisms whereas S. aureus was found to be most sensitive against aqueous extract and had the widest zone of inhibition. Ethyl acetate and ethanol extract were found to be significant against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. The results obtained from antimicrobial screening scientifically support the effectiveness of the medicinal plant.

  3. Evaluation of antioxidant and antiradical properties of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seed and defatted seed extracts

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Pomegranate seeds are byproducts of the Pomegranate juice industries that contains functional compounds such as phenols. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of solvents on extraction from Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed and to measure the yield extract and phenolic content and antioxidant properties. For this purpose, the seeds and defatted seeds were directly isolated from fruits and seeds by cold pressing respectively, then were crushed and extracted with different so...

  4. Evaluation of antioxidant and antiradical properties of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seed and defatted seed extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiri, Shadi

    2015-02-01

    Pomegranate seeds are byproducts of the Pomegranate juice industries that contains functional compounds such as phenols. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of solvents on extraction from Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed and to measure the yield extract and phenolic content and antioxidant properties. For this purpose, the seeds and defatted seeds were directly isolated from fruits and seeds by cold pressing respectively, then were crushed and extracted with different solvents, including water, Methanol, Acetone, Ethyl acetate and Hexane and finally the extracts of them were evaluted. Phenolic compounds, ferric reducing-antioxidant power and radicals scavenging property of extracts were measured. The results showed the highest extraction efficiencies were for Hexane and Acetone solvents in extraction of seed and defatted seed respectively. The highest phenolic content was obtained from Methanol seed extract. Reducing activity test proved that the Methanol extracts of Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed had the highest reducing strength. Results of radical scavenging activity were similar to reducing activity results. The order of antioxidant capacity of Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed were found to be Methanol > Water > Acetone > Butanol > Ethyl acetate > Hexane. It can be concluded Pomegranate seed, which possesses high levels of polyphenols, can be one of the sources of the natural antioxidants. The Methanol extract had a higher antioxidant efficiency than seed and defatted seed extracts.

  5. Inhibition of quorum sensing in Chromobacterium violaceum by Syzygium cumini L. and Pimenta dioica L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Halkare Suryanarayana Vasavi; Punchapady Devasya Rekha

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigated into the anti-quorum sensing (QS) activity of Syzygium cumini L. (S. cumini) and Pimenta dioica L. (P. dioica) using Chromobacterium violaceum (C. violaceum) strains. Methods:In this study, anti-QS activity of ethanol extract of Syzygium cumini L. and Pimenta dioica L. were screened using C. violaceum CV026 biosensor bioassay. By bioassay guided fractionation of S. cumini and P. dioica, ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) with strong anti-QS activity was separated. Inhibition of QS regulated violacein production in C. violaceum ATCC12472 by EAF was assessed at different concentrations. The effect of EAF on the synthesis of autoinducer like N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) was studied in C. violaceum ATCC31532 using its mutant C. violaceum CV026 by standard methods. Results: EAF inhibited violacein production in C. violaceum ATCC12472 in a concentration dependent manner without significant reduction in bacterial growth. Complete inhibition of violacein production was evidenced in 0.75-1.0 mg/mL concentration of EAF without inhibiting the synthesis of the AHL. TLC biosensor overlay profile of EAF revealed two translucent spots in S. cumini and P. dioica that inhibited C6-AHL mediated violacein production in C. violaceum CV026. Conclusions:This study indicates the anti-QS activity of the tested medicinal plants against C. violaceum.

  6. Enrichment of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in tomato seed extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vieira Lelis, Flavia; Wolf, van der J.M.

    2017-01-01

    An enrichment procedure was developed to improve detection of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm) in tomato seed extracts. In the final procedure, seeds were soaked overnight in a buffer at 4°C and homogenised. Seed extracts were then filtered, supplemented with antibiotics and

  7. Ultrasound-associated extraction of seed oil of Korean pine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGYing; WANGZhen-yu; CHENXiao-qiang

    2005-01-01

    Experiment on ultrasound- associated extraction of seed oil of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) was conducted in Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, China. The factors affecting extraction yield, such as ultrasonic frequency, extracting temperature, extracting time and the ratio of material to liquid (ratio of Korean pine seed to absolute alcohol), were analyzed under specific condition and the optimal extracting parameters were obtained as the ultrasonic frequency 32 000 Hz, the extracting temperature 80℃, the extracting time 50 rain, and the ratio of material to liquid 1: 30. The study demonstrates that ultrasound is a reliable and great efficiency tool for the fast extraction of Korean pine seed oil。

  8. Extraction and characterization of radish seed oils using different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Radish seed oil was prepared by traditional solvent extraction (SE), supercritical carbon ... The quality and safety of natural extracts used as .... amounts of toxic solvents to extract plant oils .... the analysis of oils, fats and derivatives.

  9. Ultrasound Energy Effect on Solvent Extraction of Amaranth Seed Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Won Il; Chung, Ki Won; Lee, Seung Bum; Hong, In Kwon [Department of Chemical Engineering, Dankook University, Seoul (Korea); Park, Kyung Ai [Seoul Metropolitan Government Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-05-01

    Ultrasonic energy has been widely applied to cleaning, medical appliances, extraction, etc. And ultrasonic energy can be applied to solvent extraction of plant oil from amaranth seed. Amaranth seed oil contains small amount of squalene. Squalene is polyunsaturated branched hydrocarbon, which is an essential part of the human body. In this study, the seed oil was extracted from amaranth seed by ultrasonic solvent extraction process. Ultrasonic irradiation time was 1, 3 ,5, 10, 20 and 30 min and extraction temperature was 20, 30, and 40 degree C. And ultrasonic power was 390 W and 520 W. The extracted amounts of amaranth seed oil and squalene were increased with the increase of ultrasonic power and irradiation time. Using ultrasonic energy in solvent extraction, extraction time was very shorten. The optimum extraction temperature was 30 degree C, it was caused that ultrasonic energy effects were increased in the matters of low temperature. The maximum extracted amount of amaranth seed oil was 0.746 g and squalene was 37.54 mg per 10 g amaranth seed at 30 degree C. 10 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Contribution to the improvement of seed extraction in larch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippe, G. [Cemagref - Forest nurseries and Plant genetics division, Nogent-sur-Vernisson (France)

    1995-12-31

    Industrial techniques in a seed plant resulted in the extraction of a small percentage of seed potential (18% in hybrid larch and 40% in European larch). It was determined that the seeds remaining within the cones were as viable as the seeds extracted. Thus, the quantity of marketable seeds was directly proportional to the quantity of seeds extracted and an important gain in seed yield could be achieved by improving extraction techniques. Among the five techniques tested in a second experiment, the two cone grinding treatments, done in a hammer mill, were characterized by the best extraction rate (up to 80% of seed potential) but they resulted in a decrease in seed viability. However, cone grinding applied to large volume of cones produced highly viable seeds. The difference was attributed to the number of cones treated. With regard to other techniques, cone drying followed by cone threshing was more efficient when it was applied to cones previously cut in two or let outside for a couple of months. All these techniques gave better results when cones were collected in spring rather than in autumn whereas cone grinding efficiency did not depend on cone collection date. 8 refs, 1 fig, 2 tabs

  11. Allelopathy by extracts of Caatinga species on melon seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreya Kalyana de Oliveira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The melon crop is of great socioeconomic importance in Brazil and some species from the Caatinga biome show allelopathic effects on other species. The aim of this study was to assess leaf and seed extracts of cumaru (Amburana cearensis (Allemao A.C. Sm., the jujube tree (Zizyphus joazeiro Mart., Jucá (Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. Ex. Tul. Var. Ferrea and mulungu (Erythrina velutina Willd. on the emergence of melon seeds (Cucumis melo L.. Leaves and seeds were used to produce extracts for each species at concentrations of a 1%, b 0.5% c 0.25%, d 0.125% and e 0% (control. The experiment was conducted with each extract type and its respective concentrations in a completely randomized design, with four replicates, each of 20 seeds. The percentage emergence and rate index, percentage of abnormal seedlings, seedling dry matter and seedling shoot and root length were assessed. Seed extracts of A. cearensis prevented melon germination, whereas the other extracts had no effect on this variable. Leaf extracts of A. cearensis and leaf and seed extracts of Z. joazeiro, C. ferrea and E. velutina resulted in abnormal melon seedlings. The percentage of abnormal melon seedlings exceeded 30% when treated with C. ferrea seed extract at the highest concentration. Most extracts did not affect seedling dry matter, but E. velutina leaf and seed extract increased the dry matter accumulation of melon seedlings and Z. joazeiro seed extract decreased dry matter accumulation at a concentration of 0.25%. The highest concentrations of mulungu and jucá leaf extracts promoted the shoot growth of melon seedlings. The extract from E. velutina seeds negatively affected root length compared to the control, similar to the effect of C. ferrea and E. velutina leaf extracts at the highest concentrations. Extracts of different organs of Caatinga plants can affect the emergence and characteristics related to seedling growth, depending on the concentration. Most extracts did not affect

  12. Microwave-assisted extraction kinetics of terpenes from caraway seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chemat, S.; Ait-Amar, H.; Lagha, A.; Esveld, D.C.

    2005-01-01

    The process conditions during the extraction of carvone and limonene from caraway seed (Carum carvi L.) with microwave-assisted extraction have been studied with respect to microwave power, radiation dose and extraction time in order to obtain the secondary metabolites selectively. Using classical s

  13. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of cuphea seed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuphea seed oil is being investigated as a potential domestic source of medium chain fatty acids for several industrial uses. Although the oil from cuphea seeds has been obtained using both solvent extraction and screw pressing, both methods suffer from several disadvantages. Petroleum ether extra...

  14. Antibacterial activity of seed extracts of Argemone mexicana L. on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... 2Department of Botany, Government Post-Graduate College, Rishikesh-249201, Uttarakhand, India. ... medical problem and challenge worldwide, posing a big threat to ... The fresh yellow, milky, seed extract contains protein-.

  15. Safety evaluation of Eugenia jambolana seed extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jayanta M Sankhari; Ravirajsinh N Jadeja; Menaka C Thounaojam; Ranjitsinh V Devkar; Ramachandran AV

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the safety of ethanolic seed extract of Eugenia jambolana (EJSE) using acute and sub-chronic toxicity assays in Swiss albino mice as per Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. Methods: Possible behavioral changes and lethality were observed in mice administered a single dose [1 000, 2 000, 3 000, 4 000 or 5 000mg/kg body weight (BW)] of EJSE. Plasma levels of metabolic, hepatic, cardiac and renal function markers, electrolytes, blood count and histopathology of major organs were monitored in mice chronically treated with EJSE (1 000, 2 000 or 3 000 mg/kg BW) for 28 days. Results: Since no mortality was recorded in the acute toxicity evaluation up to a dose of 5 000 mg/kg bodyweight of EJSE, 50%lethal dose (LD50) was assumed to be >5 000 mg/kg BW. In the sub-chronic toxicity evaluation, no adverse observations were recorded in mice administered with 2 000 mg/kg BW of EJSE;however at 3 000 mg/kg BW dose, moderately significant increase in the plasma levels of urea and creatinine was observed. Hence, the lowest observable adverse effect level (LOAEL) for EJSE was found to be 3 000 mg/kg BW and the no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) was adjudged as 2 000 mg/kg BW. Conclusions: It can be concluded from this study that, orally administered EJSE is safe up to a10 fold higher dose than its reported therapeutic dose.

  16. Antioxidant potential of Coriandrum sativum L. seed extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepa, B; Anuradha, C V

    2011-01-01

    The seeds of C. sativum are used as a traditional drug for the treatment of diabetes. The antioxidant and free-radical-scavenging property of seeds in vitro was studied and also investigated whether the administration of seeds curtails oxidative stress in the kidney of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Incorporation of seed powder in the diet led to marked lowering of blood glucose and a rise in the levels of insulin in diabetic rats. A parallel beneficial effect was observed on oxidant -antioxidant balance in the kidney. Addition of coriander seed powder not only inhibited the process of peroxidative damage but also significantly reactivated the antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant levels in diabetic rats. The total polyphenolic content of the seeds was found to be 12.2 gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g while total flavanoid content was found to be 12.6 quercetin equivalents/g. The seeds also showed scavenging activity against superoxides and hydroxyl radicals in a concentration-dependent manner. Maximum free radical-scavenging action and free radical reducing power of coriander seed extract was observed at a concentration of 50 microg GAE. Islet histology structures showed degeneration of pancreatic islets in diabetic rats which was also reduced in diabetic rats treated with seed powder. These results show that C. sativum seeds not only possess antihyperglycemic properties but antioxidative properties also. Increased dietary intake of coriander seeds decrease the oxidative burden in diabetes mellitus.

  17. Administration Dependent Antioxidant Effect of Carica papaya Seeds Water Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Panzarini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carica papaya is widely used in folk medicine as herbal remedy to prevent, protect against, and cure several diseases. These curative properties are based on the presence in different parts of the plant of phytochemical nutrients with antioxidant effect. Seeds are the less exploited part; thus this study is aimed at assessing the antioxidant activities of the C. papaya seeds water extract against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 oxidative stress in human skin Detroit 550 fibroblasts. C. papaya seeds water extract is not toxic and acts as a potent free radical scavenger, providing protection to Detroit 550 fibroblasts that underwent H2O2 oxidative stress. Data show that (i the maximum protective effect is achieved by the simultaneous administration of the extract with 1 mM H2O2; (ii the extract in presence of an oxidative stress does not increase catalase activity and prevents the release of cytochrome C and the inner mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψm loss; (iii the extract is more efficient than vitamin C to hamper the oxidative damage; (iv the purified subfractions of the seeds water extract exert the same antioxidant effect of whole extract. In conclusion, C. papaya seeds water extract is potentially useful for protection against oxidative stress.

  18. Bioactivity of microencapsulated soursop seeds extract on Plutella xylostella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Barros Gomes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioactivity of microencapsulated extract from the soursop seeds, Annona muricata L. ( Annonaceae , on diamondback moth, Plutella xylostela L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae . Microencapsulation was performed in a Mini Spray Dryer model B-290 using 50mL of ethanolic and hexanic extracts plus 150mL of ethanol and 150mL of ultrapure water, mixed with aerosil (first polymer or arabic gum (second polymer. It was possible to microencapsulate the ethanolic extract of soursop seeds only by using the polymer arabic gum at 20%. The microencapsulated extract caused significant acute toxicity (LC50=258mg L-1 and chronic effects, especially reduction of larval viability and increased larval stage. We concluded that the microencapsulation of the ethanolic extract of soursop seeds can be a viable alternative for controlling diamondback moth with possible gains for the environment.

  19. HAZELNUT SEED LIPASE: EXTRACTION, PURIFICATION, AND CHARACTERIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Kılıç, İsmail; Sağıroğlu, Ayten

    2012-01-01

    Interest in lipases has markedly increased to their potential industrial applications. Themost of lipases produced commercially are obtained from animal and microbial sources.Nowadays, also obtained from plant seeds such as sunflower, soybean, peanut, castor bean andhazelnut. Hazelnut is one of the most important foods in majority of the world and Turkey islargest hazelnut producer. In this study, It was aimed that Lipase from hazelnut seed identified asyomra species isolated, purified and ch...

  20. Characterization of Jamaican Delonix regia and Cassia fistula Seed Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Goldson Barnaby

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Delonix regia and Cassia fistula seed extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant activity, total phenolics, ash, zinc and fatty acid content. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR was utilized to assess the chemical functionalities present within the seeds. Antioxidant activity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC assays. Total phenolics were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Lipid extracts were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Zinc concentration was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Extracts from the seeds of C. fistula had a higher antioxidant activity, free radical scavenging activity, and phenolic content than D. regia. FTIR revealed that the seeds are a rich source of protein with small quantities of fat. C. fistula extracts contained a higher percentage of total fat than D. regia. Palmitic acid was identified as the predominant saturated fatty acid in both extracts. Oleic acid and linoleic acid were identified in smaller quantities. Seed extracts may be considered for use in food and nutraceutical applications.

  1. Physico Chemical Properties and Antioxidant Activity of Roselle Seed Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoulaye Idrissa Cissouma

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to extract phenolic compounds from defatted Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffaL. seed and assess their antioxidant potential. Water, ethanol (30%, methanol (30% and acetone (30% were used as solvent for extraction. The proximate composition, total phenolic content and extraction yield were analyzed. Antioxidant efficacies of Roselle seed extract were tested by using 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, hydroxyl, 2, 2’-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiaz oline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS radicals scavenging capacities and reducing power analysis. Roselle seeds were found to be rich in protein (27.745%, carbohydrates (40.45% and oil (20.83%. The total phenolic content ranged from 1.66±0.03 to 1.99±0.01 (GAE mg/g using water and 30% acetone respectively. The highest inhibitory capacity on DPPH and ABTS radicals was observed in 30% acetone extract and was at 3 mg/mL for DPPH and 6 mg/mL for ABTS respectively. Ethanol extract showed the highest hydroxyl radical scavenging ability value of 66.36 at 20 mg/mL, followed by methanol (57.27, acetone (56.36 and water (30. The reducing potential of the different extracts was concentration dependent and increased with increase in concentration. These results indicate that substantial antioxidant activity can be obtained from Roselle seed phenolic compounds extract by using 30% acetone.

  2. Effect of dietary substitution with solvent extracted neem seed cake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-06

    Jul 6, 2009 ... Extraction of the residual bitter component (neem seed cake alcoholic extract) ... for 6 h as described by modified method of Mitra (1963) to remove ... Daily feed intake was measured, as decrease in the quantity of weighed ...

  3. Antioxidant Activity of Ethanol Extract of Pomegranate Seed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuzhong SHI; Yuan LU; Benguo LIU; Sasa ZUO

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the ethanol extract of pomegranate seed was prepared and its antioxidant activities were investigated. It was found the total phenolic content in the extract was as high as 41.791 mg GAE/g. And the extract showed high antioxi-dant activity measured as scavenging of DPPH radicals, hydroxyl radicals. It also exhibited strong antioxidant activity in reducing power and Rancimat test. These re-sults demonstrated Pomegranate seeds could serve as a new source of natural an-tioxidant.

  4. Sterculia guttata seeds extractives--an effective mosquito larvicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katade, Sushama R; Pawar, Pushpa V; Wakharkar, Radhika D; Deshpande, Nirmala R

    2006-08-01

    The larvicidal activity of ethanol, chloroform and hexane soxhlet extracts obtained from S. guttata seeds was investigated against the IVth instar larvae of Dengue fever vector, Aedes aegypti and filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus. All extracts including fractions of ethanol extract exhibited 100% larval kill within 24 hr exposure period at 500 ppm concentration. Fraction A1 of ethanol was found to be most promising; its LC50 was 21.552 and 35.520 ppm against C. quinquefasciatus and A. aegypti respectively. Naturally occurring S. guttata seed derived fractions merit further study as potential mosquito larval control agents or lead compounds.

  5. The Extraction and Properties of Carica papaya Seed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.M. Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the suitability of Ultrasound-Microwave synergistic Extraction (UMAE for the recovery of papaya seed oil as compared to Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE. The efficiency of these two methods was assessed by comparing the physicochemical properties and oxidative stability of papaya seed oil. The analytic tests were color, unsaponifiable matters, iodine value, acid value and peroxide value. The fatty acid components were analyzed by GC. Results indicated that the Ultrasound-Microwave synergistic Extraction (UMAE considerably impact on the physicochemical properties of the extracted papaya seed oil, UMAE provided papaya seed oil with obviously lighter color, lower unsaponifiable matters (2.53% and higher oxidative stability (PV, 0.98 m mol/kg than that of UAE. Analysis of fatty acid composition revealed that 13 kinds of components are identified and the total amount of fatty acids accounted for 93.13% of papaya seed oil, the predominant fatty acids in papaya seed oil were oleic (18:1, 72.60%, palmitic (16:0, 18.00%, linoleic acid (18:2, 5.80% and stearic (18:0, 3.60%.

  6. Chemical composition and biological activity of the plum seed extract

    OpenAIRE

    Savić, Ivan M.; Nikolić, Vesna D.; Savić-Gajić, Ivana M.; Kundaković, Tatjana D.; Stanojković, Tatjana P.; Najman, Stevo J.; id_orcid 0000-0002-2411-9802

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to estimate the biological activity of the plum seed extract and to define the chemical composition by using the ESI-MS method. During the investigation of the antioxidant activity, the extract showed a better ability to inhibit DPPH radicals compared with amygdalin standard. The results of the antimicrobial study indicate that the extract has a greater effect on Gram-negative bacteria compared with amygdalin. Gram-positive bacteria and fungi remained resistant in bo...

  7. New design of experiment combined with UV-Vis spectroscopy for extraction and estimation of polyphenols from Basil seeds, Red seeds, Sesame seeds and Ajwan seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabood, Fazal; Gilani, Syed Abdullah; Hussain, Javid; Alshidani, Sulaiman; Alghawi, Said; Albroumi, Mohammed; Alameri, Saif; Jabeen, Farah; Hussain, Zahid; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Al Abri, Zahra K. M.; Farooq, Saima; Naureen, Zakira; Hamaed, Ahmad; Rasul Jan, M.; Shah, Jasmin

    2017-05-01

    New experimental designs for the extraction of polyphenols from different seeds including Basil seed, Red seed, Sesame seeds and Ajwan seeds were investigated. Four variables the concentration and volume of methanol and NaOH solutions as well as the temperature and time of extraction were varied to see their effect on total phenol extraction. The temperature was varied in the range from 25 °C to 200 °C while the time in the range from 30 to 200 minutes. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the extraction parameters. The estimation of polyphenols was measured through phenols reduction UV-Vis spectroscopic method of phosphotungstic-phosphomolybdic acids (Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent). Calibration curve was made by using tannic acid as a polyphenols standard in the concentration range from 0.1 to 10 ppm. The regression line obtained shows the value of correlation coefficient i.e. R = 0.930 and Root mean square error of cross validation (RMSEC) value of 0.0654. The Basil seeds were found containing the highest amount of total phenols i.e. 785.76 mg/100 g. While the Sesame seeds having the least amount i.e. 33.08 mg/100 g. The Ajwan seeds and the Red seeds are containing the medium amounts i.e. 379 mg/100 g and 220.54 mg/100 g respectively.

  8. New design of experiment combined with UV-Vis spectroscopy for extraction and estimation of polyphenols from Basil seeds, Red seeds, Sesame seeds and Ajwan seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabood, Fazal; Gilani, Syed Abdullah; Hussain, Javid; Alshidani, Sulaiman; Alghawi, Said; Albroumi, Mohammed; Alameri, Saif; Jabeen, Farah; Hussain, Zahid; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Al Abri, Zahra K M; Farooq, Saima; Naureen, Zakira; Hamaed, Ahmad; Rasul Jan, M; Shah, Jasmin

    2017-01-26

    New experimental designs for the extraction of polyphenols from different seeds including Basil seed, Red seed, Sesame seeds and Ajwan seeds were investigated. Four variables the concentration and volume of methanol and NaOH solutions as well as the temperature and time of extraction were varied to see their effect on total phenol extraction. The temperature was varied in the range from 25°C to 200°C while the time in the range from 30 to 200minutes. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the extraction parameters. The estimation of polyphenols was measured through phenols reduction UV-Vis spectroscopic method of phosphotungstic-phosphomolybdic acids (Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent). Calibration curve was made by using tannic acid as a polyphenols standard in the concentration range from 0.1 to 10ppm. The regression line obtained shows the value of correlation coefficient i.e. R=0.930 and Root mean square error of cross validation (RMSEC) value of 0.0654. The Basil seeds were found containing the highest amount of total phenols i.e. 785.76mg/100g. While the Sesame seeds having the least amount i.e. 33.08mg/100g. The Ajwan seeds and the Red seeds are containing the medium amounts i.e. 379mg/100g and 220.54mg/100g respectively.

  9. Effect of papaya seed extract on microenvironment of cauda epididymis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.J. Verma; N.J. Chinoy

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effect of aqueous Carica papaya seed extract on microenvironment of cauda epididymis.Methods: Adult male albino rats were intrauscularly administered with 0 (control) or 0.5 mg papaya seed ex tract/kg body weight for 7 days. Cauda epididymal tubular content was collected by micropuncture technique; epididy real luminal fluid and sperm pellets were separately analyzed. Results: The results revealed that the extract treat ment caused significant reduction, as compared with control, in total protein and sialic acid contents in both epididymal fluid and sperm pellet. As compared with control, significantly lowered acid phosphatase activity was recorded in spermpellet but was higher in epididymal fluid after the treatment. The extract treatment also caused significant reduction in level of inorganic phosphorus in the ePididymal fluid. Conclusion: It is concluded that the aqueous papaya seed ex tract alters cauda epididymal microenvironment.

  10. EVALUATION OFAMATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR OIL EXTRACTION FROM OLEAGINOUS SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Toscano

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical extraction from seeds represents an important process in the production of vegetable oils. The efficiency of this step can have an effect on the economic convenience of the entire production chain of vegetable oils. However, the mechanical presses used for extraction are designed following criteria based more on the experience and intuition of the operators than on rigorous analyses of the physical principles involved in the process. In this study we have tested the possibility of applying a mathematical model that reproduces oil extraction from seeds, on a laboratory type of continuous press. In other words, we have compared the results of our mathematical model with those obtained from real extractions with mechanical presses on sunflower seeds. Our model is based on determining the main operating parameters of mechanical extraction, such as temperature, pressure and compression time, and on the knowledge of some physical characteristics of the solid matrix of the seeds. The results obtained are interesting because they include the role of operating parameters involved in extraction while the application of the mathematical model studied here allows, although with potential for improvement, a mathematical instrument to be developed for optimising the sizing and the operating conditions of mechanical presses.

  11. Toxicity and Antioxidant Tests of Morinda citrifolia (noni Seed Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett J. West

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to evaluate Morinda citrifolia (noni seed extract, a food ingredient, for potential toxicity and antioxidant activity. Nitrates, nitrites, phytic acid, oxalic acid, as well as aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 were not detected in the extract. The extract was also non-cytoxic (LC50 > 1 mg/mL in the 24 and 40 h brine shrimp toxicity test. There were no symptoms of toxicity in a subacute (28 day oral toxicity test in Sprague-Dawley rats. Noni seed extract did not display any genotoxic potential in a primary DNA damage test in E. coli PQ37. The extract did exhibit significant antioxidant activity in the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP tests.

  12. oleifera seed extract on copper sulphate induced injury in wistar rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    oleifera seed also known as Moringa seed on copper sulphate induced injury in Wistar rats. ... ministered aqueous extract of Moringa seed (200mg/kg body weight) and copper sulphate ... Human Care and Use of Laboratory Animals,. 2002).

  13. ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF CITRUS PARADISI (GRAPEFRUIT SEED EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faleye, F J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The seeds and the seeds extract of Citrus paradisi (Rutaceae have been widely used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of conditions such as ulcers, cataracts, urinary and alimentary tract infections. The juice is taken mainly for its medicinal properties in large area of sub-Saharan Africa. However, very little is known about the cellular actions by which this plant mediates its therapeutic effects. This study investigated the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the extracts and isolated compounds from the seeds extract. The structures of the isolated compounds were established using spectroscopy studies and identified as obacunone (1, nomilin (2, limonin (3, nomilinic acid (4 and obacunone-17-O-β-D-glucopyranose (5. Their antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl spectrophotometric assay. None of the isolated compounds showed antimicrobial activities but nomilinic acid showed a weak antioxidant property. It scavenged 13.09 % of the DPPH free radical at the highest concentration of 200 µM tested.Oil of the seeds of C. paradisi investigated using gas chromatographic analysis was found to contain both saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. The major saturated fatty acids present were lauric and stearic acids with percentage composition of 2.61 and 0.07 respectively while the major unsaturated fatty acids present in the seed were linoleic and linolenic acids with percentage compositions of 5.02 and 3.84 respectively.

  14. Quality and characteristics of ginseng seed oil treated using different extraction methods

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Myung-Hee; Kim, Sung-Soo; Cho, Chang-Won; Choi, Sang-Yoon; In, Gyo; Kim, Kyung-Tack

    2013-01-01

    Ginseng seed oil was prepared using compressed, solvent, and supercritical fluid extraction methods of ginseng seeds, and the extraction yield, color, phenolic compounds, fatty acid contents, and phytosterol contents of the ginseng seed oil were analyzed. Yields were different depending on the roasting pretreatment and extraction method. Among the extraction methods, the yield of ginseng seed oil from supercritical fluid extraction under the conditions of 500 bar and 65℃ was the highest, at 1...

  15. Tall fescue seed extraction and partial purification of ergot alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowell eBush

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many substances in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Schedonorus arundinaceus/Epichloë coenophiala have biological activity. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids are known to have significant mammalian toxicity and the predominant ergot alkaloids are ergovaline and ergovalinine. Because synthetically produced ergovaline is difficult to obtain, we developed a seed extraction and partial purification protocol for ergovaline/ergovalinine that provided a biologically active product. Tall fescue seed was ground and packed into several different sized columns for liquid extraction. Smaller particle size and increased extraction time increased efficiency of extraction. Our largest column was a 114 × 52 × 61 cm (W×L×D stainless steel tub. Approximately 150 kg of seed could be extracted in this tub. The extraction was done with 80% ethanol. When the solvent front migrated to bottom of the column, flow was stopped and seed was allowed to steep for at least 48 h. Light was excluded from the solvent from the beginning of this step to the end of the purification process. Following elution, ethanol was removed from the eluate by evaporation at room temperature. Resulting syrup was freeze-dried. About 80% recovery of alkaloids was achieved with 18-fold increase in concentration of ergovaline. Initial purification of the dried product was accomplished by extracting with hexane/water (6:1, v/v and the hexane fraction was discarded. The aqueous fraction was extracted with chloroform, the aqueous layer discarded, after which the chloroform was removed with a resulting 20-fold increase of ergovaline. About 65% of the ergovaline was recovered from the chloroform residue for an overall recovery of 50%. The resultant partially purified ergovaline had biological activities in in vivo and in vitro bovine bioassays that approximate that of synthetic ergovaline.

  16. Tall fescue seed extraction and partial purification of ergot alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Huihua; Fannin, F; Klotz, J; Bush, Lowell

    2014-01-01

    Many substances in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Schedonorus arundinaceus/Epichloë coenophiala) have biological activity. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids are known to have significant mammalian toxicity and the predominant ergot alkaloids are ergovaline and ergovalinine. Because synthetically produced ergovaline is difficult to obtain, we developed a seed extraction and partial purification protocol for ergovaline/ergovalinine that provided a biologically active product. Tall fescue seed was ground and packed into several different sized columns for liquid extraction. Smaller particle size and increased extraction time increased efficiency of extraction. Our largest column was a 114 × 52 × 61 cm (W × L × D) stainless steel tub. Approximately 150 kg of seed could be extracted in this tub. The extraction was done with 80% ethanol. When the solvent front migrated to bottom of the column, flow was stopped and seed was allowed to steep for at least 48 h. Light was excluded from the solvent from the beginning of this step to the end of the purification process. Following elution, ethanol was removed from the eluate by evaporation at room temperature and the resulting syrup was freeze-dried. About 80% recovery of alkaloids was achieved with 18-fold increase in concentration of ergovaline. Initial purification of the dried product was accomplished by extracting with hexane/water (6:1, v/v). The aqueous fraction was extracted with chloroform, the aqueous layer discarded, after which the chloroform was removed with a resulting 20-fold increase of ergovaline. About 65% of the ergovaline was recovered from the chloroform residue for an overall recovery of 50%. The resultant partially purified ergovaline had biological activities in in vivo and in vitro bovine bioassays that approximate that of synthetic ergovaline.

  17. Tall fescue seed extraction and partial purification of ergot alkaloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Lowell

    2014-12-01

    Many substances in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Schedonorus arundinaceus/Epichloë coenophiala) have biological activity. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids are known to have significant mammalian toxicity and the predominant ergot alkaloids are ergovaline and ergovalinine. Because synthetically produced ergovaline is difficult to obtain, we developed a seed extraction and partial purification protocol for ergovaline/ergovalinine that provided a biologically active product. Tall fescue seed was ground and packed into several different sized columns for liquid extraction. Smaller particle size and increased extraction time increased efficiency of extraction. Our largest column was a 114 × 52 × 61 cm (W×L×D) stainless steel tub. Approximately 150 kg of seed could be extracted in this tub. The extraction was done with 80% ethanol. When the solvent front migrated to bottom of the column, flow was stopped and seed was allowed to steep for at least 48 h. Light was excluded from the solvent from the beginning of this step to the end of the purification process. Following elution, ethanol was removed from the eluate by evaporation at room temperature. Resulting syrup was freeze-dried. About 80% recovery of alkaloids was achieved with 18-fold increase in concentration of ergovaline. Initial purification of the dried product was accomplished by extracting with hexane/water (6:1, v/v) and the hexane fraction was discarded. The aqueous fraction was extracted with chloroform, the aqueous layer discarded, after which the chloroform was removed with a resulting 20-fold increase of ergovaline. About 65% of the ergovaline was recovered from the chloroform residue for an overall recovery of 50%. The resultant partially purified ergovaline had biological activities in in vivo and in vitro bovine bioassays that approximate that of synthetic ergovaline.

  18. extraction and physico chemical properties of some edible seed oils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 8(2): 239 - 244. Received: ... all in agreement with standard values of AOAC, (1990) which implies that the oil extracted from these seed samples can ..... International Journal of Food. Science and ...

  19. Antimicrobial activity of seed, pomace and leaf extracts of sea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial activity of seed, pomace and leaf extracts of sea buckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides L.) against foodborne and food spoilage pathogens. ... Bacterial enumeration was significantly reduced by 0.15 to 0.31, 0.26 to 1.72 and 0.59 to ...

  20. Antioxidant effect of extract of the grape seed in streptozotocin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousof Doostar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder as old as mankind and its incidence is considered to be high all over the world. Oxidative stress is strongly associated with development and the complications of diabetes. Antioxidant agents, especially with the origin of plants, are of more importance in the treatment of diabetic complications. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of extract of the grape seed on antioxidants status in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.Material and methods: In this laboratory experimental study which conducted in Islamic Azad University of Tabriz research center. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four equal groups including healthy control group, healthy group treated with grape seed extract (40 mg/kg, diabetic control group and diabetic group treated with grape seed extract (40 mg/kg. The experimental rats were treated in related groups for 12 weeks and at the end of experiment serum level of malonaldehyde (MDA and anti-oxidant enzymes activity including superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and catalase (CAT were measured in red blood cells. Statistically, comparison of the groups was carried out using one-way analysis of variance followed by Bonferroni post-hoc test. Differences were considered statistically significant at p< 0.05. Results: Diabetic rats showed significant increase in the value of MDA and a decrease in the activities of SOD, GPx and CAT of red blood cells (p<0.001. Oral administration of grape seed extract resulted in significant reduction in the level of MDA and significant increase in the activities of SOD, GPx and CAT of red blood cells (p<0.001. Conclusion: The results of this study provide confirmatory evidence of oxidative stress in diabetes and show the anti-oxidative effect of grape seed extract

  1. Plant and metagenomic DNA extraction of mucilaginous seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Simone N M; Salazar, Marcela M; Pereira, Gonçalo A G; Efraim, Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    The pulp surrounding the seeds of some fruits is rich in mucilage, carbohydrates, etc. Some seeds are rich in proteins and polyphenols. Fruit seeds, like cacao (Theobroma cacao) and cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum), are subjected to fermentation to develop flavor. During fermentation, ethanol is produced [2-6]. All of these compounds are considered as interfering substances that hinder the DNA extraction [4-8]. Protocols commonly used in the DNA extraction in samples of plant origin were used, but without success. Thus, a protocol for DNA samples under different conditions that can be used for similar samples was developed and applied with success. The protocol initially described for RNA samples by Zeng et al. [9] and with changes proposed by Provost et al. [5] was adapted for extracting DNA samples from those described. However, several modifications have been proposed:•Samples were initially washed with petroleum ether for fat phase removal.•RNAse was added to the extraction buffer, while spermidin was removed.•Additional steps of extraction with 5 M NaCl, saturated NaCl and CTAB (10%) were included and precipitation was carried out with isopropanol, followed by washing with ethanol.

  2. Nutritional quality of sunflower seed protein fraction extracted with isopropanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, M; Bhattacharyya, D K

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated the nutritional effect of sunflower seed protein fraction (SSPF) extracted with isopropanol on growth, plasma and tissue lipid profile, protein content and erythrocyte membrane lipid profile of rats. Dehulled sunflower seeds were extracted with isopropanol at 50 +/- 1 degree C resulting in a protein fraction (71.5%) with low residual chlorogenic acid (0.07%) and fiber (3.3%) contents. Rats fed the sunflower seed protein fraction had a similar body weight gain and food efficiency ratios in comparison to those fed casein. Rats fed SSPF in contrast had a significantly higher growth and food efficiency ratio than the rats fed sunflower meal (SM), extracted with hexane. However, dietary proteins exerted a separate effect on plasma total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein to high density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C/HDL-C) ratio and triglyceride content. Sunflower seed protein fraction resulted in a significant decrease in plasma cholesterol (p < 0.05) and LDL-cholesterol (p < 0.02) levels compared to the casein fed rats. Membrane phospholipid profile also showed a marked variation with the type of dietary protein. Rats fed SSPF and SM did not show much variation in plasma lipids, plasma proteins, liver and brain lipids and membrane phospholipid concentrations. Protein content, liver and brain lipid profile of the groups fed SSPF and casein were comparable, suggesting that the nutritional value of SSPF is better than SM and equivalent to that of casein.

  3. Characterization of grape seed and pomace oil extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema Çetin, Emine

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the nutrient and antioxidant contents of grape seed and pomace oil extracts from the main Turkish wine grape cultivars, Kalecik karas1, Narince, Hasandede and Emir. Dried and powdered seed and pomace materials were extracted with hexane. The results showed that the oil concentration of seeds ranged from 12.35 to 16.00% while in pomace the oil concentration varied from 5.47 to 8.66%. Grape seed and pomace oils were rich in oleic and linoleic acids and the degree of unsaturation in the oils was over 85%. α- tocopherol was the most abundant tocopherol in the oil extracts. Although γ and δ-tocopherols were found with low concentrations, β-tocopherol was not detected in the oil extracts. Oil extracts from pomace in all cultivars gave the highest tocopherol contents compared to the seeds. The contents of total phenolics were higher in pomace oil extracts than seed oil extracts. The highest total phenolic content (392.74 mg/kg was found in the oil extract from Narince pomace compared to the other oil extracts. The refractive indexes of pomace oil extracts ranged from 1.445 to 1.468 while the refractive indexes of the seed oil extracts ranged from 1.460 and 1.466. In conclusion, wine byproducts including the seeds and pomace can be utilized both to get natural antioxidants and to obtain edible vegetable oil.El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar los contenidos de nutrientes y antioxidantes de extractos de aceite de orujo y pepita de uva de los principales cultivares de uva de Turquía, Kalecik karas1, Narince, Hasandede y Emir. El material procedente del orujo y las semillas, seco y pulverizado, se extrajo con hexano. Los resultados mostraron que la concentración de aceite de las semillas osciló entre 12,35 y 16,00 % mientras que en el aceite de orujo la concentración varió entre 5,47 y 8,66%. Los aceites de orujo y pepita de uva eran ricos en ácido oleico y linoleico y su grado de instauraci

  4. [Effect of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus seed extracts on seed germination and seedling growth of different Codonopsis pilosula caltiver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Feng-Xia; Wu, Zhi-Jiang; Chen, Yuan; Xi, Zhuo-Xia; Zhang, Xiao-Hu; Yao, Li-Rong; Chen, Xiang

    2012-11-01

    To reveal the allelopathy effect of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus seeds and provide information for the intercrop production. The A. membranaceus. var. mongholicus seeds were soaked in distilled water for different time (12, 24, 36, 48, 60 h) , and then the seed extracts were used to study their effects on the seed germination, seedling growth and development of two Codonopsis pilosula. The A. membranaceus var. mongholicus seeds contained some allelopathy compounds. Their soaked liquid had significantly influence on the seed germination and seedling growth of C. pilosula. The seed germination rate, germination power, germination index and vigor index of two C. pilosula calrivar were improved and then inhabited with soaking time elongation. The extract soaking for 24 h significantly improved the germination traits but the extract for 60 h appeared different degrees of inhibiting vigor. The seed extracts soaking ranging between 12 and 60 h all significantly improved the above plant growth of C. pilosula but significant inhibited their radicle growth in length. And with the soaking time elongation the facilitation effect weakened and the inhibiting effect enhanced, especially more significant in the C. pilosula caltivar (Baitiaodangshen). The A. membranaceus var. mongholicus seeds have allelopathic compounds and the endogenous inhibitor can be extracted when soaked for more than 24 h in water with intact seeds, resulting in improvement of seed germination rate. The C. pilosula could be intercropped in A. membranaceus var. mongholicus field, however, when intercroped it should notice that the intercrop proportion should vary with the caltivar.

  5. ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CUMIN (CUMINUM CYMINUM SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Dua

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial properties of methanolic extract of cumin (Cuminum cyminum seeds on four enteropathogenic and food-spoiler bacterial strains have been investigated. The cumin extract has been found to be effective against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Increase in absorbance between 260-280 nm indicates that incubation of bacterial cultures with cumin extract causes damage to their cell membranes and release of intracellular nucleotides and proteinaceous materials from the cells. The growth inhibition zones observed by agar well diffusion method were 10.7 to 14.0 mm in diameter in presence of cumin extract. Minimum concentrations of cumin extract effective against E,coli, P.aeruginosa, S.aureus and B.pumilus were found to be 12.5, 6.25, 25.0 and 6.25 mg dry weight per ml respectively.

  6. Antioxidant activity of oils extracted from orange (Citrus sinensis seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuza Jorge

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing production of food in the world with consequent increase of the production of waste, the importance of developing researches for its use is noticed. Thus, the interest in vegetable oils with bioactive compounds, such as the ones extracted from fruit seeds, is growing. Therefore, the present study aims to characterize the oils extracted from seeds of Hamlin, Natal, Pera-rio and Valencia orange varieties (Citrus sinensis, as to the levels of total carotenoids, total phenolic compounds, tocopherols and phytosterols, as well as to determine their antioxidant activity. The orange seed oils presented important content of total carotenoids (19.01 mg/kg, total phenolic compounds (4.43 g/kg, α-tocopherol (135.65 mg/kg and phytosterols (1304.2 mg/kg. The antioxidant activity ranged from 56.0% (Natal to 70.2% (Pera-rio. According to the results it is possible to conclude that the orange seed oils can be used as specialty oils in diet, since they contain considerable amounts of bioactive compounds and antioxidants.

  7. Extraction of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Seeds: Process Optimization and Antioxidant Capacity of the Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the study on the extraction of bioactive substances from fennel seeds. The impact of the main process variables (solvent composition, liquid-to-solid ratio, temperature, contact time) on the concentration of the target substances (polyphenols and flavonoids) in the extracts is studied resulting in the selection of a set of operating parameters, at which their content is maximized. Extracts with higher concentration of target compounds demonstrate higher antioxidant capacit...

  8. In vitro antibacterial activity in seed extracts of Manilkara zapota, Anona squamosa, and Tamarindus indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Vijay; Seshadri, Sriram

    2010-01-01

    Extracts prepared from seeds of Manilkara zapota, Anona squamosa, and Tamarindus indica were screened for their antibacterial activity by disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. Acetone and methanol extracts of T. indica seeds were found active against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. MIC values of potent extracts against susceptible organisms ranged from 53-380 μg/mL. Methanol extract of T. indica and acetone extract of M. zapota seeds were found to be bactericidal.

  9. Ultrasound induced green solvent extraction of oil from oleaginous seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicaire, Anne-Gaëlle; Vian, Maryline Abert; Fine, Frédéric; Carré, Patrick; Tostain, Sylvain; Chemat, Farid

    2016-07-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction of rapeseed oil was investigated and compared with conventional extraction for energy efficiency, throughput time, extraction yield, cleanness, processing cost and product quality. A multivariate study enabled us to define optimal parameters (7.7 W/cm(2) for ultrasonic power intensity, 40 °C for processing temperature, and a solid/liquid ratio of 1/15) for ultrasound-assisted extraction of oil from oilseeds to maximize lipid yield while reducing solvent consumption and extraction time using response surface methodology (RSM) with a three-variable central composite design (CCD). A significant difference in oil quality was noted under the conditions of the initial ultrasound extraction, which was later avoided using ultrasound in the absence of oxygen. Three concepts of multistage cross-current extraction were investigated and compared: conventional multistage maceration, ultrasound-assisted maceration and a combination, to assess the positive impact of using ultrasound on the seed oil extraction process. The study concludes that ultrasound-assisted extraction of oil is likely to reduce both economic and ecological impacts of the process in the fat and oil industry.

  10. Fermentation of aqueous plant seed extracts by lactic acid bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schafner, D.W.; Beuchat, R.L.

    1986-05-01

    The effects of lactic acid bacterial fermentation on chemical and physical changes in aqueous extracts of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peanut (Arachis hypogea), soybean (Glycine max), and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) were studied. The bacteria investigated were Lactobacillus helveticus, L. delbrueckii, L. casei, L. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. Organisms were inoculated individually into all of the seed extracts; L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus were also evaluated together as inocula for fermenting the legume extracts. During fermentation, bacterial population and changes in titratable acidity, pH, viscosity, and color were measured over a 72 h period at 37 degrees C. Maximum bacterial populations, titratable acidity, pH, and viscosity varied depending upon the type of extract and bacterial strain. The maximum population of each organism was influenced by fermentable carbohydrates, which, in turn, influenced acid production and change in pH. Change in viscosity was correlated with the amount of protein and titratable acidity of products. Color was affected by pasteurization treatment and fermentation as well as the source of extract. In the extracts inoculated simultaneously with L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, a synergistic effect resulted in increased bacterial populations, titratable acidity, and viscosity, and decreased pH in all the legume extracts when compared to the extracts fermented with either of these organisms individually. Fermented extracts offer potential as substitutes for cultured dairy products. 24 references.

  11. Phytochemical studies on the seed extract of Piper nigrum Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Munawwer; Afshan, Farhana; Tariq, Rajput M; Siddiqui, Bina S; Gulzar, Tahsin; Mahmood, Azhar; Begum, Sabira; Khan, Bushra

    2005-10-01

    The petroleum ether extract of dried ground seeds of Piper nigrum Linn. and some column fractions of this extract were subjected to GC and GC-MS analysis, resulting in the identification of fourteen compounds (1-14) by using NIST Mass spectral search program 1998 and the Kovat's retention indices. Ten of the compounds (1, 2, 4-12) are reported for the first time from this plant. All the fractions showed insecticidal activity against the fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and against the fourth instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi Liston, determined by the WHO method.

  12. ANTIHYPERLIPIDIMIC EFFECT OF SIMMONDSIA CHINENSIS SEEDS EXTRACTS IN RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moyad Jamal Shahwan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The present study was designed to examine the effect of 70% ethanol extract of Simmondsia chinensis seeds on lipid profile in rabbits. Material and methods: The plant extract was orally administered to the atherogenic rabbits (atherogenic diet + cholesterol powder supplement at 400 mg/kg/body weight/ day dissolved in 5 mL coconut oil at dose of 500mg/kg body weight/day. During the hall period of the experiment blood samples were collected and serum was analyzed for lipid profile. At the end of the experiment the animals were sacrificed; the heart and the liver were collected and stored at -20°C until assayed. Biochemical analysis ofblood serum and tissue (liver and heart muscle were performed for cholesterol, phospholipids and triglycerides. In addition blood serum was analyzed further for HDL-cholesterol. Results: All the results were by administration of Simmondsia chinensis seeds. Serum cholesterol levels dropped from 957.57 to 223.3 and further to 143.4 by the end of the experiment. Similarly, phospholipids statistically analyzed using student’s t-test. Hypolipidaemic nature of Simmondsia chinensis extract was studied in hyperlipidaemic rabbits. The increased cholesterol levels were brought to normal and triglycerides levels were reduced. The tissues lipids profiles of liver and heart muscle showed similar changes in those noticed in serum lipids. Conclusion: We can conclude from these results that a Simmondsia chinensis seed possesses active hypolipidaemic constituents. The results suggest the validity of Simmondsia chinensis seeds clinical use in hypolipidaemic control, after their toxicological investigation.

  13. Effects of extracts from Tiam seeds on cotton leafworm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantrapromma, K.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Crude n-hexane and methanolic extracts from the seeds of Azadirachta excelsa Jack. (Tiam and A. indica var. siamensis Valeton (Neem, Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki HD-1 and permethrin were tested for mortality effect on the 2nd, 3rd and the 4th instar larvae of cotton leafworm (Spodoptera litura F. by topical application and spraying methods. Among the seed extracts, crude methanolic extract from A. excelsa was the most effective. Its LC50, by topical application, at 72 hours after tested on the 2nd, 3rd and the 4th instar larvae was 5.26, 8.83 and 19.69 g/l, respectively, and by feeding was 1.59, 3.67 and 4.72 g/l, respectively. Crude methanolic extract was more effective than the crude n-hexane extract in each particular plant. Among tested samples, permethrin, a semi-synthetic chemical insecticide, showed the highest insecticidal effect. Its LC50, by topical application, at 72 hours after tested on the 2nd, 3rd and the 4th instar larvae was 0.12, 0.18 and 1.44 g/l, respectively, and by feeding was 0.08, 0.11 and 0.34 g/l, respectively. Use of the crude methanolic extract of A. excelsa to reduce the population of the 2nd instar larvae of cotton leafworm on Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra Bailey was more effective than that of crude methanolic extract of A. indica var. siamensis.

  14. Oxidative stability of refrigerated fish pates containing loquat seed extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Piccolo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of hydroethanolic E. japonica seed extracts (EJSE as inhibitors of lipid and protein oxidation on fish pates subjected to refrigerated storage. Five fish pate formulations were developed. These formulations included two control pates (water-control and ascorbic acid-control and three pates with added EJSE (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4g of seed 100g-1 product, equivalent to 3.4, 6.8 or 13.6mg phenolic compounds kg-1 product, which were then stored under refrigeration for 35 days. Conjugated dienes (CD and peroxide (PV values increased along with the storage time; however, these values decreased and were similar among all samples at the end of 35 days of analysis (P<0.05. However, the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances levels (TBARS did not change along the storage and were not affected by the EJSE. Additionally, there was a linear increase in the protein carbonyl content of fish pates over the storage period (P<0.05, but no effect of EJSE on protein oxidation. The results show that, at the concentrations evaluated, hydroethanolic E. japonica seed extract was unable to inhibit or reduce lipid and protein oxidation in fish pates, but the observed phenolic content emphasizes the need for further studies on the wastes of this fruit.

  15. Quality and characteristics of fermented ginseng seed oil based on bacterial strain and extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung-Hee; Rhee, Young-Kyoung; Choi, Sang-Yoon; Cho, Chang-Won; Hong, Hee-Do; Kim, Kyung-Tack

    2017-07-01

    In this study, the fermentation of ginseng seeds was hypothesized to produce useful physiologically-active substances, similar to that observed for fermented ginseng root. Ginseng seed was fermented using Bacillus, Pediococcus, and Lactobacillus strains to extract ginseng seed oil, and the extraction yield, color, and quantity of phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and phytosterol were then analyzed. The ginseng seed was fermented inoculating 1% of each strain on sterilized ginseng seeds and incubating the seeds at 30°C for 24 h. Oil was extracted from the fermented ginseng seeds using compression extraction, solvent extraction, and supercritical fluid extraction. The color of the fermented ginseng seed oil did not differ greatly according to the fermentation or extraction method. The highest phenolic compound content recovered with the use of supercritical fluid extraction combined with fermentation using the Bacillus subtilis Korea Food Research Institute (KFRI) 1127 strain. The fatty acid composition did not differ greatly according to fermentation strain and extraction method. The phytosterol content of ginseng seed oil fermented with Bacillus subtilis KFRI 1127 and extracted using the supercritical fluid method was highest at 983.58 mg/100 g. Therefore, our results suggested that the ginseng seed oil fermented with Bacillus subtilis KFRI 1127 and extracted using the supercritical fluid method can yield a higher content of bioactive ingredients, such as phenolics, and phytosterols, without impacting the color or fatty acid composition of the product.

  16. Use of Jiben Seeds Extract to Manufacture Soft White Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Talib

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Rennet substitute was applied for preparation of white cheese with Jiben (Solanum dubium seeds extract. Time effect 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 120 and 150 days was studied at 30°C on the prepared cheese, kept at room temperature as well as in the refrigerator at 5±1°C. Cheese analysis includes pH and the percentage content of moisture, salt, fat and protein. Use of Rennet to manufacture white cheese was served as a control. Results and statistical analysis indicated that, cheese prepared using Jiben Extract has high quality with a very small variations as well as it has a long storage time. Thus, Solanum dubium is a suitable extract for preparation of white cheeses with a long storage time in the refrigerator 5°C as well as at room temperature 30°C.

  17. Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Hibiscus cannabinus L. Seed Extracts after Sequential Solvent Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Iqbal

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A sequential solvent extraction scheme was employed for the extraction of antioxidant compounds from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L. seeds. Yield of extracts varied widely among the solvents and was the highest for hexane extract (16.6% based on dry weight basis, while water extract exhibited the highest total phenolic content (18.78 mg GAE/g extract, total flavonoid content (2.49 mg RE/g extract, and antioxidant activities (p < 0.05. DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching, metal chelating activity, ferric thiocyanate and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assays were employed to comprehensively assess the antioxidant potential of different solvent extracts prepared sequentially. Besides water, methanolic extract also exhibited high retardation towards the formation of hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the total antioxidant activity tests (p < 0.05. As conclusion, water and methanol extracts of kenaf seed may potentially serve as new sources of antioxidants for food and nutraceutical applications.

  18. [Supercritical CO2 extraction and component analysis of Aesculus wilsonii seed oil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guang-Yu; Shi, Zhao-Hua; Li, Hai-Chi; Ge, Fa-Huan; Zhan, Hua-Shu

    2013-03-01

    To research the optimal extraction process of supercritical CO2 extraction and analyze the component of the oil extracted from Aesculus wilsonii seed. Using the yield of Aesculus wilsonii seed oil as the index, optimized supercritical CO2 extraction parameter by orthogonal experiment methodology and analysed the compounds of Aesculus wilsonii seed oil by GC-MS. The optimal parameters of the supercritical CO2 extraction of the oil extracted from Aesculus wilsoniit seed were determined: the extraction pressure was 28 MPa and the temperature was 38 degrees C, the separation I pressure was 12 MPa and the temperature was 40 degrees C, the separation II pressure was 5 MPa and the temperature was 40 degrees C, the extraction time was 110 min. The average extraction rate of Aesculus wilsonii seed oil was 1.264%. 26 kinds of compounds were identified by GC-MS in Aesculus wilsonii seed oil extracted by supercritical CO2. The main components were fatty acids. Comparing with the petroleum ether extraction, the supercritical CO2 extraction has higher extraction rate, shorter extraction time, more clarity oil. The kinds of fatty acids with high amounts in Aesculus wilsonii seed oil is identical in general, the kinds of fatty acids with low amounts in Aesculus wilsonii seed oil have differences.

  19. [Effects of fungi and its liquid extract on seed germination of Dendrobium hancockii Rolf].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, S; Xu, J

    1990-07-01

    The experiment revealed that several species of fungi isolated from the protocorms of Orchidaceae notable promote the seed germination of Dendrobium hancockii. The seed germination rate amounts to over 20% when the seeds are incubated with fungi, but zero without incubation. Seed germination rate ranges from 40 to 70% when the incubation is affected in liquid extract of the cultural products of fungi, but the growth of protocorms and seedlings of Dendrobium hancockii is slower in liquid extract of fungi than on mycolia.

  20. Extraction and Characterization of Tamarind (Tamarind indica L.) Seed Polysaccharides (TSP) from Three Difference Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Khanittha Chawananorasest; Patsuda Saengtongdee; Praphakorn Kaemchantuek

    2016-01-01

    Tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP), a natural polysaccharide extracted from tamarind seeds is used in the pharmaceutical, textile and food industries as a mucoadhesive polymer. This work aimed to extract TSP from tamarind seeds from three sources with two methods and characterized its physical and chemical properties. Kernel powder of tamarind seeds was slurried into a clear solution, set aside overnight and then centrifuged at 6000 rpm for 20 min to separate all foreign matter. The supernata...

  1. Comparison of ultrasound-assisted extraction with conventional extraction methods of oil and polyphenols from grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Porto, Carla; Porretto, Erica; Decorti, Deborha

    2013-07-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction (US) carried out at 20 KHz, 150 W for 30 min gave grape seed oil yield (14% w/w) similar to Soxhlet extraction (S) for 6 h. No significant differences for the major fatty acids was observed in oils extracted by S and US at 150 W. Instead, K232 and K268 of US- oils resulted lower than S-oil. From grape seeds differently defatted (S and US), polyphenols and their fractions were extracted by maceration for 12 h and by ultrasound-assisted extraction for 15 min. Sonication time was optimized after kinetics study on polyphenols extraction. Grape seed extracts obtained from seeds defatted by ultrasound (US) and then extracted by maceration resulted the highest in polyphenol concentration (105.20mg GAE/g flour) and antioxidant activity (109 Eq αToc/g flour).

  2. Fatty acids and sterols composition, and antioxidant activity of oils extracted from plant seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozłowska, Mariola; Gruczyńska, Eliza; Ścibisz, Iwona; Rudzińska, Magdalena

    2016-12-15

    This study determined and compared the contents of bioactive components in plant seed oils extracted with n-hexane (Soxhlet method) and chloroform/methanol (Folch method) from coriander, caraway, anise, nutmeg and white mustard seeds. Oleic acid dominated among unsaturated fatty acids in nutmeg and anise seed oils while petroselinic acid was present in coriander and caraway oils. Concerning sterols, β-sitosterol was the main component in seed oils extracted with both methods. The content of total phenolics in nutmeg, white mustard and coriander seed oils extracted with chloroform/methanol was higher than in their counterparts prepared with n-hexane. The seed oil samples extracted according to the Folch method exhibited a higher ability to scavenge DPPH radicals compared to the oil samples prepared with the Soxhlet method. DPPH values of the methanolic extracts derived from oils produced with the Folch method were also higher than in the oils extracted with n-hexane.

  3. Lotus seed epicarp extract as potential antioxidant and anti-obesity additive in Chinese Cantonese Sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Suijian; Zhou, Delong

    2013-02-01

    The antioxidative activities of a lotus seed epicarp extract in different concentrations (6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 μg.mL(-1)) in pork homogenates representative of Chinese Cantonese Sausage were evaluated using three methods: thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) values, peroxide values (POVs) and acid values (AVs). Also the cytotoxic and anti-obesity effects of the lotus seed epicarp extracts were evaluated using an in vitro 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell model. Results showed that the lotus seed epicarp extracts were non-toxic and effective in inhibiting preadipocyte differentiation. Supplementation of pork homogenate with lotus seed epicarp extracts was effective in retarding lipid oxidation. Moreover, the antioxidative and preadipocyte differentiation inhibition effects of the lotus seed epicarp extracts were dose-dependent. Thus, the lotus seed epicarp extract might be a good candidate as an antioxidant and anti-obesity natural additive in Chinese Cantonese Sausage.

  4. Molluscicidal and leishmanicidal activity of the leaf essential oil of Syzygium cumini (L.) SKEELS from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Clarice N; Rodrigues, Klinger A F; Carvalho, Fernando A A; Carneiro, Sabrina M P; Maia, Jose G S; Andrade, Eloisa H A; Moraes, Denise F C

    2013-06-01

    The chemical composition and biological potential of the essential oil extracted from Syzygium cumini leaves collected in Brazil were examined. GC/MS Analyses revealed a high abundance of monoterpenes (87.12%) in the oil. Eleven compounds were identified, with the major components being α-pinene (31.85%), (Z)-β-ocimene (28.98%), and (E)-β-ocimene (11.71%). To evaluate the molluscicidal effect of the oil, it was tested against Biomphalaria glabrata and the LC₅₀ obtained was 90 mg/l. The essential oil also showed significant activity against Leishmania amazonensis, with an IC50 value equal to 60 mg/l. In addition, to evaluate its toxicity towards a non-target organism, the essential oil was tested against Artemia salina and showed a LC₅₀ of 175 mg/l. Thus, the essential oil of S. cumini showed promising activity as a molluscicidal and leishmanicidal agent and might be valuable in combating neglected tropical diseases such as schistosomiasis and leishmaniasis. Further research is being conducted with regard to the purification and isolation of the most active essential-oil compounds. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  5. Application of carboxyphenylboronic acid-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles for extracting nucleic acid from seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ning; Deng, Congliang; Ge, Guanglu; Xia, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles functionalized with 4-carboxyphenylboronic acid (CPBA-MNPs) were developed for extracting genomic DNA, total RNA and nucleic acids from seeds. The seed samples were genetically-modified maize seeds and unmodified soybean seeds infected by bean pod mottle virus and tobacco ringspot virus. The total nucleic acids, genomic DNA, and RNA could be separately extracted from these seeds with high qualities using CPBA-MNPs under different conditions. Furthermore, the results of real-time quantitative qPCR and real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR indicated that the nucleic acids extracted from these seeds using CPBA-MNPs were suitable for the detection of genetically-modified seeds and seed-borne viruses.

  6. Acute Toxicity and Genotoxic Activity of Avocado Seed Extract (Persea americana Mill., c.v. Hass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Padilla-Camberos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of vegetal extracts requires toxicological and genotoxic evaluations to establish and verify safety before being added to human cosmetic, pharmaceutical medicine, or alimentary products. Persea americana seeds have been used in traditional medicine as treatment for several diseases. In this work, the ethanolic seed extract of Persea americana was evaluated with respect to its genotoxic potential through micronucleus assay in rodents. The frequency of micronuclei in groups of animals treated with avocado seed extract showed no differences compared to the negative control (vehicle; therefore, it is considered that the avocado seed extract showed no genotoxic activity in the micronucleus test.

  7. Acute toxicity and genotoxic activity of avocado seed extract (Persea americana Mill., c.v. Hass).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Martínez-Velázquez, Moisés; Flores-Fernández, José Miguel; Villanueva-Rodríguez, Socorro

    2013-01-01

    The use of vegetal extracts requires toxicological and genotoxic evaluations to establish and verify safety before being added to human cosmetic, pharmaceutical medicine, or alimentary products. Persea americana seeds have been used in traditional medicine as treatment for several diseases. In this work, the ethanolic seed extract of Persea americana was evaluated with respect to its genotoxic potential through micronucleus assay in rodents. The frequency of micronuclei in groups of animals treated with avocado seed extract showed no differences compared to the negative control (vehicle); therefore, it is considered that the avocado seed extract showed no genotoxic activity in the micronucleus test.

