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Sample records for cultured tiger puffer

  1. Commercial production of tiger puffer ( Takifugu rubripes) in winter using a recirculating aquaculture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhongling; Wang, Hua; Yu, Chunyan; Lv, Fenghe; Liu, Hengming; Zhang, Tao

    2017-02-01

    Tiger puffer ( Takifugu rubripes) is a promising species for aquaculture production because of its high value and limited supply. However, in the north of China, using sea cages to culture this species in winter is hampered by the fact that the seawater temperature is extremely low. Here, a large scale commercial production of tiger puffer has been successfully realized using a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) from 3 October 2012 to 31 May 2013. The RAS was comprised of nine culture tanks (total water volume 200 m3) and stocked with approximately a total of 14400 fish (initial mean weight 160 g). The tiger puffer was hand-fed at a rate of 0.7% of total body weight per day, and the feed conversion rate was (1.21 ± 0.3) kg kg-1. The recycle water in RAS was treated by a sieve bend screen, a foam fractionator, a submerged biofilter, an UV sterilizer and a submersible aerator. During the whole culture period, an excellent water quality control was achieved in RAS. At the end of this experiment, the survival rate of tiger puffer was more than 98%. The final tank densities averaged 31.2 kg m-3, and the final individual mean weight was 440 g.

  2. Physiochemical and functional properties of tiger puffer (Takifugu rubripes) skin gelatin as affected by extraction conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jinfeng; Li, Qi; Jia, Hui; Xia, Lining; Jin, Wengang; Shang, Meijun; Xu, Chang; Dong, Xiuping

    2018-04-01

    The study investigated physiochemical and functional properties of gelatins from tiger puffer skin (GTPS) extracted with warm-water method at 45, 55 and 65°C for 3, 6 and 12h. GTPS45 exhibited strong γ-, β-, α1- and α2-chains, but they faded with the presence of fragments (<80KDa) in other GTPS. As the increase of temperature and time, amide I and A were shifted to higher wavenumber and their amplitudes in GTPS65-12 decreased. Lightness declined while redness and yellowness were enhanced. Gel strength was in a range of 144.5-79.8g, where it of GTPS45-3 was the highest while it of GTPS65-12 was the lowest (p<0.05), coincided with the longer relaxation time of T 22 for immobilized water. Decline in gelling and melting temperature was observed when temperature and time increased. EAI and ESI increased as time prolonged or temperature climbed (p<0.05), in agreement with the form of emulsion droplet by microscopy. Both category and level of volatile compounds increased GTPS65-12 and 55-12 compared with those in GTPS45-12. Results suggest that temperature and time greatly affect the properties of GTPS. To ensure good properties, GTPS should be extracted at a temperature of 45-55°C for less than 12h. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Immobilization antibodies of tiger puffer Takifugu rubripes induced by i.p. injection against monogenean Heterobothrium okamotoi oncomiracidia do not prevent the infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeda, N; Hatanaka, A; Hirazawa, N

    2007-06-01

    We examined whether infection by the monogenean Heterobothrium okamotoi induces production of specific antibodies against oncomiracidia and their cilia, larvae on the gills, and adults on the branchial cavity wall of tiger puffer Takifugu rubripes. We also investigated whether specific antibody production participates in acquired protection against H. okamotoi. Sera from persistently infected fish immobilized H. okamotoi oncomiracidia 89 days after exposure and antibody levels (measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays) in the sera against oncomiracidia and their cilia increased compared with sera from control (naïve) fish. Antibody levels in these sera against the larvae and adult stages did not increase. The number of H. okamotoi on persistently infected fish was significantly lower than for control fish (Ptank. Thus tiger puffer produced specific antibodies against oncomiracidia and their cilia, and acquired partial protection against H. okamotoi. Intraperitoneal injection of proteins of sonicated oncomiracidia or their cilia with an adjuvant also produced oncomiracidium agglutination antibodies in sera from tiger puffer; the antibody levels in these sera against oncomiracidia and their cilia increased compared with sera from control fish (injection of BSA with an adjuvant) at 14, 44, and 75 days after the booster immunization. However, in a parasite challenge at 54-58 days after the booster immunization, the infection levels of fish immunized with parasites of sonicated oncomiracidia or their cilia were the same as the control fish. Western blot showed that sera from persistently infected fish and fish immunized with sonicated oncomiracidia or their cilia recognized similar antigenic bands, suggesting that tiger puffer tends to react against these antigens compared with other antigens. These results indicated that specific antibodies against these cilia and oncomiracidia induced by i.p. injection do not prevent H. okamotoi infection.

  4. Recovery of gonadal development in tiger puffer Takifugu rubripes after exposure to 17β-estradiol during early life stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Peng; Liu, Bin; Meng, Zhen; Liu, Xinfu; Jia, Yudong; Yang, Zhi; Lei, Jilin

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the long-term effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) exposure on gonadal development in the tiger puff er ( Takifugu rubripes), which has a genetic sex determination system of male homogametic XY-XX. Tiger puff er larvae were exposed to 1, 10 and 100 μg/L E2 from 15 to 100 days post-hatch (dph) and then maintained in clean seawater until 400 dph. Changes in sex ratio, gonadal structure and gonadosomatic index (GSI) were monitored at 100, 160, 270 and 400 dph. Sex-associated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were used to analyze the genetic sex of samples, except those at 100 dph. Exposure had a positive effect on the conversion of genetically male gonads into phenotypically female gonads at 100 dph. However, gonads from 60% of genetic XY males in the 1-μg/L E2 group and 100% in the 10-μg/L E2 group developed intersexual gonads at 160 dph; gonads of all genetic XY males in the two treatment groups reverted to testis by 270 dph. While 38%, 57% and 44% of gonads of XY fish in the 100-μg/L E2 group reverted to intersexual gonads at 160, 270 and 400 dph, respectively, none reverted to testis after E2 treatment. In addition, E2 exposure inhibited gonadal growth of both genetic sexes, as indicated by the clear dose-dependent decrease in GSI at 270 and 400 dph. The results showed that exposure to E2 during the early life stages of tiger puff er disrupted gonadal development, but that fish recovered after migration to clean seawater. The study suggests the potential use of tiger puff er as a valuable indicator species to evaluate the effects of environmental estrogens on marine fish, thereby protecting valuable fishery resources.

  5. Genetic diversity of intensive cultured and wild tiger shrimp Penaeus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to assess the genetic diversity of intensive cultured and wild tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (Fabricius) in Malaysia using six microsatellite markers (CSCUPmo1, CSCUPmo2, CSCUPmo3, CSCUPmo4, CSCUPmo6 and CSCUPmo7). The mean numbers of allele, observed heterozygosis, ...

  6. Culture, characteristics and chromosome complement of Siberian tiger fibroblasts for nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jimei; Hua, Song; Song, Kai; Zhang, Yong

    2007-01-01

    Tiger (Panthera tigris Linnaeus, 1758) is a characteristic species of Asia, which is in severe danger. Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) is the largest one of the five existent tiger subspecies. It is extremely endangered. One new way for tiger protection and rescue is to study interspecies cloning. But there is few research data about Siberian tiger. In this study, we cultured Siberian tiger fibroblasts in vitro, analyzed their biological characteristics, chromosomes, and cell cycles, to provide not only nuclear donors with good morphology, normal biological characteristics, and chromosome quantity for tiger interspecies cloning, but also reliable data for further studying Siberian tiger. The results indicated that Siberian tiger ear fibroblasts can be successfully obtained by tissue culture either with or without overnight cold digestion, the cultured cells were typical fibroblasts with normal morphology, growth curve, and chromosome quantity; G0/G1 percentage increased and S percentage decreased with the confluence of cells. G0/G1 and S stage rate was significantly different between 40-50% and 80-90%, 95-100% confluence; there is no distinct difference between 80-90% and 95-100% confluence. The cells at the same density (80-90% confluence) were treated with or without 0.5% serum starving, GO/G1 rate of the former was higher than the latter, but the difference was not significant. GO/G1 proportion of 95-100% confluence was slightly higher than serum starving (80-90% confluence), but no significant difference. Therefore, the Siberian tiger fibroblasts we cultured in vitro can be used as donor cells, and the donor cells do not need to be treated with normal serum starvation during nuclear transfer; if we will just consider the rate of the G0/G1 stage cells, serum starvation can be replaced by confluence inhibition when cultured cells were more than 80-90% confluence.

  7. PERFORMANCES OF TIGER SHRIMP CULTURE IN ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY PONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufik Ahmad

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove ecosystem plays an obvious role in maintaining the biological balance in the coastal environment where shrimp ponds are usually constructed. The removal of mangroves around shrimp ponds has frequently brought about harvest failure. The study evaluated the performance of tiger shrimp culture in ponds provided with water from a water body where there was mangrove vegetation (hereafter mangrove reservoir. Twelve ponds, each measuring 2,500 m2, were filled with seawater from the mangrove reservoir until the water depth of 100 cm and then stocked with 20-40 PL/m2. In the first six ponds, the bottom water was released into the reservoir when the water depth reached 140 cm and then the water depth was maintained at 100 cm. In the second six ponds, the water was released from the ponds until the water depth reached 60 cm and then refilled with reservoir water until a depth of 100 cm. Both treatment ponds received water from the reservoir which also received the wastewater. The feeds for the shrimps were broadcast into the ponds twice a day to meet the 3% shrimp biomass requirement, which adjusted every other week through sampling. The result showed that mangrove  vegetation is capable of removing excessive nutrients, up to 70% for NO3- N and NH4 +-N, reducing PO4 =-P fluctuation, and producing bioactive  compounds. In the second treatment ponds, shrimp mortality started to occur in day 28 and most died by day 54 after stocking due to white spot disease outbreak. Mass mortality took place 54 days after stocking in two out of six of the first treatment ponds.

  8. The cultural and political significance of tiger mothering

    OpenAIRE

    Pitt, Nicola Ann

    2017-01-01

    The ‘Tiger Mothering’ debate was ignited in January 2011 by Amy Chua’s new book, Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother (2011a), and her essay of excerpts in the Wall Street Journal (WSJ), ‘Why Chinese mothers are superior’ (8 Jan, 2011b). An instant bestseller, Chua’s book provoked wide discussion around the world on account of her controversial endorsement of strict and disciplined childrearing approaches, which she associated with Chinese parents, and which she contrasted with supposedly ‘Western...

  9. Extracted tetrodotoxin from puffer fish Lagocephalus lagocephalus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-03

    Aug 3, 2011 ... severe physiological damage caused by puffer fish intoxication, therapy ... accumulates in TTX-bearing animals when ingesting toxic organisms as .... on the “absorptivity micromolar extinction coefficient” of NADH at. 340 nm.

  10. Puffer fish tragedy in Bangladesh: an incident of Takifugu oblongus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Puffer fish poisoning that occurs occasionally among the rural poor in Bangladesh is mainly caused by freshwater species. A food poisoning incident resulting from the ingestion of the marine puffer Takifugu oblongus occurred at Degholia in the Khulna district of Bangladesh on 18 May 2002. A total of 36 victims, including ...

  11. DOMESTICATION OF FRESHWATER PUFFER FISH OR BUNTAL (Tetraodon palembangensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Subamia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Research Institute for Freshwater Ornamental Fish Culture has been conducting domestication research since 2004 on adult freshwater puffer fish or buntal broodstock in which the fish were reared in aquaria and fed with small feed fish teri (anchovy and earthworm (Lumbricus sp.. The domestication of freshwater puffer fish or buntal has resulted in successful environmental adaptation and reproductive ability of the fish and further rearing of its fry. The adaptive ability was indicated by its high survival rate, good growth and development, and the reproductive success in spawning, egg production, hatching as well as growing of the larvae to fry stages. The mature gonad stage of the fish was reached at an average body weight of 150 g with a reproductive period of 5 months. The spawning occurred naturally and the eggs were gradually released at interval periods of 14—18 days with egg production rates of 1,000—1,900 eggs per spawning. The highest egg fertilization rate was 96%, with the highest egg hatching rate of 78.6%. Hatching process took place on the 6th to 13th days after spawning process. The surviving larvae began feeding filtered natural foods Moina sp. on the 3rd day up to the 6th day, whereas unfiltered Moina sp. was given from the 7th to 14th days. The fish were fed the live feed Culex sp. from the 15th to 30th days. In the following period the fish was fed earthworm and small feed fish teri (anchovy.

  12. USE OF SPONGE, Callyspongia basilana EXTRACT AS ADDITIVE MATERIAL ON TIGER SHRIMP CULTURE

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    Rosmiati Rosmiati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Blue shrimp disease is one of the main problems in tiger shrimp culture. It reduces shrimp quality which eventually will decrease its market price. Blue shrimp is caused by deficiency of nutrition and additive materials such as carotene and other nutrient which function as vitamin source for important metabolic processes and formation of color profile in shrimp and fish. The aims of this study were to study the application effect of carotenoid extract of sponge Callyspongia basilana, as an additive material on the ability of shrimp to get back to normal state after suffering blue shrimp disease and survival rate of shrimp and to find out the optimal concentration of sponge carotenoid extract to cure the diseased shrimp. This study was consisted of two steps namely; (1. Extraction of sponge carotenoid by maseration and fractionation using acetone and petroleum ether solvents and (2, the application of carotenoid extract on the diseased shrimp. The research was arranged in a complete randomized design with four experiments consisted of (A. Control (without carotenoid extract; (B,(C, and (D carotetoid extract addition of 3 mg/L, 6 mg/L, and 9 mg/L respectively with three replication each. The test animal used were blue diseased tiger shrimp with the density of 15 ind./container having 7.5–9.5 cm in size and the average weight of 5.5–10.0 g. The study showed that Callyspongia basilana carotenoid extract was able to change blue diseased shrimp to be normal within six days at the concentration of 9 mg/L. The highest survival rate was found in the experiment D (93.3%. Meanwhile, the lowest was obtained by the control population (13.3% and the other two treatments were 80.0%(C and 73.3% (B. The average of water quality parameters such as temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, salinity, nitrite, and ammonia were in the suitable range for the growth and survival rate of tiger shrimp.

  13. Puffer fish poisoning: summary of case reports from Thailand

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    Beuy Joob

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Puffer fish poisoning is a common seafood poisoning. The problem is due to tetradotoxin in puffy fish meat. It can be seen in many countries with seacoasts. The problem is resulted from tetradotoxin (TTX in puffer fish meat. This toxin is an important natural toxin. Here, the authors report summary of case reports from Thailand. The authors use standard search engines (PubMed and Thai Index Medicus for searching on the reports on puffer fish poisoning from Thailand. According to this work, there are at least 3 reports on 55 cases of puffer fish poisoning. All cases visit to the physician within 30 min. Focusing on severity, stage 1, 2, 3 and 4 can be seen in 16%, 8%, 4% and 72%, respectively. In the present report, the summary of the cases presenting to the physician at hospital is shown. Of interest, most patients have severe intoxication and the respirator failure is an important problem to be managed. It is clearly shown in the present report that if good respiratory support is done, the full recovery without problem can be derived. It is no doubt that there is no death case in the present series since the present report focuses on the cases that are successfully delivered to the hospital for management.

  14. Selection and evaluation of Malaysian Bacillus spp. strains as potential probiotics in cultured tiger grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Ina-salwany Md; Razak, Nabilah Fatin; Natrah, F M I; Harmin, Sharr Azni

    2016-07-01

    A total of 58 Gram-positive bacteria strains were isolated from the marine environment and screened for potential probiotics for disease prevention and improving the productivity of tiger grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus larvae and juveniles. The bacteria were identified as Bacillus licheniformis, B. subtilis, B. circulans, B. sphaericus, B. cereus, Brevibacillus brevis, Corynebacterium propinquum, Leifsonia aquatica and Paenibacillus macerans. Only 24 strains showed antagonistic activities against four pathogenic strains; Vibrio alginolyticus, V. harveyi, V. parahaemolyticus and Aeromonas hydrophila, where two of the Bacillus strains, B12 and B45 demonstrated intermediate to highest level of inhibitory activity against these pathogenic strains, respectively. Further assessment by co-culture assay showed that Bacillus strain B12 exhibited a total inhibition of V. alginolyticus, while B45 strain displayed no inhibitory activity. Mixed culture of Bacillus B12 and B45 strains to outcompete V. alginolyticus was observed at a cell density of 10(7) CFU ml(-1). Molecular identification and phylogenetic tree analysis have categorized Bacillus strain B12 to the reference strains GQ340480 and JX290193 of? B. amyloliquafaciens, and Bacillus strain B45 with a reference strain JF496522 of B. subtilis. Safety tests of probionts by intraperitoneal administration of B12 and B45 strains at cell densities of 103, 105 and 10(7) CFU ml(-1) revealed no abnormalities and cent percent survival for healthy Epinephelus fuscoguttatus juveniles within 15 days of experimental period. Overall, the study revealed that Bacillus B12 strain possesses tremendous probiotic potential that could be used as a feed supplement in tiger grouper diets. ?

  15. TIGER 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — As suggested by the GIS Technical Advisory Committees DASC subcommittee, the DASC staff has imported and converted the U.S. Bureau of Census 1992 Tiger Line Files...

  16. TIGER 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — As suggested by the GIS Technical Advisory Committees DASC subcommittee, the DASC staff has imported and converted the U.S. Bureau of Census 2000 TIGER Line files...

  17. TIGER 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The 2010 Census TIGER/Line data was merged together into a statewide layer if originally available by county from the US Census Bureau. The spatial data was then...

  18. MARINE SPONGE Aaptos suberitoides, IT’S POTENTIAL SOURCE OF NATURAL ANTIBACTERIAL FOR CONTROLLING Vibrio harveyi ON TIGER SHRIMP (Penaeus monodon) CULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Rosmiati Rosmiati; Andi Parenrengi; Emma Suryati

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to isolate and identify the natural antibacterial compounds potential from Aaptos suberitoides for Vibrio harveyi control on tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) culture. The agar diffusion method using paper discs was used to determine the antibacterial activity of extracts (diethyl ether (DEE), butanol (BUE) and aqueous (HOE) and compounds successfully isolated against Vibrio harveyi. Findings showed that the antibacterial activity was concentrated in BUE with the inhibition zone o...

  19. Tiger Nut

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    proximate analysis show brown yellow variety had higher ash, crude protein and crude fiber contents with values of 1.85%, 2.75% and ... wooden mortar and pestle until a fine powder was obtained to .... from tiger nut so as to boost economic.

  20. Profitability and technical efficiency of Black tiger shrimp (Penaeus Monodon) culture and White leg shrimp (Penaeus Vannamei) culture in Song Song Cau district, Phu Yen province, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thi Hoai An

    2012-01-01

    The research measure the profitability and technical efficiency of Black tiger shrimp farms and White leg shrimp farms in Song Cau district, Phu Yen province, Vietnam. Cross-sectional data of 62 Black tiger shrimp samples and 88 White leg shrimp samples were used for comparison two production systems. The profitability analysis shows that White leg shrimp farms achieved an average profit per hectare of 78,883,209 VND ($3,944.16), which was approximately 4 times as much as Black tiger shrimp f...

  1. Application of Irradiated Pro biotic Microorganism in Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon Fabricius) Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Areechon, Nontawith; Purivrojkul, Watchariya; Srisapoome, Prapansak; Piadiang, Nattaya

    2006-09-01

    Marine shrimp culture in Thailand has been developed continuously for the past two decades. This development will ensure the highest level of shrimp quality that will be suitable for the consumption of the people in the country and also aboard. The trend of culture system emphasizes on disease prevention more than treatment which will consequently limit the application of drug and chemicals. Application of pro biotic has been one means of this prevention that are commonly practiced by shrimp farmers. This research was conducted to compare the efficacy of normal Bacillus subtilis isolate from shrimp intestine and an irradiated B. subtilis as a pro biotic in shrimp feed. It was found that overall results were quite the same. These included the broth Co-culture assay. Effects on immune functions were conducted with Penaeus monodon with initial average weight of 17 gms by feeding with 3 gms/kg feed of spore of these two pro biotic for two mouths. The results indicated that both pro biotic caused significant improvement on percent phagocytosis only at the forth week of feeding trial and the overall enhancement of bactericidal activity. However, total haemocyte count and phenoloxidase activity were not altered. Total bacterial count in shrimp intestine was also conducted during the two month trial. the results indicated significant reduction of Vibrio spp. of both pro biotic groups when compared with the control. Number of Bacillus spp. in intestine were continuously high even after pro biotic treatment had been stopped Growth rate of experiment and control shrimp was not significantly different.

  2. The Dynamic Impact of the Tiger within Chinese Martial Arts

    OpenAIRE

    Wing Lam; Saleem Alamudeen

    2012-01-01

    In Asia, there is, in general, a great reverence held for the tiger. The tiger has been imitated and reigns supreme as king of all the beasts throughout Asia. The relationship between man and tiger holds a strange duality in that as much as the tiger is feared for its fierce savagery and destructive power, it is also revered for these very same qualities and for its majestic nature. Therefore, the very symbolic essence of the tiger has permeated all levels of the Asian community and culture; ...

  3. MARINE SPONGE Aaptos suberitoides, IT’S POTENTIAL SOURCE OF NATURAL ANTIBACTERIAL FOR CONTROLLING Vibrio harveyi ON TIGER SHRIMP (Penaeus monodon CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosmiati Rosmiati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to isolate and identify the natural antibacterial compounds potential from Aaptos suberitoides for Vibrio harveyi control on tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon culture. The agar diffusion method using paper discs was used to determine the antibacterial activity of extracts (diethyl ether (DEE, butanol (BUE and aqueous (HOE and compounds successfully isolated against Vibrio harveyi. Findings showed that the antibacterial activity was concentrated in BUE with the inhibition zone of 17.2±0.1 mm. Meanwhile, two other extracts (DEE and HOE did not exhibit any antibacterial activity against V. harveyi. From the active BUE, it was successfully isolated two compounds giving a strong anti-vibrio activity with the inhibition zone of 22±0.1 mm. The IR, 1H, 13C, COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and MS spectrum analysis indicated that both active compounds identified as aaptamine (1 and 9-demethyloxyaaptamine (2. The study suggested that marine sponge A. suberitoides may have potential compounds source for controlling of V. harveyi on tiger shrimp culture.

  4. Computational and Simulation Modeling of Political Attitudes: The 'Tiger' Area of Political Culture Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voinea, Camelia Florela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In almost one century long history, political attitudes modeling research has accumulated a critical mass of theory and method. Its characteristics and particularities have often suggested that political attitude approach to political persuasion modeling reveals a strong theoretical autonomy of concept which entitles it to become a new separate discipline of research. Though this did not actually happen, political attitudes modeling research has remained the most challenging area – the “tiger” – of political culture modeling research. This paper reviews the research literature on the conceptual, computational and simulation modeling of political attitudes developed starting with the beginning of the 20th century until the present times. Several computational and simulation modeling paradigms have provided support to political attitudes modeling research. These paradigms and the shift from one to another are briefly presented for a period of time of almost one century. The dominant paradigmatic views are those inspired by the Newtonian mechanics, and those based on the principle of methodological individualism and the emergence of macro phenomena from the individual interactions at the micro level of a society. This period of time is divided in eight ages covering the history of ideas in a wide range of political domains, going from political attitudes to polity modeling. Internal and external pressures for paradigmatic change are briefly explained.

  5. The Chinese Tiger Mother

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Hołówka

    2011-01-01

    In 2010 a book by Amy Chua: Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother was published and it sparked a broad discussion among pedagogues and the open society about the factors determining educational success. Chua forms a simple and provocative thesis – the Chinese mothers are the best in the world because they don’t spoil their children, quickly introduce them into the adult culture, have high expectations of them, they are brusque and cold but they teach their children how to survive and be competitive...

  6. Biological Activities of Tetrodotoxin-Producing Enterococcus faecium AD1 Isolated from Puffer Fishes

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    Tu Hoang Khue Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Puffer fishes were collected from the central sea in Vietnam from spring to summer season. The eggs were incubated in MRS broth that was used to test the toxicity in mice and isolate the lactic acid bacteria community that could produce tetrodotoxin (TTX. Thin layer chromatography (TLC and high performance lipid chromatography (HPLC were used to detect and quantify TTX. As a result, Enterococcus faecium AD1 which was identified by biochemical test and 16S rRNA analysis could produce TTX 0.3 mg/mL when cultured in MRS broth. The bacterium was optimized for TTX production and gave 0.18 mg/mL, 0.07 mg/mL, and 0.15 mg/mL in media prepared from the meat-washing water of freshwater fishes (Pangasius bocourti, Oreochromis sp. and sea fish (Auxis thazard, respectively, that are also hopeful to answer some poisoning cases related to eating fishes. Enterococcus faecium also showed the wide antimicrobial activities on yeast, Gram-negative and -positive bacteria. Extracted exopolysaccharide (EPS that reacted with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl to give IC50 at 5 mg/mL equaled 11 mg/mL ascorbic acid which could show effects on Hela-6 and Hep G2 using sulforhodamine B test. Enterococcus faecium can be claimed as a promising source in tetrodotoxin and biological compounds.

  7. Tiger Team audits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheney, G.T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper will address the purpose, scope, and approach of the Department of Energy Tiger Team Assessments. It will use the Tiger Team Assessment experience of Sandia National Laboratories at Albuquerque, New Mexico, as illustration

  8. Puffers and Chuggers: Statistical Curiosities in Volcano World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, J. M.

    2002-12-01

    Several on-going, low level volcanic explosions exhibit background phenomena commonly known as puffing, or in some cases chugging. Recently these events have been scrutinized because of the initiation of infrasonic monitoring, whereas earlier the events may have gone undetected. The activity associated with a puffer at a volcanic vent is generally small in magnitude and is often not observed audibly. The low frequency signals are readily observed on sensitive acoustic instrumentation and they provide a new dimension for our understanding of volcanic processes at volcanoes like Stromboli and Etna that have constant puffing signals. At other volcanoes, like Karymsky volcano in Kamchatka and Sangay Volcano in Ecuador, chugging signals associated with Strombolian style eruptions also provides new insights into the physics of the conduit systems. Here we present a statistical method of event detection, and event cluster association. When multiple vents work in unison it may be difficult to separate out chugging and puffing signals between spatially separated vents. The cluster analysis automatically differentiates between the vents based on waveform characteristics in the acoustic and seismic wavefields. Data examples from May, 2001, at Stromboli and Etna, show extensive periods of puffing (1-5 second frequency) superimposed on a background of vigorous, small-scale explosive activity. At Karymsky and Sangay non-linear, dynamic models explain the fluid flow through vents which gives rise to chugging. Furthermore, the frequency of chugging events appears to be associated with the intensity of lava flows and eruption rate.

