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Sample records for cultured rabbit aortic

  1. Calcium fractions in aortic segments from hypertensive rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomera, J.F.; Harakal, C.

    1982-01-01

    The rate constants (-k) of Ca 2 + from cellular compartments of intact smooth muscle cells of thoracic aorta of normotensive, renal hypertensive, and cadmium hypertensive rabbits were studied by 45 Ca efflux and by employing norepinephrine (NE, 5.9 X 10(-7) M). Tissues from hypertensive animals showed an increased rate of release of 45 Ca over a 5-h unloading period when compared to normotensive controls. Three exchangeable compartments were found to contribute to the total kinetic efflux curve for all groups. The Ca 2 + fraction in compartments I and II showed an increased rate of Ca 2 + release for the hypertensive subgroups. Although the rates were slowed for tissues treated with NE prior to efflux, the rates of the hypertensive subgroups were increased compared to the normotensive group. Pretreatment of aortic segments with NE caused an overall increase in 45 Ca activity of the incubation medium and may explain the slowed rates attained in the efflux analyses. Influx studies showed that tissues from hypertensive animals had a greater uptake of 45 Ca than did the normotensive controls. Such data may represent a larger exchangeable component in aortae from the hypertensive subgroups. These findings indicate differences in the rates of Ca 2 + release from intact smooth muscle cells of hypertensive rabbits

  2. The changes in various hydroxyproline fractions in aortic tissue of rabbits are closely related to the progression of atherosclerosis

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    Alhomida AS

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most important function of collagen and elastin is to induce several mechanical parameters which are known to play a dominant role in governing mechanical properties of the blood vessels. The aortic tissue of rabbit is one of the important sources of collagen and elastin. The effects of high fat diet (HFD on the hydroxyproline (Hyp fractions in serum and aortic tissues of rabbits and collagen content in the aortic tissues of rabbits have not been documented before. The present study was undertaken to investigate the changes in Hyp fractions in serum and aortic tissues of rabbits and collagen content in the aortic tissues of rabbits during the progression of atherosclerosis. The atherosclerotic model used in this study was the New Zealand white rabbit (male; 12 weeks old. Twenty five rabbits were individually caged, and divided into control group (NOR; n = 10 and HFD group (CHO; n = 15. The control group was fed (100 g/day of normal (NOR diet for a period of 15 weeks. The HFD group was fed normal diet supplemented with 1.0% cholesterol plus 1.0% olive oil (100 g/day for the same period of time. Results We found that the TC, LDLC, and TG (mg/dl were significantly (p Conclusions These results suggest that percentage decrease in various Hyp fractions in aortic tissue of HFD rabbits are closely related to percentage decrease of collagen content in aortic tissues of HFD rabbits. These results also suggest that it may be possible to use the changes in various Hyp fractions in aortic tissues of rabbits as an important risk factor during the progression of atherosclerosis.

  3. Mechanism of kolaviron-induced relaxation of rabbit aortic smooth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (KV) and the exert mechanisms of action on VSM of rabbit aorta have not been reported. The present study examines the vascular effect of kolaviron on VSM of rabbit aorta and the possible mechanism of its vasorelaxant effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Extraction of Kolaviron (KV). Garcinia Kola seeds were obtained ...

  4. Bretylium potentiation of the contractor responses of isolated rabbit aortic strips to potassium and tyramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurahashi, K; Shibata, S

    1971-09-01

    1. Pretreatment of rabbit aortic strips with bretylium potentiated the contractor response to potassium and tyramine but not to noradrenaline. On the other hand, such pretreatment inhibited the response to nicotine.2. Even in reserpinized or cold stored aortic strips, pretreatment with bretylium enhanced the contractor response to potassium and tyramine.3. Pretreatment of fresh, reserpinized, or cold stored aortic strips with pheniprazine potentiated the contractor response to potassium and tyramine.4. Pretreatment of aortic strips with bretylium or pheniprazine did not potentiate the response to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT).5. The results indicate that both bretylium and pheniprazine potentiate the action of tyramine and potassium, not by presynaptic mechanisms, but by postsynaptic action, causing an increase in the sensitivity of the effector cells to the stimulants.

  5. Mass transport properties of the rabbit aortic wall.

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    Emma L Bailey

    Full Text Available Uptake of circulating macromolecules by the arterial wall may be a critical step in atherogenesis. Here we investigate the age-related changes in patterns of uptake that occur in the rabbit. In immature aortas, uptake was elevated in a triangle downstream of branch ostia, a region prone to disease in immature rabbits and children. By 16-22 months, uptake was high lateral to ostia, as is lesion prevalence in mature rabbits and young adults. In older rabbits there was a more upstream pattern, similar to the disease distribution in older people. These variations were predominantly caused by the branches themselves, rather than reflecting larger patterns within which the branches happened to be situated (as may occur with patterns of haemodynamic wall shear stress. The narrow streaks of high uptake reported in some previous studies were shown to be post mortem artefacts. Finally, heparin (which interferes with the NO pathway had no effect on the difference in uptake between regions upstream and downstream of branches in immature rabbits but reversed the difference in older rabbits, as does inhibiting NO synthesis directly. Nevertheless, examination of uptake all around the branch showed that changes occurred at both ages and that they were quite subtle, potentially explaining why inhibiting NO has only minor effects on lesion patterns in mature rabbits and contradicting the earlier conclusion that mechanotransduction pathways change with age. We suggest that recently-established changes in the patterns of haemodynamic forces themselves are more likely to account for the age-dependence of uptake patterns.

  6. Culture technique of rabbit primary epidermal keratinocytes

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    Marini M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The epidermis is the protective covering outer layer of the mammalian skin. The epidermal cells are stratified squamous epithelia which undergo continuous differentiation of loss and replacement of cells. Ninety per cent of epidermal cells consist of keratinocytes that are found in the basal layer of the stratified epithelium called epidermis. Keratinocytes are responsible for forming tight junctions with the nerves of the skin as well as in the process of wound healing. This article highlights the method of isolation and culture of rabbit primary epidermal keratinocytes in vitro. Approximately 2cm x 2cm oval shaped line was drawn on the dorsum of the rabbit to mark the surgical area. Then, the skin was carefully excised using a surgical blade and the target skin specimens harvested from the rabbits were placed in transport medium comprising of Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM and 1% of antibiotic-antimycotic solution. The specimens were transferred into a petri dish containing 70% ethanol and washed for 5 min followed by a wash in 1 x Dulbecco’s Phosphate Buffered Saline (DBPS. Then, the skin specimens were placed in DMEM and minced into small pieces using a scalpel. The minced pieces were placed in a centrifuge tube containing 0.6% Dispase and 1% antibiotic-antimycotic solution overnight at 4°C in a horizontal orientation. The epidermis layer (whitish, semi-transparent was separated from the dermis (pink, opaque, gooey with the aid of curved forceps by fixing the dermis with one pair of forceps while detaching the epidermis with the second pair. The cells were cultured at a density of 4 x 104 cells/cm2 in culture flask at 37°C and 5% CO2. The cell morphology of the keratinocytes was analyzed using inverted microscope.

  7. Minocycline Effectively Protects the Rabbit's Spinal Cord From Aortic Occlusion-Related Ischemia.

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    Drenger, Benjamin; Fellig, Yakov; Ben-David, Dror; Mintz, Bella; Idrees, Suhel; Or, Omer; Kaplan, Leon; Ginosar, Yehuda; Barzilay, Yair

    2016-04-01

    To identify the minocycline anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic mechanisms through which it is believed to exert spinal cord protection during aortic occlusion in the rabbit model. An animal model of aortic occlusion-related spinal cord ischemia. Randomized study with a control group and pre-ischemia and post-ischemia escalating doses of minocycline to high-dose minocycline in the presence of either hyperglycemia, a pro-apoptotic maneuver, or wortmannin, a specific phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase antagonist. Tertiary medical center and school of medicine laboratory. Laboratory animals-rabbits. Balloon obstruction of infrarenal aorta introduced via femoral artery incision. Severe hindlimb paralysis (mean Tarlov score 0.36±0.81 out of 3) was observed in all the control group animals (9 of 11 with paraplegia and 2 of 11 with paraparesis) compared with 11 of 12 neurologically intact animals (mean Tarlov score 2.58±0.90 [p = 0.001 compared with control]) in the high-dose minocycline group. This protective effect was observed partially during a state of hyperglycemia and was completely abrogated by wortmannin. Minocycline administration resulted in higher neurologic scores (p = 0.003) and a shift to viable neurons and more apoptotic-stained nuclei resulting from reduced necrosis (p = 0.001). In a rabbit model of infrarenal aortic occlusion, minocycline effectively reduced paraplegia by increasing the number of viable neurons in a dose-dependent manner. Its action was completely abrogated by inhibiting the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway and was inhibited partially by the pro-apoptotic hyperglycemia maneuver, indicating that the activation of cell salvage pathways and mitochondrial sites are possible targets of minocycline action in an ischemic spinal cord. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Intravascular application of electrocautery in a rabbit model of abdominal aortic endarterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuan; Xin, Yi; Li, Na; Li, Diankun; Li, Jingxing; Gu, Chengxiong

    2017-07-01

    Effective therapies for preventing perioperative complications such as thrombosis and inflammation after coronary endarterectomy (CE) are lacking. Electrocoagulation electrotomes have been routinely used in surgery for their cutting, clotting, and hemostatic properties. As strong flattening tools, their electrocautery function may prevent mechanical intimal-adventitial injury to arterial circulation and attenuate stenosis. The present study investigated the effects of intravascular application of electrocautery on ameliorating inflammation and thrombosis in a rabbit model of abdominal aortic endarterectomy. New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into the sham, control (endarterectomy), and study (endarterectomy + electrocautery) groups with 10 in each group. Abdominal aortas were partially blocked and intima was removed. Electrocautery was performed with an electrocoagulation electrotome through the entire blocked vessel lumen. Vascular ultrasound parameters, molecular biological and histological characteristics of the abdominal aorta including vascular diameter, blood flow velocity, serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels, and apoptosis rate of vascular endothelial cells (ECs) were evaluated postoperatively by vascular Doppler ultrasound, ELISA, real-time RT-PCR, flow cytometry, and immunofluorescence at various time points. Compared with the endarterectomy + electrocautery group, the isolated endarterectomy group had significantly increased levels and gene expression of TNF-α and IL-6 (Pelectrocautery has favorable short-term effects on the abdominal aorta and can reduce inflammation in a rabbit model of abdominal aorta endarterectomy. Long-term anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic effects on arterial remodeling and the clinical value of electrocautery in CE remain to be determined.

  9. 17 beta-estradiol but not the phytoestrogen naringenin attenuates aortic cholesterol accumulation in WHHL rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Alicja; Breinholt, V.; Dalsgaard, T.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of 17 beta -estradiol (17 beta -E-2) or the phytoestrogen naringenin on spontaneous atherosclerosis were studied in 36 ovariectomized homozygous Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits receiving a semisynthetic control diet; this diet added 0.0040% 17 beta -E-2, or 0.20% nari...... and its antiatherogenic effect. - Mortensen, A., V. Breinholt, T. Dalsgaard, H. Frandsen, S. T. Lauridsen, J. Laigaard, B. Ottesen, and J-J. Larsen. 17 beta -Estradiol but not the phytoestrogen naringenin attenuates aortic cholesterol accumulation in WHHL rabbits.......The effects of 17 beta -estradiol (17 beta -E-2) or the phytoestrogen naringenin on spontaneous atherosclerosis were studied in 36 ovariectomized homozygous Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits receiving a semisynthetic control diet; this diet added 0.0040% 17 beta -E-2, or 0.......20% naringenin, for 16 weeks. The uterine weight was increased (P 17 beta -E-2 group compared with the controls. Total plasma cholesterol and triglycerides were not different from those in the controls, In lipoproteins, HDL...

  10. "Rabbit Proof Fence": A Struggle for Cultural Existence

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    Al-Momani, Hassan Ali Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to depict the struggle for cultural existence in "Rabbit Proof Fence." It also reflects the cultural conflict represented in the three aboriginal girls' characters which is due to their rejection and resistance for the colonialists' culture. Besides, the paper presents the cognitive analysis of the cultural…

  11. Effects of dietary calcium on atherosclerosis, aortic calcification, and icterus in rabbits fed a supplemental cholesterol diet

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    Culley Nathan C

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vascular calcification is implicated in myocardial infarction, instability and rigidity of the aortic wall, and bioprosthetic failures. Although an increase in the calcium (Ca content in atherogenic diets has been shown to decrease atherosclerosis in rabbits, whether Ca supplementation and deficiency can affect atherosclerosis-related aortic calcification remains unknown. Results New Zealand White male rabbit littermates were fed an atherogenic diet containing 0.5% cholesterol and 2% peanut oil. The Ca content of the diet, which normally contains 1%, was adjusted to 0.5 or 3%. Segments of thoracic aortas were dissected from rabbits for histological evaluations and Ca and Pi determinations. Rabbits with calcium supplementation were maintained for 4 months, whereas those with calcium deficiency were maintained for 2 1/2 months due to severe icterus beyond this stage. The ratios of intimal to medial areas and calcified to intimal areas were used to semi-quantify lesion accumulation and calcification, respectively. Icterus was estimated from the extent of yellowing of the skin, sclera, and mucous membranes along with gross evidence of hepatic lipidosis and/or biliary obstructions. Statistical analysis of 16 matched littermates shows that Ca supplementation significantly decreased the lesions by 41% (p Conclusion Ca supplementation to an atherogenic diet inhibits atherosclerosis, aortic calcification, and icterus, whereas a Ca deficient-diet promotes them.

  12. Thymol reduces oxidative stress, aortic intimal thickening, and inflammation-related gene expression in hyperlipidemic rabbits

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    Ya-Mei Yu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis plays a key role in the development of cardiovascular diseases, and is often associated with oxidative stress and local inflammation. Thymol, a major polyphenolic compound in thyme, exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we measured the in vitro antioxidant activity of thymol, and investigated the effect of thymol on high-fat-diet-induced hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. New Zealand white rabbits were fed with regular chow, high-fat and high-cholesterol diet (HC, T3, or T6 (HC with thymol supplementation at 3 mg/kg/d or 6 mg/kg/d, respectively for 8 weeks. Aortic intimal thickening, serum lipid parameters, multiple inflammatory markers, proinflammatory cytokines, and atherosclerosis-associated indicators were significantly increased in the HC group but decreased upon thymol supplementation. In summary, thymol exhibits antioxidant activity, and may suppress the progression of high-fat-diet-induced hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis by reducing aortic intimal lipid lesion, lowering serum lipids and oxidative stress, and alleviating inflammation-related responses.

  13. Biotransformation of hydralazine (HDZ) in monolayer cultures of rabbit hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McQueen, C.A.; Rosado, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    Adverse reactions to HDZ have been associated with the acetylator polymorphism; slow acetylators are more likely to develop HDZ-induced lupus erythematosus. In studying the role of this polymorphism in susceptibility to HDZ toxicity, the biotransformation of HDZ was investigated in rabbit hepatocytes. New Zealand white rabbits, like humans, are classified as rapid or slow acetylators. Heptocytes were isolated from rapid acetylator rabbits by collagenase perfusion. Monolayer cultures were initiated and exposed to 14 C-HDZ. Since HDZ is unstable at neutral pH, parallel incubations were done in the absence of cells. Metabolites in the media were determined by reverse phase HPLC. Phthalazine (P), phthalazinone (PZ), triazoloph-thalazine (TP), methyl TP (MTP) and 3-hydroxy MTP were identified. In the absence of cells, more TP was formed than MTP, probably resulting from reaction of HDZ with components in the medium. In the presence of cells, there was a three-fold increase in MTP, while the amount of TP was relatively constant. Only trace amounts of P, PZ 3-hydroxy MTP were detected. These data indicate that monolayer cultures of rapid acetylator rabbit hepatocytes were capable of metabolizing HDZ with acetylation playing a major role. These studies are being extended to cells from slow acetylator rabbits

  14. Heterogeneous distribution of a diffusional tracer in the aortic wall of normal and atherosclerotic rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsutsui, H.; Tomoike, H.; Nakamura, M.

    1990-01-01

    Tracer distribution as an index of nutritional support across the thoracic and abdominal aortas in rabbits in the presence or absence of atherosclerotic lesions was evaluated using [ 14 C]antipyrine, a metabolically inert, diffusible indicator. Intimal plaques were produced by endothelial balloon denudation of the thoracic aorta and a 1% cholesterol diet. After a steady intravenous infusion of 200 microCi of [ 14 C]antipyrine for 60 seconds, thoracic and abdominal aortas and the heart were excised, and autoradiograms of 20-microns-thick sections were quantified, using microcomputer-aided densitometry. Regional radioactivity and regional diffusional support, as an index of nutritional flow estimated from the timed collections of arterial blood, was 367 and 421 nCi.g-1 (82 and 106 ml.min-1.100 g-1) in thoracic aortic media of the normal and atherosclerotic rabbits, respectively. Radioactivity at the thickened intima was 179 nCi.g-1 (p less than 0.01 versus media). The gruel was noted at a deeper site within the thickened intima, and diffusional support here was 110 nCi.g-1 (p less than 0.01 versus an average radioactivity at the thickened intima). After ligating the intercostal arteries, regional tracer distribution in the media beneath the fibrofatty lesion, but not the plaque-free intima, was reduced to 46%. Thus, in the presence of advanced intimal thickening, the heterogeneous distribution of diffusional flow is prominent across the vessel wall, and abluminal routes are crucial to meet the increased demands of nutritional requirements

  15. Rabbit uterine epithelial cells: Co-culture with spermatozoa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boice, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    A primary culture of rabbit uterine epithelial cells was established and their effects on sperm function were examined in vitro. Epithelial cells were isolated from uteri of estrous rabbits and cultured on floating collagen gels in phenol red-free medium supplemented with 5% fetal bovine serum. Light microscopy and keratin staining showed that the epithelial cell population established in culture had morphological characteristics similar to that seen in the intact endometrium. Cells were cultured with 3 H-leucine and uptake of label by cells and its incorporation into cellular and secretory proteins determined. When compared to cells cultured for 24-48 h, incorporation of label into cellular protein was lower at 72-96 h, but secretion increased. Estradiol 17-β did not affect label uptake or incorporation, but did enhance proliferation of cells as judged by total DNA content of the cell population. Analysis of proteins in media by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography suggested that epithelial and stromal cells synthesis proteins that may be secretory in nature during 72-96 h culture. Twenty-nine to thirty-one h after initiation of epithelial cultures, 1-2 x 10 6 sperm were co-incubated with cells and sperm viability, motility, loss of acrosome and fertilizing ability determined

  16. Hypertrophy of cultured bovine aortic endothelium following irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, E.M.; Vinter, D.W.; Goldberg, I.D.

    1989-01-01

    The vascular endothelium is a vital multifunctional tissue which covers the entire luminal surface of the circulatory system. Loss of continuity of the endothelial lining normally results in cell migration and proliferation to make up for cell loss and to ensure that exposure of the thrombogenic subendothelium to platelets and clotting factors is minimized. We showed that ionizing radiation (400-3000 cGy) causes dose-dependent cell loss from confluent monolayer cultures of bovine aortic endothelium, which cannot immediately be compensated by cell proliferation. Within 24 h, the remaining attached cells undergo substantial somatic hypertrophy (evidenced by increased protein content, cell volume, and attachment area) but remain diploid. If cell loss is not excessive, monolayer continuity is restored within several days. Although reduced protein degradation may contribute, most of the protein accumulation is due to synthesis of new protein. Unlike endothelium, irradiation of smooth muscle cultures causes neither cell loss nor increased protein synthesis. Hypertrophy of irradiated endothelial cells appears to be a consequence of a proliferative stimulus (cell loss) in a population of cells which is unable to divide. It can be modulated by replating irradiated cells at different densities. We suggest that endothelial hypertrophy is an early vascular homeostatic response before clonal proliferation of surviving cells or repopulation by cells from outside of the irradiated field can compensate for cell loss

  17. Evaluation of Ceftobiprole in a Rabbit Model of Aortic Valve Endocarditis Due to Methicillin-Resistant and Vancomycin-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers, Henry F.

    2005-01-01

    Ceftobiprole is a novel broad-spectrum cephalosporin that binds with high affinity to PBP 2a, the methicillin-resistance determinant of staphylococci, and is active against methicillin- and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Ceftobiprole was compared to vancomycin in a rabbit model of methicillin-resistant S. aureus aortic valve endocarditis. Ceftobiprole and vancomycin were equally effective against endocarditis caused by methicillin-resistant S. aureus strain 76, whereas ceftobipro...

  18. The effect of germinated fenugreek seeds and clofibrat on blood cholesterol level and aortic fatty streak in rabbit.

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    bahram delfan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is the excess of fat and stiffness of arteries sidewalls in which specific areas of the circulatory system are involved, causing specific signs based on the involved area, the characteristics of the lesion, and the severity of involvement. The only factor necessary to cause atherosclerosis is the high level of LDL cholesterol. Today, drugs such as lovastatin, clofibrate, and Klystramyn are applied to reduce LDL and increase HDL levels. Material and methods: The effect of fenugreek seeds without any drugs or with clofibrat on blood lipids profile and fatty streak forming were evaluated in 25 male healthy rabbits. The rabbits were divided into 5 group of 5 and received the following diets and drugs for 45 days: Group Ι, normal diet without any drugs Group Π, high cholesterol diet without any drugs Group ΙΙΙ, high cholesterol diet in addition to germinated fenugreek seeds powder (600 mg bid Group ΙV, high cholesterol diet in addition to clofibrat (50 mg bid and GroupV, high cholesterol diet in addition to clofibrat (50 mg bid and germinated fenugreek seeds powder (600 mg bid. The blood samples were collected after overnight fasting at the beginning and at the end of the test period and were estimated for lipids profile. Also autopsy and aortic cross-sectional sampling was conducted for microscopic study after the experiment. Result: The serum total cholesterol, LDL, and triglyceride levels of groups ΙΙΙ, ΙV,V increased less than those in group Π but HDL levels in groups ΙΙΙ, ΙV and V increased more than that in group Π (P<0.001. Furthermore, the intensity of fatty streak was less in group V. Conclusion: This result indicates the usefulness of fenugreek seeds in the management of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis (P<0.05

  19. Stereoselectivity of the distribution of labelled noradrenaline in rabbit aortic strips after inhibition of the noradrenaline-metabolizing enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckert, E; Henseling, M; Gescher, A; Trendelenburg, U [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Pharmakologie und Toxikologie

    1976-01-01

    Rabbit aortic strips (nerve-free, reserpinepretreated or normal) whose noradrenaline-metabolizing enzymes were inhibited (by in vitro treatment with 0.5 mM pargyline for 30 min and by the presence of 0.1 mM U-0521) were exposed to 1.18 ..mu..M labelled (-)- or (+)noradrenaline for 30 min. At the end of the incubation period some strips were used for analysis of radioactivity (i.e., of noradrenaline and its metabolites), while for others the efflux of radioactivity was determined during 250 min of washout with amine-free solution. An estimate of the original distribution of the amine into the various extraneuronal and neuronal compartments of the tissue was obtained by compartmental analysis of the efflux curves. The mechanisms responsible for the accumulation of radioactivity in extraneuronal and axoplasmic compartments lack stereoselectivity; the rate constants for the efflux of radioactivity from these compartments are the same for (-)- and (+)noradrenaline. Despite the use of enzyme inhibitors, the 'late neuronal efflux' of radioactivity (i.e., the efflux collected between the 200th and 250th min of wash out) contained a considerable proportion of metabolites of noradrenaline. The metabolism of noradrenaline was stereoselective: while dihydroxyphenylglycol (DOPEG) was the predominant metabolite in the efflux from strips incubated with (-)noradrenaline, a considerable part of the efflux from strips incubated with the (+)isomer consisted of dihydroxymandelic acid and 'O-methylated and deaminated' metabolites (in addition to DOPEG).

  20. Stereoselectivity of the distribution of labelled noradrenaline in rabbit aortic strips after inhibition of the noradrenaline-metabolizing enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckert, E.; Henseling, M.; Gescher, A.; Trendelenburg, U.

    1976-01-01

    Rabbit aortic strips (nerve-free, reserpinepretreated or normal) whose noradrenaline-metabolizing enzymes were inhibited (by in vitro treatment with 0.5 mM pargyline for 30 min and by the presence of 0.1 mM U-0521) were exposed to 1.18 μM labelled (-)- or (+)noradrenaline for 30 min. At the end of the incubation period some strips were used for analysis of radioactivity (i.e., of noradrenaline and its metabolites), while for others the efflux of radioactivity was determined during 250 min of washout with amine-free solution. An estimate of the original distribution of the amine into the various extraneuronal and neuronal compartments of the tissue was obtained by compartmental analysis of the efflux curves. The mechanisms responsible for the accumulation of radioactivity in extraneuronal and axoplasmic compartments lack stereoselectivity; the rate constants for the efflux of radioactivity from these compartments are the same for (-)- and (+)noradrenaline. Despite the use of enzyme inhibitors, the 'late neuronal efflux' of radioactivity (i.e., the efflux collected between the 200th and 250th min of wash out) contained a considerable proportion of metabolites of noradrenaline. The metabolism of noradrenaline was stereoselective: while dihydroxyphenylglycol (DOPEG) was the predominant metabolite in the efflux from strips incubated with (-)noradrenaline, a considerable part of the efflux from strips incubated with the (+)isomer consisted of dihydroxymandelic acid and 'O-methylated and deaminated' metabolites (in addition to DOPEG). (orig/GSE) [de

  1. The distribution of 3H-(+-)noradrenaline in rabbit aortic strips after inhibition of the noradrenaline-metabolizing enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henseling, M.; Eckert, E.; Trendelenburg, U.

    1976-01-01

    Rabbit aortic strips (nerve-free, reserpine pretreated or normal) whose noradrenaline-metabolizing enzymes were inhibited (by in vitro treatment with 0.5 mM pargyline for 30 min and by the presence of 0.1 mM U-0521) were exposed to 1.18 μM 3 H-(+-)noradrenaline for 30 min (in most experiments). At the end of the incubation some strips were used for anlysis of radioactivity (i.e., of noradrenaline and its metabolites), while for others the efflux of radioactivity was determined during 240 min of wash out with amine-free solution. An estimate of the original distribution of the amine into the various extraneuronal and neuronal compartments of the tissue was obtained by compartmental analysis of the efflux curves. Extracellular amine distributes into 'compartment I + II' (characterized by a half time for efflux of 14 C-sorbitol. The extraneuronal accumulation of noradrenaline is a quickly equilibrating process which involves compartments III and IV (with half times for efflux of 3 and 11 min, respectively). Compartment IV represents not only extraneuronally but also neuronally distributed noradrenaline. The neuronal accumulation of noradrenaline is a slowly equilibrating process which can be subdivided into axoplasmic and vesicular accumulation. The results support the view that the rate of relaxation (of strips initially exposed to noradrenaline and then washed out) is affected by the efflux of unchanged amine form extraneuronal and neuronal stores. (orig./GSE) [de

  2. Norepinephrine-induced alteration in the coupling of α1-adrenergic receptor occupancy to calcium efflux in rabbit aortic smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colucci, W.S.; Alexander, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    To determine whether α-adrenergic desensitization of vascular smooth muscle is due to an alteration in α 1 -adrenergic receptor coupling, the authors determined the relationship between receptor occupancy and maximal receptor-coupled Ca 2+ efflux in cultured rabbit aortic smooth muscle cells (i) under basal conditions as defined by receptor inactivation with phenoxybenzamine and (ii) after 48 hr of exposure to several concentrations of 1-norepinephrine (NE). Neither phenoxybenzamine nor NE exposure caused a change in binding affinity for [ 3 H]prazosin or NE. Maximal [ 3 H]prazosin binding capacity and maximal NE-stimulated 45 Ca 2+ efflux decreased progressively with exposure of incubated cells to increasing concentrations of phenoxybenzamine or NE. An approximately 80% decrease in maximal [ 3 H]prazosin binding capacity caused by either phenoxybenzamine or NE resulted in complete loss of NE-stimulated 45 Ca 2+ efflux, indicating that under these conditions approximately 20% of α 1 -adrenergic receptors are not coupled to the Ca 2+ efflux. Under basal conditions, the relationship between maximal [ 3 H]prazosin binding capacity and maximal NE-stimulated 45 Ca 2+ efflux was markedly nonlinear, so that a near maximal response could be elicited by occupancy of only approximately 40% of the receptors. Thus, an alteration in occupancy-response coupling at a step proximal to Ca 2+ mobilization and/or influx, rather than a reduction in receptor number, is of primary importance in the process of agonist-induced α-adrenergic receptor desensitization of vascular smooth muscle cells

  3. Thyroid hormone stimulation of phosphatidylcholine synthesis in cultured fetal rabbit lung.

    OpenAIRE

    Ballard, P L; Hovey, M L; Gonzales, L K

    1984-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism of thyroid hormone action on pulmonary surfactant synthesis, we characterized the effect of triiodothyronine on phosphatidylcholine synthesis in cultured fetal rabbit lung. Since glucocorticoids stimulate surfactant synthesis and reduce the incidence of Respiratory Distress Syndrome in premature infants, we also examined the interaction of triiodothyronine and dexamethasone. The rate of choline incorporation into phosphatidylcholine was determined in organ culture...

  4. Distribution of /sup 3/H-(+-)noradrenaline in rabbit aortic strips after inhibition of the noradrenaline-metabolizing enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henseling, M; Eckert, E; Trendelenburg, U [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Pharmakologie und Toxikologie

    1976-01-01

    Rabbit aortic strips (nerve-free, reserpine pretreated or normal) whose noradrenaline-metabolizing enzymes were inhibited (by in vitro treatment with 0.5 mM pargyline for 30 min and by the presence of 0.1 mM U-0521) were exposed to 1.18 ..mu..M /sup 3/H-(+-)noradrenaline for 30 min (in most experiments). At the end of the incubation some strips were used for anlysis of radioactivity (i.e., of noradrenaline and its metabolites), while for others the efflux of radioactivity was determined during 240 min of wash out with amine-free solution. An estimate of the original distribution of the amine into the various extraneuronal and neuronal compartments of the tissue was obtained by compartmental analysis of the efflux curves. Extracellular amine distributes into 'compartment I + II' (characterized by a half time for efflux of < 1 min); compartment size and half time for efflux were similar to those obtained for /sup 14/C-sorbitol. The extraneuronal accumulation of noradrenaline is a quickly equilibrating process which involves compartments III and IV (with half times for efflux of 3 and 11 min, respectively). Compartment IV represents not only extraneuronally but also neuronally distributed noradrenaline. The neuronal accumulation of noradrenaline is a slowly equilibrating process which can be subdivided into axoplasmic and vesicular accumulation. The results support the view that the rate of relaxation (of strips initially exposed to noradrenaline and then washed out) is affected by the efflux of unchanged amine form extraneuronal and neuronal stores.

  5. Fermentation of n-containing compounds in rabbit caecal cultures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skřivanová, V.; Marounek, Milan; Skřivan, M.

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2000), s. 445-449 ISSN 1257-5011. [World Rabbit Congress /7./. Valencia, 04.07.2000-07.07.2000] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  6. Establishment of a new model for culturing rabbit osteoblasts in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Xianying; Yin Meizhen; Zhang Lina; Li Shipu; Cao Yang

    2006-01-01

    To establish an experimental model for culturing rabbit osteoblasts in vitro, the osteoblasts were isolated from the calvarial bone of a 15-day old rabbit using a method of culturing the bone pieces in a medium after they had been digested by an enzyme for 15 min. The acquired cells were assayed by cell morphology, alkaline phosphatase activity and production of a mineralized matrix. The results showed that the cells had the morphologic characteristics and some biological behaviours of osteoblasts. Based on the primary isolation of osteoblasts from bone and combining digestion with explants, a novel model for culturing rabbit osteoblasts in vitro was established, which is easy, efficient and effective. This model can be used in many studies of osteogenesis mechanisms and bone replacement materials. (communication)

  7. Role of endothelial permeability hotspots and endothelial mitosis in determining age-related patterns of macromolecule uptake by the rabbit aortic wall near branch points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chooi, K Yean; Comerford, Andrew; Cremers, Stephanie J; Weinberg, Peter D

    2016-07-01

    Transport of macromolecules between plasma and the arterial wall plays a key role in atherogenesis. Scattered hotspots of elevated endothelial permeability to macromolecules occur in the aorta; a fraction of them are associated with dividing cells. Hotspots occur particularly frequently downstream of branch points, where lesions develop in young rabbits and children. However, the pattern of lesions varies with age, and can be explained by similar variation in the pattern of macromolecule uptake. We investigated whether patterns of hotspots and mitosis also change with age. Evans' Blue dye-labeled albumin was injected intravenously into immature or mature rabbits and its subsequent distribution in the aortic wall around intercostal branch ostia examined by confocal microscopy and automated image analysis. Mitosis was detected by immunofluorescence after adding 5-bromo-2-deoxiuridine to drinking water. Hotspots were most frequent downstream of branches in immature rabbits, but a novel distribution was observed in mature rabbits. Neither pattern was explained by mitosis. Hotspot uptake correlated spatially with the much greater non-hotspot uptake (p hotspots were considered. The pattern of hotspots changes with age. The data are consistent with there being a continuum of local permeabilities rather than two distinct mechanisms. The distribution of the dye, which binds to elastin and collagen, was similar to that of non-binding tracers and to lesions apart from a paucity at the lateral margins of branches that can be explained by lower levels of fibrous proteins in those regions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. A Method Sustaining the Bioelectric, Biophysical, and Bioenergetic Function of Cultured Rabbit Atrial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Noa Kirschner Peretz; Sofia Segal; Limor Arbel-Ganon; Ronen Ben Jehuda; Ronen Ben Jehuda; Yuval Shemer; Yuval Shemer; Binyamin Eisen; Binyamin Eisen; Moran Davoodi; Ofer Binah; Ofer Binah; Yael Yaniv

    2017-01-01

    Culturing atrial cells leads to a loss in their ability to be externally paced at physiological rates and to maintain their shape. We aim to develop a culture method that sustains the shape of atrial cells along with their biophysical and bioenergetic properties in response to physiological pacing. We hypothesize that adding 2,3-Butanedione 2-monoxime (BDM), which inhibits contraction during the culture period, will preserve these biophysical and bioenergetic properties. Rabbit atrial cells w...

  9. In vitro development rate of preimplantation rabbit embryos cultured with different levels of melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehaisen, Gamal Mohamed Kamel; Saeed, Ayman Moustafa

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of melatonin supplementation at different levels in culture medium on embryo development in rabbits. Embryos of 2-4 cells, 8-16 cells and morula stages were recovered from nulliparous Red Baladi rabbit does by laparotomy technique 24, 48 and 72 h post-insemination, respectively. Normal embryos from each stage were cultured to hatched blastocyst stages in either control culture medium (TCM-199 + 20% fetal bovine serum) or control supplemented with melatonin at 10(-3) M, 10(-6) M or 10(-9) M. No effect of melatonin was found on development of embryos recovered at 24 h post-insemination. The high level of melatonin at 10(-3) M adversely affected the in vitro development rates of embryos recovered at 48 h post-insemination (52 versus 86, 87 and 80% blastocyst rate; 28 versus 66, 78 and 59% hatchability rate for 10(-3) M versus 10(-9) M, 10(-6) M and control, respectively, P< 0.05). At the morula stage, melatonin at 10-3 M significantly increased the in vitro development of embryos (92% for 10(-3) M versus 76% for control, P < 0.05), while the hatchability rate of these embryos was not improved by melatonin (16-30% versus 52% for melatonin groups versus control, P < 0.05). Results show that a moderate level of melatonin (10(-6) M) may improve the development and hatchability rates of preimplantation rabbit embryos. The addition of melatonin at a 10-3 M concentration enhances the development of rabbit morulae but may negatively affect the development of earlier embryos. More studies are needed to optimize the use of melatonin in in vitro embryo culture in rabbits.

  10. A Method Sustaining the Bioelectric, Biophysical, and Bioenergetic Function of Cultured Rabbit Atrial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noa Kirschner Peretz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Culturing atrial cells leads to a loss in their ability to be externally paced at physiological rates and to maintain their shape. We aim to develop a culture method that sustains the shape of atrial cells along with their biophysical and bioenergetic properties in response to physiological pacing. We hypothesize that adding 2,3-Butanedione 2-monoxime (BDM, which inhibits contraction during the culture period, will preserve these biophysical and bioenergetic properties. Rabbit atrial cells were maintained in culture for 24 h in a medium enriched with a myofilament contraction inhibitor, BDM. The morphology and volume of the cells, including their ability to contract in response to 1–3 Hz electrical pacing, was maintained at the same level as fresh cells. Importantly, the cells could be successfully infected with a GFP adenovirus. Action potentials, Ca2+ transients, and local Ca2+ spark parameters were similar in the cultured and in fresh cells. Finally, these cultured cells' flavoprotein autofluorescence was maintained at a constant level in response to electrical pacing, a response similar to that of fresh cells. Thus, eliminating contraction during the culture period preserves the bioelectric, biophysical and bioenergetic properties of rabbit atrial myocytes. This method therefore has the potential to further improve our understanding of energetic and biochemical regulation in the atria.

  11. Development and use of a new perfusion technique to study glucose metabolism of the aortic wall in normal and alloxan-diabetic rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, B.J.M.

    1985-01-01

    This study investigated (1) possible alterations in glucose uptake and utilization in the perfused, normal, and diabetic vascular wall of rabbits and (2) the effects thereon of insulin and exogenous glucose concentration. Part I involved development and characterization of an in vitro perfusion technique that closely reproduced predetermined in vivo conditions of aortic blood flow, arterial blood pressure, heart rate and pulse pressure. The responsiveness of the preparation to vasoactive agents was assessed with concentrations of norepinephrine (NE) from 10 -9 to 10 -4 M. In Part II, the effects of NE-induced tension development on glucose metabolism were determined by perfusion with oxygenated physiological salt solution (PSS) containing 7 mM glucose and tracer amounts of uniformly labeled 14 C-glucose. Aortas from 8 week-diabetic rabbits were perfused under similar conditions employing a NE infusion in the presence or absence of insulin (150 uU/ml) and variable levels of glucose. Effects of NE-induced tension development include an apparent increase (39%) in glucose uptake and a twofold increase in 14 CO 2 and lactate production. Aortas from diabetic rabbits perfused with PSS containing 7 mM glucose demonstrated marked decreases in glucose uptake (74%), 14 CO 2 (68%), lactate (30%), total tissue glycogen (75%) and labeled tissue phospholipids (70%). Insulin or elevation of exogenous glucose to 25 mM (diabetic levels) normalized glucose uptake, but had differential effects on the pattern of substrate utilization. The marked alterations of glucose metabolism in the diabetic state may contribute to the functional changes observed in diabetic blood vessels

  12. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of alpha radiation in cultured porcine aortic endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Patricia; Tracy, Bliss; Ping, Tilly; Baweja, Anar; Wickstrom, Mark; Sidhu, Narinder; Hiebert, Linda

    2007-03-01

    Northern peoples can receive elevated radiation doses (1- 10 mSv/y) from transfer of polonium-210 (210Po) through the lichen-caribou-human food chain. Ingested 210Po is primarily blood-borne and thus many of its short range alpha particles irradiate the endothelial cells lining the blood vessels. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of alpha particles vs. x-rays was examined in porcine aortic endothelial cells as a surrogate for understanding what might happen to human endothelial cells in northern populations consuming traditional foods. Cultured porcine aortic endothelial cells were exposed to x-ray and 210Po alpha particle radiation. Alpha irradiation was applied to the cell cultures internally via the culture medium and externally, using thin-bottomed culture dishes. The results given here are based on the external irradiation method, which was found to be more reliable. Dose-response curves were compared for four lethal endpoints (cell viability, live cell fraction, release of lactate dehydrogenase [LDH] and clonogenic survival) to determine the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of alpha radiation. The alpha RBE for porcine cells varied from 1.6-21, depending on the endpoint: 21.2+/-4.5 for cell viability, 12.9+/-2.7 for decrease in live cell number, 5.3+/-0.4 for LDH release to the medium but only 1.6 +/-0.1 for clonogenic survival. The low RBE of 1.6 was due to x-ray hypersensitivity of endothelial cells at low doses.

  13. Retention of differentiated characteristics by cultures of defined rabbit kidney epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, P D; Anderson, R J; Breckon, R D; Nathrath, W; Schrier, R W

    1987-02-01

    Rabbit nephron segments of proximal convoluted tubules (PCT); proximal straight tubules (PST); cortical and medullary thick ascending limbs of Henle's loop (CAL, MAL); and cortical, outer medullary, and inner medullary collecting tubules (CCT, OMCT, IMCT) were individually microdissected and grown in monolayer culture in hormone supplemented, defined media. Factors favoring a rapid onset of proliferation included young donor age, distal tubule origin, and the addition of 3% fetal calf serum to the medium. All primary cultures had polarized morphology with apical microvilli facing the medium and basement membrane-like material adjacent to the dish. Differentiated properties characteristic of the tubular epithelium of origin retained in cultures included ultrastructural characteristics and cytochemically demonstrable marker enzyme proportions. PCT and PST were rich in alkaline phosphatase; CAL stained strongly for NaK-ATPase; CCT contained two cell populations with regard to cytochrome oxidase reaction. A CCT-specific anti-keratin antibody (aLEA) was immunolocalized in CCT cultures, and a PST cytokeratin antibody stained PST cultures. The biochemical response of adenylate cyclase to putative stimulating agents was the same in primary cultures as in freshly isolated tubules. In PCT and PST adenylate cyclase activity was stimulated by parathyroid hormone (PTH) but not by arginine vasopressin (AVP); CAL and MAL adenylate cyclase was stimulated by neither PTH nor AVP; CCT, OMCT, and IMCT adenylate cyclase was stimulated by AVP but not by PTH. NaF stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in every cultured segment. It is concluded that primary cultures of individually microdissected rabbit PCT, PST, CAL, MAL, CCT, OMCT, and IMCT retain differentiated characteristics with regard to ultrastructure, marker enzymes, cytoskeletal proteins, and hormone response of adenylate cyclase and provide a new system for studying normal and abnormal functions of the heterogeneous tubular

  14. Autogenous cultured growth plate chondrocyte transplantation in the treatment of physeal injury in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewski, R; Bohosiewicz, J; Gap, A; Bursig, H; Wysocka, A

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this experimental study on New Zealand's white rabbits was to investigate the transplantation of autogenous growth plate cells in order to treat the injured growth plate. They were assessed in terms of measurements of radiological tibial varus and histological characteristics. An experimental model of plate growth medial partial resection of the tibia in 14 New Zealand white rabbits was created. During this surgical procedure the plate growth cells were collected and cultured. While the second surgery was being performed, the autologous cultured growth plate cells were grafted at the right tibia, whereas the left tibia was used as a control group. Histological examinations showed that the grafted right tibia presented the regular shape of the plate growth with hypertrophic maturation, chondrocyte columniation and endochondral calcification. Radiological study shows that the mean tibial deformity at the left angle was 20.29° (6.25 to 33) and 7.21° (5 to 10) in the right angle. This study has demonstrated that grafting of autogenous cultured growth plate cells into a defect of the medial aspect of the proximal tibial physis can prevent bone bridge formation, growth arrest and the development of varus deformity. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;3:310-16. ©2014 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  15. Features of method of medical physical culture at insufficiency of aortic valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Kalmykov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic approaches are considered to application of facilities of medical physical education at aortic insufficiency on the stages of physical rehabilitation. An analysis is conducted more than 20 literary sources. The mechanisms of medical action of physical exercises are specified - restorative influence, forming of temporal indemnifications, trophic action, normalization of the broken functions. It is set that task, forms, facilities, the methods of medical physical culture depend on the degree of weight of disease, degree of cardio-vascular insufficiency and stage of physical rehabilitation. Engaged in a medical physical culture conducted in form morning hygienical gymnastics, medical gymnastics, independent employments, dosed walks, walking on steps, mobile and sporting games. It is marked that sparing training and training the motive modes are instrumental in the gradual training of the cardio-vascular system. Recommended the dosed walking to lead to a to 5-8 km on the sparing training and to 8-12 km on training modes.

  16. Long-term organ culture of rabbit skin: Effect of EGF on epidermal structure in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, S.; Hozumi, Y.; Aso, K.

    1990-01-01

    A method is described for maintaining the epidermal structure of normal rabbit ear skin explants in organ culture for up to 12 weeks. Split-thickness skin specimens were put in diffusion chambers made of either millipore filters or bovine collagen membranes, and then submitted to a roller tube culture at 15 rpm and 36 degrees C. The culture medium was Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) supplemented with 20% fetal calf serum (FCS) + 0.4 micrograms/ml hydrocortisone. The gas used in the culture tube was air + 5% CO2. Autoradiography revealed the incorporation of [3H]-glycine into the 68-kD keratin band of explants for up to 12 weeks, indicating that normal keratinization was maintained throughout the entire culture period. The turnover time of the epidermis from basal layer to granular layer was around 7 d in both the early and late stages of culture. The addition of epidermal growth factor (EGF) to the culture caused the epidermis to become acanthotic with orthokeratosis, but with high concentrations of EGF (greater than or equal to 10 ng/ml) parakeratosis and increased proliferation of the epidermis occurred. Dexamethasone (DMS) strongly inhibited the EGF effect

  17. Determining the pharmacological activity of Physalis peruviana fruit juice on rabbit eyes and fibroblast primary cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Juan Manuel; Fontanilla, Marta Raquel; Ospina, Luis Fernando; Espinosa, Lady

    2008-07-01

    The pharmacologic activity of compounds isolated from Physalis peruviana has been demonstrated. The use of this fruit juice for treating pterygium has been reported in Colombian traditional medicine. However, studies demonstrating the fruit juice's pharmacologic activity when used in this disease have not been published to date. In the present study the anti-inflammatory and cytostatic activities of P. peruviana fruit juice in a rabbit eye inflammatory model were investigated. A novel rabbit eye inflammation model was developed for studying the juice's anti-inflammatory activity (based on an adaptation of the Draize test). Cytostatic activity was evaluated by measuring and comparing growth rates of cultured fibroblasts exposed and not exposed to various fruit juice concentrations. P. peruviana fruit juice exhibited a mild anti-inflammatory activity compared with methylprednisolone, a known anti-inflammatory drug. An interesting dose-dependent cytostatic effect on cultured fibroblasts was also established. The data found suggest that the P. peruviana fruit juice anti-pterygium effect described in traditional medicine may be related to its inhibiting fibroblast growth. The present study contributes to the pharmacologic knowledge regarding a remedy commonly used in Colombian traditional medicine.

  18. Elastase effect on the extracellular matrix of rat aortic smooth muscle cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kispert, J.; Mogayzel, P.J. Jr.; Pratt, C.A.; Toselli, P.; Wolfe, B.L.; Faris, B.; Franzblau, C.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of porcine pancreatic elastase on the extracellular matrix (ECM) of neonatal rat aortic smooth muscle cell cultures was monitored both chemically and ultrastructurally. Initially, the elastin appeared as non-coalesced material closely associated with filaments, presumably microfibrils. The insoluble elastin accumulated in the ECM of cells in culture for 6 weeks accounted for 40-45% of the total protein. After exposure to elastase for 30-60 minutes, the elastin content was reduced to 14-20%. The reduction in the total protein content of the cultures after elastase treatment was due primarily to the loss of elastin. Although the amino acid compositions of the elastin isolated from cultures both before and after elastase treatment were similar, there were striking ultrastructural differences in the amorphous elastin. The elastin assumed a mottled appearance after elastase exposure, similar to that seen in in vivo emphysema models. Pulse experiments with 3 H-valine demonstrated an increase in protein synthesis by the cells 20 hours after elastase exposure, suggesting the potential for elastin repair. The use of this culture system will aid in clarifying the role of elastolysis in pulmonary and vascular injuries

  19. Endogenous hepatitis C virus homolog fragments in European rabbit and hare genomes replicate in cell culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Silva

    Full Text Available Endogenous retroviruses, non-retroviral RNA viruses and DNA viruses have been found in the mammalian genomes. The origin of Hepatitis C virus (HCV, the major cause of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma in humans, remains unclear since its discovery. Here we show that fragments homologous to HCV structural and non-structural (NS proteins present in the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus and hare (Lepus europaeus genomes replicate in bovine cell cultures. The HCV genomic homolog fragments were demonstrated by RT-PCR, PCR, mass spectrometry, and replication in bovine cell cultures by immunofluorescence assay (IFA and immunogold electron microscopy (IEM using specific MAbs for HCV NS3, NS4A, and NS5 proteins. These findings may lead to novel research approaches on the HCV origin, genesis, evolution and diversity.

  20. Regulation of collagen biosynthesis in cultured bovine aortic smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepp, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Aortic smooth muscles cells have been implicated in the etiology of lesions which occur in atherosclerosis and hypertension. Both diseases involve proliferation of smooth muscle cells and accumulation of excessive amounts of extracellular matrix proteins, including collagen type I and type III produced by the smooth muscle cells. To better understand the sites of regulation of collagen biosynthesis and to correlate these with the growth rate of the cells, cultured bovine aortic smooth muscle cells were studied as a function of the number of days (3 to 14) in second passage. Cells grew rapidly up to day 6 when confluence was reached. The total incorporation of [ 3 H]-proline into proteins was highest at day 3 and decreased to a constant level after the cultures reached confluence. In contrast, collagen protein production was lowest before confluence and continued to increase over the entire time course of the experiments. cDNA clones for the α1 and α2 chains of type I and the α1 chain of type III collagen were used to quantitate the steady state level of collagen mRNAs. RNA was tested in a cell-free translation system. Changes in the translational activity of collagen mRNAs parallelled the observed increases in collagen protein production. Thus, at later time points, collagen mRNAs are more active in directing synthesis of preprocollagens, even though less collagen mRNA is present. The conclusion is that the site of regulation of the expression of collagen genes is a function of the growth rate of cultured smooth muscle cells

  1. Purification and partial characterization of glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans from cultured rabbit smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabatino, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans synthesized by cultured rabbit smooth muscle cells were isolated after incorporation of [ 3 H]-glucosamine into glycosaminoglycans in the presence or absence of 10% fetal bovine serum. Glycosaminoglycans were quantitated by two-dimensional electrophoresis after proteolytic digestion of the cell layers and media. The results show that the presence of serum has no effect on the chondroitin sulfate, heparan sulfate and dermatan sulfate content of the cell layers. The incorporation of [ 3 H]-glucosamine into hyaluronic acid of the cell layers was three times higher in the presence of serum. In the medium , the quantity of hyaluronic was two times higher in the presence of serum while the other glycosaminoglycans remained unchanged. The incorporation of [ 3 H]-glucosamine into hyaluronic acid was unaffected by the presence of serum. Specific proteoglycans were isolated from medium after with [ 35 S]-sulfate and [ 3 H]-serine by isopycnic ultracentrifugation and chromatography on Sepharose CL-4B and DEAE-cellulose. Preparations contained a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, a condroitin sulfate-dermatan sulfate proteoglycan and a heparan sulfate proteoglycan. Glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans synthesized by rabbit aorta smooth muscle cells are similar to those from human aorta

  2. Structure and component alteration of rabbit Achilles tendon in tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosaka, Yoshinao; Ueda, Hiromi; Yamasaki, Tadatsugu; Suzuki, Daisuke; Matsuda, Naoya; Takehana, Kazushige

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate alterations of cultured tendon tissues to determine whether tissue culture is a useful method for biological analyses of the tendon. Tendon tissues for tissue culture were isolated from Achilles tendons of rabbits. The tendon segments were placed one segment per well and incubated in growth medium consisting of Dullbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 5% fetal bovine serum at 37 degrees C in a humidified atmosphere with 5% CO(2) for various periods. The alignment of collagen fibrils was preserved for 48 h, but tendon structure has disintegrated at 96 h. Alcian blue staining and gelatine zymography revealed that proteoglycan markedly diminished and that matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs) activity was upregulated sharply at 72 and 96 h. The ratio of collagen fibrils with large diameter had increased and the mean diameter and mass average diameter value had reached maximum at 48 h. The values then decreased and mean diameters at 72 and 96 h were significantly different from that at 48 h. At 96 h, the ratio of collagen fibrils with small diameters had increased and collagen fibrils with large diameters had disappeared. These findings indicate that structural alteration is possible to be induced by disintegration of collagen fibrils and disappearance of glycosaminoglycans from extracellular matrix (ECM), subsequent of upregulation of MMPs activity. Although the study period is limited, the tissue culture method is available for investigating cell-ECM interaction in tendons.

  3. Magnesium prevents phosphate-induced vascular calcification via TRPM7 and Pit-1 in an aortic tissue culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonou, Tomohiro; Ohya, Masaki; Yashiro, Mitsuru; Masumoto, Asuka; Nakashima, Yuri; Ito, Teppei; Mima, Toru; Negi, Shigeo; Kimura-Suda, Hiromi; Shigematsu, Takashi

    2017-06-01

    Previous clinical and experimental studies have indicated that magnesium may prevent vascular calcification (VC), but mechanistic characterization has not been reported. This study investigated the influence of increasing magnesium concentrations on VC in a rat aortic tissue culture model. Aortic segments from male Sprague-Dawley rats were incubated in serum-supplemented high-phosphate medium for 10 days. The magnesium concentration in this medium was increased to demonstrate its role in preventing VC, which was assessed by imaging and spectroscopy. The mineral composition of the calcification was analyzed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic imaging, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) mapping. Magnesium supplementation of high-phosphate medium dose-dependently suppressed VC (quantified as aortic calcium content), and almost ablated it at 2.4 mm magnesium. The FTIR images and SEM-EDX maps indicated that the distribution of phosphate (as hydroxyapatite), phosphorus and Mg corresponded with calcium content in the aortic ring and VC. The inhibitory effect of magnesium supplementation on VC was partially reduced by 2-aminoethoxy-diphenylborate, an inhibitor of TRPM7. Furthermore, phosphate transporter-1 (Pit-1) protein expression was increased in tissues cultured in HP medium and was gradually-and dose dependently-decreased by magnesium. We conclude that a mechanism involving TRPM7 and Pit-1 underpins the magnesium-mediated reversal of high-phosphate-associated VC.

  4. Effect of extracellular fatty acids on lipid metabolism in cultured rabbit articular chondrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagao, M.; Ishii, S.; Murata, Y.; Akino, T.

    1991-01-01

    Rabbit articular chondrocytes were cultured for 8 h in the presence of various concentrations (5-500 microM) of 14 C oleic, 14 C linoleic, and 3H arachidonic acids. The radioactive unsaturated fatty acids were incorporated into triacylglycerol (TG) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) in a concentration-dependent manner; more fatty acids were incorporated into TG than into PC, at higher concentrations of extracellular fatty acids. Among these fatty acids, arachidonic acid was incorporated into TG much more than into PC, in spite of a very low concentration of arachidonic acid in TG. After transfer of the labeled cells to maintenance medium, the radioactivity in TG declined rapidly and 3 H arachidonic acid radioactivity in PC increased continuously during the chase time periods. Palmitoyl-unsaturated species were mainly formed in PC when cultured at a concentration of 5 microM of each fatty acid. However, when cultured at 500 microM, unsaturated-unsaturated species, specific for each unsaturated fatty acid were actively formed. These findings indicate that (1) fatty acid composition of TG and PC in articular chondrocytes is influenced by the degree of fatty acid supply, (2) formation and turnover of TG plays a role in fatty acid metabolism of cells, and (3) fatty acid pairing in PC is modulated by extracellular fatty acid concentrations

  5. Measurement by radioimmunoassay of casein content in rabbit mammary gland during pregnancy and after prolactin stimulation in organ culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahn, G.; Dusanter-Fourt, I.; Kelly, P.A.; Houdebine, L.M.; Djiane, J.