  8. Nigella sativa seed extract: 1. Enhancement of sheep macrophage immune functions in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmowalid, Gamal; Amar, Ahmad M; Ahmad, Adel Attia M

    2013-10-01

    Nigella sativa (N. sativa) seed, Black cumin, immunomodulatory activity has been investigated in human and mice. Little is known about the immunomodulatory effect of Nigella sativa (N. sativa) seed extract on animals' immune cells, specifically, antigen presenting cells such as macrophages. This study focused on the immunomodulatory effect of N. sativa seed extract on sheep macrophage functions in vitro. Sheep peripheral blood monocytes were isolated and derived to macrophages (MDM). The MDM were cultured with N. sativa seed extract and their morphological changes, phagocytic activity, nitric oxide production, and microbicidal activity were investigated. Marked morphological changes were observed in MDM cultured with N. sativa seed extract including cell size enlargement; increase in both cytoplasmic space and cytoplasmic granules. Significant increases in phagocytic activity to Candida albicans yeast and in number of yeast engulfed per individual MDM were observed in cells cultured with seed extract. MDM capacity to produce nitric oxide was higher in the culture media of the seed extract-cultured cells compared to the control. Interestingly, prominent enhancement in MDM microbicidal activity to yeast or bacteria was observed in MDM cultured with N. sativa seed extract confirming the potent immunostimulatory effect of the extract. From this study, it could be concluded that N. sativa seed extract can enhance macrophages' important innate immune functions that could control infectious diseases and regulate adaptive immunity.

  9. Selective cytotoxic activity of grape peel and seed extracts against oral tumor cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirataki, Y; Kawase, M; Saito, S; Kurihara, T; Tanaka, W; Satoh, K; Sakagami, H; Motohashi, N

    2000-01-01

    Grape seed extracts were more cytotoxic than grape peel extracts. Methanol and 70% methanol extracts of grape seed selectively killed two human oral tumor cell lines, more efficiently than human gingival fibroblasts. ESR spectroscopy revealed that these extracts produced radicals under alkaline conditions and enhanced the radical intensity of sodium ascorbate at higher concentrations. On the other hand, lower concentration of these extracts slightly reduced the radical intensity of sodium ascorbate, and scavenged superoxide anion, generated by hypoxanthine and xanthine oxidase reaction. These properties of grape seed extracts suggest their possible application for cancer prevention.

  10. Possible prebiotics and gallic acid separations from jackfruit seed extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulchanat Prasertsit

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A large amount of jackfruit seeds can be extracted for possible prebiotics and phenolics (gallic acid and purified by crystallization and solid phase extraction (SPE, respectively. The studied parameters for crystallization were mixing speed, crystallizing temperature and cooling rate while the studied parameters for SPE were feed concentration, feed flow rate and length to diameter ratio (L/D of the extraction column. The optimal condition for the crystallization provided the crystal yield of 0.028 g crystal /g dry extract at 100 rpm mixing speed, 58°C crystallizing temperature and 1°C /min cooling rate. Molecular weight analysis of the crystals indicated that the crystals can be fructo-oligosaccharide or raffinose. The optimal condition for SPE obtaining gallic acid 92 percent yield was at 4% w/v feed concentration with 3 mL/min flow rate and L/D of 15.3. Finally a high temperature can degrade both possible prebiotic and gallic acid.

  11. Antioxidant activity of white grape seed extracts on DPPH radicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćetković Gordana S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Composition and antioxidant activity of grape seed extract (GSE obtained from red grape varietes are very well documented, in contrast to the white varietes. This paper presents the results of polyphenols content of ethyl acetate extract of grape seeds, obtained from two white grape varieties, Italian Riesling and Župljanka, and their antioxidant activity on the stable DPPH radical. The influence of the addition of GSE to raspberry juice on the DPPH radical was also examined. Content of total polyphenols in GSEs ranged between 81.6 and 82.8% (w/w, and the contetn of flavan-3-ols between 66.2 and 91.0% (w/w. HPLC results showed that the most abundant components in the extract were (+-catechin and (--epicatechin for both grape varieties. All tested GSEs exhibited good antioxidant activity. IC50 values for the GSEs of Italian Riesling and Župljanka were 0.79 and 0.95 mg sample/mg DPPH radical, respectivelly. Since the GSE of Italian Riesling possesed stronger antioxidant activity, it was used for further experiments. The IC50 value for raspberry juice was 4.18 mg raspberry juice/mg DPPH. The raspberry juice with addition of 0.60 μg/mL of GSE showed antioxidant activity of 39.2%. The same juice with the threefold concentration of vitamin C (1.81 μg/ml exhibited similar antioxidant activity (33.9%. Antioxidant activity of the same amount of juice without added antioxidants was lower (15.7%. The results showed that the GSE of white varietes could be considered as a good functional food ingredient.

  12. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and solvent extraction of papaya seed oil: yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaram, Shadi; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Tan, Chin Ping; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2013-10-10

    The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE) and solvent extraction (SE)). In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (SE, 12 h/25 °C) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) methods recovered relatively high yields (79.1% and 76.1% of total oil content, respectively). Analysis of fatty acid composition revealed that the predominant fatty acids in papaya seed oil were oleic (18:1, 70.5%-74.7%), palmitic (16:0, 14.9%-17.9%), stearic (18:0, 4.50%-5.25%), and linoleic acid (18:2, 3.63%-4.6%). Moreover, the most abundant triacylglycerols of papaya seed oil were triolein (OOO), palmitoyl diolein (POO) and stearoyl oleoyl linolein (SOL). In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) significantly (p < 0.05) influenced the triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil, but no significant differences were observed in the fatty acid composition of papaya seed oil extracted by different extraction methods (SXE, SE and UAE) and conditions.

  13. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE and Solvent Extraction of Papaya Seed Oil: Yield, Fatty Acid Composition and Triacylglycerol Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanah Mohd Ghazali

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE and solvent extraction (SE. In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (SE, 12 h/25 °C and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE methods recovered relatively high yields (79.1% and 76.1% of total oil content, respectively. Analysis of fatty acid composition revealed that the predominant fatty acids in papaya seed oil were oleic (18:1, 70.5%–74.7%, palmitic (16:0, 14.9%–17.9%, stearic (18:0, 4.50%–5.25%, and linoleic acid (18:2, 3.63%–4.6%. Moreover, the most abundant triacylglycerols of papaya seed oil were triolein (OOO, palmitoyl diolein (POO and stearoyl oleoyl linolein (SOL. In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE significantly (p < 0.05 influenced the triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil, but no significant differences were observed in the fatty acid composition of papaya seed oil extracted by different extraction methods (SXE, SE and UAE and conditions.

  14. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect of leaves from Syzygium cumini (L. Skeels, Myrtaceae. in diabetic rats Efeito hipoglicêmico e hipolipidêmico das folhas de Syzygium cumini (L. em ratos diabeticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Schoenfelder

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Ethanolic crude extract (ECE of leaves from Syzygium cumini (L. Skeels, Myrtaceae was screened for its hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg v.o.. Rats were divided into three groups for the evaluation of the hypoglycemic effect: normal rats, rats with alloxan-induced diabetes and hyperglycemic normal rats. Hypolipidemia was evaluated in rats with alloxan-induced diabetes. The antihyperglycemic activity was compared to treatment with glibenclamide, an oral hypoglycemic agent. The acute treatment with S. cumini ECE caused a significant decrease in the blood glucose in hyperglycemic normal rats (250 mg/kg, and in glucose (125 and 250 mg/kg, triglyceride (125 and 500 mg/kg and cholesterol (125 mg/kg levels of diabetic rats, but no effect was observed in the normal treated rats. Syzygium cumini leaves are a good candidate for alternative and/or complementary medicine in the management of diabetes mellitus, since they showed hypoglycemic activity in addition to a hypolipidemic action in diabetic animals.Na região de Criciúma-SC, as folhas de Syzygium cumini (L. Skeels, Myrtaceae, conhecida popularmente como jambolão, são utilizadas para diminuir níveis de glicose plasmática em pessoas diabéticas. Dentro deste contexto o presente trabalho teve o interesse de avaliar o efeito hipoglicêmico e hipolipidêmico do extrato bruto hidroalcoólico (EBH das folhas de S. cumini (125, 250 e 500 mg/kg. Para tal os animais foram divididos em três grupos para o efeito hipoglicêmico: ratos normais, ratos normais submetidos a curva de glicose (hiperglicêmicos e ratos diabéticos induzidos com aloxana. O efeito hipolipidêmico foi avaliado em animais diabéticos induzidos por aloxana. O efeito hipoglicêmico foi comparado com glibenclamida. O tratamento agudo com EBH de S. cumini causou uma diminuição estatisticamente significativa na glicose sanguínea em animais normais que foram submetidos à cura de glicose (250 mg/kg, e sobre

  15. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of thai mango seed kernel extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithitanakool, Saruth; Pithayanukul, Pimolpan; Bavovada, Rapepol

    2009-08-01

    Three polyphenolic principles, 1,2,3,4,6-penta- O-galloyl-beta-D-glucopyranose (PGG), methyl gallate (MG), and gallic acid (GA), were isolated from the ethanolic extract of seed kernels of Thai mango (MSKE) ( MANGIFERA INDICA L. cv. "Fahlun") and quantified using a TLC scanning densitometric method. The MSKE and its isolates were investigated by studying their antioxidant capacities using four different methods, by determining their IN VITRO anti-inflammatory activities, and by evaluating their hepatoprotective potential against liver injury in rats induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl (4)). The hepatoprotective effect of MSKE is clearly supported by its polyphenolic nature of the main principle, PGG, which exhibited potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

  16. Life Span and Motility Effects of Ethanolic Extracts from Sophora moorcroftiana Seeds on Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Han, Junxian; Zhu, Rongyan; Cui, Rongrong; Ma, Xingming; Dong, Kaizhong

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sophora moorcroftiana is an endemic shrub species with a great value in folk medicine in Tibet, China. In this study, relatively little is known about whether S. moorcroftiana is beneficial in animals' nervous system and life span or not. Materials and Methods: To address this question, under survival normal temperature (25°C), S. moorcroftiana seeds were extracted with 95% ethanol, and Caenorhabditis elegans were exposed to three different extract concentrations (100 mg/L, 200 mg/L, and 400 mg/mL) from S. moorcroftiana seeds. Results: The 95% ethanolic extracts from S. moorcroftiana seeds could increase life span and slow aging-related increase in C. elegans and could not obviously influence the motility of C. elegans. Conclusion: Given these results by our experiment for life span and motility with 95% ethanolic extracts from S. moorcroftiana seeds in C. elegans, the question whether S. moorcroftiana acts as an anti-aging substance in vivo arises. SUMMARY The 95% ethanolic extracts from S. moorcroftiana seeds have no effect on the life span in C. elegans when extract concentrations from S. moorcroftiana seeds <400 mg/LThe 400 mg/L 95% ethanolic extracts from S. moorcroftiana seeds could increase life span in C. elegansThe 95% ethanolic extracts from S. moorcroftiana seeds could not obviously influence the motility in C. elegans. Abbreviation used: S. moorcroftiana: Sophora moorcroftiana; C. elegan: Caenorhabditis elegan; E. coli OP50: Escherichia coli OP50; DMSO: Dimethyl sulfoxide. PMID:27279712

  17. Efficacy of dodder vine extract as seed protectant against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, M.H.; Ali, M.A.; Ahmed, K.S.

    2010-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to find out the efficacy of dodder vine extract as seed protectant against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis on gram seed in the laboratory of the Department of Entomology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh during the period of February to May, 2009. The concentrations of dodder vine extract were 5, 2 and 1% respectively. Efficacies of these treatments were evaluated by considering oviposition, adult emergence, intensity of damage and seed weight...

  18. EFFECT OF SOME PLANT EXTRACT AGAINST SEED BORNE INFECTION OF COLLECTOTRICHUM DESTRUCTIVUM ON VIGNA UNIGUCULATA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh P. Mogle1 and

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The cowpea, Vigna unguiculata L. Walp is an ancient food crop, suffering from many fungal diseases. Collectotrichum destructivum is a harmful seed borne pathogen causing disease to the cowpea plant. Control of seed borne infection would be a possible means of reducing losses due to this disease, attempts were made, fungal species isolated from cowpea seeds were used as inocula. The effects of leaf extracts of Argemone mexicana L., Semecarpus anacardium L., Cassia fistula L., Tephrosia purpurea (L. Pers., were evaluated for the control of Collectotrichum destructivum on seeds of cowpea. The seeds were soaked in sterile distilled water extract (10, 20 and 30%, w/v of the leaves for 5, 10 and 15 h. All these plant extracts had significant inhibitory growth effect on the fungal pathogen. Argemone mexicana extract was more effective followed by Semecarpus anacardium, Cassia fistula and Tephrosia purpurea plant extracts and compared favorably with benomyl in the control of the pathogen.

  19. Critical review of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of selected oil seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sovilj Milan N.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, as a relatively new separation technique, can be used as a very efficient process in the production of essential oils and oleoresins from many of plant materials. The extracts from these materials are a good basis for the new pharmaceutical products and ingredients in the functional foods. This paper deals with supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of selected oil seeds which are of little interest in classical extraction in the food industry. In this article the process parameters in the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, such as pressure, temperature, solvent flow rate, diameter of gound materials, and moisture of oil seed were presented for the following seeds: almond fruits, borage seed, corn germ, grape seed, evening primrose, hazelnut, linseed, pumpkin seed, walnut, and wheat germ. The values of investigated parameters in supercritical extraction were: pressure from 100 to 600 bar, temperature from 10 to 70oC, diameter of grinding material from 0.16 to 2.0 mm, solvent flow used from 0.06 to 30.0 kg/h, amount of oil in the feed from 10.0 to 74.0%, and moisture of oil seed from 1.1 to 7.5%. The yield and quality of the extracts of all the oil seeds as well as the possibility of their application in the pharmaceutical and food, industries were analyzed.

  20. Comparison of Enzymatic and Ultrasonic Extraction of Albumin from Defatted Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Seed Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gia Loi Tu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ultrasound- and enzyme-assisted extractions of albumin (water-soluble protein group from defatted pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo seed powder were compared. Both advanced extraction techniques strongly increased the albumin yield in comparison with conventional extraction. The extraction rate was two times faster in the ultrasonic extraction than in the enzymatic extraction. However, the maximum albumin yield was 16 % higher when using enzymatic extraction. Functional properties of the pumpkin seed albumin concentrates obtained using the enzymatic, ultrasonic and conventional methods were then evaluated. Use of hydrolase for degradation of cell wall of the plant material did not change the functional properties of the albumin concentrate in comparison with the conventional extraction. The ultrasonic extraction enhanced water-holding, oil-holding and emulsifying capacities of the pumpkin seed albumin concentrate, but slightly reduced the foaming capacity, and emulsion and foam stability.

  1. Anti-Oxidative Constituents of Ethanol Extract from Buckwheat Seeds by HPLC-Electro-Spray MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Ya-ping; TIAN Cheng-rui; CAO Wei

    2008-01-01

    The study investigates major anti-oxidative constituents of ethanol extracts from the seeds of common buckwheat and tartary buckwheat.Ethanol extracts from buckwheat seeds were arranged to react with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)free radical.HPLC was used to identify anti-oxidative constituents of the ethanol extracts,and electro-spray MS was used,to characterize the structures of these identified anti-oxidative constituents to confirm them.The ethanol extracts of common buckwheat and tartary buckwheat seeds both had DPPH free radical-scavenging effect;HPLC analysis showed that the ethanol extracts of both common buckwheat and tartary buckwheat seeds presented two main anti-oxidation peaks,which cOrrespondingly had same chromatographic retention times and spectral information;electro-spray MS analysis showed that the molecular weights and MS fragmentation patterns of the anti-oxidative constituents in the ethanol extracts from buckwheat seeds were the same as those of rutin and quercetin in the control samples.HPLC- MS/MS was capable of being used to rapidly identify anti-oxidative constituents in the extract of buckwheat seeds,and the main anti-oxidative constituents of buckwheat seed extract were mainly rutin and quercetin,and the anti-oxidative activity of quercetin was higher than that of rutin.

  2. Evaluation of cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory activities of extracts and lectins from Moringa oleifera seeds.

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    Larissa Cardoso Corrêa Araújo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The extract from Moringa oleifera seeds is used worldwide, especially in rural areas of developing countries, to treat drinking water. M. oleifera seeds contain the lectins cmol and WSMoL, which are carbohydrate-binding proteins that are able to reduce water turbidity because of their coagulant activity. Studies investigating the ability of natural products to damage normal cells are essential for the safe use of these substances. This study evaluated the cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory properties of the aqueous seed extract, the extract used by population to treat water (named diluted seed extract in this work, and the isolated lectins cmol and WSMoL. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The data showed that the aqueous seed extract and cmol were potentially cytotoxic to human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, while WSMoL and diluted seed extract were not cytotoxic. The M. oleifera aqueous seed extract and the lectins cmol and WSMoL were weakly/moderately cytotoxic to the NCI-H292, HT-29 and HEp-2 cancer cell lines and were not hemolytic to murine erythrocytes. Evaluation of acute toxicity in mice revealed that the aqueous seed extract (2.000 mg/kg did not cause systemic toxicity. The aqueous seed extract, cmol and WSMoL (6.25 µg/mL and diluted seed extract at 50 µg/mL exhibited anti-inflammatory activity on lipopolyssaccharide-stimulated murine macrophages by regulating the production of nitric oxide, TNF-α and IL-1β. The aqueous seed extract reduced leukocyte migration in a mouse model of carrageenan-induced pleurisy; the myeloperoxidase activity and nitric oxide, TNF-α and IL-1β levels were similarly reduced. Histological analysis of the lungs showed that the extract reduced the number of leukocytes. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study shows that the extract prepared according to folk use and WSMoL may be non-toxic to mammalian cells; however, the aqueous seed extract and cmol may be cytotoxic to immune cells which may explain

  3. Evaluation of Cytotoxic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Extracts and Lectins from Moringa oleifera Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Larissa Cardoso Corrêa; Aguiar, Jaciana Santos; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique; Mota, Fernanda Virgínia Barreto; Barros, André Luiz Souza; Moura, Maiara Celine; Coriolano, Marília Cavalcanti; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; Silva, Teresinha Gonçalves; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes

    2013-01-01

    Background The extract from Moringa oleifera seeds is used worldwide, especially in rural areas of developing countries, to treat drinking water. M. oleifera seeds contain the lectins cmol and WSMoL, which are carbohydrate-binding proteins that are able to reduce water turbidity because of their coagulant activity. Studies investigating the ability of natural products to damage normal cells are essential for the safe use of these substances. This study evaluated the cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory properties of the aqueous seed extract, the extract used by population to treat water (named diluted seed extract in this work), and the isolated lectins cmol and WSMoL. Methodology/Principal Findings The data showed that the aqueous seed extract and cmol were potentially cytotoxic to human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, while WSMoL and diluted seed extract were not cytotoxic. The M. oleifera aqueous seed extract and the lectins cmol and WSMoL were weakly/moderately cytotoxic to the NCI-H292, HT-29 and HEp-2 cancer cell lines and were not hemolytic to murine erythrocytes. Evaluation of acute toxicity in mice revealed that the aqueous seed extract (2.000 mg/kg) did not cause systemic toxicity. The aqueous seed extract, cmol and WSMoL (6.25 µg/mL) and diluted seed extract at 50 µg/mL exhibited anti-inflammatory activity on lipopolyssaccharide-stimulated murine macrophages by regulating the production of nitric oxide, TNF-α and IL-1β. The aqueous seed extract reduced leukocyte migration in a mouse model of carrageenan-induced pleurisy; the myeloperoxidase activity and nitric oxide, TNF-α and IL-1β levels were similarly reduced. Histological analysis of the lungs showed that the extract reduced the number of leukocytes. Conclusion/Significance This study shows that the extract prepared according to folk use and WSMoL may be non-toxic to mammalian cells; however, the aqueous seed extract and cmol may be cytotoxic to immune cells which may explain the

  4. THE USE OF MORINGA SEED EXTRACT IN WATER PURIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniyan Safiya Yahaya

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The high cost of treated water makes most people in the rural communities to resort to readily available sources which are normally of low quality exposing them to waterborne diseases. It is in this light that this research was carried out to confirm the effectiveness of powder extracted from mature-dried Moringa oleifera seeds which is commonly available in most rural communities of Africa. This was done using Completely Randomised Design with loading doses of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 g/l of the powder processed from Moringa seeds, and potash aluminium sulphate (alum as coagulant. A control (water from the pond with only distilled water without alum and Moringa treatments was also included. The turbidity, pH, and conductivity and total coliform were determined for all the samples. The turbidity for the samples ranged from log100.37 to log101.00NTU while the conductivity ranged from log101.56 to log102.86µS/cm. The 6 g/l treatment of Moringa and 4 and 6 g/l potash alum treatments gave values that are acceptable according to the World Health Organization (WHO guidelines for safe drinking water. The control sample gave the higher extremes values which are unacceptable. The pH values (7.29 to 7.89 obtained for the treatments were in the recommended range set by World Health Organization (WHO. Comparative studies with potash alum showed that the seed was effective in the sedimentation of inorganic and organic matter in raw water. It reduced the total microbial and coliform counts by 55% and 65%, respectively, after 24 hours whereas potash alum achieved 65% and 85% reduction under similar condition. The Most Probable Number per 100 ml for total coliform counts had values from 3 to 23 at 95% confidence limits. The Moringa treatment gave lower counts. Findings of this research lend support to earlier works recommending the use of Moringa for water treatment.

  5. Preliminary phytochemical investigation of pod and seed extract ofCrotalaria incana L. subsp. purpurscens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mathewos Anza; Habtamu Gelaw

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate various phytochemical constituents present in pod and seed of Crotalaria incanaL. (C. incana). Methods:A number of phytochemical tests were applied to identify the class of compounds in the CH2Cl2/CH3OH (1:1) pod and seed extract ofC. incana. Results: Phytochemical screening of the CH2Cl2/CH3OH (1:1) pod and seed extract ofC. incanasubsp.purpurscens revealed that the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins and stroids. Conclusions: The present work conducted on the CH2Cl2:CH3OH (1:1) pod and seed extract of C. incana identified various classes of compounds present on the pod and seed extract.

  6. Effect of two different germplasm of Mucuna pruriens seed extracts against some fish pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Marimuthu M

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the two different germplasm of Mucuna seeds were collected from agro geographical regions was evaluated for its antibacterial activities. Antibacterial activity of the seed extracts was studied against the fish pathogens of Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Vibrio cholera and Klebsiella pneumonia using agar well diffusion method. Results showed that methanol and ethanol extracts showed more potent antibacterial activity than other solvent extracts. The results were expressed as mean ± SD. The results obtained in the study shows that velvet bean black seed extract has more antibacterial activity against fish pathogens. The antibacterial activity of all the Mucuna seed extracts are comparable ad their potential as alternative in the treatment of infectious by these microorganisms was present in the fish. Susceptibility testing is conducted on isolates using drug selected on the basis of their importance to human medicine and use I fish production.

  7. Extraction purification and characterization of trypsin inhibitors from Andean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Castillo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This work established the conditions of covalent immobilization of trypsin on a Sepharose matrix, which could be applied for the purification of trypsin inhibitors. The higher values of retention of enzymatic activity and immobilized enzymatic activity were obtained with a Sepharose 6B-CL matrix, at room temperature, a pH value of 10.5, an enzymatic load of 25 mg/mL, and a minimum immobilization time of 12 hours, in order to obtain a stable immobilization. The most active trypsin inhibitors were selected through the comparison of, extracts obtained from the seeds of amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus L., pea (Pisum sativum, lupine or “chocho” (Lupinus mutabilis, bean (Phaseolus vulgaris and “sangorache” (Amaranthus hybridus L.. The inhibitors were partially purified using centrifugal ultrafiltration, heat treatment, and TCA precipitation. The permeated and retained fractions of “sangorache” were selected as the most active trypsin inhibitors, and they were selectively purified using affinity chromatography in a Trypsin - Glyoxyl - Sepharose 6B-CL matrix. The kinetic characterization showed the presence of two inhibitors; the first one corresponded to a competitive inhibitor, while the second one behaved as a mixed inhibitor.

  8. Seed oil polyphenols: rapid and sensitive extraction method and high resolution-mass spectrometry identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koubaa, Mohamed; Mhemdi, Houcine; Vorobiev, Eugène

    2015-05-01

    Phenolic content is a primary parameter for vegetables oil quality evaluation, and directly involved in the prevention of oxidation and oil preservation. Several methods have been reported in the literature for polyphenols extraction from seed oil but the approaches commonly used remain manually handled. In this work, we propose a rapid and sensitive method for seed oil polyphenols extraction and identification. For this purpose, polyphenols were extracted from Opuntia stricta Haw seed oil, using high frequency agitation, separated, and then identified using a liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry method. Our results showed good sensitivity and reproducibility of the developed methods.

  9. Recent advance on the antitumor and antioxidant activity of grape seed extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu FM

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Fengmei Zhu, Bin Du, Jun Li College of Food Science and Technology, Hebei Normal University of Science and Technology, Qinhuangdao, Hebei Province, People's Republic of China Abstract: The grape pomace (including seeds and stems poses potential disposal and pollution problems along with loss of valuable biomass and nutrients. The utilization of grape seeds processing as a source of functional ingredients is a promising field. Grape seed extract provides a concentrated source of polyphenols. Grape seed extract is known as an effective antioxidant that protects the body from premature aging and disease. A number of phytochemicals including resveratrol, proanthocyanidins, etc, have demonstrated significant benefits in cancer chemoprevention. In this review, we summarize the existing knowledge on the antitumor and antioxidant activity of grape seeds polyphenols. Keywords: grape seed, antitumor activity, antioxidant activity, polyphenol, proanthocyanidin

  10. Toxic effects of traditional Ethiopian fish poisoning plant Milletia ferruginea (Hochst) seed extract on aquatic macroinvertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunamoorthi, K; Bishaw, D; Mulat, T

    2009-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the toxic effects of traditional Ethiopian fish poisoning plant Birbira [vernacular name (local native language, Amharic); Milletia ferruginea] seed extract on aquatic macroinvertebrates, Baetidae (Mayflies) and Hydropsychidae (Caddisflies), under laboratory conditions. In Ethiopia, toxic plant; Milletia ferruginea pulverized seeds have been used for fish poisoning since time immemorial. Macroinvertebrates are important biological indicators of alteration in the natural water sources. Milletia ferruginea seed extract was applied at concentrations of 125, 250, 500 1000 and 2000 ppm on Hydropsychididae whereas Baetidae were exposed at various concentrations viz., 31.25, 62.5, 125, 250 & 500 ppm. Milletia ferruginea seeds crude extract of lethal doses (LCso and LC90) required for Baetidae 49.29 mg/l and 172.52 mg/l were respectively and the respective doses (LC50 and LC90) against Hydropsychidae were 679.64 mg/l and 2383.93 mg/l. The present investigation end result demonstrated that Milletia ferruginea seed extracts were extremely toxic to Baetidae than Hydropsychididae. As a result, application of Milletia ferruginea seed extracts into the rivers/streams for fish poisoning possibly leads to contamination and disruption of food chain in the aquatic ecosystem. Therefore, the concerned authorities should launch appropriate awareness campaign among the local inhabitants and fisherman about adverse effect of Birbira seed extracts. Furthermore, providing alternative ecofriendly techniques for fish harvesting may possibly bring constructive out come in the near future.

  11. Alterações histológicas e imunoistoquímicas em pâncreas de ratos normais e diabéticos tratados com Syzygium cumini Histological and immunohistochemical alterations in the pancreas of normal and diabetic rats treated with Syzygium cumini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deila Rosely Carneiro Schossler

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da administração oral do extrato da casca de Syzygium cumini sobre o pâncreas de ratos normais e diabéticos. Os animais foram divididos em grupo controle (C, controle tratado (CT, diabético controle (DC e diabético tratado (DT. Os tratados receberam dose diária de 1g kg-1 de peso vivo, durante 30 dias. Os animais foram submetidos à eutanásia e o pâncreas retirado para análise histológica e imunoistoquímica para insulina. Neste estudo observou-se uma diminuição (PThis study verified the effect of Syzygium cumini bark extract on the pancreas of normal and diabetic rats. The animals were allocated into four groups, control (C, treated control (TC, diabetic control (DC and treated diabetic (TD. An aqueous extract from Syzygium cumini bark, was given by gavage in a daily dose of 1g kg-1 of body weight. After a thirty day period, the animals were euthanized and the pancreas taken to imunno-histochemical analysis. A significant decrease in the number and size of islets, citoarchitectural alterations, as well as a severe decrease in the number of positive cells in diabetic animals (p<0.0001 was observed. However, was noticed a no significant difference neither between DC and DT nor C and CT groups. These results indicate that the Syzygium cumini bark extract does not affect significantly the number, size and citoarchitecture of islets, and, it also does not lead to an increase in beta cell number in animals treated with the plant extract.

  12. Comparison of conventional and ultrasound-assisted extraction of carvone and limonene from caraway seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chemat, S.; Lagha, A.; AitAmar, H.; Bartels, P.V.; Chemat, F.

    2004-01-01

    Extraction experiments with hexane were carried out at atmospheric pressure in Soxhlet, conventional and ultrasound extractions of flaked caraway seeds, and detailed results are given for two major plant extract components, carvone and limonene. The results indicate that carvone yield and plant extr

  13. The effects of pomegranate seed extract and beta-sitosterol on rat uterine contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promprom, Wilawan; Kupittayanant, Pakanit; Indrapichate, Korakod; Wray, Susan; Kupittayanant, Sajeera

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum L., Punicaceae) seed extract on uterine contractility. Pomegranate seeds were methanolic extracted and their constituents analyzed using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Isometric force was measured in strips of longitudinal rat myometrium and the effects of pomegranate seed extract studied. We found beta-sitosterol to be the main constituent of the extract (16%) and its effects were also investigated. Pomegranate seed extract and beta-sitosterol increased spontaneous contractions in a concentration-dependent manner with a maximum effect at 250 mg/100 mL and 1 mg/100 mL, respectively. The amplitude and frequency of the phasic contraction were significantly increased along with basal tension. The effects of pomegranate seed extract were very similar to those of beta-sitosterol. Force produced in the presence of pomegranate seed extract was abolished by the inhibition of L-type calcium channels or myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). Contractions were not potentiated by pomegranate extract following the inhibition of K channels or inhibition of the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA). The actions of beta-sitosterol and the extract were not blocked by the estrogen receptor blocker, fulvestrant. We conclude that pomegranate seed extract is a potent stimulator of phasic activity in rat uterus. Our data suggest that the uterotonic effect is due to nonestrogenic effects of beta-sitosterol acting to inhibit K channels and SERCA and thereby increasing contraction via calcium entry on L-type calcium channels and MLCK. We suggest that pomegranate extract and beta-sitosterol may be a useful uterine stimulant.

  14. Efficacy of certain plant extracts against seed-borne infection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... degree of infection by C. destructivum was reduced to some extent by seed treatment ... the aim of finding alternatives to the use of chemicals. ... extracts treatment involving soaking the seeds in each of the con- centration for 6 ...

  15. Wound-healing potential of an ethanol extract of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Bijoor Shivananda; Ramdeen, Ria; Adogwa, Andrew; Ramsubhag, Adash; Marshall, Julien Rhodney

    2012-12-01

    Carica papaya L. (Linn) (Caricaceae) is traditionally used to treat various skin disorders, including wounds. It is widely used in developing countries as an effective and readily available treatment for various wounds, particularly burns. This study evaluated the wound-healing and antimicrobial activity of C. papaya seed extract. Ethanol extract of C. papaya seed (50 mg/kg/day) was evaluated for its wound-healing activity in Sprague-Dawley rats using excision wound model. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of six each (group 1 served as control, group 2 treated with papaya seed extract, group 3 treated with a standard drug mupirocin and papaya seed extract (1:1 ratio) and group 4 treated with a mupirocin ointment. Rate of wound contraction and hydroxyproline content were determined to assess the wound-healing activity of the seed extract. The group 2 animals showed a significant decrease in wound area of 89% over 13 days when compared with groups 1 (82%), 3 (86%) and 4 (84%) respectively. The hydroxyproline content was significantly higher with the granulation tissue obtained from group 2 animals which were treated with C. papaya seed extract. Histological analysis of granulation tissue of the group 2 animals showed the deposition of well-organized collagen. The extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against Salmonella choleraesuis and Staphylococcus aureus. Our results suggest that C. papaya promotes significant wound healing in rats and further evaluation for this activity in humans is suggested.

  16. Pathogenic Fungi Transmitted Through Cucumber Seeds and Safely Elimination by Application of Peppermint Extract and Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman S.H. FARRAG

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Diseases induced by Fusarium, like damping-off and wilt on cucumber, are serious problems around the world. Samples of cucumber seeds were collected from commercial markets in Egypt and tested for seed-borne fungi. In order to detect the maximum number of internal and external seed-borne fungi, agar plate examination of disinfected and non-disinfected seeds were used. Two species of Fusarium were the most frequent and predominant fungi. Facultative parasites of the genera Alternaria, Rhizoctonia, Helminthosporium and Penicillium were also found. A total 33 isolates of Fusarium spp. were obtained using Komadas selective medium. Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani were highly frequent. Pathogenicity test indicated that, F. oxysporum isolate (Fem8 was the main causal organism of pre- and post-emergence damping off. Furthermore, it occurred in all seed parts tested. Some infected seeds germinate, but they were either rapidly overgrown by F. oxysporum or they developed into a diseased seedling. The water extract of garlic, peppermint and rheum completely inhibited the conidiospore germination and mycelial growth of F. oxysporum at tested conc. 3, 2 and 3%, respectively. Soaked seeds in 2% peppermint extract and evaporated seeds by vapor of peppermint oil caused a highly reduction in the infection and reduced transmission of the referred fungi from seeds to the growing seedlings. The vigor of cucumber seedlings raised from the treated seeds was better than that developed from untreated ones.

  17. Pathogenic Fungi Transmitted Through Cucumber Seeds and Safely Elimination by Application of Peppermint Extract and Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman S.H. FARRAG

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Diseases induced by Fusarium, like damping-off and wilt on cucumber, are serious problems around the world. Samples of cucumber seeds were collected from commercial markets in Egypt and tested for seed-borne fungi. In order to detect the maximum number of internal and external seed-borne fungi, agar plate examination of disinfected and non-disinfected seeds were used. Two species of Fusarium were the most frequent and predominant fungi. Facultative parasites of the genera Alternaria, Rhizoctonia, Helminthosporium and Penicillium were also found. A total 33 isolates of Fusarium spp. were obtained using Komada�s selective medium. Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani were highly frequent. Pathogenicity test indicated that, F. oxysporum isolate (Fem8 was the main causal organism of pre- and post-emergence damping off. Furthermore, it occurred in all seed parts tested. Some infected seeds germinate, but they were either rapidly overgrown by F. oxysporum or they developed into a diseased seedling. The water extract of garlic, peppermint and rheum completely inhibited the conidiospore germination and mycelial growth of F. oxysporum at tested conc. 3, 2 and 3%, respectively. Soaked seeds in 2% peppermint extract and evaporated seeds by vapor of peppermint oil caused a highly reduction in the infection and reduced transmission of the referred fungi from seeds to the growing seedlings. The vigor of cucumber seedlings raised from the treated seeds was better than that developed from untreated ones.

  18. Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of coconut (Cocos nucifera) and melon (Colocynthis citrullus) seeds and seed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obasi, N A; Ukadilonu, Joy; Eze, Eberechukwu; Akubugwo, E I; Okorie, U C

    2012-01-01

    Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of Cocos nucifera and Colocynthis citrullus seeds and seed oils were evaluated in this work using standard analytical techniques. The results showed the percentage (%) moisture, crude fibre, ash, crude protein, lipids and total carbohydrate contents of the seeds as 7.51 and 4.27, 7.70 and 5.51, 1.02 and 2.94, 10.57 and 11.67, 47.80 and 50.42 and 32.84 and 29.47 while the calorific values were 553.99 and 567.32 Kcal/100 g for C. nucifera and C. citrullus, respectively. The two seed oils were odourless and at room temperature (30 degrees C) liquids, with a pale yellow to yellowish colouration. Lipid indices of the seed oils indicated the Acid Values (AV) as 2.06-6.36 mg NaOH g(-1) and 2.99-6.17 mg NaOH g(-1), Free Fatty Acids (FFA) as 1.03-3.18 and 1.49-3.09%, Saponification Values (SV) as 252.44-257.59 and 196.82-201.03 mg KOH g(-1), Iodine Values (IV) as 9.73-10.99 and 110.93-111.46 mg of I2 g(-1) of oil and Peroxide Values (PV) as 0.21-0.21 and 1.53-2.72 mg O2 kg(-1) for soxhlet-mechanical extracted C. nucifera and C. citrullus seed oils, respectively. The studied characteristics of the oil extracts in most cases compared favourably with most conventional vegetable oils sold in the Nigeria markets; however, there were some observed levels of significant differences in the values at p < or = 0.05. These results suggest that the seeds examined may be nutritionally potent and also viable sources of seed oils judging by their oil yield. The data also showed that the seed oils were edible inferring from their low AV and their corresponding low FFA contents. Industrially, the results revealed the seed oils to have great potentials in soap manufacturing industries because of their high SV. They were also shown to be non-drying due to their low IV which also suggested that the oils contain few unsaturated bonds and therefore have low susceptibility to oxidative rancidity and deterioration as

  19. [Experimental model for treating pulmonary metastatic melanoma using grape-seed extract, red wine and ethanol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Conesa, Cristina; Vicente Ortega, Vicente; Yáñez Gascón, M Josefa; García Reverte, Juana Maria; Canteras Jordana, Manuel; Alcaraz Baños, Miguel

    2005-04-01

    Melanoma is one of the neoplasias that most frequently metastasize, especially in the lung, where represents a challenge in oncology since current treatment is ineffective, and mortality is high. Swiss mice (n = 52) were inoculated with 0.5 x 106 B16F10 cell lines and, later, given an oral administration of grape-seed extract, red wine or ethanol. Metastatic nodules on the lung surface were counted and, after processing for microscopy, five sections were selected for image analysis and the invasion index was calculated. Macroscopic analysis showed that grape-seed extract and red wine reduced the number of metastatic nodules by 26.07 and 20.81%, respectively, compared with a control group treated with ethanol. Microscopically, the reduction in the invasion index was 31.65 for grape-seed extract and 17.57% for red wine. Ethanol administration significantly increased pulmonary metastasis while grape-seed extract and red wine led to their reduction.

  20. Application of Moringa Peregrina seed extract as a natural coagulant for Phenol removal from aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edris Bazrafshan

    2013-02-01

    Conclusion: According to the obtained results, Moringa peregrina seed extract, with respect to its high efficacy, can be used as an effective, efficient, and inexpensive coagulant in removing phenol from aqueous environments.

  1. Removal of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in low quality water using Moringa oleifera seed extract as coagulant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi Huus; Petersen, T. B.; Enemark, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    The use of different types of low quality water for irrigation in agriculture is common practice in many countries due to limited freshwater resources. Pathogens may contaminate fruit and vegetables when feces contaminated water is used for irrigation or postharvest processing. A laboratory study...... demonstrate that MO seed extract may be used by farmers for treatment of different types of surface water prior to irrigation use. Yet, adding MO seed extract to the low quality water did not successfully remove all oocyst. However, treatment of wastewater with MO seed extract significantly improved the water...... quality with regard to number of oocysts present and turbidity of the water. Further experiments with addition of higher concentrations of MO are needed to establish whether MO seed extract can be used to obtain safe irrigation water free of C. parvum oocysts and other protozoan parasites....

  2. The Effect of Cumin Seed Extracts against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 in Vero Cell Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Motamedifar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. [family Apiaceae]seed essential oil is reported to have antiseptic activity.Until now the antiviral properties of cumin seed extracts onviruses such as herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1 have not beenstudied. The objective of this study was to investigate the invitro effects of aqueous, methanolic and hydroalcoholic extractsof cumin seed on HSV-1 growth in Vero cell line.Methods: Antiviral activity of various concentrations aqueous,hydroalcoholic and methanolic extracts of cumin seed in Verocells were studied using plaque reduction assays. The 50%cytotoxic concentration (CC50, 50% inhibitory concentration(IC50, and therapeutic index of the effective extracts were calculated.Results: Methanolic extract of cumin seed showed a significantantiviral activity on HSV-1 in Vero cell line. Its CC50 forVero cells, IC50 and the therapeutic index for HSV-1 were0.45, 0.18 mg/mL and 2.5, respectively. Aqueous and hydroalcoholicextracts of cumin seeds showed no inhibitory effecton HSV-1.Conclusion: The methanolic extract of cumin seed producesanti-HSV-1 effect. Probable interference of phenolic compoundswith fusion of Vero cell membrane and HSV-1 envelopemight be the mechanism of such inhibitory effect. Furtherstudies are required to ascertain its in vivo antiviral propertiesand potential toxicity.Iran J Med Sci 2010; 35(4: 304-309.

  3. Effects of safflower seed extract on arterial stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuya Suzuki

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Katsuya Suzuki1, Shigekazu Tsubaki2, Masami Fujita3, Naoto Koyama1, Michio Takahashi1, Kenji Takazawa41Research Institute for Health Fundamentals, Ajinomoto Co., Inc., Kawasaki; 2Samoncho Clinic, Tokyo; 3Shinanozaka Clinic, Tokyo; 4Tokyo Medical University Hachioji Medical Center, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Safflower seed extract (SSE contains characteristic polyphenols and serotonin derivatives (N-(p-coumaroyl serotonin and N-feruloylserotonin, which are reported to inhibit oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL, formation of atherosclerotic plaques, and improve arterial stiffness as assessed by pulse wave analysis in animal models. The effects of long-term supplementation with SSE on arterial stiffness in human subjects were evaluated. This double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted in 77 males (35–65 years and 15 postmenopausal females (55–65 years with high-normal blood pressure or mild hypertension who were not undergoing treatment. Subjects received SSE (70 mg/day as serotonin derivatives or placebo for 12 weeks, and pulse wave measurements, ie, second derivative of photoplethysmogram (SDPTG, augmentation index, and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV were conducted at baseline, and at weeks 4, 8, and 12. Vascular age estimated by SDPTG aging index improved in the SSE-supplemented group when compared with the placebo group at four (P = 0.0368 and 12 weeks (P = 0.0927. The trend of augmentation index reduction (P = 0.072 versus baseline was observed in the SSE-supplemented group, but reduction of baPWV by SSE supplementation was not observed. The SSE-supplemented group also showed a trend towards a lower malondialdehyde-modified-LDL autoantibody titer at 12 weeks from baseline. These results suggest long-term ingestion of SSE in humans could help to improve arterial stiffness.Keywords: safflower, serotonin derivatives, antioxidants, augmentation index, pulse wave velocity

  4. Final report on the safety assessment of Corylus Avellana (Hazel) Seed Oil, Corylus Americana (Hazel) Seed Oil, Corylus Avellana (Hazel) Seed Extract, Corylus Americana (Hazel) Seed Extract, Corylus Avellana (Hazel) Leaf Extract, Corylus Americana (Hazel) Leaf Extract, and Corylus Rostrata (Hazel) Leaf Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhaven, N

    2001-01-01

    These ingredients are all derived from hazelnut trees. The two seed oils are expressed from the nuts of the hazelnut tree of the particular species identified. Most current reported cosmetic uses are of the seed oils. The seed extracts are the extract of the nuts of the identified species tree. There is one current report of use of seed extract in cosmetics. The leaf extracts are the extract from the leaves of the particular species tree. There are no current reports of use of these extracts in cosmetics. Analysis of seed oil from one species identified Oleic Acid, Palmitoleic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Eicosaenoic Acid, Docosenoic Acid, Eicosanoic Acid, Palmitic Acid, Linolenic Acid, Stearic Acid, and Tetraeicosanoic Acid. Little information is available to characterize the extracts, however. The functions of most of these ingredients in cosmetics are not reported. In studies of hazelnuts from Spain and Egypt, aflatoxin was reported as a possible contaminant. Aflatoxins are considered carcinogenic in humans. Virtually no safety test data are available on these ingredients. Negative results in one comedogenicity study using a seed oil are reported. Cross-sensitivity to proteins in peanuts and those in hazelnuts are reported, but the presence or absence of protein in nut extract and plant extract from hazelnut trees is not known. Additional data were provided regarding concentration of use, method of extraction and contaminants, comedogenicity, and ultraviolet (UV) radiation absorption, but these data related to nut oil from only one species, and were not overall sufficient to resolve questions about irritation, sensitization, and photosensitization. Because of the absence of data, it is concluded that the available data are insufficient to support the safety of these ingredients in cosmetic products. Because of the limited information that characterizes any of these oils or extracts, data are needed on each (except that items 1, 2, and 3 below are not needed for Hazel

  5. Sugar Variation in Soybean Seed Assessed with a Rapid Extraction and Quantification Method

    OpenAIRE

    A. Hou; Chen, P.; Shi, A.; Zhang, B.; Y.-J. Wang

    2009-01-01

    Sugar content in soybean [Glycine max (L) Merr.] seed is an important quality attribute for soyfood and feed. Rapid extraction and quantification of soluble sugars in soybean seed are essential for large-scale breeding selections. In this study, using water as extractant combined with a high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) system, variability and repeatability of sugar content were tested in 20 diverse soybean genotypes. Individual suga...

  6. Anticariogenic and Hemolytic Activity of Selected Seed Protein Extracts In vitro conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpesh B Ishnava

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the anticariogenic and hemolytic activity of crude plant seed protein extracts against tooth decaying bacteria.The proteins from seeds of 12 different plants were extracted and used for antimicrobial assay against six different organisms. The extraction was carried out in 10mM of sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0. Protein concentrations were determined as described by Bradford method. Anticariogenic activity was studied by agar well diffusion method and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC was evaluated by the two-fold serial broth dilution method. Hemolytic activity, treatment of proteinase K and Kinetic study in Mimusops elengi crude seed protein extract.The anticariogenic assay demonstrated the activity of Mimusops elengi against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. A minor activity of Glycine wightii against Streptococcus mutans was also found. The protein content of Mimusops elengi seed protein extract was 5.84mg/ml. The MIC values for Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes against Mimusops elengi seed protein extract were 364.36μg/ml and 182.19μg/ml, respectively. Kinetic study further elucidated the mode of inhibition in the presence of the Mimusops elengi plant seed protein with respect to time. The concentration of crude extract which gave 50% hemolysis compared to Triton X-100 treatment (HC50 value was 1.58 mg/ml; which is more than five times larger than that of the MIC. Treatment with proteinase K of the Mimusops elengi seed protein resulted in absence of the inhibition zone; which clearly indicates that the activity was only due to protein.Our results showed the prominence of Mimusops elengi plant seed protein extract as an effective herbal medication against tooth decaying bacteria.

  7. Extraction, Characterization, and Molecular Weight Determination of Senna tora (L.) Seed Polysaccharide

    OpenAIRE

    Pawar, Harshal A.; K. G. Lalitha

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present work was extraction of polysaccharide from Senna tora L. seed and its characterization as a pharmaceutical excipient. Polysaccharide extraction was based on mechanical separation of the endosperm of seeds of Senna tora, water dissolution, centrifugation, and precipitation with acetone. Standard procedures were used to study the viscosity, micromeritic properties, and microbial bioburden. Accelerated stability study was carried out on isolated polysaccharide for si...

  8. Extraction optimization of mucilage from Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) seeds using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, Sadaf; Wani, Idrees Ahmed; Masoodi, Farooq Ahmad

    2017-05-01

    Aqueous extraction of basil seed mucilage was optimized using response surface methodology. A Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) for modeling of three independent variables: temperature (40-91 °C); extraction time (1.6-3.3 h) and water/seed ratio (18:1-77:1) was used to study the response for yield. Experimental values for extraction yield ranged from 7.86 to 20.5 g/100 g. Extraction yield was significantly (P Temperature and water/seed ratio were found to have pronounced effect while the extraction time was found to have minor possible effects. Graphical optimization determined the optimal conditions for the extraction of mucilage. The optimal condition predicted an extraction yield of 20.49 g/100 g at 56.7 °C, 1.6 h, and a water/seed ratio of 66.84:1. Optimal conditions were determined to obtain highest extraction yield. Results indicated that water/seed ratio was the most significant parameter, followed by temperature and time.

  9. Physical and Oxidative Stability of Uncoated and Chitosan-Coated Liposomes Containing Grape Seed Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Weiss

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenol-rich grape seed extract (0.1 w/w% was incorporated in liposomes (1 w/w% soy lecithin by high pressure homogenization (22,500 psi and coated with chitosan (0.1 w/w%. Primary liposomes and chitosan-coated secondary liposomes containing grape seed extract showed good physical stability during 98 days of storage. Most of the polyphenols were incorporated in the shell of the liposomes (85.4%, whereas only 7.6% of the polyphenols of grape seed extract were located in the interior of the liposomes. Coating with chitosan did not change the polyphenol content in the liposomes (86.6%. The uncoated liposomes without grape seed extract were highly prone to lipid oxidation. The cationic chitosan coating, however, improved the oxidative stability to some extent, due to its ability to repel pro-oxidant metals. Encapsulated grape seed extract showed high antioxidant activity in both primary and secondary liposomes, which may be attributed to its polyphenol content. In conclusion, the best chemical stability of liposomes can be achieved using a combination of grape seed extract and chitosan.

  10. Antipsoriatic activity and cytotoxicity of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds

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    Lalitha Priyanka Dwarampudi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nigella sativa Linn (Ranunculaceae is popularly known as black cumin with a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal and antihelmenthic. The seeds are externally applied for eruptions of skin. The seeds are used traditionally for psoriasis tropicus with general pain and eruption of patches. Objective: The ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds were evaluated for antipsoriatic activity. Materials and Methods: The screening of antipsoriatic activity of 95% of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds by using mouse tail model for psoriasis and in vitro antipsoriatic activity was carried out by SRB Assay using HaCaT human keratinocyte cell lines. Results: The ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds extract produced a significant epidermal differentiation, from its degree of orthokeratosis (71.36±2.64 when compared to the negative control (17.30±4.09%. This was equivalent to the effect of the standard positive control, tazarotene (0.1% gel, which showed a (90.03±2.00% degree of orthokeratosis. The 95% ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa shown IC50 239 μg/ml, with good antiproliferant activity compared to Asiaticoside as positive control which showed potent activity with IC50 value of 20.13 μg/ml. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds also showed increase in relative epidermal thickness when compared to control group by confirming its traditional use in psoriasis treatment.

  11. Physical and oxidative stability of uncoated and chitosan-coated liposomes containing grape seed extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibis, Monika; Rahn, Nina; Weiss, Jochen

    2013-08-20

    Polyphenol-rich grape seed extract (0.1 w/w%) was incorporated in liposomes (1 w/w% soy lecithin) by high pressure homogenization (22,500 psi) and coated with chitosan (0.1 w/w%). Primary liposomes and chitosan-coated secondary liposomes containing grape seed extract showed good physical stability during 98 days of storage. Most of the polyphenols were incorporated in the shell of the liposomes (85.4%), whereas only 7.6% of the polyphenols of grape seed extract were located in the interior of the liposomes. Coating with chitosan did not change the polyphenol content in the liposomes (86.6%). The uncoated liposomes without grape seed extract were highly prone to lipid oxidation. The cationic chitosan coating, however, improved the oxidative stability to some extent, due to its ability to repel pro-oxidant metals. Encapsulated grape seed extract showed high antioxidant activity in both primary and secondary liposomes, which may be attributed to its polyphenol content. In conclusion, the best chemical stability of liposomes can be achieved using a combination of grape seed extract and chitosan.

  12. Fenugreek seed extract treats peripheral neuropathy in pyridoxine induced neuropathic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, Farshad Homayouni; Vakili-Zarch, Behzad; Shafiee, Mohammad; Mirjalili, Azam

    2013-01-01

    Trigonella foenum graecum commonly known as Fenugreek exerts normoglycemic and insulinotropic effects in humans by compounds from its seed and leaf extracts. Some studies reported that treating pregnant mice with fenugreek seed could cause toxic effects on the nervous system of its pubs during developmental growth, while in some other studies neuroprotective properties were considered for it. Safety of anti-diabetic drugs for nervous system is very important because peripheral neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes and hazardous drugs could worsen it. In this study, the effect of treatment with fenugreek seed extract on the function of sciatic nerves of neuropathic mice was evaluated. Neuropathy was induced in male mice by pyridoxine intoxication. After that, animals were treated with 0.2, 2 and 20 mg/kg of hydro-alcoholic extract of fenugreek seeds for 10 days, tail flick, electrophysiological and histological assays were performed to evaluate the effect of fenugreek seed extract on function of the peripheral nerves. Our data showed that fenugreek has anti neuropathic effect and restores the function of nerve fibers. Results of electrophysiological recordings stated that the highest rate of healing was occurred in 20 mg/kg fenugreek extract treated animals. In conclusion, findings of the present study demonstrate that treatment with fenugreek seed extract can potentially facilitate healing from pyridoxine induced peripheral neuropathy in mice.

  13. Antioxidant activities of tamarind (Tamarindus Indica) seed coat extracts using in vitro and in vivo models

    OpenAIRE

    Sandesh, P.; Velu, V.; R. P. Singh

    2014-01-01

    Tamarindus indica seed coat was extracted with methanol, acetone and water and screened for DPPH radical scavenging activities. Methanol extract showed higher activity than other extracts. Treatment of albino rats (Wistar strain) with CCl4 at 1.25 mL/kg of body weight decreased superoxide dismutase (55 %), catalase (73 %) and peroxidase (78 %), while lipid peroxidation increased nearly 2.5 fold in liver. Pretreatment of rats with methanol extract of T. Indica seed coat (TSCE) at 50 mg/kg (as ...

  14. EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SEEDS OF PHYLA NODIFLORA LINN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Janki B

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available ‘Jalapippali’ described in classical texts of Ayurveda is botanically identified as Phyla nodiflora Linn. (Syn. Lippia nodiflora Rich. In present study methanolic extract of seeds of Phyla nodiflora Linn. was screened for in-vitro antibacterial activity against gram positive and gram negative bacteria by cup- plate method. The methanolic extract of the seeds significantly inhibit the growth of bacteria as compared to the standard bactericide (streptomycin. The study reveals that the methanolic fraction of seeds of Phyla nodiflora Linn possesses significant antibacterial activity.

  15. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroji; Takeda, Hiroshi; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB). Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day) was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary function was evaluated using Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS). Pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima significantly reduced the degree of OABSS in the subjects. The results from our study suggest that pumpkin seed oil extracts from C. maxima as well as from C. pepo are effective for urinary disorders such as OAB in humans.

  16. A Comparative Analysis of Extraction Methods for the Recovery of Anguina sp. from Grass Seed Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesbach, J A; Chitambar, J J; Hamerlynck, M J; Duarte, E O

    1999-12-01

    Four procedures were compared in their efficacy to extract juveniles of Anguina agrostis from commercial grass seed. The procedures included those currently used by the state regulatory laboratories of Oregon and California, as well as new tests developed to determine juvenile viability for the phytosanitary certification of fumigated grass seed. Eleven seed lots of Agrostis tenuis (bentgrass) and Dactylis glomerata (orchardgrass) naturally infested with varying levels of juveniles of Anguina were individually analyzed. Only one procedure, a new live recovery test, yielded nematodes in all 11 samples and is recommended as the best method for use by regulatory agencies. In comparison, although the other three extraction procedures resulted in greater numbers of Anguina agrostis juveniles per gram of seed, they failed to yield any nematodes in as many as four seed lots with low infection levels.

  17. Antitumor-promoting effects of polyphenolic extracts from seedless and seeded Indian grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramchandani, Asha G; Karibasappa, Goudar S; Pakhale, Shrirang S

    2008-01-01

    Grapes, the widely consumed fruits, are rich in polyphenols. The biological and chemopreventive activities of grape seed polyphenols have been demonstrated, while similar information regarding crude polyphenolic extracts from whole grapes and their components (pulp plus skin, seeds), particularly the seedless varieties, is lacking. Cancer chemoprevention can be achieved by inhibition of either initiation or promotion/progression stages of carcinogenesis. This study involves the determination of the polyphenolic content extracted from green (Pandhari sahebi, Thompson seedless) and black cultivars (Bangalore blue, Sharad seedless) of Indian grapes and their components (whole grapes, pulp plus skin, and seeds). Comparative evaluation of antitumor-promoting effects of seedless and seeded grape polyphenolic extracts (GPEs) was carried out in carcinogen-initiated and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-promoted S/RVCri-ba mouse skin and stomach, as well as esophagus of ICRC mice. The yield of crude polyphenolic extracts from whole grapes and their components varied between 3% and 51%. The total polyphenolic content expressed as mg catechin equivalents/g crude polyphenolic extract ranged from 0.47 to 701 in seeded grapes and 1.49 to 28.30 in seedless varieties. Both seedless and seeded GPEs possessed antitumor-promoting activity in target tissues of mice as is evident from their ability to delay tumor formation along with a significant decrease in tumor multiplicity and incidence. Marked and sustained epidermal hyperplasia observed in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-initiated and TPA-promoted mice was greatly reduced on pretreatment with GPE or catechin. The polyphenolic extracts from Sharad seedless and seeds of Bangalore blue showed the strongest suppressing activity comparable to catechin than the corresponding whole grapes. The results suggest that the chemopreventive activity of polyphenols extracted from seedless grape cultivars was as effective as that of the

  18. Extractable amounts of trans-resveratrol in seed and berry skin in Vitis evaluated at the germplasm level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaodong; Wu, Benhong; Wang, Lijun; Li, Shaohua

    2006-11-15

    Extractable amounts of resveratrol in berry skins and seeds were studied in 120 grape (Vitis) germplasm cultivars during two consecutive years to determine the distribution of resveratrol among the main grape genotypes. Interspecific rootstock cultivars had much higher extractable amounts of resveratrol in skin and seed than all other grape genotypes studied in both years. Extremely high extractable amounts of resveratrol in berry skins [>100 microg g(-1) of skin fresh weight (FW)] and seeds (>20 microg g(-1) of seed FW) were observed on two rootstock cultivars obtained from hybrids of V. monticula x V. riparia. Extractable amounts of resveratrol in berries of rootstock cultivars that are the descendants of V. riparia were also very high. The cultivated European type (V. vinifera) cultivars and their hybrids with V. labrusca had relatively low levels of extractable resveratrol in berry skin and seed, and the extractable amounts of resveratrol in berry skin and seeds were, with a few exceptions, <2 microg g(-1) of skin or seed FW. Extractable amounts of resveratrol in berry skin and seeds were closely related with fruit traits or purpose of uses and climate. Significantly higher extractable amounts of resveratrol in berry skin were found in seeded cultivars than in seedless ones, in both berry skin and seeds in winemaking grapes than in table grapes, and in red grapes than in green ones. Moreover, rainfall during fruit development resulted in higher extractable amounts of resveratrol in berry skin, whereas resveratrol synthesis and accumulation in grape seeds were not related to climate change.

  19. A comparative study of phytohaemagglutinin and extract of Phaseolus vulgaris seeds by characterization and cytogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badari Nath, A. R. S.; Sivaramakrishna, A.; Marimuthu, K. M.; Saraswathy, Radha

    2015-01-01

    Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) is a lectin obtained from Phaseolus vulgaris (red kidney beans), that acts as a mitogen in human leucocyte culture and is commercially available from Gibco®. This PHA (Gibco®) was found to be very expensive, hence other inexpensive sources that can be used in all kinds of cytogenetics labs (rich and poor), were attempted. One such successful attempt was PHA extract from seeds of P.vulgaris. This paper details the methodology of extraction and application of PHA from seeds of P.vulgaris. Attempts has been made to identify the chemical and physical properties of the products in the extract, analyzed by various spectroscopic and analytical techniques. The analysis clearly indicates that the product from Phaseolus seeds extract was found to be similar to the commercially available PHA (Gibco®) in the cytogenetic study of human leucocyte cultures. The present study enforces the possible utility of the plant extract directly for human leucocyte cultures.

  20. Quality and characteristics of fermented ginseng seed oil based on bacterial strain and extraction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Hee Lee

    2017-07-01

    Results and Conclusion: The color of the fermented ginseng seed oil did not differ greatly according to the fermentation or extraction method. The highest phenolic compound content recovered with the use of supercritical fluid extraction combined with fermentation using the Bacillus subtilis Korea Food Research Institute (KFRI 1127 strain. The fatty acid composition did not differ greatly according to fermentation strain and extraction method. The phytosterol content of ginseng seed oil fermented with Bacillus subtilis KFRI 1127 and extracted using the supercritical fluid method was highest at 983.58 mg/100 g. Therefore, our results suggested that the ginseng seed oil fermented with Bacillus subtilis KFRI 1127 and extracted using the supercritical fluid method can yield a higher content of bioactive ingredients, such as phenolics, and phytosterols, without impacting the color or fatty acid composition of the product.

  1. Antidiarrhoeal activity of ethanol and aqueous extracts of Carum copticum seeds in experimental rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G Balaji; M Chalamaiah; B Ramesh; Y Amarnath Reddy

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antidiarrhoeal activity of 95% total alcoholic extract (TAE) and total aqueous extract (TAQ) of Carum copticum (C. copticum) seeds. Methods: Antidiarrhoeal activity of C. copticum seed extracts at a dose of 100 mg/kg BW was evaluated using experimentally induced castor oil diarrhoea, gastrointestinal transit of charcoal meal and enteropooling activity in male wistar rats and compared to standard drugs. Results: At a dose of 100 mg/Kg BW (TAQ and TAE) significantly decreased the diarrhoeal droppings in castor oil induced diarrhoea, the mean distance travelled by charcoal meal showed a significant reduction in the secretion of gastrointestinal fluid accumulation by 39.90% to 50.70%. C. copticum extracts on castor oil induced fluid accumulation showed a greater inhibitory effect on Na+ levels than on K+ concentrations. Conclusions: These results suggest that C. copticum seed extracts could be used for the treatment of diarrhoea.

  2. The Antimicrobial Activity of Grape Seed Extract against Two Important Oral Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahkameh Mirkarimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The antimicrobial properties of plant extracts have shown promise for development of new drugs. This study was conducted to measure the antibacterial activity of grape (Vitis vinifera seed extract against Streptococcus mutans and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study the grape seed extract have been prepared with maceration method. The antimicrobial activity of the extract was examined by determining Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimal Bactericidal Concentration (MBC using the macro dilution broth technique.Results: MIC and MBC for Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans was 3.84 mg/mL and 7.68 mg/mL respectively.There were not any inhibitory effects against Streptococcus mutans.Conclusion: The Grape seed extract has inhibitory and bactericidal effects against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. There were not any bactericidal or bacteriostatic effects against Streptococcus mutans.