  9. Screening of probiotics bacteria from coral reef using co-culture method for controlling vibriosis in tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ade Dwi Sasanti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study was carried out to obtain bacteria isolates from coral reef using co-culture method which potentially inhibit Vibrio harveyi growth. A total of 110 isolates were isolated from Acropora sp., Merulina sp., Hystrix sp., Poecillophora sp., Porites sp., and Haliophora sp., and were screened for their antagonistic activity against V. harveyi in in vitro and in vivo test. Five candidate probiotics (5H1 candidate probiotics isolated from Acropora sp., 11I and 11G isolates isolated from Hystrix sp. and 13B and 13G1 isolates isolated from Poecillophora sp., was able to inhibit growth of V. harveyi MR5339 RFR up to 101‒102 cfu/mL. Two isolates (13B and 13G1 were not pathogenic at concentration 106 cfu/mL bacteria and could increase of survival rate of tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon larvae in in vivo test. Survival rate of tiger shrimp larvae that treatment with 13B and 13G1 were 86,67% and 88,33%, and have a significant different with positive control (61,67%. Partial sequencing of 16S-rRNA showed that 13G1 isolate was similar to V. alginolyticus.Keywords: vibriosis, Vibrio harveyi, tiger shrimp, probiotic, coral reefABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan bakteri probiotik asal terumbu karang dengan metode kultur bersama untuk pengendalian penyakit vibriosis pada larva udang windu (Penaeus monodon. Sebanyak 110 isolat berhasil diisolasi dari Acropora sp., Merulina sp., Hystrix sp., Poecillophora sp., Porites sp., dan Heliophora sp. dan dilakukan penapisan untuk melihat aktivitas kemampuannya melawan Vibrio harveyi MR 5339 RfR dalam uji in vitro dan in vivo. Sebanyak 56 isolat menghasilkan daya hambat terhadap V. harveyi MR5339 RfR pada metode kultur bersama. Lima isolat kandidat probiotik (isolate 5H1 diisolasi dari Acropora sp., isolat 11I dan 11G diisolasi dari Hystrix sp., serta isolat 13B dan 13G1 yang diisolasi dari Poecillophora sp., mampu menekan pertumbuhan V. harveyi MR5339 RfR hingga 101–102 cfu/mL. Kedua isolat

  10. Anti-tumor activity of tetrodotoxin extracted from the Masked Puffer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anti-tumor activity of tetrodotoxins extracted from the skin of the Masked Puffer fish (Arothron diadematus) from the Red Sea was evaluated using the Ehrlich ascite carcinoma tumor model in mice. Activity was assessed using a variety of cellular and liver biochemical parameters. Experimental mice were divided into 4 equal ...

  11. Toxic Marine Puffer Fish in Thailand Seas and Tetrodotoxin They Contained

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisao Kurazono

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A total of 155 puffers caught from two of Thailand’s seas, the Gulf of Siam and the Andaman seas, during April to July 2010 were included in this study. Among 125 puffers from the Gulf of Siam, 18 were Lagocephalus lunaris and 107 were L. spadiceus which were the same two species found previously in 2000–2001. Thirty puffers were collected from the Andaman seas, 28 Tetraodon nigroviridis and two juvenile Arothron reticularis; the two new species totally replaced the nine species found previously in 1992–1993. Conventional mouse bioassay was used to determine the toxicity in all fish tissue extracts, i.e., liver, reproductive tissue, digestive tissue and muscle. One of each of the species L. lunaris and L. spadiceus (5.56 and 0.93%, respectively were toxic. All 28 T. nigroviridis and 2 A. reticularis (100% from the Andaman seas were toxic. The toxicity scores in T. nigroviridis tissues were much higher than in the respective tissues of the other three fish species. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS revealed that the main toxic principle was tetrodotoxin (TTX. This study is the first to report TTX in L. spadiceus. Our findings raised a concern for people, not only Thais but also inhabitants of other countries situated on the Andaman coast; consuming puffers of the Andaman seas is risky due to potential TTX intoxication.

  12. First record of the freshwater puffer Tetraodon fluviatilis fluviatilis from the coastal waters of Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Padate, V.P.; Rivonker, C.U.; Anil, A.C.; Sawant, S.S.; Venkat, K.

    Present study describes a new record of the freshwater green spotted puffer Tetraodon fluviatilis fluviatilis based on detailed examination of four specimens collected from the bay-estuarine regions of Goa. Differences between the present specimens...

  13. Puff and bite: the relationship between the glucocorticoid stress response and anti-predator performance in checkered puffer (Sphoeroides testudineus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cull, Felicia; O'Connor, Constance M; Suski, Cory D; Shultz, Aaron D; Danylchuk, Andy J; Cooke, Steven J

    2015-04-01

    Individual variation in the endocrine stress response has been linked to survival and performance in a variety of species. Here, we evaluate the relationship between the endocrine stress response and anti-predator behaviors in wild checkered puffers (Sphoeroides testudineus) captured at Eleuthera Island, Bahamas. The checkered puffer has a unique and easily measurable predator avoidance strategy, which is to inflate or 'puff' to deter potential predators. In this study, we measured baseline and stress-induced circulating glucocorticoid levels, as well as bite force, a performance measure that is relevant to both feeding and predator defence, and 'puff' performance. We found that puff performance and bite force were consistent within individuals, but generally decreased following a standardized stressor. Larger puffers were able to generate a higher bite force, and larger puffers were able to maintain a more robust puff performance following a standardized stressor relative to smaller puffers. In terms of the relationship between the glucocorticoid stress response and performance metrics, we found no relationship between post-stress glucocorticoid levels and either puff performance or bite force. However, we did find that baseline glucocorticoid levels predicted the ability of a puffer to maintain a robust puff response following a repeated stressor, and this relationship was more pronounced in larger individuals. Our work provides a novel example of how baseline glucocorticoids can predict a fitness-related anti-predator behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Union County TIGER 2000 Roads and Nodes

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    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  15. Lincoln County TIGER 2000 Roads and Nodes

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    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  16. Sierra County TIGER 2000 Roads and Nodes

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  17. Otero County TIGER 2000 Hydrography and Nodes

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  18. Socorro County TIGER 2000 Hydrography and Nodes

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    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  19. Bernalillo County TIGER 2000 Roads and Nodes

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    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  20. Luna County TIGER 2000 Roads and Nodes

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    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  1. Torrance County TIGER 2000 Roads and Nodes

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    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  2. Chaves County TIGER 2000 Roads and Nodes

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    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  3. Mora County TIGER 2000 Hydrography and Nodes

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    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  4. Bernalillo County TIGER 2000 Hydrography and Nodes

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    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  5. Catron County TIGER 2000 Hydrography and Nodes

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    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  6. Roosevelt County TIGER 2000 Roads and Nodes

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    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  7. Luna County TIGER 2000 Hydrography and Nodes

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    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  8. Socorro County TIGER 2000 Roads and Nodes

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    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  9. Roosevelt County TIGER 2000 Hydrography and Nodes

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    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  10. Eddy County TIGER 2000 Hydrography and Nodes

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    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  11. Harding County TIGER 2000 Hydrography and Nodes

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    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  12. Cibola County TIGER 2000 Hydrography and Nodes

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    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  13. Union County TIGER 2000 Hydrography and Nodes

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    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  14. Valencia County TIGER 2000 Hydrography and Nodes

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  15. Valencia County TIGER 2000 Roads and Nodes

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  16. Grant County TIGER 2000 Hydrography and Nodes

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  17. Lea County TIGER 2000 Roads and Nodes

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  18. Sandoval County TIGER 2000 Roads and Nodes

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  19. Eddy County TIGER 2000 Roads and Nodes

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    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  20. Guadalupe County TIGER 2000 Hydrography and Nodes

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    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  1. Consequences of 'tiger' parenting: a cross-cultural study of maternal psychological control and children's cortisol stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Stacey N; Tardif, Twila; Miller, Alison; Olson, Sheryl; Kessler, Daniel; Felt, Barbara; Wang, Li

    2017-05-01

    Parenting strategies involving psychological control are associated with increased adjustment problems in children. However, no research has examined the extent to which culture and psychological control predict children's stress physiology. We examine cultural differences in maternal psychological control and its associations with children's cortisol. Chinese (N = 59) and American (N = 45) mother-child dyads participated in the study. Mothers reported on psychological control. Children's cortisol was collected during a stressor and two indices of Area Under the Curve (AUC) were computed: AUCg which accounts for total output, and AUCi, which captures reactivity. Results indicate that Chinese mothers reported higher levels of psychological control and Chinese children had higher levels of AUCg than their American counterparts. Across both cultures, psychological control was significantly associated with increased cortisol levels as indexed by AUCg. There were no associations for AUCi. Finally, mediation analyses demonstrated that psychological control fully explained cultural differences in children's cortisol stress response as indexed by AUCg. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. 1980 Census Tracts (TIGER)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a vector polygon digital data structure taken from Census Bureau's TIGER/Line Files, 1994, for New Mexico. The source software used was ARC/INFO...

  3. Planning tiger recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilting, Andreas; Courtiol, Alexandre; Christiansen, Per

    2015-01-01

    [morphological (craniodental and pelage), ecological, molecular]. Our analyses revealed little variation and large overlaps in each trait among putative subspecies, and molecular data showed extremely low diversity because of a severe Late Pleistocene population decline. Our results support recognition of only...... two subspecies: the Sunda tiger, Panthera tigris sondaica, and the continental tiger, Panthera tigris tigris, which consists of two (northern and southern) management units. Conservation management programs, such as captive breeding, reintroduction initiatives, or trans-boundary projects, rely...

  4. The Dynamic Impact of the Tiger within Chinese Martial Arts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing Lam

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In Asia, there is, in general, a great reverence held for the tiger. The tiger has been imitated and reigns supreme as king of all the beasts throughout Asia. The relationship between man and tiger holds a strange duality in that as much as the tiger is feared for its fierce savagery and destructive power, it is also revered for these very same qualities and for its majestic nature. Therefore, the very symbolic essence of the tiger has permeated all levels of the Asian community and culture; art, mythology, religion, astrology, herbology, and military fighting strategies. The purpose of this article is to show the many rich aspects that the tiger exhibits, and its influence and impact on Asian culture and Chinese martial arts in particular. Martial arts such as Cantonese Hung Gar (Hong Family and Hasayfu Hung Gar (Hong Family Four Lower Tigers dedicate a portion of their systems to achieving awesome strength and speed, and to imitating the tiger’s physical prowess. By doing so, they may achieve higher levels of effectiveness within the martial arts.

  5. Toward Human-Carnivore Coexistence: Understanding Tolerance for Tigers in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe Inskip

    Full Text Available Fostering local community tolerance for endangered carnivores, such as tigers (Panthera tigris, is a core component of many conservation strategies. Identification of antecedents of tolerance will facilitate the development of effective tolerance-building conservation action and secure local community support for, and involvement in, conservation initiatives. We use a stated preference approach for measuring tolerance, based on the 'Wildlife Stakeholder Acceptance Capacity' concept, to explore villagers' tolerance levels for tigers in the Bangladesh Sundarbans, an area where, at the time of the research, human-tiger conflict was severe. We apply structural equation modeling to test an a priori defined theoretical model of tolerance and identify the experiential and psychological basis of tolerance in this community. Our results indicate that beliefs about tigers and about the perceived current tiger population trend are predictors of tolerance for tigers. Positive beliefs about tigers and a belief that the tiger population is not currently increasing are both associated with greater stated tolerance for the species. Contrary to commonly-held notions, negative experiences with tigers do not directly affect tolerance levels; instead, their effect is mediated by villagers' beliefs about tigers and risk perceptions concerning human-tiger conflict incidents. These findings highlight a need to explore and understand the socio-psychological factors that encourage tolerance towards endangered species. Our research also demonstrates the applicability of this approach to tolerance research to a wide range of socio-economic and cultural contexts and reveals its capacity to enhance carnivore conservation efforts worldwide.

  6. Toward Human-Carnivore Coexistence: Understanding Tolerance for Tigers in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inskip, Chloe; Carter, Neil; Riley, Shawn; Roberts, Thomas; MacMillan, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Fostering local community tolerance for endangered carnivores, such as tigers (Panthera tigris), is a core component of many conservation strategies. Identification of antecedents of tolerance will facilitate the development of effective tolerance-building conservation action and secure local community support for, and involvement in, conservation initiatives. We use a stated preference approach for measuring tolerance, based on the 'Wildlife Stakeholder Acceptance Capacity' concept, to explore villagers' tolerance levels for tigers in the Bangladesh Sundarbans, an area where, at the time of the research, human-tiger conflict was severe. We apply structural equation modeling to test an a priori defined theoretical model of tolerance and identify the experiential and psychological basis of tolerance in this community. Our results indicate that beliefs about tigers and about the perceived current tiger population trend are predictors of tolerance for tigers. Positive beliefs about tigers and a belief that the tiger population is not currently increasing are both associated with greater stated tolerance for the species. Contrary to commonly-held notions, negative experiences with tigers do not directly affect tolerance levels; instead, their effect is mediated by villagers' beliefs about tigers and risk perceptions concerning human-tiger conflict incidents. These findings highlight a need to explore and understand the socio-psychological factors that encourage tolerance towards endangered species. Our research also demonstrates the applicability of this approach to tolerance research to a wide range of socio-economic and cultural contexts and reveals its capacity to enhance carnivore conservation efforts worldwide.

  7. The growth performance of Jade Tiger cultured abalone fed diets supplemented with fish oil and vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, Hintsa T; Lewandowski, Paul A; Su, Xiao Q

    2013-04-01

    The effects of fish oil (FO) supplementation and the dietary replacement of FO with flaxseed oil (FlaxO) and canola oil (CO) on the growth of cultured abalone was investigated. The study involved three growth experiments: (E1) diets containing 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5% of FO, respectively; (E2) diets in which FO was serially replaced by 25, 50, 75 and 100% FlaxO, respectively; and (E3) diets in which FO was serially replaced by 25, 50, 75 and 100% CO, respectively. In Experiment 1, abalone fed a diet supplemented with 1.5% FO showed a significantly higher (121.2 ± 1.1 mg day(-1)) daily growth rate of weight (DGRw ) compared to control (70.1 ± 1.71 mg day(-1)). In Experiment 2, abalone fed 1.5% FO diet and diets containing 25-75% FlaxO showed no significant differences in DGRw. The diet containing 100% FlaxO showed significantly lower (63.3 ± 6.7 mg day(-1)) DGRw. In Experiment 3, abalone fed diets containing 25% and 50% CO showed similar DGRw as those fed a 1.5% FO diet. The diet containing 75% and 100% CO showed significantly lower (63.7 ± 5.0 to 95.4 ± 5.1 mg day(-1)) DGRw. Supplementation with 1.5% of dietary FO can improve growth performance in cultured abalone. It is feasible to replace 75% of dietary FO with FlaxO and 50% of dietary FO with CO, without negative effect on growth performance. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. [Study on tetrodotoxin detection and toxic puffer fish identification of roasted fish fillet at the retail in Beijing and Qingdao].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qing; Jiang, Tao; Li, Nan; Wang, Jiahui; Han, Chunhui; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Jin; Zhang, Dongfeng; Li, Fengqin

    2014-11-01

    The roasted fish fillet sample at the retail collected in Beijing and Qingdao were detected for TTX, and the TTX positive samples was analyzed for fish species identification. TTX was tested by EUSA method and the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) genome of TTX-positive samples was extracted and identified by DNA barcode. Totally, 90 samples were tested by EUSA and 58 (64.4%) samples were positive for TTX with the levels ranging from 0.10 mg/kg to 63.81 mg/kg. Among the TTX positive samples, 24 (41.3%) were identified containing toxic puffer fish and 21 (87.5%) were Lagocephalus lunaris, the highly toxic puffer fish. Some roasted fish fillet samples obtained from the retail in two cities were positive for TTX and contained toxic puffer fish. Based on these results, we suggest that roasted fish fillet producers should prevent toxic puffer fish from mixing in the raw material and the I regulators should strengthen the TTX surveillance and product labeling supervision of roasted fish fillet.

  9. Securing a future for wild Indochinese tigers: Transforming tiger vacuums into tiger source sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynam, Antony J

    2010-12-01

    A century ago, tigers (Panthera tigris Linnaeus, 1758) were so common in parts of Southeast Asia as to be considered pests, and governments sponsored their killing. Habitat loss and fragmentation, market-driven poaching and loss of prey have since led to the disappearance of Indochinese tigers from most their former range. Despite 15 years of dedicated tiger conservation funding, national estimates of Indochinese tiger subpopulations can at best only be roughly approximated. The future for the subspecies appears grim unless very focused efforts can be applied to stabilize and recover subpopulations. On a regional scale, the 2 proposed subspecies Panthera tigris corbetti and P. tigris jacksoni are effectively managed as separate conservation units. Evaluating where to place conservation efforts should consider the vulnerability (likelihood of extinction) and irreplaceability (likelihood that an area contributes uniquely to regional conservation) of tiger subpopulations. Only 1 site in Thailand supporting tiger numbers within 10 years through protection and monitoring. Seven sites in Lao, Thailand and Myanmar are high vulnerability and irreplaceable, and might be recovered if government commitment to tigers, staff capacity and legal frameworks for tiger protection are established. Tigers are extremely vulnerable or even extinct in Cambodia's Eastern Plains and the site is irreplaceable for tigers because it represents the only large (>10,000 km(2) ) block of dry forest habitat available in the region. A reintroduction program is the only option to recover tigers there. © 2010 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  10. The Chinese Tiger Mother

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Hołówka

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2010 a book by Amy Chua: Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother was published and it sparked a broad discussion among pedagogues and the open society about the factors determining educational success. Chua forms a simple and provocative thesis – the Chinese mothers are the best in the world because they don’t spoil their children, quickly introduce them into the adult culture, have high expectations of them, they are brusque and cold but they teach their children how to survive and be competitive. Chua shows this educational model as a contrast to the Western model, where the children have their own, naive and sentimental culture, their own shops and catwalks in shopping malls. The results of systematic research on education seem to prove something quite different. The educational success has to be measured using different scales, because it depends on different factors. The data published by OECD show that the level of education depends on the educational tradition of the society, level of GDP, intergenerational contacts, level of education of teachers and their social status. A strong determiner is the family, but not necessarily the mother. Even more, there is a strong correlation between the results in learning and a supporting stance of the parents, but also with their habit of spending free time with their children. The parents who take their children to the cinema, an a trip, gossip with them or take them to McDonalds, can be sure that their children will have statistically higher than the average grades. Detailed results from other sources show that success correlates the most with grades from previous class, parents’ habit of talking about things at school, higher education of the parents, being a child of a single mother, signing the child up for extracurricular classes from music and the mother working part-time. Failure correlates with being an Afro-American or Latino, checking homework by parents, free time after school without

  11. Studies on antimicrobial activity and brine shrimp lethality of crude samples of six different species of puffer fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masilamani Mohan Raj

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial activity and brine shrimp lethality activity of six different species of puffer fishes, including Cyclichthys orbicularis, Diodon holocanthus, Canthigaster solandri, Arthron hispidus, A. inermis and Lagocephalua inermis (L. inermis. Methodology: The puffer fishes were collected from Annangkovil Fish Landing Centre (Lattitude 11°30.47' N; Longitude 79°47.02' E, Parangipettai, Southeast Coast of India during summer season because of availability. Fresh tissue samples were collected from the clearly washed specimens, extracted with methanol at 37 °C for 3 days and filtered through Whatman No. 1 filter paper. The solvents such as methanol and ethanol were concentrated by using rotary evaporator under reduced pressure. The dark brown gummy mass was stored at 4 °C for further analysis. Prepared crude samples were analysed with human pathogens to assess the antibacterial activity and this was carried out by using standard disc diffusion method. The brine shrimp lethality was calculated as the percentage of mortality which was firstly calculated by dividing the number of dead larvae by the total number and then multiplied to 100%. Results: The antibacterial activity of crude extract of puffer fishes were exhibited against 10 different human bacterial pathogens. Among the ten human pathogens, Arthron hispidus showed maximum zone of inhibition (8 mm against Staphylococcus aureus while L. inermis showed minimum activity (1 mm against Proteus mirabilis and no zone of inhibition was observed against Staphylococcus aureus. Brine shrimp lethality was examined with six puffer fish extracts. Cyclichthys orbicularis showed maximum mortalities as 100% and L. inermis showed minimum mortalities as 70% at a concentration of 500 µg/mL. Conclusion: In conclusion, the study showed the preliminary investigation of crude extracts of puffer fishes about the prominent activity against human bacterial pathogens. The extracts had

  12. Registration of 'Tiger' wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Tiger’ hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed at Research Center-Hays, Kansas State University and released by Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station in 2010. Tiger was selected from a three-way cross KS98H245/’Trego’//KS98HW518 made in 1999 at Hays, KS. The objective of this ...

  13. Indian Reservation & Trust Land Boundaries (TIGER 2000)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Shapefiles are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census MAF/TIGER database. The Census MAF/TIGER database...

  14. INDUCTION OF GONADAL MATURATION OF POND CULTURED MALE TIGER SHRIMP, Penaeus monodon WITH DIFFERENT DOSAGES OF GONADOTROPIN RELEASING HORMONE ANALOGUE AGAINST EYE STALK ABLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asda Laining

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Very low naturally mating rate of pond-reared tiger shrimp broodstock is probably due to the slow maturation of the male stock. The aim of this study was to evaluate the salmon gonadotrophin releasing hormone analoque (sGnRHa in stimulating the gonadal maturation of male stock of pond-reared tiger shrimp. The treatments were three dosages of sGnRHa at 0.1 (OV-1, 0.2 (OV-2, and 0.3 (OV-3 mL/kg of shrimp weight and control was eye stalk ablation (AB. The sGnRHa was administered via injection three times with one week interval. Male stocks with average initial body weight of 82.1 g were randomly distributed into four of 10 m3 concrete tanks, 26 males for each tank. Variables observed were performances of spermatophores and profiles of amino acid and fatty acid of muscle of the male stocks. After induction, number of male maturing indicated by spermatophores releasing from terminal ampullas was higher in shrimp induced with OV-1 (80.8% compared to control which was only 46.1%. Furthermore, shrimp treated OV-2 had the highest spermatophore weight of 0.16 g compared to control (0.11 g and other two groups. Amino acid profiles improved as the dose of sGnRHa increased up to 0.2 mL/kg from 61.23% for ablated male becoming 71.27% for OV-2. Total fatty acid also tended to improve by increasing the dose of hormone injection, however, the ablated male had higher total fatty acid content than that of OV-1. The present finding demonstrated that the dose of sGnRHa to stimulate the gonadal maturation of pond-reared male tiger shrimp could be applied at range between 0.1-0.2 mL/kg of shrimp weight.

  15. Conserving tigers in working landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanchani, Pranav; Noon, Barry R; Bailey, Larissa L; Warrier, Rekha A

    2016-06-01

    Tiger (Panthera tigris) conservation efforts in Asia are focused on protected areas embedded in human-dominated landscapes. A system of protected areas is an effective conservation strategy for many endangered species if the network is large enough to support stable metapopulations. The long-term conservation of tigers requires that the species be able to meet some of its life-history needs beyond the boundaries of small protected areas and within the working landscape, including multiple-use forests with logging and high human use. However, understanding of factors that promote or limit the occurrence of tigers in working landscapes is incomplete. We assessed the relative influence of protection status, prey occurrence, extent of grasslands, intensity of human use, and patch connectivity on tiger occurrence in the 5400 km(2) Central Terai Landscape of India, adjacent to Nepal. Two observer teams independently surveyed 1009 km of forest trails and water courses distributed across 60 166-km(2) cells. In each cell, the teams recorded detection of tiger signs along evenly spaced trail segments. We used occupancy models that permitted multiscale analysis of spatially correlated data to estimate cell-scale occupancy and segment-scale habitat use by tigers as a function of management and environmental covariates. Prey availability and habitat quality, rather than protected-area designation, influenced tiger occupancy. Tiger occupancy was low in some protected areas in India that were connected to extensive areas of tiger habitat in Nepal, which brings into question the efficacy of current protection and management strategies in both India and Nepal. At a finer spatial scale, tiger habitat use was high in trail segments associated with abundant prey and large grasslands, but it declined as human and livestock use increased. We speculate that riparian grasslands may provide tigers with critical refugia from human activity in the daytime and thereby promote tiger occurrence

  16. Ecopsychosocial Aspects of Human–Tiger Conflict: An Ethnographic Study of Tiger Widows of Sundarban Delta, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Arabinda N.; Mondal, Ranajit; Brahma, Arabinda; Biswas, Mrinal K.

    2016-01-01

    AIMS Human–tiger conflict (HTC) is a serious public health issue in Sundarban Reserve Forest, India. HTC is a continued concern for the significant mortality and morbidity of both human and tiger population. This is the first comprehensive report on Sundarban tiger–human conflicts and its impact on widows whose husbands were killed by tigers. The study attempts to explore the situation analysis of HTC and the aftermath of the incident including bereavement and coping, the cultural stigma related to being killed by a tiger and the consequent discrimination, deprivation, and social rejection, and the impact on the mental health of the tiger-widows. METHODS This is a three-phase ethnographic research with a mix of quantitative and qualitative methods. In the first phase, a door-to-door village survey (3,084 households) was carried out in two villages of Sundarban, which are adjacent to the Reserve Forest, in which the incidents of human–animal conflicts and the 65 tiger-widows identified were documented. In the second phase, the 65 tiger-widows were studied to explore the ecodemography of tiger attacks and tiger-widows alongside the stigma issue by using a stigma questionnaire (n = 49). The stigma burden was compared with normal widows (n = 21) and snake-bite widows (n = 18). In the third phase, the psychosocial and cultural dimensions related to tiger attacks were studied by using in-depth interviews (IDI) of the tiger-widows, focus-group discussions (FGD), and participatory mapping in the community. Clinical examinations of the mental health of the widows were also carried out in this phase. RESULTS The mean age of the 65 widows was 43.49 ± 9.58 years. Of this, 12.3% of the widows had remarried and only 4.6% of the widows were literate. In all, 67.2% of all tiger attacks occurred as a result of illegal forest entry. The main livelihood of the former husbands of the widows were 43.8% wood cutting, 28.1% fishing, 10.9% crab catching, 9.4% tiger prawn seed

  17. Ecopsychosocial Aspects of Human-Tiger Conflict: An Ethnographic Study of Tiger Widows of Sundarban Delta, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Arabinda N; Mondal, Ranajit; Brahma, Arabinda; Biswas, Mrinal K

    2016-01-01

    Human-tiger conflict (HTC) is a serious public health issue in Sundarban Reserve Forest, India. HTC is a continued concern for the significant mortality and morbidity of both human and tiger population. This is the first comprehensive report on Sundarban tiger-human conflicts and its impact on widows whose husbands were killed by tigers. The study attempts to explore the situation analysis of HTC and the aftermath of the incident including bereavement and coping, the cultural stigma related to being killed by a tiger and the consequent discrimination, deprivation, and social rejection, and the impact on the mental health of the tiger-widows. This is a three-phase ethnographic research with a mix of quantitative and qualitative methods. In the first phase, a door-to-door village survey (3,084 households) was carried out in two villages of Sundarban, which are adjacent to the Reserve Forest, in which the incidents of human-animal conflicts and the 65 tiger-widows identified were documented. In the second phase, the 65 tiger-widows were studied to explore the ecodemography of tiger attacks and tiger-widows alongside the stigma issue by using a stigma questionnaire (n = 49). The stigma burden was compared with normal widows (n = 21) and snake-bite widows (n = 18). In the third phase, the psychosocial and cultural dimensions related to tiger attacks were studied by using in-depth interviews (IDI) of the tiger-widows, focus-group discussions (FGD), and participatory mapping in the community. Clinical examinations of the mental health of the widows were also carried out in this phase. The mean age of the 65 widows was 43.49 ± 9.58 years. Of this, 12.3% of the widows had remarried and only 4.6% of the widows were literate. In all, 67.2% of all tiger attacks occurred as a result of illegal forest entry. The main livelihood of the former husbands of the widows were 43.8% wood cutting, 28.1% fishing, 10.9% crab catching, 9.4% tiger prawn seed (juvenile prawn), and 4.7% honey

  18. San Juan County TIGER 2000 Hydrography and Nodes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  19. Santa Fe County TIGER 2000 Roads and Nodes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  20. Dona Ana County TIGER 2000 Hydrography and Nodes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  1. Rio Arriba County TIGER 2000 Roads and Nodes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  2. San Miguel County TIGER 2000 Hydrography and Nodes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  3. Dona Ana County TIGER 2000 Roads and Nodes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  4. McKinley County TIGER 2000 Roads and Nodes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  5. Los Alamos County TIGER 2000 Hydrography and Nodes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  6. Transforming Indigenous Geoscience Education and Research (TIGER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelote, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    American Indian tribes and tribal confed­erations exert sovereignty over about 20% of all the freshwater resources in the United States. Yet only about 30 Native American (NA) students receive bachelor's degrees in the geosci­ences each year, and few of those degrees are in the field of hydrology. To help increase the ranks of NA geoscientists,TIGER builds upon the momentum of Salish Kootenai College's newly accredited Hydrology Degree Program. It allows for the development and implementation of the first Bachelor's degree in geosciences (hydrology) at a Tribal College and University (TCU). TIGER integrates a solid educational research-based framework for retention and educational preparation of underrepresented minorities with culturally relevant curriculum and socio-cultural supports, offering a new model for STEM education of NA students. Innovative hydrology curriculum is both academically rigorous and culturally relevant with concurrent theoretical, conceptual, and applied coursework in chemical, biological, physical and managerial aspects of water resources. Educational outcomes for the program include a unique combination of competencies based on industry recognized standards (e.g., National Institute of Hydrologists), input from an experienced External Advisory Board (EAB), and competencies required for geoscientists working in critical NA watersheds, which include unique competencies, such as American Indian Water Law and sovereignty issues. TIGER represents a unique opportunity to capitalize on the investments the geoscience community has already made into broadening the participation of underrepresented minorities and developing a diverse workforce, by allowing SKC to develop a sustainable and exportable program capable of significantly increasing (by 25 to 75%) the National rate of Native American geoscience graduates.