    1987-01-01

    A specific homologous radioimmunoassay was developed to measure rabbit β-casein in rabbit mammary gland with a sensitivity of 0.5 ng/ml protein. It was used to measure casein concentration during pregnancy and in organ culture of mammary gland explants. Casein was detectable in virgin mammary glands, showed a small increase during the first half of pregnancy, increased more than 20-fold between Days 21 and 27, and diminished somewhat on the first days of lactation. After 24 hr of culture, mammary gland explants had no detectable casein, but the addition of increasing concentrations of prolactin to a culture medium which contained insulin (5 μg/ml) and cortisol (0.5 μg/ml) induced a regular increase in the casein content of the tissue. Casein started to increase when 10 ng/ml of prolactin was present and maximal values were achieved for 100 ng/ml of the hormone

  6. Detoxification Treatments of Free Gossypol in Cottonseed Meal by Microbial Treatment of Mixed Cultures and Biochemical Evaluation on Rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atia, A.I.; Abdel- Rahim, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    Detoxification of ti-ee gossypol (FG) in cottonseed meal (CSM) by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus niger, as a mixed culture, was carried out in solid state fermentation (SSF). Experiments were adopted to optimize the fermentation conditions. Maximum detoxification efficiency (90.2%) occurred after 48 h of incubation at 30 degree C in a 250 ml conical flask containing 15 g of CSM supplemented with 1 % (w/w) (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 at the optimal conditions including the initial moisture content 55% (w/w) and inoculum level at 5% (v/w). The detoxification of FG was a growth-associated process, which was highly correlated with the dry matter weight loss. Moreover, high activities of hydrolytic enzymes were also produced in solid state fermentation, which enhanced the nutritive value of the detoxified cottonseed powder. A total number of 48 white New Zealand male rabbits were used to biologically examine the feeding of treated (detoxified) CSM without any adverse effects. Hematological and biochemical relevant parameters of white New Zealand male rabbits as affected by feeding treated meal were in the normal physiological range without no obvious change. No significant changes in liver and kidney functions of the rabbits weight gain, feed conversion and efficiency did not significantly change among experimental groups. The study showed that the feeding of the detoxified CSM by S. cerevisiae and A. niger as a mixed culture in this research without any adverse effects on rabbits

  7. Effects of edible bird's nest (EBN on cultured rabbit corneal keratocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hun Lee

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been no effective treatment or agent that is available for corneal injury in promoting corneal wound healing. Previous studies on edible bird's nest extract (EBN had reported the presence of hormone-like substance; avian epidermal growth factor that could stimulate cell division and enhance regeneration. This study aimed to investigate the effects of EBN on corneal keratocytes proliferative capacity and phenotypical changes. Methods Corneal keratocytes from six New Zealand White Rabbits were isolated and cultured until Passage 1. The proliferative effects of EBN on corneal keratocytes were determined by MTT assay in serum-containing medium (FDS and serum-free medium (FD. Keratocytes phenotypical changes were morphologically assessed and gene expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH, collagen type 1 and lumican were determined through RT-PCR. Results The highest cell proliferation was observed when both media were supplemented with 0.05% and 0.1% EBN. Cell proliferation was also consistently higher in FDS compared to FD. Both phase contrast micrographs and gene expression analysis confirmed the corneal keratocytes retained their phenotypes with the addition of EBN. Conclusions These results suggested that low concentration of EBN could synergistically induce cell proliferation, especially in serum-containing medium. This could be a novel breakthrough as both cell proliferation and functional maintenance are important during corneal wound healing. The in vitro test is considered as a crucial first step for nutri-pharmaceutical formation of EBN-based eye drops before in vivo application.

  8. Effect of D-valine and cytosine arabinoside on [3H]thymidine incorporation in rat and rabbit epididymal epithelial cell cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orgebin-Crist, M.C.; Jonas-Davies, J.; Storey, P.; Olson, G.E.

    1984-01-01

    Epithelial cell enriched primary cultures were established from the rat and the rabbit epididymis. Epithelial cell aggregates, obtained after pronase digestion of minced epididymis, attached to the culture dish and after 72 h in vitro spread out to form discrete patches of cells. These cells have an epithelioid morphology and form a monolayer of closely apposed polygonal cells where DNA synthesis, as judged by [ 3 H]thymidine uptake, is very low. In L-valine medium the nonepithelial cell contamination was no more than 10% in rat and rabbit epididymal primary cultures. The labeling index of rat epididymal cells cultured in D-valine medium was significantly lower than that of cells cultured in L-valine medium. In contrast, the labeling index of rabbit epididymal cells cultured in D-valine medium was significantly higher than that of cells cultured in L-valine medium. Cytosine arabinoside decreased the number of labeled cells in both L-valine and D-valine cultures. From these results, it appears that D-valine is a selective agent for rat epididymal epithelial cells, but not for rabbit epithelial cells, and that cytosine arabinoside is a simple and effective means to control the proliferation of fibroblast-like cells in both rat and rabbit epididymal cell cultures

  9. Induction of mitosis in the cultured rabbit lens initiated by the addition of insulin to medium KEI-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddan, J R; Unakar, N J; Harding, C V; Bagchi, M; Saldana, G

    1975-01-01

    The epithelium of lenses cultured in KEI-4, a completely defined medium formulated with specific reference to the biochemistry and physiology of the rabbit lens, exhibits a pattern of cell division similar to that noted for the organ in situ. Initial fluctuations in mitotic activity occurred in the area of the germinative zone during the first 24 hr of culture. Mitosis decreased at 1 hr, was extremely low at 3 hr and returned to values comparable for lens in vivo by 22 hr. The precipitous drop in mitosis noted at 3 hr is in part attributable to the isolation of the lens from adjoining tissue. The addition of insulin to KEI-4 triggers a parasynchronous burst of DNA synthesis throughout the central lens epithelium. The activation requires the intact hormone; neither proinsulin nor the A and/or B chains of insulin, nor glucagon nor zinc chloride can initiate mitosis. The gamma-globulin-rich fraction of rabbit serum can also stimulate mitosis. The addition of dibutyryl adenosine 3':5' cyclic monophosphate (DBeAMP) plus theophylline to KEI-4-insulin inhibits mitosis and prevents the cells from entering the synthetic phase of the cell cycle. Theophylline alone or DBeAMP alone brings about a 90 percent reduction in the insulin-induced mitotic responses. Lenses exposed to insulin show a marked increase in RNA synthesis and also exhibit an increased binding of tritiated actinomycin D at 1 and 3 hr of culture relative to KEI-4 controls. The hormone apparently activates the genome including those genes governing cell division. The system is amenable for long-term culture of the mammalian lens and since the constituents of the medium are known it should be possible to determine the factor(s) in the medium which, in conjunction with insulin, are needed for the induction of cell division.

  10. Characterization of active ion transport across primary rabbit corneal epithelial cell layers (RCrECL) cultured at an air-interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang-Lin, Joan-En; Kim, Kwang-Jin; Lee, Vincent H L

    2005-06-01

    Previously, we reported the development of a primary culture model of tight rabbit corneal epithelial cell layers (RCrECL) characterizing bioelectric parameters, morphology, cytokeratin, and passive permeability. In the present study, we specifically evaluated the active ion transport processes of RCrECL cultured from either pigmented or albino rabbits. Primary cultured RCrECL were grown at an air-interface on Clear-Snapwells precoated with collagen/fibronectin/laminin and mounted in a modified Ussing-type chamber for the evaluation of their active ion transport processes under short-circuited conditions. Contribution of active Na(+) and Cl(-) transport to overall short-circuit current (I(sc)) was evaluated by removing Na(+) and Cl(-), respectively, from bathing fluids of RCrECL and measurements of net fluxes of Na(+) and Cl(-) using (22)Na and (36)Cl, respectively. Amiloride and benzamil were used to determine the role of apical Na(+)-channel activities to net Na(+) fluxes. N-phenylanthranilic acid (NPAA), ouabain, BaCl(2) and bumetanide were used to determine the role of basolateral Na,K-ATPase, apical Cl(-)-channel, and basolateral K(+)-channel and Na(+)(K(+))2Cl(-)-cotransporter activities, respectively, in active ion transport across RCrECL. I(sc) of RCrECL derived from pigmented rabbits was comprised of 64+/-2% and 44+/-5% for active Na(+) and Cl(-) transport, respectively, consistent with net Na(+) absorption and Cl(-) secretion of 0.062+/-0.006 and 0.046+/-0.008 muEq/cm(2)/hr estimated from radionuclide fluxes. Apical amiloride and benzamil inhibited I(sc) by up to approximately 50% with an IC(50) of 1 and 0.1 microm, respectively, consistent with participation of apical epithelial Na(+)-channels to net Na(+) absorption across RCrECL cultured from pigmented rabbits. Addition of ouabain to the basolateral, NPAA to the apical, BaCl(2) to the basolateral and bumetanide to basolateral fluid decreased I(sc) by 86+/-1.5%, 53+/-3%, 18+/-1.8% and 13+/-1.9% in RCr

  11. Aortic insufficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page, please enable JavaScript. Aortic insufficiency is a heart valve disease in which the aortic valve does not close ... aortic insufficiency Images Aortic insufficiency References Carabello BA. Valvular heart disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ...

  12. Embryonic stem-like cells from rabbit blastocysts cultured with melatonin could differentiate into three germ layers in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ruxue; Zhao, Xueming; Hao, Haisheng; Du, Weihua; Zhu, Huabin

    2016-11-01

    The rabbit is considered an important model animal from which to obtain embryonic stem cells because of the utility of this animal in physiology and reproductive research. Here, we derived rabbit ES-like (rES-like) cells from blastocysts of superovulated Japanese white rabbits using culture medium containing 10 -7  M melatonin, 10 ng/mL basic fibroblast growth factor, and 1,000 IU/mL human leukemia inhibitory factor. This concentration of melatonin had the most significant positive effects on the proliferation inner cell mass-derived cells (improving rates from 19.97% to 34.57%) and the longevity of passaging rES-like cells. Melatonin also enhanced the expression of pluripotent genes-including alkaline phosphatase, Pou5f1, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc, Nanog, Line28a, and surface marker proteins-in fifth-passage rES-like cells. In vitro, these rES-like cells could spontaneously differentiate into some somatic cells, such as beating cardiomyocytes; formed embryoid bodies; expressed markers of the three germ layers after differentiation; and formed teratomas after injection into non-obese diabetic-severe combined immune deficient (NOD-SCID) mice. Thus, melatonin helped coax ES-like cells from rabbit blastocysts, which raises intriguing questions about the relationship between pluripotency and proliferation in rabbit embryonic stem cells. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 83: 1003-1014, 2016 © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Aerococcus christensenii native aortic valve subacute bacterial endocarditis (SBE) presenting as culture negative endocarditis (CNE) mimicking marantic endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Anita; Cunha, Burke A; Klein, Natalie C; Schoch, Paul E

    2014-01-01

    This is a case report of an adult who presented with apparent culture negative endocarditis (CNE) thought to be marantic endocarditis due to a B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder. This was a most perplexing case and was eventually diagnosed as subacute bacterial endocarditis (SBE) due to a rare slow growing organism. Against the diagnosis of SBE was the lack of fever, hepatomegaly, peripheral manifestations and microscopic hematuria. Also, against a diagnosis of SBE was another explanation for the patient's abnormal findings, e.g., elevated ferritin levels, elevated α1/α2 globulins on SPEP, an elevated alkaline phosphatase, flow cytometry showing B-lymphocytes expressing CD5, and a bone lesion in the right iliac. Findings compatible with both SBE and marantic endocarditis due to a B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder included an elevated ESR, and splenomegaly. Blood cultures eventually became positive during hospitalization. We report a case of native aortic valve (AV) subacute bacterial endocarditis (SBE) due to Aerococcus christensenii mimicking marantic endocarditis due to a B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of native AV SBE due to A. christensenii presenting as marantic endocarditis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Stimulation of matrix formation in rabbit chondrocyte cultures by ascorbate. 1. Effect of ascorbate analogs and beta-aminopropionitrile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, G C; Wei, X Q; McDevitt, C A; Lane, B P; Sokoloff, L

    1988-01-01

    The most consistent effects of 0.2 mM L-ascorbate on monolayer cultures of rabbit articular chondrocytes were a diversion of incorporated radiosulfate into a pericellular matrix and enhancement of cell proliferation. Only with certain batches of fetal bovine serum (FBS) was there a cell-for-cell increase of proteoglycan synthesis. These actions increased as the cell inoculum rose from 0.5 to 2 x 10(5) cells/T25 flask. Maximal effects of ascorbate and D-isoascorbate were found over a range of 0.05-0.2 mM. L-Dehydroascorbic acid was less effective than either, and no stimulatory action was exerted by L-cysteine, glutathione, dithiothreitol, methylene blue, or phenazine methosulfate. Ascorbate increased the hypro:pro ratio of newly synthesized proteins. beta-Aminopropionitrile (1 mM) reduced the proportion of [3H]hydroxyproline and [35S]O4-proteoglycans in the ascorbate-supplemented matrix 31 and 7%, respectively. In corresponding electronmicrographs, the number of pericellular filaments was reduced. We conclude: (a) Ascorbate has a general anabolic effect on chondrocytes in culture and enhances matrix assembly through mechanisms other than its redox function; (b) deposition of proteoglycans in the matrix is not simply the result of mechanical entrapment by allysine- or hydroxyallysine-derived cross-linking of collagen; and (c) contradictory reports on the subject result from variations in the serum employed, inoculum density, and concentration of ascorbate.

  15. Regulation of proliferation and gene expression in cultured human aortic smooth muscle cells by resveratrol and standardized grape extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhirong; Chen Yan; Labinskyy, Nazar; Hsieh Tzechen; Ungvari, Zoltan; Wu, Joseph M.

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that low to moderate consumption of red wine is inversely associated with the risk of coronary heart disease; the protection is in part attributed to grape-derived polyphenols, notably trans-resveratrol, present in red wine. It is not clear whether the cardioprotective effects of resveratrol can be reproduced by standardized grape extracts (SGE). In the present studies, we determined, using cultured human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC), growth and specific gene responses to resveratrol and SGE provided by the California Table Grape Commission. Suppression of HASMC proliferation by resveratrol was accompanied by a dose-dependent increase in the expression of tumor suppressor gene p53 and heat shock protein HSP27. Using resveratrol affinity chromatography and biochemical fractionation procedures, we showed by immunoblot analysis that treatment of HASMC with resveratrol increased the expression of quinone reductase I and II, and also altered their subcellular distribution. Growth of HASMC was significantly inhibited by 70% ethanolic SGE; however, gene expression patterns in various cellular compartments elicited in response to SGE were substantially different from those observed in resveratrol-treated cells. Further, SGE also differed from resveratrol in not being able to induce relaxation of rat carotid arterial rings. These results indicate that distinct mechanisms are involved in the regulation of HASMC growth and gene expression by SGE and resveratrol

  16. Acute radiation effects on the content and release of plasminogen activator activity in cultured aortic endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ts'ao, C.H.; Ward, W.F.

    1985-01-01

    Confluent monolayers from three lines of bovine aortic endothelial cells were exposed to a single dose of 10 Gy of 60 Co γ rays. Seventy-two hours later, the morphology of the irradiated and sham-irradiated monolayers was examined, and cellular DNA and protein contents were determined. In addition, the release of plasminogen activator (PA) activity into the culture media and PA activity in the cell lysates were assayed. DNA and protein contents in the irradiated monolayers were reduced to 43-50% and 72-95% of the control levels, respectively. These data indicate that radiation induced cell loss (detachment and/or lysis) from the monolayer, with hypertrophy of surviving (attached) cells to preserve the continuity of the monolayer surface. Total PA activity (lysate plus medium) in the irradiated dishes was reduced to 50-75% of the control level. However, when endothelial PA activity was expressed on the basis of DNA content, the irradiated monolayers from two of the three cell lines contained significantly more PA activity than did sham-irradiated monolayers. These data suggest that fibrinolytic defects observed in irradiated tissues in situ may be attributable at least in part to a radiation-induced inhibition of PA release by vascular endothelial cells

  17. Mechanical stretch modulates microRNA 21 expression, participating in proliferation and apoptosis in cultured human aortic smooth muscle cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian tao Song

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Stretch affects vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and apoptosis, and several responsible genes have been proposed. We tested whether the expression of microRNA 21 (miR-21 is modulated by stretch and is involved in stretch-induced proliferation and apoptosis of human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs. METHODS AND RESULTS: RT-PCR revealed that elevated stretch (16% elongation, 1 Hz increased miR-21 expression in cultured HASMCs, and moderate stretch (10% elongation, 1 Hz decreased the expression. BrdU incorporation assay and cell counting showed miR-21 involved in the proliferation of HASMCs mediated by stretch, likely by regulating the expression of p27 and phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein (p-Rb. FACS analysis revealed that the complex of miR-21 and programmed cell death protein 4 (PDCD4 participated in regulating apoptosis with stretch. Stretch increased the expression of primary miR-21 and pre-miR-21 in HASMCs. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA demonstrated that stretch increased NF-κB and AP-1 activities in HASMCs, and blockade of AP-1 activity by c-jun siRNA significantly suppressed stretch-induced miR-21 expression. CONCLUSIONS: Cyclic stretch modulates miR-21 expression in cultured HASMCs, and miR-21 plays important roles in regulating proliferation and apoptosis mediated by stretch. Stretch upregulates miR-21 expression at least in part at the transcription level and AP-1 is essential for stretch-induced miR-21 expression.

  18. Monomeric adiponectin increases cell viability in porcine aortic endothelial cells cultured in normal and high glucose conditions: Data on kinases activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grossini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We found that monomeric adiponectin was able to increase cell viability in porcine aortic endothelial cells (PAE cultured both in normal and high glucose condition. Moreover, in normal glucose condition monomeric adiponectin increased p38MAPK, Akt, ERK1/2 and eNOS phosphorylation in a dose- and time-dependent way. Also in high glucose condition monomeric adiponectin increased eNOS and above kinases phosphorylation with similar patterns but at lower extent. For interpretation of the data presented in this article, please see the research article “Monomeric adiponectin modulates nitric oxide release and calcium movements in porcine aortic endothelial cells in normal/high glucose conditions” (Grossini et al., in press [1].

  19. [Stimulation of maturing and terminal differentiation by concanavalin A in rabbit permanent chondrocyte cultures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, W Q; Yang, T S; Hou, L Z; Susuki, F; Kato, Y

    1994-12-01

    The effect of concanavalin A (Con A) on maturing and terminal differentiation in permanent chondrocyte cultures were examined. Chondrocytes isolated from permanent cartilage were seeded at low density and grown in MEM medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum, 50 micrograms/ml of ascorbic acid and antibiotics, at 37 degrees C under 50% CO2 in air. At 0.3% of low serum concentration, addition of Con A to the culture medium increased by 3- to 4-fold the incorporation of [35S] sulfate into large chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan that characteristically found in cartilage. Chemical analysis showed a 4-fold increase in the accumulation of macromolecular containing hexuronic acid in Con A-maintained cultures. The effect of Con A on [35S]sulfate incorporation into proteoglycan was greater than that of various growth factor or hormones. Brief exposure of the permanent chondrocytes to Con A (5 micrograms/ml) for 24 hours and subsequent incubation in its absence for 5-10 days resulted in 10- to 100-fold increase in alkaline phosphatase and binding of 1.25 (OH)2 vitamin D3 to cells. Treatment with Con A also resulted in 10- to 20-fold increase in calcium content and 45Ca incorporation into insoluble material. Methyl-D-mannopyranoside reversed the effect of Con A on [35S]sulfate incorporation into proteoglycan and alkaline phosphatase activity. Since other lectins, such as wheat germ agglutinin, lentil lectin, phytohemagglutinin, Ulex europeasu agglutinin and garden pea lectin had been tested to have little effect on [35S]sulfate incorporation into proteoglycans and induction of alkaline phosphatase activity, the Con A action on chondrocytes seems specific. These results indicate that Con A is a potent modulator of differentiation of chondrocytes, which induces the onset on a maturing and a terminal differentiation in chondrocytes, leading to extensive calcification of the extracellular matrix.

  20. Metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene in cultured human fetal aortic smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, J.A.; Kocan, R.M.; Benditt, E.P.; Juchau, M.R.

    1979-01-01

    Cultured human fetal aortic smooth muscle cells derived from the abdominal aorta converted benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) via cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenation to metabolites detectable by both a highly sensitive radiometric assay and high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Cells incubated with 3 H-BaP transformed this substrate primarily to phenols. 14 C-DMBA was converted to metabolites that cochromatographed with 12-hydroxymethyl-methylbenz[a]anthracene, 7-hydroxymethyl-12-methylbenz[a]anthracene, 7- 7,12-dihydroxymethylbenz[a]anthracene, and trans-8,9-dihydrodiol-7,12-DMBA. Exposure of cells in culture to 13 μM 1,2-benz[a]anthracene resulted in increased oxidative metabolism of both BaP and DMBA. In the case of BaP, total phenol formation was increased, while with DMBA all metabolites detected by HPLC were increased. Support for the potential role of metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by aortic smooth muscle cells in the etiology of atherosclerosis was obtained

  1. Dermatophytes in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, A; Mueller, R S; Werckenthin, C; Straubinger, R K; Hein, J

    2012-05-25

    The frequency of dermatophytes in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits. To determine the frequency and types of dermatophytes in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits. First, 2153 samples collected from pet Guinea pigs (n=1132) and rabbits (n=1021) with suspected dermatophytosis and submitted to three different laboratories for fungal culture were analysed. Subsequently, healthy Guinea pigs and rabbits, animals with skin lesions and with noncutaneous diseases were examined prospectively for dermatophytes. Trichophyton (T.) mentagrophytes was the most common fungal species isolated (91.6% and 72.3% of positive cultures from Guinea pigs (n=431) and rabbits (n=83), respectively). Animals with positive fungal culture did not show any gender predisposition, but affected animals were younger than those with negative fungal culture (PGuinea pigs and 0/140 healthy rabbits. In addition, fungal cultures of Guinea pigs with skin lesions (n=26) and other diseases (n=25) were positive in 7.7% and 8.0% respectively. Samples collected from 17 rabbits with skin lesions and 32 rabbits with noncutaneous disease were all negative in culture. T. mentagrophytes is the most common dermatophyte in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits, asymptomatic carriers are regularly seen in Guinea pigs, but not in rabbits. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of rabbit embryos during a 96-h period of in vitro culture after superovulatory treatment under conditions of elevated ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, H; Dooley, M P; Hopkins, S M; Anderson, L L; Yibchok-anun, S; Hsu, W H

    1999-08-16

    The effects of elevated ambient temperature on the response to exogenous gonadotropins were evaluated in female New Zealand White rabbits exposed to 33+/-1 degrees C (mean +/- SE) and 10-30% relative humidity (8 h/day) during a 5-day period. Does were treated with pFSH (0.3 mg/0.3 ml Standard Armour) twice daily during three consecutive days with a minimum interval of 8 h between injections. Six hours after the last FSH injection all does were removed from the experimental chamber, given hCG (25 IU/kg) and paired overnight. Nineteen hours after pairing, embryos were flushed from the reproductive tracts, evaluated, and subjected to in vitro culture during a 96-h period. The ovulatory responses to exogenous gonadotropins and fertilization rates did not differ significantly under conditions of elevated ambient temperature, whereas fewer blastocysts and increased number of degenerate embryos were observed after culture. We conclude that although hyperthermia was induced during exposure to elevated ambient temperature, it did not alter the ovulatory responses to gonadotropin treatment and plasma concentrations of FSH and LH compared with does in a thermoneutral environment. Exposure of donor rabbits to elevated ambient temperature before mating, however, increased embryonic degeneration.

  3. Aortic stenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Images Aortic stenosis Heart valves References Carabello BA. Valvular heart disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ... ACC guideline for the management of patients with valvular heart disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/ ...

  4. Induction of calcification by serum depletion in cell culture: a model for focal calcification in aortas related to atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villar Maria T

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since aortic calcification has been shown to initiate in the lower zone of well-thickened plaques (LZP adjacent to the aortic media of rabbits fed supplemental cholesterol diets, a restricted supply of serum to vascular cells could play a role in vascular calcification. This study was designed to use a cell culture model to support this hypothesis. Results Rabbit aortic smooth muscle cells were grown to confluence in a culture media containing 10 % fetal bovine serum (FBS. The confluent cells were then exposed to the media for 2 hrs with or without serum at a Ca × P ion product range of 4.5–9.4 mM2. In contrast to the cells cultured in the presence of FBS, confluent cells in its absence displayed marked mineral-positive alizarin red staining and infrared absorption of mineral phosphate. A kinetic parameter C1/2 was used to designate the concentration of serum or its protein constituents needed to reduce the deposition of Ca and P by half. The C1/2 for FBS and rabbit serum was 0.04–0.07 % The C1/2 value for rabbit serum proteins was 13.5 μg/ml corresponding to the protein concentration in 0.06 % of serum. This C1/2 was markedly smaller than 86.2 μg/ml for bovine serum albumin present in 0.37 % serum (p Conclusion The aortic smooth muscle cell culture model suggests that serum depletion may play a role in the initiation of aortic calcification. The serum exhibits remarkable ability to inhibit cell-mediated calcification.

  5. Rabbit analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barter, Linda S

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing popularity of rabbits as household pets, the complexity of diagnostic and surgical procedures performed on rabbits is increasing, along with the frequency of routine surgical procedures. More practitioners are faced with the need to provide adequate analgesia for this species. Preemptive analgesia prior to planned surgical interventions may reduce nervous system changes in response to noxious input, as well as reduce postoperative pain levels and analgesic drug requirements. Concurrent administration of analgesic drugs to anesthetized rabbits undergoing painful procedures is warranted both pre- and intraoperatively as well as postoperatively. This article discusses the neuropharmacologic and pharmacologic aspects of pain in rabbits, and reviews current protocols for the use of analgesic drugs. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. sup(99m)Tc-labeled antibacterial antibody scan for the diagnosis of infective endocarditis (in rabbit)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, J T; Tanaka, T; Wong, D W; Mishkin, F; Thadepalli, H [University of Southern California, Los Angeles (USA)

    1978-01-01

    The mortality of infective endocarditis is high and the results of blood cultures and clinical manifestations may be unreliable in its diagnosis. A technique has been developed using the specific antigen-antibody reaction against sup(99m)Tc-labelled antibacterial antibody. The antibody, tagged by an electrolytic method, remained very active and was not denatured since 99% of the sup(99m)Tc-antibody was able to react with antigen. The labelled antibody was injected intravenously into rabbits with experimental aortic endocarditis. The radioactivity of the infected aortic valves was about four times greater than that in the uninfected valves. A scintillation scan was able to detect the infected valves in vivo.

  7. sup(99m)Tc-labeled antibacterial antibody scan for the diagnosis of infective endocarditis (in rabbit)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.T.; Tanaka, T.; Wong, D.W.; Mishkin, F.; Thadepalli, H.

    1978-01-01

    The mortality of infective endocarditis is high and the results of blood cultures and clinical manifestations may be unreliable in its diagnosis. A technique has been developed using the specific antigen-antibody reaction against sup(99m)Tc-labelled antibacterial antibody. The antibody, tagged by an electrolytic method, remained very active and was not denatured since 99% of the sup(99m)Tc-antibody was able to react with antigen. The labelled antibody was injected intravenously into rabbits with experimental aortic endocarditis. The radioactivity of the infected aortic valves was about four times greater than that in the uninfected valves. A scintillation scan was able to detect the infected valves in vivo. (U.K.)

  8. Diagnosis of renal disease in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcourt-Brown, Frances Margaret

    2013-01-01

    There are differences in renal anatomy and physiology between rabbits and other domestic species. Neurogenic renal ischemia occurs readily. Reversible prerenal azotemia may be seen in conjunction with gut stasis. Potentially fatal acute renal failure may be due to structural kidney damage or post-renal disease. Chronic renal failure is often associated with encephalitozoonosis. Affected rabbits cannot vomit and often eat well. Weight loss, lethargy, and cachexia are common clinical signs. Polydypsia/polyuria may be present. Derangements in calcium and phosphorus metabolism are features of renal disease. Radiography is always indicated. Urolithiasis, osteosclerosis, aortic and renal calcification are easily seen on radiographs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/007684.htm Transcatheter aortic valve replacement To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is surgery to replace the aortic valve. ...

  10. Cyclic Mechanical Stretch Up-regulates Hepatoma-Derived Growth Factor Expression in Cultured Rat Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Ying-Hsien; Chen, Po-Han; Sun, Cheuk-Kwan; Chang, Yo-Chen; Lin, Yu-Chun; Tsai, Ming-Shian; Lee, Po-Huang; Cheng, Cheng-I

    2018-02-21

    Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) is a potent mitogen for vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) during embryogenesis and injury repair of vessel walls. Whether mechanical stimuli modulate HDGF expression remains unknown. This study aimed at investigating whether cyclic mechanical stretch plays a regulatory role in HDGF expression and regenerative cytokine production in aortic SMCs. A SMC cell line was grown on a silicone-based elastomer chamber with extracellular matrix coatings (either type I collagen or fibronectin) and received cyclic and uni-axial mechanical stretches with 10% deformation at frequency 1 Hz. Morphological observation showed that fibronectin coating provided better cell adhesion and spreading and that consecutive 6 hours of cyclic mechanical stretch remarkably induced reorientation and realignment of SMCs. Western blotting detection demonstrated that continuous mechanical stimuli elicited up-regulation of HDGF and PCNA, a cell proliferative marker. Signal kinetic profiling study indicated that cyclic mechanical stretch induced signaling activity in RhoA/ROCK and PI3K/Akt cascades. Kinase inhibition study further showed that blockade of PI3K activity suppressed the stretch-induced TNF-a, whereas RhoA/ROCK inhibition significantly blunted the IL-6 production and HDGF over-expression. Moreover, siRNA-mediated HDGF gene silencing significantly suppressed constitutive expression of IL-6, but not TNF-α, in SMCs. These findings support the role of HDGF in maintaining vascular expression of IL-6, which has been regarded a crucial regenerative factor for acute vascular injury. In conclusion, cyclic mechanical stretch may maintain constitutive expression of HDGF in vascular walls and be regarded an important biophysical regulator in vascular regeneration. ©2018 The Author(s).

  11. The generation of 4-hydroxynonenal, an electrophilic lipid peroxidation end product, in rabbit cornea organ cultures treated with UVB light and nitrogen mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Ruijin; Po, Iris; Mishin, Vladimir; Black, Adrienne T.; Heck, Diane E.; Laskin, Debra L.; Sinko, Patrick J.; Gerecke, Donald R.; Gordon, Marion K.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.

    2013-01-01

    The cornea is highly sensitive to oxidative stress, a process that can lead to lipid peroxidation. Ultraviolet light B (UVB) and nitrogen mustard (mechlorethamine) are corneal toxicants known to induce oxidative stress. Using a rabbit air-lifted corneal organ culture model, the oxidative stress responses to these toxicants in the corneal epithelium was characterized. Treatment of the cornea with UVB (0.5 J/cm 2 ) or nitrogen mustard (100 nmol) resulted in the generation of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), a reactive lipid peroxidation end product. This was associated with increased expression of the antioxidant, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). In human corneal epithelial cells in culture, addition of 4-HNE or 9-nitrooleic acid, a reactive nitrolipid formed during nitrosative stress, caused a time-dependent induction of HO-1 mRNA and protein; maximal responses were evident after 10 h with 30 μM 4-HNE or 6 h with 10 μM 9-nitrooleic acid. 4-HNE and 9-nitrooleic acid were also found to activate Erk1/2, JNK and p38 MAP kinases, as well as phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3)/Akt. Inhibition of p38 blocked 4-HNE- and 9-nitrooleic acid-induced HO-1 expression. Inhibition of Erk1/2, and to a lesser extent, JNK and PI3K/Akt, suppressed only 4-HNE-induced HO-1, while inhibition of JNK and PI3K/Akt, but not Erk1/2, partly reduced 9-nitrooleic acid-induced HO-1. These data indicate that the actions of 4-HNE and 9-nitrooleic acid on corneal epithelial cells are distinct. The sensitivity of corneal epithelial cells to oxidative stress may be an important mechanism mediating tissue injury induced by UVB or nitrogen mustard. - Highlights: • UVB or nitrogen mustard causes rabbit corneal epithelial injury. • 4-Hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) was formed and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was increased. • 4-HNE induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression in human corneal epithelial cells. • The induction of HO-1 by 4-HNE was through MAP kinase activation

  12. The generation of 4-hydroxynonenal, an electrophilic lipid peroxidation end product, in rabbit cornea organ cultures treated with UVB light and nitrogen mustard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Ruijin; Po, Iris; Mishin, Vladimir; Black, Adrienne T. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Heck, Diane E. [Environmental Science, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY (United States); Laskin, Debra L. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Sinko, Patrick J. [Pharmaceutics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Gerecke, Donald R.; Gordon, Marion K. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D., E-mail: jlaskin@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2013-10-15

    The cornea is highly sensitive to oxidative stress, a process that can lead to lipid peroxidation. Ultraviolet light B (UVB) and nitrogen mustard (mechlorethamine) are corneal toxicants known to induce oxidative stress. Using a rabbit air-lifted corneal organ culture model, the oxidative stress responses to these toxicants in the corneal epithelium was characterized. Treatment of the cornea with UVB (0.5 J/cm{sup 2}) or nitrogen mustard (100 nmol) resulted in the generation of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), a reactive lipid peroxidation end product. This was associated with increased expression of the antioxidant, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). In human corneal epithelial cells in culture, addition of 4-HNE or 9-nitrooleic acid, a reactive nitrolipid formed during nitrosative stress, caused a time-dependent induction of HO-1 mRNA and protein; maximal responses were evident after 10 h with 30 μM 4-HNE or 6 h with 10 μM 9-nitrooleic acid. 4-HNE and 9-nitrooleic acid were also found to activate Erk1/2, JNK and p38 MAP kinases, as well as phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3)/Akt. Inhibition of p38 blocked 4-HNE- and 9-nitrooleic acid-induced HO-1 expression. Inhibition of Erk1/2, and to a lesser extent, JNK and PI3K/Akt, suppressed only 4-HNE-induced HO-1, while inhibition of JNK and PI3K/Akt, but not Erk1/2, partly reduced 9-nitrooleic acid-induced HO-1. These data indicate that the actions of 4-HNE and 9-nitrooleic acid on corneal epithelial cells are distinct. The sensitivity of corneal epithelial cells to oxidative stress may be an important mechanism mediating tissue injury induced by UVB or nitrogen mustard. - Highlights: • UVB or nitrogen mustard causes rabbit corneal epithelial injury. • 4-Hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) was formed and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was increased. • 4-HNE induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression in human corneal epithelial cells. • The induction of HO-1 by 4-HNE was through MAP kinase activation.

  13. Aortic valve bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Jens T; Jensen, Maiken Brit; Arendrup, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    In aortic valve bypass (AVB) a valve-containing conduit is connecting the apex of the left ventricle to the descending aorta. Candidates are patients with symptomatic aortic valve stenosis rejected for conventional aortic valve replacement (AVR) or transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). ...

  14. Effects of chitosan-coated fibers as a scaffold for three-dimensional cultures of rabbit fibroblasts for ligament tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarukawa, Junichiro; Takahashi, Masaaki; Abe, Masashi; Suzuki, Daisuke; Tokura, Seiichi; Furuike, Tetsuya; Tamura, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Material selection in tissue-engineering scaffolds is one of the primary factors defining cellular response and matrix formation. In this study, we fabricated chitosan-coated poly(lactic acid) (PLA) fiber scaffolds to test our hypothesis that PLA fibers coated with chitosan highly promoted cell supporting properties compared to those without chitosan. Both PLA fibers (PLA group) and chitosan-coated PLA fibers (PLA-chitosan group) were fabricated for this study. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) fibroblasts were isolated from Japanese white rabbits and cultured on scaffolds consisting of each type of fiber. The effects of cell adhesivity, proliferation, and synthesis of the extracellular matrix (ECM) for each fiber were analyzed by cell counting, hydroxyproline assay, scanning electron microscopy and quantitative RT-PCR. Cell adhesivity, proliferation, hydroxyproline content and the expression of type-I collagen mRNA were significantly higher in the PLA-chitosan group than in the PLA group. Scanning electron microscopic observation showed that fibroblasts proliferated with a high level of ECM synthesis around the cells. Chitosan coating improved ACL fibroblast adhesion and proliferation, and had a positive effect on matrix production. Thus, the advantages of chitosan-coated PLA fibers show them to be a suitable biomaterial for ACL tissue-engineering scaffolds.

  15. Glycine-extended gastrin enhances somatostatin release from cultured rabbit fundic D-cells [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/8n

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian LP Beales

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The role of the peptide hormone gastrin in stimulating gastric acid secretion is well established. Mature amidated gastrin is processed from larger peptide precursor forms. Increasingly these processing intermediates, such as glycine-extended gastrin (G-Gly and progastrin, have been shown to have biological activities of their own, often separate and complementary to gastrin. Although G-Gly is synthesized and secreted by gastric antral G-cells, the physiological functions of this putative mediator are unclear. Gastrin and cholecystokinin (CCK stimulate the secretion of somatostatin from gastric D-cells as part of the feedback control of gastric acid. In this study the effect of G-Gly and gastrin on the release of somatostatin from rabbit fundic D-cells was examined. D-cells were obtained by collagenase-EDTA digestion and elutriation and cultured for 48 hours. With a 2 hour exposure to the peptides, gastrin but not G-Gly stimulated somatostatin release. Treatment of D-cells for 24 hours with gastrin or G-Gly individually, significantly enhanced subsequent basal as well as CCK- and GLP-1-stimulated somatostatin release. Twenty four hours exposure to gastrin combined with G-Gly synergistically enhanced basal and agonist-stimulated somatostatin release and cellular somatostatin content. Gastrin and G-Gly may be important in the longer term regulation of D-cell function.

  16. Efficacy of anti-inflammatory, antibiotic and pleiotropic agents in reversing nitrogen mustard-induced injury in ex vivo cultured rabbit cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Dinesh G; Kant, Rama; Tewari-Singh, Neera; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2018-09-01

    Vesicating agent, Sulfur mustard (SM), causes devastating eye injury; however, there are no effective antidotes available. Using nitrogen mustard (NM), a bi-functional analog of SM, we have earlier reported that NM-induced corneal injury in ex vivo rabbit cornea organ culture model parallels corneal injury reported with SM. Using this model, we have demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of dexamethasone (DEX), doxycycline (DOX) and silibinin (SB) in reversing NM (2h exposure)-induced corneal injuries when added immediately after washing NM. In the present study, we further examined the efficacy of similar/higher doses of these agents when added immediately, 2, or 4h after washing NM following its 2h exposure. All three treatment agents caused a reversal in established NM-induced injury biomarkers when added immediately or 2h after washing NM following its 2h exposure; however, when treatments were carried out 4h after washing NM, there was no significant effect. Together, our results further show the beneficial effect of these agents in reversing NM-induced corneal injury and indicate the time window for effective treatment. This could be useful towards future development of targeted therapeutics against vesicant-induced ocular injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Rabbit Model of Retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Jeong Kang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We created a rabbit model of retinoblastoma and confirmed the tumor clinically and histopathologically. Seventeen New Zealand rabbits were immunosuppressed with cyclosporin A at doses of 10–15 mg/kg. At day 3, the animals received a 30 μl subretinal injection of 1×106 cultured WERI retinoblastoma cells. Digital fundus images were captured before euthanasia, and the eyes were submitted for histopathology. Retinoblastoma cells grew in all the inoculated eyes and established a tumor under the retina and/or in the vitreous. New blood vessels in the tumor were observed starting at week 5. Cuffs of viable tumor cells surrounded the blood vessels with regions of necrosis present at 70–80 μm from nutrient vessels. Occasional tumor seeds in the vitreous histologically exhibited central necrosis. This rabbit model demonstrated similar fundus appearance and pathologic features to human retinoblastoma and may be used as a model to test various routes of drug delivery for retinoblastoma.

  18. A practical method for quantifying atherosclerotic lesions in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C; Zheng, H; Yu, Q; Yang, P; Li, Y; Cheng, F; Fan, J; Liu, E

    2010-01-01

    The rabbit has been widely used for the study of human atherosclerosis; however, the method for analysis of the atherosclerotic lesions has not been standardized between laboratories. The present study reports a practical method for quantifying the changes that occur in aortic atherosclerosis of rabbits. Male Japanese white rabbits were fed with either a standard chow or a diet containing 10% fat and 0.3% cholesterol for 16 weeks. Plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein were measured. Aortic atherosclerotic lesions were assessed in quantitative fashion using an image analysis system that measured (1) the gross area of the entire aorta affected by atherosclerosis as defined by Sudan IV staining, (2) the microscopical intimal lesion defined by the elastic van Gieson stain and (3) the infiltration of macrophages and smooth muscle cell proliferation as determined immunohistochemically. The rabbits developed severe aortic atherosclerosis without apparent abnormality of glucose metabolism. The quantitative method described here will be useful for the further investigation of atherosclerosis in rabbits. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A comparative study on the modes of action of TAK-438, a novel potassium-competitive acid blocker, and lansoprazole in primary cultured rabbit gastric glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukawa, Jun; Hori, Yasunobu; Nishida, Haruyuki; Kajino, Masahiro; Inatomi, Nobuhiro

    2011-05-01

    TAK-438 is a novel potassium-competitive acid blocker (P-CAB) type antisecretory agent that reversibly inhibits gastric H+, K+-ATPase. Previously, we showed that TAK-438 has superior efficacy compared to lansoprazole, a proton pump inhibitor, in the inhibition of acid secretion in vivo. In this study, we investigated the differences in the mode of actions of the two drugs using primary cultured rabbit gastric glands. TAK-438 and lansoprazole inhibited gastric acid formation in acutely isolated gastric glands (IC₅₀) values, 0.30 and 0.76 μM, respectively). In cultured gastric glands that were preincubated with TAK-438, the inhibitory effect on forskolin-stimulated acid formation was augmented over the incubation period, whereas the inhibitory effect of lansoprazole was not affected by time of incubation. Next, we evaluated the durations of the actions of TAK-438 and lansoprazole after gastric glands were incubated with either drug for 2h followed by washout. Even 8h after the drug washout, TAK-438 at higher concentrations inhibited acid formation, but the inhibitory effect of lansoprazole disappeared immediately after washout. Additionally, only a small amount of [¹⁴C] lansoprazole accumulated in resting glands, and this accumulation was enhanced by treatment with 1 μM of forskolin. In contrast, high levels of [¹⁴C] TAK-438 accumulated in both resting and forskolin-treated glands. Furthermore, a 2-h preincubation followed by washout demonstrated a slow clearance of [¹⁴C] TAK-438 from the glands. These findings suggest that TAK-438 exerts a longer and more potent antisecretory effect than lansoprazole as a result of its high accumulation and slow clearance from the gastric glands. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Human recombinant interleukin-1 beta- and tumor necrosis factor alpha-mediated suppression of heparin-like compounds on cultured porcine aortic endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, M.; Shimada, K.; Ozawa, T.

    1990-01-01

    Cytokines are known to tip the balance of the coagulant-anticoagulant molecules on the endothelial cell surface toward intravascular coagulation. Their effects on endothelial cell surface-associated heparin-like compounds have not been examined yet. Incorporation of [35S]sulfate into heparan sulfate on cultured porcine aortic endothelial cells was suppressed by human recombinant interleukin-1 beta (rIL-1 beta) or tumor necrosis factor alpha (rTNF alpha) in a dose- and time-dependent manner with little effect on cell number, protein content, and [3H]leucine incorporation of cells. Maximal inhibition was achieved by incubation of cells with 100 ng/ml of rIL-1 beta or 5 ng/ml of rTNF alpha for 12-24 hours, resulting in a reduction of the synthesis of heparan sulfate on the cell surface by approximately 50%. The dose dependency was consistent with that seen in the stimulation of endothelial cell procoagulant activity by each cytokine. The suppression of heparan sulfate synthesis was sustained for at least 48 hours after pretreatment of cells with cytokines and was unchanged after the addition of indomethacin or polymyxin B. The rate of degradation of prelabeled 35S-heparan sulfate on the cell surface was not altered by cytokine treatments. Neither the size, the net negative charge, nor the proportion of the molecule with high affinity for antithrombin III of endothelial cell heparan sulfate was changed by cytokines. Furthermore, specific binding of 125I-labeled antithrombin III to the endothelial cell surface was reduced to 40-60% of control by cytokines. In parallel with reduction in binding, antithrombin III cofactor activity was partially diminished in cytokine-treated endothelial cells. Thus, cytokine-mediated suppression of heparin-like substance on endothelial cells appears to be another cytokine-inducible endothelial effects affecting coagulation

  1. Mycotic Aneurysm of the Aortic Arch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hye Seo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A mycotic aneurysm of the thoracic aorta is rare. We report a case of mycotic aneurysm that developed in the aortic arch. An 86-year-old man was admitted with fever and general weakness. Blood culture yielded methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Chest X-ray showed an enlarged aortic arch, and computed tomography scan revealed an aneurysm in the aortic arch. The patient was treated only with antibiotics and not surgically. The size of the aneurysm increased rapidly, resulting in bronchial obstruction and superimposed pneumonia. The patient died of respiratory failure.

  2. ATP and UTP responses of cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells revisited: dominance of P2Y2 receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Rajendra; Goh, Gareth; Ng, Leong L; Boarder, Michael R

    2003-01-01

    It has previously been shown that ATP and UTP stimulate P2Y receptors in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), but the nature of these receptors, in particular the contribution of P2Y2 and P2Y4 subtypes, has not been firmly established. Here we undertake a further pharmacological analysis of [3H]inositol polyphosphate responses to nucleotides in cultured rat VSMCs. ATP generated a response that was partial compared to UTP, as reported earlier. In the presence of a creatine phosphokinase (CPK) system for regenerating nucleoside triphosphates, the response to ATP was increased, the response to UTP was unchanged, and the difference between UTP and ATP concentration–response curves disappeared. Chromatographic analysis showed that ATP was degraded slightly faster than UTP. The response to UDP was always smaller than that to UTP, but with a shallow slope and a high potency component. In the presence of hexokinase (which prevents the accumulation of ATP/UTP from ADP/UDP), the maximum response to UDP was reduced and the high-potency component of the curve was retained. By contrast, the response to ADP was weaker throughout in the presence of hexokinase. ATPγS was an effective agonist with a similar EC50 to UTP, but with a lower maximum. ITP was a weak agonist compared with UTP. Suramin was an effective antagonist of the response to UTP (pA2=4.48), but not when ATP was the agonist. However, suramin was an effective antagonist (pA2=4.45) when stimulation with ATP was in the presence of the CPK regenerating system. Taken together with the results of others, these findings indicate that the response of cultured rat VSMCs to UTP and to ATP is predominantly at the P2Y2 receptor, and that there is also a response to UDP at the P2Y6 receptor. PMID:14597595

  3. Calcineurin regulates slow myosin, but not fast myosin or metabolic enzymes, during fast-to-slow transformation in rabbit skeletal muscle cell culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meißner, Joachim D; Gros, Gerolf; Scheibe, Renate J; Scholz, Michael; Kubis, Hans-Peter

    2001-01-01

    The addition of cyclosporin A (500 ng ml−1) - an inhibitor of the Ca2+-calmodulin-regulated serine/threonine phosphatase calcineurin - to primary cultures of rabbit skeletal muscle cells had no influence on the expression of fast myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms MHCIIa and MHCIId at the level of protein and mRNA, but reduced the expression of slow MHCI mRNA. In addition, no influence of cyclosporin A on the expression of citrate synthase (CS) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) mRNA was found. The level of enzyme activity of CS was also not affected. When the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 (4 × 10−7m) was added to the medium, a partial fast-to-slow transformation occurred. The level of MHCI mRNA increased, and the level of MHCIId mRNA decreased. Cotreatment with cyclosporin A was able to prevent the upregulation of MHCI at the level of mRNA as well as protein, but did not reverse the decrease in MHCIId expression. The expression of MHCIIa was also not influenced by cyclosporin A. Cyclosporin A was not able to prevent the upregulation of CS mRNA under Ca2+ ionophore treatment and failed to reduce the increased enzyme activity of CS. The expression of GAPDH mRNA was reduced under Ca2+ ionophore treatment and was not altered under cotreatment with cyclosporin A. When the myotubes in the primary muscle culture were electrostimulated at 1 Hz for 15 min periods followed by pauses of 30 min, a partial fast-to-slow transformation was induced. Again, cotreatment with cyclosporin A prevented the upregulation of MHCI at the level of mRNA and protein without affecting MHCIId expression. The nuclear translocation of the calcineurin-regulated transcription factor nuclear factor of activated thymocytes (NFATc1) during treatment with Ca2+ ionophore, and the prevention of the translocation in the presence of cyclosporin A, were demonstrated immunocytochemically in the myotubes of the primary culture. The effects of cyclosporin A demonstrate the involvement of

  4. Effects of parathyroid hormone and calcitonin on alkaline phosphatase activity and matrix calcification in rabbit growth-plate chondrocyte cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Y.; Shimazu, A.; Nakashima, K.; Suzuki, F.; Jikko, A.; Iwamoto, M. (Osaka Univ. (Japan))

    1990-07-01

    The effects of PTH and calcitonin (CT) on the expression of mineralization-related phenotypes by chondrocytes were examined. In cultures of pelleted growth-plate chondrocytes. PTH caused 60-90% decreases in alkaline phosphatase activity, the incorporation of {sup 45}Ca into insoluble material, and the calcium content during the post-mitotic stage. These effects of PTH were dose-dependent and reversible. In contrast, CT increased alkaline phosphatase activity, {sup 45}Ca incorporation into insoluble material, and the calcium content by 1.4- to 1.8-fold. These observations suggest that PTH directly inhibits the expression of the mineralization-related phenotypes by growth-plate chondrocytes, and that CT has the opposite effects.

  5. Aortic Annular Enlargement during Aortic Valve Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selman Dumani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the surgery of aortic valve replacement is always attempted, as much as possible, to implant the larger prosthesis with the mains goals to enhance the potential benefits, to minimise transvalvular gradient, decrease left ventricular size and avoid the phenomenon of patient-prosthesis mismatch. Implantation of an ideal prosthesis often it is not possible, due to a small aortic annulus. A variety of aortic annulus enlargement techniques is reported to avoid patient-prosthesis mismatch. We present the case that has submitted four three times open heart surgery. We used Manouguian technique to enlarge aortic anulus with excellent results during the fourth time of surgery.

  6. Aortic valve surgery - open

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/007408.htm Aortic valve surgery - open To use the sharing features on this page, ... separates the heart and aorta. The aortic valve opens so blood can flow out. It then closes ...

  7. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) occurs when atherosclerosis or plaque buildup causes the ... weak and bulge outward like a balloon. An AAA develops slowly over time and has few noticeable ...

  8. Atherosclerosis in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidaemic rabbits. Evaluation by macroscopic, microscopic and biochemical methods and comparison of atherosclerosis variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, B F; Mortensen, A; Hansen, J F

    1994-01-01

    estimation of aortic atherosclerosis extent and by biochemical analysis of aortic cholesterol content. No noteworthy atherosclerosis was demonstrated within 19 months in heterozygous rabbits. In homozygous rabbits, atherosclerotic lesions were seen from the age of 4 months and progressed with age. All 19......-month-old rabbits had severe atherosclerotic disease. As much as 64% of the variation in atherosclerosis extent/severity could be explained by serum cholesterol and age. A highly significant correlation between the various methods for quantitation of atherosclerosis extent and/or severity...... was demonstrated, suggesting that quantitative microscopy, macroscopic morphometry and determination of aortic cholesterol content may be equally valid as a measure of atherosclerosis in WHHL rabbits and are therefore interchangeable....

  9. The Rabbit Stream Cipher

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, Martin; Vesterager, Mette; Zenner, Erik

    2008-01-01

    The stream cipher Rabbit was first presented at FSE 2003, and no attacks against it have been published until now. With a measured encryption/decryption speed of 3.7 clock cycles per byte on a Pentium III processor, Rabbit does also provide very high performance. This paper gives a concise...... description of the Rabbit design and some of the cryptanalytic results available....

  10. Allergy to Rabbits. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, J.A.; Longbottom, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Investigations have been carried out into the presence of antibody light chains in rabbit allergenic extracts and the interference in RAST and crossed-radioimmunoelectrophoresis (XRIE) caused by antibodies directed against them. A ''non-specific'' uptake of radioactivity in XRIE has been demonstrated to be caused by direct cross-linking of the 125 I rabbit anti-human IgE by the sheep antibodies in the immunoprecipitate of rabbit light chains. Preincubation with normal rabbit serum blocked this direct uptake of the labelled antibody and enabled specific IgE uptake on the light chains to be demonstrated for rabbit allergic sera. Verification of the allergenicity of the light chains was obtained from a specific light chain RAST. Elution from a Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration column indicated a MW of approx. 50Kd and confirmation of the components as light chain dimers, not Fab fragments, was obtained by allotyping for loci present on heavy chains and light chains in the Fab region. Light chains were detected in urine from rabbits of all ages and in an extract of dust collected in a rabbit housing area. No background staining was observed in XRIE using rabbit antisera, either with rabbit allergic sera with specific IgE or with a human serum containing specific IgG antibodies to rabbit IgG. This latter serum also showed no evidence of uptake on all immunoprecipitates in systems using rabbit antisera, and did not give false positive RAST results when the labelled rabbit anti-human IgE contained unlabelled rabbit IgG. Those sera with specific IgE to light chains showed no uptake in XRIE using rabbit antisera, indicating that the IgE was possibly specific for epitopes revealed by the dissociation on the whole IgG molecule. (author)

  11. Baccaurea angulata fruit juice reduces atherosclerotic lesions in diet-induced Hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Muhammad; Ahmed, Idris Adewale; Mikail, Maryam Abimbola; Ishola, Afeez Adekunle; Draman, Samsul; Isa, Muhammad Lokman Md; Yusof, Afzan Mat

    2017-07-07

    Atherosclerosis is the most common disease of large and medium-sized arteries linked to oxidative stress, dyslipidemia as well as chronic inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential health benefits of Baccaurea angulata (BA) fruit juice on the aorta of diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits, to detect an accumulation of fatty streak and evaluate the percentage of atherosclerotic lesion accrued. Thirty-five healthy male adults New Zealand White rabbits were assigned to seven different groups. Four groups were fed 1% cholesterol diet and 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mL of BA fruit juice per kg of rabbit daily (atherogenic groups), while the other three groups were fed commercial rabbit pellet and 0, 0.5, and 1.0 mL of juice per kg of rabbit daily (normocholesterolemic groups) for 90 days. The thoracic and abdominal aorta between the heart origin and bifurcation into iliac arteries of all the rabbits were carefully removed and analyzed accordingly. The supplementation of the high-cholesterol diet of hypercholesterolemic rabbits with only 0.5 mL BA/kg rabbit per day significantly (p < 0.001) improved aortic lipid profile, attenuated aortic fatty streak development and reduced intima thickening. Higher BA doses used (1.0 and 1.5 mL/kg rabbit per day) also significantly (p < 0.001) decreased further the development of aortic fatty streaks, reduced the thickening of the tunica intima layer and preserved endothelial healing following arterial injury. Therefore, BA fruit is a potential novel functional food with effective anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic and hypocholesterolemic activities.

  12. Effect of 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3 and ionized Ca2+ on 45Ca uptake by primary cultures of aortic myocytes of spontaneously hypertensive and Wistar Kyoto normotensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukoski, R.D.; Xue, H.; McCarron, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of several regulators of whole animal Ca 2+ homeostasis on 45 Ca uptake by primary cultures of aortic myocytes isolated from spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats was examined. Exposure of confluent cells to 1.0, 1.25 or 1.50 mM ionized Ca 2+ in serum-free medium for seven days resulted in increased 45 Ca uptake at the higher concentrations of Ca 2+ in cells of the SHR but not the WKY. 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D3 (1 ng/ml) for 7 days caused enhanced influx in cells from both the SHR and WKY while parathyroid hormone (1-34) (1 ng/ml) was without effect. The data indicate that humoral factors that serve to regulate whole animal Ca 2+ homeostasis may also play a role in the regulation of Ca 2+ metabolism of the vascular smooth muscle cell

  13. Aortic arch malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellenberger, Christian J. [University Children' s Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2010-06-15

    Although anomalies of the aortic arch and its branches are relatively uncommon malformations, they are often associated with congenital heart disease. Isolated lesions may be clinically significant when the airways are compromised by a vascular ring. In this article, the development and imaging appearance of the aortic arch system and its various malformations are reviewed. (orig.)

  14. Imaging in aortic dissection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu-Qing Liu, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    Aortic dissection (AD) is a catastrophic aortic disease. Imaging techniques play an invaluable role in the diagnostic evaluation and management of patients with AD. Major signs of AD with different imaging modalities are described in this article with a pertinent discussion on guidelines for the optimized approach of imaging study (13 refs.)

