WorldWideScience

Sample records for cultured skin substitutes

  1. Optimizing in vitro culture conditions leads to a significantly shorter production time of human dermo-epidermal skin substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontiggia, Luca; Klar, Agnieszka; Böttcher-Haberzeth, Sophie; Biedermann, Thomas; Meuli, Martin; Reichmann, Ernst

    2013-03-01

    Autologous dermo-epidermal skin substitutes (DESS) generated in vitro represent a promising therapeutic means to treat full-thickness skin defects in clinical practice. A serious drawback with regard to acute patients is the relatively long production time of 3-4 weeks. With this experimental study we aimed to decrease the production time of DESS without compromising their quality. Two in vitro steps of DESS construction were varied: the pre-cultivation time of fibroblasts in hydrogels (1, 3, and 6 days), and the culture time of keratinocytes (3, 6, and 12 days) before transplantation of DESS on nude rats. Additionally, the impact of the air-liquid interface culture during 3 days before transplantation was investigated. 3 weeks after transplantation, the macroscopic appearance was evaluated and histological sections were produced to analyze structure and thickness of epidermis and dermis, the stratification of the epidermis, and the presence of a basal lamina. Optimal DESS formation was obtained with a fibroblast pre-cultivation time of 6 days. The minimal culture time of keratinocytes on hydrogels was also 6 days. The air-liquid interface culture did not improve graft quality. By optimizing our in vitro culture conditions, it was possible to very substantially reduce the production time for DESS from 21 to 12 days. However, pre-cultivation of fibroblasts in the dermal equivalent and proliferation of keratinocytes before transplantation remain crucial for an equilibrated maturation of the epidermis and cannot be completely skipped.

  2. Artificial skin--culturing of different skin cell lines for generating an artificial skin substitute on cross-weaved spider silk fibres.

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    Hanna Wendt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the field of Plastic Reconstructive Surgery the development of new innovative matrices for skin repair is in urgent need. The ideal biomaterial should promote attachment, proliferation and growth of cells. Additionally, it should degrade in an appropriate time period without releasing harmful substances, but not exert a pathological immune response. Spider dragline silk from Nephila spp meets these demands to a large extent. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Native spider dragline silk, harvested directly out of Nephila spp spiders, was woven on steel frames. Constructs were sterilized and seeded with fibroblasts. After two weeks of cultivating single fibroblasts, keratinocytes were added to generate a bilayered skin model, consisting of dermis and epidermis equivalents. For the next three weeks, constructs in co-culture were lifted on an originally designed setup for air/liquid interface cultivation. After the culturing period, constructs were embedded in paraffin with an especially developed program for spidersilk to avoid supercontraction. Paraffin cross-sections were stained in Haematoxylin & Eosin (H&E for microscopic analyses. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Native spider dragline silk woven on steel frames provides a suitable matrix for 3 dimensional skin cell culturing. Both fibroblasts and keratinocytes cell lines adhere to the spider silk fibres and proliferate. Guided by the spider silk fibres, they sprout into the meshes and reach confluence in at most one week. A well-balanced, bilayered cocultivation in two continuously separated strata can be achieved by serum reduction, changing the medium conditions and the cultivation period at the air/liquid interphase. Therefore spider silk appears to be a promising biomaterial for the enhancement of skin regeneration.

  3. Artificial SkinCulturing of Different Skin Cell Lines for Generating an Artificial Skin Substitute on Cross-Weaved Spider Silk Fibres

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    Reimers, Kerstin; Kuhbier, Joern W.; Schäfer-Nolte, Franziska; Allmeling, Christina; Kasper, Cornelia; Vogt, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Background In the field of Plastic Reconstructive Surgery the development of new innovative matrices for skin repair is in urgent need. The ideal biomaterial should promote attachment, proliferation and growth of cells. Additionally, it should degrade in an appropriate time period without releasing harmful substances, but not exert a pathological immune response. Spider dragline silk from Nephila spp meets these demands to a large extent. Methodology/Principal Findings Native spider dragline silk, harvested directly out of Nephila spp spiders, was woven on steel frames. Constructs were sterilized and seeded with fibroblasts. After two weeks of cultivating single fibroblasts, keratinocytes were added to generate a bilayered skin model, consisting of dermis and epidermis equivalents. For the next three weeks, constructs in co-culture were lifted on an originally designed setup for air/liquid interface cultivation. After the culturing period, constructs were embedded in paraffin with an especially developed program for spidersilk to avoid supercontraction. Paraffin cross- sections were stained in Haematoxylin & Eosin (H&E) for microscopic analyses. Conclusion/Significance Native spider dragline silk woven on steel frames provides a suitable matrix for 3 dimensional skin cell culturing. Both fibroblasts and keratinocytes cell lines adhere to the spider silk fibres and proliferate. Guided by the spider silk fibres, they sprout into the meshes and reach confluence in at most one week. A well-balanced, bilayered cocultivation in two continuously separated strata can be achieved by serum reduction, changing the medium conditions and the cultivation period at the air/liquid interphase. Therefore spider silk appears to be a promising biomaterial for the enhancement of skin regeneration. PMID:21814557

  4. Skin or nail culture

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    Mucosal culture; Culture - skin; Culture - mucosal; Nail culture; Culture - fingernail; Fingernail culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria, ...

  5. Characterization of hair follicle development in engineered skin substitutes.

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    Penkanok Sriwiriyanont

    Full Text Available Generation of skin appendages in engineered skin substitutes has been limited by lack of trichogenic potency in cultured postnatal cells. To investigate the feasibility and the limitation of hair regeneration, engineered skin substitutes were prepared with chimeric populations of cultured human keratinocytes from neonatal foreskins and cultured murine dermal papilla cells from adult GFP transgenic mice and grafted orthotopically to full-thickness wounds on athymic mice. Non-cultured dissociated neonatal murine-only skin cells, or cultured human-only skin keratinocytes and fibroblasts without dermal papilla cells served as positive and negative controls respectively. In this study, neonatal murine-only skin substitutes formed external hairs and sebaceous glands, chimeric skin substitutes formed pigmented hairs without sebaceous glands, and human-only skin substitutes formed no follicles or glands. Although chimeric hair cannot erupt readily, removal of upper skin layer exposed keratinized hair shafts at the skin surface. Development of incomplete pilosebaceous units in chimeric hair corresponded with upregulation of hair-related genes, LEF1 and WNT10B, and downregulation of a marker of sebaceous glands, Steroyl-CoA desaturase. Transepidermal water loss was normal in all conditions. This study demonstrated that while sebaceous glands may be involved in hair eruption, they are not required for hair development in engineered skin substitutes.

  6. Biologic and synthetic skin substitutes: An overview

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    Halim Ahmad

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The current trend of burn wound care has shifted to more holistic approach of improvement in the long-term form and function of the healed burn wounds and quality of life. This has demanded the emergence of various skin substitutes in the management of acute burn injury as well as post burn reconstructions. Skin substitutes have important roles in the treatment of deep dermal and full thickness wounds of various aetiologies. At present, there is no ideal substitute in the market. Skin substitutes can be divided into two main classes, namely, biological and synthetic substitutes. The biological skin substitutes have a more intact extracellular matrix structure, while the synthetic skin substitutes can be synthesised on demand and can be modulated for specific purposes. Each class has its advantages and disadvantages. The biological skin substitutes may allow the construction of a more natural new dermis and allow excellent re-epithelialisation characteristics due to the presence of a basement membrane. Synthetic skin substitutes demonstrate the advantages of increase control over scaffold composition. The ultimate goal is to achieve an ideal skin substitute that provides an effective and scar-free wound healing.

  7. Artificial SkinCulturing of Different Skin Cell Lines for Generating an Artificial Skin Substitute on Cross-Weaved Spider Silk Fibres

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna Wendt; Anja Hillmer; Kerstin Reimers; Kuhbier, Joern W.; Franziska Schäfer-Nolte; Christina Allmeling; Cornelia Kasper; Vogt, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the field of Plastic Reconstructive Surgery the development of new innovative matrices for skin repair is in urgent need. The ideal biomaterial should promote attachment, proliferation and growth of cells. Additionally, it should degrade in an appropriate time period without releasing harmful substances, but not exert a pathological immune response. Spider dragline silk from Nephila spp meets these demands to a large extent. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Native spider draglin...

  8. Artificial Skin - Culturing of Different Skin Cell Lines for Generating an Artificial Skin Substitute on Cross-Weaved Spider Silk Fibres

    OpenAIRE

    Wendt, Hanna; Hillmer, Anja; REIMERS, KERSTIN; Kuhbier, Joern W.; Schaefer-Nolte, Franziska; Allmeling, Christina; Kasper, Cornelia; Vogt, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: In the field of Plastic Reconstructive Surgery the development of new innovative matrices for skin repair is in urgent need. The ideal biomaterial should promote attachment, proliferation and growth of cells. Additionally, it should degrade in an appropriate time period without releasing harmful substances, but not exert a pathological immune response. Spider dragline silk from Nephila spp meets these demands to a large extent. Methodology/Principal Findings: Native spider draglin...

  9. Secretion of wound healing mediators by single and bi-layer skin substitutes.

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    Maarof, Manira; Law, Jia Xian; Chowdhury, Shiplu Roy; Khairoji, Khairul Anuar; Saim, Aminuddin Bin; Idrus, Ruszymah Bt Hj

    2016-10-01

    Limitations of current treatments for skin loss caused by major injuries leads to the use of skin substitutes. It is assumed that secretion of wound healing mediators by these skin substitutes plays a role in treating skin loss. In our previous study, single layer keratinocytes (SK), single layer fibroblast (SF) and bilayer (BL; containing keratinocytes and fibroblasts layers) skin substitutes were fabricated using fibrin that had shown potential to heal wounds in preclinical studies. This study aimed to quantify the secretion of wound healing mediators, and compare between single and bi-layer skin substitutes. Skin samples were digested to harvest fibroblasts and keratinocytes, and expanded to obtain sufficient cells for the construction of skin substitutes. Acellular fibrin (AF) construct was used as control. Substitutes i.e. AF, SK, SF and BL were cultured for 2 days, and culture supernatant was collected to analyze secretion of wound healing mediators via multiplex ELISA. Among 19 wound healing mediators tested, BL substitute secreted significantly higher amounts of CXCL1 and GCSF compared to SF and AF substitute but this was not significant with respect to SK substitute. The BL substitute also secreted significantly higher amounts of CXCL5 and IL-6 compared to other substitutes. In contrast, the SK substitute secreted significantly higher amounts of VCAM-1 compared to other substitutes. However, all three skin substitutes also secreted CCL2, CCL5, CCL11, GM-CSF, IL8, IL-1α, TNF-α, ICAM-1, FGF-β, TGF-β, HGF, VEGF-α and PDGF-BB factors, but no significant difference was seen. Secretion of these mediators after transplantation may play a significant role in promoting wound healing process for the treatment of skin loss.

  10. The Search for an Ideal Temporary Skin Substitute: AWBAT

    OpenAIRE

    Woodroof, E. Aubrey

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The search for an ideal temporary skin substitute is a continuous quest. Without the ability to provide active transport systems powered by adenosine triphosphate or adenosine diphosphate that pump fluid out on demand, all skin substitutes, however effective, would be a compromise. Therefore, the best that any current wound covering design can do is to strive to produce all the other qualities of an ideal skin substitute. Recently developed technology utilized in AW BAT attempts to...

  11. Preparation and Characterization of a Novel Skin Substitute

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    Carlotta Castagnoli

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed at producing and evaluating a new cutaneous biosubstitute made up of alloplastic acellular glycerolized dermis (AAGD and CEA to overcome these difficulties. A procedure that maintained an intact basement membrane was developed, so as to promote adhesion and growth of CEA on AAGD. Keratinocytes were seeded onto AAGD and cultured up to 21 days. Viability tests and immunohistochemical analysis with specific markers were carried out at 7, 14, and 21 days, to evaluate keratinocyte adhesion, growth, and maturation. Our results support the hypothesis that this newly formed skin substitute could allow its permanent engraftment in clinical application.

  12. Substituted Indoleacetic Acids Tested in Tissue Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1978-01-01

    Monochloro substituted IAA inhibited shoot induction in tobacco tissue cultures about as much as IAA. Dichloro substituted IAA inhibited shoot formation less. Other substituted IAA except 5-fluoro- and 5-bromoindole-3-acetic acid were less active than IAA. Callus growth was quite variable...

  13. Porcine wound models for skin substitution and burn treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelkoop, E.; Bogaerdt, A.J. van den; Lamme, E.N.; Hoekstra, M.J.; Brandsma, K.; Ulrich, M.M.

    2004-01-01

    Skin regeneration is an important field of tissue engineering. Especially in larger burns and chronic wounds, present treatments are insufficient in preventing scar formation and promoting healing. Initial screening of potentially interesting products for skin substitution is usually done by in

  14. [Experiences with Epigard, a synthetic skin substitute, in the treatment of skin defects].

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    Kiffner, E; Bohmert, H

    1976-05-20

    Epigard, a reticulated polyurethane foam laminated to a microporous polypropylene film, has been developed as a substitute for homograft and heterograft skin. After preliminary studies in animals, its clinical advantages and limitations were evaluated in 134 hospitilized patients with burn injuries and other skin defects. Examples for its indications are demonstrated and discussed. It is concluded that Epigard provides a satisfactory substitute for skin grafts with major advantages for ready availability, sterility and reduced cost.

  15. Evaluation of cultured human dermal- and dermo-epidermal substitutes focusing on extracellular matrix components: Comparison of protein and RNA analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostendorp, C.; Meyer, S.; Sobrio, M.; Arendonk, J. van; Reichmann, E.; Daamen, W.F.; Kuppevelt, T.H. van

    2017-01-01

    Treatment of full-thickness skin defects with split-thickness skin grafts is generally associated with contraction and scar formation and cellular skin substitutes have been developed to improve skin regeneration. The evaluation of cultured skin substitutes is generally based on qualitative

  16. Dermal Substitutes Support the Growth of Human Skin-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Potential Tool for Skin Regeneration

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    Jeremias, Talita da Silva; Machado, Rafaela Grecco; Visoni, Silvia Beatriz Coutinho; Pereima, Maurício José; Leonardi, Dilmar Francisco; Trentin, Andrea Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    New strategies for skin regeneration are needed in order to provide effective treatment for cutaneous wounds and disease. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an attractive source of cells for tissue engineering because of their prolonged self-renewal capacity, multipotentiality, and ability to release active molecules important for tissue repair. In this paper, we show that human skin-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (SD-MSCs) display similar characteristics to the multipotent MSCs. We also evaluate their growth in a three-dimensional (3D) culture system with dermal substitutes (Integra and Pelnac). When cultured in monolayers, SD-MSCs expressed mesenchymal markers, such as CD105, Fibronectin, and α-SMA; and neural markers, such as Nestin and βIII-Tubulin; at transcriptional and/or protein level. Integra and Pelnac equally supported the adhesion, spread and growth of human SD-MSCs in 3D culture, maintaining the MSC characteristics and the expression of multilineage markers. Therefore, dermal substitutes support the growth of mesenchymal stromal cells from human skin, promising an effective tool for tissue engineering and regenerative technology. PMID:24586857

  17. A 3D-psoriatic skin model for dermatological testing: The impact of culture conditions

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    Alexandra Duque-Fernandez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate representation of the human tissue environment during a preclinical screen can result in inaccurate predictions of compound effects. Consequently, pharmaceutical investigators are searching for preclinical models that closely resemble original tissue for predicting clinical outcomes.The current research aims to compare the impact of using serum-free medium instead of complete culture medium during the last step of psoriatic skin substitute reconstruction. Skin substitutes were produced according to the self-assembly approach.Serum-free conditions have no negative impact on the reconstruction of healthy or psoriatic skin substitutes presented in this study regarding their macroscopic or histological appearances. ATR-FTIR results showed no significant differences in the CH2 bands between psoriatic substitutes cultured with or without serum, thus suggesting that serum deprivation did not have a negative impact on the lipid organization of their stratum corneum. Serum deprivation could even lead to a better organization of healthy skin substitute lipids. Percutaneous analyses demonstrated that psoriatic substitutes cultured in serum-free conditions showed a higher permeability to hydrocortisone compared to controls, while no significant differences in benzoic acid and caffeine penetration profiles were observed.Results obtained with this 3D-psoriatic skin substitute demonstrate the potential and versatility of the model. It could offer good prediction of drug related toxicities at preclinical stages performed in order to avoid unexpected and costly findings in the clinic.Together, these findings offer a new approach for one of the most important challenges of the 21st century, namely, prediction of drug toxicity.•Impact of serum-free conditions during psoriatic skin substitutes reconstruction.•Lipids disorganization of healthy and psoriatic skin substitutes.•Permeation profiles of healthy skin substitutes.•Permeation profiles of

  18. Chitosan Dermal Substitute and Chitosan Skin Substitute Contribute to Accelerated Full-Thickness Wound Healing in Irradiated Rats

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    Abu Bakar Mohd Hilmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wounds with full-thickness skin loss are commonly managed by skin grafting. In the absence of a graft, reepithelialization is imperfect and leads to increased scar formation. Biomaterials can alter wound healing so that it produces more regenerative tissue and fewer scars. This current study use the new chitosan based biomaterial in full-thickness wound with impaired healing on rat model. Wounds were evaluated after being treated with a chitosan dermal substitute, a chitosan skin substitute, or duoderm CGF. Wounds treated with the chitosan skin substitute showed the most re-epithelialization (33.2 ± 2.8%, longest epithelial tongue (1.62 ± 0.13 mm, and shortest migratory tongue distance (7.11 ± 0.25 mm. The scar size of wounds treated with the chitosan dermal substitute (0.13 ± 0.02 cm and chitosan skin substitute (0.16 ± 0.05 cm were significantly decreased (P<0.05 compared with duoderm (0.45 ± 0.11 cm. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA expression on days 7, 14, and 21 revealed the presence of human hair follicle stem cells and fibroblasts that were incorporated into and surviving in the irradiated wound. We have proven that a chitosan dermal substitute and chitosan skin substitute are suitable for wound healing in full-thickness wounds that are impaired due to radiation.

  19. Skin epithelial cells as possible substitutes for ameloblasts during tooth regeneration.

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    Liu, Yihan; Jiang, Ming; Hao, Wei; Liu, Wenjia; Tang, Liang; Liu, Hongchen; Jin, Yan

    2013-12-01

    The disappearance of ameloblasts in erupted teeth hampers the implementation of tissue engineering-based tooth regeneration. We aimed at utilizing skin epithelial cells as the appropriate substitute for ameloblasts. The conversion potential of 1 day postnatal rat skin epithelial cells to ameloblasts was investigated under the induction of dental papillae mesenchymal cells (DPMCs). Induction strategies had been designed both in vitro and in vivo. Markers for ameloblasts had been detected in skin epithelial cells, which showed a columnar appearance with the nuclei located at one side, under indirect co-culture with DPMCs in vitro. An enamel-dentine-like and tooth germ-like structure was formed by recombining skin epithelial pieces or cells with DPMCs after 14 days of implantation in rat renal capsule. Immunohistochemistry and cell labelling analysis further demonstrated that the enamel-forming cells were skin epithelium-derived. These results indicated that the skin epithelium-derived cells from postnatal rats have the potential to convert to functional ameloblasts under effective induction.

  20. Dermal Matrices and Bioengineered Skin Substitutes: A Critical Review of Current Options

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    Heidi Debels, MD

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Skin substitutes are a useful tool in plastic and reconstructive surgery practices as an alternative to skin grafts. In the choice of substitute, the general plastic surgery principle of replacing like tissue with like tissue seems to be still standing, and products most resembling the natural dermal extracellular matrix should be preferred.

  1. Evaluation of cultured human dermal- and dermo-epidermal substitutes focusing on extracellular matrix components: Comparison of protein and RNA analysis.

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    Oostendorp, Corien; Meyer, Sarah; Sobrio, Monia; van Arendonk, Joyce; Reichmann, Ernst; Daamen, Willeke F; van Kuppevelt, Toin H

    2017-05-01

    Treatment of full-thickness skin defects with split-thickness skin grafts is generally associated with contraction and scar formation and cellular skin substitutes have been developed to improve skin regeneration. The evaluation of cultured skin substitutes is generally based on qualitative parameters focusing on histology. In this study we focused on quantitative evaluation to provide a template for comparison of human bio-engineered skin substitutes between clinical and/or research centers, and to supplement histological data. We focused on extracellular matrix proteins since these components play an important role in skin regeneration. As a model we analyzed the human dermal substitute denovoDerm and the dermo-epidermal skin substitute denovoSkin. The quantification of the extracellular matrix proteins type III collagen and laminin 5 in tissue homogenates using western blotting analysis and ELISA was not successful. The same was true for assaying lysyl oxidase, an enzyme involved in crosslinking of matrix molecules. As an alternative, gene expression levels were measured using qPCR. Various RNA isolation procedures were probed. The gene expression profile for specific dermal and epidermal genes could be measured reliably and reproducibly. Differences caused by changes in the cell culture conditions could easily be detected. The number of cells in the skin substitutes was measured using the PicoGreen dsDNA assay, which was found highly quantitative and reproducible. The (dis) advantages of assays used for quantitative evaluation of skin substitutes are discussed.

  2. Delayed culture of Leishmania in skin biopsies.

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    Dedet, J P; Pratlong, F; Pradinaud, R; Moreau, B

    1999-01-01

    Between January 1997 and October 1998, 16 skin biopsies collected from 13 patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis in French Guiana were inoculated in culture medium after travel for 3-17 days from the place of biopsy to the culture laboratory in France. Each biopsy fragment was introduced near the flame of a Bunsen burner into the transport medium (RPMI medium supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum) which was maintained at ambient temperature during postal delivery to France. In France the biopsies were ground in sterile saline before being inoculated into NNN culture tubes. The cultures were incubated at 25 degrees C and subcultured every week until the 5th week. The cultures were positive in 9 cases, remained negative in 4, and were contaminated in 3 cases. Positive results were obtained at all seasons and for 3 different Leishmania species. The study indicates that delayed culture can yield useful results from biopsies taken in field conditions.

  3. Characterization of pigmented dermo-epidermal skin substitutes in a long-term in vivo assay.

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    Böttcher-Haberzeth, Sophie; Biedermann, Thomas; Klar, Agnieszka S; Widmer, Daniel S; Neuhaus, Kathrin; Schiestl, Clemens; Meuli, Martin; Reichmann, Ernst

    2015-01-01

    In our laboratory, we have been using human pigmented dermo-epidermal skin substitutes for short-term experiments since several years. Little is known, however, about the long-term biology of such constructs after transplantation. We constructed human, melanocyte-containing dermo-epidermal skin substitutes of different (light and dark) pigmentation types and studied them in a long-term animal experiment. Developmental and maturational stages of the epidermal and dermal compartment as well as signs of homoeostasis were analysed 15 weeks after transplantation. Keratinocytes, melanocytes and fibroblasts from human skin biopsies were isolated and assembled into dermo-epidermal skin substitutes. These were transplanted onto immuno-incompetent rats and investigated 15 weeks after transplantation. Chromameter evaluation showed a consistent skin colour between 3 and 4 months after transplantation. Melanocytes resided in the epidermal basal layer in physiological numbers and melanin accumulated in keratinocytes in a supranuclear position. Skin substitutes showed a mature epidermis in a homoeostatic state and the presence of dermal components such as Fibrillin and Tropoelastin suggested advanced maturation. Overall, pigmented dermo-epidermal skin substitutes show a promising development towards achieving near-normal skin characteristics and epidermal and dermal tissue homoeostasis. In particular, melanocytes function correctly over several months whilst remaining in a physiological, epidermal position and yield a pigmentation resembling original donor skin colour. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. A new model for preclinical testing of dermal substitutes for human skin reconstruction.

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    Hartmann-Fritsch, Fabienne; Biedermann, Thomas; Braziulis, Erik; Meuli, Martin; Reichmann, Ernst

    2013-05-01

    Currently, acellular dermal substitutes used for skin reconstruction are usually covered with split-thickness skin grafts. The goal of this study was to develop an animal model in which such dermal substitutes can be tested under standardized conditions using a bioengineered dermo-epidermal skin graft for coverage. Bioengineered grafts consisting of collagen type I hydrogels with incorporated human fibroblasts and human keratinocytes seeded on these gels were produced. Two different dermal substitutes, namely Matriderm(®), and an acellular collagen type I hydrogel, were applied onto full-thickness skin wounds created on the back of immuno-incompetent rats. As control, no dermal substitute was used. As coverage for the dermal substitutes either the bioengineered grafts were used, or, as controls, human split-thickness skin or neonatal rat epidermis were used. Grafts were excised 21 days post-transplantation. Histology and immunofluorescence was performed to investigate survival, epidermis formation, and vascularization of the grafts. The bioengineered grafts survived on all tested dermal substitutes. Epidermis formation and vascularization were comparable to the controls. We could successfully use human bioengineered grafts to test different dermal substitutes. This novel model can be used to investigate newly designed dermal substitutes in detail and in a standardized way.

  5. Modified plastic compression of collagen hydrogels provides an ideal matrix for clinically applicable skin substitutes.

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    Braziulis, Erik; Diezi, Mirco; Biedermann, Thomas; Pontiggia, Luca; Schmucki, Marlene; Hartmann-Fritsch, Fabienne; Luginbühl, Joachim; Schiestl, Clemens; Meuli, Martin; Reichmann, Ernst

    2012-06-01

    Tissue engineering of clinically applicable dermo-epidermal skin substitutes is crucially dependent on the three-dimensional extracellular matrix, supporting the biological function of epidermal and dermal cells. This matrix essentially determines the mechanical stability of these substitutes to allow for safe and convenient surgical handling. Collagen type I hydrogels yield excellent biological functionality, but their mechanical weakness and their tendency to contract and degrade does not allow producing clinically applicable transplants of larger sizes. We show here that plastically compressed collagen type I hydrogels can be produced in clinically relevant sizes (7×7 cm), and can be safely and conveniently handled by the surgeon. Most importantly, these dermo-epidermal skin substitutes mature into a near normal skin that can successfully reconstitute full-thickness skin defects in an animal model.

  6. The use of adipose mesenchymal stem cells and human umbilical vascular endothelial cells on a fibrin matrix for endothelialized skin substitute.

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    Sánchez-Muñoz, Isabel; Granados, Rosario; Holguín Holgado, Purificación; García-Vela, José Antonio; Casares, Celia; Casares, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the reconstruction of human skin by tissue engineering represents a clinical challenge and has offered a therapeutic alternative. Avascular engineered skin equivalents have been available for several years and used to treat wounds due to burns, nonhealing ulcers, and surgical excisions. They are constituted by different types of cultured cells included in a three-dimensional structure that permits cellular proliferation to create tissue substitutes. The major drawback of these artificial skin substitutes is their lack of blood supply, since the endurance and cell proliferation of the substitute depend on an adequate oxygen and nutrient supply and on toxin removal. These functions are served by the vascular system. We have produced a new model of endothelialized skin substitute that promotes the formation of capillary-like structures by seeding human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with dermal fibroblasts and human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADMSCs) in a fibrin matrix. Dermal fibroblasts and hADMSCs produce extracellular matrix that stimulates cellular growth and proliferation. hADMSCs secrete significant quantities of angiogenic and antiapoptotic factors (vascular endothelial growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor), which induce in vitro differentiation of these cells into endothelial cells promoting angiogenesis and participating in tissue repair and skin regeneration processes. We obtained the artificial skin substitute with similar structure to native skin, including dermis and epidermis. We demonstrated that endothelial cells (CD31 and von Willebrand factor positive) proliferated and organized themselves into capillary-like structures within the fibrin matrix. The epidermis showed a complete epithelization by squamous cells (AE1/AE3 cytokeratin positive) with intracytoplasmic keratohyalin granules, hyperkeratosis, and parakeratosis. We have established a novel artificial skin substitute that facilitates the formation

  7. Human eccrine sweat gland cells turn into melanin-uptaking keratinocytes in dermo-epidermal skin substitutes.

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    Böttcher-Haberzeth, Sophie; Biedermann, Thomas; Pontiggia, Luca; Braziulis, Erik; Schiestl, Clemens; Hendriks, Bart; Eichhoff, Ossia M; Widmer, Daniel S; Meuli-Simmen, Claudia; Meuli, Martin; Reichmann, Ernst

    2013-02-01

    Recently, Biedermann et al. (2010) have demonstrated that human eccrine sweat gland cells can develop a multilayered epidermis. The question still remains whether these cells can fulfill exclusive and very specific functional properties of epidermal keratinocytes, such as the incorporation of melanin, a feature absent in sweat gland cells. We added human melanocytes to eccrine sweat gland cells to let them develop into an epidermal analog in vivo. The interaction between melanocytes and sweat gland-derived keratinocytes was investigated. The following results were gained: (1) macroscopically, a pigmentation of the substitutes was seen 2-3 weeks after transplantation; (2) we confirmed the development of a multilayered, stratified epidermis with melanocytes distributed evenly throughout the basal layer; (3) melanocytic dendrites projected to suprabasal layers; and (4) melanin was observed to be integrated into former eccrine sweat gland cells. These skin substitutes were similar or equal to skin substitutes cultured from human epidermal keratinocytes. The only differences observed were a delay in pigmentation and less melanin uptake. These data suggest that eccrine sweat gland cells can form a functional epidermal melanin unit, thereby providing striking evidence that they can assume one of the most characteristic keratinocyte properties.

  8. Tissue engineered skin substitutes created by laser-assisted bioprinting form skin-like structures in the dorsal skin fold chamber in mice.

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    Michael, Stefanie; Sorg, Heiko; Peck, Claas-Tido; Koch, Lothar; Deiwick, Andrea; Chichkov, Boris; Vogt, Peter M; Reimers, Kerstin

    2013-01-01

    Tissue engineering plays an important role in the production of skin equivalents for the therapy of chronic and especially burn wounds. Actually, there exists no (cellularized) skin equivalent which might be able to satisfactorily mimic native skin. Here, we utilized a laser-assisted bioprinting (LaBP) technique to create a fully cellularized skin substitute. The unique feature of LaBP is the possibility to position different cell types in an exact three-dimensional (3D) spatial pattern. For the creation of the skin substitutes, we positioned fibroblasts and keratinocytes on top of a stabilizing matrix (Matriderm®). These skin constructs were subsequently tested in vivo, employing the dorsal skin fold chamber in nude mice. The transplants were placed into full-thickness skin wounds and were fully connected to the surrounding tissue when explanted after 11 days. The printed keratinocytes formed a multi-layered epidermis with beginning differentiation and stratum corneum. Proliferation of the keratinocytes was mainly detected in the suprabasal layers. In vitro controls, which were cultivated at the air-liquid-interface, also exhibited proliferative cells, but they were rather located in the whole epidermis. E-cadherin as a hint for adherens junctions and therefore tissue formation could be found in the epidermis in vivo as well as in vitro. In both conditions, the printed fibroblasts partly stayed on top of the underlying Matriderm® where they produced collagen, while part of them migrated into the Matriderm®. In the mice, some blood vessels could be found to grow from the wound bed and the wound edges in direction of the printed cells. In conclusion, we could show the successful 3D printing of a cell construct via LaBP and the subsequent tissue formation in vivo. These findings represent the prerequisite for the creation of a complex tissue like skin, consisting of different cell types in an intricate 3D pattern.

  9. Tissue engineered skin substitutes created by laser-assisted bioprinting form skin-like structures in the dorsal skin fold chamber in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Michael

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering plays an important role in the production of skin equivalents for the therapy of chronic and especially burn wounds. Actually, there exists no (cellularized skin equivalent which might be able to satisfactorily mimic native skin. Here, we utilized a laser-assisted bioprinting (LaBP technique to create a fully cellularized skin substitute. The unique feature of LaBP is the possibility to position different cell types in an exact three-dimensional (3D spatial pattern. For the creation of the skin substitutes, we positioned fibroblasts and keratinocytes on top of a stabilizing matrix (Matriderm®. These skin constructs were subsequently tested in vivo, employing the dorsal skin fold chamber in nude mice. The transplants were placed into full-thickness skin wounds and were fully connected to the surrounding tissue when explanted after 11 days. The printed keratinocytes formed a multi-layered epidermis with beginning differentiation and stratum corneum. Proliferation of the keratinocytes was mainly detected in the suprabasal layers. In vitro controls, which were cultivated at the air-liquid-interface, also exhibited proliferative cells, but they were rather located in the whole epidermis. E-cadherin as a hint for adherens junctions and therefore tissue formation could be found in the epidermis in vivo as well as in vitro. In both conditions, the printed fibroblasts partly stayed on top of the underlying Matriderm® where they produced collagen, while part of them migrated into the Matriderm®. In the mice, some blood vessels could be found to grow from the wound bed and the wound edges in direction of the printed cells. In conclusion, we could show the successful 3D printing of a cell construct via LaBP and the subsequent tissue formation in vivo. These findings represent the prerequisite for the creation of a complex tissue like skin, consisting of different cell types in an intricate 3D pattern.

  10. Substituting Wheat Flour with Banana Skin Flour from Mixture Various Skin Types of Banana on Making Donuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renny Futeri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical forest plants is a very rich source of chemical compounds or bioactive efficacious . Many of the compounds potential as a source of raw materials in food processing . One is the banana plant , West Sumatra Padang and Bukittinggi is one area in Indonesia with banana . Generally people in West Sumatra just consume or eat the fruit and throw banana skin just because it is considered as waste ( waste banana peel . When the banana peel waste is left alone so do not rule out the possibility for the accumulation of garbage or waste banana peels , especially in the West Sumatra city of Padang and sekitarnya.Salah one solution that can be done is to harness and cultivate the banana peel waste into a material more useful for example in the manufacture of foodstuffs.Banana peel flour with all the treatments can produce flour banana peel . However, the manufacture of flour banana skin with the use of sodium metabisulfite 1% at 1 hour of soaking to get the best flour . Having obtained done banana peel flour donut -making flour substitute banana peel . The use of banana peel flour with different concentrations turned out to affect the organoleptic properties of the donut . Of hedonic organoleptic test , the results of the average value of the ratio between wheat flour with flour banana skin that gives the best results for color , aroma , and flavor that is a donut with banana peel flour ratio of 0 % to 100 % wheat flour and donuts with banana peel flour ratio 10 % with 90 % wheat flour , but the texture will be best results are donuts of banana peels can be made by substituting wheat flour with flour banana skin at 10 %. Carbohydrate content of flour banana skin with the use of sodium metabisulfite 1% at 1 hour soaking of 16.60 grams.

  11. Dried Fruit of the Luffa Sponge as a Source of Chitin for Applications as Skin Substitutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Lun Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available LUFFACHITIN obtained from the residue of the sponge-like dried fruit of Luffa aegyptiaca was developed as a weavable skin substitute in this study. A chemical analysis revealed that LUFFACHITIN was composed of a copolymer containing N-acetyl-glucosamine (~40% as a major monomer with a filamentary structure as demonstrated by both optical and scanning electron microscopy. The pulp-like white residue of the sponge-like dried fruit of Luffa aegyptiaca after treatment was then woven into a thin, porous membrane by filtration and lyophilization as a skin substitute for conducting wound-healing study on rats. The results indicated that the LUFFACHITIN membrane showed significant wound-healing enhancement (25 days to complete healing compared to cotton gauze (>30 days, but not inferior to that of SACCHACHITIN. Furthermore, the LUFFACHITIN membrane had advantages of having a high yield, better physical properties for fabrication, and a more attractive appearance.

  12. Cultured skin microbiota attracts malaria mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    Takken Willem; Knols Bart GJ; Beijleveld Hans; Verhulst Niels O; Schraa Gosse; Bouwmeester Harro J; Smallegange Renate C

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Host-seeking of the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, is guided by human odours. The precise nature of the odours, and the composition of attractive blends of volatiles, remains largely unknown. Skin microbiota plays an important role in the production of human body odours. It is hypothesized that host attractiveness and selection of An. gambiae is affected by the species composition, density, and metabolic activity of the skin microbiota. A study ...

  13. Cultured skin microbiota attracts malaria mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takken Willem

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Host-seeking of the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, is guided by human odours. The precise nature of the odours, and the composition of attractive blends of volatiles, remains largely unknown. Skin microbiota plays an important role in the production of human body odours. It is hypothesized that host attractiveness and selection of An. gambiae is affected by the species composition, density, and metabolic activity of the skin microbiota. A study is presented in which the production and constituency of volatile organic compounds (VOCs by human skin microbiota is examined and the behavioural responses of An. gambiae to VOCs from skin microbiota are investigated. Methods Blood agar plates incubated with skin microbiota from human feet or with a reference strain of Staphylococcus epidermidis were tested for their attractiveness to An. gambiae in olfactometer bioassays and indoor trapping experiments. Entrained air collected from blood agar plates incubated with natural skin microbiota or with S. epidermidis were analysed using GC-MS. A synthetic blend of the compounds identified was tested for its attractiveness to An. gambiae. Behavioural data were analysed by a χ2-test and GLM. GC-MS results were analysed by fitting an exponential regression line to test the effect of the concentration of bacteria. Results More An. gambiae were caught with blood agar plates incubated with skin bacteria than with sterile blood agar plates, with a significant effect of incubation time and dilution of the skin microbiota. When bacteria from the feet of four other volunteers were tested, similar effects were found. Fourteen putative attractants were found in the headspace of the skin bacteria. A synthetic blend of 10 of these was attractive to An. gambiae. Conclusions The discovery that volatiles produced by human skin microorganisms in vitro mediate An. gambiae host-seeking behaviour creates new opportunities for the

  14. A RARE CASE REPORT OF SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA OF URETHRA ARISING FROM SUBSTITUTED PENILE SKIN FLAP WITH BALANITIS XEROTICA OBLITERANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Pratap

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A 44-year-old male presented with ulcerative growth over dorsal penile shaft along with multiple urethrocutaneous fistula. A total penectomy, scrotal excision and perineal urethrostomy were done. Past history of treatment for penile urethral stricture due to Balanitis Xerotica Obliterans (BXO by substitution urethroplasty using pedicled preputial penile skin flap five years back. On gross as well as histopathological examination, the tumour was found to be arising from the skin flap used for substitution. This case highlights the malignant potential of skin affected by BXO and is probably the only case report where a skin flap has turned malignant.

  15. [Combination of a universal antidote and temporary skin substitute for chemical burns: Extended case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liodaki, E; Schopp, B E; Lindert, J; Krämer, R; Kisch, T; Mailänder, P; Stang, F

    2015-09-01

    In this article we describe our experiences in the treatment of chemical burns with Diphoterine(®) solution and Suprathel(®) as a temporary skin substitute material, a treatment which in the past was not commonly used for this pattern of injuries. In the study period from October 2012 to December 2013 we treated five patients (four male and one female including two children and three adults) with chemical burns by decontamination with Diphoterine(®) and wound covering with Suprathel(®). The control group included five patients with similar injury patterns who were treated with Diphoterine(®) and occlusive wound dressings. No wound infections occurred in any of the five cases and no interactions were observed between Suprathel(®) and the chemical substance involved. In four cases the skin areas with IIa-IIb degree damage showed good wound healing and only slight scarring in the follow-up after 3 months and one of the five patients had to be treated surgically. Suprathel(®) can be used as a temporary skin substitute for the treatment of skin burns and is also available for the treatment of chemical burns.

  16. Human amniotic fluid derived cells can competently substitute dermal fibroblasts in a tissue-engineered dermo-epidermal skin analog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann-Fritsch, Fabienne; Hosper, Nynke; Luginbuehl, Joachim; Biedermann, Thomas; Reichmann, Ernst; Meuli, Martin

    Human amniotic fluid comprises cells with high differentiation capacity, thus representing a potential cell source for skin tissue engineering. In this experimental study, we investigated the ability of human amniotic fluid derived cells to substitute dermal fibroblasts and support epidermis

  17. Cultured skin microbiota attracts malaria mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulst, N.O.; Beijleveld, H.; Knols, B.G.J.; Takken, W.; Schraa, G.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Smallegange, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Background - Host-seeking of the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, is guided by human odours. The precise nature of the odours, and the composition of attractive blends of volatiles, remains largely unknown. Skin microbiota plays an important role in the production of human

  18. [Importance of skin contamination in blood culture readings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, M; Volkman, H; Köhler, W

    1979-11-01

    The importance of the skin contamination for the results of blood cultures was emphasized by model examinations. In the method of blood taking without previous desinfection of the skin the quota of positive blood cultures increased by the twofold to threefold per culture and test person (5.7 to 18.8% and 11.3 to 26.3%, respectively). In large-volume blood takings the contamination rate becomes smaller with increasing blood volume. The rejecting of a first blood sample is to be recommended, when the possibility is given. With an increased quantity o blood per taking by blood bactericidia a decreased contamination rate is to be expected. By the results of the examinations the necessity of a consequent desinfection of the skin is to be emphasized, also when closed systems of blood cultures are used.

  19. Biological skin substitutes to treat toxic epidermal necrolysis in a case with human immunodeficiency virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anokha Oomman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN is a rare, but life-threatening medical emergency with significant morbidity and mortality. Current treatment standards for TEN patients include stopping all possible drugs associated with the new onset of symptoms, prompt referral and treatment in a specialized center with fluid resuscitation, adequate analgesia and maintenance of nutritional needs. Extensive debridement of the involved epidermis followed by coverage with a skin substitute reduces the mortality from a skin infection and also improves the fluid and electrolyte balance and pain control. This is increasingly considered an important part of the intensive care of these patients. Admitting physicians should be aware of this rare but life-threatening emergency, to allow prompt diagnosis and avoid delays in treatment.

  20. Wound Coverage by Cultured Skin Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-01

    and spread. 6 We later coated collagen sponges with human or porcine plasma. Although this coating improved the plating of epidermal cells, it did not...healing by cultured epidermal grafts, we have found that: - We were able to grow epidermal cells on collapsed collagen sponges . As a result, we can create...plastic. Epidermal cells grown on collagen sponges formed four to five layers of nucleated cells, compared to only one layer on plastic surfaces. The use of

  1. Aging and senescence of skin cells in culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rattan, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Studying age-related changes in the physiology, biochemistry, and molecular biology of isolated skin cell populations in culture has greatly expanded the understanding of the fundamental aspects of skin aging. The three main cell types that have been studied extensively with respect to cellular...... aging in vitro are dermal fibroblasts, epidermal keratinocytes, and melanocytes. Serial subcultivation of normal diploid skin cells can be performed only a limited number of times, and the emerging senescent phenotype can be categorized into structural, physiological, biochemical, and molecular...... phenotypes, which can be used as biomarkers of cellular aging in vitro. The rate and phenotype of aging are different in different cell types. There are both common features and specific features of aging of skin fibroblasts, keratinocytes, melanocytes, and other cell types. A progressive accumulation...

  2. Spatial quantification and classification of skin response following perturbation using organotypic skin cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommerencke, Thora; Westphal, Kathi; Ernst, Claudia; Safferling, Kai; Dickhaus, Hartmut; Steinberg, Thorsten; Tomakidi, Pascal; Grabe, Niels

    2010-11-01

    For a mechanistic understanding of skin and its response to an induced perturbation, systems biology is gaining increasing attention. Unfortunately, quantitative and spatial expression data for skin, like for most other tissues, are almost not available. Integrating organotypic skin cultures, whole-slide scanning and subsequent image processing provides bioinformatics with a novel source of spatial expression data. We here used this approach to quantitatively describe the effect of treating organotypic skin cultures with sodium dodecyl sulphate in a non-corrosive concentration. We first measured the differentiation-related spatial expression gradient of Heat-Shock-Protein 27 in a time series of up to 24 h. Secondly, a multi-dimensional tissue classifier for predicting skin irritation was developed based on abstract features of these profiles. We obtained a high specificity of 0.94 and a sensitivity of 0.92 compared with manual classification. Our results demonstrate that the integration of tissue cultures, whole-slide scanning and image processing is well suited for both the standardized data acquisition for systems biological tissue models and a highly robust classification of tissue responses.

  3. Functional testing of topical skin formulations using an optimised ex vivo skin organ culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidgwick, G P; McGeorge, D; Bayat, A

    2016-07-01

    A number of equivalent-skin models are available for investigation of the ex vivo effect of topical application of drugs and cosmaceuticals onto skin, however many have their drawbacks. With the March 2013 ban on animal models for cosmetic testing of products or ingredients for sale in the EU, their utility for testing toxicity and effect on skin becomes more relevant. The aim of this study was to demonstrate proof of principle that altered expression of key gene and protein markers could be quantified in an optimised whole tissue biopsy culture model. Topical formulations containing green tea catechins (GTC) were investigated in a skin biopsy culture model (n = 11). Punch biopsies were harvested at 3, 7 and 10 days, and analysed using qRT-PCR, histology and HPLC to determine gene and protein expression, and transdermal delivery of compounds of interest. Reduced gene expression of α-SMA, fibronectin, mast cell tryptase, mast cell chymase, TGF-β1, CTGF and PAI-1 was observed after 7 and 10 days compared with treated controls (p skin, negating the requirement for animal models in this context, prior to study in a clinical trial environment.

  4. Immunoprotective role of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in engraftment of allogenic skin substitute in wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, Mohammad Ali; Nabai, Layla; Ghahary, Aziz

    2012-01-01

    Delayed wound healing can significantly impact survival of patients who suffer from severe thermal injury. In general, the use of a wound coverage, particularly with those of bilayer skin substitute, would be ideal to promote healing and prevent infection and fluid loss. Although the use of an autologous skin substitute is desirable, its preparation is time consuming and its immediate availability is impossible. To overcome this difficulty, the authors have previously demonstrated that the expression of indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) could function as a local immune suppressive factor in protecting allogenic fibroblasts and keratinocytes without using any immunosuppressive medication in a wound healing animal model. IDO, which is naturally expressed in the placenta by trophoblast cells during pregnancy, plays an essential role in maternal tolerance toward the fetus. The potent and selective local immunosuppressive function of IDO makes this enzyme a very promising tool for engineering a nonrejectable skin allograft. Here, the authors reviewed and discussed how the expression of IDO by the primary cells of our skin substitute can serve as a source of IDO enzyme activity and generate a tryptophan-deficient environment. Under this condition, only skin cells but not immune cells (CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells) would survive and protect engraftment of this engineered and shelf-ready skin substitute to be used not only as wound coverage but also as a rich source of wound healing promoting factors. Therefore, this review summarizes the body of work on immunoprotective role of IDO in engraftment of allogenic skin substitute in wound healing, which has recently been reported by the authors' research group and others.

  5. Human amniotic fluid derived cells can competently substitute dermal fibroblasts in a tissue-engineered dermo-epidermal skin analog

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Human amniotic fluid comprises cells with high differentiation capacity, thus representing a potential cell source for skin tissue engineering. In this experimental study, we investigated the ability of human amniotic fluid derived cells to substitute dermal fibroblasts and support epidermis formation and stratification in a humanized animal model. METHODS: Dermo-epidermal skin grafts with either amniocytes or with fibroblasts in the dermis were compared in a rat model. Full-thicknes...

  6. A Bilayer Engineered Skin Substitute for Wound Repair in an Irradiation-Impeded Healing Model on Rat

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Objective: An engineered skin substitute is produced to accelerate wound healing by increasing the mechanical strength of the skin wound via high production of collagen bundles. During the remodeling stage of wound healing, collagen deposition is the most important event. The collagen deposition process may be altered by nutritional deficiency, diabetes mellitus, microbial infection, or radiation exposure, leading to impaired healing. This study describes the fabrication of an engineered bila...

  7. A RARE CASE REPORT OF SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA OF URETHRA ARISING FROM SUBSTITUTED PENILE SKIN FLAP WITH BALANITIS XEROTICA OBLITERANS

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    A 44-year-old male presented with ulcerative growth over dorsal penile shaft along with multiple urethrocutaneous fistula. A total penectomy, scrotal excision and perineal urethrostomy were done. Past history of treatment for penile urethral stricture due to Balanitis Xerotica Obliterans (BXO) by substitution urethroplasty using pedicled preputial penile skin flap five years back. On gross as well as histopathological examination, the tumour was found to be arising from the skin ...

  8. Can insulated skin temperature act as a substitute for rectal temperature when studying circadian rhythms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogh, M; Minors, D S; Waterhouse, J M

    1994-10-01

    We measured rectal, lateral chest wall, and axillary temperature every half hour for at least 24 h while subjects were living normal life-styles and keeping a sleep/activity diary. We then used a purification method to estimate the decrease of temperature due to sleep and the increases due to sitting, standing, walking, or exercising, as well as the parameters of the cosine curve that described the "purified data." Cosinor analysis of raw and purified data showed that the acrophases from both skin sites were much more variable and up to 8 h later than were those from the rectum (particularly if exercise had been taken), even though the acrophases from the two skin sites were similar to each other. For rectal temperature, there was an increase in the size of the masking effect as activity progressed through the sequence: sitting, standing or walking, exercising. In contrast, for both chest wall and axillary temperatures, although sitting produced masking effects similar to those for rectal temperature, masking effects due to standing or walking and exercising were much smaller, and sometimes they were even less than the masking effects due to sitting. These results indicate that our measurements of cutaneous temperature did not act as a substitute for rectal temperature, particularly when the subject was physically active rather than sedentary.

  9. Hair Follicle and Sebaceous Gland De Novo Regeneration With Cultured Epidermal Stem Cells and Skin-Derived Precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Xusheng; Liu, Jianjun; Cai, Ting; Guo, Ling; Wang, Shujuan; Wang, Jinmei; Cao, Yanpei; Ge, Jianfeng; Jiang, Yuyang; Tredget, Edward E; Cao, Mengjun; Wu, Yaojiong

    2016-12-01

    : Stem cell-based organ regeneration is purported to enable the replacement of impaired organs in the foreseeable future. Here, we demonstrated that a combination of cultured epidermal stem cells (Epi-SCs) derived from the epidermis and skin-derived precursors (SKPs) was capable of reconstituting functional hair follicles and sebaceous glands (SG). When Epi-SCs and SKPs were mixed in a hydrogel and implanted into an excisional wound in nude mice, the Epi-SCs formed de novo epidermis along with hair follicles, and SKPs contributed to dermal papilla in the neogenic hair follicles. Notably, a combination of culture-expanded Epi-SCs and SKPs derived from the adult human scalp were sufficient to generate hair follicles and hair. Bone morphogenetic protein 4, but not Wnts, sustained the expression of alkaline phosphatase in SKPs in vitro and the hair follicle-inductive property in vivo when SKPs were engrafted with neonatal epidermal cells into excisional wounds. In addition, Epi-SCs were capable of differentiating into sebocytes and formed de novo SGs, which excreted lipids as do normal SGs. Thus our results indicate that cultured Epi-SCs and SKPs are sufficient to generate de novo hair follicles and SGs, implying great potential to develop novel bioengineered skin substitutes with appendage genesis capacity. In postpartum humans, skin appendages lost in injury are not regenerated, despite the considerable achievement made in skin bioengineering. In this study, transplantation of a combination of culture-expanded epidermal stem cells and skin-derived progenitors from mice and adult humans led to de novo regeneration of functional hair follicles and sebaceous glands. The data provide transferable knowledge for the development of novel bioengineered skin substitutes with epidermal appendage regeneration capacity. ©AlphaMed Press.

  10. Human amniotic fluid derived cells can competently substitute dermal fibroblasts in a tissue-engineered dermo-epidermal skin analog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann-Fritsch, Fabienne; Hosper, Nynke; Luginbuehl, Joachim; Biedermann, Thomas; Reichmann, Ernst; Meuli, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Human amniotic fluid comprises cells with high differentiation capacity, thus representing a potential cell source for skin tissue engineering. In this experimental study, we investigated the ability of human amniotic fluid derived cells to substitute dermal fibroblasts and support epidermis formati

  11. Culture Media and Individual Hosts Affect the Recovery of Culturable Bacterial Diversity from Amphibian Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Daniel; Walke, Jenifer B; Gajewski, Zachary; Becker, Matthew H; Swartwout, Meredith C; Belden, Lisa K

    2017-01-01

    One current challenge in microbial ecology is elucidating the functional roles of the large diversity of free-living and host-associated bacteria identified by culture-independent molecular methods. Importantly, the characterization of this immense bacterial diversity will likely require merging data from culture-independent approaches with work on bacterial isolates in culture. Amphibian skin bacterial communities have become a recent focus of work in host-associated microbial systems due to the potential role of these skin bacteria in host defense against the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), which is associated with global amphibian population declines and extinctions. As there is evidence that some skin bacteria may inhibit growth of Bd and prevent infection in some cases, there is interest in using these bacteria as probiotic therapy for conservation of at-risk amphibians. In this study, we used skin swabs from American toads (Anaxyrus americanus) to: (1) assess the diversity and community structure of culturable amphibian skin bacteria grown on high and low nutrient culture media, (2) determine which culture media recover the highest proportion of the total skin bacterial community of individual toads relative to culture-independent data, and (3) assess whether the plated communities from the distinct media types vary in their ability to inhibit Bd growth in in-vitro assays. Overall, we found that culture media with low nutrient concentrations facilitated the growth of more diverse bacterial taxa and grew distinct communities relative to media with higher nutrient concentrations. Use of low nutrient media also resulted in culturing proportionally more of the bacterial diversity on individual toads relative to the overall community defined using culture-independent methods. However, while there were differences in diversity among media types, the variation among individual hosts was greater than variation among media types, suggesting that

  12. Use of a Polylactide-based Copolymer as a Temporary Skin Substitute for a Patient With Moist Desquamation Due to Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberger, Jens; Constantinescu, Mihai A; Held, Manuel; Aebersold, Daniel M; Stolz, Anja; Tschumi, Christian; Olariu, Radu

    2016-07-01

    Skin reactions are known adverse effects of radiation therapy. Despite advances in skin care products, there is still a demand for optimal skin care products to improve the therapy of these lesions. The authors report the use of a polylactide-based copolymer (Suprathel, PolyMedics Innovations GmbH, Denkendorf, Germany) as a temporary skin substitute for covering the skin defects of a patient with moist desquamation due to radiation.

  13. Bilayered skin-substitute technology for the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers: current insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karr JC

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey C Karr Karr Foot and Leg Center, Lakeland, FL, USA Abstract: The estimated prevalence of diabetes mellitus in New Zealand is 7%, and as in many other developed countries is a growing problem. One of the most common and costly complications, diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs are chronic wounds that result when the phases of wound healing are disrupted or incomplete, resulting in wounds that persist for several months or even years. Despite standard-care therapy (ie, debridement, infection elimination, use of dressings, off-loading, the majority of DFUs remain unhealed, and it is thus appropriate to consider advanced therapies. One such therapy is a bioengineered bilayered living cellular construct (BLCC comprised of living keratinocytes and fibroblasts. BLCC facilitates the delivery of a broad array of cytokines and growth factors often deficient in chronic nonhealing wounds, and in doing so reverses patients’ wounds from a chronic wound to an acute normally healing wound. BLCC has an important body of evidence to support its use in DFUs, including randomized clinical trials, a real-world comparative-effectiveness analysis, and health-economics data. Keywords: bilayer skin substitute, bilayered living cellular construct, chronic wounds, diabetic foot ulcers, wound healing

  14. The Role of Perceived Substitution and Individual Culture in the Adoption of Electronic Newspapers in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pogrebnyakov, Nicolai; Buchmann, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    Introduction:This paper explores the factors behind the adoption of electronic newspapers. Adoption is hypothesized to be driven by attributes of the electronic newspaper artefact (expressed by perceived substitution) and individual cultural characteristics of potential adopters. Perceived...... substitution is seen as a factor that influences the displacement of printed newspapers with electronic ones. Method: Data were collected using Web surveys and consist of 1804 responses from a representative sample of individuals in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Analysis: Partial least squares path modelling...... was used to test hypotheses. Results: The results indicate that perceived substitution explains the adoption of electronic newspapers well, while most cultural factors did not show a significant effect on adoption. Conclusion: These results add to research on how perceived substitutive functionality of one...

  15. Combined LC/MS-platform for analysis of all major stratum corneum lipids, and the profiling of skin substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Smeden, Jeroen; Boiten, Walter A; Hankemeier, Thomas; Rissmann, Robert; Bouwstra, Joke A; Vreeken, Rob J

    2014-01-01

    Ceramides (CERs), cholesterol, and free fatty acids (FFAs) are the main lipid classes in human stratum corneum (SC, outermost skin layer), but no studies report on the detailed analysis of these classes in a single platform. The primary aims of this study were to 1) develop an LC/MS method for (semi-)quantitative analysis of all main lipid classes present in human SC; and 2) use this method to study in detail the lipid profiles of human skin substitutes and compare them to human SC lipids. By applying two injections of 10μl, the developed method detects all major SC lipids using RPLC and negative ion mode APCI-MS for detection of FFAs, and NPLC using positive ion mode APCI-MS to analyze CERs and cholesterol. Validation showed this lipid platform to be robust, reproducible, sensitive, and fast. The method was successfully applied on ex vivo human SC, human SC obtained from tape strips and human skin substitutes (porcine SC and human skin equivalents). In conjunction with FFA profiles, clear differences in CER profiles were observed between these different SC sources. Human skin equivalents more closely mimic the lipid composition of human stratum corneum than porcine skin does, although noticeable differences are still present. These differences gave biologically relevant information on some of the enzymes that are probably involved in SC lipid processing. For future research, this provides an excellent method for (semi-)quantitative, 'high-throughput' profiling of SC lipids and can be used to advance the understanding of skin lipids and the biological processes involved. © 2013.