  7. TIGER2012_BlockGroups

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The 2012 Census TIGER/Line data originally made available by the US Census Bureau. The spatial data was then joined to the 2010 Census Summary File 1 via the common...

  8. 2008 TIGER/Line Nationwide Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This dataset contains a nationwide build of the 2008 TIGER/Line datasets from the US Census Bureau downloaded in April 2009. The TIGER/Line Shapefiles are an extract...

  9. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF Vibrio harveyi ISOLATED FROM TIGER PRAWN Penaeus monodon HATCHERIES AND GROW OUT PONDS

    OpenAIRE

    Muliani Muliani; Ince Ayu Khairana Kadriah; Andi Parenrengi; Sulaeman Sulaeman

    2006-01-01

    ibrio harveyi is known as one among the most harmful bacteria infecting tiger prawn at every stage of its life’s. The present research was aimed to reveal the genetic diversity of Vibrio harveyi isolated from tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) culture. The samples of bacteria were collected from hatchery (brood-stock, larvae, natural feed, artemia, and larval rearing water) and grow-out (juveniles, water, shrimp, sediment, plankton, crab, mollusc, microalgae, and wild fish).  The taxonomic identif...

  10. Toxicity of puffer fish: two species (Lagocephalus laevigatus, linaeus 1766 and Sphoeroides spengleri, Bloch 1785 from the Southeastern Brazilian coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Oliveira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, where puffer fish are considered poisonous, there are few documented cases on human consumption and consequent poisoning. In this study, toxicity of two puffer fish species from the Brazilian coast was examined. Specimens of Sphoeroides spengleri and Lagocephalus laevigatus were caught in São Sebastião Channel (North coast of São Paulo State, Brazil between January 1996 and May 1997. Acidic ethanol extracts from muscle and skin plus viscera were tested for mice acute toxicity using the standard method of Kawabata. Polar extracts of S. spengleri showed high toxicity up to 946 MU/g. Extracts from L. laevigatus showed very low levels of toxicity, never exceeding 1.7 MU/g. All extracts from both species blocked amielinic nerve fiber evoked impulses of crustacean legs; this effect reverted on washing similar to the standard tetrodotoxin TTX. The aqueous extract solutions were partially purified using an ionic exchange column (Amberlit GC-50 followed by treatment with activated charcoal (Norit-A. The presence of TTX and their analogs in the semi-purified extracts were confirmed by HPLC and mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF.

  11. Differential expression patterns of PQRFamide peptide and its two receptor genes in the brain and pituitary of grass puffer during the reproductive cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahjahan, Md; Doi, Hiroyuki; Ando, Hironori

    2015-01-01

    Pain-modulatory neuropeptides, PQRFamide (PQRFa) peptides, have recently been implicated in the regulation of reproduction in fish. As a first step toward investigating the role of PQRFa peptides on reproductive function in the grass puffer Takifugu niphobles, which is a semilunar spawner, we cloned genes encoding PQRFa peptide precursor (pqrfa) and its two types of receptors (pqrfa-r1 and pqrfa-r2), and examined changes in their expression levels in the brain and pituitary over several months during the reproductive cycle. The grass puffer PQRFa peptide precursor of 126 amino acid residues contains two putative PQRFa peptides, PQRFa-1 and PQRFa-2, which correspond to NPFF and NPAF in other vertebrates, respectively. The grass puffer PQRFa-R1 and PQRFa-R2 consist of 426 and 453 amino acid residues, respectively, and contain distinct characteristics of G-protein coupled receptors. These three genes were exclusively expressed in the brain and pituitary. The expression levels of pqrfa and pqrfa-r1 were significantly increased during the late stage of sexual maturation, but low in the spawning fish just after releasing sperms and eggs. Therefore, the grass puffer PQRFa peptide may have a role in the late stage of sexual maturation before spawning via PQRFa-R1. In contrast, the pqrfa-r2 expression showed maximum levels in the spawning fish and in the post-spawning period. The present results provide fundamental data suggesting that the grass puffer PQRFa peptide may have multiple roles in the control of reproduction that are dependent on the reproductive stages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Relocation and Livelihood Concerns of Sariska Tiger Project, Rajasthan: A Pride or Plight?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muraree Lal Meena

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that Sariska Tiger Reserve is a home to the India’s national animal - the Bengal Tiger (Panthera tigris tigris. The crux of this research is to examine the role of local peoples in the conservation of Sariska Tiger project, which was declared a wildlife reserve way back in 1955 and then further raised to a status of a Tiger Reserve in 1978, and a National Park in 1982. According to the Government officials, the people around the reserve are not only responsible for degrading the reserve, it has also emerged as a safe haven for the poachers involved in illegal hunting of the tigers. One of the reasons identified to be the cause of tiger extinction is the human habitation in the core and in the peripheral areas surrounding the tiger reserves. Despite efforts being made to protect, the Sariska Tiger Reserve, located in Alwar (Rajasthan is seriously facing the problem of tiger extinction. It is estimated that there are around 12 thousand people residing inside the tiger reserve, with 11 villages in the Core Zone-1 area and about 170 villages situated along the peripheries of the reserve. Among the prime measures undertaken are diversions of traffic, relocation of the villages located inside the forest. The Tiger Task Force (2005 has recommended relocation of three key villages surrounding the central area of the Sariska Tiger Reserve. However, this relocation of villages is quite contrary to the life style of the people residing within these villages. Their social and cultural attributes, needs and aspirations have not been given due consideration and the villagers are strongly resenting this move by the government. These displaced villagers have been living in perfect harmony with their environment from time immemorial and it is hard to understand how these villagers can be held responsible for degrading their natural environment, which is their lifeline. The government has failed to take into consideration the role of the

  13. New Mexico County Boundaries (2007FE, TIGER, Current)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Shapefiles are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census MAF/TIGER database. The Census MAF/TIGER database...

  14. Bernalillo County Transportation Analysis Zones, Census 2000 from TIGER 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Shapefiles are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census MAF/TIGER database. The Census MAF/TIGER database...

  15. Planning tiger recovery: Understanding intraspecific variation for effective conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Wilting, Andreas; Courtiol, Alexandre; Christiansen, Per; Niedballa, J?rgen; Scharf, Anne K.; Orlando, Ludovic; Balkenhol, Niko; Hofer, Heribert; Kramer-Schadt, Stephanie; Fickel, J?rns; Kitchener, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Although significantly more money is spent on the conservation of tigers than on any other threatened species, today only 3200 to 3600 tigers roam the forests of Asia, occupying only 7% of their historical range. Despite the global significance of and interest in tiger conservation, global approaches to plan tiger recovery are partly impeded by the lack of a consensus on the number of tiger subspecies or management units, because a comprehensive analysis of tiger variation is lacking. We anal...

  16. Erratum: Erratum to: Recovery of gonadal development in tiger puffer Takifugu rubripes after exposure to 17β-estradiol during early life stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Peng; Liu, Bin; Meng, Zhen; Liu, Xinfu; Jia, Yudong; Yang, Zhi; Lei, Jilin

    2017-09-01

    A mistake was found in Section 2.2. The current expression is "In each treatment group, juveniles were exposed to E2 at the set concentration for 2 h once a day from 15 to 100 dph." The correct version should be "In each treatment group, juveniles were exposed to E2 at the set concentration for 2 h once two days from 15 to 100 dph."

  17. Application of a puffer fish skin gelatin film containing Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf extract to the packaging of Gouda cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ka-Yeon; Yang, Hyun-Ju; Song, Kyung Bin

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to develop a puffer fish skin gelatin (PSG) film that contains Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf extract (ME) as a new biodegradable film. With the increase in ME concentration, the tensile strength and elongation at break of the PSG film increased, whereas the oxygen permeability and water vapor permeability decreased. In addition, the PSG film with ME exhibited antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and antioxidant activity. To apply the ME-containing PSG film to food packaging, Gouda cheese was wrapped with the ME-containing PSG film. During storage, the cheese packaging with the ME-containing PSG film effectively inhibited the microbial growth and retarded the lipid oxidation of cheese compared with the control sample. Thus, the ME-containing PSG film can be used as an antimicrobial and antioxidative packaging material to improve the quality of food products.

  18. Contribution to the feeding ecology of the banded puffer fish Colomesus psittacus (Tetraodontidae in north Brazilian mangrove creeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Krumme

    Full Text Available Stomach contents were examined from 102 banded puffer, Colomesus psittacus (Tetraodontidae, caught from intertidal mangrove creeks at diurnal neap tides between June and September, 1997 (early dry season near Bragança (north Brazil. The study found that C. psittacus were specialized predators of Cirripedia (Balanus spp. and Brachyuran crabs (Uca spp., Pachygrapsus gracilis (mean: 58 and 38% by dry weight, respectively, emphasizing a short food chain in the mangrove system. Cirripedia and Brachyura dominated the diet in all size classes, however, the prey spectrum narrowed with fish size. The mean daily consumption of Cirripedia and Brachyura was 6.2% body weight of C. psittacus. On average C. psittacus consumed 100.3 g.ha-1.d-1 of Cirripedia and 178.7 g.ha-1.d-1 of Brachyura (wet weight. The predation on Brachyuran crabs - a significant driver of fluxes of organic matter and energy in the system - provides C. psittacus with an important ecological function in the mangrove food web. A plant-animal interaction is proposed where C. psittacus exerts a mutually beneficial cleaning function on the Aufwuchs (Cirripedia and associated epibiota of Rhizophora mangle stilt roots. Our results and those of other studies suggest that C. psittacus encounter optimum foraging conditions in the mangrove at high inundations at daylight (spring tide-day whereas darkness and low inundations are linked to poor foraging conditions (neap tide-night. The C. psittacus resource could be used as an alternative income in the region in terms of i sustainable catch and filet processing for exports to East Asia, ii developing certified aquaculture methods for breeding puffers for the aquarium trade.

  19. TIGER: Turbomachinery interactive grid generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Bharat K.; Shih, Ming-Hsin; Janus, J. Mark

    1992-01-01

    A three dimensional, interactive grid generation code, TIGER, is being developed for analysis of flows around ducted or unducted propellers. TIGER is a customized grid generator that combines new technology with methods from general grid generation codes. The code generates multiple block, structured grids around multiple blade rows with a hub and shroud for either C grid or H grid topologies. The code is intended for use with a Euler/Navier-Stokes solver also being developed, but is general enough for use with other flow solvers. TIGER features a silicon graphics interactive graphics environment that displays a pop-up window, graphics window, and text window. The geometry is read as a discrete set of points with options for several industrial standard formats and NASA standard formats. Various splines are available for defining the surface geometries. Grid generation is done either interactively or through a batch mode operation using history files from a previously generated grid. The batch mode operation can be done either with a graphical display of the interactive session or with no graphics so that the code can be run on another computer system. Run time can be significantly reduced by running on a Cray-YMP.

  20. A postulate for tiger recovery: the case of the Caspian Tiger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. Driscoll

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent genetic analysis has shown that the extinct Caspian Tiger (P. t. virgata and the living Amur Tigers (P. t. altaica of the Russian Far East are actually taxonomically synonymous and that Caspian and Amur groups historically formed a single population, only becoming separated within the last 200 years by human agency. A major conservation implication of this finding is that tigers of Amur stock might be reintroduced, not only back into the Koreas and China as is now proposed, but also through vast areas of Central Asia where the Caspian tiger once lived. However, under the current tiger conservation framework the 12 “Caspian Tiger States” are not fully involved in conservation planning. Equal recognition as “Tiger Range States” should be given to the countries where the Caspian tiger once lived and their involvement in tiger conservation planning encouraged. Today, preliminary ecological surveys show that some sparsely populated areas of Central Asia preserve natural habitat suitable for tigers. In depth assessments should be completed in these and other areas of the Caspian range to evaluate the possibility of tiger reintroductions. Because tigers are a charismatic umbrella species, both ecologically and politically, reintroduction to these landscapes would provide an effective conservation framework for the protection of many species in addition to tigers. And for today’s Amur Tigers this added range will provide a buffer against further loss of genetic diversity, one which will maintain that diversity in the face of selective pressures that can only be experienced in the wild.

  1. The Collapse of the 'Celtic Tiger' Narrative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böss, Michael

    2011-01-01

    An account of the factors that led to the collapse of the 'Celtic Tiger' economy in 2008 and an explanation of the political effects and implications for Irish identity.......An account of the factors that led to the collapse of the 'Celtic Tiger' economy in 2008 and an explanation of the political effects and implications for Irish identity....

  2. TIGER reliability analysis in the DSN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    The TIGER algorithm, the inputs to the program and the output are described. TIGER is a computer program designed to simulate a system over a period of time to evaluate system reliability and availability. Results can be used in the Deep Space Network for initial spares provisioning and system evaluation.

  3. A postulate for tiger recovery: the case of the Caspian Tiger

    OpenAIRE

    C.A. Driscoll; I. Chestin; H. Jungius; O. Pereladova; Y. Darman; E. Dinerstein; J. Seidensticker; J. Sanderson; S. Christie; S.J. Luo

    2012-01-01

    Recent genetic analysis has shown that the extinct Caspian Tiger (P. t. virgata) and the living Amur Tigers (P. t. altaica) of the Russian Far East are actually taxonomically synonymous and that Caspian and Amur groups historically formed a single population, only becoming separated within the last 200 years by human agency. A major conservation implication of this finding is that tigers of Amur stock might be reintroduced, not only back into the Koreas and China as is now proposed, but also ...

  4. Local Usage of Tiger Parts and Its Role in Tiger Killing in the Bangladesh Sundarbans

    OpenAIRE

    Saif, Samia; Russell, Aal M.; Nodie, Sabiha I.; Inskip, Chloe; Lahann, Petra; Barlow, Adam; Greenwood Barlow, Christina; Islam, Md. A.; MacMillan, Douglas C.

    2015-01-01

    This article explored the local medicinal and traditional values of tiger parts and associated beliefs, and its link to the commercial trade in the Bangladesh Sundarbans. Using semi-structured qualitative interviews with 139 respondents, we found that the local use of, and belief in, the medicinal values of tiger parts is widespread and that virtually all parts of the tiger are used. Some of the local uses of tiger parts were unique in both the way and the purpose of use. For example, the soi...

  5. Comparative serological investigation between cat and tiger blood for transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thengchaisri, Naris; Sinthusingha, Chayakrit; Arthitwong, Surapong; Sattasathuchana, Panpicha

    2017-06-29

    Evidence suggests that non-domesticated felids inherited the same AB-erythrocyte antigens as domestic cats. To study the possible compatibility of tiger blood with that of other endangered felidae, blood samples from captive tigers and domestic cats were subjected to an in vitro study. The objectives of this study were to (1) identify whether the captive tigers had blood type AB and (2) determine the compatibility between the blood of captive tigers and that of domestic cats with a similar blood type. The anti-coagulated blood with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid of 30 tigers was examined to determine blood type, and a crossmatching test was performed between tiger and cat blood. All 30 tigers had blood type A. Tube agglutination tests using tiger plasma with cat erythrocytes resulted in 100% agglutination (n=30) with type B cat erythrocytes and 76.7% agglutination (n=23) with type A cat erythrocytes. The 80% of major and 60% of minor compatibilities between blood from 10 tigers and 10 domestic cats with blood type A were found to pass compatibility tests. Interestingly, 3/10 of the tigers' red blood cell samples were fully compatible with all cat plasmas, and 1/10 of the tiger plasma samples were fully compatible with the type A red cells of domestic cats. Although the result of present findings revealed type-A blood group in the surveyed tigers, the reaction of tiger plasma with Type-A red cell from cats suggested a possibility of other blood type in tigers.

  6. Issues in Education: Tiger Moms--Five Questions that Need to Be Answered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Maxie; Aldridge, Jerry; Christensen, Lois M.; Kilgo, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    A "tiger mom" is a term popularized with the publication of Amy Chua's "Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother" (2011). Chua points to the tiger as a "living symbol of strength and power, [which] generally inspires fear and respect" (n.p.); the term "tiger mother" or "tiger mom" quickly became part of the popular lexicon. Chua perceives the tiger mom's…

  7. Two fatal tiger attacks in zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantius, Britta; Wittschieber, Daniel; Schmidt, Sven; Rothschild, Markus A; Banaschak, Sibylle

    2016-01-01

    Two captive tiger attacks are presented that took place in Cologne and Münster zoos. Both attacks occurred when the handlers, intent on cleaning the enclosures, entered whilst the tigers accidently retained access to the location, and thus defended their territory against the perceived intruders. Both victims suffered fatal neck injuries from the bites. At Münster, colleagues managed to lure the tiger away from its victim to enable treatment, whilst the Cologne zoo tiger had to be shot in order to allow access to be gained. Whilst it was judged that human error led to the deaths of the experienced zookeepers, the investigation in Münster was closed as no third party was found to be at fault, whereas the Cologne zoo director was initially charged with being negligent. These charges were subsequently dismissed as safety regulations were found to be up to date.

  8. Defining Tiger Parenting in Chinese Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Yeong

    2013-09-01

    "Tiger" parenting, as described by Amy Chua [2011], has instigated scholarly discourse on this phenomenon and its possible effects on families. Our eight-year longitudinal study, published in the Asian American Journal of Psychology [Kim, Wang, Orozco-Lapray, Shen, & Murtuza, 2013b], demonstrates that tiger parenting is not a common parenting profile in a sample of 444 Chinese American families. Tiger parenting also does not relate to superior academic performance in children. In fact, the best developmental outcomes were found among children of supportive parents. We examine the complexities around defining tiger parenting by reviewing classical literature on parenting styles and scholarship on Asian American parenting, along with Amy Chua's own description of her parenting method, to develop, define, and categorize variability in parenting in a sample of Chinese American families. We also provide evidence that supportive parenting is important for the optimal development of Chinese American adolescents.

  9. Defining Tiger Parenting in Chinese Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Su Yeong

    2013-01-01

    “Tiger” parenting, as described by Amy Chua [2011], has instigated scholarly discourse on this phenomenon and its possible effects on families. Our eight-year longitudinal study, published in the Asian American Journal of Psychology [Kim, Wang, Orozco-Lapray, Shen, & Murtuza, 2013b], demonstrates that tiger parenting is not a common parenting profile in a sample of 444 Chinese American families. Tiger parenting also does not relate to superior academic performance in children. In fact, the be...

  10. Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae): a review of conservation status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibisono, Hariyo T; Pusparini, Wulan

    2010-12-01

    The majority of wild Sumatran tigers are believed to live in 12 Tiger Conservation Landscapes covering approximately 88,000 km(2) . However, the actual distribution of tigers across Sumatra has never been accurately mapped. Over the past 20 years, conservation efforts focused on the Sumatran tigers have increased, but the population continues to decline as a result of several key threats. To identify the status of the Sumatran tiger distribution across the island, an island-wide questionnaire survey comprised of 35 respondents from various backgrounds was conducted between May and June 2010. The survey found that Sumatran tigers are positively present in 27 habitat patches larger than 250 km(2) and possibly present in another 2. In addition, a review on major published studies on the Sumatran tiger was conducted to identify the current conservation status of the Sumatran tiger. Collectively, these studies have identified several key factors that have contributed to the decline of Sumatran tiger populations, including: forest habitat fragmentation and loss, direct killing of tigers and their prey, and the retaliatory killing of tigers due to conflict with villagers. The present paper provides management authorities and the international community with a recent assessment and a base map of the actual distribution of Sumatran tigers as well as a general overview on the current status and possible future conservation challenges of Sumatran tiger management. © 2010 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  11. Cons ICARUS, TIGER and Fascism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Vrečko

    2010-12-01

    why the people of Primorska were the first in Europe to resist it, forming the insurgent organisation TIGR, later TIGER, while the priests of Primorska formed the College of St Paul’s Clerics for Istria. Robbed of human rights, man cannot be mechanised, for “there is no culture in mechanics”, there is no humanity in Fascism. Linking this cons to the early, ORJUNA-like TIGR-hood might have brought brand new results in understanding Kosovel as a concrete early TIGR revolutionary. And both TIGR and “Cons (Tiger” are about insurgence, about action. The model in this insurgence may be the Homunculi who had become human by developing emotions and passions, thus surpassing the plans of their maker, of the Fascist dictatorship which wanted them soulless and emotionless, wholly subordinated to mechanical slave labour.

  12. Probable Tiger-to-Tiger Transmission of Avian Influenza H5N1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanawongnuwech, Roongroje; Amonsin, Alongkorn; Tantilertcharoen, Rachod; Damrongwatanapokin, Sudarat; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Payungporn, Sunchai; Nanthapornphiphat, Kamonchart; Ratanamungklanon, Somchuan; Tunak, Eakchai; Songserm, Thaweesak; Vivatthanavanich, Veravit; Lekdumrongsak, Thawat; Kesdangsakonwut, Sawang; Tunhikorn, Schwann

    2005-01-01

    During the second outbreak of avian influenza H5N1 in Thailand, probable horizontal transmission among tigers was demonstrated in the tiger zoo. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of those viruses showed no differences from the first isolate obtained in January 2004. This finding has implications for influenza virus epidemiology and pathogenicity in mammals. PMID:15890122

  13. Chinese education in the novel by A. Chua Battle hymn of the tiger mother

    OpenAIRE

    Magda Wieteska

    2017-01-01

    Chinese culture and tradition stand in direct opposition to American and European cultures. Chinese children must live according to the principles of metaconfucianism from an early age. Failure to do so threatens social ostracism. Amy Chua in her autobiographical novel Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother describes the education of her two daughters living in America according to the principles present in China. The educational methods used by Chua are considered controversial by western parent...

  14. Landmark Points for Sierra County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  15. Roads for Lea County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  16. Airports for Valencia County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  17. Railroads for Roosevelt County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  18. Landmark Points for Chaves County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  19. Roads for San Juan County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  20. Roads for Mora County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  1. Railroads for Sierra County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  2. Roads for Otero County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  3. Roads for Guadalupe County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  4. Railroads for Chaves County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  5. Roads for Roosevelt County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  6. Railroads for Lincoln County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  7. Railroads for Curry Curry, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  8. Roads for Taos County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  9. Roads for Torrance County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  10. Railroads for Mora County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  11. Railroads for Union County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  12. Roads for Luna County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  13. Roads for Quay County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  14. Roads for Santa Fe County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  15. Roads for Bernalillo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  16. Roads for Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  17. Railroads for Bernalillo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  18. Railroads for Guadalupe County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  19. Roads for Chaves County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  20. Railroads for Valencia County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  1. Roads for Eddy County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  2. Railroads for Hidalgo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  3. Roads for Catron County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  4. Railroads for Santa Fe County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  5. Roads for Harding County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  6. Railroads for Eddy County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  7. Railroads for San Juan County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  8. Railroads for Quay County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  9. Landmark Polygons for Guadalupe County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  10. Railroads for San Miguel County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  11. Hydrography for Dona Ana County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  12. Landmark Polygons for Lea County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  13. Nodes for Union County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  14. Nodes for Sandoval County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  15. Roads for Hidalgo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  16. Landmark Polygons for Mora County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  17. Airports for Curry County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  18. Airports for De Baca County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  19. Roads for Los Alamos County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  20. Hydrography for San Miguel County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  1. Airports for Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  2. Roads for Sandoval County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  3. Airports for Colfax County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  4. Airports for Los Alamos County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  5. Landmark Polygons for Torrance County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  6. Railroads for Cibola County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  7. Nodes for Taos County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  8. Hydrography for Harding County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  9. Landmark Points for Colfax County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  10. Landmark Polygons for Colfax County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  11. Hydrography for Catron County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  12. Airports for Mora County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  13. Complete mitochondrial genome of a wild Siberian tiger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yujiao; Lu, Taofeng; Sun, Zhaohui; Guan, Weijun; Liu, Zhensheng; Teng, Liwei; Wang, Shuo; Ma, Yuehui

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) was sequenced, using muscle tissue obtained from a male wild tiger. The total length of the mitochondrial genome is 16,996 bp. The genome structure of this tiger is in accordance with other Siberian tigers and it contains 12S rRNA gene, 16S rRNA gene, 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, and 1 control region.

  14. Analyzing the Pathway to Improve Tiger Conservation in India

    OpenAIRE

    Zareena Begum. I; Amanat K. Gill

    2014-01-01

    Despite substantial conservation investments by governments and international agencies, the existence of tigers in the wild is still threatened. The main threats to the survival of wild tigers are poaching, prey depletion, and habitat degradation and fragmentation. All international trade in tiger parts has been prohibited since 1975, with China introducing a domestic ban in 1993. The domestic trade ban in China was followed by the establishment of captive tiger breeding farms in East Asia. C...

  15. Can tigers survive in human-dominated landscapes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolipaka, S.S.

    2018-01-01

    S.S. Kolipaka’s thesis questions and investigates the survival prospects of reintroduced tigers and their offspring’s in the human dominated landscape of Panna tiger reserve in India. This thesis recognises the importance of both the sociological (human) and biological (tiger) aspects to address

  16. 75 FR 38799 - ETC Tiger Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP10-459-000] ETC Tiger Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Application June 25, 2010. Take notice that on June 15, 2010, ETC Tiger Pipeline, LLC (ETC Tiger), 711 Louisiana Street, Suite 900, Houston, Texas 77002, filed an application in Docket...

  17. Big cat scan: magnetic resonance imaging of the tiger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snow, Thomas M.; Gregory, Richard J.W.; Litster, Annette L.; Hanger, Jonathan J.