  15. Aortic arch malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellenberger, Christian J.

    2010-01-01

    Although anomalies of the aortic arch and its branches are relatively uncommon malformations, they are often associated with congenital heart disease. Isolated lesions may be clinically significant when the airways are compromised by a vascular ring. In this article, the development and imaging appearance of the aortic arch system and its various malformations are reviewed. (orig.)

  16. Imaging in aortic dissection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu-Qing Liu, M D [Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, BJ (China). Dept. of Radiology, Fu Wai Hospital and Cardiovascular Inst.

    1996-12-31

    Aortic dissection (AD) is a catastrophic aortic disease. Imaging techniques play an invaluable role in the diagnostic evaluation and management of patients with AD. Major signs of AD with different imaging modalities are described in this article with a pertinent discussion on guidelines for the optimized approach of imaging study (13 refs.).

  17. Bovine aortic arch with supravalvular aortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idhrees, Mohammed; Cherian, Vijay Thomas; Menon, Sabarinath; Mathew, Thomas; Dharan, Baiju S; Jayakumar, K

    2016-09-01

    A 5-year-old boy was diagnosed to have supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS). On evaluation of CT angiogram, there was associated bovine aortic arch (BAA). Association of BAA with SVAS has not been previously reported in literature, and to best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of SVAS with BAA. Recent studies show BAA as a marker for aortopathy. SVAS is also an arteriopathy. In light of this, SVAS can also possibly be a manifestation of aortopathy associated with BAA. Copyright © 2015 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Bovine aortic arch with supravalvular aortic stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Idhrees

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A 5-year-old boy was diagnosed to have supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS. On evaluation of CT angiogram, there was associated bovine aortic arch (BAA. Association of BAA with SVAS has not been previously reported in literature, and to best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of SVAS with BAA. Recent studies show BAA as a marker for aortopathy. SVAS is also an arteriopathy. In light of this, SVAS can also possibly be a manifestation of aortopathy associated with BAA.

  19. Stanol esters attenuate the aggravating effect of dietary cholesterol on atherosclerosis in homozygous Watanabe rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Malene; Husche, Constanze; Pilegaard, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    Plant stanols are marketed as natural means to lower blood cholesterol in humans; hence the effect on combined familial hyperlipidemia is not known. The objective was to investigate the effect of stanol esters on blood lipids and aortic atherosclerosis in homozygous WHHL rabbits challenged...... with dietary cholesterol. A total of 36 rabbits, 6 weeks of age, with initial plasma cholesterol of 22.5 mmol/L were assigned to two treatment groups fed a standard rabbit chow with 1 g/kg cholesterol or this diet added 34 g/kg stanol ester, respectively, for 16 weeks. Plasma cholesterol was measured initially...... and at termination, also in lipoproteins. Aortic atherosclerosis was evaluated as cholesterol content and area covered by plaque. Plasma cholesterol was not significantly different between the groups at termination (35.7 mmol/L vs. 35.5 mmol/L). A significant increase in LDL was seen (13.1 mmol/L vs. 16.5 mmol...

  20. Traumatic Aortic Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianna Miner

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 48-year-old male with unknown past medical history presents as a trauma after being hit by a car traveling approximately 25 miles per hour. On initial presentation, the patient is confused, combative, and not answering questions appropriately. The patient is hypotensive with a blood pressure of 68/40 and a heart rate of 50 beats per minute, with oxygen saturation at 96% on room air. FAST scan is positive for fluid in Morrison’s pouch, splenorenal space, and pericardial space. Significant findings: The initial chest x-ray showed an abnormal superior mediastinal contour (blue line, suggestive of a possible aortic injury. The CT angiogram showed extensive circumferential irregularity and outpouching of the distal aortic arch (red arrows compatible with aortic transection. In addition, there was a circumferential intramural hematoma, which extended through the descending aorta to the proximal infrarenal abdominal aorta (green arrow. There was also an extensive surrounding mediastinal hematoma extending around the descending aorta and supraaortic branches (purple arrows. Discussion: Traumatic aortic injury is a life-threatening event. The incidence of blunt thoracic aortic injury is low, between 1 to 2 percent of those patients with blunt thoracic trauma.1 However, approximately 80% of patients with traumatic aortic injury die at the scene.2 Therefore it is imperative to diagnose traumatic aortic injury in a timely fashion. The diagnosis can be difficult due to the non-specific signs and symptoms and other distracting injuries. Clinical suspicion should be based on the mechanism of the injury and the hemodynamic status of the patient. In any patient with blunt or penetrating trauma to the chest that is hemodynamically unstable, traumatic aortic injury should be on the differential. Chest x-ray can be used as a screening tool. A normal chest x-ray has a negative predictive value of approximately 97%. CTA chest is the

  1. Vascular effects of 3-carbomethoxypyridine on rabbit aortic smooth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treatment of stomach colic, dysmenorrhea and threatened abortion (Agbakwuru et al, 1988; Mesia et al, 2005). There are reports showing that the leaves have anti-malarial activity (Mesia et al, 2005). Also, aqueous extracts of the leaves have been shown to reduce gastric ulcer in experimental animals Aguwa and Mittal ...

  2. RabbitMQ essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Dossot, David

    2014-01-01

    This book is a quick and concise introduction to RabbitMQ. Follow the unique case study of Clever Coney Media as they progressively discover how to fully utilize RabbitMQ, containing clever examples and detailed explanations.Whether you are someone who develops enterprise messaging products professionally or a hobbyist who is already familiar with open source Message Queuing software and you are looking for a new challenge, then this is the book for you. Although you should be familiar with Java, Ruby, and Python to get the most out of the examples, RabbitMQ Essentials will give you the push y

  3. Monitoring of arterial wall remodelling in atherosclerotic rabbits with a magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent binding to matrix metalloproteinases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyafil, Fabien; Vucic, Esad; Cornily, Jean-Christophe; Sharma, Rahul; Amirbekian, Vardan; Blackwell, Francis; Lancelot, Eric; Corot, Claire; Fuster, Valentin; Galis, Zorina S.; Feldman, Laurent J.; Fayad, Zahi A.

    2011-01-01

    Aims P947 is a gadolinium-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent with high affinity for several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) involved in arterial wall remodelling. We tested whether the intensity of enhancement detected in vivo in the arterial wall with P947 and MRI correlates with actual tissue MMP-related enzymatic activity measured in a rabbit atherosclerotic model subjected to dietary manipulations. Methods and results Aortas of 15 rabbits in which atherosclerotic lesions were induced by balloon angioplasty and 4 months of hypercholesterolaemic diet were imaged at ‘baseline’ with P947-enhanced MRI. Atherosclerotic rabbits were divided into three groups: five rabbits were sacrificed (‘baseline’ group); five rabbits continued to be fed a lipid-supplemented diet (‘high-fat’ group); and five rabbits were switched from atherogenic to a purified chow diet (‘low-fat’ group). Four months later, a second P947-enhanced MRI was acquired in the 10 remaining rabbits. A significantly lower signal was detected in the aortic wall of rabbits from the ‘low-fat’ group as compared with rabbits from the ‘high-fat’ group (21 ± 6 vs. 46 ± 3%, respectively; P = 0.04). Such differences were not detected with the contrast agent P1135, which lacks the MMP-specific peptide sequence. In addition, the intensity of aortic wall enhancement detected with MRI after injection of P947 strongly correlated with actual MMP-2 gelatinolytic activity measured in corresponding aortic segments using zymography (r = 0.87). Conclusion P947-enhanced MRI can distinguish dietary-induced variations in MMP-related enzymatic activity within plaques in an experimental atherosclerotic model, supporting its utility as a clinical imaging tool for in vivo detection of arterial wall remodelling. PMID:21118852

  4. Aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis caused by alkaptonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroyoshi, Junko; Saito, Aya; Panthee, Nirmal; Imai, Yasushi; Kawashima, Dai; Motomura, Noboru; Ono, Minoru

    2013-03-01

    We report a case of aortic stenosis associated with ochronosis in a 70-year-old man who underwent biologic aortic valve replacement. Intraoperative findings included ochronosis of a severely calcified pigmented aortic valve along with pigmentation of the intima of the aorta. Copyright © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Pathogenetic Basis of Aortopathy and Aortic Valve Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-19

    Aortopathies; Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm; Aortic Valve Disease; Thoracic Aortic Disease; Thoracic Aortic Dissection; Thoracic Aortic Rupture; Ascending Aortic Disease; Descending Aortic Disease; Ascending Aortic Aneurysm; Descending Aortic Aneurysm; Marfan Syndrome; Loeys-Dietz Syndrome; Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome; Shprintzen-Goldberg Syndrome; Turner Syndrome; PHACE Syndrome; Autosomal Recessive Cutis Laxa; Congenital Contractural Arachnodactyly; Arterial Tortuosity Syndrome

  6. Rabbit articular cartilage defects treated by allogenic chondrocyte transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Boopalan, P. R. J. V. C.; Sathishkumar, Solomon; Kumar, Senthil; Chittaranjan, Samuel

    2006-01-01

    Articular cartilage defects have a poor capacity for repair. Most of the current treatment options result in the formation of fibro-cartilage, which is functionally inferior to normal hyaline articular cartilage. We studied the effectiveness of allogenic chondrocyte transplantation for focal articular cartilage defects in rabbits. Chondrocytes were cultured in vitro from cartilage harvested from the knee joints of a New Zealand White rabbit. A 3 mm defect was created in the articular cartilag...

  7. Robotic aortic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Cassidy; Kashef, Elika; El-Sayed, Hosam F; Bismuth, Jean

    2011-01-01

    Surgical robotics was first utilized to facilitate neurosurgical biopsies in 1985, and it has since found application in orthopedics, urology, gynecology, and cardiothoracic, general, and vascular surgery. Surgical assistance systems provide intelligent, versatile tools that augment the physician's ability to treat patients by eliminating hand tremor and enabling dexterous operation inside the patient's body. Surgical robotics systems have enabled surgeons to treat otherwise untreatable conditions while also reducing morbidity and error rates, shortening operative times, reducing radiation exposure, and improving overall workflow. These capabilities have begun to be realized in two important realms of aortic vascular surgery, namely, flexible robotics for exclusion of complex aortic aneurysms using branched endografts, and robot-assisted laparoscopic aortic surgery for occlusive and aneurysmal disease.

  8. Effects of Antisense Oligonucleotides against C-Reactive Protein on the Development of Atherosclerosis in WHHL Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP are closely associated with cardiovascular diseases, but whether CRP is directly involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is still under debate. Many controversial and contradictory results using transgenic mice and rabbits have been published but it is also unclear whether CRP lowering can be used for the treatment of atherosclerosis. In the current study, we examined the effects of the rabbit CRP antisense oligonucleotides (ASO on the development of atherosclerosis in WHHL rabbits. CRP ASO treatment led to a significant reduction of plasma CRP levels; however, both aortic and coronary atherosclerotic lesions were not significantly changed compared to those of control WHHL rabbits. These results suggest that inhibition of plasma CRP does not affect the development of atherosclerosis in WHHL rabbits.

  9. Aortic valve replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapetanakis, Emmanouil I; Athanasiou, Thanos; Mestres, Carlos A

    2008-01-01

    mortality were collected. Group analysis by patient geographic distribution and by annular diameter of the prosthesis utilized was conducted. Patients with a manufacturer's labeled prosthesis size > or = 21 mm were assigned to the 'large' aortic size subset, while those with a prosthesis size ... differences in the distribution of either gender or BSA. In the multivariable model, south European patients were seven times more likely to receive a smaller-sized aortic valve (OR = 6.5, 95% CI = 4.82-8.83, p

  10. Double aortic arch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surgery can be done to fix double aortic arch. The surgeon ties off the smaller branch and separates it from the larger branch. Then the surgeon closes the ends of the aorta with stitches. This relieves pressure on the esophagus and windpipe.

  11. Bicuspid aortic valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aortic disease. In: Otto CM, Bonow RO, eds. Valvular Heart Disease: A Companion to Braunwald’s Heart Disease . 4th ed. ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 13. Carabello BA. Valvular heart disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman’s Cecil ...

  12. Aortic Valve Stenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most cases, doctors don't know why a heart valve fails to develop properly, so it isn't something you could have prevented. Calcium buildup on the valve. With age, heart valves may accumulate deposits of calcium (aortic valve ...

  13. Hepatitis E Virus in Farmed Rabbits, Wild Rabbits and Petting Farm Rabbits in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burt, S.A.; Veltman, Jorg; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate; Schmitt, Heike; van der Poel, Wim H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Rabbits have been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E virus. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in the Netherlands (23, 0, and 60 % respectively) showed them to be grouped amongst published rabbit HEV sequences and distinct from most human isolates.

  14. Hepatitis E Virus in Farmed Rabbits, Wild Rabbits and Petting Farm Rabbits in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burt, Sara A.; Veltman, Jorg; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate; Schmitt, Heike; Poel, van der Wim H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Rabbits have been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E virus. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in the Netherlands (23, 0, and 60 % respectively) showed them to be grouped amongst published rabbit HEV sequences and distinct from most human isolates.

  15. Impact of Aortic Insufficiency on Ascending Aortic Dilatation and Adverse Aortic Events After Isolated Aortic Valve Replacement in Patients With a Bicuspid Aortic Valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongshi; Wu, Boting; Li, Jun; Dong, Lili; Wang, Chunsheng; Shu, Xianhong

    2016-05-01

    Aberrant flow pattern and congenital fragility bestows bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) with a propensity toward ascending aorta dilatation, aneurysm, and dissection. Whether isolated aortic valve replacement (AVR) can prevent further dilatation in BAV ascending aorta and what indicates concurrent aortic intervention in the case of valve operation remain controversial. From June 2006 to January 2009, patients with a BAV who underwent isolated AVR were consecutively included and categorized into aortic insufficiency (BAV-AI, n = 84) and aortic stenosis (n = 112) groups, and another population of patients with a tricuspid aortic valve with aortic insufficiency (n = 149) was also recruited during the same period for comparison of annual aortic dilatation rate and adverse aortic events after isolated AVR. With a median follow-up period of 72 months (interquartile range, 66 to 78 months), ascending aorta dilatation rates were faster in the BAV-AI group than the BAV plus aortic stenosis and tricuspid aortic valve with aortic insufficiency groups (both p regression analysis identified aortic insufficiency (hazard ratio, 3.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 11.1; p = 0.019) as an independent risk factor for adverse aortic events among patients with BAV in general, whereas preoperative ascending aortic diameter larger than 45 mm (hazard ratio, 13.8; 95% confidence interval, 3.0 to 63.3; p = 0.001) served as a prognostic indicator in the BAV-AI group. An aggressive policy of preventive aortic interventions seemed appropriate in patients with BAV-AI during AVR, and BAV phenotype presenting as either insufficiency or stenosis should be taken into consideration when contemplating optimal surgical strategies for BAV aortopathy. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Aortic Baroreceptors Display Higher Mechanosensitivity than Carotid Baroreceptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva On-Chai Lau

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Arterial baroreceptors are mechanical sensors that detect blood pressure changes. It has long been suggested that the two arterial baroreceptors, aortic and carotid baroreceptors, have different pressure sensitivities. However, there is no consensus as to which of the arterial baroreceptors are more sensitive to changes in blood pressure. In the present study, we employed independent methods to compare the pressure sensitivity of the two arterial baroreceptors. Firstly, pressure-activated action potential firing was measured by whole-cell current clamp with a high-speed pressure clamp system in primary cultured baroreceptor neurons. The results show that aortic depressor neurons possessed a higher percentage of mechano-sensitive neurons. Furthermore, aortic baroreceptor neurons show a lower pressure threshold than that of carotid baroreceptor neurons. Secondly, uniaxial stretching of baroreceptor neurons, that mimics the forces exerted on blood vessels, elicited a larger increase in intracellular Ca2+ rise in aortic baroreceptor neurons than in carotid baroreceptor neurons. Thirdly, the pressure-induced action potential firing in the aortic depressor nerve recorded in vivo was also higher. The present study therefore provides for a basic physiological understanding on the pressure sensitivity of the two baroreceptor neurons and suggests that aortic baroreceptors have a higher pressure sensitivity than carotid baroreceptors.

  17. Utilization of tropical rabbits

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    5,0' a,b"differ (P<0,05) for reproducing rabbits, and may aid the prevention of enteric diseases. In Trial 3, ADG of several tropical legumes was the same as that obtained with alfalfa (Table 3). Gains with guinea grass, cassava, stylosanthes and the winged bean were lower than with alfalfa. Digestibilityof the protein and fibre ...

  18. The CareRabbit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Sanne; Stegwee, R.A.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda

    2010-01-01

    The CareRabbit (ZorgKonijn) is an e-health device that can be used to play messages (e.g. text, MP3) sent through the Internet. It is used in children's departments in hospitals. Its aim is to make children feel comfortable and make their stay more pleasant. Motivation - Our goal is to investigate

  19. Acute Aortic Arch Perforation During Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement in Bicuspid Aortic Stenosis and a Gothic Aortic Arch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millan-Iturbe, Oscar; Sawaya, Fadi J; Bieliauskas, Gintautas; Chow, Danny H F; De Backer, Ole; Søndergaard, Lars

    2017-09-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has evolved from a novel technology to an established therapy for high/intermediate-risk patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis (AS). Although TAVR is used to treat bicuspid severe AS, the large randomized trials typically excluded bicuspid AS because of its unique anatomic features. This case report describes an acute aortic perforation during delivery of a transcatheter heart valve to treat a severe bicuspid AS with a "gothic aortic arch"; more careful evaluation of the preprocedural multislice computed tomographic scan would have unveiled a sharply angulated aortic arch. This life-threatening complication was successfully treated by thoracic endovascular aortic repair. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Locally Different Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Protein Levels in Ascending Aortic Aneurysms of Bicuspid and Tricuspid Aortic Valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah A. Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Dysregulated expression of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS is observed in aortic aneurysms associated with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV. We determined eNOS protein levels in various areas in ascending aortic aneurysms. Methods and Results. Aneurysmal specimens were collected from 19 patients, 14 with BAV and 5 with tricuspid aortic valve (TAV. ENOS protein levels were measured in the outer curve (convexity, the opposite side (concavity, the distal and above the sinotubular junction (proximal aneurysm. Cultured aortic cells were treated with NO synthesis inhibitor L-NAME and the amounts of 35 apoptosis-related proteins were determined. In patients with BAV, eNOS levels were significantly lower in the proximal aorta than in the concavity and distal aorta. ENOS protein levels were also lower in the convexity than in the concavity. While the convexity and distal aorta showed similar eNOS protein levels in BAV and TAV patients, levels were higher in TAV proximal aorta. Inhibition of NO synthesis in aneurysmal aortic cells by L-NAME led to a cytosolic increase in the levels of mitochondrial serine protease HTRA2/Omi. Conclusion. ENOS protein levels were varied at different areas of the aneurysmal aorta. The dysregulation of nitric oxide can lead to an increase in proapoptotic HTRA2/Omi.

  1. Neurotrophin 3 upregulates proliferation and collagen production in human aortic valve interstitial cells: a potential role in aortic valve sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Qingzhou; Song, Rui; Ao, Lihua; Cleveland, Joseph C; Fullerton, David A; Meng, Xianzhong

    2017-06-01

    Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is a leading cardiovascular disorder in the elderly. Diseased aortic valves are characterized by sclerosis (fibrosis) and nodular calcification. Sclerosis, an early pathological change, is caused by aortic valve interstitial cell (AVIC) proliferation and overproduction of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. However, the mechanism of aortic valve sclerosis remains unclear. Recently, we observed that diseased human aortic valves overexpress growth factor neurotrophin 3 (NT3). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that NT3 is a profibrogenic factor to human AVICs. AVICs isolated from normal human aortic valves were cultured in M199 growth medium and treated with recombinant human NT3 (0.10 µg/ml). An exposure to NT3 induced AVIC proliferation, upregulated the production of collagen and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), and augmented collagen deposition. These changes were abolished by inhibition of the Trk receptors. NT3 induced Akt phosphorylation and increased cyclin D1 protein levels in a Trk receptor-dependent fashion. Inhibition of Akt abrogated the effect of NT3 on cyclin D1 production. Furthermore, inhibition of either Akt or cyclin D1 suppressed NT3-induced cellular proliferation and MMP-9 and collagen production, as well as collagen deposition. Thus, NT3 upregulates cellular proliferation, ECM protein production, and collagen deposition in human AVICs. It exerts these effects through the Trk-Akt-cyclin D1 cascade. NT3 is a profibrogenic mediator in human aortic valve, and overproduction of NT3 by aortic valve tissue may contribute to the mechanism of valvular sclerosis. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Neonatal aortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Nigel E; Veldtman, Gruschen R; Benson, Lee N

    2005-09-01

    Neonatal aortic stenosis is a complex and heterogeneous condition, defined as left ventricular outflow tract obstruction at valvular level, presenting and often requiring treatment in the first month of life. Initial presentation may be catastrophic, necessitating hemodynamic, respiratory and metabolic resuscitation. Subsequent management is focused on maintaining systemic blood flow, either via a univentricular Norwood palliation or a biventricular route, in which the effective aortic valve area is increased by balloon dilation or surgical valvotomy. In infants with aortic annular hypoplasia but adequately sized left ventricle, the Ross-Konno procedure is also an attractive option. Outcomes after biventricular management have improved in recent years as a consequence of better patient selection, perioperative management and advances in catheter technology. Exciting new developments are likely to significantly modify the natural history of this disorder, including fetal intervention for the salvage of the hypoplastic left ventricle; 3D echocardiography providing better definition of valve morphology and aiding patient selection for a surgical or catheter-based intervention; and new transcutaneous approaches, such as duel beam echo, to perforate the valve.

  3. Pentosan polysulfate inhibits atherosclerosis in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits: differential modulation of metalloproteinase-2 and -9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupia, Enrico; Zheng, Feng; Grosjean, Fabrizio; Tack, Ivan; Doublier, Sophie; Elliot, Sharon J; Vlassara, Helen; Striker, Gary E

    2012-02-01

    Pentosan polysulfate (PPS), a heparinoid compound essentially devoid of anticoagulant activity, modulates cell growth and decreases inflammation. We investigated the effect of PPS on the progression of established atherosclerosis in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits. After severe atherosclerosis developed on an atherogenic diet, WHHL rabbits were treated with oral PPS or tap water for 1 month. The aortic intima-to-media ratio and macrophage infiltration were reduced, plaque collagen content was increased, and plaque fibrous caps were preserved by PPS treatment. Plasma lipid levels and post-heparin hepatic lipase activity remained unchanged. However, net collagenolytic activity in aortic extracts was decreased, and the levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) activity were increased by PPS. Moreover, PPS treatment decreased tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα)-stimulated proinflammatory responses, in particular activation of nuclear factor-κB and p38, and activation of MMPs in macrophages. In conclusion, oral PPS treatment prevents progression of established atherosclerosis in WHHL rabbits. This effect may be partially mediated by increased MMP-2 and TIMP activities in the aortic wall and reduced TNFα-stimulated inflammation and MMP activation in macrophages. Thus, PPS may be a useful agent in inhibiting the progression of atherosclerosis.

  4. Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy B; Rodríguez, Melanie Domenech; Bernal, Guillermo

    2011-02-01

    This article summarizes the definitions, means, and research of adapting psychotherapy to clients' cultural backgrounds. We begin by reviewing the prevailing definitions of cultural adaptation and providing a clinical example. We present an original meta-analysis of 65 experimental and quasi-experimental studies involving 8,620 participants. The omnibus effect size of d = .46 indicates that treatments specifically adapted for clients of color were moderately more effective with that clientele than traditional treatments. The most effective treatments tended to be those with greater numbers of cultural adaptations. Mental health services targeted to a specific cultural group were several times more effective than those provided to clients from a variety of cultural backgrounds. We recommend a series of research-supported therapeutic practices that account for clients' culture, with culture-specific treatments being more effective than generally culture-sensitive treatments. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Laparoscopic ovariectomy in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Al-Badrany

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative evaluation of three different techniques of laparoscopic ovariectomy was carried out in 33 healthy female in rabbits, which included resection and removal of ovary after clip application, electrocautery of the ovary, then resection, and pulling ovary outside abdomen, ligation by silk, then ovary was removed. The ovaries and associated structures were better visualized by laparoscopy and all three techniques were carried out perfectly. All rabbits after operation were healthy and they were monitored for one month after operation. However, 3 of them died after operation, two of them died due to bleeding and the other of them died due to unknown causes. General anesthesia by using ketamine-xylazine i.m., was suitable for this technique, and the anesthesia provided good analgesia and good muscle relaxation. CO2 was used to establish pneumoperitoneum. In conclusion, resection and removal of the ovaries after clip application technique was found superior to the other two techniques.

  6. Neuroprotective effect of curcumin on spinal cord in rabbit model with ischemia/reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Xing, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Wei

    2013-03-01

    Ischemic/reperfusion (I/R) injury of the spinal cord is a serious complication that can result from thoracoabdominal aortic surgery. To investigate the neuroprotective effect of curcumin against I/R injury in a rabbit model. A total of 36 rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: sham, I/R, and curcumin-treated group. Rabbits were subject to 30-min aortic occlusion to induce transient spinal cord ischemia. Neurological function was observed after reperfusion and spinal cord segment (L3-L5) was collected for histopathological evaluation. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and total superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were also assayed. Rabbits in I/R group were induced to paraplegia. While after 48-hour treatment, compared with I/R group, curcumin significantly improved neurological function, reduced cell apoptosis and MDA levels as well as increased SOD activity (P curcumin, at least in an animal model, can attenuate transient spinal cord ischemic injury potentially via reducing oxidative damage, which may provide a novel approach in the treatment of spinal cord ischemic injury.

  7. Aortic obstruction: anatomy and echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keirns Candace

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Echocardiography is a valuable non-invasive technique for identifying the site and type of aortic obstruction. Knowledge of the morphological details of each type of obstruction is the basis for correct interpretation of the diagnostic images and clinical decisions. This study was undertaken to correlate the echocardiographic images with anatomic specimens of equivalent valvular and supravalvular aortic obstruction. Specimens were part of the collection of the Department of Embryology. Fifty six patients were studied, and forty specimens with aortic obstruction were analyzed. Echocardiographic characteristics: Thirty one (55.3% patients were women and twenty five (44.7% men. Valvular aortic obstruction was found in Thirty six patients (64.3 % and supravalvular aortic obstruction in twenty (35.7%. Anatomic characteristics: Of the forty specimens examined, twenty one (52.5% had valvular aortic obstruction and nineteen (47.5% supravalvular aortic obstruction. The anatomoechocardiographic correlation clearly showed that the anatomic findings of the specimen hearts and aortas corresponded to echocardiographic images of valvular and supravalvular aortic obstruction and provided solid corroboration of echocardiographic diagnoses.

  8. Acute Aortic Arch Perforation During Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement in Bicuspid Aortic Stenosis and a Gothic Aortic Arch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Millan-Iturbe, Oscar; Sawaya, Fadi J.; Bieliauskas, Gintautas

    2017-01-01

    AS because of its unique anatomic features. This case report describes an acute aortic perforation during delivery of a transcatheter heart valve to treat a severe bicuspid AS with a “gothic aortic arch”; more careful evaluation of the preprocedural multislice computed tomographic scan would have unveiled...

  9. Aortic valve replacement for Libman-Sacks endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Jack B; Janardhanan, Rajesh; Larsen, Brandon T; Khalpey, Zain

    2016-10-04

    A 24-year-old man with systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid syndrome complicated by lupus nephritis presented with acute limb ischaemia secondary to an embolus. Following embolectomy, the patient underwent a transthoracic echocardiogram which revealed a large vegetation on all three cusps of the aortic valve. The patient was taken for an urgent aortic valve replacement with a mechanical valve. Cultures of one cusp remained sterile. Histopathological examination of the remaining two cusps revealed sterile fibrin-rich thrombotic vegetations characteristic of non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  10. Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foghsgaard, Signe; Schmidt, Thomas Andersen; Kjaergard, Henrik K

    2009-01-01

    In this descriptive prospective study, we evaluate the outcomes of surgery in 98 patients who were scheduled to undergo minimally invasive aortic valve replacement. These patients were compared with a group of 50 patients who underwent scheduled aortic valve replacement through a full sternotomy...... operations were completed as mini-sternotomies, 4 died later of noncardiac causes. The aortic cross-clamp and perfusion times were significantly different across all groups (P replacement...... is an excellent operation in selected patients, but its true advantages over conventional aortic valve replacement (other than a smaller scar) await evaluation by means of randomized clinical trial. The "extended mini-aortic valve replacement" operation, on the other hand, is a risky procedure that should...

  11. Acute Type II Aortic Dissection with Severe Aortic Regurgitation and Chronic Descending Aortic Dissection in Pregnant Patient with Marfan Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seok-Soo; Jung, Tae-Eun; Lee, Dong Hyup

    2012-12-01

    Aortic dilatation and dissection are severe complications during pregnancy that can be fatal to both the mother and the fetus. The risks of these complications are especially high in pregnant patients with Marfan syndrome; however, incidents of descending aortic dissection are very rare. This case report involves a successful Bentall procedure for and recovery from a rare aortic dissection in a pregnant Marfan patient who developed acute type II aortic dissection with severe aortic regurgitation and chronic descending aortic dissection immediately after Cesarean section. Regular follow-up will be needed to monitor the descending aortic dissection.

  12. Abdominal Aortic Emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Christie; Swaminathan, Anand

    2017-11-01

    This article discusses abdominal aortic emergencies. There is a common thread of risk factors and causes of these diseases, including age, male gender, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and connective tissue disorders. The most common presenting symptom of these disorders is pain, usually in the chest, flank, abdomen, or back. Computed tomography scan is the gold standard for diagnosis of pathologic conditions of the aorta in the hemodynamically stable patient. Treatment consists of a combination of blood pressure and heart rate control and, in many cases, emergent surgical intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Ultrastructure of Reissner's membrane in the rabbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, K.; Rostgaard, Jørgen; Bretlau, P.

    1994-01-01

    Anatomy, Reissner's membrane, electron microscopy, tubulocisternal endoplasmic reticulum, subsurface cisterns, rabbit......Anatomy, Reissner's membrane, electron microscopy, tubulocisternal endoplasmic reticulum, subsurface cisterns, rabbit...

  14. Acute Type II Aortic Dissection with Severe Aortic Regurgitation and Chronic Descending Aortic Dissection in Pregnant Patient with Marfan Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seok-Soo; Jung, Tae-Eun; Lee, Dong Hyup

    2012-01-01

    Aortic dilatation and dissection are severe complications during pregnancy that can be fatal to both the mother and the fetus. The risks of these complications are especially high in pregnant patients with Marfan syndrome; however, incidents of descending aortic dissection are very rare. This case report involves a successful Bentall procedure for and recovery from a rare aortic dissection in a pregnant Marfan patient who developed acute type II aortic dissection with severe aortic regurgitat...

  15. Valve-sparing aortic root replacement and aortic valve repair in a patient with acromegaly and aortic root dilatation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Van Praet

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aortic regurgitation and dilatation of the aortic root and ascending aorta are severe complications of acromegaly. The current trend for management of an aortic root aneurysm is valve-sparing root replacement as well as restoring the diameter of the aortic sinotubular junction (STJ and annulus. Our case report supports the recommendation that in patients with acromegaly, severe aortic root involvement may indicate the need for surgery.

  16. Haematological and serum biochemical response of growing rabbit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-03

    Dec 3, 2008 ... white blood cells (WBC) of rabbits fed diet 2 and the control were similar to each other but both were ..... counts, PCV, plasma protein and glucose. In this study, .... sphingolipid biosynthesis in cultured neurons in situ. J. Biol.

  17. Unusual Case of Overt Aortic Dissection Mimicking Aortic Intramural Hematoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushtrim Disha

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We report an interesting case in which overt aortic dissection mimicked two episodes of aortic intramural hematoma (IMH (Stanford A, DeBakey I. This took place over the course of four days and had a major influence on the surgical treatment strategy. The first episode of IMH regressed completely within 15 hours after it was clinically diagnosed and verified using imaging techniques. The recurrence of IMH was detected three days thereafter, resulting in an urgent surgical intervention. Overt aortic dissection with evidence of an intimal tear was diagnosed intraoperatively.

  18. Aortic root replacement after previous surgical intervention on the aortic valve, aortic root, or ascending aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, E W Matthias; Radu, N Costin; Mekontso-Dessap, Armand; Hillion, Marie-Line; Loisance, Daniel

    2006-03-01

    Aortic root replacement after a previous operation on the aortic valve, aortic root, or ascending aorta remains a major challenge. Records of 56 consecutive patients (44 men; mean age, 56.4 +/- 13.6 years) undergoing reoperative aortic root replacement between June 1994 and June 2005 were reviewed retrospectively. Reoperation was performed 9.4 +/- 6.7 years after the last cardiac operation. Indications for reoperation were true aneurysm (n = 14 [25%]), false aneurysm (n = 10 [18%]), dissection or redissection (n = 9 [16%]), structural or nonstructural valve dysfunction (n = 10 [18%]), prosthetic valve-graft infection (n = 12 [21%]), and miscellaneous (n = 1 [2%]). Procedures performed were aortic root replacement (n = 47 [84%]), aortic root replacement plus mitral valve procedure (n = 5 [9%]), and aortic root replacement plus arch replacement (n = 4 [7%]). In 14 (25%) patients coronary artery bypass grafting had to be performed unexpectedly during the same procedure or immediately after the procedure to re-establish coronary perfusion. Hospital mortality reached 17.9% (n = 10). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed the need for unplanned perioperative coronary artery bypass grafting as the sole independent risk factor for hospital death (P = .005). Actuarial survival was 83.8% +/- 4.9% at 1 month, 73.0% +/- 6.3% at 1 year, and 65.7% +/- 9.0% at 5 years after the operation. One patient had recurrence of endocarditis 6.7 months after the operation and required repeated homograft aortic root replacement. Reoperative aortic root replacement remains associated with a high postoperative mortality. The need to perform unplanned coronary artery bypass grafting during reoperative aortic root replacement is a major risk factor for hospital death. The optimal technique for coronary reconstruction in this setting remains to be debated.

  19. Reinforced aortic root reconstruction for acute type A aortic dissection involving the aortic root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Qing-qi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: There are debates regarding the optimal approach for AAAD involving the aortic root. We described a modified reinforced aortic root reconstruction approach for treating AAAD involving the aortic root. METHODS: A total of 161 patients with AAAD involving the aortic root were treated by our modified reinforced aortic root reconstruction approach from January 1998 to December 2008. Key features of our modified approach were placement of an autologous pericardial patch in the false lumen, lining of the sinotubular junction lumen with a polyester vascular ring, and wrapping of the vessel with Teflon strips. Outcome measures included post-operative mortality, survival, complications, and level of aortic regurgitation. RESULTS: A total of 161 patients were included in the study (mean age: 43.3 1 15.5 years. The mean duration of follow-up was 5.1 1 2.96 years (2-12 years. A total of 10 (6.2% and 11 (6.8% patients died during hospitalization and during follow-up, respectively. Thirty-one (19.3% patients experienced postoperative complications. The 1-, 3-, 5-, and 10-year survival rates were 99.3%, 98%, 93.8%, and 75.5%, respectively. There were no instances of recurrent aortic dissection, aortic aneurysm, or pseudoaneurysm during the entire study period. The severity of aortic regurgitation dramatically decreased immediately after surgery (from 28.6% to 0% grade 3-4 and thereafter slightly increased (from 0% to 7.2% at 5 years and 9.1% at 10 years. CONCLUSION: This modified reinforced aortic root reconstruction was feasible, safe and durable/effective, as indicated by its low mortality, low postoperative complications and high survival rate.

  20. Baccaurea angulata fruit juice ameliorates altered hematological and biochemical biomarkers in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Idris Adewale; Mikail, Maryam Abimbola; Ibrahim, Muhammad

    2017-06-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is an important risk factor linked to the alteration of blood hematology and clinical chemistry associated with the development and progression of atherosclerosis. Previous studies have demonstrated the safety and potential health benefits of Baccaurea angulata (BA) fruit. We hypothesized that the oral administration of BA fruit juice could ameliorate the alteration in the hematological and biochemical biomarkers of diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different doses of BA juice on the hematological and biochemical biomarkers in normo- and hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Thirty-five healthy adult New Zealand White rabbits were assigned to seven different groups for 90days of diet intervention. Four atherogenic groups were fed a 1% cholesterol diet and 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5mL of BA juice per kg of rabbit daily. The other three normal groups were fed a commercial rabbit pellet diet and 0, 0.5, and 1.0mL of BA juice per kg of rabbit daily. Baseline and final blood samples after 90days of repeated administration BA juice were analyzed for hematological parameters while serum, aortic and hepatic lysates were analyzed for lipid profiles and other biochemical biomarkers. The alteration of the hemopoietic system, physiological changes in serum and tissues lipid profiles and other biochemicals resulting from the consumption of a high-cholesterol diet were significantly (Pjuice. Improvements of the biomarkers in rabbits were dose-dependent, markedly enhanced at the highest dose of juice (1.5mL/kg/day). The results suggest potential health benefits of the antioxidant-rich BA fruit juice against hypercholesterolemia-associated hematological and biochemical alterations in the rabbit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Current indications for stentless aortic bioprostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazy, Yasser Y; Rayan, Amr; Bauer, Stefan; Keshk, Noha; Bauer, Kerstin; Ennker, Ina; Ennker, Jürgen

    2018-01-01

    The best aortic prostheses have been debated for decades. The introduction of stentless aortic bioprostheses was aimed at improving hemodynamics and potentially the durability of aortic bioprostheses. Despite the good short- and long-term outcomes after implantation of stentless aortic bioprostheses, their use remains limited owing to the technically demanding implantation techniques. Nevertheless, stentless aortic bioprostheses might be of special benefit in certain indications, where they could be a valuable addition to the surgical armamentarium.

  2. Welfare assessment in pet rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, F.; Koene, P.; Beerda, B.

    2009-01-01

    One million pet rabbits are kept in The Netherlands, but there are no data available on their behaviour and welfare. This study seeks to assess the welfare of pet rabbits in Dutch households and is a first step in the development of a welfare assessment system. In an internet survey, housing

  3. The White Rabbit project

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, J; Gousiou, E; van der Bij, E; Wlostowski, T; Daniluk, G; Lipinski, M

    2013-01-01

    White Rabbit (WR) is a multi-laboratory, multi- company collaboration for the development of a new Ethernet-based technology which ensures sub-nanosecond synchronisation and deterministic data transfer. The project uses an open source paradigm for the development of its hardware, gateware and software components. This article provides an introduction to the technical choices and an explanation of the basic principles underlying WR. It then describes some possible applications and the current status of the project. Finally, it provides insight on current developments and future plans.

  4. INFECTIOUS MYXOMATOSIS OF RABBITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smadel, Joseph E.; Ward, S. M.; Rivers, Thomas M.

    1940-01-01

    A second soluble antigen, separable from the virus, occurs in extracts of infected skin and in the serum of rabbits acutely ill with infectious myxomatosis. Like the first antigen (A), the second (B) is heat labile and has certain characteristics of a globulin. The two antigens precipitate in different concentrations of ammonium sulfate and can be separated by this method. Neither of the antigens after being heated at 56°C. precipitates in the presence of specific antibody but each is capable of inhibiting the activity of its antibody. PMID:19871012

  5. Tobacco smoking and aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sode, Birgitte F; Nordestgaard, Børge; Grønbæk, Morten

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We determined the predictive power of tobacco smoking on aortic aneurysm as opposed to other risk factors in the general population. METHODS: We recorded tobacco smoking and other risk factors at baseline, and assessed hospitalization and death from aortic aneurysm in 15,072 individuals...... aneurysm in males and females consuming above 20g tobacco daily was 3.5% and 1.3%, among those >60years with plasma cholesterol >5mmol/L and a systolic blood pressure >140mmHg. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco smoking is the most important predictor of future aortic aneurysm outcomes in the general population...

  6. Effect of Pitavastatin on Vascular Reactivity in Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Eros Antonio de, E-mail: erosaa@cardiol.br; Ozaki, Michiko Regina [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-15

    Pitavastatin is the newest statin available in Brazil and likely the one with fewer side effects. Thus, pitavastatin was evaluated in hypercholesterolemic rabbits in relation to its action on vascular reactivity. To assess the lowest dose of pitavastatin necessary to reduce plasma lipids, cholesterol and tissue lipid peroxidation, as well as endothelial function in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Thirty rabbits divided into six groups (n = 5): G1 - standard chow diet; G2 - hypercholesterolemic diet for 30 days; G3 - hypercholesterolemic diet and after the 16{sup th} day, diet supplemented with pitavastatin (0.1 mg); G4 - hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with pitavastatin (0.25 mg); G5 - hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with pitavastatin (0.5 mg); G6 - hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with pitavastatin (1.0 mg). After 30 days, total cholesterol, HDL, triglycerides, glucose, creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were measured and LDL was calculated. In-depth anesthesia was performed with sodium thiopental and aortic segments were removed to study endothelial function, cholesterol and tissue lipid peroxidation. The significance level for statistical tests was 5%. Total cholesterol and LDL were significantly elevated in relation to G1. HDL was significantly reduced in G4, G5 and G6 when compared to G2. Triglycerides, CK, AST, ALT, cholesterol and tissue lipid peroxidation showed no statistical difference between G2 and G3-G6. Significantly endothelial dysfunction reversion was observed in G5 and G6 when compared to G2. Pitavastatin starting at a 0.5 mg dose was effective in reverting endothelial dysfunction in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

  7. Effect of Pitavastatin on Vascular Reactivity in Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eros Antonio de Almeida

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pitavastatin is the newest statin available in Brazil and likely the one with fewer side effects. Thus, pitavastatin was evaluated in hypercholesterolemic rabbits in relation to its action on vascular reactivity. Objective: To assess the lowest dose of pitavastatin necessary to reduce plasma lipids, cholesterol and tissue lipid peroxidation, as well as endothelial function in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Methods: Thirty rabbits divided into six groups (n = 5: G1 - standard chow diet; G2 - hypercholesterolemic diet for 30 days; G3 - hypercholesterolemic diet and after the 16th day, diet supplemented with pitavastatin (0.1 mg; G4 - hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with pitavastatin (0.25 mg; G5 - hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with pitavastatin (0.5 mg; G6 - hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with pitavastatin (1.0 mg. After 30 days, total cholesterol, HDL, triglycerides, glucose, creatine kinase (CK, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT were measured and LDL was calculated. In-depth anesthesia was performed with sodium thiopental and aortic segments were removed to study endothelial function, cholesterol and tissue lipid peroxidation. The significance level for statistical tests was 5%. Results: Total cholesterol and LDL were significantly elevated in relation to G1. HDL was significantly reduced in G4, G5 and G6 when compared to G2. Triglycerides, CK, AST, ALT, cholesterol and tissue lipid peroxidation showed no statistical difference between G2 and G3-G6. Significantly endothelial dysfunction reversion was observed in G5 and G6 when compared to G2. Conclusion: Pitavastatin starting at a 0.5 mg dose was effective in reverting endothelial dysfunction in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

  8. Effect of Pitavastatin on Vascular Reactivity in Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Eros Antonio de; Ozaki, Michiko Regina

    2014-01-01

    Pitavastatin is the newest statin available in Brazil and likely the one with fewer side effects. Thus, pitavastatin was evaluated in hypercholesterolemic rabbits in relation to its action on vascular reactivity. To assess the lowest dose of pitavastatin necessary to reduce plasma lipids, cholesterol and tissue lipid peroxidation, as well as endothelial function in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Thirty rabbits divided into six groups (n = 5): G1 - standard chow diet; G2 - hypercholesterolemic diet for 30 days; G3 - hypercholesterolemic diet and after the 16 th day, diet supplemented with pitavastatin (0.1 mg); G4 - hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with pitavastatin (0.25 mg); G5 - hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with pitavastatin (0.5 mg); G6 - hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with pitavastatin (1.0 mg). After 30 days, total cholesterol, HDL, triglycerides, glucose, creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were measured and LDL was calculated. In-depth anesthesia was performed with sodium thiopental and aortic segments were removed to study endothelial function, cholesterol and tissue lipid peroxidation. The significance level for statistical tests was 5%. Total cholesterol and LDL were significantly elevated in relation to G1. HDL was significantly reduced in G4, G5 and G6 when compared to G2. Triglycerides, CK, AST, ALT, cholesterol and tissue lipid peroxidation showed no statistical difference between G2 and G3-G6. Significantly endothelial dysfunction reversion was observed in G5 and G6 when compared to G2. Pitavastatin starting at a 0.5 mg dose was effective in reverting endothelial dysfunction in hypercholesterolemic rabbits

  9. Reoperative Aortic Root Replacement in Patients with Previous Aortic Root or Aortic Valve Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Kwon Chong

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Generalization of standardized surgical techniques to treat aortic valve (AV and aortic root diseases has benefited large numbers of patients. As a consequence of the proliferation of patients receiving aortic root surgeries, surgeons are more frequently challenged by reoperative aortic root procedures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of redo-aortic root replacement (ARR. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 66 patients (36 male; mean age, 44.5±9.5 years who underwent redo-ARR following AV or aortic root procedures between April 1995 and June 2015. Results: Emergency surgeries comprised 43.9% (n=29. Indications for the redo-ARR were aneurysm (n=12, pseudoaneurysm (n=1, or dissection (n=6 of the residual native aortic sinus in 19 patients (28.8%, native AV dysfunction in 8 patients (12.1%, structural dysfunction of an implanted bioprosthetic AV in 19 patients (28.8%, and infection of previously replaced AV or proximal aortic grafts in 30 patients (45.5%. There were 3 early deaths (4.5%. During follow- up (median, 54.65 months; quartile 1–3, 17.93 to 95.71 months, there were 14 late deaths (21.2%, and 9 valve-related complications including reoperation of the aortic root in 1 patient, infective endocarditis in 3 patients, and hemorrhagic events in 5 patients. Overall survival and event-free survival rates at 5 years were 81.5%±5.1% and 76.4%±5.4%, respectively. Conclusion: Despite technical challenges and a high rate of emergency conditions in patients requiring redo-ARR, early and late outcomes were acceptable in these patients.

  10. The bicuspid aortic valve and its relation to aortic dilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Min Yuan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A bicuspid aortic valve (BAV is a common congenital heart disease, which affects 1-2% of the population. However, the relationship between BAVs and aortic dilation has not been sufficiently elucidated. METHODS: A total of 241 BAV patients who were referred to this hospital for cardiac surgey over a 4.75-year period were included in this study. In addition to the clinical characteristics of the included patients, the morphological features of the aortic valve and aorta, the length of the left main coronary artery, and the laboratory findings (the coagulation and hematological parameters as well as the total cholesterol concentration were determined and compared with those of the tricuspid aortic valve (TAV patients. RESULTS: The BAV patients were younger than the TAV patients for a valve surgery in the last 3 months of the study period. The BAV patients were predominantly male. Most of the BAVs that were surgically treated were stenotic, regurgitant, or combined, and only 19 (7.88% were normally functioning valves. According to echocardiography or operative records, 148 (78.31% were type A, 31 (16.40% were type B, and 10 (5.29% were type C. The left main coronary artery was much shorter in the BAV patients than it was in the TAV patients. There was no significant difference between BAV and TAV patients in the total cholesterol concentrations; whereas differences were noted between patients receiving lipid-lowering therapy and those not receiving lipid-lowering therapy. The dimensions of the aortic root, sinotubular junction, and ascending aorta were beyond normal limits, while they were significantly smaller in the BAV patients than in the TAV patients. They were also much smaller in patients receiving statin therapy than those not receiving statin therapy in both groups. Moreover, the aortic dilation in the BAV group was found to be significantly associated with patient age. CONCLUSIONS: The BAV patients developed aortic wall and

  11. Abdominal aortic aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, Jes S.

    2010-01-01

    Although the number of elective operations for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) is increasing, the sex- and age-standardised mortality rate of AAAs continues to rise, especially among men aged 65 years or more. The lethality of ruptured AAA continues to be 80-95%, compared with 5-7% by elective...... surgery of symptomfree AAA. In order to fulfil all WHO, European, and Danish criteria for screening, a randomised hospitalbased screening trial of 12,639 65-73 year old men in Viborg County (Denmark) was initiated in 1994. It seemed that US screening is a valid, suitable and acceptable method of screening...... patients without previous hospital discharge diagnoses due to cardiovascular disease than among similar men without AAA. The absolute risk difference after 5 years was 16%. So, they will benefit from general cardiovascular preventive action as smoking cessation, statins and low-dose aspirin, which could...

  12. Abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gefke, K; Schroeder, T V; Thisted, B

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify patients who need longer care in the ICU (more than 48 hours) following abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) surgery and to evaluate the influence of perioperative complications on short- and long-term survival and quality of life. AAA surgery was performed in 553...... patients, 51 (9%) of whom died within the first 48 hours. Of the 502 patients who survived for more than 48 hours, 109 required ICU therapy for more than 48 hours, whereas 393 patients were in the ICU for less than 48 hours. The incidence of preoperative risk factors was similar for the two groups...... combined failed to permit identification of patients in whom the perioperative survival rate was 0%. Even 20% of patients with multiorgan failure survived for 6 months. Of those patients who needed ICU therapy for more than 48 hours, 41 (38%) were alive at the end of 1988. In response to a questionnaire...

  13. Evaluation of the aortic anulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, K.M.; Margosian, P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper evaluates the efficacy of echocardiography and MR imaging for measuring the aortic anulus in patients who are candidates for aortic valve replacement. The MR imaging study was performed on a 1.5-T system, and the results were compared with echocardiography results obtained with use of a Toshiba system with a 2.5-mHz transducer. The aortic valve anulus was evaluated in the coronal, long-axis, and short-axis views with the MR imaging technique and in the right parasternal suprasternal, and apical projections with the echocardiographic technique. Twenty-four patients studied with MR imaging and echocardiography went on to have aortic valve replacement. When compared with surgical results, MR imaging had an r value of .95 while echocardiography had an r value of .70

  14. Imaging techniques in transcatheter aortic valve replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quaife RA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Robert A Quaife, Jennifer Dorosz, John C Messenger, Ernesto E Salcedo Division of Cardiology, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO, USA Abstract: Calcific aortic stenosis is now understood as a complex valvular degenerative process sharing many risk factors with atherosclerosis. Once patients develop symptomatic calcific aortic stenosis, the only effective treatment is aortic valve replacement. In the past decade, transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR has been developed as an alternative to surgery to treat severe calcific aortic stenosis. Cardiac imaging plays a pivotal role in the contemporary management of patients with calcific aortic stenosis, and particularly in patients being considered for TAVR, who demand detailed imaging of the aortic valve apparatus. In this review, we highlight the role of cardiac imaging for patient selection, procedural guidance, and evaluation of results of TAVR. Keywords: aortic stenosis, cardiovascular imaging, transcutaneous aortic valve replacement

  15. Alkaptonuria-associated aortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lok, Zoe S Y; Goldstein, Jacob; Smith, Julian A

    2013-07-01

    Alkaptonuria is an autosomal recessive disorder of tyrosine metabolism, which results in accumulation of unmetabolized homogentisic acid and its oxidized product in various tissues, including the heart. Cardiovascular involvement is a rare but serious complication of the disease. We present two patients who have undergone successful aortic valve replacement for alkaptonuria-associated aortic stenosis along with a review of the literature. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Anatomical Arrangement of the Subclavian Artery Branches in the Rabbit and European Hare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maženský D.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the anatomical arrangements of the branches arising from the subclavian arteries in the domesticated rabbit and hare. The study was carried out on ten adult rabbits and ten adult European hares using the corrosion cast technique. After the euthanasia, the vascular network was perfused with saline. The arterial system of the entire body was injected by Batson’s corrosion casting kit No. 17. After polymerization of the medium, the maceration was carried out in KOH solution. The arrangement of the origins of the branches of the bilateral subclavian arteries were more variable in the hare. The number of branches arising from the subclavian artery were more regular in the rabbit on the right side and in the hare on the left side. In the rabbit, we found in two cases, the origins of the branches of the left subclavian artery from the aortic arch. The anatomical found between the rabbit and the hare may possibly be associated with their different ways of life.