  16. Video games playing: A substitute for cultural consumptions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borowiecki, Karol Jan; Prieto-Rodriguez, Juan

    2015-01-01

    cultural goods (e.g. listening to music or watching television) or active involvement in artistic activities (e.g. writing or visual arts production). Game playing is in general an urban phenomenon, it is positively associated with the ownership of home equipment and access to new technologies...

  17. A Marfan syndrome gene expression phenotype in cultured skin fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emond Mary

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Marfan syndrome (MFS is a heritable connective tissue disorder caused by mutations in the fibrillin-1 gene. This syndrome constitutes a significant identifiable subtype of aortic aneurysmal disease, accounting for over 5% of ascending and thoracic aortic aneurysms. Results We used spotted membrane DNA macroarrays to identify genes whose altered expression levels may contribute to the phenotype of the disease. Our analysis of 4132 genes identified a subset with significant expression differences between skin fibroblast cultures from unaffected controls versus cultures from affected individuals with known fibrillin-1 mutations. Subsequently, 10 genes were chosen for validation by quantitative RT-PCR. Conclusion Differential expression of many of the validated genes was associated with MFS samples when an additional group of unaffected and MFS affected subjects were analyzed (p-value -6 under the null hypothesis that expression levels in cultured fibroblasts are unaffected by MFS status. An unexpected observation was the range of individual gene expression. In unaffected control subjects, expression ranges exceeding 10 fold were seen in many of the genes selected for qRT-PCR validation. The variation in expression in the MFS affected subjects was even greater.

  18. A Marfan syndrome gene expression phenotype in cultured skin fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zizhen; Jaeger, Jochen C; Ruzzo, Walter L; Morale, Cecile Z; Emond, Mary; Francke, Uta; Milewicz, Dianna M; Schwartz, Stephen M; Mulvihill, Eileen R

    2007-01-01

    Background Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a heritable connective tissue disorder caused by mutations in the fibrillin-1 gene. This syndrome constitutes a significant identifiable subtype of aortic aneurysmal disease, accounting for over 5% of ascending and thoracic aortic aneurysms. Results We used spotted membrane DNA macroarrays to identify genes whose altered expression levels may contribute to the phenotype of the disease. Our analysis of 4132 genes identified a subset with significant expression differences between skin fibroblast cultures from unaffected controls versus cultures from affected individuals with known fibrillin-1 mutations. Subsequently, 10 genes were chosen for validation by quantitative RT-PCR. Conclusion Differential expression of many of the validated genes was associated with MFS samples when an additional group of unaffected and MFS affected subjects were analyzed (p-value < 3 × 10-6 under the null hypothesis that expression levels in cultured fibroblasts are unaffected by MFS status). An unexpected observation was the range of individual gene expression. In unaffected control subjects, expression ranges exceeding 10 fold were seen in many of the genes selected for qRT-PCR validation. The variation in expression in the MFS affected subjects was even greater. PMID:17850668

  19. Amniotic membrane as part of a skin substitute for full-thickness wounds: an experimental evaluation in a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffelbein, Denys J; Baumann, Claudia; Stoeckelhuber, Mechthild; Hasler, Rafael; Mücke, Thomas; Steinsträßer, Lars; Drecoll, Enken; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Kesting, Marco R

    2012-07-01

    We evaluated the use of human amniotic membrane (HAM) as a graft material for the treatment of iatrogenic full-thickness (FT) skin wounds in a porcine model with a view to reducing donor site morbidity in free flap transfer. Forty experimental FT-wounds were covered with an autologous split-thickness skin graft (STSG) alone or in combination with a mono- or multilayer HAM or Integra(®). Untreated wounds served as controls. Clinical evaluation and biopsy-sampling for histological and immunohistochemical staining with von-Willebrand-factor (vWF) antibody, laminin antibody, Ki-67 antibody, and smooth muscle actin (αSMA) antibody were performed on days 5, 7, 10, 20, 40, and 60 after surgical intervention. Considerable disparities in the estimated criteria were observed between the various treatment groups of the FT-wounds. The use of HAM was found to have an accelerating impact on re-epithelialization. The multilayered amnion membrane showed better results than the Integra(®) and monolayer technique in terms of contraction rate, inflammation, and scarring and seemed useful as a dermal substitute in FT-wounds giving comparable results to STSG coverage alone. This study demonstrates the successful application of HAM as part of a skin substitute in FT-wounds in minipigs. The results offer promise as a simple and effective technique for the application of multilayer HAM in iatrogenic human skin defects and the acceleration of wound healing. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Surface modification of electrospun PLGA scaffold with collagen for bioengineered skin substitutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, A.R., E-mail: sadeghi_av@ymail.com [Materials Research Group, Iranian Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research, (ACECR), Mashhad Branch, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nokhasteh, S. [Materials Research Group, Iranian Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research, (ACECR), Mashhad Branch, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Molavi, A.M. [Materials Research Group, Iranian Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research, (ACECR), Mashhad Branch, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Materials Engineering Department, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khorsand-Ghayeni, M. [Materials Research Group, Iranian Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research, (ACECR), Mashhad Branch, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Naderi-Meshkin, H. [Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Research Department, Iranian Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research (ACECR), Mashhad Branch, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahdizadeh, A. [Nanotechnology Institute, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-09-01

    In skin tissue engineering, surface feature of the scaffolds plays an important role in cell adhesion and proliferation. In this study, non-woven fibrous substrate based on poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) (75/25) were hydrolyzed in various concentrations of NaOH (0.05 N, 0.1 N, 0.3 N) to increase carboxyl and hydroxyl groups on the fiber surfaces. These functional groups were activated by EDC/NHS to create chemical bonding with collagen. To improve bioactivity, the activated substrates were coated with a collagen solution (2 mg/ml) and cross-linking was carried out using the EDC/NHS in MES buffer. The effectiveness of the method was evaluated by contact angle measurements, porosimetry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), tensile and degradation tests as well as in vitro cell attachment and cytotoxicity assays. Cell culture results of human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) and keratinocytes cell line (HaCat) revealed that the cells could attach to the scaffold. Further investigation with MTT assay showed that the cell proliferation of HaCat significantly increases with collagen coating. It seems that sufficient stability of collagen on the surface due to proper chemical bonding and cross-linking has increased the bioactivity of surface remarkably which can be promising for bioengineered skin applications. - Highlights: • Surface activation was carried out by hydrolysis of PLGA fibers. • To improve bioactivity, the activated samples were coated with a collagen solution. • Functional groups were activated by EDC/NHS to create chemical bonding with collagen. • Cross-linking of collagen was carried out using EDC/NHS in MES buffer. • The coated samples exhibited better adhesion and proliferation of epidermal cells.

  1. Development of a stratum corneum substitute for in vitro percutaneous penetration studies : a skin barrier model comprising synthetic stratum corneum lipids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, Miranda Wilhelmina de

    2006-01-01

    The research outlined in this thesis was focused on the development of a skin barrier model, which can substitute for stratum corneum in diffusion studies. This so-called stratum corneum substitute (SCS) was prepared with reconstituted SC lipids (cholesterol, free fatty acids and ceramides) on a por

  2. Development of a stratum corneum substitute for in vitro percutaneous penetration studies : a skin barrier model comprising synthetic stratum corneum lipids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, Miranda Wilhelmina de

    2006-01-01

    The research outlined in this thesis was focused on the development of a skin barrier model, which can substitute for stratum corneum in diffusion studies. This so-called stratum corneum substitute (SCS) was prepared with reconstituted SC lipids (cholesterol, free fatty acids and ceramides) on a

  3. A novel dermal matrix generated from burned skin as a promising substitute for deep-degree burns therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guanying; Ye, Lan; Tan, Wei; Zhu, Xuguo; Li, Yaonan; Jiang, Duyin

    2016-03-01

    The extensive skin defects induced by severe burns are dangerous and can be fatal. Currently, the most common therapy is tangential excision to remove the necrotic or denatured areas of skin, followed by skin grafting. Xenogeneic dermal substitutes, such as porcine acellular dermal matrix (ADM), are typically used to cover the burn wounds, and may accelerate wound healing. It is assumed that burned skin that still maintains partial biological activity may be recycled to construct an autologous acellular dermal matrix, termed 'deep‑degree burned dermal matrix (DDBDM)'. In theory, DDBDM may avoid the histoincompatibility issues associated with foreign or xenogeneic dermal matrices, and reduce therapy costs by making full use of discarded skin. In the present study, the collagens within prepared DDBDM were thickened, disorganized and partially fractured, however, they still maintained their reticular structure and tensile strength (Pburn toxins. Following 4 weeks of subcutaneous implantation, ADM and DDBDM were incompletely degraded and maintained good integrity. No significant inflammatory reaction or rejection were observed, which indicated that ADM and DDBDM have good histocompatibility. Therefore, DDBDM may be a useful material for the treatment of deep‑degree burns.

  4. An objective long-term evaluation of Integra (a dermal skin substitute) and split thickness skin grafts, in acute burns and reconstructive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dai Q A; Potokar, Tom S; Price, Patricia

    2010-02-01

    The field of wound healing and tissue repair has advanced rapidly in the last decade, with this there is an increasing emphasis on the importance of the functional and cosmetic outcomes following injury. Integra artificial skin is the most widely used synthetic skin substitute and is reported to have better outcomes in relation to the appearance and elasticity when compared to split thickness skin grafting (SSG). A review of the literature reveals very few trials that are based on an objective evaluation of Integra treated scars as compared to SSGs. This research aimed to provide objective data on the long-term outcome of Integra. All adult patients from the Welsh Burns Centre who had been successfully treated with Integra+/-SSG were invited to attend a clinic for a follow up provided they had been healed for greater than one year. The hypothesis that Integra scars are more pliable than skin grafts was tested objectively using the Cutometer, a suction device which measures skin elasticity. Of the 13 patients eligible, six were available for assessment. The results of this study suggest that Integra treated sites correlate well with normal skin as measured by the Cutometer. This was statistically significant for the parameters Ur/Ue (elastic function) and Ur/Uf (gross elasticity). On the other hand there was no correlation seen between the patients SSG sites and the patient's normal skin. With advances in medicine we are increasingly able to modulate wound healing and the resultant scars. In order to assess new and often costly treatments the need for objective scar measurement tools have become apparent. Integra has been advocated to improve scarring from injury. However, there have been few studies to evaluate the long-term outcome of Integra as compared to traditional methods such as SSG. In the past scar evaluation has been based on subjective scores by patients and clinicians. Now the mechanical properties of the skin can be evaluated using simple

  5. Preclinical safety studies on autologous cultured human skin fibroblast transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei; Zhang, Shuying; Liu, Dai; Chai, Mi; Wang, Jiaqi; Zhao, Yuming

    2014-01-01

    Recently, FDA approved the clinical use of autologous fibroblasts (LAVIV™) for the improvement of nasolabial fold wrinkles in adults. The use of autologous fibroblasts for the augmentation of dermal and subcutaneous defects represents a potentially exciting natural alternative to the use of other filler materials for its long-term corrective ability and absence of allergic adverse effects proved by clinical application. However, compared to the clinical evidence, preclinical studies are far from enough. In this study, human skin-derived fibroblasts were cultured and expanded for both in vitro and in vivo observations. In vitro, the subcultured fibroblasts were divided into two groups. One set of cells underwent cell cycle and karyotype analysis at passages 5 and 10. The second group of cells was cocultured in medium with different concentrations of human skin extract D for the measurement of collagen concentration and cell count. In vivo, the subcultured fibroblasts were injected into nude mice subcutaneously. Biopsies were taken for morphology observation and specific collagen staining at 1, 2, and 3 months after injection. The results in vitro showed no significant differences in cell cycle distribution between passages 5 and 10. Cell proliferation and secretion were inhibited as the concentration of extract D increased. In vivo, the fibroblasts were remarkably denser on the experimental side with no dysplastic cells. Mitotic cells were easily observed at the end of the first month but were rare at the end of the third month. Type III collagen was detected at the end of the first month, while collagen type I was positive at the end of the second month. The content of both collagens increased as time passed. The above results indicated that the use of the autologous fibroblasts was safe, providing a basic support for clinical use of fibroblasts.

  6. Insertion Testing of Polyethylene Glycol Microneedle Array into Cultured Human Skin with Biaxial Tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Naoki; Tachikawa, Hiroto; Miyano, Takaya; Nishiyabu, Kazuaki

    Aiming at the practical use of polyethylene glycol (PEG) microneedles for transdermal drug delivery system (DDS), a testing apparatus for their insertion into cultured human skin has been developed. To simulate the variety of conditions of human skin, biaxial tension can be applied to the cultured human skin. An adopted testing scheme to apply and control the biaxial tension is similar to the deep-draw forming technique. An attention was also paid to the short-time setup of small, thin and wet cultured skin. One dimensional array with four needles was inserted and influence of tension was discussed. It was found that tension, deflection of skin during insertion and original curvature of skin are the important parameters for microneedles array design.

  7. Evaluation of an Amniotic Membrane-Collagen Dermal Substitute in the Management of Full-Thickness Skin Defects in a Pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunji Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundTo minimize the inflammatory reaction and improve healing, a new modified dermal substitute composed of an atelocollagen, chondroitin-6-sulfate, and amniotic membrane (AM was applied to full-thickness skin defects in a pig. Atelocollagen was extracted from bovine skin, and two modified dermal substitutes were generated according to the cross-linking type.MethodsThe AM-collagen dermal substitutes were characterized and compared with currently used dermal substitutes in a pig skin defect model. There were five experimental groups: dehydrothermal (DHT cross-linking atelocollagen with the AM on the top (AM-DHT, DHT and chemical cross-linking atelocollagen with the AM on the top (AM-DHT/chemical, Terudermis, Integra, and AlloDerm. After 3×3 cm full-thickness skin defects on the back of a pig were created, each dermal substitutes dermal substitutes was randomly grafted on the defects. Two weeks after grafting, autologous partial-thickness skin was over-grafted on the neodermis. The take rate of the dermal substitutes, skin, and histological sections were all assessed at 1, 2, and 4 weeks postoperatively.ResultsMore rapid healing and a higher take rate were evident in the AM-DHT and Terudermis groups. Histological examination revealed fewer inflammatory cells and more fibroblast hyperplasia in these two groups. Four weeks after surgery, the amount of newly formed collagen was significantly more appropriate in the AM-DHT group.ConclusionsThese observations provide supporting evidence that a newly developed amniotic-collagen dermal substitute may inhibit inflammatory reactions and promote wound healing.

  8. Comparison of rat epidermal keratinocyte organotypic culture (ROC) with intact human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pappinen, Sari; Hermansson, Martin; Kuntsche, Judith

    2008-01-01

    The present report is a part of our continuing efforts to explore the utility of the rat epidermal keratinocyte organotypic culture (ROC) as an alternative model to human skin in transdermal drug delivery and skin irritation studies of new chemical entities and formulations. The aim of the presen...

  9. Development of a vernix caseosa substitute : a novel strategy to improve skin barrier function and repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rißmann, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Vernix caseosa (VC) is the cheesy, white cream that covers the skin of the human fetus and the newborn. VC is a protective cream, which consists of water containing dead cells that are embedded in lipids. This natural cream is suggested to feature multiple biological functions such as facilitating t

  10. Comparison of in vivo immune responses following transplantation of vascularized and non-vascularized human dermo-epidermal skin substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klar, Agnes S; Biedermann, Thomas; Simmen-Meuli, Claudia; Reichmann, Ernst; Meuli, Martin

    2017-03-01

    Autologous bio-engineered dermo-epidermal skin substitutes (DESS) represent an alternative therapeutic option for a definitive treatment of skin defects in human patients. Largely, the interaction of host immune cells with transplanted DESS is considered to be essential for the granulation tissue formation, graft take, and its functionality. The aim of this study was to compare the spatiotemporal distribution and density of host-derived monocytes/macrophages and granulocytes in vascularized (vascDESS) versus non-vascularized DESS (non-vascDESS) in a rat model. Keratinocytes and the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) were derived from human skin or human adipose tissue, respectively. Human SVF containing both endothelial and mesenchymal/stromal progenitors was used to develop a vascularized collagen type I-based dermal component in vitro. The donor-matched, monolayer-expanded adipose stromal cells lacking endothelial cells were used as a negative control. Subsequently, human keratinocytes were seeded on top of hydrogels to build dermo-epidermal skin grafts. After transplantation onto full-thickness skin wounds on the back of immuno-incompetent rats, grafts were excised and analyzed after 1 and 3 weeks. The expression of distinct inflammatory cell markers specific for host-derived monocytes/macrophages (CD11b, CD68) or granulocytes (HIS48) was analyzed by immunofluorescence microscopy. All skin grafts were infiltrated by host-derived monocytes/macrophages (CD11b(+), CD68(+)) and granulocytes (HIS48(+)) between 1-3 week post-transplantation. When compared to non-vascDESS, the vascDESS showed an increased granulocyte infiltration at all time points analyzed with the majority of cells scattered throughout the whole dermal part. Whereas a moderate number of rat monocytes/macrophages (CD11b(+), CD68(+)) were found in vascDESS at 1 week, only a few cells were detected in non-vascDESS. We observed a time-dependent decrease of monocytes/macrophages in all transplants at 3

  11. Clinical characteristics associated with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato skin culture results in patients with erythema migrans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franc Strle

    Full Text Available Clinical characteristics associated with isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from skin have not been fully evaluated. To gain insight into predictors for a positive EM skin culture, we compared basic demographic, epidemiologic, and clinical data in 608 culture-proven and 501 culture-negative adult patients with solitary EM. A positive Borrelia spp. skin culture was associated with older age, a time interval of >2 days between tick bite and onset of the skin lesion, EM ≥ 5 cm in diameter, and location of the lesion on the extremities, whereas several other characteristics used as clinical case definition criteria for the diagnosis of EM (such as tick bite at the site of later EM, information on expansion of the skin lesion, central clearing were not. A patient with a 15-cm EM lesion had almost 3-fold greater odds for a positive skin culture than patients with a 5-cm lesion. Patients with a free time interval between the tick bite and onset of EM had the same probability of a positive skin culture as those who did not recall a tick bite (OR=1.02; however, the two groups had >3-fold greater odds for EM positivity than patients who reported a tick bite with no interval between the bite and onset of the lesion. In conclusion, several yet not all clinical characteristics used in EM case definitions were associated with positive Borrelia spp. skin culture. The findings are limited to European patients with solitary EM caused predominantly by B. afzelii but may not be valid for other situations.

  12. Cutaneous sensory nerve as a substitute for auditory nerve in solving deaf-mutes’ hearing problem: an innovation in multi-channel-array skin-hearing technology

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jianwen; Li, Yan; Ming ZHANG; Ma, Weifang; Ma, Xuezong

    2014-01-01

    The current use of hearing aids and artificial cochleas for deaf-mute individuals depends on their auditory nerve. Skin-hearing technology, a patented system developed by our group, uses a cutaneous sensory nerve to substitute for the auditory nerve to help deaf-mutes to hear sound. This paper introduces a new solution, multi-channel-array skin-hearing technology, to solve the problem of speech discrimination. Based on the filtering principle of hair cells, external voice signals at different...

  13. Human autologous serum as a substitute for fetal bovine serum in human Schwann cell culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Goodarzi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, cell -based and tissue engineered products have opened new horizons in treatment of incurable nervous system disorders. The number of studies on the role of Schwann cells (SC in treating nervous disorders is higher than other cell types. Different protocols have been suggested for isolation and expansion of SC which most of them have used multiple growth factors, mitogens and fetal bovine sera (FBS in culture medium. Because of potential hazards of animal-derived reagents, this study was designed to evaluate the effect of replacing FBS with human autologous serum (HAS on SC's yield and culture parameters. Samples from 10 peripheral nerve biopsies were retrieved and processed under aseptic condition. The isolated cells cultured in FBS (1st group or autologous serum (2nd group. After primary culture the cells were seeded at 10000 cell/cm2 in a 12 wells cell culture plate for each group. At 100% confluency, the cell culture parameters (count, viability, purity and culture duration of 2 groups were compared using paired t-test. The average donors' age was 35.80 (SD=13.35 and except for 1 sample the others cultured successfully. In first group, the averages of cell purity, viability and culture duration were 97% (SD=1.32, 97/33% (SD=1.22 and 11.77 (SD=2.58 days respectively. This parameters were 97.33% (SD=1.00, 97.55% (SD=1.33 and 10.33 days (SD=1.65 in second group. The difference of cell count, purity and viability were not significant between 2 groups (P>0.05. The cells of second group reached to 100% confluency in shorter period of time (P=0.03. The results of this study showed that autologous serum can be a good substitute for FBS in human SC culture. This can reduce the costs and improve the safety of cell product for clinical application.

  14. Stories on the Skin: Tattoo Culture at a South Florida University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leader, Karen J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a multidisciplinary creative and research project at a South Florida public university. "Stories on the Skin: Tattoo Culture at FAU" has explored and presented tattoos as a shared cultural experience, rather than as a symptom, or a fad. Considering relevant scholarship in various disciplines, tattoo emerges as a…

  15. Stories on the Skin: Tattoo Culture at a South Florida University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leader, Karen J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a multidisciplinary creative and research project at a South Florida public university. "Stories on the Skin: Tattoo Culture at FAU" has explored and presented tattoos as a shared cultural experience, rather than as a symptom, or a fad. Considering relevant scholarship in various disciplines, tattoo emerges as a…

  16. Silkworm (Bombyx mori) hemolymph unable to substitute fetal bovine serum in insect cell culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suparto, Irma H.; Khalam, Chandra Nur; Praira, Willy; Sajuthi, Dondin

    2014-03-01

    Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS) in animal cell culture media is an important source of nutrients for cell growth. However, the harvest and collection of FBS cause bioethical concerns. Efforts to reduce and preferably replace FBS with synthetic or other natural alternatives are continually being explored. Hemolymph silkworm (Bombyx mori) contains many nutrients needed for the process of metamorphosis. Therefore, there is possibility as an alternative nutritional supplement for cell culture to reduce the use of FBS. The objective of this study was to evaluate the macrocomponent of hemolymph and the possibility as medium supplement for Spodoptera fugiperda (Sf9) cell culture. Proximate analyses showed that hemolymph contains 89.76% of water, 2.52 mg/mL carbohydrate, 2.35% fat and 55.61 mg/mL protein. Further protein analysis, it consists of 15 fractions containing molecular weight of 22 - 152 kDa. The use of hemolymph as FBS substitution in Sf9 cell culture with various concentrations was unable to maintain and support cell growth. Further research still needed by prior adaptation of the tissue culture to minimal nutrition media before introduction of the hemolymph as supplement.

  17. In vitro culture of skin-homing T lymphocytes from inflammatory skin diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Karen; C Mogensen, Søren; Thestrup-Pedersen, Kristian

    2005-01-01

    -chain studies by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that all T lymphocytes had access to the skin compartment. Single-stranded conformational analysis showed clonally expanded T cells numbering between 40 and 60 clones. After approximately 2 months of growth, the mean CD4+ : CD8+ ratio...

  18. Use of versican variant V3 and versican antisense expression to engineer cultured human skin containing increased content of insoluble elastin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrilees, Mervyn J; Falk, Ben A; Zuo, Ning; Dickinson, Michelle E; May, Barnaby C H; Wight, Thomas N

    2014-06-19

    Skin substitutes for repair of dermal wounds are deficient in functional elastic fibres. We report that the content of insoluble elastin in the dermis of cultured human skin can be increased though the use of two approaches that enhance elastogenesis by dermal fibroblasts, forced expression of versican variant V3, which lacks glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains, and forced expression of versican antisense to decrease levels of versican variant V1 with GAG chains. Human dermal fibroblasts transduced with V3 or anti-versican were cultured under standard conditions over a period of 4 weeks to produce dermal sheets, with growth enhanced though multiple seedings for the first 3 weeks. Human keratinocytes, cultured in supplemented media, were added to the 4-week dermal sheets and the skin layer cultured for a further week. At 5 weeks, keratinocytes were multilayered and differentiated, with desmosome junctions thoughout and keratin deposits in the upper squamous layers. The dermal layer was composed of layered fibroblasts surrounded by extracellular matrix of collagen bundles and, in control cultures, small scattered elastin deposits. Forced expression of V3 and versican antisense slowed growth, decreased versican V1 expression, increased tropoelastin expression and/or the deposition of large aggregates of insoluble elastin in the dermal layer, and increased tissue stiffness, as measured by nano-indentation. Skin sheets were also cultured on Endoform Dermal Template™, the biodegradable wound dressing made from the lamina propria of sheep foregut. Skin structure and the enhanced deposition of elastin by forced expression of V3 and anti-versican were preserved on this supportive substrate. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Amnion s and radio-sterilized porcine skin use as potential matrices for the development of human skin substitutes; Uso de amnios y piel porcina radioesterilizados como matrices potenciales para el desarrollo de sustitutos de piel humana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez P, M. E.; Reyes F, M. L.; Reboyo B, D. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Velasquillo M, M. C.; Sanchez S, R.; Brena M, A. M.; Ibarra P, J. C., E-mail: esther.martinez@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitacion, Calz. Mexico-Xochimilco No. 289, Col. Arenal de Guadalupe, 14389 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    The injuries by burns constitute a primordial problem of public health; they cause a high mortality index, severe physical and psychological disability, etc. The autologous skin transplant is the replacement therapy recommended for its treatment, but in patients that present a high percentage of burnt skin; this is not possible to carry out. Another strategy is the transplant of donated skin; however, due to the little donation that exists in our country is not very feasible to apply this treatment. A challenge of the tissues engineering is to develop biological skin substitutes, based on cells and amnion s, favoring the cutaneous regeneration and quick repair of injuries, diminishing this way the hospitalization expenses. At present skin substitutes that can equal to the same skin do not exist. On the other hand, the mesenchymal stromal cells (Msc) represent an alternative to achieve this objective; since has been demonstrated that the Msc participate in the tissue repair by means of inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines and differentiation to dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes. To apply the Msc in cutaneous injuries a support material is required that to allow transplanting these cells to a lesion or burn. The radio-sterilized human amnion and the radio-sterilized porcine skin, processed by the Radio-Sterilized Tissues Bank of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ), are biomaterials that are used as temporary cutaneous coverings. We suppose that these two matrices will be appropriate for the growth and maintenance in cultivation of the Msc, to generate two biological skin substitutes, in collaboration with the Biotechnology Laboratory of the Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitacion. (Author)

  20. Skin biopsies for cell cultures from Mediterranean free-ranging cetaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsili, L; Fossi, M C; Neri, G; Casini, S; Gardi, C; Palmeri, S; Tarquini, E; Panigada, S

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a useful method for obtaining viable tissue samples for establishing cell cultures from skin biopsies of free-ranging cetaceans. The skin biopsies were performed by two methods: dart from an air gun and dart from a crossbow. The dart tip was modified to collect tissue. The tissue was kept in tissue culture medium at ambient temperature, then processed within 24 h. Many modifications in culture technique, with respect to conventional culture methods for human fibroblasts, were made. The cultures thus obtained can be used for many purposes, including genetic and toxicological studies. In toxicology they are an alternative in vitro system for studying threatened animals such as marine mammals. In particular, fibroblasts can be used to test the vulnerability of cetaceans and pinnipeds to different environmental contaminants such as organochlorine compounds, heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  1. Testing of viable human skin cell dilution cultures as an approach to validating microsampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainger, Stephen A; Yong, X L Hilary; Soyer, H Peter; Sturm, Richard A

    2017-05-01

    Skin biopsies are a valuable technique in the diagnosis of cutaneous inflammatory and neoplastic conditions. We were interested to test the minimal size or equivalent volume by dilution of proteolytically disassociated skin tissue required to allow the isolation and propagation of cutaneous cells, for freezing, storage and biochemical analysis. It was possible to propagate with 100% efficiency fibroblast and melanocytic cells from a 0.1 to 0.5 mm(3) equivalent neonatal foreskin sample using a combination of DispaseII and CollagenaseIV. The smallest tissue dilution that allowed melanocytic cell culture was 0.01 mm(3), which equated to approximately 16 cells based on the average skin density of melanocytes. However, passaging of cells to create frozen stocks was achieved routinely only from 1 mm(3) skin, equating to 1560 cells. Tissue-specific antigen expression of these cultures was tested by western blot of total protein extracts. There was no pigmentation antigen expression in fibroblast cultures; however, smooth muscle actin protein expression was high in fibroblast but absent from melanocytic cell strains. Melanocytic cells expressed pigmentation antigens and E-cadherin, but these were not detected in fibroblasts. Moreover, maturation of these melanocytic cells resulted in a decrease of Dopachrome Tautomerase antigen expression and induction of Tyrosinase protein consistent with the differentiation potential seen in cell cultures derived routinely from large sections of skin tissue.

  2. Cutaneous sensory nerve as a substitute for auditory nerve in solving deaf-mutes’ hearing problem:an innovation in multi-channel-array skin-hearing technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianwen Li; Yan Li; Ming Zhang; Weifang Ma; Xuezong Ma

    2014-01-01

    The current use of hearing aids and artificial cochleas for deaf-mute individuals depends on their auditory nerve. Skin-hearing technology, a patented system developed by our group, uses a cutaneous sensory nerve to substitute for the auditory nerve to help deaf-mutes to hear sound. This paper introduces a new solution, multi-channel-array skin-hearing technology, to solve the problem of speech discrimination. Based on the ifltering principle of hair cells, external voice sig-nals at different frequencies are converted to current signals at corresponding frequencies using electronic multi-channel bandpass ifltering technology. Different positions on the skin can be stimulated by the electrode array, allowing the perception and discrimination of external speech signals to be determined by the skin response to the current signals. Through voice frequen-cy analysis, the frequency range of the band-pass iflter can also be determined. These ifndings demonstrate that the sensory nerves in the skin can help to transfer the voice signal and to dis-tinguish the speech signal, suggesting that the skin sensory nerves are good candidates for the replacement of the auditory nerve in addressing deaf-mutes’ hearing problems. Scientiifc hearing experiments can be more safely performed on the skin. Compared with the artificial cochlea, multi-channel-array skin-hearing aids have lower operation risk in use, are cheaper and are more easily popularized.

  3. Cutaneous sensory nerve as a substitute for auditory nerve in solving deaf-mutes' hearing problem: an innovation in multi-channel-array skin-hearing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianwen; Li, Yan; Zhang, Ming; Ma, Weifang; Ma, Xuezong

    2014-08-15

    The current use of hearing aids and artificial cochleas for deaf-mute individuals depends on their auditory nerve. Skin-hearing technology, a patented system developed by our group, uses a cutaneous sensory nerve to substitute for the auditory nerve to help deaf-mutes to hear sound. This paper introduces a new solution, multi-channel-array skin-hearing technology, to solve the problem of speech discrimination. Based on the filtering principle of hair cells, external voice signals at different frequencies are converted to current signals at corresponding frequencies using electronic multi-channel bandpass filtering technology. Different positions on the skin can be stimulated by the electrode array, allowing the perception and discrimination of external speech signals to be determined by the skin response to the current signals. Through voice frequency analysis, the frequency range of the band-pass filter can also be determined. These findings demonstrate that the sensory nerves in the skin can help to transfer the voice signal and to distinguish the speech signal, suggesting that the skin sensory nerves are good candidates for the replacement of the auditory nerve in addressing deaf-mutes' hearing problems. Scientific hearing experiments can be more safely performed on the skin. Compared with the artificial cochlea, multi-channel-array skin-hearing aids have lower operation risk in use, are cheaper and are more easily popularized.

  4. Preservation of human skin structure and function in organ culture

    OpenAIRE

    Varani, J.

    1998-01-01

    Human keratinocytes can be maintained in monolayer culture under serum-free conditions for an extended period of time. Under low ca2+ conditions (e.g., 0.05-0.15 mM), an undifferentiated state is maintained and the cells proliferate optimally. When the ca2+ concentration is raised to approximately 1.0 mM, differentiation occurs and growth slows. Human dermal fibroblasts can also be maintained in monolayer culture under serum-free conditions, but in contrast to ...

  5. Endothelin-1 increases melanin synthesis in an established sheep skin melanocyte culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yamiao; Geng, Jianjun; Qin, Yilong; Wang, Haidong; Fan, Ruiwen; Zhang, Ying; Li, Hongquan; Jiang, Shan; Dong, Changsheng

    2016-08-01

    The aims of the study were to establish a culture system for sheep skin melanocytes and uncover the effects of endothelin-1 on melanin synthesis in cultured melanocytes in order to provide an optimal cell system and a theoretical basis for studying the regulatory mechanism of coat color in sheep. In this study, skin punch biopsies were harvested from the dorsal region of 1-3-yr-old sheep, and skin melanocytes were then obtained by the two-step digestion using dispase II and trypsin/ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). The primary cultures of the melanocytes were established and characterized by dopa-staining, immunocytochemical localization of melanocyte markers, and RT-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of coat color genes. To determine the effect of endothelin-1 on proliferation and melanin synthesis of melanocytes, the cultured cells were treated with different doses of endothelin-1 (10(-7), 10(-8), 10(-9), 10(-10), and 0 mol/L), and the growth rate of melanocytes, production of melanin, expression of related genes, and location of related protein in cultured cells were examined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), ultraviolet spectrophotometry, qRT-PCR, and immunocytochemical localization, respectively. The results showed that the established melanocyte culture functions properly. Endothelin-1 treatment increased markedly the number of melanocytes and melanin content. In responding to this treatment, expressions of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), tyrosinase (TYR), and endothelin receptor B (EDNRB) in the melanocytes were significantly up regulated (P skin melanocytes was established successfully in vitro, and endothelin-1 promotes the melanogenesis in sheep skin melanocytes.

  6. Differential effects of chemical irritants in rabbit and human skin organ cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Rutten, A.A.J.J.L.

    1995-01-01

    The toxicity of well known irritants was investigated in rabbit and human skin organ cultures. Test chemicals were selected from various categories of irritants and included both water-soluble and water-insoluble compounds. Using a highly standardized protocol, test chemicals were applied topically

  7. Differential effects of chemical irritants in rabbit and human skin organ cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Rutten, A.A.J.J.L.

    1995-01-01

    The toxicity of well known irritants was investigated in rabbit and human skin organ cultures. Test chemicals were selected from various categories of irritants and included both water-soluble and water-insoluble compounds. Using a highly standardized protocol, test chemicals were applied topically

  8. 2,3,7,8-Substituted PCDDs and PCDFs in sea lion (Otaria flavescens) skin biopsies from two South-western Atlantic populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimènez, B; Gonzàlez, M J; Hernández, L M; Eljarrat, E; Rivera, J; Fossi, M C

    1999-02-01

    Congener specific 2,3,7,8-chlorinated PCDDs and PCDFs were determined in skin biopsies taken from sea lions (Otaria flavescens) living in two areas of the South-western Atlantic on the coast of Argentina (Mar del Plata and Punta Bermeja). This is the first report on PCDDs and PCDFs in sea lion skin biopsies from the southern hemisphere. Differences were found in the congener pattern according to the sampling area. Animals living in the polluted area (Mar del Plata harbour) had detectable levels of all seventeen 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners. Sea lions living in a control environment (Punta Bermeja, Patagonia) only exhibited 5 detectable congeners out of all seventeen 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners. However, total levels were low in both colonies studied. These data are consistent with previous work which has indicated that dioxins occur at relatively low levels in marine mammals, possibly due to rapid catabolism or elimination.

  9. Primary culture of human skin melanocyte and comparison of culture in the presence and absence of phorbol ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Yarani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary culture takes place following the cell isolation from tissues. Isolation and culture of melanocytes based on their roll in the protection of body against hazardous sun rays, production of skin, cornea and hair color is really important. This study was done to set isolation, culture and proliferation of melanocytes from children foreskin and adult eyelashes, and also comparison of two types of melanocyte culture medium. Methods: Human foreskin and eyelash samples were used for melanocyte isolation and culture. After isolation of epidermis from dermis, epidermis cell suspensions were prepared by enzymatic digestion. The isolated cells were cultured in two melanocyte selective culture media. Immunocytochemistary and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assays were used for confirmation of isolated and cultured melanocytes. Results: Our results indicated that isolated melanocyte cultured in the selective medium without phorbol esters is better than the melanocytes cultured in selective medium cont-aining phorbol esters not only morphologically but also physiologically and from the aspect of cell adhesion. In addition, the results showed that isolated melanocyte from adult eyelashes are more dendritic than melanocytes isolated from children foreskin. Conversely, our results indicated that the number of cell passages in melanocyte isolat-ed from foreskin is more than melanocytes isolated from adult eyelashes. Conclusion: Melanocytes cultured in selective medium containing convenient growth factors in absence of phorbol esters show more native physiological and adhesive properties. In addition, melanocyte isolated from younger tissues such as foreskin have better proliferative and sub-culturing properties so we suggest isolation and culture of younger tissues.

  10. Time course and spacial distribution of UV effects on human skin in organ culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Eiichiro; Takahashi, Akihisa; Kitagawa, Kou; Kakei, Saki; Tsujinaka, Daiki; Unno, Megumi; Nishikawa, Shoko; Ohnishi, Ken; Hatoko, Mitsuo; Murata, Norio; Watanabe, Masakatsu; Furusawa, Yoshiya; Ohnishi, Takeo

    2008-05-01

    Apoptosis plays an important role in eliminating cells from populations when cells have been exposed to UV irradiation and damaged. Studies of cells in culture have provided some details of the mechanisms involved when stress response genes act after exposure to UV irradiation and other environmental stresses. However, little is known about the responses of intact sections of human skin growing in organ culture to UV irradiation. In the work reported here, it was found that the response of organ-cultured human skin after exposure to UV irradiation is different than the response of cultured cells. At wavelengths below 300 nm, the action spectrum obtained from organ-cultured skin samples showed a lower sensitivity than that observed at 300 nm, indicating that the overlying stratum corneum and upper epidermal cell layers had probably caused a selective absorption of incident UV radiation at some wavelengths. At 3 hours after UV irradiation, p53 was phosphorylated at Ser 15 and Ser 46, and accumulated in the cell nuclei, notably after exposure to 280-320 nm wavelengths. Accumulations of Bax, active Caspase-3 and cleaved PARP were detected in apoptotic cells at 24 hours post-exposure, along with a reduction of Bcl-2 levels, notably after exposure to 300-365 nm light. This difference in apoptotic responses may result from the characteristics of the different irradiation wavelengths used, and from details in the skin's structure. The data obtained in this study using an organ-culture system utilized direct measurements of the biological effects of different wavelengths of UV lights.

  11. Radioprotective effects of dimethyl sulfoxide in the artificial skin reconstructed with cultured human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Young Ha; Choi, Karp Shik [College of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Song, In Hwan [Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    To evaluate cultured human artificial skin as an experimental model for studying radiation effects in vitro. The skin was constructed by culturing keratinocytes over collagen lattice which made by culturing fibroblasts. Two groups were irradiated to gamma rays at single dose of 25 Gy with or without 3.5% of DMSO. Ultrastructures were investigated by electron microscopy after irradiation. The number of epidermal layers and expression of cytokeratin (CK) 14 and 10 were also seem by light microscopy. At 2 days after irradiation in experimental group without DMSO, necrotic cells were rarely found in the spinosal layer and undercornified cells were visible in the horney layer. Similar findings were also found in experimental group with DMSO but in mild form. The number of epidermal layers in experimental group without DMSO were significantly fewer than other group. CK 14 expressed in all the layer excluding horney layer but CK 10 expressed over 3-4 basal layers. Such patterns of CK expression were similar to all groups. It is suggested that structures of the keratinocytes and epidermal formation could be disturbed by irradiation in artificial skin and that DMSO can protect these damages. Therefore this work could be used as an organotypic experimental model in vitro using human cells for studying radiation effect in skin. Furthermore structural findings provided in this study could be used as useful basic data in further study using this model.

  12. Culture of skin-derived precursors and their differentiation into neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨立业; 郑佳坤; 刘相名; 惠国桢; 郭礼和

    2004-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the culture method of skin- derived precursors ( SKPs ) and to explore a new cell source for cell transplantation of central nervous system. Methods: Cells from skins of juvenile and adult mice were isolated and cultured in serum-free medium.A mechanical method was chosen to passage these cells and they were idemified by the immunocytochemistry assay. Results: SKPs could be isolated from adult and neonatal skins. They could be maintained in vitro for long periods with stable proliferation, and expanded as undifferentiated cells in culture for more than 12 passages. About 50% of SKPs expressed nestin and majority of these cells expressed fibronectin when they were plated on polyornithine and laminin coated plates. About 5% cells showed neuronal differentiation and expressed neurofilament-M (NF-M) and NSE when SKPs were plated in serun-containing medium, and these cells could also differentiate into adipocytes and fibroblast-like cells.Conclusions: The data support the hypothesis that adult skin contains stem cells capable of differentiating into neurons, adipocytes, and fibroblast-like cells. They may represent an alternative autologous stem cell source for CNS cell transplantation.

  13. Utilization of reconstructed cultured human skin models as an alternative skin for permeation studies of chemical compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Kano, Satoshi; 藤堂, 浩明; 杉江, 謙一; 藤本, 英哲; 中田, 圭一; 徳留, 嘉寛; 橋本, フミ惠; 杉林, 堅次

    2010-01-01

    Two reconstructed human skin models, EpiskinSM and EpiDermTM, have been approved as alternative membranes for skin corrosive/irritation experiments due to their close correlation with animal skin. Such reconstructed human skin models were evaluated as alternative membranes for skin permeation experiments. Seven drugs with different lipophilicities and almost the same molecular weight were used as test penetrants. Relationships were investigated between permeability coefficients (P values) of ...

  14. The use of a polylactide-based copolymer as a temporary skin substitute in deep dermal burns: 1-year follow-up results of a prospective clinical noninferiority trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selig, Harald F; Keck, Maike; Lumenta, David B; Mittlböck, Martina; Kamolz, Lars P

    2013-01-01

    Deep dermal burns can be covered with different kind of materials and techniques; one of them is a polylactide-based temporary skin substitute. The aim of this study was to intraindividually compare its 1-year outcome with the results obtained by use of autologous skin grafts in patients suffering from deep dermal burns. A prospective noninferiority trial was designed in order to assess skin quality and scar formation by use of subjective (Vancouver Scar Scale; Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale) and objective (noninvasive cutometry) burn scar assessment tools. All items of the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale, except vascularity, were found to be noninferior in the areas covered with the temporary skin substitute vs. autologous skin. Results of objective scar evaluation showed comparable viscoelastic parameters without reaching noninferiority. Overall, the outcome of deep dermal burns covered with a polylactide-based temporary skin substitute revealed satisfactory results in terms of scar formation and skin quality as compared with autologous skin. This paper supports its use in deep dermal burns, where autologous skin donor sites require either to be reserved for coverage of full-thickness skin defects in severe burns or to be saved for reduction of additional morbidity in selected patient collectives. © 2013 by the Wound Healing Society.

  15. Ultrastructural and immunocytochemical detection of keratins and extracellular matrix proteins in lizard skin cultured in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibardi, Lorenzo; Polazzi, Elisabetta

    2012-04-01

    The present study shows the localization of epidermal and dermal proteins produced in lizard skin cultivated in vitro. Cells from the skin have been cultured for up to one month to detect the expression of keratins, actin, vimentin and extracellular matrix proteins (fibronectin, chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan, elastin and collagen I). Keratinocytes and dermal cells weakly immunoreact for Pan-Cytokeratin but not with the K17-antibody at the beginning of the cell culture when numerous keratin bundles are present in keratinocyte cytoplasm. The dense keratin network disappears after 7-12 days in culture, and K17 becomes detectable in both keratinocytes and mesenchymal cells isolated from the dermis. While most epidermal cells are lost after 2 weeks of in vitro cultivation dermal cells proliferate and form a pellicle of variable thickness made of 3-8 cell layers. The fibroblasts of this dermal equivalent produces an extracellular matrix containing chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan, collagen I, elastic fibers and fibronectin, explaining the attachment of the pellicle to the substratum. The study indicates that after improving keratinocyte survival a skin equivalent for lizard epidermis would be feasible as a useful tool to analyze the influence of the dermis on the process of epidermal differentiation and the control of the shedding cycle in squamates.

  16. Cultured skin keratinocytes from both normal individuals and basal cell naevus syndrome patients are more resistant to. gamma. -rays and UV light compared with cultured skin fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stacey, M.; Thacker, S.; Taylor, A.M.R. (Birmingham Univ. (UK). Cancer Research Campaign Labs.)

    1989-07-01

    Measurement of colony-forming ability following exposure to {gamma}-rays was performed on cultured skin keratinocytes and skin fibroblasts from normal individuals, basal cell naevus syndrome patients (BCNS) and ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) patients. The most striking observation was the radiation resistance of 8/8 keratinocyte strains compared with fibroblasts whether from BCNS patients or normals. The single A-T keratinocyte cell strain showed the same radiosensitivity as A-T fibroblast cell strains. The differential survival of keratinocytes and fibroblasts was also observed following exposure to 254 nm UV light. Survival curves of SV40 immortalized keratinocytes and retinoblasts derived from normal individuals or BCNS patients showed large shoulder regions following exposure to {gamma}-rays or 254 nm UV light. An increased D{sub 37} rather than an increased D{sub o} was therefore the feature of such curves, contrasting with SV40 immortalized A-T keratinocytes or fibroblasts which showed a minimal shoulder effect and an increased D{sub o}. No difference in survival was observed between BCNS and normal cells following exposure to either UV or {gamma}-rays. (author).

  17. Establishment of a 2-week canine skin organ culture model and its pharmacological modulation by epidermal growth factor and dexamethasone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramo, Francesca; Pirone, Andrea; Lenzi, Carla; Vannozzi, Iacopo; Della Valle, Maria Federica; Miragliotta, Vincenzo

    2016-09-01

    Although canine skin models are already available as either monocellular or organotypic cultures, they only partly recapitulate normal skin morphological features and function. The objective of this study was to establish a canine serum-free skin organ culture model and verify whether dexamethasone could rescue epidermal growth factor-induced changes. The study of morphological changes as a response to pharmacological substances may indeed help to investigate skin physiology and pathology. Normal skin was obtained from five client-owned dogs subjected to surgical procedures unrelated to dermatological conditions. Two experimental designs were performed: (i) two-week viability of the skin culture; (ii) dexamethasone (DMS) inhibition of epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced effects. Serum-free submerged organ cultures were established in Williams' E medium supplemented with penicillin-streptomycin, insulin, hydrocortisone and l-glutamine. General morphological features of skin anatomical structures were well maintained up to day 14, scattered pyknotic nuclei were visible in the epidermis from day 7. Normal keratinocyte differentiation was confirmed by cytokeratin (K) 10, K14 and loricrin immunostaining. Epidermal thickness did not decrease throughout the study. A decrease in keratinocyte proliferation was observed at day 7 and 14. Treatment with EGF induced both keratinocyte proliferation and thickening of the epidermis; both responses were counteracted by DMS. Treatment with EGF increased the length of epithelial tongues at the edge of the skin explants; this effect was further enhanced by DMS supplementation. Our findings demonstrate the potential use of a full-thickness canine skin organ culture model for the study of skin physiology and pharmacological response to exogenous compounds, especially in the field of re-epithelialisation and keratinization disorders.

  18. Resistance to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. Association with heterogeneous defects in cultured skin fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liberman, U.A.; Eil, C.; Marx, S.J.

    1983-02-01

    The authors evaluated the interaction of (/sub 3/H)1,25(OH)/sup 2/D3 with skin fibroblasts cultured from normal subjects or from affected members of six kindreds with rickets and resistance to 1-alpha, 25(OH)/sub 2/D (1,25(OH)/sub 2/D). They analyzed two aspects of the radioligand interaction; nuclear uptake with dispersed, intact cells at 37 degrees C and binding at 0 degrees C with soluble extract (cytosol) prepared from cells disrupted in buffer. With normal fibroblasts the affinity and capacity of nuclear uptake of (/sub 3/H)1,25(OH)/sup 2/D3 were 0.5 nM and 10,300 sites per cell, respectively; for binding with cytosol these were 0.13 nM and 8,900 sites per cell, respectively. The following four patterns of interaction with (/sub 3/H)1,25(OH)/sup 2/D3 were observed with cells cultured from affected patients. In all cases where the radioligand bound with high affinity in nucleus or cytosol, the nucleus- or cytosol-associated radioligand exhibited normal sedimentation velocity on sucrose density gradients. When two kindreds exhibited similar patterns (i.e. pattern a or c) with the analyses of cultured fibroblasts, clinical features in affected members suggested that the underlying genetic defects were not identical. In conclusion: (a) Fibroblasts cultured from human skin manifest nuclear uptake and cytosol binding of (/sub 3/H)1,25(OH)/sup 2/D3 that is an expression of the genes determining these processes in target tissues. (b) Based upon data from clinical evaluations and from analyses of cultured fibroblasts, severe resistance to 1,25(OH)/sup 2/D resulted from five or six distinct genetic mutations in six kindreds.

  19. Some observations on the growth and cyst production characteristics of the brine shrimp Artemia sp. (Gujarat strain) in pond culture and its potential for import substitution

    OpenAIRE

    Gopalakrishnan, P.; Krishna Raju, V.; Thaker, S R

    1989-01-01

    Experimental culture of the brine shrimp Artemia sp. (Gujarat strain) and production of cyst is discussed. The qualitative and quantitative aspects of the cyst and its economic potential for import substitution are highlighted.

  20. Minoxidil specifically decreases the expression of lysine hydroxylase in cultured human skin fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautala, T; Heikkinen, J; Kivirikko, K I; Myllylä, R

    1992-01-01

    The levels of lysine hydroxylase protein and the levels of the mRNAs for lysine hydroxylase and the alpha- and beta-subunits of proline 4-hydroxylase were measured in cultured human skin fibroblasts treated with 1 mM-minoxidil. The data demonstrate that minoxidil decreases the amount of lysine hydroxylase protein, this being due to a decrease in the level of lysine hydroxylase mRNA. The effect of minoxidil appears to be highly specific, as no changes were observed in the amounts of mRNAs for the alpha- and beta-subunits of proline 4-hydroxylase. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:1314568

  1. Accumulation of phosphorus compounds in tissues and cultured skin fibroblasts in patients with hypophosphatasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Y.; Tada, Y.

    1988-08-15

    Patients with hypophosphatasia caused by a deficiency of alkaline phosphatase first showed marked accumulation of phosphoethanolamine and other phosphorus compounds in kidney and liver, while in placenta and intestine contents of these compounds were within a normal range. Furthermore, /sup 32/P-incorporation in cultured skin fibroblasts of patients with hypophosphatasia was increased about two to three times of control. FPLC chromatographic analysis also indicates that the accumulated phosphorus compounds in hypophosphatasia was smaller molecular phosphorus containing compounds. These data provide new pathophysiological aspect of hypophosphatasia.

  2. Carácterísticas histológicas de piel cultivada in vitro Histological Characteristics Of Skin Culture In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arango

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Los injertos de piel cultivados in vitro han sido utilizados tanto en la regeneración de tejidos de áreas cruentas de la piel (úlceras crónicas y quemaduras de diversos grados, como para el tratamiento de genodermatosis. En nuestro medio existe un alto índice de pacientes con úlceras crónicas y un total de 2319 pacientes quemados, en un período de 10 años. El tratamiento convencional de estos pacientes genera estadías de hospitalización prolongadas y costos hospitalarios muy elevados. En este trabajo se establecieron las condiciones para el cultivo y expansión de queratinocitos y fibroblastos humanos, con el propósito de generar un equivalente cutáneo. A su vez, se evaluaron sus características histológicas con el objeto de ofrecer otras opciones de tratamiento. Las células se obtuvieron a partir de piel proveniente de donantes de órganos y de sobrantes de procedimientos quirúrgicos. Se logró un mayor éxito en la obtención de cultivos primarios, con muestras provenientes de donantes menores de 40 años (65%, comparado con los obtenidos de mayores (33%. En el equivalente cutáneo producido con estas células se demostró que los queratinocitos y los fibroblastos, presentan características funcionales, estructurales y morfológicas semejantes a la piel intacta. El equivalente cutáneo además de conservar las características funcionales y estructurales de la piel intacta, presenta otras ventajas en términos de costos, manipulación y estabilidad frente a otros productos similares importados.In vitro skin culture have been used in the regeneration of skin wound (chronic ulcers and burns, and for genodermatosis treatment. In our country there is a high patient number with chronic ulcers and 2319 burned in a period of 10 years. Conventional treatment generates long hospitalization stays and high costs. We established culture conditions of keratinocytes and fibroblasts expansion, to generate a cutaneous substitute in order to

  3. An Attempted Substitute Study of Total Skin Electron Therapy Technique by Using Helical Photon Tomotherapy with Helical Irradiation of the Total Skin Treatment: A Phantom Result

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Ta Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An anthropomorphic phantom was used to investigate a treatment technique and analyze the dose distributions for helical irradiation of the total skin (HITS by helical tomotherapy (HT. Hypothetical bolus of thicknesses of 0, 10, and 15 mm was added around the phantom body to account for the dose homogeneity and setup uncertainty. A central core structure was assigned as a “complete block” to force the dose tangential delivery. HITS technique with prescribed dose (Dp of 36 Gy in 36 fractions was generated. The radiochromic EBT2 films were used for the dose measurements. The target region with 95.0% of the Dp received by more than 95% of the PTV was obtained. The calculated mean doses for the organs at risk (OARs were 4.69, 3.10, 3.20, and 2.94 Gy for the lung, heart, liver, and kidneys, respectively. The measurement doses on a phantom surface for a plan with 10 mm hypothetical bolus and bolus thicknesses of 0, 1, 2, and 3 mm are 89.5%, 111.4%, 116.9%, and 117.7% of Dp, respectively. HITS can provide an accurate and uniform treatment dose in the skin with limited doses to OARs and is safe to replace a total skin electron beam regimen.

  4. Content of Androgen Receptor in Cultured Genital Skin Fibroblast From Different Ages of Chinese Normal Men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢建; 何立敏; 张金山; 杨震; 周云

    1995-01-01

    A ratpid, simple, reliable method is described for assaying androgen receptor (AR) in dispersed, whole, cultured human genital skin fibroblasts (GSF) with a synthetic androgen, 3H-methyltrienolone (3H-R1881). Receptors for androgen in GSF exhiblt high affinity (Kd=3.0±0.1 nmol/L), low binding capacity and androgen specificity. The content of AR in cultured GSF from 40 normal men varying in age from 1.5—60 years u:as also investigated by this assay. Scatchard analysis and slngle plot revealed the presence of 4.500-8500 binding sites per cell, mean number of AR in GSF of these men is 6288±1082 binding sites/cell. No significant difference was observed in the content of AR in different age groups. This result showed that the content of AR in these ceils did not change with age.

  5. Enhancing growth of cultured human skin cells using low-energy CO2 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Nili; Reuveni, Haim; Halevy, Sima; Lubart, Rachel

    1997-12-01

    In view of the versatility and usage of the CO2 laser as a too. in surgery and dermatology, we have studied its effect on enhancing proliferation of cultured skin cells using an attenuated CO2 laser. Exposure of cultured keratinocytes or fibroblasts to continuous wave or pulse mode irradiation enhanced thymidine incorporation by 1.4 to 1.7 folds, and cell number by 1.25 to 1.4 folds, measured 24 and 48 hours later, depending on the fluency applied. As expected, these effects were not suppressed by added antioxidants, indicating that the mechanism involved in this newly observed effect, differ from photosensitization by low energy visible and near IR lasers.

  6. Effects of bosentan on collagen type I synthesis on in vitro culture of scleroderma skin fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Soldano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the effects of a non-selective endothelin (ETA/B receptors antagonist, on collagen type I (COLI synthesis on in vitro culture of scleroderma (SSc skin fibroblasts (Fb. Fb were obtained from skin biopsies of 6 female SSc patients (mean age 64. 1±6 years, after informed consent and Ethical Committee Approval. Cells were treated with endothelin-I [ET-I, 100nM] for 24 and 48 hrs, pre-treated for I hr with ETA/B receptors antagonist [10nM] alone or followed by ET-I for 24 and 48 hrs. Untreated Fb were used as controls. Immunocytochemistry and western blot analysis were performed to evaluate COLI synthesis. ET-I increased COLI synthesis both at 24 and 48 hrs when compared to controls. ETA/B receptor antagonost blocks the increased COLI synthesis ET-I-mediated both at 24 and 48 hrs vs. ET-I. Results showed that ET-I receptors blockage by ETA/B receptors antagonist might prevent the excessive synthesis of COLI, supporting its positive action in the management of skin fibrosis.

  7. Enhanced barrier functions and anti-inflammatory effect of cultured coconut extract on human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soomin; Jang, Ji Eun; Kim, Jihee; Lee, Young In; Lee, Dong Won; Song, Seung Yong; Lee, Ju Hee

    2017-08-01

    Natural plant oils have been used as a translational alternative to modern medicine. Particularly, virgin coconut oil (VCO) has gained popularity because of its potential benefits in pharmaceutical, nutritional, and cosmetic applications. Cultured coconut extract (CCE) is an alternative end product of VCO, which undergoes a further bacterial fermentation process. This study aimed to investigate the effects of CCE on human skin. We analyzed the expression of skin barrier molecules and collagens after applying CCE on human explanted skin. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory properties of CCE, the expression of inflammatory markers was analyzed after ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation. The CCE-treated group showed increased expression of cornified cell envelope components, which contribute to protective barrier functions of the stratum corneum. Further, the expression of inflammatory markers was lower in the CCE-treated group after exposure to UVB radiation. These results suggest an anti-inflammatory effect of CCE against UVB irradiation-induced inflammation. Additionally, the CCE-treated group showed increased collagen and hyaluronan synthase-3 expression. In our study, CCE showed a barrier-enhancing effect and anti-inflammatory properties against ex vivo UVB irradiation-induced inflammation. The promising effect of CCE may be attributed to its high levels of polyphenols and fatty acid components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Different cytokine profiles of skin-derived T cell cultures from patients with atopic dermatitis and psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martel, Britta Cathrina; Dyring-Andersen, Beatrice; Skov, Lone

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate differences in expression of surface markers, cytokine profiles, and presence of CD4(+)CD8(+) T cells in skin-derived T cell cultures from patients with extrinsic atopic dermatitis (AD), intrinsic AD, and psoriasis expanded in the presence of IL-2 and IL-4. MATERIAL: Skin...... biopsies from patients with extrinsic AD (n = 6), intrinsic AD (n = 9) and psoriasis (n = 9). METHODS: Skin-derived T cell cultures were analyzed for expression of six surface markers, 11 intracellular cytokines, and three T cell subtype signature transcription factors by flow cytometry, and secreted...... cytokines by multiplex. RESULTS: A different IFN-γ profile emerged between the extrinsic AD and psoriatic T cell cultures; however, there was no difference in IL-17 profile. No differences with regard to cytokine expression were found between extrinsic AD and intrinsic AD cultures; however, cutaneous...