  3. Antioxidant White Grape Seed Phenolics: Pressurized Liquid Extracts from Different Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Garcia-Jares

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Grape seeds represent a high percentage (20% to 26% of the grape marc obtained as a byproduct from white winemaking and keep a vast proportion of grape polyphenols. In this study, seeds obtained from 11 monovarietal white grape marcs cultivated in Northwestern Spain have been analyzed in order to characterize their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. Seeds of native (Albariño, Caiño, Godello, Loureiro, Torrontés, and Treixadura and non-native (Chardonnay, Gewurtzträminer, Pinot blanc, Pinot gris, and Riesling grape varieties have been considered. Low weight phenolics have been extracted by means of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE and further analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The results showed that PLE extracts, whatever the grape variety of origin, contained large amounts of polyphenols and high antioxidant activity. Differences in the varietal polyphenolic profiles were found, so a selective exploitation of seeds might be possible.

  4. Antioxidant White Grape Seed Phenolics: Pressurized Liquid Extracts from Different Varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Vazquez, Alberto; Lamas, Juan P; Pajaro, Marta; Alvarez-Casas, Marta; Lores, Marta

    2015-11-19

    Grape seeds represent a high percentage (20% to 26%) of the grape marc obtained as a byproduct from white winemaking and keep a vast proportion of grape polyphenols. In this study, seeds obtained from 11 monovarietal white grape marcs cultivated in Northwestern Spain have been analyzed in order to characterize their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. Seeds of native (Albariño, Caiño, Godello, Loureiro, Torrontés, and Treixadura) and non-native (Chardonnay, Gewurtzträminer, Pinot blanc, Pinot gris, and Riesling) grape varieties have been considered. Low weight phenolics have been extracted by means of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and further analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The results showed that PLE extracts, whatever the grape variety of origin, contained large amounts of polyphenols and high antioxidant activity. Differences in the varietal polyphenolic profiles were found, so a selective exploitation of seeds might be possible.

  5. Rapid method for the determination of 16 organochlorine pesticides in sesame seeds by microwave-assisted extraction and analysis of extracts by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Emmanouil N; Vryzas, Zisis; Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, Euphemia

    2006-09-15

    A method for the multiresidue analysis of 16 organochlorine insecticides in sesame seeds has been developed. The method is based on the microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of the sesame seeds by the use of a water-acetonitrile mixture followed by Florisil clean-up of the extracts and subsequent analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. MAE operational parameters (extraction solvent, temperature and time, extractant volume) were optimized with respect to extraction efficiency of the target compounds from sesame seeds with 46% oil content. Recoveries >80% with relative standard deviations (RSD) seed samples imported to Greece.

  6. Health and physiological quality of sorghum seeds treated with aqueous extracts and essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Stefânia Dias da Silva Flávio

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of aqueous extracts and essential oils on seed quality of sorghum cultivar BR 310. Two experiments were conducted, one using sorghum seeds treated with aqueous extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Mentha spicata and another using essential oils of Ocimum gratissimum and Annona crassiflora. For the experiment with extracts concentrations were 0, 10, 20 and 30% and for the oils were 0, 5, 10 and 15 ?L/mL. We evaluated the following characteristics: seed health (Blotter test, germination, first count of germination and germination speed index. The design was a DIC in 2 x 4 factorial arrangement, two oils or two extracts with four concentrations, independent testing. Several fungal species were associated with the seed, and the genus Curvularia the most prevalent. The aqueous extract of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum and clove essential oil of basil (Ocimum gratissimum have shown promise for the treatment of seeds, reducing fungal infestation, especially Curvularia, however have phytotoxic effect reducing the viability and vigor of sorghum seeds.

  7. Controle da qualidade do fruto de Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels

    OpenAIRE

    Ketylin F. Migliato; Moreira,Raquel R.D.; Mello, João C. P.; Luis V. S. Sacramento; Corrêa,Marcos A.; Hérida R. N. Salgado

    2007-01-01

    Considerando-se a qualidade dos fitoterápicos, é importante salientar que a preocupação com esta questão inclui rigoroso acompanhamento das diferentes etapas do desenvolvimento e produção destes produtos, desde a coleta do vegetal até a disponibilidade do produto final. Neste trabalho foi realizado o controle da qualidade do fruto de Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels, popularmente conhecido como jambolão. Para o controle físico-químico e microbiológico utilizaram-se metodologias farmacopéicas e não...

  8. Water-soluble extracts from defatted sesame seed flour show antioxidant activity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Othman, Sana; Katsuno, Nakako; Kanamaru, Yoshihiro; Yabe, Tomio

    2015-05-15

    Defatted white and gold sesame seed flour, recovered as a byproduct after sesame oil extraction, was extracted with 70% ethanol to obtain polar-soluble crude extracts. The in vitro antioxidant activity of the extract was evaluated by DPPH free radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC). The polar-soluble crude extracts of both sesame seed types exhibited good antioxidant capacity, especially by the ORAC method with 34,720 and 21,700 μmol Trolox equivalent/100g of white and gold sesame seed extract, respectively. HPLC, butanol extraction, and UPLC-MS analyses showed that different compounds contributed to the antioxidant activity of the polar-soluble crude extracts. Sesaminol glycosides were identified in the butanol-soluble fractions; whereas, purified water-soluble fraction contained ferulic and vanillic acids. This study shows that hydrophilic antioxidants in the purified water-soluble fraction contributed to the antioxidant activity of white and gold sesame seed polar-soluble crude extracts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Seed treatment with an aqueous extract of Agave sisalana improves seed health and seedling growth of sorghum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Marianne; Wulff, Ednar Gadelha; Mbega, Ernest R.

    2015-01-01

    An aqueous extract of the sisal agave, A. sisalana, was prepared from dried stem tissue by boiling in water. The sisal extract (SE) displayed a broad inhibition of the seed-borne mycoflora when applied to farmer-saved seeds of Sorghum bicolor. Species of Fusarium (belonging to the Gibberella...

  10. Correlation of anti-inflammatory activity with phenolic content in the leaves of syzygium cumini (l. skeels (myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucilene Azevedo Lima

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic contents of extracts of Syzygium cumini leaves, collected monthly over a one-year period, were quantitatively determined by the modified Folin-Ciocalteau method. Extracts and tannin-free fractions were assayed by their potential to inhibit mouse paw edema induced by C48/80. HPLC showed high molecular weight phenolic species and flavonoids in the active extracts and fractions. The highest total phenolic content corresponded to the most potent degree of inhibition and the flavonoids were supposed to be the main species responsible for the activity, given that the flavonoid-enriched ethyl-acetate fraction maintained its effect down to a dose of 0.01 mg/kg in a dose-response manner.

  11. Exploitation of hazelnut, maize germ and sesame seed aqueous extraction residues in the stabilisation of sesame seed paste (tahini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evlogimenou, Anthi; Paraskevopoulou, Adamantini; Kiosseoglou, Vassilios

    2017-01-01

    Sesame seed paste is a highly nutritious food product which, upon long-term storage, tends to exhibit undesirable phenomena of oiling-off and particle sedimentation. The ability of rich-in-fibre aqueous extraction powders originating from oleaginous raw materials to enhance the physical stability of sesame paste is investigated in this study. The extraction residues remaining after treating hazelnut, sesame seed or maize germ with aqueous media in order to extract and exploit their oil bodies, were collected, dehydrated and milled into fine powders. The powders were then incorporated at various levels into a commercially available sesame paste product to assess their potential as paste stabilisers against oil separation. The solids from maize germ exhibited the highest stabilising ability followed by the solids from hazelnut. In contrast, the solids originating from the sesame seed were less effective in stabilising the sesame paste. Shear stress-rate of shear measurements of sesame paste incorporating the extraction residue solids were conducted in an attempt to explain the different stabilising behaviour of the three powders. The intensity of interactions between the incorporated solids within the sesame paste structure may determine the rheological properties of the blend and hence its stability against oiling-off upon long-term storage. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibition and Hypoglycemic Activities of Sweitenia mahagoni Seed Extract

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    Tutik Wresdiyat

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition of α-glucosidase and hypoglycemic activity are two effects commonly used to identify bioactive compounds with potential to treat diabetes. The objectives of this study were to analyse and compare the bioactive compounds and α-glucosidase inhibitory effect of four different types of Swietenia mahagoni seed extract, and to analyse the hypoglycemic activity of the greatest inhibition of α-glucosidase-extract in rats. The extracts were obtained using two different solvents (aqueous and ethanol and two different methods: maceration and reflux methods. This resulted in four types of extract varying by solvent and extraction method. Testing of these extracts for α-glucosidase inhibitory effect was carried out in vitro using spectrophotometer. Testing for hypoglycemic activity was carried out in vivo using rats. A total of 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into eight groups: (1 the negative control group, received an oral dose of aquadest only, (2 the positive control group, was given 90% sucrose orally without S. mahagoni seed extract, and five treated groups (3-7, were given 90% sucrose followed by the best extract-ethanolic S. mahagoni seed extract in doses of 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 mg/kgBW, and (8 the acarbose group, was given 90% sucrose orally followed by acarbose. Glucose levels in each animal were measured at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after treatment. The results showed the greatest inhibition of α-glucosidase in ethanolic extract, using maceration methods. This ethanolic-maceration S. mahagoni seed extract also showed hypoglycemic effects in hyperglycemic rats at dose from 100 to 500 mg/kgBW. Ethanolic extract of S. mahagoni seed, using maceration method, can be proposed as potential antidiabetic agent.

  13. Binary solvent extraction system and extraction time effects on phenolic antioxidants from kenaf seeds (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) extracted by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yu Hua; Lau, Hwee Wen; Tan, Chin Ping; Long, Kamariah; Nyam, Kar Lin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the best parameter for extracting phenolic-enriched kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The antioxidant activities of ultrasonic-assisted kenaf seed extracts (KSE) were determined by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity assay, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, β -carotene bleaching inhibition assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) evaluations were carried out to determine the phenolic and flavonoid contents in KSE. The KSE from the best extraction parameter was then subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify the phenolic compounds. The optimised extraction condition employed 80% ethanol for 15 min, with the highest values determined for the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assay. KSE contained mainly tannic acid (2302.20 mg/100 g extract) and sinapic acid (1198.22 mg/100 g extract), which can be used as alternative antioxidants in the food industry.

  14. Binary Solvent Extraction System and Extraction Time Effects on Phenolic Antioxidants from Kenaf Seeds (Hibiscus cannabinus L. Extracted by a Pulsed Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hua Wong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the best parameter for extracting phenolic-enriched kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L. seeds by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The antioxidant activities of ultrasonic-assisted kenaf seed extracts (KSE were determined by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging capacity assay, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radical scavenging assay, β-carotene bleaching inhibition assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay. Total phenolic content (TPC and total flavonoid content (TFC evaluations were carried out to determine the phenolic and flavonoid contents in KSE. The KSE from the best extraction parameter was then subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC to quantify the phenolic compounds. The optimised extraction condition employed 80% ethanol for 15 min, with the highest values determined for the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assay. KSE contained mainly tannic acid (2302.20 mg/100 g extract and sinapic acid (1198.22 mg/100 g extract, which can be used as alternative antioxidants in the food industry.

  15. Reactive Extraction of Jatropha Seed for Biodiesel Production: Effect of Moisture Content of Jatropha Seed and Co-solvent Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dani Supardan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is one among the promising renewable fuels, holding various advantages compared with fossil fuel. In this study, reactive extraction of jatropha seed for biodiesel production was investigated. The effect of moisture content of jatropha seeds and cosolvent concentration was examined to determine the best performance of the biodiesel production yield. The co-solvent used is hexane. Design of experiments (DOE was used to study the effect of moisture content of jatropha seed and co-solvent of hexane concentration on the yield of biodiesel. Generally, the moisture content of jatropha seeds and co-solvent concentration affected biodiesel production yield. The experimental result also shows that the transesterification rate was improved when compared to the system without co-solvents. It was found that the production of biodiesel achieved an optimum level of 68.3% biodiesel yield at the following reaction conditions, i.e. moisture content of jatropha seed of 1% and hexane to oil ratio of 6.9 (w/w.

  16. Cranberry and grape seed extracts inhibit the proliferative phenotype of oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelain, Kourt; Phippen, Spencer; McCabe, Jonathan; Teeters, Christopher A; O'Malley, Susan; Kingsley, Karl

    2011-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins, compounds highly concentrated in dietary fruits, such as cranberries and grapes, demonstrate significant cancer prevention potential against many types of cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate cranberry and grape seed extracts to quantitate and compare their anti-proliferative effects on the most common type of oral cancer, oral squamous cell carcinoma. Using two well-characterized oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines, CAL27 and SCC25, assays were performed to evaluate the effects of cranberry and grape seed extract on phenotypic behaviors of these oral cancers. The proliferation of both oral cancer cell lines was significantly inhibited by the administration of cranberry and grape seed extracts, in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, key regulators of apoptosis, caspase-2 and caspase-8, were concomitantly up-regulated by these treatments. However, cranberry and grape seed extracts elicited differential effects on cell adhesion, cell morphology, and cell cycle regulatory pathways. This study represents one of the first comparative investigations of cranberry and grape seed extracts and their anti-proliferative effects on oral cancers. Previous findings using purified proanthocyanidin from grape seed extract demonstrated more prominent growth inhibition, as well as apoptosis-inducing, properties on CAL27 cells. These observations provide evidence that cranberry and grape seed extracts not only inhibit oral cancer proliferation but also that the mechanism of this inhibition may function by triggering key apoptotic regulators in these cell lines. This information will be of benefit to researchers interested in elucidating which dietary components are central to mechanisms involved in the mediation of oral carcinogenesis and progression.

  17. Cranberry and Grape Seed Extracts Inhibit the Proliferative Phenotype of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourt Chatelain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Proanthocyanidins, compounds highly concentrated in dietary fruits, such as cranberries and grapes, demonstrate significant cancer prevention potential against many types of cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate cranberry and grape seed extracts to quantitate and compare their anti-proliferative effects on the most common type of oral cancer, oral squamous cell carcinoma. Using two well-characterized oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines, CAL27 and SCC25, assays were performed to evaluate the effects of cranberry and grape seed extract on phenotypic behaviors of these oral cancers. The proliferation of both oral cancer cell lines was significantly inhibited by the administration of cranberry and grape seed extracts, in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, key regulators of apoptosis, caspase-2 and caspase-8, were concomitantly up-regulated by these treatments. However, cranberry and grape seed extracts elicited differential effects on cell adhesion, cell morphology, and cell cycle regulatory pathways. This study represents one of the first comparative investigations of cranberry and grape seed extracts and their anti-proliferative effects on oral cancers. Previous findings using purified proanthocyanidin from grape seed extract demonstrated more prominent growth inhibition, as well as apoptosis-inducing, properties on CAL27 cells. These observations provide evidence that cranberry and grape seed extracts not only inhibit oral cancer proliferation but also that the mechanism of this inhibition may function by triggering key apoptotic regulators in these cell lines. This information will be of benefit to researchers interested in elucidating which dietary components are central to mechanisms involved in the mediation of oral carcinogenesis and progression.

  18. Microwave assisted extraction of biodiesel feedstock from the seeds of invasive chinese tallow tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldor, Dorin; Kanitkar, Akanksha; Terigar, Beatrice G; Leonardi, Claudia; Lima, Marybeth; Breitenbeck, Gary A

    2010-05-15

    Chinese tallow tree (TT) seeds are a rich source of lipids and have the potential to be a biodiesel feedstock, but currently, its invasive nature does not favor large scale cultivation. Being a nonfood material, they have many advantages over conventional crops that are used for biodiesel production. The purpose of this study was to determine optimal oil extraction parameters in a batch-type and laboratory scale continuous-flow microwave system to obtain maximum oil recovery from whole TT seeds using ethanol as the extracting solvent. For the batch system, extractions were carried out for different time-temperature combinations ranging from 60 to 120 degrees C for up to 20 min. The batch system was modified for continuous extractions, which were carried out at 50, 60, and 73 degrees C and maintained for various residence times of up to 20 min. Control runs were performed under similar extraction conditions and the results compared well, especially when accounting for extremely short extraction times (minutes vs hours). Maximum yields of 35.32% and 32.51% (by weight of dry mass) were obtained for the continuous and batch process, respectively. The major advantage of microwave assisted solvent extraction is the reduced time of extraction required to obtain total recoverable lipids, with corresponding reduction in energy consumption costs per unit of lipid extracted. This study indicates that microwave extraction using ethanol as a solvent can be used as a viable alternative to conventional lipid extraction techniques for TT seeds.

  19. Cytotoxic activity of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and oil against human cancer cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Hua Wong; Wai Yan Tan; Chin Ping Tan; Kamariah Long; Kar Lin Nyam

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the cytotoxic properties of both the kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and kenaf seed oil on human cervical cancer, human breast cancer, human colon cancer and human lung cancer cell lines.Methods:kenaf seed oil on human cancer cell lines was evaluated by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and sulforhodamine B assays. Cell morphological changes were observed by using an inverted light microscope.Results:The in vitro cytotoxic activity of the kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and cancer cell lines. Morphological alterations in the cell lines after KSE and KSO treatment were observed. KSE and KSO possessed effective cytotoxic activities against all the cell lines been selected.Conclusions:KSE and KSO could be potential sources of natural anti-cancer agents. Further The kenaf seed extract (KSE) exhibited a lower IC50 than kenaf seed oil (KSO) in all of the investigations on using kenaf seeds for anti-proliferative properties are warranted.

  20. Disinfection of vegetable seed by treatment with essential oils, organic acids and plant extract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, van der J.M.; Birnbaum, Y.E.; Zouwen, van der P.S.; Groot, S.P.C.

    2008-01-01

    Various essential oils, organic acids, Biosept, (grapefruit extract), Tillecur and extracts of stinging nettle and golden rod were tested for their antimicrobial properties in order to disinfect vegetable seed. In in vitro assays, thyme oil, oregano oil, cinnamon oil, clove oil and Biosept had the h

  1. Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seed proteins: sequential extraction processing and fraction characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezig, Leila; Chibani, Farhat; Chouaibi, Moncef; Dalgalarrondo, Michèle; Hessini, Kamel; Guéguen, Jacques; Hamdi, Salem

    2013-08-14

    Seed proteins extracted from Tunisian pumpkin seeds ( Cucurbita maxima ) were investigated for their solubility properties and sequentially extracted according to the Osborne procedure. The solubility of pumpkin proteins from seed flour was greatly influenced by pH changes and ionic strength, with higher values in the alkaline pH regions. It also depends on the seed defatting solvent. Protein solubility was decreased by using chloroform/methanol (CM) for lipid extraction instead of pentane (P). On the basis of differential solubility fractionation and depending on the defatting method, the alkali extract (AE) was the major fraction (42.1 (P), 22.3% (CM)) compared to the salt extract (8.6 (P), 7.5% (CM)). In salt, alkali, and isopropanol extracts, all essential amino acids with the exceptions of threonine and lysine met the minimum requirements for preschool children (FAO/WHO/UNU). The denaturation temperatures were 96.6 and 93.4 °C for salt and alkali extracts, respectively. Pumpkin protein extracts with unique protein profiles and higher denaturation temperatures could impart novel characteristics when used as food ingredients.

  2. Kinetics of the extraction of pumpkin seed oil (Cucurbita pepo L by supercritical CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sovilj Milan N.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of pumpkin seed oil (Cucurbita pepo L. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE has been used to obtain total lipid extracts from other oilseeds, and it has also proved successful in the isolation and enrichment of sterols from oilseeds. The SFE of pumpkin seed oil on a laboratory scale was investigated in thus paper, with special interest in the influence of the extraction pressure on the overall yield of pumpkin seed oil. Extractions were carried out at the pressures of 15, 25 and 30 MPa and at 313 K, and at a pressure of 30 MPa and the temperatures 313, 323, and 333 K. The yield of the extractions conducted at 15 MPa was rather low, 0.1814 g oil per 1g of seed feed (18.4% for an extraction time of 14 h. However, extractions at higher pressures yielded greater quantities of the oil; at 22.5 MPa for 9 h, 36.3% of the oil and at 30 MPa for 6 h, 41.0% of the oil. For comparison, hexane extraction of the seed material yielded less than 40% of the oil. Temperature did not influence the extraction yield. At a pressure of 30 MPa, the color of the fractions yielded during successive extraction time intervals varied greatly, from pail yellow (the first 2 h, through orange-yellow (from 2-4 h to red (after 4 h. The experimental results of the oil yields were compared with the data obtained by the mathematical model of Hong et al., presented in the literature.

  3. Various extraction and analytical techniques for isolation and identification of secondary metabolites from Nigella sativa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X; Abd El-Aty, A M; Shim, J-H

    2011-10-01

    Nigella sativa L. (black cumin), commonly known as black seed, is a member of the Ranunculaceae family. This seed is used as a natural remedy in many Middle Eastern and Far Eastern countries. Extracts prepared from N. sativa have, for centuries, been used for medical purposes. Thus far, the organic compounds in N. sativa, including alkaloids, steroids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, fatty acids, etc. have been fairly well characterized. Herein, we summarize some new extraction techniques, including microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and supercritical extraction techniques (SFE), in addition to the classical method of hydrodistillation (HD), which have been employed for isolation and various analytical techniques used for the identification of secondary metabolites in black seed. We believe that some compounds contained in N. sativa remain to be identified, and that high-throughput screening could help to identify new compounds. A study addressing environmentally-friendly techniques that have minimal or no environmental effects is currently underway in our laboratory.

  4. In vitro effects of Cucurbita moschata seed extracts on Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie-Magdeleine, C; Hoste, H; Mahieu, M; Varo, H; Archimede, H

    2009-04-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro effect of Cucurbita moschata seed against the parasitic nematode of small ruminants Haemonchus contortus. Three extracts (aqueous, methanolic and dichloromethane) of C. moschata seed were tested in vitro on four developmental stages of H. contortus using egg hatch assay (EHA), larval development assay (LDA), L3 migration inhibition (LMI) assay and adult worm motility (AWM) assay. The highly significant (P90% for each extract) and the negative effect of the dichloromethane and methanolic extracts on adult worm motility (inhibition of motility >59.2% after 24h of incubation) compared to the negative controls, suggest anthelmintic properties of C. moschata seed against H. contortus. The active principles responsible for the activity could be secondary metabolites such as amino acid compounds or terpenoid compounds present in the extracts.

  5. IR and Raman studies of oil and seedcake extracts from natural and genetically modified flax seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żuk, M.; Dymińska, L.; Kulma, A.; Boba, A.; Prescha, A.; Szopa, J.; Mączka, M.; Zając, A.; Szołtysek, K.; Hanuza, J.

    2011-03-01

    Flax plant of the third generation (F3) overexpressing key genes of flavonoid pathway cultivated in field in 2008 season was used as the plant material throughout this study. The biochemical properties of seed, oil and seedcake extracts from natural and transgenic flax plants were compared. Overproduction of flavonoids (kaempferol), phenolic acids (coumaric, ferulic/synapic) and lignan-secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) in oil and extracts from transgenic seeds has been revealed providing a valuable source of these compounds for biotechnological application. The changes in fatty acids composition and increase in their stability against oxidation along three plant generations were also detected. The analysis of oil and seedcake extracts was performed using Raman and IR spectroscopy. The wavenumbers and integral intensities of Raman and IR bands were used to identify the components of phenylpropanoid pathway in oil and seedcake extracts from control and transgenic flax seeds. The spectroscopic data were compared to those obtained from biochemical analysis.

  6. Safety Evaluation of Aqueous Extract of Garcinia Kola Seeds in Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Toyin Yakubu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Garcinia kola seed is consumed indiscriminately in Nigeria without recourse to its potential toxicity. Therefore, this study was aimed at assessing the toxicity of the aqueous extract of G. kola seeds on selected tissues of male rats. Methods: Thirty male rats (215.00 ± 18.58 g were assigned into four groups: A, B, C and D which received 0.5 ml of distilled water, 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight of the extract respectively, once daily for 7 days. Biochemical indices of organ damage and toxicity were determined using standard methods. Results: The extract significantly (P0.05 altered. Conclusion: The treatment related alterations in the present study indicates that the aqueous extract of G. kola seeds at the doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight caused functional toxicity to the organs of the animals and thus not safe as an oral remedy.

  7. Optimization of a new extraction technique for analysis of verbenone and cis-verbenol in pine seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Liazid, Ali; Fernández Barbero, Gerardo; Palma Lovillo, Miguel; García Barroso, Carmelo

    2007-01-01

    Results from a systematic study of the factors affecting extraction of cis-verbenol and verbenone from pine seeds are presented. Five extraction conditions were investigated: extraction solvent, method of extraction, extraction temperature, volume of solvent, and the ratio of the mass of sample to the amount of extraction solvent.

  8. Termiticidal Activity of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq Benth Seed Extracts on the Termite Coptotermes intermedius Silvestri (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae

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    Bolarinwa Olugbemi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical and mineral composition of raw and boiled seeds of the African locust bean, Parkia biglobosa (Jacq Benth, was determined while the termiticidal action of the aqueous, alcoholic, and acetone extracts of the bean seeds were investigated. Variations in the proximate and mineral composition of the raw and boiled seeds were obtained while heavy minerals such as cadmium, cobalt, lead, nickel, and copper had been leached out of the seed during the process of boiling. Extracts from the raw seeds exhibited varying degree of termiticidal activity, while extracts from the boiled seed had no effect on the workers of Coptotermes intermedius Silvestri. Alcoholic extracts were more active than the aqueous and acetone extracts. Termites die within 30 min, 40 min, and 110 min when exposed to concentration of 4 g mL−1 treatments of alcoholic, aqueous, and acetone extracts, respectively.

  9. Inhibitory Effect of Garcinia kola Heckel (Clusiacea) Seed Extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enzymes linked with diabetes mellitus and Phytochemical characterization of its bioactive ... Characterization of the bioactive constituents of the extracts using TLC ... and phenolic compounds with phenolic compounds appearing in all extracts ...

  10. Antifungal activity of mango peel and seed extracts against clinically pathogenic and food spoilage yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorta, E; González, M; Lobo, M G; Laich, F

    2015-11-26

    The antioxidant and antifungal (antiyeast) properties of mango (Mangifera indica) peel and seed by-products were investigated. Nine extracts were obtained using three cultivars and two extraction methods. Significant differences between cultivars and extraction methods were detected in their bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. The antifungal property was determined using agar diffusion and broth micro-dilution assays against 18 yeast species of the genera Candida, Dekkera, Hanseniaspora, Lodderomyces, Metschnikowia, Pichia, Schizosaccharomyces, Saccharomycodes and Zygosaccharomyces. All mango extracts showed antifungal activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values were lower for seed than for peel extracts. MICs and MFCs ranged from values 30 mgGAE/mL, respectively. The multivariate analysis showed a relationship between antifungal activity, the capacity to inhibit lipid peroxidation and total phenol content. These properties were associated with high levels of proanthocyanidins, gallates and gallotannins in the extracts.

  11. Differences in the Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Properties between Vitis coignetiae and Vitis vinifera Seeds Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Amarowicz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds were extracted from European and Japanese grapevine species (Vitis vinifera and V. coignetiae seeds using 80% methanol or 80% acetone. The total content of phenolic compounds was determined utilizing Folin-Ciocalteu’s phenol reagent, while the content of tannins was assayed by the vanillin and BSA precipitation methods. Additionally, the DPPH free radical and ABTS cation radical scavenging activities and the reduction power of the extracts were measured. The HPLC method was applied to determine the phenolic compounds, such as phenolic acids and catechins. The seeds contained large amounts of tannins and gallic acid and observable quantities of catechins, p-coumaric, ferulic and caffeic acids. The dominant form of phenolic acids in the extracts was the ester-bound form. The content of total phenolics was higher in the European grape V. vinifera seeds, which also contained more tannins, catechins and phenolic acids, except for caffeic acid. Extracts from V. vinifera seeds showed better radical scavenger properties and stronger reducing power. The total contents of phenolic compounds and tannins in acetone extracts were higher than in methanolic extracts. Acetone extracts also exhibited stronger antiradical properties as well as stronger reducing power.

  12. Ameliorative effects of Moringa oleifera Lam seed extract on liver fibrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, Alaaeldin A

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringa) seed extract on liver fibrosis. Liver fibrosis was induced by the oral administration of 20% carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)), twice weekly and for 8 weeks. Simultaneously, M.oleifera Lam seed extract (1g/kg) was orally administered daily. The biochemical and histological results showed that Moringa reduced liver damage as well as symptoms of liver fibrosis. The administration of Moringa seed extract decreased the CCl(4)-induced elevation of serum aminotransferase activities and globulin level. The elevations of hepatic hydroxyproline content and myeloperoxidase activity were also reduced by Moringa treatment. Furthermore, the immunohistochemical study showed that Moringa markedly reduced the numbers of smooth muscle alpha-actin-positive cells and the accumulation of collagens I and III in liver. Moringa seed extract showed significant inhibitory effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical, as well as strong reducing antioxidant power. The activity of superoxide dismutase as well as the content of both malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl, which are oxidative stress markers, were reversed after treatment with Moringa. Finally, these results suggested that Moringa seed extract can act against CCl(4)-induced liver injury and fibrosis in rats by a mechanism related to its antioxidant properties, anti-inflammatory effect and its ability to attenuate the hepatic stellate cells activation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. In vitro antimicrobial effects of grape seed extract on peri-implantitis microflora in craniofacial implants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Binit; Shrestha; M.L.Srithavaj; Theerathavaj; Sroisiri; Thaweboon; Boonyanit; Thaweboon

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To determine the antimicrobial effects of grape seed on peri-implantitis microflora.Methods:The grape seed extract was tested against peri-implantitis microflora most commonly found in craniofacial implants including reference strains of Staphylococcus aureus(S.aureus),Escherichia coli(E.coli),Candida albicans(C.albicans)and clinical strains of S.aureus,Klebsiella pneumonia(K.pneumonia)and Candida parapsilosis(C.parapsilosis)by disk diffusion test.Minimum inhibitory concentrations(MIC)and minimum cidal concentrations(MCC)were determined using modified agar dilution millpore method.The extract was further combined with polyethylene glycol and propylene glycol,and was tested for antimicrobial effects.Results:Grape seed extract showed positive inhibitory effects with S.aureus at MIC of 0.625 mg/mL and MCC of1.25 mg/mL respectively.However the extracts showed minimal or no reactivity against strains of E.coli,K.pneumonia,C.parapsilosis and C.albicans.The use of grape seed extract in combination with polyethylene glycol and propylene glycol also showed dose dependent inhibitory effect on S.aureus.Conclusions:The results of the study showed that grape seed has potential antimicrobial effects which can be further studied and developed to be used in the treatment of infected skinabutment interface of craniofacial implants.

  14. In vitro antimicrobial effects of grape seed extract on peri-implantitis microflora in craniofacial implants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Binit Shrestha; ML Srithavaj Theerathavaj; Sroisiri Thaweboon; Boonyanit Thaweboon

    2012-01-01

    To determine the antimicrobial effects of grape seed on peri-implantitis microflora.Methods:The grape seed extract was tested against peri-implantitis microflora most commonly found in craniofacial implants including reference strains of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Escherichia coli (E. coli), Candida albicans (C. albicans) and clinical strains of S. aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia (K. pneumonia) and Candida parapsilosis (C. parapsilosis) by disk diffusion test. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum cidal concentrations (MCC) were determined using modified agar dilution millpore method. The extract was further combined with polyethylene glycol and propylene glycol, and was tested for antimicrobial effects. Results: Grape seed extract showed positive inhibitory effects with S. aureus at MIC of 0.625 mg/mL and MCC of 1.25 mg/mL respectively. However the extracts showed minimal or no reactivity against strains of E. coli, K. pneumonia, C. parapsilosis and C. albicans. The use of grape seed extract in combination with polyethylene glycol and propylene glycol also showed dose dependent inhibitory effect on S.aureus. Conclusions: The results of the study showed that grape seed has potential antimicrobial effects which can be further studied and developed to be used in the treatment of infected skin-abutment interface of craniofacial implants.

  15. Evaluation of antitrypanosomal activity of Adansonia digitata (methanol seed extract in Albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Maina Ibrahim

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Adansonia digitata, a shrub used in traditional medicine for the treatment of cancer was investigated for the treatment of experimental trypanosomiasis. Methanol seed extracts of the seed of Adansonia digitata was investigated for in-vivo anti-trypanosomal activity in albino mice infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei and treated intraperitoneally with the extracts 24 hours post infection, at doses ranging from 50-500mg/kg for 14 days. The parasitaemia in each mouse was monitored including the control group which were treated with the standard drug; berenil. Seed extracts at dose of 400mg/kg showed significant antitrypanosomal activity (P50 value of the crude seed extract was estimated to be more than 2900mg/kg. Phytochemical screening of the crude extract of the seed indicated the presence of carbohydrate, glycosides, cardiac glycosides, saponins, steroids and triterpene, flavonoids and alkaloids. The result of this study shows that Adansonia digitata has great potential as anti trypanosomal agent, which could be developed into an alternative drug to complement treatment options for African trypanosomiasis.

  16. Phytochemical analysis, phenolic compounds, condensed tannin content and antioxidant potential in Marwa (Origanum majorana seed extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanju B. Dhull

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant and free radical scavenging potential of seed extracts of Origanum majorana was evaluated and correlated with total phenolic content (TPC and condensed tannin content (CTC. Ethanol, methanol, acetone and chloroform were used to extract bioactive compounds from seeds of Origanum majorana at 45 °C for 45 minutes. As compared to other solvents, methanol seems to be an important extraction solvent, as maximum amount of bioactive compounds (1.18 mg GAE/g dwb with antioxidant potential was observed in methanolic extract. Total phenolic compounds in seeds were evaluated using Folin–Ciocalteu reagent (FC reagent method. Total phenolic compounds in seeds were in the range of 0.10–1.18 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry weight basis (mg GAE/g dwb. HPLC study confirmed the presence of catechin, cinnamic acid, gallic acid and ascorbic acid. The antioxidant potential in seed extracts of Origanum majorana confirmed the presence of nutraceutical properties in them which will further be helpful in the preparation of various functional food products.

  17. OPTIMISATION OF PROCESS PARAMETER CONDITIONS FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCTION BY REACTIVE EXTRACTION OF JATROPHA SEEDS

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    MUHAMMAD DANI SUPARDAN

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel can be produced by reactive extraction of jatropha seeds to reduce the cost and processing time associated with conventional methods. In this study, the relationship between various parameters of reactive extraction of jatropha seeds is investigated. The effect of processing time, the moisture content of jatropha seeds and hexane to oil weight ratios are examined to determine the best performance for biodiesel yield. Response surface methodology was used to statistically evaluate and optimise the process parameter conditions. It was found that the biodiesel production achieved an optimum biodiesel yield of 73.7% under the following conditions: processing time of 160 min, moisture content of jatropha seeds of 1% and hexane to oil weight ratio of 7.2.

  18. Seed Priming Improves Agronomic Trait Performance under Flooding and Non-flooding Conditions in Rice with QTL SUB1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramni Kumar SARKAR

    2012-01-01

    Farmers in South East Asia are adopting rice crop establishment methods from transplanting to direct wet or dry seeding as it requires less labour and time and comparatively less energy than transplanting.In contrast to irrigated condition,in rainfed lowland,direct seeding is a common practice.Early flooding controls weeds but decreases seedling establishment in direct seeded rice.Anaerobic germination is an important trait to counteract damages caused by early flooding.Management options which can help in crop establishment and improve crop growth under flooding might remove the constraints related to direct seeding.The investigation was carried out with two near isogenic lines Swarna and SwarnaSub1.Swarna-Sub1 is tolerant to submergence whereas Swarna is susceptible.Seed priming was done with water and 2%Jamun (Syzygium cumini) leaf extract,and it improved seedling establishment under flooding.Acceleration of growth occurred due to seed pretreatment,which resulted longer seedling and greater accumulation of biomass.Seed priming greatly hastened the activities of total amylase and alcohol dehydrogenase in Swarna-Sub1 than in Swarna.Swarna-Sub1 outperformed Swarna when the plants were cultivated under flooding.Weed biomass decreased significantly under flooding compared to non-flooding conditions.Seed priming had positive effects on yield and yield attributing parameters both under non-flooding and early flooding conditions.

  19. Seed Priming Improves Agronomic Trait Performance under Flooding and Non-flooding Conditions in Rice with QTL SUB1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramni Kumar SARKAR

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Farmers in South East Asia are adopting rice crop establishment methods from transplanting to direct wet or dry seeding as it requires less labour and time and comparatively less energy than transplanting. In contrast to irrigated condition, in rainfed lowland, direct seeding is a common practice. Early flooding controls weeds but decreases seedling establishment in direct seeded rice. Anaerobic germination is an important trait to counteract damages caused by early flooding. Management options which can help in crop establishment and improve crop growth under flooding might remove the constraints related to direct seeding. The investigation was carried out with two near isogenic lines Swarna and Swarna-Sub1. Swarna-Sub1 is tolerant to submergence whereas Swarna is susceptible. Seed priming was done with water and 2% Jamun (Syzygium cumini leaf extract, and it improved seedling establishment under flooding. Acceleration of growth occurred due to seed pretreatment, which resulted longer seedling and greater accumulation of biomass. Seed priming greatly hastened the activities of total amylase and alcohol dehydrogenase in Swarna-Sub1 than in Swarna. Swarna-Sub1 outperformed Swarna when the plants were cultivated under flooding. Weed biomass decreased significantly under flooding compared to non-flooding conditions. Seed priming had positive effects on yield and yield attributing parameters both under non-flooding and early flooding conditions.

  20. Improvement of extraction method of coagulation active components from Moringa oleifera seed

    OpenAIRE

    OKUDA, Tetsuji; Baes, Aloysius U.; NISHIJIMA, Wataru; Okada, Mitsumasa

    1999-01-01

    A new method for the extraction of the active coagulation component from Moringa oleifera seeds was developed and compared with the ordinary water extraction method (MOC–DW). In the new method, 1.0 mol l-1 solution of sodium chloride (MOC–SC) and other salts were used for extraction of the active coagulation component. Batch coagulation experiments were conducted using 500 ml of low turbid water (50 NTU). Coagulation efficiencies were evaluated based on the dosage required to remove kaolinite...

  1. Fenugreek seed extract treats peripheral neuropathy in pyridoxine induced neuropathic mice

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Trigonella foenum graecum commonly known as Fenugreek exerts normoglycemic and insulinotropic effects in humans by compounds from its seed and leaf extracts. Some studies reported that treating pregnant mice with fenugreek seed could cause toxic effects on the nervous system of its pubs during developmental growth, while in some other studies neuroprotective properties were considered for it. Safety of anti-diabetic drugs for nervous system is very important because peripheral neuropathy is a...

  2. Isolation of Gossypol and Analysis of Phytochemicals in Seed Extract of Bt and Non-Bt Varieties of Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Chandrashekar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to isolate the gossypol (Phenolic compound and screening of phytochemical constituents from seed extract. During this study gossypol was extracted from cotton seeds and cotton seed cake using different organic solvents like acetone, ethanol, methanol, pet ether, chloroform and hot water and screened for phytochemical constituents. Analysis revealed the presence of phenols, glycosides, flavonoids, and steroids. Specific tests were conducted for each group of the phytochemicals. Among the extracts tested polar solvents like acetone, ethanol, methanol extracts showed more phytochemicals than others followed by pet ether, hot water, chloroform. The phytochemicals like saponins, flavonoids, tri-terpenoids, and tannins were not found in seed extract, specifically showed phenols with more quantity in polar solvent extract like acetone, ethanol and methanol cardiac glycosides and steroids are observed in both polar and non-polar solvent of seed extracts. Similar kind of compounds are present in Bt and non-Bt but the appearance of test coloration of seed extracts predicted as is slightly darker for Bt variety. This could be due to more amount of the component may be present in Bt cotton seed extract than non-Bt cotton seed extract. The compound Gossypol was detected in extracts by applying Chromatographic technique as well as chemical tests with antimony chloride (SbCl3, and stannic chloride (SnCl3 and leadacetate (Pb(CH3COO2 . Spectrophotometric techniques were also employed for quantitative analysis by measuring absorbance of samples at wavelength of 290nm.

  3. Effect of extracts of Chinese pine on its own seed germination and seedling growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meiqiu ZHU; Changming MA; Ying WANG; Lili ZHANG; Hui WANG; Yuxin YUAN; Kejiu DU

    2009-01-01

    The allelopathic potential of Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.) against its own seed germination and seedling growth was tested with aqueous extracts (0.01, 0.02, 0.05, and 0.10 g·mL-1) obtained from different organs (roots and litter needles) at different individual ages (12, 52, and 110 years old). The results showed that root and litter extracts had different effects on seed germination and seedling growth, and the effects varied with the concentrations, the organs, and the tree age of extracts. The strongest stimulatory effect on seed germination of Chinese pine was exposed to 0.02g·mL-1 root extract from the 110 years old Chinese pine trees and exposed to 0.02 g·mL-1 litter extract from the 12 years old Chinese pine trees. Meanwhile, the strongest stimulatory effect on growth of Chinese pine seedlings was exposed not only to 0.01 g·mL-1 root extracts from the 110 years old Chinese pine but also to 0.01 g·mL-1 litter extract from the 12 years old Chinese pine. The promoting effect of the extracts of root on seed germination and seedling growth increased in the order of 12, 52, and 110 years old. The promoting effect of the extracts of litter on seed germination and seedling growth increased in the order of 110, 52, and 12 years old. Our results suggested that litter leachates or root exudates of Chinese pine may influence the natural regeneration within Chinese pine stands via the release of allelochemicals into the environment.

  4. Extraction of Lepidium apetalum Seed Oil Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and Anti-Oxidant Activity of the Extracted Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuchong Tang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE of Lepidium apetalum seed oil and its anti-oxidant activity were studied. The SFE process was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM with a central composite design (CCD. Independent variables, namely operating pressure, temperature, time and flow rate were evaluated. The maximum extraction of Lepidium apetalum seed oil by SFE-CO2 (about 36.3% was obtained when SFE-CO2 extraction was carried out under the optimal conditions of 30.0 MPa of pressure, 70 °C of temperature, 120 min of extraction time and 25.95 L/h of flow rate. GC-MS analysis showed the presence of four fatty acids in Lepidium apetalum seed oil, with a high content (91.0% of unsaturated fatty acid. The anti-oxidant activity of the oil was assessed by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical-scavenging assay and 2,2′-azino- bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS test. Lepidium apetalum seed oil possessed a notable concentration-dependent antioxidant activity, with IC50 values of 1.00 and 3.75 mg/mL, respectively.

  5. MYCOFLORA ASSOCIATED WITH SOME STORED SEEDS AND THEIR CONTROL BY AQUEOUS EXTRACT FROM MEDICINAL PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZAKARIA A. M. BAKA*, MAMDOUH S. SERAG AND TAREK A. KARDOSHA

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to isolate and identify seed-borne fungi associated with some seeds collected from Egypt markets during storage and the possibility of their control by medicinal plant extracts. The studied seeds were Sorghum bicolor, Triticum aestivum, Oryza sativa, Lens esculentus, Vigna sinensis, Arachis hypogea and Vicia faba. Thirteen fungal species were isolated from those Aspergillus niger, A. flavus and Penicillium chrysogenum were the most prevalent. Sixteen medicinal plants named Allium sativum, Aloe vera, Mentha basilicum, Musa acuminate, Eucalptus rostrata, Datura stramonium, Zingiber officinale, Azadirachta indica, Jatropha curcas, Euphorbia peplis, Ocimum basilicum, Carum carvi, Rosmarinus officinalis, Nigella sativa, Cuminum cyminum and Citrullus colocynthis were screened for their antifungal activities. Aqueous plant extracts of all mentioned plants were tested against the most prodomonant fungal species. Allium sativum, Zingiber officinale, Datura stramonium and Citrullus colocynthis exhibited the highest antifungal activity within all plants tested. Treated seeds by plant extracts showed an increase of the percentage of their germination and reduction of seed-borne fungal infection. Mycotoxins of infected seeds and fungal pathogens were also determined.

  6. Complementary and comparative study on hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity of various extracts of Eugenia jambolana seed, Momordica charantia fruits, Gymnema sylvestre, and Trigonella foenum graecum seeds in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Mukesh; Lavania, Amita; Tomar, Radha; Prasad, G B K S; Jain, Shalini; Yadav, Hariom

    2010-04-01

    In present study, we investigated hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic potential of five extracts (water, ethanol, methanol, hexane, and chloroform) of four plants (i.e., seeds of Eugenia jambolana, fruits of Momordica charantia, leaves of Gymnema sylvestre, and seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum) alone and/or in combination with glimepiride in rats. Ethanol extract of E. jambolana, water extract of M. charantia, ethanol extract of G. sylvestre, and water extract of T. graecum exhibited highest hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity (most active) in rats among all the extracts, while hexane extracts exhibited least activities. Most active extracts were further studied to dose-dependent (200, 100, and 50 mg/kg body weight (bw)) hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic effects alone and in combination with glimepiride (20, 10, and 5 mg/kg bw). The combination of most active extracts (200 mg/kg bw) and lower dose of glimepiride (5 mg/kg bw) showed safer and potent hypoglycemic as well as antihyperglycemic activities without creating severe hypoglycemia in normal rats, while higher doses (200 mg/kg bw of most active extracts, and 10 and 20 mg/kg bw of glimepiride) were generated lethal hypoglycemia in normal rats. From this study, it may be concluded that the ethanol extract of E. jambolana seeds, water extract of M. charantia fruits, ethanol extract of G. sylvestre leaves, and water extract of T. graecum seeds have higher hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic potential and may use as complementary medicine to treat the diabetic population by significantly reducing dose of standard drugs.

  7. Inactivation disinfection property of Moringa Oleifera seed extract: optimization and kinetic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, M. A.; Jami, M. S.; Hammed, A. M.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents the statistical optimization study of disinfection inactivation parameters of defatted Moringa oleifera seed extract on Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial cells. Three level factorial design was used to estimate the optimum range and the kinetics of the inactivation process was also carried. The inactivation process involved comparing different disinfection models of Chicks-Watson, Collins-Selleck and Homs models. The results from analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the statistical optimization process revealed that only contact time was significant. The optimum disinfection range of the seed extract was 125 mg/L, 30 minutes and 120rpm agitation. At the optimum dose, the inactivation kinetics followed the Collin-Selleck model with coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.6320. This study is the first of its kind in determining the inactivation kinetics of pseudomonas aeruginosa using the defatted seed extract.

  8. In vitro evaluation of antifungal activity of the seed extract of embelia ribes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sabitha Rani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antifungal activity of Embelia ribes was evaluated on eight different fungal species by employing various concentrations of seed extract (0.5-2.0 mg. All the concentrations of seed extract inhibited the fungal growth, whereas maximum activity was observed at 2.0 mg concentration of seed extract. Among different doses, the diameter of inhibition zones ranged from 9 to 18 mm in various fungal species and increased with the increase in the concentration of test solution. Among all the fungi, high inhibition zones were observed in Colletotricum crassipes (18 mm. This was followed by Cladosporium (17.5 mm, Armillaria mellea (17 mm, Colletotricum capsici (17 mm, Aspergillus niger (16.5 mm, Rhizopus oryzae (16.5 mm, respectively. Aspergillus terreus and Candida albicans showed less inhibition zones (15.5 and 16.0 mm compared to other organisms. The present study clearly demonstrated the antifungal properties of Embelia ribes.

  9. Cytotoxic Effects of Alcoholic Extract of Dorema Glabrum Seed on Cancerous Cells Viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Bannazadeh Amirkhiz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In the present study cytotoxic effects of the alcoholic extract of Dorema Glabrum seed on viability of WEHI-164 cells, mouse Fibrosarcoma cell line and L929 normal cells were compared with the cytotoxic effects of Taxol (anticancer and apoptosis inducer drug. Methods: To find out the plant extract cytotoxic effects, MTT test and DNA fragmentation assay, the biochemical hallmark of apoptosis were performed on cultured and treated cells. Results: According to the findings the alcoholic extract of Dorema Glabrum seed can alter cells morphology and because of chromatin condensation and other changes they shrink and take a spherical shape, and lose their attachment too. So the plant extract inhibits cell growth albeit in a time and dose dependent manner and results in degradation of chromosomal DNA. Conclusion: Our data well established the anti-proliferative effect of methanolic extract of Dorema Glabrum seed and clearly showed that the plant extract can induce apoptosis and not necrosis in vitro, but the mechanism of its activities remained unknown. These results demonstrated that Dorema Glabrum seed might be a novel and attractive therapeutic candidate for tumor treatment in clinical practices.

  10. Microscopic modeling of País grape seed extract absorption in the small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Cristian; Roeckel, Marlene; Fernández, Katherina

    2014-02-01

    The concentration profiles and the absorbed fraction (F) of the País grape seed extract in the human small intestine were obtained using a microscopic model simulation that accounts for the extracts' dissolution and absorption. To apply this model, the physical and chemical parameters of the grape seed extract solubility (C s), density (ρ), global mass transfer coefficient between the intestinal and blood content (k) (effective permeability), and diffusion coefficient (D) were experimentally evaluated. The diffusion coefficient (D = 3.45 × 10(-6) ± 5 × 10(-8) cm(2)/s) was approximately on the same order of magnitude as the coefficients of the relevant constituents. These results were chemically validated to discover that only the compounds with low molecular weights diffused across the membrane (mainly the (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin compounds). The model demonstrated that for the País grape seed extract, the dissolution process would proceed at a faster rate than the convective process. In addition, the absorbed fraction was elevated (F = 85.3%). The global mass transfer coefficient (k = 1.53 × 10(-4) ± 5 × 10(-6) cm/s) was a critical parameter in the absorption process, and minor changes drastically modified the prediction of the extract absorption. The simulation and experimental results show that the grape seed extract possesses the qualities of a potential phytodrug.

  11. Thermal Stability Study of the Grape Seeds Extracts in the Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Pop

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of parameters the extraction process of grape seeds extracts on the bioactive compounds. The aqueous extracts were screened for total polyphenol content and total flavonoid content wich were determined spectrophotometrically using a modified Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively a chromogenic system of NaNO2–Al (NO33–NaOH based method. The antioxidant activity was determined using DPPH method while  their polyphenolic composition by means of HPLC-DAD- MS/ ESI(+ analysis. Total phenols content and flavonoid content varied between 37.835 and 31.830 mg GAE/g, 23.420 and 17.645 mg QE/g respectively in Fetească Neagră seeds; between 24.265 and 27.065 mg GAE/g, 17.970 and 15.205 mg QE/g respectively in Fetească Regală seeds. All extracts showed remarkable DPPH radical-scavenging activity ranging from 94.110 to 95.515%. The study revealed 14 phenolic compounds belonging to the following groups: flavan-3-ol monomers, proanthocyanidins, hydroxycinnamic acid and hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives. Quantitative differences among the varieties and the level of temperature applied of  the extraction process were observed. The results suggested that the heat treatment of grape seeds liberated phenolic compounds having a significant effect in increasing the amounts of active when a 90°C extraction temperature was used.

  12. Analysis of fatty acids and phytosterols in ethanol extracts of Nelumbo nucifera seeds and rhizomes by GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xu; Shen, Jian; Chang, Kyung Ja; Kim, Sung Hoon

    2013-07-17

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the fatty acid and phytosterol contents in ethanol extracts of lotus seeds and rhizomes. These ethanol extracts were extracted with hexane. The hexane extracts were hydrolyzed in a microwave reactor, and total fatty acids and phytosterols were analyzed. The hexane extracts were also subjected to silica gel column chromatography. Nonpolar components (triglycerides and steryl-fatty acid esters) were hydrolyzed, and then the contents were analyzed. Polar components (diglycerides, monoglycerides, fatty acids, and phytosterols) were analyzed directly. Seeds contained higher concentrations of fatty acids and phytosterols compared to rhizomes. Linoleic acid, palmitic acid, and oleic acid were the main fatty acid components in seeds and rhizomes, and most of them in seeds were in the ester form. In seeds, phytosterols existed mainly in the free form rather than in steryl-fatty acid ester form. β-Sitosterol was the most abundant phytosterol in seeds and rhizomes.

  13. New mixes based on collagen extracts with bioactive properties, for treatment of seeds in sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidau, Carmen; Niculescu, Mihaela; Stepan, Emil; Epure, Doru-Gabriel; Gidea, Mihai

    2013-01-01

    The world's population, areas intended for the production of bio-mass and bio-fuels and the food demand of mankind are on a continuous ascending trend. In this context, an increased efficiency in obtaining large and steady productions, in compliance with the requirements of sustainable development of the agricultural eco-system, is a priority. To be effective, the seed treatment will fulfill the following requirements: shall disinfect and protect the seeds against the pests and pathogen agents found in the soil, shall ensure the system protection, shall not pollute the soil, water and environment, shall have no remnant effect onto the environment and onto the crops and shall be bio-degradable, easy to transport and to use. This paper aims at presenting new collagen based materials for cereal seed treatment, which generates an increase of the quality and protection indicators for treated seeds. Creation of a new and advanced technology for treatment of cereal seeds, by using pesticide-collagen hydrolysate mixes has the objectives of increasing seed quality indexes; reducing pesticide consumption, which will in turn decrease environmental pollution and the cost of treatment for cereal seeds; achieving a better management of resources; reducing production expenses while preserving the environment. The technologies developed for protein raw material processing and characteristics of collagen hydrolysates with bioactive properties are presented. The future route for ecological treatment of seeds is the use of microencapsulated plant extracts (thyme and cinnamon essential oils) with insecticidal and antifungal properties in a shell made using collagen hydrolysate.

  14. OPTIMIZATION OF SESAME SEEDS OIL EXTRACTION OPERATING CONDITIONS USING THE RESPONSE SURFACE DESIGN METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAITHAM OSMAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies Response Surface Design (RSD to model the experimental data obtained from the extraction of sesame seeds oil using n-hexane, chloroform and acetone as solvents under different operating conditions. The results obtained revealed that n-hexane outperformed the extraction obtained using chloroform and acetone. The developed model predicted that n-hexane with a rotational speed of 547 rpm and a contact time between the solvent and seeds of 19.46 hours with solvent: seeds ratio of 4.93, yields the optimum oil extracted of 37.03 %, outperforming chloroform and acetone models that gave prediction for 4.75 and 4.21 respectively. While the maximum predictions yield for chloroform is 6.73 %, under the operating conditions of 602 rpm, and 24 hours contact time, with a ratio of solvent: seeds of 1.74. On the other hand the acetone maximum prediction is only 4.37 %, with operational conditions of 467 rpm, and 6.00 hours contact time, with a ratio of solvent: seeds of 1. It is has been found that the maximum oil extraction yield obtained from the chloroform (6.73 % and Acetone (4.37 % is much lower than that predicted by n-hexane 37.03 %.

  15. Assessment of hydroalcoholic extract of seeds and leaves of Moringa peregrina on ileum spasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadraei, H; Asghari, G; Farahnaki, F

    2015-01-01

    Seeds of Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori. (Moringaceae) is widely used in south east of Iran for gastrointestinal disorders. However, so far there is no pharmacological evidence for antispasmodic activity of this plant extract. Therefore, the aim of this research was to investigate antispasmodic activity of M. peregrina on rat isolated ileum contraction. Hydroalcoholic extract was obtained by percolation method from seeds and leaves of M. peregrina collected from Baluchestan province of Iran. A portion of isolated rat ileum was suspended under 1 g tension in Tyrode's solution at 37 °C and gassed with O2. Effects of seeds and leaves extracts of M. peregrina were studied on ileum contractions induced by KCl (80 mM), acetylcholine (ACh, 250 μM) and electrical field stimulation (EFS). The seed extract of M. peregrina concentration dependently inhibited the response to KCl (IC50=87 ± 18 μg/ml), ACh (IC50=118 ± 18 μg/ml) and EFS (IC50=230 ± 51 μg/ml). The extract of M. peregrina leaves also had inhibitory effect of ileum contraction induced by KCl (IC50=439 ± 108 μg/ml), ACh (IC50=365 ± 61 μg/ml) or EFS (IC50=314 ± 92 μg/ml). From these experiments it was concluded that M. peregrina extract mainly had an inhibitory effect on ileum contractions but the seed extract was more potent than the leave extract in inhibiting KCl and ACh contractile responses.

  16. Antihyperglycemic activity of the ethanolic seed extract of Vernonia anthelminticum willd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigation was carried out to study the effects of Vernonia anthelminticum Willd seed extract on blood glucose level. The antihyperglycemic efficacy of the ethanolic extract of the seed was evaluated in normal, glucose and alloxan induced diabetic rats. The extract exhibited significant hypoglycemic activity in all three animal models when compared with the control group. The activity was also comparable to that of the effect produced by a standard antidiabetic agent gliclazide, 25 mg/kg (p.o.. The results also indicated dose dependent effect. The hypoglycemia and antihyperglycaemia produced by the extract may be due to increased uptake of glucose at tissue level or increase in pancreatic beta-cell function or due to inhibition of intestinal absorption of glucose. The study indicated that the ethanolic extract is a potential antidiabetic agent and lends scientific support for its else′s in folk medicine.

  17. In vivo hypoglycemic study of Manilkara zapota leave and seed extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saikat Ranjan Paul

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The hypoglycemic activity of pet-ether extracts of leaves and methanol extracts of seeds of Manilkara zapota was evaluated in the study. The oral glucose tolerance test was performed in mice treated with 2 mg/kg glucose solution and the blood glucose level was determined after 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min of administration. Alloxan (70 mg/kg was injected intravenously to induce diabetes in mice. The hypoglycemic study was carried out 7 days. In glucose tolerance test all extracts achieved significant p values (p<0.0001 at 60, 90 and 120 minutes compared to the glucose control. In hypoglycemic study all extracts started to reduce the blood glucose level rapidly even starting from the 2nd day of treatment and significant p values (p<0.0001 were achieved. So, the study evinced the hypoglycemic potency of the leave and seed extracts of M. zapota.

  18. Evaluation of the proximate composition, antioxidant potential, and antimicrobial activity of mango seed kernel extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutua, Jane K; Imathiu, Samuel; Owino, Willis

    2017-03-01

    After pulp extraction in fruit processing industry, a significant quantity of mango seed kernels are discarded as solid wastes. These seed kernels can be ideal raw materials for obtaining extracts rich in bioactive compounds with good antioxidant properties. The conversion of these wastes into utilizable food ingredients would help in reducing environmental problems associated with processing waste disposal. In order to determine their potential use, this study evaluated some of the biochemical characteristics and antimicrobial potential of mango seed kernel extracts on medically important human bacterial and fungal pathogens. Four mango varieties (Apple, Ngowe, Kent and Sabine) from Makueni and Embu counties in Kenya were used for this study. The analyzed mango seed kernel powders were found to contain on average, 6.74-9.20% protein content. Apple and Ngowe mango seed kernels had significantly higher fat content of 13.04 and 13.08, respectively, while Sabine from Makueni had the least fat content of 9.84%. The ash, fiber, and carbohydrate contents ranged from 1.78 to 2.87%, 2.64 to 3.71% and 72.86 to 75.92%, respectively. The mean percentage scavenging ability of mango kernel extracts at the concentration of 20 mg/mL was 92.22%. Apple and Sabine mango kernel extracts had significantly high inhibition zones of 1.93 and 1.73 compared to Kent and Ngowe with 1.13 and 1.10, respectively, against E. coli. For C. albicans, the inhibition of Kent mango kernel extract, 1.63, was significantly lower than that of Ngowe, Apple, and Sabine with 2.23, 2.13, and 1.83, respectively. This study demonstrates that mango seed powder is an abundant and cost-effective potential natural antibiotic and antifungal that can be utilized in addressing the challenge of food poisoning and infections caused by pathogenic microorganisms in the food industry.

  19. An investigation on LD50 and subacute hepatic toxicity of Nigella sativa seed extracts in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahdati-Mashhadian, N; Rakhshandeh, H; Omidi, A

    2005-07-01

    Nigella sativa seeds (blackseed) have been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of a variety of diseases including diarrhea and asthma, and have been shown to have various useful pharmacological effects. In this study, acute and subacute toxicity of the aqueous, methanol and chloroform extracts of the seeds have been investigated. To determine their LD50, the aqueous, methanol and chloroform extracts were administered orally, in 4 different doses, 6, 9, 14 and 21 g/kg. Mortality rate and weight changes have also been measured in all groups for 3 and 7 days, respectively. No mortality has been observed in all groups and with all doses. Methanol extracts in all doses and chloroform extract in the dose of 21 g/kg significantly decreased animals weight. Hepatic toxicity of the extracts was also investigated in the dose of 6 g/kg/day orally for 14 consecutive days by measuring ALP, SGOT and SGPT activity in blood and hepatic histological study. Degenerative changes in hepatic cells have been observed only with aqueous extract of the seeds. In conclusion, Nigella sativa extracts are relatively nontoxic in the acute toxicity test, but the possibility of hepatic damage with its aqueous extract should be considered.

  20. Strychnos nux-vomica seeds: Pharmacognostical standardization, extraction, and antidiabetic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Bhati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Strychnos nux-vomica, commonly known as kuchla, contains strychnine and brucine as main constituents. Minor alkaloids present in the seeds are protostrychnine, vomicine, n-oxystrychnine, pseudostrychnine, isostrychnine, chlorogenic acid, and a glycoside. Seeds are used traditionally to treat diabetes, asthma, aphrodisiac and to improve appetite. Objective: The present study was aimed to evaluate the various pharmacognostical characters and antidiabetic activity of S. nux-vomica seed. Materials and Methods: Pharmacognostical characters were performed as per the WHO guideline. Extraction was carried out in petroleum ether, chloroform, alcohol, hydroalcoholic, aqueous, and phytochemical constituents present in extracts were detected by different chemical tests. Among these extracts hydroalcoholic, aqueous extracts were evaluated for antidiabetic activity on the basis of extractive yield and phytoconstituents, in alloxan-induced diabetic rats using gliclazide as standard. Results: Various analytical values of S. nux-vomica extract were established. Phytoconstituents present in S. nux-vomica extracts were detected. Conclusion: S. nux-vomica extracts show antihyperglycemic activity in experimental animals.

  1. Characterization of sunflower oils obtained separately by pressing and subsequent solvent extraction from a new line of seeds rich in phytosterols and conventional seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguirre Marta R.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we evaluate the chemical composition of sunflower oils obtained separately by pressing and subsequent solvent extraction from a new seeds rich in phytosterols (IASP-18 and conventional seeds (HA-89. Results have shown that the total content of oil was much lower in the IASP-18 (18.1% than in the conventional (37.5% seeds. The extraction yield obtained by pressing was as low as 3% in the IASP-18 seeds and 37.5% in HA-89, while in the solvent extraction it was of the same order (~18 wt% on seeds extracted by pressing for the two types of seeds. No significant changes in the fatty acid composition were found between the oils extracted by the two procedures, but the pressed oils presented significantly lower acidity and larger content of the unsaponifiable fraction. Expressed as free sterols, the total sterols were 37–38% more concentrated in the oils extracted with solvent, reaching amounts of 13 700 and 6500 mg/kg in the IASP-18 and HA-89 oils, respectively. No substantial differences were found in the composition of total sterols analysed as free sterols between the oils extracted with the two procedures, but the contents of free sterols and sterol glycosides were much higher in the oils extracted with solvent.