  17. Results of aortic root reimplantation in patients with ascending aortic aneurysm and concomitant aortic insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. М. Чернявский

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The research was designed to evaluate the results of valve-sparing operations: aortic root reimplantation versus aortic valve reimplantation when repairing an ascending aortic aneurysm with concomitant aortic insufficiency.Methods. Within a blind prospective randomized study conducted over a period from 2011 to 2015, 64 patients underwent aortic valve-sparing surgery. The inclusion criteria were the presence of an aortic aneurysm of the ascending aorta exceeding 4.5 cm and concomitant aortic insufficiency. All patients were divided into two groups: FS-group, aortic root reimplantation (modified Florida Sleeve technique (n = 32 and D-group, aortic valve reimplantation (David procedure (n = 32. The average age of patients was 57±13 (23–73 years in the FS-group and 55±11 (15–72 years in the D-group (p = 0.54. Both groups had 78% of males (p>0.99. A Marfan syndrome was identified in 6% and 9% in the FS-group and D-group respectively (p>0.99. Mean diameter of the sinuses of Valsalva was 51±7 mm and 56±10 mm (p = 0.09, aortic insufficiency 2.6±0.7 and 2.8±0.8 (p = 0.15 in the FS-group and D-group respectively. In the FS-group and D-group LVEDD amounted to 5.5±0.7 mm and 5.9±1.0 mm (p = 0.09 respectively. All patients took echocardiography in the preoperative, postoperative and follow-up periods.Results. In the long-term period, the degree of aortic regurgitation was 1.2±0.1 in the FS-group and 1.3±0.6 in the D-group (p = 0.72. LVEDD was 123±23 mm in the FS-group and 139.6±80 mm in the D-group at follow-up (p = 0.77. There were no statistically significant differences in the analysis of complications. Overall 30-day in-hospital mortality was 7.8%. There were 2 (6.3% deaths in the FS-group and 3 (9.4% in the D-group (p = 0.5.Late mortality was 6.3% in the FS-group and 3.1% in the D-group (p>0.99. Cumulative survival at 4 years was 84.3% and 84.8% in the FS-group and the D-group respectively (p = 0.94. Cumulative freedom from

  18. Establishment of atherosclerotic model and USPIO enhanced MRI techniques study in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yonggang; Zhu Mo; Dai Yinyu; Chen Jianhua; Guo Liang; Ni Jiankun

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the methods of establishment of atherosclerotic model and USPIO enhanced MRI techniques in rabbits. Methods: Thirty New Zealand male rabbits were divided randomly into two groups: 20 animals in the experiment group, 10 animals in the control group. Animal model of atherosclerosis was induced with aortic balloon endothelial injury and high-fat diet feeding. There was no intervention with the rabbits in control group. MRI examination included plan scan, USPIO enhanced black-blood sequences and white-blood sequence. The features of the plaques was analyzed in the experimental group and the effection on the image quality of different coils, sequences and parameters and a statistical study was also analyzed. Results: Animal model of atherosclerosis was successfully made in 12 rabbits and most plaques located in the abdomen aorta. There were 86 plaques within the scanning scope among which 67 plaques were positive to the Prussian blue staining. The image quality of knee joint coil was better than that of other coils. Although there was no difference in the detection of numbers of AS plaques between USPIO enhanced black-blood sequences and white-blood sequence (P > 0.05), blackblood sequences was superior to white-blood sequence in the demonstration of the components of plaque. Conclusion: The method of aortic balloon endothelial injury and high-fat diet feeding can easily establish the AS model in rabbits with a shorter period and it may be used for controlling the location of the plaques. USPIO enhanced MRI sequences has high sensitivity in the detection of the AS plauqes and can reveal the component of AS plaques. The optimization of MRI techniques is very important in the improvement of the image quality and the detection of the plaques. (authors)

  19. Wall stress on ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms with bicuspid compared with tricuspid aortic valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Yue; Wang, Zhongjie; Liu, Raymond; Haraldsson, Henrik; Hope, Michael D; Saloner, David A; Guccione, Julius M; Ge, Liang; Tseng, Elaine

    2018-03-08

    Guidelines for repair of bicuspid aortic valve-associated ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms have been changing, most recently to the same criteria as tricuspid aortic valve-ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms. Rupture/dissection occurs when wall stress exceeds wall strength. Recent studies suggest similar strength of bicuspid aortic valve versus tricuspid aortic valve-ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms; thus, comparative wall stress may better predict dissection in bicuspid aortic valve versus tricuspid aortic valve-ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms. Our aim was to determine whether bicuspid aortic valve-ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms had higher wall stresses than their tricuspid aortic valve counterparts. Patients with bicuspid aortic valve- and tricuspid aortic valve-ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms (bicuspid aortic valve = 17, tricuspid aortic valve = 19) greater than 4.5 cm underwent electrocardiogram-gated computed tomography angiography. Patient-specific 3-dimensional geometry was reconstructed and loaded to systemic pressure after accounting for prestress geometry. Finite element analyses were performed using the LS-DYNA solver (LSTC Inc, Livermore, Calif) with user-defined fiber-embedded material model to determine ascending thoracic aortic aneurysm wall stress. Bicuspid aortic valve-ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms 99th-percentile longitudinal stresses were 280 kPa versus 242 kPa (P = .028) for tricuspid aortic valve-ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms in systole. These stresses did not correlate to diameter for bicuspid aortic valve-ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms (r = -0.004) but had better correlation to tricuspid aortic valve-ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms diameter (r = 0.677). Longitudinal stresses on sinotubular junction were significantly higher in bicuspid aortic valve-ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms than in tricuspid aortic valve-ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms (405 vs 329 kPa, P = .023). Bicuspid

  20. Correlation between phosphatidylinositol labeling and contraction in rabbit aorta: effect of alpha-1 adrenergic activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalobos-Molina, R.; Uc, M.; Hong, E.; Garcia-Sainz, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Activation of rabbit aortic strips with alpha adrenergic agonists increased the labeling (with [ 32 P]Pi) of phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidic acid and contracted the vascular preparations in dose-related fashion. Epinephrine, norepinephrine and methoxamine produced maximal effects, whereas clonidine behaved as partial agonist and B-HT 933 (2-amino-6-ethyl-4,5,7,8-tetrahydro-6H-oxazole-[5,4-d] azepin dihydrochloride) was almost without activity in the two experimental models used. Phenylephrine was a full agonist in producing contraction, but failed to elicit the maximal increase in PI labeling. The EC50 values to produce contraction of aortic strips were lower for all agonists than those required to increase the incorporation of radioactive phosphate into PI, but there was a good correlation between the two sets of data. The increased PI labeling and contraction of aortic strips induced by epinephrine were antagonized by prazosin and yohimbine in dose-related fashion, but the first alpha blocker was about three orders of magnitude more potent than the second in antagonizing the two effects. The present results indicate that both stimulation of PI labeling and contraction are mediated through activation of alpha-1 adrenoceptors in rabbit aorta

  1. Agmatine ameliorates atherosclerosis progression and endothelial dysfunction in high cholesterol-fed rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Awady, Mohammed S; Suddek, Ghada M

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this work was to explore possible effects of agmatine, an endogenous inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), against hypercholesterolemia-induced lipid profile changes and endothelial dysfunction. Hypercholesterolemia was induced by feeding rabbits with a high-cholesterol diet (HCD, 0.5%) for 8 weeks. Another HCD-fed group was orally administered agmatine (10 mg/kg/day) during weeks 5 through 8. Serum lipid profile, malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were determined. Aorta was isolated to analyse vascular reactivity, atherosclerotic lesions and intima/media (I/M) ratio. HCD induced a significant increase in serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Agmatine administration significantly decreased HCD-induced elevations in serum TC and LDL-C, MDA, LDH and NO while significantly increased HDL-C levels. Additionally, agmatine significantly protected against HCD-induced attenuation of rabbit aortic endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine. HCD and agmatine did not significantly influence aortic endothelium-independent relaxation to sodium nitroprusside. Moreover, agmatine significantly reduced the elevation in aortic atherosclerotic lesion area and I/M ratio. This study is the first to reveal that agmatine has the ability to ameliorate hypercholesterolemia-induced lipemic-oxidative and endothelial function injuries possibly by its antioxidant potential and/or iNOS inhibition. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  2. Bovine aortic arch: A novel association with thoracic aortic dilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malone, C.D.; Urbania, T.H.; Crook, S.E.S.; Hope, M.D.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether there is a link between bovine arch and thoracic aortic aneurysm. Materials and methods: Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images of the thorax of 191 patients with dilated thoracic aortas and 391 consecutive, unselected patients as controls were retrospectively reviewed. Bovine arch was considered present if either a shared origin of the left common carotid and innominate arteries or an origin of the left common carotid from the innominate artery was identified. A chi-square test was used to evaluate the significance of differences between subgroups. Results: A trend towards increased prevalence of bovine arch was seen in patients with dilated aortas (26.2%) compared to controls (20.5%, p = 0.12). The association was statistically significant in patients over 70 years old (31.9%, p = 0.019) and when dilation involved the aortic arch (47.6%, p = 0.003). Conclusions: An association between bovine arch and aortic dilation is seen in older patients, and when dilation involves the aortic arch. Bovine arch should be considered a potential risk factor for thoracic aortic aneurysm.

  3. Endoluminal treatment of aortic dissection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavan, Ajay; Lotz, Joachim; Galanski, Michael [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Hannover Medical School, Carl Neuberg Strasse 1, 30625, Hannover (Germany); Oelert, Frank; Haverich, Axel; Karck, Matthias [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Hannover Medical School, Carl Neuberg Strasse 1, 30625, Hannover (Germany)

    2003-11-01

    Aortic dissection is most often a catastrophic medical emergency which, if untreated, can be potentially fatal. The intention of therapy in patients with aortic dissection is to prevent aortic rupture or aneurysm formation as well as to relieve branch vessel ischaemia. Patients with aortic dissection are often poor candidates for anaesthesia and surgery and the surgical procedure itself is challenging requiring thoracotomy, aortic cross clamping, blood transfusion as well as prolonged hospital stay in some cases. Operative mortality is especially high in patients with critical mesenteric or renal ischaemia. The past decade has experienced the emergence of a number of interventional radiological or minimally invasive techniques which have significantly improved the management of patients with aortic dissection. These include stent grafting for entry site closure to prevent aneurysmatic widening of the false lumen as well as percutaneous techniques such as balloon fenestration of the intimal flap and aortic true lumen stenting to alleviate branch vessel ischaemia. False lumen thrombosis following entry closure with stent grafts has been observed in 86-100% of patients, whereas percutaneous interventions are able to effectively relieve organ ischaemia in approximately 90% of the cases. In the years to come, it is to be expected that these endoluminal techniques will become the method of choice for treating most type-B dissections and will assist in significantly reducing the number of open surgical procedures required for type-A dissections. The intention of this article is to provide an overview of the current status of these endoluminal techniques based on our own experience as well as on a review of the relevant literature. (orig.)

  4. Endoluminal treatment of aortic dissection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavan, Ajay; Lotz, Joachim; Galanski, Michael; Oelert, Frank; Haverich, Axel; Karck, Matthias

    2003-01-01

    Aortic dissection is most often a catastrophic medical emergency which, if untreated, can be potentially fatal. The intention of therapy in patients with aortic dissection is to prevent aortic rupture or aneurysm formation as well as to relieve branch vessel ischaemia. Patients with aortic dissection are often poor candidates for anaesthesia and surgery and the surgical procedure itself is challenging requiring thoracotomy, aortic cross clamping, blood transfusion as well as prolonged hospital stay in some cases. Operative mortality is especially high in patients with critical mesenteric or renal ischaemia. The past decade has experienced the emergence of a number of interventional radiological or minimally invasive techniques which have significantly improved the management of patients with aortic dissection. These include stent grafting for entry site closure to prevent aneurysmatic widening of the false lumen as well as percutaneous techniques such as balloon fenestration of the intimal flap and aortic true lumen stenting to alleviate branch vessel ischaemia. False lumen thrombosis following entry closure with stent grafts has been observed in 86-100% of patients, whereas percutaneous interventions are able to effectively relieve organ ischaemia in approximately 90% of the cases. In the years to come, it is to be expected that these endoluminal techniques will become the method of choice for treating most type-B dissections and will assist in significantly reducing the number of open surgical procedures required for type-A dissections. The intention of this article is to provide an overview of the current status of these endoluminal techniques based on our own experience as well as on a review of the relevant literature. (orig.)

  5. Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation with Concomitant Aortic Valve and Ascending Aortic Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huenges, Katharina; Panholzer, Bernd; Cremer, Jochen; Haneya, Assad

    2018-01-01

    Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) is nowadays a routine therapy for patients with advanced heart failure. We present the case of a 74-year-old male patient who was admitted to our center with terminal heart failure in dilated cardiomyopathy and ascending aortic aneurysm with aortic valve regurgitation. The LVAD implantation with simultaneous aortic valve and supracoronary ascending aortic replacement was successfully performed.

  6. Dynamics of the aortic annulus in 4D CT angiography for transcatheter aortic valve implantation patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elattar, Mustafa A.; Vink, Leon W.; van Mourik, Martijn S.; Baan, Jan; Vanbavel, Ed T.; Planken, R. Nils; Marquering, Henk A.

    2017-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is a well-established treatment for patients with severe aortic valve stenosis. This procedure requires pre-operative planning by assessment of aortic dimensions on CT Angiography (CTA). It is well-known that the aortic root dimensions vary over the

  7. Bicuspid Aortic Valve Disease: A Comprehensive Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mordi, Ify; Tzemos, Nikolaos

    2012-01-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve is the commonest congenital cardiac abnormality in the general population. This paper article will discuss our current knowledge of the anatomy, pathophysiology, genetics, and clinical aspects of bicuspid aortic valve disease.

  8. Aortic compliance in patients with aortic regurgitation. Evaluation with magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murai, Sachiko; Hamada, Seiki; Ueguchi, Takashi

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess by means of cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) aortic compliance before and after aortic valve replacement (AVR with SJM (St. Jude Medical, St paul, MN) valve) in patients with aortic regurgitation (AR). Two groups (healthy controls and patients with severe isolated AR) of 10 subjects each were included in this study. Cine MRI was performed at three locations of the aorta, and aortic compliance was calculated by dividing the maximum change in the aortic area by pulse pressure. Cine MRI is useful to assess abnormalities of aortic compliance in patients with AR. Compared with the control group, aortic compliance in the AR group was significantly less in the ascending aorta (p<0.05), decreasing in order of aortic location. After AVR, aortic compliance improved for all locations. Cine MRI enables assessment of aortic biophysical properties such as a compliance for evaluating the progression of AR and the efficacy of treatment. (author)

  9. cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Kreutz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Es un estudio cualitativo que adoptó como referencial teorico-motodológico la antropología y la etnografía. Presenta las experiencias vivenciadas por mujeres de una comunidad en el proceso salud-enfermedad, con el objetivo de comprender los determinantes sócio-culturales e históricos de las prácticas de prevención y tratamiento adoptados por el grupo cultural por medio de la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los temas que emergieron fueron: la relación entre la alimentación y lo proceso salud-enfermedad, las relaciones con el sistema de salud oficial y el proceso salud-enfermedad y lo sobrenatural. Los dados revelaron que los moradores de la comunidad investigada tienen un modo particular de explicar sus procedimientos terapéuticos. Consideramos que es papel de los profesionales de la salud en sus prácticas, la adopción de abordajes o enfoques que consideren al individuo en su dimensión sócio-cultural e histórica, considerando la enorme diversidad cultural en nuestro país.

  10. Abdominal aortic feminism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, Alice Emily

    2014-11-14

    A 79-year-old woman presented to a private medical practice 2 years previously for an elective ultrasound screening scan. This imaging provided the evidence for a diagnosis of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) to be made. Despite having a number of recognised risk factors for an AAA, her general practitioner at the time did not follow the guidance set out by the private medical professional, that is, to refer the patient to a vascular specialist to be entered into a surveillance programme and surgically evaluated. The patient became symptomatic with her AAA, was admitted to hospital and found to have a tender, symptomatic, 6 cm leaking AAA. She consented for an emergency open AAA repair within a few hours of being admitted to hospital, despite the 50% perioperative mortality risk. The patient spent 4 days in intensive care where she recovered well. She was discharged after a 12 day hospital stay but unfortunately passed away shortly after her discharge from a previously undiagnosed gastric cancer. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  11. Aortic atresia with normal sized left ventricle

    OpenAIRE

    Priya Jagia; Arun Sharma; Saurabh K Gupta; Munish Guleria

    2016-01-01

    Aortic atresia with an associated ventricular septal defect and adequate sized left ventricle is extremely rare. We present two cases in which an alternate diagnosis was suggested on echocardiography because the hypoplastic aortic trunk was missed due to its small caliber. The final diagnosis was, however, clinched on dual source computed tomography, which not only showed the thin aortic trunk but also clearly depicted the coronary artery origins from the hypoplastic aortic root. To the best ...

  12. A History of Thoracic Aortic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Paul Michael; Wiggins, Luke M; Boys, Joshua A

    2017-08-01

    Ancient historical texts describe the presence of aortic pathology conditions, although the surgical treatment of thoracic aortic disease remained insurmountable until the 19th century. Surgical treatment of thoracic aortic disease then progressed along with advances in surgical technique, conduit production, cardiopulmonary bypass, and endovascular technology. Despite radical advances in aortic surgery, principles established by surgical pioneers of the 19th century hold firm to this day. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Aortic or Mitral Valve Replacement With the Biocor and Biocor Supra

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-26

    Aortic Valve Insufficiency; Aortic Valve Regurgitation; Aortic Valve Stenosis; Aortic Valve Incompetence; Mitral Valve Insufficiency; Mitral Valve Regurgitation; Mitral Valve Stenosis; Mitral Valve Incompetence

  14. Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair (TEVAR) in Proximal (Type A) Aortic Dissection: Ready for a Broader Application?

    OpenAIRE

    Nienaber, Christoph A.; Sakalihasan, Natzi; Clough, Rachel E.; Aboukoura, Mohamed; Mancuso, Enrico; Yeh, James S.M.; Defraigne, Jean-Olivier; Cheshire, Nick; Rosendahl, Ulrich Peter; Quarto, Cesare; Pepper, John

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveThoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) has demonstrated encouraging results and is gaining increasing acceptance as a treatment option for aortic aneurysms and dissections. Yet, its role in managing proximal aortic pathologies is unknown - this is important because in proximal (Stanford type A) aortic dissections, 10-30% are not accepted for surgery, and 30-50% are technically amenable for TEVAR. We describe our case series of type A aortic dissections treated using TEVAR.Method...

  15. Experimental model of bladder instability in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasteghin K.T.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Propose a new experimental model of bladder instability in rabbits after partial bladder obstruction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty North Folk male rabbits, weighting 1,700 to 2,820 g (mean: 2,162 g were studied. The animals were distributed in 2 experimental groups, formed by 15 rabbits each: Group 1 - clinical control. In this group there was no surgical intervention; Group 2 - bladder outlet obstruction. In this group, after anesthetizing the animal, urethral cannulation with Foley catheter 10F was performed and then an adjustable plastic bracelet was passed around the bladder neck. It was then adjusted in order to not constrict the urethra. The following parameters were studied in M1 - pre-operative period; M2 - 4 weeks post-operatively moments: 1- urine culture; 2- cystometric study; 3- serum creatinine and BUN. RESULTS: Bladder weight was 2.5 times larger in the group with obstruction than in the control group. Cystometric evaluation showed a significant increase in maximal vesical volume in the final moment at Group G2. However, there was no statistically significant difference among the groups studied. There was no statistically significant difference between maximal detrusor pressure and vesical compliance in the different moments or in the studied groups. There was an absence of uninhibited detrusor contractions in all the animals in group 1, and involuntary contractions were detected in 93% of group 2 animals. There was no significant variation in BUN and serum creatinine either among the groups or in the same group. CONCLUSIONS: We observed in the group with obstruction a bladder weight 2.5 higher than normal bladders. We detected involuntary contractions in 93% of the animals in group 2, establishing this experimental model as appropriate to secondary bladder instability and partial bladder outlet obstruction.

  16. Dietary supplementation with an extract of lycopene-rich tomatoes does not reduce atherosclerosis in Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, H.; Rasmussen, S.E.; Schrøder, Malene

    2007-01-01

    Tomatoes are rich in lycopene and other carotenoids which have shown beneficial effects on CVD in epidemiological and intervention studies. In the present study the effect of an extract of lycopene-rich tomatoes, Lyc-O-Mato (R) on atherosclerosis was studied in Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic...... rabbits. The rabbits were fed a control diet, a control diet supplemented with the tomato extract or a control diet supplemented with a mixture of plant oils for 16 weeks. Lycopene was detected only in plasma of rabbits receiving tomato extract. The tomato extract had no effect on cholesterol...... and triacylglycerol levels measured in total plasma, lipoprotein fractions and on aortic atherosclerosis evaluated biochemically and by microscopy. Oxidation of lipids in unfractionated plasma also was unaffected by the intake of tomato extract. In conclusion, the tomato extract increased plasma levels of lycopene...

  17. The White Rabbit Project

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, J; Cattin, M; Garcia Cota, E; Lewis, J; Moreira, P; Wlostowski, T; Gaderer, G; Loschmidt, P; Dedic, J; Bär, R; Fleck, T; Kreider, M; Prados, C; Rauch, S

    2009-01-01

    Reliable, fast and deterministic transmission of control information in a network is a need formany distributed systems. One example is timing systems, where a reference frequency is used to accurately schedule time-critical messages. TheWhite Rabbit (WR) project is a multi-laboratory and multi-company effort to bring together the best of the data transfer and timing worlds in a completely open design. It takes advantage of the latest developments for improving timing over Ethernet, such as IEEE 1588 (Precision Time Protocol) and Synchronous Ethernet. The presented approach aims for a general purpose, fieldbus-like transmission system, which provides deterministic data and timing (sub-ns accuracy and ps jitter) to around 1000 stations. It automatically compensates for fiber lengths in the order of 10 km. This paper describes the WR design goals and the specification used for the project. It goes on to describe the central component of the WR system structure - the WR switch - with theoretical considerations a...

  18. Heterogeneity of rabbit platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpatkin, S.

    1978-01-01

    Rabbits were injected intravenously with a cohort platelet label, 75 Se-selenomethionine. Platelet-rich plasma was separated into five different platelet density fractions on each of seven days by repetitively centrifuging the same sample of platelet-rich plasma at increasing gravitational force. The heaviest platelet sediment fraction was enriched with larger platelets. The lightest platelet sediment fraction was enriched with smaller platelets. Incorporation of isotope into the heaviest platelet fraction was considerably greater than incorporation into the lightest platelet fraction. The mean platelet survival of the lightest two fractions was significantly shorter than that of the heaviest three fractions. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the platelet cell sap generally revealed 10 prominent protein bands for the heaviest platelet fractions. The lightest platelet fraction had six absent to markedly diminished platelet proteins. The data are compatible with two models, (1) heavy-large platelets are, on average, young platelets which become lighter-smaller platelets while losing platelet membranes and cell sap components with time. (2) Heavy-large platelets and light-small platelets are produced independently by specific megakarocytes. The heavy-large platelets incorporate more isotope that lighter-smaller platelets (possibly because of their megakarocyte precursor). However, they are released earlier into the circulation than lighter-smaller platelets and are therefore younger platelets. The light-smaller platelets which are released later into the circulation have a shorter survival. (author)

  19. Biology of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Nathan R

    2006-01-01

    In recognition of Dr. Nathan Brewer's many years of dedicated service to AALAS and the community of research animal care specialists, the premier issue of JAALAS includes the following compilation of Dr. Brewer's essays on rabbit anatomy and physiology. These essays were originally published in the ASLAP newsletter (formerly called Synapse), and are reprinted here with the permission and endorsement of that organization. I would like to thank Nina Hahn, Jane Lacher, and Nancy Austin for assistance in compiling these essays. Publishing this information in JAALAS allows Dr. Brewer's work to become part of the searchable literature for laboratory animal science and medicine and also assures that the literature references and information he compiled will not be lost to posterity. However, readers should note that this material has undergone only minor editing for style, has not been edited for content, and, most importantly, has not undergone peer review. With the agreement of the associate editors and the AALAS leadership, I elected to forego peer review of this work, in contradiction to standard JAALAS policy, based on the status of this material as pre-published information from an affiliate organization that holds the copyright and on the esteem in which we hold for Dr. Brewer as a founding father of our organization.

  20. Magnetic resonance evaluation of luminal patency after polylactide stent implantation: an experimental study in a rabbit aorta model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hietala, Eeva-Maija; Salminen, Ulla-Stina; Harjula, Ari L.J.; Maasilta, Paula; Staahls, Anders; Vaelimaa, Tero; Kivisaari, Leena

    2003-01-01

    Intravascular metallic stents cause magnetic field distortions, disturbing luminal detection. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of polylactic acid (PLA) stents on magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Biodegradable double spiral helical PLA stents (n=12) or stainless steel (SS) (n=6) stents were implanted into the infrarenal aortas of New Zealand White rabbits. All SS- and 6 PLA-stented animals as well as 6 non-operated control rabbits were imaged with gadolinium-enhanced MRA (1.5 T), and infrarenal aortic diameters (proximal, distal, and narrowest), together with the stent artifact, were measured. Six of the PLA-stented rabbits were followed up, and MRA was assessed at 2, 6, 9, and 12 months after the stent implantation. Image artifacts caused by the SS stents were visualized in all cases. The PLA stents caused no magnetic field distortion, allowing imaging of the underlying vessel including the vessel lumen. In the follow-up group of 6 rabbits with a PLA stent, 5 of 6 were patent at the end of the follow-up of 12 months. These stents allowed luminal detection at all time points, with no significant differences in aortic measurements emerging during the whole follow-up period. When immediately postoperatively scanned SS and PLA rabbits were compared with controls, no differences were observable in proximal diameters. Instead, the percentage of distal luminal loss was greater in the PLA-stented rabbits, as compared with SS stents (p<0.01). The PLA stenting in small vessels allows evaluation of luminal patency with MRA both immediately after implantation and during follow-up. (orig.)

  1. Mast Cells in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Guo-Ping; Lindholt, Jes Sanddal

    2013-01-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are proinflammatory cells that play important roles in allergic responses, tumor growth, obesity, diabetes, atherosclerosis, and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Although the presence and function of MCs in atherosclerotic lesions have been thoroughly studied in human specimens......, in primary cultured vascular cells, and in atherosclerosis in animals, their role in AAA was recognized only recently. Via multiple activation pathways, MCs release a spectrum of mediators � including histamine, inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, proteoglycans, and proteases � to activate...... neighboring cells, degrade extracellular matrix proteins, process latent bioactive molecules, promote angiogenesis, recruit additional inflammatory cells, and stimulate vascular cell apoptosis. These activities associate closely with medial elastica breakdown, medial smooth-muscle cell loss and thinning...

  2. Subacute Staphylococcus epidermidis Bacterial Endocarditis Complicated by Mitral-Aortic Intervalvular Fibrosa Pseudoaneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Elegino-Steffens

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The patient is a 75-year-old man with a history significant for hypertension and congestive heart failure who underwent a bioprosthetic aortic valve replacement secondary to acute onset of aortic insufficiency. Cultures of the native valve were positive for Staphylococcus epidermidis sensitive to nafcillin and intravenous cefazolin was initiated. On postoperative day 24, he developed acute decompensated heart failure. A transesophageal echocardiogram demonstrated a structurally abnormal mitral valve with severe regurgitation, anterior and posterior leaflet vegetations, and scallop prolapse. There was also evidence of a mitral-aortic intervalvular fibrosa pseudoaneurysm (P-MAIF with systolic expansion and flow within the aneurysm. Antibiotic treatment was changed from cefazolin to vancomycin for presumed development of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus. He subsequently underwent a bioprosthetic mitral valve replacement and has restoration of health without sequella. This case highlights the development of a P-MAIF as a rare complication of both aortic or mitral valve replacement and infective endocarditis.

  3. Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase in Smooth Muscle Cells Maintains Genome Integrity, Resists Aortic Medial Degeneration, and Is Suppressed in Human Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Alanna; Nong, Zengxuan; Yin, Hao; O'Neil, Caroline; Fox, Stephanie; Balint, Brittany; Guo, Linrui; Leo, Oberdan; Chu, Michael W A; Gros, Robert; Pickering, J Geoffrey

    2017-06-09

    The thoracic aortic wall can degenerate over time with catastrophic consequences. Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) can resist and repair artery damage, but their capacities decline with age and stress. Recently, cellular production of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ) via nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) has emerged as a mediator of cell vitality. However, a role for Nampt in aortic SMCs in vivo is unknown. To determine whether a Nampt-NAD + control system exists within the aortic media and is required for aortic health. Ascending aortas from patients with dilated aortopathy were immunostained for NAMPT, revealing an inverse relationship between SMC NAMPT content and aortic diameter. To determine whether a Nampt-NAD + control system in SMCs impacts aortic integrity, mice with Nampt -deficient SMCs were generated. SMC- Nampt knockout mice were viable but with mildly dilated aortas that had a 43% reduction in NAD + in the media. Infusion of angiotensin II led to aortic medial hemorrhage and dissection. SMCs were not apoptotic but displayed senescence associated-ß-galactosidase activity and upregulated p16, indicating premature senescence. Furthermore, there was evidence for oxidized DNA lesions, double-strand DNA strand breaks, and pronounced susceptibility to single-strand breakage. This was linked to suppressed poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 activity and was reversible on resupplying NAD + with nicotinamide riboside. Remarkably, we discovered unrepaired DNA strand breaks in SMCs within the human ascending aorta, which were specifically enriched in SMCs with low NAMPT. NAMPT promoter analysis revealed CpG hypermethylation within the dilated human thoracic aorta and in SMCs cultured from these tissues, which inversely correlated with NAMPT expression. The aortic media depends on an intrinsic NAD + fueling system to protect against DNA damage and premature SMC senescence, with relevance to human thoracic aortopathy. © 2017 American Heart

  4. Aortic atresia with normal sized left ventricle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Jagia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aortic atresia with an associated ventricular septal defect and adequate sized left ventricle is extremely rare. We present two cases in which an alternate diagnosis was suggested on echocardiography because the hypoplastic aortic trunk was missed due to its small caliber. The final diagnosis was, however, clinched on dual source computed tomography, which not only showed the thin aortic trunk but also clearly depicted the coronary artery origins from the hypoplastic aortic root. To the best of our knowledge, use of multi-detector computed tomography in aortic atresia with well developed left ventricle has not been reported in literature till date.

  5. MMP-2 Isoforms in Aortic Tissue and Serum of Patients with Ascending Aortic Aneurysms and Aortic Root Aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tscheuschler, Anke; Meffert, Philipp; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Heilmann, Claudia; Kocher, Nadja; Uffelmann, Xenia; Discher, Philipp; Siepe, Matthias; Kari, Fabian A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The need for biological markers of aortic wall stress and risk of rupture or dissection of ascending aortic aneurysms is obvious. To date, wall stress cannot be related to a certain biological marker. We analyzed aortic tissue and serum for the presence of different MMP-2 isoforms to find a connection between serum and tissue MMP-2 and to evaluate the potential of different MMP-2 isoforms as markers of high wall stress. Methods Serum and aortic tissue from n = 24 patients and serum from n = 19 healthy controls was analyzed by ELISA and gelatin zymography. 24 patients had ascending aortic aneurysms, 10 of them also had aortic root aneurysms. Three patients had normally functioning valves, 12 had regurgitation alone, eight had regurgitation and stenosis and one had only stenosis. Patients had bicuspid and tricuspid aortic valves (9/15). Serum samples were taken preoperatively, and the aortic wall specimen collected during surgical aortic repair. Results Pro-MMP-2 was identified in all serum and tissue samples. Pro-MMP-2 was detected in all tissue and serum samples from patients with ascending aortic/aortic root aneurysms, irrespective of valve morphology or other clinical parameters and in serum from healthy controls. We also identified active MMP-2 in all tissue samples from patients with ascending aortic/aortic root aneurysms. None of the analyzed serum samples revealed signals relatable to active MMP-2. No correlation between aortic tissue total MMP-2 or tissue pro-MMP-2 or tissue active MMP-2 and serum MMP-2 was found and tissue MMP-2/pro-MMP-2/active MMP-2 did not correlate with aortic diameter. This evidence shows that pro-MMP-2 is the predominant MMP-2 species in serum of patients and healthy individuals and in aneurysmatic aortic tissue, irrespective of aortic valve configuration. Active MMP-2 species are either not released into systemic circulation or not detectable in serum. There is no reliable connection between aortic tissue—and serum MMP-2

  6. Effect of opium addiction on lipid profile and atherosclerosis formation in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Abbas; Darabi, Maryam; Nasry, Mohammad; Saabet-Jahromi, Mohammad-Javad; Malek-Pour-Afshar, Reza; Sheibani, Hassan

    2009-03-01

    In some Asian and Middle Eastern societies, opium consumption has traditionally been regarded as a way to lower blood lipids and to prevent heart diseases. This could eventually lead to addiction. In this study, the effect of oral opium consumption on serum lipids and atherogenesis in rabbits was investigated. Twenty-eight male New Zealand white rabbits were divided into control, hypercholesterolemic, addicted, and hypercholesterolemic-addicted groups and were studied for 3 months. Serum lipid profile was determined at the beginning of the study and at 1 month intervals thereafter. At the end of the study period, aortic plaque formation was assessed. Compared with control, in the hypercholesterolemic and hypercholesterolemic-addicted groups, cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly increased (Popium consumption can have aggravating effects in atherosclerosis formation related with hypercholesterolemia, mainly affecting lipid profile.

  7. Simple Additive Weighting to Diagnose Rabbit Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadiani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rabbit is one of the many pets maintained by the general public in Indonesia. Like other pet, rabbits are also susceptible to various diseases. Society in general does not understand correctly the type of rabbit disease and the way of treatment. To help care for sick rabbits it is necessary a decision support system recommendation diagnosis of rabbit disease. The purpose of this research is to make the application of rabbit disease diagnosis system so that can help user in taking care of rabbit. This application diagnoses the disease by tracing the symptoms and calculating the recommendation of the disease using Simple Additive Weighting method. This research produces a web-based decision support system that is used to help rabbit breeders and the general public.

  8. Simple Additive Weighting to Diagnose Rabbit Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadiani; Marissa, Dyna; Jundillah, Muhammad Labib; Azainil; Hatta, Heliza Rahmania

    2018-02-01

    Rabbit is one of the many pets maintained by the general public in Indonesia. Like other pet, rabbits are also susceptible to various diseases. Society in general does not understand correctly the type of rabbit disease and the way of treatment. To help care for sick rabbits it is necessary a decision support system recommendation diagnosis of rabbit disease. The purpose of this research is to make the application of rabbit disease diagnosis system so that can help user in taking care of rabbit. This application diagnoses the disease by tracing the symptoms and calculating the recommendation of the disease using Simple Additive Weighting method. This research produces a web-based decision support system that is used to help rabbit breeders and the general public.

  9. Aortic Root Enlargement or Sutureless Valve Implantation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos G. Baikoussis

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aortic valve replacement (AVR in patients with a small aortic annulus is a challenging issue. The importance of prosthesis–patient mismatch (PPM post aortic valve replacement (AVR is controversial but has to be avoided. Many studies support the fact that PPM has a negative impact on short and long term survival. In order to avoid PPM, aortic root enlargement may be performed. Alternatively and keeping in mind that often some comorbidities are present in old patients with small aortic root, the Perceval S suturelles valve implantation could be a perfect solution. The Perceval sutureless bioprosthesis provides reasonable hemodynamic performance avoiding the PPM and providing the maximum of aortic orifice area. We would like to see in the near future the role of the aortic root enlargement techniques in the era of surgical implantation of the sutureless valve (SAVR and the transcatheter valve implantation (TAVI.

  10. Aortic valve function after bicuspidization of the unicuspid aortic valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aicher, Diana; Bewarder, Moritz; Kindermann, Michael; Abdul-Khalique, Hashim; Schäfers, Hans-Joachim

    2013-05-01

    Unicuspid aortic valve (UAV) anatomy leads to dysfunction of the valve in young individuals. We introduced a reconstructive technique of bicuspidizing the UAV. Initially we copied the typical asymmetry of a normal bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) (I), later we created a symmetric BAV (II). This study compared the hemodynamic function of the two designs of a bicuspidized UAV. Aortic valve function was studied at rest and during exercise in 28 patients after repair of UAV (group I, n = 8; group II, n = 20). There were no differences among the groups I and II with respect to gender, age, body size, or weight. All patients were in New York Heart Association class I. Six healthy adults served as control individuals. All patients were studied with transthoracic echocardiography between 4 and 65 months postoperatively. Systolic gradients were assessed by continuous wave Doppler while patients were at rest and exercising on a bicycle ergometer. Aortic regurgitation was grade I or less in all patients. Resting gradients were significantly elevated in group I compared with group II and control individuals (group I, peak 33.8 ± 7.8 mm Hg; mean 19.1 ± 5.4 mm Hg; group II, peak 15.8 ± 5.4, mean 8.2 ± 2.8 mm Hg; control individuals, peak 6.0 ± 1.6, mean 3.2 ± 0.8 mm Hg; p competence. A symmetric repair design leads to improved systolic aortic valve function at rest and during exercise. Copyright © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Blastema Tissue Formed at Experimentally-Created Rabbit Ear Hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: Throughout evolution, mammalians have increasingly lost their ability to regenerate structures however rabbits are exceptional since they develop a blastema in their ear wound for regeneration purposes. Blastema consists of a group of undifferentiated cells capable of dividing and differentiating into the ear tissue. The objective of the present study is to isolate, culture expand, and characterize blastema progenitor cells in terms of their in vitro differentiation capacity.   Materials and Methods: Five New Zealand white male rabbits were used in the present study. Using a punching apparatus, a 4-mm hole was created in the animal ears. Following 4 days, the blastema ring which was created in the periphery of primary hole in the ears was removed and cultivated. The cells migrated from the blastema were expanded through 3 successive subcultures and characterized in terms of their potential differentiation, growth characteristics, and culture requirements. Results: The primary cultures tended to be morphologically heterogeneous having spindly-shaped fibroblast-like cells as well as flattened cells. Fibroblast-like cells survived and dominated the cultures. These cells tended to have the osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic differentiation potentials. They were highly colonogenic and maximum proliferation was achieved when the cells were plated at density of 100 cells/cm2 in a medium which contained 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS. Conclusion: Taken together, blastema tissue-derived stem cells from rabbit ear are of mesenchymal stem cell-like population. Studies similar to this will assist scientist better understanding the nature of blastema tissue formed at rabbit ear to regenerate the wound.

  12. HDL mimetic peptide CER-522 treatment regresses left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in cholesterol-fed rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlet, Nolwenn; Busseuil, David; Mihalache-Avram, Teodora; Mecteau, Melanie; Shi, Yanfen; Nachar, Walid; Brand, Genevieve; Brodeur, Mathieu R; Charpentier, Daniel; Rhainds, David; Sy, Gavin; Schwendeman, Anna; Lalwani, Narendra; Dasseux, Jean-Louis; Rhéaume, Eric; Tardif, Jean-Claude

    2016-07-15

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) infusions induce rapid improvement of experimental atherosclerosis in rabbits but their effect on ventricular function remains unknown. We aimed to evaluate the effects of the HDL mimetic peptide CER-522 on left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD). Rabbits were fed with a cholesterol- and vitamin D2-enriched diet until mild aortic valve stenosis and hypercholesterolemia-induced LV hypertrophy and LVDD developed. Animals then received saline or 10 or 30mg/kg CER-522 infusions 6 times over 2weeks. We performed serial echocardiograms and LV histology to evaluate the effects of CER-522 therapy on LVDD. LVDD was reduced by CER-522 as shown by multiple parameters including early filling mitral deceleration time, deceleration rate, Em/Am ratio, E/Em ratio, pulmonary venous velocities, and LVDD score. These findings were associated with reduced macrophages (RAM-11 positive cells) in the pericoronary area and LV, and decreased levels of apoptotic cardiomyocytes in CER-522-treated rabbits. CER-522 treatment also resulted in decreased atheromatous plaques and internal elastic lamina area in coronary arteries. CER-522 improves LVDD in rabbits, with reductions of LV macrophage accumulation, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, coronary atherosclerosis and remodelling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Truncated C-terminus of fibrillin-1 induces Marfanoid-progeroid-lipodystrophy (MPL) syndrome in rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mao; Yao, Bing; Yang, Qiangbing; Deng, Jichao; Song, Yuning; Sui, Tingting; Zhou, Lina; Yao, HaoBing; Xu, Yuanyuan; Ouyang, Hongsheng; Pang, Daxin; Li, Zhanjun; Lai, Liangxue

    2018-04-09

    Various clinical differences have been observed between patients with the FBN1 gene mutation and those with the classical Marfan phenotype. Although FBN1 knockout (KO) or dominant-negative mutant mice are widely used as an animal model for Marfan syndrome (MFS), these mice cannot recapitulate the genotype/phenotype relationship of Marfanoid-progeroid-lipodystrophy (MPL) syndrome, which is caused by a mutation in the C-terminus of fibrillin-1, the penultimate exon of the FBN1 gene. Here, we describe the generation of a rabbit MPL model with C-terminal truncation of fibrillin-1 using a CRISPR/Cas9 system. FBN1 heterozygous ( FBN1 Het) rabbits faithfully recapitulated the phenotypes of MFS, including muscle wasting and impaired connective tissue, ocular syndrome and aortic dilation. Moreover, skin symptoms, lipodystrophy, growth retardation and dysglycemia were also seen in these FBN1 Het rabbits, and have not been reported in other animal models. In conclusion, this novel rabbit model mimics the histopathological changes and functional defects of MPL syndrome, and could become a valuable model for studies of pathogenesis and drug screening for MPL syndrome. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Teratology studies in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allais, Linda; Reynaud, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    The rabbit is generally the non-rodent species or second species after the rat recommended by the regulatory authorities and is part of the package of regulatory reproductive studies for the detection of potential embryotoxic and/or teratogenic effects of pharmaceuticals, chemicals, food additives, and other compounds, including vaccines (see Chapters 1-7).Its availability, practicality in housing and in mating as well as its large size makes the rabbit the preferred choice as a non-rodent species. The study protocols are essentially similar to those established for the rat (Chapter 9), with some particularities. The study designs are well defined in guidelines and are relatively standardized between testing laboratories across the world.As for the rat, large litter sizes and extensive background data in the rabbit are valuable criteria for an optimal assessment of in utero development of the embryo or fetus and for the detection of potential external or internal fetal malformations.

  15. Transcatheter valve-in-valve implantation due to severe aortic regurgitation in a degenerated aortic homograft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Lene Kjaer; Engstrøm, Thomas; Søndergaard, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) in severe aortic stenosis has proven to be a feasible and effective treatment modality for inoperable patients. Until now, neither aortic regurgitation nor degenerated bioprostheses has been an indication for TAVI. However, this article reports...... a successful valve-in-valve implantation of a CoreValve aortic valve prosthesis through the right subclavian artery in a case of severe aortic regurgitation within a degenerated aortic homograft. The case exemplifies the possibilities of expanding the indications for TAVI, as well as other vascular access...

  16. A rabbit model of non-typhoidal Salmonella bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Aruna; Tatarov, Ivan; Masek, Billie Jo; Hardick, Justin; Crusan, Annabelle; Wakefield, Teresa; Carroll, Karen; Yang, Samuel; Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang; Lipsky, Michael M; McLeod, Charles G; Levine, Myron M; Rothman, Richard E; Gaydos, Charlotte A; DeTolla, Louis J

    2014-09-01

    Bacteremia is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in humans. In this study, we focused on the development of an animal model of bacteremia induced by non-typhoidal Salmonella. New Zealand White rabbits were inoculated with a human isolate of non-typhoidal Salmonella strain CVD J73 via the intra-peritoneal route. Blood samples were collected at specific time points and at euthanasia from infected rabbits. Additionally, tissue samples from the heart, lungs, spleen, gastrointestinal tract, liver and kidneys were obtained at euthanasia. All experimentally infected rabbits displayed clinical signs of disease (fever, dehydration, weight loss and lethargy). Tissues collected at necropsy from the animals exhibited histopathological changes indicative of bacteremia. Non-typhoidal Salmonella bacteria were detected in the blood and tissue samples of infected rabbits by microbiological culture and real-time PCR assays. The development of this animal model of bacteremia could prove to be a useful tool for studying how non-typhoidal Salmonella infections disseminate and spread in humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Statins for aortic valve stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Thiago

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Aortic valve stenosis is the most common type of valvular heart disease in the USA and Europe. Aortic valve stenosis is considered similar to atherosclerotic disease. Some studies have evaluated statins for aortic valve stenosis. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of statins in aortic valve stenosis. METHODS: Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS - IBECS, Web of Science and CINAHL Plus. These databases were searched from their inception to 24 November 2015. We also searched trials in registers for ongoing trials. We used no language restrictions. Selection criteria: Randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs comparing statins alone or in association with other systemic drugs to reduce cholesterol levels versus placebo or usual care. Data collection and analysis: Primary outcomes were severity of aortic valve stenosis (evaluated by echocardiographic criteria: mean pressure gradient, valve area and aortic jet velocity, freedom from valve replacement and death from cardiovascular cause. Secondary outcomes were hospitalization for any reason, overall mortality, adverse events and patient quality of life. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. The GRADE methodology was employed to assess the quality of result findings and the GRADE profiler (GRADEPRO was used to import data from Review Manager 5.3 to create a 'Summary of findings' table. MAIN RESULTS: We included four RCTs with 2360 participants comparing statins (1185 participants with placebo (1175 participants. We found low-quality evidence for our primary outcome of severity of aortic valve stenosis, evaluated by mean pressure gradient (mean difference (MD -0.54, 95% confidence interval (CI -1.88 to 0.80; participants = 1935; studies = 2, valve area (MD -0.07, 95% CI -0.28 to 0.14; participants = 127; studies = 2

  18. Statins for aortic valve stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiago, Luciana; Tsuji, Selma Rumiko; Nyong, Jonathan; Puga, Maria Eduarda Dos Santos; Góis, Aécio Flávio Teixeira de; Macedo, Cristiane Rufino; Valente, Orsine; Atallah, Álvaro Nagib

    2016-01-01

    Aortic valve stenosis is the most common type of valvular heart disease in the USA and Europe. Aortic valve stenosis is considered similar to atherosclerotic disease. Some studies have evaluated statins for aortic valve stenosis. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of statins in aortic valve stenosis. Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS - IBECS, Web of Science and CINAHL Plus. These databases were searched from their inception to 24 November 2015. We also searched trials in registers for ongoing trials. We used no language restrictions.Selection criteria: Randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) comparing statins alone or in association with other systemic drugs to reduce cholesterol levels versus placebo or usual care. Data collection and analysis: Primary outcomes were severity of aortic valve stenosis (evaluated by echocardiographic criteria: mean pressure gradient, valve area and aortic jet velocity), freedom from valve replacement and death from cardiovascular cause. Secondary outcomes were hospitalization for any reason, overall mortality, adverse events and patient quality of life.Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. The GRADE methodology was employed to assess the quality of result findings and the GRADE profiler (GRADEPRO) was used to import data from Review Manager 5.3 to create a 'Summary of findings' table. We included four RCTs with 2360 participants comparing statins (1185 participants) with placebo (1175 participants). We found low-quality evidence for our primary outcome of severity of aortic valve stenosis, evaluated by mean pressure gradient (mean difference (MD) -0.54, 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.88 to 0.80; participants = 1935; studies = 2), valve area (MD -0.07, 95% CI -0.28 to 0.14; participants = 127; studies = 2), and aortic jet velocity (MD -0.06, 95% CI -0.26 to 0

  19. Ontogeny of 6-keto-PGF/sub 1α/ synthesis in rabbit aorta and the effect of premature weaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bydlowski, S.P.; Yunker, R.L.; Subbiah, M.T.R.

    1987-01-01

    A systematic study of the ontogeny of aortic 6-ketoprostaglandin F/sub 1α/ synthesis from birth to adult life and the effect of premature weaning on this process was investigated in rabbits. Prostacyclin (PGI 2 ) synthesis by both endogenous and exogenous arachidonic acid and its relation to aortic arachidonic acid content was determined. It was found that 1) PGI 2 synthesis from endogenous arachidonic acid increased with age, whereas 2) PGI 2 synthesis from exogenous arachidonic acid decreased. This correlated with a decrease in the incorporation of [ 14 C]arachidonic acid into phospholipids with age. Aortic arachidonic acid concentration did not change from birth until 3 wk of life but increased markedly by 5 wk of age. Premature weaning caused a decrease in the synthesis of aortic PGI 2 and in aortic arachidonic acid concentration initially, but the changes did not persist in later life. These studies suggest that the utilization of exogenous arachidonic acid by aorta decreases after birth perhaps due to maturity of the enzyme systems that synthesize and utilize endogenous substrates

  20. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of rabbit litters from rabbit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of restricted feeding and realimentation during pregnancy was studied to know the carryover effect on carcass characteristics and meat quality of rabbit litters.Young does fed ad libitum diets often show parturition problems (Dystokia and abnormal presentation) with the subsequent reduction of number of kits, ...

  1. Aortic intramural hematoma : assessment of clinical and radiological features in comparison to acute aortic dissection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Kwon Ha; Hwang, Jae Cheol; Lee, Jin Seong; Kang, Duk Hyun; Song, Jae Kwan; Song, Koun Sik; Lim, Tae Hwan

    1996-01-01

    To compare the clinical and radiological features of aortic intramural hematoma(IMH) to those of acute aortic dissection(AD). We analyzed the clinical and radiological features of 12 patients with aortic IMH and 43 patients with acute AD. In aortic IMH, the diagnoses were made by means of both CT and transesophageal echocardiography(TEE) and included two surgically proven cases. In acute AD, the diagnoses were made by means of CT and TEE and included 21 surgically proven cases. We compared patients ages, etiologies, the extent of the disease, the presence or absence of aortic branch involvement, complications, and outcomes. Aortic IMH tended to develop in older patients (67.8±7.9 vs. 50.4±13.4, P .05). In aortic IMH, there was no involvement of aortic branches, whereas in acute AD, 14(33%) patients showed involvement of one or more aortic branches. Complications of aortic IMH included pericardial effusion (n=2) and pleural effusion (n=4);in acute AD, pericardial effusion (n=7), pleural effusion (n=4), aortic insufficiency (n=8), cerebral infarction (n=3), renal infarction (n=4) and spinal infarction (n=1) were seen. There was one (8%) death due to aortic IMH and ten (23%) deaths due to acute AD (p<.01). Aortic IMH is characterized by its occurrence in older patients with hypertension, a less frequent incidence of complications, and a more favorable outcome than acute AD

  2. Decreased expression of fibulin-4 in aortic wall of aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huawei, P; Qian, C; Chuan, T; Lei, L; Laing, W; Wenlong, X; Wenzhi, L

    2014-02-01

    In this research, we will examine the expression of Fibulin-4 in aortic wall to find out its role in aortic dissection development. The samples of aortic wall were obtained from 10 patients operated for acute ascending aortic dissection and five patients for chronic ascending aortic dissection. Another 15 pieces of samples from patients who had coronary artery bypass were as controls. The aortic samples were stained with aldehyde magenta dyeing to evaluate the arrangement of elastic fibers. The Fibulin-4 protein and mRNA expression were both determined by Western blot and realtime quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Compared with the control group, both in acute and chronic ascending aortic dissection, elastic fiber fragments increased and the expression of fibulin-4 protein significantly decreased (P= 0.045 < 0.05). The level of fibulin-4 mRNA decreased in acute ascending aortic dissection (P= 0.034 < 0.05), while it increased in chronic ascending aortic dissection (P=0.004 < 0.05). The increased amounts of elastic fiber fragments were negatively correlated with the expression of fibulin-4 mRNA in acute ascending aortic dissection. In conclusion, in aortic wall of ascending aortic dissection, the expression of fibulin-4 protein decreased and the expression of fibulin-4 mRNA was abnormal. Fibulin-4 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of aortic dissection.

  3. Open Repair of Mycotic Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms With Biological Grafts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinola, Ivika; Sörelius, Karl; Wyss, Thomas R

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The treatment of mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm requires surgery and antimicrobial therapy. Since prosthetic reconstructions carry a considerable risk of reinfection, biological grafts are noteworthy alternatives. The current study evaluated the durability, infection resistance......, and midterm outcome of biological grafts in treatment of mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm. METHODS AND RESULTS: All patients treated with biological graft in 6 countries between 2006 and 2016 were included. Primary outcome measures were 30- and 90-day survival, treatment-related mortality, and reinfection...... rate. Secondary outcome measures were overall mortality and graft patency. Fifty-six patients (46 males) with median age of 69 years (range 35-85) were included. Sixteen patients were immunocompromised (29%), 24 (43%) had concomitant infection, and 12 (21%) presented with rupture. Bacterial culture...

  4. Molecular and cellular mechanisms of aortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetkin, Ertan; Waltenberger, Johannes

    2009-06-12

    Calcific aortic stenosis is the most common cause of aortic valve replacement in developed countries, and this condition increases in prevalence with advancing age. The fibrotic thickening and calcification are common eventual endpoint in both non-rheumatic calcific and rheumatic aortic stenoses. New observations in human aortic valves support the hypothesis that degenerative valvular aortic stenosis is the result of active bone formation in the aortic valve, which may be mediated through a process of osteoblast-like differentiation in these tissues. Additionally histopathologic evidence suggests that early lesions in aortic valves are not just a disease process secondary to aging, but an active cellular process that follows the classical "response to injury hypothesis" similar to the situation in atherosclerosis. Although there are similarities with the risk factor and as well as with the process of atherogenesis, not all the patients with coronary artery disease or atherosclerosis have calcific aortic stenosis. This review mainly focuses on the potential vascular and molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of aortic valve stenosis. Namely extracellular matrix remodeling, angiogenesis, inflammation, and eventually osteoblast-like differentiation resulting in bone formation have been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of calcific aortic stenosis. Several mediators related to underlying mechanisms, including growth factors especially transforming growth factor-beta1 and vascular endothelial growth factors, angiogenesis, cathepsin enzymes, adhesion molecules, bone regulatory proteins and matrix metalloproteinases have been demonstrated, however the target to be attacked is not defined yet.

  5. Evidence-Based Advances in Rabbit Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summa, Noémie M; Brandão, João

    2017-09-01

    Rabbit medicine has been continuously evolving over time with increasing popularity and demand. Tremendous advances have been made in rabbit medicine over the past 5 years, including the use of imaging tools for otitis and dental disease management, the development of laboratory testing for encephalitozoonosis, or determination of prognosis in rabbits. Recent pharmacokinetic studies have been published, providing additional information on commonly used antibiotics and motility-enhancer drugs, as well as benzimidazole toxicosis. This article presents a review of evidence-based advances for liver lobe torsions, thymoma, and dental disease in rabbits and controversial and new future promising areas in rabbit medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A Panel of Embryonic Stem Cell Lines Reveals the Variety and Dynamic of Pluripotent States in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Osteil

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Conventional rabbit embryonic stem cell (ESC lines are derived from the inner cell mass (ICM of pre-implantation embryos using methods and culture conditions that are established for primate ESCs. In this study, we explored the capacity of the rabbit ICM to give rise to ESC lines using conditions similar to those utilized to generate naive ESCs in mice. On single-cell dissociation and culture in fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2-free, serum-supplemented medium, rabbit ICMs gave rise to ESC lines lacking the DNA-damage checkpoint in the G1 phase like mouse ESCs, and with a pluripotency gene expression profile closer to the rabbit ICM/epiblast profiles. These cell lines can be converted to FGF2-dependent ESCs after culture in conventional conditions. They can also colonize the rabbit pre-implantation embryo. These results indicate that rabbit epiblast cells can be coaxed toward different types of pluripotent stem cells and reveal the dynamics of pluripotent states in rabbit ESCs.

  7. Aorto-aortic intrathoracic bypass in surgical treatment of aortic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez Perez, F.; Duran Reyes, A.; Bigalli, D.; Filgueira Berobide, J.

    1998-01-01

    The prevalence of coarctation of the aorta is 6.5 percent of all congenital heart defects, according to national and international data. There is a restenosis rate of patients after surgery. Factors that influence this evolution depends on the age at which patients underwent surgery for the first time the anatomy of the aortic arch and type of surgical technique. Several procedures can be used to correct the coarctation, which include surgery and balloon catheter dilation. We present here a case of a patient of 22 years old, with a recurrent coarctation of the aorta studied by echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging. The patient underwent surgery a third time. We used an anterior approach (median sternotomy) and performed an aortic bypass graft, intrathoracic, under cardiopulmonary bypass. Evolved favorably and was discharged on the sixth day of post operative day (Author) [es

  8. Increased Hepatic Expression of Endothelial Lipase Inhibits Cholesterol Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemia and Atherosclerosis in Transgenic Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuan; Nishijima, Kazutoshi; Kitajima, Shuji; Niimi, Manabu; Yan, Haizhao; Chen, Yajie; Ning, Bo; Matsuhisa, Fumikazu; Liu, Enqi; Zhang, Jifeng; Chen, Y Eugene; Fan, Jianglin

    2017-07-01

    Endothelial lipase (EL) is a key determinant in plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. However, functional roles of EL on the development of atherosclerosis have not been clarified. We investigated whether hepatic expression of EL affects plasma lipoprotein metabolism and cholesterol diet-induced atherosclerosis. We generated transgenic (Tg) rabbits expressing the human EL gene in the liver and then examined the effects of EL expression on plasma lipids and lipoproteins and compared the susceptibility of Tg rabbits with cholesterol diet-induced atherosclerosis with non-Tg littermates. On a chow diet, hepatic expression of human EL in Tg rabbits led to remarkable reductions in plasma levels of total cholesterol, phospholipids, and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol compared with non-Tg controls. On a cholesterol-rich diet for 16 weeks, Tg rabbits exhibited significantly lower hypercholesterolemia and less atherosclerosis than non-Tg littermates. In Tg rabbits, gross lesion area of aortic atherosclerosis was reduced by 52%, and the lesions were characterized by fewer macrophages and smooth muscle cells compared with non-Tg littermates. Increased hepatic expression of EL attenuates cholesterol diet-induced hypercholesterolemia and protects against atherosclerosis. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Aortic root geometry in aortic stenosis patients (a SEAS substudy)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahlmann, Edda; Nienaber, Christoph A; Cramariuc, Dana

    2011-01-01

    -specified requirements for the aortic root geometry for current available prostheses, CoreValve and Edwards-Sapien. The ratio of sinus of Valsalva height to sinus width was 1:2. In multivariate linear regression analysis, larger sinus of Valsalva height was associated with older age, larger sinus of Valsalva diameter......, lower ejection fraction and smaller supracoronary diameter (multiple R(2) = 0.19, PSapien prosthesis in 66.9%. Overall, annular dimension feasible for TAVI using any available prosthesis was found...

  10. The cardiovascular effects of aortic clamping and unclamping

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aortic clamping is that afterload and blood pressure increase, and ... individually, albeit they interact with each other. The degree of ... position of the aortic clamp, the greater the increase ... the increase in preload in response to aortic clamping.

  11. Indexing aortic valve area by body surface area increases the prevalence of severe aortic stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jander, Nikolaus; Gohlke-Bärwolf, Christa; Bahlmann, Edda

    2014-01-01

    To account for differences in body size in patients with aortic stenosis, aortic valve area (AVA) is divided by body surface area (BSA) to calculate indexed AVA (AVAindex). Cut-off values for severe stenosis are......To account for differences in body size in patients with aortic stenosis, aortic valve area (AVA) is divided by body surface area (BSA) to calculate indexed AVA (AVAindex). Cut-off values for severe stenosis are...