    2004-01-01

    In August 2002, we performed MRI scans on a female juvenile Bengal tiger. We present the clinical course, imaging and autopsy findings, and some comparative anatomy of the tiger brain and skull. Magnetic resonance images of a tiger have not previously been published Copyright (2004) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  18. Planning tiger recovery: Understanding intraspecific variation for effective conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilting, Andreas; Courtiol, Alexandre; Christiansen, Per; Niedballa, Jürgen; Scharf, Anne K.; Orlando, Ludovic; Balkenhol, Niko; Hofer, Heribert; Kramer-Schadt, Stephanie; Fickel, Jörns; Kitchener, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Although significantly more money is spent on the conservation of tigers than on any other threatened species, today only 3200 to 3600 tigers roam the forests of Asia, occupying only 7% of their historical range. Despite the global significance of and interest in tiger conservation, global approaches to plan tiger recovery are partly impeded by the lack of a consensus on the number of tiger subspecies or management units, because a comprehensive analysis of tiger variation is lacking. We analyzed variation among all nine putative tiger subspecies, using extensive data sets of several traits [morphological (craniodental and pelage), ecological, molecular]. Our analyses revealed little variation and large overlaps in each trait among putative subspecies, and molecular data showed extremely low diversity because of a severe Late Pleistocene population decline. Our results support recognition of only two subspecies: the Sunda tiger, Panthera tigris sondaica, and the continental tiger, Panthera tigris tigris, which consists of two (northern and southern) management units. Conservation management programs, such as captive breeding, reintroduction initiatives, or trans-boundary projects, rely on a durable, consistent characterization of subspecies as taxonomic units, defined by robust multiple lines of scientific evidence rather than single traits or ad hoc descriptions of one or few specimens. Our multiple-trait data set supports a fundamental rethinking of the conventional tiger taxonomy paradigm, which will have profound implications for the management of in situ and ex situ tiger populations and boost conservation efforts by facilitating a pragmatic approach to tiger conservation management worldwide. PMID:26601191

  19. Key tiger habitats in the Garo Hills of Meghalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashish Kumar; Bruce G. Marcot

    2010-01-01

    We describe assumed tiger habitat characteristics and attempt to identify potential tiger habitats in the Garo Hills region of Meghalaya, North East India. Conserving large forest tracts and protected wildlife habitats provides an opportunity for restoring populations of wide-ranging wildlife such as tigers and elephants. Based on limited field observations coupled...

  20. Planning tiger recovery: Understanding intraspecific variation for effective conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilting, Andreas; Courtiol, Alexandre; Christiansen, Per; Niedballa, Jürgen; Scharf, Anne K; Orlando, Ludovic; Balkenhol, Niko; Hofer, Heribert; Kramer-Schadt, Stephanie; Fickel, Jörns; Kitchener, Andrew C

    2015-06-01

    Although significantly more money is spent on the conservation of tigers than on any other threatened species, today only 3200 to 3600 tigers roam the forests of Asia, occupying only 7% of their historical range. Despite the global significance of and interest in tiger conservation, global approaches to plan tiger recovery are partly impeded by the lack of a consensus on the number of tiger subspecies or management units, because a comprehensive analysis of tiger variation is lacking. We analyzed variation among all nine putative tiger subspecies, using extensive data sets of several traits [morphological (craniodental and pelage), ecological, molecular]. Our analyses revealed little variation and large overlaps in each trait among putative subspecies, and molecular data showed extremely low diversity because of a severe Late Pleistocene population decline. Our results support recognition of only two subspecies: the Sunda tiger, Panthera tigris sondaica, and the continental tiger, Panthera tigris tigris, which consists of two (northern and southern) management units. Conservation management programs, such as captive breeding, reintroduction initiatives, or trans-boundary projects, rely on a durable, consistent characterization of subspecies as taxonomic units, defined by robust multiple lines of scientific evidence rather than single traits or ad hoc descriptions of one or few specimens. Our multiple-trait data set supports a fundamental rethinking of the conventional tiger taxonomy paradigm, which will have profound implications for the management of in situ and ex situ tiger populations and boost conservation efforts by facilitating a pragmatic approach to tiger conservation management worldwide.

  1. Attitudes toward consumption and conservation of tigers in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Gratwicke

    Full Text Available A heated debate has recently emerged between tiger farmers and conservationists about the potential consequences of lifting the ban on trade in farmed tiger products in China. This debate has caused unfounded speculation about the extent of the potential market for tiger products. To fill this knowledge gap, we surveyed 1880 residents from a total of six Chinese cities to understand Urban Chinese tiger consumption behavior, knowledge of trade issues and attitudes towards tiger conservation. We found that 43% of respondents had consumed some product alleged to contain tiger parts. Within this user-group, 71% said that they preferred wild products over farmed ones. The two predominant products used were tiger bone plasters (38% and tiger bone wine (6.4%. 88% of respondents knew that it was illegal to buy or sell tiger products, and 93% agreed that a ban in trade of tiger parts was necessary to conserve wild tigers. These results indicate that while Urban Chinese people are generally supportive of tiger conservation, there is a huge residual demand for tiger products that could resurge if the ban on trade in tiger parts is lifted in China. We suspect that the current supply of the market is predominantly met by fakes or substitutes branded as tiger medicines, but not listing tiger as an ingredient. We suggest that the Traditional Chinese Medicine community should consider re-branding these products as bone-healing medicines in order to reduce the residual demand for real tiger parts over the long-term. The lifting of the current ban on trade in farmed tiger parts may cause a surge in demand for wild tiger parts that consumers say are better. Because of the low input costs associated with poaching, wild-sourced parts would consistently undercut the prices of farmed tigers that could easily be laundered on a legal market. We therefore recommend that the Chinese authorities maintain the ban on trade in tiger parts, and work to improve the enforcement

  2. Evidences Dependent Population Distribution Patterns of Tiger and Leopard in Similipal Tiger Reserve, Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Ranjan Mishra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Tiger (Panthera tigris is an endangered carnivore with uncertain demographic status spanning 13 Asian countries. Due to its larger body size and carnivorous diet in nature it always occurs at low population densities. Further prey depletion due to overhunting (Karanth & Stith, 1998, poaching, habitat shrinkage (Kenny et al., 1995, Wcs, 1995 and direct killing altogether have also become a major factor for depletion of wild tiger populations tiger. Monitoring the abundance and its alteration is always important for the effective management of endangered species. Tiger is categorized as “Endangered” on the IUCN Red List (IUCN, 2008 and listed under Schedule-I of Wildlife (Protection Act, 1972 in India and Appendix-I of the CITES. Leopard (Panthera pardus is also included in the Schedule- I of the Indian Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 and is placed under “Least Concern” category of 2002 IUCN Red List of threatened animals. Similipal Tiger Reserve is one of the largest Tiger Reserves of India with an area of 2750 km2. Therefore we have to depend mainly on the direct sightings and evidence records of the animals to analysis the status and distribution pattern of these two big cats in the core area of this Tiger Reserve.

  3. Characterization of odor-active compounds in cooked meat of farmed obscure puffer (Takifugu obscurus using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry–olfactometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning-Ping Tao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The volatile and odor-active compounds in cooked meat of farmed obscure puffer (Takifugu obscurus were analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry–olfactometry (GC–MS–O. The volatile compounds were extracted by the simultaneous distillation–extraction (SDE method, then separated and identified by GC–MS. Odor-active compounds in the SDE extract were characterized by GC–MS–O. A total of 68 volatile compounds were found, including 23 aldehydes, 10 alcohols, nine ketones, 17 N- or S-containing compounds and aromatics, three acids, three alkanes, and three esters. Of these, 31 odor-active compounds were detected and identified. Trimethylamine (fishy, octanal (grassy, leafy, green, (E-2-octenal (roast, fatty, 1-octen-3-ol (fishy, fatty, mushroom, grassy, 2-ethyl-1-hexanethiol (cooked fish, (E,E-2,4-octadienal (cooked meat, sweet, 2-acetylthiazole (meaty, roast, nutty, sulfur, 2-acetylpyrrole (nutty, walnut, bread were identified as the key odorants in the cooked meat of farmed obscure puffer based on posterior intensity and time-intensity methods.

  4. TIGER Burned Brightly in JAMIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Sandra L.; Kashiwagi, Takashi

    2001-01-01

    The Transition From Ignition to Flame Growth Under External Radiation in 3D (TIGER- 3D) experiment, which is slated to fly aboard the International Space Station, conducted a series of highly successful tests in collaboration with the University of Hokkaido using Japan's 10-sec JAMIC drop tower. The tests were conducted to test engineering versions of advanced flight diagnostics such as an infrared camera for detailed surface temperature measurements and an infrared spectroscopic array for gas-phase species concentrations and temperatures based on detailed spectral emissions in the near infrared. Shown in the top figure is a visible light image and in the bottom figure is an infrared image at 3.8 mm obtained during the microgravity tests. The images show flames burning across cellulose samples against a slow wind of a few centimeters per second (wind is from right to left). These flow velocities are typical of spacecraft ventilation systems that provide fresh air for the astronauts. The samples are ignited across the center with a hot wire, and the flame is allowed to spread upwind and/or downwind. As these images show, the flames prefer to spread upwind, into the fresh air, which is the exact opposite of flames on Earth, which spread much faster downwind, or with the airflow, as in forest fires.

  5. Tiger team assessment of the Argonne Illinois site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-19

    This report documents the results of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Tiger Team Assessment of the Argonne Illinois Site (AIS) (including the DOE Chicago Operations Office, DOE Argonne Area Office, Argonne National Laboratory-East, and New Brunswick Laboratory) and Site A and Plot M, Argonne, Illinois, conducted from September 17 through October 19, 1990. The Tiger Team Assessment was conducted by a team comprised of professionals from DOE, contractors, consultants. The purpose of the assessment was to provide the Secretary of Energy with the status of Environment, Safety, and Health (ES H) Programs at AIS. Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) is the principal tenant at AIS. ANL-E is a multiprogram laboratory operated by the University of Chicago for DOE. The mission of ANL-E is to perform basic and applied research that supports the development of energy-related technologies. There are a significant number of ES H findings and concerns identified in the report that require prompt management attention. A significant change in culture is required before ANL-E can attain consistent and verifiable compliance with statutes, regulations and DOE Orders. ES H activities are informal, fragmented, and inconsistently implemented. Communication is seriously lacking, both vertically and horizontally. Management expectations are not known or commondated adequately, support is not consistent, and oversight is not effective.

  6. Tiger team assessment of the Argonne Illinois site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report documents the results of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Tiger Team Assessment of the Argonne Illinois Site (AIS) (including the DOE Chicago Operations Office, DOE Argonne Area Office, Argonne National Laboratory-East, and New Brunswick Laboratory) and Site A and Plot M, Argonne, Illinois, conducted from September 17 through October 19, 1990. The Tiger Team Assessment was conducted by a team comprised of professionals from DOE, contractors, consultants. The purpose of the assessment was to provide the Secretary of Energy with the status of Environment, Safety, and Health (ES ampersand H) Programs at AIS. Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) is the principal tenant at AIS. ANL-E is a multiprogram laboratory operated by the University of Chicago for DOE. The mission of ANL-E is to perform basic and applied research that supports the development of energy-related technologies. There are a significant number of ES ampersand H findings and concerns identified in the report that require prompt management attention. A significant change in culture is required before ANL-E can attain consistent and verifiable compliance with statutes, regulations and DOE Orders. ES ampersand H activities are informal, fragmented, and inconsistently implemented. Communication is seriously lacking, both vertically and horizontally. Management expectations are not known or commondated adequately, support is not consistent, and oversight is not effective

  7. Tiger Team assessment of the Pinellas Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-05-01

    This Document contains findings identified during the Tiger Team Compliance Assessment of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Pinellas Plant, Pinellas County, Florida. The assessment wa directed by the Department's Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (ES H) from January 15 to February 2, 1990. The Pinellas Tiger Team Compliance Assessment is comprehensive in scope. It covers the Environment Safety and Health, and Management areas and determines the plant's compliance with applicable Federal (including DOE), State, and local regulations and requirements.

  8. Final Action Plan to Tiger Team

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This document presents planned actions, and their associated costs, for addressing the findings in the Environmental, Safety and Health Tiger Team Assessment of the Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, May 1991, hereafter called the Assessment. This Final Action Plan should be read in conjunction with the Assessment to ensure full understanding of the findings addressed herein. The Assessment presented 353 findings in four general categories: (1)Environmental (82 findings); (2) Safety and Health (243 findings); (3) Management and Organization (18 findings); and (4) Self-Assessment (10 findings). Additionally, 436 noncompliance items with Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards were addressed during and immediately after the Tiger Team visit

  9. Studies on tiger beetles : 84. Additions to the tiger beetle fauna of Sulawesi, Indonesia (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cassola, F.

    1996-01-01

    Distributional new data are provided for several interesting or poorly known tiger beetle species from Sulawesi, Indonesia. The generic attribution of Wallacedela brendelli Cassola, 1991, is confirmed, and moreover two new species, Wallacedela? problematica spec. nov. and Wallacedela butonensis

  10. Mitochondrial phylogeography illuminates the origin of the extinct caspian tiger and its relationship to the amur tiger.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A Driscoll

    Full Text Available The Caspian tiger (Panthera tigris virgata flourished in Central Asian riverine forest systems in a range disjunct from that of other tigers, but was driven to extinction in 1970 prior to a modern molecular evaluation. For over a century naturalists puzzled over the taxonomic validity, placement, and biogeographic origin of this enigmatic animal. Using ancient-DNA (aDNA methodology, we generated composite mtDNA haplotypes from twenty wild Caspian tigers from throughout their historic range sampled from museum collections. We found that Caspian tigers carry a major mtDNA haplotype differing by only a single nucleotide from the monomorphic haplotype found across all contemporary Amur tigers (P. t. altaica. Phylogeographic analysis with extant tiger subspecies suggests that less than 10,000 years ago the Caspian/Amur tiger ancestor colonized Central Asia via the Gansu Corridor (Silk Road from eastern China then subsequently traversed Siberia eastward to establish the Amur tiger in the Russian Far East. The conservation implications of these findings are far reaching, as the observed genetic depletion characteristic of modern Amur tigers likely reflects these founder migrations and therefore predates human influence. Also, due to their evolutionary propinquity, living Amur tigers offer an appropriate genetic source should reintroductions to the former range of the Caspian tiger be implemented.

  11. Mitochondrial phylogeography illuminates the origin of the extinct caspian tiger and its relationship to the amur tiger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Carlos A; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Bar-Gal, Gila Kahila; Roca, Alfred L; Luo, Shujin; Macdonald, David W; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2009-01-01

    The Caspian tiger (Panthera tigris virgata) flourished in Central Asian riverine forest systems in a range disjunct from that of other tigers, but was driven to extinction in 1970 prior to a modern molecular evaluation. For over a century naturalists puzzled over the taxonomic validity, placement, and biogeographic origin of this enigmatic animal. Using ancient-DNA (aDNA) methodology, we generated composite mtDNA haplotypes from twenty wild Caspian tigers from throughout their historic range sampled from museum collections. We found that Caspian tigers carry a major mtDNA haplotype differing by only a single nucleotide from the monomorphic haplotype found across all contemporary Amur tigers (P. t. altaica). Phylogeographic analysis with extant tiger subspecies suggests that less than 10,000 years ago the Caspian/Amur tiger ancestor colonized Central Asia via the Gansu Corridor (Silk Road) from eastern China then subsequently traversed Siberia eastward to establish the Amur tiger in the Russian Far East. The conservation implications of these findings are far reaching, as the observed genetic depletion characteristic of modern Amur tigers likely reflects these founder migrations and therefore predates human influence. Also, due to their evolutionary propinquity, living Amur tigers offer an appropriate genetic source should reintroductions to the former range of the Caspian tiger be implemented.

  12. Effects of dietary amylose/amylopectin ratio on growth performance, feed utilization, digestive enzymes, and postprandial metabolic responses in juvenile obscure puffer Takifugu obscurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang-he; Ye, Chao-xia; Ye, Ji-dan; Shen, Bi-duan; Wang, Chun-yan; Wang, An-li

    2014-10-01

    The effect of dietary amylose/amylopectin (AM/AP) ratio on growth, feed utilization, digestive enzyme activities, plasma parameters, and postprandial blood glucose responses was evaluated in juvenile obscure puffer, Takifugu obscurus. Five isonitrogenous (430 g kg(-1) crude protein) and isolipidic (90 g kg(-1) crude lipid) diets containing an equal starch level (250 g kg(-1) starch) with different AM/AP ratio diets of 0/25, 3/22, 6/19, 9/16 and 12/13 were formulated. Each experimental diet was fed to triplicate groups (25 fish per tank), twice daily during a period of 60 days. After the growth trial, a postprandial blood response test was carried out. Fish fed diet 6/19 showed best growth, feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio. Hepatosomatic index, plasma total cholesterol concentration, liver glycogen and lipid content, and gluconokinase, pyruvate kinase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase activities were lower in fish fed highest AM/AP diet (12/13) than in fish fed the low-amylose diets. Activities of liver and intestinal trypsin in fish fed diet 3/22 and diet 6/19 were higher than in fish fed diet 9/16 and diet 12/13. Activities of liver and intestinal amylase and intestinal lipase, and starch digestibility were negatively correlated with dietary AM/AP ratio. Fish fed diet 3/22 and diet 6/19 showed higher plasma total amino acid concentration than fish fed the other diets, while plasma urea nitrogen concentration and activities of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase showed the opposite trend. Equal values were found for viscerosomatic index and condition factor, whole body and muscle composition, plasma high-density and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, and activities of lipase and hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphatase in liver. Postprandial plasma glucose and triglyceride peak value of fish fed diet 12/13 were lower than in fish fed the low-amylose diets, and the peak time of plasma glucose was later than in fish fed the

  13. More than Just a Tiger Mom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Lydia

    2011-01-01

    Mention "best-seller" and author Amy Chua in the same breath and, chances are, a person's thoughts turn immediately to her controversial parenting memoir, "Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother." Indeed, national backlash has shadowed Chua for months since publication of the book, which describes her rigid parenting style in what she loosely calls "the…

  14. The Five Ancestors--Book 1: Tiger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    Losing a job is an awfully low point--until it turns into the opportunity to pursue writing full time, and a book like "The Five Ancestors: Tiger" results. Jeff Stone looks back to his own experience as a young reader and taps that experience to help frame his own writing. An intriguing snapshot of his new book follows.

  15. Kuidas tuua Eestisse Tiger Woods / Raul Ranne

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ranne, Raul

    2008-01-01

    Reaalselt arvestades on tõenäosus, et Eestit väisab golfistaar Tiger Woods, muidugi olematu. Teoreetiliselt on see siiski võimalik. Vestlusest Jõelähtme golfiväljakut opereeriv Estonian Golf Country Clubi presidendi Mait Schmidtiga

  16. Tiger: knowledge based gas turbine condition monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trave-Massuyes, L. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France); Quevedo, J. [University of Catalonia, (Spain); Milne, R.; Nicol, Ch.

    1995-12-31

    Exxon petrochemical plant in Scotland requires continuous ethylene supply from offshore site in North Sea. The supply is achieved thanks to compressors driven by a 28 MW gas turbine, whose monitoring is of major importance. The TIGER fault diagnostic system is a knowledge base system containing a prediction model. (D.L.) 11 refs.

  17. Review of research methodologies for tigers: telemetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Clayton S; Hebblewhite, Mark; Goodrich, John M; Miquelle, Dale G

    2010-12-01

    Over the past half century, wildlife research has relied on technological advances to gain additional insight into the secretive lives of animals. This revolution started in the 1960s with the development of radio telemetry and continues today with the use of Global Positioning System (GPS)-based research techniques. In the present paper we review the history of radio telemetry from its origins with grizzly bears in Yellowstone to its early applications in tiger research and conservation in Asia. We address the different types of data that are available using radio telemetry as opposed to using other research techniques, such as behavioral observations, camera trapping, DNA analysis and scat analysis. In the late 1990s, the rapid development of GPS collar technology revolutionized wildlife research. This new technology has enabled researchers to dramatically improve their ability to gather data on animal movements and ecology. Despite the ecological and conservation benefits of radio telemetry, there have been few telemetry studies of tigers in the wild, and most have been on the Bengal or Amur subspecies. We close with an assessment of the current tiger conservation efforts using GPS technology and discuss how this new information can help to preserve tigers for future generations. © 2010 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  18. Tiger: knowledge based gas turbine condition monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trave-Massuyes, L [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France); Quevedo, J [University of Catalonia, (Spain); Milne, R; Nicol, Ch

    1996-12-31

    Exxon petrochemical plant in Scotland requires continuous ethylene supply from offshore site in North Sea. The supply is achieved thanks to compressors driven by a 28 MW gas turbine, whose monitoring is of major importance. The TIGER fault diagnostic system is a knowledge base system containing a prediction model. (D.L.) 11 refs.

  19. [Identification and production of monoclonal antibody of Siberian tiger's immunoglobulin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaonglong; Zhang, Duanling; Zhou, Ming; Xue, Yuan; Hua, Yuping; Ma, Jianzhang

    2010-03-01

    To purify immunoglobulin (Ig) of Siberian Tiger and prepare monoclonal antibody (mAb) against the Ig,which can be used to develop immunological diagnostic kits for diagnosing infectious disease in Siberian Tiger. The Ig of Siberian tigers was purified with saturated ammonium sulfate combined with recombinant Protein G. The C57BL/6 mice were immunized with the purified Ig. Spleno-cytes of the mice immunized were collected and fused with the mouse myeloma cell line (Sp2/0-Ag14). The positive hybridoma clones were selected by ELISA and were identified by western blot. The sandwich ELISA was used to detect immunocompetence of the purified Ig and the mAb. We obtained three mouse hybridoma clones that produced mAbs against Ig of Siberian Tiger. The derived McAbs could recognize Ig heavy chain of Siberian Tiger specifically. The biological activity of the Ig and obtained McAbs also could be identified by detecting the antibody induced by panleukopenia virus (FPV-HLJ) vaccine in Siberian Tiger. The antibody also would be useful for assess the vaccine efficacy against the infectious disease on the Siberian Tiger. Protein G can be used in Ig purification of Siberian Tiger. The obtained McAbs from the hybridoma ADT11 in this study owned strong ability to bind Ig of Siberian Tiger and have a stable immunocompetence. They can be used to develop diagnostic methods for detecting infectious disease in Siberian Tiger and vaccine research.

  20. Oldest known pantherine skull and evolution of the tiger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazák, Ji H; Christiansen, Per; Kitchener, Andrew C

    2011-01-01

    The tiger is one of the most iconic extant animals, and its origin and evolution have been intensely debated. Fossils attributable to extant pantherine species-lineages are less than 2 MYA and the earliest tiger fossils are from the Calabrian, Lower Pleistocene. Molecular studies predict a much younger age for the divergence of modern tiger subspecies at tigers would likely have differed markedly anatomically from extant tigers. Such inferences are hampered by the fact that well-known fossil tiger material is middle to late Pleistocene in age. Here we describe a new species of pantherine cat from Longdan, Gansu Province, China, Panthera zdanskyi sp. nov. With an estimated age of 2.55-2.16 MYA it represents the oldest complete skull of a pantherine cat hitherto found. Although smaller, it appears morphologically to be surprisingly similar to modern tigers considering its age. Morphological, morphometric, and cladistic analyses are congruent in confirming its very close affinity to the tiger, and it may be regarded as the most primitive species of the tiger lineage, demonstrating the first unequivocal presence of a modern pantherine species-lineage in the basal stage of the Pleistocene (Gelasian; traditionally considered to be Late Pliocene). This find supports a north-central Chinese origin of the tiger lineage, and demonstrates that various parts of the cranium, mandible, and dentition evolved at different rates. An increase in size and a reduction in the relative size of parts of the dentition appear to have been prominent features of tiger evolution, whereas the distinctive cranial morphology of modern tigers was established very early in their evolutionary history. The evolutionary trend of increasing size in the tiger lineage is likely coupled to the evolution of its primary prey species.

  1. Tiger cubs and little flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Short vignettes are related to show the conditions for girls and women in Morocco. Descriptions are given for child labor, literacy, the government's education campaign, youth group efforts to enhance family planning (FP) knowledge, the impact of FP outreach in rural areas, and unmarried mothers. In Morocco's cities, young boys can be seen hawking cigarettes and working in market stalls; in the countryside, boys herd goats or do other farm work. In rural areas girls are hidden by having them perform work around the house or on the farm primarily indoors. Women are supervised by women. 54% work as maids and 39% are apprentices in carpet factories. Parents prefer to have their daughters working and consider it protection from mischief as well as needed income. Only 60% of girls are enrolled in primary school vs. 80% of the boys. In rural areas, only 44% of girls are enrolled, and 20% stay to complete their primary education, while 76% of boys enroll and 63% complete primary school. Literacy of women has an effect on the ability to accurately take birth control pills. All ages of women gather at schools in the evening for lessons in reading and writing in a program supported by the King. Women are pleased with their success in just learning how to write their own names. Television advertisements promote sending children to school, as another part of the Ministry of Education's campaign to increase girl's educational status. There are still not enough schools; many schools are double shift, and communities are building their own schools. Youth clubs, which refer to boys as "tiger cubs" and girls as "little flowers," try to familiarize young people with some basic information about contraception. A traditional midwife relates some problems with girl's education: costs for clothing and supplies, worry about male teachers, and poor role models. In some remote areas, farm families do not send their children to school, because of the distance to schools and the need for

  2. Periodic regulation of expression of genes for kisspeptin, gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone and their receptors in the grass puffer: Implications in seasonal, daily and lunar rhythms of reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Hironori; Shahjahan, Md; Kitahashi, Takashi

    2018-04-03

    The seasonal, daily and lunar control of reproduction involves photoperiodic, circadian and lunar changes in the activity of kisspeptin, gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. These changes are brought through complex networks of light-, time- and non-photic signal-dependent control mechanisms, which are mostly unknown at present. The grass puffer, Takifugu alboplumbeus, a semilunar spawner, provides a unique and excellent animal model to assess this question because its spawning is synchronized with seasonal, daily and lunar cycles. In the diencephalon, the genes for kisspeptin, GnIH and their receptors showed similar expression patterns with clear seasonal and daily oscillations, suggesting that they are regulated by common mechanisms involving melatonin, circadian clock and water temperature. For implications in semilunar-synchronized spawning rhythm, melatonin receptor genes showed ultradian oscillations in expression with the period of 14.0-15.4 h in the pineal gland. This unique ultradian rhythm might be driven by circatidal clock. The possible circatidal clock and circadian clock in the pineal gland may cooperate to drive circasemilunar rhythm to regulate the expression of the kisspeptin, GnIH and their receptor genes. On the other hand, high temperature (over 28 °C) conditions, under which the expression of the kisspeptin and its receptor genes is markedly suppressed, may provide an environmental signal that terminates reproduction at the end of breeding period. Taken together, the periodic regulation of the kisspeptin, GnIH and their receptor genes by melatonin, circadian clock and water temperature may be important in the precisely-timed spawning of the grass puffer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Phylogeography and genetic ancestry of tigers (Panthera tigris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Jin Luo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Eight traditional subspecies of tiger (Panthera tigris,of which three recently became extinct, are commonly recognized on the basis of geographic isolation and morphological characteristics. To investigate the species' evolutionary history and to establish objective methods for subspecies recognition, voucher specimens of blood, skin, hair, and/or skin biopsies from 134 tigers with verified geographic origins or heritage across the whole distribution range were examined for three molecular markers: (1 4.0 kb of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequence; (2 allele variation in the nuclear major histocompatibility complex class II DRB gene; and (3 composite nuclear microsatellite genotypes based on 30 loci. Relatively low genetic variation with mtDNA,DRB,and microsatellite loci was found, but significant population subdivision was nonetheless apparent among five living subspecies. In addition, a distinct partition of the Indochinese subspecies P. t. corbetti in to northern Indochinese and Malayan Peninsula populations was discovered. Population genetic structure would suggest recognition of six taxonomic units or subspecies: (1 Amur tiger P. t. altaica; (2 northern Indochinese tiger P. t. corbetti; (3 South China tiger P. t. amoyensis; (4 Malayan tiger P. t. jacksoni, named for the tiger conservationist Peter Jackson; (5 Sumatran tiger P. t. sumatrae; and (6 Bengal tiger P. t. tigris. The proposed South China tiger lineage is tentative due to limited sampling. The age of the most recent common ancestor for tiger mtDNA was estimated to be 72,000-108,000 y, relatively younger than some other Panthera species. A combination of population expansions, reduced gene flow, and genetic drift following the last genetic diminution, and the recent anthropogenic range contraction, have led to the distinct genetic partitions. These results provide an explicit basis for subspecies recognition and will lead to the improved management and conservation of these recently

  4. Expansion of Industrial Plantations Continues to Threaten Malayan Tiger Habitat

    OpenAIRE

    Varada S. Shevade; Peter V. Potapov; Nancy L. Harris; Tatiana V. Loboda

    2017-01-01

    Southeast Asia has some of the highest deforestation rates globally, with Malaysia being identified as a deforestation hotspot. The Malayan tiger, a critically endangered subspecies of the tiger endemic to Peninsular Malaysia, is threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation. In this study, we estimate the natural forest loss and conversion to plantations in Peninsular Malaysia and specifically in its tiger habitat between 1988 and 2012 using the Landsat data archive. We estimate a total loss ...