  9. Cultural Memory Inscribed in the Skin: Symbols of Nation as Tattoo Art in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Bell

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In New Zealand there is a strand of cultural memory popularly known as 'kiwiana'. The term embraces everyday popular cultural practices - beach activities in summer, food rituals  - as well as an array of vintage artefacts.  The latter are locally manufactured items originating mainly in the 1940s-50s, when import restrictions limited the availability of household goods.  Local makers created products for the domestic market, for instance grocery items (and their logo-bearing containers, household crockery and toys. Those items, intrinsically representations of white (pakeha culture, are fondly recalled by the baby boomers, and have become popular collectibles.  Images of the same items have now become prevalent as decorative motifs on home wares and clothing.Recently a further celebratory strand of kiwiana has now appeared: the inscription of its motifs as extensive permanent skin tattoos. While Maori have always practiced meaningful skin tattoo, and whilst body tattoos in general have joined the realm of fashion, this is something new.  Here we see a recasting of the kiwiana images of popular cultural memory, now drawn onto the body.  One wearer of such a tattoo, a 26 year old plumber, said 'I love New Zealand. I am very proud of who we are and I wouldn't change being a kiwi for the world'. His design, a map of New Zealand on his back in filled with kiwiana items, shows his personal subscription to the populist representations that are utilised as apolitical definition of kiwi­ ness.  Kiwiana tattoo as a growing everyday practice is the focus of this paper.

  10. Resistance to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. Association with heterogeneous defects in cultured skin fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liberman, U.A.; Eil, C.; Marx, S.J.

    1983-02-01

    We evaluated the interaction of (/sup 3/H)1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ with skin fibroblasts cultured from normal subjects or from affected members of six kindreds with rickets and resistance to 1-alpha, 25(OH)/sub 2/D (1,25(OH)/sub 2/D). We analyzed two aspects of the radioligand interaction; nuclear uptake with dispersed, intact cells at 37 degrees C and binding at 0 degrees C with soluble extract (cytosol) prepared from cells disrupted in buffer containing 300 mM KCl and 10 mM sodium molybdate. With normal fibroblasts the affinity and capacity of nuclear uptake of (/sup 3/H)1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ were 0.5 nM and 10,300 sites per cell, respectively; for binding with cytosol these were 0.13 nM and 8,900 sites per cell, respectively. In all cases where the radioligand bound with high affinity in nucleus or cytosol, the nucleus- or cytosol-associated radioligand exhibited normal sedimentation velocity on sucrose density gradients. When two kindreds exhibited similar patterns (i.e. pattern a or c) with the analyses of cultured fibroblasts, clinical features in affected members suggested that the underlying genetic defects were not identical. In conclusion: (a) Fibroblasts cultured from human skin manifest nuclear uptake and cytosol binding of (/sup 3/H)1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ that is an expression of the genes determining these processes in target tissues. (b) Based upon data from clinical evaluations and from analyses of cultured fibroblasts, severe resistance to 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D resulted from five or six distinct genetic mutations in six kindreds.

  11. Cross-cultural adaptation and clinical validation of the Neonatal Skin Condition Score to Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Machado Schardosim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to describe the process of cross-cultural adaptation and clinical validation of the Neonatal Skin Condition Score.METHODS: this methodological cross-cultural adaptation study included five steps: initial translation, synthesis of the initial translation, back translation, review by an Committee of Specialists and testing of the pre-final version, and an observational cross-sectional study with analysis of the psychometric properties using the Adjusted Kappa, Intraclass Correlation Coefficient, and Bland-Altman Method statistical tests. A total of 38 professionals were randomly recruited to review the clarity of the adapted instrument, and 47 newborns hospitalized in the Neonatology Unit of the Clinical Hospital of Porto Alegre were selected by convenience for the clinical validation of the instrument.RESULTS: the adapted scale showed approximately 85% clarity. The statistical tests showed moderate to strong intra and interobserver item to item reliability and from strong to very strong in the total score, with a variation of less than 2 points among the scores assigned by the nurses to the patients.CONCLUSIONS: the scale was adapted and validated to Brazilian Portuguese. The psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the Neonatal Skin Condition Score instrument were similar to the validation results of the original scale.

  12. Immunochemistry of a keratinocyte-fibroblast co-culture model for reconstruction of human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischmajer, R; MacDonald, E D; Contard, P; Perlish, J S

    1993-09-01

    Our purpose was to determine differentiation markers of an in vitro co-culture model in which fibroblasts grown in a three-dimensional nylon mesh were recombined with human keratinocytes. The cultures were kept for 5 weeks and then processed for electron microscopy and immunochemistry. The specimens revealed an epidermis, a basal lamina, an anchoring zone, and a dermis. Epidermal differentiation was confirmed by the presence of K10-keratin, trichohyalin, and filaggrin. The basal lamina contained Type IV collagen, laminin, nidogen, and heparan sulfate. Type IV collagen, laminin, and nidogen were also noted in the extracellular matrix. Type VI collagen was present in the anchoring zone and also gave a reticulated pattern in the rest of the dermis. There was a heavy signal for tenascin and fibronectin throughout the dermis. Osteonectin was restricted to the epidermis and dermal fibroblasts. Fibrillin stained at the anchoring zone and dermis but elastin and vitronectin were negative, suggesting early formation of elastic fibrils. Collagen fibrils stained for Types I, III, and V, as well as the amino propeptide of Types I and III procollagen, suggesting newly synthesized collagen. Decorin was present throughout the dermis. The model described appears suitable for in vitro reconstruction of the skin and may be useful to study the development of various supramolecular skin structures.

  13. Flow perfusion culture of human mesenchymal stem cells on silicate-substituted tricalcium phosphate scaffolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lea Bjerre; Bünger, Cody; Kassem, Moustapha

    2008-01-01

    Autologous bone grafts are currently the gold standard for treatment of large bone defects, but their availability is limited due to donor site morbidity. Different substitutes have been suggested to replace these grafts, and this study presents a bone tissue engineered alternative using silicate...

  14. Advances in Skin Substitutes—Potential of Tissue Engineered Skin for Facilitating Anti-Fibrotic Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Varkey

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Skin protects the body from exogenous substances and functions as a barrier to fluid loss and trauma. The skin comprises of epidermal, dermal and hypodermal layers, which mainly contain keratinocytes, fibroblasts and adipocytes, respectively, typically embedded on extracellular matrix made up of glycosaminoglycans and fibrous proteins. When the integrity of skin is compromised due to injury as in burns the coverage of skin has to be restored to facilitate repair and regeneration. Skin substitutes are preferred for wound coverage when the loss of skin is extensive especially in the case of second or third degree burns. Different kinds of skin substitutes with different features are commercially available; they can be classified into acellular skin substitutes, those with cultured epidermal cells and no dermal components, those with only dermal components, and tissue engineered substitutes that contain both epidermal and dermal components. Typically, adult wounds heal by fibrosis. Most organs are affected by fibrosis, with chronic fibrotic diseases estimated to be a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. In the skin, fibroproliferative disorders such as hypertrophic scars and keloid formation cause cosmetic and functional problems. Dermal fibroblasts are understood to be heterogeneous; this may have implications on post-burn wound healing since studies have shown that superficial and deep dermal fibroblasts are anti-fibrotic and pro-fibrotic, respectively. Selective use of superficial dermal fibroblasts rather than the conventional heterogeneous dermal fibroblasts may prove beneficial for post-burn wound healing.

  15. Rat epidermal keratinocyte organotypic culture (ROC) as a model for chemically induced skin irritation testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappinen, Sari; Pasonen-Seppänen, Sanna; Suhonen, Marjukka; Tammi, Raija; Urtti, Arto

    2005-11-01

    The potential of rat epidermal keratinocyte (REK) organotypic culture (ROC) with proper stratum corneum barrier as a model for screening skin irritants was evaluated. The test chemicals were selected from ECETOC database (1995) and the observed in vitro irritation potential was compared to ECETOC in vivo primary irritation index (PII), to EU risk phrases, and to the harmonized OECD criteria. Chemicals were applied onto the stratum corneum surface of ROC for 30 min and samples were taken from the underlying medium at 4 and 8 h after exposure. Cell membrane integrity (determined by LDH assay) and pro-inflammatory effect (determined by IL-1alpha release) were verified at both time points and correlated to PII values. The best correlation (R(2) = 0.831) was seen with LDH leakage test. Based on obtained data, chemicals were classified according to criteria defined by EU and OECD. From 12 chemicals, only two were incorrectly classified according to OECD criteria when using LDH leakage and IL-1alpha release as irritation markers. At the end of experiment, chemical-treated ROC cultures were fixed and histological changes were assessed. Typical signs for irritation were lightly stained cytoplasm, condensed nuclei, cellular vacuolization, eosinophilic cytoplasms, and blebbing. These irritation effects of chemicals were graded visually into four classes (A-D). The extent of morphological perturbations of the cultures mostly correlated with PII. The present results indicate the validity of the ROC model in predicting skin irritation potential of chemicals and show that the use of set of irritation markers with different mechanistic responses gives more information on irritation than if only one marker was used.

  16. Oral fibroblasts produce more HGF and KGF than skin fibroblasts in response to co-culture with keratinocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, Birgitte; Stoltze, Kaj; Andersson, Anders

    2002-01-01

    The production of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) in subepithelial fibroblasts from buccal mucosa, periodontal ligament, and skin was determined after co-culture with keratinocytes. The purpose was to detect differences between the fibroblast subpopulations...... that could explain regional variation in epithelial growth and wound healing. Normal human fibroblasts were cultured on polystyrene or maintained in collagen matrix and stimulated with keratinocytes cultured on membranes. The amount of HGF and KGF protein in the culture medium was determined every 24 h for 5...... days by ELISA. When cultured on polystyrene, the constitutive level of KGF and HGF in periodontal fibroblasts was higher than the level in buccal and skin fibroblasts. In the presence of keratinocytes, all three types of fibroblasts in general increased their HGF and KGF production 2-3 times. When...

  17. Application of glucosylceramide-based liposomes increased the ceramide content in a three-dimensional cultured skin epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokudome, Y; Endo, M; Hashimoto, F

    2014-01-01

    Ceramide is an intercellular lipid of the stratum corneum and is one of the most important components of the epidermal permeability barrier. Glucosylceramide (GlcCer), a ceramide precursor, was applied to three-dimensional skin culture to regulate ceramide. GlcCer/dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) = 4/4 (molar ratio and GlcCer/DMPC/dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol (DMPG) = 4/4/1(molar ratio) liposomes were prepared by the thin-layer method. The particle diameters of GlcCer/DMPC and GlcCer/DMPC/DMPG liposomes were 124.0 ± 0.6 and 119.3 ± 18.9 nm, and the zeta potentials were 1.3 ± 0.3 and -19.9 ± 0.3 mV, respectively. Stability of these GlcCer liposomes was measured by transmission light scattering. Transmission light scattering of neutrally charged GlcCer (GlcCer/DMPC) liposomes increased in a time dependent manner. In contrast, negatively charged GlcCer (GlcCer/DMPC/DMPG) liposomes were not changed. β-Glucocerebrosidase activity was measured in a cultured human skin model. Results confirmed that the cultured human skin model has β-glucocerebrosidase activity. GlcCer/DMPC/DMPG liposomes were applied to the three-dimensional cultured human skin model, and ceramide NS, NP, AS, and AP were extracted from it. The various extracted ceramides were separated by high-performance thin-layer chromatography and quantified by a densitometer. The amount of ceramide AS only in the cultured skin model was significantly higher with the application of GlcCer-based liposomes than that of the nonapplication group, and was also dose dependent. Thus, GlcCer-based liposomes are useful for enriching the ceramide AS levels in a three-dimensional cultured skin model. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Nucleotide substitutions in rolC and nptII gene sequences during long-term cultivation of Panax ginseng cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselev, Konstantin V; Turlenko, Anna V; Tchernoded, Galina K; Zhuravlev, Yuri N

    2009-08-01

    It has been shown previously that the rolC gene from Agrobacterium tumefaciens gene was stably and highly expressed in 15-year-old Panax ginseng transgenic cell cultures. In the present report, we analyze in detail the nucleotide composition of the rolC and nptII (neomycin phosphotransferase) genes, which is the selective marker used for transgenic cell cultures of P. ginseng. It has been established that the nucleotide sequences of the rolC and nptII genes underwent mutagenesis during cultivation. Particularly, 1-4 nucleotide substitutions were found per sequence in the 540 and 798 bp segments of the complete rolC and nptII genes, respectively. Approximately half of these nucleotide substitutions caused changes in the structure of the predicted gene product. In addition, we attempted to determine the rate of accumulation of these changes by comparison of DNA extracted from P. ginseng cell cultures from 1995 to 2007. It was observed that the frequency of nucleotide substitutions for the rolC and nptII genes in 1995 was 1.21 +/- 0.02 per 1,000 nucleotides analyzed, while in 2007, the nucleotide substitutions significantly increased (1.37 +/- 0.07 per 1,000 nucleotides analyzed). Analyzing the nucleotide substitutions, we found that substitution to G or to C nucleotides significantly increased (in 1.9 times) in the rolC and nptII genes compared with P. ginseng actin gene. Finally, the level of nucleotide substitutions in the rolC gene was 1.1-fold higher when compared with the nptII gene. Thus, for the first time, we have experimentally demonstrated the level of nucleotide substitutions in transferred genes in transgenic plant cell cultures.

  19. Release of arachidonic and linoleic acid metabolites in skin organ cultures as characteristics of in vitro skin irritancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Maas, W.J.M.; Doornink, P.C.; Rutten, A.A.J.J.L.

    1995-01-01

    In vitro techniques make a major contribution to the development of alternatives to the in vivo 'Draize' skin irritation test, and the development of sensitive and generally applicable in vitro endpoints of cutaneous toxicity is an area of intensive research. To investigate in vitro characteristics

  20. Release of arachidonic and linoleic acid metabolites in skin organ cultures as characteristics of in vitro skin irritancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Maas, W.J.M.; Doornink, P.C.; Rutten, A.A.J.J.L.

    1995-01-01

    In vitro techniques make a major contribution to the development of alternatives to the in vivo 'Draize' skin irritation test, and the development of sensitive and generally applicable in vitro endpoints of cutaneous toxicity is an area of intensive research. To investigate in vitro characteristics

  1. Effect of a topical treatment in organotypic culture of human breast skin after exposure to gamma-rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Gagliano

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The early radiation of epidermal reactions can lead to healing of the lesion or radiation necrosis. There is no general agreement for either the prevention and/or treatment of radiation skin response, also as little is known about the immediate phases of this phenomenon. We investigated the early effects exerted by Healing and Wound Emulsion (HWE on human skin response after ionizing radiation. Epidermal morphology, Heat Shock Protein (HSP 70, and Transforming Growth Factor-b1 (TGF-b1 gene expression were investigated in organotypic human skin cultures undergoing a double dose of gamma-rays (2 Gy. HSP70 gene expression tended to be induced in the HWE group 6 hours after cream administration and was significantly up-regulated after 48 hours, when epidermal morphological alterations were evident. TGF- b1 seems not affected in cream treated samples. HWE may stimulate skin to mount an early defensive response against damage induced by gamma rays.

  2. Cultural adaptation, content validity and inter-rater reliability of the "STAR Skin Tear Classification System"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Cristina Strazzieri-Pulido

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: to perform the cultural adaptation of the STAR Skin Tear Classification System into the Portuguese language and to test the content validity and inter-rater reliability of the adapted version.METHODS: methodological study with a quantitative approach. The cultural adaptation was developed in three phases: translation, evaluation by a committee of judges and back-translation. The instrument was tested regarding content validity and inter-rater reliability.RESULTS: the adapted version obtained a regular level of concordance when it was applied by nurses using photographs of friction injuries. Regarding its application in clinical practice, the adapted version obtained a moderate and statistically significant level of concordance.CONCLUSION: the study tested the content validity and inter-rater reliability of the version adapted into the Portuguese language. Its inclusion in clinical practice will enable the correct identification of this type of injury, as well as the implementation of protocols for the prevention and treatment of friction injuries.

  3. A VIBRIO ANGUILLARUM STRAIN ASSOCIATED WITH SKIN ULCER ON CULTURED FLOUNDER, PARALICHTHYS OLIVACEUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫照兰; 谭训刚; 徐永立; 张培军

    2001-01-01

    The characteristics of a bacterium strain M3, isolated from cultured flounder Paralichthys olivaceus with remarkable external sign of skin ulcer during an epizootic outbreak, indicated that the bacterium belonged to the species Vibrio anguillarum. Challenge by I.M. ( intramuscular injection), bath, and oral administration with M3 showed that it was highly pathogenic for Paralichthys olivacues. The LD50 dose was 5. 144 × 103 CFU/per fish infection by I.M. injection. Recovered inoculated bacteria from the surviving fish revealed that the asymptomatic carriers could be a latent contagious source. Study of the effect of bacterial culture CFS (cell-free-supernatant) showed that the exotoxins produced by M3 play an important role in its pathogenicity for flounder. The resistance of M3 to 36 out of 41 antibiotics indicated that the bacterial disease outbreak was mainly attributable to the frequent and excessive use of antimicrobial agents; and that vaccination would be an effective precaution against bacterial disease.

  4. A VIBRIO ANGUILIARUM STRAIN ASSOCIATED WITH SKIN ULCER ON CULTURED FLOUNDER, PARALICHTHYS OLIVACEUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫照兰; 谭训刚; 徐永立; 张培军

    2001-01-01

    The characteristics of a bacterium strain M3, isolated from cultured flounder Paralichthys chthys olivacues with remarkable external sign of skin ulcer during an epizoctic outbreak, indicated that the bacterium belonged to the species Vibrio anguillarum. Challenge by I.M. ( intramuscular injection),bath, and oral administration with M3 showed that it was highly pathogenic for Paralichthys olivacues.The LD50 dose was 5.144×103 CFU/per fish infection by I.M. injection. Recovered inoculated bacteria from the surviving fish revealed that the asymptomatic carriers could be a latent contagious source. Study of the effect of bacterial culture CFS (cell-free-supernatant) showed that the exotoxins produced by M3 play an important role in its pathogenicity for flounder. The resistance of M3 to 36 out of 41 antibiotics indicated that the bacterial disease outbreak was mainly attributable to the frequent and excessive use of anfimicroblal agents; and that vaccination would be an effective precaution against bacterial disease.

  5. A Vibrio anguillarum strain associated with skin ulcer on cultured flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Zhao-Lan; Tan, Xun-Gang; Xu, Yong-Li; Zhang, Pei-Jun

    2001-12-01

    The characteristics of a bacterium strain M3, isolated from cultured flounder Paralichthys olivaceus with remarkable external sign of skin ulcer during an epizootic outbreak, indicated that the bacterium belonged to the species Vibrio anguillarum. Challenge by I.M. (intramuscular injection), bath, and oral administration with M3 showed that it was highly pathogenic for Paralichthys olivacues. The LD50 dose was 5.144×103 CFU/ per fish infection by I.M. injection. Recovered inoculated bacteria from the surviving fish revealed that the asymptomatic carriers could be a latent contagious source. Study of the effect of bacterial culture CFS (cell-free-supernatant) showed that the exotoxins produced by M3 play an important role in its pathogenicity for flounder. The resistance of M3 to 36 out of 41 antibiotics indicated that the bacterial disease outbreak was mainly attributable to the frequent and excessive use of antimicrobial agents; and that vaccination would be an effective precaution against bacterial disease.

  6. Epidermal cell proliferation and terminal differentiation in skin organ culture after topical exposure to sodium dodecyl sulphate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Bos, T.A.; Rutten, A.A.J.J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Epidermal cell proliferation and differentiation were investigated in vitro after exposure to the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Human skin organ cultures were exposed topically to various concentrations of SDS for 22 h, after which the irritant was removed. Cell proliferation was

  7. Nicotinamide attenuates aquaporin 3 overexpression induced by retinoic acid through inhibition of EGFR/ERK in cultured human skin keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiuzu; Xu, Aie; Pan, Wei; Wallin, Brittany; Kivlin, Rebecca; Lu, Shan; Cao, Cong; Bi, Zhigang; Wan, Yinsheng

    2008-08-01

    The most common adverse effects that are related to all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) treatment are irritation and dryness of the skin. atRA therapy is reported to impair barrier function as achieved by trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL). Treatment with nicotinamide prior to initiation of atRA therapy provides additional barrier protection and thus reduces susceptibility of retinoic acid. Our previous studies showed that atRA upregulates aquaporin 3 (AQP3) in cultured human skin keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Others have demonstrated that in atopic dermatitis, overexpression of AQP3 is linked to elevated TEWL and that nicotinamide treatment reduces skin TEWL. In this study, we observed that while atRA upregulates AQP3 expression in cultured human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT cells), nicotinamide attenuates the effect of atRA in a concentration-dependent manner. atRA treatment induces EGFR and ERK activation. PD153035, an EGFR inhibitor, and U0126, an ERK inhibitor, inhibit atRA-induced upregulation of AQP3. Nicotinamide also inhibits atRA-induced activation of EGFR/ERK signal transduction and decreases water permeability by downregulating AQP3 expression. Collectively, our results indicate that the effect of atRA on AQP3 expression is at least partly mediated by EGFR/ERK signaling in cultured human skin keratinocytes. Nicotinamide attenuates atRA-induced AQP3 expression through inhibition of EGFR/ERK signal transduction and eventually decreases water permeability and water loss. Our study provides insights into the molecular mechanism through which nicotinamide reverses the side effects of dryness in human skin after treatment with atRA.

  8. Lipid functions in skin: Differential effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on cutaneous ceramides, in a human skin organ culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Alexandra C; Kiezel-Tsugunova, Magdalena; Brownbridge, Luke C; Harwood, John L; Nicolaou, Anna

    2017-09-01

    Ceramides are important for skin health, with a multitude of species found in both dermis and epidermis. The epidermis contains linoleic acid-Ester-linked Omega-hydroxylated ceramides of 6-Hydroxy-sphingosine, Sphingosine and Phytosphingosine bases (CER[EOH], CER[EOS] and CER[EOP], respectively), that are crucial for the formation of the epidermal barrier, conferring protection from environmental factors and preventing trans-epidermal water loss. Furthermore, a large number of ceramides, derivatives of the same sphingoid bases and various fatty acids, are produced by dermal and epidermal cells and perform signalling roles in cell functions ranging from differentiation to apoptosis. Supplementation with the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have shown promise as therapeutic agents in a number of inflammatory skin conditions, altering the lipid profile of the skin and production of bioactive lipids such as the eicosanoids, docosanoids and endocannabinoids. In this study we wished to investigate whether EPA and DHA could also affect the ceramide profile in epidermis and dermis, and, in this way, contribute to formation of a robust lipid barrier and ceramide-mediated regulation of skin functions. Ex vivo skin explants were cultured for 6days, and supplemented with EPA or DHA (50μM). Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionisation was used to assess the prevalence of 321 individual ceramide species, and a number of sphingoid bases, phosphorylated sphingoid bases, and phosphorylated ceramides, within the dermis and epidermis. EPA augmented dermal production of members of the ceramide families containing Non-hydroxy fatty acids and Sphingosine or Dihydrosphingosine bases (CER[NS] and CER[NDS], respectively), while epidermal CER[EOH], CER[EOS] and CER[EOP] ceramides were not affected. DHA did not significantly affect ceramide production. Ceramide-1-phosphate levels in

  9. The substitution of a traditional starter culture in mutton fermented sausages by Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium animalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holko, I; Hrabě, J; Šalaková, A; Rada, V

    2013-07-01

    Common starter cultures used in fermented mutton sausages were substituted by probiotic strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus CCDM 476 and Bifidobacterium animalis 241a. Technological properties of the traditional and the probiotic sausages were compared. The potential probiotic effect was evaluated by enumeration of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in stool samples of 15 volunteers before and after a 14-day consumption period. The numbers of lactobacilli (10(7) cfu/g) and bifidobacteria (10(3) cfu/g) in the final product did not affect the technological properties. The use of L. acidophilus as a starter culture was found more beneficial than the use of B. animalis. Even after 60 days of storage, high counts of L. acidophilus (10(6) cfu/g) were detected; on the other hand, the counts of B. animalis were under the detection limit. Regarding sensory properties, the probiotic products showed better texture, and, curiously, a reduction of the typical smell of mutton. The numbers of lactobacilli in stool samples increased significantly after the consumption of the probiotic sausages.

  10. Role of PKC isozymes in low-power light-stimulated proliferation of cultured skin cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Nili; Kleitman, Vered; Meller, Julia; Kaufmann, Roland; Akgun, Nermin; Ruck, Angelika; Livneh, Etta; Lubart, Rachel

    2000-11-01

    Exposure of cultured skin cells to low power visible light leads to a transiently stimulated proliferation. Facilitation of this response requires the presence of active PKC, elevation of intracellular calcium, and involves reactive oxygen species. In the present study, the role of PKC(alpha) and PCK(eta) was examined using paired murine fibroblasts, differing in the level of these isozymes expression. The ability of the cells to respond to low power UVA light or HeNe laser by stimulated proliferation was correlated with an active state or overexpression of PKC(alpha) , but not PKC(eta) . A parallel response was obtained in cells that were loaded with A1PcS4 before photosensitization. Whenever this latter treatment caused a light-stimulated inhibition, it was accompanied by the intracellular calcium and photosensitizer dynamics typical of the effect of PDT on rate epithelial cells. Accordingly, added antioxidants that suppressed light-stimulated proliferation also suppressed this light-stimulated inhibition. The model systems employed in this study are the first to demonstrate the specific effect of PKC isozymes on light-stimulated proliferation, in relation to oxidative stress, and indicate their dual role in light-tissue interaction.

  11. Outgrowth of fibroblast cells from goat skin explants in three different culture media and the establishment of cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mahipal; Sharma, Anil K

    2011-02-01

    Three different commercially available media, known to support human and porcine-specific fibroblast cultures, were tested for their growth potential on goat skin explants. Although outgrowth of fibroblasts was observed in all media tested, irrespective of breed, porcine-specific media exhibited higher rate of growth. Using this media, three fibroblast cell lines (GSF289, GSF737, and GSF2010) from ear skin explants of normal healthy dairy goats of Kiko and Saanen breed were successfully established in culture. Liquid nitrogen stocks of these frozen cells had a viability rate of 96.2% in in vitro cultures. These cells were morphologically indistinguishable from the cell stocks prior to freezing. Analysis of the growth of a fifth passage culture revealed an 'S' shaped growth curve with a population doubling time of 25 h. The cell lines were found negative for microbial, fungal, and mycoplasma contaminations. These goat skin fibroblast lines and the simple method of their isolation and freezing with high rate of viability will provide additional tools to study molecular mechanisms that regulate fibroblast function and for genetic manipulation of small ruminants.

  12. Zinc and propolis reduces cytotoxicity and proliferation in skin fibroblast cell culture: total polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of propolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyszka-Czochara, Małgorzata; Paśko, Paweł; Reczyński, Witold; Szlósarczyk, Marek; Bystrowska, Beata; Opoka, Włodzimierz

    2014-07-01

    It has been demonstrated that zinc exerts its beneficial influence on skin fibroblasts. Propolis, a complex mixture of plant-derived and bees' products, was reported to stimulate cicatrization processes in skin and prevent infections. The aim of this study was to find out how zinc and propolis influence human skin fibroblasts in cell culture and to compare the effect of individual compounds to the effect of a mixture of zinc and propolis. In this study, zinc, as zinc aspartate, at a concentration of 16 μM, increased human fibroblasts proliferation in cell culture, whereas propolis at a concentration of 0.01% (w/v) revealed antiproliferative and cytotoxic action followed by mild cell necrosis. In culture, zinc was effectively transported into fibroblasts, and propolis inhibited the amount of zinc incorporated into the cells. An addition of propolis to the medium caused a decrease in the Zn(II) amount incorporated into fibroblasts. The obtained results also indicate an appreciable antioxidant property of propolis and revealed its potential as a supplement when applied at doses lower than 0.01% (w/v). In conclusion, the present study showed that zinc had a protective effect on human cultured fibroblasts' viability, although propolis revealed its antiproliferative action and caused mild necrosis.

  13. DNA damage in wounded, hypoxic and acidotic human skin fibroblast cell cultures after low laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins Evans, D.; Mbene, A.; Zungu, I.; Houreld, N.; Abrahamse, H.

    2009-02-01

    Phototherapy has become more popular and widely used in the treatment of a variety of medical conditions. To ensure sound results as evidence of its effectiveness, well designed experiments must be conducted when determining the effect of phototherapy. Cell culture models such as hypoxic, acidotic and wounded cell cultures simulating different disease conditions including ischemic heart disease, diabetes and wound healing were used to determine the effect of laser irradiation on the genetic integrity of the cell. Even though phototherapy has been found to be beneficial in a wide spectrum of conditions, it has been shown to induce DNA damage. However, this damage appears to be repairable. The risk lies in the fact that phototherapy may help the medical condition initially but damage DNA at the same time leaving undetected damage that may result in late onset, more severe, induced medical conditions including cancer. Human skin fibroblasts were cultured and used to induce a wound (by the central scratch model), hypoxic (by incubation in an anaerobic jar, 95% N2 and 5% O2) and acidotic (reducing the pH of the media to 6.7) conditions. Different models were irradiated using a Helium-Neon (632.8 nm) laser with a power density of 2.07 mW/cm2 and a fluence of 5 J/cm2 or 16 J/cm2. The effect of the irradiation was determined using the Comet assay 1 and 24 h after irradiation. In addition, the Comet assay was performed with the addition of formamidopyrimidine glycosylase (FPG) obviating strand brakes in oxidized bases at a high fluence of 16 J/cm2. A significant increase in DNA damage was seen in all three injured models at both 1 and 24 h post-irradiation when compared to the normal un-injured cells. However, when compared to non-irradiated controls the acidotic model showed a significant decrease in DNA damage 24 h after irradiation indicating the possible induction of cellular DNA repair mechanisms. When wounded cells were irradiated with higher fluences of 16 J/cm2

  14. Formation of DNA adducts in the skin of psoriasis patients, in human skin in organ culture, and in mouse skin and lung following topical application of coal-tar and juniper tar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoket, B; Horkay, I; Kósa, A; Páldeák, L; Hewer, A; Grover, P L; Phillips, D H

    1990-02-01

    Preparations of coal-tar and juniper tar (cade oil) that are used in the treatment of psoriasis are known to contain numerous potentially carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Evidence of covalent binding to DNA by components of these mixtures was sought in a) human skin biopsy samples from 12 psoriasis patients receiving therapy with these agents, b) human skin explants maintained in organ culture and treated topically with the tars, and c) the skin and lungs of mice treated with repeated doses of the formulations following the regimen used in the clinic. DNA was isolated from the human and mouse tissues and digested enzymically to mononucleotides. 32P-Post-labeling analysis revealed the presence of aromatic DNA adducts in the biopsy samples at levels of up to 0.4 fmol total adducts/microgram DNA. Treatment of human skin in organ culture produced similar levels of adducts, while treatment with dithranol, a non-mutagenic therapeutic agent, resulted in chromatograms indistinguishable from those from untreated controls. In mouse skin, coal-tar ointment and juniper tar gave similar DNA adduct levels, with a similar time-course of removal: maximum levels (0.5 fmol/microgram DNA) at 24 h after the final treatment declined rapidly to 0.05 fmol/microgram at 7 d, thereafter declining slowly over the succeeding 25 d. However, while coal-tar ointment produced only very low levels of adducts in mouse lung (less than 0.03 fmol/microgram DNA), juniper tar produced adducts at a high level (0.7 fmol/microgram DNA) that were persistent in this tissue. These results provide direct evidence for the formation of potentially carcinogenic DNA damage in human and mouse tissue by components of these therapeutic tar preparations.

  15. Endothelin receptor antagonists: effects on extracellular matrix synthesis in primary cultures of skin fibroblasts from systemic sclerosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Villaggio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Endothelin-1 (ET-1 seems to enhance the pro-fibrotic protein synthesis by skin fibroblasts and its effects are mediated by endothelin-A and B (ETA and ETB receptors. This study aimed to investigate the effects of ETA and ETB receptor antagonists (ETARA-sitaxentan and ETA/BRA-bosentan on type I collagen (COL-1, fibronectin (FN and fibrillin-1 (FBL-1 synthesis in primary cultures of skin fibroblasts from systemic sclerosis patients. Primary cultures of fibroblasts were obtained from skin biopsies of 6 female systemic sclerosis patients and were treated with ET-1 (100 nM for 24 and 48 hrs with or without pre-treatment (1 hr with ETARA (2 μM or ETA/BRA (10 μM. Primary culture of human scleroderma skin fibroblasts not treated with ET-1 or ET receptor antagonists (ETARA and ETA/BRA were used as controls. COL-1, FN and FBL-1 synthesis was evaluated by immunocytochemistry and Western blot analysis. Immunocytochemistry and Western blot analysis showed that ET-1 significantly increased COL-1 and FN synthesis at 24 and 48 hrs and FBL-1 synthesis at 48 hrs vs untreated cells. ETARA significantly contrasted the ET-1-mediated increase in COL-1 and FN at 24 hrs as well as COL-1 and FBL-1 at 48 hrs, but not FN synthesis vs ET-1-treated fibroblasts. Conversely, ETA/BRA significantly antagonized the ET-1-mediated overproduction of COL-1 and FN both at 24 and 48 hrs and the FBL-1 synthesis at 48 hrs vs ET-1-treated cells. The single ETARA treatment seems to contrast significantly the increase in COL-1 synthesis, whereas the dual ETA/BRA treatment seems active in significantly antagonizing both COL-1 and FN overproduction induced by ET-1. In conclusion, ET-1 antagonism might have positive effects in contrasting the profibrotic activity of systemic sclerosis skin fibroblasts.

  16. Transcriptional profiling of epidermal keratinocytes: comparison of genes expressed in skin, cultured keratinocytes, and reconstituted epidermis, using large DNA microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazel, Alix; Ramphal, Patricia; Rosdy, Martin; De Wever, Bart; Tornier, Carine; Hosein, Nadia; Lee, Brian; Tomic-Canic, Marjana; Blumenberg, Miroslav

    2003-12-01

    Epidermal keratinocytes are complex cells that create a unique three-dimensional (3-D) structure, differentiate through a multistage process, and respond to extracellular stimuli from nearby cells. Consequently, keratinocytes express many genes, i.e., have a relatively large "transcriptome." To determine which of the expressed genes are innate to keratinocytes, which are specific for the differentiation and 3-D architecture, and which are induced by other cell types, we compared the transcriptomes of skin from human subjects, differentiating 3-D reconstituted epidermis, cultured keratinocytes, and nonkeratinocyte cell types. Using large oligonucleotide microarrays, we analyzed five or more replicates of each, which yielded statistically consistent data and allowed identification of the differentially expressed genes. Epidermal keratinocytes, unlike other cells, express many proteases and protease inhibitors and genes that protect from UV light. Skin specifically expresses a higher number of receptors, secreted proteins, and transcription factors, perhaps influenced by the presence of nonkeratinocyte cell types. Surprisingly, mitochondrial proteins were significantly suppressed in skin, suggesting a low metabolic rate. Three-dimensional samples, skin and reconstituted epidermis, are similar to each other, expressing epidermal differentiation markers. Cultured keratinocytes express many cell-cycle and DNA replication genes, as well as integrins and extracellular matrix proteins. These results define innate, architecture-specific, and cell-type-regulated genes in epidermis.

  17. [The role of skin substitutes in the surgical treatment of extensive burns covering more than 60 % of total body surface area. A review of patients over a 10-year period at the Tours University Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, J; Yassine, A-H; Gourari, A; Forme, N; Zakine, G

    2015-04-01

    Progress in intensive care and surgery has made it possible to significantly improve the survival of victims with burns over 60% of total body surface area (TBSA). Coverage of the excised areas of these patients can be difficult when there is a shortage of skin donor sites; then the role of skin substitutes can be important. This retrospective study included patients with burns covering more than 60% TBSA and treated at the Tours University Hospital over a period of 10 years. Patients who died during the first week or who presented superficial burns were excluded. The various substitutions means to temporarily or permanently replace the cutaneous barrier are presented. The biological dressings associated with grafts expanded by six according to the sandwich technique, allografts and xenografts, widely expanded postage stamp skin grafts using a modified Meek technique (Humeca(®)), temporary cutaneous substitutes such as Biobrane(®) and skin substitutes colonized by autologous cells (Integra(®)) are presented. Forty-four patients were admitted. Self-immolations represented 52% of the cases. Twenty-one patients were treated with Integra(®), 5 with Biobrane(®), 17 with sandwich grafts and 4 with postage stamp skin grafts. Integra(®) was widely used when donor sites were insufficient. The mean number of surgical procedures per patient was 8.4. The mean duration of hospitalization was 155 days. Twenty-four patients survived until the end of treatment. Eighteen patients died during the first week before any surgery could be performed. Two patients died at the end of treatment. The overall survival rate was 55%. It was 92% for patients who survived the first week. The principal sequel were functional (hand, cervical, thoracic and axillary contractures) and aesthetic (face and hands). Associated treatments were pressotherapy, physical therapy, ergotherapy and thermal water therapy. By temporarily replacing the cutaneous barrier in the absence of sufficient donor sites

  18. In Vitro Replication of Chelonid Herpesvirus 5 in Organotypic Skin Cultures from Hawaiian Green Turtles (Chelonia mydas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M; Dagenais, Julie; Weatherby, Tina M; Balazs, George H; Ackermann, Mathias

    2017-09-01

    endangered marine turtles. Pathological examination shows that ChHV5 is shed in skin. Here we show that ChHV5 will grow in vitro if we replicate the complex three-dimensional structure of turtle skin. Moreover, lytic virus growth requires a close interplay between fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Finally, the morphogenesis of herpesviral growth in three-dimensional cultures reveals a far richer, and likely more realistic, array of capsid morphologies than that encountered in traditional monolayer cell cultures. Our findings have applications to other viruses, including those of humans. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  19. Cell death induced on cell cultures and nude mouse skin by non-thermal, nanosecond-pulsed generated plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Duval

    Full Text Available Non-thermal plasmas are gaseous mixtures of molecules, radicals, and excited species with a small proportion of ions and energetic electrons. Non-thermal plasmas can be generated with any high electro-magnetic field. We studied here the pathological effects, and in particular cell death, induced by nanosecond-pulsed high voltage generated plasmas homogeneously applied on cell cultures and nude mouse skin. In vitro, Jurkat cells and HMEC exhibited apoptosis and necrosis, in dose-dependent manner. In vivo, on nude mouse skin, cell death occurred for doses above 113 J/cm(2 for the epidermis, 281 J/cm(2 for the dermis, and 394 J/cm(2 for the hypodermis. Using electron microscopy, we characterized apoptosis for low doses and necrosis for high doses. We demonstrated that these effects were not related to thermal, photonic or pH variations, and were due to the production of free radicals. The ability of cold plasmas to generate apoptosis on cells in suspension and, without any sensitizer, on precise skin areas, opens new fields of application in dermatology for extracorporeal blood cell treatment and the eradication of superficial skin lesions.

  20. Viability and proliferation of L929, tumour and hybridoma cells in the culture media containing sericin protein as a supplement or serum substitute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Yu-Qing

    2015-09-01

    Cell cultures often require the addition of animal serum and other supplements. In this study, silk sericin, a bioactive protein, recovered from the waste of silk floss production was hydrolysed into three pepsin-degraded sericin peptides with different ranges of molecular mass. Normal animal cells, tumour cells and hybridoma cells were cultured systematically in FBS culture media containing sericin as a supplement or serum substitute. The culture test and microscopic observation of L929 cells showed that the smaller molecular weight of the degraded sericin is most suitable for cell culture. The cell culture results showed that with the degradation of sericin, for normal mouse fibroblast L929 cells, addition of 0.75 % sericin into FBS culture medium yields cell viability that is superior to FBS culture medium alone. When all serum was replaced by sericin, cell viability in the sericin medium could reach about one half of that in FBS medium. When in a medium containing a mixture of FBS: sericin (6:4, v/v), the cell culture effect is about 80 %. For the cultures of four tumour and one hybridoma cells, regardless of the molecular weight range, these degraded sericin peptides could substitute all serum in FBS media. The cell viability and proliferation of these tumour and hybridoma cells are equivalent or superior to that in FBS medium. In other words, cell viability and proliferation of these tumour and hybridoma cells in sericin media are more preferable to serum media. The mechanism of the sericin protein to promote cell growth and proliferation will be further investigated later.

  1. H-Ras Expression in Immortalized Keratinocytes Produces an Invasive Epithelium in Cultured Skin Equivalents

    OpenAIRE

    Vaughan, Melville B.; Ruben D Ramirez; Andrews, Capri M.; Woodring E Wright; Jerry W Shay

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ras proteins affect both proliferation and expression of collagen-degrading enzymes, two important processes in cancer progression. Normal skin architecture is dependent both on the coordinated proliferation and stratification of keratinocytes, as well as the maintenance of a collagen-rich basement membrane. In the present studies we sought to determine whether expression of H-ras in skin keratinocytes would affect these parameters during the establishment and maintenance of an in...

  2. 毛乳头细胞促进组织工程皮肤血管化的实验研究%EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON DERMAL PAPILLARY CELLS IMPROVING VASCULARIZATION OF TISSUE ENGINEERED SKIN SUBSTITUTES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘坡; 祁少海; 舒斌; 谢举临; 徐盈斌; 刘旭盛

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of dermal papillary cells on vascularization of tissue engineered skin substitutes consisting of epidermal stem cells and allogeneic acellular dermal matrix. Methods Human foreskins from routine circumcisions were collected to separate epidermal cells by using dispase with trypsogen. Collagen type IV was used to isolate epidermal stem cells from the 2nd and 3rd passage keratinocytes. Dermal papilla was isolated by the digestion method of collagenase I from fetus scalp and cultured in routine fibroblast medium. Tissue engineered skin substitutes were reconstructed by seeding epidermal stem cells on the papillary side of allogeneic acellular dermis with (the experimental group) or without (the control group) seeding dermal papillary cells on the reticular side. The two kinds of composite skin substitutes were employed to cover skin defects (1 cm×1 cm in size) on the back of the BALB/C-nu nude mice (n=30). The grafting survival rate was recorded 2 weeks after grafting. HE staining and immunohistochemistry method were employed to determine the expression of CD31 and calculate the microvessel density at 2 and 4 weeks after grafting. Results Those adhesion cells by collagen type IV coexpressed Keratin 19 and β1 integrin, indicating that the cells were epidermal stem cells. The cultivated dermal papillary cells were identified by expressing high levels of a-smooth muscle actin. The grafting survival rate was significantly higher in experimental group (28/30, 93.3%), than that in control group (24/30, 80.0%). HE staining showed that the epithelial layer in experimental group was 12-layered with large epithelial cells in the grafted composite skin, and that the epithelial layer in control group was 4-6-layered with small epithelial cells. At 2 and 4 weeks after grafting, the microvessel density was (38.56 ± 2.49)/mm2 and (49.12 ± 2.39)/mm2 in experimental group and was (25.16 ± 3.73)/mm2 and (36.26 ± 3.24)/mm2 in control group

  3. Skin equivalent tissue-engineered construct: co-cultured fibroblasts/ keratinocytes on 3D matrices of sericin hope cocoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Sunita; Dey, Sancharika; Kundu, Subhas C

    2013-01-01

    The development of effective and alternative tissue-engineered skin replacements to autografts, allografts and xenografts has became a clinical requirement due to the problems related to source of donor tissue and the perceived risk of disease transmission. In the present study 3D tissue engineered construct of sericin is developed using co-culture of keratinocytes on the upper surface of the fabricated matrices and with fibroblasts on lower surface. Sericin is obtained from "Sericin Hope" silkworm of Bombyx mori mutant and is extracted from cocoons by autoclave. Porous sericin matrices are prepared by freeze dried method using genipin as crosslinker. The matrices are characterized biochemically and biophysically. The cell proliferation and viability of co-cultured fibroblasts and keratinocytes on matrices for at least 28 days are observed by live/dead assay, Alamar blue assay, and by dual fluorescent staining. The growth of the fibroblasts and keratinocytes in co-culture is correlated with the expression level of TGF-β, b-FGF and IL-8 in the cultured supernatants by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The histological analysis further demonstrates a multi-layered stratified epidermal layer of uninhibited keratinocytes in co-cultured constructs. Presence of involucrin, collagen IV and the fibroblast surface protein in immuno-histochemical stained sections of co-cultured matrices indicates the significance of paracrine signaling between keratinocytes and fibroblasts in the expression of extracellular matrix protein for dermal repair. No significant amount of pro inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and nitric oxide) production are evidenced when macrophages grown on the sericin matrices. The results all together depict the potentiality of sericin 3D matrices as skin equivalent tissue engineered construct in wound repair.

  4. Use of primary cell cultures to measure the late effects in the skins of rhesus monkeys irradiated with protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, A. B.; Wood, D. H.; Lett, J. T.

    Previous pilot investigations of the uses of primary cell cultures to study late damage in stem cells of the skin of the New Zealand white (NZW) rabbit and the rhesus monkey /1-3/, have been extended to individual monkeys exposed to 55 MeV protons. Protons of this energy have a larger range in tissue of (~2.6 cm) than the 32 MeV protons (~0.9 cm) to which the animals in our earlier studies had been exposed. Although the primary emphases in the current studies were improvement and simplification in the techniques and logistics of transportation of biopsies to a central analytical facility, comparison of the quantitative measurements obtained thus far for survival of stem cells in the skins from animals irradiated 21 years ago reveals that the effects of both proton energies are similar.

  5. Regulation and inhibition of collagenase expression by long-wavelength ultraviolet radiation in cultured human skin fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Marta; Hamilton, Tiffani; Haili Li [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Internal Medicine

    1995-09-01

    The cellular mechanisms responsible for the connective tissue changes produced by chronic exposure to UV light are poorly understood. collagenase, a metalloproteinase, initiates degradation of types I and III collagen and thus plays a key role in the remodeling of dermal collagen. Collagenase synthesis by fibroblasts and keratinocytes involves the protein kinase C (PKC) second messenger system, and corticosteroids have been shown to suppress its synthesis at the level of gene transcription. Long-wavelength UV light (UVA, 320-400 nm) stimulates the synthesis of interstitial collagenase, as well as increasing PKC activity, in human skin fibroblasts in vitro. This study explores the regulation of collagenase expression by UVA in cultured human skin fibroblasts. Specifically, the time course, the effect of actinomycin D, an inhibitor of RNA synthesis, as well as the effect of PKC inhibitors and dexamethansone on expression of collagenase following UVA irradiation were examined. (Author).

  6. Contribution of Sp1 to Telomerase Expression and Activity in Skin Keratinocytes Cultured With a Feeder Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, Francis; Paquet, Claudie; Bourget, Jean-Michel; Zaniolo, Karine; Rochette, Patrick J; Landreville, Solange; Damour, Odile; Boudreau, François; Auger, François A; Guérin, Sylvain L; Germain, Lucie

    2015-02-01

    The growth of primary keratinocytes is improved by culturing them with a feeder layer. The aim of this study was to assess whether the feeder layer increases the lifespan of cultured epithelial cells by maintaining or improving telomerase activity and expression. The addition of an irradiated fibroblast feeder layer of either human or mouse origin (i3T3) helped maintain telomerase activity as well as expression of the transcription factor Sp1 in cultured keratinocytes. In contrast, senescence occurred earlier, together with a reduction of Sp1 expression and telomerase activity, in keratinocytes cultured without a feeder layer. Telomerase activity was consistently higher in keratinocytes grown on the three different feeder layers tested relative to cells grown without them. Suppression of Sp1 expression by RNA inhibition (RNAi) reduced both telomerase expression and activity in keratinocytes and also abolished their long-term growth capacity suggesting that Sp1 is a key regulator of both telomerase gene expression and cell cycle progression of primary cultured human skin keratinocytes. The results of the present study therefore suggest that the beneficial influence of the feeder layer relies on its ability to preserve telomerase activity in cultured human keratinocytes through the maintenance of stable levels of Sp1 expression. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Cyclooxygenases in human and mouse skin and cultured human keratinocytes: association of COX-2 expression with human keratinocyte differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, J.; Hughes-Fulford, M.; Rakhlin, N.; Habib, A.; Maclouf, J.; Goldyne, M. E.

    1996-01-01

    Epidermal expression of the two isoforms of the prostaglandin H-generating cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2) was evaluated both by immunohistochemistry performed on human and mouse skin biopsy sections and by Western blotting of protein extracts from cultured human neonatal foreskin keratinocytes. In normal human skin, COX-1 immunostaining is observed throughout the epidermis whereas COX-2 immunostaining increases in the more differentiated, suprabasilar keratinocytes. Basal cell carcinomas express little if any COX-1 or COX-2 immunostaining whereas both isozymes are strongly expressed in squamous cell carcinomas deriving from a more differentiated layer of the epidermis. In human keratinocyte cultures, raising the extracellular calcium concentration, a recognized stimulus for keratinocyte differentiation, leads to an increased expression of both COX-2 protein and mRNA; expression of COX-1 protein, however, shows no significant alteration in response to calcium. Because of a recent report that failed to show COX-2 in normal mouse epidermis, we also looked for COX-1 and COX-2 immunostaining in sections of normal and acetone-treated mouse skin. In agreement with a previous report, some COX-1, but no COX-2, immunostaining is seen in normal murine epidermis. However, following acetone treatment, there is a marked increase in COX-1 expression as well as the appearance of significant COX-2 immunostaining in the basal layer. These data suggest that in human epidermis as well as in human keratinocyte cultures, the expression of COX-2 occurs as a part of normal keratinocyte differentiation whereas in murine epidermis, its constitutive expression is absent, but inducible as previously published.

  8. Impact of AQP3 inducer treatment on cultured human keratinocytes, ex vivo human skin and volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, N; Gondran, C; Menon, G; Mur, L; Oberto, G; Guerif, Y; Dal Farra, C; Domloge, N

    2011-10-01

    One of the main functions of the skin is to protect the organism against environmental threats, such as thermal stress. Aquaporin-3 (AQP3) facilitates water and glycerol transport across cell membranes and therefore regulates osmotic balance in different situations of stress. This mechanism seems to be particularly important for the resistance of different organisms to cold stress. Consequently, we were interested in investigating the effect of cold and osmotic stress on AQP3 expression in normal human keratinocytes. We developed a new active ingredient to stimulate aquaporins in skin and demonstrated the partial restoration of AQP3 expression in keratinocytes transfected with AQP3 siRNA. Moreover, we examined the effect of cold stress on cell morphology and the impact of a pre-treatment with the active ingredient. Our results indicated that induction of AQP3 helped maintain a correct organization of the actin cytoskeleton, preserving cell morphology and preventing cells from rounding. Immunofluorescent staining revealed cytoplasmic localization of AQP3 and its translocation to the cell membrane following osmotic stress. Histological ex vivo studies of skin under different conditions, such as cold environment and tape-stripping, indicated that increase in AQP3 expression appears to be involved in skin protection and showed that the pattern of AQP3 expression was more enhanced in the active ingredient-treated samples. In vivo confocal microscopy by Vivascope showed a generally healthier appearance of the skin in the treated areas. These results attest to the potential value of the active ingredient in optimizing environmental stress resistance and protecting the skin from stratum corneum damage.

  9. Application of glucosylceramide based liposomes increased the ceramide content in a three-dimensional cultured skin epidermis

    OpenAIRE

    徳留, 嘉寛; 遠藤, 麻未子; 橋本, フミ惠

    2014-01-01

    Ceramide is an intercellular lipid of the stratum corneum and is one of the most important components of the epidermal permeability barrier. Glucosylceramide (GlcCer), a ceramide precursor, was applied to three-dimensional skin culture to regulate ceramide. GlcCer/dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) = 4/4 (molar ratio and GlcCer/DMPC/dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol (DMPG) = 4/4/1(molar ratio) liposomes were prepared by the thin-layer method. The particle diameters of GlcCer/DMPC and GlcCer/...

  10. Application of glucosylceramide based liposomes increased the ceramide content in a three-dimensional cultured skin epidermis

    OpenAIRE

    徳留, 嘉寛; 遠藤, 麻未子; 橋本, フミ惠

    2014-01-01

    Ceramide is an intercellular lipid of the stratum corneum and is one of the most important components of the epidermal permeability barrier. Glucosylceramide (GlcCer), a ceramide precursor, was applied to three-dimensional skin culture to regulate ceramide. GlcCer/dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) = 4/4 (molar ratio and GlcCer/DMPC/dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol (DMPG) = 4/4/1(molar ratio) liposomes were prepared by the thin-layer method. The particle diameters of GlcCer/DMPC and GlcCer/...

  11. Advances in Skin Regeneration Using Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vig, Komal; Chaudhari, Atul; Tripathi, Shweta; Dixit, Saurabh; Sahu, Rajnish; Pillai, Shreekumar; Dennis, Vida A.; Singh, Shree R.

    2017-01-01

    Tissue engineered skin substitutes for wound healing have evolved tremendously over the last couple of years. New advances have been made toward developing skin substitutes made up of artificial and natural materials. Engineered skin substitutes are developed from acellular materials or can be synthesized from autologous, allograft, xenogenic, or synthetic sources. Each of these engineered skin substitutes has their advantages and disadvantages. However, to this date, a complete functional skin substitute is not available, and research is continuing to develop a competent full thickness skin substitute product that can vascularize rapidly. There is also a need to redesign the currently available substitutes to make them user friendly, commercially affordable, and viable with longer shelf life. The present review focuses on providing an overview of advances in the field of tissue engineered skin substitute development, the availability of various types, and their application. PMID:28387714

  12. Low doses of UVB or UVA induce chromosomal aberrations in cultured human skin cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emri, G.; Wenczl, E.; Erp, P. van; Jans, J.; Roza, L.; Horkay, I.; Schothorst, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    Chromosomal defects are frequently present in malignant and premalignant skin disorders; however, it is not known whether ultraviolet radiation from sunlight plays a role in their induction. To obtain information on the ability of ultraviolet A and ultraviolet B to induce chromosomal aberrations,

  13. Low doses of UVB or UVA induce chromosomal aberrations in cultured human skin cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emri, G.; Wenczl, E.; Erp, P. van; Jans, J.; Roza, L.; Horkay, I.; Schothorst, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    Chromosomal defects are frequently present in malignant and premalignant skin disorders; however, it is not known whether ultraviolet radiation from sunlight plays a role in their induction. To obtain information on the ability of ultraviolet A and ultraviolet B to induce chromosomal aberrations, cu

  14. Protective effects of sodium-L-ascorbyl-2 phosphate on the development of UVB-induced damage in cultured mouse skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayama, S; Takehana, M; Kanke, M; Itoh, S; Ogata, E; Kobayashi, S

    1999-12-01

    The protective effect of sodium-L-ascorbyl-2 phosphate (As-2P), a stable form of ascorbic acid (AsA), against photodamage induced by a single dose of UVB exposure (290-320 nm, Max 312 nm) was investigated using cultured mouse skin. When the cultured skin was treated with various As-2P concentrations, the cutaneous AsA level increased in proportion to the As-2P concentration. After 3 h of incubation, the AsA level in the cultured skin treated with 2, 20 and 100 mM As-2P increased 1.03-, 2.17- and 6.27-fold, respectively, compared with that of the control skin. These results suggest that As-2P was transported into the cultured mouse skin where it was converted to AsA. After 3 h, the cutaneous AsA level in irradiated (20 kJ/m2) skin was depleted to a half of that in the control skin. However, the level in skin pretreated with 20 mM As-2P was maintained within normal limits, even after 24 h. Pretreatment with 20 mM As-2P significantly prevented such photodamage as sunburn cell formation, DNA fragmentation and lipid peroxidation, which were caused by a single dose of UVB irradiation. These results suggest that the protective effect of 20 mM As-2P on UVB-induced cutaneous damage is due to the maintenance of a normal As level by conversion of As-2P to As in skin tissue.