  2. Oil extraction from plant seeds for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadessa Gonfa Keneni

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy is basic for development and its demand increases due to rapid population growth, urbanization and improved living standards. Fossil fuels will continue to dominate other sources of energy although it is non-renewable and harm global climate. Problems associated with fossil fuels have driven the search for alternative energy sources of which biodiesel is one option. Biodiesel is renewable, non-toxic, environmental-friendly and an economically feasible options to tackle the depleting fossil fuels and its negative environmental impact. It can be produced from vegetable oils, animal fats, waste oils and algae. However, nowadays, the major feedstocks of biodiesel are edible oils and this has created food vs fuel debate. Therefore, the future prospect is to use non-edible oils, animal fats, waste oils and algae as feedstock for biodiesel. Selection of non-expensive feedstock and the extraction and preparation of oil for biodiesel production is a crucial step due to its relevance on the overall technology. There are three main conventional oil extraction methods: mechanical, chemical/solvent and enzymatic extraction methods. There are also some newly developed oil extraction methods that can be used separately or in combination with the conventional ones, to overcome some disadvantages of the conventional oil extraction methods. This review paper presents, compare and discusses different potential biofuel feedstocks, various oil extraction methods, advantages and disadvantages of different oil extraction methods, and propose future prospective for the improvement of oil extraction methods and sustainability of biodiesel production and utilization.

  3. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Seed Oil from Chinese Licorice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    2005-12-17

    Dec 17, 2005 ... extraction of diffusion-controlled matrices such as plant tissues. Moreover, the solvating power ... non-toxic, cost-effective and easily removed from the extract ... puted from the GC peak areas without any correction for the rel-.

  4. Characterisation of Mediterranean Grape Pomace Seed and Skin Extracts: Polyphenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Ky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Grape pomace seeds and skins from different Mediterranean varieties (Grenache [GRE], Syrah [SYR], Carignan [CAR], Mourvèdre [MOU] and Alicante [ALI] were extracted using water and water/ethanol 70% in order to develop edible extracts (an aqueous extract [EAQ] and a 70% hydro-alcoholic extract [EA70] for potential use in nutraceutical or cosmetic formulations. In this study, global content (total polyphenols, total anthocyanins and total tannins, flavan-3-ols and anthocyanins were assessed using HPLC-UV-Fluo-MSn. In addition, extract potential was evaluated by four different assays: Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Potential assay (FRAP, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC or ABTS assay and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging assay. As expected, seed pomace extracts contained higher amounts of polyphenols then skin pomace extracts. Indeed, seeds from Syrah contained a particularly important amount of total polyphenols and tannins in both type of extract (up to 215.84 ± 1.47 mg of gallic acid equivalent [GAE]/g dry weight (DW and 455.42 ± 1.84 mg/g DW, respectively. These extracts also expressed the highest antioxidant potential with every test. For skins, the maximum total phenolic was found in Alicante EAQ (196.71 ± 0.37 mg GAE/g DW and in Syrah EA70 (224.92 ± 0.18 mg GAE/g DW. Results obtained in this article constitute a useful tool for the pre-selection of grape pomace seed and skin extracts for nutraceutical purposes.

  5. Smashing Tissue Extraction and GC Analysis of Active Fatty Acids from Oil Cake of Perilla Seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yan-ling; LIU Yan-ze; XIAO Han; WEI Ying-feng; ZHAO Yu-qing

    2011-01-01

    Objective To optimize the extraction technology of perilla seeds oil from the oil cake of perilla seeds (OCPS) by using the contents of active fatty acids as evaluation standard. Methods The fatty acids were extracted from OCPS,the residue of perilla seeds after cold-press, by smashing tissue extraction (STE), the new technology selected through comparing with classical leaching extraction (LE), Soxhlet extraction (SE), ultrasonic extraction (UE), and supercritical-CO2 fluid extraction (SFE). For optimized condition of STE, orthogonal test was designed and completed. The contents of five fatty acids in extracted oil and OCPS were determined by GC. Results The optimized extraction parameters were smashing for 1.5 min under extraction power of 150 W and 1:6 of the material/solvent ratio. The contents of five fatty acids in the oils extracted by five techniques from OCPS and determined by GC were as follows:a-linolenic acid (41.12%-51.81%), linoleic acid (15.38%-16.43%), oleic acid (18.93%-27.28010), stearic acid (2.56%-4.01%), and palmitic acid (7.38%-10.77%). Conclusion The results show that STE is the most efficient technology with the highest yield (LE:0.57%; SE:1.03%; UE:0.61%; SFE:0.8(r; STE:1.17%) and shortest time (LE:720 min; SE:360 min; UE:30 min; SFE:120 min; STE:1.5 min) among five tested extraction technologies. It is fast reported using STE to extract herbal oil enriched with active fatty acids.

  6. A comparative study of solvent and supercritical CO2 extraction of Simarouba gluaca seed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Anjaneyulu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2 extraction of oil from Simarouba gluaca seeds was carried out at varying conditions of pressure (300–500 bar, temperature (50–70 °C and CO2 flow rate (10–30 g·min-1. The extraction condition for maximum oil yield was obtained at 500 bar pressure, 70 °C and at 30 g·min-1 flow rate of CO2. The extracted oil was analyzed thoroughly for physico-chemical properties and compared with those of conventional solvent extracted oil. An interesting observation is a significant reduction in the phosphorus content of the oil (8.4 mg·kg-1 extracted using supercritical CO2 compared to the phosphorous content of the solvent extracted oil (97 mg·kg-1. Moreover, the content of total tocopherols in supercritically extracted oil (135.6 mg·kg-1 was found to be higher than the solvent extracted oil (111 mg·kg-1. The rest of the physico-chemical properties of the two differently extracted oils matched well with each other. The results indicated the possible benefits of supercritical CO2 extraction over solvent extraction of Simarouba gluaca seed oil.

  7. Optimization of Subcritical Water Extraction of Resveratrol from Grape Seeds by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajie Tian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The subcritical water extraction (SWE is a high-efficiency and environment-friendly extraction method. The extraction of resveratrol (RES of grape seeds obtained from the wine production process was proposed using subcritical water extraction (SWE. The effects of different extraction process parameters on RES yield were investigated by single factors. Extraction optimization was conducted using response surface methodology (RSM. Extraction temperature was proven to be the most significant factor influencing RES yield. The optimal conditions was as follows: extraction pressure of 1.02 MPa, temperature of 152.32 °C, time of 24.89 min, and a solid/solvent ratio of 1:15 g/mL. Under these optimal conditions, the predicted extraction RES yield was 6.90 μg/g and the recoveries was up to 91.98%. Compared to other previous studies, this method required less pollution and less treatment time to extract RES from grape seeds. From these results, added economic value to this agroindustrial residue is proposed using environmentally friendly extraction techniques.

  8. Neuroprotection of Grape Seed Extract and Pyridoxine against Triton-Induced Neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba M. Abdou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Triton WR-1339 administration causes neurotoxicity. Natural products and herbal extracts can attenuate cerebral injury. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective role of grape seed extract and/or vitamin B6 against triton-induced neurotoxicity. Thirty-five adult male albino rats of the Sprague-Dawley strain, weighing 140–145 g, were divided into five groups: control, triton, grape seed extract + triton, grape seed extract + triton + vitamin B6, and vitamin B6 + triton. The hematological and biochemical analyses were carried out. Alteration in iNOS mRNA gene expression was determined using reverse-transcriptase PCR analysis. In addition, qualitative DNA fragmentation was examined using agarose gel electrophoresis. Triton-treatment caused significant disturbances in the hematological parameters, the neurological functions, and the antioxidant profile. Also, triton significantly increased the iNOS mRNA expression and DNA damage. Our results showed that grape seed extract and/or vitamin B6 could attenuate all the examined parameters. These natural substances could exhibit protective effects against triton-induced neurological damage because of their antioxidative and antiapoptotic capacities.

  9. Antispermatogenic and hormonal effects of Crotalaria juncea Linn.seed extracts in male mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.Vijaykumar; I.Sangamma; A.Sharanabasappa; SaraswatiB.Patil

    2004-01-01

    Aim:To evaluate the antifertility activity of various extracts of Crotalaria juncea seeds in male mice.Methods:Adult male mice were gavaged the petroleum ether,benzene and ethanol extracts of C.juncea seeds,25mg.(100g)-1·day1 for 30 days.On day 31 the animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and the testes,epididymis,vas deferens,seminal vesicles,prostate gland,bulbourethral gland and levator ani were dissected out and weighed.The organs were processed for biochemical and histological examination.Results:In petroleum ether,benzene and ethanol extracts treated rats,there was a decrease in the weights of testis and accessory reproductive organs.The diameters of the testis and seminiferous tubules were decreased.Spermatogonia,spermatocytes and spermatids in the testis and the sperm count in cauda epididymis were also decreased. There was a significant reduction in the protein and glycogen contents and an increase in the cholesterol content in the testis,epididymis and vas deferens.Of the 3 extracts,the ethanol extract appeared to be the most potent in antispermatogenic activity.When the ethanol extract was tested in immature male mice,there was an antiandrogenic effect as the weights of accessory organs were reduced.Conclusion:The various extracts of C.juncea seeds arrest spermatogenesis and are likely to have an antiandrogenic activity.(Asian J Androl 2004 Mar,6:67-70)

  10. Blood Pressure Lowering Effect of Adenanthera pavonina Seed Extract on Normotensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet M. Makinde

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Adenanthera pavonina (AP seed extract on the blood pressure of normotensive rats wasevaluated. Twelve adult male Wistar rats divided into 3 groups of 4 animals each were used and were treatedorally with normal saline (control group, propanolol (positive control, and was given at 1mg/kg and 200mg/kgof AP seed extract over a 4- week period. Condon manometer was used to measure the mean arterial bloodpressure. The mean arterial blood pressure of the normal saline treated animal was 60mmHg, those of propanololtreated animals was 23mmHg while the 200mg/kg extract treated group was 30mmHg. Phytochemical screeningshowed that the extract contained cardiac glycosides, tannins, saponins, alkaloids and flavonoids. Cyanogeneticglycosides and anthraquinones were absent. The sodium level for the 200mg/kg group was significantly lowerthan that of control group. The total bilirubin, total protein and the globulin fraction were significantly higher inthe extract treated groups compared to the control group. Histopathological examination showed that the extractdid not cause any significant lesion changes in the liver, kidney and even the testes. The study showed thatAdenanthera pavonina seed extract have the potential to cause a blood pressure lowering effect. The serumbiochemistry changes may suggest that the extract has a tonic effect on the kidneys and the liver and theseorgans play central role in drug metabolism. Absence of significant lesion in the kidney, liver and testes mayindicate that the plant is safe for medicinal use.

  11. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of selected varieties of thai mango seed extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khammuang, Saranyu; Sarnthima, Rakrudee

    2011-01-01

    This study reports the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of four fresh mango seed extracts from Thai varieties. Total phenol contents determined by the Folin-ciocalteu method revealed the highest values to be in MKE, Chok-a-nan variety (399.8 mgGAE/g extract) and MSE of Nam-dok-mai variety (377.2 mgGAE/g extract). Both extracts showed potent ABTS˙+ radical and DPPH˙ radical scavenging activities with the lower half inhibition concentration (IC50) values than those of the reference compounds; vitamin C, trolox and BHA, respectively. Their antioxidant property of MSE and MKE is strongly correlated with the total phenol contents (r=0.98 and 0.98, respectively). When combined the MSE and MKE of the Fah-lun variety showed the strongest antioxidant activity. All mango seed extracts showed interesting antibacterial activity against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria as determined by disc diffusion method. The most sensitive pathogenic strain inhibited by all extracts (especially Kaew variety) was Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. This work suggests potential applications for practical uses of mango seed extracts from Thai varieties, as sources of antioxidant and antibacterial agents.

  12. Detoxification of Abrus precatorius L. seeds by Ayurvedic Shodhana process and anti-inflammatory potential of the detoxified extract

    OpenAIRE

    Dhoble, Sagar B.; Majumdar, Anuradha S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Abrus precatorius seeds traditionally used for the treatment of sciatica and alopecia contains the toxic protein, abrin, a Type II Ribosome Inactivating Protein. Ayurveda recommends the use of Abrus seeds after the Shodhana process (detoxification). Objective: The current study was aimed at performing the Shodhana process, swedana (boiling) of Abrus precatorius seeds using water as a medium and to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of seed extract post detoxification. Materi...

  13. Pumpkin seed extract: Cell growth inhibition of hyperplastic and cancer cells, independent of steroid hormone receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medjakovic, Svjetlana; Hobiger, Stefanie; Ardjomand-Woelkart, Karin; Bucar, Franz; Jungbauer, Alois

    2016-04-01

    Pumpkin seeds have been known in folk medicine as remedy for kidney, bladder and prostate disorders since centuries. Nevertheless, pumpkin research provides insufficient data to back up traditional beliefs of ethnomedical practice. The bioactivity of a hydro-ethanolic extract of pumpkin seeds from the Styrian pumpkin, Cucurbita pepo L. subsp. pepo var. styriaca, was investigated. As pumpkin seed extracts are standardized to cucurbitin, this compound was also tested. Transactivational activity was evaluated for human androgen receptor, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor with in vitro yeast assays. Cell viability tests with prostate cancer cells, breast cancer cells, colorectal adenocarcinoma cells and a hyperplastic cell line from benign prostate hyperplasia tissue were performed. As model for non-hyperplastic cells, effects on cell viability were tested with a human dermal fibroblast cell line (HDF-5). No transactivational activity was found for human androgen receptor, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor, for both, extract and cucurbitin. A cell growth inhibition of ~40-50% was observed for all cell lines, with the exception of HDF-5, which showed with ~20% much lower cell growth inhibition. Given the receptor status of some cell lines, a steroid-hormone receptor independent growth inhibiting effect can be assumed. The cell growth inhibition for fast growing cells together with the cell growth inhibition of prostate-, breast- and colon cancer cells corroborates the ethnomedical use of pumpkin seeds for a treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia. Moreover, due to the lack of androgenic activity, pumpkin seed applications can be regarded as safe for the prostate.

  14. ANTIPROLIFERATIVE EFFECT ON BREAST CANCER (MCF7) OF MORINGA OLEIFERA SEED EXTRACTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo, Ismail Abiola; Arsad, Hasni; Samian, Mohd Razip

    2017-01-01

    Moringa oleifera belongs to plant family, Moringaceae and popularly called "wonderful tree", for it is used traditionally to cure many diseases including cancer in Africa and Asia, however, there is limited knowledge on cytotoxic activity of Moringa oleifera seeds on MCF7 breast cancer cell. The present study evaluated antiproliferative effect on MCF7 of the seed. Seeds of Moringa oleifera were grinded to powder and its phytochemicals were extracted using water and 80% ethanol solvents, part of the ethanolic extract were sequentially partitioned to fractions with four solvents (hexane, dichloromethane, chloroform, and n-butanol). Antiproliferative effects on MCF7 of the samples were determined. Finally, potent samples that significantly inhibited MCF7 growth were tested on MCF 10A. Crude water extract, hexane and dichloromethane fractions of the seeds inhibited the proliferation of MCF7 with the following IC50 values 280 μg/ml, 130 μg/ml and 26 μg/ml respectively, however, of the 3 samples, only hexane fraction had minimal cytotoxic effect on MCF 10A (IC50 > 400μg/ml). Moringa oleifera seed has antiproliferative effect on MCF7.

  15. Anticholinesterase and Antioxidative Properties of Aqueous Extract of Cola acuminata Seed In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganiyu Oboh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cola acuminata seed, a commonly used stimulant in Nigeria, has been reportedly used for the management of neurodegenerative diseases in folklore without scientific basis. This study sought to investigate the anticholinesterase and antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts from C. acuminata seed in vitro. Methodology. The aqueous extract of C. acuminata seed was prepared (w/v and its effect on acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase activities, as well as some prooxidant (FeSO4, sodium nitroprusside (SNP, and quinolinic acid (QA induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain in vitro, was investigated. Results. The results revealed that C. acuminata seed extract inhibited AChE (IC50 = 14.6 μg/mL and BChE (IC50 = 96.2 μg/mL activities in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, incubation of rat’s brain homogenates with some prooxidants caused a significant increase P<0.05 in the brain malondialdehyde (MDA content and inhibited MDA production dose-dependently and also exhibited further antioxidant properties as typified by their high radicals scavenging and Fe2+ chelating abilities. Conclusion. Inhibition of AChE and BChE activities has been the primary treatment method for mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Therefore, one possible mechanism through which the seed exerts its neuroprotective properties is by inhibiting cholinesterase activities as well as preventing oxidative-stress-induced neurodegeneration. However, this is a preliminary study with possible physiological implications.

  16. Effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Pimpinella anisum L. seeds on milk production in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Tafaghodi, Mohsen; Abedzadeh, Shirin; Taghiabadi, Elahe

    2014-08-01

    Pimpinella anisum L. (P. anisum) is used as a galactagogue in traditional medicine; hence, the effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of P. anisum seeds on milk production in rats was evaluated. The milk production was assessed by measuring the pups' weights during the suckling period. The intraperitoneal LD(50) values of P. anisum aqueous and ethanolic extracts were 4.93 and 3.77 g/kg, respectively. The aqueous (1 g/kg) and ethanolic extracts (1 g/kg) increased the milk production significantly (p anisum aqueous and ethanolic extracts can increase milk production in rats.

  17. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial Properties and Phenolics of Different Solvent Extracts from Bark, Leaves and Seeds of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre

    OpenAIRE

    Alkharfy, Khalid M; Anwarul-Hassan Gilani; Ghulam Rasul; Ghulam Shabir; Farooq Anwar; Zahid Iqbal Sajid

    2012-01-01

    This study appraises the antioxidant and antimicrobial attributes of various solvent extracts (absolute methanol, aqueous methanol, absolute ethanol, aqueous ethanol, absolute acetone, aqueous acetone, and deionized water) from bark, leaves and seeds of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre. Maximum extraction yield of antioxidant components from bark (16.31%), leaves (11.42%) and seeds (21.51%) of P. pinnata was obtained using aqueous methanol (20:80). Of the extracts tested, the bark extract, obtain...

  18. Statistical Analysis of Automatic Seed Word Acquisition to Improve Harmful Expression Extraction in Cyberbullying Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuha Hatakeyama

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We study the social problem of cyberbullying, defined as a new form of bullying that takes place in the Internet space. This paper proposes a method for automatic acquisition of seed words to improve performance of the original method for the cyberbullying detection by Nitta et al. [1]. We conduct an experiment exactly in the same settings to find out that the method based on a Web mining technique, lost over 30% points of its performance since being proposed in 2013. Thus, we hypothesize on the reasons for the decrease in the performance and propose a number of improvements, from which we experimentally choose the best one. Furthermore, we collect several seed word sets using different approaches, evaluate and their precision. We found out that the influential factor in extraction of harmful expressions is not the number of seed words, but the way the seed words were collected and filtered.

  19. Polyphenol composition and antioxidant activity of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seed extract under drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebey, Iness Bettaieb; Zakhama, Nesrine; Karoui, Iness Jabri; Marzouk, Brahim

    2012-06-01

    This research evaluated the effect of drought on total and individual polyphenol contents as well as the antioxidant activities of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seeds of 2 geographic origins, Tunisia (TCS) and India (ICS). Plants were treated with different levels of water deficit: control. Our results indicated that, in both varieties, moderate water deficit (MWD) improved the number of umbels per plant as well as the number of umbellets per umbel and the seed yield, in comparison to the control, but it decreased under severe water deficit (SWD). Besides, total phenolic contents were higher in the treated seeds and drought increased the level of total and individual polyphenols. This increase was appreciably more important in TCS than in ICS. Moreover, antioxidant activities of the extracts were determined by 4 different test systems, namely 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, β-carotene/linoleic acid chelating, and reducing power assays, and showed that treated seeds exhibited the highest activity, for both TCS and ICS.

  20. Dyes extracted from Trigonella seeds as photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batniji, Amal; Abdel-Latif, Monzir S.; El-Agez, Taher M.; Taya, Sofyan A.; Ghamri, Hatem

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the extract of Trigonella seeds was used as sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The natural dye was extracted from the seeds using water and alcohol as solvents for the raw material. The UV-Vis absorption spectra of Trigonella extract solution and dye adsorbed on TiO2 film were measured. DSSCs sensitized by Trigonella extracted using water as a solvent exhibited better performance with efficiency of 0.215 %. The performance of the fabricated DSSCs was attempted to enhance by acid treatment of the FTO substrates with HNO3, H3PO4, and H2SO4. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of the fabricated cells was also carried out.

  1. Dyes extracted from Trigonella seeds as photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batniji, Amal; Abdel-Latif, Monzir S.; El-Agez, Taher M.; Taya, Sofyan A.; Ghamri, Hatem

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, the extract of Trigonella seeds was used as sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The natural dye was extracted from the seeds using water and alcohol as solvents for the raw material. The UV-Vis absorption spectra of Trigonella extract solution and dye adsorbed on TiO2 film were measured. DSSCs sensitized by Trigonella extracted using water as a solvent exhibited better performance with efficiency of 0.215 %. The performance of the fabricated DSSCs was attempted to enhance by acid treatment of the FTO substrates with HNO3, H3PO4, and H2SO4. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of the fabricated cells was also carried out.

  2. Allelopathic effects of the aqueous extract of the leaf and seed of Leucaena leucocephala on three selected weed species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Muhamad Safwan; Sahid, Ismail

    2014-09-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to study the allelopathic effects of the aqueous extract of the leaf and seed of Leucaena leucocephala. The aqueous extracts were individually tested on three selected weed species, namely goatweed (Ageratum conyzoides), coat buttons (Tridax procumbens) and lilac tasselflower (Emilia sonchifolia). The allelopathic effects of the leaf and seed extracts on germination, shoot length, root length and fresh weight of each of the selected weed species were determined. Germination of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower were inhibited by the aqueous extracts of both the leaf and seed of L. leucocephala and was concentration dependent. Different concentrations of the aqueous extracts showed various germination patterns on the selected weeds species. Seedling length and fresh weight of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower were reduced in response to respective increasing concentrations of the seed extracts. Maximum inhibition by the aqueous seed extract was observed more on the root rather than the shoot growth. The aqueous seed extract at T3 concentration reduced root length of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower by 95%, 86% and 91% (of the control) respectively. The aqueous seed extract showed greater inhibitory effects than that of the aqueous leaf extract.

  3. In vitro study of antiamoebic effect of methanol extract of mature seeds of Carica papaya on trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit Kumar Sarker

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Antiamoebic activity of methanol extract of mature seeds of Carica papaya was tested in vitro on axenic culture of Entamoeba histolytica using metronidazole as a reference amoebicidal agent. The MIC of seed extract was > 62.5 µg/mL as compared to < 0.8 µg/mL for metronidazole. The present study suggests that the mature seeds of C. papaya have antiamoebic effect but less pronounced than metronidazole.

  4. EXTRACTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF FATTY ACIDS IN CARNAÚBA SEED OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WELLINSON GADÊLHA GUIMARÃES

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the composition of fatty acids in oil extracted from seeds of carnaúba ( Copernicia prunifera (Miller H. E. Moore, an important palm species native to Northeastern Brazil. After extracting the crude oil, the physico - chemical characteristics (density, refraction index, pH, acidity and saponi- fication index were registered and the chemical composition of the fatty acids was determined by gas chroma- tography (GC - FID. The predominance of saturated fatty acids does not make carnaúba seed oil a promising alternative for the food industry, and the small yield obtained (approx. 5% may constitute a limiting factor for commercial exploitation, but carnauba seed oil could potentially be used in the production of biofuels, cosmet- ics and detergents.

  5. Ecotoxicology evaluation of watery extracts of plants on seeds of radish, lettuce and tomato

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The effect of watery extracts of Nicotiana acuminata, Piper aduncum L. and Crotalaria juncea was evaluated on the germination and the elongación of the roots of seeds of Raphanus sativus (radish), Lactuca sativa L (lettuce) and Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato). The extracts were produced at medium scale in the laboratory of formulation of the Faculty of Química- Pharmacy of the “Universidad Central Marta Abreu de las Villas” . It was demonstrated upon concluding the work that the ...

  6. Cold Pressing and Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Hemp (Cannabis sativa) Seed Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Aladić, K.; S. Jokić; Moslavac, T.; Tomas, S.; S Vidović; Vladić, J.; Šubarić, D.

    2015-01-01

    In the past few decades, the Cannabis sativa L. hemp variety has been unfairly neglected because of its similarity to the illegal kind Cannabis indica used as a narcotic. The objective of this study was to evaluate the process of oil extraction from Cannabis sativa seeds by cold pressing, followed by extraction with supercritical CO2. In the pressing experiments, the response surface methodology was conducted in order to study the effects of temperature, frequency, and nozzle size on oil reco...

  7. EXTRACTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF FATTY ACIDS IN CARNAÚBA SEED OIL

    OpenAIRE

    WELLINSON GADÊLHA GUIMARÃES; JOSÉ FERNANDO MOURÃO CAVALCANTE; ZILVANIR FERNANDES DE QUEIROZ; RONDINELLE RIBEIRO CASTRO; RONALDO FERREIRA DO NASCIMENTO

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the composition of fatty acids in oil extracted from seeds of carnaúba ( Copernicia prunifera (Miller) H. E. Moore), an important palm species native to Northeastern Brazil. After extracting the crude oil, the physico - chemical characteristics (density, refraction index, pH, acidity and saponi- fication index) were registered and the chemical composition of the fatty acids was determined by gas chroma- tography (GC - FID). The predominance of saturated fatty acids does n...

  8. Cold Pressing and Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Hemp (Cannabis sativa) Seed Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Aladić, K.; S. Jokić; Moslavac, T.; Tomas, S.; S Vidović; Vladić, J.; Šubarić, D.

    2015-01-01

    In the past few decades, the Cannabis sativa L. hemp variety has been unfairly neglected because of its similarity to the illegal kind Cannabis indica used as a narcotic. The objective of this study was to evaluate the process of oil extraction from Cannabis sativa seeds by cold pressing, followed by extraction with supercritical CO2. In the pressing experiments, the response surface methodology was conducted in order to study the effects of temperature, frequency, and nozzle size on oil reco...

  9. THE EFFECT OF PARSLEY LEAVES AND SEED EXTRACTS ON BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVELS IN RABBITS

    OpenAIRE

    Ö.ÖZSOY, R. YANARDAĞ

    2015-01-01

    Parsley (petroselinum crispum) is one of the plants used in Turkey and World folkmedicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. In this study, oral administration of parsley leaves and seed aqueous extracts (2g/kg) and methanolic extracts (200mgkg and 400mg/kg), to normal rabbits produced significant hypoglycemic activity, which was consistent and time-dependent.Key words: Parsley, Petroselinum crispum, Diabetes mellitus, Antidiabeticeffect.

  10. Sida rhombifolia ssp. retusa seed extract inhibits DEN induced murine hepatic preneoplasia and carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poojari, Radhika; Gupta, Sanjay; Maru, Girish; Khade, Bharat; Bhagwat, Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    Sida rhombifolia ssp. retusa is a well established drug in the Ayurvedic system of medicine used for antirheumatism and antiasthmatism. Inhibitory effects of S. rhombifolia ssp. retusa seed extract on DEN induced hepatocellular preneoplastic foci and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotoxicity was investigated in rats. Rats received DEN, 1ppm/g b.w. in drinking water for 6 weeks or CCl(4), 0.7 ml/kg i.p. once a week for 4 weeks and seed extract 50 mg, 100 mg/kg b.w. orally prior, during and after exposure to DEN/CCl4 for 20 or 5 weeks, respectively. Treatment with seed extract significantly inhibited the increase in DEN/CCl(4) induced activities of pre-cancerous marker enzymes; gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, glutathione-S-transferase, hepatotoxicity marker enzymes; glutamate pyruvate transaminase, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase as well as lipid peroxidase. Depleted glutathione, protein and albumin levels were restored. Also, histopathological and transmission electron microscopic studies showed prevention of cellular degenerative changes. The chemopreventive and hepatoprotective potentials of seed extract are due to free radical scavenging activity and restoration of cellular structural integrity.

  11. Improving Jatropha curcas seed protein recovery by using counter current multistage extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lestari, D.; Mulder, W.J.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Jatropha curcas seed press cake contains 23 wt% proteins (dry basis). Due to the toxic compounds in Jatropha, we will use the proteins for non-food applications. Related to non-food applications, an efficient protein extraction to obtain a high protein recovery and high protein concentration with go

  12. Red grape seed extract and its compound resveratrol exert cytotoxic effect to various human cancer lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, Fahri; Avcı, Çığır Biray; Avcu, Ferit; Ural, Ali Uğur; Sarper, Meral; Hışıl, Yaşar; Omay, Serdar Bedii; Saydam, Güray

    2007-09-05

    Modern medicinal agents currently available for treatment of cancers are very expensive, toxic, and less effective in treating some of the disease. Thus, one must investigate further in detail the agents derived from natural sources, such as grape seed, for the prevention and treatment of cancer and disease. In recent years interest of researchers has focused on grape seed and nowadays scientists have used extracts of grape seed to treat different health problems including cancer. We examined the cytotoxic effect of red grape seed extract (GSE) and its main compound resveratrol (RES) on different human cancer cell lines representing various solid tumors and hematological malignancies at the same time. Red GSE was prepared by using 1, 1, 1, 2- Tetrafluoroethane extraction method. Cytotoxicity of the extract and RES was evaluated by using trypan blue dye exclusion method and MTT assay. The results of our study show that GSE and RES have cytotoxic activities in varying degree in several cancer cell lines. There has not been any study evaluating the GES and RES in the same cell lines and in the same conditions. But, it is still needed to have more pre-clinical and laboratory studies to validate the usefulness of these agents either alone or in combination with existing therapy.

  13. Antioxidative activities and phenolic compounds of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seeds and amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus) grain extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiretti, Pier Giorgio; Meineri, Giorgia; Gai, Francesco; Longato, Erica; Amarowicz, Ryszard

    2017-01-23

    Phenolic compounds were extracted from pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seed and amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus) grain into 80% (v/v) methanol. The extracts obtained were characterised by the contents of total phenolic compounds (TPC), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and antiradical activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(·)) radical. The content of individual phenolic compounds was determined by HPLC-DAD method. Pumpkin seeds showed the higher content of TPC than that from amaranth. The TEAC values of both extracts were similar each other. The lower value of FRAP was observed for pumpkin seed. Phenolic compound present in amaranth grain exhibited strongest antiradical properties against DPPH radical. Several peaks were present on the HPLC chromatograms of two extracts. The UV-DAD spectra confirmed the presence of vanillic acid derivatives in the amaranth grain. The three main phenolic compound present in pumpkin seed were characterised by UV-DAD spectra with maximum at 258, 266 and 278 nm.

  14. Umami taste amino acids produced by hydrolyzing extracted protein from tomato seed meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzymatic hydrolysis was performed for extracting protein to prepare umami taste amino acids from defatted tomato seed meal (DTSM) which is a by-product of tomato processing. Papain was used as an enzyme for the hydrolysis of DTSM. The particle size distribution of DTSM, protein concentration and fr...

  15. Stepwise extraction of Lepidium sativum seed gum: Physicochemical characterization and functional properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razmkhah, Somayeh; Razavi, Seyed Mohammad Ali; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin;

    2016-01-01

    Cress seed gum (CSG) was fractionated using stepwise extraction with water, yielding three fractions (F1, F2, F3) whose average molecular weights ranged from 863 to 1080 kDa. The chemical composition (monosaccharide, ash, moisture, CHN and uronic acid contents) and molecular weight of the fractio...

  16. Development of a fescue toxicosis model using a fescue seed extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to examine the efficacy of a fescue seed extract for inducing fescue toxicosis in cattle. Four growing Holstein steers (BW = 309±36kg) surgically fitted with ruminal cannulas were utilized in a four phase crossover design experiment. The basal diet consisted of endophyte fr...

  17. A new seeded region growing technique for retinal blood vessels extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajadi, Atefeh Sadat; Sabzpoushan, Seyed Hojat

    2014-07-01

    Distribution of retinal blood vessels (RBVs) in retinal images has an important role in the prevention, diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of diseases, such as diabetes, high blood pressure, or heart disease. Therefore, detection of the exact location of RBVs is very important for Ophthalmologists. One of the frequently used techniques for extraction of these vessels is region growing-based Segmentation. In this paper, we propose a new region growing (RG) technique for RBVs extraction, called cellular automata-based segmentation. RG techniques often require manually seed point selection, that is, human intervention. However, due to the complex structure of vessels in retinal images, manual tracking of them is very difficult. Therefore, to make our proposed technique full automatic, we use an automatic seed point selection method. The proposed RG technique was tested on Digital Retinal Images for Vessel Extraction database for three different initial seed sets and evaluated against the manual segmentation of retinal images available at this database. Three quantitative criteria including accuracy, true positive rate and false positive rate, were considered to evaluate this method. The visual scrutiny of the segmentation results and the quantitative criteria show that, using cellular automata for extracting the blood vessels is promising. However, the important point at here is that the correct initial seeds have an effective role on the final results of segmentation.

  18. Grape seed extract prevents gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity and genotoxicity in bone marrow cells of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ashmawy, Ibrahim M; El-Nahas, Abeer F; Salama, Osama M

    2006-09-01

    The protection conferred by grape seed extract against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity and bone marrow chromosomal aberrations have been evaluated in adult Swiss albino mice. The activity of reduced glutathione peroxidase (GSH peroxidase), the levels of glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation as malondialdehyde (MDA) in the kidneys homogenates, serum urea and creatinine were measured, and in addition the changes in kidney histology and bone marrow chromosomes were investigated. Gentamicin (80 mg/kg b.wt. intraperitoneally for 2 weeks) induced kidney damage as indicated from a pronounced changes in kidney histology, a significant increase in serum urea and creatinine and MDA content in the kidney homogenate. While the activity of the antioxidant enzyme GSH peroxidase and the level of GSH were significantly decreased. Gentamicin induced genotoxicity indicated by increased the number of aberrant cells and different types of structural chromosomal aberrations (fragment, deletion and ring chromosome) and showed no effect on mitotic activity of the cell. Pretreatment with grape seed extract (7 days) and simultaneously (14 days) with gentamicin significantly protected the kidney tissue by ameliorating its antioxidant activity. Moreover, grape seed extract significantly protected bone marrow chromosomes from gentamicin induced genotoxicity by reducing the total number of aberrant cells, and different types of structural chromosomal aberrations. It could be concluded that grape seed extract acts as a potent antioxidant prevented kidney damage and genotoxicity of bone marrow cells.

  19. Responsive Surface Methodology Optimizes Extraction Conditions of Industrial by-products, Camellia japonica Seed Cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Kyeom; Lim, Ho-Jeong; Kim, Mi-So; Choi, Soo Jung; Kim, Mi-Jeong; Kim, Cho Rong; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Shin, Eui-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Background: The central nervous system is easily damaged by oxidative stress due to high oxygen consumption and poor defensive capacity. Hence, multiple studies have demonstrated that inhibiting oxidative stress-induced damage, through an antioxidant-rich diet, might be a reasonable approach to prevent neurodegenerative disease. Objective: In the present study, response surface methodology was utilized to optimize the extraction for neuro-protective constituents of Camellia japonica byproducts. Materials and Methods: Rat pheochromocytoma cells were used to evaluate protective potential of Camellia japonica byproducts. Results: Optimum conditions were 33.84 min, 75.24%, and 75.82°C for time, ethanol concentration and temperature. Further, we demonstrated that major organic acid contents were significantly impacted by the extraction conditions, which may explain varying magnitude of protective potential between fractions. Conclusions: Given the paucity of information in regards to defatted C. japonica seed cake and their health promoting potential, our results herein provide interesting preliminary data for utilization of this byproduct from oil processing in both academic and industrial applications. SUMMARY Neuro-protective potential of C. japonica seed cake on cell viability was affected by extraction conditionsExtraction conditions effectively influenced on active constituents of C. japonica seed cakeBiological activity of C. japonica seed cake was optimized by the responsive surface methodology. Abbreviations used: GC-MS: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer, MTT: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, PC12 cells: Pheochromocytoma, RSM: Response surface methodology. PMID:27601847

  20. Extraction and characterization of seed oil from naturally-grown Chinese tallow trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao-Qin Yang; Hui Pan; Tao Zeng; Todd F. Shupe; Chung-Yun Hse

    2013-01-01

    Seeds were collected from locally and naturally grown Chinese tallow trees (CTT) and characterized for general physical and chemical properties and fatty acid composition of the lipids. The effects of four different solvents (petroleum ether, hexane, diethyl ether, and 95 % ethanol) and two extraction methods (supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) and conventional...

  1. A comparative study of solvent and supercritical CO2 extraction of Simarouba gluaca seed oil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    B. Anjaneyulu; S. Satyannarayana; Sanjit Kanjilal; V. Siddaiah; K. N. Prasanna Rani

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, the supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) extraction of oil from Simarouba gluaca seeds was carried out at varying conditions of pressure (300–500 bar), temperature (50–70 °C) and CO2 flow rate (10–30 g·min-1...

  2. Isolation and characterization of coagulant extracted from Moringa oleifera seed by salt solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, T; Baes, A U; Nishijima, W; Okada, M

    2001-02-01

    It is known that M. oleifera contains a natural coagulant in the seeds. In our previous research, the method using salt water to extract the active coagulation component from M. oleifera seeds was developed and compared with the conventional method using water. In this research, the active coagulation component was purified from a NaCl solution crude extract of Moringa oleifera seeds. The active component was isolated and purified from the crude extract through a sequence of steps that included salting-out by dialysis, removal of lipids and carbohydrates by homogenization with acetone, and anion exchange. Specific coagulation activity of the active material increased up to 34 times more than the crude extract after the ion exchange. The active component was not the same as that of water extract. The molecular weight was about 3000 Da. The Lowry method and the phenol-sulfuric acid method indicated that the active component was neither protein nor polysaccharide. The optimum pH of the purified active component for coagulation of turbidity was pH 8 and above. Different from the conventional water extracts, the active component can be used for waters with low turbidity without increase in the dissolved organic carbon concentration.

  3. Antiulcer activity of methanolic extract and fractions of Picralima nitida seeds(Apocynacaea) in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Okonta Jegbefume Mathew; Adibe Maxwell Ogochukwu; Ubaka Chukwuemeka Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigated the antisecrectory activities of the methanol extract, chloroform fraction and methanol fraction of Picralima nitida seeds. Methods: The methanol extract of Picralima nitida seeds was fractionated into chloroform fraction and methanol fraction. They were evaluated for antiulcer activity and gastric emptying time in rats using aspirin-pylorus-ligation model. Results: Oral administration of the methanol extract, chloroform fraction and methanol fraction at 1 000 mg/kg reduced gastric ulcer by 56.4%, 40.0% and 56.3%, respectively; and the fractions of the extract significantly (P<0.05) reduced gastric emptying time when compared to the control. Gastric acidity was significantly decreased when compared with saline group, 40.25 mEq/L in methanol extract, 50.0 mEq/L in chloroform fraction 51.25 mEq/L in methanol fration but had no significant effect on the gastric secretion volume. Conclusions: These findings showed that methanol extract, chloroform fraction and methanol fraction of the seeds of Picralima possessed potent antiulcer properties and some antisecretory properties.

  4. Comparison of Enzymatic and Ultrasonic Extraction of Albumin from Defatted Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo)
Seed Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Gia Loi; Bui, Thi Hoang Nga; Tran, Thi Thu Tra; Ton, Nu Minh Nguyet; Man Le, Van Viet

    2015-12-01

    In this study, ultrasound- and enzyme-assisted extractions of albumin (water-soluble protein group) from defatted pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seed powder were compared. Both advanced extraction techniques strongly increased the albumin yield in comparison with conventional extraction. The extraction rate was two times faster in the ultrasonic extraction than in the enzymatic extraction. However, the maximum albumin yield was 16% higher when using enzymatic extraction. Functional properties of the pumpkin seed albumin concentrates obtained using the enzymatic, ultrasonic and conventional methods were then evaluated. Use of hydrolase for degradation of cell wall of the plant material did not change the functional properties of the albumin concentrate in comparison with the conventional extraction. The ultrasonic extraction enhanced water-holding, oil-holding and emulsifying capacities of the pumpkin seed albumin concentrate, but slightly reduced the foaming capacity, and emulsion and foam stability.

  5. Antioxidant, antihemolytic and nephroprotective activity of aqueous extract of Diospyros lotus seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Akbar Hajizadeh; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Bigdellou, Rata; Mohammadzadeh, Sakineh; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Ali

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to quantitatively evaluate the antioxidant, antihemolytic and nephroprotective effects of Diospyros lotus seeds extract in experimental in vitro and in vivo models. Antioxidant potential of Diospvyos lotus seeds extract was examined by employing seven in vito models i.e., DPPH, nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide radicals scavenging activity, iron ion chelating, reducing power and lipid peroxidation through linoleic acid. Antihemolytic activity of extract was examined against hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocytes hemolysis. Also, nephroprotective effect of extract against gentamicin (GM)-induced renal injury was evaluated. Renal injury was achieved by injecting 100 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.) of GM in normal saline. Extracts were administrated i.p. in doses 200 and 400 mg/kg. Blood samples were examined for serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen after 10 consecutive days of treatment. Results show that extract showed different level of antioxidant and antihemolytic activity in the studied models. Also, results show that GM-induced nephrotoxic animal model was successfully constructed. Extract attenuated the gentamicin-induced increase in level of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. The present study shows that the extract offered significant biological action compared with standard compound.

  6. Extraction, Characterization and Modification of Castor Seed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. MOHAMMED

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper carried out experimental study, through extraction and characterization of both crude and refined castor oil. Normal hexane was used as solvent for the extraction process. The oil produced was refined through degumming, neutralization and bleaching process using local adsorbent (activated clay. The characterization analysis revealed that tested parameters, which include specific gravity, refractive index, acid value, saponification value and iodine value for both crude and refined castor oil produced, were within the ASTM standard specifications. In fact the iodine value obtained (84.8 for the refined oil indicates that the oil could certainly be used as lubricant, hydraulic break fluid and protecting coatings. The oil was modified via sulphation method to produce Turkey – red oil that was tested on wooden material, paper and cloth. The test revealed that the Turkey – red oil produced is suitable to be used as a good dying agent and polish.

  7. Effects of chloroformic extracts from washed and unwashed papaya seeds (Carica papaya) on the sperm concentration of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Pacheco, A; Jiménez-Coello, M; Gutiérrez-Blanco, E; Acosta-Viana, K Y; Guzmán-Marín, E; Zavala-Sánchez, M A; Montalvo-Beltrán, N E; Pérez-Gutiérrez, M S

    2010-12-01

    Papaya seeds (Carica papaya Linn) have been found to have a significant effect on sperm characteristics in some mammals, including humans, but no studies have investigated the effects on dogs. In the present study, a significant decrease in sperm concentration was observed in a group of dogs treated with extracts from washed papaya seeds, but no decrease was observed in the group of dogs treated with non-washed seeds. An important effect of extract components from washed seeds such as fatty acids is probably involved in the reduction of sperm production because of Sertoli cell damage, as has been suggested for langur monkeys. Dilution of the active components in the non-washed papaya seeds or interference with some of the components may reduce the expected effect on spermatogenesis. This first report on the effects of a chloroformic extract of papaya seeds in dogs suggests that an increased dose is necessary to achieve azoospermia.

  8. Experimental antithrombotic effects of sesame seed whole grains and extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinugasa, Chifumi; Naemura, Aki; Hyodo, Kanae; Nakai, Yoshiki; Katsuta, Masumi; Yamamoto, Junichiro

    2011-09-01

    Prevention of arterial thrombotic diseases has a high priority in developed countries. An inappropriate diet is known to enhance the risks for acute thrombotic events, and nutritional products experimentally shown to be antithrombotic, might contribute beneficial effects. The present study forms part of a series of investigations into the antithrombotic effect of various foods and vegetables. Roasted and crushed whole grains from six varieties of sesame seeds were added to the diet of mice. Antithrombotic activity was measured in the carotid artery in vivo, using a He-Ne laser-induced thrombosis technique after 12 weeks. Col/Chichibu/Maruteru-2/1995 and T016 varieties showed significant antithrombotic activity, whilst 00037803 was prothrombotic. The acute effects of purified ingredients, sesamin, sesamolin and sesamol, given orally or intra-arterially, were also examined after a single dose. The most effective ingredient was sesamol, followed by sesamolin and sesamin. Daily intake of specific antithrombotic sesame whole grains or purified active ingredients might help to prevent atherothrombotic diseases.

  9. Phytochemical screening and toxicity studies on the methanol extract of the seeds of moringa oleifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajibade, Temitayo Olabisi; Arowolo, Ruben; Olayemi, Funsho Olakitike

    2013-05-07

    The seeds of Moringa oleifera were collected, air-dried, pulverized, and subjected to cold extraction with methanol. The methanol extract was screened phytochemically for its chemical components and used for acute and sub-acute toxicity studies in rats. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, terpenes, alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, and cardiac glycosides but the absence of anthraquinones. Although signs of acute toxicity were observed at a dose of 4,000 mg kg-1 in the acute toxicity test, and mortality was recorded at 5,000 mg kg-1, no adverse effect was observed at concentrations lower than 3,000 mg kg-1. The median lethal dose of the extract in rat was 3,873 mg kg-1. Sub-acute administration of the seed extract caused significant (p<0.05) increase in the levels of alanine and aspartate transferases (ALT and AST), and significant (p<0.05) decrease in weight of experimental rats, at 1,600 mg kg-1. The study concludes that the extract of seeds of M. oleifera is safe both for medicinal and nutritional uses.

  10. Extraction of natural coagulant from peanut seeds for treatment of turbid water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birima, A. H.; Hammad, H. A.; Desa, M. N. M.; Muda, Z. C.

    2013-06-01

    This study investigates the potential of peanut seeds as an environmental friendly and natural coagulant for the treatment of high turbid water. The peanut seeds have been used after oil extraction; and the active coagulation component was extracted by distilled water and salt solution of different salt concentrations. The salts used were NaCl, KNO3, KCl, NH4Cl and NaNO3. Synthetic water with 200 NTU turbidity was used. Peanut extracted with NaCl (PC-NaCl) could effectively remove 92% of the 200 NTU turbidity using only 20 mg/l, while peanut seeds extracted with distilled water (PC-DW) could remove only 31.5% of the same turbidity with the same dosage. The coagulant dosage did not affected by the concentration of the salt solution, however, residual turbidity decreased with increasing the concentration of the salt; and the relationship was found to be a second order polynomial curve with R2 of 0.9312. The other salts tested were also found to be good solvents to extract the active coagulation component with no much difference from NaCl solution in terms of efficiency.

  11. An enzymatic extraction of proanthocyanidins from País grape seeds and skins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Katherina; Vega, Marco; Aspé, Estrella

    2015-02-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) from the skins and seeds of País grapes were obtained by enzymatic extraction by using three enzymes (pectinase, cellulase and tannase) and an enzymatic blend to increase the phenol concentrations and reduce the PA molecular size. The total phenol concentrations (as indicated by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent), mean degree of polymerisation (mDP), galloylation percentage (%G) and structural proportion (phloroglucinolysis) were analysed, in addition to the extract's capacity to inhibit angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) activity. On grape skins, pectinase had the greatest effective on the release of total phenols, to 0.01g/ml solid/liquid (S/L) and 1% enzyme/substrate (E/S). On grape seed, the three enzymes were effective in increasing the phenolic extraction (penzymes on the mDP and %G of the extracts were related to their enzymatic activity. All the extracts inhibited ACE, but ACE inhibition was thought to be improved by the increased number of terminal units in the seed samples.

  12. Chemical composition of Nigella sativa L. seed extracts obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiruppur Venkatachallam, Suresh Kumar; Pattekhan, Hajimalang; Divakar, Soundar; Kadimi, Udaya Sankar

    2010-12-01

    Chemical composition of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) seed extracts obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide at two different conditions that result in total extract (28 MPa/50°C, SFE 1) and major volatile part (12 MPa/40°C, SFE 2) and essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of SFE-1 (HD SFE). SFE have been carried out to characterize the compounds and the variation of quinones and phenolics. The extracts were analysed by GC and GC-MS and the presence of phenolic compounds was further confirmed by 2D HSQCT (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. Forty-seven volatile compounds were detected where sixteen compounds were reported for the first time in the oil of this seed. Moreover, thymoquinone (TQ), dithymoquinone (DTQ), thymohydroquinone (THQ) and thymol (THY) were the major phenolic compounds. It can be concluded that the chemical composition of extracts obtained by SC CO2 extraction of the seeds showed better recovery of phenolic compounds than HD SFE and proved the occurrence of thermally labile or photosensitive bioactive volatiles of four major quinonic phenol compounds.

  13. New efficient DNA extraction method to access the microbiome of Ricinus communis seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, C D; Dias, A C C; Amaral, I M R; Bonetti, A M; Campos, T A

    2013-02-28

    Ricinus communis (castor bean) seeds are used to produce an alcohol-soluble oil that is used in more than 400 industrial processes. Despite its economic importance, there has been little research on the endophytic microbiota of castor bean seeds. This microbiota is important for plant metabolic processes and may have considerable biotechnological potential, such as production of lipases and plant growth promoter agents. We evaluated several DNA extraction methodologies in order to access the microbial diversity of castor bean through a metagenomic approach. Based on our observations, we developed a new methodology that takes advantage of the low solubility of calcium phosphates and the high affinity of these phosphates for proteins and polysaccharides. The extracted DNA quality was evaluated by PCR, using a selective primer pair for bacterial and mitochondrial 16S rDNA genes (799F and 1492R). We found this methodology quantitatively and qualitatively more efficient than the other approaches. In evaluating this new extraction methodology, we found that the difficulties of DNA extraction from castor bean seeds, such as abundant oil, polysaccharides, phenolic compounds, and plant enzymes, could be overcome. The resulting extracts had high concentration and purity, and they were obtained faster than with previous methods. The samples contained virtually all of the DNA, including the microbial DNA; this was validated by PCR analysis.

  14. Total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four pomegranate cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiye Gözlekçi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four Turkish pomegranate, Punica granatum L., cultivars ("Lefan," "Katirbasi," "Cekirdeksiz-IV," and "Asinar" was investigated. Total phenolic compounds were determined with the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method. The results showed that the levels of total phenolic compounds changed depending on cultivars and fruit parts. In all cultivars, the highest levels of total phenolic content were obtained from the peel extracts. The total phenolic content ranged from 1775.4 to 3547.8 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/L among the cultivars. However, the total phenolic content of pomegranate juice and seed extract ranged from 784.4 to 1551.5 mg GAE/L and 117.0 to 177.4 mg GAE/L, respectively. "Lefan" displayed the highest amount of the total phenolic content among the four popular cultivars tested.

  15. Dye-sensitized solar cells with natural dyes extracted from plant seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ghamri, Hatem S.; El-Agez, Taher M.; Taya, Sofyan A.; Abdel-Latif, Monzir S.; Batniji, Amal Y.

    2014-12-01

    The application of natural dyes extracted from plant seeds in the fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) has been explored. Ten dyes were extracted from different plant seeds and used as sensitizers for DSSCs. The dyes were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. DSSCs were prepared using TiO2 and ZnO nanostructured mesoporous films. The highest conversion efficiency of 0.875 % was obtained with an allium cepa (onion) extract-sensitized TiO2 solar cell. The process of TiO2-film sintering was studied and it was found that the sintering procedure significantly affects the response of the cell. The short circuit current of the DSSC was found to be considerably enhanced when the TiO2 semiconducting layer was sintered gradually.

  16. Ecotoxicology evaluation of watery extracts of plants on seeds of radish, lettuce and tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edisleidy Águila Jiménez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of watery extracts of Nicotiana acuminata, Piper aduncum L. and Crotalaria juncea was evaluated on the germination and the elongación of the roots of seeds of Raphanus sativus (radish, Lactuca sativa L (lettuce and Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato. The extracts were produced at medium scale in the laboratory of formulation of the Faculty of Química- Pharmacy of the “Universidad Central Marta Abreu de las Villas” . It was demonstrated upon concluding the work that the lettuce was the most sensitive species for this type of study. It was concluded that the extracts could be poured to the means to minor concentrations that 0.01% with a margin of security that they are not going to affect the processes of germination and elongacion of the roots. It was determined that one could use the alone rehearsal using the seeds of lettuce like species of rehearsal.

  17. Green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Cydonia oblong seed extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Faria; Ghafoor, Nida; Iqbal, Mudassir; Mehboob, Saliha

    2016-10-01

    The green synthesis of nanoparticles has emerged as a cost-effective and environmentally benign technique. The present study describes the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) using a seed extract of Cydonia oblonga. The conditions were optimized by adjusting pH, temperature, time and amount of seed extract. The nanoparticles produced were characterized by different techniques, namely UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy. The formation of Ag-NPs was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopic analysis. FTIR analysis was performed to identify the biomolecules, which played a key role in the reduction of Ag+ ions. XRD confirmed that the silver nanoparticles possessed face-centered cubic structure. The green chemistry approach has proven that Ag-NPs can be synthesized by using plant extract in which biomolecules effectively act as capping and reducing agent.

  18. THEORETICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE INNOVATIVE BRUSH-GRATER DEVICE FOR EXTRACTING FOREST SEEDS FROM PERICARP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sviridov L. T.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Protective forest plantations, shelter belts and plantings along the highways of Central - Black Earth region and southern Russia are badly damaged, and in some areas destroyed. Therefore, they can not perform their functions and require major reconstruction or restoration. The most resistant and applicable trees and shrubs to create protective forest plantings are: maple, ash, elm species and three-thorned acacia, honey-locust, white and yellow acacia, and other legumes breeds with high drought tolerance, disease resistance, technogenic pollution and pest damage. For the creation and restoration of protective forest plantations we require seeds of these species containing pericarp. In Voronezh State Forestry Academy we have carried out a scientific research for creation of a machine for extracting seeds from the legumes. Analysis of the results of scientific research of prototyping machines showed that they were made without considered technological and mechanical properties of the legumes theoretical researches workflow machines for extracting seeds from the legumes and scientific basis of design parameters and operating modes. In this article we have a presentation of the experimental sample of the machine for extracting seeds from the legumes and theoretical investigation of the workflow in the batch hopper. According to the results of the study, we have obtained a mathematical expression, which allows you to define the parameters and modes of operation of a brush-grater device

  19. EXTRACTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF LUFFA ACUTANGULA VAR AMARA SEED OIL FOR ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyani G. A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of an indigenous seeds of Luffa acutangula var amara (Family: Cucurbitaceae commonly known as Kadwi turai was carried out. The air-dried seeds were powdered and extracted with petroleum ether (40-60oC in a soxhlet extractor for 24 hrs. The physico-chemical properties of the oil was determined by Official and tentative methods of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, Chicago. Characterization of the oil was determined by Gas Liquid Chromatography. Oil was evaluated for free radical scavenging activity by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method.

  20. Nutrient intake, digestibility and performance of Gaddi kids supplemented with tea seed or tea seed saponin extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective An experiment was conducted to determine the nutrient intake, digestibility, microbial protein synthesis, haemato-biochemical attributes, immune response and growth performance of Gaddi kids fed with oat fodder based basal diet supplemented with either tea seed or tea seed saponin (TSS extract. Methods Eighteen male kids, 7.03±0.16 months of age and 19.72±0.64 kg body weight, were distributed into three groups, T0 (control, T1, and T2, consisting of 6 animals each in a completely randomized design. The kids were fed a basal diet consisting of concentrate mixture and oat fodder (50:50. Animals in group III (T2 were supplemented with TSS at 0.4% of dry matter intake (DMI, and group II (T1 were supplemented with tea seed at 2.6% of DMI to provide equivalent dose of TSS as in T2. Two metabolism trials were conducted, 1st after 21 days and 2nd after 90 days of feeding to evaluate the short term and long term effects of supplementation. Results The tea seed (T1 or TSS (T2 supplementation did not affect DMI as well as the digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fibre, and acid detergent fibre. Nutritive value of diet and plane of nutrition were also comparable for both the periods. However, the average daily gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR were improved (p<0.05 for T1 and T2 as compared to T0. The microbial protein supply was also higher (p<0.05 for T1 and T2 for both the periods. There was no effect of supplementation on most blood parameters. However, the triglyceride and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased (p<0.05 and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol level increased (p<0.05 in T2 as compared with T0 and T1. Supplementation also did not affect the cell mediated and humoral immune response in goats. Conclusion Tea seed at 2.6% of DMI and TSS at 0.4% DMI can be fed to Gaddi goats to improve growth rate, FCR and microbial protein synthesis.

  1. Preventive effects of tamarind seed coat extract on UVA-induced alterations in human skin fibroblasts.

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    Phetdee, Khemjira; Rakchai, Racharat; Rattanamanee, Kwanchai; Teaktong, Thanasak; Viyoch, Jarupa

    2014-01-01

    One of the most damaging actions on skin is from solar radiation, particularly from its ultraviolet (UV) component, through the formation of oxidative species. Thus, an antioxidant strategy that prevents the formation of these oxidants could form the basis of an efficacious cutaneous protectant. Many herbal materials contain antioxidant polyphenols, and this study assessed the possibility that tamarind seed coat extract could fulfill this role. An alcoholic extract of the tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed coat showed stronger antioxidant activity (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl inhibition, EC(50) = 12.9 μg/ml) than L-ascorbic acid (EC(50) = 22.9 μg/ml) and α-tocopherol (EC(50) = 29.3 μg/ml). In cultured fibroblasts taken from human skin, hydrogen peroxide (100-1000 μM) damaged 62-92% of the cells compared to only 35-47% when the cells were preincubated in extract (200 μg/ml) for 24 h. UVA (40 J/cm2) irradiation of human fibroblasts damaged 25% of the cells but the death rate was reduced to 10% with extract. UV irradiation increased the proportion of cells arrest in G(0)/G(1) phase (from 59% to 78%) but this was largely prevented by the extract (64%), according to flow cytometry. Intracellular total glutathione of UVA-irradiated cells pretreated with the extract increased to 10-25% compared to the non-pretreated group at 24-72 h after irradiation. Fibroblasts typically increased matrix metalloproteinase-1 secretion after photodamage, and this is prevented by the extract. This is the first report showing that tamarind seed coat extract is an antioxidant and can protect human skin fibroblasts from cellular damage produced by UVA and thus may form the foundation for an antiaging cosmetic.

  2. Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oil Extracted by SC-CO2 from Seeds of Trachyspermum ammi

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    Aarti Singh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bcakground: Extracts obtained from natural sources such as plants are of immense importance for humans. Methods: Therefore this study was conducted to obtain essential oil from the seeds of T. ammi by conventional and non-conventional methods. Hydrodistillation (HD, Solvent Extraction (SE, Ultrasonication (US, and Supercritical Carbon-dioxide (SC-CO2 extraction techniques were used to extract essential oil from the powdered seeds of T. ammi. A quality control method for each extracted oil was developed using HPTLC, FTIR, and GC-MS. The optimization process was carried out using fractional factorial design (FFD under which three parameters were considered: pressure (150, 175, and 300 bar, temperature (25, 30, and 40 °C, and CO2 flow rate (5, 10, 15 g/min. Results: The yield of essential oil obtained from the HD, SE, US, and SC-CO2 methods were 1.20%, 1.82%, 2.30%, and 2.64% v/w, respectively. Antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH and superoxide scavenging methods and the IC50 (Inhibition Concentration values of the T. ammi oil sample were found to be 36.41 and 20.55 µg mL−1, respectively. Conclusion: The present paper reported that different extraction methods lead to different yields of essential oils and the choice of a suitable method is extremely important to obtain more preferred compounds. The yield was higher in the SC-CO2 method and it is a sustainable and green extraction technique. Many important constituents were detected in analytical techniques. Antioxidant activities carried out showed that essential oil extracted from T. ammi seeds possess significant antioxidant activity.

  3. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction of essential oil from Swietenia mahagoni seeds

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    Norodin, N. S. M.; Salleh, L. M.; Hartati; Mustafa, N. M.

    2016-11-01

    Swietenia mahagoni (Mahogany) is a traditional plant that is rich with bioactive compounds. In this study, process parameters such as particle size, extraction time, solvent flowrate, temperature and pressure were studied on the extraction of essential oil from Swietenia mahagoni seeds by using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction. Swietenia mahagoni seeds was extracted at a pressure of 20-30 MPa and a temperature of 40-60°C. The effect of particle size on overall extraction of essential oil was done at 30 MPa and 50°C while the extraction time of essential oil at various temperatures and at a constant pressure of 30 MPa was studied. Meanwhile, the effect of flowrate CO2 was determined at the flowrate of 2, 3 and 4 ml/min. From the experimental data, the extraction time of 120 minutes, particle size of 0.5 mm, the flowrate of CO2 of 4 ml/min, at a pressure of 30 MPa and the temperature of 60°C were the best conditions to obtain the highest yield of essential oil.

  4. Secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of seed extracts from Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav.

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    Houda Fek

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to screen various solvent extracts of seeds of Solanum elaeagnifolium to display the phytochemical composition, the total phenolic content, the total flavonoid content and the antioxidant capacity in order to find possible sources for future novel antioxidants in food and pharmaceutical formulations. Various extracts of seeds of Solanum elaeagnifolium were obtained by maceration. The total phenolic content of the different extracts was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the total flavonoid content was quantified using a method based on the formation of a flavonoid–aluminium complex .The antioxidant activity was essayed through some in vitro models such as the antioxidant capacity by phosphomolybdenum method, radical scavenging activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH assay and reducing power assay. The acetone extract showed the highest total phenolics (580.99 ± 20.56 mg gallic acid equivalents/g of extract, and the highest total flavonoids (207.61 ± 2.62 mg quercetin equivalents/g of extract. This extract showed an antioxidant activity higher than that of α-tocopherol. These results suggest the potential of Solanum elaeagnifolium against free-radical-associated oxidative damage.

  5. Bioassay-guided fractionation and identification of α-amylase inhibitors from Syzygium cumini leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poongunran, Jeyakumaran; Perera, Handunge Kumudu Irani; Jayasinghe, Lalith; Fernando, Irushika Thushari; Sivakanesan, Ramaiah; Araya, Hiroshi; Fujimoto, Yoshinori

    2017-12-01

    Pancreatic α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitors serve as important strategies in the management of blood glucose. Even though Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels (Myrtaceae) (SC) is used extensively to treat diabetes; scientific evidence on antidiabetic effects of SC leaves is scarce. SC leaf extract was investigated for α-amylase inhibitory effect and continued with isolation and identification of α-amylase inhibitors. Bioassay-guided fractionation was conducted using in vitro α-amylase inhibitory assay (with 20-1000 μg/mL test material) to isolate the inhibitory compounds from ethyl acetate extract of SC leaves. Structures of the isolated inhibitory compounds were elucidated using (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analysis and direct TLC and HPLC comparison with authentic samples. Study period was from October 2013 to October 2015. An active fraction obtained with chromatographic separation of the extract inhibited porcine pancreatic α-amylase with an IC50 of 39.9 μg/mL. Furthermore, it showed a strong inhibition on α-glucosidase with an IC50 of 28.2 μg/mL. The active fraction was determined to be a 3:1 mixture of ursolic acid and oleanolic acid. Pure ursolic acid and oleanolic acid showed IC50 values of 6.7 and 57.4 μg/mL, respectively, against α-amylase and 3.1 and 44.1 μg/mL respectively, against α-glucosidase. The present study revealed strong α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory effects of ursolic acid and oleanolic acid isolated from SC leaves for the first time validating the use of SC leaves in antidiabetic therapy.