  5. A tiger cannot change its stripes: using a three-dimensional model to match images of living tigers and tiger skins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiby, Lex; Lovell, Phil; Patil, Narendra; Kumar, N Samba; Gopalaswamy, Arjun M; Karanth, K Ullas

    2009-06-23

    The tiger is one of many species in which individuals can be identified by surface patterns. Camera traps can be used to record individual tigers moving over an array of locations and provide data for monitoring and studying populations and devising conservation strategies. We suggest using a combination of algorithms to calculate similarity scores between pattern samples scanned from the images to automate the search for a match to a new image. We show how using a three-dimensional surface model of a tiger to scan the pattern samples allows comparison of images that differ widely in camera angles and body posture. The software, which is free to download, considerably reduces the effort required to maintain an image catalogue and we suggest it could be used to trace the origin of a tiger skin by searching a central database of living tigers' images for matches to an image of the skin.

  6. Evaluating the Ability of the PBS Children?s Show Daniel Tiger?s Neighborhood to Teach Skills to Two Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Dotson, Wesley H.; Rasmussen, Eric E; Shafer, Autumn; Colwell, Malinda; Densley, Rebecca L.; Brewer, Adam T.; Alonzo, Marisol C.; Martinez, Laura A.

    2016-01-01

    Daniel Tiger?s Neighborhood is a children?s television show incorporating many elements of video modeling, an intervention that can teach skills to children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This study evaluated the impact of watching Daniel Tiger?s Neighborhood episodes on the accurate performance of trying new foods and stopping play politely with two five-year-old children with ASD. Both children showed improved performance of skills only following exposure to episodes of Daniel Tiger?...

  7. Philopatry and dispersal patterns in tiger (Panthera tigris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Digpal Singh Gour

    Full Text Available Tiger populations are dwindling rapidly making it increasingly difficult to study their dispersal and mating behaviour in the wild, more so tiger being a secretive and solitary carnivore.We used non-invasively obtained genetic data to establish the presence of 28 tigers, 22 females and 6 males, within the core area of Pench tiger reserve, Madhya Pradesh. This data was evaluated along with spatial autocorrelation and relatedness analyses to understand patterns of dispersal and philopatry in tigers within this well-managed and healthy tiger habitat in India.We established male-biased dispersal and female philopatry in tigers and reiterated this finding with multiple analyses. Females show positive correlation up to 7 kms (which corresponds to an area of approximately 160 km(2 however this correlation is significantly positive only upto 4 kms, or 50 km(2 (r  = 0.129, p<0.0125. Males do not exhibit any significant correlation in any of the distance classes within the forest (upto 300 km(2. We also show evidence of female dispersal upto 26 kms in this landscape.Animal movements are important for fitness, reproductive success, genetic diversity and gene exchange among populations. In light of the current endangered status of tigers in the world, this study will help us understand tiger behavior and movement. Our findings also have important implications for better management of habitats and interconnecting corridors to save this charismatic species.

  8. Mac OS X Tiger for Unix Geeks

    CERN Document Server

    Jepson, Brian

    2005-01-01

    If you're one of the many Unix developers drawn to Mac OS X for its Unix core, you'll find yourself in surprisingly unfamiliar territory. Unix and Mac OS X are kissing cousins, but there are enough pitfalls and minefields in going from one to another that even a Unix guru can stumble, and most guides to Mac OS X are written for Mac aficionados. For a Unix developer, approaching Tiger from the Mac side is a bit like learning Russian by reading the Russian side of a Russian-English dictionary. Fortunately, O'Reilly has been the Unix authority for over 25 years, and in Mac OS X Tiger for Unix Gee

  9. Are conflict-causing tigers different? Another perspective for understanding human-tiger conflict in Chitwan National Park, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.R. Lamichhane

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed characteristics of the problem-causing tigers in Chitwan National Park (Nepal to determine if specific groups or individuals in the source population have higher probability to get involved in conflicts with humans. From 2007 to 2016 we identified a total of 22 such tigers including 13 that killed humans, six serial livestock killers and three tigers that threatened human safety (with no reported human and livestock casualty. Thirteen of these tigers were controlled or killed and four were relocated. We compared a subset of 15 ‘problem tigers’ involved in conflict between 2009 and 2013 with the Chitwan's tiger population obtained from three different sessions of camera trapping (2009, 2010 and 2013. We found that <5% of this source population (tigers recorded in camera trap were involved in conflict. We conclude that transient tigers without a territory or physically impaired animals are more likely to be involved in conflict and recommend an early warning system be adopted to anticipate conflicts before they occur. This system should include regular monitoring and timely identification of problem tigers followed by decisive management action to either remove the tiger or encourage local people to modify their behavior to reduce the risk of conflict.

  10. Catching the Celtic Tiger by its tail

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Luisa; Vanhoudt, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    The paper attempts to assess the major sources behind the exceptional Irish growth performance in the 1990s. Contrary to other Tigers, Ireland's growth is due to efficiency gains, rather than capital deepening, but the causes for the swift growth in total factor productivity cannot be pinned down to a single factor. Human capital, foreign direct investment, Social Partnership agreements, sound budget and economic policies since the late 1980s, EU membership, all seemed to have interacted to p...

  11. Chinese education in the novel by A. Chua Battle hymn of the tiger mother

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Wieteska

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Chinese culture and tradition stand in direct opposition to American and European cultures. Chinese children must live according to the principles of metaconfucianism from an early age. Failure to do so threatens social ostracism. Amy Chua in her autobiographical novel Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother describes the education of her two daughters living in America according to the principles present in China. The educational methods used by Chua are considered controversial by western parents. The author made an attempt to explain the motives of Asian mothers.

  12. Effect on Dietary Protein and Feeding Rate on Growth of Tiger Grouper (Epinephelus Fuscoguttatus) Juvenile

    OpenAIRE

    Marzuqi, Muhammad; Astuti, Ni Wayan Widya; Suwirya, Ketut

    2012-01-01

    The grouper fish culture was developed after its succesful seed production in hatchery well known. In grow-out culture grouper, the protein requirement and feeding rate have to know well in order to understand the effectiveness on feed utilization . The experiment was designed by factorial design with the first factor as 3 dietary protein (36%, 42%, 48%) and the second factor as 3 feeding rate ( 1,5%, 2,0%, 2,5%). Ten of juvenile tiger grouper (102, 51-102, 73 g of body weight) were stocked i...

  13. Parasitic Worm in Tiger (Panthera tigris at Serulingmas Zoological Garden Banjarnegara, Bandung Zoological Garden, and Indonesia Safari Park Bogor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risa Tiuria

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This research was done to infestigate the existence and the type of parasitic worms from feces of tiger (Panthera tigris at Serulingmas Zoological Garden (TRMS at Banjarnegara, Central Java , Bandung Zoological Garden (KBB, and Indonesia Safari Park Bogor (TSI. Total of 35 tigers feces samples were examined. They are taken from 4 Bengal tigers at Serulingmas Zoological Garden, 12 tigers (8 Bengal tigers and 4 Sumatran tigers at Bandung Zoological Garden, and 19 tigers (4 Bengal tigers and 15 Sumatran tigers at Indonesia Safari Park Bogor. All of the feces samples were examined with qualitative (flotation and sedimentation and quantitative (McMaster slide method to know the existence of parasitic worm eggs. Moreover, a tiger feces that contain eggs of strongylid were cultured. Parasitic worms that were found in tigers from the research were ascarid (Toxocara sp, Toxascaris sp, strongylid (Trichostrongylus sp, Ancylostoma sp, Cooperia sp, , oxyurid (Oxyuris sp and Strongyloides sp. The result showed that prevalence index of parasitic worms in tigers at TRMS, KBB, and TSI were 100%, 50%, and 47,4%, respectively. Parasitic worms at TRMS were ascarid (Toxocara sp, strongylid (Ancylostoma sp, Trichostrongylus sp, Cooperia sp and Strongyloides sp. Parasitic worms at KBB were ascarid (Toxocara sp, Toxascaris sp, strongylid (Ancylostoma sp, Trichostrongylus sp, dan oxyurid (Oxyuris sp. Parasitic worms at TSI were ascarid (Toxocara sp, Toxascaris sp, strongylid (Ancylostoma sp, and oxyurid (Oxyuris sp. ABSTRAK Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui jenis cacing parasitik pada harimau (Panthera tigris di Taman Rekreasi Margasatwa Serulingmas (TRMS Banjarnegara Jawa Tengah, Kebun Binatang Bandung (KBB, dan Taman Safari Indonesia (TSI Bogor. Sebanyak 35 sampel tinja harimau dari tiga lembaga konservasi eks-situ, yaitu 4 ekor harimau Benggala dari TRMS, 12 ekor (4 ekor harimau Benggala dan 8 ekor harimau Sumatera dari KBB, dan 19 ekor (4 ekor harimau

  14. 76 FR 4103 - ETC Tiger Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. AC11-25-000] ETC Tiger Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Filing January 13, 2011. Take notice that on December 30, 2010, ETC Tiger Pipeline, LLC submitted a request for a waiver of the reporting requirement to file the FERC Form 2 for 2010...

  15. Habitat Selection and Activity Pattern of GPS Collared Sumateran Tigers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolly Priatna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although translocation has been used in mitigating human-carnivore conflict for decades, few studies have been conducted on the behavioral ecology of released animals. Such information is necessary in the context of sustainable forest management. In this study we determine the type of land cover used as main habitat and examine the activity pattern of translocated tigers. Between 2008 and 2010 we captured six conflict tigers and translocated them 74-1,350 km from their capture sites in Sumatera. All tigers were fitted with global positioning system (GPS collars. The collars were set to fix 24-48 location coordinates per day.  All translocated tigers showed a preference for a certain habitat type within their new home range, and tended to select the majority of natural land cover type within the landscape as their main habitat, but the availability of natural forest habitat within the landscape remains essensial for their survival. The activity of male translocated tigers differed significantly between the six time intervals of 24 hours, and their most active periods were in the afternoon (14:00-18:00 hours and in the evening (18:00-22:00 hours. Despite being preliminary, the findings of this study-which was the first such study conducted in Sumatera-highlight the conservation value of tiger translocation and provide valuable information for improving future management of conflict tigers.Keywords: activity pattern, GPS collars, habitat selection, sumateran tiger, translocation

  16. Philopatry and dispersal patterns in tiger (Panthera tigris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gour, Digpal Singh; Bhagavatula, Jyotsna; Bhavanishankar, Maradani; Reddy, Patlolla Anuradha; Gupta, Jaya A; Sarkar, Mriganka Shekhar; Hussain, Shaik Mohammed; Harika, Segu; Gulia, Ravinder; Shivaji, Sisinthy

    2013-01-01

    Tiger populations are dwindling rapidly making it increasingly difficult to study their dispersal and mating behaviour in the wild, more so tiger being a secretive and solitary carnivore. We used non-invasively obtained genetic data to establish the presence of 28 tigers, 22 females and 6 males, within the core area of Pench tiger reserve, Madhya Pradesh. This data was evaluated along with spatial autocorrelation and relatedness analyses to understand patterns of dispersal and philopatry in tigers within this well-managed and healthy tiger habitat in India. We established male-biased dispersal and female philopatry in tigers and reiterated this finding with multiple analyses. Females show positive correlation up to 7 kms (which corresponds to an area of approximately 160 km(2)) however this correlation is significantly positive only upto 4 kms, or 50 km(2) (r  = 0.129, ptigers in the world, this study will help us understand tiger behavior and movement. Our findings also have important implications for better management of habitats and interconnecting corridors to save this charismatic species.

  17. A baseline survey of tiger nut ( Cyperus esculentus ) production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus) is a minor but important crop in Ghana. In a survey conducted on the production and marketing of the crop at Aduamoa in the Kwahu South District of Ghana, it was observed that tiger nut production was predominantly the work of women, with 70 per cent of farmers being women and 30 per ...

  18. Forest of Tigers: People, Politics, and Environment in the Sundarbans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jalais, A.

    2010-01-01

    Acclaimed for their unique ecosystem and Royal Bengal tigers, the mangrove slands that comprise the Sundarbans area of the Bengal delta are the setting for this anthropological work. The key question that the author explores is: what do tigers mean for the islanders of the Sundarbans? The diverse

  19. Tiger nut: as a plant, its derivatives and benefits | Bamishaiye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... thrombosis and colon cancer, among others. The presence of anti-nutrients like polyphenols and tannins can be eliminated by boiling in water. The tiger nut, though under-utilized, is still a good food snack for all. There is a need for awareness creation on tiger nut's inherent nutritional properties. Key words: nut, nutrition, ...

  20. Can Domestication of Wildlife Lead to Conservation? The Economics of Tiger Farming in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, B.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2011-01-01

    Tigers are a threatened species that might soon disappear in the wild. Not only are tigers threatened by deteriorating and declining habitat, but poachers continue to kill tigers for traditional medicine, decoration pieces and so on. Although international trade in tiger products has been banned

  1. Identifying Galactic Cosmic Ray Origins With Super-TIGER

    Science.gov (United States)

    deNolfo, Georgia; Binns, W. R.; Israel, M. H.; Christian, E. R.; Mitchell, J. W.; Hams, T.; Link, J. T.; Sasaki, M.; Labrador, A. W.; Mewaldt, R. A.; hide

    2009-01-01

    Super-TIGER (Super Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder) is a new long-duration balloon-borne instrument designed to test and clarify an emerging model of cosmic-ray origins and models for atomic processes by which nuclei are selected for acceleration. A sensitive test of the origin of cosmic rays is the measurement of ultra heavy elemental abundances (Z > or equal 30). Super-TIGER is a large-area (5 sq m) instrument designed to measure the elements in the interval 30 TIGER builds on the heritage of the smaller TIGER, which produced the first well-resolved measurements of elemental abundances of the elements Ga-31, Ge-32, and Se-34. We present the Super-TIGER design, schedule, and progress to date, and discuss the relevance of UH measurements to cosmic-ray origins.

  2. The economics of protecting tiger populations: Linking household behavior to poaching and prey depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damania, R.; Stringer, R.; Karanth, K.U.; Stith, B.

    2003-01-01

    The tiger (Panthera tigris) is classified as endangered and populations continue to decline. This paper presents a formal economic analysis of the two most imminent threats to the survival of wild tigers: poaching tigers and hunting their prey. A model is developed to examine interactions between tigers and farm households living in and around tiger habitats. The analysis extends the existing literature on tiger demography, incorporating predator-prey interactions and exploring the sensitivity of tiger populations to key economic parameters. The analysis aims to contribute to policy debates on how best to protect one of the world's most endangered wild cats.

  3. Construction of cDNA library and preliminary analysis of expressed sequence tags from Siberian tiger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang-Qing; Lu, Tao-Feng; Feng, Bao-Gang; Liu, Dan; Guan, Wei-Jun; Ma, Yue-Hui

    2010-01-01

    In this study we successfully constructed a full-length cDNA library from Siberian tiger, Panthera tigris altaica, the most well-known wild Animal. Total RNA was extracted from cultured Siberian tiger fibroblasts in vitro. The titers of primary and amplified libraries were 1.30×106 pfu/ml and 1.62×109 pfu/ml respectively. The proportion of recombinants from unamplified library was 90.5% and average length of exogenous inserts was 1.13 kb. A total of 282 individual ESTs with sizes ranging from 328 to 1,142bps were then analyzed the BLASTX score revealed that 53.9% of the sequences were classified as strong match, 38.6% as nominal and 7.4% as weak match. 28.0% of them were found to be related to enzyme/catalytic protein, 20.9% ESTs to metabolism, 13.1% ESTs to transport, 12.1% ESTs to signal transducer/cell communication, 9.9% ESTs to structure protein, 3.9% ESTs to immunity protein/defense metabolism, 3.2% ESTs to cell cycle, and 8.9 ESTs classified as novel genes. These results demonstrated that the reliability and representativeness of the cDNA library attained to the requirements of a standard cDNA library. This library provided a useful platform for the functional genomic research of Siberian tigers. PMID:20941376

  4. Emerging Patterns Of Bangsa Malaysia In Anthony Burgess’ Time For A Tiger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahanna Abd Razak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Time for a Tiger (1956, a novel by Anthony Burgess, is believed to have been overlooked in the Malaysian literary context. Existing scholarship has maintained that the central themes of Time for a Tiger are colliding cultures, clashes of religion and racial conflicts but, in spite of these themes, this paper attempts to argue that there are in fact emerging patterns of Bangsa Malaysia in Time for a Tiger, which in turn reflect the elements of unity among the rich mixture of multi-ethnic characters. Bangsa Malaysia is not only the first of the nine challenges listed in Vision 2020 as conceptualised by Dr. Mahathir Mohamad (1991, but also marks the first time the Malaysian government is officially putting forward a clear vision in building a nation, launched to create a oneness atmosphere among the ethnic groups, in hopes it will reduce, if not erase, the tension among them. This study reveals that there are indeed emerging patterns of Bangsa Malaysia depicted through a mixture of characters from various ethnicities, namely the Malays, the Chinese and the Indians, through the implementation of government policies, education, a change of mindset and personal judgement, patriotism and the unifying role of the monarchy. Additionally, the patterns do support the earlier stage of the formation of Bangsa Malaysia, namely tolerance.

  5. Fatal tiger attack: a case report with emphasis on typical tiger injuries characterized by partially resembling stab-like wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Hrishikesh; Borkar, Jaydeo; Dixit, Pradeep; Dhawane, Shailendra; Shrigiriwar, Manish; Dingre, Niraj

    2013-10-10

    Fatalities due to attacks by tigers on humans are uncommon and are rarely described in the medico-legal literature. We herein present a forensic investigation in a unique case of a fatal tiger attack in the wild on a 35 year old female in India by an Indian Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris). The attack resulted in two pairs of puncture wounds over the nape area with occult cervical spine injuries resulting from transfixing of spine due to the tiger canines; multiple puncture wounds, numerous scratches and abrasions consistent with the tiger claw injuries and injury to the right jugulocarotid vessels. This case outlines the characteristic injury pattern from such an attack along with the multiple sources of the tiger injuries. The analysis of these injuries might reveal the motivation behind the attack and the big cat species involved in the attack. A tiger injury is sometimes compared with a stab injury, as the patterned injuries due to a tiger bite are characterized by multiple penetrating, stab-like wounds. So, a special attention is paid toward establishment of the cause of death from bites by the animal teeth under unknown circumstances of trauma and to exclude the possibility of a homicide beyond reasonable doubt in such cases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Glucocorticoid Stress Responses of Reintroduced Tigers in Relation to Anthropogenic Disturbance in Sariska Tiger Reserve in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Subhadeep; Kumar, Vinod; Chandrasekhar, Mithileshwari; Malviya, Manjari; Ganswindt, Andre; Ramesh, Krishnamurthy; Sankar, Kalyanasundaram; Umapathy, Govindhaswamy

    2015-01-01

    Tiger (Panthera tigris), an endangered species, is under severe threat from poaching, habitat loss, prey depletion and habitat disturbance. Such factors have been reported causing local extermination of tiger populations including in one of the most important reserves in India, namely Sariska Tiger Reserve (STR) in northwestern India. Consequently, tigers were reintroduced in STR between 2008 and 2010, but inadequate breeding success was observed over the years, thus invoking an investigation to ascertain physiological correlates. In the present study, we report glucocorticoid stress responses of the reintroduced tigers in relation to anthropogenic disturbance in the STR from 2011 to 2013. We found anthropogenic disturbance such as encounter rates of livestock and humans, distance to roads and efforts to kill domestic livestock associated with an elevation in fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) concentrations in the monitored tigers. In this regard, female tigers seem more sensitive to such disturbance than males. It was possible to discern that tiger's fGCM levels were significantly positively related to the time spent in disturbed areas. Resulting management recommendations include relocation of villages from core areas and restriction of all anthropogenic activities in the entire STR.

  7. Glucocorticoid Stress Responses of Reintroduced Tigers in Relation to Anthropogenic Disturbance in Sariska Tiger Reserve in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhadeep Bhattacharjee

    Full Text Available Tiger (Panthera tigris, an endangered species, is under severe threat from poaching, habitat loss, prey depletion and habitat disturbance. Such factors have been reported causing local extermination of tiger populations including in one of the most important reserves in India, namely Sariska Tiger Reserve (STR in northwestern India. Consequently, tigers were reintroduced in STR between 2008 and 2010, but inadequate breeding success was observed over the years, thus invoking an investigation to ascertain physiological correlates. In the present study, we report glucocorticoid stress responses of the reintroduced tigers in relation to anthropogenic disturbance in the STR from 2011 to 2013. We found anthropogenic disturbance such as encounter rates of livestock and humans, distance to roads and efforts to kill domestic livestock associated with an elevation in fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM concentrations in the monitored tigers. In this regard, female tigers seem more sensitive to such disturbance than males. It was possible to discern that tiger's fGCM levels were significantly positively related to the time spent in disturbed areas. Resulting management recommendations include relocation of villages from core areas and restriction of all anthropogenic activities in the entire STR.

  8. Are conflict-causing tigers different? Another perspective for understanding human-tiger conflict in Chitwan National Park, Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamichhane, B.R.; Persoon, G.A.; Leirs, H.; Musters, C.J.M.; Subedi, N.; Gairhe, K.P.; Pokheral, C.P.; Poudel, S.; Mishra, R.; Dhakal, M.; Smith, J.L.D.; Iongh, H.H.

    2017-01-01

    We analyzed characteristics of the problem-causing tigers in Chitwan National Park (Nepal) to determine if specific groups or individuals in the source population have higher probability to get involved in conflicts with humans. From 2007 to 2016 we identified a total of 22 such tigers including

  9. Fine-scale spatio-temporal variation in tiger Panthera tigris diet: Effect of study duration and extent on estimates of tiger diet in Chitwan National Park, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapfer, Paul M.; Streby, Henry M.; Gurung, B.; Simcharoen, A.; McDougal, C.C.; Smith, J.L.D.

    2011-01-01

    Attempts to conserve declining tiger Panthera tigris populations and distributions have experienced limited success. The poaching of tiger prey is a key threat to tiger persistence; a clear understanding of tiger diet is a prerequisite to conserve dwindling populations. We used unpublished data on tiger diet in combination with two previously published studies to examine fine-scale spatio-temporal changes in tiger diet relative to prey abundance in Chitwan National Park, Nepal, and aggregated data from the three studies to examine the effect that study duration and the size of the study area have on estimates of tiger diet. Our results correspond with those of previous studies: in all three studies, tiger diet was dominated by members of Cervidae; small to medium-sized prey was important in one study. Tiger diet was unrelated to prey abundance, and the aggregation of studies indicates that increasing study duration and study area size both result in increased dietary diversity in terms of prey categories consumed, and increasing study duration changed which prey species contributed most to tiger diet. Based on our results, we suggest that managers focus their efforts on minimizing the poaching of all tiger prey, and that future studies of tiger diet be of long duration and large spatial extent to improve our understanding of spatio-temporal variation in estimates of tiger diet. ?? 2011 Wildlife Biology, NKV.

  10. Prioritizing tiger conservation through landscape genetics and habitat linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumnam, Bibek; Jhala, Yadvendradev V; Qureshi, Qamar; Maldonado, Jesus E; Gopal, Rajesh; Saini, Swati; Srinivas, Y; Fleischer, Robert C

    2014-01-01

    Even with global support for tiger (Panthera tigris) conservation their survival is threatened by poaching, habitat loss and isolation. Currently about 3,000 wild tigers persist in small fragmented populations within seven percent of their historic range. Identifying and securing habitat linkages that connect source populations for maintaining landscape-level gene flow is an important long-term conservation strategy for endangered carnivores. However, habitat corridors that link regional tiger populations are often lost to development projects due to lack of objective evidence on their importance. Here, we use individual based genetic analysis in combination with landscape permeability models to identify and prioritize movement corridors across seven tiger populations within the Central Indian Landscape. By using a panel of 11 microsatellites we identified 169 individual tigers from 587 scat and 17 tissue samples. We detected four genetic clusters within Central India with limited gene flow among three of them. Bayesian and likelihood analyses identified 17 tigers as having recent immigrant ancestry. Spatially explicit tiger occupancy obtained from extensive landscape-scale surveys across 76,913 km(2) of forest habitat was found to be only 21,290 km(2). After accounting for detection bias, the covariates that best explained tiger occupancy were large, remote, dense forest patches; large ungulate abundance, and low human footprint. We used tiger occupancy probability to parameterize habitat permeability for modeling habitat linkages using least-cost and circuit theory pathway analyses. Pairwise genetic differences (FST) between populations were better explained by modeled linkage costs (r>0.5, p<0.05) compared to Euclidean distances, which was in consonance with observed habitat fragmentation. The results of our study highlight that many corridors may still be functional as there is evidence of contemporary migration. Conservation efforts should provide legal status

  11. Prioritizing tiger conservation through landscape genetics and habitat linkages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibek Yumnam

    Full Text Available Even with global support for tiger (Panthera tigris conservation their survival is threatened by poaching, habitat loss and isolation. Currently about 3,000 wild tigers persist in small fragmented populations within seven percent of their historic range. Identifying and securing habitat linkages that connect source populations for maintaining landscape-level gene flow is an important long-term conservation strategy for endangered carnivores. However, habitat corridors that link regional tiger populations are often lost to development projects due to lack of objective evidence on their importance. Here, we use individual based genetic analysis in combination with landscape permeability models to identify and prioritize movement corridors across seven tiger populations within the Central Indian Landscape. By using a panel of 11 microsatellites we identified 169 individual tigers from 587 scat and 17 tissue samples. We detected four genetic clusters within Central India with limited gene flow among three of them. Bayesian and likelihood analyses identified 17 tigers as having recent immigrant ancestry. Spatially explicit tiger occupancy obtained from extensive landscape-scale surveys across 76,913 km(2 of forest habitat was found to be only 21,290 km(2. After accounting for detection bias, the covariates that best explained tiger occupancy were large, remote, dense forest patches; large ungulate abundance, and low human footprint. We used tiger occupancy probability to parameterize habitat permeability for modeling habitat linkages using least-cost and circuit theory pathway analyses. Pairwise genetic differences (FST between populations were better explained by modeled linkage costs (r>0.5, p<0.05 compared to Euclidean distances, which was in consonance with observed habitat fragmentation. The results of our study highlight that many corridors may still be functional as there is evidence of contemporary migration. Conservation efforts should

  12. Innovation and networking among entrepreneurs across generations of Asian tigers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brambini-Pedersen, Jan Vang; Jensen, Kent W; Schøtt, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    entrepreneurship monitor (GEM) data, this paper aims at reducing this research gap by conducting an analysis of the generational differences between the tiger economies entrepreneurs in respect to their innovative performance, their inclination to network and the importance of the quality of the network......Much attention has been paid to analysing the determinants of the economic development in the different generations of Asian tiger economies. This stream of research has provided valuable insights on the particular generational challenges, the tigers face in implementing successful catching up...