  15. H-ras expression in immortalized keratinocytes produces an invasive epithelium in cultured skin equivalents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melville B Vaughan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ras proteins affect both proliferation and expression of collagen-degrading enzymes, two important processes in cancer progression. Normal skin architecture is dependent both on the coordinated proliferation and stratification of keratinocytes, as well as the maintenance of a collagen-rich basement membrane. In the present studies we sought to determine whether expression of H-ras in skin keratinocytes would affect these parameters during the establishment and maintenance of an in vitro skin equivalent. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Previously described cdk4 and hTERT immortalized foreskin keratinocytes were engineered to express ectopically introduced H-ras. Skin equivalents, composed of normal fibroblast-contracted collagen gels overlaid with keratinocytes (immortal or immortal expressing H-ras, were prepared and incubated for 3 weeks. Harvested tissues were processed and sectioned for histology and antibody staining. Antigens specific to differentiation (involucrin, keratin-14, p63, basement-membrane formation (collagen IV, laminin-5, and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT; e-cadherin, vimentin were studied. Results showed that H-ras keratinocytes produced an invasive, disorganized epithelium most apparent in the lower strata while immortalized keratinocytes fully stratified without invasive properties. The superficial strata retained morphologically normal characteristics. Vimentin and p63 co-localization increased with H-ras overexpression, similar to basal wound-healing keratinocytes. In contrast, the cdk4 and hTERT immortalized keratinocytes differentiated similarly to normal unimmortalized keratinocytes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The use of isogenic derivatives of stable immortalized keratinocytes with specified genetic alterations may be helpful in developing more robust in vitro models of cancer progression.

  16. DNA adducts in human and mouse skin maintained in short-term culture and treated with petrol and diesel engine lubricating oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, P L; Ni Shé, M; Phillips, D H

    1991-05-24

    Human and mouse skin samples maintained in short-term organ culture were treated topically with used engine oils from petrol- and diesel-powered vehicles. Mice were also treated topically in vivo for comparison. DNA was isolated and analysed by 32P-postlabelling and the labeled DNA digests were resolved on polyethyleneimine-cellulose tlc sheets. A large number of radioactive adduct spots were observed in DNA from skin treated with the used petrol-engine oil, indicating the formation of adducts by many components of the complex oil mixture. Total adduct levels were similar in mouse skin (both in vivo and in vitro) and in human skin, although qualitative differences in the adduct maps were apparent between the human and mouse skin DNA. Treatment with the used diesel engine oil produced adduct levels no greater than that of control samples in mouse skin (in vivo and in vitro), although significant levels were found in human skin DNA from one donor. The results correlate well with the carcinogenic activity of these oils in experimental animals, helping to substantiate the conclusion that petrol engine oils (but not diesel engine oils) may present a carcinogenic risk to man if appropriate measures to minimise skin contact are not observed.

  17. Inhibitory effect of organic acids on arcobacters in culture and their use for control of Arcobacter butzleri on chicken skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skřivanová, Eva; Molatová, Zuzana; Matěnová, Michaela; Houf, Kurt; Marounek, Milan

    2011-01-05

    The inhibitory effects of 17 organic acids (C₂-C₁₆ fatty acids, sorbic, benzoic, phenylacetic, fumaric, succinic, lactic, malic and citric) on Arcobacter butzleri, Arcobacter cryaerophilus and Arcobacter skirrowii were investigated by determining their IC₅₀ values, defined as the concentration of acid at which the target DNA sequence was expressed at 50% of the positive control level in cultures incubated at 30°C for 24 h. DNA was analysed by real-time PCR. The Arcobacter strains tested were inhibited by all the organic acids, with the sensitivities in the order A. skirrowii > A. cryaerophilus > A. butzleri. Eight acids with IC₅₀ values of arcobacters on Muller-Hinton agar. All eight tested acids suppressed bacterial proliferation. The highest inhibitory activities were observed for benzoic, citric, malic and sorbic acids. Subsequent sensory analysis revealed benzoic acid to be the most suitable organic acid for chicken skin treatment.

  18. A yeast glycolipid biosurfactant, mannosylerythritol lipid, shows potential moisturizing activity toward cultured human skin cells: the recovery effect of MEL-A on the SDS-damaged human skin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Tomotake; Kitagawa, Masaru; Suzuki, Michiko; Yamamoto, Shuhei; Sogabe, Atsushi; Yanagidani, Shusaku; Imura, Tomohiro; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Kitamoto, Dai

    2009-01-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are produced in large amounts from renewable vegetable oils by Pseudozyma antarctica, and are the most promising biosurfactants known due to its versatile interfacial and biochemical actions. In order to broaden the application in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, the skin care property of MEL-A, the major component of MELs, was investigated using a three-dimensional cultured human skin model. The skin cells were cultured and treated with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solution of 1 wt%, and the effects of different lipids on the SDS-damaged cells were then evaluated on the basis of the cell viability. The viability of the damaged cells was markedly recovered by the addition of MEL-A in a dose-dependent manner. Compared to the control, MEL-A solutions of 5 wt% and 10 wt% gave the recovery rate of 73% and 91%, respectively, while ceramide solution of 1 wt% gave the rate of over 100%. This revealed that MEL-A shows a ceramide-like moisturizing activity toward the skin cells. Considering the drawbacks of natural ceramides, namely limited amount and high production cost, the yeast biosurfactants should have a great potential as a novel moisturizer for treating the damaged skin.

  19. Antitumor activity of amidino-substituted benzimidazole and benzimidazo[1,2-a]quinoline derivatives tested in 2D and 3D cell culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brajša, Karmen; Vujasinović, Ines; Jelić, Dubravko; Trzun, Marija; Zlatar, Ivo; Karminski-Zamola, Grace; Hranjec, Marijana

    2016-12-01

    Due to a poor clinical predictive power of 2D cell cultures, standard tool for in vitro assays in drug discovery process, there is increasing interest in developing 3D in vitro cell cultures, biologically relevant assay feasible for the development of robust preclinical anti-cancer drug screening platforms. Herein, we tested amidino-substituted benzimidazoles and benzimidazo[1,2-a]quinolines as a small platform for comparison of antitumor activity in 2D and 3D cell culture systems and correlation with structure-activity relationship. 3D cell culture method was applied on a human cancer breast (SK-BR-3, MDA-MB-231, T-47D) and pancreatic cancer cells (MIA PaCa-2, PANC-1). Results obtained in 2D and 3D models were highly comparable, but in some cases we have observed significant disagreement indicating that some prominent compounds can be discarded in early phase of researching because of compounds with false positive result. To confirm which of cell culture systems is more accurate, in vivo profiling is needed.

  20. Blood-group-related carbohydrates are expressed in organotypic cultures of human skin and oral mucosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, B; Andersson, A; Dabelsteen, Erik

    1999-01-01

    Cellular maturation and migration are usually associated with changes in cell-surface carbohydrates, but the relationship between these changes and cell behaviour is at present largely unknown. To investigate whether an organotypic culture system can be used as an in vitro model to study the func...

  1. Elimination of toxicity and enhanced detection of lumpy skin disease virus on cell culture from experimentally infected bovine semen samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagla, V P; Osuagwuh, U I; Annandale, C H; Irons, P C; Venter, E H

    2006-12-01

    Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), a poxvirus of the genus Capripoxvirus, is shed in the semen of infected bulls. The screening of semen for infectious virus requires a sensitive diagnostic method. The isolation of the virus on cell cultures and/or the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are sensitive diagnostic tests which may be used to screen semen for LSD viral DNA prior to artificial insemination. Although cell culture detects infectious virus and is a sensitive method, there are major difficulties in using this method due to the toxic effect of semen on the cells. The aim of this study was to find a method that decreases the toxic effect of semen and enhances the isolation of LSDV on cell culture. Semen samples from LSDV sero-negative bulls were collected and infected with a field isolate of LSDV, strain V248/93, with a titre of 6.5 log TCID50. The semen samples were treated with one of four different methods: centrifugation, serial dilution, filtration and chemical treatment with kaolin. The samples subjected to centrifugation, serial dilution and filtration were supplemented with gentamycin. Semen toxicity on cell cultures was eliminated when supernatants of semen samples centrifuged at 2000 rpm for 1, 3 and 5 min and serially diluted were used to inoculate confluent monolayer bovine dermis cells. The toxicity recorded when the pellet fractions of semen samples centrifuged for 5 min at 2000 rpm was comparable to results obtained from serially diluted samples supplemented with gentamycin. Filtration and kaolin treatment of semen samples did not remove the toxic effect.

  2. Sagging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose ... Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose ...

  3. Altered beta-adrenergic receptor-stimulated cAMP formation in cultured skin fibroblasts from Alzheimer donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H M; Gibson, G E

    1993-07-15

    An alteration in signal transduction systems in Alzheimer's disease would likely be of pathophysiological significance, because these steps are critical to normal brain function. Since dynamic processes are difficult to study in autopsied brain, the current studies utilized cultured skin fibroblasts. The beta-adrenergic-stimulated increase in cAMP was reduced approximately 80% in fibroblasts from Alzheimer's disease compared with age-matched controls. The deficit in Alzheimer fibroblasts in response to various adrenergic agonists paralleled their beta-adrenergic potency, and enhancement of cAMP accumulation by a non-adrenergic agonist, such as prostaglandin E1, was similar in Alzheimer and control fibroblasts. Diminished adenylate cyclase activity did not underlie these abnormalities, since direct stimulation of adenylate cyclase by forskolin elevated cAMP production equally in Alzheimer and control fibroblasts. Cholera toxin equally stimulated cAMP formation in Alzheimer and control fibroblasts. Moreover, cholera toxin partially reduced isoproterenol-induced cAMP deficit in Alzheimer fibroblasts. Pertussis toxin, on the other hand, did not alter the Alzheimer deficits. The results suggest either that the coupling of the GTP-binding protein(s) to the beta-adrenergic receptor is abnormal or that the sensitivity of receptor is altered with Alzheimer's disease. Further, any hypothesis about Alzheimer's disease must explain why a reduced beta-adrenergic-stimulated cAMP formation persists in tissue culture.

  4. Michael Ondaatje's reinvention of social and cultural Myths: In the Skin of a Lion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Gorjup

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available From the beginning of his writing career in the early sixties until the recent publication of In the Skin of a Lian (1987, the Canada of Michael Ondaatje had represented one thing: a geographical locale which he has selected as his home but which, fundamentally, had failed to engage his imagination. The fictional worlds he created in The Collected Works of Billy the Kid, Coming Through Slaughter and Running in the Family, has been located outside of Canada, each corresponding to an actual place complete with historical and geographical references. For this very reason it has been impossible - as Sam Solecki noted in his introduction to Spider Blues, »a collection of reviews and essays on Ondaatje - to place this anomalous literary presence in Canada within »specifically Canadian tradition of writing ...«,  a tradition that would»include and see relationships among figures as different as Roberts, Pratt, F. R. Scott, Purdy and Atwood ...« Ondaatje's »characters, landscapes, stories and themes resist any taxonomies based on overtly Canadian thematics.« In fact, Solecki further suggested that Ondaatje, like »V. S. Naipaul, Derek Walcott and Salmon Rushdie ..., compels a rethinking of the notion of a national tradition«. Similarly, another critic from the same collection described Ondaatje's position in the context of Canadian writing as unique - a position according to which »language or audience or the identity and the role of the poet are indeterminate. «

  5. Sulfur Mustard (SM) Lesions in Organ-Cultured Human Skin: Markers of Injury and Inflammatory Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    twice gently with the buffer. Then 300 ul of trypsin from bovine pancreas (Signa, Cat. No. T-8253) (1.0 mg/ml in 0.1 M Tris-EC1 (pH 7.6)) was added to...and plaaminogen activator from LLC- 1P cultures ( porcine ) by the synthetic substrate 3-benayloxycarbonyl-glycyl- glycyl-arginyl-4-methoxy-2-naphthyl...escerases and lipases of mononuclear and poly- norphonuclear cells and erythrocytes. J Cell Biol 1964, a_: 1-13. 37 11. Rojas-Espinose 0, Arce-Paredez P

  6. The Substitute Substrate for Soilless Culture of Potted Ornamental Peach%盆栽观赏桃无土栽培代用基质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱琳飞; 李淑英; 郑雨茗; 董丽

    2012-01-01

    In order to reduce the reliance of flower culture on non-renewable resources (such as peat), three kinds of agricultural organic castoffs (straw, mushroom residue and sawdust) were taken as the main components of substrate to study the substitute substrate for soilless culture of potted ornamental peach. The results showed that each index of physicochemical properties of treatment 3 (straw: mushroom residue: riversand =6:2:2), treatment 6 (straw: mushroom residue: sawdust: vermiculite: riversand=5:3:1:1:1) and treatment 7 (straw: mushroom residue: sawdust vermiculite=3:4:l:3) all can satisfy the requirements of substrate for soilless culture of ornamental peach, but combined consideration of producing cost, only treatment 3 can satisfy the economic and practical requirements. The ornamental peach, which cultured with treatment 3, grew strong with luxuriance branches and leaves, and its comprehensive evaluation index of growth was obviously higher than control's. The structure of substrate in treatment 3 is stable, which can be used as substitute substrate for soilless culture of ornamental peach.%为了减少花卉栽培中对草炭等不可再生资源的依赖,试验以秸秆、菇渣、锯末3种农业有机废弃物作为盆栽基质的主要成分,进行观赏桃栽培代用基质研究.结果表明:处理3(秸秆∶菇渣∶河沙=6∶2∶2)、处理6(秸秆∶菇渣∶锯末∶蛭石∶河沙=5∶3∶1∶1∶1)、处理7(秸秆∶菇渣∶锯末∶蛭石=3∶4∶1∶3)这3个基质配方的理化性质各项指标能满足观赏桃无土栽培基质的需求,结合生产成本考虑,处理3满足经济性和实用性,用其栽培的观赏桃生长健壮,枝叶繁茂,生长发育综合评价指数显著高于对照,基质结构稳定,可作为观赏桃无土栽培的代用基质.

  7. Tissue engineering of skin for wound coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, Thomas; Boettcher-Haberzeth, Sophie; Reichmann, Ernst

    2013-10-01

    Over the past few decades, important milestones have been reached in the field of skin tissue engineering, bringing the ultimate goal of fabricating an autologous dermoepidermal skin substitute with all its cellular components and skin appendages closer to reality. Yet, scientific progress alone is not enough, clinical demands must be addressed and commercial interests need to be fulfilled. This review gives an overview of commercially available skin substitutes for skin replacement therapies and an insight into the recent development of an autologous full-thickness skin substitute that can readily be transplanted in large quantities onto the patient. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Human Umbilical Cord Blood Serum: Effective Substitute of Fetal Bovine Serum for Culturing of Human Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanov, Yu A; Balashova, E E; Volgina, N E; Kabaeva, N V; Dugina, T N; Sukhikh, G T

    2017-02-01

    Optimal conditions for culturing of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells in the presence of pooled umbilical cord blood serum were determined. It was found that umbilical cord blood serum in a concentration range of 1-10% effectively supported high viability and proliferative activity of cells with unaltered phenotype and preserved multilineage differentiation capacity. The proposed approach allows avoiding the use of xenogenic animal sera for culturing of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells and creates prerequisites for designing and manufacturing safe cellular and/or acellular products for medical purposes.

  9. 3D bioprinting of functional human skin: production and in vivo analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubo, Nieves; Garcia, Marta; Del Cañizo, Juan F; Velasco, Diego; Jorcano, Jose L

    2016-12-05

    Significant progress has been made over the past 25 years in the development of in vitro-engineered substitutes that mimic human skin, either to be used as grafts for the replacement of lost skin, or for the establishment of in vitro human skin models. In this sense, laboratory-grown skin substitutes containing dermal and epidermal components offer a promising approach to skin engineering. In particular, a human plasma-based bilayered skin generated by our group, has been applied successfully to treat burns as well as traumatic and surgical wounds in a large number of patients in Spain. There are some aspects requiring improvements in the production process of this skin; for example, the relatively long time (three weeks) needed to produce the surface required to cover an extensive burn or a large wound, and the necessity to automatize and standardize a process currently performed manually. 3D bioprinting has emerged as a flexible tool in regenerative medicine and it provides a platform to address these challenges. In the present study, we have used this technique to print a human bilayered skin using bioinks containing human plasma as well as primary human fibroblasts and keratinocytes that were obtained from skin biopsies. We were able to generate 100 cm(2), a standard P100 tissue culture plate, of printed skin in less than 35 min (including the 30 min required for fibrin gelation). We have analysed the structure and function of the printed skin using histological and immunohistochemical methods, both in 3D in vitro cultures and after long-term transplantation to immunodeficient mice. In both cases, the generated skin was very similar to human skin and, furthermore, it was indistinguishable from bilayered dermo-epidermal equivalents, handmade in our laboratories. These results demonstrate that 3D bioprinting is a suitable technology to generate bioengineered skin for therapeutical and industrial applications in an automatized manner.

  10. Low doses of nanodiamonds and silica nanoparticles have beneficial hormetic effects in normal human skin fibroblasts in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mytych, Jennifer; Wnuk, Maciej; Rattan, Suresh I S

    2016-04-01

    Nanodiamonds (ND) and silica nanoparticles (SiO2-NP) have been much investigated for their toxicity at high doses, little is known about their biological activity at low concentrations. Here we report the biphasic dose response of ND and SiO2-NP in modulating normal human facial skin fibroblasts (FSF1) in culture. ND and SiO2-NP at low concentration (up to 0.5 μg/ml) had beneficial effects on FSF1 in terms of increasing their proliferation and metabolic activity. Exposure of FSF1 cells to low levels of NP enhanced their wound healing ability in vitro and slowed down aging during serial passaging as measured by maintenance of youthful morphology, reduction in the rate of loss of telomeres, and the over all proliferative characteristics. Furthermore, NP treatment induced the activation of Nrf2- and FOXO3A-mediated cellular stress responses, including an increased expression of heme oxygenease (HO-1), sirtuin (SIRT1), and DNA methyltransferase II (DNMT2). These results imply that ND and SiO2-NP at low doses are potential hormetins, which exert mild stress-induced beneficial hormetic effects through improved survival, longevity, maintenance, repair and function of human cells.

  11. Management of facial burns with a collagen/glycosaminoglycan skin substitute-prospective experience with 12 consecutive patients with large, deep facial burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Matthew B; Engrav, Loren H; Holmes, James H; Friedrich, Jeffrey B; Costa, Beth A; Honari, Shari; Gibran, Nicole S

    2005-05-01

    Management of deep facial burns remains one of the greatest challenges in burn care. We have developed a protocol over the past 20 years for management of facial burns that includes excision and coverage with thick autograft. However, the results were not perfect. Deformities of the eyelids, nose and mouth as well as the prominence of skin graft junctures demonstrated the need to explore novel approaches. Integra has been used with success in the management of burns of the trunk and extremities. The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate the aesthetic outcome of the use of Integra for deep facial burns. Twelve consecutive patients underwent excision of large, deep facial burns and placement of Integra. Integra provides excellent color and minimally visible skin graft junctures. The texture is good but not as supple as thick autograft. Integra is not well suited for use in the coverage of eyelid burns due to the need to wait 2 weeks for adequate vascularization. In summary, thick autograft remains the gold standard for deep facial burns. However, for patients with extensive burns and limited donor sites, Integra provides an acceptable alternative.

  12. Parvovirus B19 genotype specific amino acid substitution in NS1 reduces the protein's cytotoxicity in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivovich, Violetta; Gilbert, Leona; Vuento, Matti; Naides, Stanley J

    2010-05-25

    A clinical association between idiopathic liver disease and parvovirus B19 infection has been observed. Fulminant liver failure, not associated with other liver-tropic viruses, has been attributed to B19 in numerous reports, suggesting a possible role for B19 components in the extensive hepatocyte cytotoxicity observed in this condition. A recent report by Abe and colleagues (Int J Med Sci. 2007;4:105-9) demonstrated a link between persistent parvovirus B19 genotype I and III infection and fulminant liver failure. The genetic analysis of isolates obtained from these patients demonstrated a conservation of key amino acids in the nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of the disease-associated genotypes. In this report we examine a conserved residue identified by Abe and colleagues and show that substitution of isoleucine 181 for methionine, as occurs in B19 genotype II, results in the reduction of B19 NS1-induced cytotoxicity of liver cells. Our results support the hypothesis that in the setting of persistent B19 infection, direct B19 NS1-induced cytotoxicity may play a role in idiopathic fulminant liver failure.

  13. Parvovirus B19 Genotype Specific Amino Acid Substitution in NS1 Reduces the Protein's Cytotoxicity in Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Kivovich, Leona Gilbert, Matti Vuento, Stanley J. Naides

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A clinical association between idiopathic liver disease and parvovirus B19 infection has been observed. Fulminant liver failure, not associated with other liver-tropic viruses, has been attributed to B19 in numerous reports, suggesting a possible role for B19 components in the extensive hepatocyte cytotoxicity observed in this condition. A recent report by Abe and colleagues (Int J Med Sci. 2007;4:105-9 demonstrated a link between persistent parvovirus B19 genotype I and III infection and fulminant liver failure. The genetic analysis of isolates obtained from these patients demonstrated a conservation of key amino acids in the nonstructural protein 1 (NS1 of the disease-associated genotypes. In this report we examine a conserved residue identified by Abe and colleagues and show that substitution of isoleucine 181 for methionine, as occurs in B19 genotype II, results in the reduction of B19 NS1-induced cytotoxicity of liver cells. Our results support the hypothesis that in the setting of persistent B19 infection, direct B19 NS1-induced cytotoxicity may play a role in idiopathic fulminant liver failure.

  14. A dynamic multi-organ-chip for long-term cultivation and substance testing proven by 3D human liver and skin tissue co-culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Ilka; Materne, Eva-Maria; Brincker, Sven; Süssbier, Ute; Frädrich, Caroline; Busek, Mathias; Sonntag, Frank; Sakharov, Dmitry A; Trushkin, Evgeny V; Tonevitsky, Alexander G; Lauster, Roland; Marx, Uwe

    2013-09-21

    Current in vitro and animal tests for drug development are failing to emulate the systemic organ complexity of the human body and, therefore, to accurately predict drug toxicity. In this study, we present a multi-organ-chip capable of maintaining 3D tissues derived from cell lines, primary cells and biopsies of various human organs. We designed a multi-organ-chip with co-cultures of human artificial liver microtissues and skin biopsies, each a (1)/100,000 of the biomass of their original human organ counterparts, and have successfully proven its long-term performance. The system supports two different culture modes: i) tissue exposed to the fluid flow, or ii) tissue shielded from the underlying fluid flow by standard Transwell® cultures. Crosstalk between the two tissues was observed in 14-day co-cultures exposed to fluid flow. Applying the same culture mode, liver microtissues showed sensitivity at different molecular levels to the toxic substance troglitazone during a 6-day exposure. Finally, an astonishingly stable long-term performance of the Transwell®-based co-cultures could be observed over a 28-day period. This mode facilitates exposure of skin at the air-liquid interface. Thus, we provide here a potential new tool for systemic substance testing.

  15. A water soluble extract from Uncaria tomentosa (Cat's Claw) is a potent enhancer of DNA repair in primary organ cultures of human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammone, Thomas; Akesson, Christina; Gan, David; Giampapa, Vincent; Pero, Ronald W

    2006-03-01

    Cat's Claw (Uncaria tomentosa) water extracts, essentially free of oxindole alkaloids, have been shown to possess a broad spectrum of biological activity including DNA repair enhancement and antiinflammatory properties. These two biological mechanisms are key molecular targets to develop treatments that protect skin exposed to ultraviolet light from the sun. Because C-Med-100, a Cat's Claw water extract, is the only documented natural source of components that can up-regulate simultaneously both DNA repair and antiinflammation, its ability to modulate DNA repair in human skin organ cultures was undertaken. For this purpose skin cultures were treated with or without 5 mg/mL C-Med-100, irradiated with 0-100 mJ/cm2 UVB, and microscopically analysed for necrosis as well as the level of pyrimidine dimers using immunofluorescent TT-dimer antibody staining. The data clearly demonstrated that co-incubation with C-Med-100 reduced skin cell death from UV exposure, and this protection was accounted for by a concomitant increase in DNA repair. Based on these results, it was concluded that C-Med-100 was a natural plant extract worthy of further consideration as a sunscreen product. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Lipid functions in skin: differential effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on cutaneous ceramides, in a human skin organ culture model

    OpenAIRE

    Kendall, Alexandra C.; Kiezel-Tsugunova, Magdalena; Brownbridge, Luke C.; Harwood, John L.; Nicolaou, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Ceramides are important for skin health, with a multitude of species found in both dermis and epidermis. The epidermis contains linoleic acid-Ester-linked Omega-hydroxylated ceramides of 6-Hydroxy-sphingosine, Sphingosine and Phytosphingosine bases (CER[EOH], CER[EOS] and CER[EOP], respectively), that are crucial for the formation of the epidermal barrier, conferring protection from environmental factors and preventing trans-epidermal water loss. Furthermore, a large number of ceramides, deri...

  17. Comparison of rat epidermal keratinocyte organotypic culture (ROC) with intact human skin: lipid composition and thermal phase behavior of the stratum corneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappinen, Sari; Hermansson, Martin; Kuntsche, Judith; Somerharju, Pentti; Wertz, Philip; Urtti, Arto; Suhonen, Marjukka

    2008-04-01

    The present report is a part of our continuing efforts to explore the utility of the rat epidermal keratinocyte organotypic culture (ROC) as an alternative model to human skin in transdermal drug delivery and skin irritation studies of new chemical entities and formulations. The aim of the present study was to compare the stratum corneum lipid content of ROC with the corresponding material from human skin. The lipid composition was determined by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and mass-spectrometry, and the thermal phase transitions of stratum corneum were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). All major lipid classes of the stratum corneum were present in ROC in a similar ratio as found in human stratum corneum. Compared to human skin, the level of non-hydroxyacid-sphingosine ceramide (NS) was increased in ROC, while alpha-hydroxyacid-phytosphingosine ceramide (AP) and non-hydroxyacid-phytosphingosine ceramides (NP) were absent. Also some alterations in fatty acid profiles of ROC ceramides were noted, e.g., esterified omega-hydroxyacid-sphingosine contained increased levels of oleic acid instead of linoleic acid. The fraction of lipids covalently bound to corneocyte proteins was distinctly lower in ROC compared to human skin, in agreement with the results from DSC. ROC underwent a lipid lamellar order to disorder transition (T2) at a slightly lower temperature (68 degrees C) than human skin (74 degrees C). These differences in stratum corneum lipid composition and the thermal phase transitions may explain the minor differences previously observed in drug permeation between ROC and human skin.

  18. Aging skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognia, J L

    1995-01-16

    Aging of the skin is a composite of actinic damage, chronologic aging, and hormonal influences. The majority of changes associated with aging, such as wrinkles and solar lentigines ("liver spots"), are due to photoaging and reflect cumulative sun exposure as well as skin pigmentation. Classically, chronologic aging includes those cutaneous changes that occur in non-sun-exposed areas, such as the buttocks, and are observed in both men and women. A clinical example would be soft tissue sagging due to elastic fiber degeneration. In women, investigations into the effect of hormones on aging of the skin have concentrated on estrogens; in men, there have been a limited number of studies on the influence of testosterone. The latter have shown an age-dependent decrease in tissue androgens in pubic skin, but not scrotal or thigh skin. To date, age has not been shown to have an effect on androgen receptor binding, although a decrease in foreskin 5 alpha-reductase activity with increasing age has been described. In fibroblast cultures from foreskins, there have been conflicting results as to whether 5 alpha-reductase activity decreases in an age-dependent manner. Some of the skin changes that have been categorized as secondary to chronologic aging, such as decreased sebaceous gland activity and decreased hair growth, may actually represent a decline in the concentration of tissue androgens with increasing age. The influence of androgens on age-related changes in keratinocyte and fibroblast function remains speculative.

  19. Chip-based human liver-intestine and liver-skin co-cultures--A first step toward systemic repeated dose substance testing in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschmeyer, Ilka; Hasenberg, Tobias; Jaenicke, Annika; Lindner, Marcus; Lorenz, Alexandra Katharina; Zech, Julie; Garbe, Leif-Alexander; Sonntag, Frank; Hayden, Patrick; Ayehunie, Seyoum; Lauster, Roland; Marx, Uwe; Materne, Eva-Maria

    2015-09-01

    Systemic repeated dose safety assessment and systemic efficacy evaluation of substances are currently carried out on laboratory animals and in humans due to the lack of predictive alternatives. Relevant international regulations, such as OECD and ICH guidelines, demand long-term testing and oral, dermal, inhalation, and systemic exposure routes for such evaluations. So-called "human-on-a-chip" concepts are aiming to replace respective animals and humans in substance evaluation with miniaturized functional human organisms. The major technical hurdle toward success in this field is the life-like combination of human barrier organ models, such as intestine, lung or skin, with parenchymal organ equivalents, such as liver, at the smallest biologically acceptable scale. Here, we report on a reproducible homeostatic long-term co-culture of human liver equivalents with either a reconstructed human intestinal barrier model or a human skin biopsy applying a microphysiological system. We used a multi-organ chip (MOC) platform, which provides pulsatile fluid flow within physiological ranges at low media-to-tissue ratios. The MOC supports submerse cultivation of an intact intestinal barrier model and an air-liquid interface for the skin model during their co-culture with the liver equivalents respectively at (1)/100.000 the scale of their human counterparts in vivo. To increase the degree of organismal emulation, microfluidic channels of the liver-skin co-culture could be successfully covered with human endothelial cells, thus mimicking human vasculature, for the first time. Finally, exposure routes emulating oral and systemic administration in humans have been qualified by applying a repeated dose administration of a model substance - troglitazone - to the chip-based co-cultures.

  20. The experiences and perspectives of Japanese substitute caregivers and maltreated children: a cultural-developmental approach to child welfare practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamba, Sachiko

    2010-04-01

    This article describes the experiences and perspectives of child welfare workers and maltreated children living in Japanese state care. Japanese adults emphasize supporting children's emotional well-being and empowerment through developmentally and ecologically focused socialization strategies. One developmental goal articulated by caregivers of maltreated children has been for them to create their Ibasho--that is, a place where they feel peace, security, acceptance, and belonging. Adults support children's Ibasho creation, in part, through the socialization practice of mimamori--that is, watching over others as a protective figure. Through mimamori, adults may create an accepting and positive social-emotional context that provides children with opportunities for exploration, self-expression, and peer relationships, which are important for Ibasho creation. Understanding of how maltreated children secure their Ibasho and what facilitates their Ibasho creation can provide insights into possible protective factors that may be incorporated into caregivers' daily practice with maltreated children, therapeutic interventions, and innovation in child welfare services as a whole. Understanding of culturally embedded beliefs and practices that may support the resilience and well-being of maltreated children allows social workers to reflect and step outside of that which they take for granted to consider how differently they may serve maltreated children in their own society.

  1. Vital roles of stem cells and biomaterials in skin tissueengineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abu Bakar Mohd Hilmi; Ahmad Sukari Halim

    2015-01-01

    Tissue engineering essentially refers to technologyfor growing new human tissue and is distinct fromregenerative medicine. Currently, pieces of skin arealready being fabricated for clinical use and manyother tissue types may be fabricated in the future.Tissue engineering was first defined in 1987 by theUnited States National Science Foundation whichcritically discussed the future targets of bioengineeringresearch and its consequences. The principles oftissue engineering are to initiate cell cultures in vitro ,grow them on scaffolds in situ and transplant thecomposite into a recipient in vivo . From the beginning,scaffolds have been necessary in tissue engineeringapplications. Regardless, the latest technology hasredirected established approaches by omitting scaffolds.Currently, scientists from diverse research institutesare engineering skin without scaffolds. Due to theiradvantageous properties, stem cells have robustlytransformed the tissue engineering field as part of anengineered bilayered skin substitute that will later bediscussed in detail. Additionally, utilizing biomaterialsor skin replacement products in skin tissue engineeringas strategy to successfully direct cell proliferation anddifferentiation as well as to optimize the safety ofhandling during grafting is beneficial. This approachhas also led to the cells' application in developing thenovel skin substitute that will be briefly explained in thisreview.

  2. Substitutional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rutherford, Daniel Edwin

    2013-01-01

    Classic monograph, suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students. Topics include calculus of permutations and tableaux, semi-normal representation, orthogonal and natural representations, group characters, and substitutional equations. 1968 edition.

  3. Sugar Substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drinks. You may also have heard them called "artificial sweeteners" or "non-caloric sweeteners." They can be used ... of nutrition for your body.What sugar substitutes/artificial sweeteners are approved by the FDA?The following sugar ...

  4. Evaluation of fibrin-based dermal-epidermal organotypic cultures for in vitro skin corrosion and irritation testing of chemicals according to OECD TG 431 and 439.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Mariana; Pérez, David; Correa, Luis; Restrepo, Luz

    2016-10-01

    Reconstructed human epidermis (RhE) models have been used for in vitro testing of the potential harmful effects of exposure to chemical compounds on health. In the past, skin irritation and corrosion were evaluated in animal models; however, in recent years, due to the bioethics implications of the method and, to minimize the use of experimental animals, alternative procedures have been proposed. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in its test guidelines (TG) 431 and 439 indicates the requirements for validating new methods for the evaluation of skin corrosion and irritation, respectively. Here, we present an in-house human dermal-epidermal model, useful for the performance of these tests. Using the methods described in this work, it was possible to obtain human fibrin-based dermal-epidermal organotypic skin cultures (ORGs) displaying similar histological characteristics to native skin and expressing specific differentiation epithelial proteins. The end points to classify a substance as irritant or corrosive were cell viability evaluated by MTT assay, and cytokine release measured by BD CBA for human inflammatory cytokines. According to the MTT test, the ORGs correctly classified irritating and corrosive substances. Moreover, the cytokine release assay was difficult to interpret in the context of testing chemical hazard classification. Further experiments are needed to validate this new model for the evaluation of surfactants because the fibrin matrix was affected in the presence of these substances.

  5. Contração de feridas após cobertura com substitutos temporários de pele Contraction of wound after cover with temporaly skin substitutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Oliveira Coelho

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Feridas experimentais foram recobertas com substitutos temporários de pele produzidos com poliuretano, hidrocolóide, hemicelulose e vaselina e com gaze, para avaliação do cálculo da área e percentual de contração ao 7º, 14 e 28º dias de evolução. O curativo hidrocolóide proporcionou uma redução da área inicial ao sétimo dia, não se observando diferenças significativa entre os tratamentos nos períodos seguintes.Experimentals wounds have covered with temporary skin substitutes, made of poliurethane, hidrocolloid, hemicellulose and vaseline and gauze in order to avaliate the area and contraction percentual at the 7th, 14th and 28th days. The hidrocolloidal dressing provided reduction of the initial area at the 7th day and no significant difference was observed on the other periods.

  6. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin Health and Skin Diseases Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... acne to wrinkles Did you know that your skin is the largest organ of your body? It ...

  7. Biomechanical properties of four dermal substitutes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guo-an; NING Fang-gang; ZHAO Nan-ming

    2007-01-01

    @@ Many kinds of cell-free dermal substitutes have been developed during the past several years, however,their biomechanical properties, including hysteresis,stress relaxation, creep, and non-linear stress-strain, are still unknown. In this study, we tested these biomechanical characteristics of four dermal substitutes,and compared them with those of fresh human skin (FHS).

  8. A mixture of peptides and sugars derived from plant cell walls increases plant defense responses to stress and attenuates ageing-associated molecular changes in cultured skin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apone, Fabio; Tito, Annalisa; Carola, Antonietta; Arciello, Stefania; Tortora, Assunta; Filippini, Lucio; Monoli, Irene; Cucchiara, Mirna; Gibertoni, Simone; Chrispeels, Maarten J; Colucci, Gabriella

    2010-02-15

    Small peptides and aminoacid derivatives have been extensively studied for their effect of inducing plant defense responses, and thus increasing plant tolerance to a wide range of abiotic stresses. Similarly to plants, these compounds can activate different signaling pathways in mammalian skin cells as well, leading to the up-regulation of anti-aging specific genes. This suggests the existence of analogous defense response mechanisms, well conserved both in plants and animal cells. In this article, we describe the preparation of a new mixture of peptides and sugars derived from the chemical and enzymatic digestion of plant cell wall glycoproteins. We investigate the multiple roles of this product as potential "biostimulator" to protect plants from abiotic stresses, and also as potential cosmeceutical. In particular, the molecular effects of the peptide/sugar mixture of inducing plant defense responsive genes and protecting cultured skin cells from oxidative burst damages were deeply evaluated.

  9. Protective effect of indole-3-pyruvate against ultraviolet b-induced damage to cultured HaCaT keratinocytes and the skin of hairless mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiji Aoki

    Full Text Available Previous investigations demonstrated that pyruvate protects human keratinocytes against cell damage stemming from exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB radiation. This study endeavoured to elucidate the protective capacity of aromatic pyruvates (e.g., phenylpyruvate (PPyr, 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate (HPPyr, and indole-3-pyruvate (IPyr against UVB-induced injury to skin cells, both in vitro and in vivo. Cultured human HaCaT keratinocytes were irradiated with UVB light (60 mJ/cm2 and maintained with or without test compounds (1-25 mM.In addition, the dorsal skin of hairless mice (HR-1 was treated with test compounds (10 μmol and exposed to UVB light (1 J/cm2 twice [corrected]. The ability of the test compounds to ameliorate UVB-induced cytotoxicity and inflammation was then assessed. Aromatic pyruvates reduced cytotoxicity in UVB-irradiated HaCaT keratinocytes, and also diminished the expression of interleukin 1β (IL-1β and interleukin 6 (IL-6. IPyr was more efficacious than either PPyr or HPPyr. Furthermore, only IPyr inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2 expression at both the mRNA and the protein level in UVB-treated keratinocytes. Topical application of IPyr to the dorsal skin of hairless mice reduced the severity of UVB-induced skin lesions, the augmentation of dermal thickness, and transepithelial water loss. Overproduction of IL-1β and IL-6 in response to UVB radiation was also suppressed in vivo by the topical administration of IPyr. These data strongly suggest that IPyr might find utility as a UVB-blocking reagent in therapeutic strategies to lessen UVB-induced inflammatory skin damage.

  10. Discrimination of skin sensitizers from non-sensitizers by interleukin-1α and interleukin-6 production on cultured human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Daun; Che, Jeong-Hwan; Lim, Kyung-Min; Chun, Young-Jin; Heo, Yong; Seok, Seung Hyeok

    2016-09-01

    In vitro testing methods for classifying sensitizers could be valuable alternatives to in vivo sensitization testing using animal models, such as the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) and the guinea pig maximization test (GMT), but there remains a need for in vitro methods that are more accurate and simpler to distinguish skin sensitizers from non-sensitizers. Thus, the aim of our study was to establish an in vitro assay as a screening tool for detecting skin sensitizers using the human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT. HaCaT cells were exposed to 16 relevant skin sensitizers and 6 skin non-sensitizers. The highest dose used was the dose causing 75% cell viability (CV75) that we determined by an MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay. The levels of extracellular production of interleukin-1α (IL-1α) and IL-6 were measured. The sensitivity of IL-1α was 63%, specificity was 83% and accuracy was 68%. In the case of IL-6, sensitivity: 69%, specificity: 83% and accuracy: 73%. Thus, this study suggests that measuring extracellular production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1α and IL-6 by human HaCaT cells may potentially classify skin sensitizers from non-sensitizers. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Reconstruction of the penile skin loss due to 'radical' circumcision with a full thickness skin graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatović Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Excessive resection of penile skin is a rare but important complication of circumcision. Penis 'trapping' under the skin and consequent sexual dysfunction occur as a result. Case report. Excessive circumcision with complete resection of the penile skin is shown. Penis, trapped under the skin, was deliberated and skin defect was substituted with the full thickness skin graft. One year after the surgery penis has a good cosmetic appearance, adequate size and sexual function. Conclusion. Full thickness skin graft is a good option for augmentation of the penile skin loss in cases with intact hypodermal tissue and extensive skin loss, for the reconstruction in a single act.

  12. Sulfate transport in toad skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Simonsen, K

    1988-01-01

    1. In short-circuited toad skin preparations exposed bilaterally to NaCl-Ringer's containing 1 mM SO2(-4), influx of sulfate was larger than efflux showing that the skin is capable of transporting sulfate actively in an inward direction. 2. This active transport was not abolished by substituting ...

  13. Application of collagen-chitosan/fibrin glue asymmetric scaffolds in skin tissue engineering*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chun-mao; Zhang, Li-ping; Sun, Jin-zhang; Shi, Hai-fei; Zhou, Jie; Gao, Chang-you

    2010-01-01

    To create a scaffold that is suitable for the construction of tissue-engineered skin, a novel asymmetric porous scaffold with different pore sizes on either side was prepared by combining a collagen-chitosan porous membrane with fibrin glue. Tissue-engineered skin was fabricated using this asymmetric scaffold, fibroblasts, and a human keratinocyte line (HaCaT). Epidermal cells could be seen growing easily and achieved confluence on the fibrin glue on the upper surface of the scaffold. Scanning electron microscopy showed typical shuttle-like fibroblasts adhering to the wall of the scaffold and fluorescence microscopy showed them growing in the dermal layer of the scaffold. The constructed composite skin substitute had a histological structure similar to that of normal skin tissue after three weeks of culture. The results of our study suggest that the asymmetric scaffold is a promising biologically functional material for skin tissue engineering, with prospects for clinical applications. PMID:20593518

  14. Application of collagen-chitosan/fibrin glue asymmetric scaffolds in skin tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chun-mao; Zhang, Li-ping; Sun, Jin-zhang; Shi, Hai-fei; Zhou, Jie; Gao, Chang-you

    2010-07-01

    To create a scaffold that is suitable for the construction of tissue-engineered skin, a novel asymmetric porous scaffold with different pore sizes on either side was prepared by combining a collagen-chitosan porous membrane with fibrin glue. Tissue-engineered skin was fabricated using this asymmetric scaffold, fibroblasts, and a human keratinocyte line (HaCaT). Epidermal cells could be seen growing easily and achieved confluence on the fibrin glue on the upper surface of the scaffold. Scanning electron microscopy showed typical shuttle-like fibroblasts adhering to the wall of the scaffold and fluorescence microscopy showed them growing in the dermal layer of the scaffold. The constructed composite skin substitute had a histological structure similar to that of normal skin tissue after three weeks of culture. The results of our study suggest that the asymmetric scaffold is a promising biologically functional material for skin tissue engineering, with prospects for clinical applications.

  15. Functional compartmentation of the Golgi apparatus of plant cells : immunocytochemical analysis of high-pressure frozen- and freeze-substituted sycamore maple suspension culture cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G F; Staehelin, L A

    1992-07-01

    The Golgi apparatus of plant cells is engaged in both the processing of glycoproteins and the synthesis of complex polysaccharides. To investigate the compartmentalization of these functions within individual Golgi stacks, we have analyzed the ultrastructure and the immunolabeling patterns of high-pressure frozen and freeze-substituted suspension-cultured sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cells. As a result of the improved structural preservation, three morphological types of Golgi cisternae, designated cis, medial, and trans, as well as the trans Golgi network, could be identified. The number of cis cisternae per Golgi stack was found to be fairly constant at approximately 1, whereas the number of medial and trans cisternae per stack was variable and accounted for the varying number of cisternae (3-10) among the many Golgi stacks examined. By using a battery of seven antibodies whose specific sugar epitopes on secreted polysaccharides and glycoproteins are known, we have been able to determine in which types of cisternae specific sugars are added to N-linked glycans, and to xyloglucan and polygalacturonic acid/rhamnogalacturonan-I, two complex polysaccharides. The findings are as follows. The beta-1,4-linked d-glucosyl backbone of xyloglucan is synthesized in trans cisternae, and the terminal fucosyl residues on the trisaccharide side chains of xyloglucan are partly added in the trans cisternae, and partly in the trans Golgi network. In contrast, the polygalacturonic/rhamnogalacturonan-I backbone is assembled in cis and medial cisternae, methylesterification of the carboxyl groups of the galacturonic acid residues in the polygalacturonic acid domains occurs mostly in medial cisternae, and arabinose-containing side chains of the polygalacturonic acid domains are added to the nascent polygalacturonic acid/rhamnogalacturonan-I molecules in the trans cisternae. Double labeling experiments demonstrate that xyloglucan and polygalacturonic acid

  16. Solvent substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Office of Technology Development and the Air Force Engineering and Services Center convened the First Annual International Workshop on Solvent Substitution on December 4--7, 1990. The primary objectives of this joint effort were to share information and ideas among attendees in order to enhance the development and implementation of required new technologies for the elimination of pollutants associated with industrial use of hazardous and toxic solvents; and to aid in accelerating collaborative efforts and technology transfer between government and industry for solvent substitution. There were workshop sessions focusing on Alternative Technologies, Alternative Solvents, Recovery/Recycling, Low VOC Materials and Treatment for Environmentally Safe Disposal. The 35 invited papers presented covered a wide range of solvent substitution activities including: hardware and weapons production and maintenance, paint stripping, coating applications, printed circuit boards, metal cleaning, metal finishing, manufacturing, compliance monitoring and process control monitoring. This publication includes the majority of these presentations. In addition, in order to further facilitate information exchange and technology transfer, the US Air Force and DOE solicited additional papers under a general Call for Papers.'' These papers, which underwent review and final selection by a peer review committee, are also included in this combined Proceedings/Compendium. For those involved in handling, using or managing hazardous and toxic solvents, this document should prove to be a valuable resource, providing the most up-to-date information on current technologies and practices in solvent substitution. Individual papers are abstracted separated.

  17. Interferon-gamma assay in combination with tuberculin skin test are insufficient for the diagnosis of culture-negative pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Wlodarczyk

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Early diagnosis of infectious cases and treatment of tuberculosis (TB are important strategies for reducing the incidence of this disease. Unfortunately, traditional TB diagnostic methods are time-consuming and often unreliable. This study compared the accuracy and reliability of the tuberculin skin test (TST and interferon (IFN-γ-based assay (IGRA for the diagnosis of active pulmonary TB Polish cases that could or could not be confirmed by M. tuberculosis (M.tb culture. METHODS: In total, 126 adult patients with clinically active TB or non-mycobacterial, community-acquired lung diseases (NMLD hospitalised at the Regional Specialised Hospital of Tuberculosis, Lung Diseases and Rehabilitation in Tuszyn, Poland were enrolled in the present study. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predicted value (PPV, negative predicted value (NPV, and analytic accuracy (Acc of TST and IGRA testing for the diagnosis of culture-positive and culture-negative TB patients were calculated. The quantities of IFN-γ produced in the response to M.tb specific antigens (TB Ag - Nil in the cultures of blood from patients with active TB and NMLD patients were also analysed. RESULTS: The IGRA sensitivity in culture-positive and culture-negative TB patients was similar, measuring 65.1% and 55.6%, respectively. The sensitivity of TST did not differ from the parameters designated for IGRA, measuring 55.8% in culture-positive and 64.9% in culture-negative TB. The sensitivity of TST and IGRA was age-dependent and decreased significantly with the age of the patients. No differences in the frequency or intensity of M.tb-stimulated IFN-γ production, as assessed by IGRA testing between culture-positive and culture-negative TB were noticed. Significantly lower concentrations of IFN-γ were observed in patients with advanced TB forms compared with those with mild or moderate TB pathologies. CONCLUSIONS: Our results do not show that a combination of IGRA and TST might be a

  18. Interferon-gamma assay in combination with tuberculin skin test are insufficient for the diagnosis of culture-negative pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlodarczyk, Marcin; Rudnicka, Wieslawa; Janiszewska-Drobinska, Beata; Kielnierowski, Grzegorz; Kowalewicz-Kulbat, Magdalena; Fol, Marek; Druszczynska, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Early diagnosis of infectious cases and treatment of tuberculosis (TB) are important strategies for reducing the incidence of this disease. Unfortunately, traditional TB diagnostic methods are time-consuming and often unreliable. This study compared the accuracy and reliability of the tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon (IFN)-γ-based assay (IGRA) for the diagnosis of active pulmonary TB Polish cases that could or could not be confirmed by M. tuberculosis (M.tb) culture. In total, 126 adult patients with clinically active TB or non-mycobacterial, community-acquired lung diseases (NMLD) hospitalised at the Regional Specialised Hospital of Tuberculosis, Lung Diseases and Rehabilitation in Tuszyn, Poland were enrolled in the present study. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predicted value (PPV), negative predicted value (NPV), and analytic accuracy (Acc) of TST and IGRA testing for the diagnosis of culture-positive and culture-negative TB patients were calculated. The quantities of IFN-γ produced in the response to M.tb specific antigens (TB Ag - Nil) in the cultures of blood from patients with active TB and NMLD patients were also analysed. The IGRA sensitivity in culture-positive and culture-negative TB patients was similar, measuring 65.1% and 55.6%, respectively. The sensitivity of TST did not differ from the parameters designated for IGRA, measuring 55.8% in culture-positive and 64.9% in culture-negative TB. The sensitivity of TST and IGRA was age-dependent and decreased significantly with the age of the patients. No differences in the frequency or intensity of M.tb-stimulated IFN-γ production, as assessed by IGRA testing between culture-positive and culture-negative TB were noticed. Significantly lower concentrations of IFN-γ were observed in patients with advanced TB forms compared with those with mild or moderate TB pathologies. Our results do not show that a combination of IGRA and TST might be a step forward in the diagnosis of culture-negative TB

  19. The effect of Centella asiatica, vitamins, glycolic acid and their mixtures preparations in stimulating collagen and fibronectin synthesis in cultured human skin fibroblast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Puziah

    2014-03-01

    Centella asiatica (Linn.) Urban is well known in promoting wound healing and provides significant benefits in skin care and therapeutic products formulation. Glycolic acid and vitamins also play a role in the enhancement of collagen and fibronectin synthesis. Here, we evaluate the specific effect of Centella asiatica (CA), vitamins, glycolic acid and their mixture preparations to stimulate collagen and fibronectin synthesis in cultured human fibroblast cells. The fibroblast cells are incubated with CA, glycolic acid, vitamins and their mixture preparations for 48 h. The cell lysates were analyzed for protein content and collagen synthesis by direct binding enzyme immunoassay. The fibronectin of the cultured supernatant was measured by sandwich enzyme immunoassay. The results showed that CA, glycolic acid, vitamins A, E and C significantly stimulate collagen and fibronectin synthesis in the fibroblast. Addition of glycolic acid and vitamins to CA further increased the levels of collagen and fibronectin synthesis to 8.55 and 23.75 μg/100 μg, respectively. CA, glycolic acid, vitamins A, E, and C, and their mixtures demonstrated stimulatory effect on both extra-cellular matrix synthesis of collagen and fibronectin in in vitro studies on human foreskin fibroblasts, which is beneficial to skin care and therapeutic products formulation.

  20. The differential proliferative response of fetal and adult human skin fibroblasts to TGF-β is retained when cultured in the presence of fibronectin or collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armatas, Andreas A; Pratsinis, Harris; Mavrogonatou, Eleni; Angelopoulou, Maria T; Kouroumalis, Anastasios; Karamanos, Nikos K; Kletsas, Dimitris

    2014-08-01

    Transforming growth factor-β is a multifunctional and pleiotropic factor with decisive role in tissue repair. In this context, we have shown previously that TGF-β inhibits the proliferation of fetal human skin fibroblasts but stimulates that of adult ones. Given the dynamic reciprocity between fibroblasts, growth factors and extracellular matrix (ECM) in tissue homeostasis, the present study aims to investigate the role of fibronectin and collagen in the proliferative effects of TGF-β on fetal and adult cells. Human fetal and adult skin fibroblasts were grown either on plastic surfaces or on surfaces coated with fibronectin or collagen type-I, as well as, on top or within three-dimensional matrices of polymerized collagen. Their proliferative response to TGF-β was studied using tritiated thymidine incorporation, while the signaling pathways involved were investigated by Western analysis and using specific kinase inhibitors. Fetal skin fibroblast-proliferation was inhibited by TGF-β, while that of adult cells was stimulated by this factor, irrespective of the presence of fibronectin or collagen. Both inhibitory and stimulatory activities of TGF-β on the proliferation of fetal and adult fibroblasts, respectively, were abrogated when the Smad pathway was blocked. Moreover, inhibition of fetal fibroblasts was mediated by PKA activation, while stimulation of adult ones was effected through the autocrine activation of FGF receptor and the MEK-ERK pathway. Fetal and adult human skin fibroblasts retain their differential proliferative response to TGF-β when cultured in the presence of fibronectin and unpolymerized or polymerized collagen. The interplay between TGF-β and ECM supports the pleiotropic nature of this growth factor, in concordance with the different repair strategies between fetuses and adults. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Matrix-mediated cell behaviour and properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Primary culture and identification of human skin Merkel cells%人体皮肤Merkel细胞原代培养与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘太华; 周舟; 王春梅; 王骏; 唐丽君; 陈业红

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the culturing method for human skin Merkel cells in vitro and study the adjustment effects of Merkel cells on neuroendocrine function in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Methods Normal human skin tissues were obtained,and the cells were isolated by enzymatic digestion method. The adhesion and proliferation of Merkel cells in three different culture media were observed by means of a special designed in-vitro cell culturing system. Specific Merkel cell marker antibody CK20 was used to label Merkel cells,and immunohistochemistrical method and flow cytometry were used for cell identification. Results The human skin Merkel cells could smoothly complete adhesion and proliferation in three culture media,and all had an endocrine function,but No. 1 culture medium(Ham ˊs-F12+ fetal bovine serum(10/100 ml)+bFGF(20 ng/ml)was more conducive to the growth of Merkel cells. According to the identification by the flow cytometer,the purity of Merkel cells could be up to 90. 11%. Conclusion In this culture system,human skin Merkel cells can be successfully cultured in vitro,and high-purity Merkel cells can be obtained.%目的探索人体皮肤Merkel细胞体外培养方法,为进一步研究银屑病发病中Merkel细胞的神经内分泌调节作用积累基础资料。方法获取正常人皮肤组织,采用酶消化法分离细胞。设计专门的细胞体外培养系统,观察Merkel细胞在3种不同培养液中贴壁和增殖情况。采用Merkel细胞特异性标记抗体CK20标记Merkel细胞,采用免疫组化和流式细胞仪进行鉴定。结果人体皮肤Merkel细胞在3种培养液中均能顺利贴壁和增殖,并具有内分泌功能,但1号培养液[ Hamˊs-F12+胎牛血清(10/100 ml)+bFGF(20 ng/ml)]更有利于Merkel细胞生长。经流式细胞仪鉴定,Merkel细胞纯度可达90.11%。结论在本培养系统中,人体皮肤Merkel细胞能成功进行体外培养,并可获得较高纯度的Merkel细胞。

  2. Skin tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansbridge, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    The major applications of tissue-engineered skin substitutes are in promoting the healing of acute and chronic wounds. Several approaches have been taken by commercial companies to develop products to address these conditions. Skin substitutes include both acellular and cellular devices. While acellular skin substitutes act as a template for dermal formation, this discussion mainly covers cellular devices. In addressing therapeutic applications in tissue engineering generally, a valuable precursor is an understanding of the mechanism of the underlying pathology. While this is straightforward in many cases, it has not been available for wound healing. Investigation of the mode of action of the tissue-engineered skin substitutes has led to considerable insight into the mechanism of formation, maintenance and treatment of chronic wounds. Four aspects mediating healing are considered here for their mechanism of action: (i) colonization of the wound bed by live fibroblasts in the implant, (ii) the secretion of growth factors, (iii) provision of a suitable substrate for cell migration, particularly keratinocytes and immune cells, and (iv) modification of the immune system by secretion of neutrophil recruiting chemokines. An early event in acute wound healing is an influx of neutrophils that destroy planktonic bacteria. However, if the bacteria are able to form biofilm, they become resistant to neutrophil action and prevent reepithelialization. In this situation the wound becomes chronic. In chronic wounds, fibroblasts show a senescence-like phenotype with decreased secretion of neutrophil chemoattractants that make it more likely that biofilms become established. Treatment of the chronic wounds involves debridement to eliminate biofilm, and the use of antimicrobials. A role of skin substitutes is to provide non-senescent fibroblasts that attract and activate neutrophils to prevent biofilm re-establishment. The emphasis of the conclusion is the importance of preventing

  3. Your Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Your Skin KidsHealth > For Kids > Your Skin Print A A ... are really dead skin cells. continue Bye-Bye Skin Cells These old cells are tough and strong, ...

  4. Tissue Engineered Human Skin Equivalents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human skin not only serves as an important barrier against the penetration of exogenous substances into the body, but also provides a potential avenue for the transport of functional active drugs/reagents/ingredients into the skin (topical delivery and/or the body (transdermal delivery. In the past three decades, research and development in human skin equivalents have advanced in parallel with those in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The human skin equivalents are used commercially as clinical skin substitutes and as models for permeation and toxicity screening. Several academic laboratories have developed their own human skin equivalent models and applied these models for studying skin permeation, corrosivity and irritation, compound toxicity, biochemistry, metabolism and cellular pharmacology. Various aspects of the state of the art of human skin equivalents are reviewed and discussed.