  12. Aortic valvuloplasty of calcific aortic stenosis with monofoil and trefoil balloon catheters: practical considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Plante (Sylvain); M.J.B.M. van den Brand (Marcel); L.C.P. van Veen; C. di Mario (Carlo); C.E. Essed; K.J. Beatt (Kevin); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractIn order to evaluate the relation between balloon design (monofoil, trefoil) and valvular configuration, experimental aortic valvuloplasty was performed in four post-mortem hearts with calcific aortic stenosis of various morphology. The degree of obstruction of the aortic orifice was

  13. Association Between Gout and Aortic Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kevin; Yokose, Chio; Tenner, Craig; Oh, Cheongeun; Donnino, Robert; Choy-Shan, Alana; Pike, Virginia C; Shah, Binita D; Lorin, Jeffrey D; Krasnokutsky, Svetlana; Sedlis, Steven P; Pillinger, Michael H

    2017-02-01

    An independent association between gout and coronary artery disease is well established. The relationship between gout and valvular heart disease, however, is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the association between gout and aortic stenosis. We performed a retrospective case-control study. Aortic stenosis cases were identified through a review of outpatient transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) reports. Age-matched controls were randomly selected from patients who had undergone TTE and did not have aortic stenosis. Charts were reviewed to identify diagnoses of gout and the earliest dates of gout and aortic stenosis diagnosis. Among 1085 patients who underwent TTE, 112 aortic stenosis cases were identified. Cases and nonaortic stenosis controls (n = 224) were similar in age and cardiovascular comorbidities. A history of gout was present in 21.4% (n = 24) of aortic stenosis subjects compared with 12.5% (n = 28) of controls (unadjusted odds ratio 1.90, 95% confidence interval 1.05-3.48, P = .038). Multivariate analysis retained significance only for gout (adjusted odds ratio 2.08, 95% confidence interval 1.00-4.32, P = .049). Among subjects with aortic stenosis and gout, gout diagnosis preceded aortic stenosis diagnosis by 5.8 ± 1.6 years. The age at onset of aortic stenosis was similar among patients with and without gout (78.7 ± 1.8 vs 75.8 ± 1.0 years old, P = .16). Aortic stenosis patients had a markedly higher prevalence of precedent gout than age-matched controls. Whether gout is a marker of, or a risk factor for, the development of aortic stenosis remains uncertain. Studies investigating the potential role of gout in the pathophysiology of aortic stenosis are warranted and could have therapeutic implications. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Collagenolytic activity is produced by rabbit ligaments and tendon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, J.; Amiel, D.; Harper, E.

    1986-01-01

    The authors examined the patellar tendon (PT), anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and medial collateral ligament (MCL) from normal rabbits for collagenase activity. All three connective tissues contain large amounts of collagen and the catabolism of this structural protein is important to their integrity. The authors cultured each tissue in serum free medium for 14 days. Collagenase was produced by all three connective tissues after a lag period of up to 7 days, as detected by the 14 C-glycine peptide-release assay. Culture media that did not express enzyme the authors found to contain inhibitory activity. The collagenases and inhibitors from each tissue have been quantitated and characterized. After 9 days the collagenase activity for the rabbit periarticular tissues was 6.1 (PT), 4.4 (MCL) and 8.6 (ACL) units per milligram of secreted protein. The cleavage site of all three collagenases was found to be similar to that observed for rabbit skin collagenase, and generation of reaction products TC/sup A/ and TC/sup B/ was demonstrated by collagenases from PT, MCL and ACL. These results suggest that the metabolism of ligaments and tendon is regulated by the production of zymogen, active collagenase and inhibitor, similar to other connective tissues. The role of these components in joint injury and joint diseases is currently being investigated

  15. Low-gradient aortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavel, Marie-Annick; Magne, Julien; Pibarot, Philippe

    2016-09-07

    An important proportion of patients with aortic stenosis (AS) have a 'low-gradient' AS, i.e. a small aortic valve area (AVA gradient (gradient discrepancy raises uncertainty about the actual stenosis severity and thus about the indication for aortic valve replacement (AVR) if the patient has symptoms and/or left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction. The most frequent cause of low-gradient (LG) AS is the presence of a low LV outflow state, which may occur with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), i.e. classical low-flow, low-gradient (LF-LG), or preserved LVEF, i.e. paradoxical LF-LG. Furthermore, a substantial proportion of patients with AS may have a normal-flow, low-gradient (NF-LG) AS: i.e. a small AVA-low-gradient combination but with a normal flow. One of the most important clinical challenges in these three categories of patients with LG AS (classical LF-LG, paradoxical LF-LG, and NF-LG) is to differentiate a true-severe AS that generally benefits from AVR vs. a pseudo-severe AS that should be managed conservatively. A low-dose dobutamine stress echocardiography may be used for this purpose in patients with classical LF-LG AS, whereas aortic valve calcium scoring by multi-detector computed tomography is the preferred modality in those with paradoxical LF-LG or NF-LG AS. Although patients with LF-LG severe AS have worse outcomes than those with high-gradient AS following AVR, they nonetheless display an important survival benefit with this intervention. Some studies suggest that transcatheter AVR may be superior to surgical AVR in patients with LF-LG AS. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. The Protective Effect of Spinal Cord Stimulation Postconditioning Against Spinal Cord Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huixian; Dong, Xiuhua; Jin, Mu; Cheng, Weiping

    2018-01-18

    Delayed paraplegia due to spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) remains one of the most severe complications of thoracoabdominal aneurysm surgery, for which effective prevention and treatment is still lacking. The current study investigates whether spinal cord stimulation (SCS) postconditioning has neuroprotective effects against spinal cord IRI. Ninety-six New Zealand white male rabbits were randomly divided into four groups as follows: a sham group and three experimental groups (C group, 2 Hz group, and 50 Hz group) n = 24/group. Spinal cord ischemia was induced by transient infrarenal aortic balloon occlusion for 28 min, after which rabbits in group C underwent no additional intervention, while rabbits in the other two experimental groups underwent 2 Hz or 50 Hz epidural SCS for 30 min at the onset of reperfusion and then daily until sacrifice. Hind limb neurologic function of rabbits was assessed using Jacob scale. Lumbar spinal cords were harvested immediately after sacrifice for histological examination and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining. The number of viable α-motor neurons in ventral horn was counted and TUNEL-positive rate of α-motor neurons was calculated. Spinal cord IRI was caused by transient infrarenal aorta occlusion for 28 min. Both 2 Hz and 50 Hz SCS postconditioning had neuroprotective effects, particularly the 2 Hz SCS postconditioning. Comparing to C group and 50 Hz group, rabbits in the 2 Hz group demonstrated better hind limb motor function and a lower rate of TUNEL-positive α-motor neuron after eight hours, one day, three days, and seven days of spinal cord reperfusion. More viable α-motor neurons were preserved after one and three days of spinal cord reperfusion in 2 Hz group rabbits than in C group and 50 Hz group rabbits. SCS postconditioning at 2 Hz protected the spinal cord from IRI. © 2018 International Neuromodulation Society.

  17. Detection of thrombosis and plaque rupture in atherosclerotic rabbit model by using 3.0 T MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xiaohai; Zhang Zhaoqi; Zhao Lei; Zhao Quanming; Shang Jianfeng; Feng Tingting; Zeng Conghe

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the imaging of the thrombosis after pharmacological triggering of plaque rupture in atherosclerotic rabbit model by using 3.0 T high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. Methods: Twenty male New Zealand white rabbits were divided into an experimental group (n=16) and a control group (n=4). The aortic wall injuries were induced by an intravascular balloon in experimental group rabbits after high cholesterol diet. The pharmacological triggering with Russell's viper venom and histamine was performed after 3 months of establishment of model. All of the animals underwent pre-trigger and post-trigger MR examinations including 3D time of fight (3D TOF), T 1 WI, T 2 WI and post contrast T 1 WI. Euthanasia was performed in all rabbits and gross anatomy and histological specimen of aorta were obtained. Comparing the location and length of the thrombus between MRI images and histopathology was used Pearson test. Comparing the calculated indexes of abdominal aorta between rabbits with and without thrombosis was used AVONA test and LSD-t test. Results: After triggering, 8 in 14 survived rabbits developed thrombosis in experimental group, meanwhile, no thrombus was found in control group. The accuracy of multi-sequences MRI for detecting of thrombus was 87.1% (27/31). MRI data correlated with the histopathology regarding thrombus length (r=0.85, P 2 vs. (8.93±5.36) mm 2 , P<0.01]. Conclusion: MRI is useful tool to determine the thrombosis and plaque rupture in atherosclerotic rabbit model. (authors)

  18. Thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections: endovascular treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Donald T; Cho, Jae S; Chaer, Rabih A; Makaroun, Michel S

    2010-01-01

    The treatment of thoracic aortic disease has changed radically with the advances made in endovascular therapy since the concept of thoracic endovascular aortic repair was first described 15 years ago. Currently, there is a diverse array of endografts that are commercially available to treat the thoracic aorta. Multiple studies, including industry-sponsored and single-institution reports, have demonstrated excellent outcomes of thoracic endovascular aortic repair for the treatment of thoracic aortic aneurysms, with less reported perioperative morbidity and mortality in comparison with conventional open repair. Additionally, similar outcomes have been demonstrated for the treatment of type B dissections. However, the technology remains relatively novel, and larger studies with longer term outcomes are necessary to more fully evaluate the role of endovascular therapy for the treatment of thoracic aortic disease. This review examines the currently available thoracic endografts, preoperative planning for thoracic endovascular aortic repair, and outcomes of thoracic endovascular aortic repair for the treatment of both thoracic aortic aneurysms and type B aortic dissections. Mt Sinai J Med 77:256-269, 2010. (c) 2010 Mount Sinai School of Medicine.

  19. Hybrid treatment of penetrating aortic ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara, Juan Antonio Herrero; Martins-Romeo, Daniela de Araujo; Escudero, Carlos Caparros; Falcon, Maria del Carmen Prieto; Batista, Vinicius Bianchi; Vazquez, Rosa Maria Lepe

    2015-01-01

    Penetrating atherosclerotic aortic ulcer is a rare entity with poor prognosis in the setting of acute aortic syndrome. In the literature, cases like the present one, located in the aortic arch, starting with chest pain and evolving with dysphonia, are even rarer. The present report emphasizes the role played by computed tomography in the diagnosis of penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer as well as in the differentiation of this condition from other acute aortic syndromes. Additionally, the authors describe a new therapeutic approach represented by a hybrid endovascular surgical procedure for treatment of the disease. (author)

  20. Hybrid treatment of penetrating aortic ulcer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara, Juan Antonio Herrero; Martins-Romeo, Daniela de Araujo; Escudero, Carlos Caparros; Falcon, Maria del Carmen Prieto; Batista, Vinicius Bianchi, E-mail: jaherrero5@hotmail.com [Unidade de Gestao Clinica (UGC) de Diagnostico por Imagem - Hosppital Universitario Virgen Macarena, Sevilha (Spain); Vazquez, Rosa Maria Lepe [Unit of Radiodiagnosis - Hospital Nuestra Senora de la Merced, Osuna, Sevilha (Spain)

    2015-05-15

    Penetrating atherosclerotic aortic ulcer is a rare entity with poor prognosis in the setting of acute aortic syndrome. In the literature, cases like the present one, located in the aortic arch, starting with chest pain and evolving with dysphonia, are even rarer. The present report emphasizes the role played by computed tomography in the diagnosis of penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer as well as in the differentiation of this condition from other acute aortic syndromes. Additionally, the authors describe a new therapeutic approach represented by a hybrid endovascular surgical procedure for treatment of the disease. (author)

  1. Novel mechanism by which probucol lowers low density lipoprotein levels demonstrated in the LDL receptor-deficient rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naruszewicz, M.; Carew, T.E.; Pittman, R.C.; Witztum, J.L.; Steinberg, D.

    1984-01-01

    Treatment of low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-deficient rabbits (WHHL rabbits) with probucol (1% w/w in a chow diet) lowered their LDL-cholesterol levels by 36%, consonant with the reported effectiveness of the drug in patients deficient in the LDL receptor. Initial studies of LDL fractional catabolic rate (FCR) using 125 I-labeled LDL prepared from the serum of untreated WHHL rabbits showed no difference between probucol-treated WHHL rabbits and untreated WHHL rabbits. When, however, 125 I-labeled LDL was prepared from donor WHHL rabbits under treatment with probucol and injected back into them, the FCR was found to be increased by about 50% above that measured simultaneously using 131 I-labeled LDL prepared from untreated WHHL donors. The labeled LDL from probucol-treated donors was also metabolized more rapidly than that from untreated donors when injected into untreated WHHL rabbits or into untreated wild-type New Zealand White rabbits. Finally, it was shown that rabbit skin fibroblasts in culture degraded labeled LDL prepared from probucol-treated WHHL rabbits more rapidly than that prepared from untreated WHHL donors. This was true both for normal rabbit fibroblasts and also for WHHL skin fibroblasts, although the absolute degradation rates in the latter were, of course, much lower for both forms of LDL. The data indicate that a major mechanism by which probucol lowers LDL levels relates not to changes in the cellular mechanisms for LDL uptake or to changes in LDL production but rather to intrinsic changes in the structure and metabolism of the plasma LDL of the probucol-treated animal

  2. Surgery for acute Type I aortic dissection without resection of supra-aortic entry sites leads to unfavourable aortic remodelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Woon; Song, Suk-Won; Lee, Kwang-Hun; Lee, Shin-Young; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Baek, Min-Young; Yoo, Kyung-Jong

    2018-01-29

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of remnant re-entries in arch branches on postoperative change in the aortic arch and descending aortic diameters and the rate of major adverse aortic events. Between January 2010 and December 2016, 249 patients underwent surgery for acute Type I aortic dissection. Patients who underwent total arch replacement, had Marfan syndrome or had intramural haematoma were excluded. Seventy-two patients with predischarge and follow-up computed tomography scans were enrolled. Patients with and without re-entries in the arch branches after surgery were assigned to the supra-aortic entry (SAE, n = 21) and no supra-aortic entry (n = 51) groups, respectively. Diameters were measured at 7 levels: the innominate artery, left common carotid artery, left subclavian artery, 20 mm distal to the left subclavian artery, pulmonary artery bifurcation, coeliac axis and maximal diameter of the descending thoracic aorta. Growth rates at the levels of the pulmonary artery bifurcation and 20 mm distal to the left subclavian artery were significantly higher in the SAE group than in the no supra-aortic entry group. The rate of freedom from major adverse aortic events (annual growth >5 mm or maximal diameter of the descending thoracic aorta >50 mm) at 5 years was significantly higher in the no supra-aortic entry group than in the SAE group. Remnant SAE leads to unfavourable aortic remodelling after acute Type I aortic dissection repair. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  3. Treating a 20 mm Hg gradient alleviates myocardial hypertrophy in experimental aortic coarctation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell, David C; Friehs, Ingeborg; Samyn, Margaret M; Harmann, Leanne M; LaDisa, John F

    2017-10-01

    Children with coarctation of the aorta (CoA) can have a hyperdynamic and remodeled left ventricle (LV) from increased afterload. Literature from an experimental model suggests the putative 20 mm Hg blood pressure gradient (BPG) treatment guideline frequently implemented in CoA studies may permit irreversible vascular changes. LV remodeling from pressure overload has been studied, but data are limited following correction and using a clinically representative BPG. Rabbits underwent CoA at 10 weeks to induce a 20 mm Hg BPG using permanent or dissolvable suture thereby replicating untreated and corrected CoA, respectively. Cardiac function was evaluated at 32 weeks by magnetic resonance imaging using a spoiled cine GRE sequence (TR/TE/FA 8/2.9/20), 14 × 14-cm FOV, and 3-mm slice thickness. Images (20 frames/cycle) were acquired in 6-8 short axis views from the apex to the mitral valve annulus. LV volume, ejection fraction (EF), and mass were quantified. LV mass was elevated for CoA (5.2 ± 0.55 g) versus control (3.6 ± 0.16 g) and corrected (4.0 ± 0.44 g) rabbits, resulting in increased LV mass/volume ratio for CoA rabbits. A trend toward increased EF and stroke volume was observed but did not reach significance. Elevated EF by volumetric analysis in CoA rabbits was supported by concomitant increases in total aortic flow by phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging. The indices quantified trended toward a persistent hyperdynamic LV despite correction, but differences were not statistically significant versus control rabbits. These findings suggest the current putative 20 mm Hg BPG for treatment may be reasonable from the LV's perspective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. 3D Bioprinting of Heterogeneous Aortic Valve Conduits with Alginate/Gelatin Hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Bin; Hockaday, Laura A.; Kang, Kevin H.; Butcher, Jonathan T.

    2013-01-01

    Heart valve disease is a serious and growing public health problem for which prosthetic replacement is most commonly indicated. Current prosthetic devices are inadequate for younger adults and growing children. Tissue engineered living aortic valve conduits have potential for remodeling, regeneration, and growth, but fabricating natural anatomical complexity with cellular heterogeneity remain challenging. In the current study, we implement 3D bioprinting to fabricate living alginate/gelatin hydrogel valve conduits with anatomical architecture and direct incorporation of dual cell types in a regionally constrained manner. Encapsulated aortic root sinus smooth muscle cells (SMC) and aortic valve leaflet interstitial cells (VIC) were viable within alginate/gelatin hydrogel discs over 7 days in culture. Acellular 3D printed hydrogels exhibited reduced modulus, ultimate strength, and peak strain reducing slightly over 7-day culture, while the tensile biomechanics of cell-laden hydrogels were maintained. Aortic valve conduits were successfully bioprinted with direct encapsulation of SMC in the valve root and VIC in the leaflets. Both cell types were viable (81.4±3.4% for SMC and 83.2±4.0% for VIC) within 3D printed tissues. Encapsulated SMC expressed elevated alpha-smooth muscle actin when printed in stiff matrix, while VIC expressed elevated vimentin in soft matrix. These results demonstrate that anatomically complex, heterogeneously encapsulated aortic valve hydrogel conduits can be fabricated with 3D bioprinting. PMID:23015540

  5. Nutritional studies on growing rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A.M.E.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    This work was carried out to study the effect of adding drinking water with either, copper sulfate, ascorbic acid or drinking cooled water on growth performance (live body weight,body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion and water consumption), digestibility coefficients of nutrients, carcass traits, some physiological parameters and economical efficiency of growing NZW rabbits under Egyptian summer conditions. Ninety six weanling New Zealand White (NZW) male rabbits at five weeks of age and nearly similar average body weight (650.3 ±3.7 g) were randomly divided into eight treatment groups (twelve rabbits in each group), and then each group was subdivided into four replicates, each of three rabbits. The rabbits were assigned to drinking water as follow: the 1 st group was given fresh tap water without any additives as a control. The 2 n d, 3 r d and 4 t h groups were given tap fresh water supplemented with copper sulfate at levels of 40, 80 and 120 mg/L drinking water, respectively. The 5 t h, 6 t h and 7 t h groups were given tap fresh water supplemented with ascorbic acid at levels of 250, 500 and 750 mg/L drinking water, respectively. The 8 t h group was given cooled drinking water (CW) at 10-15 degree C. Results showed that supplementation of 40 or 80 mg copper sulfate/L or 500 mg ascorbic acid/L to heat-stressed rabbits drinking water improved final live body weight, body weight gain, daily water consumption, feed conversion ratio, performance index and economical efficiency. Hot carcass percentage was significantly (P<0.01) decreased with 80 mg/L copper sulfate and increased significantly (P<0.01) due to supplementation the drinking water with 250 mg ascorbic acid/L. Cooled water (10-15 degree C) improved significantly (P<0.01) each of final body weight, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, performance index, economical efficiency and decreased significantly (P<0.01) each of hot carcass %, dressed weight %, heart %, total giblets %, rectal

  6. Early results of valve-sparing ascending aortic replacement in type A aortic dissection and aortic insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. Л. Гордеев

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was designed to investigate predictors of effective valve-sparing ascending aortic replacement in patients with Stanford type A aortic dissection combined with aortic insufficiency and to analyze efficacy and safety of this kind of surgery.Methods: From January 2010 to December 2015, 49 patients with Stanford type A aortic dissection combined with aortic insufficiency underwent ascending aortic replacement. All patients were divided into 3 groups: valve-sparing procedures (group 1, n = 11, combined aortic valve and supracoronary ascending aortic replacement (group 2, n = 12, and Bentall procedure (group 3, n = 26. We assessed the initial status of patients, incidence of complications and efficacy of valve-sparing ascending aortic replacement.Results: The hospital mortality rate was 8.2% (4/49 patients. The amount of surgical correction correlated with the initial diameter of the aorta at the level of the sinuses of Valsalva. During the hospital period, none of patients from group 1 developed aortic insufficiency exceeding Grade 2 and the vast majority of patients had trivial aortic regurgitation. The parameters of cardiopulmonary bypass, cross-clamp time and circulatory arrest time did not correlate with the initial size of the ascending aorta and aortic valve blood flow impairment, neither did they influence significantly the incidence and severity of neurological complications. The baseline size of the ascending aorta and degree of aortic regurgitation did not impact the course of the early hospital period.Conclusions: Supracoronary ascending aortic replacement combined with aortic valve repair in ascending aortic dissection and aortic regurgitation is effective and safe. The initial size of the ascending aorta and aortic arch do not influence immediate results. The diameter of the aorta at the level of the sinuses of Valsalva and the condition of aortic valve leaflets could be considered as the limiting factors. Further long

  7. Antithrombotic and Antiatherosclerotic Properties of Olive Oil and Olive Pomace Polar Extracts in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nektaria Tsantila

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil polar lipid (OOPL extract has been reported to inhibit atherosclerosis development on rabbits. Olive pomace polar lipid (PPL extract inhibits PAF activity in vitro and the most potent antagonist has been identified as a glycerylether-sn-2-acetyl glycolipid with common structural characteristics with the respective potent antagonist of OOPL. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of PPL on early atherosclerosis development on rabbits and to compare it with the antiatherosclerotic effect of OOPL. OOPL and PPL inhibition potency, towards both PAF action and PAF binding, was tested in vitro on washed rabbit platelets. Consequently, rabbits were divided into three groups (A, B, and C. All groups were fed atherogenic diet for 22 days. Atherogenic diets in groups B and C were enriched with OOPL and PPL, respectively. At the end of the experimental time, rabbits were euthanized and aortic samples were examined histopathologically. OOPL and PPL inhibited PAF-induced aggregation, as well as specific PAF binding, with PPL being more potent. Free and bound PAF levels and PAF-AH activity were significantly elevated at the end of the experimental time. Plasma total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides levels were also found increased. Groups B and C exhibited significantly increased values of EC50 compared to group A. Histopathological examination revealed that the development of early atherosclerosis lesions in groups B and C were significantly inhibited compared to group A. Significant differences were noted in the early atherosclerosis lesions between groups B and C, thus indicating that PPL exhibit its anti-atherosclerotic activity by blocking PAF receptor. Specific PAF antagonists with similar in vitro and in vivo bioactivity to those that have been previously reported in OOPL exist in PPL.

  8. [Metabolic syndrome and aortic stiffness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simková, A; Bulas, J; Murín, J; Kozlíková, K; Janiga, I

    2010-09-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of risk factors that move the patient into higher level of risk category of cardiovascular disease and the probability of type 2 diabetes mellitus manifestation. Definition of MS is s based on the presence of selected risk factors as: abdominal obesity (lager waist circumpherence), atherogenic dyslipidemia (low value of HDL-cholesterol and increased level of triglycerides), increased fasting blood glucose (or type 2 DM diagnosis), higher blood pressure or antihypertensive therapy. In 2009 there were created harmonizing criteria for MS definition; the condition for assignment of MS is the presence of any 3 criteria of 5 mentioned above. The underlying disorder of MS is an insulin resistance or prediabetes. The patients with MS more frequently have subclinical (preclinical) target organ disease (TOD) which is the early sings of atherosclerosis. Increased aortic stiffness is one of the preclinical diseases and is defined by pathologically increased carotidofemoral pulse wave velocity in aorta (PWV Ao). With the aim to assess the influence of MS on aortic stiffness we examined the group of women with arterial hypertension and MS and compare them with the group of women without MS. The aortic stiffness was examined by Arteriograph--Tensiomed, the equipment working on the oscillometric principle in detection of pulsations of brachial artery. This method determines the global aortic stiffness based on the analysis of the shape of pulse curve of brachial artery. From the cohort of 49 pts 31 had MS, the subgroups did not differ in age or blood pressure level. The mean number of risk factors per person in MS was 3.7 comparing with 1.7 in those without MS. In the MS group there was more frequently abdominal obesity present (87% vs 44%), increased fasting blood glucose (81% vs 22%) and low HDL-cholesterol level. The pulse wave velocity in aorta, PWV Ao, was significantly higher in patients with MS (mean value 10,19 m/s vs 8,96 m

  9. Aortic elongation in aortic aneurysm and dissection: the Tübingen Aortic Pathoanatomy (TAIPAN) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Tobias; Sandoval Boburg, Rodrigo; Lescan, Mario; Oikonomou, Alexandre; Schneider, Wilke; Vöhringer, Luise; Lausberg, Henning; Bamberg, Fabian; Blumenstock, Gunnar; Schlensak, Christian

    2018-01-24

    To study the lengths and diameters of aortic segments in healthy and diseased aortas and to assess the role of aortic elongation in Type A aortic dissection (TAD) prediction. Ectasia and aneurysm were defined by ascending aorta diameters of 45-54 mm and ≥55 mm, respectively. Computed tomography angiography studies of 256 healthy, 102 ectasia, 38 aneurysm, 17 pre-TAD and 166 TAD aortas were analysed using curved multiplanar reformats. The study groups were structurally equal. The diameter of the ascending aorta was 35 mm in the control group and was larger (P TAD (43 mm) and TAD (56 mm) groups. The length of the ascending aorta from the aortic annulus to the brachiocephalic trunk was 92 mm in the control group, 113 mm in the ectasia group, 120 mm in the aneurysm group and 111 mm and 118 mm in the pre-TAD and TAD groups (all P TAD group and 48% of the TAD group. The correlation between the diameter and the length of the ascending aorta was r = 0.752; therefore, both parameters must be examined separately. A score considering both parameters identified 23.5% of pre-TAD patients, significantly more than the diameter alone, and 31.4% of ectasia aortas were elongated. Patients with ectatic (45-54 mm diameter) and elongated (≥120 mm) ascending aortas represent a high-risk subpopulation for TAD. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence and zoonotic risks of Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Cheyletiella spp. in guinea pigs and rabbits in Dutch pet shops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overgaauw, P A M; Avermaete, K H A van; Mertens, C A R M; Meijer, M; Schoemaker, N J

    2017-06-01

    Young rabbits and guinea pigs are often purchased as pets for children and may be infected with zoonotic skin infections. To assess the risk of acquiring such an infection from rabbits or guinea pigs, this study investigated the prevalence of the fungus Trichophyton mentagrophytes and the fur mite Cheyletiella parasitovorax in asymptomatic rabbits and guinea pigs in Dutch pet shops. In 91 pet shops a total of 213 rabbits and 179 guinea pigs were sampled using the Mackenzie technique and cultured. Clean cultures were examined microscopically and a PCR was performed on at least one sample from each pet shop. All animals were investigated for fur mite using a flea comb, a magnifying glass and white paper. From the fur of 3.8% (8/213) of the rabbits and 16.8% (30/179) of the guinea pigs, T. mentagrophytes was isolated. From 1 guinea pig (0,6%) Chrysosporium keratinophilum was isolated. Dermatophyte-positive rabbits and guinea pigs originated from 5.6% (5/90) and 27.3% (24/88) of the investigated pet shops, respectively. Fur mites were not found. Pet shops can play an important role in preventing transmission of zoonotic ringworm infections (dermatophytosis) and educating their customers. Specific preventive measures such as routine screening examinations and (prophylactic) treatment of rabbits and guinea pigs are recommended next to regular hygiene when handling animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Infected aortic aneurysm and inflammatory aortic aneurysm. In search of an optimal differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaka, Nobukazu; Sohmiya, Koichi; Miyamura, Masatoshi; Umeda, Tatsuya; Tsuji, Motomu; Katsumata, Takahiro; Miyata, Tetsuro

    2012-01-01

    Infected aortic aneurysm and inflammatory aortic aneurysm each account for a minor fraction of the total incidence of aortic aneurysm and are associated with periaortic inflammation. Despite the similarity, infected aortic aneurysm generally shows a more rapid change in clinical condition, leading to a fatal outcome; in addition, delayed diagnosis and misuse of corticosteroid or immunosuppressing drugs may lead to uncontrolled growth of microorganisms. Therefore, it is mandatory that detection of aortic aneurysm is followed by accurate differential diagnosis. In general, infected aortic aneurysm appears usually as a saccular form aneurysm with nodularity, irregular configuration; however, the differential diagnosis may not be easy sometimes for the following reasons: symptoms, such as abdominal and/or back pain and fever, and blood test abnormalities, such as elevated C-reactive protein and enhanced erythrocyte sedimentation rate, are common in infected aortic aneurysm, but they are not found infrequently in inflammatory aortic aneurysm; some inflammatory aortic aneurysms are immunoglobulin (Ig) G4-related, but not all of them; the prevalence of IgG4 positivity in infected aortic aneurysm has not been well investigated; enhanced uptake of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) by 18F-FDG-positron emission tomography may not distinguish between inflammation mediated by autoimmunity and that mediated by microorganism infection. Here we discuss the characteristics of these two forms of aortic aneurysm and the points of which we have to be aware before reaching a final diagnosis. (author)

  12. Intravitreal flomoxef sodium in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, K; Torisaki, M; Yamashita, Y; Komatsu, M; Tanahashi, T

    1993-01-01

    We studied the intraocular concentration of flomoxef sodium in nonvitrectomized and vitrectomized eyes of albino rabbits after intravenous administration of 100 mg/kg flomoxef sodium. The concentration of flomoxef sodium in the vitreous body was undetectable (flomoxef sodium was investigated with ophthalmoscopy, electroretinography (ERG) and light microscopy after intravitreal injection of 200, 500, 1,000 and 2,000 micrograms flomoxef sodium in albino and pigmented rabbits. No ERG changes were induced with 200 micrograms. Other higher doses caused transient ERG changes. After the 200-micrograms injection, the intravitreal concentration decreased exponentially, the half-life being 4.4 h. The antibacterial activity, broad coverage and low intravitreal toxicity of flomoxef sodium suggest that this compound may be used to treat bacterial endophthalmitis.

  13. AHP 47: THE PROVOCATIVE RABBIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rnam rgyal རྣམ་རྒྱལ།

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A retreatant finished chanting for a family, packed up the offerings from the host, and started back to his hermitage feeling satisfied. A rabbit, called Ja dkrug mgo 'Trouble Maker', watched the retreatant through an evergreen bush, and decided he wanted to cheat the retreatant out of his offerings. Trouble Maker came out of the bush and stood in front of the retreatant in the middle of the path. As the retreatant came closer, Trouble Maker ran forward a few steps and then again turned back to watch the retreatant, who chased the rabbit for a while, but the heavy bag burdened him and he soon got very tired. He finally threw down his bag and chased Trouble Maker, who ran just beyond the retreatant’s grasp. Finally, having left the retreatant far behind, Trouble Maker doubled back, picked up the retreatant's bag, and carried it off. ...

  14. Delayed Presentation of a Giant Ascending Aortic Aneurysm following Aortic Valve Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugrul Göncü

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant ascending aortic aneurysm formation following aortic valve replacement is rare. A 28-year-old man who underwent aortic valve replacement with a prosthetic valve for aortic regurgitation secondary to congenital bicuspid aortic valve about 10 years ago was diagnosed with a giant ascending aortic aneurysm about 16 cm in diameter in follow-up. The aneurysm was resected leaving the functional old mechanical prosthesis in place and implanted a 34-mm Hemashield woven graft, associated with the left and right coronary artery button implantation. Histological findings of the aortic aneurysm wall showed cystic medial necrosis. The postoperative course was uneventful and postoperative examination demonstrated good surgical results.

  15. Beneficial Effects of High-Density Lipoproteins on Acquired von Willebrand Syndrome in Aortic Valve Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhard, C; Maafi, F; Stähli, B E; Bonnefoy, A; Gebhard, C E; Nachar, W; de Oliveira Moraes, A Benjamim; Mecteau, M; Mihalache-Avram, T; Lavoie, V; Kernaleguen, A E; Shi, Y; Busseuil, D; Chabot-Blanchet, M; Perrault, L P; Rhainds, D; Rhéaume, E; Tardif, J C

    2018-02-01

     Infusions of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the major protein component of high-density lipoproteins (HDL), result in aortic valve stenosis (AVS) regression in experimental models. Severe AVS can be complicated by acquired von Willebrand syndrome, a haemorrhagic disorder associated with loss of high-molecular-weight von Willebrand factor (vWF) multimers (HMWM), the latter being a consequence of increased shear stress and enhanced vWF-cleaving protease (ADAMTS-13) activity. Although antithrombotic actions of HDL have been described, its effects on ADAMTS-13 and vWF in AVS are unknown.  We assessed ADAMTS-13 activity in plasma derived from a rabbit model of AVS ( n  = 29) as well as in plasma collected from 64 patients with severe AVS (age 65.0 ± 10.4 years, 44 males) undergoing aortic valve replacement (AVR). In both human and rabbit AVS plasma, ADAMTS-13 activity was higher than that in controls ( p  AVS patients had less HMWM than controls (66.3 ± 27.2% vs. 97.2 ± 24.1%, p  AVS rabbits as compared with the placebo group (2.0 ± 0.5 RFU/sec vs. 3.8 ± 0.4 RFU/sec, p  AVS ( r  = -0.3, p  = 0.045).  Our data indicate that HDL levels are associated with reduced ADAMTS-13 activity and increased HMWM. HDL-based therapies may reduce the haematologic abnormalities of the acquired von Willebrand syndrome in AVS. Schattauer GmbH Stuttgart.

  16. Characterization of a novel alphaherpesvirus associated with fatal infections of domestic rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, L.; Loehr, C.V.; Vanarsdall, A.L.; Baker, R.J.; Moerdyk-Schauwecker, M.; Levine, C.; Gerlach, R.F.; Cohen, S.A.; Alvarado, D.E.; Rohrmann, G.F.

    2008-01-01

    A virus was found to be associated with a severe disease affecting rabbits on a farm near Anchorage, Alaska. Extracts from the skin of infected rabbits produced syncytia and cell lysis in cultured rabbit skin, rabbit kidney, and Vero cells. Examination of the infectious agent by electron microscopy revealed an icosahedral nucleocapsid surrounded by an envelope with a diameter of about 120 nm, suggesting that it was a herpesvirus. The viral genome was determined to be composed of double-stranded DNA of 120-130 kbp. PCR using degenerate primers to conserved herpesvirus genes was used to amplify sequences from purified viral DNA. Sequencing of these products allowed the design of specific primers so that complete sequence data for a number of genes could be determined. Analysis of these data indicated that the virus is most closely related to bovine herpesvirus 2. The next most closely related viruses are human herpesviruses 1 and 2, and a number of cercopithecine herpesviruses. Experimental exposure of domestic rabbits to the isolate resulted in severe clinical disease and necrosis in the spleen and lymph node. In addition, viral DNA was identified in a variety of tissues by PCR, consistent with a systemic infection. Taken together, these data suggest that this virus is highly pathogenic for domestic rabbits and belongs to the family Herpesviridae, subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae, genus Simplexvirus

  17. Problems and prospects of rabbit production in Nigeria - a review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabbits are characterized by small body size, short gestation period, high ... feeders and other equipment for rabbits can be made using readily available materials such as ... Limitations to rabbit production in developing countries include the ...

  18. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mylotte, Darren; Osnabrugge, Ruben L J; Windecker, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    The authors sought to examine the adoption of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in Western Europe and investigate factors that may influence the heterogeneous use of this therapy.......The authors sought to examine the adoption of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in Western Europe and investigate factors that may influence the heterogeneous use of this therapy....

  19. Graft infections after surgical aortic reconstructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berger, P.

    2015-01-01

    Prosthetic vascular grafts are frequently used to reconstruct (part) of the aorta. Every surgical procedure caries a certain risk for infection and when a prosthetic aortic graft is implanted, this may lead to an aortic graft infection (AGI). Endovascular techniques have gradually replaced open

  20. Severe aortic stenosis: diagnosis, treatment and prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.W.A. van Geldorp (Martijn)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractDegenerative aortic stenosis is the most common valvular heart disease in developed countries. The prevalence of severe aortic stenosis increases with age from 1% in people below 65 years of age to nearly 6% in people over the age of 85. Since the population life expectancy continues to

  1. Valve-sparing aortic root replacement†

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolbergen, David R.; Manshanden, Johan S. J.; Bouma, Berto J.; Blom, Nico A.; Mulder, Barbara J. M.; de Mol, Bas A. J. M.; Hazekamp, Mark G.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate our results of valve-sparing aortic root replacement and associated (multiple) valve repair. From September 2003 to September 2013, 97 patients had valve-sparing aortic root replacement procedures. Patient records and preoperative, postoperative and recent echocardiograms were reviewed.

  2. Mechanical Characterization and Material Modeling of Diabetic Aortas in a Rabbit Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jianhua; Yang, F; Li, X; Xu, X; Wang, G X

    2018-03-01

    Diabetes has been recognized as a major risk factor to cause macrovascular diseases and plays a key role in aortic wall remodeling. However, the effects of diabetes on elastic properties of aortas remain largely unknown and quantitative mechanical data are lacking. Thirty adult rabbits (1.6-2.2 kg) were collected and the type 1 diabetic rabbit model was induced by injection of alloxan. A total of 15 control and 15 diabetic rabbit (abdominal) aortas were harvested. Uniaxial and biaxial tensile tests were performed to measure ultimate tensile strength and to characterize biaxial mechanical behaviors of the aortas. A material model was fitted to the biaxial experimental data to obtain constitutive parameters. Histological and mass fraction analyses were performed to investigate the underlying microstructure and dry weight percentages of elastin and collagen in the control and the diabetic aortas. No statistically significant difference was found in ultimate tensile strength between the control and the diabetic aortas. Regarding biaxial mechanical responses, the diabetic aortas exhibited significantly lower extensibility and significantly higher tissue stiffness than the control aortas. Notably, tissue stiffening occurred in both circumferential and axial directions for the diabetic aortas; however, mechanical anisotropy does not change significantly. The material model was able to fit biaxial experimental data very well. Histology showed that a number of isolated foam cells were embedded in the diabetic aortas and hyperplasia of collagen was identified. The dry weight percentages of collagen within the diabetic aortas increased significantly as compared to the control aortas, whereas no significant change was found for that of elastin. Our data suggest that the diabetes impairs elastic properties and alters microstructure of the aortas and consequently, these changes may further contribute to complex aortic wall remodeling.

  3. Aortic smooth muscle cell proteoglycan synthesis in relation to atherosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, I.J.

    1989-01-01

    Proteoglycans (PG) are implicated in atherogenesis by their effects on tissue permeability and cell proliferation and their interaction with plasma low density lipoproteins. Using the pigeon model in which an atherosclerosis-susceptible (WC) and -resistant (SR) breed can be compared, PG synthesis by cultured aortic smooth muscle cells was examined by the use of [ 35 S]-sodium sulfate and [ 3 H]-serine or [ 3 H]-glucosamine as labeling precursors. In both SR and WC cells, the majority of newly synthesized PG were secreted into the media. Chondroitin sulfate (CS) PG and dermatan sulfate (DS) PG were the major PG produced. Total PG production was consistently lower in WC compared to SR cultures due in part to reduce PG synthesis but also to degradation of newly synthesized PG. Since increased DS-PG accompanines atherosclerosis progression, experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that macrophages modulate smooth muscle cell metabolism to cause increase DS-PG production. Cultured WC aortic smooth muscle cells were exposed to the media of cholesteryl ester-loaded pigeon peritoneal macrophages or a macrophage cell line P388D1 and the production of PG examined. Increasing concentration of conditioned media from both types of macrophages caused increased incorporation of 35 S-sulfate into secreted PG, but no change in cell-associated PG. Lipopolysaccharide activation of P388D1 cells enhanced the effect

  4. Microbiologic, radiographic, and anatomic study of the nasolacrimal duct apparatus in the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marini, R.P.; Foltz, C.J.; Kersten, D.; Batchelder, M.; Kaser, W.; Li, X.

    1996-01-01

    This study was motivated by the sporadic observation of epiphora in two male rabbits. The epiphora was unilateral and not associated with conjunctivitis or Pasteurella infection. To characterize the cause of epiphora, we studied 15 specific-pathogen-free New Zealand White rabbits. This study group was composed of the two affected males, four unaffected males, and nine unaffected females. Clinical evaluation consisted of bacterial culture of conjunctival specimens, examination of conjunctival scrapings for chlamydial inclusions, culture and cytologic examination of specimens from the nasolacrimal duct, plain and contrast radiography, latex casting, histologic examination, and the Schirmer tear test. Important differences found in the rabbits with epiphora included an opalescent, gritty, nasolacrimal duct flush fluid and marked unilateral dilatation of the duct proximal to a dorsal flexure at the caudal limit of the incisor tooth root. The flush solution from one affected rabbit cleared with ether, suggesting the presence of triglycerides or cholesterol. The organisms most commonly isolated from the conjunctiva were Moraxella sp., Oligella urethralis, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus sp., and Streptococcus viridans. The organisms most commonly isolated from the nasolacrimal duct flush fluid were Moraxella sp., S. viridans, and Neisseria sp. Culture of the nasolacrimal duct flush fluid yielded microorganisms more consistently than did culture of the conjunctival specimens. All microorganisms isolated from affected rabbits also were isolated from unaffected rabbits. There was no apparent contribution of microorganisms to the development of epiphora, and Schirmer tear test results for affected animals were within the range seen in unaffected animals. Occlusion of the nasolacrimal duct was presumed to be attributable to fat droplets nasolacrimal duct anatomic

  5. MRI evaluation of the aortic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapuscinski, O.; Polkowski, J.; Zaleska, T.; Walecki, J.; Biesiadko, M.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of our study was to establish the value of MRI in diagnosing aortic disease. During 3 years period 46 patients were examined (12 women aged from 6 to 62 years and 34 men aged from 8 to 72 years). In 28 cases the thoracic aorta was examined, in 6 cases the abdominal aorta and in 12 - both the thoracic and the abdominal aorta. MR images were performed on MRT 50 A Toshiba unit 0.5 T. MR images demonstrated aortic aneurysm (caused by atherosclerosis or trauma), aortic dissections, aortic anomalies (i.e. in Turner syndrome) and non-specific aortitis and vasculitis. We regard MRI as preferable noninvasive imaging technique in diagnosing aortic disease. (author)

  6. Is there a difference between hare syphilis and rabbit syphilis? Cross infection experiments between rabbits and hares

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lumeij, J.T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073286826; Mikalová, L.; Smajs, D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Cross infection of rabbits and hares with Treponema paraluiscuniculi from rabbits and the related microorganism from hares, which was provisionally named "Treponema paraluisleporis", revealed that T. paraluiscuniculi affects rabbits clinically, but only causes seroconversion in hares

  7. Treatment strategy for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovic, L

    2014-07-01

    Rupture is the most serious and lethal complication of the abdominal aortic aneurysm. Despite all improvements during the past 50 years, ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms are still associated with very high mortality. Namely, including patients who die before reaching the hospital, the mortality rate due to abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture is 90%. On the other hand, during the last twenty years, the number of abdominal aortic aneurysms significantly increased. One of the reasons is the fact that in majority of countries the general population is older nowadays. Due to this, the number of degenerative AAA is increasing. This is also the case for patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture. Age must not be the reason of a treatment refusal. Optimal therapeutic option ought to be found. The following article is based on literature analysis including current guidelines but also on my Clinics significant experience. Furthermore, this article show cases options for vascular medicine in undeveloped countries that can not apply endovascular procedures at a sufficient level and to a sufficient extent. At this moment the following is evident. Thirty-day-mortality after repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms is significantly lower in high-volume hospitals. Due to different reasons all ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms are not suitable for EVAR. Open repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm should be performed by experienced open vascular surgeons. This could also be said for the treatment of endovascular complications that require open surgical conversion. There is no ideal procedure for the treatment of AAA. Each has its own advantages and disadvantages, its own limits and complications, as well as indications and contraindications. Future reductions in mortality of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms will depend on implementation of population-based screening; on strategies to prevent postoperative organ injury and also on new medical technology

  8. [Modern aortic surgery in Marfan syndrome--2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallenbach, K; Schwill, S; Karck, M

    2011-09-01

    Marfan syndrome is a hereditary disease with a prevalence of 2-3 in 10,000 births, leading to a fibrillin connective tissue disorder with manifestations in the skeleton, eye, skin, dura mater and in particular the cardiovascular system. Since other syndromes demonstrate similar vascular manifestations, but therapy may differ significantly, diagnosis should be established using the revised Ghent nosology in combination with genotypic analysis in specialized Marfan centres. The formation of aortic root aneurysms with the subsequent risk of acute aortic dissection type A (AADA) or aortic rupture limits life expectancy in patients with Marfan syndrome. Therefore, prophylactic replacement of the aortic root needs to be performed before the catastrophic event of AADA can occur. The goal of surgery is the complete resection of pathological aortic tissue. This can be achieved with excellent results by using a (mechanically) valved conduit that replaces both the aortic valve and the aortic root (Bentall operation). However, the need for lifelong anticoagulation with Coumadin can be avoided using the aortic valve sparing reimplantation technique according to David. The long-term durability of the reconstructed valve is favourable, and further technical improvements may improve longevity. Although results of prospective randomised long-term studies comparing surgical techniques are lacking, the David operation has become the surgical method of choice for aortic root aneurysms, not only at the Heidelberg Marfan Centre. Replacement of the aneurysmal dilated aortic arch is performed under moderate hypothermic circulatory arrest combined with antegrade cerebral perfusion using a heart-lung machine, which we also use in thoracic or thoracoabdominal aneurysms. Close post-operative follow-up in a Marfan centre is pivotal for the early detection of pathological changes on the diseased aorta.

  9. Quantification of in-stent restenosis parameters in rabbits by micro-CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langheinrich, A.C.; Zoerb, C.; Jajima, J.; Lommel, D.; Rau, W.S.; Walker, G.; Mueller, K.M.; Bohle, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The well-defined model of angioplasty and stent implantation in the rabbit aorta is useful in experimental studies of restenosis. This study was performed to evaluate the feasibility of Micro-CT for quantification of in-stent restenosis in a rabbit aortic in-stent restenosis model. Material and Methods: To induce in-stent restenosis seven female New Zealand rabbits underwent balloon dilation and denudation prior to stenting the abdominal aorta. After six weeks on atherogenic diet, animals were killed and the aorta was perfused with contrast agent. Micro-CT morphometric analysis of balloon and stent injured arteries obtained by 700 transverse sections (voxel size 10 μm) was compared to conventional histological analysis. Results: Intimal hyperplasia was present in stented and balloon injured arteries with a moderate intimal area assessed by Micro-CT and conventional histology (3.91±0.5 mm 2 vs. 4.18±0.42; r=0.9). High significant correlations between Micro-CT image analysis and conventional histomorphometry were obtained for lesion size, size of media, size of lumen and stent area (r=0.84 to 0.96). Conclusion: Micro-CT is feasible for quantitative information about restenosis following balloon angioplasty and stent implantation and has the potential to become a standard technique in many laboratories which will augment serial histology as the reference method for ex-vivo studies of restenosis. (orig.)

  10. Enhancing influence of carbon monoxide on the development of atheromatosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astrup, P; Kjeldsen, K; Wanstrup, J

    1967-01-01

    Rabbits were fed chow plus 2% cholesterol and 12 of 24 were exposed to 170 ppM CO for 8 wks and 350 ppM CO for the 2 following wks. COHb was 15 to 19% through the 8th wk and 33% in the 10th wk. Hemoglobin in exposed rabbits rose from 10.1 to 12.2 and then to 13.5 in response to increasing CO. Degree of visible atheromatosis and content of total cholesterol in aortic tissue were significantly higher in CO-exposed rabbits. Rise in serum cholesterol was also greater in this group. Mean heart weights were higher; 7 of 12 had small multiple subendocardial and subpericardial hemorrhages; 8 of 12 had focal degenerative changes (only 1 control had such changes). Microscopic findings supported the above differentiation between control and CO-exposed animals: fibrosis, valvular edema, vascular lipoidal infiltration. Hypoxia per se is an important pathogenetic factor as well as decreased activity of certain CO-bound enzymes.

  11. MR imaging of aortic coarctation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beslic, S.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the contribution of MRI as diagnostic procedure in the preoperative diagnosis of aortic coarctation (CoA), in patients with clinical and echocardiographic suspicion for this disease. Patients and methods. During the period of three years, eight patients were examined, 5 (62.5%) male and 3 (37.5%) female patients with clinical echocardiographic suspicion of CoA. The ratio between male and female patients was 1.7 : 1. The youngest patient was 3 and the oldest 46 years (median age was 15 years). Without administration of contrast media and using body coil the examinations were performed with MR machine Magnetom 1.0 Tesla ( S iemens ) , with the slice thickness of 6 mm, Fast spin-echo (FSE) T1W sequences, Cine gradient echo (GRE) sequence with slab 7 mm and time of flight (TOF) sequence with MIP reconstructions were applied. During the examinations the patients underwent also ECG gating. Examinations were done in axial, coronal and oblique sagittal projections with measuring of the dimensions of cardiovascular structures. Results. CoA was found in 8 (100%) patients. In 7 (87.5%) cases, coarctation developed at isthmus and in one case, coarctation was detected at the horizontal part of aortic arch, between the truncus arteriosus of the left carotid communis artery. Aortal insufficiency was found in 7 (87.5%) patients; in four of them (50%), bicuspidia was confirmed (bicuspid aortic valve), 7 (87.5%) patients had slightly expressed hypertrophy of the left ventricle. Two (25%) patients had dilatation of the ascendant aorta, six (75%) wider outgoing vessels of the aortic arch, four (50%) had well developed arterial collaterals and 2 (25%) patients rib notching. In 2 (25%) patients as side finding thymus persistent was found. Average diameter of coarctation was 10 mm. In one patient, CoA was accompanied with stenosis of pulmonary artery, in one with ventricular septal defect, and one with tricuspid insufficiency. The results

  12. Imaging techniques in aortic valve and root surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regeer, M.V.

    2017-01-01

    Aortic valve sparing surgery for aortic regurgitation and/or aortopathy serves as an alternative to aortic valve and root replacement. One of the advantages of aortic valve sparing surgery over conventional replacement is that there is no need for life-long anticoagulation, which is particularly

  13. Correction of aortic insufficiency with an external adjustable prosthetic aortic ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogbashian, Andrew; Ghanta, Ravi K; Umakanthan, Ramanan; Rangaraj, Aravind T; Laurence, Rita G; Fox, John A; Cohn, Lawrence H; Chen, Frederick Y

    2007-09-01

    Less invasive, valve-sparing options are needed for patients with aortic insufficiency (AI). We sought to evaluate the feasibility of reducing AI with an external adjustable aortic ring in an ovine model. To create AI, five sheep underwent patch plasty enlargement of the aortic annulus and root by placement of a 10 x 15 mm pericardial patch between the right and noncoronary cusps. An adjustable external ring composed of a nylon band was fabricated and placed around the aortic root. Aortic flow, aortic pressure, and left ventricular pressures were measured with the ring loose (off) and tightened (on). Mean regurgitant orifice area decreased by 86%, from 0.07 +/- 0.03 cm2 (ring loose, off) to 0.01 +/- 0.00 cm2 (ring tightened, on) [p < 0.01]. The regurgitant fraction decreased from 18 +/- 4% to 2 +/- 1% [p < 0.01]. The ring did not significantly affect stroke volume and aortic pressure. An ovine model of aortic root dilatation resulting in acute AI has been developed. In this model, application of an external, adjustable constricting aortic ring eliminated AI. An aortic ring may be a useful adjunct in reducing AI secondary to annular dilatation.

  14. Epizootic rabbit enteropathy inoculum (TEC4): antibiograms and antibiotic fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybens, Nathalie; Houeix, Julien; Licois, Dominique; Mainil, Jacques; Marlier, Didier

    2011-01-01

    Epizootic rabbit enteropathy (ERE) emerged and spread in Europe within the last 13 years causing major economical loss. The aims of the study was to evaluate antibiograms of TEC4, an inoculum composed of an extract of intestinal content of affected rabbits, and to test the potential of different antibiotic-based TEC4 fractions to reproduce the disease. Twenty nine different antibiotic discs were incubated for determining bacteria resistance. In a complementary study, nine tubes of liquid medium were inoculated with TEC4, incubated and added individually with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, bacitracin, ceftiofur, doxycycline, novobiocin, streptomycyin, tylosin, vancomycin and 0.9% saline solution as control. The content of each tube was washed by centrifugation and suspended in saline. The three most effective antibiotics are florfenicol, amoxycillin/clavulanic acid and tylosin. A high concentration of Clostridium sordelli and Bacillus firmus were isolated in all fractions. Species never cultured from TEC4 were identified as Fusobacterium necrogenes (in vancomycin fraction), Cellulomonas sp (in novobiocin fraction) and Bacteroides distasonis (in doxycycline fraction). The ERE was reproduced when bacitracin, doxycycline and 0.9% fractions were inoculated. Rabbits showed ERE clinical signs with the specific drop in daily weight gain.

  15. The use of transcatheter aortic valve replacement vs surgical aortic valve replacement for the treatment of aortic stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen HA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hanna A Jensen, Lillian L Tsai, Vinod H Thourani Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Joseph B Whitehead Department of Surgery, Structural Heart and Valve Center, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA Abstract: Severe aortic stenosis (AS is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality and is increasing in prevalence as the global population increases. Since AS primarily affects the elderly, many of these patients have comorbidities that make them poor candidates for the gold standard treatment for AS, surgical aortic valve replacement. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement has emerged as a novel technology for the management of AS in higher risk patients over the past decade. Randomized trials have established the safety and efficacy of transcatheter aortic valve replacement, and the medical community has rallied to identify the patients who are most suitable for this transformative treatment. This review focuses on outlining the key procedural differences, describing the unique challenges of both operations, and finally assessing and comparing outcomes both on a general level and in challenging patient subgroups. Keywords: aortic valve replacement, transcatheter aortic valve replacement, surgical aortic valve replacement 

  16. Aortic root surgery in Marfan syndrome: Comparison of aortic valve-sparing reimplantation versus composite grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karck, Matthias; Kallenbach, Klaus; Hagl, Christian; Rhein, Christine; Leyh, Rainer; Haverich, Axel

    2004-02-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the results of aortic valve-sparing reimplantation and aortic root replacement with mechanical valve conduits in patients with Marfan syndrome undergoing operation for aortic root aneurysms. Patients and methods Between March 1979 and April 2002, 119 patients with clinical evidence of Marfan syndrome underwent composite graft replacement with mechanical valve conduits (n = 74) or aortic valve-sparing reimplantation according to David (n = 45). The underlying causes were aortic dissection type A (43 patients) and aneurysms (76 patients). Patients undergoing aortic valve reimplantation were younger compared with patients undergoing composite grafting (28 vs 35 years, P =.002) and had longer intraoperative aortic crossclamp times (125 vs 78 minutes, P valve reimplantation (P =.15). Mean follow-up was 30 months for patients undergoing aortic valve reimplantation and 114 months for patients undergoing composite grafting. Freedom from reoperation and death after 5 years postoperatively was 92% and 89% in patients undergoing composite grafting and 84% and 96% in patients undergoing aortic valve reimplantation (P =.31; P =.54), respectively. Thromboembolic complications or late postoperative bleeding occurred in 17 patients undergoing composite grafting, and an early postoperative event occurred in 1 patient undergoing aortic valve reimplantation. The results of aortic valve reimplantation and composite grafting of the aortic valve and ascending aorta with mechanical valve conduits are similar with regard to early and mid-term postoperative mortality and to the incidence of late reoperations in patients with Marfan syndrome. The low risk of thromboembolic or bleeding complications favors aortic valve reimplantation in these patients.