  13. Tests with an integrated helmet system for the TIGER helicopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Hans-Dieter V.; Evers, Carl; Stenner, K.-H.

    1998-08-01

    The TIGER helicopter is under development by the MODs of France and Germany for their armies. The initial German requirement was for anti-tank missions only. This task has been extended to support missions which resulted in an upgrade to the German 'UH-TIGER' variant. German MOD is planning to procure 212 UH-TIGER helicopters armed with TRIGAT-, HOT anti-tank missiles, STINGER air-to-air missiles, 68 mm rockets and a gun pod with a 12.7 mm gun.

  14. 75 FR 48914 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to Delist the Tiger...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ...). Domestic livestock, such as cattle, water buffalos, goats, and dogs, are also frequently taken by tigers... of the tigers. The issue of tiger farming within the context of CITES, especially in China if the use...

  15. Triage of means: options for conserving tiger corridors beyond designated protected lands in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indranil Mondal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The latest tiger census conducted in India during the year 2014 shows that it harbours 57% of the global tiger population in 7% of their historic global range. At the same time, India has 1.25 billion people growing at a rate of 1.7% per year. Protected tiger habitats in India are geographically isolated and collectively holds this tiger population under tremendous anthropogenic pressure. These protected lands are in itself not enough to sustain the growing tiger population, intensifying human-tiger conflict as dispersing individuals enter human occupied areas. These factors – isolation and inadequate size of the protected lands harbouring tiger meta-populations, highlight the need to connect tiger habitats and the importance of corridors beyond protected lands. It is imperative to conserve such corridors passing through private lands to safeguard the long-term survival of the tigers in India. The goal of long-term tiger conservation in India lies in smartly integrating tiger conservation concerns in various sectors where tiger conservation is not the priority. To effectively tap into all these resources, we propose a Triage of Means strategy. Here we do not prioritize species, populations or sites due to the non-availability of conservation resources. Instead, we aim to prioritize from available resources (means to achieve conservation from other sectors where tiger conservation is not the focus. We outline how to prioritise resources available from various sectors into conservation by prioritizing issues hampering tiger conservation beyond protected habitats.

  16. R2 Metropolitan Division, 2013; TIGER/Line Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  17. SpaceWire Tiger Team Findings and Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishac, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    This technical report intends to highlight the key findings and recommendations of the SpaceWire Tiger Team for the CoNNeCT project. It covers findings which are technical in nature, covering design concepts and approaches.

  18. EFFECT OF INBREEDING ON MORTALITY OF CAPTIVE TIGER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidharth Prasad Mishra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out on the captive tigers of Nandankanan zoo, Odisha, India, to conclude any deleterious effect of inbreeding on mortality. A pedigree path analysis of 342 tigers was done to estimate the inbreeding coefficient of each tiger from the available pedigree information since the inception of zoological park in 1964. Percentage of animal with different range of inbreeding coefficient was classified based on their normal and white body coat colour. The correlation values between sex, colour and inbreeding coefficient with mortality were also estimated. The colour and inbreeding coefficient was found to be significantly (p<0.05 correlated with the mortality. The inbreeding was found to be significant (p<0.05 with white colour of tiger.

  19. Identifying landscape factors affecting tiger decline in the Bangladesh Sundarbans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Naser Mohsin Hossain

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sundarbans Forest (∼10,000 km2 represents the only mangrove ecosystem inhabited by tigers Panthera tigris. However, in the Bangladesh portion of the Sundarbans (∼6,000 km2 tigers appear to have declined. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of a range of environmental and landscape variables in possible changes in the relative abundance of tigers in the Bangladesh Sundarbans over a five-year period (2007–2011. In 2007, 2011 tiger relative abundance was assessed using sign surveys. Using regression models we investigated changes in relative abundance versus multiple landscape variables (human disturbance associated with villages and commercial shipping lanes, distance to the international border with India where there is enhanced patrolling, presence of forest guard stations, number of criminal prosecutions and forest protection status. Tiger relative abundance was higher in 2007 and declined by 2011 with changes best explained by the proximity to international boundaries. This result might have been affected by the high levels of security patrols at the India-Bangladesh border along with cross border tiger movement between India and Bangladesh. Neighboring tiger range countries could strengthen cross-border law enforcement, increasing protection of dispersing animals. Particularly alarming was the absence of a positive effect of protected areas relative to those outside the protected area system or forest guard stations, implying a lack of management effectiveness suggesting an urgent need for an improved strategy for managing tigers and their habitats. Keywords: Wildlife poaching, Population declines, Transboundary protection, Joint patrolling, Protected area effectiveness

  20. The Home of the Tiger: Economic Speculation and the Ethics of Habitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Matthew Buchanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Ireland, the "home" has a long tradition as a powerful spatial signifier, capable of expressing a range of social, aesthetic, and political interactions. Historically, home ownership in Ireland was not only a measure of working-and-middle-class respectability, but also a symbol of national independence that stood in opposition to a colonial history of dispossession. Throughout the Celtic Tiger, however, the ideas of what constituted the "home" were transformed by a speculative form of capitalism that recreated domestic space as a fluctuating (and valuable commodity. By centralizing the connection of urban space to capitalism, speculation opens the domestic spaces of the home to the processes of speculation and devaluation.Essentially, my argument analyzes how changing the economic parameters of domestic space creates a concomitant change in how homes are figured in the Irish cultural lexicon. This change represents a cognitive speculation where the speculative value of a home, as a commodity is what confers an authentic social status on the homeowner. Any ethical concerns related to domestic space, both its use and value, are superseded by its ability to generate capital via a speculative evaluation. Through the connection of spatial and cultural transformation, my paper furthers current discussions in Irish studies that analyze the dramatic impact, and aftermath, of the Tiger. The literary response to speculation, found in analyses of Deidre Madden and Anne Haverty, frame speculation as a parody of communal life that eliminates any real interpersonal relationships in a wave of postmodern alienation. Finally, my paper articulates how the lasting damage that followed the collapse of the Tiger altered the way the Irish understood the concepts and realities of the "home". 

  1. Tracking changes and preventing loss in critical tiger habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anup R; Dinerstein, Eric; Wikramanayake, Eric; Anderson, Michael L; Olson, David; Jones, Benjamin S; Seidensticker, John; Lumpkin, Susan; Hansen, Matthew C; Sizer, Nigel C; Davis, Crystal L; Palminteri, Suzanne; Hahn, Nathan R

    2016-04-01

    The global population of wild tigers remains dangerously low at fewer than 3500 individuals. Habitat loss, along with poaching, can undermine the international target recovery of doubling the number of wild tigers by 2022. Using a new satellite-based monitoring system, we analyzed 14 years of forest loss data within the 76 landscapes (ranging from 278 to 269,983 km(2)) that have been prioritized for conservation of wild tigers. Our analysis provides an update of the status of tiger habitat and describes new applications of technology to detect precisely where forest loss is occurring in order to curb future habitat loss. Across the 76 landscapes, forest loss was far less than anticipated (79,597 ± 22,629 km(2), 7.7% of remaining habitat) over the 14-year study period (2001-2014). Habitat loss was unevenly distributed within a subset of 29 landscapes deemed most critical for doubling wild tiger populations: 19 showed little change (1.5%), whereas 10 accounted for more than 98% (57,392 ± 16,316 km(2)) of habitat loss. Habitat loss in source population sites within 76 landscapes ranged from no loss to 435 ± 124 km(2) ([Formula: see text], SD = 89, total = 1676 ± 476 km(2)). Doubling the tiger population by 2022 requires moving beyond tracking annual changes in habitat. We highlight near-real-time forest monitoring technologies that provide alerts of forest loss at relevant spatial and temporal scales to prevent further erosion.

  2. Conservation priorities for endangered Indian tigers through a genomic lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natesh, Meghana; Atla, Goutham; Nigam, Parag; Jhala, Yadvendradev V; Zachariah, Arun; Borthakur, Udayan; Ramakrishnan, Uma

    2017-08-29

    Tigers have lost 93% of their historical range worldwide. India plays a vital role in the conservation of tigers since nearly 60% of all wild tigers are currently found here. However, as protected areas are small (<300 km 2 on average), with only a few individuals in each, many of them may not be independently viable. It is thus important to identify and conserve genetically connected populations, as well as to maintain connectivity within them. We collected samples from wild tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) across India and used genome-wide SNPs to infer genetic connectivity. We genotyped 10,184 SNPs from 38 individuals across 17 protected areas and identified three genetically distinct clusters (corresponding to northwest, southern and central India). The northwest cluster was isolated with low variation and high relatedness. The geographically large central cluster included tigers from central, northeastern and northern India, and had the highest variation. Most genetic diversity (62%) was shared among clusters, while unique variation was highest in the central cluster (8.5%) and lowest in the northwestern one (2%). We did not detect signatures of differential selection or local adaptation. We highlight that the northwest population requires conservation attention to ensure persistence of these tigers.

  3. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2015, Series Information for the 2015 TIGER/Line Shapefile All Roads County-based Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The All Roads Shapefile includes all features within the MTDB Super Class "Road/Path Features" distinguished where the MAF/TIGER Feature Classification Code (MTFCC)...

  4. TIGER Railroads for South Louisiana, UTM 15N NAD83, Louisiana Recovery Authority (2007), [TIGER_LA_Railroads_2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a line data set for 'Railroads' of Louisiana extracted from 1997 TIGER/Line source data. Railroad Mainlines, Spurs, Yards, and specialized rail lines have...

  5. Connectivity of tiger (Panthera tigris) populations in the human-influenced forest mosaic of Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Aditya; Vaidyanathan, Srinivas; Mondol, Samrat; Edgaonkar, Advait; Ramakrishnan, Uma

    2013-01-01

    Today, most wild tigers live in small, isolated Protected Areas within human dominated landscapes in the Indian subcontinent. Future survival of tigers depends on increasing local population size, as well as maintaining connectivity between populations. While significant conservation effort has been invested in increasing tiger population size, few initiatives have focused on landscape-level connectivity and on understanding the effect different landscape elements have on maintaining connectivity. We combined individual-based genetic and landscape ecology approaches to address this issue in six protected areas with varying tiger densities and separation in the Central Indian tiger landscape. We non-invasively sampled 55 tigers from different protected areas within this landscape. Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian genetic assignment tests indicate long-range tiger dispersal (on the order of 650 km) between protected areas. Further geo-spatial analyses revealed that tiger connectivity was affected by landscape elements such as human settlements, road density and host-population tiger density, but not by distance between populations. Our results elucidate the importance of landscape and habitat viability outside and between protected areas and provide a quantitative approach to test functionality of tiger corridors. We suggest future management strategies aim to minimize urban expansion between protected areas to maximize tiger connectivity. Achieving this goal in the context of ongoing urbanization and need to sustain current economic growth exerts enormous pressure on the remaining tiger habitats and emerges as a big challenge to conserve wild tigers in the Indian subcontinent.

  6. Connectivity of tiger (Panthera tigris populations in the human-influenced forest mosaic of Central India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Joshi

    Full Text Available Today, most wild tigers live in small, isolated Protected Areas within human dominated landscapes in the Indian subcontinent. Future survival of tigers depends on increasing local population size, as well as maintaining connectivity between populations. While significant conservation effort has been invested in increasing tiger population size, few initiatives have focused on landscape-level connectivity and on understanding the effect different landscape elements have on maintaining connectivity. We combined individual-based genetic and landscape ecology approaches to address this issue in six protected areas with varying tiger densities and separation in the Central Indian tiger landscape. We non-invasively sampled 55 tigers from different protected areas within this landscape. Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian genetic assignment tests indicate long-range tiger dispersal (on the order of 650 km between protected areas. Further geo-spatial analyses revealed that tiger connectivity was affected by landscape elements such as human settlements, road density and host-population tiger density, but not by distance between populations. Our results elucidate the importance of landscape and habitat viability outside and between protected areas and provide a quantitative approach to test functionality of tiger corridors. We suggest future management strategies aim to minimize urban expansion between protected areas to maximize tiger connectivity. Achieving this goal in the context of ongoing urbanization and need to sustain current economic growth exerts enormous pressure on the remaining tiger habitats and emerges as a big challenge to conserve wild tigers in the Indian subcontinent.

  7. Tiger Team Assessment of the Ames Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This report documents the Tiger Assessment of the Ames Laboratory (Ames), located in Ames, Iowa. Ames is operated for the US Department of Energy (DOE) by Iowa State University. The assessment was conducted from February 10 to March 5, 1992, under the auspices of the Office of Special Projects, Office of the Assistant Secretary of Environment, Safety and Health, Headquarters, DOE. The assessment was comprehensive, encompassing Environment, Safety, and Health (ES ampersand H) disciplines; management practices; and contractor and DOE self-assessments. Compliance with applicable Federal, State of Iowa, and local regulations; applicable DOE Orders; best management practices; and internal requirements at Ames Laboratory were assessed. In addition, an evaluation of the adequacy and effectiveness of DOE and the site contractor's management of ES ampersand H/quality assurance program was conducted

  8. Tiger Team Assessment of the Ames Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    This report documents the Tiger Assessment of the Ames Laboratory (Ames), located in Ames, Iowa. Ames is operated for the US Department of Energy (DOE) by Iowa State University. The assessment was conducted from February 10 to March 5, 1992, under the auspices of the Office of Special Projects, Office of the Assistant Secretary of Environment, Safety and Health, Headquarters, DOE. The assessment was comprehensive, encompassing Environment, Safety, and Health (ES H) disciplines; management practices; and contractor and DOE self-assessments. Compliance with applicable Federal, State of Iowa, and local regulations; applicable DOE Orders; best management practices; and internal requirements at Ames Laboratory were assessed. In addition, an evaluation of the adequacy and effectiveness of DOE and the site contractor's management of ES H/quality assurance program was conducted.

  9. The effect of feeding frequency, water temperature, and stocking density on the growth of river puffer Takifugu obscurus reared in a zero-exchange water system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwang-Yeol Yoo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The effects of daily feeding frequency (Exp I, water temperature (Exp II, and stocking density (Exp III on the growth of river puffer, Takifugu obscurus, juvenile fish of 10 and 40 g in body weight were examined to develop effective techniques to produce river puffer in a non-exchange water system. In Exp I, fish were fed commercial floating feed with 45 % protein one to five times per day to apparent satiation each by hand daily for 8 weeks at 25 °C. In both the 10- and 40-g size groups, the final body weight, daily feed consumption, and weight gain of fish fed one meal per day were significantly lower than those of fish fed five meals per day (P < 0.05. However, there were no significant differences in the final body weight, daily feed consumption, and weight gain among fish fed two, three, and five meals per day. Feed efficiency showed decreasing tendency with increasing size of fish. In Exp II, fish of 10 and 40 g in initial body weight were reared with the commercial feed at 15–30 °C for 8 weeks. The weight gain of fish increased with raising water temperature up to 25 °C and decreased drastically at 30 °C for both sizes. The Q10 of specific growth rate was decreased with raising water temperature from 5.04 (temperature interval, 15–20 °C to 0.66 (25–30 °C for the 10-g fish and from 4.98 to 0.31 for the 40-g fish. In Exp III, the effect of stocking density on growth was examined with fish of 10 and 40 g in initial body weight. The final body weight for initial stocking densities of 4, 8, and 12 kg/m3 was significantly higher than that of 20 kg/m3 for the 10-g fish, and the final stocking density reached 10.1, 19.2, 28.7, and 39.9 kg/m3, respectively. For the 40-g fish, the final body weight for initial stocking densities of 3 and 6 kg/m3 was significantly higher than that of 9 and 15 kg/m3 and the final stocking density reached 7.38, 13.5, 17.1, and 27.5 kg/m3, respectively (P < 0.05. In both

  10. Current Census Tracts for Torrance County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  11. 75 FR 70962 - California Green Trade Corridor Transportation Investment Generating Economic Recovery (TIGER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration [Docket Number 2010-0103] California Green Trade Corridor Transportation Investment Generating Economic Recovery (TIGER) AGENCY: Department of... California Green Trade Corridor Transportation Investment Generating Economic Recovery (TIGER) grant. An...

  12. Current Federal Congressional Districts for Cibola County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  13. Current Census Tracts for Cibola County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  14. Current Census Blocks for San Miguel County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  15. 2000 Census Unified School Districts for Harding County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  16. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Socorro County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  17. 2000 Census Voting Precincts for Santa Fe County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  18. Miscellaneous Ground Transportation (Utilities) for Valencia County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  19. Current State Senate Districts for Catron County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  20. Current State Senate Districts for Curry County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  1. Current Urban Areas for Santa Fe County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  2. Current Block Groups for Guadalupe County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  3. 2000 Census Urban Areas for Los Alamos County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  4. Current 5-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Quay County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  5. Current Census Tracts for San Juan County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  6. Current Census Blocks for Los Alamos County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  7. 2000 Census Voting Precincts for Bernalillo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  8. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Bernalillo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  9. County Economic Census for Hidalgo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  10. Economic Census Designated Places for San Juan County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  11. County Economic Census for Roosevelt County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  12. County Economic Census for Dona Ana County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  13. Economic Census Designated Places for Los Alamos County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  14. Economic Census Designated Places for Catron County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  15. County Economic Census for Taos County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  16. Economic Census Designated Places for Mora County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  17. County Economic Census for Cibola County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  18. Economic Census Designated Places for Lea County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  19. Economic Census Designated Places for Guadalupe County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  20. Current County Boundary for Mora County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  1. County Economic Census for McKinley County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  2. Economic Census Designated Places for De Baca County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  3. County Economic Census for San Miguel County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  4. County Economic Census for Union County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  5. County Economic Census for Chaves County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  6. County Economic Census for San Juan County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  7. Economic Census Designated Places for Dona Ana County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  8. Economic Census Designated Places for San Miguel County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  9. County Economic Census for Harding County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  10. Economic Census Designated Places for Roosevelt County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  11. County Economic Census for Curry County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  12. County Economic Census for Lea County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  13. Economic Census Designated Places for Cibola County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  14. County Economic Census for Guadalupe County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  15. Economic Census Designated Places for Harding County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  16. Economic Census Designated Places for Quay County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  17. Economic Census Designated Places for Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  18. County Economic Census for Otero County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  19. Economic Census Designated Places for Taos County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  20. Economic Census Designated Places for Torrance County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  1. Economic Census Designated Places for Eddy County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  2. Economic Census Designated Places for Bernalillo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  3. County Economic Census for Mora County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  4. County Economic Census for Catron County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  5. Economic Census Designated Places for Santa Fe County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  6. County Economic Census for Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  7. Economic Census Designated Places for Socorro County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  8. County Economic Census for Sandoval County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  9. County Economic Census for Socorro County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  10. County Economic Census for Santa Fe County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  11. County Economic Census for Grant County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  12. County Economic Census for Bernalillo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  13. Economic Census Designated Places for Curry County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  14. Economic Census Designated Places for Sierra County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  15. County Economic Census for Colfax County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  16. Economic Census Designated Places for Grant County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  17. Economic Census Designated Places for Chaves County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  18. County Economic Census for Luna County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  19. Economic Census Designated Places for Luna County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  20. County Economic Census for De Baca County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  1. County Economic Census for Quay County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  2. County Economic Census for Valencia County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  3. Economic Census Designated Places for Valencia County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  4. Economic Census Designated Places for Sandoval County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  5. Economic Census Designated Places for McKinley County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  6. Economic Census Designated Places for Otero County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  7. Economic Census Designated Places for Lincoln County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  8. County Economic Census for Lincoln County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  9. Economic Census Designated Places for Colfax County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  10. County Economic Census for Torrance County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  11. Miscellaneous Ground Transportation (Utilities) for Lincoln County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  12. Miscellaneous Ground Transportation (Utilities) for Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  13. Miscellaneous Ground Transportation (Utilities) for Mora County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  14. Miscellaneous Ground Transportation (Utilities) for Torrance County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  15. Miscellaneous Ground Transportation (Utilities) for McKinley County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  16. Miscellaneous Ground Transportation (Utilities) for Union County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  17. Railroads for McKinley County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  18. Roads for McKinley County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  19. Miscellaneous Ground Transportation (Utilities) for Catron County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  20. Miscellaneous Ground Transportation (Utilities) for Los Alamos County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  1. Miscellaneous Ground Transportation (Utilities) for Cibola County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  2. Miscellaneous Ground Transportation (Utilities) for San Juan County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  3. Current County Boundary for Santa Fe County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  4. Current County Census Subdivision for Union County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  5. 2000 Census Unified School Districts for Valencia County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  6. 2000 Census Designated Places for Harding County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  7. Current Urban Areas for Luna County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  8. Current Core Based Statistical Areas for Chaves County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  9. Current County Census Subdivision for Lincoln County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  10. Current Unified School Districts for Socorro County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  11. 2000 Census Voting Precincts for Eddy County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  12. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Chaves County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  13. Current Census Blocks for Hidalgo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  14. Current County Boundary for Cibola County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  15. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Sandoval County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  16. 2000 Census Voting Precincts for Hidalgo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  17. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Catron County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  18. Current State Senate Districts for Guadalupe County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  19. Current Block Groups for Luna County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  20. Current County Census Subdivision for De Baca County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  1. American Indian Tribal Subdivision Areas for Socorro County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  2. Current Block Groups for San Juan County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  3. Current State House Districts for Colfax County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  4. Current Water Polygons for Hidalgo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  5. 2000 Census Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSA) for Sandoval County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  6. American Indian Tribal Subdivision Areas for Sandoval County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  7. Current Federal Congressional Districts for Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  8. County Economic Census for Sierra County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  9. Current Federal Congressional Districts for Lea County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  10. Current Census Blocks for Luna County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  11. Current State House Districts for Lea County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  12. Current State House Districts for San Miguel County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  13. American Indian Tribal Subdivision Areas for Bernalillo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  14. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Hidalgo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  15. Current Block Groups for Hidalgo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  16. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Catron County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  17. Miscellaneous Ground Transportation (Utilities) for Dona Ana County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  18. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Otero County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  19. Miscellaneous Ground Transportation (Utilities) for Hidalgo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  20. Current Census Blocks for Catron County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  1. Landmark Points for San Miguel County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  2. Current State House Districts for Harding County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  3. Current 3-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Guadalupe County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  4. 2000 Census Designated Places for Quay County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  5. County Economic Census for Eddy County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  6. Current Designated Places for San Miguel County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  7. County Economic Census for Los Alamos County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  8. Current Urban Areas for Hidalgo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  9. Current Census Blocks for Chaves County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  10. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Sandoval County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  11. Current Census Tracts for Sierra County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  12. 2000 Census Designated Places for Chaves County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  13. Current Federal Congressional Districts for Chaves County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  14. Current County Boundary for Bernalillo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  15. Current 3-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Union County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  16. Miscellaneous Ground Transportation (Utilities) for Grant County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  17. Current County Boundary for Sandoval County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  18. Economic Census Designated Places for Hidalgo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  19. Current Census Blocks for Quay County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  20. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Otero County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  1. 2000 Census Unified School Districts for San Juan County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  2. 2000 Census Voting Precincts for Torrance County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  3. Current State House Districts for Bernalillo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  4. Current County Boundary for San Miguel County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  5. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Mora County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  6. 2000 Census Voting Precincts for Sierra County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  7. Current 3-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Torrance County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  8. Current Combined Statistical Areas for Curry County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  9. Current 3-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Sierra County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  10. Landmark Polygons for Santa Fe County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  11. Current Urban Areas for Lincoln County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  12. Current State House Districts for Taos County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  13. 2000 Census Unified School Districts for Los Alamos County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  14. Current Designated Places for Catron County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  15. Current State Senate Districts for Torrance County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  16. Current Traffic Analysis Zones for Dona Ana County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  17. Current Designated Places for Mora County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  18. Current State Senate Districts for Harding County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  19. Current County Boundary for Valencia County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  20. Current Census Tracts for Taos County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  1. Current Traffic Analysis Zones for Bernalillo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  2. Current State House Districts for Dona Ana County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  3. HELMINTHIASIS IN A BENGAL TIGER (PANTHERA TIGRIS TIGRIS - A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaji Bhattacharya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available During post mortem examination of a wild male adult Bengal Tiger of Pirkhali of Sundarban Tiger Reserve, West Bengal, India,Toxocara cati and Taenia hydatigena was observed in the stomach and intestine.

  4. Current Census Tracts for McKinley County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  5. Landmark Points for McKinley County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  6. American Indian Tribal Subdivision Areas for San Juan County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  7. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Valencia County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  8. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Lincoln County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  9. Current Census Tracts for De Baca County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  10. 2000 Census Unified School Districts for Mora County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  11. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for Taos County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  12. Current County Boundary for Chaves County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  13. Current Unified School Districts for Otero County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  14. 2000 Census Voting Precincts for Colfax County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  15. Current Federal Congressional Districts for Luna County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  16. Landmark Polygons for McKinley County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  17. Current 5-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Guadalupe County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  18. Current Urban Areas for Cibola County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  19. Current Core Based Statistical Areas for Los Alamos County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  20. Current State Senate Districts for Bernalillo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  1. 2000 Census Unified School Districts for Lea County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  2. American Indian Tribal Subdivision Areas for Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  3. Economic Census Designated Places for Union County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  4. Current 5-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Valencia County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  5. 2000 Census Unified School Districts for Colfax County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  6. Current Federal Congressional Districts for Dona Ana County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  7. Current 3-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Roosevelt County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  8. 2000 Census Voting Precincts for Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  9. Trends of Forest Dynamics in Tiger Landscapes Across Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Pinki; Nagendra, Harini

    2011-10-01

    Protected areas (PAs) are cornerstones of biodiversity conservation, but small parks alone cannot support wide-ranging species, such as the tiger. Hence, forest dynamics in the surrounding landscapes of PAs are also important to tiger conservation. Tiger landscapes often support considerable human population in proximity of the PA, sometimes within the core itself, and thus are subject to various land use activities (such as agricultural expansion and road development) driving habitat loss and fragmentation. We synthesize information from 27 journal articles in 24 tiger landscapes to assess forest-cover dynamics in tiger-range countries. Although 29% of the PAs considered in this study have negligible change in overall forest cover, approximately 71% are undergoing deforestation and fragmentation. Approximately 58% of the total case studies have human settlements within the core area. Most changes—including agricultural expansion, plantation, and farming (52%), fuelwood and fodder collection (43%), logging (38%), grazing (38%), and tourism and development (10%)—can be attributed to human impacts largely linked to the nature of the management regime. This study highlights the need for incorporating new perspectives, ideas, and lessons learned locally and across borders into management plans to ensure tiger conservation in landscapes dominated by human activities. Given the increasing isolation of most parks due to agricultural, infrastructural, and commercial developments at the periphery, it is imperative to conduct planning and evaluation at the landscape level, as well as incorporate multiple actors and institutions in planning, instead of focusing solely on conservation within the PAs as is currently the case in most tiger parks.