  5. Xenobiotic metabolism capacities of human skin in comparison with a 3D-epidermis model and keratinocyte-based cell culture as in vitro alternatives for chemical testing: phase II enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götz, Christine; Pfeiffer, Roland; Tigges, Julia; Ruwiedel, Karsten; Hübenthal, Ulrike; Merk, Hans F; Krutmann, Jean; Edwards, Robert J; Abel, Josef; Pease, Camilla; Goebel, Carsten; Hewitt, Nicola; Fritsche, Ellen

    2012-05-01

    The 7th Amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive prohibits the use of animals in cosmetic testing for certain endpoints, such as genotoxicity. Therefore, skin in vitro models have to replace chemical testing in vivo. However, the metabolic competence neither of human skin nor of alternative in vitro models has so far been fully characterized, although skin is the first-pass organ for accidentally or purposely (cosmetics and pharmaceuticals) applied chemicals. Thus, there is an urgent need to understand the xenobiotic-metabolizing capacities of human skin and to compare these activities to models developed to replace animal testing. We have measured the activity of the phase II enzymes glutathione S-transferase, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase and N-acetyltransferase in ex vivo human skin, the 3D epidermal model EpiDerm 200 (EPI-200), immortalized keratinocyte-based cell lines (HaCaT and NCTC 2544) and primary normal human epidermal keratinocytes. We show that all three phase II enzymes are present and highly active in skin as compared to phase I. Human skin, therefore, represents a more detoxifying than activating organ. This work systematically compares the activities of three important phase II enzymes in four different in vitro models directly to human skin. We conclude from our studies that 3D epidermal models, like the EPI-200 employed here, are superior over monolayer cultures in mimicking human skin xenobiotic metabolism and thus better suited for dermatotoxicity testing. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Development of a Vascularized Skin Construct Using Adipose-Derived Stem Cells from Debrided Burned Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney K. Chan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Large body surface area burns pose significant therapeutic challenges. Clinically, the extent and depth of burn injury may mandate the use of allograft for temporary wound coverage while autografts are serially harvested from the same donor areas. The paucity of donor sites in patients with burns involving large surface areas highlights the need for better skin substitutes that can achieve early and complete coverage and retain normal skin durability with minimal donor requirements. We have isolated autologous stem cells from the adipose layer of surgically debrided burned skin (dsASCs, using a point-of-care stem cell isolation device. These cells, in a collagen—polyethylene glycol fibrin-based bilayer hydrogel, differentiate into an epithelial layer, a vascularized dermal layer, and a hypodermal layer. All-trans-retinoic acid and fenofibrate were used to differentiate dsASCs into epithelial-like cells. Immunocytochemical analysis showed a matrix- and time-dependent change in the expression of stromal, vascular, and epithelial cell markers. These results indicate that stem cells isolated from debrided skin can be used as a single autologous cell source to develop a vascularized skin construct without culture expansion or addition of exogenous growth factors. This technique may provide an alternative approach for cutaneous coverage after extensive burn injuries.

  7. Sensory Substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrillo, Ronald T.

    The idea that the cutaneous surface may be employed as a substitute for the eyes and ears is by no means a modern notion. Although the sense of touch has long been considered as a surrogate for both the visual and auditory modalities, the focus of this chapter will be on the efforts to develop a tactile substitute for hearing, especially that of human speech. The visual system is our primary means of processing information about environmental space such as orientation, distance, direction and size. It is much less effective in making temporal discriminations. The auditory system is unparalleled in processing information that involves rapid sequences of temporal events, such as speech and music. The tactile sense is capable of processing both spatial and temporal information although not as effective in either domain as the eye or the ear.

  8. Substituting complements

    OpenAIRE

    Dari-Mattiacci, G.; Parisi, F.; Heller, M.

    2009-01-01

    The presence of multiple sellers in the provision of (nonsubstitutable) complementary goods leads to outcomes that are worse than those generated by a monopoly (with a vertically integrated production of complements), a problem known in the economic literature as complementary oligopoly and recently popularized in the legal literature as the tragedy of the anticommons. We ask the following question: how many substitutes for each complement are necessary to render the presence of multiple sell...

  9. In-vitro replication of Chelonid herpesvirus 5 in organotypic skin cultures from Hawaiian green turtles (Chelonia mydas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Dagenais, Julie; Weatherby, Tina; Ackermann, Mathias; Balazs, George H.

    2017-01-01

    Fibropapillomatosis (FP) is a tumor disease of marine turtles associated with Chelonid herpesvirus 5 (ChHV5) that has historically been refractory to growth in tissue culture. Here, we show for the first time de novo formation of ChHV5-positive intranuclear inclusions in cultured green turtle cells, which is indicative for active lytic replication of the virus. The minimal requirements to achieve lytic replication in cultured cells included 1) either in-vitro culturing of ChHV5-positive tumor biopsies (plugs) or organotypic cultures (rafts) consisting of ChHV5-positive turtle fibroblasts in collagen rafts seeded with turtle keratinocytes and 2) keratinocyte maturation induced by raising raft or biopsy cultures to the air-liquid interface. Virus growth was confirmed by detailed electron microscopic studies revealing intranuclear sun-shaped capsid factories, tubules, various stages of capsid formation, nuclear export by budding into the perinuclear space, tegumentation, and envelopment to complete de novo virus production. Membrane synthesis was also observed as a sign for active viral replication. Interestingly, cytoplasmic particles became associated with keratin filaments, a feature not seen in conventional monolayer cell cultures where most studies of herpesvirus replication have been performed. Our findings draw a rich and realistic picture of ChHV5 replication in cells derived from its natural host and may be crucial not only to better understand ChHV5 circulation but also to eventually complete Koch's postulates for FP. Moreover, the principles described here may serve as model to culture other viruses that are resistant to replication in conventional cell culture.

  10. 薏苡秸秆代料栽培灵芝工厂化生产技术%Factory production technology of glossy ganoderma using Coix lachryma Jobi straw to substitute culture medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏翱

    2012-01-01

    在全国椴木灵芝主产地的福建浦城,建立薏苡秸秆代料栽培灵芝工厂化生产示范基地,进行规模、立体、反季节周年工厂化代料栽培灵芝技术研究与示范,取得成功。该文介绍工厂化标准培养房建造、培养料及机械设备准备,以及薏苡秸秆代料栽培灵芝周年生产的具体技术。%Pucheng was the main national producing areas of glossy ganoderma by using linden as culture medium,in which the demonstration bases of substitute cultivation of glossy ganoderma using Coix lachryma Jobi straw by industrial production were established,and the research and demonstration on the year-round industrial substitute cultivation technology to produce Glossy ganoderma with scale,stereo and off-season manner were carried out successfully.This paper introduced the establishment of standard cultivation house for industrial production,the preparation for culture medium and mechanical equipment,and the concrete year-round product technology of substitute cultivation of glossy ganoderma using Coix lachryma Jobi straw.

  11. Skin Pedagogies and Abject Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenway, Jane; Bullen, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    How does the beauty industry "narrate the skin"? What does it teach women from different cultural groups about the female body? How does skin function as a site where female subjection and abjection are produced and reproduced? In this paper we examine the skin industry pointing to its extreme commodification of the female body and to the…

  12. Skin Pedagogies and Abject Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenway, Jane; Bullen, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    How does the beauty industry "narrate the skin"? What does it teach women from different cultural groups about the female body? How does skin function as a site where female subjection and abjection are produced and reproduced? In this paper we examine the skin industry pointing to its extreme commodification of the female body and to the…

  13. Suggested guidelines for using systemic antimicrobials in bacterial skin infections: part 1—diagnosis based on clinical presentation, cytology and culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beco, L.; Guaguère, E.; Méndez, C. Lorente; Noli, C.; Nuttall, T.; Vroom, M.

    2013-01-01

    Systemic antimicrobials are critically important in veterinary healthcare, and resistance is a major concern. Antimicrobial stewardship will be important in maintaining clinical efficacy by reducing the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance. Bacterial skin infections are one of the most common reasons for using systemic antimicrobials in dogs and cats. Appropriate management of these infections is, therefore, crucial in any policy for responsible antimicrobial use. The goals of therapy are to confirm that an infection is present, identify the causative bacteria, select the most appropriate antimicrobial, ensure that the infection is treated correctly, and to identify and manage any underlying conditions. This is the first of two articles that will provide evidence-led guidelines to help practitioners address these issues. This article covers diagnosis, including descriptions of the different clinical presentations of surface, superficial and deep bacterial skin infections, how to perform and interpret cytology, and how to best use bacterial culture and sensitivity testing. Part 2 will discuss therapy, including choice of drug and treatment regimens. PMID:23292951

  14. The alpha3 laminin subunit, alpha6beta4 and alpha3beta1 integrin coordinately regulate wound healing in cultured epithelial cells and in the skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldfinger, L E; Hopkinson, S B; deHart, G W

    1999-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that proteolytic processing within the globular domain of the alpha3 subunit of laminin-5 (LN5) converts LN5 from a cell motility-inducing factor to a protein complex that can trigger the formation of hemidesmosomes, certain cell-matrix attachment sites found in epithe......-inhibiting antibodies, we provide evidence that LN5 and its two integrin receptors (alpha6beta4 and alpha3beta1) appear necessary for wound healing to occur in MCF-10A cell culture wounds. We propose a model for healing of wounded epithelial tissues based on these results....... in epithelial cells. We have prepared a monoclonal antibody (12C4) whose epitope is located toward the carboxy terminus of the globular domain of the alpha3 laminin subunit. This epitope is lost from the alpha3 subunit as a consequence of proteolytic processing. Antibody 12C4 stains throughout the matrix...... the wound site. A similar phenomenon is observed in human skin wounds, since we also detect expression of the unprocessed alpha3 laminin subunit at the leading tip of the sheet of epidermal cells that epithelializes skin wounds in vivo. In addition, using alpha3 laminin subunit and integrin function...

  15. Cutis laxa: reduced elastin gene expression in skin fibroblast cultures as determined by hybridizations with a homologous cDNA and an exon 1-specific oligonucleotide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, D.R.; Fazio, M.J.; Shamban, A.T.; Rosenbloom, J.; Uitto, J.

    1988-05-15

    Fibroblast cultures were established from six patients with cutis laxa, and elastin gene expression was analyzed by RNA hybridizations with a 2.5-kilobase human elastin cDNA or an exon 1-specific 35-base oligomer. Northern analyses using either probe detected mRNA transcripts of approx. 3.5 kilobases, and no qualitative difference between the control and cutis laxa mRNAs was detected. However, quantitation of the elastin mRNA abundance by slot blot hybridizations revealed markedly reduced levels in all cutis laxa cell strains. Assuming equal translational activity of the control and cutix laxa mRNAs, the reduced mRNA levels could result in diminished elastin production, providing an explanation for the paucity of elastic fibers in the skin and other tissues in cutis laxa.

  16. A four-organ-chip for interconnected long-term co-culture of human intestine, liver, skin and kidney equivalents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschmeyer, Ilka; Lorenz, Alexandra K; Schimek, Katharina; Hasenberg, Tobias; Ramme, Anja P; Hübner, Juliane; Lindner, Marcus; Drewell, Christopher; Bauer, Sophie; Thomas, Alexander; Sambo, Naomia Sisoli; Sonntag, Frank; Lauster, Roland; Marx, Uwe

    2015-06-21

    Systemic absorption and metabolism of drugs in the small intestine, metabolism by the liver as well as excretion by the kidney are key determinants of efficacy and safety for therapeutic candidates. However, these systemic responses of applied substances lack in most in vitro assays. In this study, a microphysiological system maintaining the functionality of four organs over 28 days in co-culture has been established at a minute but standardized microsystem scale. Preformed human intestine and skin models have been integrated into the four-organ-chip on standard cell culture inserts at a size 100,000-fold smaller than their human counterpart organs. A 3D-based spheroid, equivalent to ten liver lobules, mimics liver function. Finally, a barrier segregating the media flow through the organs from fluids excreted by the kidney has been generated by a polymeric membrane covered by a monolayer of human proximal tubule epithelial cells. A peristaltic on-chip micropump ensures pulsatile media flow interconnecting the four tissue culture compartments through microfluidic channels. A second microfluidic circuit ensures drainage of the fluid excreted through the kidney epithelial cell layer. This four-organ-chip system assures near to physiological fluid-to-tissue ratios. In-depth metabolic and gene analysis revealed the establishment of reproducible homeostasis among the co-cultures within two to four days, sustainable over at least 28 days independent of the individual human cell line or tissue donor background used for each organ equivalent. Lastly, 3D imaging two-photon microscopy visualised details of spatiotemporal segregation of the two microfluidic flows by proximal tubule epithelia. To our knowledge, this study is the first approach to establish a system for in vitro microfluidic ADME profiling and repeated dose systemic toxicity testing of drug candidates over 28 days.

  17. Skin Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I Help Someone Who's Being Bullied? Volunteering Skin Biopsy KidsHealth > For Teens > Skin Biopsy Print A A ... español Biopsia de piel What Is a Skin Biopsy and Who Would Need One? In a biopsy, ...

  18. Skin Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your skin is your body's largest organ. It covers and protects your body. Your skin Holds body fluids in, preventing dehydration Keeps harmful ... it Anything that irritates, clogs, or inflames your skin can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, burning, ...

  19. [Research Progress of Collagen-based Three-dimensional Porous Scaffolds Used in Skin Tissue Engineering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Tang, Qiwei; Zhou, Aimei; Yang, Shulin

    2015-08-01

    Collagen is a kind of natural biomedical material and collagen based three-dimensional porous scaffolds have been widely used in skin tissue engineering. However, these scaffolds do not meet the requirements for artificial skin substitutes in terms of their poor mechanical properties, short supply, and rejection in the bodies. All of these factors limit their further application in skin tissue engineering. A variety of methods have been chosen to meliorate the situation, such as cross linking and blending other substance for improving mechanical properties. The highly biomimetic scaffolds either in structure or in function can be prepared through culturing cells and loading growth factors. To avoid the drawbacks of unsafety attributing to animals, investigators have fixed their eyes on the recombinant collagen. This paper reviews the the progress of research and application of collagen-based 3-dimensional porous scaffolds in skin tissue engineering.

  20. Skin tissue engineering in China%皮肤组织工程学在我国

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏照帆; 肖仕初

    2008-01-01

    Great progress has been made in the basic research and clinical application of skin tissue engineering in China over the past 20 years. It includes culture of epithelial cells and their preliminary clinicaluse , research and development of various dermal substitutes such as acellular dermal matrix, spongi form collagen membrane and high molecular weight polymer membrane , and modification of physical properties of dermal substitutes for the sake of raising their bioaffinity and vascular ization , based on which composite skin containing epithelial cell layers has been constructed and used successfully in the repair of full-thickness skin defects. More recently , greater efforts have been made in the study of new epithelial seeding cells such as epithelial stem cell and hair follicle stem cell. With the work going into the center, it is hopeful into constructing an artificial skin that mimics the normal human skin in terms of structure and function with better viability of the transplant, so that it can eventually be used in clinical practice as a skin source for large area deep burn patients to improve the wound healing quality.

  1. Skin abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abscess - skin; Cutaneous abscess; Subcutaneous abscess; MRSA - abscess; Staph infection - abscess ... Skin abscesses are common and affect people of all ages. They occur when an infection causes pus ...

  2. Lipid peroxidation as pathway of aluminium cytotoxicity in human skin fibroblast cultures: prevention by superoxide dismutase+catalase and vitamins E and C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anane, R; Creppy, E E

    2001-09-01

    Lipid peroxidation is one of the main manifestations of oxidative damage and has been found to play an important role in the toxicity and carcinogenicity of many xenobiotics. In the present study, we investigated the possible induction of lipid peroxidation by aluminium in human foreskin fibroblast cultures by assaying the malondialdehyde (MDA) produced inside the cells. The MDA-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) adduct was assayed by HPLC using fluorometric quantification after extraction in n-butanol. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release was used as a marker of aluminium toxicity. MDA production was significantly increased after 24 h incubation with aluminium and paralleled LDH release. Superoxide dismutase (SOD)+catalase and vitamins C and E added in the culture medium as oxygen radical and free radical scavengers were efficient in preventing MDA production by aluminium, indicating that oxidative processes are one of the main pathways whereby this metal induces cytotoxicity. The latter is also largely prevented, thus confirming the link between oxidative stress induced by aluminium and its cytotoxicity in human skin fibroblasts.

  3. Glycine cleavage enzyme complex: molecular cloning and expression of the H-protein cDNA from cultured human skin fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zay, Agnes; Choy, Francis Y M; Patrick, Chelsea; Sinclair, Graham

    2011-06-01

    The human H-protein is one of four essential components (H-, L-, P-, and T-proteins) of the mammalian glycine cleavage enzyme complex and its function is involved in the pathogenesis and diagnosis of glycine encephalopathy. A transcript corresponding to the glycine cleavage H-protein functional gene was isolated from cultured human skin fibroblasts along with a transcript for a putative processed pseudogene on chromosome 2q33.3. Sequence analysis of the fibroblast H-protein functional gene transcript showed complete identity to that reported from human liver. The H-protein cDNA was subsequently cloned with a hexahistidine affinity tag in the Pichia pastoris plasmid vector pPICZαA and recombined into the yeast genome downstream of the alcohol oxidase promoter for methanol-induced expression. The recombinant H-protein was secreted into the culture medium and purified to homogeneity using a one-step nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid resin column. Approximately 4 mg of homogeneous H-protein was obtained from 1 L of culture medium. Since the attachment of a lipoic acid prosthetic group is required for H-protein function, we have expressed and purified E. coli lipoate protein ligase and succeeded in lipoylating H-protein, converting the apo-H-protein to the functional holo-H-protein. A lipoamide dehydrogenase assay was performed to confirm that the apo-H-protein was inactive, whereas the holo-H-protein was approximately 2.3-fold more active than free lipoic acid as a hydrogen donor in driving the reaction. The availability of copious amounts of human recombinant H-protein by using Pichia pastoris expression and affinity purification will facilitate the elucidation of the structure and function of the H-protein and its relationship to the P-, T-, and L-proteins in the glycine cleavage enzyme complex. In view of the fact that there is no detectable glycine cleavage enzyme activity in human skin fibroblasts, we speculate that a plausible function of the H-protein is to

  4. Cellularized Bilayer Pullulan-Gelatin Hydrogel for Skin Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Mathew N; Jeschke, Marc G; Amini-Nik, Saeid

    2016-05-01

    Skin substitutes significantly reduce the morbidity and mortality of patients with burn injuries and chronic wounds. However, current skin substitutes have disadvantages related to high costs and inadequate skin regeneration due to highly inflammatory wounds. Thus, new skin substitutes are needed. By combining two polymers, pullulan, an inexpensive polysaccharide with antioxidant properties, and gelatin, a derivative of collagen with high water absorbency, we created a novel inexpensive hydrogel-named PG-1 for "pullulan-gelatin first generation hydrogel"-suitable for skin substitutes. After incorporating human fibroblasts and keratinocytes onto PG-1 using centrifugation over 5 days, we created a cellularized bilayer skin substitute. Cellularized PG-1 was compared to acellular PG-1 and no hydrogel (control) in vivo in a mouse excisional skin biopsy model using newly developed dome inserts to house the skin substitutes and prevent mouse skin contraction during wound healing. PG-1 had an average pore size of 61.69 μm with an ideal elastic modulus, swelling behavior, and biodegradability for use as a hydrogel for skin substitutes. Excellent skin cell viability, proliferation, differentiation, and morphology were visualized through live/dead assays, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine proliferation assays, and confocal microscopy. Trichrome and immunohistochemical staining of excisional wounds treated with the cellularized skin substitute revealed thicker newly formed skin with a higher proportion of actively proliferating cells and incorporation of human cells compared to acellular PG-1 or control. Excisional wounds treated with acellular or cellularized hydrogels showed significantly less macrophage infiltration and increased angiogenesis 14 days post skin biopsy compared to control. These results show that PG-1 has ideal mechanical characteristics and allows ideal cellular characteristics. In vivo evidence suggests that cellularized PG-1 promotes skin regeneration and may

  5. Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Skin ... (bacterial infection of the deeper layers of the skin and tissues beneath) are typical childhood skin infections. The usual bacterial culprits in skin ...

  6. Skin Biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyhrquist, N; Salava, A; Auvinen, P; Lauerma, A

    2016-05-01

    The cutaneous microbiome has been investigated broadly in recent years and some traditional perspectives are beginning to change. A diverse microbiome exists on human skin and has a potential to influence pathogenic microbes and modulate the course of skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis. In addition to the known dysfunctions in barrier function of the skin and immunologic disturbances, evidence is rising that frequent skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis, might be connected to a dysbiosis of the microbial community and changes in the skin microbiome. As a future perspective, examining the skin microbiome could be seen as a potential new diagnostic and therapeutic target in inflammatory skin disorders.

  7. Simple, heart-smart substitutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronary artery disease - heart smart substitutions; Atherosclerosis - heart smart substitutions; Cholesterol - heart smart substitutions; Coronary heart disease - heart smart substitutions; Healthy diet - heart ...

  8. Neuromodulators for Aging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose ... Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose ...

  9. Effects of sulfate deprivation on the production of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate by cultures of skin fibroblasts from normal and diabetic individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silbert, C.K.; Humphries, D.E.; Palmer, M.E.; Silbert, J.E. (Veterans Administration Outpatient Clinic, Boston, MA (USA))

    1991-02-15

    Human skin fibroblast monolayer cultures from two normal men, three Type I diabetic men, and one Type I diabetic woman were incubated with (3H)glucosamine in the presence of diminished concentrations of sulfate. Although total synthesis of (3H)chondroitin/dermatan glycosaminoglycans varied somewhat between cell lines, glycosaminoglycan production was not affected within any line when sulfate levels were decreased from 0.3 mM to 0.06 mM to 0.01 mM to 0 added sulfate. Lowering of sulfate concentrations resulted in diminished sulfation of chondroitin/dermatan in a progressive manner, so that overall sulfation dropped to as low as 19% for one of the lines. Sulfation of chondroitin to form chondroitin 4-sulfate and chondroitin 6-sulfate was progressively and equally affected by decreasing the sulfate concentration in the culture medium. However, sulfation to form dermatan sulfate was preserved to a greater degree, so that the relative proportion of dermatan sulfate to chondroitin sulfate increased. Essentially all the nonsulfated residues were susceptible to chondroitin AC lyase, indicating that little epimerization of glucuronic acid residues to iduronic acid had occurred in the absence of sulfation. These results confirm the previously described dependency of glucuronic/iduronic epimerization on sulfation, and indicate that sulfation of the iduronic acid-containing disaccharide residues of dermatan can take place with sulfate concentrations lower than those needed for 6-sulfation and 4-sulfation of the glucuronic acid-containing disaccharide residues of chondroitin. There were considerable differences among the six fibroblast lines in susceptibility to low sulfate medium and in the proportion of chondroitin 6-sulfate, chondroitin 4-sulfate, and dermatan sulfate. However, there was no pattern of differences between normals and diabetics.

  10. Preparation of cultured cells using high-pressure freezing and freeze substitution for subsequent 2D or 3D visualization in the transmission electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawes, Philippa C

    2015-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is an invaluable technique used for imaging the ultrastructure of samples and it is particularly useful when determining virus-host interactions at a cellular level. The environment inside a TEM is not favorable for biological material (high vacuum and high energy electrons). Also biological samples have little or no intrinsic electron contrast, and rarely do they naturally exist in very thin sheets, as is required for optimum resolution in the TEM. To prepare these samples for imaging in the TEM therefore requires extensive processing which can alter the ultrastructure of the material. Here we describe a method which aims to minimize preparation artifacts by freezing the samples at high pressure to instantaneously preserve ultrastructural detail, then rapidly substituting the ice and infiltrating with resin to provide a firm matrix which can be cut into thin sections for imaging. Thicker sections of this material can also be imaged and reconstructed into 3D volumes using electron tomography.

  11. Multi-Body-Site Microbiome and Culture Profiling of Military Trainees Suffering from Skin and Soft Tissue Infections at Fort Benning, Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jatinder; Johnson, Ryan C; Schlett, Carey D; Elassal, Emad M; Crawford, Katrina B; Mor, Deepika; Lanier, Jeffrey B; Law, Natasha N; Walters, William A; Teneza-Mora, Nimfa; Bennett, Jason W; Hall, Eric R; Millar, Eugene V; Ellis, Michael W; Merrell, D Scott

    2016-01-01

    Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are common in the general population, with increased prevalence among military trainees. Previous research has revealed numerous nasal microbial signatures that correlate with SSTI development and Staphylococcus aureus colonization. Thus, we hypothesized that the ecology of the inguinal, oropharynx, and perianal regions may also be altered in response to SSTI and/or S. aureus colonization. We collected body site samples from 46 military trainees with purulent abscess (SSTI group) as well as from 66 asymptomatic controls (non-SSTI group). We also collected abscess cavity samples to assess the microbial composition of these infections. Samples were analyzed by culture, and the microbial communities were characterized by high-throughput sequencing. We found that the nasal, inguinal, and perianal regions were similar in microbial composition and significantly differed from the oropharynx. We also observed differences in Anaerococcus and Streptococcus abundance between the SSTI and non-SSTI groups for the nasal and oropharyngeal regions, respectively. Furthermore, we detected community membership differences between the SSTI and non-SSTI groups for the nasal and inguinal sites. Compared to that of the other regions, the microbial compositions of the nares of S. aureus carriers and noncarriers were dramatically different; we noted an inverse correlation between the presence of Corynebacterium and the presence of Staphylococcus in the nares. This correlation was also observed for the inguinal region. Culture analysis revealed elevated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) colonization levels for the SSTI group in the nasal and inguinal body sites. Together, these data suggest significant microbial variability in patients with SSTI as well as between S. aureus carriers and noncarriers. IMPORTANCE While it is evident that nasal colonization with S. aureus increases the likelihood of SSTI, there is a significant lack of

  12. A sensitive real-time PCR based assay to estimate the impact of amino acid substitutions on the competitive replication fitness of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Holte, Sarah; Rao, Ushnal; McClure, Jan; Konopa, Philip; Swain, J Victor; Lanxon-Cookson, Erinn; Kim, Moon; Chen, Lennie; Mullins, James I

    2013-04-01

    Fixation of mutations in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), such as those conferring drug resistance and immune escape, can result in a change in replication fitness. To assess these changes, a real-time TaqMan PCR detection assay and statistical methods for data analysis were developed to estimate sensitively relative viral fitness in competitive viral replication experiments in cell culture. Chimeric viruses with the gene of interest in an HIV-1NL4-3 backbone were constructed in two forms, vifA (native vif gene in NL4-3) and vifB (vif gene with six synonymous nucleotide differences from vifA). Subsequently, mutations of interest were introduced into the chimeric viruses in NL4-3VifA backbones, and the mutants were competed against the chimera with the isogenic viral sequence in the NL4-3VifB backbone in cell culture. In order to assess subtle fitness differences, culture supernatants were sampled longitudinally, and the viruses differentially quantified using vifA- and vifB-specific primers in real-time PCR assays. Based on an exponential net growth model, the growth rate of each virus was determined and the fitness cost of the mutation(s) distinguishing the two viruses represented as the net growth rate difference between the mutant and the native variants. Using this assay, the fitness impact of eight amino acid substitutions was quantitated at highly conserved sites in HIV-1 Gag and Env.

  13. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are round and lie directly under squamous cells. Melanocytes are specialized skin cells that produce pigment called melanin. The melanin pigment produced by melanocytes gives skin its color. It also protects the ...

  14. Skin turgor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... arm or abdomen is checked. The skin is held for a few seconds then released. Skin with ... University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the ...

  15. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. The two most common types ... face, neck, hands, and arms. Another type of skin cancer, melanoma, is more dangerous but less common. Anyone ...

  16. Blood culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed . The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  17. Shelf-life evaluation of bilayered human skin equivalent, MyDerm™.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seet, Wan Tai; Manira, Maarof; Maarof, Manira; Khairul Anuar, Khairoji; Chua, Kien-Hui; Ahmad Irfan, Abdul Wahab; Ng, Min Hwei; Aminuddin, Bin Saim; Ruszymah, Bt Hj Idrus

    2012-01-01

    Skin plays an important role in defense against infection and other harmful biological agents. Due to its fragile structure, skin can be easily damaged by heat, chemicals, traumatic injuries and diseases. An autologous bilayered human skin equivalent, MyDerm™, was engineered to provide a living skin substitute to treat critical skin loss. However, one of the disadvantages of living skin substitute is its short shelf-life, hence limiting its distribution worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the shelf-life of MyDerm™ through assessment of cell morphology, cell viability, population doubling time and functional gene expression levels before transplantation. Skin samples were digested with 0.6% Collagenase Type I followed by epithelial cells dissociation with TrypLE Select. Dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes were culture-expanded to obtain sufficient cells for MyDerm™ construction. MyDerm™ was constructed with plasma-fibrin as temporary biomaterial and evaluated at 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours after storage at 4°C for its shelf-life determination. The morphology of skin cells derived from MyDerm™ remained unchanged across storage times. Cells harvested from MyDerm™ after storage appeared in good viability (90.5%±2.7% to 94.9%±1.6%) and had short population doubling time (58.4±8.7 to 76.9±19 hours). The modest drop in cell viability and increased in population doubling time at longer storage duration did not demonstrate a significant difference. Gene expression for CK10, CK14 and COL III were also comparable between different storage times. In conclusion, MyDerm™ can be stored in basal medium at 4°C for at least 72 hours before transplantation without compromising its functionality.

  18. Skin Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your skin changes as you age. You might notice wrinkles, age spots and dryness. Your skin also becomes thinner and loses fat, making it ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out ...

  19. Variation in Hsp70-1A Expression Contributes to Skin Color Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Daiki; Hachiya, Akira; Fullenkamp, Rachel; Beck, Anita; Moriwaki, Shigeru; Hase, Tadashi; Takema, Yoshinori; Manga, Prashiela

    2016-08-01

    The wide range in human skin color results from varying levels of the pigment melanin. Genetic mechanisms underlying coloration differences have been explored, but identified genes do not account for all variation seen in the skin color spectrum. Post-transcriptional and post-translational regulation of factors that determine skin color, including melanin synthesis in epidermal melanocytes, melanosome transfer to keratinocytes, and melanosome degradation, is also critical for pigmentation. We therefore investigated proteins that are differentially expressed in melanocytes derived from either white or African American skin. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry demonstrated that heat shock protein 70-1A (Hsp70-1A) protein levels were significantly higher in African American melanocytes compared with white melanocytes. Hsp70-1A expression significantly correlated with levels of tyrosinase, the rate-limiting melanogenic enzyme, consistent with a proposed role for Hsp70 family members in tyrosinase post-translational modification. In addition, pharmacologic inhibition and small interfering RNA-mediated downregulation of Hsp70-1A correlated with pigmentation changes in cultured melanocytes, modified human skin substitutes, and ex vivo skin. Furthermore, Hsp70-1A inhibition led to increased autophagy-mediated melanosome degradation in keratinocytes. Our data thus reveal that epidermal Hsp70-1A contributes to the diversity of skin color by regulating the amount of melanin synthesized in melanocytes and modulating autophagic melanosome degradation in keratinocytes.

  20. cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Kreutz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Es un estudio cualitativo que adoptó como referencial teorico-motodológico la antropología y la etnografía. Presenta las experiencias vivenciadas por mujeres de una comunidad en el proceso salud-enfermedad, con el objetivo de comprender los determinantes sócio-culturales e históricos de las prácticas de prevención y tratamiento adoptados por el grupo cultural por medio de la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los temas que emergieron fueron: la relación entre la alimentación y lo proceso salud-enfermedad, las relaciones con el sistema de salud oficial y el proceso salud-enfermedad y lo sobrenatural. Los dados revelaron que los moradores de la comunidad investigada tienen un modo particular de explicar sus procedimientos terapéuticos. Consideramos que es papel de los profesionales de la salud en sus prácticas, la adopción de abordajes o enfoques que consideren al individuo en su dimensión sócio-cultural e histórica, considerando la enorme diversidad cultural en nuestro país.

  1. Culture of Ear Skin Fibroblasts from the Red Fox (Vulpesvulpes) and Analysis of the Karyotype%赤狐耳成纤维细胞的体外培养及核型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍加荣; 王世勇; 郑军军; 杨福合

    2015-01-01

    This study is to isolate and culture skin fibroblasts from the ear of fox.It propels the research on fox somatic nuclear transfer and transgenic fox.In this study,fox ear skin fibroblasts were obtained by tissue pieced culture.The primary culture was digested by trypsin at a short time for the subculture.The fibroblasts were observed by the electron microscope,which had a good growth status.Then karyotype analysis was conduc-ted on the fibroblasts,which showed a standard karyotype of fox.The results showed that fox ear skin fibroblasts could be cultivated successfully in vitro by means of tissues culture method.The primary culture could be puri-fied and ear fibroblast cell line be formed,which can be used as donor cell for nuclear transfer and propels the research on transgenetic special animals.%建立赤狐的耳成纤维细胞的分离和培养体系,为狐的核移植,转基因狐的研究奠定基础.采用组织块培养法分离狐耳成纤维细胞的原代细胞,再利用胰酶短暂消化法进行纯化传代培养,观察成纤维细胞的形态,并进行染色体分析.结果表明,组织块培养法可获得成纤维细胞,经过纯化培养,可获得均一、稳定的狐耳成纤维细胞.可以作为核移植的供体细胞,推动特种动物的转基因研究.

  2. The potential of mycelium and culture broth of Lignosus rhinocerotis as substitutes for the naturally occurring sclerotium with regard to antioxidant capacity, cytotoxic effect, and low-molecular-weight chemical constituents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beng Fye Lau

    Full Text Available Previous studies on the nutritional and nutraceutical properties of Lignosus rhinocerotis focused mainly on the sclerotium; however, the supply of wild sclerotium is limited. In this investigation, the antioxidant capacity and cytotoxic effect of L. rhinocerotis cultured under different conditions of liquid fermentation (shaken and static were compared to the sclerotium produced by solid-substrate fermentation. Aqueous methanol extracts of the mycelium (LR-MH, LR-MT and culture broth (LR-BH, LR-BT demonstrated either higher or comparable antioxidant capacities to the sclerotium extract (LR-SC based on their radical scavenging abilities, reducing properties, metal chelating activities, and inhibitory effects on lipid peroxidation. All extracts exerted low cytotoxicity (IC50>200 µg/ml, 72 h against selected mammalian cell lines. Several low-molecular-weight compounds, including sugars, fatty acids, methyl esters, sterols, amides, amino acids, phenolics, and triterpenoids, were identified using GC-MS and UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The presence of proteins (<40 kDa in the extracts was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and SELDI-TOF-MS. Principal component analysis revealed that the chemical profiles of the mycelial extracts under shaken and static conditions were distinct from those of the sclerotium. Results from bioactivity evaluation and chemical profiling showed that L. rhinocerotis from liquid fermentation merits consideration as an alternative source of functional ingredients and potential substitute for the sclerotium.

  3. Comparison of fortified calf serum, serum substitutes and fetal calf serum with or without extenders for propagation of cell cultures for virus plaque assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahling, D R; Wright, B A

    1990-03-01

    Two studies comparing sewage-isolated and laboratory stock viruses were conducted to determine if alternative forms of serum or serum extenders could be used in place of fetal bovine serum without a significant loss of viral titer. In the first study, BGM cells were grown in standard MEM-L15 medium which was supplemented with Nuserum, Sigma serum replacement (CPSR-1), HyClone defined iron supplemented calf bovine serum, fetal bovine serum (FBS) or FBS supplemented with either SerXtend or Mito serum extenders. Comparison of virus titers showed that CPSR-1 gave the best overall results and was comparable to FBS. Of the serum extenders, only SerXtend improved virus recovery from sewage samples. In the second study, all sera were tested with and without SerXtend. In these experiments, SerXtend enhanced virus sensitivity of the BGM cell line grown in the HyClone serum but reduced the sensitivity of those cultured in Sigma serum. In both series, the growth of BGM cells was monitored for 12 weeks and all test products were shown to support long-term cell growth.

  4. Oily skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... keep your skin clean using warm water and soap, or a soapless cleanser. Clean your face with astringent pads if frequent face washing causes irritation. Use only water-based or oil-free cosmetics if you have oily skin. Your ...

  5. Your Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your body. Without skin, people's muscles, bones, and organs would be hanging out all over the place. Skin holds everything together. It also: protects our bodies helps keep our bodies at just the right temperature allows us to have the sense of touch Don't Miss Your Epidermis The ...

  6. 40 CFR 721.8780 - Substituted pyridine azo substituted phenyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted pyridine azo substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8780 Substituted pyridine azo substituted phenyl. (a) Chemical substance... substituted pyridine azo substituted phenyl (PMNs P-96-767 and P-96-773) are subject to reporting under...

  7. Study of primary culture of human skin scar fibroblasts and their growth curve%人皮肤瘢痕成纤维细胞原代培养及其生长曲线的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈才齐; 金培生; 李雪阳; 张爱君; 陶常波

    2011-01-01

    目的 建立可靠的人皮肤瘢痕成纤维细胞培养方法,探索细胞的生长规律,为皮肤瘢痕体外研究提供平台.方法 采用组织块贴壁法原代培养瘢痕成纤维细胞,波形蛋白免疫细胞化学法鉴定成纤维细胞,CCK-8测定细胞生长曲线.结果 人皮肤瘢痕原代成纤维细胞培养成功,细胞形态为长梭形,波形蛋白表达阳性,16~18天可传第1代,以后每7~8天可传1代,传代后5~6天时为活跃期,第7天进入停滞期.结论 培养出的人皮肤瘢痕成纤维细胞在传代后第5~6天最适于于体外实验研究.%Objective To establish a reliable cultivation method for human skin scar fihroblasts and explore the growth pattern of the cells, and provide a plat for in vitro research of human skin scars. Methods Primary culture of human skin scar fibrohlasts was performed with routine tissue hlock adhering to the plate wall, and the fibrohlasts were identified by immunocytochemical staining of the vimentin, and cell growth curve was measured by CCK - 8. Results The primary culture of skin scar fibroblasts was successful. The fihroblasts have long - spindle shapes in cell morphology and positive vimentin expression. It takes 16 to 18 days for the first generation, and 7 to 8 days is required for each subculture. From the 5th to the 6th day after subculture. the cells were in the active period, while on the 7th day , the cells entered the period of stagnation. Conclusion Human skin scar fibroblasts can be cultured in stable condition in vitro. and the period from the 5th to 6th day after subculture is the most adequate time for in vitro experiments.

  8. Medicineringsfejl ved generisk substitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rölfing, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Generic substitution is a major cause of medical mistakes in the general population. Danish legislation obligates pharmacies to substitute prescribed medicine with the cheapest equivalent formulation, despite variations in product name, packaging, shape and colour. Consequently, medical mistakes ...... occur. Scientific evidence on the consequences of generic substitution is sparse. Call upon fellow health workers to report medical mistakes to the national entities and scientific peers, in order to increase awareness and scientific evidence about the problem....

  9. Cyclotomic Aperiodic Substitution Tilings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Pautze

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The class of Cyclotomic Aperiodic Substitution Tilings (CASTs is introduced. Its vertices are supported on the 2 n -th cyclotomic field. It covers a wide range of known aperiodic substitution tilings of the plane with finite rotations. Substitution matrices and minimal inflation multipliers of CASTs are discussed as well as practical use cases to identify specimen with individual dihedral symmetry D n or D 2 n , i.e., the tiling contains an infinite number of patches of any size with dihedral symmetry D n or D 2 n only by iteration of substitution rules on a single tile.

  10. The future of skin metagenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Alban; Vogel, Timothy M; Simonet, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Metagenomics, the direct exploitation of environmental microbial DNA, is complementary to traditional culture-based approaches for deciphering taxonomic and functional microbial diversity in a plethora of ecosystems, including those related to the human body such as the mouth, saliva, teeth, gut or skin. DNA extracted from human skin analyzed by sequencing the PCR-amplified rrs gene has already revealed the taxonomic diversity of microbial communities colonizing the human skin ("skin microbiome"). Each individual possesses his/her own skin microbial community structure, with marked taxonomic differences between different parts of the body and temporal evolution depending on physical and chemical conditions (sweat, washing etc.). However, technical limitations due to the low bacterial density at the surface of the human skin or contamination by human DNA still has inhibited extended use of the metagenomic approach for investigating the skin microbiome at a functional level. These difficulties have been overcome in part by the new generation of sequencing platforms that now provide sequences describing the genes and functions carried out by skin bacteria. These methodological advances should help us understand the mechanisms by which these microorganisms adapt to the specific chemical composition of each skin and thereby lead to a better understanding of bacteria/human host interdependence. This knowledge will pave the way for more systemic and individualized pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications.

  11. UV treatments on the physicochemical properties of tilapia skin and pig skin gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C K; Tsai, J S; Chen, Z Y; Sung, W C

    2015-06-01

    Tilapia skin gelatin, pig skin gelatin, and their mousse premixes were exposed to UV irradiation for 103, 206, and 309 kJ/cm(2). All samples after 309 kJ/cm(2) exposure exhibited a significant increase in gel strength, gel forming ability as well as viscosity of solutions. It was shown that UV treatment could also improve the pig skin gelatin foam stability and foam formation ability compared to those of tilapia skin gelatin. Nevertheless, the panelists gave the lowest scores to mousse made with 309 kJ/cm(2) UV-irradiated premix mousse pig skin gelatin. Tilapia skin gelatin could be used as a substitute ingredient for premix mousse made from pig skin gelatin.

  12. Skin Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? ... prevent cancer are being studied. General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease ...

  13. Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease ...

  14. Dry Skin Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advocacy priorities AADA Health System Reform Principles Drug pricing and availability CVS dermatologic formulary restrictions Access to ... Skin care for men Skin care on a budget Skin care products Skin care secrets Skin of ...

  15. Freeze substitution in 3 hours or less.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, K L; Webb, R I

    2011-09-01

    Freeze substitution is a process for low temperature dehydration and fixation of rapidly frozen cells that usually takes days to complete. New methods for freeze substitution have been developed that require only basic laboratory tools: a platform shaker, liquid nitrogen, a metal block with holes for cryotubes and an insulated container such as an ice bucket. With this equipment, excellent freeze substitution results can be obtained in as little as 90 min for cells of small volume such as bacteria and tissue culture cells. For cells of greater volume or that have significant diffusion barriers such as cuticles or thick cell walls, one can extend the time to 3 h or more with dry ice. The 3-h method works well for all manner of specimens, including plants and Caenorhabditis elegans as well as smaller samples. Here, we present the basics of the techniques and some results from Nicotiana leaves, C. elegans adult worms, Escherichia coli and baby hamster kidney tissue culture cells.

  16. The potential applications of fibrin-coated electrospun polylactide nanofibers in skin tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacakova, Marketa; Musilkova, Jana; Riedel, Tomas; Stranska, Denisa; Brynda, Eduard; Zaloudkova, Margit; Bacakova, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    Fibrin plays an important role during wound healing and skin regeneration. It is often applied in clinical practice for treatment of skin injuries or as a component of skin substitutes. We prepared electrospun nanofibrous membranes made from poly(l-lactide) modified with a thin fibrin nanocoating. Fibrin surrounded the individual fibers in the membrane and also formed a thin fibrous mesh on several places on the membrane surface. The cell-free fibrin nanocoating remained stable in the cell culture medium for 14 days and did not change its morphology. On membranes populated with human dermal fibroblasts, the rate of fibrin degradation correlated with the degree of cell proliferation. The cell spreading, mitochondrial activity, and cell population density were significantly higher on membranes coated with fibrin than on nonmodified membranes, and this cell performance was further improved by the addition of ascorbic acid in the cell culture medium. Similarly, fibrin stimulated the expression and synthesis of collagen I in human dermal fibroblasts, and this effect was further enhanced by ascorbic acid. The expression of beta1-integrins was also improved by fibrin, and on pure polylactide membranes, it was slightly enhanced by ascorbic acid. In addition, ascorbic acid promoted deposition of collagen I in the form of a fibrous extracellular matrix. Thus, the combination of nanofibrous membranes with a fibrin nanocoating and ascorbic acid seems to be particularly advantageous for skin tissue engineering.

  17. Essential role of RAB27A in determining constitutive human skin color.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuko Yoshida-Amano

    Full Text Available Human skin color is predominantly determined by melanin produced in melanosomes within melanocytes and subsequently distributed to keratinocytes. There are many studies that have proposed mechanisms underlying ethnic skin color variations, whereas the processes involved from melanin synthesis in melanocytes to the transfer of melanosomes to keratinocytes are common among humans. Apart from the activities in the melanogenic rate-limiting enzyme, tyrosinase, in melanocytes and the amounts and distribution patterns of melanosomes in keratinocytes, the abilities of the actin-associated factors in charge of melanosome transport within melanocytes also regulate pigmentation. Mutations in genes encoding melanosome transport-related molecules, such as MYO5A, RAB27A and SLAC-2A, have been reported to cause a human pigmentary disease known as Griscelli syndrome, which is associated with diluted skin and hair color. Thus we hypothesized that process might play a role in modulating skin color variations. To address that hypothesis, the correlations of expression of RAB27A and its specific effector, SLAC2-A, to melanogenic ability were evaluated in comparison with tyrosinase, using human melanocytes derived from 19 individuals of varying skin types. Following the finding of the highest correlation in RAB27A expression to the melanogenic ability, darkly-pigmented melanocytes with significantly higher RAB27A expression were found to transfer significantly more melanosomes to keratinocytes than lightly-pigmented melanocytes in co-culture and in human skin substitutes (HSSs in vivo, resulting in darker skin color in concert with the difference observed in African-descent and Caucasian skins. Additionally, RAB27A knockdown by a lentivirus-derived shRNA in melanocytes concomitantly demonstrated a significantly reduced number of transferred melanosomes to keratinocytes in co-culture and a significantly diminished epidermal melanin content skin color intensity (

  18. Radionecrosis skin model induced an athymic mouse nude (Nu/Nu) for development of dermal-epidermal human substitute based regenerative therapy; Modelo de radionecrose cutanea induzida em camundongos Nude (Nu/Nu) para desenvolvimento de terapias regenerativas baseadas em substitutos dermo-epidermicos humanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosca, Rodrigo Crespo

    2014-07-01

    The neoplasms incidence has increased significantly in recent years and continued population growth and aging will increase the statistics of this illness in the world's diseases. The cancer treatment usually consists in individual or combined use of chemotherapy, surgery and radiotherapy depending on the etiology of the tumor. In cases where radiotherapy is used in addition to the therapeutic effects of radiation, specific complications can occur, and in the skin, these complications can be present with a clinical expression ranging from erythema to radionecrosis, and this latter being the adverse effect with greater severity. The radionecrosis treatment consists in debridement necrotic areas and covering the surgical wounds. Autologous grafts are most commonly used for this covering, however when large areas are affected, allografts can be used for occlusive treatment and the keratinocytes and adipose derived stem cells (ADSC) addition becomes an alternative, due to the knowing for immunomodulatory and regenerative response. For that reason, aiming to simulate the radionecrosis adverse effects, an animal model of induced cutaneous radionecrosis was created, in athymic mouse Nude (Nu/Nu), for developing regenerative therapies based on human dermal-epidermal substitutes containing keratinocytes and ADSC, which proved occlusive as an efficient treatment, furthermore, having this radionecrosis animal model established, new possibilities for treatment of diseases involving dermal regeneration, can be tested. (author)

  19. Characterization of porcine skin as a model for human skin studies using infrared spectroscopic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Rong; Bhargava, Rohit

    2011-06-07

    Porcine skin is often considered a substitute for human skin based on morphological and functional data, for example, for transdermal drug diffusion studies. A chemical, structural and temporal characterization of porcine skin in comparison to human skin is not available but will likely improve our understanding of this porcine skin model. Here, we employ Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging to holistically measure chemical species as well as spatial structure as a function of time to characterize porcine skin as a model for human skin. Porcine skin was found to resemble human skin spectroscopically and differences are elucidated. Cryo-prepared fresh porcine skin samples for spectroscopic imaging were found to be stable over time and small variations are observed. Hence, we extended characterization to the use of this model for dynamic processes. In particular, the capacity and stability of this model in transdermal diffusion is examined. The results indicate that porcine skin is likely to be an attractive tool for studying diffusion dynamics of materials in human skin.

  20. The Impact of Environmental and Endogenous Damage on Somatic Mutation Load in Human Skin Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Natalie; Chan, Kin; Grimm, Sara A.; Dai, Shuangshuang; Fargo, David C.; Kaufmann, William K.; Taylor, Jack A.; Lee, Eunjung; Cortes-Ciriano, Isidro; Park, Peter J.; Schurman, Shepherd H.; Malc, Ewa P.; Mieczkowski, Piotr A.

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of somatic changes, due to environmental and endogenous lesions, in the human genome is associated with aging and cancer. Understanding the impacts of these processes on mutagenesis is fundamental to understanding the etiology, and improving the prognosis and prevention of cancers and other genetic diseases. Previous methods relying on either the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells, or sequencing of single-cell genomes were inherently error-prone and did not allow independent validation of the mutations. In the current study we eliminated these potential sources of error by high coverage genome sequencing of single-cell derived clonal fibroblast lineages, obtained after minimal propagation in culture, prepared from skin biopsies of two healthy adult humans. We report here accurate measurement of genome-wide magnitude and spectra of mutations accrued in skin fibroblasts of healthy adult humans. We found that every cell contains at least one chromosomal rearrangement and 600–13,000 base substitutions. The spectra and correlation of base substitutions with epigenomic features resemble many cancers. Moreover, because biopsies were taken from body parts differing by sun exposure, we can delineate the precise contributions of environmental and endogenous factors to the accrual of genetic changes within the same individual. We show here that UV-induced and endogenous DNA damage can have a comparable impact on the somatic mutation loads in skin fibroblasts. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01087307 PMID:27788131

  1. The Impact of Environmental and Endogenous Damage on Somatic Mutation Load in Human Skin Fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Saini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of somatic changes, due to environmental and endogenous lesions, in the human genome is associated with aging and cancer. Understanding the impacts of these processes on mutagenesis is fundamental to understanding the etiology, and improving the prognosis and prevention of cancers and other genetic diseases. Previous methods relying on either the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells, or sequencing of single-cell genomes were inherently error-prone and did not allow independent validation of the mutations. In the current study we eliminated these potential sources of error by high coverage genome sequencing of single-cell derived clonal fibroblast lineages, obtained after minimal propagation in culture, prepared from skin biopsies of two healthy adult humans. We report here accurate measurement of genome-wide magnitude and spectra of mutations accrued in skin fibroblasts of healthy adult humans. We found that every cell contains at least one chromosomal rearrangement and 600–13,000 base substitutions. The spectra and correlation of base substitutions with epigenomic features resemble many cancers. Moreover, because biopsies were taken from body parts differing by sun exposure, we can delineate the precise contributions of environmental and endogenous factors to the accrual of genetic changes within the same individual. We show here that UV-induced and endogenous DNA damage can have a comparable impact on the somatic mutation loads in skin fibroblasts. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01087307.

  2. The Impact of Environmental and Endogenous Damage on Somatic Mutation Load in Human Skin Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Natalie; Roberts, Steven A; Klimczak, Leszek J; Chan, Kin; Grimm, Sara A; Dai, Shuangshuang; Fargo, David C; Boyer, Jayne C; Kaufmann, William K; Taylor, Jack A; Lee, Eunjung; Cortes-Ciriano, Isidro; Park, Peter J; Schurman, Shepherd H; Malc, Ewa P; Mieczkowski, Piotr A; Gordenin, Dmitry A

    2016-10-01

    Accumulation of somatic changes, due to environmental and endogenous lesions, in the human genome is associated with aging and cancer. Understanding the impacts of these processes on mutagenesis is fundamental to understanding the etiology, and improving the prognosis and prevention of cancers and other genetic diseases. Previous methods relying on either the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells, or sequencing of single-cell genomes were inherently error-prone and did not allow independent validation of the mutations. In the current study we eliminated these potential sources of error by high coverage genome sequencing of single-cell derived clonal fibroblast lineages, obtained after minimal propagation in culture, prepared from skin biopsies of two healthy adult humans. We report here accurate measurement of genome-wide magnitude and spectra of mutations accrued in skin fibroblasts of healthy adult humans. We found that every cell contains at least one chromosomal rearrangement and 600–13,000 base substitutions. The spectra and correlation of base substitutions with epigenomic features resemble many cancers. Moreover, because biopsies were taken from body parts differing by sun exposure, we can delineate the precise contributions of environmental and endogenous factors to the accrual of genetic changes within the same individual. We show here that UV-induced and endogenous DNA damage can have a comparable impact on the somatic mutation loads in skin fibroblasts. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01087307.

  3. Experimental dermatoplasty of skin defects with an absorbable bioplastic preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornemisza, G; Ladányi, J; Mikó, I

    1979-01-01

    Experimental dermatoplasty was performed with fibrin sponge preparation in the rabbit, during the course of which the whole skin thickness was substituted. The fibrin sponge was fixed to the skin-edges with surgical adhesive. The gradually absorbed fibrin was replaced by the migrating epithelium such that epithelization developed gradually. In special cases this method can be recommended for clinical purposes.

  4. Squamous cell skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that reflect light more, such as water, sand, concrete, and areas that are painted white. The higher ... - skin - squamous cell; Skin cancer - squamous cell; Nonmelanoma skin cancer - squamous ...

  5. Significance of CpG methylation for solar UV-induced mutagenesis and carcinogenesis in skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikehata, Hironobu; Ono, Tetsuya

    2007-01-01

    Mutations detected in the p53 gene in human nonmelanoma skin cancers show a highly UV-specific mutation pattern, a dominance of C --> T base substitutions at dipyrimidine sites plus frequent CC --> TT tandem substitutions, indicating a major involvement of solar UV in the skin carcinogenesis. These mutations also have another important characteristic of frequent occurrences at CpG dinucleotide sites, some of which actually show prominent hotspots in the p53 gene. Although mammalian solar UV-induced mutation spectra were studied intensively in the aprt gene using rodent cultured cells and the UV-specific mutation pattern was confirmed, the second characteristic of the p53 mutations in human skin cancers had not been reproduced. However, studies with transgenic mouse systems developed thereafter for mutation research, which harbor methyl CpG-abundant transgenes as mutation markers, yielded complete reproductions of the situation of the human skin cancer mutations in terms of both the UV-specific pattern and the frequent occurrence at CpG sites. In this review, we evaluate the significance of the CpG methylation for solar UV mutagenesis in the mammalian genome, which would lead to skin carcinogenesis. We propose that the UV-specific mutations at methylated CpG sites, C --> T transitions at methyl CpG-associated dipyrimidine sites, are a solar UV-specific mutation signature, and have estimated the wavelength range effective for the solar-UV-specific mutation as 310-340 nm. We also recommend the use of methyl CpG-enriched sequences as mutational targets for studies on solar-UV genotoxicity for human, rather than conventional mammalian mutational marker genes such as the aprt and hprt genes.

  6. Synthesis of substituted pyrazines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagoria, Philip F.; Zhang, Mao Xi

    2016-10-04

    A method for synthesizing a pyrazine-containing material according to one embodiment includes contacting an iminodiacetonitrile derivative with a base and a reagent selected from a group consisting of hydroxylamine, a hydroxylamine salt, an aliphatic primary amine, a secondary amine, an aryl-substituted alkylamine a heteroaryl-substituted alkyl amine, an alcohol, an alkanolamine and an aryl alcoholamine. Additional methods and several reaction products are presented. ##STR00001##

  7. Empirical codon substitution matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonnet Gaston H

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Codon substitution probabilities are used in many types of molecular evolution studies such as determining Ka/Ks ratios, creating ancestral DNA sequences or aligning coding DNA. Until the recent dramatic increase in genomic data enabled construction of empirical matrices, researchers relied on parameterized models of codon evolution. Here we present the first empirical codon substitution matrix entirely built from alignments of coding sequences from vertebrate DNA and thus provide an alternative to parameterized models of codon evolution. Results A set of 17,502 alignments of orthologous sequences from five vertebrate genomes yielded 8.3 million aligned codons from which the number of substitutions between codons were counted. From this data, both a probability matrix and a matrix of similarity scores were computed. They are 64 × 64 matrices describing the substitutions between all codons. Substitutions from sense codons to stop codons are not considered, resulting in block diagonal matrices consisting of 61 × 61 entries for the sense codons and 3 × 3 entries for the stop codons. Conclusion The amount of genomic data currently available allowed for the construction of an empirical codon substitution matrix. However, more sequence data is still needed to construct matrices from different subsets of DNA, specific to kingdoms, evolutionary distance or different amount of synonymous change. Codon mutation matrices have advantages for alignments up to medium evolutionary distances and for usages that require DNA such as ancestral reconstruction of DNA sequences and the calculation of Ka/Ks ratios.

  8. Skin Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Skin Cancer ... clinical trials before, during, or after starting their cancer treatment. Some clinical trials only include patients who have ...

  9. Skin Pigmentation Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or ...

  10. Skin Cancer Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Host a Fundraising Event | About Us | Store The Skin Cancer Foundation The Skin Cancer Foundation is the only ... Handbook A "Sunscreen Gene"? Skin Cancer Facts & Statistics Skin Cancer Treatment Glossary Information on medications and procedures The ...

  11. Skin Bleaching

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Samira M.

    2015-01-01

    In this project, I aim to investigate the reasoning behind the practice of skin bleaching by analyzing the documentary ”Dark Girls”, to gain a better understanding of race and colorism issues. Also this project tries to see if there is a connection with history and if this has been a part of making the european beauty ideal determine the choices black’s make in regards to beauty.