  17. Factors Affecting Optimal Aortic Remodeling After Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair of Type B (IIIb) Aortic Dissection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, I-Ming; Chen, Po-Lin; Huang, Chun-Yang; Weng, Shih-Hsien; Chen, Wei-Yuan; Shih, Chun-Che

    2017-01-01

    PurposeThe purpose of this study was to determine factors associated with entire aortic remodeling after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) in patients with type B dissection.Materials and MethodsThe patients with type B (IIIb) dissections who underwent TEVAR from 2006 to 2013 with minimum of 2 years of follow-up computed tomography data were retrospectively reviewed. Based on the status of false lumen remodeling of entire aorta, patients were divided into three groups: complete regression, total thrombosis, and inadequate regression with patent abdominal false lumen.ResultsA total of 90 patients (72 males, 18 females; mean age 56.6 ± 16.4 years) were included and divided into the complete regression (n = 22), total thrombosis (n = 18), and inadequate regression (n = 50) groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that dissection extension to iliac arteries, increased preoperative number of dissection tear over abdominal aorta, and decreased preoperative abdominal aorta bifurcation true lumen ratio, as compared between the inadequate and complete regression groups, were associated with a persistent false lumen (odds ratio = 33.33, 2.304, and 0.021; all, p ≤ 0.012). Comparison of 6, 12, and 24 months postoperative data revealed no significant differences at any level, suggesting that the true lumen area ratio might not change after 6 months postoperatively.ConclusionsIncreased preoperative numbers of dissection tear around the abdominal visceral branches, dissection extension to the iliac arteries, and decreased preoperative true lumen area ratio of abdominal aorta are predictive of entire aortic remodeling after TEVAR in patients with type B dissection.Level of EvidenceIII.

  18. Factors Affecting Optimal Aortic Remodeling After Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair of Type B (IIIb) Aortic Dissection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, I-Ming [National Yang Ming University, Institute of Clinical Medicine, School of Medicine (China); Chen, Po-Lin; Huang, Chun-Yang [National Yang Ming University, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine (China); Weng, Shih-Hsien; Chen, Wei-Yuan; Shih, Chun-Che, E-mail: ccshih@vghtpe.gov.tw [National Yang Ming University, Institute of Clinical Medicine, School of Medicine (China)

    2017-05-15

    PurposeThe purpose of this study was to determine factors associated with entire aortic remodeling after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) in patients with type B dissection.Materials and MethodsThe patients with type B (IIIb) dissections who underwent TEVAR from 2006 to 2013 with minimum of 2 years of follow-up computed tomography data were retrospectively reviewed. Based on the status of false lumen remodeling of entire aorta, patients were divided into three groups: complete regression, total thrombosis, and inadequate regression with patent abdominal false lumen.ResultsA total of 90 patients (72 males, 18 females; mean age 56.6 ± 16.4 years) were included and divided into the complete regression (n = 22), total thrombosis (n = 18), and inadequate regression (n = 50) groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that dissection extension to iliac arteries, increased preoperative number of dissection tear over abdominal aorta, and decreased preoperative abdominal aorta bifurcation true lumen ratio, as compared between the inadequate and complete regression groups, were associated with a persistent false lumen (odds ratio = 33.33, 2.304, and 0.021; all, p ≤ 0.012). Comparison of 6, 12, and 24 months postoperative data revealed no significant differences at any level, suggesting that the true lumen area ratio might not change after 6 months postoperatively.ConclusionsIncreased preoperative numbers of dissection tear around the abdominal visceral branches, dissection extension to the iliac arteries, and decreased preoperative true lumen area ratio of abdominal aorta are predictive of entire aortic remodeling after TEVAR in patients with type B dissection.Level of EvidenceIII.

  19. Expression of uPA, tPA, and PAI-1 in Calcified Aortic Valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najlah Kochtebane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Our physiopathological assumption is that u-PA, t-PA, and PAI-1 are released by calcified aortic valves and play a role in the calcification of these valves. Methods. Sixty-five calcified aortic valves were collected from patients suffering from aortic stenosis. Each valve was incubated for 24 hours in culture medium. The supernatants were used to measure u-PA, t-PA, and PAI-1 concentrations; the valve calcification was evaluated using biphotonic absorptiometry. Results. Aortic stenosis valves expressed normal plasminogen activators concentrations and overexpressed PAI-1 (u-PA, t-PA, and PAI-1 mean concentrations were, resp., 1.69 ng/mL ± 0.80, 2.76 ng/mL ± 1.33, and 53.27 ng/mL ± 36.39. There was no correlation between u-PA and PAI-1 (r=0.3 but t-PA and PAI-1 were strongly correlated with each other (r=0.6. Overexpression of PAI-1 was proportional to the calcium content of the AS valves. Conclusions. Our results demonstrate a consistent increase of PAI-1 proportional to the calcification. The overexpression of PAI-1 may be useful as a predictive indicator in patients with aortic stenosis.

  20. Aortography following subdiaphragmal aortic biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimmler, J.

    1982-01-01

    A juxtaposition of the subdiaphragmal and infrarenal translumbar aortic biopsy sites showed decisive advantages in favour of the higher site: a more stable position because of better anatomic fixation and rarer incidence of vascular alterations, a wider vascular lumen. Disadvantages lie in the fact that the large visceral arteries (especially Tr. coeliacus) branch off nearly and in the close anatomic relationship to large abdominal organs and the thoracal region. Evaluation of the radiographical image of the vascular tree after subdiaphragmal aortic biopsy showed an average 82% of the vessels to the area of the Knees to be assessable (renal arteries approximately 93%, popliteal arteries approximately 70%). Beyong, the method proved unsatisfactory: 52% of the vessels could not, or not safety, be evaluated. A relatively broad spectrum of indications by comparison with transfemoral catheter aortography had no influence on the rate of complications with reference to either method. A comparison of the topographic conditions shows the need for even more scrupulons observation of the technique in subdiaphragmal biopsy than in the infrarenal one. To sum up the results obtained, subdiaphregmal translumbar aortography is to be preferred to the infrarenal one where transfemoral catheter aortography is contra-indicated, within the limits mentioned. (orig.) [de

  1. Imaging of thoracic aortic dissection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vu, F.H.; Young, N.; Soo, Y.S.

    1994-01-01

    Acute thoracic aortic dissection has a high mortality rate if untreated, so the diagnosis must be rapidly made. Multiple imaging techniques are often used. This retrospective study from 1988 to 1993 assesses the usefulness in diagnosis of chest X-rays, computed tomography (CT) scanning, aortography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), trans-thoracic (TTE) and trans-oesophageal (TOE) echocardiography. Forty-two patients with a final clinical diagnosis of dissection were studied. The diagnosis was confirmed in 16 (13 at surgery and three at autopsy). Three died with dissection given as the only cause of death. Chest X-ray abnormalities were seen in all 19 patients with surgery or death from dissection, with a widened mediastinum and/or dilated aorta being present in 17. In the group of 16 patients with surgery or autopsy proof, CT scans found dissections in 9 out of 12 patients studied and correctly classified the type in only five. Aortography was preformed in five, with accurate depiction of dissection and type in all. TTE found dissections in three of eight patients imaged by this method. MRI and TOE were preformed each on two patients, with accurate depiction of dissection and type in each. Because of the relatively low sensitivity of CT scanning in defining aortic dissections Westmead Hospital is currently assessing the use of TOE as the prime imaging modality prior to surgical intervention. 17 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs

  2. Characterization of collagenase-3 binding and internalization by rabbit chondrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raggatt, L.J.; Choundhury, I.; Williams, S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Collagenase-3 (MMP-13) is an extracellular matrix metalloproteinase that cleaves type II collagen, the major protein component of cartilage, with high specificity. Several studies have identified increased levels of MMP-13 in arthritic synovial fluid where it may contribute to matrix destruction in this disease. Our laboratory has previously documented a process where by osteoblastic cells remove MMP-13 from the surrounding milieu by binding the enzyme to a specific receptor. The enzyme is then internalized and degraded through the actions of the endocytotic receptor, the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP). Such a mechanism provides for a controlled elimination of a potentially destructive enzyme from the extracellular environment. This process of MMP-13 internalization also occurs in chondrocytes and is significantly reduced in OA chondrocytes. We are currently characterizing the internalization of MMP-13 in normal rabbit chondrocytes. Primary rabbit chondrocytes were harvested and cultured in monolayers for three passages. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to asses the cell phenotype during the culture period and the rabbit chondrocytes were found to express the cartilage specific genes aggrecan and type II collagen throughout this time. 125I-MMP-13 was used to assess the ability of the rabbit chondrocytes to bind MMP-13. Appreciable specific cell-association of MMP-13 was detected after 10 mm of exposure to the ligand and equilibrium was obtained after 2 h. After identifying the time to equilibrium we determined whether binding was saturable by incubating the chondrocytes with increasing concentrations of 125I-MMP-13 ranging from 0 to 100 nM at 4 deg C for 2h. The amount of specifically associated MMP-13 approached saturation at 75 nM, allowing assessment of the receptor kinetics. Finally, we have assessed the ability of rabbit chondrocytes to internalize a single cohort of 125I-MMP-13 over time at

  3. Viral skin diseases of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Anna L

    2013-09-01

    This article describes the viral skin diseases affecting the domestic rabbit, the most important being myxomatosis. Transmission and pathogenesis, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, and control are described and the article will be of interest to veterinary practitioners who treat rabbits. Shope fibroma virus, Shope papilloma virus, and rabbitpox are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Rabbit Oncology : Diseases, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zeeland, Yvonne

    Neoplasia has long been reported as a rare finding in rabbits, but over the past decades the number of reports on neoplastic disease in rabbits has risen considerably. Similar to other animals, neoplastic changes may occur in any organ system, but the rate in which the organ systems are affected

  5. Ascending aortic injuries following blunt trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiumei; Hong, Jenny; Lowery, Robert; Goldstein, Steven; Wang, Zuyue; Lindsay, Joseph; Hill, Peter C; Corso, Paul J

    2013-11-01

    The diagnosis and the management of traumatic thoracic aortic injuries have undergone significant changes due to new technology and improved prehospital care. Most of the discussions have focused on descending aortic injuries. In this review, we discuss the recent management of ascending aortic injuries. We found 5 cohort studies on traumatic aortic injuries and 11 case reports describing ascending aortic injuries between 1998 to the present through Medline research. Among case reports, 78.9% of cases were caused by motor vehicle accidents (MVA). 42.1% of patients underwent emergent open repair and the operative mortality was 12.5%. 36.8% underwent delayed repair. Associated injuries occurred in 84.2% of patients. Aortic valve injury was concurrent in 26.3% of patients. The incidence of ascending aortic injury ranged 1.9-20% in cohort studies. Traumatic injuries to the ascending aorta are relatively uncommon among survivors following blunt trauma. Aortography has been replaced by computed tomography and echocardiography as a diagnostic tool. Open repair, either emergent or delayed, remains the treatment of choice. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Aortic stenosis and vascular calcifications in alkaptonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannoush, Hwaida; Introne, Wendy J; Chen, Marcus Y; Lee, Sook-Jin; O'Brien, Kevin; Suwannarat, Pim; Kayser, Michael A; Gahl, William A; Sachdev, Vandana

    2012-02-01

    Alkaptonuria is a rare metabolic disorder of tyrosine catabolism in which homogentisic acid (HGA) accumulates and is deposited throughout the spine, large joints, cardiovascular system, and various tissues throughout the body. In the cardiovascular system, pigment deposition has been described in the heart valves, endocardium, pericardium, aortic intima and coronary arteries. The prevalence of cardiovascular disease in patients with alkaptonuria varies in previous reports. We present a series of 76 consecutive adult patients with alkaptonuria who underwent transthoracic echocardiography between 2000 and 2009. A subgroup of 40 patients enrolled in a treatment study underwent non-contrast CT scans and these were assessed for vascular calcifications. Six of the 76 patients had aortic valve replacement. In the remaining 70 patients, 12 patients had aortic sclerosis and 7 patients had aortic stenosis. Unlike degenerative aortic valve disease, we found no correlation with standard cardiac risk factors. There was a modest association between the severity of aortic valve disease and joint involvement, however, we saw no correlation with urine HGA levels. Vascular calcifications were seen in the coronaries, cardiac valves, aortic root, descending aorta and iliac arteries. These findings suggest an important role for echocardiographic screening of alkaptonuria patients to detect valvular heart disease and cardiac CT to detect coronary artery calcifications. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Aortic reconstruction with bovine pericardial grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira Lindemberg Mota

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Glutaraldehyde-treated crimped bovine pericardial grafts are currently used in aortic graft surgery. These conduits have become good options for these operations, available in different sizes and shapes and at a low cost. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the results obtained with bovine pericardial grafts for aortic reconstruction, specially concerning late complications. METHOD: Between January 1995 and January 2002, 57 patients underwent different types of aortic reconstruction operations using bovine pericardial grafts. A total of 29 (50.8% were operated on an urgent basis (mostly acute Stanford A dissection and 28 electively. Thoracotomy was performed in three patients for descending aortic replacement (two patients and aortoplasty with a patch in one. All remaining 54 underwent sternotomy, cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic resection. Deep hypothermia and total circulatory arrest was used in acute dissections and arch operations. RESULTS: Hospital mortality was 17.5%. Follow-up was 24.09 months (18.5 to 29.8 months confidence interval and complication-free actuarial survival curve was 92.3% (standard deviation ± 10.6. Two patients lately developed thoracoabdominal aneurysms following previous DeBakey II dissection and one died from endocarditis. One "patch" aortoplasty patient developed local descending aortic pseudoaneurysm 42 months after surgery. All other patients are asymptomatic and currently clinically evaluated with echocardiography and CT scans, showing no complications. CONCLUSION: Use of bovine pericardial grafts in aortic reconstruction surgery is adequate and safe, with few complications related to the conduits.

  8. Aortic stenosis: From diagnosis to optimal treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavčiovski Dragan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aortic stenosis is the most frequent valvular heart disease. Aortic sclerosis is the first characteristic lesion of the cusps, which is considered today as the process similar to atherosclerosis. Progression of the disease is an active process leading to forming of bone matrix and heavily calcified stiff cusps by inflammatory cells and osteopontin. It is a chronic, progressive disease which can remain asymptomatic for a long time even in the presence of severe aortic stenosis. Proper physical examination remains an essential diagnostic tool in aortic stenosis. Recognition of characteristic systolic murmur draws attention and guides further diagnosis in the right direction. Doppler echocardiography is an ideal tool to confirm diagnosis. It is well known that exercise tests help in stratification risk of asymptomatic aortic stenosis. Serial measurements of brain natriuretic peptide during a follow-up period may help to identify the optimal time for surgery. Heart catheterization is mostly restricted to preoperative evaluation of coronary arteries rather than to evaluation of the valve lesion itself. Currently, there is no ideal medical treatment for slowing down the disease progression. The first results about the effect of ACE inhibitors and statins in aortic sclerosis and stenosis are encouraging, but there is still not enough evidence. Onset symptoms based on current ACC/AHA/ESC recommendations are I class indication for aortic valve replacement. Aortic valve can be replaced with a biological or prosthetic valve. There is a possibility of percutaneous aortic valve implantation and transapical operation for patients that are contraindicated for standard cardiac surgery.

  9. Altered aortic shape in bicuspid aortic valve relatives influences blood flow patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Susanne; Smith, Danielle A; Barker, Alex J; Entezari, Pegah; Honarmand, Amir R; Carr, Maria L; Malaisrie, S Chris; McCarthy, Patrick M; Collins, Jeremy; Carr, James C; Markl, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is known to exhibit familial inheritance and is associated with aortopathy and altered aortic haemodynamics. However, it remains unclear whether BAV-related aortopathy can be inherited independently of valve morphology. Four-dimensional flow magnetic resonance imaging for the in vivo assessment of thoracic aortic 3D blood flow was performed in 24 BAV relatives with trileaflet aortic valves (age = 40 ± 14 years) and 15 healthy controls (age = 37 ± 10 years). Data analysis included aortic dimensions, shape (round/gothic/cubic), and 3D blood flow characteristics (semi-quantitative vortex/helix grading and peak velocities). Cubic and gothic aortic shapes were markedly more prevalent in BAV relatives compared with controls (38 vs. 7%). Ascending aorta (AAo) vortex flow in BAV relatives was significantly increased compared with controls (grading = 1.5 ± 1.0 vs. 0.6 ± 0.9, P = 0.015). Aortic haemodynamics were influenced by aortic shape: peak velocities were reduced for gothic aortas vs. round aortas (P = 0.003); vortex flow was increased for cubic aortas in the AAo (P gothic aortas in the AAo and descending aorta (P = 0.003, P = 0.029). Logistic regression demonstrated significant associations of shape with severity of vortex flow in AAo (P < 0.001) and aortic arch (P = 0.016) in BAV relatives. BAV relatives expressed altered aortic shape and increased vortex flow despite the absence of valvular disease or aortic dilatation. These data suggest a heritable component of BAV-related aortopathy affecting aortic shape and aberrant blood flow, independent of valve morphology. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Combined Repair of Ascending Aortic Pseudoaneurysm and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in a Patient with Marfan Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Kokotsakis, John N.; Lioulias, Achilleas G.; Foroulis, Christophoros N.; Skouteli, Eleni Anna T.; Milonakis, Michael K.; Bastounis, Elias A.; Boulafendis, Dimitrios G.

    2003-01-01

    Pseudoaneurysms of the ascending aorta after the original inclusion/wrap technique of the Bentall procedure present a difficult surgical management problem and are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Patients with Marfan syndrome frequently develop aneurysms and dissections that involve multiple aortic segments. We present the case of a Marfan patient who successfully underwent repair of a giant ascending aortic pseudoaneurysm and concomitant repair of an abdominal aortic ane...

  11. The future of aortic surgery in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czerny, Martin; Bachet, Jean; Bavaria, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    the interested reader with an overview of how aortic surgery and (perhaps more accurately) aortic medicine has evolved in Europe, and its present standing; also to provide a glimpse into the future, trying to disseminate the thoughts of a group of people actively involved in the development of aortic medicine......At least every ten years, each specialty should reflect upon its past, its present and its future, in order to be able to reconfirm the direction in which it is headed, to adopt suggestions from inside and outside and, consequently, to improve. As such, the aim of this manuscript is to provide...

  12. Reverse extra-anatomic aortic arch debranching procedure allowing thoracic endovascular aortic repair of a chronic ascending aortic aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic Canaud, MD, PhD

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A 79-year-old woman was admitted with a large chronic dissecting ascending aortic aneurysm starting 5 mm distal to the ostia of the left coronary artery and ending immediately proximal to the innominate artery. A reverse extra-anatomic aortic arch debranching procedure was performed. During the same operative time, through a transapical approach, a thoracic stent graft was deployed with the proximal landing zone just distal to the coronary ostia and the distal landing zone excluding the origin of the left common carotid artery. The postoperative course was uneventful. Computed tomography at 12 months documented patent extra-anatomic aortic arch debranching and no evidence of endoleak. Keywords: Ascending aorta, Thoracic aorta, Aortic dissection, Stent graft

  13. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in fecal Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica in Canadian commercial meat, companion, laboratory, and shelter rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and its association with routine antimicrobial use in commercial meat rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kylie, Jennifer; McEwen, Scott A; Boerlin, Patrick; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Weese, J Scott; Turner, Patricia V

    2017-11-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in zoonotic (e.g. Salmonella spp.), pathogenic, and opportunistic (e.g. E. coli) bacteria in animals represents a potential reservoir of antimicrobial resistant bacteria and resistance genes to bacteria infecting humans and other animals. This study evaluated the prevalence of E. coli and Salmonella enterica, and the presence of associated AMR in commercial meat, companion, research, and shelter rabbits in Canada. Associations between antimicrobial usage and prevalence of AMR in bacterial isolates were also examined in commercial meat rabbits. Culture and susceptibility testing was conducted on pooled fecal samples from weanling and adult commercial meat rabbits taken during both summer and winter months (n=100, 27 farms), and from pooled laboratory (n=14, 8 laboratory facilities), companion (n=53), and shelter (n=15, 4 shelters) rabbit fecal samples. At the facility level, E. coli was identified in samples from each commercial rabbit farm, laboratory facility, and 3 of 4 shelters, and in 6 of 53 companion rabbit fecal samples. Seventy-nine of 314 (25.2%; CI: 20.7-30.2%) E. coli isolates demonstrated resistance to >1 antimicrobial agent. At least one E. coli isolate resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent was present in samples from 55.6% of commercial farms, and from 25% of each laboratory and shelter facilities, with resistance to tetracycline being most common; no resistance was identified in companion animal samples. Salmonella enterica subsp. was identified exclusively in pooled fecal samples from commercial rabbit farms; Salmonella enterica serovar London from one farm and Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky from another. The S. Kentucky isolate was resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ampicillin, cefoxitin, ceftiofur, ceftriaxone, streptomycin, and tetracycline, whereas the S. London isolate was pansusceptible. Routine use of antimicrobials on commercial meat rabbit farms was not significantly associated with the

  14. The role of aortic wall CT attenuation measurements for the diagnosis of acute aortic syndromes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knollmann, Friedrich D.; Lacomis, Joan M.; Ocak, Iclal; Gleason, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To determine if measurements of aortic wall attenuation can improve the CT diagnosis of acute aortic syndromes. Methods: CT reports from a ten year period were searched for acute aortic syndromes (AAS). Studies with both an unenhanced and a contrast enhanced (CTA) series that had resulted in the diagnosis of intramural hematoma (IMH) were reviewed. Diagnoses were confirmed by medical records. The attenuation of aortic wall abnormalities was measured. The observed attenuation threshold was validated using studies from 39 new subjects with a variety of aortic conditions. Results: The term “aortic dissection” was identified in 1206, and IMH in 124 patients’ reports. IMH was confirmed in 31 patients, 21 of whom had both unenhanced and contrast enhanced images. All 21 had pathologic CTA findings, and no CTA with IMH was normal. Attenuation of the aortic wall was greater than 45 HUs on the CTA images in all patients with IMH. When this threshold was applied to the new group, sensitivity for diagnosing AAS was 100% (19/19), and specificity 94% (16/17). Addition of unenhanced images did not improve accuracy. Conclusions: Measurements of aortic wall attenuation in CTA have a high negative predictive value for the diagnosis of acute aortic syndromes

  15. Stroke Volume estimation using aortic pressure measurements and aortic cross sectional area: Proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamoi, S; Pretty, C G; Chiew, Y S; Pironet, A; Davidson, S; Desaive, T; Shaw, G M; Chase, J G

    2015-08-01

    Accurate Stroke Volume (SV) monitoring is essential for patient with cardiovascular dysfunction patients. However, direct SV measurements are not clinically feasible due to the highly invasive nature of measurement devices. Current devices for indirect monitoring of SV are shown to be inaccurate during sudden hemodynamic changes. This paper presents a novel SV estimation using readily available aortic pressure measurements and aortic cross sectional area, using data from a porcine experiment where medical interventions such as fluid replacement, dobutamine infusions, and recruitment maneuvers induced SV changes in a pig with circulatory shock. Measurement of left ventricular volume, proximal aortic pressure, and descending aortic pressure waveforms were made simultaneously during the experiment. From measured data, proximal aortic pressure was separated into reservoir and excess pressures. Beat-to-beat aortic characteristic impedance values were calculated using both aortic pressure measurements and an estimate of the aortic cross sectional area. SV was estimated using the calculated aortic characteristic impedance and excess component of the proximal aorta. The median difference between directly measured SV and estimated SV was -1.4ml with 95% limit of agreement +/- 6.6ml. This method demonstrates that SV can be accurately captured beat-to-beat during sudden changes in hemodynamic state. This novel SV estimation could enable improved cardiac and circulatory treatment in the critical care environment by titrating treatment to the effect on SV.

  16. The role of aortic wall CT attenuation measurements for the diagnosis of acute aortic syndromes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knollmann, Friedrich D., E-mail: friedrich.knollmann@ucdmc.ucdavis.edu [Department of Radiology, University of California, Davis, 4860 Y Street, Sacramento, CA 95817 (United States); Departments of Radiology and Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, 200 Lothrop Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Lacomis, Joan M.; Ocak, Iclal; Gleason, Thomas [Department of Radiology, University of California, Davis, 4860 Y Street, Sacramento, CA 95817 (United States); Departments of Radiology and Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, 200 Lothrop Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Objectives: To determine if measurements of aortic wall attenuation can improve the CT diagnosis of acute aortic syndromes. Methods: CT reports from a ten year period were searched for acute aortic syndromes (AAS). Studies with both an unenhanced and a contrast enhanced (CTA) series that had resulted in the diagnosis of intramural hematoma (IMH) were reviewed. Diagnoses were confirmed by medical records. The attenuation of aortic wall abnormalities was measured. The observed attenuation threshold was validated using studies from 39 new subjects with a variety of aortic conditions. Results: The term “aortic dissection” was identified in 1206, and IMH in 124 patients’ reports. IMH was confirmed in 31 patients, 21 of whom had both unenhanced and contrast enhanced images. All 21 had pathologic CTA findings, and no CTA with IMH was normal. Attenuation of the aortic wall was greater than 45 HUs on the CTA images in all patients with IMH. When this threshold was applied to the new group, sensitivity for diagnosing AAS was 100% (19/19), and specificity 94% (16/17). Addition of unenhanced images did not improve accuracy. Conclusions: Measurements of aortic wall attenuation in CTA have a high negative predictive value for the diagnosis of acute aortic syndromes.

  17. Aortic root reimplantation procedure: a new milestone in aortic valve-sparing operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. М. Чернявский

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Emphasis in this study was placed on clinical and functional assessment of a modified "Florida Sleeve" procedure during surgical correction of ascending aorta aneurysms with concomitant aortic insufficiency.Methods: 32 patients with an aneurysm of the ascending aorta and aortic insufficiency underwent a modified "Florida Sleeve" procedure. The average follow-up was 17 (0-60 months. The average age of patients was 57±13 (23-73 years 56±13 years.Results: The expected 4-year cumulative survival rate was 84.3%. Overall freedom from aortic insufficiency in the late period was 88.9%. Median aortic regurgitation was 1+ (1; 2. Long-term follow-up revealed no valve-associated complications.Conclusion: The aortic root reimplantation procedure enables optimal correction of the existing lesions of the aortic root without performing aortic valve replacement and demonstrates stable clinical and functional outcomes in the long-term period.Key words: aortic aneurysm; aortic valve; valve-sparing operations.FundingThe study had no sponsorship.Conflict of interestThe authors declare no conflict of interest.

  18. Pleural fluid exchange in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stashenko, Gregg J; Robichaux, Amy; Lee, Y C Gary; Sanders, Jonathan R; Roselli, Robert J; Light, Richard W

    2007-07-01

    The study was designed to better characterize pleural fluid absorption in rabbits with the following two objectives: to determine the relative absorption of saline versus high-protein solutions, and to identify the relative rates of absorption of dextran molecules of varying sizes. Twenty New Zealand white rabbits received a 12-mL intrapleural injection of saline solution and a 10% protein solution on opposite sides, each solution containing dextran molecules with varying MWs. At sacrifice at 1, 4, 8, 18 and 24 h, the volume of pleural fluid and the concentrations of the dextran molecules were determined. Saline was absorbed faster than the high-protein fluid (P higher than those in the protein solution at all times after injection (P = 0.005; P higher-MW dextrans were cleared more slowly than the lower-MW dextrans in a continuously graded manner. Saline was absorbed faster than a solution with a high protein content. There was a continuous spectrum in the rate of absorption of the dextran molecules, with the larger molecules being absorbed more slowly.

  19. Dissecting aortic aneurysm in maintenance hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ounissi M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The dissecting aortic aneurysm (DAA is a rare pathology that may result in fatal outcome. We report follow up of three cases of DAA patients undergoing maintenance hemo-dialysis who were managed conservatively.

  20. Traumatic aortic dissection presenting with respiratory arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C. Meyer

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: Blunt aortic injury is a major cause of death in blunt chest trauma. Signs and symptoms of this injury are nonspecific and other injuries often take precedence, which makes a relatively difficult diagnosis even more challenging.

  1. Aortic root reoperations after pulmonary autograft implantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Bekkers (Jos); L.M.A. Klieverik (Loes Maria Anne); G. Bol-Raap (Goris); J.J.M. Takkenberg (Hanneke); A.J.J.C. Bogers (Ad)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To report the results of aortic root reoperations after pulmonary autograft implantation. Methods: All consecutive patients in our prospective Ross research database were selected for analysis, and additional information for patients requiring reoperation was obtained from the

  2. [Aortic valve-sparing root reconstruction in Marfan syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, H; Sasaki, H; Hanafusa, Y; Hirata, M; Numata, S; Ando, M; Yagihara, T; Kitamura, S

    2002-07-01

    The outcome of aortic valve-sparing root reconstruction in Marfan syndrome was reviewed. Thirteen patients with Marfan syndrome underwent aortic valve-sparing root reconstruction for annuloaortic ectasia or aortic root dissection between 1994 and 1999. The grade of preoperative aortic regurgitation was I in 4, II in 2, III in 5, IV in 2 patients. The procedures of aortic valve-sparing were reimplantation in 7 and remodeling in 5 patients. There was no hospital and late death. Recurrence of aortic regurgitation greater than moderate grade developed in 1 patient immediately after the surgery and in the other 4 patients in the late stage. One patient of them required aortic valve replacement for it. Aortic valve-sparing root reconstruction is applicable in Marfan patients, although the indication should be cautious. Close observation is needed for recurrence of aortic regurgitation.

  3. β2-Adrenergic receptors and G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 in rabbit pleural mesothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sironi, Chiara; Bodega, Francesca; Armilli, Marta; Porta, Cristina; Zocchi, Luciano; Agostoni, Emilio

    2010-09-30

    Former studies on net rate of liquid absorption from small Ringer or 1% albumin-Ringer hydrothoraces in rabbits indicated that Na+ transport and solute-coupled liquid absorption by mesothelium is increased by pleural liquid dilution, and stimulation of β2-adrenoreceptors (β2AR). In this research we tried to provide molecular evidence for β2AR in visceral and parietal mesothelium of rabbit pleura. Moreover, because prolonged stimulation of β2AR may lead to desensitization mediated by G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2), we also checked whether GRK2 is expressed in pleural mesothelium. To this end we performed immunoblot assays on total protein extracts from scraped visceral and parietal mesothelium, and from cultured pleural mesothelial cells of rabbits. All three samples showed β2AR and GRK2 specific bands. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Experimental bacterial meningitis in rabbit; evaluation with CT and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Jeong Jin; Kang, Heoung Keun; Chu, Sung Nam; Kim, Yun Hyeon; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Chung, Hyon De

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of computed tomography(CT) and magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) in experimental bacterial meningitis. CT and MR images of experimental bacterial meningitis were obtained after inoculation of 1ml suspension of 10-6/ml Staphylococcus aureus directly into the supratentorial arachnoid space of 18 New Zealand white rabbits. Each animal was studied with both pre-enhanced and post-enhanced CT and MRI at 12, 24, 48 hours and 1 week. Cerebrospinal fluid of all of 18 rabbits were sampled and cultured for bacterial growth. All of 18 rabbits had the clinical symptoms such as neck stiffness and anorexia within 24 hours after the inoculation. Cerebrospinal fluid cultures were positive for Staphylococcus aureus growth. Gd-enhanced MRI exhibited diffuse enhancement along the thickened supratentorial meninges earlier than CT. In Gd-enhanced MRI, the mean contrast enhancement along the thickened supratentorial meninges earlier than CT. In Gd-enhanced MRI, the mean contrast enhancement ratio(CER) at supratentorial meninges increased to 1.93 at 12 hours and 2.99 at 24 hours from 1.06 at 0 hour. Histologic evaluation demonstrated inflammatory cell infiltration into the meninges. MRI also identified the complications of meningitis such as ependymitis and hydrocephalus more effectively than CT. These results indicated that Fd-enhanced MRI detectred earlier the abnormal findingfs of bacterial meningitis and evaluated more effectively the complications of meningitis compared with CT. MRI was more useful than CT in evaluation of the bacterial meningitis

  5. Experimental bacterial meningitis in rabbit; evaluation with CT and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jeong Jin; Kang, Heoung Keun; Chu, Sung Nam; Kim, Yun Hyeon; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Chung, Hyon De [Chonnam Univ. Medical School, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of computed tomography(CT) and magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) in experimental bacterial meningitis. CT and MR images of experimental bacterial meningitis were obtained after inoculation of 1ml suspension of 10-6/ml Staphylococcus aureus directly into the supratentorial arachnoid space of 18 New Zealand white rabbits. Each animal was studied with both pre-enhanced and post-enhanced CT and MRI at 12, 24, 48 hours and 1 week. Cerebrospinal fluid of all of 18 rabbits were sampled and cultured for bacterial growth. All of 18 rabbits had the clinical symptoms such as neck stiffness and anorexia within 24 hours after the inoculation. Cerebrospinal fluid cultures were positive for Staphylococcus aureus growth. Gd-enhanced MRI exhibited diffuse enhancement along the thickened supratentorial meninges earlier than CT. In Gd-enhanced MRI, the mean contrast enhancement along the thickened supratentorial meninges earlier than CT. In Gd-enhanced MRI, the mean contrast enhancement ratio(CER) at supratentorial meninges increased to 1.93 at 12 hours and 2.99 at 24 hours from 1.06 at 0 hour. Histologic evaluation demonstrated inflammatory cell infiltration into the meninges. MRI also identified the complications of meningitis such as ependymitis and hydrocephalus more effectively than CT. These results indicated that Fd-enhanced MRI detectred earlier the abnormal findingfs of bacterial meningitis and evaluated more effectively the complications of meningitis compared with CT. MRI was more useful than CT in evaluation of the bacterial meningitis.

  6. Pharmacologic study of calcium influx pathways in rabbit aortic smooth muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukeman, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    Functional characteristics and pharmacologic domains of receptor-operated and potential-sensitive calcium (Ca 2+ ) channels (ROCs and PSCs, respectively) were derived via measurements of 45 Ca 2+ influx (M/sup Ca/) during activation by the neurotransmitters norepinephrine (NE), histamine (HS), and serotonin (5-HT) and by elevated extracellular potassium (K + ) in the individual or combined presence of organic Ca 2+ channel antagonists (CAts), calmodulin antagonists (Calm-ants), lanthanum (La 3+ ), and agents that increase intracellular levels of cyclic AMP

  7. Welfare aspects in rabbit rearing and transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Cavani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The review starts with the description of the rabbits’ (Oryctolagus cuniculus main habits and the current situation concerning the rabbit husbandry and management systems, as well as their effects on the welfare of these animals. As far as the intensive rabbit husbandry systems are concerned, the main problems are related to the time since rabbits have been domesticated and their adaptive capacity and coping styles as respects the farming environment and management systems. Both these aspects have implications in the present and future of rabbit rearing for different purposes. Examples are given on the effects of different housing and management systems on rabbit welfare, as well as examples of the ethological, physiological and productive indicators used to evaluate these effects. Transportation and, more generally, preslaughter phases including catching, fasting and lairage at the abattoir are considered major stressors for farmed rabbits and might have deleterious effects on health, well-being, performance, and finally, product quality. A general statement of the recent scientific studies considering the effects of pre-slaughter factors on physiological and productive measurements are reported. Finally, some indications in order to improve rabbit welfare, already present at the European level, are also outlined, together with the European Food Safety Authority opinions.

  8. Parasitic infections of wild rabbits and hares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the most important parasitic infections of wild rabbits and hares, which harmful effect in this animal population is manifested as a gradual weakening of the immune system, reduction in fertility, weight loss and constant exhaustion. Order of Lagomorpha (hares or lagomorphs belongs to superorder of higher mammals which includes the family of rabbits (Leporidae which are represented in Europe as well as the family of whistleblowers (Ochotonidae which live only in North America and Northern regions of Asia. The most important representatives of Leporidae family are European hare (Lepus europeus and wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus. The most important endoparasitosis of hares and wild rabbits are: coccidiosis, encephalitozoonosis (nosemosis, toxoplasmosis, sarcocystosis, giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, protostrongylosis, trichostrngylodosis, passalurosis, anoplocephalidosis, cysticercosis and fasciolosis. The most frequent ectoparasites of rabbits and wild hares are fleas, lice and ticks. Reduction in hare population, which is noticed in whole Europe including Serbia, is caused by changed living conditions, quantitatively and qualitatively insufficient nutrition, increased use of herbicides as well as various infectious diseases and the diseases of parasitic etiology. Since wild rabbits and hares pose a threat to health of domestic rabbits and people, knowledge of parasitic fauna of these wild animals is of extreme epizootiological and epidemiological importance.

  9. The Arginine/ADMA Ratio Is Related to the Prevention of Atherosclerotic Plaques in Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits When Giving a Combined Therapy with Atorvastatine and Arginine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia J. H. Brinkmann

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Supplementation with arginine in combination with atorvastatin is more efficient in reducing the size of an atherosclerotic plaque than treatment with a statin or arginine alone in homozygous Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL rabbits. We evaluated the mechanism behind this feature by exploring the role of the arginine/asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA ratio, which is the substrate and inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS and thereby nitric oxide (NO, respectively. Methods: Rabbits were fed either an arginine diet (group A, n = 9, standard rabbit chow plus atorvastatin (group S, n = 8, standard rabbit chow plus an arginine diet with atorvastatin (group SA, n = 8 or standard rabbit chow (group C, n = 9 as control. Blood was sampled and the aorta was harvested for topographic and histological analysis. Plasma levels of arginine, ADMA, cholesterol and nitric oxide were determined and the arginine/ADMA ratio was calculated. Results: The decrease in ADMA levels over time was significantly correlated to fewer aortic lesions in the distal aorta and total aorta. The arginine/ADMA ratio was correlated to cholesterol levels and decrease in cholesterol levels over time in the SA group. A lower arginine/ADMA ratio was significantly correlated to lower NO levels in the S and C group. Discussion: A balance between arginine and ADMA is an important indicator in the prevention of the development of atherosclerotic plaques.

  10. CT diagnosis of acute aortic dissection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Noriko; Kobayashi, Takeshi

    1989-01-01

    Sixteen (47.5%) of 35 patients with acute aortic dissection showed a non-opacified crescent in the aorta on an initial contrast CT. Seven of these 16 patients underwent cineangiography soon after the initial CT, and in all 7 patients, neither an intimal tear nor an intimal flap was obtained. All but one of above 16 patients were followed by CT. Mean duration of follow-up was 9.6 months. In 10 of 15 patients with non-opacified false lumen, the false lumen remained non-opacified until the last examination. Moreover, in 6 of these 10 patients, the false lumen shrunk, and in the other 3, it disappeared completely on follow-up CT. On the other hand, in remaining 5 of these 15 patients who were initially diagnosed to have non-opacified false lumen, the false lumen became opacified and enlarged in size on follow-up CT performed in the first 14 weeks. Moreover, in 4 of these 5 patients, the false lumen became opacified in the only first 6 weeks. No matter how intensive care should be paid at least for the first 6 weeks, it seems that patients with aortic dissection which have non-opacified false lumen had good prognosis in comparison to patients with ordinary aortic dissections which have opacified false lumen. We believe aortic dissection with non-opacified false lumen may consist of two type of aortic dissection, one has no intimal tear, the other has some intimal tears and a thrombosed false lumen. In conclusion, CT is the most useful modality in diagnosing acute aortic dissection. The reasons are the incidence of acute aortic dissection with non-opacified false lumen was high, patients with non-opacified false lumen had good prognosis, and it was difficult to diagnose aortic dissection with non-opacified false lumen by conventional cineangiography and/or DSA. (author)

  11. Graft infections after surgical aortic reconstructions

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, P.

    2015-01-01

    Prosthetic vascular grafts are frequently used to reconstruct (part) of the aorta. Every surgical procedure caries a certain risk for infection and when a prosthetic aortic graft is implanted, this may lead to an aortic graft infection (AGI). Endovascular techniques have gradually replaced open surgical reconstructions as first line of treatment for aorto-iliac diseases. Nowadays, open reconstructions are primarily reserved for patients unsuitable for endovascular reconstructions or for redo ...

  12. Aortic dissection. Basic aspects and endovascular management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaramillo, Nicolas I; Alviar, Carlos I

    2005-01-01

    Treatment of thoracic aortic pathology is complicated by the morbidity associated to the surgical procedure and to the frailty of an elderly and difficult population. Surgical operation in this kind of population frequently bears a significant incidence of death and long-term disability. In an effort to reduce the incidence of negative outcomes, minimally invasive techniques in the form of endovascular stenting have been introduced during the past decade. The technology, originally described by Parodi, and initially designed for its use in abdominal aortic aneurysms, has been adapted for the treatment of thoracic aortic aneurysms. Furthermore, an improved understanding of the pathophysiology and the natural history of thoracic aortic disease as well as the analysis of the outcomes have facilitated our treatment decisions in terms of the timing for an appropriate intervention. Treatment of thoracic aortic dissection using endovascular Stent is one of the more recent advances in this condition and is receiving increasing attention, as it is a less invasive alternative to an open surgical repair. Although this technology is still innovative, significant improvements have been made lately in the design and deployment of the endovascular Stent-grafts. These prostheses have been increasingly used to treat aneurysms, dissections and traumatic ruptures, as well as giant penetrating ulcers and intramural hematomas of the descending thoracic aorta with good early and mid-term outcomes. The rareness, complexity and severity of the pathology and the theoretically high risk of complications should render the surgeon extremely cautious especially with young patients. Conceptually, the endo luminal treatment in the acute phase seems to be the solution and will probably become a preferred therapy while technical refinement is under way. Worldwide experience is growing and with this a better understanding of the indications and limitations of this innovative therapy will be

  13. Retrograde ascending aortic dissection during or after thoracic aortic stent graft placement: insight from the European registry on endovascular aortic repair complications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eggebrecht, Holger; Thompson, Matt; Rousseau, Hervé

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Single-center reports have identified retrograde ascending aortic dissection (rAAD) as a potentially lethal complication of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). METHODS AND RESULTS: Between 1995 and 2008, 28 centers participating in the European Registry on Endovascular Aortic...

  14. Efficient generation of biliary epithelial cells from rabbit intrahepatic bile duct by Y-27632 and Matrigel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lifang; Ji, Shaohui; Sun, Aijing

    2013-06-01

    Efficient culture of primary biliary epithelial cells (BECs) from adult liver is useful for both experimental studies and clinical applications of tissue engineering. However, an effective culture system for long-term proliferation of adult BECs is still unachieved. Laboratory rabbit has been used in a large number of studies; however, there are no reports of BECs from normal adult rabbit. As little as 5 g of normal rabbit liver tissue were minced, digested, and then clonally cultured in medium containing FBS and ITS. Cells were characterized by cell morphology, immunoassaying, and growth rate assay. Different combination of growth factors and substrates, including Y-27632 and Matrigel, were employed to assess their effect on cell proliferation. In the primary culture, the BECs cellular sheets consisting of cuboidal cells, as well as fibroblast-like cells and other hepatic cells, emerged with time of culture. The BECs cellular sheets were then manually split into cells clumps for further characterization. The subcultured cells had typical cell morphology of cholangiocytes, expressed the specific markers of BECs, including GGT, cytokeratin (CK18), and CK19, and possessed the capacity to form duct-like structure in three-dimensional Matrigel. Y-27632 and Matrigel-treated BECs had a steady growth rate as well as colony-formation capacity. The BECs were maintained in Y-27632 and Matrigel culture system for more than 3 mo. This is the first example, to our knowledge, of the successful culture of BECs from normal adult rabbit liver. Furthermore, our results indicate that treatment of BECs with Y-27632 and Matrigel is a simple method for efficient output of BECs.

  15. Long-Term Risk for Aortic Complications After Aortic Valve Replacement in Patients With Bicuspid Aortic Valve Versus Marfan Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itagaki, Shinobu; Chikwe, Joanna P; Chiang, Yuting P; Egorova, Natalia N; Adams, David H

    2015-06-09

    Bicuspid aortic valves are associated with valve dysfunction, ascending aortic aneurysm and dissection. Management of the ascending aorta at the time of aortic valve replacement (AVR) in these patients is controversial and has been extrapolated from experience with Marfan syndrome, despite the absence of comparative long-term outcome data. This study sought to assess whether the natural history of thoracic aortopathy after AVR in patients with bicuspid aortic valve disease is substantially different from that seen in patients with Marfan syndrome. In this retrospective comparison, outcomes of 13,205 adults (2,079 with bicuspid aortic valves, 73 with Marfan syndrome, and 11,053 control patients with acquired aortic valve disease) who underwent primary AVR without replacement of the ascending aorta in New York State between 1995 and 2010 were compared. The median follow-up time was 6.6 years. The long-term incidence of thoracic aortic dissection was significantly higher in patients with Marfan syndrome (5.5 ± 2.7%) compared with those with bicuspid valves (0.55 ± 0.21%) and control group patients (0.41 ± 0.08%, p Marfan syndrome (10.8 ± 4.4%) compared with those with bicuspid valves (4.8 ± 0.8%) and control group patients (1.4 ± 0.2%) (p Marfan syndrome were significantly more likely to undergo thoracic aortic surgery in late follow-up (10.4 ± 4.3%) compared with those with bicuspid valves (2.5 ± 0.6%) and control group patients (0.50 ± 0.09%) (p Marfan syndrome compared with those with bicuspid aortic valves confirm that operative management of patients with bicuspid aortic valves should not be extrapolated from Marfan syndrome and support discrete treatment algorithms for these different clinical entities. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Aortic Dissection Type A in Alpine Skiers

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    Thomas Schachner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients and Methods. 140 patients with aortic dissection type A were admitted for cardiac surgery. Seventy-seven patients experienced their dissection in the winter season (from November to April. We analyzed cases of ascending aortic dissection associated with alpine skiing. Results. In 17 patients we found skiing-related aortic dissections. Skiers were taller (180 (172–200 cm versus 175 (157–191 cm, and heavier (90 (68–125 kg versus 80 (45–110 kg, than nonskiers. An extension of aortic dissection into the aortic arch, the descending thoracic aorta, and the abdominal aorta was found in 91%, 74%, and 69%, respectively, with no significant difference between skiers and nonskiers. Skiers experienced RCA ostium dissection requiring CABG in 17.6% while this was true for 5% of nonskiers (. Hospital mortality of skiers was 6% versus 13% in nonskiers (. The skiers live at an altitude of 170 (0–853 m.a.s.l. and experience their dissection at 1602 (1185–3105; m.a.s.l. In 82% symptom start was during recreational skiing without any trauma. Conclusion. Skiing associated aortic dissection type A is usually nontraumatic. The persons affected live at low altitudes and practice an outdoor sport at unusual high altitude at cold temperatures. Postoperative outcome is good.

  17. Aortic Dissection Type A in Alpine Skiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachner, Thomas; Fischler, Nikolaus; Dumfarth, Julia; Bonaros, Nikolaos; Krapf, Christoph; Schobersberger, Wolfgang; Grimm, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Patients and Methods. 140 patients with aortic dissection type A were admitted for cardiac surgery. Seventy-seven patients experienced their dissection in the winter season (from November to April). We analyzed cases of ascending aortic dissection associated with alpine skiing. Results. In 17 patients we found skiing-related aortic dissections. Skiers were taller (180 (172–200) cm versus 175 (157–191) cm, P = 0.008) and heavier (90 (68–125) kg versus 80 (45–110) kg, P = 0.002) than nonskiers. An extension of aortic dissection into the aortic arch, the descending thoracic aorta, and the abdominal aorta was found in 91%, 74%, and 69%, respectively, with no significant difference between skiers and nonskiers. Skiers experienced RCA ostium dissection requiring CABG in 17.6% while this was true for 5% of nonskiers (P = 0.086). Hospital mortality of skiers was 6% versus 13% in nonskiers (P = 0.399). The skiers live at an altitude of 170 (0–853) m.a.s.l. and experience their dissection at 1602 (1185–3105; P < 0.001) m.a.s.l. In 82% symptom start was during recreational skiing without any trauma. Conclusion. Skiing associated aortic dissection type A is usually nontraumatic. The persons affected live at low altitudes and practice an outdoor sport at unusual high altitude at cold temperatures. Postoperative outcome is good. PMID:23971024

  18. Quantification of abdominal aortic deformation after EVAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Stefanie; Manstad-Hulaas, Frode; Navab, Nassir

    2009-02-01

    Quantification of abdominal aortic deformation is an important requirement for the evaluation of endovascular stenting procedures and the further refinement of stent graft design. During endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) treatment, the aortic shape is subject to severe deformation that is imposed by medical instruments such as guide wires, catheters, and, the stent graft. This deformation can affect the flow characteristics and morphology of the aorta which have been shown to be elicitors for stent graft failures and be reason for reappearance of aneurysms. We present a method for quantifying the deformation of an aneurysmatic aorta imposed by an inserted stent graft device. The outline of the procedure includes initial rigid alignment of the two abdominal scans, segmentation of abdominal vessel trees, and automatic reduction of their centerline structures to one specified region of interest around the aorta. This is accomplished by preprocessing and remodeling of the pre- and postoperative aortic shapes before performing a non-rigid registration. We further narrow the resulting displacement fields to only include local non-rigid deformation and therefore, eliminate all remaining global rigid transformations. Finally, deformations for specified locations can be calculated from the resulting displacement fields. In order to evaluate our method, experiments for the extraction of aortic deformation fields are conducted on 15 patient datasets from endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) treatment. A visual assessment of the registration results and evaluation of the usage of deformation quantification were performed by two vascular surgeons and one interventional radiologist who are all experts in EVAR procedures.

  19. Effect of competitive exclusion in rabbits using an autochthonous probiotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Cunha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Animal nutrition has been severely challenged by the ban on antimicrobials as growth promoters. This has fostered the study of alternative methods to avoid colonisation by pathogenic bacteria as well as to improve the growth of animals and feed conversion efficiency. These new options should not alter the normal intestinal microbiota, or affect it as little as possible. The use of probiotics, which are live microorganisms that beneficially affect the host by improving its intestinal microbial balance, can be seen as a promising way to achieve that goal. In this study, New Zealand White rabbits were fed diets containing an autochthonous probiotic of Enterococcus spp., with the strains EaI, EfaI and EfaD, and Escherichia coli, with the strains ECI 1, ECI 2 and ECD, during a 25-d trial, to evaluate the impact of the probiotic on the faecal microbiota, including population dynamics and antimicrobial resistance profiles. A control group of rabbits, which was fed a diet containing a commonly used mixture of antimicrobials (colistin, oxytetracycline, and valnemulin, was also studied. To assess the colonisation ability of the mentioned probiotic, the faecal microbiota of the rabbits was characterised up to 10 d after the administration had ended. Isolates of enterococci and E. coli were studied for phylogenetic relationships using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC-PCR and pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, respectively. Although partially affected by an unexpected clinical impairment suffered by the rabbits in the experimental group, our results showed the following. The difference between the growth rate of the animals treated with antimicrobials and those fed the probiotic was not statistically significant (P> 0.05. The competitive exclusion product was present in the faecal samples in a large proportion, but stopped being recovered by culture as soon as the administration ended and the housing conditions were changed

  20. Short communication: Absence of campylobacter spp. In intensive rabbit farming in eastern Spain, preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Marín

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis are the most frequently reported zoonoses and among the most common causes of diarrhoeal illness in the European Union and the United States, and their incidence appears to be increasing. Campylobacter species are routinely found in poultry, swine, cattle, dairy cows and sheep. So far, there are few descriptions of Campylobacter isolation from rabbits. Rabbit meat is a common item in the Mediterranean diet. In this context, the aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in healthy rabbits reared in intensive farms in the Alto Palancia region, eastern Spain. Caecal contents from 70 healthy does reared on 7 different farms were collected. Bacteriological culture was performed in accordance with ISO 10272-1:2006. All samples tested negative for Campylobacter spp. To our knowledge, this is the first study in which comprehensive monitoring was specifically carried out in order to provide data on the occurrence of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in large intensive rabbit farms in Spain. However, further microbiological studies throughout the Spanish territory are needed to determine the prevalence and risk of other foodborne pathogens in rabbits at farm level.

  1. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies in the gut associated lymphoid tissue of slaughtered rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrazuria, Rakel; Sevilla, Iker A; Molina, Elena; Pérez, Valentín; Garrido, Joseba M; Juste, Ramón A; Elguezabal, Natalia

    2015-06-11

    Rabbits are susceptible to infection by different species of the genus Mycobacterium. Particularly, development of specific lesions and isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, both subspecies of the M. avium complex, has been reported in wildlife conditions. Although, rabbit meat production worldwide is 200 million tons per year, microbiological data on this source of meat is lacking and more specifically reports of mycobacterial presence in industrially reared rabbit for human consumption have not been published. To this end, we sought mycobacteria by microbiological and histopathological methods paying special attention to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in rabbits from commercial rabbitries from the North East of Spain. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was not detected either by culture or PCR. However, Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium was detected in 15.15% (10/66) and Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis was detected in 1.51% (1/66) of gut associated lymphoid tissue of sampled animals by PCR, whereas caecal contents were negative. 9% (6/66) of the animals presented gross lesions suggestive of lymphoid activation, 6% (4/66) presented granulomatous lesions and 3% (2/66) contained acid fast bacilli. Mycobacterial isolation from samples was not achieved, although colonies of Thermoactinomycetes sp. were identified by 16s rRNA sequencing in 6% (4/66) of sampled animals. Apparently healthy farmed rabbits that go to slaughter may carry M. avium subspecies in gut associated lymphoid tissue.

  2. Market Driving to Develop Rabbit Meat Products in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Atien Priyanti; Yono Cahyo Rahadjo

    2012-01-01

    Rabbit meat is a nutritional food containing high protein and low cholesterol, fat and sodium. Current research in rabbit production is aimed for developing production strategies to increase the nutritional and economic values of rabbit meat products as functional food. Nowadays, producing rabbit is a popular farming activity in many parts of Indonesia as a small and medium scale operation for food security and cash income. Rabbit farming is to produce meat, skin and hides, fur, organic ferti...

  3. Geometric Deformations of the Thoracic Aorta and Supra-Aortic Arch Branch Vessels Following Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullery, Brant W; Suh, Ga-Young; Hirotsu, Kelsey; Zhu, David; Lee, Jason T; Dake, Michael D; Fleischmann, Dominik; Cheng, Christopher P

    2018-04-01

    To utilize 3-D modeling techniques to better characterize geometric deformations of the supra-aortic arch branch vessels and descending thoracic aorta after thoracic endovascular aortic repair. Eighteen patients underwent endovascular repair of either type B aortic dissection (n = 10) or thoracic aortic aneurysm (n = 8). Computed tomography angiography was obtained pre- and postprocedure, and 3-D geometric models of the aorta and supra-aortic branch vessels were constructed. Branch angle of the supra-aortic branch vessels and curvature metrics of the ascending aorta, aortic arch, and stented thoracic aortic lumen were calculated both at pre- and postintervention. The left common carotid artery branch angle was lower than the left subclavian artery angles preintervention ( P Supra-aortic branch vessel angulation remains relatively static when proximal landing zones are distal to the left common carotid artery.

  4. Aortopathy in Congenital Heart Disease in Adults: Aortic Dilatation with Decreased Aortic Elasticity that Impacts Negatively on Left Ventricular Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Koichiro

    2013-04-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve and/or coarctation of the aorta are consistently associated with ascending aortic and para-coarctation medial abnormalities. Medial abnormalities in the ascending aorta are prevalent in other types of patients with a variety of forms congenital heart disease (CHD), such as single ventricle, persistent truncus arteriosus, transposition of the great arteries, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, tetralogy of Fallot. These abnormalities encompass a wide age range, and may predispose to dilatation, aneurysm, and rupture that necessitates aortic valve and root surgery. This dilatation can develop in CHD patients without stenotic region. These CHDs exhibit ongoing dilatation of the aortic root and reduced aortic elasticity and increased aortic stiffness that may relate to intrinsic properties of the aortic root. The concept of aortic dilatation is shifting a paradigm of aortic dilatation, as so called post stenotic dilatation, to primary intrinsic aortopahy. These aortic dilatation and increased stiffness can induce aortic aneurysm, rupture of the aorta and aortic regurgitation, but also provoke left ventricular hypertrophy, reduced coronary artery flow and left ventricular failure. We can recognize this association of aortic pathophysiological abnormality, aortic dilation and aorto-left ventricular interaction as a new clinical entity: "aortopathy".

  5. Aortic events in a nationwide Marfan syndrome cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Kristian A; Krag, Kirstine Stochholm; Hove, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Marfan syndrome is associated with morbidity and mortality due to aortic dilatation and dissection. Preventive aortic root replacement has been the standard treatment in Marfan syndrome patients with aortic dilatation. In this study, we present aortic event data from a nationwide Marfan...... syndrome cohort. METHOD: The nationwide cohort of Danish Marfan syndrome patients was established from the Danish National Patient Registry and the Cause of Death Register, where we retrieved information about aortic surgery and dissections. We associated aortic events with age, sex, and Marfan syndrome...