  10. Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy B; Rodríguez, Melanie Domenech; Bernal, Guillermo

    2011-02-01

    This article summarizes the definitions, means, and research of adapting psychotherapy to clients' cultural backgrounds. We begin by reviewing the prevailing definitions of cultural adaptation and providing a clinical example. We present an original meta-analysis of 65 experimental and quasi-experimental studies involving 8,620 participants. The omnibus effect size of d = .46 indicates that treatments specifically adapted for clients of color were moderately more effective with that clientele than traditional treatments. The most effective treatments tended to be those with greater numbers of cultural adaptations. Mental health services targeted to a specific cultural group were several times more effective than those provided to clients from a variety of cultural backgrounds. We recommend a series of research-supported therapeutic practices that account for clients' culture, with culture-specific treatments being more effective than generally culture-sensitive treatments. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. 75 FR 17755 - Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel GULF TIGER

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel GULF TIGER AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... vessel GULF TIGER as required by 33 U.S.C. 1605(c) and 33 CFR 81.18. DATES: The Certificate of Alternate... for the h offshore supply vessel GULF TIGER. Full compliance with 72 COLREGS and the Inland Rules Act...

  12. 77 FR 36287 - Proposed Low-Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the California Tiger Salamander, Calaveras...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ...-FXES11120800000F2-123-F2] Proposed Low-Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the California Tiger Salamander... animal, the threatened Central California Distinct Population Segment of the California tiger salamander (tiger salamander). The applicant would implement a conservation program to minimize and mitigate the...

  13. Technology Informatics Guiding Education Reform (TIGER). The Future of Interprofessional Education Is Here!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ming-Chuan; Ball, Marion; Skiba, Diane J; Marin, Heimar; Shaw, Toria; Chang, Polun

    2018-01-01

    This session will describe the TIGER Initiative journey, its evolution and accomplishments nationally and internationally. A powerful demonstration of the TIGER Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) will be highlighted along with case studies from around the world, with emphasis on global competencies and opportunities for engagement in all current TIGER activities and future plans.

  14. Subspecific Status of the Korean Tiger Inferred by Ancient DNA Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-Yeong Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The tiger population that once inhabited the Korean peninsula was initially considered a unique subspecies (Panthera tigris coreensis, distinct from the Amur tiger of the Russian Far East (P. t. altaica. However, in the following decades, the population of P. t. coreensis was classified as P. t. altaica and hence forth the two populations have been considered the same subspecies. From an ecological point of view, the classification of the Korean tiger population as P. t. altaica is a plausible conclusion. Historically, there were no major dispersal barriers between the Korean peninsula and the habitat of Amur tigers in Far Eastern Russia and northeastern China that might prevent gene flow, especially for a large carnivore with long-distance dispersal abilities. However, there has yet to be a genetic study to confirm the subspecific status of the Korean tiger. Bone samples from four tigers originally caught in the Korean peninsula were collected from two museums in Japan and the United States. Eight mitochondrial gene fragments were sequenced and compared to previously published tiger subspecies’ mtDNA sequences to assess the phylogenetic relationship of the Korean tiger. Three individuals shared an identical haplotype with the Amur tigers. One specimen grouped with Malayan tigers, perhaps due to misidentification or mislabeling of the sample. Our results support the conclusion that the Korean tiger should be classified as P. t. altaica, which has important implications for the conservation and reintroduction of Korean tigers.

  15. Genetic diversity of intensive cultured and wild tiger shrimp Penaeus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mahdi

    2011-02-25

    Feb 25, 2011 ... improvement of brood stock management will assist shrimp breeders to ... heterozygosity; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; MFA, most ... wild females for the supply of juveniles. ... according to the manufacturer's instruction.

  16. Expansion of Industrial Plantations Continues to Threaten Malayan Tiger Habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varada S. Shevade

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia has some of the highest deforestation rates globally, with Malaysia being identified as a deforestation hotspot. The Malayan tiger, a critically endangered subspecies of the tiger endemic to Peninsular Malaysia, is threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation. In this study, we estimate the natural forest loss and conversion to plantations in Peninsular Malaysia and specifically in its tiger habitat between 1988 and 2012 using the Landsat data archive. We estimate a total loss of 1.35 Mha of natural forest area within Peninsular Malaysia over the entire study period, with 0.83 Mha lost within the tiger habitat. Nearly half (48% of the natural forest loss area represents conversion to tree plantations. The annual area of new plantation establishment from natural forest conversion increased from 20 thousand ha year−1 during 1988–2000 to 34 thousand ha year−1 during 2001–2012. Large-scale industrial plantations, primarily those of oil palm, as well as recently cleared land, constitute 80% of forest converted to plantations since 1988. We conclude that industrial plantation expansion has been a persistent threat to natural forests within the Malayan tiger habitat. Expanding oil palm plantations dominate forest conversions while those for rubber are an emerging threat.

  17. Faecal cortisol metabolites in Bengal (Panthera tigris tigris) and Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris sumatrae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Edward J; Parnell, Tempe; Clark, Giles; Martin-Vegue, Patrick; Mucci, Al; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2013-12-01

    The tiger (Panthera tigris) faces a great risk of extinction as its wild numbers have plummeted due to poaching and habitat destruction so ex-situ conservation programs are becoming ever more necessary. Reliable non-invasive biomarkers of the stress hormone (cortisol) are necessary for assessing the health and welfare of tigers in captivity. To our knowledge, non-invasive stress endocrinology methods have not been tested as widely in tigers. The first aim of this study was to describe and validate a faecal cortisol metabolite enzyme-immmunoassay (FCM EIA) for two tiger sub-species, the Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) and the Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae). Individual tigers (n=22) were studied in two large Zoos in Queensland, Australia (Dreamworld Theme Park and Australia Zoo). Fresh faecal samples (Zoos over a study period of 21 days. Biological validation was conducted separately by collecting feces 5 days before and 5 days after blood was taken from four male and five female tigers. Results showed that mean FCM levels increased by 138% and 285% in the male and female tigers within 1 day after bloods were taken, returning to baseline in 5 days. Laboratory validations of the FCM EIA were done using an extraction efficiency test and parallelism. Results showed >89% recovery of the cortisol standard that was added to tiger faecal extract. We also obtained parallel displacement of the serially diluted cortisol standard against serially diluted tiger faecal extract. Our second aim was to determine whether the FCM levels were significantly different between tiger sub-species and sex. Results showed no significant difference in mean FCM levels between the Bengal and Sumatran tiger sub-species. Mean levels of FCMs were significantly higher in females than in male tigers. Those male and female tigers with reported health issues during the study period expressed higher FCM levels than the reportedly healthy tigers. Interestingly, those tigers that took

  18. Recovery of the SuperTIGER Instrument and Preparations for the Flight of SuperTIGER-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, N. E.; Supertiger Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    On December 8, 2012, the SuperTIGER (Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder) instrument began its long-duration balloon flight from Williams Field, Antarctica. Flying for a record-breaking 55 days at a mean altitude of 125,000 feet, the instrument successfully measured the relative elemental abundances of Galactic cosmic ray nuclei having charge (Z) greater than Z=10, showing very well resolved individual element peaks up to Z=40. The instrument measures particle charge and energy through the combined use of two Cherenkov detectors and three scintillation detectors, and determines particle trajectory with a scintillating fiber hodoscope. After cutdown and two years on the ice, SuperTIGER was successfully recovered in January, 2015. Its detectors and hodoscopes are being tested and refurbished, and are expected to be used again for a second flight, SuperTIGER-2. The second flight is aimed at improving SuperTIGER's already excellent charge resolution as well as at accumulating more data to be combined with that of SuperTIGER for improved statistics. In November 2015, a test of the scintillator saturation effect was performed at CERN using a beam of interacted Pb nuclei to help create more accurate charge reconstruction models that will help resolve elements in the range Z=41 to Z=60. This research was supported by NASA under Grants NNX09AC17G, NNX14AB25G, the Peggy and Steve Fossett Foundation and the McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences at Washington University.

  19. Neutrino radiation hazards: A paper tiger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cossairt, J.D.; Grossman, N.L.; Marshall, E.T.

    1996-09-01

    Neutrinos are present in the natural environment due to terrestrial, solar, and cosmic sources and are also produced at accelerators both incidentally and intentionally as part of physics research programs. Progress in fundamental physics research has led to the creation of beams of neutrinos of ever-increasing intensity and/or energy. The large size and cost associated with these beams attracts, and indeed requires, public interest, support, and some understanding of the 'exotic' particles produced, including the neutrinos. Furthermore, the very word neutrino ('little neutral one', as coined by Enrico Fermi) can lead to public concern due to confusion with 'neutron', a word widely associated with radiological hazards. Adding to such possible concerns is a recent assertion, widely publicized, that neutrinos from astronomical events may have led to the extinction of some biological species. Presented here are methods for conservatively estimating the dose equivalent due to neutrinos as well as an assessment of the possible role of neutrinos in biological extinction processes. It is found that neutrinos produced by the sun and modern particle accelerators produce inconsequential dose equivalent rates. Examining recent calculations concerning neutrinos incident upon the earth due to stellar collapse, it is concluded that it is highly unlikely that these neutrinos caused the mass extinctions of species found in the paleontological record. Neutrino radiation hazards are, then, truly a 'paper tiger'. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  20. Tiger Team Assessment, Energy Technology Engineering Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    The Office Special Projects within the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH) has the responsibility to conduct Tiger Team Assessments for the Secretary of Energy. This report presents the assessment of the buildings, facilities, and activities under the DOE/Rockwell Contract No. DE-AM03-76SF00700 for the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC) and of other DOE-owned buildings and facilities at the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL) site in southeastern Ventura County, California, not covered under Contract No. DE-AM03-76SF00700, but constructed over the years under various other contracts between DOE and Rockwell International. ETEC is an engineering development complex operated for DOE by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation. ETEC is located within SSFL on land owned by Rockwell. The balance of the SSFL complex is owned and operated by Rocketdyne, with the exception of a 42-acre parcel owned by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The primary mission of ETEC is to provide engineering, testing, and development of components related to liquid metals technology and to conduct applied engineering development of emerging energy technologies.

  1. Tiger Team Assessment, Energy Technology Engineering Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    The Office Special Projects within the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH) has the responsibility to conduct Tiger Team Assessments for the Secretary of Energy. This report presents the assessment of the buildings, facilities, and activities under the DOE/Rockwell Contract No. DE-AM03-76SF00700 for the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC) and of other DOE-owned buildings and facilities at the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL) site in southeastern Ventura County, California, not covered under Contract No. DE-AM03-76SF00700, but constructed over the years under various other contracts between DOE and Rockwell International. ETEC is an engineering development complex operated for DOE by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation. ETEC is located within SSFL on land owned by Rockwell. The balance of the SSFL complex is owned and operated by Rocketdyne, with the exception of a 42-acre parcel owned by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The primary mission of ETEC is to provide engineering, testing, and development of components related to liquid metals technology and to conduct applied engineering development of emerging energy technologies

  2. Multiple myeloma in an Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M. Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica is an endangered tiger subspecies. An adult zoo-bred female was found collapsed, and died despite supportive treatment. Hematology and biochemistry showed pancytopenia and hyperglobulinemia, and serum protein electrophoresis revealed a monoclonal band in the β-globulin region. Necropsy demonstrated hemoabdomen, multifocal lytic bone marrow lesions, splenomegaly, and hemorrhagic hepatic nodules, with left medial lobe rupture. There were mutifocal hemorrhages in the subcutis, lung, epicardium, and intestinal mucosa. Histopathology demonstrated plasmacytoid cells infiltrating the bone marrow, liver and spleen, and circulating within blood vessels. On immunohistochemistry, cell infiltrates of the three tissues were positive for λ light chains, bone marrow infiltrates were positive for MUM-1 and bone marrow and spleen infiltrates were positive for CD20. These findings indicate that this animal died of hemoabdomen subsequent to multiple myeloma. This is the first time this disease has been reported in a tiger.

  3. Ethnomedicinal uses, pharmacological activities, and cultivation of Lignosus spp. (tiger׳s milk mushrooms) in Malaysia - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Beng Fye; Abdullah, Noorlidah; Aminudin, Norhaniza; Lee, Hong Boon; Tan, Pei Jean

    2015-07-01

    Several members of the genus Lignosus, which are collectively known as cendawan susu rimau (in Malay) or tiger׳s milk mushrooms (TMM), are regarded as important local medicine particularly by the indigenous communities in Malaysia. The mushroom sclerotia are purportedly effective in treating cancer, coughs, asthma, fever, and other ailments. The most commonly encountered Lignosus spp. in Malaysia was authenticated as Lignosus rhinocerotis (Cooke) Ryvarden (synonym: Polyporus rhinocerus), which is also known as hurulingzhi in China and has been used by Chinese physicians to treat liver cancer, gastric ulcers, and chronic hepatitis. In spite of growing interest in the therapeutic potential of TMM, there is no compilation of scientific evidence that supports the ethnomedicinal uses of these mushrooms. Therefore, the present review is intended (i) to provide a comprehensive, up-to-date overview of the ethnomedicinal uses, pharmacological activities, and cultivation of TMM in general and L. rhinocerotis in particular, (ii) to demonstrate how recent scientific findings have validated some of their traditional uses, and (iii) to identify opportunities for future research and areas to prioritize for TMM bioprospecting. A detailed literature search was conducted via library search (books, theses, reports, newspapers, magazines, and conference proceedings) and electronic search (Web of Science, PubMed, and Google Scholar) for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. These sources were scrutinized for information on TMM and specifically for L. rhinocerotis. Ethnomycological knowledge about TMM, with an emphasis on cultural associations and use as local medicine, has been comprehensively and systematically compiled for the first time. Some of the reported medicinal properties of TMM have been validated by scientific studies. The anti-tumor, immuno-modulatory, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-microbial, neurite outgrowth stimulation, and other pharmacological

  4. Saving wild tigers: a case study in biodiversity loss and challenges to be met for recovery beyond 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidensticker, John

    2010-12-01

    Wild tigers are being annihilated. Tiger range countries and their partners met at the 1st Asian Ministerial Conference on Tiger Conservation in January 2010 to mandate the creation of the Global Tiger Recovery Program to double the number of tigers by 2022. Only 3200-3600 wild adult tigers remain, approximately half of the population estimated a decade ago. Tigers now live in only 13 countries, all of which are experiencing severe environmental challenges and degradation from the effects of human population growth, brisk economic expansion, rapid urbanization, massive infrastructure development and climate change. The overarching challenge of tiger conservation, and the conservation of biodiversity generally, is that there is insufficient demand for the survival of wild tigers living in natural landscapes. This allows the criminal activities of poaching wild tigers and their prey and trafficking in tiger derivatives to flourish and tiger landscapes to be diminished. The Global Tiger Recovery Program will support scaling up of practices already proven effective in one or more tiger range countries that need wider policy support, usually resources, and new transnational actions that enhance the effectiveness of individual country actions. The program is built on robust National Tiger Recovery Priorities that are grouped into themes: (i) strengthening policies that protect tigers; (ii) protecting tiger conservation landscapes; (iii) scientific management and monitoring; (iv) engaging communities; (v) cooperative management of international tiger landscapes; (vi) eliminating transnational illegal wildlife trade; (vii) persuading people to stop consuming tiger; (viii) enhancing professional capacity of policy-makers and practitioners; and (ix) developing sustainable, long-term financing mechanisms for tiger and biodiversity conservation. © 2010 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  5. Developing a National Tiger Action Plan for the Union of Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynam, Antony J.; Khaing, Saw Tun; Zaw, Khin Maung

    2006-01-01

    A century ago, tigers were considered pests in Myanmar. Hunters claimed thousands, yet populations persisted. In the past century, because of habitat loss and prey depletion, coupled with the recent demand for traditional medicines, tiger populations have been reduced to a few hundred individuals. As a first step toward long-term planning for tigers, and to guide efforts to increase protected area coverage, the Myanmar government in 1998 initiated a project to develop a revised National Tiger Action Plan. Extensive surveys confirmed tigers in only 4 of 17 survey locations. Significant populations are thought to persist in the far North and far South of the country, where large, intact forests offer the potential for tiger recovery. With partnerships and collaborations, tiger populations can be protected in the short term (laws. Over the long term (5-20 years), recovery of Myanmar’s tiger populations will depend on increasing support from local people, zoning tiger areas to reduce habitat loss and disturbance, and maintaining connectivity of existing national and transboundary forests. This article reviews the development of a new National Tiger Action Plan for the Union of Myanmar and discusses a blueprint for conservation measures aimed at saving tigers from extinction.

  6. Genotyping faecal samples of Bengal tiger Panthera tigris tigris for population estimation: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Lalji

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bengal tiger Panthera tigris tigris the National Animal of India, is an endangered species. Estimating populations for such species is the main objective for designing conservation measures and for evaluating those that are already in place. Due to the tiger's cryptic and secretive behaviour, it is not possible to enumerate and monitor its populations through direct observations; instead indirect methods have always been used for studying tigers in the wild. DNA methods based on non-invasive sampling have not been attempted so far for tiger population studies in India. We describe here a pilot study using DNA extracted from faecal samples of tigers for the purpose of population estimation. Results In this study, PCR primers were developed based on tiger-specific variations in the mitochondrial cytochrome b for reliably identifying tiger faecal samples from those of sympatric carnivores. Microsatellite markers were developed for the identification of individual tigers with a sibling Probability of Identity of 0.005 that can distinguish even closely related individuals with 99.9% certainty. The effectiveness of using field-collected tiger faecal samples for DNA analysis was evaluated by sampling, identification and subsequently genotyping samples from two protected areas in southern India. Conclusion Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using tiger faecal matter as a potential source of DNA for population estimation of tigers in protected areas in India in addition to the methods currently in use.

  7. Effect of tiger nut-derived products in gluten-free batter and bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Núria; Albanell, Elena; Miñarro, Begoña; Guamis, Buenaventura; Capellas, Marta

    2015-07-01

    Tiger nut is a tuber used to produce tiger nut milk that yields a high quantity of solid waste, which can be dried and used as fiber source. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the quality of gluten-free bread formulated with different tiger nut-derived products in order to substitute soya flour (which is an allergen ingredient) and, at the same time, increase the use of tiger nut-derived products. Four gluten-free formulations based on corn starch and containing tiger nut milk, tiger nut milk by-product, tiger nut flour, or soya flour (as reference formulation) were studied. Tiger nut milk increased G' of gluten-free batter and rendered breads with the softest crumb (502.46 g ± 102.05), the highest loaf-specific volume (3.35 cm(3)/g ± 0.25), and it was mostly preferred by consumers (61.02%). Breads elaborated with tiger nut flour had similar characteristics than soya flour breads (except in color and crumb structure). The addition of tiger nut milk by-product resulted in a hard (1047.64 g ± 145.74) and dark (L(*)  = 70.02 ± 3.38) crumb bread, which was the least preferred by consumers. Results showed that tiger nut is a promising ingredient to formulate gluten-free baked products. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Additional floral elements to the Ranthambhore Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shrivastava

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The Ranthambhore Tiger Reserve (RTR located in semi-arid zones of western India is popularly known for the Indian Tiger (Panthera tigris tigris protection. Stretched over Aravalli and Vindhya ranges, the Reserve sustains a highly variable phytodiversity with dominant Anogeissus pendula Edgew. Forest cover. Floristic and ethnobotanical studies were conducted in the RTR during the years 2001-2005. This has resulted in adding, 141 species of flowering plants belonging to 113 genera spread over to 48 families, not recorded earlier. The recorded species are inventorised following Bentham and Hooker’s classification.

  9. Tigers in the Terai: Strong evidence for meta-population dynamics contributing to tiger recovery and conservation in the Terai Arc Landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchan Thapa

    Full Text Available The source populations of tigers are mostly confined to protected areas, which are now becoming isolated. A landscape scale conservation strategy should strive to facilitate dispersal and survival of dispersing tigers by managing habitat corridors that enable tigers to traverse the matrix with minimal conflict. We present evidence for tiger dispersal along transboundary protected areas complexes in the Terai Arc Landscape, a priority tiger landscape in Nepal and India, by comparing camera trap data, and through population models applied to the long term camera trap data sets. The former showed that 11 individual tigers used the corridors that connected the transboundary protected areas. The estimated population growth rates using the minimum observed population size in two protected areas in Nepal, Bardia National Park and Suklaphanta National Park showed that the increases were higher than expected from growth rates due to in situ reproduction alone. These lines of evidence suggests that tigers are recolonizing Nepal's protected areas from India, after a period of population decline, and that the tiger populations in the transboundary protected areas complexes may be maintained as meta-population. Our results demonstrate the importance of adopting a landscape-scale approach to tiger conservation, especially to improve population recovery and long term population persistence.

  10. Tigers of Sundarbans in India: is the population a separate conservation unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sujeet Kumar; Mishra, Sudhanshu; Aspi, Jouni; Kvist, Laura; Nigam, Parag; Pandey, Puneet; Sharma, Reeta; Goyal, Surendra Prakash

    2014-01-01

    The Sundarbans tiger inhabits a unique mangrove habitat and are morphologically distinct from the recognized tiger subspecies in terms of skull morphometrics and body size. Thus, there is an urgent need to assess their ecological and genetic distinctiveness and determine if Sundarbans tigers should be defined and managed as separate conservation unit. We utilized nine microsatellites and 3 kb from four mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes to estimate genetic variability, population structure, demographic parameters and visualize historic and contemporary connectivity among tiger populations from Sundarbans and mainland India. We also evaluated the traits that determine exchangeability or adaptive differences among tiger populations. Data from both markers suggest that Sundarbans tiger is not a separate tiger subspecies and should be regarded as Bengal tiger (P. t. tigris) subspecies. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses of the mtDNA data revealed reciprocal monophyly. Genetic differentiation was found stronger for mtDNA than nuclear DNA. Microsatellite markers indicated low genetic variation in Sundarbans tigers (He= 0.58) as compared to other mainland populations, such as northern and Peninsular (Hebetween 0.67- 0.70). Molecular data supports migration between mainland and Sundarbans populations until very recent times. We attribute this reduction in gene flow to accelerated fragmentation and habitat alteration in the landscape over the past few centuries. Demographic analyses suggest that Sundarbans tigers have diverged recently from peninsular tiger population within last 2000 years. Sundarbans tigers are the most divergent group of Bengal tigers, and ecologically non-exchangeable with other tiger populations, and thus should be managed as a separate "evolutionarily significant unit" (ESU) following the adaptive evolutionary conservation (AEC) concept.

  11. Tigers of Sundarbans in India: Is the Population a Separate Conservation Unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sujeet Kumar; Mishra, Sudhanshu; Aspi, Jouni; Kvist, Laura; Nigam, Parag; Pandey, Puneet; Sharma, Reeta; Goyal, Surendra Prakash

    2015-01-01

    The Sundarbans tiger inhabits a unique mangrove habitat and are morphologically distinct from the recognized tiger subspecies in terms of skull morphometrics and body size. Thus, there is an urgent need to assess their ecological and genetic distinctiveness and determine if Sundarbans tigers should be defined and managed as separate conservation unit. We utilized nine microsatellites and 3 kb from four mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes to estimate genetic variability, population structure, demographic parameters and visualize historic and contemporary connectivity among tiger populations from Sundarbans and mainland India. We also evaluated the traits that determine exchangeability or adaptive differences among tiger populations. Data from both markers suggest that Sundarbans tiger is not a separate tiger subspecies and should be regarded as Bengal tiger (P. t. tigris) subspecies. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses of the mtDNA data revealed reciprocal monophyly. Genetic differentiation was found stronger for mtDNA than nuclear DNA. Microsatellite markers indicated low genetic variation in Sundarbans tigers (He= 0.58) as compared to other mainland populations, such as northern and Peninsular (Hebetween 0.67- 0.70). Molecular data supports migration between mainland and Sundarbans populations until very recent times. We attribute this reduction in gene flow to accelerated fragmentation and habitat alteration in the landscape over the past few centuries. Demographic analyses suggest that Sundarbans tigers have diverged recently from peninsular tiger population within last 2000 years. Sundarbans tigers are the most divergent group of Bengal tigers, and ecologically non-exchangeable with other tiger populations, and thus should be managed as a separate “evolutionarily significant unit” (ESU) following the adaptive evolutionary conservation (AEC) concept. PMID:25919139

  12. Tigers of Sundarbans in India: is the population a separate conservation unit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujeet Kumar Singh

    Full Text Available The Sundarbans tiger inhabits a unique mangrove habitat and are morphologically distinct from the recognized tiger subspecies in terms of skull morphometrics and body size. Thus, there is an urgent need to assess their ecological and genetic distinctiveness and determine if Sundarbans tigers should be defined and managed as separate conservation unit. We utilized nine microsatellites and 3 kb from four mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA genes to estimate genetic variability, population structure, demographic parameters and visualize historic and contemporary connectivity among tiger populations from Sundarbans and mainland India. We also evaluated the traits that determine exchangeability or adaptive differences among tiger populations. Data from both markers suggest that Sundarbans tiger is not a separate tiger subspecies and should be regarded as Bengal tiger (P. t. tigris subspecies. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses of the mtDNA data revealed reciprocal monophyly. Genetic differentiation was found stronger for mtDNA than nuclear DNA. Microsatellite markers indicated low genetic variation in Sundarbans tigers (He= 0.58 as compared to other mainland populations, such as northern and Peninsular (Hebetween 0.67- 0.70. Molecular data supports migration between mainland and Sundarbans populations until very recent times. We attribute this reduction in gene flow to accelerated fragmentation and habitat alteration in the landscape over the past few centuries. Demographic analyses suggest that Sundarbans tigers have diverged recently from peninsular tiger population within last 2000 years. Sundarbans tigers are the most divergent group of Bengal tigers, and ecologically non-exchangeable with other tiger populations, and thus should be managed as a separate "evolutionarily significant unit" (ESU following the adaptive evolutionary conservation (AEC concept.

  13. STUDY ON FRY PERFORMANCE OF BLACK TIGER SHRIMP Penaeus monodon WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ITS MORPHOLOGY AND RNA/DNA RATIO ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Haryanti Haryanti; Ketut Mahardika; Sari Budi Moria; I Gusti Ngurah Permana

    2006-01-01

    Standard method to asses the performance of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) fry was needed for successful shrimp culture. The main purpose of this study was to determine standard method fry performance of P. monodon assesment based on its morphology and molecular RNA/DNA ratio analysis. Samples of P. monodon fry were collected from hatcheries in Bali, six hatcheries in East Java, three hatcheries in Central Java and six hatcheries in South Sulawesi. Each hatchery gave 25 appropriate size...