  12. Ultrastructure and penetration of cell co-culture model of human skin equivalent%细胞共培养人体皮肤类似物超微结构观察及其渗透性测试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辉; 王景雁; 林红梅; 于竞新; 章烨雯; 毛颖秋; 吴清

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察人体皮肤类似物模型形态结构,对其屏障功能进行初步评价。方法通过胶原蛋白包被成纤维细胞,制备真皮层,真皮层表面接种角质细胞,浸没培养1周后,气-液界面培养以促进角质细胞的分化形成角质层,3周后收获皮肤模型;通过肉眼观察、电镜观察皮肤类似物的宏观结构和超微结构;以吲哚美辛作为模型药物,进行体外透皮实验考察细胞共培养皮肤类似物模型的屏障功能。结果皮肤类似物形成与人类皮肤相似的真皮层和表皮层,表皮层表面形成完整的角质层,具有与人类皮肤类似的超微结构;24 h 内渗透性实验结果显示皮肤类似物屏障功能略低于大鼠腹部皮肤,但22~24 h,皮肤类似物对模型药的透过速率远小于大鼠腹部皮肤(约为其28%),且2种皮肤模型对吲哚美辛经皮渗透的稳态流速没有显著性差异(P >0.05)。结论皮肤类似物有与人体皮肤相类似的形态结构特征,与大鼠腹部皮肤相比对吲哚美辛有相似的屏障作用,有望替代动物皮肤成为经皮给药系统评价的新型皮肤模型。%Abatract:Objective To observe the structure of human skin equivalent (HSE)model in vitro,and to preliminarily assess the barrier function of HSE.Methods The HSE model was established by two steps:preparation of dermal layer and preparation of full-thickness skin.Keratinocytes were inoculated on the surface of dermal layer prepared by type 1 collagen coating fibroblasts.After submerged cultured for one week,air-liquid interface cultured for three weeks to enhance the proliferation of keratinocytes,the HSE model was obtained.Then the macroscopical structure and electon microscopical structure of HSE were studied.To investigate the barrier function of HSE model,indometacin was selected as the model drug for the penetration testing in vitro.Results The structures similar to dermal layer and

  13. The synergistic immunoregulatory effects of culture-expanded mesenchymal stromal cells and CD4(+25(+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells on skin allograft rejection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Ho Lee

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs are seen as an ideal source of cells to induce graft acceptance; however, some reports have shown that MSCs can be immunogenic rather than immunosuppressive. We speculate that the immunomodulatory effects of regulatory T cells (Tregs can aid the maintenance of immunoregulatory functions of MSCs, and that a combinatorial approach to cell therapy can have synergistic immunomodulatory effects on allograft rejection. After preconditioning with Fludarabine, followed by total body irradiation and anti-asialo-GM-1(ASGM-1, tail skin grafts from C57BL/6 (H-2k(b mice were grafted onto the lateral thoracic wall of BALB/c (H-2k(d mice. Group A mice (control group, n = 9 did not receive any further treatment after preconditioning, whereas groups B and C (n = 9 received cell therapy with MSCs or Tregs, respectively, on days -1, +6 and +13 relative to the skin transplantation. Group D (n = 10 received cell therapy with MSCs and Tregs on days -1, +6 and +13. Cell suspensions were obtained from the spleens of five randomly chosen mice from each group on day +7, and the immunomodulatory effects of the cell therapy were evaluated by flow cytometry and real-time PCR. Our results show that allograft survival was significantly longer in group D compared to the control group (group A. Flow cytometric analysis and real-time PCR for splenocytes revealed that the Th2 subpopulation in group D increased significantly compared to the group B. Also, the expression of Foxp3 and STAT 5 increased significantly in group D compared to the conventional cell therapy groups (B and C. Taken together, these data suggest that a combined cell therapy approach with MSCs and Tregs has a synergistic effect on immunoregulatory function in vivo, and might provide a novel strategy for improving survival in allograft transplantation.

  14. Comparison of protective effect of ascorbic acid on redox and endocannabinoid systems interactions in in vitro cultured human skin fibroblasts exposed to UV radiation and hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gęgotek, Agnieszka; Bielawska, Katarzyna; Biernacki, Michał; Zaręba, Ilona; Surażyński, Arkadiusz; Skrzydlewska, Elżbieta

    2017-05-01

    The mechanisms of biological activity of commonly used natural compounds are constantly examined. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare ascorbic acid efficacy in counteracting the consequences of UV and hydrogen peroxide treatment on lipid mediators and their regulative action on antioxidant abilities. Skin fibroblasts exposed to UVA and UVB irradiation, treated with hydrogen peroxide and ascorbic acid. The redox system was estimated through reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation (electron spin resonance spectrometer) and antioxidants level/activity (HPLC/spectrometry) which activity was evaluated by the level of phospholipid metabolites: 4-hydroxynonenal, malondialdehyde, 8-isoprostanes and endocannabinoids (GC/LC-MS) in the human skin fibroblasts. Protein and DNA oxidative modifications were also determined (LC). The expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), its activators and inhibitors as well as pro/anti-apoptotic proteins and endocannabinoid receptors was examined (Western blot) and collagen metabolism was evaluated by collagen biosynthesis and prolidase activity (spectrometry). UVA and UVB irradiation and hydrogen peroxide treatment enhanced activity of xanthine and NADPH oxidases resulting in ROS generation as well as diminution of antioxidant phospholipid protection (glutathione peroxidase-glutathione-vitamin E), what led to increased lipid peroxidation and decreased endocannabinoids level. Dysregulation of cannabinoid receptors expression and environment of transcription factor Nrf2 caused apoptosis induction. Ascorbic acid partially prevented ROS generation, antioxidant capacity diminution and endocannabinoid systems disturbances but only slightly protected macromolecules such as phospholipid, protein and DNA against oxidative modifications. However, ascorbic acid significantly prevented decrease in collagen type I biosynthesis. Ascorbic acid in similar degree prevents UV (UVA and UVB) and hydrogen peroxide

  15. Cutaneous skin tag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin tag; Acrochordon; Fibroepithelial polyp ... have diabetes. They are thought to occur from skin rubbing against skin. ... The tag sticks out of the skin and may have a short, narrow stalk connecting it to the surface of the skin. Some skin tags are as long as ...

  16. 干细胞培养物表面滴注对豚鼠皮肤重度缺损的修复作用%Surface instillation of stem cell culture in repair of severe skin trauma in guinea pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈强; 吴新宇; 龚守良

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stem cells, cells with special function in animals and humans, exist in various tissues. Most of stem cells differentiate into special tissue organs and some of them remain in the status of stem cells for tissue repair. Mesenchymal stem cells were transplanted to burn wounds in some researches for inducing the proliferation and activation of skin stem cells so as to cure burn.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of stem cell culture medium cultured in vitro instilled locally into the severely traumatic skin in guinea pigs on healing time and healing degree of the wound.DESIGN: Random grouping and blank control trial.SETTING: Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Jilin University.MATERIALS: Totally 14 adult healthy guinea pigs of either gender weighing 300 to 350 g were recruited.METHODS: The experiment was conducted in the Laboratory of Toxicology Department, School of Public Health, Jilin University, from March to September 2003. Ten guinea pigs were put to death by bloodletting on the neck. The bone marrow was extracted and cultured in unicellular supematant fluid for use. The 14 guinea pigs were made into models of bilateral severe skin trauma.Ten of the guinea pigs were chosen randomly, stem cell culture was instilled into one side of the animals (stem cell group), while the culture medium was instilled into the other side of the animals (culture medium group). The remaining 4 guinea pigs that received no treatment were blank control group.Three days later, transparent lucite was put on the wound every other day for drawing the shape and observing the wound. After the shape was copied onto the transparent lucite, the wound area was worked out on the rectangular coordinate paper and the speed of wound healing was calculated.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Gross observation was performed on the healing status of the wound and average healing time and speed of the guinea pigs in each group.wound healing status of the guinea pigs in each group: At day 3

  17. Controversial issues of maternity substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Pușcă

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Substitute maternity consists in a woman carrying a pregnancy (the implant of an embryo, at therequest of a sterile couple, most of the times in exchange of a sum of money, with her commitment tounconditionally give away the newborn after birth to the couple she concluded the agreement with. Manycontroversies emerged in what concerns the contract between the sterile couple and the carrying mother,especially when this contract is by onerous title, which happens in most of the cases. In that a civil contract? Is ita sales contract for the child? Is it a contract to provide services? Is it body marketing? Between total prohibitionand excessive liberalism, the middle way, which is the regulation according to ethical religious, cultural andsocial norms of each community, represents a realistic solution.

  18. Linkages between the life-history evolution of tropical and temperate birds and the resistance of cultured skin fibroblasts to oxidative and non-oxidative chemical injury

    OpenAIRE

    Jimenez, Ana Gabriela; Harper, James M.; Simon A. Queenborough; Williams, Joseph B.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental challenge facing physiological ecologists is to understand how variation in life history at the whole-organism level might be linked to cellular function. Thus, because tropical birds have higher annual survival and lower rates of metabolism, we hypothesized that cells from tropical species would have greater cellular resistance to chemical injury than cells from temperate species. We cultured dermal fibroblasts from 26 tropical and 26 temperate species of birds and examined cel...

  19. INTEGRATION OF TRADITIONAL AND MODERN METHODS IN THE IDENTIFICATION OF AFB CULTURES ISOLATED FROM CLINICAL SPECIMENS OF PATIENTS WITH SKIN DISEASES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴勤学; 孔庆英; 李新宇; 魏万惠; 叶干运

    1994-01-01

    This article reports the identification of 57 AFB cultures isolated from clinical specimens by using traditional methods(TM,including biochemical and cultural methods) and modern ELISA with monoclonal antibody(McAb-ELISA) and nested primer gene amplification assay(NPGAA.)The representive AFB culture M.A1,A7,A19,A21 AND A22) isolated from human lepromas were identified as new species by TM and it was shown that they were not identical to M.leprae by McAb-ELISA and NPGAA.Among another set of samples(M.S17,S1,S2,S2R,S7,S29),M.S17 waas identical to M.scrofulaceum as assessed by TM only,while the others were found to be simlar to M.tuberculsis and different from M.leprae using TM and McAb-ELISA,and identical to M.tuberculosis with NPGAA.The authors conclude that TM and MM are very useful for identifying mycobacteria,while MM was much more sensitive and specific than TM.The selection and use of these methods depends on practical need.

  20. Aryl substitution of pentacenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas R. Waterloo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A series of 11 new pentacene derivatives has been synthesized, with unsymmetrical substitution based on a trialkylsilylethynyl group at the 6-position and various aryl groups appended to the 13-position. The electronic and physical properties of the new pentacene chromophores have been analyzed by UV–vis spectroscopy (solution and thin films, thermoanalytical methods (DSC and TGA, cyclic voltammetry, as well as X-ray crystallography (for 8 derivatives. X-ray crystallography has been specifically used to study the influence of unsymmetrical substitution on the solid-state packing of the pentacene derivatives. The obtained results add to our ability to better predict substitution patterns that might be helpful for designing new semiconductors for use in solid-state devices.

  1. Bone substitute biomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Mallick, K

    2014-01-01

    Bone substitute biomaterials are fundamental to the biomedical sector, and have recently benefitted from extensive research and technological advances aimed at minimizing failure rates and reducing the need for further surgery. This book reviews these developments, with a particular focus on the desirable properties for bone substitute materials and their potential to encourage bone repair and regeneration. Part I covers the principles of bone substitute biomaterials for medical applications. One chapter reviews the quantification of bone mechanics at the whole-bone, micro-scale, and non-scale levels, while others discuss biomineralization, osteoductivization, materials to fill bone defects, and bioresorbable materials. Part II focuses on biomaterials as scaffolds and implants, including multi-functional scaffolds, bioceramics, and titanium-based foams. Finally, Part III reviews further materials with the potential to encourage bone repair and regeneration, including cartilage grafts, chitosan, inorganic poly...

  2. Preparation of Inactivated Human Skin Using High Hydrostatic Pressurization for Full-Thickness Skin Reconstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Hieu Liem

    Full Text Available We have reported that high-hydrostatic-pressure (HHP technology is safe and useful for producing various kinds of decellularized tissue. However, the preparation of decellularized or inactivated skin using HHP has not been reported. The objective of this study was thus to prepare inactivated skin from human skin using HHP, and to explore the appropriate conditions of pressurization to inactivate skin that can be used for skin reconstruction. Human skin samples of 8 mm in diameter were packed in bags filled with normal saline solution (NSS or distilled water (DW, and then pressurized at 0, 100, 150, 200 and 1000 MPa for 10 minutes. The viability of skin after HHP was evaluated using WST-8 assay. Outgrowth cells from pressurized skin and the viability of pressurized skin after cultivation for 14 days were also evaluated. The pressurized skin was subjected to histological evaluation using hematoxylin and eosin staining, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, immunohistochemical staining of type IV collagen for the basement membrane of epidermis and capillaries, and immunohistochemical staining of von Willebrand factor (vWF for capillaries. Then, human cultured epidermis (CE was applied on the pressurized skin and implanted into the subcutis of nude mice; specimens were subsequently obtained 14 days after implantation. Skin samples pressurized at more than 200 MPa were inactivated in both NSS and DW. The basement membrane and capillaries remained intact in all groups according to histological and immunohistological evaluations, and collagen fibers showed no apparent damage by SEM. CE took on skin pressurized at 150 and 200 MPa after implantation, whereas it did not take on skin pressurized at 1000 MPa. These results indicate that human skin could be inactivated after pressurization at more than 200 MPa, but skin pressurized at 1000 MPa had some damage to the dermis that prevented the taking of CE. Therefore, pressurization at 200 MPa is optimal for

  3. Currency Substitution in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail H. Genc

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether the recent depreciations in the Turkish currency (Lira resulted in the currency substitution away from Lira by using quarterly data over the period from 1987:1 to 2000: 2 with M1 and M2 monetary aggregates and income, interest rate and exchange rate. Other than the variety of monetary aggregates, we tried different ways of including the interest rate into the models to ensure the robustness of our results. Our analysis shows that the currency substitution in fact happened with Lira.

  4. Skin Keratins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengrong; Zieman, Abigail; Coulombe, Pierre A

    2016-01-01

    Keratins comprise the type I and type II intermediate filament-forming proteins and occur primarily in epithelial cells. They are encoded by 54 evolutionarily conserved genes (28 type I, 26 type II) and regulated in a pairwise and tissue type-, differentiation-, and context-dependent manner. Keratins serve multiple homeostatic and stress-enhanced mechanical and nonmechanical functions in epithelia, including the maintenance of cellular integrity, regulation of cell growth and migration, and protection from apoptosis. These functions are tightly regulated by posttranslational modifications as well as keratin-associated proteins. Genetically determined alterations in keratin-coding sequences underlie highly penetrant and rare disorders whose pathophysiology reflects cell fragility and/or altered tissue homeostasis. Moreover, keratin mutation or misregulation represents risk factors or genetic modifiers for several acute and chronic diseases. This chapter focuses on keratins that are expressed in skin epithelia, and details a number of basic protocols and assays that have proven useful for analyses being carried out in skin.

  5. Relative embryotoxic potency of p-substituted phenols in the embryonic stem cell test (EST) and comparison to their toxic potency in vivo and in the whole embryo culture (WEC) assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strikwold, M.; Woutersen, R.A.; Spenkelink, B.; Punt, A.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    The applicability of the embryonic stem cell test (EST) as an alternative for in vivo embryotoxicity testing was evaluated for a series of five p-substituted phenols. To this purpose, the potency ranking for this class of compounds derived from the inhibition of cardiomyocyte differentiation in the

  6. Saving Outweighs Substituting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sophia

    2007-01-01

    @@ Energy crisis has become great challenge to the whole world.As the vehicle population keeps soaring in China,effectie countermeasures should be taken timely to deal with global energy crisis.There are two ways out:one is to substitute and one is to save.

  7. Simulating currency substitution bias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Boon (Martin); C.J.M. Kool (Clemens); C.G. de Vries (Casper)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractThe sign and size of estimates of the elasticity of currency substitution critically depend on the definition of the oppurtunity costs of holding money. We investigate possible biases by means of Monte Carlo experiments, as sufficient real data are not available.

  8. Clinical results of an autologous engineered skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llames, Sara; García, Eva; García, Verónica; del Río, Marcela; Larcher, Fernando; Jorcano, Jose Luis; López, Eva; Holguín, Purificación; Miralles, Francisca; Otero, Jesús; Meana, Alvaro

    2006-01-01

    An artificial complete skin (dermis and epidermis) model has been developed in the Tissue engineering unit of the Centro Comunitario de Sangre y Tejidos del Principado de Asturias (CCST) and CIEMAT. This engineered skin has been employed for the treatment of severe epithelial injuries. In this paper, the clinical results obtained with this engineered skin during the last 18 months were evaluated. (a) Culture: Cells (fibroblasts and keratinocytes) were obtained from biopsies by a double enzymatic digestion. After an expansion period, fibroblasts were seeded in an artificial dermis based on human plasma. Keratinocytes were seeded over this dermal surface. (b) 20 skin biopsies were processed (13 burned patients, 5 giant nevus, 1 GVHD, 1 neurofibromatosis), which came from different hospitals across the country. About 97,525 cm(2) of engineered skin were cultured. The engineered skin took in all patients. The take percentage depended on previous pathology (burned patients 10-90%; non-critical patients 70-90%). The epithelization obtained was permanent in all cases. During the follow-up period, epithelial loss, blistering injuries or skin retractions were not observed. The aesthetic and functional results were acceptable. This artificial skin has demonstrated to be useful for the definitive treatment of patients with severe skin injuries. This work shows that it is possible to produce this prototype in an hospitalarian laboratory and distribute it to different hospitals across the country.

  9. Fabrication and characterization of nano-fibrous bilayer composite for skin regeneration application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arasteh, Shaghayegh; Kazemnejad, Somaieh; Khanjani, Sayeh; Heidari-Vala, Hamed; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Mobini, Sahba

    2016-04-15

    Full thickness wound healing with minimal scarring and complete restoration of normal skin properties still remains as a clinical challenge. In this study, a bilayer skin substitute has been fabricated to biomimic the microstructure of natural extracellular matrix of the skin. Human amniotic membrane (HAM) and silk fibroin nano-fibers were combined to produce bilayer construct, which was further treated and characterized. HAM was obtained from healthy mothers and de-epithelized by means of fine enzymatic method to preserve the extracellular structure. Fibroin protein was extracted from fresh Bombyx mori cocoons and transformed to uniform nano-fiberous structure, which was used as a coating layer on the de-epithelized membrane. Surface modification through oxygen plasma treatment was attempted to further induce hydrophilicity. Subsequently, scaffolds were fully characterized in terms of morphology, mechanical properties, hydrophilicity and cell culture response. Histological and immunohistological staining demonstrated localization of fibronectin, cell denudation and structural integrity of HAM after de-epithelization. Scanning electron microscopy images showed bead-free silk fibroin nano-fibers with the average diameter of 250nm. Water contact angle of bilayer scaffolds reduced dramatically to 26.34° after oxygen plasma treatment, which is correlated with more hydrophilic surface. Due to fibroin nano-fiber coating, mechanical properties of HAM improved significantly. Tensile Young's modulus and tensile strength increased from 16.14MPa and 68.46MPa to 25.69MPa and 108.03MPa, respectively. 14days in vitro cultivation of mouse embryonic fibroblasts on the scaffolds revealed that bilayer scaffolds are able to support cell attachment and proliferation. Plasma-etched scaffolds provided the best niche for cell-matrix crosstalk by allowing cells to penetrate beneath the pores and to integrate in fibers direction. The obtained results suggest that the presented nano

  10. Collagen hydrogels strengthened by biodegradable meshes are a basis for dermo-epidermal skin grafts intended to reconstitute human skin in a one-step surgical intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann-Fritsch, Fabienne; Biedermann, Thomas; Braziulis, Erik; Luginbühl, Joachim; Pontiggia, Luca; Böttcher-Haberzeth, Sophie; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Faraj, Kaeuis A; Schiestl, Clemens; Meuli, Martin; Reichmann, Ernst

    2016-01-01

    Extensive full-thickness skin loss, associated with deep burns or other traumata, represents a major clinical problem that is far from being solved. A promising approach to treat large skin defects is the use of tissue-engineered full-thickness skin analogues with nearly normal anatomy and function. In addition to excellent biological properties, such skin substitutes should exhibit optimal structural and mechanical features. This study aimed to test novel dermo-epidermal skin substitutes based on collagen type I hydrogels, physically strengthened by two types of polymeric net-like meshes. One mesh has already been used in clinical trials for treating inguinal hernia; the second one is new but consists of a FDA-approved polymer. Both meshes were integrated into collagen type I hydrogels and dermo-epidermal skin substitutes were generated. Skin substitutes were transplanted onto immuno-incompetent rats and analyzed after distinct time periods. The skin substitutes homogeneously developed into a well-stratified epidermis over the entire surface of the grafts. The epidermis deposited a continuous basement membrane and dermo-epidermal junction, displayed a well-defined basal cell layer, about 10 suprabasal strata and a stratum corneum. Additionally, the dermal component of the grafts was well vascularized. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Human skin: an independent peripheral endocrine organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouboulis, C C

    2000-01-01

    The historical picture of the endocrine system as a set of discrete hormone-producing organs has been substituted by organs regarded as organized communities in which the cells emit, receive and coordinate molecular signals from established endocrine organs, other distant sources, their neighbors, and themselves. In this wide sense, the human skin and its tissues are targets as well as producers of hormones. Although the role of hormones in the development of human skin and its capacity to produce and release hormones are well established, little attention has been drawn to the ability of human skin to fulfil the requirements of a classic endocrine organ. Indeed, human skin cells produce insulin-like growth factors and -binding proteins, propiomelanocortin derivatives, catecholamines, steroid hormones and vitamin D from cholesterol, retinoids from diet carotenoids, and eicosanoids from fatty acids. Hormones exert their biological effects on the skin through interaction with high-affinity receptors, such as receptors for peptide hormones, neurotransmitters, steroid hormones and thyroid hormones. In addition, the human skin is able to metabolize hormones and to activate and inactivate them. These steps are overtaken in most cases by different skin cell populations in a coordinated way indicating the endocrine autonomy of the skin. Characteristic examples are the metabolic pathways of the corticotropin-releasing hormone/propiomelanocortin axis, steroidogenesis, vitamin D, and retinoids. Hormones exhibit a wide range of biological activities on the skin, with major effects caused by growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1, neuropeptides, sex steroids, glucocorticoids, retinoids, vitamin D, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ligands, and eicosanoids. At last, human skin produces hormones which are released in the circulation and are important for functions of the entire organism, such as sex hormones, especially in aged individuals, and insulin-like growth

  12. Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer Order the free Anyone Can ... rarely, younger children can develop skin cancer. How can people with dark skin get skin cancer? Although ...

  13. In vitro psoriasis models with focus on reconstructed skin models as promising tools in psoriasis research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, Eline; Ramadhas, Anesh; Lambert, Jo; Van Gele, Mireille

    2017-06-01

    Psoriasis is a complex chronic immune-mediated inflammatory cutaneous disease associated with the development of inflammatory plaques on the skin. Studies proved that the disease results from a deregulated interplay between skin keratinocytes, immune cells and the environment leading to a persisting inflammatory process modulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines and activation of T cells. However, a major hindrance to study the pathogenesis of psoriasis more in depth and subsequent development of novel therapies is the lack of suitable pre-clinical models mimicking the complex phenotype of this skin disorder. Recent advances in and optimization of three-dimensional skin equivalent models have made them attractive and promising alternatives to the simplistic monolayer cultures, immunological different in vivo models and scarce ex vivo skin explants. Moreover, human skin equivalents are increasing in complexity level to match human biology as closely as possible. Here, we critically review the different types of three-dimensional skin models of psoriasis with relevance to their application potential and advantages over other models. This will guide researchers in choosing the most suitable psoriasis skin model for therapeutic drug testing (including gene therapy via siRNA molecules), or to examine biological features contributing to the pathology of psoriasis. However, the addition of T cells (as recently applied to a de-epidermized dermis-based psoriatic skin model) or other immune cells would make them even more attractive models and broaden their application potential. Eventually, the ultimate goal would be to substitute animal models by three-dimensional psoriatic skin models in the pre-clinical phases of anti-psoriasis candidate drugs. Impact statement The continuous development of novel in vitro models mimicking the psoriasis phenotype is important in the field of psoriasis research, as currently no model exists that completely matches the in vivo psoriasis

  14. Using infrared and Raman microspectroscopies to compare ex vivo involved psoriatic skin with normal human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Marie; Lefèvre, Thierry; Pouliot, Roxane; Auger, Michèle; Laroche, Gaétan

    2015-06-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic dermatosis that affects around 3% of the world's population. The etiology of this autoimmune pathology is not completely understood. The barrier function of psoriatic skin is known to be strongly altered, but the structural modifications at the origin of this dysfunction are not clear. To develop strategies to reduce symptoms of psoriasis or adequate substitutes for modeling, a deep understanding of the organization of psoriatic skin at a molecular level is required. Infrared and Raman microspectroscopies have been used to obtain direct molecular-level information on psoriatic and healthy human skin biopsies. From the intensities and positions of specific vibrational bands, the lipid and protein distribution and the lipid order have been mapped in the different layers of the skin. Results showed a similar distribution of lipids and collagen for normal and psoriatic human skin. However, psoriatic skin is characterized by heterogeneity in lipid/protein composition at the micrometer scale, a reduction in the definition of skin layer boundaries and a decrease in lipid chain order in the stratum corneum as compared to normal skin. A global decrease of the structural organization is exhibited in psoriatic skin that is compatible with an alteration of its barrier properties.

  15. Pattern of skin bacteria in palmar arsenical keratosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Bintha Khalil

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the involvement of skin bacteria in the pathogenesis of keratosis. Skin swab of five different sites (palm, dorsum of the hand, chest, axilla and alar crease from arsenic unexposed volunteer (n = 15, arsenic exposed (n = 15 and arsenicosis patients (n= 20 were collected for bacterial culture. The skin of arsenic unexposed volunteers contained Staphylococcus epidermidis and Bacillus spp. Chronic exposure to high concentration of arsenic through drinking water altered the skin bacterial pattern. The growth of Pseudomonas spp. increased in different sites of the skin. But in patient of arsenicosis, the skin of the palm shows the growth of Enterobacter spp.

  16. Progress and opportunities for tissue-engineered skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeil, Sheila

    2007-02-01

    Tissue-engineered skin is now a reality. For patients with extensive full-thickness burns, laboratory expansion of skin cells to achieve barrier function can make the difference between life and death, and it was this acute need that drove the initiation of tissue engineering in the 1980s. A much larger group of patients have ulcers resistant to conventional healing, and treatments using cultured skin cells have been devised to restart the wound-healing process. In the laboratory, the use of tissue-engineered skin provides insight into the behaviour of skin cells in healthy skin and in diseases such as vitiligo, melanoma, psoriasis and blistering disorders.

  17. Abnormally dark or light skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperpigmentation; Hypopigmentation; Skin - abnormally light or dark ... Normal skin contains cells called melanocytes. These cells produce melanin , the substance that gives skin its color. Skin with ...

  18. Smart Substitutions for Healthy Cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recognition & Awards Healthy Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit Smart Substitutions Updated:Dec 16,2016 Healthy eating doesn’ ... mean giving up all the foods you love! Smart substitutions can help you maintain an overall healthy ...

  19. Skin color - patchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003224.htm Skin color - patchy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Patchy skin color is areas where the skin color is irregular. ...

  20. 蚕体和蛹粉代料培养基上的蛹虫草生长状况与品质检测%Growth and Quality Assessment of Cordyceps militaris Cultured on Bombyx mori Body and on Pupa Powder Substitute Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申鸿; 张龙; 王兵; 徐汉福; 郭涛

    2012-01-01

    To delve cultivation methods for obtaining high yield and quality Cordyceps militaris, we cultured a preferentially selected Cordyceps militaris strain named YCC-XD-2 on Bombyx mori pupae and moths and on pupa powder substitute media in the laboratory and compared growth and cordycepin contents of Cordyceps militaris from different cultivation methods. It was shown that the selected Cordyceps militaris strain could grow well on both Bombyx mori body and on pupa powder substitute media. Specifically, Cordyceps militaris cultured on Bombyx mori moths grew better than that on Bombyx mori pupae, and Cordyceps militaris cultured on sticky rice plus pupa powder grew better than that on other pupa powder substitute media. The contents of cordycepin in sporocarp of Cordyceps militaris cultured on Bombyx mori bodies were significantly higher than those cultured on pupa powder substitute media. It was observed that the mass ratio of cordycepin in sporocarp of Cordyceps militaris cultured on Bombyx mori moth was as high as 21.97 mg/g. Under the same cultural condition, the content of cordycepin in sporocarp was much higher than that in mycelium and in culture medium. These results showed that high quality Cordyceps militaris can be obtained by utilizing Bombyx mori pupa and moth for the cultivation.%在实验室条件下以优选的蛹虫草菌株YCC-XD-2在家蚕蛹、蛾培养基和蛹粉代料培养基上培育蛹虫草,比较不同培养基上的蛹虫草的生长状况和虫草素含量,探究高产优质蛹虫草的培养方式.蛹虫草菌种在蚕体和蛹粉代料培养基上均生长良好,其中:蚕体培养基以蚕蛾培养基上的蛹虫草生长较好;蛹粉代料培养基以糯米+蛹粉培养基上的蛹虫草生长较好.蚕体培养基培育蛹虫草子实体中的虫草素含量显著高于蛹粉代料培养基培育的蛹虫草,其中,蚕蛾培养基培育蛹虫草子实体中的虫草素质量比高达21.97 mg/g.在相同培养条件下,蛹虫草子

  1. A micromechanical comparison of human and porcine skin before and after preservation by freezing for medical device development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranamukhaarachchi, S. A.; Lehnert, S.; Ranamukhaarachchi, S. L.; Sprenger, L.; Schneider, T.; Mansoor, I.; Rai, K.; Häfeli, U. O.; Stoeber, B.

    2016-08-01

    Collecting human skin samples for medical research, including developing microneedle-based medical devices, is challenging and time-consuming. Researchers rely on human skin substitutes and skin preservation techniques, such as freezing, to overcome the lack of skin availability. Porcine skin is considered the best substitute to human skin, but their mechanical resemblance has not been fully validated. We provide a direct mechanical comparison between human and porcine skin samples using a conventional mechano-analytical technique (microindentation) and a medical application (microneedle insertion), at 35% and 100% relative humidity. Human and porcine skin samples were tested immediately after surgical excision from subjects, and after one freeze-thaw cycle at ‑80 °C to assess the impact of freezing on their mechanical properties. The mechanical properties of fresh human and porcine skin (especially of the stratum corneum) were found to be different for bulk measurements using microindentation; and both types of skin were mechanically affected by freezing. Localized in-plane mechanical properties of skin during microneedle insertion appeared to be more comparable between human and porcine skin samples than their bulk out-of-plane mechanical properties. The results from this study serve as a reference for future mechanical tests conducted with frozen human skin and/or porcine skin as a human skin substitute.

  2. Linkages between the life-history evolution of tropical and temperate birds and the resistance of cultured skin fibroblasts to oxidative and non-oxidative chemical injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Ana Gabriela; Harper, James M; Queenborough, Simon A; Williams, Joseph B

    2013-04-15

    A fundamental challenge facing physiological ecologists is to understand how variation in life history at the whole-organism level might be linked to cellular function. Thus, because tropical birds have higher annual survival and lower rates of metabolism, we hypothesized that cells from tropical species would have greater cellular resistance to chemical injury than cells from temperate species. We cultured dermal fibroblasts from 26 tropical and 26 temperate species of birds and examined cellular resistance to cadmium, H(2)O(2), paraquat, thapsigargin, tunicamycium, methane methylsulfonate (MMS) and UV light. Using ANCOVA, we found that the values for the dose that killed 50% of cells (LD(50)) from tropical birds were significantly higher for H(2)O(2) and MMS. When we tested for significance using a generalized least squares approach accounting for phylogenetic relationships among species to model LD(50), we found that cells from tropical birds had greater tolerance for Cd, H(2)O(2), paraquat, tunicamycin and MMS than cells from temperate birds. In contrast, tropical birds showed either lower or no difference in tolerance to thapsigargin and UV light in comparison with temperate birds. These findings are consistent with the idea that natural selection has uniquely fashioned cells of long-lived tropical bird species to be more resistant to forms of oxidative and non-oxidative stress than cells from shorter-lived temperate species.

  3. Effect of bicellar systems on skin properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa-Barros, L; Barba, C; Cócera, M; Coderch, L; López-Iglesias, C; de la Maza, A; López, O

    2008-03-20

    Bicelles are discoidal aggregates formed by a flat dimyristoyl-glycero-phosphocholine (DMPC) bilayer, stabilized by a rim of dihexanoyl-glycero-phosphocholine (DHPC) in water. Given the structure, composition and the dimensions of these aggregates around 10-50 nm diameter, their use for topical applications is a promising strategy. This work evaluates the effect of DMPC/DHPC bicelles with molar ratio (2/1) on intact skin. Biophysical properties of the skin, such as transepidermal water loss (TEWL), elasticity, skin capacitance and irritation were measured in healthy skin in vivo. To study the effect of the bicellar systems on the microstructure of the stratum corneum (SC) in vitro, pieces of native tissue were treated with the aforementioned bicellar system and evaluated by freeze substitution applied to transmission electron microscopy (FSTEM). Our results show that bicelles increase the TEWL, the skin elastic parameters and, decrease skin hydration without promoting local signs of irritation and without affecting the SC lipid microstructure. Thus, a permeabilizing effect of bicelles on the skin takes place possibly due to the changes in the phase behaviour of the SC lipids by effect of phospholipids from bicelles.

  4. Managing the hair and skin of African American pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W; Burns, C

    1999-01-01

    In Africa, the ancestral home of most African Americans, hair is viewed as the epitome of beauty. However, when Africans were brought to America as slaves, they were unable to care for their hair and skin adequately and were exposed to the predominant white culture, which valued straight hair and light skin. As a result, many African Americans lost self-esteem because of the characteristics of their hair and skin. In this article we examine the anatomic and physiologic features of African American hair and skin and typical African American hair and skin care practices. Common African American hair and skin disorders and their management are discussed. The goal of this article is to help primary care providers understand the special hair and skin care required for African American children (as well as other dark-skinned patients). With good patient education, understanding one's own hair and skin characteristics can also support positive self-esteem.

  5. The Use of Matriderm and Autologous Skin Graft in the Treatment of Full Thickness Skin Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang Hwan Min

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background For patients with full thickness skin defects, autologous Split-thickness skin grafts (STSG are generally regarded as the mainstay of treatment. However, skin grafts have some limitations, including undesirable outcomes resulting from scars, poor elasticity, and limitations in joint movement due to contractures. In this study, we present outcomes of Matriderm grafts used for various skin tissue defects whether it improves on these drawbacks. Methods From January 2010 to March 2012, a retrospective review of patients who had undergone autologous STSG with Matriderm was performed. We assessed graft survival to evaluate the effectiveness of Matriderm. We also evaluated skin quality using a Cutometer, Corneometer, Tewameter, or Mexameter, approximately 12 months after surgery. Results A total of 31 patients underwent STSG with Matriderm during the study period. The success rate of skin grafting was 96.7%. The elasticity value of the portion on which Matriderm was applied was 0.765 (range, 0.635-0.800, the value of the trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL was 10.0 (range, 8.15-11.00 g/hr/m2, and the humidification value was 24.0 (range, 15.5-30.0. The levels of erythema and melanin were 352.0 arbitrary unit (AU (range, 299.25-402.75 AU and 211.0 AU (range, 158.25-297.00 AU, respectively. When comparing the values of elasticity and TEWL of the skin treated with Matriderm to the values of the surrounding skin, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate that a dermal substitute (Matriderm with STSG was adopted stably and with minimal complications. Furthermore, comparing Matriderm grafted skin to normal skin using Cutometer, Matriderm proved valuable in restoring skin elasticity and the skin barrier.

  6. Accelerated in vivo wound healing evaluation of microbial glycolipid containing ointment as a transdermal substitute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sonam; Raghuwanshi, Navdeep; Varshney, Ritu; Banat, I M; Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Pruthi, Parul A; Pruthi, Vikas

    2017-10-01

    A potent biosurfactant (BS) producing Bacillus licheniformis SV1 (NCBI GenBank Accession No. KX130852) was isolated from oil contaminated soil sample. Physicochemical investigations (TLC, HPLC, FTIR, GC-MS and NMR) revealed it to be glycolipid in nature. Fibroblast culture assay showed cytocompatibility and increased cell proliferation of 3T3/NIH fibroblast cells treated with this biosurfactant when checked using MTT assay and DAPI fluorescent staining. To evaluate the wound healing potential, BS ointment was formulated and checked for its spreadability and viscosity consistency. In vivo wound healing examination of full thickness skin excision wound rat model demonstrated the prompt re-epithelialization and fibroblast cell proliferation in the early phase while quicker collagen deposition in later phases of wound healing when BS ointment was used. These results validated the potential usage of BS ointment as a transdermal substitute for faster healing of impaired skin wound. Biochemical evaluation also substantiated the highest concentration of hydroxyproline (32.18±0.46, p<0.001) in the BS ointment treated animal tissue samples compared to the control. Hematoxylin-Eosin (H&E) and Masson's Trichrome staining validated the presence of increased amount of collagen fibers and blood vessels in the test animals treated with BS ointment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. 40 CFR 721.10034 - Substituted pyridine coupled with diazotized substituted nitrobenzonitrile, diazotized...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted pyridine coupled with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10034 Substituted pyridine coupled with diazotized substituted... as substituted pyridine coupled with diazotized substituted nitrobenzonitrile, diazotized...

  8. Sulfate transport in toad skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Simonsen, K

    1988-01-01

    1. In short-circuited toad skin preparations exposed bilaterally to NaCl-Ringer's containing 1 mM SO2(-4), influx of sulfate was larger than efflux showing that the skin is capable of transporting sulfate actively in an inward direction. 2. This active transport was not abolished by substituting...... apical Na+ for K+. 3. Following voltage activation of the passive Cl- permeability of the mitochondria-rich (m.r.) cells sulfate flux-ratio increased to a value predicted from the Ussing flux-ratio equation for a monovalent anion. 4. In such skins, which were shown to exhibit vanishingly small leakage...... conductances, the variation of the rate coefficient for sulfate influx (y) was positively correlated with the rate coefficient for Cl- influx (x), y = 0.035 x - 0.0077 cm/sec (r = 0.9935, n = 15). 5. Addition of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor, 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine to the serosal bath of short...

  9. Skin Care and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Skin Care and Aging How Aging Affects Skin Your skin changes with age. It becomes thinner, ... to make it feel and look better. Dry Skin and Itching Click for more information Many older ...

  10. Consensus of classification trees for skin sensitisation hazard prediction

    OpenAIRE

    ASTURIOL BOFILL DAVID; Casati, Silvia; Worth, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Since March 2013, it is no longer possible to market in the European Union (EU) cosmetics containing new ingredients tested on animals. Although several in silico alternatives are available and achievements have been made in the development and regulatory adoption of skin sensitisation non-animal tests, there is not yet a generally accepted approach for skin sensitisation assessment that would fully substitute the need for animal testing. The aim of this work was to build a defined approac...

  11. Effect of Oleanolic Acid on Adriamycin Induced Apoptosis of Cultured Human Skin Keratinocytes in Vitro%齐墩果酸对阿霉素诱导的培养人皮肤角质形成细胞凋亡的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兴洪; 刘彦群; 魏志平; 田美华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of oleanolic acid (OA) on adriamycin induced apoptosis of cultured human skin keratinocytes in vitro. Methods Human skin keratinocytes were cultured with different concentrations of oleanolic acid and adriamycin. Absorbance A was detected by colorimetric assay of MTT. The optical density (OD) values were showed on a scanning multiwell spectrophotometer. Apoptosis rate of human skin keratinocytes was detected by flow cytometry. Results We found that the proliferation of human skin keratinocytes was inhibited by adriamycin. If cells were pre-incubated with oleanolic acid, OD value was significantly higher and apoptosis induced by adriamycin was suppressed (P<0.05). Conclusion This study suggests that oleanolic acid could partially inhibit adriamycin induced apoptosis of cultured human skin keratinocytes.%目的 探讨齐墩果酸对阿霉素诱导的培养人皮肤角质形成细胞凋亡的影响.方法 用MTT法通过比色分析测定吸光度(A)值,检测不同剂量齐墩果酸和阿霉素给药对角质形成细胞增殖的影响,用流式细胞仪检测细胞凋亡.结果 阿霉素抑制体外培养的人皮肤角质形成细胞增殖,先给予齐墩果酸处理细胞,然后给予阿霉素,齐墩果酸升高A值(P<0.05),降低细胞凋亡率(P<0.05).结论 先行给予适当剂量齐墩果酸处理细胞,能一定程度减轻阿霉素对细胞的损伤,表现出对阿霉素致凋亡的保护作用.

  12. Three-dimensional human skin models to understand Staphylococcus aureus skin colonization and infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren ePopov

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is both a major bacterial pathogen as well as a common member of the human skin microbiota. Due to its widespread prevalence as an asymptomatic skin colonizer and its importance as a source of skin and soft tissue infections, an improved understanding of how S. aureus attaches to, grows within, and breaches the stratified layers of the epidermis is of critical importance. Three-dimensional organotypic human skin culture models are informative and tractable experimental systems for future investigations of the interactions between S. aureus and the multifaceted skin tissue. We propose that S. aureus virulence factors, primarily appreciated for their role in pathogenesis of invasive infections, play alternative roles in promoting asymptomatic bacterial growth within the skin. Experimental manipulations of these cultures will provide insight into the many poorly understood molecular interactions occurring at the interface between S. aureus and stratified human skin tissue.

  13. Metabolism of skin-absorbed resveratrol into its glucuronized form in mouse skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Itsuo; Chaleckis, Romanas; Pluskal, Tomáš; Ito, Ken; Hori, Kousuke; Ebe, Masahiro; Yanagida, Mitsuhiro; Kondoh, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Resveratrol (RESV) is a plant polyphenol, which is thought to have beneficial metabolic effects in laboratory animals as well as in humans. Following oral administration, RESV is immediately catabolized, resulting in low bioavailability. This study compared RESV metabolites and their tissue distribution after oral uptake and skin absorption. Metabolomic analysis of various mouse tissues revealed that RESV can be absorbed and metabolized through skin. We detected sulfated and glucuronidated RESV metabolites, as well as dihydroresveratrol. These metabolites are thought to have lower pharmacological activity than RESV. Similar quantities of most RESV metabolites were observed 4 h after oral or skin administration, except that glucuronidated RESV metabolites were more abundant in skin after topical RESV application than after oral administration. This result is consistent with our finding of glucuronidated RESV metabolites in cultured skin cells. RESV applied to mouse ears significantly suppressed inflammation in the TPA inflammation model. The skin absorption route could be a complementary, potent way to achieve therapeutic effects with RESV.

  14. Thermogram No Substitute for Mammogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Thermogram No Substitute for Mammogram Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  15. Substitute Valuations: Generation and Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Hajek, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    Substitute valuations (in some contexts called gross substitute valuations) are prominent in combinatorial auction theory. An algorithm is given in this paper for generating a substitute valuation through Monte Carlo simulation. In addition, the geometry of the set of all substitute valuations for a fixed number of goods K is investigated. The set consists of a union of polyhedrons, and the maximal polyhedrons are identified for K=4. It is shown that the maximum dimension of the maximal polyhedrons increases with K nearly as fast as two to the power K.

  16. Structure and Substitutions in Fluorapatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leroy N.

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Fluorapatite, Ca10(PO46F2. is a widely spread form of calcium phosphate present particularly in biological material. Human hard tissues contain crystals structurally related to apatite. Fluoride can be found in various natural sources and is also used for its beneficial action in caries prevention. Fluorapatite belongs to the spatial group P63/m (C6h2 and consists of 3 ions: F-, Ca2+, PO43-. In the present paper, we have carried out a crystallographic study of the fluorapatite structure and of the changes induced by the substitutions. The fluorapatite structure and the presence of a large number of ionic bonds make fluorapatite a very suitable host for many substitutents, some of them harmless for the human organism, some not. According to the substitution site, we can describe four types of substitution. The F- substitution, also called Type A substitution, is the main one, and the best known. Only the Ca2+ substitution implies changes in the crystal structure. However, some questions remain, in particular for the PO43- substitution, which is the main substitution present in the biological calcium phosphates.

  17. [Sarcoidosis of the skin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, Y; Ogawa, H

    1994-06-01

    Sarcoidosis is characterized by formation of epithelioid-cell tubercules, without caseation, of the affected organ systems. The mediastinum, peripheral lymph nodes and eyes, in addition to the skin, are most frequently affected. Between 10% and 30% of patients with systemic sarcoidosis in Japan have skin lesions. Skin sarcoidosis is morphologically classified into three basic groups, erythema nodosum, scar sarcoidosis and skin sarcoid. Skin sarcoid is characterized by specific cutaneous lesions of sarcoidosis, and may take nodular, plaque, angiolupoid, subcutaneous and some other forms. Clinical manifestations of the cutaneous lesions are usually asymptomatic and polymorphous. Skin biopsy is, however, often highly useful for confirming a diagnosis of sarcoidosis.

  18. Use of autologous tissue engineered skin to treat porcine full-thickness skin defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Xia; CAO Yi-lin; CUI Lei; LIU Wei; GUAN Wen-xiang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore a feasible method to repair full-thickness skin defects utilizing tissue engineered techniques. Methods: The Changfeng hybrid swines were used and the skin specimens were cut from the posterior limb girdle region, from which the keratinocytes and fibroblasts were isolated and harvested by trypsin, EDTA, and type II collagenase. The cells were seeded in Petri dishes for primary culture. When the cells were in logarithmic growth phase, they were treated with trypsin to separate them from the floor of the tissue culture dishes. A biodegradable material, Pluronic F-127, was prefabricated and mixed with these cells, and then the cell-Pluronic compounds were seeded evenly into a polyglycolic acid (PGA). Then the constructs were replanted to the autologous animals to repair the full-thickness skin defects. Histology and immunohistochemistry of the neotissue were observed in 1, 2, 4, and 8 postoperative weeks. Results: The cell-Pluronic F-127-PGA compounds repaired autologous full-thickness skin defects 1 week after implantation. Histologically, the tissue engineered skin was similar to the normal skin with stratified epidermis overlying a moderately thick collageneous dermis. Three of the structural proteins in the epidermal basement membrane zone, type IV collagen, laminin, and type VII collagen were detected using immunohistochemical methods. Conclusions: By studying the histology and immunohistochemistry of the neotissue, the bioengineered skin graft holds great promise for improving healing of the skin defects.

  19. Ex vivo differentiation of multipotent adult progenitor cells to skin epidermal cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Kaihong; Xiong Jun; Fan Lixing; Hu Kaimeng; Liu Houqi

    2009-01-01

    Objective: By establishing the indirect contact co-culture system, we studied the in vitro condition for MAPCs differentiating into epidermal cells and the transformation of MAPCs into epidermal cell phenotype. Methods: Cell culture insert membrane was used for substitute basal membrane and MAPCs, fibroblast cells (FCs) and mixture of MAPCs and epidermal cells and FCs were separately implanted into 2 sides of it. PKH26 was used to label cloned MAPCs; type Ⅳ collagen rapid adhering method was used to isolate and culture the skin epidermal cells from 1-day-old SD rat. Results: Part of the MAPCs transformed into cells expressing keratin in the presence of peripheral epithelia and FCs. Type Ⅳ collagen rapid adhering method successfully selected rats' epidermal stem cells. The mixture of the 2 kinds of cells or indirect culture might promote the differentiation through mesenchymal factors secreted by dermis FC. Conclusion: We were the first to have established the in vitro model of MAPCs differentiation into epidermal cells, in which MAPCs were transformed into epithelium-like cells.

  20. Amine-synthesizing enzyme N-substituted formamide deformylase: Screening, purification, characterization, and gene cloning

    OpenAIRE

    Fukatsu, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Yoshiteru; Goda, Masahiko; Higashibata, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Michihiko

    2004-01-01

    N-substituted formamide was produced through the hydration of an isonitrile by isonitrile hydratase in the isonitrile metabolism. The former compound was further degraded by a microorganism, strain F164, which was isolated from soil through an acclimatization culture. The N-substituted formamide-degrading microorganism was identified as Arthrobacter pascens. The microbial degradation was found to proceed through an enzymatic reaction, the N-substituted formamide being hydrolyzed to yield the ...

  1. An overview of methods for the in vivo evaluation of tissue-engineered skin constructs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, G.; Verhaegen, P.D.; Ulrich, M.M.; Schalkwijk, J.; Middelkoop, E.; Weiland, D.; Nillesen, S.T.M.; Kuppevelt, A.H.M.S.M. van; Daamen, W.F.

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous wounding often leads to contraction and scarring, which may result in a range of functional, cosmetic, and psychological complications. Tissue-engineered skin substitutes are being developed to enhance restoration of the skin and improve the quality of wound healing. The aim of this review

  2. Skin Stem Cells in Skin Cell Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollapour Sisakht

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Context Preclinical and clinical research has shown that stem cell therapy is a promising therapeutic option for many diseases. This article describes skin stem cells sources and their therapeutic applications. Evidence Acquisition Compared with conventional methods, cell therapy reduces the surgical burden for patients because it is simple and less time-consuming. Skin cell therapy has been developed for variety of diseases. By isolation of the skin stem cell from the niche, in vitro expansion and transplantation of cells offers a surprising healing capacity profile. Results Stem cells located in skin cells have shown interesting properties such as plasticity, transdifferentiation, and specificity. Mesenchymal cells of the dermis, hypodermis, and other sources are currently being investigated to promote regeneration. Conclusions Because skin stem cells are highly accessible from autologous sources and their immunological profile is unique, they are ideal for therapeutic approaches. Optimization of administrative routes requires more investigation own to the lack of a standard protocol.

  3. Currency substitution in Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aarle, B.; Budina, N.

    1995-01-01

    Monetary instability during the transition process from a command economy to a market economy has induced a considerable increase in currency substitution in Eastern Europe. Currency substitution itself affects monetary stability since it reduces the stability of velocity. This paper investigates cu

  4. Displacement, Substitution, Sublimation: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    Sigmund Freund worked with the mechanisms of displacement, substitution, and sublimation. These mechanisms have many similarities and have been studied diagnostically and therapeutically. Displacement and substitution seem to fit in well with phobias, hysterias, somatiyations, prejudices, and scapegoating. Phobias, prejudices, and scapegoating…

  5. Substitute Teachers: The Professional Contradiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreeve, William C.; And Others

    The substitute teacher's public image was investigated by means of an informal survey of part-time and full-time teachers in Washington. Survey results revealed that working conditions appeared to be the largest factor in damaging the self-image of most substitute teachers. The majority of full-time teachers and administrators surveyed were…

  6. Raman Microscopy and Imaging: Applications to Skin Pharmacology and Wound Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flach, Carol R.; Zhang, Guojin; Mendelsohn, Richard

    The utility of confocal Raman microscopy to study biological events in skin is demonstrated with three examples. (i) monitoring the spatial and structural differences between native and cultured skin, (ii) tracking the permeation and biochemical transformation in skin of a Vitamin E derivative and (iii) tracking the spatial distribution of three major skin proteins (keratin, collagen, and elastin) during wound healing in an explant skin model.

  7. Significant changes in the skin microbiome mediated by the sport of roller derby

    OpenAIRE

    James F. Meadow; Bateman, Ashley C.; Herkert, Keith M.; O’Connor, Timothy K.; Jessica L. Green

    2013-01-01

    Diverse bacterial communities live on and in human skin. These complex communities vary by skin location on the body, over time, between individuals, and between geographic regions. Culture-based studies have shown that human to human and human to surface contact mediates the dispersal of pathogens, yet little is currently known about the drivers of bacterial community assembly patterns on human skin. We hypothesized that participation in a sport involving skin to skin contact would result in...

  8. Learning about Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... information, in skin cells, creating "misspellings" in their genetic code and, as a result, alter the function of those cells. Cancers generally are caused by a combination of environmental and genetic factors. With skin cancer, the environment plays a ...

  9. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Items Awareness Store In Memory Melanoma Info Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly ... use this video. UPDATED: November 23, 2016 Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly ...

  10. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Support Donate Share Facebook Twitter Newsletter Examine Your Skin Watch the video below and in only two minutes, you can learn to examine your skin. A special thanks to Dr. Martin Weinstock, MD, ...

  11. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Support Donate Share Facebook Twitter Newsletter Examine Your Skin Watch the video below and in only two minutes, you can learn to examine your skin. A special thanks to Dr. Martin Weinstock, MD, ...

  12. Bleeding into the skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003235.htm Bleeding into the skin To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bleeding into the skin can occur from broken blood ...

  13. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Store In Memory Melanoma Info Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding ... video. UPDATED: November 23, 2016 Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding ...

  14. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Store In Memory Melanoma Info Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding ... video. UPDATED: November 23, 2016 Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding ...

  15. 粘膜固有层替代物体外培养的实验研究%Experimental study of the culture of submucosal tissue substitute in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁桂聪; 毛天球; 杨维东; 陈富林

    2001-01-01

    目的 体外构建粘膜固有层的替代物。方法 将粘膜固有层的成纤维细胞、胶原、培养基等成分混合形成凝胶,并在体外培养。结果 复合的胶原细胞凝胶具有粘膜固有层的类似结构,收缩程度受细胞数量和胶原浓度的影响。结论 构建的胶原细胞凝胶可作为粘膜固有层的替代物。%Objective To fabricate submucosal tissue substitute in vitro.Methods Fibroblasts from submucosal tissue and collagen of rat tail tendons were used to construct submucosal tissue equivalents. Results The collagen-fibroblasts composite was similar to the submucosal tissue in structure.Its contraction rate could be regulated by varying the protein content and fibroblast number. Conclusion The constructed collagen gel is a good model of submucosal tissue.

  16. Trifluoromethyl-substituted tetrathiafulvalenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Jeannin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A series of tetrathiafulvalenes functionalized with one or two trifluoromethyl electron-withdrawing groups (EWG is obtained by phosphite coupling involving CF3-substituted 1,3-dithiole-2-one derivatives. The relative effects of the EWG such as CF3, CO2Me and CN on the TTF core were investigated from a combination of structural, electrochemical, spectrochemical and theoretical investigations. Electrochemical data confirm the good correlations between the first oxidation potential of the TTF derivatives and the σmeta Hammet parameter, thus in the order CO2Me 3 3, where, as in TTF itself, the low energy absorption band is essentially attributable to a HOMO→LUMO + 1 transition. Despite relatively high oxidation potentials, these donor molecules with CF3 EWG can be involved in charge transfer complexes or cation radical salts, as reported here for the CF3-subsituted EDT-TTF donor molecule. A neutral charge transfer complex with TCNQ, (EDT-TTF-CF32(TCNQ was isolated and characterized through alternated stacks of EDT-TTF-CF3 dimers and TCNQ in the solid state. A radical cation salt of EDT-TTF-CF3 is also obtained upon electrocrystallisation in the presence of the FeCl4− anion. In this salt, formulated as (EDT-TTF-CF3(FeCl4, the (EDT-TTF-CF3+• radical cations are associated two-by-two into centrosymmetric dyads with a strong pairing of the radical species in a singlet state.

  17. Ultrasound skin imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfageme Roldán, F

    2014-12-01

    The interaction of high-frequency ultrasound waves with the skin provides the basis for noninvasive, fast, and accessible diagnostic imaging. This tool is increasingly used in skin cancer and inflammatory conditions as well as in cosmetic dermatology. This article reviews the basic principles of skin ultrasound and its applications in the different areas of dermatology.

  18. Skin self-exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin cancer - self-exam; Melanoma - self-exam; Basal cell cancer - self-exam; Squamous cell - self-exam; Skin mole - self-exam ... Experts do not agree on whether or not skin self-exams should be performed. So there is ...

  19. Microbiome and skin diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeuwen, P.L.J.M.; Kleerebezem, M.; Timmerman, H.M.; Schalkwijk, J.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews recent findings on the skin microbiome. It provides an update on the current understanding of the role of microbiota in healthy skin and in inflammatory and allergic skin diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in computing and high-throughput sequencing technolog

  20. Microbiome and skin diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeuwen, P.L.; Kleerebezem, M.; Timmerman, H.M.; Schalkwijk, J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review: This article reviews recent findings on the skin microbiome. It provides an update on the current understanding of the role of microbiota in healthy skin and in inflammatory and allergic skin diseases. Recent findings: Advances in computing and high-throughput sequencing technolog

  1. Microbiome and skin diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeuwen, P.L.J.M.; Kleerebezem, M.; Timmerman, H.M.; Schalkwijk, J.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews recent findings on the skin microbiome. It provides an update on the current understanding of the role of microbiota in healthy skin and in inflammatory and allergic skin diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in computing and high-throughput sequencing

  2. Microbiome and skin diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeuwen, P.L.; Kleerebezem, M.; Timmerman, H.M.; Schalkwijk, J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review: This article reviews recent findings on the skin microbiome. It provides an update on the current understanding of the role of microbiota in healthy skin and in inflammatory and allergic skin diseases. Recent findings: Advances in computing and high-throughput sequencing

  3. On skin expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamplona, Djenane C; Velloso, Raquel Q; Radwanski, Henrique N

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses skin expansion without considering cellular growth of the skin. An in vivo analysis was carried out that involved expansion at three different sites on one patient, allowing for the observation of the relaxation process. Those measurements were used to characterize the human skin of the thorax during the surgical process of skin expansion. A comparison between the in vivo results and the numerical finite elements model of the expansion was used to identify the material elastic parameters of the skin of the thorax of that patient. Delfino's constitutive equation was chosen to model the in vivo results. The skin is considered to be an isotropic, homogeneous, hyperelastic, and incompressible membrane. When the skin is extended, such as with expanders, the collagen fibers are also extended and cause stiffening in the skin, which results in increasing resistance to expansion or further stretching. We observed this phenomenon as an increase in the parameters as subsequent expansions continued. The number and shape of the skin expanders used in expansions were also studied, both mathematically and experimentally. The choice of the site where the expansion should be performed is discussed to enlighten problems that can lead to frustrated skin expansions. These results are very encouraging and provide insight into our understanding of the behavior of stretched skin by expansion. To our knowledge, this study has provided results that considerably improve our understanding of the behavior of human skin under expansion.

  4. PPD skin test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... test; Mantoux test Images Tuberculosis in the kidney Tuberculosis in the lung Positive PPD skin test PPD skin test References Chernecky CC, Berger ... test, purified protein derivative test, Tb test, tuberculin skin test, TST, tuberculosis test) - diagnostic. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. ...