  6. Pressurised fluid extraction (PFE) as an alternative general method for the determination of pesticide residues in rape seed.

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    Pihlström, Tuija; Isaac, Giorgis; Waldebäck, Monica; Osterdahl, Bengt-Göran; Markides, Karin E

    2002-04-01

    A pressurised fluid extraction (PFE) multi-method has been developed for the determination of pesticide residues in rape seed. The method was validated for 25 different pesticides and metabolites. The reliability and efficiency of PFE for extracting pesticide residues from rape seed was investigated. The traditional extraction solvent, hexane saturated with acetonitrile, was used at elevated temperature and pressure. With increased temperature, the extraction kinetics were improved but at the same time more co-extractives were obtained in the form of lipids. When 1 g of rape seed was extracted at temperatures from 60 degrees C to 150 degrees C, the lipid content extracted was found to be as high as 17-26%. An additional clean-up step was therefore required and lipid co-extractives were effectively removed by gel permeation chromatography. The interpretation of the chromatograms and the quantification of the results were satisfactorily improved by the removal of interfering lipids. The developed method was used to extract vinclozolin and iprodione from incurred samples, resulting in a concentration in accordance with the results using conventional liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) between hexane and acetonitrile and also supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using carbon dioxide. The results of the present study suggest that PEE is a good alternative extraction technique for the determination of pesticide residues in oil seed. Despite the necessity for a lipid-removal clean-up step, the PFE technique facilitated the extraction process by faster extractions and the possibility of automated analysis.

  7. Syzygium cumini (L. Skeels: A prominent source of bioactive molecules against cardiometabolic diseases

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    Vinicyus Teles Chagas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Syzygium cumini (Myrtaceae is a worldwide medicinal plant traditionally used in herbal medicines due to its vaunted properties against cardiometabolic disorders, which include: antihyperglycemic, hypolipemiant, antiinflammatory, cardioprotective and antioxidant activities. These properties have been attributed to the presence of bioactive compounds such as phenols, flavonoids and tannins in different parts of the plant, albeit the knowledge on their mechanisms of action is scarce. This mini-review highlights the cardiometabolic properties of S. cumini by correlating its already identified phytochemicals with their described mechanisms of action. Data herein compiled show that some compounds target multiple metabolic pathways; thereby, becoming potential pharmacological tools. Moreover, the lack of clinical trials on S. cumini usage makes it a fruitful field of interest for both scientific community and pharmaceutical industry.

  8. Antiulcer effect of the methanolic extract of Tamarindus indica seeds in different experimental models

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    Pankaj Kalra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peptic ulcer is a global health problem of the gastrointestinal tract characterized by mucosal damage secondary to pepsin and gastric acid secretion which occurs due to due to an imbalance between offensive and defensive factors. Objective: The present study was carried out with methanolic extract of the seed coat of Tamarindus indica Linn. to evaluate its antiulcer potential on ibuprofen, alcohol and pyloric ligation induced gastric lesions. Materials and Methods: Doses of 100 mg/kg & 200 mg/kg of methanolic extract wre administered orally to rats of different groups. Ranitidine at a dose of 50 mg/kg was used as a standard drug for these gastric ulcer models. The gastric content was collected and the volume was measured. The ulceration index was determined by examining the inner lining of each stomach. Furthermore, the effect was assessed by free acidity, pepsin activity, total carbohydrate (TC, protein content (PK. Result: The result showed that the methanolic extract of seed coats of Tamarindus indica significantly reduce the total volume of gastric juice, free and total acidity of gastric secretion (P < 0.01 in pylorus ligation induced ulcer model as is comparable with the standard drug ranitidine. There was also a significant reduction in ulcer index (P < 0.01 as compared to control group. Conclusion: The methanolic extracts of seed coat of Tamarindus indica can be used as a new source of antiulcer agent in animals.

  9. Evaluation of the In Vitro and In Vivo Antioxidant Potentials of Aframomum melegueta Methanolic Seed Extract

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    Samuel Okwudili Onoja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aframomum melegueta Schum (Zingiberaceae is a perennial herb widely cultivated for its valuable seeds in the tropical region of Africa. The present study evaluated the antioxidant effects of methanolic seed extract of A. melegueta. The antioxidant effects were evaluated using in vitro, 2, 2-diphenylpicrylhydrazine photometric assay and in vivo serum catalase, superoxide dismutase and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance assay method. The extract (25–400 μg/mL concentration produced concentration dependent increase in antioxidant activity in 2, 2-diphenylpicrylhydrazine photometric assay. The extract (400 mg/kg showed a significant (P<0.05 increase in serum catalase and superoxide dismutase activity when compared with the control group. The extract (400 mg/kg showed a significant (P<0.05 decrease in the serum level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance when compared with the control group. These findings suggest that the seed of A. melegueta has potent antioxidant activity which may be responsible for some of its reported pharmacological activities and can be used as antioxidant supplement.

  10. Pharmacological effects of methanolic extract of Swietenia mahagoni Jacq (meliaceae seeds

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    Ghosh Sruti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of medicinal plants are common ingredients of many folk and herbal medicines, and seed extracts have been reported to possess pharmacological activity including anti-inflammatory activity. In the present investigation, the methanolic extract of the dried ground seeds of Swietenia mahagoni (SMSE has been evaluated for anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using acute, sub-chronic, and chronic models of inflammation in rodents. The antipyretic and analgesic activities were evaluated in mice models. Acute toxicity studies revealed that the extract up to a dose of 1.2 g/kg intraperitoneally was nontoxic. SMSE at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg, i.p. was found to possess anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities and the effect was comparable with that produced by the standard drug, ibuprofen. The results of the experiment on arachidonic acid-induced paw edema in rat revealed that the extract produces anti-inflammatory activity through dual inhibition of the cyclo-oxygenase and lipo-oxygenase pathways of arachidonic acid metabolism. SMSE also enhanced peritoneal cell exudates along with macrophage significantly. The triterpenoids present in SMSE may be responsible for these activities. SMSE possesses anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities.

  11. Inhibition of melanosis formation in Pacific white shrimp by the extract of lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmal, Nilesh Prakash; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2011-09-15

    Lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed extract was prepared using distilled water as a medium. An extraction yield of 26.16g/100g of seed was obtained after extraction at room temperature for 12h. Total phenolic and mimosine contents in the lead seed extract powder (LSEP) were 17.4g GAE/100g and 8.8g/100g, respectively. LSEP at different concentrations (0.05%, 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1%, w/v) showed inhibitory activity towards polyphenoloxidase (PPO) of Pacific white shrimp in a dose dependent manner. When the whole Pacific white shrimp were treated with 0.25% and 0.5% (w/v) LSEP, the shrimp treated with 0.5% LSEP had the lower melanosis score throughout the storage of 12days and showed a higher score for colour and odour, as well as overall likeness, compared with the control (without treatment) and 1.25% sodium metabisulphite treated samples at day 12 (P<0.05). Meat of shrimps treated with LSEP at both levels had the increase in mimosine content up to 8days, suggesting the migration of mimosine into shrimp muscle during extended storage. Therefore, 0.5% LSEP can be used as a novel melanosis inhibitor for Pacific white shrimp.

  12. Antileukemic Potential of Momordica charantia Seed Extracts on Human Myeloid Leukemic HL60 Cells

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    Ramani Soundararajan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Momordica charantia (bitter gourd has been used in the traditional system of medicine for the treatment of various diseases. Anticancer activity of M. charantia extracts has been demonstrated by numerous in vitro and in vivo studies. In the present study, we investigated the differentiation inducing potential of fractionated M. charantia seed extracts in human myeloid HL60 cells. We found that the HL60 cells treated with the fractionated seed extracts differentiated into granulocytic lineage as characterized by NBT staining, CD11b expression, and specific esterase activity. The differentiation inducing principle was found to be heat-stable, and organic in nature. The differentiation was accompanied by a downregulation of c-myc transcript, indicating the involvement of c-myc pathway, at least in part, in differentiation. Taken together these results indicate that fractionated extracts of M. charantia seeds possess differentiation inducing activity and therefore can be evaluated for their potential use in differentiation therapy for leukemia in combination with other inducers of differentiation.

  13. Extraction, analysis and desaturation of gmelina seed oil using different soft computing approaches

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    F. Chigozie Uzoh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Artificial Neural Network (ANN-Genetic Algorithm (GA interface and Response Surface Methodology (RSM have been compared as tools for simulation and optimization of gmelina seed oil extraction process. A multi-layer feed-forward Levenberg Marquardt back-propagation algorithm was incorporated for developing a predictive model which was optimized using GA. Design Expert simulation and optimization tools were also incorporated for a detailed simulation and optimization of the same process using Response surface methodology (RSM. It was found that oil yield increased with rise in temperature, time and volume of solvent but decreased with increase in seed particle size. The maximum oil yield obtained using the numerical optimization techniques show that 49.2% were predicted by the RSM at the optimum conditions of; 60 °C temperature, extraction time 60 min, 150 μm seed particle size, 150 ml solvent volume and 49.8% by ANN-GA at extraction temperature 40 °C, extraction time 40 min, 200 μm seed particle size, 100 ml solvent volume, respectively. The prediction accuracy of both models were more than 95%. Models validation experiments indicate that the predicted and the actual were in close agreement. The extract was analyzed to examine its physico-chemical properties (acid value, iodine value, peroxide value, viscosity, saponification value, moisture and ash content, refractive index, smoke, flash and fire points and specific gravity and structural elucidation by standard methods and instrumental techniques. Results revealed that the oil is non-drying and edible. Desaturation of the oil further reveal its potential in alkyd resin synthesis.

  14. Use of extract of moringa seeds as coagulant agent in treatment of water supply and wastewater

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    Felipe da Silva Nascimento

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of the extract of moringa (Moringa oleifera seeds when used as a coagulant agent, in removal of turbidity and coliform in domestic sewage, pig wastewater and water to be used for public supply. To evaluate the effect of coagulant on each type of water, tests were performed using the Jar-test apparatus, and was evaluated the effects of the concentrations of 0.02; 0.04; 0.06; 0.1; 0.2; 0.3; 0.4; 0.6; 0.8 and 1.2 g of powdered seeds per liter of analyzed water. Turbidity was measured in suspensions after 2 and 24 h and counting of organisms of the group total coliforms (TC and fecal or thermotolerants coliforms (FC after 24 h of application and mixing of the coagulant. Mathematical equations were fitted by regression, relating the concentration of the extract of moringa seeds in water samples with turbidity. It was found that in the water to be used for public supply, the concentration of 0.4 g L-1 of moringa seeds to a sedimentation time of 2 h presented the best turbidity removal (98%. In equal sedimentation time, the average removal of turbidity in the domestic wastewater was 22.3%. On a larger sedimentation time (24 h, the average removal is increased to 35.3%. The addition of extract of moringa seeds not presented turbidity removal of pig wastewater. With regard to the removal of TC and FC, the concentration of 0.2 g L-1 of seeds was the most suitable for water to be used for public supply, obtained 90% of FC removal. In the case of domestic sewage, the best concentration was 0.04 g L-1 of seeds, has been obtained removals of 95.6 and 94.3%, respectively, and in pig wastewater, the best concentration was 0.8 g L-1 of seeds, which presented removals of 96.5 and 94.8%, respectively.

  15. Simultaneous extraction of oil- and water-soluble phase from sunflower seeds with subcritical water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravber, Matej; Knez, Željko; Škerget, Mojca

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the subcritical water extraction is proposed as an alternative and greener processing method for simultaneous removal of oil- and water-soluble phase from sunflower seeds. Extraction kinetics were studied at different temperatures and material/solvent ratios in a batch extractor. Degree of hydrothermal degradation of oils was observed by analysing amount of formed free fatty acids and their antioxidant capacities. Results were compared to oils obtained by conventional methods. Water soluble extracts were analysed for total proteins, carbohydrates and phenolics and some single products of hydrothermal degradation. Highest amount of oil was obtained at 130 °C at a material/solvent ratio of 1/20 g/mL after 30 min of extraction. For all obtained oils minimal degree of hydrothermal degradation could be identified. High antioxidant capacities of oil samples could be observed. Water soluble extracts were degraded at temperatures ≥100 °C, producing various products of hydrothermal degradation.

  16. Antioxidative Activity of Extracts from Fenugreek Seeds (Trigonella foenum-graecum

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    Syeda Birjees Bukhari

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Spices and herbs possess antioxidant activity and can be applied for preservation of lipid peroxidation in biological systems. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum is an important spice; its dried seeds have wide application in food and beverages as a flavoring additive as well as in medicines. Crude extracts of fenugreek were prepared by soxhelt extraction method with different solvents such as methanol, ethanol, dichloromethane, acetone, hexane and ethyl acetate. Extracts were subjected for the measurement of total phenolic content (TPC by Folin-Ciocalteu method as well as flavonoid content, chelating activity, reducing power and antioxidant/radical scavenging activity [1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH° free radical scavenging activity]. Results from different parameters were in agreement with each other. The results reveal that all extracts of the fenugreek exhibit antioxidant activity. These findings suggest that the fenugreek extracts could act as potent source of antioxidants.

  17. The impact of seed extraction on the population dynamics of Pinus maximartinezii

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    López-Mata, Lauro

    2013-05-01

    Pinus maximartinezii is a rare, endemic, threatened species known from a single small population in the state of Zacatecas, Mexico. Among the pine species that produce edible nuts, it produces one of the largest and most nutritious seeds. The seeds of P. maximartinezii have historically been used for human consumption. The cones are harvested directly from the trees, and the seeds are sold illegally in local, national and international markets. However, the effects of seed extraction must be thoroughly evaluated to determine the potential impacts on population stability. To assess the impact of different rates of seed harvesting on the demography of this species, a 2-yr study of population dynamics was conducted in three 0.1-ha plots. A 9 × 9 size-structured matrix model was used to simulate changes in population growth over time in conjunction with increasing stepwise reductions in fecundity. The population growth rate (λ) of P. maximartinezii was 1.1175, with a 95% confidence interval (CI) from 1.1008 to 1.1321, and it was relatively insensitive to changes in fecundity and growth. Under a seed extraction intensity of 99%, λ decreased to 1.0241, with a CI from 1.0177 to 1.0361. Elasticity analysis was then performed to identify the combined effects of proportional changes in fecundities and the largest stasis elements on λ. The results suggest that a sound conservation strategy should focus on improving the survival of juveniles and adults during their first reproductive events and on the largest adults, as well as on protecting the habitat of this threatened endemic species.

  18. Chemical composition, toxicity and larvicidal and antifungal activities of Persea americana (avocado) seed extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, João Jaime Giffoni; Brito, Erika Helena Salles; Cordeiro, Rossana Aguiar; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Bertini, Luciana Medeiros; Morais, Selene Maia de; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha

    2009-01-01

    The present study had the aim of testing the hexane and methanol extracts of avocado seeds, in order to determine their toxicity towards Artemia salina, evaluate their larvicidal activity towards Aedes aegypti and investigate their in vitro antifungal potential against strains of Candida spp, Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermatis through the microdilution technique. In toxicity tests on Artemia salina, the hexane and methanol extracts from avocado seeds showed LC50 values of 2.37 and 24.13 mg mL-1 respectively. Against Aedes aegypti larvae, the LC50 results obtained were 16.7 mg mL-1 for hexane extract and 8.87 mg mL-1 for methanol extract from avocado seeds. The extracts tested were also active against all the yeast strains tested in vitro, with differing results such that the minimum inhibitory concentration of the hexane extract ranged from 0.625 to 1.25mg L-(1), from 0.312 to 0.625 mg mL-1 and from 0.031 to 0.625 mg mL-1, for the strains of Candida spp, Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermatis, respectively. The minimal inhibitory concentration for the methanol extract ranged from 0.125 to 0.625 mg mL-1, from 0.08 to 0.156 mg mL-1 and from 0.312 to 0.625 mg mL-1, for the strains of Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermatis, respectively.

  19. [Study on supercritical CO2 extraction of fatty oils from the seed of Akebia trifoliata (Thunb) Koidz].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiao-xia; Ge, Fa-huan

    2007-03-01

    The extraction of fatty oils from the seed of Akebia trifoliata (Thunb) Koidz with supercritical CO2 was studied. The effects of extraction pressure, extraction temperature on the yields were discussed. The optimal condition of this method was as follow: extraction pressure 30 MPa, extraction temerature 45 degrees C, separator I pressure 11 MPa, separator I temperature 50 degrees C, separator II pressure 6MPa, separator II temperature 45 degrees C, extraction period 2 hours. Compared with the traditional solvent extraction, with a GC-MS analysis, it revealed that the component extracted with supercritical CO2 was basically consistent with that extracted with petroleum ether, and it was rich unsaturated fatty acid.

  20. Phytochemical analysis and in vitro antioxidant acitivity of hydroalcoholic seed extract of Nymphaea nouchali Burm. f.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mabel Parimala; Francis Gricilda Shoba

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the phytochemical constituents and the antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Nymphaea nouchali seed locally prescribed as a diet for diabetes mellitus.Methods:the plant was assessed against 1,1 diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation using standard protocols. Total phenolics, flavonoids and tannins were also determined.Results:Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phenols, flavones, tannins, protein, The antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of hydroalcoholic extract of reducing sugars, glycosides, saponins, alkaloids and steroids. The activities of plant extract against DPPH, nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation was concentration dependent with IC50 value of 42.82, 23.58 and 54.65 µg/mL respectively. The total antioxidant capacity was high with 577.73 mg vitamin E/g of the extract and showed a moderately high vitamin C content of 197.22 mg/g. The total tannin content of hydroalcoholic seed extract was high (195.84 GE/g), followed by phenolics (179.56 GE/g) and flavonoids (23.55 QE/g).Conclusion:Our findings provide evidence that the crude extract of Nymphaea nouchali is a potential source of natural antioxidants and this justifies its use in folkloric medicine.

  1. Extraction of polysaccharides and the antioxidant activity from the seeds of Plantago asiatica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Chun-Lin; Hu, Wei-Lian; Dai, De-Hui

    2011-11-01

    The extraction conditions of polysaccharides from Plantago asiatica L. seeds were investigated. Four parameters affecting the polysaccharides extraction, extraction times, water to sample, extraction temperature and single extraction time, were determined by orthogonal experiments. Under the optimized conditions, the polysaccharides yield of P. asiatica L. seeds was 2.467%. The antioxidant activities of the polysaccharides were investigated. The reducing power of the polysaccharides was dose dependent, and the reducing capacity of the polysaccharides was inferior to butylated hydroxytoluene, which is known to be a strong reducing agent. The scavenging rates of the polysaccharides on superoxide and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals were 79.7% and 81.4%, at polysaccharides concentration of 0.75 mg/mL, respectively, a scavenging rates approximately similar to that of 0.75 mg/mL ascorbic acid (83.5% and 85.1%, respectively). Furthermore, it exhibited a moderate concentration-dependent ABTS radical scavenging activity, ferrous ion chelating potency and H(2)O(2) scavenging activity. The data obtained in the in vitro models clearly establish the antioxidant potency of the polysaccharides extracted from Semen Plantaginis.

  2. The anti-snake venom properties of Tamarindus indica (leguminosae) seed extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushanandini, S; Nagaraju, S; Harish Kumar, K; Vedavathi, M; Machiah, D K; Kemparaju, K; Vishwanath, B S; Gowda, T V; Girish, K S

    2006-10-01

    In Indian traditional medicine, various plants have been used widely as a remedy for treating snake bites. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Tamarindus indica seed extract on the pharmacological as well as the enzymatic effects induced by V. russelli venom. Tamarind seed extract inhibited the PLA(2), protease, hyaluronidase, l-amino acid oxidase and 5'-nucleotidase enzyme activities of venom in a dose-dependent manner. These are the major hydrolytic enzymes responsible for the early effects of envenomation, such as local tissue damage, inflammation and hypotension. Furthermore, the extract neutralized the degradation of the Bbeta chain of human fibrinogen and indirect hemolysis caused by venom. It was also observed that the extract exerted a moderate effect on the clotting time, prolonging it only to a small extent. Edema, hemorrhage and myotoxic effects including lethality, induced by venom were neutralized significantly when different doses of the extract were preincubated with venom before the assays. On the other hand, animals that received extract 10 min after the injection of venom were protected from venom induced toxicity. Since it inhibits hydrolytic enzymes and pharmacological effects, it may be used as an alternative treatment to serum therapy and, in addition, as a rich source of potential inhibitors of PLA(2), metalloproteinases, serine proteases, hyaluronidases and 5 cent-nucleotidases, the enzymes involved in several physiopathological human and animal diseases.

  3. Effect of extraction process on composition, oxidative stability and rheological properties of purslane seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfan-Hosseini, Sasan; Nayebzadeh, Kooshan; Mirmoghtadaie, Leila; Kavosi, Maryam; Hosseini, Seyede Marzieh

    2017-05-01

    Purslane seed oil could be considered as potential nutritious oil due to its desirable fatty acid composition and other biological active compounds. In this study the effect of three extraction procedure including solvent extraction, cold pressing and microwave pretreatment (MW) followed by cold pressing on oil yield, physicochemical properties, oxidative stability and rheological behaviors of oil was investigated. Solvent extracted oil had the highest extraction yield (72.31%). Pretreatment by microwave before cold press extraction resulted in an increase in extraction yield, total phenolic compound (TPC) and antioxidant activity. Cold press extracted oil had the lowest oxidative stability (4.64h). This property was greatly enhanced by microwave irradiation, so that the longest oxidative stability was found in MW-cold press extracted oil with 9.67h. Furthermore, all extracted oils demonstrated Newtonian flow behaviors. MW-cold press extracted oil had the greatest apparent viscosity and highest sensitivity to temperature changes (Ea=29.18kJ/mol(-1)).

  4. Extraction Yield Efficiency And Loss Of The Traditional Hot Water Floatation HWF Method Of Oil Extraction From The Seeds Of Allanblackia Floribunda

    OpenAIRE

    Alenyorege E. A.; Hussein Y. A.; Adongo T. A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The research was conducted to determine the Extraction Yield Extraction Efficiency and Extraction Loss associated with the traditional Hot Water Floatation method of oil extraction. Matured dry seeds of Allanblackia floribunda 50 Kg were used. Allanblackia floribunda a tree species of the Guttiferae family grows naturally in tropical rainforests zones. In Ghana Allanblackia floribunda is quite unknown hence little production of oil is carried out. However the oil extracted can have d...

  5. Isolation and structural characterization of the water-extractable polysaccharides from Cassia obtusifolia seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Mingsheng; Zhang, Xiaoman; Dong, Qun; Yao, Jian; Liu, Qin; Ding, Kan

    2012-10-01

    The seed of Cassia obtusifolia is a food or herbal medicine used for improving eyesight, treating constipation and other disorders, and polysaccharides have been implicated in these pharmacological activities. The endosperm of the seeds, Cassia gum, is a commercial thickening or gelling agent, composed mainly of galactomannans. However, the whole seeds of C. obtusifolia, rather than the endosperm, are used in folk medicine or food, which might contain more complex constituents of polysaccharides. In this study, the whole seeds of C. obtusifolia were extracted with boiling water, and from the water extract, three homogeneous fractions were isolated, designated CFAA-1, CFAA-3, and CFBB2, respectively, after treatment with Fehling solution followed by anion-exchange and gel permeation chromatography. Using chemical and spectroscopic methods, CFAA-1, and CFAA-3 were elucidated to be both branched galactomannans with different molecular weights, consisting of 1,4-linked β-d-mannopyranosyl backbone with single-unit α-d-galactopyranosyl branches attached to O-6 of mannose, while CFBB2 was shown to be a linear (1→4)-α-polygalacturonic acid.

  6. Cold pressed versus solvent extracted lemon (Citrus limon L.) seed oils: yield and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Emin; Güneşer, Buket Aydeniz

    2017-06-01

    During the processing of lemon fruit, a large quantity of seeds is produced as a by-product. These seeds contain valuable components; therefore, required to be evaluated. This study aimed to compare the cold pressed with hexane-extracted lemon seed oils and determine their physicochemical and thermal properties. Cold pressing yielded significantly lower oil (36.84%) than hexane extraction (71.29%). In addition, the concentrations of free fatty acids, peroxides, and p-anisidine were lower in the cold pressed oil. Cold pressed oil showed higher total phenolics, α-tocopherol and antioxidant capacity. The major fatty acids found in the cold pressed oil were linoleic and palmitic acids, whereas β-sitosterol and campesterol were the dominant sterols. The crystallization and melting temperatures and enthalpies were also elucidated. In conclusion, this study proved that high quality of lemon seed oils can be produced by the cold pressing technique; this oil can be used in industries such as the food, cosmetic or chemical industries.

  7. Bioassay-Directed Isolation of Active Compounds with Antiyeast Activity from a Cassia fistula Seed Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanion L. Jothy

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Cassia fistula L belongs to the family Leguminosae, and it is one of the most popular herbal products in tropical countries. C. fistula seeds have been used as a herbal medicine and have pharmacological activity which includes anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, and antioxidant properties. The goal of this study was to identify compounds from C. fistula seeds which are responsible for anti-Candida albicans activity using bioassay-directed isolation. Results: The preliminary phytochemical screening of the plant seed revealed the presence of anthraquinones, flavonoids, saponins, tannins and terpenoids. The isolation of active compounds was carried out in four steps: multiple extractions, fractionation using column chromatography and purification using preparative thin-layer chromatography (TLC and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS. The structure of separated compounds was determined on the basis of mass spectrometry data. One compound was identified is roseanone. Conclusions: The MS analysis on the active fraction from seed extract of C. fistula confirmed the presence of roseanone with antiyeast activity.

  8. Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Effects Triggered by Grape Seed Extract (GSE versus Epigallocatechin and Procyanidins on Colon Cancer Cell Lines

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    Simona Dinicola

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Grape seed extract has been proven to exert anticancer effects on different tumors. These effects are mainly ascribed to catechin and procyanidin content. Analytical studies demonstrated that grape seed extract composition is complex and it is likely other components could exert biological activities. Using cell count and flow cytometry assays, we evaluated the cytostatic and apoptotic effects produced by three different grape seed extracts from Italia, Palieri and Red Globe cultivars, on Caco2 and HCT-8 colon cancer cells. These effects were compared to those induced by epigallocatechin and procyanidins, alone or in association, on the same cell lines. All the extracts induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in Caco2 and HCT-8 cells, along the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. On both cell lines, growth inhibition induced by Italia and Palieri grape seed extracts was significantly higher than that it has been recorded with epigallocatechin, procyanidins and their association. In Caco2 cells, the extract from Red Globe cultivar was less effective in inducing growth inhibition than procyanidins alone and in association with epigallocatechin, whereas, in HCT-8 cells, only the association of epigallocatechin and procyanidins triggers a significant proliferation decrease. On both cell lines, apoptosis induced by Italia, Palieri and Red Globe grape seed extracts was considerably higher than has been recorded with epigallocatechin, procyanidins and their association. These data support the hypothesis by which other compounds, present in the grape seed extracts, are likely to enhance the anticancer effects.

  9. Antiproliferative and apoptotic effects triggered by Grape Seed Extract (GSE) versus epigallocatechin and procyanidins on colon cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinicola, Simona; Cucina, Alessandra; Pasqualato, Alessia; D'Anselmi, Fabrizio; Proietti, Sara; Lisi, Elisabetta; Pasqua, Gabriella; Antonacci, Donato; Bizzarri, Mariano

    2012-01-01

    Grape seed extract has been proven to exert anticancer effects on different tumors. These effects are mainly ascribed to catechin and procyanidin content. Analytical studies demonstrated that grape seed extract composition is complex and it is likely other components could exert biological activities. Using cell count and flow cytometry assays, we evaluated the cytostatic and apoptotic effects produced by three different grape seed extracts from Italia, Palieri and Red Globe cultivars, on Caco2 and HCT-8 colon cancer cells. These effects were compared to those induced by epigallocatechin and procyanidins, alone or in association, on the same cell lines. All the extracts induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in Caco2 and HCT-8 cells, along the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. On both cell lines, growth inhibition induced by Italia and Palieri grape seed extracts was significantly higher than that it has been recorded with epigallocatechin, procyanidins and their association. In Caco2 cells, the extract from Red Globe cultivar was less effective in inducing growth inhibition than procyanidins alone and in association with epigallocatechin, whereas, in HCT-8 cells, only the association of epigallocatechin and procyanidins triggers a significant proliferation decrease. On both cell lines, apoptosis induced by Italia, Palieri and Red Globe grape seed extracts was considerably higher than has been recorded with epigallocatechin, procyanidins and their association. These data support the hypothesis by which other compounds, present in the grape seed extracts, are likely to enhance the anticancer effects.

  10. Optimization for ultrasound-assisted extraction of polysaccharides with chemical composition and antioxidant activity from the Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Quan; Ren, Daoyuan; Yang, Nana; Yang, Xingbin

    2016-10-01

    Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides have been reported to have a variety of important biological activities. However, effective extraction of Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides is still an unsolved issue. In this study, the orthogonal rotatable central composite design was employed to optimize ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions of Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides. Based on a single-factor analysis method, ultrasonic power, extraction time, solid-liquid ratio and extraction temperature were shown to significantly affect the yield of polysaccharides extracted from the A. sphaerocephala Krasch seeds. The optimal conditions for extraction of Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides were determined as following: ultrasonic power 243W, extraction time 125min, solid-liquid ratio 64:1 and extraction temperature 64°C, where the experimental yield was 14.78%, which was well matched with the predicted value of 14.81%. Furthermore, ASKP was identified as a typical heteropolysaccharide with d-galacturonic acid (38.8%) d-galactose (20.2%) and d-xylose (15.5%) being the main constitutive monosaccharides. Moreover, Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides exhibited high total reducing power and considerable scavenging activities on DPPH, hydroxyl and superoxide radicals, in a concentration-dependent manner in vitro.

  11. Fatty Acid Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Tea (Camellia sinensis L. Seed Oil Extracted by Optimized Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

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    Ping Xu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Seeds are another product in addition to leaves (raw materials for teas of tea (Camellia sinensis L. plant. The great increase of tea consumption in recent years raises the challenge of finding commercial applications for tea seeds. In the present study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 extraction edible oil from tea seed was carried out, response surface methodology (RSM was used to optimize processing parameters including time (20–90 min, temperature (35–45 °C and pressure (50–90 MPa. The fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity of the extracted oil was also investigated. The highest yield of oil (29.2 ± 0.6% was obtained under optimal SC-CO2 extraction conditions (45 °C, 89.7 min and 32 MPa, respectively, which was significantly higher (p < 0.05 than that (25.3 ± 1.0% given by Soxhlet extraction. Meanwhile, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO2 contained approximately 80% unsaturated fatty acids and showed a much stronger scavenging ability on the DPPH radical than that extracted by Soxhlet. SC-CO2 is a promising alternative for efficient extraction of edible oil from tea seed. Moreover, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO2 is highly edible and has good antioxidant activity, and therefore may play a potential role as a health-promoting food resource in human diets.

  12. Extraction and characterization of triglycerides from coffeeweed and switchgrass seeds as potential feedstocks for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armah-Agyeman, Grace; Gyamerah, Michael; Biney, Paul O; Woldesenbet, Selamawit

    2016-10-01

    Although switchgrass has been developed as a biofuel feedstock and its potential for bioethanol and bio-oil from fast pyrolysis reported in the literature, the use of the seeds of switchgrass as a source of triglycerides for biodiesel production has not been reported. Similarly, the potential for extracting triglycerides from coffeeweed (an invasive plant of no current economic value) needs to be investigated to ascertain its potential economic use for biodiesel production. The results show that coffeeweed and switchgrass seeds contain known triglycerides which are 983 and 1000 g kg(-1) respectively of the fatty acids found in edible vegetable oils such as sunflower, corn and soybean oils. In addition, the triglyceride yields of 53-67 g kg(-1) of the seed samples are in the range of commercial oil-producing seeds such as corn (42 g kg(-1) ). The results also indicate that the two non-edible oils could be used as substitutes for edible oil for biodiesel production. In addition, the use of seeds of switchgrass for non-edible oil production (as a feedstock for the production of biodiesel) further increases the total biofuel yield when switchgrass is cultivated for use as energy feedstock for pyrolysis oil and biodiesel production. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Gallic acid is the major component of grape seed extract that inhibits amyloid fibril formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanqin; Pukala, Tara L; Musgrave, Ian F; Williams, Danielle M; Dehle, Francis C; Carver, John A

    2013-12-01

    Many protein misfolding diseases, for example, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's, are characterised by the accumulation of protein aggregates in an amyloid fibrillar form. Natural products which inhibit fibril formation are a promising avenue to explore as therapeutics for the treatment of these diseases. In this study we have shown, using in vitro thioflavin T assays and transmission electron microscopy, that grape seed extract inhibits fibril formation of kappa-casein (κ-CN), a milk protein which forms amyloid fibrils spontaneously under physiological conditions. Among the components of grape seed extract, gallic acid was the most active component at inhibiting κ-CN fibril formation, by stabilizing κ-CN to prevent its aggregation. Concomitantly, gallic acid significantly reduced the toxicity of κ-CN to pheochromocytoma12 cells. Furthermore, gallic acid effectively inhibited fibril formation by the amyloid-beta peptide, the putative causative agent in Alzheimer's disease. It is concluded that the gallate moiety has the fibril-inhibitory activity.

  14. Induction of Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest in Human Colorectal Carcinoma by Litchi Seed Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Hsu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Litchi (Litchi chinensis fruit products possess rich amounts of flavanoids and proanthocyanidins. Its pericarp has been shown to inhibit breast and liver cancer cell growth. However, the anticolorectal cancer effect of Litchi seed extract has not yet been reported. In this study, the effects of polyphenol-rich Litchi seed ethanol extract (LCSP on the proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis of two colorectal cancer cell lines Colo320DM and SW480 were examined. The results demonstrated that LCSP significantly induced apoptotic cell death in a dose-dependent manner and arrested cell cycle in G2/M in colorectal carcinoma cells. LCSP also suppressed cyclins and elevated the Bax : Bcl-2 ratio and caspase 3 activity. This study provides in vitro evidence that LCSP serves as a potential chemopreventive agent for colorectal cancer.

  15. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from seed extract of Brassica nigra and its antibacterial activity

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    RAKSHA PANDIT

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pandit R. 2015. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from seed extract of Brassica nigra and its antibacterial activity. Nusantara Bioscience 7: 15-19. We report the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using seed extract of Brassica nigra. UV-visible spectroscopic analysis showed the absorbance peak at 432 nm which indicated the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Nanoparticles Tracking and Analysis (NTA was used to determine the size of synthesized silver nanoparticles. Zeta potential analysis was carried out to study the stability of nanoparticles while FTIR analysis confirmed the presence of proteins as capping agents that provided stability to nanoparticles in colloid. Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles was evaluated against Propionibacterium acnes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The activity of Vancomycin was significantly increased in combination with silver nanoparticles showing synergistic activity against all bacteria while the maximum activity was noted against P. acnes.

  16. Efficacy of neem seed extract shampoo on head lice of naturally infected humans in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Semmler, Margit

    2007-01-01

    Sixty heavily lice-infested male and female children (4-15 years) were selected and subjected to the treatment with a neem seed extract shampoo. Twenty to thirty milliliter of the shampoo were thoroughly mixed with completely wet hair and rubbed in to reach the skin of the scalp. After 5, 10, 15 and 30 min, the shampoo was washed out and the hair basically combed. Head lice were collected and examined. The neem seed extract shampoo proved to be highly effective against all stages of head lice. No obvious differences regarding the efficacy of the shampoo were observed between an exposure time of 10, 15 or 30 min. No side effects, such as skin irritation, burning sensations, or red spots on the scalp, forehead or neck, respectively, were observed.

  17. Characterization of enzymatically extracted sunflower seed oil as well as the protein residues

    OpenAIRE

    Sitohy, M. Z.; Badr, E. H.; Perifanova-Nemska, M.; Khadjiski, T. S.

    1993-01-01

    Sunflower seed oil was enzymatically extracted with six different enzymes: cellulase, hemicellulase, animal proteinase, acid proteinase, pectinase and pectinex under the following conditions: substrate concentration in phosphate buffer (0.5M, pH 5) 30%, enzyme concentration 2% (E/S), temperature 50°C and time 3 hours. The obtained oils were analyzed for physicochemical properties and fatty acid profiles. The protein residues were analyzed for amino acid compositions. The results showed t...

  18. Anti-inflammatory activity of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn) seed petroleum ether extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pundarikakshudu, Kilambi; Shah, Deepak H.; Panchal, Aashish H.; Bhavsar, Gordhanbhai C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the present work was to study the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities of petroleum ether extract of fenugreek seeds. Materials and Methods: Fenugreek seed powder was extracted in petroleum ether by cold maceration. This fenugreek seed petroleum ether extract (FSPEE) was analyzed by gas–liquid chromatography (GLC) and tested on rats against carrageenan and formaldehyde-induced paw edema, complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis and cotton pellet-induced granuloma. Changes in serum glutamic oxaloacetic tansaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities in liver and serum were also studied in cotton pellet-induced arthritic rats. Data were analyzed by Student's t-test. P <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: GLC of FSPEE showed oleic (33.61%), linoleic (40.37%), and linolenic (12.51%) acids. With 0.5 mL/kg FSPEE treatment, there was 37% (P < 0.05) and 85% (P < 0.05) reduction in inflammation of the paw in carrageenan and formaldehyde-induced paw edema. In CFA-induced arthritis, a biphasic increase in paw volume followed by decrease was seen. There was 42.5% (P < 0.01) reduction in the weight of cotton pellets and significant (P < 0.01) reductions in the elevated SGPT and ALP activities in serum and liver of FSPEE (0.5 mL/kg) treated rats. Conclusion: Thus, petroleum ether extract of fenugreek seeds has significant anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities which are due to the presence of linolenic and linoleic acids.

  19. Characterization of enzymatically extracted sunflower seed oil as well as the protein residues

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    Sunflower seed oil was enzymatically extracted with six different enzymes: cellulase, hemicellulase, animal proteinase, acid proteinase, pectinase and pectinex under the following conditions: substrate concentration in phosphate buffer (0.5M, pH 5) 30%, enzyme concentration 2% (E/S), temperature 50°C and time 3 hours. The obtained oils were analyzed for physicochemical properties and fatty acid profiles. The protein residues were analyzed for amino acid compositions. The results showed t...

  20. Molecular Docking Studies and Anti−Snake Venom Metalloproteinase Activity of Thai Mango Seed Kernel Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Pimolpan Pithayanukul; Jiraporn Leanpolchareanchai; Patchreenart Saparpakorn

    2009-01-01

    Snakebite envenomations cause severe local tissue necrosis and the venom metalloproteinases are thought to be the key toxins involved. In this study, the ethanolic extract from seed kernels of Thai mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. ‘Fahlun’) (Anacardiaceae) and its major phenolic principle (pentagalloylglucopyranose) exhibited potent and dose−dependent inhibitory effects on the caseinolytic and fibrinogenolytic activities of Malayan pit viper and Thai cobra venoms in in vitro tests. molecular do...

  1. Molecular Docking Studies and Anti-Tyrosinase Activity of Thai Mango Seed Kernel Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Patchreenart Saparpakorn; Rapepol Bavovada; Pimolpan Pithayanukul; Saruth Nithitanakool

    2009-01-01

    The alcoholic extract from seed kernels of Thai mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. ‘Fahlun’) (Anacardiaceae) and its major phenolic principle (pentagalloylglucopyranose) exhibited potent, dose-dependent inhibitory effects on tyrosinase with respect to L-DOPA. Molecular docking studies revealed that the binding orientations of the phenolic principles were in the tyrosinase binding pocket and their orientations were located in the hydrophobic binding pocket surrounding the binuclear coppe...

  2. Antioxidant potential of hydro-methanolic extract of seed of Caesalpinia bonduc: An in vitro study

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    Kishalay Jana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the over production of reactive oxygen species is harmful for living organisms and it damages major cellular constituents such as DNA, protein, and lipid. At present, searching of new plant sources having free radical scavenging activity is an important field of research in phytomedicine as natural products are safe and relatively low cost. In this respect, attention has been focused to evaluate the antioxidant potential of hydro-methanolic extract of seed of Caesalpinia bonduc (Caesalpenacae using different in vitro models. To evaluate the antioxidant activity, extract was examined on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging effect, scavenging of hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical scavenging potential, and anti-lipid peroxidation activity by biochemical methods. Total phenol and flavonoids contents in the said extract were measured biochemically as per standard methods. Results were compared with butylated hydroxyl toluene and α-tocopherol. Results indicated that hydro-methanolic extract has strong scavenging activity on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical with IC 50 value 157.4 μg/ml, hydroxyl radical with IC 50 value 61.9 μg/ml and hydrogen peroxide with IC 50 value 64.32 μg/ml. Hydro-methanolic extract also showed notable inhibition in lipid peroxidation having IC 50 value 58.87 μg/ml. Phytochemical study focused that the extract is rich in phenolic compounds (24.66 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dried extract and flavonoids (136.65 mg quercetin equivalent/g dried extract. Findings of the experiment indicated that the hydro-methanolic extract of seed of Caesalpinia bonduc is a source of natural antioxidants.

  3. Ethanol as a solvent and hot extraction technique preserved the antioxidant properties of tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seed

    OpenAIRE

    Nushrat Yeasmen; Md. Nazrul Islam

    2015-01-01

    The influence of two extraction solvents (ethanol and acetone) and two extraction techniques i.e., hot extraction at 400C and cold extraction at 260C were investigated on the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of extracts from Tamarindus indica seed. The antioxidant activity of T. indica was determined by evaluating 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, ferric reducing power assay (FRAP) and ascorbic acid equivalent content (AAC). The tested sample showed appreciabl...

  4. Antibacterial, Antioxidant, and Anticholinesterase Activities of Plant Seed Extracts from Brazilian Semiarid Region

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    Davi Felipe Farias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activities of ethanolic seed extracts of twenty-one plant species from Brazilian semiarid region were investigated. The extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against six bacteria strains and three yeasts. Six extracts presented activity against the Gram (− organism Salmonella choleraesuis and the Gram (+ organisms Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The MIC values ranged from 4.96 to 37.32 mg/mL. The Triplaris gardneriana extract presented activity against the three species, with MIC values 18.8, 13.76, and 11.15 mg/mL, respectively. Five extracts presented antioxidant activity, with EC50 values ranging from 69.73 μg/mL (T. gardneriana to 487.51 μg/mL (Licania rigida. For the anticholinesterase activity, eleven extracts were capable of inhibiting the enzyme activity. From those, T. gardneriana, Parkia platycephala and Connarus detersus presented the best activities, with inhibition values of 76.7, 71.5, and 91.9%, respectively. The extracts that presented antimicrobial activity were tested for hemolytic assay against human A, B, and O blood types and rabbit blood. From those, only the Myracrodruon urundeuva extract presented activity (about 20% of hemolysis at the lowest tested concentration, 1.9 µg/mL. Infrared spectroscopy of six representative extracts attested the presence of tannins, polyphenols, and flavonoids, which was confirmed by a qualitative phytochemical assay.

  5. Modulation of the antioxidant/pro-oxidant balance, cytotoxicity and antiviral actions of grape seed extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignea, Codruţa; Dorobanţu, Cristina Mihaela; Mintoff, Christopher Paul; Branza-Nichita, Norica; Ladomery, Michael R; Kefalas, Panagiotis; Chedea, Veronica Sanda

    2013-12-15

    Grape seed extracts (GSEs) were investigated in yeast cells harbouring defects in their antioxidant system (regarding the cellular growth and growth recovery from H2O2 insult). GSEs antioxidant activity was detected in wild-type and mutant strains Δcta1, Δgsh1 and Δoye2glr1, while pro-oxidant activity in Δsod1 cells was seen. Assessment of proliferation of prostate cancer PC3 and HBV-replicating HepG2 2.2.15 cells treated with GSEs has shown higher cytotoxicity of red grape seed extract (RW) than white grape seed extract (WW) subjective to dose and period of administration. No antiviral effect was detected by measuring the secreted virion particles in HepG2 2.2.15 cells treated with GSEs. The GSEs play a dual antioxidant/pro-oxidant role in vivo according with the cellular antioxidant system deficiencies and exhibit cytotoxic properties in PC3 and HepG2 2.2.15 cell lines, but no antiviral action against HBV. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of fenugreek seed extract on adriamycin-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakr, Saber A; Abo-El-Yazid, Samah M

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of fenugreek seeds against hepatotoxicity induced in albino rats by the anticancer drug adriamycin (ADR). Animals were given single dose of ADR (10 mg/kg body weight) and were killed after 2 and 4 weeks. Liver of ADR-treated animals showed histopathological and biochemical alterations. The histopathological changes include hepatic tissue impairment, cytoplasmic vacuolization of the hepatocytes, congestion of blood vessels, leucocytic infiltrations and fatty infiltration. Moreover, the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen was increased in ADR-treated rats. The liver enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase (ALT) and alanine aminotransferase (AST) were increased in the sera of treated rats. Moreover, ADR significantly increased the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in hepatic tissue. Treating animals with ADR and aqueous extract of fenugreek (0.4 g/kg body weight) seeds led to an improvement in histological and biochemical alterations induced by ADR. The biochemical results showed that AST and ALT appeared normal together with reduction in the level of MDA (lipid peroxidation marker) and increase in SOD and CAT activities. It was concluded from this study that the aqueous extract fenugreek seeds has a beneficial impact on ADR-induced hepatotoxicity due to its antioxidant effect in albino rats.

  7. Extraction, Characterization, and Molecular Weight Determination of Senna tora (L. Seed Polysaccharide

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    Harshal A. Pawar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was extraction of polysaccharide from Senna tora L. seed and its characterization as a pharmaceutical excipient. Polysaccharide extraction was based on mechanical separation of the endosperm of seeds of Senna tora, water dissolution, centrifugation, and precipitation with acetone. Standard procedures were used to study the viscosity, micromeritic properties, and microbial bioburden. Accelerated stability study was carried out on isolated polysaccharide for six months at 40°C/75 RH as per ICH guidelines. The gum obtained from S. tora seeds was an amorphous free flowing odourless powder with dull brown colour (yield = 35% w/w. The bulk density, tapped density, and angle of repose data reveal that S. tora gum possesses good flow property. The intrinsic viscosity obtained was 1.568 dL/g. The average molecular weight of purified S. tora gum was found to be 198 kDa by intrinsic viscosity method. The results indicated that viscosity of gum solution increases with increase in temperature. FTIR study revealed the absence of degradation or decomposition of polysaccharide at accelerated stability conditions for six months. It has been concluded that extracted polysaccharide can be used as pharmaceutical excipient in terms of flow behavior, microbial properties, and stability.

  8. Extraction and partial purification of coagulation active components from common bean seed

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    Šćiban Marina B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An active coagulation component was extracted from common bean seed by NaCl solution and the obtained crude extract was partially purified through a sequence of steps that included precipitation of protein by ammonium sulphate, desalting by dialysis and anion exchange. A turbid water was treated by protein fractions obtained in the anion- exchange elution process by stepwise increase in NaCl concentration. The jar tests were conducted at various dosages of eluates. Different mode of relation between coagulation activity and applied coagulant dose for each protein fraction indicated the existence of different mechanisms of coagulation/flocculation, depending of characteristics of different proteins in the fractions.

  9. Lectins in extracts of certain Polygonaceae seed precipitate animal and human serums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanan, E B; Spindler, J W

    1968-06-28

    Seeds of four species of Polygonaceae were tested for lectins that precipitate human and animal serums. Rumex crispus, Polygonum convolvulus, and Polygonum pennsylvanicum developed specific precipitate bands on double diffusion on agar gel plates. These bands were enhanced and increased in number when extracts were tested against serums from patients with certain diseases. When tested against lyophilized serum, no precipitate bands developed. The active substance cannot be dialyzed through cellulose membrane against running tap water for 16 hours, and it is heat stable. Extracts from Fagopyrum esculentum developed no precipitate bands.

  10. Detoxification of Abrus precatorius L. seeds by Ayurvedic Shodhana process and anti-inflammatory potential of the detoxified extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar B Dhoble

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abrus precatorius seeds traditionally used for the treatment of sciatica and alopecia contains the toxic protein, abrin, a Type II Ribosome Inactivating Protein. Ayurveda recommends the use of Abrus seeds after the Shodhana process (detoxification. Objective: The current study was aimed at performing the Shodhana process, swedana (boiling of Abrus precatorius seeds using water as a medium and to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of seed extract post detoxification. Materials and Methods: Non-detoxified and detoxified extracts were prepared and subsequently subjected to various in vitro and in vivo assays. In hemagglutination assay, the non-detoxified extract shows higher agglutination of RBCs than detoxified extract indicating riddance of toxic hemagglutinating proteins by Shodhana. This was confirmed by the SDSPAGE analysis of detoxified extract revealing the absence of abrin band in detoxified extract when compared to non-detoxified extract. Results: The cytotoxicity assay in HeLa cell line expresses a higher reduction in growth percentage of the cells with non-detoxified extract as compared to detoxified extract indicating successful detoxification. Brine shrimp lethality test indicated the reduction in toxicity index of detoxified extract as compared to non-detoxified extract. Further, the whole body apoptosis assay in zebrafish revealed that percentage of viable cells were greater for detoxified extract than non-detoxified extract. The anti-inflammatory studies using carrageenan induced paw edema model in rats was carried out on the extracts with doses of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, per oral, where the detoxified extract exhibited significant inhibition of rat paw edema at both the doses comparable to that of Diclofenac sodium. Conclusion: Absence of toxicity and the retention of the anti-inflammatory activity of detoxified Abrus seed extract confirmed that the Swedana process is effective in carrying out the detoxification

  11. Antibacterial Effect of Carboxymethyl Cellulose Coating Enriched by Zataria Multiflora Essential Oil and Grape Seed Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raeisi, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The presence of pathogenicbacteria and the factors causing food spoilage are the greatchallenge for public health. Attention to natural additivesinstead of chemical preservatives resulted in conducting severalstudies on plant essential oil and extracts. We aimed atevaluating the antibacterial effect of carboxymethyl cellulosecoating enriched by Zataria multiflora essential oil and grapeseed extract on rainbow trout meat.Material and methods: In this study, two concentrations ofZataria multiflora essential oil (1% and 2% and twoconcentrations of grape seed extract (0.5% and 1% were usedboth alone and in combination with Carboxymethyl cellulosecoating. Antibacterial effect of these treatments was evaluatedby enumeration of bacteria in special culture media.Results: The results obtained in this study demonstrate thatZataria multiflora essential oil in combination with grape seedextract significantly can decrease the number of bacteria anddelay the spoilage of the samples (p<0.05.Conclusion: Coating enriched by Zataria multiflora and grapeseed extract can properly delay the growth of spoilagemicroorganisms and prolong the shelf life of meat products.Key words: Carboxymethyl cellulose coating, Zatariamultiflora essential oil, Grape seed extract, Microbial flora

  12. Acute Oral Toxicity of Methanolic Seed Extract of Cassia fistula in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreenivasan Sasidharan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Cassia fistula is widely used in traditional medicine to treat various types of ailments. The evaluation of toxic properties of C. fistula is crucial when considering public health protection because exposure to plant extracts can result in undesirable effects on consumers. Hence, in this study the acute oral toxicity of C. fistula seeds extract was investigated in mice. Results: Oral administration of crude extract at the highest dose of 5000 mg/kg resulted in no mortalities or evidence of adverse effects, implying that C. fistula in nontoxic. Throughout 14 days of the treatment no changes in behavioural pattern, clinical sign and body weight of mice in both control and treatment groups. Also there were no any significant elevations observed in the biochemical analysis of the blood serum. Further, histopathological examination revealed normal architecture and no significant adverse effects observed on the kidney, heart, liver, lung and spleen. Conclusions: Overall, the results suggest that, the oral administration of C. fistula methanolic seeds extract did not produce any significant toxic effect in mice. Hence, the extract can be utilized for pharmaceutical formulations.

  13. Assessment of the Anti-Protozoal Activity of Crude Carica papaya Seed Extract against Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Y. Acosta-Viana

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the in vivo activity against the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, two doses (50 and 75 mg/kg of a chloroform extract of Carica papaya seeds were evaluated compared with a control group of allopurinol. The activity of a mixture of the three main compounds (oleic, palmitic and stearic acids in a proportion of 45.9% of oleic acid, 24.1% of palmitic and 8.52% of stearic acid previously identified in the crude extract of C. papaya was evaluated at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg. Both doses of the extracts were orally administered for 28 days. A significant reduction (p < 0.05 in the number of blood trypomastigotes was observed in animals treated with the evaluated doses of the C. papaya extract in comparison with the positive control group (allopurinol 8.5 mg/kg. Parasitemia in animals treated with the fatty acids mixture was also significantly reduced (p < 0.05, compared to negative control animals. These results demonstrate that the fatty acids identified in the seed extracts of C. papaya (from ripe fruit are able to reduce the number of parasites from both parasite stages, blood trypomastigote and amastigote (intracellular stage.

  14. Exploring the Anticancer Activity of Grape Seed Extract on Skin Cancer Cell Lines A431

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mohansrinivasan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, grape seeds were extracted using ethyl acetate and petroleum ether by solvent-solvent extraction method. The phytochemical tests were performed to identify different phytochemical compounds present in the grape seed extract (GSE. Antibacterial activity of the GSE was determined using agar diffusion method against Gram- positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR analysis was done to identify the presence of bioactive compounds and their functional groups. The GC-MS results revealed a total of four compounds, known to have potent activity against cancer cells, viz, squalene, the most potent compound found in ethyl acetate extract and diethyl phthalate, ethyl-9- cis -11- trans octadecadienoate and (R-(--14,-methyl-8-Hexadecyn-1-ol in petroleum ether extract. Cytotoxic activity of the GSE was observed against skin cancer cell lines A4321 using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2-5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide MTT assay. The IC50 value of the GSE against A431 skin cancer cell line was 480 µg/mL. This is first such report against A4321 cell lines. The study gives the overall perception about importance of GSE in medicine and nutraceuticals purposes.

  15. Garcinia kola seeds: is the aqueous extract a true aphrodisiac in male Wistar rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubu, M T; Quadri, A L

    2012-01-01

    The age long acclaimed aphrodisiac potentials of Garcinia kola seeds in some parts of Western Nigeria has not been substantiated with scientific evidence. In this study, we have decided to evaluate the effect of aqueous seed extract of G. kola at the doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight on sexual behaviour of male rats. Male rats weighing 215.00 ± 18.58 g were randomized completely into four groups (A-D) of six animals each. Animals in group A received, orally, 0.5 ml of distilled water only while those in groups B, C and D received same volume containing 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight of the seed extract respectively. Frequencies of mount (MF), intromission (IF), genital toilet (GTF) and ejaculation (EF) as well as latencies of mount (ML), intromission (IL) and ejaculation (EL) were evaluated following the pairing of male rats (1:1) with non-oestrous female rats. The parameters were monitored for the first (15-30 min), second (75-90 min) and third (180195 min) observatory periods. The levels of testosterone, luteinizing (LH) and follicle stimulating hormones (FSH) were also determined. Phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of saponins (2.78%), cardiac glycosides (0.26%), cardenolides and dienolides (0.24%), flavonoids (1.28%) and steroids (1.14%). The 25 and 100 mg/kg body weight increased (P<0.05) the MF whereas the ML was decreased by all the doses of the extract. MF and ML were not altered during the second observatory period whereas the 50 mg/kg body weight increased these parameters during the third observatory period. Other sexual behaviour parameters as well as serum testosterone, FSH and LH were not significantly altered throughout the observatory periods. Overall, the results revealed that G. kola seeds did not have sex enhancing potential as claimed. Therefore, the acclaimed pro sexual effect of Garcinia kola seeds is scientifically untrue. This study has refuted the claim that one of the rationales for consuming the seeds

  16. EVALUATION OF ANTI-NOCICEPTIVE AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF PUNICA GRANATUM SEED EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Jeetendra Kumar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The plant Punica granatum of family Punicaceae is distributed throughout India and reputed to have numerous applications in traditional medicine system. In order to justify its folkloric use in nociception and inflammation, the study was performed.In this study, the extraction of Punica granatum seed extract was carried out in aqueous media. In order to explore its potency, various experimental models of anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities were taken. The oral administration of the extract 100mg and 200mg per kg body weight showed significant pharmacological action. Furthermore the anti-ulcer activity was carried out with the help of Indomethacin induced ulceration model using Mesoprostol as standard drug and it showed no ulcerogenic effect in wistar albino rats.Overall, the extract was found to be significant anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity with no ulcerogenic adverse effect.

  17. Studies on the Insecticidal and Repellent Properties of the Seed Extract of Tephrosia Purpurea (LINN Pers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. N. Saxena

    1974-04-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory and field trials were conducted to find out the insecticidal and repellent properties of petroleum ether extract of the seeds of Tephrosia purpurea. In laboratory trials contact toxicity of the extract was assessed against land leeches, houseflies, mosquitoes, rice weevil and flour beetle. In field trials, the repellency of the extract was assessed against land leeches, mosquitoes and simulium flies. In laboratory trials, the dosage required for 100 per cent mortality was 0.0005 gm/cm/sup 2/ for land leeches, 0.0157 gm/cm/sup 2/ for flour beetle. In field trials, the extract was found to be repellent against land leeches for 5 hours, mosquitoes for 4 hours and simulium flies for 5 hours.

  18. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTIMICROBIAL ASSAY OF VARIOUS SEEDS EXTRACT OF CUCURBITACEAE FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Sood

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the antimicrobial activity and phytochemical screening of seedsextract of five plants of Cucurbitaceae family- Momordica charantia(Karella, Cucumis sativa(Cucumber,Praecitrullus fistulosus(Tinda, Cucurbita pepo(Kaddu, Lagenaria siceraria (loki that are commonly availableand readily consumed in India. Results of antimicrobial activity revealed that all the seeds extracts were veryeffective against Serratia marcescens,E. coli, Streptococcus thermophilous,Fusarium oxysporium, Trichodermareesei while some extracts showed no inhibition againstAspergillus niger (Cucumis sativa, Candida albicans(Praecitrullus fistulosus, Cucurbita pepo, Lagenaria siceraria. Phytochemical analysis of these plants confirms thepresence of various phytochemicals like tannins, cardiac glycosides, terpenoides, carbohydrates, resins, saponinsand phytosterols. While other phtochemicals like alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, steroidal terpenes andphylobatamins were found to be absent in all the extracts. These plants can be a source of useful drugs but furtherstudies are required to isolate the active component from the crude plant extract for proper drug development.

  19. Assessment of the anti-protozoal activity of crude Carica papaya seed extract against Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Coello, Matilde; Guzman-Marín, Eugenia; Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Perez-Gutiérrez, Salud; Acosta-Viana, Karla Y

    2013-10-11

    In order to determine the in vivo activity against the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, two doses (50 and 75 mg/kg) of a chloroform extract of Carica papaya seeds were evaluated compared with a control group of allopurinol. The activity of a mixture of the three main compounds (oleic, palmitic and stearic acids in a proportion of 45.9% of oleic acid, 24.1% of palmitic and 8.52% of stearic acid previously identified in the crude extract of C. papaya was evaluated at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg. Both doses of the extracts were orally administered for 28 days. A significant reduction (p papaya extract in comparison with the positive control group (allopurinol 8.5 mg/kg). Parasitemia in animals treated with the fatty acids mixture was also significantly reduced (p papaya (from ripe fruit) are able to reduce the number of parasites from both parasite stages, blood trypomastigote and amastigote (intracellular stage).

  20. Optimization of protein extraction process from jackfruit seed flour by reverse micelle system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maycon Fagundes Teixeira Reis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of protein from flour of jackfruit seeds by reverse micelles was evaluated. Reverse micelle system was composed of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS as surfactant, butanol as solvent, and water. The effects of stirring time, temperature, molar ratio H2O SDS-1, concentration of butanol (mass percentage and flour mass were tested in batch systems. Based on the adjusted linear regression model, only butanol concentration provided optimum extraction conditions (41.16%. Based on the analysis of surface response, the best extraction yield could be obtained at 25°C, stirring time of 120 min, mass of flour of 100 mg, and a ratio H2O SDS-1 of 50. Experimental results showed that a 79.00% extraction yield could be obtained.

  1. Process optimization and characterization of fragrant oil from red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seed extracted by subcritical butane extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ling-Biao; Pang, Hui-Li; Lu, Ke-Ke; Liu, Hua-Min; Wang, Xue-De; Qin, Guang-Yong

    2017-04-01

    Red pepper seeds account for 450-500 g kg(-1) of the total pepper weight and are often discarded as waste. In this study, process optimization and characterization of fragrant oil from roasted red pepper seed extracted by subcritical butane extraction were carried out. The optimal conditions of extraction were a temperature of 74.61 °C, a time of 68.65 min and a liquid/solid ratio of 30.24:1. The oil had a refractive index (25 °C) of 1.471, a relative density of 0.900, an acid value of 1.421 mg g(-1) oil, an iodine value of 127.035 g per 100 g, a saponification value of 184.060 mg KOH g(-1) , an unsaponifiable matter content of 12.400 g kg(-1) , a peroxide value of 2.465 meq. O2 kg(-1) and a viscosity of 52.094 cP. The main fatty acids in the oil were linoleic acid (72.95%) followed by palmitic acid (11.43%) and oleic acid (10.00%). The oil showed desirable thermal and oxidative stability. A total of 19 volatile compounds, mostly aldehydes and alkenes, were identified from the oil. The results indicated that the method is appropriate for the preparation of fragrant red pepper seed oil, and the oil is suitable for used as edible oil. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Antifungal Activity of Leaf and Latex Extracts of Calotropis procera (Ait. against Dominant Seed-Borne Storage Fungi of Some Oil Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoorkar V B

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In present study, aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaf & latex of Calotropis procera (Ait. was tested for their antifungal activity against dominant storage seed-borne fungi of some oil seeds such as groundnut, soybean, sunflower and mustard. The antifungal effect of ethanol and aqueous extracts of leaf & latex of Calotropis procera (Ait. against ten seed-borne dominant fungi viz., Cuvularia lunata, Alternaria alternata, Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium solani, Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, A. terrus A. fumigatus, and Rhizopus sp.,were determined using agar well diffusion methods. The results revealed that ethanol was the best extractive solvent for antimicrobial properties of latex of C. procera followed by aqueous.