  6. [Aortic elastic properties and its clinical significance in intracranial aneurysms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Zhao-xia; You, Xiang-dong; Weng, Wen-chao; Wang, Jian-an; Shi, Jian

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the aortic elastic properties and its clinical significance in intracranial aneurysms (IAs). One hundred and seven IAs patients (57 with hypertension) and 108 healthy subjects were recruited. The internal aortic diameters in systole and diastole were measured by the M-mode echocardiography, the aortic elasticity indexes were calculated and compared. The aortic distensibility (DIS) was lower and the aortic stiffness index (SI) was higher in IAs patients than those in controls (both P IAs patients with hypertension (IAs-HP) than those in IAs with no hypertension (P IAs patients and hypertension is closely related to the severity of aortic elasticity.

  7. Comparative quantitative monitoring of rabbit haemorrhagic disease viruses in rabbit kittens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthaei, Markus; Kerr, Peter J; Read, Andrew J; Hick, Paul; Haboury, Stephanie; Wright, John D; Strive, Tanja

    2014-06-09

    Only one strain (the Czech CAPM-v351) of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) has been released in Australia and New Zealand to control pest populations of the European rabbit O. cuniculus. Antigenic variants of RHDV known as RHDVa strains are reportedly replacing RHDV strains in other parts of the world, and Australia is currently investigating the usefulness of RHDVa to complement rabbit biocontrol efforts in Australia and New Zealand. RHDV efficiently kills adult rabbits but not rabbit kittens, which are more resistant to RHD the younger they are and which may carry the virus without signs of disease for prolonged periods. These different infection patterns in young rabbits may significantly influence RHDV epidemiology in the field and hence attempts to control rabbit numbers. We quantified RHDV replication and shedding in 4-5 week old rabbits using quantitative real time PCR to assess their potential to shape RHDV epidemiology by shedding and transmitting virus. We further compared RHDV-v351 with an antigenic variant strain of RHDVa in kittens that is currently being considered as a potential RHDV strain for future release to improve rabbit biocontrol in Australia. Kittens were susceptible to infection with virus doses as low as 10 ID50. Virus growth, shedding and transmission after RHDVa infection was found to be comparable or non-significantly lower compared to RHDV. Virus replication and shedding was observed in all kittens infected, but was low in comparison to adult rabbits. Both viruses were shed and transmitted to bystander rabbits. While blood titres indicated that 4-5 week old kittens mostly clear the infection even in the absence of maternal antibodies, virus titres in liver, spleen and mesenteric lymph node were still high on day 5 post infection. Rabbit kittens are susceptible to infection with very low doses of RHDV, and can transmit virus before they seroconvert. They may therefore play an important role in RHDV field epidemiology, in

  8. Induction and identification of rabbit peripheral blood derived dendritic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing; Yang, FuYuan; Chen, WenLi

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To study a method of the induction of dendritic cells (DCs) from rabbit peripheral blood. Methods: Peripheral blood cells were removed from rabbit, filtered through nylon mesh. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from the blood cells by Ficoll-Hypaque centrifugation (density of 1.077g/cm3).To obtain DCs, PBMC were cultured in RPMI1640 medium containing 10% fetal calf serum, 50U/mL penicillin and streptomycin, referred to subsequently as complete medium, at 37°C in 5% CO2 atmosphere for 4 hours. Nonadherent cells were aspirated, adherent cells were continued incubated in complete medium, supplemented with granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, 50ng/ml),and interleukin 4 (IL-4, 50ng/ml) for 9 days. Fluorescein labeled antibodies(anti-CD14, anti-HLA-DR, anti-CD86) were used to sign cells cultured for 3,6,9 days respectively, Then flow cytometry was performed. Results: Ratio of anti-HLA-DR and anti-CD86 labeled cells increased with induction time extension, in contrast with anti-CD14. Conclusion: Dendritic cells can be effectively induced by the method of this experiment, cell maturation status increased with induction time extension.

  9. Aortic annulus and ascending aorta: Comparison of preoperative and periooperative measurement in patients with aortic stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smid, Michal; Ferda, Jiri; Baxa, Jan; Cech, Jakub; Hajek, Tomas; Kreuzberg, Boris; Rokyta, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Background: Precise determination of the aortic annulus size constitutes an integral part of the preoperative evaluation prior to aortic valve replacement. It enables the estimation of the size of prosthesis to be implanted. Knowledge of the size of the ascending aorta is required in the preoperative analysis and monitoring of its dilation enables the precise timing of the operation. Our goal was to compare the precision of measurement of the aortic annulus and ascending aorta using magnetic resonance (MR), multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT), transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), and transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in patients with degenerative aortic stenosis. Methods and results: A total of 15 patients scheduled to have aortic valve replacement were enrolled into this prospective study. TTE was performed in all patients and was supplemented with TEE, CT and MR in the majority of patients. The values obtained were compared with perioperative measurements. For the measurement of aortic annulus, MR was found to be the most precise technique, followed by MDCT, TTE, and TEE. For the measurement of ascending aorta, MR again was found to be the most precise technique, followed by MDCT, TEE, and TTE. Conclusion: In our study, magnetic resonance was found to be the most precise technique for the measurement of aortic annulus and ascending aorta in patients with severe degenerative aortic stenosis.

  10. Systematic review of the outcome of aortic valve replacement in patients with aortic stenosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, Umesh C.; Barenbrug, Paul; Pokharel, Saraswati; Dassen, Willem R. M.; Pinto, Yigal M.; Maessen, Jos G.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: After the establishment of aortic valve replacement procedure for aortic stenosis, there are heterogeneous studies and varying reports on outcome. An analysis that compares individual studies to summarize the overall effect is still lacking. This study systematically analyzes the change

  11. Aortic stiffness and diameter predict progressive aortic dilatation in patients with Marfan syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nollen, Gijs J.; Groenink, Maarten; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; van der Wall, Ernst E.; Mulder, Barbara J. M.

    2004-01-01

    Aim Patients with Marfan syndrome may develop dissection due to progressive dilatation in the entire aorta, which is not always predictable by mere anatomic assessment of the aortic diameter, especially of the descending aorta. The aim of this study was to identify the predictive value of aortic

  12. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation: emerging role in poor left ventricular function severe aortic stenosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. John Chan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI has become an established treatment option for high risk elderly patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis. Its role in less high risk patients is being evaluated in clinical trials. Patients with severely impaired left ventricular function may be another group who may benefit from this emerging percutaneous treatment option.

  13. Effect of candesartan treatment on left ventricular remodeling after aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jordi S; Videbaek, Lars; Poulsen, Mikael K

    2010-01-01

    In hypertension, angiotensin receptor blockers can augment regression of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. It is not known whether this also is the case after aortic valve replacement (AVR) for severe aortic stenosis (AS). To test the hypothesis that treatment with candesartan in addition to con...

  14. Application of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) in treating dwarfism with Stanford B aortic dissection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jian; Cai, Wenwu; Shu, Chang; Li, Ming; Xiong, Qinggen; Li, Quanming; Li, Xin

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: To apply thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) to treat dwarfism complicated with Stanford B aortic dissection. Patient concerns: In this report, we presented a 63-year-old male patient of dwarfism complicated with Stanford B aortic dissection successfully treated with TEVAR. Diagnoses: He was diagnosed with dwarfism complicated with Stanford B aortic dissection. Interventions: After conservative treatment, the male patient underwent TEVAR at 1 week after hospitalization. After operation, he presented with numbness and weakness of his bilateral lower extremities, and these symptoms were significantly mitigated after effective treatment. At 1- and 3-week after TEVAR, the aorta status was maintained stable and restored. Outcomes: The patient obtained favorable clinical prognosis and was smoothly discharged. During subsequent follow-up, he remained physically stable. Lessons: TEVAR is probably an option for treating dwarfism complicated with Stanford B aortic dissection, which remains to be validated by subsequent studies with larger sample size. PMID:29703033

  15. Carcass traits of four rabbit genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajda Kermauner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventy-three rabbits of four genotypes (A - SIKA maternal line; C - SIKA sire line; AxC - hybrids between line A and C; AxCal - crossbreds between line A and the Californian breed were used to evaluate the effect of genotype on carcass traits. Rabbits were weaned at 35 days and slaughtered at 93 days of age. Rabbits were fed standard feed mixture ad libitum. The highest live weight at slaughter and dressing percentage was achieved by line C, and the lowest in line A. Hybrids between line A and C exhibited slightly worse carcass traits than rabbits in line C, but the differences were not statistically significant. The Californian breed gave worse results than crossbreeding with line C, though in most cases the differences between AxC and AxCal were not significant. The differences between genotypes in hind leg tissue composition, pH and meat colour were not statistically significant.

  16. International Conference on Immunogenetics of the Rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-09

    Md. 20205 We have recently described a method for the direct removal of T lymphocytes by " panning " of rabbit splenocytes on plastic dishes coated...Research University of Illinois Washington, DC 20012 Chicago, IL 60612 Hammadi Ayadi Linda Cook Institut Jacques Monod University of Illinois, Chicago...other species and tested for its ability to inhibit a rabbit Id-anti-Id reaction. Guinea pigs, mice, goats, and chickens were immunized with al IgG and

  17. INFECTIOUS MYXOMATOSIS (SANARELLI) IN PREGNANT RABBITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprunt, Douglas H.

    1932-01-01

    Pregnancy in rabbits alters the reactivity of the tissues to the virus of infectious myxomatosis. The livers of pregnant animals with the myxoma have a central acidophilic necrosis. Secondary lesions in the lungs are much more numerous and larger in the pregnant than in the non-gravid animals. In like manner the lesions in the spleen are more extensive in the pregnant rabbit. On the other hand the skin lesions of the pregnant animal are decreased in size. PMID:19870088

  18. Transport of 125I-albumin across normal and deendothelialized rabbit thoracic aorta in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, C.A.; Colton, C.K.; Smith, K.A.; Stemerman, M.B.; Lees, R.S.

    1984-01-01

    Transmural concentration profiles of 125 I-albumin in vivo were measured across the normal and balloon catheter-deendothelialized rabbit descending thoracic aorta as a function of time following intravenous injection. A tracer was injected 5 or 60 minutes after deendothelialization, and the animals were sacrificed after circulation times of 10, 30 or 60 minutes. The aorta was immediately excised and frozen flat between glass slides. Samples were serially sectioned parallel to the intimal surface in a refrigerated microtome, washed with trichloroacetic acid (TCA), and counted. Relative tissue concentration profiles of TCA-precipitable radioactivity from the media of control animals showed entry from both luminal and adventitial sides, as previously found with conscious normal rabbits, but spatial gradients at both luminal and medial-adventitial borders were less steep. Relative concentration levels in ballooned animals were 10- to 40-fold higher than in controls, and the profiles were flatter. Uptake rates at equivalent circulation times were greater in experiments initiated 60 minutes, as compared with 5 minutes, after deendothelialization, suggesting that progressive medial edema may have occurred following balloon injury. These results show that the intact endothelium is the dominant mass transfer resistance for 125 I-albumin transport across the aortic wall. The data also suggest that the incomplete monolayer of platelets adherent to the subendothelium after balloon deendothelialization is not a substantial resistance to transport, as compared to that of the media, and that convection plays a more important role than diffusion for 125 I-albumin transport across the deendothelialized aortic wall

  19. Effects of Lycopene on the Initial State of Atherosclerosis in New Zealand White (NZW) Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Mario; Fechner, Mandy; Kalkowski, Janine; Fröhlich, Kati; Trautmann, Anne; Böhm, Volker; Liebisch, Gerhard; Lehneis, Stefan; Schmitz, Gerd; Ludwig, Antje; Baumann, Gert; Stangl, Karl; Stangl, Verena

    2012-01-01

    Background Lycopene is the main carotenoid in tomatoes, where it is found in high concentrations. Strong epidemiological evidence suggests that lycopene may provide protection against cardiovascular diseases. We therefore studied the effects of lycopene on diet-induced increase in serum lipid levels and the initiation of atherosclerosis in New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits. Methodology/Principal Findings The animals, divided into four groups of 9 animals each, were fed either a standard diet, a high-cholesterol diet containing 0.5% cholesterol, a high-cholesterol diet containing placebo beadlets, or a high-cholesterol diet plus 5 mg/kg body weight/day of lycopene (in the form of lycopene beadlets), for a period of 4 weeks. We found significantly elevated lycopene plasma levels in the animal group treated with lycopene beadlets. Compared to the high-cholesterol and the placebo group, this was associated with a significant reduction of 50% in total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol serum levels in the lycopene group. The amount of cholesteryl ester in the aorta was significantly decreased by lycopene. However, we did not observe a significant decrease in the extent of aortic surface lipid accumulation in the lycopene group. In addition, no differences in the intima-media thickness among groups were observed. Endothelial-dependent and endothelial-independent vasodilation in isolated rabbit aortic and carotid rings did not differ among any of the animal groups. Conclusions Lycopene supplementation for 4 weeks increased lycopene plasma levels in the animals. Although we found strongly reduced total and LDL cholesterol serum levels as well as significantly lower amounts of cholesteryl ester in the aortae in the lycopene-treated group, no significant differences in initial lesions in the aortae were detected. PMID:22295112

  20. Light colour preference of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Szendrő

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the light colour preference of growing rabbits placed in a free-choice cage. The experiment was carried out on 128 Pannon White growing rabbits weaned at the age of 5 weeks and placed into blocks (2m2 of four cages. The rabbits could move freely among the four cages (0.5m2 each through swing doors. The cages differed only in the colour of the light applied (white, yellow, green or blue. The lighting schedule was 16L: 8D. From 6 until 10 weeks of age, infrared video recording was performed once a week (24 hours. The number of rabbits in each cage was counted every 15 minutes. Feed consumption was measured weekly. Between 6 and 10 weeks of age the rabbits significantly preferred white light (28.0%. The preference order was the following: yellow (26.3%, blue (23.4% and green (22.3% (P<0.001. No significant differences were recorded in the feed consumption among the cages. In conclusion, the cage preference of the rabbits was slightly affected by the light colour.

  1. Automated Normalized Cut Segmentation of Aortic Root in CT Angiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elattar, Mustafa; Wiegerinck, Esther; Planken, Nils; VanBavel, Ed; van Assen, Hans; Baan, Jan Jr; Marquering, Henk

    2014-01-01

    Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI) is a new minimal-invasive intervention for implanting prosthetic valves in patients with aortic stenosis. This procedure is associated with adverse effects like paravalvular leakage, stroke, and coronary obstruction. Accurate automated sizing for

  2. Quantification of aortic regurgitation by magnetic resonance velocity mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Lise; Lindvig, K; Hildebrandt, P

    1993-01-01

    The use of magnetic resonance (MR) velocity mapping in the quantification of aortic valvular blood flow was examined in 10 patients with angiographically verified aortic regurgitation. MR velocity mapping succeeded in identifying and quantifying the regurgitation in all patients, and the regurgit......The use of magnetic resonance (MR) velocity mapping in the quantification of aortic valvular blood flow was examined in 10 patients with angiographically verified aortic regurgitation. MR velocity mapping succeeded in identifying and quantifying the regurgitation in all patients...

  3. Hybrid treatment of aortic arch disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Patrick Bastos; Rossi, Fabio Henrique; Moreira, Samuel Martins; Issa, Mario; Izukawa, Nilo Mitsuru; Dinkhuysen, Jarbas J.; Spina Neto, Domingos; Kambara, Antônio Massamitsu

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The management of thoracic aortic disease involving the ascending aorta, aortic arch and descending thoracic aorta are technically challenging and is an area in constant development and innovation. Objective To analyze early and midterm results of hybrid treatment of arch aortic disease. Methods Retrospective study of procedures performed from January 2010 to December 2012. The end points were the technical success, therapeutic success, morbidity and mortality, neurologic outcomes, the rate of endoleaks and reinterventions. Results A total of 95 patients treated for thoracic aortic diseases in this period, 18 underwent hybrid treatment and entered in this study. The average ages were 62.3 years. The male was present in 66.7%. The technical and therapeutic success was 94.5% e 83.3%. The perioperative mortality rate of 11.1%. There is any death during one-year follow- up. The reoperation rates were 16.6% due 2 cases of endoleak Ia and one case of endoleak II. There is any occlusion of anatomic or extra anatomic bypass during follow up. Conclusion In our study, the hybrid treatment of aortic arch disease proved to be a feasible alternative of conventional surgery. The therapeutic success rates and re- interventions obtained demonstrate the necessity of thorough clinical follow-up of these patients in a long time. PMID:25714205

  4. Thoracic type Ia endoleak: direct percutaneous coil embolization of the aortic arch at the blood entry site after TEVAR and double-chimney stent-grafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bangard, Christopher; Franke, Mareike; Maintz, David; Chang, De-Hua [University Hospital, University of Cologne, Department of Radiology, Cologne (Germany); Pfister, Roman [University Hospital, University of Cologne, Department of Internal Medicine III, Cologne (Germany); Deppe, Antje-Christin [University Hospital, University of Cologne, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Cologne (Germany); Matoussevitch, Vladimir [University Hospital, University of Cologne, Department of Vascular Surgery, Cologne (Germany)

    2014-06-15

    To introduce a novel percutaneous technique to stop blood entry at the lesser aortic arch curvature by coil embolisation in type Ia endoleak after TEVAR. A 61-year-old Marfan patient presented with type Ia endoleak of the aortic arch and a growing aortic arch pseudoaneurysm after TEVAR. Multiple preceding operations and interventions made an endovascular approach unsuccessful. Direct percutaneous puncture of the aneurysmal sac would have cured the sign, but not the cause of blood entry at the lesser curvature of the aortic arch. Direct CT-guided percutaneous puncture of the blood entry site in the aortic arch with fluoroscopically guided coil embolisation using detachable extra-long coils was successfully performed. Three weeks after the intervention, the patient developed fever because of superinfection of the pseudoaneurysm. The blood cultures and CT-guided mediastinal aspirate were sterile. After intravenous administration of antibiotics, the fever disappeared and the patient recovered. Six-month follow-up showed permanent closure of the endoleak and a shrinking aneurysmal sac. Direct percutaneous puncture of the aortic arch at the blood entry site of a thoracic type Ia endoleak after TEVAR and double-chimney stent-grafts with coil embolisation of the wedge-shaped space between the lesser aortic curvature and the stent-graft is possible. (orig.)

  5. Thoracic type Ia endoleak: direct percutaneous coil embolization of the aortic arch at the blood entry site after TEVAR and double-chimney stent-grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangard, Christopher; Franke, Mareike; Maintz, David; Chang, De-Hua; Pfister, Roman; Deppe, Antje-Christin; Matoussevitch, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    To introduce a novel percutaneous technique to stop blood entry at the lesser aortic arch curvature by coil embolisation in type Ia endoleak after TEVAR. A 61-year-old Marfan patient presented with type Ia endoleak of the aortic arch and a growing aortic arch pseudoaneurysm after TEVAR. Multiple preceding operations and interventions made an endovascular approach unsuccessful. Direct percutaneous puncture of the aneurysmal sac would have cured the sign, but not the cause of blood entry at the lesser curvature of the aortic arch. Direct CT-guided percutaneous puncture of the blood entry site in the aortic arch with fluoroscopically guided coil embolisation using detachable extra-long coils was successfully performed. Three weeks after the intervention, the patient developed fever because of superinfection of the pseudoaneurysm. The blood cultures and CT-guided mediastinal aspirate were sterile. After intravenous administration of antibiotics, the fever disappeared and the patient recovered. Six-month follow-up showed permanent closure of the endoleak and a shrinking aneurysmal sac. Direct percutaneous puncture of the aortic arch at the blood entry site of a thoracic type Ia endoleak after TEVAR and double-chimney stent-grafts with coil embolisation of the wedge-shaped space between the lesser aortic curvature and the stent-graft is possible. (orig.)

  6. Changes in cytochrome P450 gene expression and enzyme activity induced by xenobiotics in rabbits in vivo and in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orsolya Palócz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As considerable inter-species differences exist in xenobiotic metabolism, developing new pharmaceutical therapies for use in different species is fraught with difficulties. For this reason, very few medicines have been registered for use in rabbits, despite their importance in inter alia meat and fur production. We have developed a rapid and sensitive screening system for drug safety in rabbits based on cytochrome P450 enzyme assays, specifically CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP3A6, employing an adaptation of the luciferin-based clinical assay currently used in human drug screening. Short-term (4-h cultured rabbit primary hepatocytes were treated with a cytochrome inducer (phenobarbital and 2 inhibitors (alpha-naphthoflavone and ketoconazole. In parallel, and to provide verification, New Zealand white rabbits were dosed with 80 mg/kg phenobarbital or 40 mg/kg ketoconazole for 3 d. Ketoconazole significantly increased CYP3A6 gene expression and decreased CYP3A6 activity both in vitro and in vivo. CYP1A1 activity was decreased by ketoconazole in vitro and increased in vivo. This is the first report of the inducer effect of ketoconazole on rabbit cytochrome isoenzymes in vivo. Our data support the use of a luciferin-based assay in short-term primary hepatocytes as an appropriate tool for xenobiotic metabolism assays and short-term toxicity testing in rabbits.

  7. Diagnostic Value of ELISA Tests for the Detection of Specific Antibodies in Cats and Rabbits with Dermatophytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinka Drobnič-Košorok

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Two indirect ELISA tests developed for the detection of specific IgG in cats and rabbits, infected with M. canis and T. mentagrophytes, respectively, were evaluated and compared. The levels of specific antibodies were determined in sera of 20 cats and 25 rabbits naturally infected with M. canis and T. mentagrophytes, respectively. Infection was confirmed by the results of fungal culture. Blood samples from 12 cats and 17 rabbits, previously unexposed to dermatophytes, served as negative controls. A significant increase in the level of specific antibodies in groups of infected animals was demonstrated. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of a positive and a negative test were determined to evaluate the diagnostic potential. ELISA for the detection of specific antibodies in cats infected with M. canis (ELISA-cats test exhibited 75.0 % of sensitivity at 91.7 % of specificity, whereas the test for the detection of specific antibodies in rabbits, infected with T. mentagrophytes (ELISA-rabbits test is highly sensitive (96.0 % and highly specific (94.1 %, confirming its encouraging diagnostic potential. The cross-reactivity of fungal antigens was tested by performing the assays with antigens M. canis, T. mentagrophytes, M. pachydermatis and A. fumigatus. There were no significant indications of cross-reactions in the test T. mentagrophytes-rabbits, whereas strong cross-reaction between dermatophyte antigens was observed in the test M. canis-cats.

  8. Impact of bicuspid aortic valve on complications and death in infective endocarditis of native aortic valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahveci, Gokhan; Bayrak, Fatih; Pala, Selcuk; Mutlu, Bulent

    2009-01-01

    We retrospectively investigated the impact of bicuspid aortic valve on the prognosis of patients who had definite infective endocarditis of the native aortic valve.Of 51 patients, a bicuspid aortic valve was present in 22 (43%); the other 29 had tricuspid aortic valves. On average, the patients who had bicuspid valves were younger than those who had tricuspid valves. Patients with a tricuspid valve had larger left atrial diameters and were more likely to have severe mitral regurgitation.Periannular complications, which we detected in 19 patients (37%), were much more common in the patients who had a bicuspid valve (64% vs 17%, P = 0.001). The presence of a bicuspid valve was the only significant independent predictor of periannular complications. The in-hospital mortality rate in the bicuspid group was lower than that in the tricuspid group; however, this figure did not reach statistical significance (9% vs 24%, P = 0.15). In multivariate analysis, left atrial diameter was the only independent predictor associated with an increased risk of death (hazard ratio, 2.19; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-4.5; P = 0.031).In our study, patients with infective endocarditis in a bicuspid aortic valve were younger and had a higher incidence of periannular complications. Although a worse prognosis has been reported previously, we found that infective endocarditis in a native bicuspid aortic valve is not likely to increase the risk of death in comparison with infective endocarditis in native tricuspid aortic valves.

  9. Some factors affecting rabbit production under egyptian environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nessim, M.Z.

    1994-01-01

    The present work was carried out in the rabbit of the department of animal production, faculty of agriculture, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt, Blood biochemical analysis and hormonal assay were conducted in tracer bio climatology Unit., Department of radiobiology, nuclear research centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt. Eighty male New Zealand white (NZW) and 80 male californian (Cal) rabbits aged 5-6 weeks were used. The animals were housed in rabbit building, naturally ventilated. Rabbits cages were provided with automatic nipple drinkers and drinking and drinking water ad libitum.Rabbits were fed ad libitum on balanced growing pelted rabbit ration. 21 tabs.,13 figs.,158 refs

  10. Total Endovascular Aortic Repair in a Patient with Marfan Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amako, Mau; Spear, Rafaëlle; Clough, Rachel E; Hertault, Adrien; Azzaoui, Richard; Martin-Gonzalez, Teresa; Sobocinski, Jonathan; Haulon, Stéphan

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study is to describe a total endovascular aortic repair with branched and fenestrated endografts in a young patient with Marfan syndrome and a chronic aortic dissection. Open surgery is the gold standard to treat aortic dissections in patients with aortic disease and Marfan syndrome. In 2000, a 38-year-old man with Marfan syndrome underwent open ascending aorta repair for an acute type A aortic dissection. One year later, a redo sternotomy was performed for aortic valve replacement. In 2013, the patient presented with endocarditis and pulmonary infection, which necessitated tracheostomy and temporary dialysis. In 2014, the first stage of the endovascular repair was performed using an inner branched endograft to exclude a 77-mm distal arch and descending thoracic aortic aneurysm. In 2015, a 63-mm thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm was excluded by implantation of a 4-fenestrated endograft. Follow-up after both endovascular repairs was uneventful. Total aortic endovascular repair was successfully performed to treat a patient with arch and thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysm associated with chronic aortic dissection and Marfan syndrome. The postoperative images confirmed patency of the endograft and its branches, and complete exclusion of the aortic false lumen. Endovascular repair is a treatment option in patients with connective tissue disease who are not candidates for open surgery. Long-term follow-up is required to confirm these favorable early outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Aortic valve replacement and the stentless Freedom SOLO valve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wollersheim, L.W.L.M.

    2016-01-01

    Aortic valve stenosis has become the most prevalent valvular heart disease in Europe and North America, and is generally caused by age-related calcification of the aortic valve. For most patients, severe symptomatic aortic stenosis needs effective mechanical relief in the form of valve replacement

  12. Intermittent, Non Cyclic Severe Mechanical Aortic Valve Regurgitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jong Hyun; Song, Seunghwan; Lee, Myung-Yong

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical aortic prosthesis dysfunction can result from thrombosis or pannus formation. We describe an unusual case of intermittent, non cyclic mechanical aortic prosthesis dysfunction due to pannus formation with thrombus in the absence of systolic restriction of disk excursion, that presented with intermittent severe aortic regurgitation. PMID:24459568

  13. Aortic microcalcification is associated with elastin fragmentation in Marfan syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanga, Shaynah; Hibender, Stijntje; Ridwan, Yanto; van Roomen, Cindy; Vos, Mariska; van der Made, Ingeborg; van Vliet, Nicole; Franken, Romy; van Riel, Luigi Amjg; Groenink, Maarten; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Mulder, Barbara Jm; de Vries, Carlie Jm; Essers, Jeroen; de Waard, Vivian

    2017-01-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a connective tissue disorder in which aortic rupture is the major cause of death. MFS patients with an aortic diameter below the advised limit for prophylactic surgery ( <5 cm) may unexpectedly experience an aortic dissection or rupture, despite yearly monitoring. Hence,

  14. Challenging Friesian horse diseases : aortic rupture and megaesophagus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, M.

    2015-01-01

    Aortic rupture is quite rare in Warmblood horses and is best known as an acute and fatal rupture of the aortic root in older breeding stallions. It has now become clear that aortic rupture, which is diagnosed around an age of 4 years, is more frequent in the Friesian breed than in others. The high

  15. Management of aortic graft infections - the present strategy and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treska, V; Certik, B; Molacek, J

    2016-01-01

    Aortic graft infections (AGI) are serious complications of open and endovascular types of surgery with an incidence rate of 0.6-3 %. AGI are associated with 30-60 % perioperative mortality and 40-60 % morbidity rate with limb amputation rates between 10 % and 40 %. The economic cost of AGI is substantial. At the time of aortic reconstruction, almost 90 % of patients have one or more predisposing factors for AGI. The diagnosis is based on clinical symptomatology, laboratory markers, microbial cultures, and imaging modalities. The general principle of surgical treatment lies in the removal of infected graft, debridement of infected periprosthetic tissues, and vascular reconstruction by in situ or extra-anatomic bypass with long-term antibiotic therapy. The conservative treatment is used only for selected patients with endograft infection. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the incidence, predisposing factors, etiology, diagnosis, treatment options, and prevention of aortic vascular graft and endograft infections. With the growing number of endovascular procedures we can expect more cases of infected aortic endografts in patients with severe comorbidities in the near future, where the recent radical surgical approach (graft excision, debridement, and new revascularization) cannot be used. Therefore the less invasive, sophisticated and individualized treatment strategies will have to be used in search of the best therapeutic approach to each specific patient (Fig. 4, Ref. 82).

  16. Aortic regurgitation after valve-sparing aortic root replacement: modes of failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Takanori; Okita, Yutaka; Matsumori, Masamichi; Okada, Kenji; Minami, Hitoshi; Munakata, Hiroshi; Inoue, Takeshi; Tanaka, Akiko; Sakamoto, Toshihito; Omura, Atsushi; Nomura, Takuo

    2011-11-01

    Despite the positive clinical results of valve-sparing aortic root replacement, little is known about the causes of reoperations and the modes of failure. From October 1999 to June 2010, 101 patients underwent valve-sparing aortic root replacement using the David reimplantation technique. The definition of aortic root repair failure included the following: (1) intraoperative conversion to the Bentall procedure; (2) reoperation performed because of aortic regurgitation; and (3) aortic regurgitation equal to or greater than a moderate degree at the follow-up. Sixteen patients were considered to have repair failure. Three patients required intraoperative conversion to valve replacement, 3 required reoperation within 3 months, and another 8 required reoperation during postoperative follow-up. At initial surgery 5 patients had moderate to severe aortic regurgitation, 6 patients had acute aortic dissections, 3 had Marfan syndrome, 2 had status post Ross operations, 3 had bicuspid aortic valves, and 1 had aortitis. Five patients had undergone cusp repair, including Arantius plication in 3 and plication at the commissure in 2. The causes of early failure in 6 patients included cusp perforation (3), cusp prolapse (3), and severe hemolysis (1). The causes of late failure in 10 patients included cusp prolapse (4), commissure dehiscence (3), torn cusp (2), and cusp retraction (1). Patients had valve replacements at a mean of 23 ± 20.9 months after reimplantation and survived. Causes of early failure after valve-sparing root replacement included technical failure, cusp lesions, and steep learning curve. Late failure was caused by aortic root wall degeneration due to gelatin-resorcin-formalin glue, cusp degeneration, or progression of cusp prolapse. Copyright © 2011 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. EFFECT OF DIETARY OLIVE OIL/CHOLESTEROL ON SERUM LIPOPROTEINS, LIPID PEROXIDATION, AND ATHEROSCLEROSIS IN RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R MAHDAVI

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: High plasma cholesterol levels, mainly LDL are a widely recognized major risk factor for Coronary Heart Disease (CHD. According to the epidemiologic studies findings, people from the Mediterranean countries, have lower CHD rats than other countries, in these countries usual diet is high in olive oil. The present study compares the effects of cholesterol enriched diet with or without adding olive oil on serum Lipoproteins, lipid per oxidation, and atherosclerosis development. Method: Twenty Dutch male rabbits were Categorized to four groups (one group as Control, and others as Experimental. They received one of standard, cholesterol - rich, olive oil rich and combined (cholesterol + olive oil diet for Twelve weeks. Fasting blood samples from heart were collected at the beginning, and the end of Experimental period. Means of total cholesterol, HDL-Ctriglycerides, MDA and antioxidant caperimental period, significant differences were showed in total cholesterol, HDL-C, triglyceride and MDA between groups. Results: The comparison of cholesterol rich diet with cholesterol + olive oil showed a higher mean of MDA in cholesterol rich group (P < 0.001. Biochemical factors and aortic lesion degree showed no significant difference between standard and olive oil group. Aortic lesions in cholesterol + olive oil showed nonsignificant lower degree than cholesterol group. Discussion: This findings showed preventive effect of olive oil against atherosclerosis which is independent of plasma lipoprotein effect, and suggested that probably olive oil acts on arteries directly.

  18. Dissection of Retroesophageal Aortic Diverticulum and Descending Aorta in a Patient with Right Aortic Arch: Magnetic Resonance Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, S.-F.; Ng, S.-H.; Fu, Morgan; Lo, P.-H.; Cheng, Y.-F.; Lee, T.-Y.

    1996-01-01

    An acute aortic dissection involved the retroesophageal aortic diverticulum (RAD) and descending thoracic aorta in a patient with right aortic arch. The RAD, which was separated into false and true lumens by an intimal flap-the classic diagnostic sign of aortic dissection-was overlooked on transesophageal echocardiography and computed tomography but was clearly depicted on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It was found that MRI can delineate the anatomy of a congenital arch anomaly complicated by great vessels disease

  19. Microarray analysis to identify the similarities and differences of pathogenesis between aortic occlusive disease and abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guofu; Bi, Lechang; Wang, Gaofeng; Huang, Feilai; Lu, Mingjing; Zhu, Kai

    2018-06-01

    Objectives Expression profile of GSE57691 was analyzed to identify the similarities and differences between aortic occlusive disease and abdominal aortic aneurysm. Methods The expression profile of GSE57691 was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database, including 20 small abdominal aortic aneurysm samples, 29 large abdominal aortic aneurysm samples, 9 aortic occlusive disease samples, and 10 control samples. Using the limma package in R, the differentially expressed genes were screened. Followed by enrichment analysis was performed for the differentially expressed genes using database for annotation, visualization, and integrated discovery online tool. Based on string online tool and Cytoscape software, protein-protein interaction network and module analyses were carried out. Moreover, integrated TF platform database and Cytoscape software were used for constructing transcriptional regulatory networks. Results As a result, 1757, 354, and 396 differentially expressed genes separately were identified in aortic occlusive disease, large abdominal aortic aneurysm, and small abdominal aortic aneurysm samples. UBB was significantly enriched in proteolysis related pathways with a high degree in three groups. SPARCL1 was another gene shared by these groups and regulated by NFIA, which had a high degree in transcriptional regulatory network. ACTB, a significant upregulated gene in abdominal aortic aneurysm samples, could be regulated by CLIC4, which was significantly enriched in cell motions. ACLY and NFIB were separately identified in aortic occlusive disease and small abdominal aortic aneurysm samples, and separately enriched in lipid metabolism and negative regulation of cell proliferation. Conclusions The downregulated UBB, NFIA, and SPARCL1 might play key roles in both aortic occlusive disease and abdominal aortic aneurysm, while the upregulated ACTB might only involve in abdominal aortic aneurysm. ACLY and NFIB were specifically involved in aortic occlusive

  20. Incidence and progression of mild aortic regurgitation after Tirone David reimplantation valve-sparing aortic root replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Elizabeth H; Liang, David H; Kvitting, John-Peder Escobar; Kari, Fabian A; Fischbein, Michael P; Mitchell, R Scott; Miller, D Craig

    2014-01-01

    The study objective was to determine whether recurrent or residual mild aortic regurgitation, which occurs after valve-sparing aortic root replacement, progresses over time. Between 2003 and 2008, 154 patients underwent Tirone David-V valve-sparing aortic root replacement; 96 patients (62%) had both 1-year (median, 12 ± 4 months) and mid-term (62 ± 22 months) transthoracic echocardiograms available for analysis. Age of patients averaged 38 ± 13 years, 71% were male, 31% had a bicuspid aortic valve, 41% had Marfan syndrome, and 51% underwent aortic valve repair, predominantly cusp free margin shortening. Forty-one patients (43%) had mild aortic regurgitation on 1-year echocardiogram. In 85% of patients (n = 35), mild aortic regurgitation remained stable on the most recent echocardiogram (median, 57 ± 20 months); progression to moderate aortic regurgitation occurred in 5 patients (12%) at a median of 28 ± 18 months and remained stable thereafter; severe aortic regurgitation developed in 1 patient, eventually requiring reoperation. Five patients (5%) had moderate aortic regurgitation at 1 year, which did not progress subsequently. Two patients (2%) had more than moderate aortic regurgitation at 1 year, and both ultimately required reoperation. Although mild aortic regurgitation occurs frequently after valve-sparing aortic root replacement, it is unlikely to progress over the next 5 years and should not be interpreted as failure of the valve-preservation concept. Further, we suggest that mild aortic regurgitation should not be considered nonstructural valve dysfunction, as the 2008 valve reporting guidelines would indicate. We need 10- to 15-year follow-up to learn the long-term clinical consequences of mild aortic regurgitation early after valve-sparing aortic root replacement. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Combined Repair of Ascending Aortic Pseudoaneurysm and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in a Patient with Marfan Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokotsakis, John N.; Lioulias, Achilleas G.; Foroulis, Christophoros N.; Skouteli, Eleni Anna T.; Milonakis, Michael K.; Bastounis, Elias A.; Boulafendis, Dimitrios G.

    2003-01-01

    Pseudoaneurysms of the ascending aorta after the original inclusion/wrap technique of the Bentall procedure present a difficult surgical management problem and are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Patients with Marfan syndrome frequently develop aneurysms and dissections that involve multiple aortic segments. We present the case of a Marfan patient who successfully underwent repair of a giant ascending aortic pseudoaneurysm and concomitant repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm. An aggressive surgical strategy followed by life-long cardiovascular monitoring is warranted in order to prolong the survival of these patients. (Tex Heart Inst J 2003;30:233–5) PMID:12959210

  2. New-Onset Atrial Fibrillation After Surgical Aortic Valve Replacement and Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Troels Højsgaard; Thygesen, Julie Bjerre; Thyregod, Hans Gustav

    2015-01-01

    Surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) and, more recently, transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) have been shown to be the only treatments that can improve the natural cause of severe aortic valve stenosis. However, after SAVR and TAVI, the incidence of new-onset atrial fibrillation...... (NOAF) is 31%-64% and 4%-32%, respectively. NOAF is independently associated with adverse events such as stroke, death, and increased length of hospital stay. Increasing the knowledge of predisposing factors, optimal postprocedural monitoring, and prophylactic antiarrhythmic and antithrombotic therapy...

  3. New-onset atrial fibrillation after surgical aortic valve replacement and transcatheter aortic valve implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Troels Højsgaard; Thygesen, Julie Bjerre; Thyregod, Hans Gustav

    2015-01-01

    Surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) and, more recently, transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) have been shown to be the only treatments that can improve the natural cause of severe aortic valve stenosis. However, after SAVR and TAVI, the incidence of new-onset atrial fibrillation...... (NOAF) is 31%-64% and 4%-32%, respectively. NOAF is independently associated with adverse events such as stroke, death, and increased length of hospital stay. Increasing the knowledge of predisposing factors, optimal postprocedural monitoring, and prophylactic antiarrhythmic and antithrombotic therapy...

  4. Refractory pulmonary edema secondary to severe aortic valvular stenosis - aortic valvuloplasty as bridge therapy to surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santiago, Salazar; Hanna, Franklin; Capasso, Aminta

    2009-01-01

    Aortic valve stenosis is a progressive disease; when it is severe and symptomatic has a bleak prognosis that affects adversely the patient survival. In these cases, the treatment of choice is valve replacement surgery that under certain circumstances can bear a huge risk that forces the physician to consider less aggressive management alternatives to solve the problem. The case of a 65 years old male with severe aortic valve stenosis is reported. He developed pulmonary edema refractory to medical treatment that was solved by aortic valvuloplasty as bridge therapy to surgery.

  5. Proposed new mechanism of traumatic aortic rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crass, J.R.; Cohen, A.M.; Motta, A.O.; Tomashefski, J.F.; Wiesen, E.

    1990-01-01

    The currently accepted mechanism to explain traumatic aortic rupture from rapid deceleration invokes a combination of traction, torsion, and hydrostatic forces. None of these forces individually is of adequate magnitude to result in aortic disruption. This paper proposes a theory, that aortic lacerations result from a pinch of the aorta between the spine and the anterior bony thorax during the chest compression caused by abrupt deceleration. Three sets of experiments were performed. Geometric analysis of CT images and compression of an articulated skeleton were performed to assess where the anterior and posterior osseous structures would contact if maximally compressed. Fresh dog aortas were pinched in a manner that would mimic the manubrium impacting the spine. Finally, attempts were made to tear an aorta via traction and torsion (whiplash)

  6. Global Strain in Severe Aortic Valve Stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jordi S; Videbæk, Lars; Poulsen, Mikael K

    2012-01-01

    Score, history with ischemic heart disease and ejection fraction. CONCLUSIONS: -In patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis undergoing AVR reduced GLS provides important prognostic information beyond standard risk factors. Clinical Trial Registration-URL: http://www.clinicaltrial.gov. Unique identifier......BACKGROUND: -Global longitudinal systolic strain (GLS) is often reduced in aortic stenosis despite normal ejection fraction. The importance of reduced preoperative GLS on long-term outcome after aortic valve replacement (AVR) is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: -A total of 125 patients with severe...... and mortality. In a stepwise cox model with forward selection GLS was the sole independent predictor HR=1.13 (95% confidence interval 1.02-1.25), p=0.04. Comparing the overall log likelihood χ(2) of the predictive power of the multivariable model containing GLS was statistically superior to models based on Euro...

  7. Flow measurement at the aortic root

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Litten; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Køber, Lars

    2016-01-01

    during CMR and aortic stenosis were excluded from the analyses. Stroke volumes were measured volumetrically (SVref) from steady-state free precision short axis images covering the entire left ventricle, excluding the papillary muscles and including the left ventricular outflow tract. Flow sequences......BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is considered the gold standard of cardiac volumetric measurements. Flow in the aortic root is often measured at the sinotubular junction, even though placing the slice just above valve level may be more precise. It is unknown how much flow...... theoretically be equal to flow measurements, SVV and SVST were compared to SVref. RESULTS: Initially, 152 patients were included. 22 were excluded because of arrhythmias during scans and 9 were excluded for aortic stenosis. Accordingly, data from 121 patients were analysed and of these 63 had visually evident...

  8. Hypocholesterolemic and Antiatherosclerotic Potential of Basella alba Leaf Extract in Hypercholesterolemia-Induced Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunasekaran Baskaran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia is the major risk factor that leads to atherosclerosis. Nowadays, alternative treatment using medicinal plants gained much attention since the usage of statins leads to adverse health effects, especially liver and muscle toxicity. This study was designed to investigate the hypocholesterolemic and antiatherosclerotic effects of Basella alba (B. alba using hypercholesterolemia-induced rabbits. Twenty New Zealand white rabbits were divided into 5 groups and fed with varying diets: normal diet, 2% high cholesterol diet (HCD, 2% HCD + 10 mg/kg simvastatin, 2% HCD + 100 mg/kg B. alba extract, and 2% HCD + 200 mg/kg B. alba extract, respectively. The treatment with B. alba extract significantly lowered the levels of total cholesterol, LDL, and triglycerides and increased HDL and antioxidant enzymes (SOD and GPx levels. The elevated levels of liver enzymes (AST and ALT and creatine kinase were noted in hypercholesterolemic and statin treated groups indicating liver and muscle injuries. Treatment with B. alba extract also significantly suppressed the aortic plaque formation and reduced the intima: media ratio as observed in simvastatin-treated group. This is the first in vivo study on B. alba that suggests its potential as an alternative therapeutic agent for hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis.

  9. A geometric reappraisal of proximal landing zones for thoracic endovascular aortic repair according to aortic arch types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marrocco-Trischitta, Massimiliano M.; de Beaufort, Hector W.; Secchi, Francesco; van Bakel, Theodorus M.; Ranucci, Marco; van Herwaarden, Joost A.; Moll, Frans L.; Trimarchi, Santi

    Objective: This study assessed whether the additional use of the aortic arch classification in type I, II, and III may complement Ishimaru's aortic arch map and provide valuable information on the geometry and suitability of proximal landing zones for thoracic endovascular aortic repair. Methods:

  10. Diagnostic imaging of acute aortic dissection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohya, Tohru; Kumazaki, Tatsuo

    1991-01-01

    One hundred and nineteen patients with aortic dissection who underwent diagnostic imaging were reviewed and angiographic findings as well as those of CT were analysed. Thirty eight cases (43.1%) had non-contrast opacified false lumen, the type of which we call 'thrombosed type aortic dissection'. A comparative study of the thrombosed type with the patent type of false lumens was made particularly from the stand point of the characteristic diagnostic imagings (CT and angiography). At the same time, the pitfalls of these imagings in thrombosed type aortic dissection were studied. At the onset the average age of thrombosed type was 62.3 years old, while that of the patent type was 57.3. A statistical significance between the two groups was p<0.05. Thrombosed type in all cases was caused by atherosclerosis, whereas patent type was caused by the Marfan's syndrome in 11 cases. Other clinical findings, such as initial symptoms and blood pressure revealed no significant differences between the two groups. Pre-contrast CT in acute thrombosed type aortic dissection showed 'hyperdense crescent sign' in 89.4%. However, in 3 cases with thrombosed type in which the pre-contrast CT showed 'hyperdense crescent sign' contrast-enhanced CT detected no clear evidence of aortic dissection in the same site. This was due to obscurity induced by contrast medium. Angiographic findings of thrombosed type were classified into 3 groups: normal type, stenosed true lumen type and ulcer-like projection type. The incidence of normal type was estimated to be 48.4%, whereas stenosed true lumen type was 24.2% and ulcer-like projection was 27.7%. The present study concluded that thrombosed type is not rare in acute aortic dissection and contrast-enhanced CT as well as pre-contrast CT, is of great value in diagnosing thrombosed type. 'Hyperdense crescent sign' in pre-contrast CT is characteristic of intramural hematoma. (author)

  11. Aortic root surgery in Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheick-Yousif, Basheer; Sheinfield, Ami; Tager, Salis; Ghosh, Probal; Priesman, Sergey; Smolinsky, Aram K; Raanani, Ehud

    2008-03-01

    As the shortcomings of the Bentall operation and its variants in the Marfan syndrome have become apparent, the recent cusp-sparing techniques (remodeling or reimplantation) bear promise of better mid-term and long-term outcomes. To examine the results of aortic root surgery in patients with Marfan syndrome. During the period March 1994 to September 2007, 220 patients underwent aortic valve-sparing surgery; 20 were Marfan patients (group 1) who were compared with another 20 Marfan patients undergoing composite aortic root replacement (group 2). Fourteen patients had aortic dissection and 26 had thoracic aortic aneurysm. There were 31 males and 9 females with a mean age of 37.9 +/- 13.8 years. In group 1, reimplantation was used in 13 patients, remodeling in 4, and aortic valve repair with sinotubular junction replacement in 3. In group 2, a mechanical valve conduit was used. Mean logistic Euroscore was 12.27 +/- 14.6% for the whole group, five of whom were emergent cases Group 2 had more previous cardiac procedures compared to group 1 (9 vs. 2, P = 0.03) and shorter cross-clamp time (122 +/- 27.1 vs. 153.9 +/- 23.7 minutes, P = 0.0004). Overall mortality was 10%. Early mortality was 10% in group 2 and 5% in group 1 (NS). Mean follow-up time was 25 months for group 2 and 53 months for group 1. Three patients were reoperated; all had undergone the remodeling. Five year freedom from reoperation and death was 86% and 90% in group 2 and 70% and 95% in group 1 (P = 0.6, P = 0.6), respectively. Late survival of patients with Marfan syndrome was similar in both groups. Root reconstruction tends towards a higher incidence of late reoperations if the remodeling technique is used. We now prefer to use the reimplantation technique.

  12. Bentall Procedure Using Cryopreserved Valved Aortic Homografts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Jan T.; Sierra, Jorge; Trindade, Pedro T.; Didier, Dominique; Kalangos, Afksendiyos

    2004-01-01

    The Bentall procedure is the standard operation for patients who have lesions of the ascending aorta associated with aortic valve disease. In many cases, however, mechanical prosthetic conduits are not suitable. There are few reports in the English-language medical literature concerning the mid- to long-term outcome of Bentall operations with cryopreserved homografts. Therefore, we reviewed our experience with this procedure and valved homografts. From January 1997 through December 2002, 21 patients underwent a Bentall operation with cryopreserved homografts at our institution. There were 14 males and 7 females; the mean age was 36 ± 21 years (range, 15–74 years). Eleven patients had undergone previous aortic valve surgery. All patients had aortic dilatation or aneurysms involving the ascending aorta. Indications for surgery included aortic valve stenosis or insufficiency, and aortic valve endocarditis (native valve or prosthetic). One patient had Takayasu's arteritis and 3 had Marfan syndrome. There was 1 hospital death (due to sepsis), but no other major postoperative complications. The mean hospital stay was 14 ± 7 days. Follow-up echocardiographic and computed tomographic scans were performed yearly. The mean follow-up was 34 months (6–72 months). Follow-up imaging revealed no calcifications or degenerative processes related to the homograft. Four patients had minimal valve regurgitation. Two patients died during follow-up. The 3-year actuarial survival rate was 85.7%. Our data suggest that the Bentall procedure with a valved homograft conduit is a safe procedure with excellent mid- to long-term results, comparable to results reported with aortic valve replacement with a homograft. PMID:15745290

  13. Anesthesia Approach in Endovascular Aortic Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşin Alagöl

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We have analyzed our initial results of our anesthesia techniques in our new-onset endovascular aortic reconstruction cases.Patients and Methods: The perioperative data of 15 elective and emergent endovascular aortic reconstruction cases that were operated in 2010-2011 were collected in a database. The choice of anesthesia was made by the risk factors, surgical team’s preferences, type and location of the aortic pathology and by the predicted operation duration. The data of local and general anesthesia cases were compared.Results: Thirteen (86.7% cases were male and 2 (13.3% female. Eleven patients were in ASA Class III. The demographic parameters, ASA classifications, concurrent diseases were similar in both groups. Thirteen (86.7% cases had infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm and 2 (13.3% had Type III aortic dissection. The diastolic arterial pressures were lower in general anesthesia group in 20th and 40th minutes’ measurements just like the mean arterial pressure measurements at the 40th, 100th minutes and during the deployment of the graft. Postoperative mortality occurred in 3 (20.0% patients and they all had general anesthesia and they were operated on emergency basis. Postoperative morbidity occurred in four patients that had general anesthesia (acute renal failure, multi-organ failure and pneumonia. The other patient had atrial fibrillation on the 1st postoperative day and was converted to sinus rhythm with amiodarone infusion.Conclusion: Edovascular aortic reconstruction procedures can safely be performed with both general and local anesthesia less invasively compared to open surgery. General anesthesia may be preferred for the better hemodynamic control.

  14. The effect of social environment on markers of vascular oxidative stress and inflammation in the Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation, Daniel A; Gonzales, Julie A; Mendez, Armando J; Zaias, Julia; Szeto, Angela; Brooks, Larry G; Paredes, Jamespaul; D'Angola, Alyssa; Schneiderman, Neil; McCabe, Philip M

    2008-04-01

    Previous research demonstrated that social environment can influence progression of atherosclerosis in the Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbit. This study examined the effect of social environment on markers of oxidative stress and inflammation to clarify the physiological pathways potentially responsible for the influence of social environment on disease. WHHL rabbits were assigned to 1 of 3 social groups: an unstable group, in which unfamiliar rabbits were paired daily, with the pairing switched each week; a stable group, in which littermates were paired daily; and an individually-caged group. The stable group engaged in more affiliative social behavior than the unstable group. The unstable group showed more agonistic behavior compared with the stable group and higher C-reactive protein levels than the individually caged group. The individually caged group was behaviorally sedentary, had higher 24-hour urinary catecholamine levels than the other groups, and exhibited higher NAD(P)H-oxidase activity in the aortic arch relative to the stable group. The results suggest that social environment creates distinct behavioral contexts that can affect markers of inflammation and oxidative stress early in the development of atherosclerosis. Specifically, physical inactivity associated with individual caging affects indices of oxidative stress and inflammation. These pathophysiological markers may help to explain behaviorally related differences in the extent of atherosclerosis observed in prior studies.

  15. Aortic valve replacement in octogenarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dark John H

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Aims As our population ages and life expectancy increases the number of people aged over 80 and more referred for cardiac surgery is growing. This study sought to identify the outcome of aortic valve replacement (AVR in octogenarians. Methods 68 patients aged 80 years or more underwent AVR at the Freeman Hospital, between April 2001 and April 2004. A retrospective review of the notes and outcomes from the patients' GP and the NHS strategic tracking service was performed. 54% (37 underwent isolated AVR whilst 46% (31 underwent combined AVR and CABG. Results Follow up was 100% complete. The mean age was 83.1 ± s.d. 2.9 years, a mean gradient of 83 ± s.d. 31 mmHg and mean AVA of 0.56 cm2. The mean additive EuroSCORE was 8.6 ± s.d. 1.2, the logistic EuroSCORE mean 12.0 ± s.d. 5.9. In hospital 30 day mortality was 13 %. Survival was 80% at 1 year and 78% at 2 years. Median follow up was for 712 days. Stepwise logistic regression identified chronic obstructive airways disease as an independent predictor of mortality (p Conclusion Our study demonstrates that the operative mortality for AVR in the over eighties is good, whilst the mid to long term outcome is excellent There is a very low attrition rate with those undergoing the procedure living as long than their age matched population. This study confirms AVR is a safe, acceptable treatment for octogenarians with excellent mid term outcomes.

  16. Supravalvular aortic stenosis with sudden cardiac death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Vaideeswar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudden cardiac death (SCD most commonly results from previously undiagnosed congenital, acquired, or hereditary cardiac diseases. Congenital aortic valvular, subvalvular, and supravalvular disease with left ventricular outflow tract obstruction is an important preventable cause of sudden death. This report documents sudden death presumably due to acute myocardial ischemia in a young male with an undiagnosed supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS due to a rare association of isolation of coronary sinuses of Valsalva. Congenital supravalvular pulmonary stenosis and mitral valvular dysplasia were also present.

  17. Valve-sparing aortic root replacement†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolbergen, David R; Manshanden, Johan S J; Bouma, Berto J; Blom, Nico A; Mulder, Barbara J M; de Mol, Bas A J M; Hazekamp, Mark G

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate our results of valve-sparing aortic root replacement and associated (multiple) valve repair. From September 2003 to September 2013, 97 patients had valve-sparing aortic root replacement procedures. Patient records and preoperative, postoperative and recent echocardiograms were reviewed. Median age was 40.3 (range: 13.4-68.6) years and 67 (69.1%) were male. Seven (7.2%) patients were younger than 18 years, the youngest being 13.4 years. Fifty-four (55.7%) had Marfan syndrome, 2 (2.1%) other fibrous tissue diseases, 15 (15.5%) bicuspid aortic valve and 3 (3.1%) had earlier Fallot repair. The reimplantation technique was used in all, with a straight vascular prosthesis in 11 (26-34 mm) and the Valsalva prosthesis in 86 (26-32 mm). Concomitant aortic valve repair was performed in 43 (44.3%), mitral valve repair in 10 (10.3%), tricuspid valve repair in 5 (5.2%) and aortic arch replacement in 3 (3.1%). Mean follow-up was 4.2 ± 2.4 years. Follow-up was complete in all. One 14-year old patient died 1.3 years post-surgery presumably of ventricular arrhythmia. One patient underwent reoperation for aneurysm of the proximal right coronary artery after 4.9 years and 4 patients required aortic valve replacement, 3 of which because of endocarditis after 0.1, 0.8 and 1.3 years and 1 because of cusp prolapse after 3.8 years. No thrombo-embolic complications occurred. Mortality, root reoperation and aortic regurgitation were absent in 88.0 ± 0.5% at 5-year follow-up. Results of valve-sparing root replacement are good, even in association with a high incidence of concomitant valve repair. Valve-sparing aortic root replacement can be performed at a very young age as long as an adult size prosthesis can be implanted. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  18. Ruptured Aortic Aneurysm Presenting as a Stridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Lin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Stridor is an abnormal, high-pitched, whining breathing sound caused by a blockage in the throat or larynx that is usually heard in children. We describe an unusual case of an 81-year-old man brought to our emergency department with sudden onset of dyspnea and shortness of breath. Stridor could be heard without a stethoscope. We found a huge mass over the left upper chest on chest radiography, suggesting an aortic aneurysm. We believed that these symptoms were caused by a huge thoracic aortic aneurysm with trachea/bronchi compression. Chest computed tomography confirmed the diagnosis.