  5. Psychoneuroimmunology and the Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeyman, Juan F

    2016-08-23

    The nervous, immune, endocrine and integumentary systems are closely related and interact in a number of normal and pathological conditions. Nervous system mediators may bring about direct changes to the skin or may induce the release of immunological or hormonal mediators that cause pathological changes to the skin. This article reviews the psychological mechanisms involved in the development of skin diseases.

  6. The use of MatriDerm in early excision and simultaneous autologous skin grafting in burns--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryssel, H; Gazyakan, E; Germann, G; Ohlbauer, M

    2008-02-01

    The application of dermal substitutes in deep partial and full-thickness burn wounds in a two-stage procedure prior to skin grafting has become increasingly popular. Synchronous application of dermal substitutes and skin graft has not yet been established as a standard procedure. In a consecutive study 20 wounds in 10 patients with severe burns (age 49.5+/-16.2 years; TBSA 45.6+/-14.5%) were treated with either simultaneous transplantation of Matriderm, a bovine based collagen I, III, V and elastin hydrolysate based dermal substitute and split-thickness skin grafting (STSG), or STSG alone after appropriate excision of the burn wound. The study was designed as a prospective intra-individual comparative study. After 1 week all wounds were assessed for the percentage of autograft survival. Autograft survival was not altered by simultaneous application of a dermal matrix (p=0.015). Skin elasticity was measured after 3-4 months with the Vancouver Burn Skin Score (VBSS). The VBSS demonstrated a significant increase of elasticity in the group with dermal substitutes (p=0.04) as compared with non-substituted wounds for sheet autograft, but not for meshed autograft (p=0.24). From this pilot study it can be concluded that simultaneous application of a dermal matrix is safe and feasible, yielding significantly better results with respect to skin elasticity. Skin elasticity was considerably improved by the collagen/elastin dermal substitute Matriderm in combination with sheet autograft.

  7. Skin microbiota: overview and role in the skin diseases acne vulgaris and rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Nathalia; Raoult, Didier

    2013-02-01

    As the first barrier to environmental exposures, human skin has developed an integrated immune system to protect the inner body from chemical, physical or microbial insults. Microorganisms inhabiting superficial skin layers are known as skin microbiota and include bacteria, viruses, archaea and fungi. The microbiota composition is crucial in the instruction and support of the skin's immune system. Changes in microbiota can be due to individual, environmental or behavioral factors, such as age, climate, hygiene or antibiotic consumption, which can cause dysbiosis. The contribution of skin microbiota to disease development is known in atopic dermatitis, where there is an increase in Staphylococcus aureus. Culture-independent studies have enabled more accurate descriptions of this complex interplay. Microbial imbalance is associated with the development of various diseases. This review focuses on microbial imbalances in acne vulgaris and rosacea.

  8. Adverse and beneficial effects of plant extracts on skin and skin disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantle, D; Gok, M A; Lennard, T W

    2001-06-01

    Plants are of relevance to dermatology for both their adverse and beneficial effects on skin and skin disorders respectively. Virtually all cultures worldwide have relied historically, or continue to rely on medicinal plants for primary health care. Approximately one-third of all traditional medicines are for treatment of wounds or skin disorders, compared to only 1-3% of modern drugs. The use of such medicinal plant extracts for the treatment of skin disorders arguably has been based largely on historical/anecdotal evidence, since there has been relatively little data available in the scientific literature, particularly with regard to the efficacy of plant extracts in controlled clinical trials. In this article therefore, adverse and beneficial aspects of medicinal plants relating to skin and skin disorders have been reviewed, based on recently available information from the peer-reviewed scientific literature. Beneficial aspects of medicinal plants on skin include: healing of wounds and burn injuries (especially Aloe vera); antifungal, antiviral, antibacterial and acaricidal activity against skin infections such as acne, herpes and scabies (especially tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil); activity against inflammatory/immune disorders affecting skin (e.g. psoriasis); and anti-tumour promoting activity against skin cancer (identified using chemically-induced two-stage carcinogenesis in mice). Adverse effects of plants on skin reviewed include: irritant contact dermatitis caused mechanically (spines, irritant hairs) or by irritant chemicals in plant sap (especially members of the Ranunculaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Compositae plant families); phytophotodermatitis resulting from skin contamination by plants containing furocoumarins, and subsequent exposure to UV light (notably members of the Umbelliferae and Rutaceae plant families); and immediate (type I) or delayed hypersensitivity contact reactions mediated by the immune system in individuals sensitized to plants

  9. Practical uses of botanicals in skin care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, Alison F; Lupo, Mary P

    2009-01-01

    Cosmeceuticals are the fastest growing sector of the cosmetic industry, and the future of antiaging cosmeceuticals in particular is very promising. Botanical extracts that support the health, texture, and integrity of the skin, hair, and nails are widely used in cosmetic formulations. They form the largest category of cosmeceutical additives found in the marketplace today due to the rising consumer interest and demand for natural products. Various plant extracts that formed the basis of medical treatments in ancient civilizations and many traditional cultures are still used today in cleansers, moisturizers, astringents, and many other skin care products. New botanical skin care treatments are emerging, presenting dermatologists and their patients the challenge of understanding the science behind these cosmeceuticals. Thus, dermatologists must have a working knowledge of these botanicals and keep up with how they evolve to provide optimal medical care and answer patient questions. The most popular botanicals commonly incorporated into skin care protocols are discussed.

  10. Dermal substitution with Matriderm(®) in burns on the dorsum of the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryssel, H; Germann, G; Kloeters, O; Gazyakan, E; Radu, C A

    2010-12-01

    Dermal substitutes are used increasingly in deep partial and full-thickness burn wounds in order to enhance elasticity and pliability. In particular, the dorsum of the hand is an area requiring extraordinary mobility for full range of motion. The aim of this comparative study was to evaluate intra-individual outcomes among patients with full-thickness burns of the dorsum of both hands. One hand was treated with split-thickness skin grafts (STSG) alone, and the other with the dermal substitute Matriderm(®) and split-thickness skin grafts. In this study 36 burn wounds of the complete dorsum of both hands in 18 patients with severe burns (age 45.1±17.4 years, 43.8±11.8% TBSA) were treated with the simultaneous application of Matriderm(®), a bovine based collagen I, III, V and elastin-hydrolysate based dermal substitute, and split-thickness skin grafting (STSG) in the form of sheets on one hand, and STSG in the form of sheets alone on the other hand. The study was designed as a prospective comparative study. Using both objective and subjective assessments, data were collected at one week and 6 months after surgery. The following parameters were included: After one week all wounds were assessed for autograft survival. Skin quality was measured 6 months postoperatively using the Vancouver Burn Skin Score (VBSS). Range of motion was measured by Finger-Tip-Palmar-Crease-Distance (FPD) and Finger-Nail-Table-Distance (FNTD). Autograft survival was not altered by simultaneous application of the dermal matrix (p>0.05). The VBSS demonstrated a significant increase in skin quality in the group with dermal substitutes (p=0.02) compared to the control group with non-substituted wounds. Range of motion was significantly improved in the group treated with the dermal substitute (p=0.04). From our results it can be concluded that simultaneous use of Matriderm(®) and STSG is safe and feasible, leading to significantly better results in respect to skin quality of the dorsum of the

  11. Cutaneous tuberculosis with nonreactive PPD skin test: a diagnostic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassif, Priscila Wolf; Rosa, Ana Paula Zanatta; Gurgel, Ana Cristina Medeiros; Campanerut, Paula Aline Zanetti; Fillus Neto, José; Cardoso, Rosilene Fressatti

    2015-01-01

    The authors report a case of cutaneous tuberculosis in a 63-year-old female patient, who had an infiltrated, erythematous-ferruginous plaque of indurated aspect on her right leg and a nonreactive PPD skin test. Diagnosis was made by tissue culture and PCR of skin biopsy material. The treatment was performed with pyrazinamide, rifampicin, isoniazid and ethambutol, with good response.

  12. Biological evaluation of human hair keratin scaffolds for skin wound repair and regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Songmei; Sang, Lin [National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Zhang, Yaping [Engineering Research Center of Biomass Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Wang, Xiaoliang [National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Li, Xudong, E-mail: xli20004@yahoo.com [National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2013-03-01

    The cytocompatibility, in vivo biodegradation and wound healing of keratin biomaterials were investigated. For the purposes, three groups of keratin scaffolds were fabricated by freeze-drying reduced solutions at 2 wt.%, 4 wt.% and 8 wt.% keratins extracted from human hairs. These scaffolds exhibited evenly distributed high porous structures with pore size of 120-220 {mu}m and the porosity > 90%. NIH3T3 cells proliferated well on these scaffolds in culture lasting up to 22 days. Confocal micrographs stained with AO visually revealed cell attachment and infiltration as well as scaffold architectural stability. In vivo animal experiments were conducted with 4 wt.% keratin scaffolds. Early degradation of subcutaneously implanted scaffolds occurred at 3 weeks in the outermost surface, in concomitant with inflammatory response. At 5 weeks, the overall porous structure of scaffolds severely deteriorated while the early inflammatory response in the outermost surface obviously subsided. A faster keratin biodegradation was observed in repairing full-thickness skin defects. Compared with the blank control, keratin scaffolds gave rise to more blood vessels at 2 weeks and better complete wound repair at 3 weeks with a thicker epidermis, less contraction and newly formed hair follicles. These preliminary results suggest that human hair keratin scaffolds are promising dermal substitutes for skin regeneration. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Preparation of highly-interconnected human hair keratin scaffolds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Long-term cell culturing and in vivo animal experiments with keratin scaffolds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biodegradation is dependent on implantation site and function Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Early vascularization and better repair in treating full-thickness skin wounds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A thicker epidermis, less contraction and newly formed hair follicles are observed.

  13. Effect of glycyrrhizin on pseudomonal skin infections in human-mouse chimeras.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohei Yoshida

    Full Text Available In our previous studies, peripheral blood lineage(-CD34(+CD31(+ cells (CD31(+ IMC appearing in severely burned patients have been characterized as inhibitor cells for the production of β-defensins (HBDs by human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK. In this study, the effect of glycyrrhizin on pseudomonal skin infections was studied in a chimera model of thermal injury. Two different chimera models were utilized. Patient chimeras were created in murine antimicrobial peptide-depleted NOD-SCID IL-2rγ(null mice that were grafted with unburned skin tissues of severely burned patients and inoculated with the same patient peripheral blood CD31(+ IMC. Patient chimera substitutes were created in the same mice that were grafted with NHEK and inoculated with experimentally induced CD31(+ IMC. In the results, both groups of chimeras treated with glycyrrhizin resisted a 20 LD50 dose of P. aeruginosa skin infection, while all chimeras in both groups treated with saline died within 3 days of the infection. Human antimicrobial peptides were detected from the grafted site tissues of both groups of chimeras treated with glycyrrhizin, while the peptides were not detected in the same area tissues of controls. HBD-1 was produced by keratinocytes in transwell-cultures performed with CD31(+ IMC and glycyrrhizin. Also, inhibitors (IL-10 and CCL2 of HBD-1 production by keratinocytes were not detected in cultures of patient CD31(+ IMC treated with glycyrrhizin. These results indicate that sepsis stemming from pseudomonal grafted site infections in a chimera model of burn injury is controllable by glycyrrhizin. Impaired antimicrobial peptide production at the infection site of severely burned patients may be restored after treatment with glycyrrhizin.

  14. The influence of stromal cells on the pigmentation of tissue-engineered dermo-epidermal skin grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, Thomas; Böttcher-Haberzeth, Sophie; Klar, Agnieszka S; Widmer, Daniel S; Pontiggia, Luca; Weber, Andreas D; Weber, Daniel M; Schiestl, Clemens; Meuli, Martin; Reichmann, Ernst

    2015-03-01

    It has been shown in vitro that melanocyte proliferation and function in palmoplantar skin is regulated by mesenchymal factors derived from fibroblasts. In this study, we investigated in vivo the influence of mesenchymal-epithelial interactions in human tissue-engineered skin substitutes reconstructed from palmar- and nonpalmoplantar-derived fibroblasts. Tissue-engineered dermo-epidermal analogs based on collagen type I hydrogels were populated with either human palmar or nonpalmoplantar fibroblasts and seeded with human nonpalmoplantar-derived melanocytes and keratinocytes. These skin substitutes were transplanted onto full-thickness skin wounds of immunoincompetent rats. Four weeks after transplantation the development of skin color was measured and grafts were excised and analyzed with regard to epidermal characteristics, in particular melanocyte number and function. Skin substitutes containing palmar-derived fibroblasts in comparison to nonpalmoplantar-derived fibroblasts showed (a) a significantly lighter pigmentation; (b) a reduced amount of epidermal melanin granules; and (c) a distinct melanosome expression. However, the number of melanocytes in the basal layer remained similar in both transplantation groups. These findings demonstrate that human palmar fibroblasts regulate the function of melanocytes in human pigmented dermo-epidermal skin substitutes after transplantation, whereas the number of melanocytes remains constant. This underscores the influence of site-specific stromal cells and their importance when constructing skin substitutes for clinical application.

  15. Vitreous substitutes: challenges and directions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian-Ying; Gao; Yue; Fu; Yan-Nian; Hui

    2015-01-01

    The natural vitreous body has a fine structure and complex functions. The imitation of the natural vitreous body by vitreous substitutes is a challenging work for both researchers and ophthalmologists. Gases, silicone oil, heavy silicone oil and hydrogels, particularly the former two vitreous substitutes are clinically widely used with certain complications. Those, however, are not real artificial vitreous due to lack of structure and function like the natural vitreous body. This article reviews the situations, challenges, and future directions in the development of vitreous substitutes, particularly the experimental and clinical use of a new artificial foldable capsular vitreous body.

  16. Pursuing prosthetic electronic skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chortos, Alex; Liu, Jia; Bao, Zhenan

    2016-09-01

    Skin plays an important role in mediating our interactions with the world. Recreating the properties of skin using electronic devices could have profound implications for prosthetics and medicine. The pursuit of artificial skin has inspired innovations in materials to imitate skin's unique characteristics, including mechanical durability and stretchability, biodegradability, and the ability to measure a diversity of complex sensations over large areas. New materials and fabrication strategies are being developed to make mechanically compliant and multifunctional skin-like electronics, and improve brain/machine interfaces that enable transmission of the skin's signals into the body. This Review will cover materials and devices designed for mimicking the skin's ability to sense and generate biomimetic signals.

  17. Please pass me the skin coloured crayon!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, Martina; Levisen, Carsten; Beck, Thorhalla Gudmundsdottir

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the cultural semantics of colour words in the four urban, European communities of Munich, Berne, Aarhus, and Reykjavik, focussing on hautfarben (German), hutfarb (Bernese Swiss German), hudfarvet (Danish), and húðlitur (Icelandic), all of which can be translated as ‘skin colou...

  18. Skin absorption through atopic dermatitis skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling-Overgaard, A-S; Kezic, S; Jakasa, I

    2017-01-01

    Patients with atopic dermatitis have skin barrier impairment in both lesional and non-lesional skin. They are typically exposed to emollients daily and topical anti-inflammatory medicaments intermittently, hereby increasing the risk of developing contact allergy and systemic exposed to chemicals...... ingredients found in these topical preparations. We systematically searched for studies that investigated skin absorption of various penetrants, including medicaments, in atopic dermatitis patients, but also animals with experimentally induced dermatitis. We identified 40 articles, i.e. 11 human studies...... examining model penetrants, 26 human studies examining atopic dermatitis drugs and 3 animal studies. We conclude that atopic dermatitis patients have nearly two-fold increased skin absorption when compared to healthy controls. There is a need for well-designed epidemiological and dermato...

  19. What Is Melanoma Skin Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z About Melanoma Skin Cancer What Is Melanoma Skin Cancer? Key Statistics for Melanoma Skin Cancer What’s New in Melanoma ... Policy . About Melanoma Skin Cancer What Is Melanoma Skin Cancer? Key Statistics for Melanoma Skin Cancer What’s New in Melanoma ...

  20. Factor substitution in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, John; Grabowski, David C; Hirth, Richard A

    2006-03-01

    This paper studies factor substitution in one important sector: the nursing home industry. Specifically, we measure the extent to which nursing homes substitute materials for labor when labor becomes relatively more expensive. From a policy perspective, factor substitution in this market is important because materials-intensive methods of care are associated with greater risks of morbidity and mortality among nursing home residents. Studying longitudinal data from 1991 to 2000 on nearly every nursing home in the United States, we use the method of instrumental variables (IV) to address measurement error in nursing home wages. The results from the IV models yield evidence of factor substitution: higher nursing home wages are associated with greater use of psychoactive drugs and lower quality.

  1. Nucleophilic Substitution by Benzodithioate Anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnans-Plaisance, Chantal; Gressier, Jean-Claude

    1988-01-01

    Describes a two-session experiment designed to provide a good illustration of, and to improve student knowledge of, the Grignard reaction and nucleophilic substitution. Discusses the procedure, experimental considerations, and conclusion of this experiment. (CW)

  2. Construction and histomorphological observation of tissue-engineered skins%组织工程皮肤的构建及组织形态学观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董丽; 王旭昇; 马绍英; 张乃丽; 周沫; 赵亚平; 李宝兴

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tissue-engineered skins are the earliest tissue-engineered products applied to the patients. However, some important properties including rapid revascularization, mechanical strength and permanent substitution are not perfect and remain to be improved. Therefore, relevant technical steps are expected to be taken to develop an ideal permanent skin substitute. OBJECTIVE: To construct tissue-engineered skins and observe the histological structure. METHODS: Allogenic acellular dermal matrix (ADM) as the dermal scaffold, pretreated with collagen Ⅳ and fibroblasts, were co-cultured with epidermal stem cells to construct tissue-engineered skins in vitro. Two steps during the co-culture were performed including submerging culture and air-liquid interface culture. Thereafter, the histological structure was observed by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The constructed tissue-engineered skins were made of two layers including the epidermis and dermis, the former consisted of multi-layer of epidermal cells in different differentiation conditions and the latter was the integral three-dimensional scaffold with intact collagen fibers. Tight connection could be seen between the epidermis and the dermis to form the integrated “skin”. So, in terms of histological structure, the constructed tissue-engineered skin can reach the histological requirements for the full-thick skin substitutes and can be further studied to be used as the replacement materials to repair skin defects in the clinic.%背景:应用于临床的组织工程皮肤具有血管化速度慢、力学强度差以及无法永久性保留等局限,因此,需要对相关技术环节进行改进以制备一种合适的永久性皮肤替代物.目的:建立一种构建有活性的双层组织工程皮肤的方法,并对其组织形态学进行观察.方法:以Ⅳ型胶原和成纤维细胞联合修饰的同种脱细胞真皮基质为支架,与表皮干细胞复合

  3. 靶向Wnt10b的小干扰RNA抑制胚胎皮肤毛囊发育的初步研究%Preliminary study on inhibition of the hair follicle development by siRNA targeting Wnt10b in the cultured rat embryonic skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪影畅; 李宇; 鲁峰; 胡志奇; 王森; 林常敏; 高建华

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether the suppression of Wnt10b by siRNA could prevent the development of hair follicle in the cultured rat embryonic skin. Methods siRNA-Wnt10b was synthesized by chemosynthesis method.The dorsal skin of SD rat at embryos were cultured in DMEM in the presence of different percentage of interfering RNA targeting Wnt10b. Wnt10b/β-catenin expression was analyzed by real-time PCR everyday and by Western blot on the third day. The cultured embryonic skin underwent paraffin embedding,section,HE staining on the third day,in which the number of de novo hair follicle was calculated and statistically analyzed. Results Wnt10b gene in the cultured embryonic skin could be knocked down with the siRNA-based method.β-catenin mRNA was not greatly influenced by the downregulation of Wnt10b mRNA.The number of de novo hair follicle placode in cultured embryonic skin decreased,along with the downregulation of Wnt10b and β-catenin proteins expression.Conclusions The downregulation of Wnt10b mRNA and protein by siRNA reduces the number of de novo hair follicle placode in the cultured rat embryonic skin.Wnt10b may control cytoplasm β-catenin concentration at the protein level.%目的 利用小干扰RNA(siRNA)抑制皮肤Wnt10b基因的表达,观察Wnt10b基因沉默能否抑制毛囊的发育并探讨其潜在机制.方法 化学合成siRNA-Wnt10b,将siRNA转染体外培养的胎鼠背部皮肤,荧光定量PCR检测转染后不同时间段皮肤组织Wnt10b和p-连环蛋白(β-catenin) mRNA的表达,Western blot检测转染后72 h皮肤组织的Wnt10b和β-catenin蛋白含量.将转染后72 h的皮肤组织石蜡包埋、切片,HE染色,镜下观察各组毛囊发育情况并做统计学处理.结果 siRNA-Wnt10b转染后的24、48 h,胎鼠背部皮肤Wnt10b mRNA的表达呈不同程度下降;但β-catenin mRNA表达未随Wnt10b mRNA水平的起伏而明显波动;转染后72 h,Wnt10b蛋白和β-catenin的蛋白表达同时减少,新形成

  4. Effect of p53 Inhibitor-α on Adriamycin Induced Apoptosis of Cultured Human Skin Keratinocytes in Vitro%p53抑制剂PFT-α对阿霉素诱导的人皮肤角质形成细胞凋亡的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兴洪; 刘彦群; 魏志平; 田美华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of p53 inhibitor-α (PFT-α) on adriamycin induced apoptosis of cultured human skin keratinocytes in vitro.Methods Human skin keratinocytes were cultured with 0, 4, 8, 12 mg/L PFT-α and adriamycin.Cell proliferation was detected by colorimetric assay of MTT.The optical density (OD) values were read on a scanning multiwell spectrophotometer (ELISA reader).Apoptosis rate of human skin keratinocytes was detected by flow cytometry.Results The proliferation of human skin keratinocytes was inhibited by adriamycin.If cells were pre-incubated with 8, 12mg/L PFT-α, OD value was significant higher and apoptosis induced by adriamycin was suppressed compared with control group (P <0.05).Conclusion This study suggested that PFT-α could partially inhibit adriamycin induced apoptosis of cultured human skin keratinocytes.%目的 探讨p53抑制剂PFT-α对阿霉素诱导的人皮肤角质形成细胞凋亡的影响.方法 用MTT法通过比色分析测定吸光度(OD)值,检测0,4,8,12mg/L PFT-α和阿霉素给药对角质形成细胞增殖的影响,用流式细胞仪检测细胞凋亡.结果 阿霉素抑制体外培养的人皮肤角质形成细胞增殖,先给予8,12mg/L PFT-α处理细胞,然后给予阿霉素,与对照组比较,PFT-α升高OD值(P<0.05),降低细胞凋亡率(P<0.05).结论 先行给予适当剂量PFT-α处理人皮肤角质形成细胞,能一定程度减轻阿霉素对人皮肤角质形成细胞的损伤,表现出对阿霉素致凋亡的保护作用.

  5. Effect of Antisense p53 Oligodeoxynucleotides on Adriamycin Inducing Apoptosis of Cultured Human Skin Keratinocytes in Vitro%反义p53寡核苷酸对阿霉素诱导的培养人皮肤角质形成细胞凋亡的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兴洪; 刘彦群; 田美华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of antisense p53 oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) on adriamycin inducing apoptosis of cultured human skin keratinocytes in vitro. Methods Human skin keratinocytes were cultured with 2mg/L adriamycin and transfected with 0.5mg/L antisense p53 ODN and different concentrations of liposome. Cell proliferation was detected by colorimetric assay of MTT. Then the optical density values were measured on a scanning multiwell spectrophotometer (ELISA reader). The mRNA of p53 was also observed by RT-PCR after transfection with antisense p53 ODN. Apoptosis rate of human skin keratinocytes was detected by flow cytometry. Results We found that the proliferation of human skin keratinocytes was inhibited by adriamycin. If cells were incubated with 0.5mg/L antisense p53 ODN and 5mg/L or 10mg/L liposome, p53 mRNA decreased. A value was significantly higher and apoptosis induced by adriamycin was suppressed (P<0.05). Conclusion This study suggests that antisense p53 ODN could partially inhibit adriamycin inducing apoptosis of cultured human skin keratinocytes.%目的 探讨反义p53寡核苷酸(ODN)对阿霉素诱导的培养人皮肤角质形成细胞凋亡的影响.方法 用MTT法检测不同浓度脂质体和0.5mg/L反义p53 ODN转染角质形成细胞后对2mg/L阿霉素抑制细胞增殖的影响;RT-PCR方法 测定p53 mRNA水平的变化;用流式细胞仪检测细胞凋亡.结果 阿霉素抑制体外培养的人皮肤角质形成细胞增殖,5mg/L、10mg/L的脂质体和0.5mg/L反义p53ODN转染细胞后,p53mRNA水平下降(P<0.05),细胞增殖能力增强(P<0.05),凋亡率降低(P<0.05).结论 给予适当剂量反义p53 ODN转染人皮肤角质形成细胞,能一定程度减轻阿霉素对细胞的损伤,表现出对阿霉素致凋亡的保护作用.

  6. Preliminary Study on Screeening Substitute of Raw Materials in Pleurotus cornucopiae Culture Media%姬菇栽培基质替代原料初步筛选研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄忠乾; 苗人云; 谭伟; 周洁; 郭勇; 唐利民; 郑林用

    2013-01-01

    Based on existing cultivation formulations in the main producing areas of Pleurotus cornuopiae,six cultivation formulations containing corn stalk,rape rod,wheat straw,kiwi sticks,mulberry cuttings,sorghum shell partial substitution of straw were used to cultivate P.cornucopiae.The results showed that,when P.comucopiae was cultivated in No.5 formulation (added sorghum shell),the mycelium growth potential was the strongest and fastest (0.92 cm/d),the fresh mushrooms yield (0.77 kg/bag) and proportion of S grade mushroom (high quality mushroom) was highest,fresh mushroom profits (1.21 yuan/bag) and salted mushroom profits (1.24 yuan/bag) were the highest.The conclusions were drawn that No.5 formulation should be used in production and the most suitable for C/N for P.cornucopiae cultivation material was (28-29):1.%针对近年姬菇栽培主要原料之一的稻草粉价格大幅度上涨,栽培成本不断增加,导致栽培经济效益不断下滑的现实问题,在主产区现有栽培料配方(CK)基础上,设计了6个姬菇栽培料配方,以农村丰富的玉米杆、油菜杆、小麦杆、猕猴桃枝、桑枝屑、高粱壳等资源部分替代稻草,进行姬菇栽培试验.结果表明,配方5(添加高粱充)的菌丝生长势强、生长速度最快(0.92 cm/d),鲜菇产量最高(0.77 kg/袋),高出CK(0.71 kg/袋)的8.45%,且差异显著;S级菇比例最高(69.68%),即优质菇的比例最高,高出CK(63.88%)的9.08%;其鲜菇利润(1.21元/袋)和盐渍菇利润(1.24元/袋)都最高,分别高出CK的9.1%和21.57%,这一配方部分替代料稻草,栽培经济效益高,可在生产上示范应用.认为姬菇培养料的最适宜C/N为(28~29)∶1.

  7. Skin barrier function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Renowned experts present the latest knowledge Although a very fragile structure, the skin barrier is probably one of the most important organs of the body. Inward/out it is responsible for body integrity and outward/in for keeping microbes, chemicals, and allergens from penetrating the skin. Since...... the role of barrier integrity in atopic dermatitis and the relationship to filaggrin mutations was discovered a decade ago, research focus has been on the skin barrier, and numerous new publications have become available. This book is an interdisciplinary update offering a wide range of information...... on the subject. It covers new basic research on skin markers, including results on filaggrin and on methods for the assessment of the barrier function. Biological variation and aspects of skin barrier function restoration are discussed as well. Further sections are dedicated to clinical implications of skin...

  8. Aquaporins in the Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ravi; Kevin Heard, L; Chen, Xunsheng; Bollag, Wendy B

    2017-01-01

    The skin is the largest organ of the body, serving as an important barrier between the internal milieu and the external environment. The skin is also one of the first lines of defense against microbial infection and other hazards, and thus, the skin has important immune functions . This organ is composed of many cell types, including immune-active dendritic cells (epidermal Langerhans cells and dermal dendritic cells), connective tissue-generating dermal fibroblasts and pigment-producing melanocytes. Comprising the outer skin layer are the epidermal keratinocytes, the predominant cell of this layer, the epidermis , which provides both a mechanical barrier and a water -permeability barrier. Recent data suggest that aquaporins, a family of barrel-shaped proteins surrounding internal pores that allow the passage of water and, in some family members, small solutes such as glycerol , play critical roles in regulating various skin parameters. The involvement of different aquaporin family members in skin function is discussed.

  9. The skin microbiome in healthy and allergic dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Rodrigues Hoffmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Changes in the microbial populations on the skin of animals have traditionally been evaluated using conventional microbiology techniques. The sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes has revealed that the human skin is inhabited by a highly diverse and variable microbiome that had previously not been demonstrated by culture-based methods. The goals of this study were to describe the microbiome inhabiting different areas of the canine skin, and to compare the skin microbiome of healthy and allergic dogs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: DNA extracted from superficial skin swabs from healthy (n = 12 and allergic dogs (n = 6 from different regions of haired skin and mucosal surfaces were used for 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Principal coordinates analysis revealed clustering for the different skin sites across all dogs, with some mucosal sites and the perianal regions clustering separately from the haired skin sites. The rarefaction analysis revealed high individual variability between samples collected from healthy dogs and between the different skin sites. Higher species richness and microbial diversity were observed in the samples from haired skin when compared to mucosal surfaces or mucocutaneous junctions. In all examined regions, the most abundant phylum and family identified in the different regions of skin and mucosal surfaces were Proteobacteria and Oxalobacteriaceae. The skin of allergic dogs had lower species richness when compared to the healthy dogs. The allergic dogs had lower proportions of the Betaproteobacteria Ralstonia spp. when compared to the healthy dogs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The study demonstrates that the skin of dogs is inhabited by much more rich and diverse microbial communities than previously thought using culture-based methods. Our sequence data reveal high individual variability between samples collected from different patients. Differences in species richness was also seen between

  10. Basophils and skin disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borriello, Francesco; Granata, Francescopaolo; Marone, Gianni

    2014-05-01

    Since their discovery in 1879, basophils have been viewed as circulating blood granulocytes with limited immune function. New research tools for their functional analysis in vivo have revealed previously unrecognized roles for basophils in several skin disorders. Human basophils infiltrate different skin lesions and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diseases ranging from chronic idiopathic urticaria to systemic lupus erythematosus. In mouse models, basophils participate in IgE-mediated chronic allergic inflammation of the skin and have a protective role in tick infestation. In this review, we discuss critical advances in our understanding of basophil biology and their roles in the pathophysiology of skin disorders.

  11. Skin Images Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali E. Zaart

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Image segmentation is a fundamental step in many applications of image processing. Skin cancer has been the most common of all new cancers detected each year. At early stage detection of skin cancer, simple and economic treatment can cure it mostly. An accurate segmentation of skin images can help the diagnosis to define well the region of the cancer. The principal approach of segmentation is based on thresholding (classification that is lied to the problem of the thresholds estimation. Approach: The objective of this study is to develop a method to segment the skin images based on a mixture of Beta distributions. We assume that the data in skin images can be modeled by a mixture of Beta distributions. We used an unsupervised learning technique with Beta distribution to estimate the statistical parameters of the data in skin image and then estimate the thresholds for segmentation. Results: The proposed method of skin images segmentation was implemented and tested on different skin images. We obtained very good results in comparing with the same techniques with Gamma distribution. Conclusion: The experiment showed that the proposed method obtained very good results but it requires more testing on different types of skin images.

  12. Daily skin cleansing with chlorhexidine did not reduce the rate of central-line associated bloodstream infection in a surgical intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovich, Kyle J; Hota, Bala; Hayes, Robert; Weinstein, Robert A; Hayden, Mary K

    2010-05-01

    Cleansing the skin of intensive care unit (ICU) patients daily with chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) has been associated with beneficial effects, including a reduction in central-line-associated bacteremias (CLABSIs). Most studies have been done in medical ICUs. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of daily chlorhexidine skin cleansing on CLABSI rates in a surgical ICU. In Fall 2005, the 30-bed surgical ICU at Rush University Medical Center discontinued daily soap-and-water bathing of patients and substituted skin cleansing with no-rinse, 2% CHG-impregnated cloths. This change was made without research investigator input or oversight. Using administrative, microbiological and infection control practitioner databases, we compared rates of CLABSIs and blood culture contamination during soap-and-water bathing (September 2004-October 2005) and CHG cleansing (November 2005-October 2006) periods. Rates of other nosocomial infections that were not expected to be affected by CHG bathing (secondary bacteremia, Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, ventilator-associated pneumonia, urinary tract infection) were included as control variables. There was no significant difference in the CLABSI rate between soap-and-water and CHG bathing periods (3.81/1,000 central line days vs. 4.6/1,000 central line days; p = 0.57). Blood culture contamination declined during CHG bathing (5.97/1,000 to 2.41/1,000 patient days; p = 0.003). Rates of other nosocomial infections did not change significantly. In this real-world effectiveness trial, daily cleansing of surgical ICU patients' skin with CHG had no effect on CLABSI rates, but was associated with half the rate of blood culture contamination. Controlled trials in surgical ICUs are needed to determine whether CHG bathing can prevent infections in this setting.

  13. Magnesium substitution in brushite cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhraisat, Mohammad Hamdan; Cabrejos-Azama, Jatsue; Rodríguez, Carmen Rueda; Jerez, Luis Blanco; Cabarcos, Enrique López

    2013-01-01

    The use of magnesium-doped ceramics has been described to modify brushite cements and improve their biological behavior. However, few studies have analyzed the efficiency of this approach to induce magnesium substitution in brushite crystals. Mg-doped ceramics composed of Mg-substituted β-TCP, stanfieldite and/or farringtonite were reacted with primary monocalcium phosphate (MCP) in the presence of water. The cement setting reaction has resulted in the formation of brushite and newberyite within the cement matrix. Interestingly, the combination of SAED and EDX analyses of single crystal has indicated the occurrence of magnesium substitution within brushite crystals. Moreover, the effect of magnesium ions on the structure, and mechanical and setting properties of the new cements was characterized as well as the release of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) ions. Further research would enhance the efficiency of the system to incorporate larger amounts of magnesium ions within brushite crystals.

  14. On Regular Power-Substitution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huanyin CHEN

    2009-01-01

    The necessary and sufficient conditions under which a ring satisfies regular power-substitution are investigated. It is shown that a ring R satisfies regular power-substitution if and only if a(-~)b in R implies that there exist n ∈ N and a U ∈ GLn(R) such that aU =Ub if and only if for any regular x ∈ R there exist m,n ∈ N and U ∈ GLn(R) such that xmIn = xmUxm, where a(-~)b means that there exists x, y, z ∈ R such that a = ybx, b = xaz and x = xyx = xzx. It is proved that every directly finite simple ring satisfies regular power-substitution. Some applications for stably free R-modules are also obtained.

  15. 40 CFR 721.10040 - Substituted acridine naphtha substituted benzamide (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted acridine naphtha... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10040 Substituted acridine naphtha substituted... substance identified generically as a substituted acridine naphtha substituted benzamide (PMN P-02-522) is...

  16. 40 CFR 721.2577 - Copper complex of (substituted sulfonaphthyl azo substituted phenyl) disulfonaphthyl azo, amine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Copper complex of (substituted... Copper complex of (substituted sulfonaphthyl azo substituted phenyl) disulfonaphthyl azo, amine salt... substances identified generically as copper complex of (substituted sulfonaphthyl azo substituted...

  17. Skin Diseases: Skin and Sun—Not a good mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin and Sun —Not a good mix Past Issues / ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Good skin care begins with sun safety. Whether it is ...

  18. Dark Skin No Shield from Deadly Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166194.html Dark Skin No Shield From Deadly Skin Cancer Death rates from melanoma are higher for people of color, skin expert says To use the sharing features on ...

  19. Parasites and the skin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-06-11

    Jun 11, 2009 ... remind you of those rare and wonderful infestations that you might never see. ... from a burrow, mounted on a glass slide. The findings are ... Parasitic infections may be confined to the skin or may have skin involvement as part ...

  20. Skin tribology: Science friction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, van der E.; Zeng, X.; Masen, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    The application of tribological knowledge is not just restricted to optimizing mechanical and chemical engineering problems. In fact, effective solutions to friction and wear related questions can be found in our everyday life. An important part is related to skin tribology, as the human skin is fre

  1. Deformable skinning on bones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bent Dalgaard; Petersen, Kim Steen; Jakobsen, Bjarke

    2001-01-01

    Applying skin to a model is a relatively simple task to implement. Nonetheless it seems that no good resource exists that describes both the concepts and math necessary to understand and implement skinning. The intention of this article is an attempt to give a thoroughly description...

  2. Tissue culture: the unrealized potential

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Gordon

    2007-01-01

    Lack of differentiated functions of the tissue of origin in tissue culture thought to be due to dedifferentiation was shown to be due to selective overgrowth of fibroblasts. Enrichment culture techniques, (alternate animal and culture passage), designed to give the functionally differentiated cells selective advantage over the fibroblasts resulted in a large number of functionally differentiated clonal strains. Thus the dogma of dedifferentiation was destroyed. It is proposed to substitute th...

  3. Towards embryonic-like scaffolds for skin tissue engineering: identification of effector molecules and construction of scaffolds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijtdewilligen, P.J.E.; Versteeg, E.M.M.; Gilissen, C.F.; Reijmersdal, S.V. van; Schoppmeyer, R.; Wismans, R.G.; Daamen, W.F.; Kuppevelt, T.H. van

    2016-01-01

    Autologous skin grafts are the gold standard for the treatment of burn wounds. In a number of cases, treatment with autologous tissue is not possible and skin substitutes are used. The outcome, however, is not optimal and improvements are needed. Inspired by scarless healing in early embryonic devel

  4. Substituted decision making: elder guardianship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherman, Martha E; Goethe, Katherine E

    2009-11-01

    The goal of this column is to help experienced clinicians navigate the judicial system when they are confronted with requests for capacity evaluations that involve guardianship (conservatorship). The interface between the growing elderly medical population and increasing requests for substituted decision making is becoming more complex. This column will help practicing psychiatrists understand the medical, legal, and societal factors involved in adult guardianship. Such understanding is necessary in order to effectively perform guardianship evaluations and adequately inform courts, patients, and families about the psychiatric diagnoses central to substituted decision making.

  5. Hypoxic radiosensitizers: substituted styryl derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nudelman, A; Falb, E; Odesa, Y; Shmueli-Broide, N

    1994-10-01

    A number of novel styryl epoxides, N-substituted-styryl-ethanolamines, N-mono and N,N'-bis-(2-hydroxyethyl)-cinnamamides--analogues to the known radiosensitizers RSU-1069, pimonidazole and etanidazole--display selective hypoxic radiosensitizing activity. The styryl group, especially when substituted by electron withdrawing groups, was found to be bioisosteric to the nitroimidazolyl functionality. The most active derivative 2-(2'-nitrophenyl)ethen-1-yl-oxirane 8a displayed a sensitizer enhancement ratio (SER) of 5 relative to misonidazole.

  6. Bionanomaterials for skin regeneration

    CERN Document Server

    Leonida, Mihaela D

    2016-01-01

    This book gives a concise overview of bionanomaterials with applications for skin regeneration. The advantages and challenges of nanoscale materials are covered in detail, giving a basic view of the skin structure and conditions that require transdermal or topical applications. Medical applications, such as wound healing, care for burns, skin disease, and cosmetic care, such as aging of the skin and photodamage, and how they benefit from bionanomaterials, are described in detail. A final chapter is devoted to the ethical and social issues related to the use of bionanomaterials for skin regeneration. This is an ideal book for researchers in materials science, medical scientists specialized in dermatology, and cosmetic chemists working in formulations. It can also serve as a reference for nanotechnologists, dermatologists, microbiologists, engineers, and polymer chemists, as well as students studying in these fields.

  7. Skin Whitening Cosmetics: Feedback and Challenges in the Development of Natural Skin Lighteners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Burger

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available With the public’s growing interest in skin whitening, lightening ingredients only used under dermatological supervision until recently, are more and more frequently incorporated into cosmetic formulas. The active agents that lighten skin tone are either natural or synthetic substances, and may act at various levels of melanogenesis. They are used to treat various skin pigmentation disorders or simply to obtain a lighter skin tone as whiter skin may be synonymous of wealth, health, youth, and/or beauty in different cultures. However, recent studies demonstrated the adverse effects of some of these ingredients, leading to their interdiction or restricted use under the European Directive and several other international regulations. After an overview of skin whitening practices and the associated risks, this article provides insight into the mechanisms involved in melanin synthesis and the biological assays available to attest the lightening activity of individual ingredients. The legislation dealing with the use of skin lighteners is then discussed. As traditional depigmenting agents such as hydroquinone and corticosteroids are of safety concern, the potential of natural extracts has been investigated more and more; finally, a synthesis of three years of research in our laboratory for such plant extracts will be given.

  8. Formulation and evaluation of hydrous and anhydrous skin whitening products containing sodium ascorbyl phosphate and kojic acid dipalmitate / Marike Ganz

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    In Asia skin lightening products have grown to be the best selling skin care products, whereas in the Western hemisphere, including Europe and North America, the main demand is for the treatment of age spots and skin even toning. For African and Asian women, skin lightening is part of their culture, as lighter skin signifies increased wealth and social status. It is believed that blending vitamin C, or its derivates, with kojic acid, or its esters, could synergistically inhibit...

  9. Recent prospective of nanofiber scaffolds fabrication approaches for skin regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi-Aghkand, Fateme; Gholizadeh-Ghaleh Aziz, Shiva; Panahi, Yunes; Daraee, Hadis; Gorjikhah, Fateme; Gholizadeh-Ghaleh Aziz, Sara; Hsanzadeh, Arash; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl

    2016-11-01

    The largest organ of human body is skin, which acting as a barrier with immunologic, sensorial and protective functions. It is always in exposure to the external environment, which can result many different types of damage and injury with loss of variable volumes of extracellular matrix (ECM). For the treatment of skin lesions and damages, several approaches are now accessible, such as the application of allografts, autografts, and tissue-engineered substitutes, wound dressings and nanofiber scaffolds approaches. Even though proven clinically effective, these methods are still characterized by main drawbacks such as patient inadequate vascularization, morbidity, the inability to reproduce skin appendages, low adherence to the wound bed and high manufacturing costs. Advanced approaches based on nanofiber scaffolds approaches offer a permanent, viable and effective substitute to explain the drawbacks of skin regeneration and repair by combining growth factors, cells, and biomaterials and advanced biomanufacturing methods. This review details recent advances of nanofiber scaffolds in skin regeneration and repair strategies, and describes a synthesis method of nanofiber scaffolds.

  10. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table ... Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. The ...

  11. Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... removed. That is the most common form of skin cancer and not as dangerous as melanoma. Photo: Corbis ...

  12. Photoreactivation in bacteria and in skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, B M

    1980-01-01

    In many procaryotic and eucaryotic cells, photoreactivating enzyme mediates light-dependent repair of uv-induced damage; the enzyme binds to a pyrimidine dimer in DNA, and, on absorption of a photon (300 to 600 nm), specifically monomerizes the dimer, thus repairing the DNA. Photoreactivating enzyme has been found in human tissues and human cells in culture can photoreactivate cellular dimers, and can mediate photoreactivation of Herpes (human fibroblasts) and Epstein-Barr virus (human leukocytes). Measurements of pyrimidine dimer formation and repair in human skin indicate that detectable numbers of dimers are formed at 1 minimal erythemal dose, that the dimiers are rapidly removed in skin kept in the absence of light, and they are more rapidly removed when the skin is exposed to visible light. Whether this apparent photorecovery is true, enzymatic photoreactivation is yet to be determined.

  13. Tax Rates as Strategic Substitutes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. de Mooij (Ruud); H. Vrijburg (Hendrik)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analytically derives the conditions under which the slope of the tax reaction function is negative in a classical tax competition model. If countries maximize welfare, we show that a negative slope (reflecting strategic substitutability) occurs under relatively mild conditions

  14. Tax rates as strategic substitutes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Vrijburg (Hendrik); R.A. de Mooij (Ruud)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analytically derives conditions under which the slope of the tax-reaction function is negative in a classical tax competition model. If countries maximize welfare, a negative slope (reflecting strategic substitutability) occurs under relatively mild conditions. The strategic t

  15. Tax rates as strategic substitutes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Vrijburg (Hendrik); R.A. de Mooij (Ruud)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analytically derives conditions under which the slope of the tax-reaction function is negative in a classical tax competition model. If countries maximize welfare, a negative slope (reflecting strategic substitutability) occurs under relatively mild conditions. The strategic t

  16. No Substitute Teacher Left behind

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Schools and districts routinely recruit, retain, and support highly qualified teachers to ensure that students receive the best learning opportunities. However, even if one's school employs highly qualified full-time teachers, it is important to acknowledge that substitute teachers also have a significant impact on the education of students. One…

  17. Skin Picking Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Cetinay Aydin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Skin picking disorder is not a dermatological disorder and it is a table characterized with picking skin excessively and repetitively, leading to damage in skin tissue. Unlike normal picking behaviour, psychogenic skin picking is repetitive and it can lead to severe damage in the skin and even complications which constitute vital danger. While some patients define frequent but short lasting picking attacks, others define rarer attacks which last a few hours. Skin picking disorder, which is not included in the classification systems up to DSM-5 as a separate diagnosis category, is included as an independent diagnosis in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and Associated Disorders category in DSM-5. In case reports, open label studies and double blind studies selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are shown to be effective in the treatment of skin picking disorder. Mostly, cognitive-behaviourial techniques are used and have been proven to be useful in psychotherapy. Habit reversal is one of the behaviourial techniques which are frequently applied, give positive results in which well-being state can be maintained. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(4.000: 401-428

  18. Archaea on human skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J Probst

    Full Text Available The recent era of exploring the human microbiome has provided valuable information on microbial inhabitants, beneficials and pathogens. Screening efforts based on DNA sequencing identified thousands of bacterial lineages associated with human skin but provided only incomplete and crude information on Archaea. Here, we report for the first time the quantification and visualization of Archaea from human skin. Based on 16 S rRNA gene copies Archaea comprised up to 4.2% of the prokaryotic skin microbiome. Most of the gene signatures analyzed belonged to the Thaumarchaeota, a group of Archaea we also found in hospitals and clean room facilities. The metabolic potential for ammonia oxidation of the skin-associated Archaea was supported by the successful detection of thaumarchaeal amoA genes in human skin samples. However, the activity and possible interaction with human epithelial cells of these associated Archaea remains an open question. Nevertheless, in this study we provide evidence that Archaea are part of the human skin microbiome and discuss their potential for ammonia turnover on human skin.

  19. Skin and antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljsak, Borut; Dahmane, Raja; Godic, Aleksandar

    2013-04-01

    It is estimated that total sun exposure occurs non-intentionally in three quarters of our lifetimes. Our skin is exposed to majority of UV radiation during outdoor activities, e.g. walking, practicing sports, running, hiking, etc. and not when we are intentionally exposed to the sun on the beach. We rarely use sunscreens during those activities, or at least not as much and as regular as we should and are commonly prone to acute and chronic sun damage of the skin. The only protection of our skin is endogenous (synthesis of melanin and enzymatic antioxidants) and exogenous (antioxidants, which we consume from the food, like vitamins A, C, E, etc.). UV-induced photoaging of the skin becomes clinically evident with age, when endogenous antioxidative mechanisms and repair processes are not effective any more and actinic damage to the skin prevails. At this point it would be reasonable to ingest additional antioxidants and/or to apply them on the skin in topical preparations. We review endogenous and exogenous skin protection with antioxidants.

  20. Deceased donor skin allograft banking: Response and utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gore Madhuri

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the absence of xenograft and biosynthetic skin substitutes, deceased donor skin allografts is a feasible option for saving life of patient with extensive burn injury in our country. Aims: The first deceased donor skin allograft bank in India became functional at Lokmanya Tilak Municipal (LTM medical college and hospital on 24 th April 2000. The response of Indian society to this new concept of skin donation after death and the pattern of utilization of banked allografts from 2000 to 2010 has been presented in this study. Settings and Design: This allograft skin bank was established by the department of surgery. The departments of surgery and microbiology share the responsibility of smooth functioning of the bank. Materials and Methods: The response in terms of number of donations and the profile of donors was analyzed from records. Pattern and outcome of allograft utilization was studied from specially designed forms. Results: During these ten years, 262 deceased donor skin allograft donations were received. The response showed significant improvement after counselling was extended to the community. Majority of the donors were above 70 years of age and procurement was done at home for most. Skin allografts from 249 donors were used for 165 patients in ten years. The outcome was encouraging with seven deaths in 151 recipients with burn injuries. Conclusions: Our experience shows that the Indian society is ready to accept the concept of skin donation after death. Use of skin allografts is life saving for large burns. We need to prepare guidelines for the establishment of more skin banks in the country.

  1. Eicosanoids in skin inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaou, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Eicosanoids play an integral part in homeostatic mechanisms related to skin health and structural integrity. They also mediate inflammatory events developed in response to environmental factors, such as exposure to ultraviolet radiation, and inflammatory and allergic disorders, including psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. This review article discusses biochemical aspects related to cutaneous eicosanoid metabolism, the contribution of these potent autacoids to skin inflammation and related conditions, and considers the importance of nutritional supplementation with bioactives such as omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and plant-derived antioxidants as means of addressing skin health issues.

  2. Ultrasound skin tightening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkis, Kira; Alam, Murad

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound skin tightening is a noninvasive, nonablative method that allows for energy deposition into the deep dermal and subcutaneous tissue while avoiding epidermal heating. Ultrasound coagulation is confined to arrays of 1-mm(3) zones that include the superficial musculoaponeurotic system and connective tissue. This technology gained approval from the Food and Drug Administration as the first energy-based skin "lifting" device, specifically for lifting lax tissue on the neck, submentum, and eyebrows. Ultrasound has the unique advantage of direct visualization of treated structures during treatment. Ultrasound is a safe and efficacious treatment for mild skin tightening and lifting.

  3. Leishmania Skin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    2009, a dose of 50µg will be used in the design of a phase III clinical trial. 15. SUBJECT TERMS LtSTA = Leishmania tropica Skin Test Antigen 16...2010 on a Leishmania Skin Test (LtSTA) developed from the promastigotes of Leishmania tropica . During this period a phase IIB study was in progress...diluent. The final product is referred to as Leishmania tropica Skin Test Antigen (LtSTA). Figure 3 is a schematic diagram of the Drug Product

  4. Recovery and Cultivation of Keratinocytes From Shipped Mouse Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hsin-Ya; La, Thi Dinh; Gurenko, Zhanna; Steenhuis, Pieter; Liu, Wei; Isseroff, R Rivkah

    2015-02-01

    Murine keratinocyte culture from neonatal skin is an important tool for studying the functional role of specific genes in epithelial biology. However, when the transgenic animal is only available in a geographically distant local, obtaining viable keratinocytes can be problematic. A method for transferring the isolated murine skin from collaborating labs could decrease the cost of shipping live animals, and would allow the efficient use of the tissues from the transgenic animals. Here we optimized shipping conditions and characterized the cells retrieved and cultured from mouse skin shipped for 48 h at 0 °C. The cultured keratinocytes from the control, non-shipped skin and the 2-day shipped skin were 43.6 +/- 7.8% viable, doubled every 2 days, and expressed comparable amounts of heat shock proteins and CD29/integrin beta-1. However, under the same shipping conditions, the 3-day shipped tissue failed to establish colonies in the culture. Therefore, this 2-day shipping technique allows the transfer mouse skin from distant locations with recovery of viable, propagatable keratinocytes, facilitating long-distance collaborations.

  5. [Skin-picking disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeier, V; Peters, E; Gieler, U

    2015-10-01

    The disorder is characterized by compulsive repetitive skin-picking (SP), resulting in skin lesions. The patients must have undertaken several attempts to reduce or stop SP. The disorder must have led to clinically significant limitations in social, professional, or other important areas of life. The symptoms cannot be better explained by another emotional disorder or any other dermatological disease. In the new DSM-V, skin-picking disorder has been included in the diagnostic system as an independent disorder and describes the self-injury of the skin by picking or scratching with an underlying emotional disorder. SP is classified among the impulse-control disorders and is, thus, differentiated from compulsive disorders as such. There are often emotional comorbidities. In cases of pronounced psychosocial limitation, interdisciplinary cooperation with a psychotherapist and/or psychiatrist is indicated.

  6. Skin picking disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Keuthen, Nancy J; Lochner, Christine; Stein, Dan J

    2012-11-01

    Although skin picking has been documented in the medical literature since the 19th century, only now is it receiving serious consideration as a DSM psychiatric disorder in discussions for DSM-5. Recent community prevalence studies suggest that skin picking disorder appears to be as common as many other psychiatric disorders, with reported prevalences ranging from 1.4% to 5.4%. Clinical evaluation of patients with skin picking disorder entails a broad physical and psychiatric examination, encouraging an interdisciplinary approach to evaluation and treatment. Approaches to treatment should include cognitive-behavioral therapy (including habit reversal or acceptance-enhanced behavior therapy) and medication (serotonin reuptake inhibitors, N-acetylcysteine, or naltrexone). Based on clinical experience and research findings, the authors recommend several management approaches to skin picking disorder.

  7. Aging changes in skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stress Other causes of skin changes: Allergies to plants and other substances Climate Clothing Exposures to industrial and household chemicals Indoor heating Sunlight can cause: Loss of elasticity (elastosis) ...

  8. Radiation therapy -- skin care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000735.htm Radiation therapy - skin care To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. When you have radiation treatment for cancer, you may have some changes ...

  9. Scalded skin syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Severe bloodstream infection ( septicemia ) Spread to deeper skin infection ( cellulitis ) When to Contact a Medical Professional Call your provider or go to the emergency room if you have symptoms of this disorder. Prevention ... Alternative Names Ritter disease; Staphylococcal ...

  10. Skin Cancer Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Potential Partners for Comprehensive Cancer Control Coalitions References Statistics Rates by Race and Ethnicity Rates by State Trends Behavior Rates What CDC Is Doing Skin Cancer Prevention Progress Report The Burning Truth Initiative A ...

  11. Skin, Hair, and Nails

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... produce melanin, the pigment that gives skin its color. All people have roughly the same number of ...

  12. Allergy testing - skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patch tests - allergy; Scratch tests - allergy; Skin tests - allergy; RAST test; Allergic rhinitis - allergy testing; Asthma - allergy testing; Eczema - allergy testing; Hayfever - allergy testing; Dermatitis - allergy testing; Allergy testing; ...

  13. Skin graft - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/presentations/100100.htm Skin graft - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... 2017 Updated by: Debra G. Wechter, MD, FACS, general surgery practice specializing in breast cancer, Virginia Mason ...

  14. Impairments in Skin Integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphree, Rose W

    2017-09-01

    Altered skin integrity increases the chance of infection, impaired mobility, and decreased function and may result in the loss of limb or, sometimes, life. Skin is affected by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Intrinsic factors can include altered nutritional status, vascular disease issues, and diabetes. Extrinsic factors include falls, accidents, pressure, immobility, and surgical procedures. Ensuring skin integrity in the elderly requires a team approach and includes the individual, caregivers, and clinicians. The twenty-first century clinician has several online, evidence-based tools to assist with optimal treatment plans. Understanding best practices in addressing skin integrity issues can promote positive outcomes with the elderly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Designing pliable structural Skins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Peters, Brady; Nielsen, Stig Anton;

    2013-01-01

    Structural stability can be formed through structured or seemingly unstructured approaches to fold, plead or crumble paper. This paper reports on two projects that showcase how computational design approaches can help to widen the understanding and use of structural skins....

  16. An elastic second skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Betty; Kang, Soo-Young; Akthakul, Ariya; Ramadurai, Nithin; Pilkenton, Morgan; Patel, Alpesh; Nashat, Amir; Anderson, Daniel G.; Sakamoto, Fernanda H.; Gilchrest, Barbara A.; Anderson, R. Rox; Langer, Robert

    2016-08-01

    We report the synthesis and application of an elastic, wearable crosslinked polymer layer (XPL) that mimics the properties of normal, youthful skin. XPL is made of a tunable polysiloxane-based material that can be engineered with specific elasticity, contractility, adhesion, tensile strength and occlusivity. XPL can be topically applied, rapidly curing at the skin interface without the need for heat- or light-mediated activation. In a pilot human study, we examined the performance of a prototype XPL that has a tensile modulus matching normal skin responses at low strain (<40%), and that withstands elongations exceeding 250%, elastically recoiling with minimal strain-energy loss on repeated deformation. The application of XPL to the herniated lower eyelid fat pads of 12 subjects resulted in an average 2-grade decrease in herniation appearance in a 5-point severity scale. The XPL platform may offer advanced solutions to compromised skin barrier function, pharmaceutical delivery and wound dressings.

  17. Occupational skin diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahler, Vera; Aalto-Korte, Kristiina; Alfonso, Jose Hernan

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Work-related skin diseases (WSD) are caused or worsened by a professional activity. Occupational skin diseases (OSD) need to fulfil additional legal criteria which differ from country to country. OSD range amongst the five most frequently notified occupational diseases (musculoskeletal...... diseases, neurologic diseases, lung diseases, diseases of the sensory organs, skin diseases) in Europe. OBJECTIVE: To retrieve information and compare the current state of national frameworks and pathways to manage patients with occupational skin disease with regard to prevention, diagnosis, treatment...... in Science and Technology (COST) Action TD 1206 (StanDerm) (www.standerm.eu). RESULTS: Besides a national health service or a statutory health insurance, most European member states implemented a second insurance scheme specifically geared at occupational diseases [insurance against occupational risks...