  3. The protective effects of Mucuna pruriens seed extract against histopathological changes induced by Malayan cobra (Naja sputatrix) venom in rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fung, S Y; Tan, N H; Liew, S H; Sim, S M; Aguiyi, J C

    2009-01-01

    ... (Malayan cobra) venom in rats pretreated with the seed extract. Examination by light microscope revealed that the venom induced histopathological changes in heart and blood vessels in liver, but no effect on brain, lung, kidney and spleen...

  4. Antioxidant, anti-alpha-glucosidase and pancreatic beta-cell protective effects of methanolic extract of Ensete superbum Cheesm seeds

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    Solomon Habtemariam

    2017-02-01

    Conclusions: The reputed antidiabetic therapeutic uses of the seeds extract of E. superbum may be justified on the basis of inhibition of carbohydrate enzymes, antioxidant effects and pancreatic β-cell protection.

  5. Antibacterial efficacy of the seed extracts of Melia azedarach against some hospital isolated human pathogenic bacterial strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Viqar Khan

    2011-12-01

    Conclusions: Results of this study strongly confirm that the seed extracts of M. azedarach could be effective antibiotics, both in controlling gram-positive and gram-negative human pathogenic infections.

  6. Extraction and Characterization of Tamarind (Tamarind indica L.) Seed Polysaccharides (TSP) from Three Difference Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawananorasest, Khanittha; Saengtongdee, Patsuda; Kaemchantuek, Praphakorn

    2016-06-15

    Tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP), a natural polysaccharide extracted from tamarind seeds is used in the pharmaceutical, textile and food industries as a mucoadhesive polymer. This work aimed to extract TSP from tamarind seeds from three sources with two methods and characterized its physical and chemical properties. Kernel powder of tamarind seeds was slurried into a clear solution, set aside overnight and then centrifuged at 6000 rpm for 20 min to separate all foreign matter. The supernatant was separated and poured into excess 95% ethanol with continuous stirring. The precipitate obtained was collected and dried in the oven and then the dried TSP polymer was stored in a desiccator. The dried TSP was analyzed by ¹H-NMR, FT-IR and XRD. The results showed TSP from tamarind seeds taken from paddy farmland (A), a waste from the export tamarind juice industry (B) and the export tamarind powder industry(C) gave yields of 31.55%, 26.95% and 17.30%, respectively, using method 1 and 11.15%, 53.65% and 54.65%, with method 2, respectively, but method 2 gave purer TSP than method 1. The FT-IR spectra displayed peaks at 3351.95 cm(-1), 2920.76 cm(-1), 1018.85 cm(-1) and 555.16 cm(-1). The ¹H-NMR showed polysaccharide peaks between δ 3.50-4.20 ppm and XRD diagrams indicated their amorphous nature. Future works will focus on the quantitative analysis, biological activity and possible use of TSP as a drug delivery system.

  7. Extraction and Characterization of Tamarind (Tamarind indica L. Seed Polysaccharides (TSP from Three Difference Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanittha Chawananorasest

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP, a natural polysaccharide extracted from tamarind seeds is used in the pharmaceutical, textile and food industries as a mucoadhesive polymer. This work aimed to extract TSP from tamarind seeds from three sources with two methods and characterized its physical and chemical properties. Kernel powder of tamarind seeds was slurried into a clear solution, set aside overnight and then centrifuged at 6000 rpm for 20 min to separate all foreign matter. The supernatant was separated and poured into excess 95% ethanol with continuous stirring. The precipitate obtained was collected and dried in the oven and then the dried TSP polymer was stored in a desiccator. The dried TSP was analyzed by 1H-NMR, FT-IR and XRD. The results showed TSP from tamarind seeds taken from paddy farmland (A, a waste from the export tamarind juice industry (B and the export tamarind powder industry(C gave yields of 31.55%, 26.95% and 17.30%, respectively, using method 1 and 11.15%, 53.65% and 54.65%, with method 2, respectively, but method 2 gave purer TSP than method 1. The FT-IR spectra displayed peaks at 3351.95 cm−1, 2920.76 cm−1, 1018.85 cm−1 and 555.16 cm−1. The 1H-NMR showed polysaccharide peaks between δ 3.50–4.20 ppm and XRD diagrams indicated their amorphous nature. Future works will focus on the quantitative analysis, biological activity and possible use of TSP as a drug delivery system.

  8. Antibacterial efficacy of the seed extracts of Melia azedarach against some hospital isolated human pathogenic bacterial strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdul Viqar Khan; Qamar Uddin Ahmed; M Ramzan Mir; Indu Shukla; Athar Ali Khan

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the antibacterial potential of the polar and non-polar extracts of the seeds of Melia azedarach (M. azedarach) L. (Meliaceae) against eighteen hospital isolated human pathogenic bacterial strains. Methods: Petrol, benzene, ethyl acetate, methanol, and aqueous extracts at five different concentrations (1, 2, 5, 10 and 15 mg/mL) were evaluated. Disk diffusion method was followed to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy. Results: All extracts of the seeds demonstrated significant antibacterial activity against tested pathogens. Among all extracts, ethyl acetate extract revealed the highest inhibition comparatively. The present study also favored the traditional uses reported earlier. Conclusions: Results of this study strongly confirm that the seed extracts of M. azedarach could be effective antibiotics, both in controlling gram-positive and gram-negative human pathogenic infections.

  9. Essential Oil Extraction of Fennel Seed (Foeniculum vulgare Using Steam Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrilia Damayanti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is a potential country in developing essential oils which is each part of the plants produce essential oils such as leaf, seed, fruit, and root. One of the potential plants is fennel. Fennel oil distillation used fennel seed from Cepogo District, Boyolali Regency. The characteristics of the seed are; the color is black and the length is 0,2 centimeters. The condition operation to exctract of the fennel seed are 1 atm and 7,5 hours. The calculation of the time started when the first fennel oil dropped into the decanter. It finished when the fennel oil was not dropped anymore. The color is bright and muddy. The last process is add 1% (m/m Na2SO4 anhidrous into fennel oil to absorp remain water in it. The distillation process produce fennel oil102,125 grams. Sample of fennel oil tested which are density test, solubility on 90% alcohol, GC-MS test, and AAS test. The result shows that fennel oil from the fennel seed is 2,0425%. The tested samples contain the brightest and the muddies sample. The density of 0,9500 and 0,949 g/cc respectively that is not fulfill to  the Food Chemical Codex (FCC. Samples solubility in 90% alcohol (1:3 is fulfill to the the Food Chemical Codex (FCC.  Three main components of the brightest sample are anethole (47,51%, estragole (22,41%, and  α-fensone (21,92% while the muddiest sample’s components are anethole (52,38%, estragole (21,37%,and α-fensone (15,74%. The AAS test shows that fennel oil contains 65,1473 ppm which does not fulfill the Indonesian National Standards of  patchouli and clove leaf oil. [Keywords— essential oil; extraction; fennel seed; steam distillation

  10. Valorization of waste obtained from oil extraction in moringa oleifera seeds: coagulation of reactive dyes in textile effluents

    OpenAIRE

    Mercè Vilaseca; Víctor López-Grimau; Carmen Gutiérrez-Bouzán

    2014-01-01

    Moringa oleifera seeds contain about 40% of highly valued oil due to its wide range of applications, from nutritional issues to cosmetics or biodiesel production. The extraction of Moringa oil generates a waste (65%–75% of seeds weight) which contains a water soluble protein able to be used either in drinking water clarification or wastewater treatment. In this paper, the waste of Moringa oleifera extraction was used as coagulant to remove five reactive dyes from synthetic textile effluents. ...

  11. An extract from date seeds stimulates endogenous insulin secretion in streptozotocin-induced type I diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed F. El Fouhil

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The efficacy of an extract from date seeds has been tested successfully on the glycemic control of type I diabetes mellitus in rats. A suggestion that date seed extract could stimulate certain cells to differentiate into insulin-secreting cells has been proposed. In order to investigate such a possibility, this study was conducted to measure C-peptide levels in the serum of type 1 diabetic rats treated with date seed extract. Methods: Two hundred rats were divided into 4 groups. Group I served as the control. Group II was given daily ingestions of 10 ml of date seed extract. Groups III and IV were made diabetic by streptozotocin injection and were given daily subcutaneous injections of 3 IU/day of insulin for 8 weeks. Group IV received, in addition, daily ingestions of 10 ml of seed extract. At the end of experiment, blood samples were collected from each rat, and blood glucose and serum Cpeptide levels were measured. Results: No significant differences in the means of blood glucose and serum C-peptide levels were observed between groups I (control group and II (date seed extract-treated control group. Group IV (date seed extract-insulin-treated diabetic group showed a statistically significant reduction in the mean blood glucose level compared to Group III (insulin-treated diabetic group. The mean serum C-peptide level was significantly higher in group IV compared to group III. Conclusion: Biochemical results suggested an increase in endogenous insulin secretion in the case of type 1 diabetic rats treated with date seed extract, which might be the cause of its hypoglycemic effect.

  12. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of camptothecin from Camptotheca acuminata seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JING Li-jia; LI Si-yang; CHANG Zui; WANG Yang; YAN Xiu-feng

    2011-01-01

    Naturally occurring camptothecin (CPT) is an important source of chemotherapeutic agents. The extraction from Camptotheca acuminata is still the main approach to obtain CPT compared with total synthesis. In the present study, ultrasound-assisted extractions (UAE) of CPT from C. acuminata seeds with alkaline solutions were investigated and CPT yield were determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. The conditions of alkaline species and concentrations, extraction time, extraction temperature and ultrasonic power were optimized.Results show that both Na3PO4 and Na2CO3 solutions gain good extraction yields, whereas Na3PO4 solution has stronger basicity and need higher concentration than Na2CO3 solution does, thus aqueous Na2CO3 is more beneficial for the extraction. The optimal condition was ultrasonically extracted with 0.5% aqueous Na2CO3 at 50℃ and ultrasonic power of 400 W for 60 min. Comparing with UAE with ethanol, the extraction with 0.5% Na2CO3 solution achieves higher yield. Moreover, aqueous Na2CO3 as a solvent has various advantages including non-toxicity, inflammable, non-corrosive and low cost, which ensure this UAE method is a superior method with high utilizing prospect.

  13. Antidepressant-like activity of n-hexane extract of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) seeds in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Dinesh; Sharma, Amandeep

    2006-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of an n-hexane extract of Myristica fragrans seeds on depression in mice by using the forced swim test (FST) and the tail suspension test (TST). M. fragrans extract (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg) was administered orally for 3 successive days to different groups of Swiss male young albino mice. M. fragrans extract significantly decreased immobility periods of mice in both the FST and the TST. The 10 mg/kg dose was found to be most potent, as indicated by the greatest decrease in the immobility period compared with the control. Furthermore, this dose of the extract was found to have comparable potency to imipramine (15 mg/kg i.p.) and fluoxetine (20 mg/kg i.p.). The extract did not have a significant effect on locomotor activity of mice. Prazosin (62.5 microg/kg i.p.; an alpha (1)-adrenoceptor antagonist), sulpiride (50 mg/kg i.p.; a selective D(2) receptor antagonist), and p-chlorophenylalanine (100 mg/kg i.p.; an inhibitor of serotonin synthesis) significantly attenuated the M. fragrans extract-induced antidepressant-like effect in the TST. Thus, extract of M. fragrans elicited a significant antidepressant-like effect in mice, when assessed in both the TST and the FST. The antidepressant-like effect of the extract seems to be mediated by interaction with the adrenergic, dopaminergic, and serotonergic systems.

  14. Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, Bacterial Canker of Tomato: 2. Comparison of the Effectiveness of Extraction Procedures and Sensitivity of Methods for Detection in Tomato Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Milijašević

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Two seed extraction procedures, used for detection of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm in artifficially infested tomato seed lots, were evaluated. A comparison of the efficiency of pathogen detection by using different extraction methods showed that a grinding procedure was more effective than soaking seed samples. The extraction by grinding resulted in a higher number of samples with Cmm colonies than did the method that included soaking. The detection threshold of Cmm in relation to seed sample size wasevaluated by adding different numbers of artificially infested seeds to uninfected samples of 2000 or 5000 seeds. Four detection methods were simultaneously compared for their sensitivity in Cmm detection in seeds: isolation on semiselective media (mSCM, D2ANX, mCNS, direct PCR from seed material, Bio-PCR with initial culturing of bacteria on NBY agar prior to PCR, and Enrichment PCR. The pathogen was detected in samples of 2000 seeds containing one, five and ten infested seeds, in at least two out of three replicates by threedetection methods (selective plating, direct PCR and Bio-PCR, using the grinding extraction method with an addition of centrifugation step. In samples of 5000 seeds, five infested seeds were detected in all replicates by the same detection methods. Similar resultswere obtained by the soaking extraction method. In Enrichment PCR, positive results were obtained only in samples of 2000 seeds containing five and ten infested seeds regardless of the extraction method.

  15. Antioxidant activity of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from barley seeds (Hordeum vulgare L.): stabilization of sunflower oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anwar, F.; Abdul Qayyum, H. M.; Hussein, A. I.; Iqbal, S.

    2010-07-01

    The antioxidant potential of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from the seeds of three barley varieties (Jou 83, Jou 87 and Haider 93) was assessed. The extract yields from barley seeds ranged from 3.23% (Haider 93,100% methanol) to 5.31% (Jou 83, 80% methanol). The total phenolic contents, DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 values) and inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation of barley seed extracts (BSE) were determined to be 88.1-145.7 mg/100g, 90.8-168.6 {mu}g/mL and 62.6-74.6%, respectively. The antioxidant effectiveness of BSE was also assessed by stabilizing sunflower oil (SFO) with BSE at a concentration of 600 ppm (oil weight basis). The stabilized (treated with extract) and the control (without extract addition) SFO samples were subjected to accelerated (oven heating at 60 degree centigrade for 30 days, 8 h heating cycle/day) storage. These were analyzed at regular intervals for the extent of oxidative changes according to the measurements of their contents of peroxide value, para-anisidine value, conjugated dienes and conjugated trienes. Generally, the 80% methanol extract of barely seeds demonstrated better antioxidant action than the 100% methanol extract. The antioxidant activity of BSE was also found to be considerably varied among the varieties tested. The present results suggest that antioxidant extracts from barely seeds might be used to protect vegetable oils from oxidation. (Author) 32 refs.

  16. Clastogenicity of Piper cubeba (Piperaceae seed extract in an in vivo mammalian cell system

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    Adriana Pereira Freire Junqueira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The plant Piper cubeba is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions and is used medically for various purposes but has not yet been evaluated for genotoxicity. We used male and female Swiss mice and Wistar rats and the comet assay and micronucleus test to investigate the mutagenic potential of a crude extract of P. cubeba seeds. The rodents were administered 0.5 g kg-1, 1.0 g kg-1 and 1.5 g kg-1 of the extract by gavage. For the Swiss mice, peripheral blood was collected 24 h after treatment for the comet assay, and at 48 and 72 h for the micronucleus test. For the Wistar rats, peripheral blood and hepatic cells were collected for the comet assay and bone marrow cells were collected for the micronucleus test 24 h after treatment. At 1.5 g kg-1, the highest dose tested, the extract induced a statistically significant increase in both the mean number of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes and the level of DNA damage in the rodent cell types analyzed. Under our experimental conditions, the P. cubeba seed extract was genotoxic in vivo when administered orally to mice and rats.

  17. Antioxidant activities of tamarind (Tamarindus Indica) seed coat extracts using in vitro and in vivo models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandesh, P; Velu, V; Singh, R P

    2014-09-01

    Tamarindus indica seed coat was extracted with methanol, acetone and water and screened for DPPH radical scavenging activities. Methanol extract showed higher activity than other extracts. Treatment of albino rats (Wistar strain) with CCl4 at 1.25 mL/kg of body weight decreased superoxide dismutase (55 %), catalase (73 %) and peroxidase (78 %), while lipid peroxidation increased nearly 2.5 fold in liver. Pretreatment of rats with methanol extract of T. Indica seed coat (TSCE) at 50 mg/kg (as tannic acid equivalents) followed by CCl4 treatment, caused restoration of superoxide dismutase, catalase and lipid peroxidation to values close to control while peroxidase was restored to 67 % of the control. Histopathological studies of liver of different groups supported the protective effects of TSCE by restoring the hepatic architecture. These studies could be further extended to exploit its possible application for the preservation of food products as well as a health supplement and neutraceutical.

  18. Anticonvulsant activity of the ethanolic extract of Punica granatum L. seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrzadi, Saeed; Sadr, Samir; Hosseinzadeh, Azam; Gholamine, Babak; Shahbazi, Ali; FallahHuseini, Hasan; Ghaznavi, Habib

    2015-06-01

    Various morphological parts of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) have extensively been used in the folk medicine to treat an array of human ailments. The aim of the present study is to demonstrate the anticonvulsant potential of the ethanolic extract of P. granatum L. seed in chemoconvulsant-induced seizures in mice. The anticonvulsant activity of the ethanolic extract was investigated in strychnine (STR)-induced and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizure models in mice. Diazepam was used as reference anticonvulsant drug. Ethanolic extract (150, 300, and 600 mg/kg per os, p.o.), diazepam (1 mg/kg intraperitoneally, i.p.), and distilled water (10 ml/kg, i.p.) were administered before induction of seizures by PTZ (60 mg/kg, i.p.) or STR (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.). The latent time before the onset of convulsions, the duration of convulsions, the percentage of seizure protection, and mortality rate were recorded. The seed ethanolic extract did not show any toxicity and did not protect the animals against seizures but demonstrated a significant increase in seizure latency at 300 and 600 mg/kg in both STR and PTZ seizure models (P anticonvulsant activity against STR- and PTZ-induced seizures. This activity might be due to its saponins, flavonoids, triterpenes, and alkaloids ingredients.

  19. In Vitro Antilisterial Properties of Crude Methanol Extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel Seeds

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    Dambudzo Penduka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel seeds were screened for their antilisterial activities against 42 Listeria bacteria isolated from wastewater effluents. The extract had activity against 45% of the test bacteria and achieved minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs ranging between 0.157 and 0.625 mg/mL. The rate of kill of the extract was determined against four representative Listeria species in the study, and the results showed that the highest percentage of bacteria cells were killed after the maximum exposure time of 2 h at the highest concentration of 4×MIC value, with the maximum number of bacteria cells killed being for L. ivanovii (LEL 30 100%, L. monocytogenes (LAL 8 94.686%, L. ivanovii (LEL 18 60.330%, and L. grayi (LAL 15 56.071% We therefore conclude that the nature of inhibition of the crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola seeds can be either bactericidal or bacteriostatic depending on the target Listeria species and can also differ among same species as evidenced by L. ivanovii strains LEL 30 and LEL 18.

  20. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF AQUEOUS AND METHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF LAGENARIA SICERARIA SEEDS IN GENTAMICIN INDUCED NEPHROTOXICITY

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    Mahurkar N.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to carry out the preliminary phytochemical studies and nephroprotective activity of metahanolic and aqueous extracts of Lagenaria siceraria seeds, family cucurbitaceae. These studies revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins (ellagitannins, saponins, polyphenols, triterpenes, lagenin (protein in the extracts. The extract was found to be potent diuretic which causes excretion of sodium and potassium. Gentamicin is an extensively used aminolgycoside antibiotic. It has been reported to produce nephrotoxicity even at normal therapeutic dose level. Gentamicin was administrated intraperitonealy at a dose of 80mg/kg body weight for 9 days. The biochemical parameters viz. serum createnine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN and serum uric acid was found to be significantly increased whereas serum total protein was decreased. Histopathological sections showed marked glomerular, peritubular and blood vessel congestion. These increased levels of biochemical parameters and extent of renal damage were decreased by the methanolic and aqueous extracts of Lagenaria siceraria seeds at a dose of 250mg/kg, Cystone tab. (500mg/kg was used as reference standard to compare with the toxicant and test group animals.

  1. Phytochemical screening and free radical scavenging activity of Citrullus colocynthis seeds extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nabila Benariba; Rabeh Djaziri; Wafaa Bellakhdar; Nacera Belkacem; Marcel Kadiata; Willy J Malaisse; Abdullah Sener

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the phytochemical screening of different extracts from Citrullus colocynthis (C. colocynthis ) seeds extracts and to assess their antioxidant activity on the DPPH free radical scavenging. Methods: Phytochemical screening, total content of polyphenols and flavonoids ofC. colocynthis seeds extracts, including a crude aqueous extract (E1), a defatted aqueous extract (E2), a hydromethanolic extract (HM), an ethyl acetate extract (EA) and a n-butanol extract (n-B) was carried out according to the standard methods and to assess their corresponding effect on the antioxidant activity of this plant. Results: None of these extracts contained detectable amount of alkaloid, quinone, antraquinone, or reducing sugar. Catechic tannins and flavonoids were abundant in E1, HM and EA, whilst terpenoids were abundantly present in E1 and n-B but only weekly in HM. Coumarins were found in E2, EA and n-B. Polyphenols, expressed as gallic acid equivalent, amounted, per 100 g plant matter, to 329, 1002 and 150 mg in EA, HM an E1 respectively. Flavonoids, expressed as catechin equivalent, amounted, per 100 g plant matter to 620, 241 and 94 mg in EA, HM and E1 respectively. Comparable values were found in n-B and E1, with lower values in E2. Quercetin, myricetin and gallic acid were found in the EA and HM extracts by thin layer chromatography, The antioxidative effect of these extracts yielded, when tested at a concentration of 2000 μg/mL in a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay, a reducing percentage of 88.8% with EA, 74.5% with HM and 66.2% with E1, and corresponding IC50 of 350, 580 and 500 μg/mL as compared to 1.1 μg/mL for ascorbic acid. Conclusions: These qualitative and quantitative analytical data document the presence in C. colocynthis extracts of such chemical compounds as flavonoids responsible for the antioxidant activity, as well as other biological activities of this plant.

  2. Nutritional Composition, in vitro Antioxidant Activity and Artemia salina L. Lethality of Pulp and Seed of Tamarindus indica L. Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairunnuur, F A; Zulkhairi, A; Azrina, A; Moklas, Ma M; Khairullizam, S; Zamree, M S; Shahidan, M A

    2009-03-01

    This study was designed to examine the nutritional composition, antioxidant activity and medium lethal concentration (LC50 value) of Tamarindus indica L. pulp and seed extracts in vitro. The extraction was set at 40◦C, 60◦C and 100◦C for 12 hours, 6 hours and 15 minutes respectively to determine the optimum extraction parameter whereas the anti-oxidant activity of the extracts was measured using iron (III) reduction (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) of the extracts was estimated as gallic acid equivalent by Folin-Ciocalteau method. Toxicity potential of the extract was assessed in vitro by Artemia salina lethality test both in seed and pulp samples. The results showed that tamarind seed contained a higher percentage of carbohydrate, protein, fat and energy (15%, 82%, 95% and 33.13% respectively) than the pulp. On the other hand, the pulp demonstrated a high moisture (51.1%) and ash (34.84%) content than the seed. For the mineral analysis, tamarind seed contained higher Ca and C (1.0% and 50.73% respectively) than the pulp (0.27% and 40.40% respectively). No heavy metals were detected in both samples. Seed extracted at 60◦C/6 hours and 100◦C/15 minutes showed the highest TPC value and were significantly different (pseed extracted at 40◦C/12 hours. Anti-oxidant activity is positively correlated to the TPC value of the extracts (R=0.991). The pulp and seed extracted at 100◦C/15 minutes showed the highest FRAP value among its groups (216.17 ± 14.06 μmol (Fe)/g and 659.74 ± 16.40 μmol (Fe)/g respectively). This study indicates that tamarind pulp and seed extracts possess beneficial antioxidant properties and the optimum extraction parameter is 100◦C for 15 minutes. In Artemia salina lethality test, tamarind pulp caused significant mortality of the crustacean larvae with LC50 in the range of 26-28 μL/mL. Tamarind seed were not toxic to Artemia salina since the LC50 of the extracts was higher than 1000 μL/mL.

  3. Fast microwave-assisted extraction of rotenone for its quantification in seeds of yam bean (Pachyrhizus sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautié, Emmanuelle; Rasse, Catherine; Rozet, Eric; Mourgues, Claire; Vanhelleputte, Jean-Paul; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to find if fast microwave-assisted extraction could be an alternative to the conventional Soxhlet extraction for the quantification of rotenone in yam bean seeds by SPE and HPLC-UV. For this purpose, an experimental design was used to determine the optimal conditions of the microwave extraction. Then the values of the quantification on three accessions from two different species of yam bean seeds were compared using the two different kinds of extraction. A microwave extraction of 11 min at 55°C using methanol/dichloromethane (50:50) allowed rotenone extraction either equivalently or more efficiently than the 8-h-Soxhlet extraction method and was less sensitive to moisture content. The selectivity, precision, trueness, accuracy, and limit of quantification of the method with microwave extraction were also demonstrated.

  4. Effects of Tamarind (Tamarindus indicus Linn) seed extract on Russell's viper (Daboia russelli siamensis) venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maung, K M; Lynn, Z

    2012-12-01

    Snake bite has been regarded as an important health problem in Myanmar since early 1960's. In the recent years, there has been growing interest in alternative therapies and therapeutic use of natural products, especially those derive from plants. In Myanmar and Indian traditional medicine, various plants have used as a remedy for treating snake bite. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of alcohol extract of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica Linn.) seed on some biologic properties of Russell's viper (Daboia russelli siamensis) venom (RVV). The Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzyme, coagulase enzyme and caseinolytic enzyme activities of Russell's viper venom (RVV) were reduced when mixed and incubated with the extract. When the RVV and the different amount of extracts were preincubated and injected intramuscularly into mice, all of them survived, but all the mice in the control group died. On the other hand, when RVV were injected first followed by the extract into mice, all of them died. If the extract was injected near the site where Russell's viper venom was injected, all the mice survived for more than 24 hours and the survival time prolonged but they all died within 96 hours. In conclusion, according to the results obtained, the extract neutralizes some biologic properties of the Russell's viper venom and prolonged the survival time if the extract was injected near the site where the Russell's viper venom was injected.

  5. Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Raspberry Seed Oil and Evaluation of Its Physicochemical Properties, Fatty Acid Compositions and Antioxidant Activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Teng

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic-assisted extraction was employed for highly efficient separation of aroma oil from raspberry seeds. A central composite design with two variables and five levels was employed and effects of process variables of sonication time and extraction temperature on oil recovery and quality were investigated. Optimal conditions predicted by response surface methodology were sonication time of 37 min and extraction temperature of 54°C. Specifically, ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE was able to provide a higher content of beneficial unsaturated fatty acids, whereas conventional Soxhlet extraction (SE resulted in a higher amount of saturated fatty acids. Moreover, raspberry seed oil contained abundant amounts of edible linoleic acid and linolenic acid, which suggest raspberry seeds could be valuable edible sources of natural γ-linolenic acid products. In comparison with SE, UAE exerted higher free radical scavenging capacities. In addition, UAE significantly blocked H2O2-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS generation.

  6. Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Raspberry Seed Oil and Evaluation of Its Physicochemical Properties, Fatty Acid Compositions and Antioxidant Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Hui; Chen, Lei; Huang, Qun; Wang, Jinli; Lin, Qiyang; Liu, Mingxin; Lee, Won Young; Song, Hongbo

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonic-assisted extraction was employed for highly efficient separation of aroma oil from raspberry seeds. A central composite design with two variables and five levels was employed and effects of process variables of sonication time and extraction temperature on oil recovery and quality were investigated. Optimal conditions predicted by response surface methodology were sonication time of 37 min and extraction temperature of 54°C. Specifically, ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) was able to provide a higher content of beneficial unsaturated fatty acids, whereas conventional Soxhlet extraction (SE) resulted in a higher amount of saturated fatty acids. Moreover, raspberry seed oil contained abundant amounts of edible linoleic acid and linolenic acid, which suggest raspberry seeds could be valuable edible sources of natural γ-linolenic acid products. In comparison with SE, UAE exerted higher free radical scavenging capacities. In addition, UAE significantly blocked H2O2-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation.

  7. Dye-sensitized solar cells with natural dyes extracted from achiote seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Ortiz, N.M.; Vazquez-Maldonado, I.A.; Azamar-Barrios, J.A.; Oskam, G. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, CINVESTAV-IPN, Merida, Yuc. 97310 (Mexico); Perez-Espadas, A.R.; Mena-Rejon, G.J. [Laboratorio de Quimica Organica de Investigacion, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan, Merida, Yuc. 97150 (Mexico)

    2010-01-15

    We have explored the application of natural dyes extracted from the seeds of the achiote shrub (Bixa orellana L.) in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The main pigments are bixin and norbixin, which were obtained by separation and purification from the dark-red extract (annatto). The dyes were characterized using {sup 1}H-NMR, FTIR spectroscopy, and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Solar cells were prepared using TiO{sub 2} and ZnO nanostructured, mesoporous films and the annatto, bixin, and norbixin as sensitizers. The best results were obtained with bixin-sensitized TiO{sub 2} solar cells with efficiencies of up to 0.53%, illustrating the importance of purification of dyes from natural extracts. (author)

  8. Repellency of the oily extract of neem seeds (Azadirachta indica) against Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gómez, Rebeca; Otero-Colina, Gabriel; Villanueva-Jiménez, Juan A; Peña-Valdivia, Cecilia Beatriz; Santizo-Rincón, José Antonio

    2012-03-01

    A crude oil extract of neem seed (Azadirachta indica, Sapindales: Meliaceae) was evaluated for repellency on Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman. Burgerjon's tower was used to spray worker bee pupae with 0.0, 0.3, 0.7, 1.3, 2.6, 5.3, 10.6 and 21.1% neem extract concentrations. Sprayed pupae were attached to observation arenas and incubated at 32 ± 2°C and 70 ± 10% RH. The ability of V. destructor to locate and feed on treated and untreated pupae was monitored from 30 min to 72 h after spray. Higher and more stable repellency was achieved with 2.6, 5.3, 10.6 and 21.1% neem extract. At the highest concentration, 98% of V. destructor were prevented to settle on bee pupae, resulting in 100% V. destructor mortality at 72 h.

  9. Inhibitory effect of a novel combination of Salvia hispanica (chia) seed and Punica granatum (pomegranate) fruit extracts on melanin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwakar, Ganesh; Rana, Jatinder; Saito, Lisa; Vredeveld, Doug; Zemaitis, Dorothy; Scholten, Jeffrey

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, dietary fatty acids have been extensively evaluated for nutritional as well as cosmetic benefits. Among the dietary fats, the omega-3 (ω3) and omega-6 (ω6) forms of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been found to exhibit many biological functions in the skin such as prevention of transepidermal water loss, maintenance of the stratum corneum epidermal barrier, and disruption of melanogenesis in epidermal melanocytes. In this study, we examined the effect of chia seed extract, high in ω3 (linolenic acid) and ω6 (linoleic acid) PUFAs, for its capacity to affect melanogenesis. Chia seed extract was shown to inhibit melanin biosynthesis in Melan-a cells; however, linoleic and α-linolenic acids alone did not effectively reduce melanin content. Further investigation demonstrated that chia seed extract in combination with pomegranate fruit extract had a synergistic effect on the inhibition of melanin biosynthesis with no corresponding effect on tyrosinase activity. Investigation of the possible mechanism of action revealed that chia seed extract downregulated expression of melanogenesis-related genes (Tyr, Tyrp1, and Mc1r), alone and in combination with pomegranate fruit extract, suggesting that the inhibition of melanin biosynthesis by a novel combination of chia seed and pomegranate fruit extracts is possibly due to the downregulation of gene expression of key melanogenic enzymes.

  10. Cytotoxicity and apoptotic cell death induced by Vitis vinifera peel and seed extracts in A431 skin cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace Nirmala, J; Evangeline Celsia, S; Swaminathan, Akila; Narendhirakannan, R T; Chatterjee, Suvro

    2017-10-05

    Vitis vinifera. L is one of the most widely consumed fruits in the world and are rich in antioxidant abundant polyphenols. The present study was carried out to assess the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of Vitis vinifera peel and seed extracts in an in vitro model using human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cell lines. Vitis vinifera peel and seed extracts were incubated with A431 cells to evaluate the antiproliferative, apoptotic effects and the morphological apoptotic changes induced by the extracts. Mitochondrial membrane potential was also measured after incubating the cells with extracts. At the inhibitory concentration (IC50), grape seed extract (111.11 µg/mL) and grape peel extract (319.14 µg/mL) were incubated for 24 h with A431 cells. Vitis vinifera peel and seed extracts were able to impart cytotoxic effects, induced apoptosis and apoptotic morphological changes in A431 cells significantly (p Vitis vinifera peel and seed phytochemicals can selectively target cancer cells and the phytochemicals that are occluded can serve as potential anticancer agents providing better efficacy in killing cancer cells.

  11. Modeling of extraction process of crude polysaccharides from Basil seeds (Ocimum basilicum l.) as affected by process variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Fakhreddin; Kashaninejad, Mahdi; Tadayyon, Ali; Arabameri, Fatemeh

    2015-08-01

    Basil seed (Ocimum basilicum L.) has practical amounts of gum with good functional properties. In this work, extraction of gum from Basil seed was studied. Effect of pH, temperature and water/seed ratio on the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters; entropy, enthalpy and free energy of extraction were investigated. The maximum gum yield was 17.95 % at 50 °C for pH=7 and water/seed ratio 30:1. In this study, the experimental data were fitted to a mathematical model of mass transfer and equations constants were obtained. The kinetic of Basil seed gum extraction was found to be a first order mass transfer model. Statistical results indicated that the model used in this study will be able to predict the gum extraction from Basil seed adequately. It also found that ΔH and ΔS were positive and ΔG was negative indicating that the extraction process was spontaneous, irreversible and endothermic. The ΔH, ΔS and ΔG values were 0.26-7.87 kJ/mol, 8.12-33.2 J/mol K and 1.62-4.42 kJ/mol, respectively.

  12. Optimized H{sup -} extraction in an argon-magnesium seeded magnetized sheet plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noguera, Virginia R. [Plasma Physics Laboratory, National Institute of Physics, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City 1101 (Philippines)], E-mail: virginia.noguera@gmail.com; Blantocas, Gene Q. [Plasma Physics Laboratory, National Institute of Physics, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City 1101 (Philippines); West Visayas State University, Lapaz, Iloilo City 5000 (Philippines); Ramos, Henry J. [Plasma Physics Laboratory, National Institute of Physics, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City 1101 (Philippines)

    2008-06-15

    The enhancement and optimization of H{sup -} extraction through argon and magnesium seeding of hydrogen discharges in a magnetized sheet plasma source are reported. The paper first presents the modification of the production chamber into a hexapole multicusp configuration resulting in decreased power requirements, improved plasma confinement and longer filament lifetime. By this, a wider choice of discharge currents for sustained quiescent plasmas is made possible. Second, the method of adding argon to the hydrogen plasma similar to the scheme in Abate and Ramos [Y. Abate, H. Ramos, Rev. Sci. Instr. 71 (10) (2000) 3689] was performed to find the optimum conditions for H{sup -} formation and extraction. Using an E x B probe, H{sup -} yields were investigated at varied argon-hydrogen admixtures, different discharge currents and spatial points relative to the core plasma. The optimum H{sup -} current density extracted at 3.0 cm from the plasma core using 3.0 A plasma current with 10% argon seeding increased by a factor of 2.42 (0.63 A/m{sup 2}) compared to the measurement of Abate and Ramos [Y. Abate, H. Ramos, Rev. Sci. Instr. 71 (10) (2000) 3689]. Third, the argon-hydrogen plasma at the extraction chamber is seeded with magnesium. Mg disk with an effective area of 22 cm{sup 2} is placed at the extraction region's anode biased 175 V with respect to the cathode. With Mg seeding, the optimum H{sup -} current density at the same site and discharge conditions increased by 4.9 times (3.09 A/m{sup 2}). The enhancement effects were analyzed vis-a-vis information gathered from the usual Langmuir probe (electron temperature and density), electron energy distribution function (EEDF) and the ensuing dissociative attachment (DA) reaction rates at different spatial points for various plasma discharges and gas ratios. Investigations on the changes in the effective electron temperature and electron density indicate that the enhancement is due to increased density of low

  13. Influence of extraction solvents on antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the pulp and seed of Anisophyllea laurina R. Br. ex Sabine fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gbago Onivogui

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Our results therefore demonstrated that ethanol and methanol extractions were more efficient in extracting antioxidants and bioactive compound in pulp and seed. These results support that these plant extracts can be used for the treatment of bacterial infections.

  14. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds, antioxidants, and anthocyanins from grape (Vitis vinifera) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoor, Kashif; Choi, Yong Hee; Jeon, Ju Yeong; Jo, In Hee

    2009-06-10

    Important functional components from Campbell Early grape seed were extracted by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) technology. The experiments were carried out according to a five level, three variable central composite rotatable design (CCRD). The best possible combinations of ethanol concentration, extraction temperature, and extraction time with the application of ultrasound were obtained for the maximum extraction of phenolic compounds, antioxidant activities, and anthocyanins from grape seed by using response surface methodology (RSM). Process variables had significant effect on the extraction of functional components with extraction time being highly significant for the extraction of phenolics and antioxidants. The optimal conditions obtained by RSM for UAE from grape seed include 53.15% ethanol, 56.03 degrees C temperature, and 29.03 min time for the maximum total phenolic compounds (5.44 mg GAE/100 mL); 53.06% ethanol, 60.65 degrees C temperature, and 30.58 min time for the maximum antioxidant activity (12.31 mg/mL); and 52.35% ethanol, 55.13 degrees C temperature, and 29.49 min time for the maximum total anthocyanins (2.28 mg/mL). Under the above-mentioned conditions, the experimental total phenolics were 5.41 mg GAE/100 mL, antioxidant activity was 12.28 mg/mL, and total anthocyanins were 2.29 mg/mL of the grape seed extract, which is well matched with the predicted values.

  15. Studies on the anti-diarrheal properties of seed extract of Monodora tenuifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M O Ezenwali

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The anti-diarrheal effect of methanol extract (ME of seeds of Monodora tenuifolia Benth (Annonaceae, a wildly growing orchid flowering tree whose seed is traditionally used as antidiarrhea remedy, was studied using rodent models of diarrhea, enteropooling and gastrointestinal motility induced by castor oil. Acute toxicity and lethality (LD50 and phytochemical constituents of ME were also evaluated. The results showed that ME significantly (P<0.05 reduced the watery texture and number of fecal droppings over 4 h. It also significantly (P<0.05 reduced the volume and weight of intestinal content in a non-dose-related manner. On gastro-intestinal motility, ME significantly (P<0.05 reduced the small intestinal transit of charcoal meal in mice induced by castor oil in a non-dose-related manner. Phytochemical analysis showed that ME tested positive to carbohydrates, saponins, proteins, resins, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, steroids, fats and oil. Acute toxicity and lethality studies on ME revealed an oral LD50 greater than 5000 mg/kg in mice. These results showed that seeds of M. tenuifolia possess anti-diarrheal properties mediated through inhibition of hyper-secretion and gastrointestinal motility which substantiate the use in the treatment of diarrhea in traditional medicine. Industrial relevance: The industrial relevance of findings from this study derives from the possibility of formulating the powdered seed of this plant or its alcohol extract, into a herbal anti-diarrhea remedy. From this study and the age long use as condiment, toxicity may not preclude use as a medicament.

  16. Which is the best grape seed additive for frankfurters: extract, oil or flour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özvural, Emin Burçin; Vural, Halil

    2014-03-15

    Grape seed products (winery by-products) are valuable vegetable sources to enhance the quality of meat products. In this study, 21 treatments of frankfurters, in three different groups, including 0%, 0.01%, 0.03%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.3% and 0.5% grape seed extract (GSE), 0%, 1%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% grape seed oil (GSO), and 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5% grape seed flour (GSF) were produced in order to compare the differences among them during refrigerated storage for 90 days. Increasing the level of GSO made the frankfurters lighter in color (P < 0.05). Lipid oxidation of all the 21 frankfurters were under the limit of deterioration (2.0 mg malonaldehite kg⁻¹ treatment) during 90 days' storage. However, increasing the amount of additives (GSE, GSO and GSF) led to a decrease in overall acceptability for each group. According to the general comparison of the three frankfurter groups in terms of lipid oxidation, TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) values of the frankfurters including GSE and GSF were found to be similar, but the frankfurters containing GSO exhibited the highest lipid oxidation (P < 0.05). While the products including GSE were the most acceptable group in terms of overall acceptability, the group produced with GSF received the lowest points (P < 0.05). Although the three grape seed products have partially undesirable effects on the sensory characteristics of the frankfurters, all these additives showed different positive influences in the production of frankfurters. The results showed that the group of frankfurters including GSE was the best of three different groups of products due to the lipid oxidation and overall acceptability results. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Effect of lupine (Lupinus termis seeds or their water extract on alloxan diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Hassan and M. M. El-Komy

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus represents a major public health problem. Much of the increased mortality and morbidity seen in diabetic patients is the result of various complications. Free radicals play an important role in the cause of complications of diabetes mellitus such as retinopathy, nephropathy, hypertension, arteriosclerosis and ischemic heart diseases. Many secondary plant metabolites have been shown to possess antioxidant activities, improving the effects of oxidative stress in diabetic patient. Thus the present study tries to evaluate the role of different preparations from Lupinus termis as a hypoglycemic agent. Alloxan diabetic rats were orally treated with either 5 ml/Kg b.wt/day aqueous lupine seeds extract or 20% w/w in diet edible boiled lupine seeds powder or 20% w/w dry lupine seeds powder for 30 days. The results recorded high levels of glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol as well as low levels of total protein, HDL-cholesterol, liver glycogen and serum insulin in diabetic rats. Phospholipids content was increased in the serum but decreased in the liver and pancreas of diabetic rats. In addition, the results confirmed that the alloxan diabetic rats were subjected to oxidative stress as indicated by the extent of lipid peroxidation (high malondialdehide levels present in the liver and pancreas and significantly alter activities of some scavenging enzymes (low glutathione reductase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase and catalase. On the other hand, after administration of any one of the used preparations of lupine seeds, the diabetic rats revealed an improvement on various metabolic abnormalities as well as oxidative stress recorded with diabetes but the best improvement occurred in the animal group treated with dry seeds powder. These results give a good evidence for the amelioration effect of lupine against the alloxan diabetic effects.

  18. Antioxidant effect of supercritical CO2 extracted Nigella sativa L. seed extract on deep fried oil quality parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solati, Zeinab; Baharin, Badlishah Sham

    2015-06-01

    Effect of supercritical CO2 extracted Nigella sativa L. seed extract (NE) on frying performance of sunflower oil and refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm olein was investigated at concentrations of 1.2 % and 1.0 % respectively. Two frying systems containing 0 % N. sativa L. extract (Control) and 0.02 % butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were used for comparison. Physicochemical properties such as fatty acid composition (FAC), Peroxide Value (PV), Anisidine Value (AV), Totox Value (TV), Total Polar Content (TPC), C18:2/C16:0 ratio and viscosity of frying oils were determined during five consecutive days of frying. Results have shown that N. sativa L. extract was able to improve the oxidative stability of both frying oils during the frying process compared to control. The stabilizing effect of antioxidants were in the order of BHT > NE. RBD palm olein was found to be more stable than sunflower oil based on the ratio of linoleic acid (C18:2) to palmitic acid (C16:0) and fatty acid composition.

  19. Antioxidative and prooxidative effects in food lipids and synergism with α-tocopherol of açaí seed extracts and grape rachis extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melo, Priscilla Siqueira; Arrivetti, Leandro de Oliveira Rodrigues; de Alencar, Severino Matias;

    2016-01-01

    Extracts of açaí seed and of grape rachis alone or in combination with α-tocopherol were evaluated as antioxidants in (i) bulk soybean oil, (ii) soybean oil liposomes and (iii) soybean-oil/water emulsions. The extracts made with 57% aqueous ethanol showed an antioxidant activity not dependent on ...

  20. Characterization and Utilization of castor bean seed oil extract for production of medicated soap.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrasheed A

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The research work is to investigate the potential utilization of castor bean seed oil extract in the production of medicated soap. The oil was extracted via soxhlet extractor using hexane as solvent. The characterization analysis reveals the acid value and saponification value of the oil which were between the ranges of values specified by ASTM. The soap produced gave a pH of (8.9, foam height (16cm, alcohol insoluble (3.45%, moisture content (4.2% and free acidity of (0.10. The antibacterial activity of soap produced from castor oil on bacteria isolate (Staphylococcus Aureus was promising with an inhibition zone of 15.5mm but at dilutions of 10-1 , 10-2 and 10-3 , were found to be 11.5mm, 9.5mm and 6mm respectively. This shows that as concentration decreases, the sensitivity of the soap to the bacteria isolate also decreases. The sensitivity of the medicated soap to the bacteria isolate is as a result of the presence of ricinoleic acid present in large proportion in the fatty acid composition of castor oil. It can be concluded that a highly effective soap can be produced from castor bean seed oil extract.

  1. Conventional Treatment of Surface Water Using Moringa Oleifera Seeds Extract as a Primary Coagulant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman A. Muyibi, Ahmed Hissein M Birima, Thamer A. Mohammed

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study involved the use of a model pilot scale water treatment plant to treat turbid surface water from a stream using processed Moringa oleifera seed with 25 % w/w oil extracted as primary coagulant. The water treatment plant was made up of four unit operations: coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, and filtration (rapid sand filter. Test runs were carried out for three hours per run over a three-month period with turbidities ranging from 18 to 261 NTU. The turbidity, pH, and alkalinity as well as the filter head loss were measured every 30 minutes during the experimental runs. Average turbidity removal of up to 96 % at an effective doses of 20 and 30 mg/l of oil extracted M. oleifera for low (< 50 NTU and moderate turbidity (< 100 NTU water respectively was observed doses 50 – 80 mg/l for high turbidity (> 100 NTU water. M. oleifera seed extract was found to have no significant effect on pH or alkalinity of the water. The residual turbidities measured during most of the test runs satisfied the Malaysian Guideline for Drinking Water Supplies. Key Words: Moringa oleifera, primary coagulant, coagulation, pilot plant, filtration.

  2. Extraction, purification, and characterization of a trypsin inhibitor from cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Li, Xiaona; Xia, Xunfeng; Li, Hao; Liu, Jing; Li, Qing X; Li, Ji; Xu, Ting

    2014-01-01

    Protease inhibitors against trypsin were extracted from cowpea seeds, purified, and characterized. After the seed powder was defatted with hexane, the cowpea trypsin inhibitor (CpTI) was extracted with 0.15 M NaCl for 30 min. The crude extracts were then heated at 90°C for 10 min, followed by precipitation with 40-65% saturation ammonium sulfate, by which the protein purity increased approximately 15-fold. The CpTI had approximate 88-fold and 186-fold purification after anion-exchange chromatography (Super-Q) and gel filtration (Sephadex G-200), respectively. A broad band of the purified CpTI on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) indicates a degree of heterogeneity and partial denaturation of CpTI, having a molecular mass of ∼8000 kD. Multiple peaks between 7451 and 8898 by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectroscopy also suggest heterogeneity. The purified CpTI was stable at 90°C for 60 min, pH 5-10, and 0-3.0% of NaCl. The purification method described here can be used to obtain highly purified CpTI for its studies such as risk assessment of CpTI genetically modified foods.

  3. In vitro Antibacterial Activity of Methanol Seed Extract of Elettaria cardamomum (L. Maton

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    Soriful Islam

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of methanol seed extract of Elettaria cardamomum (L. Maton was tested using agar disc diffusion method against 10 human pathogenic bacteria (Gram positive: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus-β-haemolytica, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium, and Sarcina lutea as well as Gram negative: Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenteriae, and Shigella sonnei. Methanol extract inhibited the growth of all the tested bacteria having various degrees of inhibition zones. Highest inhibitory activity was observed against Salmonella typhi (16.83 mm with lowest MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration and MBC (minimum bactericidal concentration values viz. 25 mg/ ml and 50 mg/ml, respectively in gram negative bacteria and the same was observed against Streptococcus-β-haemolytica (15.5 mm with the MIC and MBC value of 50 mg/ml in gram positive bacteria. On the basis of this experimental result, it can be concluded that methanol seed extract of E. cardamomum could be considered for further isolation and evaluation as therapeutic antimicrobial.

  4. Extraction of azadirachtin A from neem seed kernels by supercritical fluid and its evaluation by HPLC and LC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosino, P; Fresa, R; Fogliano, V; Monti, S M; Ritieni, A

    1999-12-01

    A new supercritical extraction methodology was applied to extract azadirachtin A (AZA-A) from neem seed kernels. Supercritical and liquid carbon dioxide (CO(2)) were used as extractive agents in a three-separation-stage supercritical pilot plant. Subcritical conditions were tested too. Comparisons were carried out by calculating the efficiency of the pilot plant with respect to the milligrams per kilogram of seeds (ms/mo) of AZA-A extracted. The most convenient extraction was gained using an ms/mo ratio of 119 rather than 64. For supercritical extraction, a separation of cuticular waxes from oil was set up in the pilot plant. HPLC and electrospray mass spectroscopy were used to monitor the yield of AZA-A extraction.

  5. In vivo antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extracts of Daucus carota seeds in experimental animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kamlesh Singh; Nisha Singh; Anish Chandy; Ashish Manigauha

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the In vivo antioxidFant and hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of Daucus carota (D. carota) seeds in experimental animals. Methods: Methanolic extracts of D. carota seeds is used for hepatoprotection assessment. Oxidative stress were induced in rats by thioacetamide 100 mg/kg s.c, in four groups of rats (two test, standard and toxic control). Two test groups received D. carota seeds extract (DCSE) at doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg. Standard group received silymarin (25 mg/kg) and toxic control received only thioacetamide. Control group received only vehicle. On the 8th day animals were sacrificed and liver enzyme like serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were estimated in blood serum and antioxidant enzyme like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GRD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were estimated in liver homogenate. Results: A significant decrease in SGPT, SGOT and ALP levels was observed in all drug treated groups as compared to thioacetamide group (P < 0.001) and in case of antioxidant enzyme a significant (P < 0.001) increase in SOD, CAT, GRD, GPX and GST was observed in all drug treated groups as compared with thioacetamide group. But in case of LPO a significant (P< 0.001) reduction was observed as compared to toxic control group. Conclusions: DCSE has contributed to the reduction of oxidative stress and the protection of liver in experimental rats.

  6. [Grape seed extract induces morphological changes of prostate cancer PC-3 cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Xue-Jun; Yin, Hong-Lin; Ge, Jing-Ping; Sun, Yi; Teng, Wen-Hui; Huang, Yu-Feng

    2008-12-01

    To observe the morphological changes of prostate cancer PC-3 cells induced by grape seed extract (GSE). PC-3 cells were incubated with different concentrations of GSE (100, 200 and 300 microg/ml) for 24, 48 and 72 hours, and then observed for morphological changes by invert microscopy, HE staining and transmission electron microscopy. The incubated PC-3 cells appeared round, small, wrinkled and broken under the invert microscope and exhibited the classical morphological characteristics of cell death under the electron microscope, including cell atrophy, increased vacuoles, crumpled nuclear membrane, and chromosome aggregation. GSE can cause morphological changes and induce necrosis and apoptosis of PC-3 cells.

  7. Bioremediation of turbid surface water using seed extract from Moringa oleifera Lam. (drumstick) tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Michael

    2010-02-01

    An indigenous water treatment method uses Moringa oleifera seeds in the form of a water-soluble extract in suspension, resulting in an effective natural clarification agent for highly turbid and untreated pathogenic surface water. Efficient reduction (80.0% to 99.5%) of high turbidity produces an aesthetically clear supernatant, concurrently accompanied by 90.00% to 99.99% (1 to 4 log) bacterial reduction. Application of this low-cost Moringa oleifera protocol is recommended for simplified, point-of-use, low-risk water treatment where rural and peri-urban people living in extreme poverty are presently drinking highly turbid and microbiologically contaminated water.

  8. Oral grape seed extract inhibits prostate tumor growth and progression in TRAMP mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raina, Komal; Singh, Rana P; Agarwal, Rajesh; Agarwal, Chapla

    2007-06-15

    Prostate cancer chemoprevention is an alternative and potential strategy to control this malignancy. Herein, we evaluated the chemopreventive efficacy of grape seed extract (GSE) against prostate cancer in transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice where animals were fed with GSE by oral gavage at 200 mg/kg body weight dose during 4 to 28 weeks of age. Our results showed a significant reduction (46%, P cancer growth and progression in TRAMP mice, which could be mediated via a strong suppression of cell cycle progression and cell proliferation and an increase in apoptosis.

  9. Biosynthesis and Characterization of Gold and Silver Nanoparticles Using Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum Seed Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gopalakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles from aqueous solutions using milk thistle (Silybum marianum seed extract as reducing and stabilizing agent has been reported. Formation and stabilization of nanoparticles were monitored using surface plasmon resonance (SPR bands of UV-Vis spectroscopy. Morphology of gold and silver nanoparticles was investigated using X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy with selected area electron diffraction analysis, and dynamic light scattering. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy was employed to identify the possible biomolecules responsible for the reduction and stabilization of nanoparticles.

  10. Bioremediation of Turbid Surface Water Using Seed Extract from the Moringa oleifera Lam. (Drumstick) Tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Michael

    2014-05-01

    An indigenous water treatment method uses Moringa oleifera seeds in the form of a crude water-soluble extract in suspension, resulting in an effective natural clarification agent for highly turbid and untreated pathogenic surface water. Efficient reduction (80.0% to 99.5%) of high turbidity produces an aesthetically clear supernatant, concurrently accompanied by 90.00% to 99.99% (1 to 4 log) bacterial reduction. Application of this low-cost Moringa oleifera protocol is recommended for water treatment where rural and peri-urban people living in extreme poverty are presently drinking highly turbid and microbiologically contaminated water.

  11. Control of Some Human Pathogenic Bacteria by Seed Extracts of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Antibacterial activity of seed extracts of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) was investigated against 10 gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Disc diffusion method was used to test antibacterial activity. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) were determined by using standard procedures. The highest (effective) inhibition zone of 16.67±0.47 mm was found at 250 mg/ml for Escherichia coli. On the other hand, the inhibition zones 15.00±0.82 mm f...

  12. A fluorescence spectroscopic study of a coagulating protein extracted from Moringa oleifera seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwaambwa, H M; Maikokera, R

    2007-11-15

    The fluorescence studies of coagulating protein extracted from Moringa oleifera seeds have been studied using steady-state intrinsic fluorescence. The fluorescence spectra are dominated by tryptophan emission and the emission peak maximum (lambda(max)=343+ or -2nm) indicated that the tryptophan residue is not located in the hydrophobic core of the protein. Changes in solution pH affected the protein conformation as indicated by changes in the tryptophan fluorescence above pH 9 whereas the ionic strength had minimal effect. The exposure and environments of the tryptophan residue were determined using collisional quenchers.

  13. Molecular docking studies and anti-tyrosinase activity of Thai mango seed kernel extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithitanakool, Saruth; Pithayanukul, Pimolpan; Bavovada, Rapepol; Saparpakorn, Patchreenart

    2009-01-07

    The alcoholic extract from seed kernels of Thai mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. 'Fahlun') (Anacardiaceae) and its major phenolic principle (pentagalloylglucopyranose) exhibited potent, dose-dependent inhibitory effects on tyrosinase with respect to L-DOPA. Molecular docking studies revealed that the binding orientations of the phenolic principles were in the tyrosinase binding pocket and their orientations were located in the hydrophobic binding pocket surrounding the binuclear copper active site. The results indicated a possible mechanism for their anti-tyrosinase activity which may involve an ability to chelate the copper atoms which are required for the catalytic activity of tyrosinase.

  14. Contents of constituents and antioxidant activity of seed and pulp extracts of Annona coriacea and Annona sylvatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RSR. Benites

    Full Text Available AbstractThe antioxidant potential of fruit pulp and seeds of extracts of the Annona coriacea, and A. sylvatica(Annonaceae were investigated, as well contents total phenolics, flavonoids, condensed tannins and ascorbic acid. Was used to determine the antioxidant activity the 1,1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH, β-carotene bleaching and ABTS radical cation method. The total phenol, total flavonoid, condensed tannin, and ascorbic acid contents were measured spectrophotometrically. In this study, the pulp and seeds of the fruits were extracted using methanol/water (8:2 for maceration. The seed extracts of A. coriacea demonstrated a moderate antioxidant effect with free radical scavenging activity of 31.53%, by the DPPH test, 51.59% by the β-carotene bleaching test and 159.50 µM trolx/g of extract in the ABTS assay. We found that the hydromethanolic seed extract of A. coriacea had high total phenol (147.08 ± 4.20 mg of GAE/g of extract and flavonoid (131.18 ± 2.31 mg of QE/g of extract content. This indicated that the antioxidant activity of the extracts was related to the contents of these constituents.

  15. Effects of the methanolic seeds extract of Carica Papaya on plasmodium Berghei infected mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amazu LU; Ebong OO; Azikiwe CCA; Unekwe PC; Siminialayi MI; Nwosu PJC; Ezeani MC; Obidiya OS; Ajugwo AO

    2009-01-01

    Objective:The leaves extract of Carica Papaya(C.Papaya)papaya has been shown to possess antimalarial ac-tivity,thus this work aims at finding out if the plants antimalarial activity is present in or extended to the seeds.Methods:The seeds of C.papaya were collected from its fruit,air dried for 5 days and ground into fine powder.80.65 g of the powder was then soaked for 48hours in 300 mL of methanol.Filtration was carried out using Whatman No.1 filter paper.The filtrate was evaporated to dryness by a three-day continuous heating on a hot plate of 30℃.The dry extract yield was scraped out of the Petri dish weighed and refrigerated until re-quired.The percentage extract yield was calculated out from the initial powder weight.A preliminary phyto-chemical study was done by re-dissolving the appropriate amount of the dry extract in distilled water and appro-priate test reagent added.The LD50 of the seeds of C.papaya was carried out using arithmetic method.Swiss albino Mice of both sexes and of average weight of 1 8-25 g were used as animals for antimalarial activity.They were housed in standard animal house,fed on Rats/Mice pellets and had non restricted excess to both feed and water throughout the 60day study period.While the non pregnant female Mice were used as test animals,the male animals were used as malaria parasite donors.Precautions were taken to ensure that all animals in the study groups were free from infection with Eperythrozoon coocoides.The female animals were then divided into three main groups (A-C)of 25 animals per group.Group A was used for malaria suppressive study (early in-fection-day 0-3)and was further subdivided to 5subgroups (a-e)of 5animals per group.Group B was used for malaria curative study (established malaria infection-day 3-7)and was further subdivided to 5subgroups (a-e) of 5animals per group.Group C was used for malaria prophylactic study (repository-4days treatment prior to malaria parasite infection)and was also further subdivided

  16. Stepwise extraction of Lepidium sativum seed gum: Physicochemical characterization and functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmkhah, Somayeh; Razavi, Seyed Mohammad Ali; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Koocheki, Arash; Ale, Marcel Tutor

    2016-07-01

    Cress seed gum (CSG) was fractionated using stepwise extraction with water, yielding three fractions (F1, F2, F3) whose average molecular weights ranged from 863 to 1080kDa. The chemical composition (monosaccharide, ash, moisture, CHN and uronic acid contents) and molecular weight of the fractions varied significantly. Generally, the major identical peaks of FT-IR spectra for three fractions and whole cress seed gum were similar. The results of DSC and TGA indicated that F3 had the highest thermal stability and considering the initial decomposition temperature, the decreasing order of thermal stability was F3>F2>F1. Cress seed gum and its fractions exhibited non-Newtonian shear thinning behavior which the Herschel-Bulkley model was successfully described the steady shear flow behavior of samples, and apparent viscosity followed the order of F3>F2>F1. F3 exhibited the best surface tension reducing ability compared to other fractions and CSG. All the samples had good emulsifying capability (>97%) and stability (>96%). The emulsion capacity increased slightly along the series of F1, F2 and F3, whereas, emulsion stability decreased along the same series. CSG and F3 showed the highest and the lowest foaming capacity and stability, respectively.

  17. Synthesis of chitosan incorporated neem seed extract (Azadirachta indica) for medical textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revathi, T; Thambidurai, S

    2017-11-01

    In present study, eco-friendly biosynthesis of Chitosan-Neem seed (CS-NS) composite was prepared by co-precipitation method using aqueous neem seed extract. Cotton fabrics were treated with two different crosslinking agents (Glutaraldehyde and Citric acid) then the synthesized composite coated on cotton fabric by chemical linkage between the composite and the cellulose structure. As synthesized composite materials and treated cotton fabrics were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for functional groups confirmation, X-ray diffraction for crystalline behavior determination, UV-vis spectroscopy analysis for optical property and High resolution scanning electron microscopy for Surface morphological properties. The antibacterial activity of CS-NS composite coated cotton fabric and CS-NS composite coated cotton fabric with crosslinking agents were tested against the gram-positive and gram negative bacteria by agar well diffusion method. The results demonstrated that CS-NS composite with crosslinked coated cotton fabric has higher antibacterial activity than without crosslinked cotton fabric. Thus the chitosan-neem seed composite may be applied to the medical textiles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of Anthelmintic Activity of Different Fractions of Azadirachta indica A. Juss Seed Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar Iqbal*, Wasim Babar, Zia ud Din Sindhu, Rao Zahid Abbas and Muhammad Sohail Sajid

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was aimed at determination of anthelmintic activity of different fractions of Azadirachta indica seed prepared from the crude aqueous methanol extract (CAME. For this purpose, eggs and adult Haemonchus contortus were exposed to aqueous, ethyl acetate, chloroform and petroleum spirit fractions of A. indica seeds employing standard bioassays. All the fractions of A. indica seeds exhibited dose and/or time dependent ovicidal and wormicidal effects against H. contortus. The best ovicidal activity was demonstrated by the ethyl acetate fraction with LC50=21.32 µg/ml; whereas, it was 6-14 times lower for the other fractions. Likewise, ethyl acetate fraction @ 50 mg ml-1 exhibited the best wormicidal effects by killing 83% adult H. contortus one hour post-exposure. For in vivo anthelmintic activity faecal egg count reduction test was perform on sheep naturally infected with helminthes. Maximum reduction (98.9% was observed with CAME. Therefore, it is concluded that future studies aimed at identification of active anthelmintic principles of A. indica may be focused on ethyl acetate fraction of the plant.