  14. Wild versus domestic prey in the diet of reintroduced tigers (Panthera tigris) in the livestock-dominated multiple-use forests of Panna Tiger Reserve, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolipaka, S S; Tamis, W L M; van 't Zelfde, M; Persoon, G A; de Iongh, H H

    2017-01-01

    Grazing livestock in openly accessible areas is a common practice in the multiple-use forests of India; however, its compatibility with the reintroduction of tigers to these areas requires examination. Here, we investigated the diet of tigers in a livestock-dominated multiple-use buffer zone of the Panna Tiger Reserve, India. We hypothesised that the presence of feral cattle, along with open-access grazing practices in multiple-use forests, would increase the incidence of predation on livestock by tigers, even when wild prey are available. We used generalised linear models to test whether predation of livestock versus wild animals was influenced by (1) the sex and age class of tigers, (2) season, and (3) the distance of prey from the core-zone boundary of the reserve. Overall, sub-adult tigers and male tigers killed more livestock than wild prey, even when wild prey was available. In the winter and rainy seasons livestock were killed in higher numbers in the buffer zone than in summers, this may be because of the seasonally changing livestock herding patterns in the area. Further, with increasing distance from the core-zone boundary, all tigers killed more livestock, possibly because livestock were more easily accessible than wild prey. Our results show that open-access and unregulated livestock grazing is not currently compatible with large carnivore conservation in the same landscape. Such practices will lead to an increase in negative tiger-human-livestock interactions. In conclusion, we suggest the need to encourage locals to corral valuable cattle, leaving feral/unwanted livestock for tigers. This simple strategy would benefit both local inhabitants and tiger conservation in the multiple-use forests of India.

  15. Wild versus domestic prey in the diet of reintroduced tigers (Panthera tigris in the livestock-dominated multiple-use forests of Panna Tiger Reserve, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Kolipaka

    Full Text Available Grazing livestock in openly accessible areas is a common practice in the multiple-use forests of India; however, its compatibility with the reintroduction of tigers to these areas requires examination. Here, we investigated the diet of tigers in a livestock-dominated multiple-use buffer zone of the Panna Tiger Reserve, India. We hypothesised that the presence of feral cattle, along with open-access grazing practices in multiple-use forests, would increase the incidence of predation on livestock by tigers, even when wild prey are available. We used generalised linear models to test whether predation of livestock versus wild animals was influenced by (1 the sex and age class of tigers, (2 season, and (3 the distance of prey from the core-zone boundary of the reserve. Overall, sub-adult tigers and male tigers killed more livestock than wild prey, even when wild prey was available. In the winter and rainy seasons livestock were killed in higher numbers in the buffer zone than in summers, this may be because of the seasonally changing livestock herding patterns in the area. Further, with increasing distance from the core-zone boundary, all tigers killed more livestock, possibly because livestock were more easily accessible than wild prey. Our results show that open-access and unregulated livestock grazing is not currently compatible with large carnivore conservation in the same landscape. Such practices will lead to an increase in negative tiger-human-livestock interactions. In conclusion, we suggest the need to encourage locals to corral valuable cattle, leaving feral/unwanted livestock for tigers. This simple strategy would benefit both local inhabitants and tiger conservation in the multiple-use forests of India.

  16. Canine distemper virus: an emerging disease in wild endangered Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seimon, Tracie A; Miquelle, Dale G; Chang, Tylis Y; Newton, Alisa L; Korotkova, Irina; Ivanchuk, Galina; Lyubchenko, Elena; Tupikov, Andre; Slabe, Evgeny; McAloose, Denise

    2013-08-13

    Fewer than 500 Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) remain in the wild. Due to low numbers and their solitary and reclusive nature, tiger sightings across their range in the Russian Far East and China are rare; sightings of sick tigers are rarer still. Serious neurologic disease observed in several wild tigers since 2001 suggested disease emergence in this endangered species. To investigate this possibility, histology, immunohistochemistry (IHC), in situ hybridization (ISH), and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) were performed on tissues from 5 affected tigers that died or were destroyed in 2001, 2004, or 2010. Our results reveal canine distemper virus (CDV) infection as the cause of neurologic disease in two tigers and definitively establish infection in a third. Nonsuppurative encephalitis with demyelination, eosinophilic nuclear viral inclusions, and positive immunolabeling for CDV by IHC and ISH were present in the two tigers with available brain tissue. CDV phosphoprotein (P) and hemagglutinin (H) gene products were obtained from brains of these two tigers by RT-PCR, and a short fragment of CDV P gene sequence was detected in lymph node tissue of a third tiger. Phylogenetically, Amur tiger CDV groups with an Arctic-like strain in Baikal seals (Phoca siberica). Our results, which include mapping the location of positive tigers and recognition of a cluster of cases in 2010, coupled with a lack of reported CDV antibodies in Amur tigers prior to 2000 suggest wide geographic distribution of CDV across the tiger range and recent emergence of CDV as a significant infectious disease threat to endangered Amur tigers in the Russian Far East. Recognition of disease emergence in wildlife is a rare occurrence. Here, for the first time, we identify and characterize a canine distemper virus (CDV), the second most common cause of infectious disease death in domestic dogs and a viral disease of global importance in common and endangered carnivores, as the etiology of

  17. A call for tiger management using "reserves" of genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, Rachael A; Ramakrishnan, Uma; Hadly, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    Tigers (Panthera tigris), like many large carnivores, are threatened by anthropogenic impacts, primarily habitat loss and poaching. Current conservation plans for tigers focus on population expansion, with the goal of doubling census size in the next 10 years. Previous studies have shown that because the demographic decline was recent, tiger populations still retain a large amount of genetic diversity. Although maintaining this diversity is extremely important to avoid deleterious effects of inbreeding, management plans have yet to consider predictive genetic models. We used coalescent simulations based on previously sequenced mitochondrial fragments (n = 125) from 5 of 6 extant subspecies to predict the population growth needed to maintain current genetic diversity over the next 150 years. We found that the level of gene flow between populations has a large effect on the local population growth necessary to maintain genetic diversity, without which tigers may face decreases in fitness. In the absence of gene flow, we demonstrate that maintaining genetic diversity is impossible based on known demographic parameters for the species. Thus, managing for the genetic diversity of the species should be prioritized over the riskier preservation of distinct subspecies. These predictive simulations provide unique management insights, hitherto not possible using existing analytical methods.

  18. NAEP and Policy: Chasing the Tail of the Assessment Tiger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diket, Read M.; Brewer, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper grabs hold of the "assessment tiger" by considering the history of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) "Arts Report Cards" for the visual arts, which were constructed and have been administered four times within thirty-five years. Two purposes of the NAEP have persisted since its founding: (1)…

  19. Tiger Team Assessment of the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This draft report documents the Tiger Team Assessment of the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) located in Batavia, Illinois. Fermilab is a program-dedicated national laboratory managed by the Universities Research Association, Inc. (URA) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Tiger Team Assessment was conducted from May 11 to June 8, 1992, under the auspices of DOE's Office of Special Projects (OSP) under the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health (EH). The assessment was comprehensive, encompassing environmental, safety and health (ES ampersand H), and quality assurance (QA) disciplines; site remediation; facilities management; and waste management operations. Compliance with applicable Federal , State of Illinois, and local regulations; applicable DOE Orders; best management practices; and internal Fermilab requirements was addressed. In addition, an evaluation of the effectiveness of DOE and Fermilab management of the ES ampersand H/QA and self-assessment programs was conducted. The Fermilab Tiger Team Assessment is part a larger, comprehensive DOE Tiger Team Independent Assessment Program planned for DOE facilities. The objective of the initiative is to provide the Secretary of Energy with information on the compliance status of DOE facilities with regard to ES ampersand H requirements, root causes for noncompliance, adequacy of DOE and contractor ES ampersand H management programs, response actions to address the identified problem areas, and DOE-wide ES ampersand H compliance trends and root causes

  20. Undoing Quantitative Easing: Janet Yellen's Tiger Ride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederjohn, M. Scott; Schug, Mark C.; Wood, William C.

    2014-01-01

    "One who rides a tiger is afraid to dismount," says a colorful proverb from an earlier time. This may be an apt saying for the situation facing the new head of the Federal Reserve, Janet L. Yellen, who takes over at a time when successive rounds of Fed policy have taken the central bank into uncharted territory. By historical standards,…

  1. Density estimation in tiger populations: combining information for strong inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalaswamy, Arjun M.; Royle, J. Andrew; Delampady, Mohan; Nichols, James D.; Karanth, K. Ullas; Macdonald, David W.

    2012-01-01

    A productive way forward in studies of animal populations is to efficiently make use of all the information available, either as raw data or as published sources, on critical parameters of interest. In this study, we demonstrate two approaches to the use of multiple sources of information on a parameter of fundamental interest to ecologists: animal density. The first approach produces estimates simultaneously from two different sources of data. The second approach was developed for situations in which initial data collection and analysis are followed up by subsequent data collection and prior knowledge is updated with new data using a stepwise process. Both approaches are used to estimate density of a rare and elusive predator, the tiger, by combining photographic and fecal DNA spatial capture–recapture data. The model, which combined information, provided the most precise estimate of density (8.5 ± 1.95 tigers/100 km2 [posterior mean ± SD]) relative to a model that utilized only one data source (photographic, 12.02 ± 3.02 tigers/100 km2 and fecal DNA, 6.65 ± 2.37 tigers/100 km2). Our study demonstrates that, by accounting for multiple sources of available information, estimates of animal density can be significantly improved.

  2. Tiger hair morphology and its variations for wildlife forensic investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thitika Kitpipit

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Tiger population has dramatically decreased due to illegal consumption and commercialisation of their body parts. Frequently, hair samples are the only evidence found in the crime scene. Thus, they play an important role in species identification for wildlife forensic investigation. In this study, we provide the first in-depth report on a variety of qualitative and quantitative characteristics of tiger guard hairs (24 hairs per individual from four individuals. The proposed method could reduce subjectivity of expert opinions on species identification based on hair morphology. Variations in 23 hair morphological characteristics were quantified at three levels: hair section, body region, and intra-species. The results indicate statistically significant variations in most morphological characteristics in all levels. Intra-species variations of four variables, namely hair length, hair index, scale separation and scale pattern, were low. Therefore, identification of tiger hairs using these multiple features in combination with other characteristics with high inter-species variations (e.g. medulla type should bring about objective and accurate tiger hair identification. The method used should serve as a guideline and be further applied to other species to establish a wildlife hair morphology database. Statistical models could then be constructed to distinguish species and provide evidential values in terms of likelihood ratios.

  3. Reproductive profile of captive Sumateran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GONO SEMIADI

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae is one of several endemic Indonesian wild cat groups which population is critically endangered. A program to increase the population size had been conducted in captivity, especially in the zoo. In order to monitor the captive population and for the means of management in captivity, a logbook data recording system had been developed for individual animals. A compilation data from the Tiger International Stud Book from 1942 to 2000 was analyzed. The extraction data consisted of the reproduction performance of the animals, such as calving pattern, sex ratio, litter size etc. The results showed that mortality of cubs at ≤ 5 months old reached 59%, between 5 and 24 months old was 9.3% and above 24 months was 31.7%. Cubs were born all year round with concentration in July for Europe and North America regions. The mean of first reproductive age was at 4.6 years old (± 2.28, with the mean of the oldest reproductive age was at 8.3 years (± 3.63. Mean litter size was 2.21 cubs from dame born in captivity and 2.45 cubs from dame capture from the wild. Sex ratio of male to female was 53.8:46.2. The average lifespan of adult wild captive tiger was 5108.9 day (± 2365.4 day, while for adult (≥ 24 months of age captive tiger was 4417.4 day (± 1972.7.

  4. Determination of Profiles of Salmonella and Pathogenic Vibrio SPP. in Black Tiger Shrimp for Export by Introduction of Quality Assured Microbiological Assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wongchinda, N.; Sirimanuyutt, S.; Piromrak, R.; Rachniyom, S. [Fishery Technological Development Institute, Department of Fisheries, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2005-01-15

    Studies were conducted on contamination by Salmonella and pathogenic Vibrio spp. in samples of aquaculture black tiger shrimp, the water supply (canal water which is supplied as raw pond water before treatment), pond water, feed materials, and fresh and frozen shrimp. Salmonella was detected in samples of the water supply, pond water, feed materials, fresh shrimp at farm, fresh shrimp from wholesale market and frozen shrimp destined for export at levels of 13.95%, 1.53%, 1.14%, 3.17%, 30.4% and 0.21% respectively. V. cholerae non 01 was found in one sample of water from a culture pond of 131 tested (0.8%). V. parahaemolyticus was found in samples of canal water, pond water, fresh black tiger shrimp collected at farms, fresh black tiger shrimp collected at wholesale shrimp markets and frozen black tiger shrimp destined for export at levels of 2.3%, 5.3%, 14.3%, 48 % and 0.2% respectively. The strains identified as V. parahaemolyticus were examined for the presence or absence of the TDH and TRH. The incidence of TDH (KP+) was 2.67% (seven of 262 strains) and of TRH (urease reaction) was 1.15% (three of 262 strains). Salmonella and V. parahaemolyticus were found in a high percentage in fresh black tiger shrimp collected from wholesale shrimp markets. These shrimp are used as raw material for domestic consumption and for processing for exported shrimp products. Therefore GMP and/or Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system for shrimp distributors/producers should be applied. (author)

  5. Unique fatality due to claw injuries in a tiger attack: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Hrishikesh; Dixit, Pradeep; Dhawane, Shailendra; Meshram, Satin; Shrigiriwar, Manish; Dingre, Niraj

    2014-11-01

    This paper describes a unique case of a fatal tiger attack in the wild. In the present case, a tiger fatally mauled a 34-year-old female with its claws, instead of the usual mechanism of killing by the bite injury to the neck. The autopsy revealed multiple fatal and non-fatal injuries caused by the tiger claws. The characteristic injuries due to the tooth impacts were absent as the teeth of the offending tiger were either fallen or non-functional. To the best of our knowledge, probably this rare case would be the first reported human fatality due to the tiger claw injuries in the world. The purpose of the present article is to highlight the fatal injuries due to the tiger claws, as the claw-induced fatal injuries in a tiger attack are not reported in the medico-legal literature. Moreover, this report would be an illustrative one for differentiation between the fatal injuries due to the claws and tooth impacts in a tiger attack. Furthermore, the present report establishes the importance of the tiger claws as a source of fatal injuries in a tiger attack. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Saving the superstar: a review of the social factors affecting tiger conservation in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Archi; Hickey, Gordon M; Badola, Ruchi; Hussain, Syed Ainul

    2012-12-30

    Tiger conservation in India represents an excellent case study of the many challenges facing conservation programs internationally. It is well understood that tigers are sensitive to human disturbances and large areas of habitat need to be protected for their conservation. Such protected areas in India are managed by the governments using an exclusionary approach. However, this approach is known to create several issues with local communities, including historical, legal, livelihood and management issues; with a volume of literature suggesting the inclusion of local communities in management. Yet, other evidence suggests that inclusion of communities in tiger conservation may lead to anthropogenic disturbances that can jeopardize tigers. The gravity of the situation is reflected in the recent disappearance of tigers from two key protected areas in India, the Sariska and Panna Tiger Reserves. This review paper connects the key literature from conservation biology, environmental history, management sciences, policy and political sciences to underline the gridlock of tiger conservation: it needs exclusive protected areas that antagonize communities, and it depends on the support of the same communities for success. We examine the possibility of reconciliation between these disciplines, and assert that research on tiger conservation needs to allow for an increasingly interdisciplinary approach. We call for a more integrated approach to tiger conservation, to examine the values inherent in conservation and to shed more light on the social factors that affect tiger conservation schemes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Canine distemper virus as a threat to wild tigers in Russia and across their range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Martin; Soutyrina, Svetlana V; Seryodkin, Ivan V; Sulikhan, Nadezhda; Uphyrkina, Olga V; Goncharuk, Mikhail; Matthews, Louise; Cleaveland, Sarah; Miquelle, Dale G

    2015-07-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) has recently been identified in populations of wild tigers in Russia and India. Tiger populations are generally too small to maintain CDV for long periods, but are at risk of infections arising from more abundant susceptible hosts that constitute a reservoir of infection. Because CDV is an additive mortality factor, it could represent a significant threat to small, isolated tiger populations. In Russia, CDV was associated with the deaths of tigers in 2004 and 2010, and was coincident with a localized decline of tigers in Sikhote-Alin Biosphere Zapovednik (from 25 tigers in 2008 to 9 in 2012). Habitat continuity with surrounding areas likely played an important role in promoting an ongoing recovery. We recommend steps be taken to assess the presence and the impact of CDV in all tiger range states, but should not detract focus away from the primary threats to tigers, which include habitat loss and fragmentation, poaching and retaliatory killing. Research priorities include: (i) recognition and diagnosis of clinical cases of CDV in tigers when they occur; and (ii) collection of baseline data on the health of wild tigers. CDV infection of individual tigers need not imply a conservation threat, and modeling should complement disease surveillance and targeted research to assess the potential impact to tiger populations across the range of ecosystems, population densities and climate extremes occupied by tigers. Describing the role of domestic and wild carnivores as contributors to a local CDV reservoir is an important precursor to considering control measures. © 2015 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Ranging, Activity and Habitat Use by Tigers in the Mangrove Forests of the Sundarban.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipanjan Naha

    Full Text Available The Sundarban of India and Bangladesh (about 6000 km² are the only mangrove forests inhabited by a sizeable population of tigers. The adjoining area also supports one of the highest human densities and experiences severe human-tiger conflicts. We used GPS-Satellite and VHF radio-collars on 6 (3 males and 3 female tigers to study their ranging patterns and habitat preference. The average home range (95% Fixed Kernel for resident females was 56.4 (SE 5.69 and for males it was 110 (SE 49 km². Tigers crossed an average of 5 water channels > 30 meters per day with a mean width of 54 meters, whereas channels larger than 400 meters were rarely crossed. Tigers spent over 58% of their time within Phoenix habitat but compositional analysis showed a habitat preference of the order Avicennia-Sonneratia > Phoenix > Ceriops > Barren > Water. Average daily distance moved was 4.6 km (range 0.1-23. Activity of tigers peaked between 05:00 hours and 10:00 hours showing some overlap with human activity. Territory boundaries were demarcated by large channels which tigers intensively patrolled. Extra caution should be taken while fishing or honey collection during early morning in Avicennia-Sonneratia and Phoenix habitat types along wide channels to reduce human-tiger conflict. Considering home-range core areas as exclusive, tiger density was estimated at 4.6 (SE range 3.6 to 6.7 tigers/100 km2 giving a total population of 76 (SE range 59-110 tigers in the Indian Sundarban. Reluctance of tigers to cross wide water channels combined with increasing commercial boat traffic and sea level rise due to climate change pose a real threat of fragmenting the Sundarban tiger population.

  9. Anti-bat tiger moth sounds: Form and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron J. CORCORAN, William E. CONNER, Jesse R. BARBER

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The night sky is the venue of an ancient acoustic battle between echolocating bats and their insect prey. Many tiger moths (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae answer the attack calls of bats with a barrage of high frequency clicks. Some moth species use these clicks for acoustic aposematism and mimicry, and others for sonar jamming, however, most of the work on these defensive functions has been done on individual moth species. We here analyze the diversity of structure in tiger moth sounds from 26 species collected at three locations in North and South America. A principal components analysis of the anti-bat tiger moth sounds reveals that they vary markedly along three axes: (1 frequency, (2 duty cycle (sound production per unit time and frequency modulation, and (3 modulation cycle (clicks produced during flexion and relaxation of the sound producing tymbal structure. Tiger moth species appear to cluster into two distinct groups: one with low duty cycle and few clicks per modulation cycle that supports an acoustic aposematism function, and a second with high duty cycle and many clicks per modulation cycle that is consistent with a sonar jamming function. This is the first evidence from a community-level analysis to support multiple functions for tiger moth sounds. We also provide evidence supporting an evolutionary history for the development of these strategies. Furthermore, cross-correlation and spectrogram correlation measurements failed to support a “phantom echo” mechanism underlying sonar jamming, and instead point towards echo interference [Current Zoology 56 (3: 358–369, 2010].

  10. My Mother and Me: Why Tiger Mothers Motivate Asian Americans But Not European Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Alyssa S; Markus, Hazel Rose

    2014-06-01

    "Tiger Mother" Amy Chua provoked a culture clash with her claim that controlling parenting in Asian American (AA) contexts produces more successful children than permissive parenting in European American (EA) contexts. At the heart of this controversy is a difference in the normative models of self that guide behavior. Ideas and practices prevalent in AA contexts emphasize that the person is and should be interdependent with one's close others, especially one's mother. In contrast, EA contexts emphasize the person as independent, even from one's mother. We find that AA compared with EA high school students experience more interdependence with their mothers and pressure from them, but that the pressure does not strain their relationship with their mothers. Furthermore, following failure, AAs compared with EAs are more motivated by their mothers, and AAs are particularly motivated by pressure from their mothers when it conveys interdependence. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  11. Taming a Tiger in the City: Comparison of Motorized Backpack Applications and Source Reduction Against the Asian Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    TAMING A TIGER IN THE CITY: COMPARISON OF MOTORIZED BACKPACK APPLICATIONS AND SOURCE REDUCTION AGAINST THE ASIAN TIGER MOSQUITO, AEDES ALBOPICTUS...FONSECA2 AND ARY FARAJOLLAHI2,3,7 ABSTRACT. We evaluated 2 strategies to manage Aedes albopictus: 1) motorized backpack applications and 2) source...the community level. KEY WORDS Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis, Bti, methoprene, hand applications, backpack applications INTRODUCTION Aedes

  12. Amur tiger conservation education program: A pilot study on program effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhacheva, Anna S; Derugina, Vasilissa V; Maksimova, Galina D; Soutyrina, Svetlana V

    2015-07-01

    Anthropogenic impacts are the primary threats to Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) and their habitat. Villagers living in proximity to tigers tend to view them negatively and, often, as a source of revenue on black markets. We aim to reduce human-tiger conflict by working with young students of Ternei County in the heart of tiger habitat in Primorskii Krai (Province). To inform and influence Ternei County's future decision-makers, we developed "Safe Conduct", a year-long education program held in 6 villages, culminating in a multi-school conference. We tested the efficacy of Safe Conduct as a potential model for tiger conservation educational programs. We measured levels of student knowledge about tiger ecology, their attitude towards tigers, and their willingness to engage in tiger conservation activites prior to, immediately after and 6 months following the completion of our program. Results supported the fundamental premise of Safe Conduct that knowledge and attitude towards tigers are correlated. Knowledge of tiger ecology and attitude towards tigers increased by the project's completion; both remained high after 6 months. However, commitment to participation in conservation efforts rose temporarily post-program and then dropped. Results varied by village. We recommend that the reasons for the high performance measures of students in 2 villages be investigated, and that lessons learned be applied to villages that underperformed. Safe Conduct represents a potential model for environmental education programs in Ternei County and elsewhere to educate future generations, to eventually develop a strong commitment to Amur tiger conservation at the community level. © 2015 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Kreutz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Es un estudio cualitativo que adoptó como referencial teorico-motodológico la antropología y la etnografía. Presenta las experiencias vivenciadas por mujeres de una comunidad en el proceso salud-enfermedad, con el objetivo de comprender los determinantes sócio-culturales e históricos de las prácticas de prevención y tratamiento adoptados por el grupo cultural por medio de la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los temas que emergieron fueron: la relación entre la alimentación y lo proceso salud-enfermedad, las relaciones con el sistema de salud oficial y el proceso salud-enfermedad y lo sobrenatural. Los dados revelaron que los moradores de la comunidad investigada tienen un modo particular de explicar sus procedimientos terapéuticos. Consideramos que es papel de los profesionales de la salud en sus prácticas, la adopción de abordajes o enfoques que consideren al individuo en su dimensión sócio-cultural e histórica, considerando la enorme diversidad cultural en nuestro país.

  14. BLAKE - A Thermodynamics Code Based on TIGER: Users' Guide to the Revised Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Freedman, Eli

    1998-01-01

    .... This code, which was derived from the original version of SRI's TIGER program, is intended primarily for making calculations on the combustion products from conventional military and electrically...

  15. Probing cochlear tuning and tonotopy in the tiger using otoacoustic emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergevin, Christopher; Walsh, Edward J; McGee, JoAnn; Shera, Christopher A

    2012-08-01

    Otoacoustic emissions (sound emitted from the ear) allow cochlear function to be probed noninvasively. The emissions evoked by pure tones, known as stimulus-frequency emissions (SFOAEs), have been shown to provide reliable estimates of peripheral frequency tuning in a variety of mammalian and non-mammalian species. Here, we apply the same methodology to explore peripheral auditory function in the largest member of the cat family, the tiger (Panthera tigris). We measured SFOAEs in 9 unique ears of 5 anesthetized tigers. The tigers, housed at the Henry Doorly Zoo (Omaha, NE), were of both sexes and ranged in age from 3 to 10 years. SFOAE phase-gradient delays are significantly longer in tigers--by approximately a factor of two above 2 kHz and even more at lower frequencies--than in domestic cats (Felis catus), a species commonly used in auditory studies. Based on correlations between tuning and delay established in other species, our results imply that cochlear tuning in the tiger is significantly sharper than in domestic cat and appears comparable to that of humans. Furthermore, the SFOAE data indicate that tigers have a larger tonotopic mapping constant (mm/octave) than domestic cats. A larger mapping constant in tiger is consistent both with auditory brainstem response thresholds (that suggest a lower upper frequency limit of hearing for the tiger than domestic cat) and with measurements of basilar-membrane length (about 1.5 times longer in the tiger than domestic cat).

  16. QTL for white spot syndrome virus resistance and the sex-determining locus in the Indian black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Nicholas A; Gopikrishna, Gopalapillay; Baranski, Matthew; Katneni, Vinaya Kumar; Shekhar, Mudagandur S; Shanmugakarthik, Jayakani; Jothivel, Sarangapani; Gopal, Chavali; Ravichandran, Pitchaiyappan; Gitterle, Thomas; Ponniah, Alphis G

    2014-08-28

    Shrimp culture is a fast growing aquaculture sector, but in recent years there has been a shift away from tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon to other species. This is largely due to the susceptibility of P. monodon to white spot syndrome virus disease (Whispovirus sp.) which has impacted production around the world. As female penaeid shrimp grow more rapidly than males, mono-sex production would be advantageous, however little is known about genes controlling or markers associated with sex determination in shrimp. In this study, a mapped set of 3959 transcribed single nucleotide polymorphisms were used to scan the P. monodon genome for loci associated with resistance to white-spot syndrome virus and sex in seven full-sibling tiger shrimp families challenged with white spot syndrome virus. Linkage groups 2, 3, 5, 6, 17, 18, 19, 22, 27 and 43 were found to contain quantitative trait loci significantly associated with hours of survival after white spot syndrome virus infection (P shrimp.

  17. 2000 Census 3-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Luna County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  18. 2000 Census 3-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Harding County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  19. American Indian/ Alaska Native Area/ Hawaiian Homeland Areas for San Juan County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  20. 2000 Census 5-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Catron County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...