  18. Skin lesion biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... procedure will leave a small indented area. This type of biopsy is often done when a skin cancer is ... may have stitches to close the area. This type of biopsy is often done to diagnose rashes . EXCISIONAL BIOPSY ...

  19. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Doctor Glossary of Terms Resources Resources Global Resources Cancer Centers Online Resources The Melanoma Book Clinical Trials Download a Skin Self-Exam Card Download a Patient Navigation Card ...

  20. Skin Diseases: Cross-section of human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Cross-section of human skin Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Logical Images, Inc. I n the areas of skin health and skin diseases, the NIH's National Institute ...

  1. Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenefelt PD

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Philip D Shenefelt,1 Debrah A Shenefelt2 1Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of South Florida, Tampa, 2Congregation Or Ahavah, Lutz, FL, USA Abstract: Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, "goose bumps", redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. Keywords: skin, skin disorders, spiritual, religious

  2. Fermentation of various sugars and sugar substitutes by oral microorganisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Boonyanit Thaweboon; Sroisiri Thaweboon; Doan Minh Tri

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine acid production of caries-associated strains of oral microorganisms and salivary microorganisms from sugar and sugar substitutes. Methods:Standard and clinical strains of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) and Candida albicans were incubated in peptone-yeast-extract media containing 1% test sugar (sucrose, glucose, fructose) or sugar substitutes (xylitol, sorbitol, trehalulose and palatinose) at 37 ℃in 5% CO2 for 24-48 h. The pH of each culture was measured and microbial growth was determined as optical density at 660 nm. Paraffin-stimulated saliva collected from high caries-risk persons were added to media containing 10%test sugar or sugar substitutes. The pH of medium was measured at each time interval from 0-90 minutes. Results:All types of sugar and trehalulose could be fermented by all test microorganisms in pH lower than 5.5 except sucrose by standard strain of L. casei. All sugar and sugar substitutes supported growth of all organisms except xylitol for S. mutans. In the fermentation assay by salivary microorganisms, all sugar could be utilized and produced pH< 5.5 within 10 minutes of incubation and the pH drop was prolonged to until 90 minutes. Conversely, xylitol and palatinose were not fermented by microorganisms in saliva. Conclusions:All test microorganisms could ferment sucrose, glucose, fructose and trehalulose to pH lower than 5.5. Sugar alcohols and palatinose were not utilized well by organisms and may be used as sugar substitutes to reduce dental caries incidence. However, further studies particularly clinical investigations are required to evaluate the cariogenicity of these sugar substitutes.

  3. Nicotinamide and the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Andrew C; Damian, Diona L

    2014-08-01

    Nicotinamide, an amide form of vitamin B3, boosts cellular energy and regulates poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase 1, an enzyme with important roles in DNA repair and the expression of inflammatory cytokines. Nicotinamide shows promise for the treatment of a wide range of dermatological conditions, including autoimmune blistering disorders, acne, rosacea, ageing skin and atopic dermatitis. In particular, recent studies have also shown it to be a potential agent for reducing actinic keratoses and preventing skin cancers.

  4. Mantoux Tuberculin Skin Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-11-22

    Learn how to evaluate people for latent TB infection with the Mantoux tuberculin skin test. This podcast includes sections on administering and reading the Mantoux tuberculin skin test, the standard method for detecting latent TB infection since the 1930s.  Created: 11/22/2006 by National Center for HIV, STD and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 12/12/2006.

  5. Skin Cancer - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Expand Section Skin Cancer: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Cáncer de piel: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español (Spanish) National Library of Medicine Ukrainian (українська ) Expand Section Skin Cancer - українська (Ukrainian) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Characters ...

  6. Ultraflexible organic photonic skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Tomoyuki; Zalar, Peter; Kaltenbrunner, Martin; Jinno, Hiroaki; Matsuhisa, Naoji; Kitanosako, Hiroki; Tachibana, Yutaro; Yukita, Wakako; Koizumi, Mari; Someya, Takao

    2016-04-01

    Thin-film electronics intimately laminated onto the skin imperceptibly equip the human body with electronic components for health-monitoring and information technologies. When electronic devices are worn, the mechanical flexibility and/or stretchability of thin-film devices helps to minimize the stress and discomfort associated with wear because of their conformability and softness. For industrial applications, it is important to fabricate wearable devices using processing methods that maximize throughput and minimize cost. We demonstrate ultraflexible and conformable three-color, highly efficient polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) and organic photodetectors (OPDs) to realize optoelectronic skins (oe-skins) that introduce multiple electronic functionalities such as sensing and displays on the surface of human skin. The total thickness of the devices, including the substrate and encapsulation layer, is only 3 μm, which is one order of magnitude thinner than the epidermal layer of human skin. By integrating green and red PLEDs with OPDs, we fabricate an ultraflexible reflective pulse oximeter. The device unobtrusively measures the oxygen concentration of blood when laminated on a finger. On-skin seven-segment digital displays and color indicators can visualize data directly on the body.

  7. DOSHIC PHYSIOLOGY OF SKIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivprasad Chiplunkar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The balance of dosha  represents the healthy state and imbalance will cause various diseases. In normalcy doshas will be performing their own functions and individual doshas will be having their own specific sites. By telling the various sthana of each dosha, different function that is taken up by individual dosha in different sites has been highlighted.By mentioning ‘sparshanendriyam’ as one of the sthana of vata dosha the sensory functions of skin to vata dosha has been emphasised. By mentioning ‘sparshanam’ as one of the sthana of pittadosha, the function of colouring/pigmentation of skin, which is majorly carried out  by melanocytes by secreting melanin pigment has been highlighted. Meda is one among the sthanas of kapha dosha; this can be considered as the adipose tissue of skin/below skin. Since sweda is mala of meda it can be also considered as the secretions from the eccrine glands.With respect to skin, sensory functions, both tactile and thermal is carried out by vata dosha more specifically vyana vata, pigmentation to the skin carried out by meloncytes by secreting melanin, it is nothing but function of pitta dosha more specifically brajaka pitta with the help of udana vata and finally production of sweat in sweat glands is the function of kapha. So there is the need for further study and research regarding the sthanas of all three doshas in different structures/organs in the body and its physiology.

  8. Zinc and skin biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Youichi; Kawamura, Tatsuyoshi; Shimada, Shinji

    2016-12-01

    Of all tissues, the skin has the third highest abundance of zinc in the body. In the skin, the zinc concentration is higher in the epidermis than in the dermis, owing to a zinc requirement for the active proliferation and differentiation of epidermal keratinocytes. Here we review the dynamics and functions of zinc in the skin as well as skin disorders associated with zinc deficiency, zinc finger domain-containing proteins, and zinc transporters. Among skin disorders associated with zinc deficiency, acrodermatitis enteropathica is a disorder caused by mutations in the ZIP4 transporter and subsequent zinc deficiency. The triad acrodermatitis enteropathica is characterized by alopecia, diarrhea, and skin lesions in acral, periorificial, and anogenital areas. We highlight the underlying mechanism of the development of acrodermatitis because of zinc deficiency by describing our new findings. We also discuss the accumulating evidence on zinc deficiency in alopecia and necrolytic migratory erythema, which is typically associated with glucagonomas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cell kinetics in a model of artificial skin. An immunohistochemical and flow cytometric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Casasco

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Bioengineered organs raised in vitro are candidate substitutes for natural organs in biological, pharmacological and clinical applications. We have studied cell kinetics in a human skin equivalent (HSE using a combined immunohistochemical and flow cytometric approach. Morphological analysis has shown that, relative to unstimulated natural skin, cell proliferation mainly occurs in the basal layer of the epidermal equivalent. Immunohistochemical and flow cytometric measurements of the growth fraction suggested a cell turnover comparable to that of natural skin. Immunohistochemical labelling indices matched well with flow cytometric data. These observations are consistent with morphological and histochemical data demonstrating normal cell differentiation and tissue architecture in HSE and suggest that such HSE may be a usefull substitute for human skin.

  10. [Changes in palmar skin blood flow, perfusion index and temperature during endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Maiko; Tanaka, Motoshige; Kusaka, Hitomi; Sakai, Masato; Minami, Toshiaki

    2010-12-01

    In endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy (ETS), it is required to perform accurate cautery of the sympathetic trunk. Monitoring of palmar skin blood flow and temperature has been used to assess the efficacy of ETS. This study investigated whether Perfusion Index (PI) is useful in assessing palmar skin blood flow and temperature in ETS. We studied 5 patients (1 man, 4 women) with palmar hyperhidrosis who had undergone a total of 10 ETS procedures. We measured skin blood flow, temperature and PI during ETS and evaluated the results. Significant correlations were found between increases in skin blood flow and PI after ETS in cases with the palmar skin temperature just before ETS of below 35 degrees C. In these cases, we can substitute increases in PI with increases in skin blood flow during ETS.

  11. Approaches in Substitution of Organic Solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    In substitution of harmful chemicals or products with less harmful or harmless ones, there are different approaches according to the different situations, the technical requirements to the substitutes, and the goals for the substitution. Three different cases are presented. The substitution process...... may be characterized by two phases, the invention phase and the implementation phase. Different qualifications are needed in the two phases, but a thorough knowledge of the production process in question is necessary in both....

  12. Smart Phones and their Substitutes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Mads; Gimpel, Gregory; Hedman, Jonas

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on data from a longitudinal field study, this paper investigates the influence of existing, better and stand-alone technology substitutes on the use of smart phones. By applying prospect theory, media richness theory, and business model literature, the purpose of this paper is to improve...... our understanding of the role of substitutes, device content fit issues, and implications for business models by asking the question: What is an effective business model to address the relationship between user preference and the fit of the smart phone and everyday task? The field study data suggest...... the need for business models to recognize that adoption decisions are reference-dependent and strongly influenced by the fit between task and smart phone....

  13. Effects of the re-innervation of organotypic skin explants on the epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebonvallet, Nicolas; Boulais, Nicholas; Le Gall, Christelle; Pereira, Ulysse; Gauché, Dominique; Gobin, Eric; Pers, Jacques-Olivier; Jeanmaire, Christine; Danoux, Louis; Pauly, Gilles; Misery, Laurent

    2012-02-01

    The nervous system takes part in skin homeostasis and interacts with skin cells. In in vitro organotypic skin models, these interactions are lost owing to the absence of nerve endings. We have developed an in vitro organotypic skin model based on a re-innervated human skin explant using primary sensory neurons from the dorsal root ganglia of rats. After 10 days of co-culture between skin explant and neurons, a dense network of nerve fibres was observed. The epidermis and dermis presented nerve fibres associated with cellular body from sensory neurons introduced in the co-culture. Epidermal thickness, cell density and quality of re-innervated skin explant were all higher when skin explants were re-innervated by sensory neurons at 10 days of culture. Proliferation of epidermal cell was not modified, but the apoptosis was significantly diminished. Hence, this innovative model of co-cultured skin explants and neurons allows better epidermal integrity and could be useful for studies concerning interactions between the skin and its peripheral nervous system.

  14. Metabolism of skin-absorbed resveratrol into its glucuronized form in mouse skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itsuo Murakami

    Full Text Available Resveratrol (RESV is a plant polyphenol, which is thought to have beneficial metabolic effects in laboratory animals as well as in humans. Following oral administration, RESV is immediately catabolized, resulting in low bioavailability. This study compared RESV metabolites and their tissue distribution after oral uptake and skin absorption. Metabolomic analysis of various mouse tissues revealed that RESV can be absorbed and metabolized through skin. We detected sulfated and glucuronidated RESV metabolites, as well as dihydroresveratrol. These metabolites are thought to have lower pharmacological activity than RESV. Similar quantities of most RESV metabolites were observed 4 h after oral or skin administration, except that glucuronidated RESV metabolites were more abundant in skin after topical RESV application than after oral administration. This result is consistent with our finding of glucuronidated RESV metabolites in cultured skin cells. RESV applied to mouse ears significantly suppressed inflammation in the TPA inflammation model. The skin absorption route could be a complementary, potent way to achieve therapeutic effects with RESV.

  15. 40 CFR 721.323 - Substituted acrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted acrylamide. 721.323... Substances § 721.323 Substituted acrylamide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as substituted acrylamide (PMN P-90-1687) is...

  16. 24 CFR 220.253 - Substitute mortgagors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Contract Rights and Obligations-Homes § 220.253 Substitute mortgagors. (a) Selling mortgagor. The mortgagee... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substitute mortgagors. 220.253... the Commissioner's approval of a substitute mortgagor, as provided by this section. (b)...

  17. 24 CFR 221.252 - Substitute mortgagors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Cost Homes § 221.252 Substitute mortgagors. (a) Selling mortgagor. The mortgagee may effect the release... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substitute mortgagors. 221.252... approval of a substitute mortgagor, as provided by this section. (b) Purchasing mortgagor. The...

  18. 40 CFR 721.5867 - Substituted phenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted phenol. 721.5867 Section... Substances § 721.5867 Substituted phenol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as substituted phenol (PMNs P-89-1125,...

  19. 40 CFR 721.9820 - Substituted triazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted triazole. 721.9820 Section... Substances § 721.9820 Substituted triazole. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as a substituted triazole (PMN P-90-1731)...

  20. Substitution reactions at boron atoms in metallacarboranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bregadze, Vladimir I; Timofeev, Sergei V; Sivaev, Igor B; Lobanova, Irina A [A.N. Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2004-05-31

    Data on substitution reactions at boron atoms in 10-12-vertex metallacarboranes, which are of fundamental and applied significance, are generalised. The possible mechanisms of substitution reactions and the influence of the metal fragment on substitution positions in the polyhedron are discussed.

  1. 40 CFR 721.8775 - Substituted pyridines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted pyridines. 721.8775... Substances § 721.8775 Substituted pyridines. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted pyridine (PMN P-84-1219)...

  2. Iridium-Catalyzed Allylic Substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, John F.; Pouy, Mark J.

    Iridium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic substitution has become a valuable method to prepare products from the addition of nucleophiles at the more substituted carbon of an allyl unit. The most active and selective catalysts contain a phosphoramidite ligand possessing at least one arylethyl substituent on the nitrogen atom of the ligand. In these systems, the active catalyst is generated by a base-induced cyclometalation at the methyl group of this substituent to generate an iridium metalacycle bound by the COD ligand of the [Ir(COD)Cl]2 precursor and one additional labile dative ligand. Such complexes catalyze the reactions of linear allylic esters with alkylamines, arylamines, phenols, alcohols, imides, carbamates, ammonia, enolates and enolate equivalents, as well as typical stabilized carbon nucleophiles generated from malonates and cyanoesters. Iridium catalysts for enantioselective allylic substitution have also been generated from phosphorus ligands with substituents bound by heteroatoms, and an account of the studies of such systems, along with a description of the development of iridium catalysts is included.

  3. Taurine as a marker for the identification of natural Calculus Bovis and its substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Kayoko; Azuma, Yuko; Kawase, Masaya; Takahashi, Toshiharu; Schaffer, Stephen W; Takahashi, Kyoko

    2013-01-01

    Calculus Bovis (C. Bovis) is a commonly used animal-derived therapeutic preparation. To meet the increasing clinical demand for the preparation, two artificial substitutes for Bos Taurus have been introduced in China: artificial C. Bovis and in vitro cultured C. Bovis. However, information on their efficacy and safety is inadequate. Therefore, we investigated the biological differences between the commonly used natural preparation and its two substitutes, with the aim of not only identifying the differences but also providing a procedure to distinguish between the different preparations.In the study, we prepared 9 natural C. Bovis, 2 artificial C. Bovis, and 2 in vitro cultured C. Bovis preparations for evaluation. Differences were noted between the three preparations relative to their effect on viability of cardiac fibroblasts from 1-day-old Wistar rats. Although natural C. Bovis had no effect on cell viability, 1-h treatment of the cells with 0.25 mg/ml of the substitutes significantly reduced cell viability, as detected by the MTS assay. Based on liquid chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, the preparations also differed in composition. Indeed, the substitutes contained more taurine, cholic acid, iron, magnesium, and calcium than the natural preparations. They also differed spectroscopically.The present results reveal significant biological differences between natural C. Bovis and two of its substitutes. Since the substitutes appear to contain more taurine, cholic acid, and elements, these constituents may serve as markers to distinguish between natural C. Bovis and its substitutes.

  4. New experimental models of skin homeostasis and diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcher, F; Espada, J; Díaz-Ley, B; Jaén, P; Juarranz, A; Quintanilla, M

    2015-01-01

    Homeostasis, whose regulation at the molecular level is still poorly understood, is intimately related to the functions of epidermal stem cells. Five research groups have been brought together to work on new in vitro and in vivo skin models through the SkinModel-CM program, under the auspices of the Spanish Autonomous Community of Madrid. This project aims to analyze the functions of DNA methyltransferase 1, endoglin, and podoplanin in epidermal stem cell activity, homeostasis, and skin cancer. These new models include 3-dimensional organotypic cultures, immunodeficient skin-humanized mice, and genetically modified mice. Another aim of the program is to use skin-humanized mice to model dermatoses such as Gorlin syndrome and xeroderma pigmentosum in order to optimize new protocols for photodynamic therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  5. [A case of skin cryptococcosis in systemic lupus erythematosus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halweg, H; Korzeniewska-Koseła, M; Podsiadło, B; Krakówka, P

    1990-01-01

    Here is presented a case of woman treated by immunosuppressive preparations because of systemic lupus erythematosus with ski manifestations as tubercles and ulcerations on skin of trunk and extremities. On the basis of histological examination of tubercle skin specimens and mycological examinations of material obtained from skin ulcerations cryptococcosis was diagnosed. Disease was limited to skin that was an entry of infection. Patient was treated by Amphotericin B administered intravenously and Flucitosine per os. Amphotericin B was also applied topically. The results of cultures became gradually negative, up to total disappearance of fungus cells in direct specimens, prepared from examined material. After treatment continuing for 5 months only discoloured scars were observed on sick skin.

  6. 40 CFR 721.1555 - Substituted phenyl azo substituted benzenediazonium salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... benzenediazonium salt. 721.1555 Section 721.1555 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1555 Substituted phenyl azo substituted benzenediazonium salt. (a... generically as a substituted phenyl azo substituted benzenediazonium salt (PMN P-92-652) is subject to...

  7. Recent Progress in Electronic Skin

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiandi; Dong, Lin; Zhang, Hanlu; Yu, Ruomeng; Pan, Caofeng; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-01-01

    The skin is the largest organ of the human body and can sense pressure, temperature, and other complex environmental stimuli or conditions. The mimicry of human skin's sensory ability via electronics is a topic of innovative research that could find broad applications in robotics, artificial intelligence, and human–machine interfaces, all of which promote the development of electronic skin (e‐skin). To imitate tactile sensing via e‐skins, flexible and stretchable pressure sensor arrays are co...

  8. Skin aging and oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Sayeeda Ahsanuddin; Minh Lam; Baron, Elma D.

    2016-01-01

    Skin aging occurs through two main pathways, intrinsic and extrinsic. These pathways have significant interaction in contributing to the aging phenotype, which includes skin laxity, wrinkling, pigmentation irregularities, and the appearance of neoplastic skin lesions. Here, we review the critical role that oxidative stress plays in skin aging, including its effects on signaling pathways involved in skin matrix formation and degradation, proteasome activity, as well as DNA structure. Furthermo...

  9. Skin involvement in Dupuytren's disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Wade, R.; Igali, L; Figus, A

    2016-01-01

    Whether the palmar skin has a role in the development, propagation or recurrence of Dupuytren's disease remains unclear. Clinical assessment for skin involvement is difficult and its correlation with histology uncertain. We prospectively biopsied the palmar skin of consecutive patients undergoing single digit fasciectomy (for primary Dupuytren's disease without clinically involved skin) and dermofasciectomy (for clinically involved skin or recurrence) in order to investigate this relationship...

  10. Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenefelt, Philip D; Shenefelt, Debrah A

    2014-01-01

    Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, “goose bumps”, redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. PMID:25120377

  11. Skin cleansing in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelmetti, C

    2001-09-01

    The problems of skin cleansing in infants have been re-evaluated in recent years on the basis of current understanding of cosmetology and skin physiology. The anatomical and functional peculiarities of infant's skin have been elucidated and, although it is known that the barrier function is established at birth in normal babies, it remains the case that children's skin is more delicate and therefore more prone to irritant and allergic contact dermatitis. These factors determine the choice of cleansing agents during infancy. The products available on the market differ markedly. Indeed detergents, bath oils, bath powders, due to their distinctive properties, have different indications and different benefits. The method of cleansing the skin, i.e. bathing or showering, is also important. The frequency of cleansing should take into account the age and the degree of exposure to pollutants. For special purposes, e.g. impetiginized dermatoses, antiseptics such as potassium permanganate or chlorhexidine can be added to the water in appropriate concentrations. The ideal paediatric detergent should be very mild to avoid irritant dermatitis, and very simple to avoid allergic dermatitis.

  12. How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose ... Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose ...

  13. Encapsulation of natural ingredient for skin protection via nanoemulsion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmatulu, Eylem; Usta, Aybala; Alzahrani, Naif; Patil, Vinay; Vanderwall, Adeesha

    2017-04-01

    Many of the sunscreens are used during the hot summer time to protect the skin surface. However, some of ingredients in the sunscreens, such as oxybenzone, retinyl palmitate and synthetic fragrances including parabens, phthalates and synthetic musk may disrupt the cells on the skin and create harmful effects to human body. Natural oils may be considered for substitution of harmful ingredients in sunscreens. Many natural oils (e.g., macadamia oil, sesame oil, almond oil and olive oil) have UV protective property and on top of that they have natural essences. Among the natural oils, olive oil has a long history of being used as a home remedy for skincare. Olive oil is used or substituted for cleanser, moisturizer, antibacterial agent and massage reliever for muscle fatigue. It is known that sun protection factor (SPF) of olive oil is around eight. There has been relatively little scientific work performed on the effect of olive oil on the skin as sunscreen. With nanoencapsulation technique, UV light protection of the olive oil can be extended which will provide better coverage for the skin throughout the day. In the present study, natural olive oil was incorporated with DI water and surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate - SDS) and sonicated using probe sonicators. Sonication time, and concentrations of olive oil, DI water and surfactant were investigated in detail. The produced nanoemulsions were characterized using dynamic light scattering, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. It is believed that the nanoencupsulation of olive oil could provide better skin protection by slow releasing and deeper penetration of the nanoemulsion on skin surface. Undergraduate engineering students were involved in the project and observed all the process during the laboratory studies, as well as data collection, analysis and presentation. This experience based learning will likely enhance the students' skills and interest in the scientific and engineering studies.

  14. Extreme skin depth waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Jahani, Saman

    2014-01-01

    Recently, we introduced a paradigm shift in light confinement strategy and introduced a class of extreme skin depth (e-skid) photonic structures (S. Jahani and Z. Jacob, "Transparent sub-diffraction optics: nanoscale light confinement without metal," Optica 1, 96-100 (2014)). Here, we analytically establish that figures of merit related to light confinement in dielectric waveguides are fundamentally tied to the skin depth of waves in the cladding. We contrast the propagation characteristics of the fundamental mode of e-skid waveguides and conventional waveguides to show that the decay constant in the cladding is dramatically larger in e-skid waveguides, which is the origin of sub-diffraction confinement. Finally, we propose an approach to verify the reduced skin depth in experiment using the decrease in the Goos-H\\"anchen phase shift.

  15. Skin Cancer Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Durga Rao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available : In recent days, skin cancer is seen as one of the most Hazardous form of the Cancers found in Humans. Skin cancer is found in various types such as Melanoma, Basal and Squamous cell Carcinoma among which Melanoma is the most unpredictable. The detection of Melanoma cancer in early stage can be helpful to cure it. Computer vision can play important role in Medical Image Diagnosis and it has been proved by many existing systems. In this paper, we present a survey on different steps which are being to detect the Melanoma Skin Cancer using Image Processing tools. In every step, what are the different methods are be included in our paper

  16. Smoking and skin disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, S F; Sørensen, L T

    2010-06-01

    Tobacco smoking is a serious and preventable health hazard that can cause or exacerbate a number of diseases and shorten life expectancy, but the role of smoking as an etiologic factor in the development of skin disease is largely unknown. Although epidemiological evidence is sparse, findings suggest that tobacco smoking is a contributing factor in systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, palmoplantar pustulosis, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, hidradenitis suppurativa, and genital warts. In contrast, smoking may confer some protective effects and mitigate other skin diseases, notably pemphigus vulgaris, pyoderma gangrenosum, aphthous ulcers, and Behçet's disease. Various degenerative dermatologic conditions are also impacted by smoking, such as skin wrinkling and dysregulated wound healing, which can result in post-surgical complications and delayed or even arrested healing of chronic wounds. Most likely, alteration of inflammatory cell function and extracellular matrix turnover caused by smoking-induced oxidative stress are involved in the pathophysiologic mechanisms.

  17. Sprayed skin turbine component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David B

    2013-06-04

    Fabricating a turbine component (50) by casting a core structure (30), forming an array of pits (24) in an outer surface (32) of the core structure, depositing a transient liquid phase (TLP) material (40) on the outer surface of the core structure, the TLP containing a melting-point depressant, depositing a skin (42) on the outer surface of the core structure over the TLP material, and heating the assembly, thus forming both a diffusion bond and a mechanical interlock between the skin and the core structure. The heating diffuses the melting-point depressant away from the interface. Subsurface cooling channels (35) may be formed by forming grooves (34) in the outer surface of the core structure, filling the grooves with a fugitive filler (36), depositing and bonding the skin (42), then removing the fugitive material.

  18. Smoking and skin disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, S F; Sørensen, L T

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a serious and preventable health hazard that can cause or exacerbate a number of diseases and shorten life expectancy, but the role of smoking as an etiologic factor in the development of skin disease is largely unknown. Although epidemiological evidence is sparse, findings...... suggest that tobacco smoking is a contributing factor in systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, palmoplantar pustulosis, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, hidradenitis suppurativa, and genital warts. In contrast, smoking may confer some protective effects and mitigate other skin diseases, notably...... pemphigus vulgaris, pyoderma gangrenosum, aphthous ulcers, and Behçet's disease. Various degenerative dermatologic conditions are also impacted by smoking, such as skin wrinkling and dysregulated wound healing, which can result in post-surgical complications and delayed or even arrested healing of chronic...

  19. Protective effects of APP 17-mer peptide on cultured human skin fibroblasts after irradiation with ultraviolet light%APP17肽通过抑制细胞内ROS保护紫外线照射后人皮肤成纤维细胞

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈慧; 连石; 朱威

    2011-01-01

    Objective Ultraviolet light (UV) is known to cause photoaging of skin.UV irradiation can damage proliferation capacity and induce collagenase in fibroblasts in the dermis .Many researchers have explored the potential photo-protective agents;however,no ideal agent has been widely accepted .Amyloid precursor protein 17-mer peptide (APP17-mer peptide),an active peptide segment,has been reported to be responsible for the trophic effect in clonal CNS neuronal line ,fibroblast cell line and HaCat cells.The aim of this study was to explore the effects of APP17-mer peptide on cultured fibroblasts after ultraviolet irradiation .Methods Human skin fibroblasts were cultured in DMEM medium with or without APP 17-mer peptide (concentrations ranging from 20 μmol/L,40 μmol/L,to 80 μmol/L).The cultured fibroblasts were exposed to a single UV irradiation,and the proliferation activity of fibroblasts was detected by a MTT assay .The ex-pression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) mRNA was analyzed quantitatively following real -time RT-PCR.The generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured with fluorescent quantita-tion method.Results A single exposure to UV irradiation depressed proliferation activity of fibroblasts com -pared with sham-irradiated control (P <0.05).40 μmol/L and 80 μmol/L APP17-mer peptide increased the cellular proliferation activity in UV irradiated and unirradiated fibroblasts (P <0.05),however,20 μmol/L did not show such protective effects (P >0.05).A single exposure of fibroblasts to UV irradiation resulted in 1.78 fold up-regulation of MMP-1 mRNA compared with unirradiated sample (P <0.05),and 40 μmol/L and 80 μmol/L APP17-mer peptide decreased the expression of MMP -1 mRNA (P <0.05 and P <0.01,re-spectively).UV irradiation increased generation of ROS in cultured fibroblasts (P <0.05).40 μmol/L APP17-mer peptide inhibited the generation of ROS in irradiated fibroblasts .Conclusions APP17-mer pep-tide can

  20. Skin Temperature Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Sarjoghian, Siamak

    2017-01-01

    This report represents the design and implementation of a skin temperature measurement system. The system aims to measure the skin temperature from a sensor and send it to the PC using a USB cable to display on screen. The data needs to be updated every second. The PIC18F4550 microcontroller has been used in this project to obtain data from the sensor and send it to the PC using USB 2.0 that has been built into the microcontroller. The microcontroller has a 10-bit Analog Digital Converting ac...

  1. Skin innate immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna Aksoy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available All multicellular organisms protect themselves from external universe and microorganisms by innate immune sytem that is constitutively present. Skin innate immune system has several different components composed of epithelial barriers, humoral factors and cellular part. In this review information about skin innate immune system and its components are presented to the reader. Innate immunity, which wasn’t adequately interested in previously, is proven to provide a powerfull early protection system, control many infections before the acquired immunity starts and directs acquired immunity to develop optimally

  2. Study of surfactant-skin interactions by skin impedance measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guojin; Moore, David J

    2012-02-01

    The stratum corneum (SC) plays a very critical physiological role as skin barrier in regulating water loss through the skin and protects the body from a wide range of physical and chemical exogenous insults. Surfactant-containing formulations can induce skin damage and irritation owing to surfactant absorption and penetration. It is generally accepted that reduction in skin barrier properties occurs only after surfactants have penetrated/permeated into the skin barrier. To mitigate the harshness of surfactant-based cleansing products, penetration/permeation of surfactants should be reduced. Skin impedance measurements have been taken in vitro on porcine skin using vertical Franz diffusion cells to investigate the impact of surfactants, temperature and pH on skin barrier integrity. These skin impedance results demonstrate excellent correlation with other published methods for assessing skin damage and irritation from different surfactant chemistry, concentration, pH, time of exposure and temperature. This study demonstrates that skin impedance can be utilized as a routine approach to screen surfactant-containing formulations for their propensity to compromise the skin barrier and hence likely lead to skin irritation.

  3. Light microscopic, electron microscopic, and immunohistochemical comparison of Bama minipig (Sus scrofa domestica) and human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Chen, Jun-ying; Shang, Hai-tao; Liu, Chang-e; Wang, Yong; Niu, Rong; Wu, Jun; Wei, Hong

    2010-04-01

    Here we sought to evaluate the possibility of using Chinese Bama miniature pig skin as a suitable animal model for human skin. Morphologic features of the skin of Bama miniature pigs resemble those of human skin, including skin layer thickness, development of a superficial vascular system, structure of the dermal-epidermal interface, and extracellular matrix. The characteristics and densities of Langerhans cells, fibroblasts, vascular endothelial cells, and mast cells were similar between Bama pig and human skin. Immunohistochemistry showed that miniature pigs and humans have the same antigenic determinants of human laminin, fibronectin, filaggrin, collagen I, collagen III, collagen IV, and keratin but not CD34, ICAM1, or S100. In addition, collagen type I from Bama miniature pig skin exhibited physicochemical characteristics resembling those of human skin, in regard to HPLC chromatography, UV spectroscopy, amino-acid composition, and SDS-PAGE analysis. Given these results, we concluded that Bama miniature pigs have great potential as a human skin model and for developing dermal substitute materials in wound repair. However, we also observed some disparities between the skin of Bama miniature pigs and humans, including pigment cell distribution, sweat gland types, and others. Therefore, further studies are needed to completely evaluate the effects of these interspecies differences on the actual application of the model.

  4. Sucrose substitutes affect the cariogenic potential of Streptococcus mutans biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durso, S C; Vieira, L M; Cruz, J N S; Azevedo, C S; Rodrigues, P H; Simionato, M R L

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is considered the primary etiologic agent of dental caries and contributes significantly to the virulence of dental plaque, especially in the presence of sucrose. To avoid the role of sucrose on the virulence factors of S. mutans, sugar substitutes are commonly consumed because they lead to lower or no production of acids and interfere with biofilm formation. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of sugar substitutes in the cariogenic potential of S. mutans biofilms. Thus, in the presence of sucrose, glucose, sucralose and sorbitol, the biofilm mass was quantified up to 96 h, the pH of the spent culture media was measured, the expression of biofilm-related genes was determined, and demineralization challenge experiments were conduct in enamel fragments. The presence of sugars or sugar substitutes profoundly affected the expression of spaP, gtfB, gtfC, gbpB, ftf, vicR and vicX in either biofilm or planktonic cells. The substitution of sucrose induced a down-regulation of most genes involved in sucrose-dependent colonization in biofilm cells. When the ratio between the expression of biofilm and planktonic cells was considered, most of those genes were down-regulated in biofilm cells in the presence of sugars and up-regulated in the presence of sugar substitutes. However, sucralose but not sorbitol fulfilled the purpose of reducing the cariogenic potential of the diet since it induced the biofilm formation with the lowest biomass, did not change the pH of the medium and led to the lowest lesion depth in the cariogenic challenge.

  5. About Skin-to-Skin Care (Kangaroo Care)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size Email Print Share About Skin-to-Skin Care Page Content Article Body You may be able ... care, also called kangaroo care. What is Kangaroo Care? Kangaroo care was developed in South America as ...

  6. Cement from magnesium substituted hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, K J; Gbureck, U; Knowles, J C; Farrar, D F; Barralet, J E

    2005-05-01

    Brushite cement may be used as a bone graft material and is more soluble than apatite in physiological conditions. Consequently it is considerably more resorbable in vivo than apatite forming cements. Brushite cement formation has previously been reported by our group following the mixture of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and phosphoric acid. In this study, brushite cement was formed from the reaction of nanocrystalline magnesium-substituted hydroxyapatite with phosphoric acid in an attempt to produce a magnesium substituted brushite cement. The presence of magnesium was shown to have a strong effect on cement composition and strength. Additionally the presence of magnesium in brushite cement was found to reduce the extent of brushite hydrolysis resulting in the formation of HA. By incorporating magnesium ions in the apatite reactant structure the concentration of magnesium ions in the liquid phase of the cement was controlled by the dissolution rate of the apatite. This approach may be used to supply other ions to cement systems during setting as a means to manipulate the clinical performance and characteristics of brushite cements.

  7. Allergy Skin Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... once. This test is usually done to identify allergies to pollen, mold, pet dander, dust mites and foods. In adults, the test is usually done on the forearm. Children may be tested on the upper back. Allergy skin tests aren't painful. This type of ...

  8. Preventing Skin Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-05-18

    A man and a woman talk about how they’ve learned to protect their skin from the sun over the years. .  Created: 5/18/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/18/2016.

  9. Skin-reducing mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Maurizio B; Cortinovis, Umberto; Ottolenghi, Joseph; Riggio, Egidio; Pennati, Angela; Catanuto, Giuseppe; Greco, Marco; Rovere, Guidubaldo Querci Della

    2006-09-01

    The authors propose a combined flap technique to reconstruct large and medium-sized ptotic breasts in a single-stage operation by use of anatomical permanent implants. The authors enrolled 28 patients fulfilling criteria for skin-sparing mastectomy and presenting with ptotic breasts whose areola-to-inframammary fold distance was more than 8 cm. All reconstructions were performed as a single-stage procedure. After preoperative planning, a large area in the lower half of the breast was deepithelialized according to the conventional Wise pattern. Mastectomy was then carried out. To perform reconstructions, the inferomedial fibers of the pectoralis major muscle were dissected and sutured to the superior border of the inferior dermal flap. An anatomical implant was then inserted into the pouch, which was closed laterally with the previously harvested serratus anterior fascia. Skin flaps were finally closed down to the inframammary fold. The authors performed 30 procedures on 28 patients. The medium size anatomical implants was 433 cc. Twelve women achieved symmetrization in a single stage ending in a symmetric inverted-T scar. The overall complication rate was 20 percent, with four cases (13 percent) complicated by severe, extensive necrosis of the skin flaps requiring implant removal. Breast cancer treatment must nowadays optimize cosmetic results. This can be accomplished in selected cases by means of a single-stage operation that the authors call "skin-reducing mastectomy." The final scars imitate those of cosmetic surgery. Careful patient selection and improvement in the learning curve may reduce the complication rate.

  10. Tuberculin Skin Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guidance for XDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains Data & Statistics Trends in Tuberculosis, 2015 TB Incidence in the United ... No. RR-17). CDC. Mantoux Tuberculin Skin Test: Training Materials Kit (2003). CDC. Targeted tuberculin testing and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection . MMWR 2000; 49 (No. ... CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act ...

  11. Immunopathology of skin lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Nazoora

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted on 130 patients suffering from skin lesions which included psoriasis, lichen planus, DLE, pemphigus, vitiligo and alopecia areata. Forty age-and-sex-matched healthy individuals served as control. Serum IgG, IgM, and circulating immune complexes (CIC were estimated. Significant increase in serum IgG (1937.2 ± 1030.43 mg% and IgM (232.12 ± 136.98 mg% was observed in all the skin lesions when compared with controls except in lichen planus where they were significantly lowered, values being 580.61± 77.35 mg% and 66.88 ± 6.59mg% respectively. CIC levels were significantly raised (P<0.00 1 in various skin lesions (40.49±23.29 when compared with controls (17.68± 3.21, but no significance was observed in lichen planus( 17.72 ± 4.28. Serum IgG, IgM and CIC were statistically significantly altered depending on the extent of the lesion and lowered significantly to almost normal values following treatment, thereby confirming the role of immunity in the pathogenesis of these skin disorders.

  12. Frog skin function revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid Larsen, Erik; Ramløv, Hans

    2013-01-01

    of the epidermis. These mechanisms have evolved pari passu with life alternating between aquatic and terrestrial habitats associated with permeabilities of the skin controlled by external ion- and osmotic concentrations (loc. cit.). This allows for fast switching of the cutaneous uptake of chloride between active...

  13. Cryoglobulin induced skin ulceration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Razvi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lupus Erythematosus (LE is a multi-organ auto-immune disease which results from complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors. The clinical spectrum ranges from minor cutaneous lesions to life threatening multi-organ dysfunction. The skin manifestations are variable and common and range from LE specific to LE non-specific cutaneous disease. Vasculitis is one of the most common non-specific skin lesion of Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE and appears as purpuric lesions, infarcts along lateral nail folds, peripheral gangrene, sub-cutaneous nodules and ulcers. Mixed cryoglobulinaemia (type II is associated with connective tissue disorders including SLE. Skin manifestations are seen in 60-100% patients and are more common in females. The most common manifestation is palpable purpura of lower extremities seen in 30-100% which often is triggered in winter or on cold exposure. Skin infarction, hemorrhagic crusts and ulcers are seen in 25% of patients. Wide spread necrotic ulcers are seen in 10-25% of patients which are often exacerbated by cold.

  14. Skin Conditions during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... appear on the skin during pregnancy? • What are stretch marks? • Is acne common during pregnancy? • How can I ... runs from the navel to the pubic hair • Stretch marks •Acne • Spider veins • Varicose veins • Changes in nail ...

  15. Effects of Essential Oils and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Canine Skin Equivalents: Skin Lipid Assessment and Morphological Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Cerrato

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A canine skin equivalent model has been validated for the assessment of a topical formulation effects. Skin equivalents were developed from freshly isolated cutaneous canine fibroblasts and keratinocytes, after enzymatic digestion of skin samples (n=8 from different breeds. Fibroblasts were embedded into a collagen type I matrix, and keratinocytes were seeded onto its surface at air-liquid interface. Skin equivalents were supplemented with essential oils and polyunsaturated fatty acid formulation or with vehicle. Skin equivalents were histopathologically and ultrastructurally studied, and the three main lipid groups (free fatty acids, cholesterol, and ceramides were analyzed. Results showed that the culture method developed resulted in significant improvements in cell retrieval and confluence. Treated samples presented a thicker epidermis with increased number of viable cell layers, a denser and compact stratum corneum, and a more continuous basal membrane. Regarding lipid profile, treated skin equivalents showed a significant increase in ceramide content (51.7±1.3 when compared to untreated (41.6 ± 1.4 samples. Ultrastructural study evidenced a compact and well-organized stratum corneum in both treated and control skin equivalents. In conclusion, cell viability and ceramides increase, after lipid supplementation, are especially relevant for the treatment of skin barrier disruptions occurring in canine atopic dermatitis.

  16. Cytokines and the Skin Barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Malte Baron

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The skin is the largest organ of the human body and builds a barrier to protect us from the harmful environment and also from unregulated loss of water. Keratinocytes form the skin barrier by undergoing a highly complex differentiation process that involves changing their morphology and structural integrity, a process referred to as cornification. Alterations in the epidermal cornification process affect the formation of the skin barrier. Typically, this results in a disturbed barrier, which allows the entry of substances into the skin that are immunologically reactive. This contributes to and promotes inflammatory processes in the skin but also affects other organs. In many common skin diseases, including atopic dermatitis and psoriasis, a defect in the formation of the skin barrier is observed. In these diseases the cytokine composition within the skin is different compared to normal human skin. This is the result of resident skin cells that produce cytokines, but also because additional immune cells are recruited. Many of the cytokines found in defective skin are able to influence various processes of differentiation and cornification. Here we summarize the current knowledge on cytokines and their functions in healthy skin and their contributions to inflammatory skin diseases.

  17. Skin color independent assessment of aging using skin autofluorescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetsier, M.; Nur, E.; Chunmao, H.; Lutgers, H.L.; Links, T.P.; Smit, A.J.; Rakhorst, G.; de Graaff, R.

    2010-01-01

    Skin autofluorescence (AF) for the non-invasive assessment of the amount of accumulated tissue Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs) increases with aging. In subjects with darker skin colors, measurements typically result in lower AF values than in subjects with fair skin colors, e. g. due to select

  18. Skin color independent assessment of aging using skin autofluorescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetsier, M.; Nur, E.; Chunmao, H.; Lutgers, H.L.; Links, T.P.; Smit, A.J.; Rakhorst, G.; de Graaff, R.

    2010-01-01

    Skin autofluorescence (AF) for the non-invasive assessment of the amount of accumulated tissue Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs) increases with aging. In subjects with darker skin colors, measurements typically result in lower AF values than in subjects with fair skin colors, e. g. due to

  19. Formation of substituted oxa- and azarhodacyclobutanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauth, Alexander; Rigling, Carla; Tsoung, Jennifer; Love, Jennifer A

    2013-12-01

    The preparation of substituted oxa- and azarhodacyclobutanes is reported. After exchange of ethylene with a variety of unsymmetrically and symmetrically substituted alkenes, the corresponding rhodium-olefin complexes were oxidized with H2O2 and PhINTs (Ts=p-toluenesulfonyl) to yield the substituted oxa- and azarhodacyclobutanes, respectively. Oxarhodacyclobutanes could be prepared with excellent selectivity for incorporation of the oxygen atom on the more substituted carbon atom of the alkene. At the same time, azarhodacyclobutanes showed good-to-excellent selectivity for heteroatom incorporation on the less substituted carbon. Furthermore, it was shown that steric modifications of the ancillary ligand have a significant influence on the selectivity of Rh-olefin complex formation as well as formation of the substituted azametallacycles.

  20. Trends in Substitution Models of Molecular Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel eArenas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Substitution models of evolution describe the process of genetic variation through fixed mutations and constitute the basis of the evolutionary analysis at the molecular level. Almost forty years after the development of first substitution models, highly sophisticated and data-specific substitution models continue emerging with the aim of better mimicking real evolutionary processes. Here I describe current trends in substitution models of DNA, codon and amino acid sequence evolution, including advantages and pitfalls of the most popular models. The perspective concludes that despite the large number of currently available substitution models, further research is required for more realistic modeling, especially for DNA coding and amino acid data. Additionally, the development of more accurate complex models should be coupled with new implementations and improvements of methods and frameworks for substitution model selection and downstream evolutionary analysis.

  1. SKIN DETECTION OF ANIMATION CHARACTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi Tanvir Ahmed Siddiqui

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing popularity of animes makes it vulnerable to unwanted usages like copyright violations and pornography. That’s why, we need to develop a method to detect and recognize animation characters. Skin detection is one of the most important steps in this way. Though there are some methods to detect human skin color, but those methods do not work properly for anime characters. Anime skin varies greatly from human skin in color, texture, tone and in different kinds of lighting. They also vary greatly among themselves. Moreover, many other things (for example leather, shirt, hair etc., which are not skin, can have color similar to skin. In this paper, we have proposed three methods that can identify an anime character’s skin more successfully as compared with Kovac, Swift, Saleh and Osman methods, which are primarily designed for human skin detection. Our methods are based on RGB values and their comparative relations.

  2. Staining of skin with dihydroxyacetone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WITTGENSTEIN, E; BERRY, H K

    1960-09-30

    The reaction of skin with dihydroxyacetone to produce a brown "artificial tan" appears to proceed through combination with free amino groups in skin proteins, and particularly by combination of dihydroxyacetone with the free guanido group in arginine.

  3. Candida infection of the skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000880.htm Candida infection of the skin To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Candida infection of the skin is a yeast infection ...

  4. Maintaining Healthy Skin -- Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from seams or elastic binding. Check also for blisters, bumps, insect bites, dry flaky skin or pimples. ... always check your skin carefully after wearing new shoes or clothing. Too loose — Loose clothing can form ...

  5. Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for skin cancer, including drugs for basal cell carcinoma, melanoma, and ...

  6. Skin Cancers of the Feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cracking, bleeding, or ulceration. Frequently, individuals discover their skin cancer after unrelated ailments near the affected site. Causes We often view the sun's harmful rays as the primary cause of skin cancer; the condition is often found on parts of ...

  7. Currency substitution, portfolio diversification, and money demand

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas, Miguel Lebre de; Veiga, Francisco José

    2006-01-01

    We extend the Thomas (1985) dynamic optimising model of money demand and currency substitution to the case in which the individual has restricted or no access to foreign currency denominated bonds. In this case Currency Substitution decisions and Asset Substitution decisions are not separable. The results obtained suggest that the significance of an expected exchange rate depreciation term in the demand for domestic money provides a valid test for the presence of currency subst...

  8. Nicotinamide for skin cancer chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damian, Diona L

    2017-03-20

    Nicotinamide (vitamin B3 ) has a range of photoprotective effects in vitro and in vivo; it enhances DNA repair, reduces UV radiation-induced suppression of skin immune responses, modulates inflammatory cytokine production and skin barrier function and restores cellular energy levels after UV exposure. Pharmacological doses of nicotinamide have been shown to reduce actinic keratoses and nonmelanoma skin cancer incidence in high-risk individuals, making this a nontoxic and accessible option for skin cancer chemoprevention in this population.

  9. A REVIEW ON SKIN CANCER

    OpenAIRE

    S. Ramya Silpa; Chidvila V

    2013-01-01

    Skin cancer can be of 2 types mainly. They are malignant melanoma and non-malignant melanoma. Skin cancer mainly occurs due to exposure of sunlight. Ozone depletion and chemical exposures are other factors involved in precipitating skin cancer. Mutations of p53 gene are involved in UV- induced carcinogenesis. P53 gene acts vital in development of SCC. So, prevention of skin cancer is the main criteria. Regular application of sunscreens could be one of the primary prevention. The purpose of pr...

  10. Molecular Comparison of Bacterial Communities on Peripheral Intravenous Catheters and Matched Skin Swabs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Abu Choudhury

    Full Text Available Skin bacteria at peripheral intravenous catheter (PIVC insertion sites pose a serious risk of microbial migration and subsequent colonisation of PIVCs, and the development of catheter related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs. Common skin bacteria are often associated with CRBSIs, therefore the bacterial communities at PIVC skin sites are likely to have major implications for PIVC colonisation. This study aimed to determine the bacterial community structures on skin at PIVC insertion sites and to compare the diversity with associated PIVCs. A total of 10 PIVC skin site swabs and matching PIVC tips were collected by a research nurse from 10 hospitalised medical/surgical patients at catheter removal. All swabs and PIVCs underwent traditional culture and high-throughput sequencing. The bacterial communities on PIVC skin swabs and matching PIVCs were diverse and significantly associated (correlation coefficient = 0.7, p<0.001. Methylobacterium spp. was the dominant genus in all PIVC tip samples, but not so for skin swabs. Sixty-one percent of all reads from the PIVC tips and 36% of all reads from the skin swabs belonged to this genus. Staphylococcus spp., (26%, Pseudomonas spp., (10% and Acinetobacter spp. (10% were detected from skin swabs but not from PIVC tips. Most skin associated bacteria commonly associated with CRBSIs were observed on skin sites, but not on PIVCs. Diverse bacterial communities were observed at skin sites despite skin decolonization at PIVC insertion. The positive association of skin and PIVC tip communities provides further evidence that skin is a major source of PIVC colonisation via bacterial migration but microbes present may be different to those traditionally identified via culture methods. The results provide new insights into the colonisation of catheters and potential pathogenesis of bacteria associated with CRBSI, and may assist in developing new strategies designed to reduce the risk of CRBSI.

  11. Dehalogenation of aromatics by nucleophilic aromatic substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowsky, Daniel; McNeill, Kristopher; Cramer, Christopher J

    2014-09-16

    Nucleophilic aromatic substitution has been implicated as a mechanism for both the biotic and abiotic hydrodehalogenation of aromatics. Two mechanisms for the aqueous dehalogenation of aromatics involving nucleophilic aromatic substitution with hydride as a nucleophile are investigated using a validated density functional and continuum solvation protocol. For chlorinated and brominated aromatics, nucleophilic addition ortho to carbon-halogen bonds via an anionic intermediate is predicted to be the preferred mechanism in the majority of cases, while concerted substitution is predicted to be preferred for most fluorinated aromatics. Nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions with the hydroxide and hydrosulfide anions as nucleophiles are also investigated and compared.

  12. Skin cancer: Etiology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadir, Muhammad Imran

    2016-05-01

    Nowadays, occurrence of skin cancer is very common in humans. It is reported that the most common cause of the skin cancer is excessive exposure to sunlight as it contains harmful radiations; the ultra violet rays. Different management strategies are used for different types of skin cancers, which are chemotherapy, radiation therapy.

  13. Monodromy Substitutions and Rational Blowdowns

    CERN Document Server

    Endo, Hisaaki; van Horn-Morris, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    We introduce several new families of relations in the mapping class groups of planar surfaces, each equating two products of right-handed Dehn twists. The interest of these relations lies in their geometric interpretation in terms of rational blowdowns of 4-manifolds, specifically via monodromy substitution in Lefschetz fibrations. The simplest example is the lantern relation, already shown by the first author and Gurtas to correspond to rational blowdown along a -4 sphere; here we give relations that extend that result to realize the "generalized" rational blowdowns of Fintushel-Stern and Park by monodromy subsitution, as well as several of the families of rational blowdowns discovered by Stipsicz-Szab\\'o-Wahl.

  14. Substitution dynamical systems spectral analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Queffélec, Martine

    2010-01-01

    This volume mainly deals with the dynamics of finitely valued sequences, and more specifically, of sequences generated by substitutions and automata. Those sequences demonstrate fairly simple combinatorical and arithmetical properties and naturally appear in various domains. As the title suggests, the aim of the initial version of this book was the spectral study of the associated dynamical systems: the first chapters consisted in a detailed introduction to the mathematical notions involved, and the description of the spectral invariants followed in the closing chapters. This approach, combined with new material added to the new edition, results in a nearly self-contained book on the subject. New tools - which have also proven helpful in other contexts - had to be developed for this study. Moreover, its findings can be concretely applied, the method providing an algorithm to exhibit the spectral measures and the spectral multiplicity, as is demonstrated in several examples. Beyond this advanced analysis, many...

  15. Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Substituted Phenylnitrenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijeratne, Neloni R.; Fonte, Maria Da; Wenthold, Paul G.

    2009-06-01

    Nitrenes are unusual molecular structures with unfilled electronic valences that are isoelectronic with carbenes. Although, both can be generated by either thermal or photochemical decomposition of appropriate precursors they usually exhibit different reactivities. In this work, we carry out spectroscopic studies of substituted phenylnitrene to determine how the introduction of substituents will affect the reactivity and its thermochemical properties. All studies were carried out by using the newly constructed time-of-flight negative ion photoelectron spectrometer (NIPES) at Purdue University. The 355 nm photoelectron spectra of the o-, m-, and p-chlorophenyl nitrene anions are fairly similar to that measured for phenylnitrene anion. All spectra show low energy triplet state and a high energy singlet state. The singlet state for the meta isomer is well-resolved, with a well defined origin and observable vibrational structure. Whereas the singlet states for the ortho and para isomers have lower energy onsets and no resolved structure. The isomeric dependence suggests that the geometry differences result from the resonance interaction between the nitrogen and the substituent. Quinoidal resonance structures are possible for the open-shell singlet states of the o- and p-chlorinated phenyl nitrenes. The advantages of this type of electronic structures for the open-shell singlet states is that the unpaired electrons can be more localized on separate atoms in the molecules, minimizing the repulsion between. Because the meta position is not in resonance with the nitrenes, substitution at that position should not affect the structure of the open-shell singlet state. The measured electron affinities (EA) of the triplet phenylnitrenes are in excellent agreement with the values predicted by electronic structure calculations. The largest EA, 1.82 eV is found for the meta isomer, with para being the smallest, 1.70 eV.

  16. 大鼠毛囊发育启动阶段模型构建及其Wnt10b/β连环蛋白信号表达的观察%Establishment of rat skin organ culture model and initiation of hair follicular morphogenesis with its correlative dynamic expression of Wnt10 b/β-catenin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪影畅; 李宇; 鲁峰; 胡志奇; 王森; 林常敏; 高建华

    2010-01-01

    Objective To establish a rat skin organ culture model to study the initiation of hair follicle morphogenesis, and the dynamic expression of Wnt10b/β-catenin in the developing hair follicle. Methods The dorsal skins of SD rat at embryos 14-17 (E14-E17) were cultured on a gelatin sponge-supported tissue culture system at the air/liquid interface of DMEM with 10 % fetal bovine serum (FBS) for 3-6 days, some of which removed from El5 were cultured in DMEM with FBS of different concentrations. HE staining and fluoroimmunoassay were adopted. Results The model we established allowed skin tissues isolated from E14-E15 to develop in a manner that was histologically and temporarily similar to the process in vivo. However, the developing hair follicle ceased to continue when their morphogenetic process reached the forth stage, and the concentration of FBS did not show any significant effect on the development of hair follicle. Expression of Wnt10b/β-catenin was induced in culture, as it also occurred in vivo,but grew weak till it disappeared in culture for 6 days, which was accompanied by development halt of hair follicle. Conclusions A rat skin organ culture model is established in which the morphogenesis of hair follicle takes place in a manner similar to in vivo, and Wnt10b/β-catenin probably has a close connection with the early morphogenesis of hair follicle.%目的 构建适合研究毛囊发育启动的体外培养模型,观察Wnt10b/β连环蛋白信号在毛囊发育初期的表达情况.方法 将不同胎龄的SD大鼠胚胎(胎鼠)背部皮肤以明胶海绵为载体,在Dulbecco改良Eagle培养液(DMEM)的气液交界平面中漂浮培养3~6 d,HE染色,观察毛囊发育情况;免疫荧光法动态观察Wnt10b及β连环蛋白在毛囊发育初期的表达;将胎龄15 d胎鼠背部皮肤在含不同胎牛血清浓度的DMEM中培养,观察胎牛血清对毛囊形态发生的影响.结果 (1)胎龄14 d后期至15 d早期的胎鼠背部皮肤

  17. Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... Articles Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone / Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment / Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma ...

  18. How Is Melanoma Skin Cancer Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Tests for Melanoma Skin Cancer Most melanomas are brought to a doctor’s attention ... Melanoma Skin Cancer, by Stage More In Melanoma Skin Cancer About Melanoma Skin Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  19. Serotonin in human skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianguo Huang; Qiying Gong; Guiming Li

    2005-01-01

    In this review the authors summarize data of a potential role for serotonin in human skin physiology and pathology. The uncovering of endogenous serotonin synthesis and its transformation to melatonin underlines a putative important role of this pathway in melanocyte physiology and pathology. Pathways of the biosynthesis and biodegradation of serotonin have been characterized in human beings and its major cellular populations. Moreover, receptors of serotonin are expressed on keratinocytes, melanocytes, and fibroblasts and these mediate phenotypic actions on cellular proliferation and differentiation. And the widespread expression of a cutaneous seorotoninergic system indicates considerable selectivity of action to facilitate intra-, auto-, or paracrine mechanisms that define and influence skin function in a highly compartmentalized manner. Melatonin, in turn, can also act as a hormone, neurotransmitter, cytokine, biological modifier and immunomodulator. Thus, Serotonin local synthesis and cellular localization could thus become of great importance in the diagnosis and management of cutaneous pathology.

  20. Skin contamination dosimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamby, David M.; Farsoni, Abdollah T.; Cazalas, Edward

    2011-06-21

    A technique and device provides absolute skin dosimetry in real time at multiple tissue depths simultaneously. The device uses a phoswich detector which has multiple scintillators embedded at different depths within a non-scintillating material. A digital pulse processor connected to the phoswich detector measures a differential distribution (dN/dH) of count rate N as function of pulse height H for signals from each of the multiple scintillators. A digital processor computes in real time from the differential count-rate distribution for each of multiple scintillators an estimate of an ionizing radiation dose delivered to each of multiple depths of skin tissue corresponding to the multiple scintillators embedded at multiple corresponding depths within the non-scintillating material.