  19. Date seed characterisation, substrate extraction and process modelling for the production of polyhydroxybutyrate by Cupriavidus necator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousuf, R G; Winterburn, J B

    2016-12-01

    Poly-3-hydroxybutrate (PHB) is a biodegradable polymer synthesised via bacterial fermentation as a means of storing carbon and energy under unbalanced growth conditions. The production cost of petroleum-based plastics is currently lower than that for biopolymers, and the carbon source is the most significant contributor to biopolymer production cost. A feasibility study to assess the suitability of using a date seed derived media as an alternative for PHB production under various stress conditions was investigated. Results include fructose extraction from date seeds and a mass transfer model to describe the process, demonstrating that the high nutrient content of date seeds makes them a promising raw material for microbial growth and that a meaningful amount of PHB can be produced without supplementation. Maximum dry cell weight and PHB concentrations were 6.3g/l and 4.6g/l respectively, giving a PHB content of 73%, when an initial fructose concentration of 10.8g/l was used. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Enhancement of gastric ulcer healing and angiogenesis by cochinchina Momordica seed extract in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jung Mook; Kim, Nayoung; Kim, Bongcheol; Kim, Joo-Hyon; Lee, Bong-Yong; Park, Ji Hyun; Lee, Mi Kyoung; Lee, Hye Seung; Kim, Joo Sung; Jung, Hyun Chae; Song, In Sung

    2010-06-01

    Cochinchina momordica seed is the dried ripe seed of Momordica cochinchinensis, a perennial vine. The antiulcer effect of an extract from cochinchina momordica seeds (SK-MS10) was evaluated in a rat model of acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers. Gastric ulcers were produced by subserosal injection of acetic acid. SK-MS10 (200 mg/kg) or vehicle was administered orally once per day for 14 days after the acetic acid injection. The stomach was removed and the ulcer size measured at day 7 and 14 of the treatment. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was assessed by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. In addition, the microvasculature density (MVD) adjacent to the ulcer margin was examined by immunohistochemistry. The treatment with SK-MS10 for 7 and 14 days significantly accelerated ulcer healing and increased the expression of mRNA (at day 7) as well as VEGF protein (at day 14) compared to the vehicle-treated rats. The MVD for factor VIII was also higher in the SK-MS10 treatment group compared to the vehicle-treated rats; however, these differences were not statistically significant. These results suggest that SK-MS10 treatment accelerates the healing of gastric ulcers via upregulation of VEGF and angiogenesis in an acetic acid rat model.

  1. Rose hip (Rosa canina L.) oil obtained from waste hip seeds by different extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szentmihályi, Klára; Vinkler, Péter; Lakatos, Béla; Illés, Vendel; Then, Mária

    2002-04-01

    From the rose hip seed, which is generally a waste material, valuable oil can be obtained for medicinal use. Various extraction methods have been compared: traditional solvent extraction with ultrasound-, microwave-, sub- and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). Unsaturated fatty acid (UFA: oleic-, linoleic- and linolenic acid; 16.25-22.11%, 35.94-54.75%, 20.29-26.48%) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA:linoleic- and linolenic acid) content were over 90% and 60% in the recovered oils. The oils contained different amounts of metals. The concentration of some metals, particularly iron in microwave oil (27.11 microg g(-1)) is undesirable from the aspect of stability. By traditional solvent extraction, oil was obtained in 4.85 wt/wt%. Subcritical FE appeared to be the best method for the recovery of rose hip oil with highest oil yield (6.68 wt/wt%), carotene- (145.3 microg g(-1)) and linoleic acid content (54.75%). Supercritical FE without organic solvent is suitable for mild recovery of oil. The oil was rich in UFA and PUFA (92.7% and 76.25%) and contained the lowest amount of carotene and pheophytin (36.3 and 45.8 microg g(-1)). Oil yield in most new extraction methods (microwave extraction, super- and subcritical FE) was higher than in the case of traditional Soxhlet extraction. The main benefit of supercritical FE with CO2 is the solvent free oil while in the case of other extractions evaporation of the solvent is needed. Although the content of bioactive compounds in oils was different, all oils may be appropriate for medicinal use.

  2. Optimization of antioxidant phenolic compounds extraction from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carciochi, Ramiro Ariel; Manrique, Guillermo Daniel; Dimitrov, Krasimir

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to optimize the extraction conditions of phenolic and flavonoids compounds from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) seeds using ultrasound assistance technology. A randomized central composite face-centered design was used to evaluate the effect of extraction temperature, ethanol concentration in the solvent, and ultrasound power on the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activity by response surface analysis. Predicted model equations were obtained to describe the experimental data regarding TPC, TFC and antioxidant activity, with significant variation in the linear, quadratic, and interaction effects of the independent variables. Regression analysis showed that more than 88 % of the variability was explained by the models. The best extraction conditions obtained by simultaneous maximization of the responses were: extraction temperature of 60 °C, 80 % ethanol as solvent and non-application of ultrasounds. Under the optimal conditions, the corresponding predicted response values were 103.6 mg GAE/100 g dry weight (dw), 25.0 mg quercetin equiv./100 g dw and 28.6 % DPPH radical scavenging, for TPC, TFC and antioxidant activity, respectively. The experimental values agreed with those predicted within a 95 % confidence level, indicating the suitability of the employed model. HPLC analysis of the obtained extracts confirmed the highest phenolic compound yield in the extract obtained under optimal extraction conditions. Considering the characteristics of the antioxidant-rich extracts obtained, they could be consider for potential application in the food industry, as nutraceutical and functional foods ingredient or well as replacement of synthetic antioxidants.

  3. Antidiabetic effect of aqueous extract of seed of Tamarindus indica in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, R; Jana, D; Das, U K; Ghosh, D

    2004-05-01

    In Indian traditional system of medicine, herbal remedies are prescribed for the treatment of diseases including diabetes mellitus. In recent years, plants are being effectively tried in a variety of pathophysiological states. Tamarindus indica Linn. is one of them. In the present study, aqueous extract of seed of Tamarindus indica Linn. was found to have potent antidiabetogenic activity that reduces blood sugar level in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male rat. Supplementation of this aqueous extract by gavage at the dose of 80 mg/0.5 ml distilled water/100 g body weight per day in STZ-induced diabetic rat resulted a significant diminution of fasting blood sugar level after 7 days. Continuous supplementation of this extract for 14 days resulted no significant difference in this parameter from control level. Moreover, this supplementation produced a significant elevation in liver and skeletal muscle glycogen content, activity of liver glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in respect to diabetic group. Activities of liver glucose-6-phosphatase, liver and kidney glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) activities were decreased significantly in the aqueous extract supplemented group in respect to diabetic group. All these parameters were not resettled to the controlled level after 7 days of this extract supplementation but after 14 days of this supplementation, all the above mentioned parameters were restored to the control level.

  4. Avocado Seeds: Extraction Optimization and Possible Use as Antioxidant in Food

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    Francisco Segovia Gómez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of avocado (Persea americana Mill has increased worldwide in recent years. Part of this food (skin and seed is lost during processing. However, a high proportion of bioactive substances, such as polyphenols, remain in this residue. The primary objective of this study was to model the extraction of polyphenols from the avocado pits. In addition, a further objective was to use the extract obtained to evaluate the protective power against oxidation in food systems, as for instance oil in water emulsions and meat products. Moreover, the possible synergy between the extracts and egg albumin in the emulsions is discussed. In Response Surface Method (RSM, the variables used are: temperature, time and ethanol concentration. The results are the total polyphenols content (TPC and the antiradical power measured by Oxygen Radical Antioxidant Capacity (ORAC. In emulsions, the primary oxidation, by Peroxide Value and in fat meat the secondary oxidation, by TBARS (Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, were analyzed. The RSM model has an R2 of 94.69 for TPC and 96.7 for ORAC. In emulsions, the inhibition of the oxidation is about 30% for pure extracts and 60% for the combination of extracts with egg albumin. In the meat burger oxidation, the formation of TBARS is avoided by 90%.

  5. Avocado Seeds: Extraction Optimization and Possible Use as Antioxidant in Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Francisco Segovia; Sánchez, Sara Peiró; Iradi, Maria Gabriela Gallego; Azman, Nurul Aini Mohd; Almajano, María Pilar

    2014-06-10

    Consumption of avocado (Persea americana Mill) has increased worldwide in recent years. Part of this food (skin and seed) is lost during processing. However, a high proportion of bioactive substances, such as polyphenols, remain in this residue. The primary objective of this study was to model the extraction of polyphenols from the avocado pits. In addition, a further objective was to use the extract obtained to evaluate the protective power against oxidation in food systems, as for instance oil in water emulsions and meat products. Moreover, the possible synergy between the extracts and egg albumin in the emulsions is discussed. In Response Surface Method (RSM), the variables used are: temperature, time and ethanol concentration. The results are the total polyphenols content (TPC) and the antiradical power measured by Oxygen Radical Antioxidant Capacity (ORAC). In emulsions, the primary oxidation, by Peroxide Value and in fat meat the secondary oxidation, by TBARS (Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances), were analyzed. The RSM model has an R² of 94.69 for TPC and 96.7 for ORAC. In emulsions, the inhibition of the oxidation is about 30% for pure extracts and 60% for the combination of extracts with egg albumin. In the meat burger oxidation, the formation of TBARS is avoided by 90%.

  6. Effect of Ethanol Extract of Sesamum indicum Seeds on Lipid Profile in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Ali Ghani

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of active compound (sesamin found in defatted ethanol extract of Sesamum indicum seeds on the serum levels of lipid in mice. The qualitative and quantitative determination of sesamin bioactive compound in defatted ethanol extract using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC analysis was carried out and compared with standard sesamin. It was found that the concentration of sesamin was 79.9% of ethanolic extract according to total peak area. The ffect of active compound (sesamin in defatted ethanol sesame extract was evaluated in mice blood serum (in vivo after feeding them high and low fat diet for one month. Defatted Sesame extract at concentration 500 mg/kg of body weight (B.W showed significant reduction (p#0.05 in the level of total cholesterol (62.26 , 56.14 mg/dl, triglycerides (61.54 , 61.12 mg/dl , and low density lipoprotein LDL (29.97 , 23.21 mg/dl and significant increase in the level of high density lipoprotein HDL (19.39 , 20.70 mg/dl in comparison with both high and low fat diet groups which recorded (80.43 , 68.24 mg/dl, (77.50 , 74.16 mg/dl, (16.80 , 19.32 mg/dl, and (48.09 , 34.08 mg/dL, respectively.

  7. Avocado Seeds: Extraction Optimization and Possible Use as Antioxidant in Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Francisco Segovia; Sánchez, Sara Peiró; Gallego Iradi, Maria Gabriela; Mohd Azman, Nurul Aini; Almajano, María Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of avocado (Persea americana Mill) has increased worldwide in recent years. Part of this food (skin and seed) is lost during processing. However, a high proportion of bioactive substances, such as polyphenols, remain in this residue. The primary objective of this study was to model the extraction of polyphenols from the avocado pits. In addition, a further objective was to use the extract obtained to evaluate the protective power against oxidation in food systems, as for instance oil in water emulsions and meat products. Moreover, the possible synergy between the extracts and egg albumin in the emulsions is discussed. In Response Surface Method (RSM), the variables used are: temperature, time and ethanol concentration. The results are the total polyphenols content (TPC) and the antiradical power measured by Oxygen Radical Antioxidant Capacity (ORAC). In emulsions, the primary oxidation, by Peroxide Value and in fat meat the secondary oxidation, by TBARS (Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances), were analyzed. The RSM model has an R2 of 94.69 for TPC and 96.7 for ORAC. In emulsions, the inhibition of the oxidation is about 30% for pure extracts and 60% for the combination of extracts with egg albumin. In the meat burger oxidation, the formation of TBARS is avoided by 90%. PMID:26784880

  8. Ruminal tryptophan-utilizing bacteria degrade ergovaline from tall fescue seed extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, B E; Goodman, J P; Lynn, B C; Flythe, M D; Ji, H; Aiken, G E

    2017-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate degradation of ergovaline in a tall fescue [ (Schreb.) Darbysh.] seed extract by rumen microbiota ex vivo and to identify specific bacteria capable of ergovaline degradation in vitro. Rumen cell suspensions were prepared by harvesting rumen fluid from fistulated wether goats ( = 3), straining, and differential centrifugation. Suspensions were dispensed into anaerobic tubes with added Trypticase with or without extract (∼10 μg kg ergovaline). Suspensions were incubated for 48 h at 39°C. Samples were collected at 0, 24, and 48 h for ergovaline analysis and enumeration of hyper-ammonia producing (HAB) and tryptophan-utilizing bacteria. Ergovaline values were analyzed by repeated measures using the mixed procedure of SAS. Enumeration data were log transformed for statistical analysis. When suspensions were incubated with extract, 11 to 15% of ergovaline disappearance was observed over 48 h ( = 0.02). After 24 h, suspensions with added extract had 10-fold less HAB than controls ( = 0.04), but treatments were similar by 48 h ( = 1.00). However, after 24 h and 48 h, suspensions with extract had 10-fold more tryptophan-utilizing bacteria ( bacteria tested did not degrade ergovaline. The results of this study indicate which rumen bacteria may play an important role in ergovaline degradation and that microbiological strategies for controlling their activity could have ramifications for fescue toxicosis and other forms of ergotism in ruminants.

  9. Extraction of rutin from buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentumMoench) seeds and determination by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreft, S; Knapp, M; Kreft, I

    1999-11-01

    The content of the flavonoid rutin was determined in different milling fractions of buckwheat seeds and in buckwheat stems, leaves, and flowers. The extraction was performed by using a solvent containing 60% of ethanol and 5% of ammonia in water. The extracts were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis (running buffer of 50 mM borate (pH 9.3), 100 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate; determination at 380 nm). In bran fractions the concentration of rutin was 131-476 ppm, and in flour fractions 19-168 ppm. On average, about 300, 1000, and 46000 ppm of rutin were found in leaves, stems, and flowers, respectively. The results indicate that buckwheat could be an important nutritional source of flavonoids, especially in countries with a low mean daily flavonoid intake.

  10. Extraction, partial characterization and bioactivity of polysaccharides from boat-fruited sterculia seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Lianzhong; Wu, Jinhong; Che, Na; Wu, Yan; Cui, Steve W

    2012-12-01

    Three polysaccharides (water-soluble (WSP), alkali-soluble (ASP) and insoluble (IMP)) from boat-fruited sterculia seeds were obtained using different extraction methods. Moisture, ash, protein and total carbohydrate content of WSP, ASP and IMP were analyzed. WSP was rich in glucose, rhamnose, arabinose and galactose while small amount of xylose was also detected. The monosaccharide composition as well its relative content for WSP and ASP were similar. The intrinsic viscosity results demonstrated that ASP had much lower intrinsic viscosity than WSP, indicating partial polysaccharides were degraded into low molecular weight polymers during alkaline extraction. The acute anti-inflammatory bioactive results of polysaccharides indicated that WSP demonstrated an inhibitive effect toward acute inflammation.

  11. Optimization of oil extraction from giant bushel gourd seeds using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popoola, Yetunde Yemisi; Akinoso, Rahman; Raji, Akeem Olayemi

    2016-09-01

    Gourd seeds have been identified as a source of edible oil, but there is sparse literature on the effect of processing factors on the characteristics of oil extracted from any Lagenaria spp. Optimization of oil extraction with the aid of expeller was achieved by applying response surface methodology. The variables were roasting temperature (87.70-172.0°C) and roasting duration (7.93-22.07 min), while the responses were oil yield and oil quality (free fatty acid, color, specific gravity, saponification value, moisture, and refractive index). Data obtained were analyzed at P saponification value: 289.66 mL, and refractive index: 1.47).

  12. Extraction, isolation and characterisation of oil bodies from pumpkin seeds for therapeutic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Gary G; Imran, Shahwar; Wang, Sheng; Mohammad, Abubaker; Kok, M Samil; Gray, David A; Channell, Guy A; Harding, Stephen E

    2012-10-15

    Pumpkin, a member of the Cucurbitaceae family has been used frequently as functional medicines for therapeutic use. Several phytochemicals such as polysaccharides, phenolic glycosides, 13-hydroxy-9Z, 11E-octadecatrienoic acid from the leaves of pumpkin, proteins from germinated seeds, have been isolated. Here the influence of pH, ionic strength, and temperature on the properties and stability of oil bodies from pumpkin (Cucurbita) were determined with a view to patterning oil body size and structure for future therapeutic intervention. Oil bodies from pumpkin seeds were extracted, isolated, characterised using optical microscopy, zeta potential and particle size distribution obtained. During microscopic analysis, the oil bodies were more intact and in an integrated form at the time of extraction but were ruptured with time. Water extracted oil bodies were spherical for all four layers where cream had larger oil bodies then upper curd. Lower curd and supernatant had considerably smaller size with lower curd densely packed and seemed to be rich in oil bodies than any of the four layers. At pH 3, in the absence of salt, the zeta potential is approximately +30 mV, but as the salt concentration increases, the ζ potential rises at 10 mM but then decreases over the salt range. This trend continues for the upper curd, lower curd and the supernatant and the degree of the reduction (mV) in zeta potential is of the order creampumpkin seed oil bodies at an increasing pH (3, 7.4 and 9) and salt concentration (0, 10, 50 and 100 mM) across all four layers. The lowest average size distributions are seen at pH 7.4 across all four layers especially within the cream and upper curd layers. At pH 3 and 9, the highest average size distributions are seen in the lower curd and cream layers. Oil bodies can be extracted, isolated and from pumpkins using an aqueous extraction method and may prove to be a useful new source of lipids for application in patterning therapeutics for clinical use.

  13. Importance of seed-borne fungi of sorghum and pearl millet in Burkina Faso and their control using plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zida, Pawindé Elisabeth; Sérémé, Paco; Leth, Vibeke; Sankara, Philippe; Somda, Irénée; Néya, Adama

    2008-02-01

    Seed-borne fungi of sorghum and pearl millet in Burkina Faso were surveyed. A total of 188 seed samples from various locations, collected in 1989 (42) and 2002 (146), were tested, using the blotter, dry inspection and washing methods. Infection experiments were carried out with the major fungi recorded on each crop by the blotter test. Six essential oils of plants were investigated for their inhibitory activity against eight pathogenic fungi. Thirty four and 27 fungal species were found in seed samples of sorghum and pearl millet, respectively. Phoma sp. and Fusarium moniliforme infected 95 to 100% of the seed samples of both sorghum and pearl millet. Sphacelotheca sorghi and Tolyposporium ehrenbergii were encountered in respectively, 75 and 33% of seed samples of sorghum. T. penicillariae, Sclerospora graminicola and Claviceps fusiformis were present in 88, 41 and 32% of seed samples of pearl millet, respectively. Seeds inoculated with Acremonium strictum, Curvularia oryzae, F. equiseti, F. moniliforme and F. subglutinans and sown in sterilized soil, showed considerable mortality of the seedlings. Three essential oils inhibited in vitro the mycelial growth of all the fungi used by 85 to 100% and reduced significantly sorghum and pearl millet seed infection rates of Phoma sp., Fusarium sp., Curvularia sp., Colletotrichum graminicola and Exserohilum sp. Presence of many pathogenic fungi in considerable number of seed samples indicates the need of field surveys for these and other pathogens. Development of plant extracts for the control of seed-borne pathogens and public awareness on seed-borne diseases management measures for maintaining quality seed should be increased.

  14. Grape seed extracts modify the outcome of oxaliplatin in colon cancer cells by interfering with cellular mechanisms of drug cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcelli, Letizia; Iacobazzi, Rosa Maria; Quatrale, Anna Elisa; Bergamini, Carlo; Denora, Nunzio; Crupi, Pasquale; Antonacci, Donato; Mangia, Anita; Simone, Giovanni; Silvestris, Nicola; Azzariti, Amalia

    2017-08-01

    Grape seed extracts are commonly utilized as dietary supplements for their antioxidant properties, even from cancer patients. However, whether these natural extracts interfere with chemotherapeutics utilized in colon cancer treatment is still poorly investigated. The cytotoxicity of extracts from Italia and Palieri cultivars either alone or in combination with oxaliplatin was evaluated in colon cancer cells. Grape seed extracts displayed anti-proliferative activity depending on the concentration utilized through apoptosis induction. In combination, they affected the activation of Erk1/2 and counteracted the intrinsic and the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis, the DNA damage and the generation of ROS induced by oxaliplatin. Noteworthy grape seed extracts strongly enhanced the uptake of oxaliplatin into all cells, by affecting the cell transport system of platinum. The addition of these natural extracts to oxaliplatin strongly reduced the cellular response to oxaliplatin and allowed a huge accumulation of platinum into cells. Here, we shed light on the chemical biology underlying the combination of grape seed extracts and oxaliplatin, demonstrating that they might be detrimental to oxaliplatin effectiveness in colon cancer therapy.

  15. Evaluation of Anti-Convulsant Activity of Methanolic Extract of Seeds of Cassia Fistula against Pentylenetetrazole induced convulsions in mice

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    Nilesh P. Sawadadkar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cassia Fistula is a popular Indian herb which is used as tonic, laxative, anti-pyretic, astringent, febrifuge, strong purgative etc. The aim of present study was to evaluate anticonvulsant activity of methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula against pentylenetetrazol (PTZ induced convulsions in mice. All the animals were divided into four groups of six mice each and were injected PTZ (60mg/kg intraperitonially Group I was served as toxic control, Group II was pretreated with  Gabapentin (200mg/kg P.O.. Group III was pretreated with  methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula (100 mg/kg P.O. for 7 days. Group IV was pretreated with  methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula (200mg/kg P.O. for 7 days.The result shows that methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula significantly reduced duration of clonic convulsions and also delayed the onset of convulsions induced by pentylenetetrazol. The result was expressed as mean ± SEM and were statistically analyzed by one way ANOVA. It is concluded that methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia Fistula can show anticonvulsant activity against pentylenetetrazol induced convulsions in mice.

  16. A methanolic extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek seeds regulates markers of macrophage polarization.

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    Nurudeen Hassan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Macrophages are key cellular mediators in diabetes-related inflammation. Molecular cues such as cytokines found in the tissue microenvironment regulates the polarization of macrophages into an M1 (pro-inflammatory or M2 (immunoregulatory phenotype. Recent evidence suggests that M1 macrophages in diabetic patients may contribute to the complications associated with the disease such as atherosclerosis. Trigonella foenum- graecum (Tfg: fenugreek seeds have been used in traditional medicine in Asia, Africa and the Middle-East for their alleged anti-diabetic properties. Objective: To identify the molecular mechanism(s through which Tfg seeds exert their effects, we investigated the role of a crude methanolic extract of Tfg (FME seeds on macrophage polarization in vitro. Method: THP-1 macrophages (Mϕ were treated with gBSA in the presence/absence of FME and the release and expression of M1 and M2 markers/cytokines were analysed. The role of FME on NF-κB activity was also explored using transfected HEK-293T cells. Results: This study found that the FME significantly (P<0.05 decreased gBSA-induced secretion of M1 cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 in THP-1 Mϕ cells. In the presence of gBSA, FME also significantly increased the gene expression of the M2 marker Dectin-1, but had no effect on IL-10, IL-1Ra. FME also significantly decreased TNF-α induced NF-kB reporter activity. Conclusion: These results suggest that FME can regulate the expression of M1 and M2 markers in THP-1 Mϕ cells. This may be potentially through the modulation of NF-kB activity. Further work should be carried out to identify precise mechanism(s involved in the effects of FME and Tfg seeds.

  17. Comparative Growth Inhibitory Assay Of The Methanol Extract Of The Leaf And Seed Of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae

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    Ayinde B.A

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Persea americana is one of the recipes used by traditional healers in parts of Edo State of Nigeria for the treatment of cancer. This claim was investigated using predictive bench-top assay method of germinating seeds radicle of guinea corn (Sorghum bicolor. The powdered leaves and seeds were extracted by Soxhlet using methanol. The growth inhibitory effect was examined using radicle lengths of germinating seeds of Sorghum bicolor at 1-30 mg/ml. The methanol extract of the leaf of Persea americana was subjected to solvent partitioning. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, tannins and cardiac glycosides with no traces of anthracene derivatives. The aqueous fraction was more active than the chloroform fraction and completely inhibited the germination of the seeds at 20mg/ml. The results suggest the probable use of the plant in preparing recipes for tumor-related ailments. However, using appropriate human cell lines will further justify this claim.

  18. Antitrypanosomal potentials of the extract and fractions of Abrus precatorius seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nwodo NJ; Nwodo OFC

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the in vivo trypanocidal activity of the methanol extract and fractions of Abrus precatorius seeds in mice. Methods: Parasiteamia was induced unto mice by intraperitoneal injection of 1.25×105 Trypanosoma in normal saline. Five days when a high level of parasiteamia was established treatment commenced until ten days. The mice were treated with 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg bt. of the extract and 5 and 10 mg/kg bt. of the fraction (F2), respectively for 5 days. Diminazene aceturate at the dose of 3.5 mg/kg bt. for two days was used as the reference drug. The level of parasitaemia and packed cell volume (PCV) of the animals estimated. Results:At doses of 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg the crude extract showed a sharp reduction in the level of parasitaemia in mice compared with the untreated group. The mice treated with F2 at doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg showed a sharp reduction in the level of parasitamia to zero in day 9, and a gradual recovery from the 12th day of treatment. This effect is comparable to that of the mice treated with 7 mg/kg of standard drug diminazene aceturate. The PCV of the treated showed a gradual decrease with time, but not as much as the untreated group. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of glycosides, alkaloids, carbohydrates, tannins and proteins in the Abrus precatorius powder while F2 was rich in alkaloids. Conclusions:This study shows that both the extract and the fractions of Abrus precatorius seeds exhibited a promising trypanocidal property. Alkaloids may be responsible for the observed activity.

  19. Assessment of lipoxygenase activity in seed extracts from 35 plant species

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    Fauconnier, M. L.

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available Lipoxygenase activity in 35 seed extracts was determined on the basis of hydroperoxide synthesis using linoleic acid as substrate. The results referring to the extracted protein content show that several species of Vigna (V. unguiculata, V. radiata and V. mungo and one of Trifolium exhibit stronger lipoxygenase activity than soybean enzyme extracts. The pH activity relationship was also established for 4 very active samples. GC-MS analysis revealed equal amounts of 9- and 13- hydroperoxides of linoleic acid in these seed extracts, indicating no enzyme positional specificity.

    Se ha determinado la actividad lipoxigenasa en 35 extractos de semilla en base a la síntesis de hidroperóxido usando ácido linoleico como sustrato. Los resultados referidos al contenido en proteína extraídos mostraron que varias especies de Vigna (V. unguiculata, V. radiata y V. mungo además de una de Trifolium, exhibieron mayor actividad lipoxigenasa que los extractos enzimáticos de soja. La relación entre la actividad-pH se ha establecido para 4 muestras muy activas. El análisis por GC-MS de estos extractos de semillas, mostró cantidades iguales de los hidroperóxidos 9- y 13 del ácido linoleico indicando la no especificidad posicional de la enzima.

  20. Protective effects of plant seed extracts against amyloid β-induced neurotoxicity in cultured hippocampal neurons

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    Yoshinori Okada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Alzheimer′s disease (AD is characterized by large deposits of amyloid β (Aβ peptide. Aβ is known to increase reactive oxygen species (ROS production in neurons, leading to cell death. In this study, we screened 15 plant seeds′ aqueous extracts (PSAE for inhibitory effects on Aβ (25-35-induced cell death using hippocampus neurons (HIPN. Materials and Methods: Fifteen chosen plants were nine medical herbs (Japanese honeywort, luffa, rapeseed, Chinese colza, potherb mustard, Japanese radish, bitter melon, red shiso, corn, and kaiware radish and six general commercial plants (common bean, komatsuna, Qing geng cai, bell pepper, kale, and lettuce. PSAE were measured for total phenolic content (TPC with the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging effect of each seed extract was measured. To find a protectant against Aβ-induced oxidative stress, we screened 15 PSAE using a 2′, 7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate assay. To further unravel the anti-inflammatory effects of PSAE on Aβ-induced inflammation, PSAE were added to HIPN. The neuroprotective effects of the PSAE were evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, measuring the cell viability in Aβ-induced HIPN. Results: TPC of 15 PSAE was in the range of 0.024-1.96 mg of chlorogenic acid equivalents/gram. The aqueous extracts showed antioxidant activities. Furthermore, intracellular ROS accumulation resulting from Aβ treatment was reduced when cells were treated with some PSAE. Kale, bitter melon, kaiware radish, red shiso, and corn inhibited tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion by the Aβ-stimulated neurons and all samples except Japanese honeywort showed enhancement of cell survival. Conclusion: From these results, we suggest that some plant seed extracts offer protection against Aβ-mediated cell death.

  1. Antigenotoxic effect of grape seed procyanidin extract in Fao cells submitted to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llópiz, Niurka; Puiggròs, Francesc; Céspedes, Ela; Arola, Lluís; Ardévol, Anna; Bladé, Cinta; Salvadó, M Josepa

    2004-03-10

    The protective effects of grape seed procyanidin extract on the repair of H(2)O(2)-induced DNA lesions were tested using Fao cells. Cells were exposed to 600 microM H(2)O(2) for 3 or 21 h. A procyanidin extract from grape seed (PE) was incubated or preincubated (1 h) during the exposure to H(2)O(2). The ability of procyanidins to protect against the genotoxicity of H(2)O(2) was compared with those of the monomeric flavanols (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin and the flavonol quercetin. After treatment, DNA damage was monitored using alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (the comet assay) (Aherne, S. A.; O'Brien, N. M. Nutr. Cancer 1999, 34, 160-166). At the end of the experiment, PE significantly decreased the damage caused by H(2)O(2). The results also showed that quercetin was the most effective of the flavonoids tested, which is consistent with its powerful antioxidant character. The results indicate that procyanidins are more effective than the corresponding individual monomers, catechin and epicatechin, at preventing DNA lesions in hepatocytes and that this protection is higher after preincubation than after co-incubation.

  2. Characterization and rheological study of the galactomannan extracted from seeds of Cassia grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Priscilla B S; Barros, Wilson; Santos, Gustavo R C; Correia, Maria T S; Mourão, Paulo A S; Teixeira, José A; Carneiro-da-Cunha, Maria G

    2014-04-15

    Galactomannan extracted from seeds of Cassia grandis with 0.1M NaCl, followed by ethanol precipitation, presented a yield of 36 ± 8%. The polysaccharide has a constant mannose/galactose ratio (2.44:1). Methylation analysis, one and two dimensional NMR spectroscopy confirmed that the polysaccharide has a central core composed of 4-linked β-mannose units, with branches of galactose, linked to the carbohydrate core through α(1-6) linkage. The amorphous nature of the galactomannan was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Rheological characterization exhibited Newtonian plateaus followed by shear-thinning zones characteristic of polymer solutions up to 1.5% (w/v) and above this value the system exhibited yield stress associated with a weak gel. Adjusting stress-strain curves confirmed a 1.6% (w/v) as the galactomannan concentration value for the sol-gel transition. These results indicate that the galactomannan extracted from C. grandis seeds presents rheological characteristics suitable for applications in pharmaceutical, biomedical, cosmetic and food industries.

  3. Retardation of lipid oxidation using gelatin film incorporated with longan seed extract compared with BHT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai-Ut, Samart; Benjakul, Soottawat; Rawdkuen, Saroat

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present work was to apply the gelatin films with different levels of longan seed extract (LS) or butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on retardation of lipid oxidation in soybean oil. The films incorporated with various concentrations of aqueous LS (0, 50, 100, 300, and 500 ppm) or BHT (50, and 100 ppm) were developed. The films had transmittance percentages of 60-80 % at 570 nm and showed good light barrier properties when the concentration of LS or BHT increased. About 97 % protein solubility and 41 to 54 % water solubility were obtained for the developed films. Antioxidative activity of gelatin films incorporated with LS increased markedly with increasing storage time as indicated by the increase in DPPH radical scavenging activity (41-50 %) (P BHT showed the preventive effect on lipid oxidation of soybean oil during 30 days of storage. At the level of 500 ppm, LS provided the highest efficacy for lipid oxidation retardation as evidenced by lower conjugated diene (CD) values (P > 0.05). According to these findings, gelatin film incorporated with longan seed extract or BHT could be used as a tool to prolong the shelf-life of oily foods.

  4. Functional chitosan-based grapefruit seed extract composite films for applications in food packaging technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Y.M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Lim, S.H.; Tay, B.Y. [Forming Technology Group, Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology (Singapore); Lee, M.W. [Food Innovation and Resource Centre, Singapore Polytechnic (Singapore); Thian, E.S., E-mail: mpetes@nus.edu.sg [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Chitosan-based grapefruit seed extract (GFSE) films were solution casted. • GFSE was uniformly dispersed within all chitosan film matrices. • All chitosan-based composite films showed remarkable transparency. • Increasing amounts of GFSE incorporated increased the elongation at break of films. • Chitosan-based GFSE composite films inhibited the proliferation of fungal growth. - Abstract: Chitosan-based composite films with different amounts of grapefruit seed extract (GFSE) (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% v/v) were fabricated via solution casting technique. Experimental results showed that GFSE was uniformly dispersed within all chitosan film matrices. The presence of GFSE made the films more amorphous and tensile strength decreased, while elongation at break values increased as GFSE content increased. Results from the measurement of light transmission revealed that increasing amounts of GFSE (from 0.5 to 1.5% v/v) did not affect transparency of the films. Furthermore, packaging of bread samples with chitosan-based GFSE composite films inhibited the proliferation of fungal growth as compared to control samples. Hence, chitosan-based GFSE composite films have the potential to be a useful material in the area of food technology.

  5. Anti-diarrhoeal investigation from aqueous extract of Cuminum cyminum Linn. Seed in Albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Bhusan Sahoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cuminum cyminum Linn. (Umbelliferae, commonly known as Jeera. It is native from mediterranean region, but today widely cultivated in Asian countries. It has been reported to possess various medicinal properties and an important food ingredient. The seed of the plant are claimed for treatment of diarrhoea by various traditional practitioners. Objectives: Hence, the present investigation was undertaken to evaluate aq. extract of C. cyminum seeds (ACCS against diarrhoea on albino rats. Materials and Methods : The animals were divided into five groups and the control group was applied with 2% acacia suspension, the standard group with loperamide (3 mg/kg or atropine sulphate (5mg/kg and three test groups administered orally with 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg of ACCS. The antidiarrhoeal effect was investigated by castor oil induce diarrhoea model, prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 induced enteropooling model, intestinal transit by charcoal meal test. Results: The ACCS showed significant (P < 0.001 inhibition in frequency of diarrhoea, defecation time delaying, secretion of intestinal fluid as well as intestinal propulsion as compared to control and the graded doses of tested extract followed dose dependent protection against diarrhoea. Conclusions: The study reveals that the ACCS is a potent antidiarrhoeal drug which supports the traditional claim.

  6. Influence of polysaccharides and storage during processing on the properties of mango seed kernel extract (microencapsulation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisuthisakul, Pitchaon; Gordon, Michael H

    2012-10-01

    Extracts from mango (Mangifera indica Linn.) cultivar Chok-Anan seed kernels were studied as active substances, since they are known as a good source of phenolic antioxidants with metal chelating and tyrosinase inhibitory activities. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to investigate the effect of a combination of polysaccharides selected from gum arabic, maltodextrin and alginate on droplet size distribution, encapsulation efficiency (EE), stability and viscosity of W/O/W emulsions. In addition, the effects of stored emulsion on the properties of the encapsulated powder were studied. The results showed that there were interactions between polysaccharides which affected droplet size distribution, stability, viscosity and EE of multiple emulsions. The RSM showed a good fit to the proposed model with R(2)>0.83, 0.79 and 0.69 for viscosity, stability and EE, respectively, with significant correlations (pcoating material was also a suitable coating mixture for preparation of encapsulated mango seed kernel extract powder. Moreover, if the polysaccharide combination is not appropriate for coating, the storage after emulsion preparation will have a greater effect on the properties of the encapsulated emulsion and powder.

  7. Use of Water Extract of Moringa Oleifera Seeds (WEMOS in Raw Water Treatment in Makurdi, Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aho, I.M.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Availability of clean water is a serious problem, especially in developing countries like Nigeria, where conventional treatment methods are inappropriate due to high cost and low availability of chemical coagulants like alum. The paper presents the use of moringa seeds extract as alternative to alum in raw water treatment. Preliminary engineering properties such as jar test, speeds of flocculation; 98, 196 and 260rpm; detention and setting times were conducted to determine the integrity of moringa extract as a natural coagulant. The results shows that at the speed of 98rpm and settling time of 1 hour, 85 – 89% removal of solids was achieved, while 41 – 59%, 63 – 80% removal of solids were possible at 260rpm and 196rpm respectively. Similarly, after 2 hours of settling time, 93 – 96%, 64 – 75%, 65 – 80% removal of solids were obtained at 98rpm, 260rpm and 196rpm respectively. The treatment suggests optimum performance at low and medium speeds better than maximum speed of flocculation. It is suggested that further investigation be carried out on particle sizes of moringa oleifera seeds powder.

  8. Enhanced Coagulation Efficiency of Moringa Oleifera Seeds Through Selective Oil Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman A. Muyibi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this laboratory based study, varying quantities of oil, corresponding to 20 % w/w, 25 % w/w and 30 % w/w kernel weight extracted from Moringa oleifera seeds ( S1, S2, S3 respectively  were applied in the coagulation of model turbid water (kaolin suspension and turbid river water samples from River Batang Kali and River Selangor in Malaysia to determine the percentage oil removed which gave the best coagulation efficiency. For model turbid water (kaolin suspension coagulation of low turbidity of 35 NTU, medium turbidity of 100 NTU and high turbidity of 300 NTU, sample S2  gave the best turbidity removal corresponding to 91.7%, 95.5% and 99% respectively. Application of sample S2 to River Batang Kali with low initial turbidity of 32 NTU and high initial turbidity of 502 NTU gave a highest turbidity removal of 69% and 99% respectively. Application to River Selangor with medium initial turbidity- of 87 NTU and high initial turbidity of 466 NTU gave a highest residual turbidity' of 94% and 98.9%,  respectively.Key words: Moringa oleifera seed, selective oil extraction, coagulation, model turbid water (kaolin suspension, river water, turbidity removal.

  9. Biological effects of hydrolyzed quinoa extract from seeds of Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneguetti, Quele Adriana; Brenzan, Mislaine Adriana; Batista, Marcia Regina; Bazotte, Roberto Barbosa; Silva, Daniel Rodrigues; Garcia Cortez, Diógenes Aparício

    2011-06-01

    An extract from seeds of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (quinoa), termed hydrolyzed quinoa (HQ), was obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis from seeds of the quinoa variety BRS-Piabiru. Analysis of the physical and chemical properties of quinoa and HQ showed that the hydrolyzed extract is rich in essential amino acids, particularly those with branched chains (leucine, isoleucine, and valine). In addition, we evaluated the biological effects of HQ, particularly the toxicological potential. For this purpose, male Wistar rats were assigned randomly to four groups: (1) sedentary supplemented group, which received HQ (2,000 mg/kg); (2) sedentary control group, non-supplemented; (3) exercised supplemented group (i.e., rats subjected to aerobic physical exercise that received HQ [2,000 mg/kg]); and (4) exercised control group (i.e., rats subjected to aerobic physical exercise, non-supplemented). After 30 days, all groups were analyzed for levels of serum glucose, cholesterol, triacylglycerol, total protein, albumin, uric acid, and urea and activities of the enzymes alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase. Body weight gain, dietary intake, and lipid deposition were also analyzed. The results showed no hepatic and renal toxicity of HQ. Moreover, decreased food intake, body weight, fat deposition, and blood triacylglycerol level were observed in the supplemented groups (sedentary and exercised supplemented groups). These results suggest a potential use of HQ in human nutrition.

  10. Quantitative determination, Metal analysis and Antiulcer evaluation of Methanol seeds extract of Citrullus lanatus Thunb (Cucurbitaceae) in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Okunrobo O. Lucky; Uwaya O. John; Imafidon E. Kate; Osarumwense O. Peter; Omorodion E. Jude

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The use of herbs in treatment of diseases is gradually becoming universally accepted especially in non industrialized societies. Citrullus lanatus Thunb (Cucurbitaceae) commonly called water melon is widely consumed in this part of the world as food and medicine. This work was conducted to investigate the phytochemical composition, proximate and metal content analysis of the seed of Citrullus lanatus and to determine the antiulcer action of the methanol seed extract....

  11. Ripening stage and extraction method effects on physical properties, polyphenol composition and antioxidant activities of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebey, Iness Bettaieb; Kefi, Sarra; Bourgou, Soumaya; Ouerghemmi, Ines; Ksouri, Riadh; Tounsi, Moufida Saidani; Marzouk, Brahim

    2014-12-01

    The effects of two extraction methods, used at three ripening stages on the total polyphenol contents and the antioxidant activities of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seed extracts were studied. The ripening stage effect on some physical properties of cumin seed was significant. The increase of dry matter (from 10.3 to 87.5%) during ripeness was correlated negatively with that of moisture content (from 89.7 to 12.5%). Besides results showed that the full ripe seeds were richer on polyphenols and condensed tannin than unripe ones, and consequently exhibited higher antioxidant activities. However, the unripe seeds had a higher total flavonoid content compared to those of half ripe and full ripe ones. The comparison of two extraction methods showed that soxhlet extracts contained the greatest amount of polyphenols and flavonoids, while maceration samples exhibited higher antiradical and bleaching power assay. Total phenolic contents and IC50 (concentration required to cause a 50% DPPH inhibition) values in cumin seed during their maturation allowed to conclude that antioxidant activity does not depend only on the high content of total phenolics but also on the phenolic composition. A total of 19 phenolic compounds were successfully identified by HPLC analysis during the ripening of cumin seeds. Rosmarinic acid was the major phenolic acid for the unripe seeds. Furthermore, half ripe and full ripe seeds were dominated by p-coumaric acid. These compounds might be considered as interesting bioactive natural substances that may be used in several fields, such as nutraceuticals, cosmetics and agro-food industry.

  12. Histological Changes in Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus I779) Exposed to Aqueous Extract of Moringa oleifera Seeds Powder

    OpenAIRE

    , E.O. Ayotunde; O. A. Fagbenro; Adebayo, O.T.

    2011-01-01

    This research determined the pathological effects of Moringa oleifera seed powder, a natural alternative to alum, used as a water purifier in fish culture enclosure in Nigeria. The histological changes in gill, liver, skin and kidney of fingerling and adult Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus exposed to aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera seed at different sub-lethal concentration under static bioassay procedure are described. There were pathologic lesions observed which i...

  13. [Effect of aqueous extracts of Tamus communis L. leaves on the germination of seeds of various species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modenesi, P; Foggi, G; Roti-Michelozzi, G; Serrato, G

    1981-06-15

    The different influence of germination and growth inhibitors in aqueous extracts, at the same concentration, of Tamus communis L. leaves, on germinating seeds and seedlings of nigra L., Lactuca sativa L., Medicago sativa L., has been shown. This action, very marked at the experimental concentrations, is not toxic, as the seeds and seedlings, if immersed in deionized water after treatments, recover their germination and growth. This recovery occurs however differently in the plants investigated.

  14. Extracts of Phenolic Compounds from Seeds of Three Wild Grapevines—Comparison of Their Antioxidant Activities and the Content of Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Amarowicz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds were extracted from three wild grapevine species: Vitis californica, V. riparia and V. amurensis seeds using 80% methanol or 80% acetone. The total content of phenolic compounds was determined utilizing the Folin-Ciocalteu’s phenol reagent while the content of tannins was assayed with the vanillin and BSA precipitation methods. Additionally, the DPPH free radical scavenging activity and the reduction power of the extracts were measured. The RP-HPLC method was applied to identify the phenolic compounds in the extracts, such as phenolic acids and catechins. The seeds contained large amounts of tannins, catechins and gallic acid and observable quantities of p-coumaric acid. The total content of phenolic compounds and tannins was similar in the extracts from V. californica and V. riparia seeds. However, the total content of total phenolic compounds and tannins in the extracts from V. californica and V. riperia seeds were about two-fold higher than that in the extracts from V. amurensis seeds. Extracts from seeds of the American species (V. californica and V. riparia contained similarly high concentrations of tannins, whereas extracts from seeds of V. amurensis had approximately half that amount of these compounds. The content of catechin and epicatechin was similar in all extracts. The highest DPPH• anti-radical scavenging activity was observed in the acetonic and methanolic extracts of V. californica and V. riparia seeds—while the acetonic extract from the V. californica seeds was the strongest reducing agent.

  15. Phytochemical screening and free radical scavenging activity of Citrullus colocynthis seeds extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nabila; Benariba; Rabeh; Djaziri; Wafaa; Bellakhdar; Nacera; Belkacem; Marcel; Kadiata; Willy; J.Malaisse; Abdullah; Sener

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To study the phytochemical screening of different extracts from Citrullus colocynthis(C.colocynthis)seeds extracts and to assess their antioxidant activity on the DPPH free radical scavenging.Methods:Phytochemical screening,total content of polyphenols and flavonoids of C.colocynthis seeds extracts,including a crude aqueous extract(E1),a defatted aqueous extract(E2),a hydromethanolic extract(HM),an ethyl acetate extract(EA)and a n-butanol extract(n-B)was carried out according to the standard methods and to assess their corresponding effect on the antioxidant activity of this plant.Results:None of these extracts contained detectable amount of alkaloid,quinone,antraquinone,or reducing sugar.Catechic tannins and flavonoids were abundant in E1,MM and EA,whilst terpenoids were abundantly present in E1 and n-B but only weekly in HM.Coumarins were found in E2,EA and n-B.Polyphenols,expressed as gallic acid equivalent,amounted,per 100 g plant matter,to 329,1002 and 150 mg in EA,HM an E1 respectively.Flavonoids,expressed as catechin equivalent,amounted.per 100 g plant matter to 620,241 and 94 mg in EA,HM and E1 respectively.Comparable values were found in n-B and E1,with lower values in E2.Quercetin,myricetin and gallic acid were found in the EA and HM extracts by thin layer chromatography,The antioxidative effect of these extracts yielded,when tested at a concentration of 2000μg/mL in a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay,a reducing percentage of 88.8%with EA,74.5%with HM and 66.2%with E1,and corresponding IC50of 350,580and 500μg/mL as compared to 1.1μg/mL for ascorbic acid.Conclusions:These qualitative and quantitative analytical data document the presence in C.colocynthis extracts of such chemical compounds as flavonoids responsible for the antioxidant activity,as well as other biological activities of this plant.

  16. Antioxidant activities of lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed as affected by extraction solvent, prior dechlorophyllisation and drying methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjakul, Soottawat; Kittiphattanabawon, Phanat; Sumpavapol, Punnanee; Maqsood, Sajid

    2014-11-01

    Extracts of brown lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed prepared using different extraction solvents were determined for antioxidative activities using different assays. The highest yield (3.4-4.0%) was obtained when water was used as an extraction solvent, compared with all ethanolic extracts used (1.2-2.0 %) (P < 0.05). Much lower chlorophyll content was found in the water extract. When hot water was used, the resulting extract contained lower total phenolic and mimosine contents (P < 0.05). In general, 60-80 % ethanolic extracts had higher 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activities, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and metal chelating activity than water extracts (P < 0.05). When brown lead seed was dechlorophyllised prior to extraction, the water extract had slightly increased yield with lower chlorophyll content. Nevertheless, prior chlorophyll removal resulted in the increase in antioxidative activities but lower total phenolic and mimosine contents (P < 0.05). Generally, phenolic compounds and mimosine were more released when water was used as the extraction solvent, while the lower amount of chlorophyll was extracted. Oven-drying exhibited the negative effect on antioxidative activities and mimosine content. The higher antioxidative activities with concomitant higher total phenolic and mimosine contents were found in water extract dried by freeze drying. Thus, extraction solvent, dechlorophyllisation and drying methods directly influenced the yield and antioxidative activity of lead seed extract.

  17. Grape seed extract dose-responsively decreases disease severity in a rat model of mucositis; concomitantly enhancing chemotherapeutic effectiveness in colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Ker Yeaw; Howarth, Gordon Stanley; Bastian, Susan Elaine Putnam

    2014-01-01

    Mucositis is a serious disorder of the gastrointestinal tract that results from cancer chemotherapy. We investigated the effects of increasing grape seed extract doses on the severity of chemotherapy in a rat model and its coincident impact on chemotherapeutic effectiveness in colon cancer cells. Female Dark Agouti rats were gavaged with grape seed extract (400-1000 mg/kg) or water (day 3-11) and were injected intraperitoneally with 5-Fluorouracil (150 mg/kg) or saline (control) on day 9 to induce mucositis. Daily metabolic data were collected and rats were sacrificed on day 12. Intestinal tissues were collected for histological and myeloperoxidase analyses. Caco-2 cell viability was examined in response to grape seed extract in combination with 5-Fluorouracil by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) assay. Compared with 5-Fluorouracil controls, grape seed extract (400-1000 mg/kg) significantly decreased the histological damage score (PGrape seed extract (1000 mg/kg) increased jejunal crypt depth by 25% (PGrape seed extract (600 mg/kg) decreased myeloperoxidase activity by 55% (PGrape seed extract was more effective at ameliorating 5-Fluorouracil induced intestinal injury, with effects most pronounced in the proximal jejunum. Grape seed extract (10-25 ug/mL) significantly enhanced the growth-inhibitory effects of 5-Fluorouracil by 26% (PGrape seed extract may represent a new therapeutic option to decrease the symptoms of intestinal mucositis while concurrently impacting on the viability of colon cancer cells.

  18. Effect of ultrasound pre-treatment of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed on supercritical CO2 extraction of oil

    OpenAIRE

    Da Porto, C.; Natolino, A.; Decorti, D.

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound pre-treatment of intact hemp seeds without any solvent assistance was carried out for 10, 20 and 40 min prior to SCCO2 extraction at 40 °C, 300 bar and 45 kg CO2/kg feed. Sonication time effect on SC-CO2 extraction was investigated by the extraction kinetics. The maximum extraction yield was estimated to be 24.03 (% w/w) after 10 min of ultrasonic pre-treatment. The fatty acid compositions of the oils extracted by SC-CO2 without and with ultrasound pre-treatments was analyzed using...

  19. EVALUATION OF THE FLOCCULATION EFFICIENCY OF Chlorella vulgaris MEDIATED BY Moringa oleifera SEED UNDER DIFFERENT FORMS: FLOUR, SEED CAKE AND EXTRACTS OF FLOUR AND CAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. L. Lapa Teixeira

    Full Text Available Abstract Flocculation as a pre-separation method can help make production of biodiesel from microalgae economically feasible. In a previous study, Moringa oleifera seed flour (1 g.L-1 was shown to be a very efficient flocculant for Chlorella vulgaris, a microalga with high potential for biodiesel production. In this study, several aspects of C vulgaris flocculation mediated by Moringa were investigated in order to optimize the separation of this biomass. Flocculation efficiency was the same with seeds from different origins and lots. The stationary growth stage was best for harvesting C vulgaris cells to carry out flocculation efficiently (93%. The use of flour extracts and cake extracts generated the best cost-benefit ratio (flocculation efficiency from 78 to 97% with a saving in mass of seed of 75%. The highest efficiency was reached with extracts prepared with seawater and NaCl solutions which have high salt concentration. Reasonable stability of the extract allows its use for up to two weeks, provided it is kept at low temperature (4 ºC.

  20. Comparison of different extraction methods for giberelic acid obtention from corn (Zea mays L. germinated seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan David Rivera

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Corn (Zea mays L. is the second most cultivated cereal in the world and is use as raw material for different kind of industries. To date no reports about obtaining giberellic acid (GA3 from corn have been found. In the present study two methods for extracting solid samples were evaluated: lixiviation and dynamic sonication-assisted solvent extraction (DSASE, for obtaining giberellic acid from corn germinated seeds. In lixiviation, the physical method (agitation and sonication, solvent, and time were the parameters analyzed; while in DSASE the variables were: solvent, flow, and time. The most efficient technique was DSASE employing acetonitrile-formic acid 5% (80:20, v:v as solvent at a flow of 0.4 mL/min for 25,0 min, obtaining a concentration 30.012 mg/kg giberellic acid. The identification and quantification were performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with diode array detector (DAD. These results showed that dynamic sonication-assisted solvent extraction (DSASE is a novel and powerful alternative technique for obtaining giberellic acid, because of its high efficiency; low solvent consumption and simplicity in obtaining the extract.

  1. Physiological responses of seeds and seedlings of lettuce submitted to Philodendron bipinnatifidum extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Zanatta Aumonde

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The work was conducted to evaluate the effect of different Philodendron bipinnatifidum Schott. extract concentrations on the physiology and enzymatic metabolism of lettuce seeds and seedlings. The treatments extracts of mature leaves at concentrations of 0, 6, 12, 25 and 50%. Were evaluated the germination, first count germination, speed and germination speed index, length of shoot and primary root, seedling total dry mass, electrical conductivity, chlorophyll content, activity of the enzymes ?-amilase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and ascorbarto peroxidase, lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide content and seedling emergence, length of shoot and total dry mass of emerged seedlings. There was a reduction of germination, germination speed index and total dry mass by increasing the concentration of the extract. While the content of hydrogen peroxide, lipid peroxidation and activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase ascorbarto increased with concentration. The increasing of concentration the leaf extracts of the P. bipinnatifidum negatively affects the activity of the enzyme ?-amylase and causes increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, affecting the physiologic performance and growth of lettuce seedlings.

  2. Effects of Tannin Extract from Gongronema latifolium Leaves on Lipoxygenase Cucumeropsis manii Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabinus O. O. Eze

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipoxygenase (EC 1.13.11.12 was partially purified from germinated seeds of Cucumeropsis manii to a purification fold of 47.14, enzyme activity recovery of 72.18%, and specific activity of 326.25 units/mg protein, using a three-step process of centrifugation, ammonium sulphate precipitation and gel filtration. Kinetic properties show maximum activity at pH 6.0 and at optimum temperature of 40°C. Inhibitory effects of the extract from Gongronema latifolium and two other known antioxidants: ascorbic acid and propyl gallate on lipoxygenase from Cucumeropsis manii were studied. Result shows presence of inhibition with IC50 of 4.2×10−3 ± 0.09×10−3 g/L, 4.3×10−2 ± 0.11×10−2 g/L and 7.9×10−2 ± 0.11×10−2 g/L for the extract from ascorbic acid and propyl gallate, respectively. The extract when compared to the other antioxidants exhibits a competitive mechanism of inhibition. This tannin extract could be included during food processing as preservative against food deterioration that might be caused by oxidative enzymes such as lipoxygenase.

  3. Extraction and characterization of galactomannan extracted from Prosopis juliflora seeds; Extracao e caracterizacao de galactomanana extraida a partir de sementes de Prosopis juliflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Delane da C.; Cunha, Arcelina P.; Oliveira, Williara Q. de; Gallao, Maria Izabel, E-mail: izagalao@gmail.com [Rede Nordeste de Biotecnologia (RENORBIO), Forteleza, CE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencia; Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortalea, CE (Brazil); Azeredo, Henriette M. C de [EMBRAPA Agroindustria Tropical, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Different seeds are rich in polysaccharides, which are widely used in research and in industry. The objective was to extract galactomannan from mesquite seeds (Prosopis juliflora) and evaluate their chemical properties for future application in edible films. To test the feasibility of using the polysaccharide, the yield was obtained and the material analyzed by Thermal Analysis (TGA-Thermogravimetric Analysis and Calorimetry Differential Scanning-DSC), Spectroscopy Infrared Region Fourier Transform (FTIR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). According to the results, the galactomannan was equivalent with the polysaccharides extracted from other sources except for the low yield (6.6%). (author)

  4. Extraction and characterization of galactomannan extracted from Prosopis juliflora seeds; Extracao e caracterizacao de galactomanana extraida a partir de sementes de Prosopis juliflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Delane da C.; Cunha, Arcelina P.; Oliveira, Williara Q. de; Gallao, Maria Izabel, E-mail: izagalao@gmail.com [Rede Nordeste de Biotecnologia (RENORBIO), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencia; Azeredo, Henriette M.C. de [EMBRAPA Agroindustria Tropical, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Different seeds are rich in polysaccharides, which are widely used in research and in industry. The objective was to extract galactomannan from mesquite seeds (Prosopis juliflora) and evaluate their chemical properties for future application in edible films. To test the feasibility of using the polysaccharide, the yield was obtained and the material analyzed by Thermal Analysis (TGA-Thermogravimetric Analysis and Calorimetry Differential Scanning-DSC), Spectroscopy Infrared Region Fourier Transform (FTIR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). According to the results, the galactomannan was equivalent with the polysaccharides extracted from other sources except for the low yield (6.6%). (author)

  5. Germinated and Ungerminated Seeds Extract from Two Lupinus Species: Biological Compounds Characterization and In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andor, Bogdan; Alexa, Ersilia; Hogea, Elena; Coricovac, Dorina; Pătrașcu, Jenel Marian; Mioc, Marius; Cristina, Romeo Teodor; Soica, Codruta; Dehelean, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, nutraceuticals attracted a great amount of attention in the biomedical research due to their significant contribution as natural agents for prevention of various health issues. Ethanolic extracts from the ungerminated and germinated seeds of Lupinus albus L. and Lupinus angustifolius L. were analyzed for the content in isoflavones (genistein) and cinnamic acid derivatives. Additionally, the extracts were evaluated for antimicrobial, antiproliferative, and anti-inflammatory properties, using in vitro and in vivo tests. Germination proved to be a method of choice in increasing the amount of genistein and cinnamic acid derivatives in both Lupinus albus L. and Lupinus angustifolius L. seeds. Biological evaluation of all vegetal extracts revealed a weak therapeutic potential for both ungerminated and germinated seeds. PMID:28090213

  6. Germinated and Ungerminated Seeds Extract from Two Lupinus Species: Biological Compounds Characterization and In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Andor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, nutraceuticals attracted a great amount of attention in the biomedical research due to their significant contribution as natural agents for prevention of various health issues. Ethanolic extracts from the ungerminated and germinated seeds of Lupinus albus L. and Lupinus angustifolius L. were analyzed for the content in isoflavones (genistein and cinnamic acid derivatives. Additionally, the extracts were evaluated for antimicrobial, antiproliferative, and anti-inflammatory properties, using in vitro and in vivo tests. Germination proved to be a method of choice in increasing the amount of genistein and cinnamic acid derivatives in both Lupinus albus L. and Lupinus angustifolius L. seeds. Biological evaluation of all vegetal extracts revealed a weak therapeutic potential for both ungerminated and germinated seeds.

  7. Structural Features of Alkaline Extracted Polysaccharide from the Seeds of Plantago asiatica L. and Its Rheological Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Yi Yin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharide from the seeds of Plantago asiatica L. has many bioactivities, but few papers report on the structural and rheological characteristics of the alkaline extract. The alkaline extracted polysaccharide was prepared from seeds of P. asiatica L. and named herein as alkaline extracted polysaccharide from seeds of P. asiatica L. (PLAP. Its structural and rheological properties were characterized by monosaccharide composition, methylation, GC-MS and rheometry. PLAP, as an acidic arabinoxylan, was mainly composed of 1,2,4-linked Xylp and 1,3,4-linked Xylp residues. PLAP solution showed pseudoplastic behavior, and weak gelling properties at high concentration. Sodium and especially calcium ions played a significant role in increasing the apparent viscosity and gel strength.

  8. Effect of Extraction Method on the Oxidative Stability of Camelina Seed Oil Studied by Differential Scanning Calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belayneh, Henok D; Wehling, Randy L; Cahoon, Edgar B; Ciftci, Ozan N

    2017-03-01

    Camelina seed is a new alternative omega-3 source attracting growing interest. However, it is susceptible to oxidation due to its high omega-3 content. The objective of this study was to improve the oxidative stability of the camelina seed oil at the extraction stage in order to eliminate or minimize the use of additive antioxidants. Camelina seed oil extracts were enriched in terms of natural antioxidants using ethanol-modified supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 ) extraction. Oxidative stability of the camelina seed oils extracted by ethanol modified SC-CO2 was studied by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), and compared with cold press, hexane, and SC-CO2 methods. Nonisothermal oxidation kinetics of the oils obtained by different extraction methods were studied by DSC at varying heating rates (2.5, 5, 10, and 15 °C/min). Increasing ethanol level in the ethanol-modified SC-CO2 increased the oxidative stability. Based on oxidation onset temperatures (Ton ), SC-CO2 containing 10% ethanol yielded the most stable oil. Oxidative stability depended on the type and content of the polar fractions, namely, phenolic compounds and phospholipids. Phenolic compounds acted as natural antioxidants, whereas increased phospholipid contents decreased the stability. Study has shown that the oxidative stability of the oils can be improved at the extraction stage and this may eliminate the need for additive antioxidants. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  9. Antioxidant activity and inhibitory effects of lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed extracts against lipid oxidation in model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjakul, Soottawat; Kittiphattanabawon, Phanat; Shahidi, Fereidoon; Maqsood, Sajid

    2013-08-01

    Antioxidant activity of brown lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed extracts with and without prior chlorophyll removal was studied in comparison with mimosine. Both extracts showed similar hydroxyl radical (HO(•)) scavenging activity, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging activity, singlet oxygen inhibition and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) scavenging capacity (p > 0.05). Nevertheless, the extract without prior chlorophyll removal had higher oxygen radical absorbance capacity than that with prior chlorophyll removal (p < 0.05). Generally, lead seed extracts with and without prior chlorophyll removal possessed a lower antioxidant activity, compared with mimosine. When lead seed extract without prior chlorophyll removal (100 and 200 ppm) was used in different lipid oxidation model systems, including β-carotene-linoleic acid and lecithin liposome systems, the preventive effect toward lipid oxidation was dose-dependent. At the same level of use, mimosine exhibited a higher efficacy in prevention of lipid oxidation in both systems as indicated by the lower increases in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. A similar result was obtained in minced mackerel. Therefore, lead seed extract containing mimosine could act as a natural antioxidant to prevent lipid oxidation in foods.

  10. Separation and purification of both tea seed polysaccharide and saponin from camellia cake extract using macroporous resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pengjie; Zhou, Mingda; Zhou, Chengyun; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Fangfang; Chen, Jian

    2015-02-01

    A novel method to separate and purify tea seed polysaccharide and tea seed saponin from camellia cake extract by macroporous resin was developed. Among four kinds of resins (AB-8, NKA-9, XDA-6, and D4020) tested, AB-8 macroporous resin possessed optimal separating capacity for the two substances and thus was selected for the separation, in which deionized water was used to elute tea seed polysaccharide, 0.25% NaOH solution to remove the undesired pigments, and 90% ethanol to elute tea seed saponin. Further dynamic adsorption/desorption experiments on AB-8 resin-based column chromatography were conducted to obtain the optimal parameters. Under optimal dynamic adsorption and desorption conditions, 18.7 and 11.8% yield of tea seed polysaccharide and tea seed saponin were obtained with purities of 89.2 and 96.0%, respectively. The developed method provides a potential approach for the large-scale production of tea seed polysaccharide and tea seed saponin from camellia cake. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Cydonia Oblonga Seed on the Healing of Second-Degree Burn Wounds

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    A Tajoddini

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: It has been shown that antioxidants may contribute to the healing of wounds caused by burns. This study was designed to determine the effects of the ethanolic extract of Cydonia oblonga seeds on second degree burn wounds. Methods: In a preclinical study, 48 mice were divided into 4 groups of 12. Group-I (sham received no treatment, Group- II (negative control was treated with Vaseline, Groups-III was treated with 1% Cydonia oblonga seed ointment and Group IV (positive control received silver sulphadiazine twice per day. In the treatment groups, 1 gr ointment twice per day until complete wound healing was used. Animals were assessed by measuring the percent of wound healing, the remained gap of incision injury and total time required for complete healing. The data were statistically analyzed with SPSS software using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s tests. Results: The results showed that concentration of 1% of Cydonia oblonga seed extract had significantly better burn wound healing effects (99. 502 % in treatment group in comparison with the control group (92.97%.This is because the percentage of burn healing was higher and the length of healing was shorter in Cydonia oblonga seed group compared to the control groups (P<0.05. Conclusion: The results showed that the Cydonia oblonga seed ointment might be beneficial in patients with second degree burn wounds. Further studies are recommended to establish the optimal dose of the extract. Key words: Burn, Cydonia Oblonga, Extract, Healing

  12. Extraction of bioactive compounds from sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) defatted seeds using water and ethanol under sub-critical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodoira, Romina; Velez, Alexis; Andreatta, Alfonsina E; Martínez, Marcela; Maestri, Damián

    2017-12-15

    Sesame seeds contain a vast array of lignans and phenolic compounds having important biological properties. An optimized method to obtain these seed components was designed by using water and ethanol at high pressure and temperature conditions. The maximum concentrations of lignans, total phenolics, flavonoids and flavonols compounds were achieved at 220°C extraction temperature and 8MPa pressure, using 63.5% ethanol as co-solvent. Under these conditions, the obtained sesame extracts gave the best radical scavenging capacity. Kinetic studies showed a high extraction rate of phenolic compounds until the first 50min of extraction, and it was in parallel with the highest scavenging capacity. The comparison of our results with those obtained under conventional extraction conditions (normal pressure, ambient temperature) suggests that recovery of sesame bioactive compounds may be markedly enhanced using water/ethanol mixtures at sub-critical conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Inhibitory Action of Ethanolic Extract of Seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. On Systemic and Local Anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Shailaja G; Mehta, Anita A

    2007-10-01

    The current study characterizes the mechanism by which the seed extract of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) decreases the mast cell-mediated immediate type hypersensitivity reaction. The immediate type hypersensitivity reaction is involved in many allergic diseases such as asthma and allergic rhinitis. Moringa oleifera, a shrub widely used in the traditional medicine in India, has been reported to possess anti-cancer, hypotensive, anti-arthritic, and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, the effects of the ethanolic extract of seeds of Moringa oleifera (MOEE-herbal remedy) on systemic and local anaphylaxis were investigated. The potential anti-anaphylactic effect of MOEE was studied in a mouse model of Compound 48/80-induced systemic anaphylactic shock. Passive cutaneous anaphylaxis activated by anti IgE-antibody was also used to assess the effect of MOEE. In addition, rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMC) were used to investigate the effect of MOEE on histamine release induced by compound 48/80. When administered 1 hr before 48/80 injection, MOEE at doses of 0.001-1.000 g/kg completely inhibited the inducible induced anaphylactic shock. MOEE significantly inhibited passive cutaneous anaphylaxis activated by anti-IgE antibody at a dose of 1 g/kg. When MOEE extract was given as pretreatment at concentrations ranging 0.1-100 mg/ml, the histamine release from the mast cells that was induced by the 48/80 was reduced in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest a potential role for MOEE as a source of anti-anaphylactic agents for use in allergic disorders.

  14. Quality assessment of Moringa concanensis seed oil extracted through solvent and aqueous-enzymatic techniques

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    Anwar, Farooq

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The composition and quality of the M. concanensis seed oil extracted through an aqueous-enzyme-assisted technique, using three commercial enzyme-mixtures (Natuzyme, Kemzyme, and Feedzyme was compared to those of the control-, (without enzymes and solvent-extracted oils. Aqueous enzyme-extracted M.concanensis seed oil content ranged from 23.54 to 27.46% and was significantly (P 0.05 variation in the contents of fiber and ash within the three extraction methods. However, the protein content of the meal obtained through the aqueous-enzyme and control methods was significantly (P M. concanensis seed oils extracted using the three methods. The specific extinctions at 232 and 270 nm, peroxide value, p-anisidine, free fatty acid contents and color values of the aqueous-enzyme-extracted oil were found to be lower than that of solvent-extracted oil and thus revealed good quality. The oils extracted through the three methods exhibited no significant (P En este estudio se compara la composición y la calidad del aceite de semilla de M. concanensis extraído mediante enzimas, utilizando tres enzimas comerciales (Natuzyme, Kemzyme, y Feedzyme con las de un control extraído sin enzimas y con las del aceite extraído con disolvente. El contenido en aceites de las semilla extraídas con enzimas osciló entre 23,54 a 27,46% y fue significativamente más elevado (P 0,05 en el contenido de fibra y ceniza para los tres métodos de la extracción. Sin embargo, el contenido proteínico de la harina obtenido por métodos enzimáticos y el control sin enzimas fue significativamente menor (P < 0,05 que el de la harina obtenida después de la extracción por disolvente. Las diferencias en el índice de yodo (67.1-68.0 g /100 g of oil, densidad en 24 °C (0,865-0,866 g/mL, índice de refracción a 40 °C (1,4622-1,4627 y fracción insaponificable (0,69-0,76 % no fueron significativamente diferentes para ninguna de las técnicas de extracción. Las extinciones espec

  15. Ionic liquids as a key medium for efficient extraction of copper complexes from chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcieszek, Justyna; Popowski, Dominik; Ruzik, Lena

    2016-05-15

    Due to insufficient information, the aim of study was to concern on the optimization of extraction procedure of selected metal complexes with flavonoids from chia seeds. Evaluation of the amount of elements in compound, not only their total concentration content, is highly important due to the fact, that only a part from total content of metal is absorbed by human body. At the beginning the total amount of elements in chia seeds was established as 14.51±0.42 µg g(-1) for copper, 57.44±1.23 µg g(-1) for manganese, 81.12±1.89 µg g(-1) for zinc and 0.35±0.13 µg g(-1) for cobalt. After the most suitable solvent was established, effects of several parameters on the efficiency of metal extraction were studied. Solvent concentration, solid-solvent ratio, extraction method, extraction time and temperature have been investigated as independent variables. The optimal extraction conditions included vortexing during 20 min in 50°C, using an ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide) as an extractant, with solid-solvent ratio of 1:20. The determination of total and extractable amount of metals in chia seeds was carried out by standalone ICP MS. In addition, a complementary analysis of extracted metal complexes was performed using SEC-ICP MS method. It was confirmed that the ionic liquid is able to extract different copper complexes in comparison with commonly used solvents. The study indicated that extraction by using an ionic liquid has been successfully applied for determination of metals and metal complexes in chia seeds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. In vitro antioxidant and in vivo photoprotective effect of pistachio (Pistacia vera L., variety Bronte) seed and skin extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorana, Maria; Arcoraci, Teresita; Rizza, Luisa; Cristani, Mariateresa; Bonina, Francesco Paolo; Saija, Antonina; Trombetta, Domenico; Tomaino, Antonio

    2013-03-01

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) nuts are a rich source of phenolic compounds, known for their high antioxidant activity, and contained not only in the seeds but also in the skin. A pistachio cultivar of high quality is typical of Bronte, Sicily, Italy. The purpose of our study was to investigate the chemical composition and antioxidant properties of two polyphenol-rich extracts from skins (TP) and decorticated seeds (SP) of Bronte pistachios, and to verify the potential use of these extracts for topical photoprotective products. Chemical analysis showed that the TP and SP extracts contain high levels of phenolic compounds, but the TP extract is about ten times richer in phenols than the SP extract, being anthocyanins the most abundant compounds found in the TP extract. Both these extracts, and especially the TP extract, possess good radical scavenger/antioxidant properties, as shown in a series of in vitro assays carried out using homogenous and non-homogenous chemical environment. Furthermore both the TP extract and, although at a lower degree, the SP extract reduce, when topically applied, UV-B-induced skin erythema in human volunteers. These findings suggest that extracts from Bronte TP and SP could be successfully employed as photoprotective ingredients in topical cosmetic and pharmaceutical formulations.

  17. Ethanol as a solvent and hot extraction technique preserved the antioxidant properties of tamarind (Tamarindus indica seed

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    Nushrat Yeasmen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of two extraction solvents (ethanol and acetone and two extraction techniques i.e., hot extraction at 400C and cold extraction at 260C were investigated on the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of extracts from Tamarindus indica seed. The antioxidant activity of T. indica was determined by evaluating 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging activity, ferric reducing power assay (FRAP and ascorbic acid equivalent content (AAC. The tested sample showed appreciable amounts of total phenolic contents (51.45-71.68 mg GAE/gm of dry extract, DPPH scavenging capacity (61.18-71.17%, IC50 values (98.30-248.60, reducing power (0.6377-0.7702 and total antioxidant capacity (22.75-43.80 AAE/gm at different solvents and techniques. Current study data shown higher extract yields, phenolic contents, scavenging activity, reducing power and antioxidant activity using ethanol solvent compared to the respective acetone solvent. In addition, higher extract yields and other properties were obtained by hot extraction at 400C compared to the cold extraction at 260C. Present study suggests that ethanol as a solvent and hot extraction technique could be better to preserve the antioxidant properties of tamarind seed. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 332-337

  18. Extracts of Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach seeds inhibit folliculogenesis in albino rats

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    Roop J.K.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The seed oil of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem is used in traditional medicine for its antidiabetic, spermicidal, antifertility, antibacterial, and wound healing properties. The present study was undertaken to investigate the quantitative aspects of follicular development in cyclic female albino rats (135 ± 10 g; 8 groups with 6 animals in each group after oral administration of polar (PF and non-polar (NPF fractions of A. indica seed extract at 3 and 6 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 and Melia azedarach Linn. (dharek seed extract at 24 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 for 18 days. The extracts were prepared using a flash evaporator at 35°C and then dissolved in olive oil to prepare doses on a per kg body weight basis. There was a significant reduction (P = 0.05 in the number of normal single layered follicles (A. indica: 0.67 ± 0.33 and 4.67 ± 2.03 after 3 and 6 mg/kg NPF, and 3.33 ± 1.67 and 1.00 ± 1.00 after 3 and 6 mg/kg PF vs control: 72.67 ± 9.14 and M. azedarach: 0.60 ± 0.40 and 1.80 ± 1.2 after 24 mg/kg PF and NPF, respectively, vs control: 73.40 ± 7.02 and follicles in various stages (I-VII of follicular development in all treatment groups. These extracts also significantly reduced (P = 0.05 the total number of normal follicles in the neem (14.67 ± 5.93 and 1.00 ± 1.00 after 3 and 6 mg/kg PF and 3.67 ± 0.88 and 5.33 ± 2.03 after 3 and 6 mg/kg NPF and dharek (13.00 ± 3.58 and 14.60 ± 2.25 after 24 mg/kg NPF and PF treatments compared to control (216.00 ± 15.72 and 222.20 ± 19.52, respectively. Currently, indiscriminate use of persistent and toxic rodenticides to control rodent populations has created serious problems such as resistance and environmental contamination. Therefore, it becomes necessary to use ecologically safe and biologically active botanical substances that are metabolized and are not passed on to the next trophic level, and that interfere with the reproductive potential particularly growth and differentiation of

  19. Ultrasonic Removal of Mucilage for Pressurized Liquid Extraction of Omega-3 Rich Oil from Chia Seeds (Salvia hispanica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castejón, Natalia; Luna, Pilar; Señoráns, Francisco J

    2017-03-29

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seeds contain an important amount of edible oil rich in omega-3 fatty acids. Fast and alternative extraction techniques based on polar solvents, such as ethanol or water, have become relevant for oil extraction in recent years. However, chia seeds also contain a large amount of soluble fiber or mucilage, which makes difficult an oil extraction process with polar solvents. For that reason, the aim of this study was to develop a gentle extraction method for mucilage in order to extract chia oil with polar solvents using pressurized liquids and compare with organic solvent extraction. The proposed mucilage extraction method, using an ultrasonic probe and only water, was optimized at mild conditions (50 °C and sonication 3 min) to guarantee the omega-3 oil quality. Chia oil extraction was performed using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with different solvents and their mixtures at five different extraction temperatures (60, 90, 120, 150, and 200 °C). Optimal PLE conditions were achieved with ethyl acetate or hexane at 90 °C in only 10 min of static extraction time (chia oil yield up to 30.93%). In addition, chia oils extracted with nonpolar and polar solvents by PLE were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to evaluate fatty acid composition at different extraction conditions. Chia oil contained ∼65% of α-linolenic acid regardless of mucilage extraction method, solvent, or temperature used. Furthermore, tocopherols and tocotrienols were also analyzed by HPLC in the extracted chia oils. The mucilage removal allowed the subsequent extraction of the chia oil with polar or nonpolar solvents by PLE producing chia oil with the same fatty acid and tocopherol composition as traditional extraction.

  20. Extraction Yield Efficiency And Loss Of The Traditional Hot Water Floatation HWF Method Of Oil Extraction From The Seeds Of Allanblackia Floribunda

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    Alenyorege E. A.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The research was conducted to determine the Extraction Yield Extraction Efficiency and Extraction Loss associated with the traditional Hot Water Floatation method of oil extraction. Matured dry seeds of Allanblackia floribunda 50 Kg were used. Allanblackia floribunda a tree species of the Guttiferae family grows naturally in tropical rainforests zones. In Ghana Allanblackia floribunda is quite unknown hence little production of oil is carried out. However the oil extracted can have diverse domestic commercial and industrial uses. The oil production is important not only among small-to-medium scale industrialists but also to rural populace as it employs a substantial workforce and serves as a source of income to many communities engaged in the exercise. The method employed is the oldest cheapest and most practiced in the study location. The extraction process basically comprises of five fundamental steps thermal conditioning of the seeds milling extraction by boiling oil recovery and drying. The method yielded 21.1 kg of oil a residual cake of 26.2 Kg and a process loss of 2.7 Kg at a moisture content of 13.1 representing 42.2 Extraction yield 58.6 Extraction efficiency and 5.4 Extraction loss. The yield exceeded the minimum oil yield for commercial domestic and industrial consideration.

  1. The Effects of Crude Methanol Seed Extract of Brassica juncea on Haematological Parameters in Wistar Rats

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    S.A. Ufelle

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Brassica juncea, (B. juncea also known as Indian Oriental or Brown Mustard is widely used as a medicinal crop, oil seed, condiment and vegetable and much hematological effects have not been recorded on B. juncea. Thirty (30 male wistar rats aged 2-3 months, weighing 100-200 g were obtained and housed at the Animal House of College of Medicine, University of Nigeria Enugu Campus for this study. The rats were divided into five (5 groups of six (6 rats per group, labeled A to E and were acclimatized for two (2 weeks and were fed with commercially available rat feed. They had access to water and feed ad libitum. Groups A to D were orally administered with graded doses of the crude seed extract (50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight respectively daily for 30 days while group E which served as control received no extract. Blood samples (2.0 mL were collected from each rat through the retro orbital plexus of the median canthus into K3- EDTA containers for analysis using standard operative procedures. The results obtained, revealed that the mean Hemoglobin (Hb values of groups C and D (C = 12.6±0.57 and D = 11.1±1.4 g/dL were significantly decreased (p<0.05 when compared with control (E = 14.2±0.74 g/dL. The mean Hematocrit (PCV values of groups C and D (C = 0.38±0.02, and D = 0.34±0.04 L/L were also significantly decreased (p<0.05 compared with control (E = 0.43±0.02 L/L. The mean Total WBC values of all the treated groups were significantly increased (A = 6.45±0.3, B = 6.23±0.83, C = 6.0±0.34, and D = 6.05±0.41 x 109/L when compared with control E = 4.28±0.17×109/L (p<0.05. The mean platelet values were significantly decreased in all the treated groups (A = 30.00±4.1, B = 30.00±5.8, C = 46.25±7.5 and D = 33.75±2.5 x 109/L when compared with control E = 86.25±4.8×109/L. This study revealed that crude methanol seed extract of Brassica juncea affects some hematological parameters when orally administered at different concentrations.

  2. 提取因素对木瓜籽油提取率的影响%Effect of Extracting Factors on Extraction Rate of Papaya Seed Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海涛; 张海容; 徐撒撒

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The objective was to study the effects of different factors on the extraction rate of papaya seed oil, and confirm the optimum the technology conditions for extracting the papaya seed oil. [Method] With the papaya seed in the market-sold shine skin papaya as the tested material, the papaya seed oil was extracted by Soxhlet extraction method. The effects of the different extraction time, liquid-material ratio and extraction temperature on the extraction rate of the papaya seed oil were discussed and the optimum the conditions for extracting the papaya seed oil were confirmed through the single factor test and the orthogonal test. [ Result ] The single factor test showed that the optimum the extraction time for extracting the papaya seed oil was 9 h, the optimum liquid-material ratio was 8:1 and the optimum extraction temperature was 45 ℃. The orthogonal experiments based on the single factor test indicated that, the optimum the conditions for extracting the papaya seed oil were as follows; the extraction time of 9 h, liquid-material ratio of 7:1 and the extraction temperature of 48 ℃, under which, the oil yield of the papaya seed was 28.77%. [Conclusion] The study provided the reference basis for the comprehensive utilization and the development of the new products.%[目的]研究不同因素对木瓜籽油提取率的影响,确定木瓜籽油提取的最佳工艺条件.[方法]以市售光皮木瓜中的木瓜籽为试材,采用索式提取法提取木瓜籽油,通过单因素和正交试验,探讨不同的提取时间、液料比和提取温度对木瓜籽油提取率的影响,确定木瓜籽油提取的最佳条件.[结果]单因素试验表明,木瓜籽油提取的最佳提取时间为9h,最佳液料比为8:1,最佳提取温度为45℃.在此基础进行的正交试验表明,木瓜籽油提取的最佳提取条件为:提取时间9h、液料比7:1、提取温度为48℃,在此条件下,木瓜籽的出油率为28.77%.[结论]该研究为木瓜

  3. Antioxidant, antimicrobial properties and phenolics of different solvent extracts from bark, leaves and seeds of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Zahid Iqbal; Anwar, Farooq; Shabir, Ghulam; Rasul, Ghulam; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan

    2012-03-30

    This study appraises the antioxidant and antimicrobial attributes of various solvent extracts (absolute methanol, aqueous methanol, absolute ethanol, aqueous ethanol, absolute acetone, aqueous acetone, and deionized water) from bark, leaves and seeds of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre. Maximum extraction yield of antioxidant components from bark (16.31%), leaves (11.42%) and seeds (21.51%) of P. pinnata was obtained using aqueous methanol (20:80). Of the extracts tested, the bark extract, obtained with aqueous methanol, exhibited greater levels of total phenolics [6.94 g GAE/100 g dry weight (DW)], total flavonoids (3.44 g CE/100 g DW), inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation (69.23%) and DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC(50) value, 3.21 μg/mL), followed by leaves and seeds extracts. Bark extract tested against a set of bacterial and fungal strains also revealed the strongest antimicrobial activity with the largest inhibition zone and lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). HPLC analysis of aqueous methanol extracts from bark, leaves and seeds indicated the presence of protocatechuic, ellagic, ferulic, gallic, gentisic, 4-hydroxybenzoic and 4-hydroxycinnamic acids in bark (1.50-6.70 mg/100 g DW); sorbic, ferulic, gallic, salicylic and p-coumaric acids in leaves (1.18-4.71 mg/100 g DW); vanillic, gallic and tannic acids in seeds (0.52-0.65 mg/100 g DW) as the main phenolic acids. The present investigation concludes that the tested parts of P. pinnata, in particular the bark, have strong potential for the isolation of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents for functional food and pharmaceutical uses.

  4. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial Properties and Phenolics of Different Solvent Extracts from Bark, Leaves and Seeds of Pongamia pinnata (L. Pierre

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    Khalid M. Alkharfy

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study appraises the antioxidant and antimicrobial attributes of various solvent extracts (absolute methanol, aqueous methanol, absolute ethanol, aqueous ethanol, absolute acetone, aqueous acetone, and deionized water from bark, leaves and seeds of Pongamia pinnata (L. Pierre. Maximum extraction yield of antioxidant components from bark (16.31%, leaves (11.42% and seeds (21.51% of P. pinnata was obtained using aqueous methanol (20:80. Of the extracts tested, the bark extract, obtained with aqueous methanol, exhibited greater levels of total phenolics [6.94 g GAE/100 g dry weight (DW], total flavonoids (3.44 g CE/100 g DW, inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation (69.23% and DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 value, 3.21 μg/mL, followed by leaves and seeds extracts. Bark extract tested against a set of bacterial and fungal strains also revealed the strongest antimicrobial activity with the largest inhibition zone and lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. HPLC analysis of aqueous methanol extracts from bark, leaves and seeds indicated the presence of protocatechuic, ellagic, ferulic, gallic, gentisic, 4-hydroxybenzoic and 4-hydroxycinnamic acids in bark (1.50–6.70 mg/100 g DW; sorbic, ferulic, gallic, salicylic and p-coumaric acids in leaves (1.18–4.71 mg/100 g DW; vanillic, gallic and tannic acids in seeds (0.52–0.65 mg/100 g DW as the main phenolic acids. The present investigation concludes that the tested parts of P. pinnata, in particular the bark, have strong potential for the isolation of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents for functional food and pharmaceutical uses.

  5. icacy test of hexane extract of Annona squamosa L seeds for Chrysomya bezziana larvae growth in vitro

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    April H Wardhana

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Chrysomya bezziana is primer agent causing myiasis in livestock and human throughout Africa to Asia. At present, treatment of myiasis using chemical synthetic insecticide causing environment and livestock production contaminations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hexane extract of Annona squamosa L seed to kill C. bezziana as botanical insecticide. Three level and method preparation of larvae (L1, L2 and L3 were carried out. Meat blood mixture (MBM and larval rearing media (LRM were mixed with hexane extract of A. squamosa L seed and tested to 625 and 750 larvae (L1and L2 respectively, while for L3 625 larvae were soaked in the solution containing the hexane extract. This last preparation was carried out to observe the effect of toxic contact. Each larvae treatment was divided into 5 levels such as negative control using distillation water (PO, given 0.25% hexane extract (P I; 0.50% (P II; 0.75% (P III and positive control was given with 0.10% Asuntol®. This assay was to know digest toxic effect of hexane extract of A. squamosa L seed for those larvae. Number of 625 instar III larvae (L3 was soaked in the solution containing the hexane extract of A. squamosa L seed for 10 second, placed into vermicullite and incubated on 36oC. This assay was to know contact toxic effect of them. All of larvae were allowed to become pupae. Parameters oberserve were number of larvae death, pupae weight and number of pupae become into fly. The data was analyzed using Anova (5% and Z test (5% then smallest significant difference test (BNT 5%. The results showed that 0.50% of hexane extract of A. squamosa L seed was able to decrease pupae weight for L1 and L2 and to cause fail pupae become fly (P0.05.

  6. Extracts of Caesalpinia ferrea and Trichoderma sp. on the control of Colletotrichum sp. transmission in Sideroxylon obtusifolium seeds

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    P.A.F.R. MELO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Recent research reports the importance of preserving plants in Brazilian semiarid regions, in this context, the scientific literature has reported different pharmacological studies from plant extracts with an antifungal potential, coming from forest species that can contribute as a control and management strategy in the transmission of phytopathogens. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of biotech treatments in controlling the transmission of Colletotrichum sp. in seeds of S. obtusifolium. In this study, 100 seeds were subjected to the following preventive treatments: fungicide Captan®, extract of Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. Ex. Tul., and biological control with Trichoderma spp. The biological control with Trichoderma spp. and the alternative control using C. ferrea extract provided a greater protection to seeds and seedlings of S. obtusifolium facing the transmissibility of Colletotrichum sp.The treatment based on plant extract is more efficient for this purpose only in large seeds and does not interfere on the germination percentage and speed. Therefore it is necessary to perform other studies with Trichoderma spp. and C. ferrea extract to test different doses of these products.

  7. Effect of instant controlled pressure drop treatments on the oligosaccharides extractability and microstructure of Tephrosia purpurea seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor, Bouthaina Ben; Lamy, Cécile; Andre, Patrice; Allaf, Karim

    2008-12-12

    The study of the oligosaccharides extracted from Tephrosia purpurea seeds was undertaken using the instant controlled pressure drop (DIC) as a pre-treatment prior to conventional solvent extraction. This DIC procedure provided structural modification in terms of expansion, higher porosity and improvement of specific surface area; diffusion of solvent inside such seeds and availability of oligosaccharides increase notably. In this paper, we investigated and quantified the impact of the different DIC operative parameters on the yields of ciceritol and stachyose extracted from T. purpurea seeds. The treatment could be optimized with a steam pressure (P) (P=0.2 MPa), initial water content (W) (W=30% dry basis (DB)) and thermal treatment time (t) (t=30s). By applying DIC treatment in these conditions, the classic process of extraction was intensified in both aspects of yields (145% of ciceritol and 185% of stachyose), and kinetics (1h of extraction time instead of 4h for conventional process). The scanning electron microscopy micrographs provided evident modifications of structure of seeds due to the DIC treatment.

  8. Protective effects of Punica granatum seeds extract against aging and scopolamine induced cognitive impairments in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sokindra; Maheshwari, Kamal Kishore; Singh, Vijender

    2008-10-25

    Dementia is one of the age related mental problems and characteristic symptom of various neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease. This impairment probably is due to the vulnerability of the brain cells to increased oxidative stress during aging process. Many studies have shown that certain phenolic antioxidants attenuate neuronal cell death induced by oxidative stress. The present work was undertaken to assess the effect of ethanolic extract of Punica granatum seeds on cognitive performance of aged and scopolamine treated young mice using one trial step-down type passive avoidance and elevated plus maze task. Aged or scopolamine treated mice showed poor retention of memory in step-down type passive avoidance and in elevated plus maze task. Chronic administration (21 days) of Punica granatum extract and vitamin C significantly (p Punica granatum extract also significantly lowered lipid peroxidation level and increased antioxidant glutathione level in brain tissues. Punica granatum preparations could be protective in the treatment of cognitive disorders such as dementia and Alzheimer's disease.

  9. Grape seed extract as photochemopreventive agent against UVB-induced skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perde-Schrepler, Maria; Chereches, Gabriela; Brie, Ioana; Tatomir, Corina; Postescu, Ion Dan; Soran, Loredana; Filip, Adriana

    2013-01-05

    In the recent years, the use of natural antioxidants as photochemoprotective agents against skin damages produced by ultraviolet radiation gained considerable attention. Our goal was to show that the hydroethanolic extract obtained from red grape seeds, Burgund Mare (BM) variety could have a protective effect on keratinocytes exposed to UVB radiation. HaCaT keratinocytes were treated with BM extract 30 min. before UVB exposure. The effect was evaluated by assessing cell viability with MTT; the generation of lipid peroxides with malondialdehide (MDA) assay; DNA damage using comet assay; the quantification of DNA photolesions by ELISA and apoptosis by immunocytochemistry with AnnexinV. After irradiation with UVB, HaCaT cells pretreated with BM showed: increased cell viability compared to those exposed to UVB only; significantly lower lipid peroxides level; the lesion scores and DNA photolesions were significantly lower and a significant reduction of the cells undergoing apoptosis. These results recommend the use of the BM extract as photochemoprotective agent as such or in combination with sunscreens and/or other natural products with similar or complementary properties. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. In vitro extraction and fermentation of polyphenols from grape seeds (Vitis vinifera) by human intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Wang, Wei; Huang, Jun; Ding, Yu; Pan, Zhouqiang; Zhao, Ya; Zhang, Renkang; Hu, Bing; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2016-04-01

    The effects of several parameters on the extraction yield of total polyphenols from grape seeds by pressurized liquid extraction were investigated. The highest recovery of total polyphenols occurred at 80 °C within 5 min, and a single extraction allowed a recovery of more than 97% of total polyphenols. Following the purification with macroporous resin, the effects of grape polyphenols (>94.8%) on human intestinal microbiota were monitored over 36 h incubation by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were measured by HPLC. The result showed that the grape polyphenols promoted the changes in the relevant microbial populations and shifted the profiles of SCFAs. Fermentation of grape polyphenols resulted in a significant increase in the numbers of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus-Enterococcus group and inhibition in the growth of the Clostridium histolyticum group and the Bacteroides-Prevotella group, with no significant effect on the population of total bacteria. The findings suggest that grape polyphenols have potential prebiotic effects on modulating the gut microbiota composition and generating SCFAs that contribute to the improvements of host health.

  11. The Aqueous Seed Extract Of Carica papaya Linn. Prevents Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Hepatotoxicity In Rats

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    A A Adeneye

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Carica papaya Linn. is known to have a versatile application in African folkloric medicine. In the current study, the dose-dependent (100 – 400 mg/kg/day/oral route and time-course protective effects of the 400 mg/kg/oral route of the aqueous seed extract of unripe and mature Carica papaya fruit (CPE were investigated in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 hepatotoxic rats for 72 hours. Results showed the extract to cause significant (p<0.05, p<0.001, dose related attenuation in the elevation of serum liver enzyme markers of acute hepatocellular injury (ALT, AST, serum lipids (TG, TC, HDL-c, LDL-c and VLDL-c and serum proteins (TP and ALB. Maximum hepatoprotection was offered at an oral dose of 400 mg/kg/day of the extract. The biochemical results obtained were corroborated by improvements in the CCl4-induced hepatic histological changes. In addition, maximum hepatoprotection was offered at the 400 mg/kg of CPE for up to 3 hours post-CCl4 induction. In conclusion, the results obtained in the current study justify the folkloric application of CPE in the treatment of drug-related hepatic injury. Industrial relevance: Results of the current study provide some scientific information to develop safe and effective products such as food supplements, dietary supplements, etc. that could be useful in the clinical management of patients with drug related hepatic disorders.

  12. Antiinflammatory activity of the methanolic extract of the seeds ofCarica papaya in experimental animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amazu LU; Azikiwe CCA; Njoku CJ; Osuala FN; Nwosu PJC; Ajugwo AO; Enye JC

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To scientifically verify the claims of our traditional healers on the anti-inflammatory activity ofCarica papaya (C. papaya) and possibly deduce its activities.Methods:0.1 mL of fresh egg albumin was injected into the right hind-paw of adult white Wistar rats to induce inflammation an hour post intraperitoneal (IP) administration of50-200 mg/kg doses of the extract to3groups of5 rats per group. The 4th group of5 rats was used as negative control and received2 mL/kg(IP) of physiological saline, while the 5th group of5rats was used as positive-comparative control and received (IP) 150 mg/kg of aspirin. Increases in diameter of the paw were measured with the aid of Veneer Calipers before extract administration and at interval of30minutes post administration for further 2 hours. Percentage inhibition of oedema was calculated for each dose group and results were subjected to statistical analysis using studentt-test and analysis of variance(ANOVA).Results: All doses of extract showed a dose and time dependent inhibition effects of oedema(P<0.05).Conclusions:This work is at present though limited to animals, the anti-inflammatory activity of the seeds ofC. papaya is perhaps proven.

  13. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of polyphenolic compounds from coriander seeds using response surface methodology

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    Zeković Zoran P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coriandrum sativum L. (coriander seeds (CS were used for preparation of extracts with high content of biologically active compounds. In order to optimize ultrasoundassisted extraction process, three levels and three variables of Box-Behnken experimental design (BBD in combination with response surface methodology (RSM were applied, yielding maximized total phenolics (TP and flavonoids (TF content and antioxidant activity (IC50 and EC50 values. Independent variables were temperature (40-80oC, extraction time (40-80 min and ultrasonic power (96-216 W. Experimental results were fitted to a second-order polynomial model with multiple regression, while the analysis of variance (ANOVA was employed to assess the model fitness and determine optimal conditions for TP (79.60oC, 49.20 min, 96.69 W, TF (79.40oC, 43.60 min, 216.00 W, IC50 (80.00oC, 60.40 min, 216.00 W and EC50 (78.40oC, 68.60 min, 214.80 W. On the basis of the obtained mathematical models, three-dimensional surface plots were generated. The predicted values for TP, TF, IC50 and EC50 were: 382.68 mg GAE/100 g CS, 216 mg CE/100 g CS, 0.03764 mg/mL and 0.1425 mg/mL, respectively. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31013

  14. Rapid green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by aqueous extract of seeds of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Shibani; Maji, Priyankar; Ganguly, Jhuma

    2016-01-01

    The present study explores that the aqueous extract of the seeds of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis (aka night jasmine) is very efficient for the synthesis of stable AgNPs from aqueous solution of AgNO3. The extract acts as both reducing (from Ag+ to Ag0) and capping agent in the aqueous phase. The constituents in extract are mainly biomolecules like carbohydrates and phenolic compounds, which are responsible for the preparation of stable AgNPs within 20 min of reaction time at 25 °C using without any severe conditions. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized with UV-Visible spectroscopy, FT-IR, XRD and SEM. UV-Vis spectroscopy analysis showed peak at 420 nm, which corresponds to the surface plasmon resonance of AgNPs. XRD results showed peaks at (111), (200), (220), which confirmed the presence of AgNPs with face-centered cubic structure. The uniform spherical nature of the AgNPs and size (between 50 and 80 nm) were further confirmed by SEM analysis.

  15. The Inhibitory Potential of Thai Mango Seed Kernel Extract against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus

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    Rapepol Bavovada

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant extracts are a valuable source of novel antibacterial compounds to combat pathogenic isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, a global nosocomial infection. In this study, the alcoholic extract from Thai mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. ‘Fahlun’ seed kernel extract (MSKE and its phenolic principles (gallic acid, methyl gallate and pentagalloylglucopyranose demonstrated potent in vitro antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and 19 clinical MRSA isolates in studies of disc diffusion, broth microdilution and time-kill assays. Electron microscopy studies using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed impaired cell division and ultra-structural changes in bacterial cell morphology, including the thickening of cell walls, of microorganisms treated with MSKE; these damaging effects were increased with increasing concentrations of MSKE. MSKE and its phenolic principles enhanced and intensified the antibacterial activity of penicillin G against 19 clinical MRSA isolates by lowering the minimum inhibitory concentration by at least 5-fold. The major phenolic principle, pentagalloylglucopyranose, was demonstrated to be the major contributor to the antibacterial activity of MSKE. These results suggest that MSKE may potentially be useful as an alternative therapeutic agent or an adjunctive therapy along with penicillin G in the treatment of MRSA infections.

  16. The inhibitory potential of Thai mango seed kernel extract against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiamboonsri, Pimsumon; Pithayanukul, Pimolpan; Bavovada, Rapepol; Chomnawang, Mullika T

    2011-07-25

    Plant extracts are a valuable source of novel antibacterial compounds to combat pathogenic isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a global nosocomial infection. In this study, the alcoholic extract from Thai mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. 'Fahlun') seed kernel extract (MSKE) and its phenolic principles (gallic acid, methyl gallate and pentagalloylglucopyranose) demonstrated potent in vitro antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and 19 clinical MRSA isolates in studies of disc diffusion, broth microdilution and time-kill assays. Electron microscopy studies using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed impaired cell division and ultra-structural changes in bacterial cell morphology, including the thickening of cell walls, of microorganisms treated with MSKE; these damaging effects were increased with increasing concentrations of MSKE. MSKE and its phenolic principles enhanced and intensified the antibacterial activity of penicillin G against 19 clinical MRSA isolates by lowering the minimum inhibitory concentration by at least 5-fold. The major phenolic principle, pentagalloylglucopyranose, was demonstrated to be the major contributor to the antibacterial activity of MSKE. These results suggest that MSKE may potentially be useful as an alternative therapeutic agent or an adjunctive therapy along with penicillin G in the treatment of MRSA infections.

  17. Allelopathic effects of extracts from Solidago canadensis L.against seed germination and seedling growth of some plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the potential role of allelopathy in plant interference and in the successful invasion of alien species Solidago canadensis, aqueous and ethanolic extracts from rhizomes, stems and leaves of S. canadensis were prepared and used as treatment solutions to assess their effects on seed germination and seedling growth in four target species, mulberry (Morus alba); morning glory (Pharbitis nil), wheat (Triticum aestivum) and rape (Brassica campestris). Reduction and/or growth in germination and growth of the target plant species in the presence of both aqueous and ethanolic extracts at different concentrations indicated that the responses were species-specific and concentration-dependent. Generally, ethanolic extracts (especially from leaves) imposed stronger effects on both seed germination and seedling growth. Extracts with lower concentration at 0.001 g/ml dw could stimulate the seedling growth of rape and morning glory, whereas extracts at any given concentrations have inhibitory effects on wheat and mulberry. It is suggested that the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of all the three parts ofS. canadensis have significant allelopathic effects. Although both inhibition and stimulation occurred in the germination and growth of the target species, extracts with higher concentrations definitely inhibit seed germination and seedling growth of all target plants. We suggest that allelopathy plays a more important role than other mechanisms do in the out-competition of S. canadensis over other plants, and make it invasive in new habitats.

  18. Isolation and identification of antibacterial components in seed extracts of Argemone mexicana L. (Papaveraceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Indranil Bhattacharjee; Soroj Kumar Chatterjee; Goutam Chandra

    2010-01-01

    Objective:The column chromatographic fractions of chloroform (CH1, CH2, CH3) seed extracts of Argemone mexicana(A. mexicana) were screened for antibacterial activity and phytochemical analysis. Methods:CH3 fraction was isolated and identified by column chromatography, thin layer chromatography, spectral data analysis and phytochemical screening were used for analysis. Results: CH3 fraction was significantly active at 4 to 64 mg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with minimum inhibitory concentration of 1.5625 to 3.125 mg/mL. The active fraction (CH3) revealed presence of alkaloid with retention factor value of 0.44. The active antibacterial agent in the most potent fraction (CH3) was isolated and identified as N-demethyloxysanguinarine by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and phytochemical screening. The CH1 and CH2 fractions did not show inhibitory activity. Conclusions:The results support the ethnomedicinal use of seeds of A. mexicana for treatment of bacterial diseases.

  19. Cassia tora (Leguminosae) seed extract alleviates high-fat diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Thing-Fong; Lu, Hung-Jen; Liou, Shorong-Shii; Chang, Chia Ju; Liu, I-Min

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of Cassia tora seeds on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic steatosis, and elucidate the molecular mechanisms behind its effects. After being fed a HFD for two weeks, rats were orally dosed with Cassia seed ethanol extract (CSEE) (100, 200, or 300mg/kg) once daily for 8weeks. CSEE induced dose-dependent reductions in plasma lipid levels, as well as decreased the over hepatic lipid accumulation. Furthermore, CSEE treatment improved HFD-induced hepatic histological lesions. CSEE enhanced the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its primary downstream targeting enzyme, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, up-regulated the gene expression of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1, and down-regulated sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 and fatty acid synthase protein levels in the livers of HFD-fed rats. AMPK inhibition by compound C retarded CSEE-induced reduction in triglyceride accumulation in HepG2 cells stimulated by insulin. Our findings suggest that CSEE may regulate hepatic lipid homeostasis related with an AMPK-dependent signaling pathway. Targeting AMPK activation with CSEE may represent a promising approach for the prevention and treatment of obesity-related non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

  20. Control of Some Human Pathogenic Bacteria by Seed Extracts of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.

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    Mominul Islam Sheikh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of seed extracts of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. was investigated against 10 gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Disc diffusion method was used to test antibacterial activity. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC were determined by using standard procedures. The highest (effective inhibition zone of 16.67±0.47 mm was found at 250 mg/ml for Escherichia coli. On the other hand, the inhibition zones 15.00±0.82 mm for ethanol, 15.33±0.47 for methanol, and 15.67±0.82 for acetone were found against Bacillus subtilis, Sarcina lutea and Klebsiella pneumonia, respectively. MIC value (20 to 50 mg/ml and MBC value (40 to 60 mg/ml were measured against studied bacteria. On the basis of investigation, we can say, cumin seeds could be used as a source of new antibacterial agent for developing drugs to inhibit some human pathogenic bacteria.

  1. Control of Some Human Pathogenic Bacteria by Seed Extracts of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mominul Islam Sheikh

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of seed extracts of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. was investigated against 10 gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Disc diffusion method was used to test antibacterial activity. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC were determined by using standard procedures. The highest (effective inhibition zone of 16.67±0.47 mm was found at 250 mg/ml for Escherichia coli. On the other hand, the inhibition zones 15.00±0.82 mm for ethanol, 15.33±0.47 for methanol, and 15.67±0.82 for acetone were found against Bacillus subtilis, Sarcina lutea and Klebsiella pneumonia, respectively. MIC value (20 to 50 mg/ml and MBC value (40 to 60 mg/ml were measured against studied bacteria. On the basis of investigation, we can say, cumin seeds could be used as a source of new antibacterial agent for developing drugs to inhibit some human pathogenic bacteria.

  2. Cardioprotective effect of Kolaviron (Garcinia kola seed extract in cholesterol-fed rats.

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    NWANERI-CHIDOZIE V. O.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids – a group of polyphenolic substances are naturally present in vegetables, fruits, seeds and beverages such as tea and wine. Studies have shown that flavonoid intake is inversely correlated with mortality from coronary heart diseases and myocardial infarction. The effect of kolaviron (a flavonoid complex extracted from Garcinia kola seeds on the organ weights (lungs, kidneys, heart, spleen and liver of rats administered with cholesterol, five times a week, for eight consecutive weeks was investigated. The results revealed that cholesterol administration at a dose of 30mg/day for eight consecutive weeks caused a significant increase (p<0.001 in relative heart weights of the cholesterol-fed rats when compared with the control. However, co-treatment with kolaviron at doses 100 and 200mg/kg significantly (p<0.001 reduced the cholesterol induced enlargement of the heart. This is a pointer to the cardioprotective potential of kolaviron; and thus suggests a possible use as a dietary supplement for the prevention and management of coronary heart diseases.

  3. Antiviral effects of black raspberry (Rubus coreanus) seed extract and its polyphenolic compounds on norovirus surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hye; Bae, Sun Young; Oh, Mi; Seok, Jong Hyeon; Kim, Sella; Chung, Yeon Bin; Gowda K, Giri; Mun, Ji Young; Chung, Mi Sook; Kim, Kyung Hyun

    2016-06-01

    Black raspberry seeds, a byproduct of wine and juice production, contain large quantities of polyphenolic compounds. The antiviral effects of black raspberry seed extract (RCS) and its fraction with molecular weight less than 1 kDa (RCS-F1) were examined against food-borne viral surrogates, murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1) and feline calicivirus-F9 (FCV-F9). The maximal antiviral effect was achieved when RCS or RCS-F1 was added simultaneously to cells with MNV-1 or FCV-F9, reaching complete inhibition at 0.1-1 mg/mL. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed enlarged viral capsids or disruption (from 35 nm to up to 100 nm) by RCS-F1. Our results thus suggest that RCS-F1 can interfere with the attachment of viral surface protein to host cells. Further, two polyphenolic compounds derived from RCS-F1, cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) and gallic acid, identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, showed inhibitory effects against the viruses. C3G was suggested to bind to MNV-1 RNA polymerase and to enlarge viral capsids using differential scanning fluorimetry and TEM, respectively.

  4. Seed Extract of Psidium guajava as Ecofriendly Corrosion Inhibitor for Carbon Steel in Hydrochloric Acid Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.P.Vinod Kumar; M. Sankara Narayana Pillai; G. Rexin Thusnavis

    2011-01-01

    The anticorrosion characteristics of the seeds of Psidium guajava (P. Guajava) fruits on carbon steel in acid medium were examined with weight loss data and subsequently thermodynamic factors such as heat of adsorption of the inhibitor on the metal surface (Q), change in entropy (△S), change in free energy of the reaction (△G), corrosion rate (CR) and energy of activation for corrosion reaction of carbon steel (E) were also evaluated. Adsorption isotherm was plotted to study the adsorption of the inhibitor on the metal surface with increasing concentration of the inhibitor. The functional groups responsible for inhibition were investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra. Electrochemical parameters were evaluated through the potentiodynamic Tafel polarization and impedance spectral studies. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs were recorded to investigate the change in surface morphology. The complete study reveals the efficiency of seed extract of P. Guajava as a safe, ecofriendly and alternate corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel in acid medium.

  5. [Grape seed extract inhibits the growth of prostate cancer PC-3 cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ting-Ting; Shang, Xue-Jun; Yao, Gen-Hong; Ge, Jing-Ping; Teng, Wen-Hui; Sun, Yi; Huang, Yu-Feng

    2008-04-01

    To investigate the inhibitory effect of grape seed extract (GSE) on the growth of prostate cancer PC-3 cells. PC-3 cells were treated with GSE at the concentration of 100, 200 and 300 microg/ml for 24, 48 and 72 hours, respectively. The the inhibitory effect of GSE on the growth of the PC-3 cells and the kidney cells of SD rats was determined by MTT reduction assay, with primarily cultured kidney cells of 1-3 days old SD rats as the normal control. GSE significantly inhibited the growth of PC-3 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, but had only a mild inhibitory effect on the kidney cells. GSE inhibits the growth of prostate cancer PC-3 cells and can be used as a new drug for the treatment of prostate cancer.

  6. Molecular Docking Studies and Anti-Tyrosinase Activity of Thai Mango Seed Kernel Extract

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    Patchreenart Saparpakorn

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The alcoholic extract from seed kernels of Thai mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. ‘Fahlun’ (Anacardiaceae and its major phenolic principle (pentagalloylglucopyranose exhibited potent, dose-dependent inhibitory effects on tyrosinase with respect to L-DOPA. Molecular docking studies revealed that the binding orientations of the phenolic principles were in the tyrosinase binding pocket and their orientations were located in the hydrophobic binding pocket surrounding the binuclear copper active site. The results indicated a possible mechanism for their anti-tyrosinase activity which may involve an ability to chelate the copper atoms which are required for the catalytic activity of tyrosinase.

  7. The effect of grape seed extract on estrogen levels of postmenopausal women: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahner-Roedler, Dietlind L; Bauer, Brent A; Loehrer, Laura L; Cha, Stephen S; Hoskin, Tanya L; Olson, Janet E

    2014-06-01

    The role of estrogens in breast cancer (BC) development is widely accepted, leading to the development of selective estrogen receptor modulators and aromatase inhibitors for BC treatment and prevention. However, because of potential adverse effects, healthy women with high risk of BC are hesitant to take them. Preliminary evidence from animal studies shows that grapes may have an aromatase-inhibiting effect, decreasing estrogen synthesis and increasing androgen precursors. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, dose-finding early-phase trial on the effect of grape seed extract (GSE) on estrogen levels. Postmenopausal women who met study inclusion criteria (N = 46) were randomly assigned to daily GSE at a dose of 200, 400, 600, or 800 mg for 12 weeks. Primary outcome was change in plasma levels of estrogen conjugates from baseline to 12 weeks posttreatment. Thirty-nine participants (84.8%) completed the study. GSE in the 4 daily doses did not significantly decrease estrogen or increase androgen precursors.

  8. Effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts on peripheral nerves in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiao-pei; Li, Bao-ying; Gao, Hai-qing; Wei, Na; Wang, Wei-ling; Lu, Mei

    2008-08-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is one of the most common diabetic chronic complications. The aim of this study was to clarify whether grape seed proanthocyanidins extracts (GSPE) are therapeutic agents against DPN. In this study, we used streptozocin (STZ) to induce diabetic rats. GSPEs (250 mg/kg body weight/d) were administrated to diabetic rats for 24 wk. Motor nerve conductive velocity (MNCV) and mechanical hyperalgesia were determined in the rats. Serum glucose, glycated hemoglobin, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined. Light and electron microscopy were used to observe the changes of nerval ultrastructure.GSPE significantly increased the MNCV, mechanical hyperalgesia and SOD of diabetic rats (pnerval damage. This study may provide a new recognition of natural medicine for the treatment of DPN.

  9. Effect of grape seed extract against biodegradation of composite resin-dentin shear bond strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generosa, D. M.; Suprastiwi, E.; Asrianti, D.

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effect of grape seed extract (GSE) on resin-dentin shear bond strength. A group of 48 dentin samples were divided into 6 groups. The six groups, each with eight specimens, included group 1 (control), group 2 (control + NaOCl 10%), group 3 (2.9% GSE application before etching), group 4 (2.9% GSE application before etching + NaOCl 10%), group 5 (2.9% GSE application after etching), and group 6 (2.9% GSE application after etching + NaOCl 10%). Shear bond strengths were measured using a universal testing machine. Statistical analysis was done with the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann-Whitney U test. The highest median value was in group 3, and the lowest value was in group 5. GSE can improve the shear bond strength (p = 0.002 and 0.001), but it has no effect on reducing biodegradation (p = 0.141).

  10. Improvement of the flocculation process in water treatment by using moringa oleifera seeds extract

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    J. Sánchez-Martín

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity encourages researchers to keep working on natural coagulant agents such as Moringa oleifera seed extract, that could be used even in developing countries. With this scope, this investigation is focused on the optimization of certain parameters affecting the use of this coagulant product in the clarification of real surface water. Acidic pH levels seem to enhance the coagulation performance and the turbidity removal increases as the stirring period becomes longer (up to 95% with 40 min. The optimum stirring rate is identified as 80 rpm. Water clarified with this optimum coagulation and flocculation process is turbidity-competitive with other well known coagulants and flocculants and its quality is inside standard ranges for clarified water. No microbial growth is observed within the first 72 hours after the coagulant trials.

  11. Grape seed and skin extract protects kidney from doxorubicin-induced oxidative injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokni, Meherzia; Hamlaoui, Sonia; Kadri, Safwen; Limam, Ferid; Amri, Mohamed; Marzouki, Lamjed; Aouani, Ezzedine

    2016-05-01

    The study investigated the protective effect of grape seed and skin extract (GSSE) against doxorubicin-induced renal toxicity in healthy rats. Animals were treated with GSSE or not (control), for 8 days, administered with doxorubicin (20mg/kg) in the 4th day, and renal function as well as oxidative stress parameters were evaluated. Data showed that doxorubicin induced renal toxicity by affecting renal architecture and plasma creatinine. Doxorubicin also induced an oxidative stress characterized by an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA), calcium and H(2)O(2) and a decrease in catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Unexpectedly doxorubicin increased peroxidase (POD) and decreased carbonyl protein and plasma urea. Treatment with GSSE counteracted almost all adverse effects induced by doxorubicin. Data suggest that doxorubicin induced an oxidative stress into rat kidney and GSSE exerted antioxidant properties, which seem to be mediated by the modulation of intracellular calcium.

  12. Molecular Docking Studies and Anti−Snake Venom Metalloproteinase Activity of Thai Mango Seed Kernel Extract

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    Pimolpan Pithayanukul

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Snakebite envenomations cause severe local tissue necrosis and the venom metalloproteinases are thought to be the key toxins involved. In this study, the ethanolic extract from seed kernels of Thai mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. ‘Fahlun’ (Anacardiaceae and its major phenolic principle (pentagalloylglucopyranose exhibited potent and dose−dependent inhibitory effects on the caseinolytic and fibrinogenolytic activities of Malayan pit viper and Thai cobra venoms in in vitro tests. molecular docking studies revealed that the binding orientations of the phenolic principles were in the binding pockets of snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs. The phenolic principles could form hydrogen bonds with the three histidine residues in the conserved zinc−binding motif and could chelate the Zn2+ atom of the SVMPs, which could potentially result in inhibition of the venom enzymatic activities and thereby inhibit tissue necrosis.

  13. Molecular docking studies and anti-snake venom metalloproteinase activity of Thai mango seed kernel extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pithayanukul, Pimolpan; Leanpolchareanchai, Jiraporn; Saparpakorn, Patchreenart

    2009-08-27

    Snakebite envenomations cause severe local tissue necrosis and the venom metalloproteinases are thought to be the key toxins involved. In this study, the ethanolic extract from seed kernels of Thai mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. 'Fahlun') (Anacardiaceae) and its major phenolic principle (pentagalloylglucopyranose) exhibited potent and dose-dependent inhibitory effects on the caseinolytic and fibrinogenolytic activities of Malayan pit viper and Thai cobra venoms in in vitro tests. molecular docking studies revealed that the binding orientations of the phenolic principles were in the binding pockets of snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs). The phenolic principles could form hydrogen bonds with the three histidine residues in the conserved zinc-binding motif and could chelate the Zn(2+) atom of the SVMPs, which could potentially result in inhibition of the venom enzymatic activities and thereby inhibit tissue necrosis.

  14. Effectivity of Sugar-Apple (Annona squamosa Seed Extract with a Different Length of Storage against Culec quinquefasciatus Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heni Prasetyowati

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic insecticide have been used to control Culex quinquefasciatus, but the prolonged usage of synthetic insecticide has a bad impact on the environment and may caused resistance. Sugar apple’s (Annona squamosa seeds which contain alkaloid can be used as an alternative insecticide that was safe for environment. This research aims is to know the effect of sugar apple’s seeds with different length of storage as C. quinquefasciatus larvacide. This research was an experimental study with a randomized controlled trial group design approach. The test material was an extract of sugar apple’s seeds which have been kept for 0, 1, 2, and 3 week with LC50 (0,47 ppm was used. Each treatment used 25 C. quinquefasciatus larvae from third instar larvae stage and replicated five times. After exposed for 24 hours, dead larvae counted. The result confirmed that the extract of sugar apple’s seeds which has been stored in 0, 1, 2, and 3 week did not showed any significant different on larvae mortality. Extract of sugar apple’s seeds which have been stored in 0, 1, 2, and 3 week have an equal activity as Culex quinquefasciatus larvicide.

  15. Testicular disorders induced by plant growth regulators: cellular protection with proanthocyanidins grape seeds extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Hanaa A; Isa, Ahmed M; El-Kholy, Wafaa M; Nour, Samar E

    2013-10-01

    The present study aims to investigate the adverse effects of plant growth regulators : gibberellic acid (GA3) and indoleacetic acid (IAA) on testicular functions in rats, and extends to investigate the possible protective role of grape seed extract, proanthocyanidin (PAC). Male rats were divided into six groups; control group, PAC, GA3, IAA, GA3 + PAC and IAA + PAC groups. The data showed that GA3 and IAA caused significant increase in total lipids, total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol in the serum, concomitant with a significant decrease in high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, total protein, and testosterone levels. In addition, there was significant decrease in the activity of alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase. A significant decrease was detected also in epididymyal fructose along with a significant reduction in sperm count. Testicular lipid peroxidation product and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels were significantly increased. Meanwhile, the total antioxidant capacity, glutathione, sulphahydryl group content, as well as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity were significantly decreased. Moreover, there were a number of histopathological testicular changes including Leydig's cell degeneration, reduction in seminiferous tubule and necrotic symptoms and sperm degeneration in both GA3- and IAA-treated rats. However, an obvious recovery of all the above biochemical and histological testicular disorders was detected when PAC seed extract was supplemented to rats administered with GA3 or IAA indicating its protective effect. Therefore it was concluded that supplementation with PAC had ameliorative effects on those adverse effects of the mentioned plant growth regulators through its natural antioxidant properties.

  16. Preparation and Performance Evaluation of Biochars from Neem Seed Active Substance Extracted Residues (NSASER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jialei; Lu, Shuwen

    2017-05-01

    Neem seed active substance extracted residues (NSASER) is industrial by-product, which is often discarded as a waste. It would lead to a certain degree of harm to the environment. The aim of this study was to prepare the biochars with neem seed active substance extracted residues (NSASER) under the anaerobic pyrolysis conditions. The pyrolysis process was studied with different pyrolysis power (200W, 500W, 800W, 1100W and 1400W), and the performance of the prepared biochars was evaluated. The results showed that the required time was to complete the pyrolysis process that gradually decreased with pyrolysis power increased from 200 to 1400 W, and the final pyrolysis temperature was to complete the pyrolysis process that increased with pyrolysis power increased from 200 to 1400 W. The biochars yield decreased with pyrolysis power increased from 200 to 1400 W, and the biochars yield has the maximum value when the pyrolysis power was of 200W. And the prepared biochars still had some characteristics of the plant cell and kept uniform porous structure, which was beneficial to absorb the small molecule substance. The water content of the prepared biochars was 7.18±0.53, the ash content of the prepared biochars was 5.92±0.31 and the fixed carbon content of the prepared biochars was 81.27±0.89. Compared with the bamboo charcoal, the performance index of the prepared biochars was in according with National Standard of the People’s Republic of China GBT26913-2011 of the bamboo charcoal. The prepared biochars had a potential value in application.

  17. Preparation and characterization of green graphene using grape seed extract for bioapplications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaragalla, Srinivasarao [Center for Advanced Materials, Qatar University, Doha (Qatar); International and Inter University Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, 686560, Kerala (India); Rajendran, Rajakumari; Jose, Jiya [International and Inter University Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, 686560, Kerala (India); AlMaadeed, Mariam A., E-mail: m.alali@qu.edu.qa [Center for Advanced Materials, Qatar University, Doha (Qatar); Kalarikkal, Nandakumar, E-mail: nkkalarikkal@mgu.ac.in [International and Inter University Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, 686560, Kerala (India); School of Pure and Applied Physics, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, 686560, Kerala (India); Thomas, Sabu, E-mail: sabupolymer@yahoo.com [International and Inter University Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, 686560, Kerala (India); School of Chemical Sciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, 686560, Kerala (India)

    2016-08-01

    The development of functionalized graphene materials concerning health and environmental aspects via green approaches is currently the most recent topic in the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Herein, we report the green reduction of graphene oxide (GO) to reduced graphene oxide (RGO) using grape seed extract (GSE). Structural properties of the prepared RGO were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), UV–Visible spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. These all characterization techniques clearly revealed that the RGO has been successfully prepared. Moreover, the average thickness (4.2 nm) of RGO layers was also confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Optical properties such as band gap and photoluminescence of the synthesized RGO were evaluated. The band gap of RGO was found to be 3.84 eV and it showed emission in the visible region. Efficient antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was observed with 4 μg ml{sup −1} & 5 μg ml{sup −1} of RGO and also the cell wall damage of these strains has been proved by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The in vitro study of RGO (500 μg) disclosed the effective anti-proliferative activity (88%) against HCT-116 cell lines. - Highlights: • Grape seed extract was used for the reduction of graphene oxide. • Detailed structural analysis of RGO was done. • Excellent antimicrobial activity with 4 and 5 μg ml{sup −1} was reported. • Anti-inflammatory activity of RGO was reported. • Excellent anti-cancer activity was reported with just 500 μg of RGO.

  18. Renewable Oil Extracted from Indonesian Srikaya’s (Annona squamosa sp. Seed: Another Potent Source for Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masruri Masruri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study looks at the wastes derived from Indonesian fruit as prospect for biofuels. This report investigates the chemical composition of Srikaya (Annona squamosal sp. seed, which is disposed as waste products from traditional markets. The seeds were extracted with various extraction methods and the oil obtained was analysed by means of gas chromatography (GC/FID, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS, infra-red spectrometry and ultra-violet-visible spectrometry. It was found 2 h extraction using soxhlet apparatus with diethyl ether as solvent gave the optimum time extraction. Moreover, five major components were isolated from i.e.: ethyl hexadecanoate, ethyl hexadec-9-enoate, ethyl octadecanoate, 2-hydroxy-1,3-propanediyl hexadecanoate, octadec-9-enaldehyde, and unknown compound, respectively.

  19. Extracting camphor wood oil from camphor tree seeds%樟树籽提取樟油的试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张斌; 许莉勇

    2001-01-01

    以樟树青籽和樟树紫籽为研究对象,采用浸提法与水蒸汽蒸馏法来提取樟油。结果表明,用丙酮、石油醚和乙醇作溶剂浸提樟树籽,青籽的得油率为2.70%~3.10%,紫籽的得油率为0.70%~0.93%;用水蒸气蒸馏樟树籽,青籽的得油率为2.80%,紫籽的得油率为0.90%。樟树青籽提取樟油效果优于樟树紫籽。表3参4。%Camphor tree seeds including green seeds and mature seeds werecollected in Ningbo City of Zhejiang Province.Extraction and distillation were used.The results showed that taking acetone,petroleum ether and ethanol as solvents in extraction,camphor wood oil percent of green seeds was 2.70%-3.10%,and percent of mature seeds.0.70%-0.93%;using of stem distillation,camphor wood oil percent of green seeds was 2.80%,and percent of mature seeds 0.90%.It is better to extract camphor wood oil from green seeds of camphor tree than from mature seeds (purple baccae).

  20. The protective effects of Mucuna pruriens seed extract against histopathological changes induced by Malayan cobra (Naja sputatrix) venom in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, S Y; Tan, N H; Liew, S H; Sim, S M; Aguiyi, J C

    2009-04-01

    Seed of Mucuna pruriens (Velvet beans) has been prescribed by traditional medicine practitioners in Nigeria as a prophylactic oral antisnake remedy. In the present studies, we investigated the protective effects of M. pruriens seed extract (MPE) against histopathological changes induced by intravenous injection of Naja sputatrix (Malayan cobra) venom in rats pretreated with the seed extract. Examination by light microscope revealed that the venom induced histopathological changes in heart and blood vessels in liver, but no effect on brain, lung, kidney and spleen. The induced changes were prevented by pretreatment of the rats with MPE. Our results suggest that MPE pretreatment protects rat heart and liver blood vessels against cobra venom-induced damages.

  1. Effect of ultrasonic treatment on the polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of extract from defatted hemp, flax and canola seed cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Sue-Siang; Birch, Edward John

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of ultrasonic extraction of phenolics and flavonoids from defatted hemp, flax and canola seed cakes was compared to the conventional extraction method. Ultrasonic treatment at room temperature showed increased polyphenol extraction yield and antioxidant capacity by two-fold over the conventional extraction method. Different combinations of ultrasonic treatment parameters consisting of solvent volume (25, 50, 75 and 100 mL), extraction time (20, 30 and 40 min) and temperature (40, 50, 60 and 70 °C) were selected for polyphenol extractions from the seed cakes. The chosen parameters had a significant effect (pextraction yield and subsequent antioxidant capacity from the seed cakes. Application of heat during ultrasonic extraction yielded higher polyphenol content in extracts compared to the non-heated extraction. From an orthogonal design test, the best combination of parameters was 50 mL of solvent volume, 20 min of extraction time and 70 °C of ultrasonic temperature.

  2. Economic Analysis of an Integrated Annatto Seeds-Sugarcane Biorefinery Using Supercritical CO2 Extraction as a First Step

    OpenAIRE

    Albarelli, Juliana Q.; Diego T. Santos; María José Cocero; M. Angela A. MEIRELES

    2016-01-01

    Recently, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) has been indicated to be utilized as part of a biorefinery, rather than as a stand-alone technology, since besides extracting added value compounds selectively it has been shown to have a positive effect on the downstream processing of biomass. To this extent, this work evalu