  19. Infective endocarditis following transcatheter aortic valve replacement-

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loh, Poay Huan; Bundgaard, Henning; S�ndergaard, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) can improve the symptoms and prognosis of patients with severe aortic stenosis who, due to a high expected operative risk, would not have otherwise been treated surgically. If these patients develop prosthetic valve endocarditis, their presentations may...... be atypical causing a delay in the diagnosis and treatment. The management is also complicated by their comorbidities, and surgical treatment may not be feasible leading to a significant morbidity and mortality. We describe a case of an 85-year-old man with TAVI prosthetic valve endocarditis successfully...

  20. A bovine aortic arch in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Arnáiz-García

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe a curious congenital variation of human aortic arch (AA branching pattern termed the “bovine aortic arch”. Rather than arising directly from the AA as a separate branch as occurs in the most common AA branching pattern, the left common carotid artery moves to the right and merges from the brachiocephalic trunk. It is the normal AA branching pattern presented in a number of animals (canines, felines or Macaque monkeys but it has nothing to do with anatomy of AA in ruminant animals, including cattle and buffalo. That is why it is one of the most widely misnomers used in medical literature whose origin is nowadays unknown.

  1. Effects of heavy ions on rabbit tissues: alopecia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, A.B.; Keng, P.C.; Glass, N.L.; Lett, J.T.

    1981-01-01

    The skin surrounding the eyes of New Zealand white rabbits was exposed to Bragg plateau regions of 530 MeV/amu Ar ions and 365 MeV/amu Ne ions, and to 60 Co γ rays. Linear energy transfers (LETsub(infinity)s) for the radiations were 90 +- 5, 35 +- 3, and 0.3 keV/μm, respectively. Post-irradiation alopecia was measured with subjective indices of baldness (0-5) calibrated against hair loss in rabbits irradiated with Ne and Ar ions at the central region of the ear. Patterns of post-irradiation alopecia, conforming to the model proposed by Casarett (1963) for the long-term expression of radiation damage in proliferating animal tissues, were modified by radiation quality as follows: (1) For early losses, the magnitude of the recovery phase decreased as the LETsub(infinity) of the incident radiation increased; (2) In the plateau phase of radiation response r.b.e. values approached those reported for proliferating cells in culture, but differences were found that may be related to changes in the magnitude of the recovery phase; (3) For a given level of intermediate damage, onset of the late degenerative phase of radiation response, which was expressed years after irradiation, occurred earlier the higher the LETsub(infinity) of the incident radiation. The most important finding was that r.b.e.s for alopecia varied with post-irradiation time. (author)

  2. Preventative Valve-Sparing Aortic Root Replacement and Pregnancy Outcome in Marfan Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Sokol, Vesna; Zlopaša, Gordan; Herman, Mislav; Planinić, Pavao; Micevska, Ana

    2012-01-01

    In Marfan syndrome, with dilatation of the aortic root secondary to an underlying connective tissue defect, pregnancy can cause hemodynamic stress leading to the development of an aortic aneurysm and even a fatal aortic dissection. In the presence of existing aortic root enlargement and a family history of aortic dissection, preventative elective surgery is suggested. Aortic root replacement with or without a valve-sparing procedure is superior to total aortic root replacement with ...

  3. Reprogramming of rabbit induced pluripotent stem cells toward epiblast and chimeric competency using Krüppel-like factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Tapponnier

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rabbit induced pluripotent stem cells (rbiPSCs possess the characteristic features of primed pluripotency as defined in rodents and primates. In the present study, we reprogrammed rbiPSCs using human Krüppel-like factors (KLFs 2 and 4 and cultured them in a medium supplemented with fetal calf serum and leukemia inhibitory factor. These cells (designated rbEKA were propagated by enzymatic dissociation for at least 30 passages, during which they maintained a normal karyotype. This new culturing protocol resulted in transcriptional and epigenetic reconfiguration, as substantiated by the expression of transcription factors and the presence of histone modifications associated with naïve pluripotency. Furthermore, microarray analysis of rbiPSCs, rbEKA cells, rabbit ICM cells, and rabbit epiblast showed that the global gene expression profile of the reprogrammed rbiPSCs was more similar to that of rabbit ICM and epiblast cells. Injection of rbEKA cells into 8-cell stage rabbit embryos resulted in extensive colonization of ICM in 9% early-blastocysts (E3.5, epiblast in 10% mid-blastocysts (E4.5, and embryonic disk in 1.4% pre-gastrulae (E6. Thus, these results indicate that KLF2 and KLF4 triggered the conversion of rbiPSCs into epiblast-like, embryo colonization-competent PSCs. Our results highlight some of the requirements to achieve bona fide chimeric competency.

  4. Transcellular transport of cobalamin in aortic endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannibal, Luciana; Bolisetty, Keerthana; Axhemi, Armend; DiBello, Patricia M; Quadros, Edward V; Fedosov, Sergey; Jacobsen, Donald W

    2018-05-09

    Cobalamin [Cbl (or B 12 )] deficiency causes megaloblastic anemia and a variety of neuropathies. However, homeostatic mechanisms of cyanocobalamin (CNCbl) and other Cbls by vascular endothelial cells are poorly understood. Herein, we describe our investigation into whether cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) perform transcytosis of B 12 , namely, the complex formed between serum transcobalamin and B 12 , designated as holo-transcobalamin (holo-TC). We show that cultured BAECs endocytose [ 57 Co]-CNCbl-TC (source material) via the CD320 receptor. The bound Cbl is transported across the cell both via exocytosis in its free form, [ 57 Co]-CNCbl, and via transcytosis as [ 57 Co]-CNCbl-TC. Transcellular mobilization of Cbl occurred in a bidirectional manner. A portion of the endocytosed [ 57 Co]-CNCbl was enzymatically processed by methylmalonic aciduria combined with homocystinuria type C (cblC) with subsequent formation of hydroxocobalamin, methylcobalamin, and adenosylcobalamin, which were also transported across the cell in a bidirectional manner. This demonstrates that transport mechanisms for Cbl in vascular endothelial cells do not discriminate between various β-axial ligands of the vitamin. Competition studies with apoprotein- and holo-TC and holo-intrinsic factor showed that only holo-TC was effective at inhibiting transcellular transport of Cbl. Incubation of BAECs with a blocking antibody against the extracellular domain of the CD320 receptor inhibited uptake and transcytosis by ∼40%. This study reveals that endothelial cells recycle uncommitted intracellular Cbl for downstream usage by other cell types and suggests that the endothelium is self-sufficient for the specific acquisition and subsequent distribution of circulating B 12 via the CD320 receptor. We posit that the endothelial lining of the vasculature is an essential component for the maintenance of serum-tissue homeostasis of B 12 .-Hannibal, L., Bolisetty, K., Axhemi, A., DiBello, P

  5. In-vitro analysis of early calcification in aortic valvular interstitial cells using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davari, Seyyed Ali; Masjedi, Shirin; Ferdous, Zannatul; Mukherjee, Dibyendu

    2018-01-01

    Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is a major cardiovascular disorder caused by osteogenic differentiation of valvular interstitial cells (VICs) within aortic valves. Conventional methods like colorimetric assays and histology fail to detect small calcium depositions during in-vitro VIC cultures. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a robust analytical tool used for inorganic materials characterizations, but relatively new to biomedical applications. We employ LIBS, for the first time, for quantitative in-vitro detection of calcium depositions in VICs at various osteogenic differentiation stages. VICs isolated from porcine aortic valves were cultured in osteogenic media over various days. Colorimetric calcium assays based on arsenazo dye and Von Kossa staining measured the calcium depositions within VICs. Simultaneously, LIBS signatures for Ca I (422.67 nm) atomic emission lines were collected for estimating calcium depositions in lyophilized VIC samples. Our results indicate excellent linear correlation between the calcium assay and our LIBS measurements. Furthermore, unlike the assay results, the LIBS results could resolve calcium signals from cell samples with as early as 2 days of osteogenic culture. Quantitatively, the LIBS measurements establish the limit of detection for calcium content in VICs to be ∼0.17±0.04 μg which indicates a 5-fold improvement over calcium assay. Picture: Quantitative LIBS enables in-vitro analysis for early stage detection of calcium deposition within aortic valvular interstitial cells (VICs). © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Electroacupuncture analgesia in a rabbit ovariohysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmen, Valentin

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of electroacupuncture analgesia (EAA) at local and paravertebral acupoints for a rabbit undergoing an ovariohysterectomy. Twelve clinically healthy New Zealand white rabbits were chosen and divided into two groups: the control group (5 rabbits) and the experimental group (7 rabbits). A neuroleptanalgesic (ketamine + xylazine) was administered to the control group (NLA group); the experimental group received EAA treatment (EAA group). The EAA treatment includes one acupuncture formula for local stimulation at the incision site and systemic stimulation. Results of clinical research have shown postoperative analgesia using EAA treatment to be superior to that using NLA. The average postoperative recovery time was 5.2 times longer in the NLA group than in the EAA group. Because consciousness was maintained, EAA presented an advantage in thermoregulation. Animals administered NLA had prolonged thermal homeostasis because of neurovegetative disconnection. For the EAA group, the operative times were characterized as excellent (28%, p = 0.28) or good (72%, p = 0.72). Local stimulation at the incision site provided excellent analgesia of the abdominal wall (100%). In conclusion, EA can provide general analgesia with a considerable analgesic effect for a rabbit undergoing an ovariohysterectomy, resulting in a short postoperative recovery time. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Hypercholesterolemia Impaired Sperm Functionality in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monclus, Maria A.; Cabrillana, Maria E.; Clementi, Marisa A.; Espínola, Leandro S.; Cid Barría, Jose L.; Vincenti, Amanda E.; Santi, Analia G.; Fornés, Miguel W.

    2010-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia represents a high risk factor for frequent diseases and it has also been associated with poor semen quality that may lead to male infertility. The aim of this study was to analyze semen and sperm function in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Twelve adult White New Zealand male rabbits were fed ad libitum a control diet or a diet supplemented with 0.05% cholesterol. Rabbits under cholesterol-enriched diet significantly increased total cholesterol level in the serum. Semen examination revealed a significant reduction in semen volume and sperm motility in hypercholesterolemic rabbits (HCR). Sperm cell morphology was seriously affected, displaying primarily a “folded head”-head fold along the major axe-, and the presence of cytoplasmic droplet on sperm flagellum. Cholesterol was particularly increased in acrosomal region when detected by filipin probe. The rise in cholesterol concentration in sperm cells was determined quantitatively by Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analyses. We also found a reduction of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in sperm incubated under capacitating conditions from HCR. Interestingly, the addition of Protein Kinase A pathway activators -dibutyryl-cyclic AMP and iso-butylmethylxanthine- to the medium restored sperm capacitation. Finally, it was also reported a significant decrease in the percentage of reacted sperm in the presence of progesterone. In conclusion, our data showed that diet-induced hypercholesterolemia adversely affects semen quality and sperm motility, capacitation and acrosomal reaction in rabbits; probably due to an increase in cellular cholesterol content that alters membrane related events. PMID:20976152

  8. [Non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis on the bicuspid aortic valve in a 25-year-old male with lupus anticoagulant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elikowski, Waldemar; Jarząbek, Radosław; Małek, Małgorzata; Witczak, Włodzimierz; Łazowski, Stanisław; Psuja, Piotr

    2016-03-01

    Non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis (NBTE) is characterized by presence of sterile vegetations that develop from fibrin and platelets on heart valves. The main conditions predisposing to NBTE are malignancy, autoimmune diseases and other hypercoagulable states. The authors describe a case of a 25-year-old male, in whom NBTE was diagnosed on the bicuspid aortic valve. The presence of significant aortic regurgitation and dental caries were initially suggestive of infective endocarditis; although, serial blood culture were negative and procalcytonin concentration was within normal ranges. Empiric antibiotic therapy did not result in diminishing of vegetations, similarly to the anticoagulation treatment initiated when strongly positive lupus anticoagulant was detected in laboratory findings. Aortic valve replacement was necessary. Bacteriologic examination of the excised valve was negative. Widespread fibrin masses at different stages of organization on the leaflets confirmed NBTE in histopathologic assessment. Lupus anticoagulant was probably secondary to thyroid autoimmune disease. © 2016 MEDPRESS.

  9. Accumulation of 125I-factor XI in atheroma of rabbit with hereditary hyperlipidemia (WHHL-rabbit)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komiyama, Y.; Masuda, M.; Murakami, T.; Nishikado, H.; Egawa, H.; Nishimura, T.; Morii, S.; Murata, K.

    1989-01-01

    We have studied the turnover and accumulation of rabbit factor XI (F.XI) in atherosclerotic lesion in Watanabe-hereditable hyperlipidemic rabbit (WHHL rabbit) to reveal the participation of blood coagulation in atherosclerotic lesion. Rabbit F.XI was iodinated and administered intravenously to WHHL rabbits and Japanese white rabbits. The turnover of 125 I-rabbit F.XI was significantly faster in WHHL rabbits (T1/2 = 2.84 +/- 0.44 days) than in normal rabbits (T1/2 = 4.44 +/- 0.42 days). The thoracic aorta of WHHL rabbit was strongly labelled with 125 I-rabbit F.XI, in sections obtained after 5 days by en-face autoradiography, whereas no radioactivity was detected in normal aorta. By an immunohistochemical study of WHHL rabbit aorta, we confirmed that many F.XI- and fibrin-related compounds existed in the atheroma, whereas albumin did not in these area. These results suggest that the activation of F.XI proceeds on the atherosclerotic lesions of WHHL rabbits

  10. Environmental Bacteria Associated With an Institutional Rabbit House

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rev Dr Olaleye

    associated with rabbit houses was undertaken to determine the occurrence of bacteria in rabbit ... biomedical research since these latent organisms may produce clinical conditions when .... frequently incriminated in bovine mastitis by. Jones ...

  11. Performance characteristics of growing rabbits fed diet based on a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conventional ingredient. ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... groups of 8 rabbits each and the groups were assigned randomly to the three diets with each rabbit serving as a replicate in a Complete Randomized Design experiment.

  12. Reproductive performance of rabbits fed maize-milling waste based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    The influence of maize-milling waste on the reproductive performance of rabbits was assessed. The .... stored in air-tight polythene bags prior to use in the experimental .... Nutrient digestibility and effect of heat treatment, J. Appl. Rabbit Res.

  13. Hybrid aortic repair with antegrade supra-aortic and renovisceral debranching from ascending aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Castro-Madrazo, José Antonio; Rivas-Domínguez, Margarita; Fernández-Prendes, Carlota; Zanabili Al-Sibbai, Amer; Llaneza-Coto, José Manuel; Alonso-Pérez, Manuel

    2017-05-01

    Aortic dissection is a life threatening condition. Hybrid repair has been described for the treatment of complex aortic pathology such as thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms (TAAA) and type A and B dissections, although open and total endovascular repair are also possible. Open surgery is still associated with substantial perioperative morbi-mortality rates, thus less invasive techniques such as endovascular repair and hybrid procedures can achieve good results in centers with experience. We present the case of a patient with a chronic type B dissection and TAAA degeneration that was treated in a single stage hybrid procedure with antegrade supra-aortic and renovisceral debranching from the ascending aorta and TEVAR. At three-year follow up, the patient is free of intervention-related complications.

  14. Strategy to avoid patient-prosthesis mismatch: aortic root enlargement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Dharmendra Kumar; Sanki, Prokash; Bhattacharya, Subhankar; Siddique, Javed Veqar

    2014-02-01

    The choice of a valve with an effective orifice area matching the body surface area and providing efficient hemodynamics is an important factor affecting mortality and morbidity in patients undergoing aortic valve replacement. Our preventative strategy was to implant a larger prosthetic valve by aortic root enlargement using the Nunez procedure in 17 patients between February 2010 and January 2011. The decision to enlarge the aortic root was taken when the 19-mm sizer could not be negotiated easily through the aortic root, or on the basis of body surface area of the patient or type of prosthesis available. Postoperative reductions in peak and mean pressure gradients across aortic valve of 12.8-16.5 and 10.2-12.6 mm Hg, respectively, were observed. Postoperative effective orifice areas of the aortic valves were 1.1-1.5 cm(2). By upsizing the aortic valve, we were able to eliminate patient-prosthesis mismatch in 5 patients, and reduce severe patient-prosthesis mismatch to moderate in 11. Aortic root enlargement is a safe procedure. Therefore, cardiac surgeons should not be reluctant to enlarge the aortic root with an autologous pericardial patch to permit implantation of an adequate size of aortic valve prosthesis, with minimal additional aortic crossclamp time and no added cost.

  15. Is there a prospect for hybrid aortic arch surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Mohamad; Harky, Amer; Bilal, Haris

    2018-05-16

    The surge of endovascular repair of aortic aneurysm in current modern aortic surgery practice has been the key for surgical management of elective cases of thoracic aortic aneurysms. This has paved way for the combined hybrid approach to be amongst the armamentarium for the management of aortic arch disease. The pivotal understanding of the aortic arch natural history coupled with device technology advancement allowed surgeons insight into delivery of hybrid surgery with acceptable morbidity and mortality results. This review article provides current insights into hybrid technique of aortic arch aneurysm repair and the evidences behind its applicability to arch surgery. It is aimed to highlight the challenges encountered for this innovative approach and correlate its challenges to those that are met by the conventional open aortic arch repair.

  16. Aortic valve ochronosis: a rare manifestation of alkaptonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steger, Christina Maria

    2011-07-28

    Alkaptonuric ochronosis is a heritable disorder of tyrosine metabolism, with various systemic abnormalities related to pigment deposition and degeneration of collagen and other tissues, including the heart and aorta. A 65-year-old woman with alkaptonuric ochronosis and a history of four joint replacements required aortic valve replacement for severe aortic stenosis. Operative findings included ochronosis of a partly calcified aortic valve and the aortic intima. The aortic valve was removed at surgery and histologically investigated. Light microscopic examination of the aortic valve revealed intracellular and extracellular deposits of ochronotic pigment and a chronic inflammatory infiltrate. Beside the case representation, the disease history, aetiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation and treatment of aortic valve ochronosis are reviewed.

  17. Failure of rabbit neutrophils to secrete endogenous pyrogen when stimulated with staphylococci

    OpenAIRE

    1980-01-01

    Cells obtained from acute peritoneal exudates in rabbits were separated into neutrophil and mononuclear populations by centrifugation on colloidal silica gradients. When these populations were separately incubated in tissue culture medium in the presence of opsonized Staphylococcus epidermidis, endogenous pyrogen was secreted only by the adherent cells of the mononuclear population. Pyrogen production by neutrophils could not have amounted to as much as 1% of the pyrogen produced by macrophag...

  18. New predictor of aortic enlargement in uncomplicated type B aortic dissection based on elliptic Fourier analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroshi; Ito, Toshiro; Kuroda, Yosuke; Uchiyama, Hiroki; Watanabe, Toshitaka; Yasuda, Naomi; Nakazawa, Junji; Harada, Ryo; Kawaharada, Nobuyoshi

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to re-examine the conventional predictive factors for dissected aortic enlargement, such as the aortic and false lumen diameter and to consider whether the morphological elements of the dissected aorta could be predictors by quantifying the 'shape' of the true lumen based on elliptic Fourier analysis. A total of 80 patients with uncomplicated type B aortic dissection were included. The patients were divided into 'Enlargement group' and 'No Change group.' Between the 2 groups, the mean systolic blood pressure during follow-up, aortic and false lumen maximum diameters, and analysed morphological data were compared using each statistical method. The maximum aortic and false lumen diameters were significantly larger in the Enlargement group than in the No Change group (39.3 vs 35.9 mm; P = 0.0058) (23.5 vs 18.2 mm; P = 0.000095). The principal component 1, which is the data calculated by elliptic Fourier analysis, was significantly lower in the Enlargement group than in the No Change group (0.020 vs - 0.072; P = 0.000049). The mean systolic blood pressure ≥130 mmHg, aortic diameter, false lumen diameter and principal component 1 were included in the Cox proportional hazard model as covariates to determine the significant predictive variable. Principal component 1 demonstrated the only significance with aortic enlargement on multivariate analysis (odds ratio = 0.32; P = 0.048). The analysed and calculated morphological data of the shape of the true lumen can be more effective predictive factors of aortic enlargement of type B dissection than the conventional factors. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  19. Association of aortic valve calcification severity with the degree of aortic regurgitation after transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koos, Ralf; Mahnken, Andreas Horst; Dohmen, Guido; Brehmer, Kathrin; Günther, Rolf W; Autschbach, Rüdiger; Marx, Nikolaus; Hoffmann, Rainer

    2011-07-15

    This study sought to examine a possible relationship between the severity of aortic valve calcification (AVC), the distribution of AVC and the degree of aortic valve regurgitation (AR) after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) for severe aortic stenosis (AS). 57 patients (22 men, 81 ± 5 years) with symptomatic AS and with a logistic EuroSCORE of 24 ± 12 were included. 38 patients (67%) received a third (18F)-generation CoreValve® aortic valve prosthesis, in 19 patients (33%) an Edwards SAPIEN™ prosthesis was implanted. Prior to TAVI dual-source computed tomography for assessment of AVC was performed. To determine the distribution of AVC the percentage of the calcium load of the most severely calcified cusp was calculated. After TAVI the degree of AR was determined by angiography and echocardiography. The severity of AR after TAVI was related to the severity and distribution of AVC. There was no association between the distribution of AVC and the degree of paravalvular AR after TAVI as assessed by angiography (r = -0.02, p = 0.88). Agatston AVC scores were significantly higher in patients with AR grade ≥ 3 (5055 ± 1753, n = 3) than in patients with AR grade AVC scores > 3000 were associated with a relevant paravalvular AR and showed a trend for increased need for second manoeuvres. There was a significant correlation between the severity of AVC and the degree of AR after AVR (r = 0.50, p AVC have an increased risk for a relevant AR after TAVI as well as a trend for increased need for additional procedures. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fate of remnant sinuses of Valsalva in patients with bicuspid and trileaflet valves undergoing aortic valve, ascending aorta, and aortic arch replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewski, Rita Karianna; Habertheuer, Andreas; Bavaria, Joseph E; Siki, Mary; Szeto, Wilson Y; Krause, Eric; Korutla, Varun; Desai, Nimesh D; Vallabhajosyula, Prashanth

    2017-08-01

    In patients presenting with aortic valvulopathy with concomitant ascending aortic aneurysm, surgical management of the sinus of Valsalva segment remains undefined, especially for moderately dilated aortic roots. In patients with this pathology undergoing aortic valve replacement with supracoronary ascending aorta replacement, we assessed the fate of the remnant preserved sinus of Valsalva segment stratified by aortic valve morphology and pathology. From 2002 to 2015, 428 patients underwent elective aortic valve replacement with supracoronary ascending aorta replacement. Patients were stratified on the basis of valvular morphology (bicuspid aortic valve [n = 254] and tricuspid aortic valve [n = 174]), valvular pathology (bicuspid aortic valve with aortic stenosis [n = 178], bicuspid aortic valve with aortic insufficiency [n = 76], tricuspid aortic valve with aortic stenosis [n = 61], tricuspid aortic valve with aortic insufficiency [n = 113]), and preoperative sinus of Valsalva dimensions (45 mm). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed no significant difference in freedom from reoperation in tricuspid aortic valve versus bicuspid aortic valve (P = .576). Multivariable Cox regression model performed with sinus of Valsalva dimensions at baseline and follow-up as time-varying covariates did not adversely affect survival. A repeated-measure, mixed-effects model constructed to assess longitudinal sinus of Valsalva trends revealed that the retained sinus of Valsalva dimensions remain stable over long-term follow-up (discharge to ≥10 years), irrespective of valvular morphology/pathology (bicuspid aortic valve with aortic insufficiency, tricuspid aortic valve with aortic insufficiency, tricuspid aortic valve with aortic stenosis) and preoperative sinus of Valsalva groups (45 mm). In patients with nonaneurysmal sinuses of Valsalva undergoing aortic valve replacement with supracoronary ascending aorta replacement, the sinus segment can be preserved irrespective of

  1. Redox stress in Marfan syndrome: Dissecting the role of the NADPH oxidase NOX4 in aortic aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Altayó, Francesc; Meirelles, Thayna; Crosas-Molist, Eva; Sorolla, M Alba; Del Blanco, Darya Gorbenko; López-Luque, Judit; Mas-Stachurska, Aleksandra; Siegert, Ana-Maria; Bonorino, Fabio; Barberà, Laura; García, Carolina; Condom, Enric; Sitges, Marta; Rodríguez-Pascual, Fernando; Laurindo, Francisco; Schröder, Katrin; Ros, Joaquim; Fabregat, Isabel; Egea, Gustavo

    2018-04-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is characterized by the formation of ascending aortic aneurysms resulting from altered assembly of extracellular matrix fibrillin-containing microfibrils and dysfunction of TGF-β signaling. Here we identify the molecular targets of redox stress in aortic aneurysms from MFS patients, and investigate the role of NOX4, whose expression is strongly induced by TGF-β, in aneurysm formation and progression in a murine model of MFS. Working models included aortae and cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from MFS patients, and a NOX4-deficient Marfan mouse model (Fbn1 C1039G/+ -Nox4 -/- ). Increased tyrosine nitration and reactive oxygen species levels were found in the tunica media of human aortic aneurysms and in cultured VSMC. Proteomic analysis identified nitrated and carbonylated proteins, which included smooth muscle α-actin (αSMA) and annexin A2. NOX4 immunostaining increased in the tunica media of human Marfan aorta and was transcriptionally overexpressed in VSMC. Fbn1 C1039G/+ -Nox4 -/- mice aortas showed a reduction of fragmented elastic fibers, which was accompanied by an amelioration in the Marfan-associated enlargement of the aortic root. Increase in the contractile phenotype marker calponin in the tunica media of MFS mice aortas was abrogated in Fbn1 C1039G/+ -Nox4 -/- mice. Endothelial dysfunction evaluated by myography in the Marfan ascending aorta was prevented by the absence of Nox4 or catalase-induced H 2 O 2 decomposition. We conclude that redox stress occurs in MFS, whose targets are actin-based cytoskeleton members and regulators of extracellular matrix homeostasis. Likewise, NOX4 have an impact in the progression of the aortic dilation in MFS and in the structural organization of the aortic tunica media, the VSMC phenotypic modulation, and endothelial function. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Serological Survey for RHD Antibodies in Rabbits from Two Types of Rabbit Breeding Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzner, A; Niedbalski, W

    2016-09-01

    Seroprevalence studies of RHDV antibodies in domestic rabbits were conducted between 2008-2014. A total of 12,169 sera from the provinces of central, southern and south-east Poland, including 7,570 samples collected from mixed-breed rabbits reared in smallholder farms and nearly 4,600 sera taken mainly from unvaccinated rabbits kept in industrial farms, were examined using ELISA tests. Additionally, cross-reactivity of selected tested and control archival sera using both classic RHDV and RHDVa antigens was determined by HI assay. The overall seroprevalence was 13.3%. In rabbits with unkown history of immunisation or RHD infection which came from small farms, RHDV antibodies were detected in 6.1% ranging between 1.0% to 17.2% of animals. In rabbits of the same group, but with a declared vaccination status, or confirmed exposure to an infectious virus, or coming from exposed females, the seroprevalence ranged from 83% to 100%. Among unvaccinated meat rabbits aged 71 to 90 days from industrial farms, low (1.85%, 4.17%, 11%), medium (34%, 54%) or high rates (98.7%) of seropositivity were detected. The seroconversion recorded in adult vaccinated females from industrial farms was 70% and 95%. Generally, the antibody levels examined by ELISAs and HI were comparable. However, a number of sera from the rabbits from small farms, as well as archival sera, showed clear differences. Several-fold differences in antibody titers, evidenced mainly in the postoutbreak sera, indictaed the contact of animals with RHDVa antigen. The overall results of the survey revealed a great proportion of seronegative rabbits potentially highly susceptible to RHD infection. In combination with the emergence of a novel pathogenic RHD virus type (RHDV2), it poses a severe risk of a next wave of fatal disease cases spreading in the native population of domestic rabbits, especially in farms with a traditional system of husbandry.

  3. Accumulation of low density lipoprotein associated cholesterol in calcifying vesicle fractions correlates with intimal thickening in thoracic aortas of juvenile rabbits fed a supplemental cholesterol diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Culley Nathan C

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been shown that calcifying vesicles play an important role in aortic calcification and that cholesterol content in the isolated vesicle fraction is increased when rabbits are fed supplemental cholesterol diets. Whether lipoprotein-associated cholesterols and other lipids are also increased in the vesicle fraction and whether the increase correlates with atherosclerosis remain unknown. Results Fourteen juvenile male rabbits fed an atherogenic diet containing 0.5% cholesterol and 2% peanut oil for 3 months developed varying degrees of hypercholesterolemia and intimal thickening in the ascending thoracic aorta. The correlation between these two parameters was insignificant, and likely attributable to the use of small numbers of rabbits in this study. Despite this lack of correlation, we demonstrate that the accumulation of cholesterol in calcifying vesicle fractions obtained from the collagenase-digested aorta fragments correlates well with intimal thickening (r2 = 0.98, p Conclusion When limited numbers of rabbits are used, LDL-C accumulation in calcifying vesicle fractions is a better biomarker for atherosclerosis than LDL-C levels in the serum. The close association of LDL-C with calcifying vesicles may play an important role in atherosclerosis and calcification.

  4. Aorto-right atrial fistula after ascending aortic replacement or aortic value replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhi Aihua; Dai Ruping; Jiang Shiliang; Lu Bin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the CT features of aorto-right atrial fistula after aortic valve replacement (AVR) or ascending aortic replacement. Methods: Eighty-seven patients with aortic-right atrial fistula underwent CT after operation. The CT features were retrospectively analyzed. Fistula was measured according to maximum width of the shunt. Results: Aorto-right atrial fistula was detected in 87 patients after aortic valve replacement or ascending aortic replacement by CT scan. Among them, 25 patients were diagnosed as mild aorto-right atrial fistula, 47 patients as moderate, and 15 patients as severe. Thirty-seven patients underwent follow-up CT.Among them, 10 patients with mild to moderate aorto-right atrial fistula were considered to have complete regression, 8 patients with mild aorto-right atrial fistula considered to have incomplete regression, 14 patients with mild to moderate aorto-right atrial fistula considered to have stable condition, and 5 patients with moderate aorto-right atrial fistula considered to have progression at the 3-month follow-up. Conclusion: CT is a useful tool for defining aorto-right atrial fistula after AVR or ascending aortic replacement and for evaluating it in follow-up. (authors)

  5. Abdominal aortic aneurysm development in men following a "normal" aortic ultrasound scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, H; Druce, P S; Ashton, H A

    2008-11-01

    To determine predictors related to abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) development following a "normal" aortic ultrasound scan. Over a 23-year period, 22 961 men participated in an AAA screening programme. Maximum aortic diameter of less than 30 mm was deemed "normal". 4308 of these "normal" individuals were later re-scanned at intervals for research purposes. AAA prevalence was 4.4% at initial scanning. In those with a normal scan, 46 patients subsequently presented with AAAs incidentally detected and 120 (2.8%) had AAAs identified as part of the ongoing surveillance. The median initial aortic size of these 166 men was 25 mm (range 15-29 mm). Over the follow-up period, there have been 24 (14%) AAA-related deaths, 24 patients underwent successful AAA surgery and 36 died of unrelated causes. In those with an initial aortic diameter of <25 mm who later developed an AAA, the odds ratio for AAA-related mortality was 2 (95% CI 1-4.1, p=0.03, x(2)). AAAs can develop following an initial "normal" scan and men with an aortic diameters of 25-29 mm appear to be at greater risk. Surveillance for this sub-group may further reduce the incidence of undiagnosed AAA and AAA-related mortality.

  6. Analysis of aortic root surgery with composite mechanical aortic valve conduit and valve-sparing reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Ricardo Ribeiro; Mejia, Omar Asdrubal Vilca; Fiorelli, Alfredo Inácio; Pomerantzeff, Pablo Maria Alberto; Dias, Altamiro Ribeiro; Mady, Charles; Stolf, Noedir Antonio Groppo

    2010-01-01

    Comparative analysis of early and late results of aortic root reconstruction with aortic valve sparing operations and the composite mechanical valve conduit replacement. From November 2002 to September 2009, 164 consecutive patients with mean age 54 ± 15 years, 115 male, underwent the aortic root reconstruction (125 mechanical valve conduit replacements and 39 valve sparing operations). Sixteen percent of patients had Marfan syndrome and 4.3% had bicuspid aortic valve. One hundred and forty-four patients (88%) were followed for a mean period of 41.1 ± 20.8 months. The hospital mortality was 4.9%, 5.6% in operations with valved conduits and 2.6% in the valve sparing procedures (P valve sparing operations, respectively (95% CI = 70% - 95%, P = 0.001), (95% CI = 82% - 95% P = 0.03) and (95% CI = 81% - 95%, P = 0.03). Multivariate analysis showed that creatinine greater than 1.4 mg/dl, Cabrol operation and renal dialysis were predictors of mortality, respectively, with occurrence chance of 6 (95% CI = 1.8 - 19.5, P = 0.003), 12 (95% CI = 3 - 49.7, P = 0.0004) and 16 (95% CI = 3.6 - 71.3, P = 0.0002). The aortic root reconstruction has a low early and late mortality, high survival free of complications and low need for reoperation. During the late follow-up, valve sparing aortic root reconstructions presented fewer incidences of bleeding, thromboembolic events and endocarditis.

  7. Extended aortic repair using frozen elephant trunk technique for Marfan syndrome with acute aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Naomichi; Katayama, Akira; Kuraoka, Masatsugu; Katayama, Keijiro; Takahashi, Shinya; Takasaki, Taiichi; Sueda, Taijiro

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze midterm results of frozen elephant trunk technique for Marfan syndrome with acute aortic dissection. Between February 1999 and August 2011 we performed arch replacement uisng frozen elephant trunk technique for acute aortic dissection in 8 patients with Marfan syndrome containing two complicated type B dissections and six type A dissections.Five patients compromised annulo-aortic ectasia who performed Bentall operation. No patients died in the initial operation. Fate of false lumen on the stent graft border was expressed by CT scan follow-up that were patent in 0, thrombosis in 5 and absorption in 3 patients. One patient who had new aortic dissection 8 years after initial surgery required the Crawford V operation. Ten-years-survival rate was 100% and ten years-event free rate was 67%. Frozen elephant trunk technique was feasible for Marfan syndrome with acute aortic dissection and might become alternative prophylactic treatment to the downstream aorta for acute aortic dissection.

  8. Ultrasonic delineation of aortic microstructure: The relative contribution of elastin and collagen to aortic elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jon N.; Takiuchi, Shin; Lin, Shiow Jiuan; Lanza, Gregory M.; Wickline, Samuel A.

    2004-05-01

    Aortic elasticity is an important factor in hemodynamic health, and compromised aortic compliance affects not only arterial dynamics but also myocardial function. A variety of pathologic processes (e.g., diabetes, Marfan's syndrome, hypertension) can affect aortic elasticity by altering the microstructure and composition of the elastin and collagen fiber networks within the tunica media. Ultrasound tissue characterization techniques can be used to obtain direct measurements of the stiffness coefficients of aorta by measurement of the speed of sound in specific directions. In this study we sought to define the contributions of elastin and collagen to the mechanical properties of aortic media by measuring the magnitude and directional dependence of the speed of sound before and after selective isolation of either the collagen or elastin fiber matrix. Formalin-fixed porcine aortas were sectioned for insonification in the circumferential, longitudinal, or radial direction and examined using high-frequency (50 MHz) ultrasound microscopy. Isolation of the collagen or elastin fiber matrices was accomplished through treatment with NaOH or formic acid, respectively. The results suggest that elastin is the primary contributor to aortic medial stiffness in the unloaded state, and that there is relatively little anisotropy in the speed of sound or stiffness in the aortic wall.

  9. REPLACEMENT IN RABBIT HERDS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim F.M. Marai

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Doe rabbit's replacement constitutes the annual renewal rate of new breeders that must be incorporated into the production stock. Criterion for culling non-productive animals differs significantly among fryer production colonies, foundation stocks and a colony with continuous enzootic disease or continuous malnourishment. In commercial rabbit production, good management improves the health and productivity of the entire herd, by reducing the all-time high replacement rates and improving economic viability. In the present article, a comprehensive review of numerous experiences in the rabbit production field of different countries, was presented. Basic recommendations for professional breeders were highlighted, covering critical issues such as the need for continuously upgrading the health status of the colony, the positive effect of   genetic selection and the nutritional conditioning and special treatment of young does being groomed as future replacements.

  10. Rabbit tissue model (RTM) harvesting technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Marelyn

    2002-01-01

    A method for creating a tissue model using a female rabbit for laparoscopic simulation exercises is described. The specimen is called a Rabbit Tissue Model (RTM). Dissection techniques are described for transforming the rabbit carcass into a small, compact unit that can be used for multiple training sessions. Preservation is accomplished by using saline and refrigeration. Only the animal trunk is used, with the rest of the animal carcass being discarded. Practice exercises are provided for using the preserved organs. Basic surgical skills, such as dissection, suturing, and knot tying, can be practiced on this model. In addition, the RTM can be used with any pelvic trainer that permits placement of larger practice specimens within its confines.

  11. Performance characteristics of Weaner rabbits fed Moringa oleifera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate the utilization of Moringa oleifera (MO) and Moringa stenopetala (MS) by weaner rabbit. In a twelve week feeding trial, forty eight weaner rabbits of about five weeks old were allotted into three treatments with each treatment consisting of sixteen rabbits in a completely randomized ...

  12. Effect of Cigarette Smoke on Rabbit Testicular Lipid Peroxidation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of cigarette smoke on oxidative status of liver and testis was evaluated. Three groups of male weaned rabbits (1.0 – 1.5kg) were used. Group 1, the basal control group consisted of 2 rabbits which were sacrificed immediately after one week acclimatization (week O). Group 2 – (S) group consisted of 6 rabbits.

  13. Performance evaluation and nutrient digestibility of rabbits fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 32 weaned rabbits (56 days old; 586 ± 60.31g body weight) were selected to investigate the effect of dietary growth promoters on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility and carcass characteristics of rabbits. The rabbits were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (n = 8) including a basal diet (control), ...

  14. Performance and nutrient digestibility of rabbits fed urea treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to investigate the effect of varying levels of urea treated and untreated cowpea husk on the performance of weaner rabbits. Thirty-two mongrel weaner rabbits of both sexes, 6 – 8 weeks old with an average weight of 822g were randomly distributed to four dietary treatments with four rabbits per ...

  15. Occurrence of Gastrointestinal Helminths in rabbits with special ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-09-25

    Sep 25, 2013 ... droppings to digest their food further and extract sufficient nutrients (Oaktreevet, 2010). Rabbits are generally infected with numerous parasites. Parasitic infections have caused considerable losses to rabbits in the region. Numbers of parasites are responsible for illness of rabbits (Allan et al., 1999).

  16. Energy partitioning for growth by rabbits fed groundnut and stylo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty eight crossbred (California X New Zealand White) rabbits were used to evaluate energy partitioning of rabbits fed forages supplemented with concentrate. The rabbits were randomly allocated to three treatments consisting of sole Stylosanthes hamata (stylo),sole Arachis hypogea (groundnut) haulms and 50:50 mixture ...

  17. Retinitis-pigmentosa-like tapetoretinal degeneration in a rabbit breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbach, A; Baar, U

    1985-08-15

    By chance, we found a rabbit strain with retinal dystrophy. The eyes of these rabbits were examined by ophthalmoscopy, electroretinography, histology, and cytology--the latter after retina dissociation with papaine. The results suggest this rabbit strain to be a possible animal model for human retinitis pigmentosa.

  18. Vitamins and abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Hisato; Umemoto, Takuya

    2017-02-01

    To summarize the association of vitamins (B6, B12, C, D, and E) and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), we reviewed clinical studies with a comprehensive literature research and meta-analytic estimates. To identify all clinical studies evaluating the association of vitamins B6/B12/C/D/E and AAA, databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched through April 2015, using Web-based search engines (PubMed and OVID). For each case-control study, data regarding vitamin levels in both the AAA and control groups were used to generate standardized mean differences (SMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Pooled analyses of the 4 case-control studies demonstrated significantly lower circulating vitamin B6 levels (SMD, -0.33; 95% CI, -0.55 to -0.11; P=0.003) but non-significantly lower vitamin B12 levels (SMD, -0.42; 95% CI, -1.09 to 0.25; P=0.22) in patients with AAA than subjects without AAA. Pooled analyses of the 2 case-control studies demonstrated significantly lower levels of circulating vitamins C (SMD, -0.71; 95% CI, -1.23 to -0.19; P=0.007) and E (SMD, -1.76; 95% CI, -2.93 to 0.60; P=0.003) in patients with AAA than subjects without AAA. Another pooled analysis of the 3 case-control studies demonstrated significantly lower circulating vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D) levels (SMD, -0.25; 95% CI, -0.50 to -0.01; P=0.04) in patients with AAA than subjects without AAA. In a double-blind controlled trial, 4.0-year treatment with a high-dose folic acid and vitamin B6/B12 multivitamin in kidney transplant recipients did not reduce a rate of AAA repair despite significant reduction in homocysteine level. In another randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 5.8-year supplementation with α-tocopherol (vitamin E) had no preventive effect on large AAA among male smokers. In clinical setting, although low circulating vitamins B6/C/D/E (not B12) levels are associated with AAA presence, vitamins B6/B12/E

  19. Mechanical Aortic Valve Replacement in Octogenarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Tasoglu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study analyzes the long-term outcomes of mechanical aortic valve replacement in octogenarian patients. Material and Method: A retrospective review was performed on 23 octogenarian patients who underwent mechanical aortic valve replacement. Hospital mortality, postoperative intensive care unit stay, hospital stay and long-term results was examined. Estimates of the cumulative event mortality rate were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The mean age of all patients was 82.9±2.3 years and most were men (65.22%. The median ejection fraction was 45%. 73.91% of patients were in New York Heart Association class III-IV. Thirteen patients (56.52% in this study underwent combined procedure, the remaining 10 (43.48% patients underwent isolated aortic valve replacement. The most common valve size was 23 mm. The mean intensive care unit stay was 1.76±1.14 days. The mean hospital stay was 9.33±5.06 days. No complications were observed in 56.52% patients during their hospital stay. The overall hospital mortality was 8.7%. Follow-up was completed for all 23 patients. Median follow-up time was 33 months (1-108 months. Actuarial survival among discharged from hospital was 59% at 5 years. Discussion: Mechanical aortic valve replacement is a safe procedure in octogenarian patients and can be performed safely even in combined procedure.

  20. Natural history of abdominal aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perko, M J; Schroeder, T V; Olsen, P S

    1993-01-01

    During a 10-year period in which 735 patients presented with abdominal aortic aneurysms to our clinic, 63 were not offered operative treatment. The primary reason for choosing conservative treatment was concomitant diseases that increased the risk of operation. After 2 years of followup, half...

  1. Autopsy after transcatheter aortic valve implantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kesteren, F.; Wiegerinck, E. M. A.; Rizzo, S.; Baan, J.; Planken, R. N.; von der Thüsen, J. H.; Niessen, H. W. M.; van Oosterhout, M. F. M.; Pucci, A.; Thiene, G.; Basso, C.; Sheppard, M. N.; Wassilew, K.; van der Wal, A. C.

    2017-01-01

    Autopsy after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is a new field of interest in cardiovascular pathology. To identify the cause of death, it is important to be familiar with specific findings related to the time interval between the procedure and death. We aimed to provide an overview of

  2. Severe aortic valve stenosis and nosebleed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoedel, Johannes; Obergfell, Achim; Maass, Alexander H.; Schodel, Johannes

    2007-01-01

    Aortic valve stenosis is known to be associated with loss of high molecular von Willebrand multimers. This can lead to gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with gastrointestinal angiodysplasia, the Heyde syndrome. Here we present a case of anaemia and severe epistaxis associated with acquired von

  3. [Albert Einstein and his abdominal aortic aneurysm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes Castro, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    The interesting case of Albert Einstein's abdominal aortic aneurysm is presented. He was operated on at age 69 and, finding that the large aneurysm could not be removed, the surgeon elected to wrap it with cellophane to prevent its growth. However, seven years later the aneurysm ruptured and caused the death of the famous scientist.

  4. Fatal Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Aortic Graft Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Michael (Technical Monitor); Smith, Davey; Metzgar, David; Wills, Christopher; Fierer, Joshua

    2002-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a yeast commonly used in baking and a frequent colonizer of human mucosal surfaces. It is considered relatively nonpathogenic in immunocompetent adults. We present a case of S. cerevisiae fungemia and aortic graft infection in an immunocompetent adult. This is the first reported case of S. cerevisiue fungemia where the identity of the pathogen was confirmed by rRNA sequencing.

  5. The relevance of aortic endograft prosthetic infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cernohorsky, Paul; Reijnen, Michel M. P. J.; Tielliu, Ignace F. J.; van Sterkenburg, Steven M. M.; van den Dungen, Jan J. A. M.; Zeebregts, Clark J.

    Background: Vascular prosthetic graft infection is a severe complication after open aortic aneurysm repair. Reports of infected endografts are scarce. General treatment consensus with infected graft material is that it should be removed completely. The objective of this study was to describe the

  6. Thrombosed false channel in acute aortic dissections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alerci, M.; Dore, R.; Kluzer, A.; Digiulio, G.; D'Andrea, F.; De Agostini, A.

    1987-01-01

    Three cases are reported of acute dissection with complete thrombosis of the false channel, which is a very uncommonevent in DeBakey's I and II type aortic dissections. The 3 patients entered hospital because of severe thoracic pain without any ECG sign of myocardial infarction. Emergency CT showed evidence of pericardial effusion suggesting hemopericardium, enlargement of the ascending aorta and a peripheral semilunar filling defect which caused a slight deformation of the true channel. On precontrast scans, only one case showed inward displacement of peripheral calcifications and high-density aortic wall. No tipical signs of aortic dissection were reported, expect in the first patient - where a double contrast filled lumen, separated by an intimal flap was seen. CT findings are individually discussed. It is emphasized that in all patients more than one CT sign was present at a time. The correct evaluation of these signs together with the clinacal data could lead to the right diagnosis of aortic dissection in spite of the lack of a f???

  7. Genetics Home Reference: supravalvular aortic stenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and narrower than usual. A thickened aorta is less flexible and resilient to the stress of constant blood flow and pumping of the heart. Over time, the wall of the aorta can become damaged. Aortic narrowing causes the heart to work harder to pump blood through the aorta, resulting ...

  8. Dynamic renal scintigraphy in aortic disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terae, Satoshi; Itoh, Kazuo; Tsukamoto, Eriko; Nakada, Kunihiro; Fujimori, Kenji; Hashimoto, Masato; Tanabe, Tatsuzo; Furudate, Masayori; Irie, Goro

    1986-01-01

    Dynamic renal scintigraphy has been reviewed for evaluation of renal arterial involvement in aortic disorders such as arteriosclerosis obliterans, abdominal aortic aneurysm and dissecting aneurysm. As a diagnostic finding and parameters, we used blood perfusion images of both kidneys and relative split renal function index obtained with analysis of the time-activity curves which were generated using a renal region of interest. In the diagnosis of unilateral renal arterial involvement, sensitivity and specificity of blood perfusion images were 100 % (9/9) and 77 % (10/13) and those of relative split renal function index were 78 % (7/9) and 92 % (12/13), respectively. Dynamic renal scintigraphy was useful for evaluating unilateral renal arterial involvement in aortic diseases. However, scintigraphic diagnosis of bilateral renal arterial involvement were difficult. And in a severe case, we could not differentiate renal parenchymal damage due to renovascular involvement from senile renal dysfunction or hypertensive renal disease which is often a cause of aortic disorders. (author)

  9. Aortic root reconstruction by aortic valve-sparing operation (David type I reimplantation) in Marfan syndrome accompanied by annuloaortic ectasia and acute type-A aortic dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamura, Shunichi; Furuya, Hidekazu; Yagi, Kentarou; Ikeya, Eriko; Yamaguchi, Masaomi; Fujimura, Takabumi; Kanabuchi, Kazuo

    2006-09-20

    To reconstruct the aortic root for aneurysm of the ascending aorta accompanied by aortic regurgitation, annuloaortic ectasia (AAE) and acute type-A dissection with root destruction, the Bentall operation using a prosthetic valve still is the standard procedure today. Valve-sparing procedures have actively been used for aortic root lesions, and have also been attempted in aortic root reconstruction for Marfan syndrome which may have abnormalities in the valve leaflets. We conducted a valve-sparing procedure in a female patient with Marfan syndrome who had AAE accompanied by type-A acute aortic dissection. The patient was a 37-year-old woman complaining of severe pain from the chest to the back. The limbs were long, and funnel breast was observed. Diastolic murmurs were heard. On chest computed tomography, a dissection cavity was present from the ascending aorta to the left common iliac artery, and the root dilated to 55 mm. Grade II aortic regurgitation was observed on ultrasound cardiography. Regarding her family history, her father had died suddenly at 54 years of age. She was diagnosed with type-A acute dissection concurrent with Marfan syndrome and AAE. The structure of the aortic valve was normal, and root reconstruction by a valve-sparing operation and total replacement of the aortic arch was conducted. On postoperative ultrasound cardiography, the aortic regurgitation was within the allowable range, and the shortterm postoperative results were good.

  10. Rabbit embryonic stem cell lines derived from fertilized, parthenogenetic or somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Zhen F.; Gai, Hui; Huang, You Z.; Li, Shan G.; Chen, Xue J.; Shi, Jian J.; Wu, Li; Liu, Ailian; Xu, Ping; Sheng, Hui Z.

    2006-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells were isolated from rabbit blastocysts derived from fertilization (conventional rbES cells), parthenogenesis (pES cells) and nuclear transfer (ntES cells), and propagated in a serum-free culture system. Rabbit ES (rbES) cells proliferated for a prolonged time in an undifferentiated state and maintained a normal karyotype. These cells grew in a monolayer with a high nuclear/cytoplasm ratio and contained a high level of alkaline phosphate activity. In addition, rbES cells expressed the pluripotent marker Oct-4, as well as EBAF2, FGF4, TDGF1, but not antigens recognized by antibodies against SSEA-1, SSEA-3, SSEA-4, TRA-1-10 and TRA-1-81. All 3 types of ES cells formed embryoid bodies and generated teratoma that contained tissue types of all three germ layers. rbES cells exhibited a high cloning efficiency, were genetically modified readily and were used as nuclear donors to generate a viable rabbit through somatic cell nuclear transfer. In combination with genetic engineering, the ES cell technology should facilitate the creation of new rabbit lines

  11. Multimodality Imaging Approach towards Primary Aortic Sarcomas Arising after Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair: Case Series Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamran, Mudassar, E-mail: kamranm@mir.wustl.edu; Fowler, Kathryn J., E-mail: fowlerk@mir.wustl.edu; Mellnick, Vincent M., E-mail: mellnickv@mir.wustl.edu [Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology (United States); Sicard, Gregorio A., E-mail: sicard@wudosis.wustl.edu [Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Surgery (United States); Narra, Vamsi R., E-mail: narrav@mir.wustl.edu [Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Primary aortic neoplasms are rare. Aortic sarcoma arising after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is a scarce subset of primary aortic malignancies, reports of which are infrequent in the published literature. The diagnosis of aortic sarcoma is challenging due to its non-specific clinical presentation, and the prognosis is poor due to delayed diagnosis, rapid proliferation, and propensity for metastasis. Post-EVAR, aortic sarcomas may mimic other more common aortic processes on surveillance imaging. Radiologists are rarely knowledgeable about this rare entity for which multimodality imaging and awareness are invaluable in early diagnosis. A series of three pathologically confirmed cases are presented to display the multimodality imaging features and clinical presentations of aortic sarcoma arising after EVAR.

  12. Phototoxic effects of 8-methoxypsoralen on rabbit corneal endothelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menon, I.A.; Basu, P.K.; Hasany, S.M.; Persad, S.D. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    1989-01-01

    The phototoxic effects of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) were investigated using the rabbit corneal endothelium in organ culture. The corneas were divided into four groups: (a) irradiated with a mercury vapor lamp (emitting UVA and visible radiation) in the presence of 8-MOP (experimental), (b) irradiated without 8-MOP (control A), (c) incubated with 8-MOP (control B) and (d) incubated without 8-MOP (control C). Specular and light microscopic examination showed that the experimental corneas had greater cellular damage compared to the control corneas. The effects of 8-MOP were restricted to certain localized areas of the cornea. However there was no significant difference in the amounts of 51Cr released from the labelled experimental and control corneas. These results show phototoxic damage of the corneal endothelial cells.

  13. Teratogenic effect of formaldehyde in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Al–Saraj

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty three pregnant rabbits were exposed to vapour of 10% formaldehyde (12 ppm throughout the gestation period to know its effect on newborns. The results showed no abortion or foetal mortality but there were some anomalies (23.8% among the newborns rabbits which includes: meromelia (6.8%, encephalocele (6.1%, Oligodactyly (4.1%, Umbilical hernia (3.4% and Short tail (3.4%; besides that small for date and decrease in the body weight of the newborns were also noticed. These findings suggest that formaldehyde is a teratogenic agent.

  14. Trichostatin A (TSA) improves the development of rabbit-rabbit intraspecies cloned embryos, but not rabbit-human interspecies cloned embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Li-Hong; Miao, Yi-Liang; Ouyang, Ying-Chun; Huang, Jun-Cheng; Lei, Zi-Li; Yang, Ji-Wen; Han, Zhi-Ming; Song, Xiang-Fen; Sun, Qing-Yuan; Chen, Da-Yuan

    2008-03-01

    The interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) technique for therapeutic cloning gives great promise for treatment of many human diseases. However, the incomplete nuclear reprogramming and the low blastocyst rate of iSCNT are still big problems. Herein, we observed the effect of TSA on the development of rabbit-rabbit intraspecies and rabbit-human interspecies cloned embryos. After treatment with TSA for 6 hr during activation, we found that the blastocyst rate of rabbit-rabbit cloned embryos was more than two times higher than that of untreated embryos; however, the blastocyst rate of TSA-treated rabbit-human interspecies cloned embryos decreased. We also found evident time-dependent histone deacetylation-reacetylation changes in rabbit-rabbit cloned embryos, but not in rabbit-human cloned embryos from fusion to 6 hr after activation. Our results suggest that TSA-treatment does not improve blastocyst development of rabbit-human iSCNT embryos and that abnormal histone deacetylation-reacetylation changes in iSCNT embryos may account for their poor blastocyst development. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. A study of extracellular matrix remodeling in aortic heart valves using a novel biaxial stretch bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ying; Masjedi, Shirin; Ferdous, Zannatul

    2017-11-01

    In aortic valves, biaxial cyclic stretch is known to modulate cell differentiation, extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis and organization. We designed a novel bioreactor that can apply independent and precise stretch along radial and circumferential directions in a tissue culture environment. While this bioreactor can be used for either native or engineered tissues, this study determined matrix remodeling and strain distribution of aortic cusps after culturing under biaxial stretch for 14 days. The contents of collagen and glycosaminoglycans were determined using standard biochemical assays and compared with fresh controls. Strain fields in static cusps were more uniform than those in stretched cusps, which indicated degradation of the ECM fibers. The glycosaminoglycan content was significantly elevated in the static control as compared to fresh or stretched cusps, but no difference was observed in collagen content among the groups. The strain profile of freshly isolated fibrosa vs. ventricularis and left, right, and noncoronary cusps were also determined by Digital Image Correlation technique. Distinct strain patterns were observed under stretch on fibrosa and ventricularis sides and among the three cusps. This work highlights the critical role of the anisotropic ECM structure for proper functions of native aortic valves and the beneficial effects of biaxial stretch for maintenance of the native ECM structure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Aortic valve-sparing operations in aortic root aneurysms: remodeling or reimplantation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnavardi, Mohammad; Yan, Tristan D; Bannon, Paul G; Wilson, Michael K

    2011-08-01

    A best evidence topic was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether the reimplantation (David) technique or the remodeling (Yacoub) technique provides the optimum event free survival in patients with an aortic root aneurysm suitable for an aortic valve-sparing operation. In total, 392 papers were found using the reported search criteria, of which 14 papers provided the best evidence to answer the clinical question. A total of 1338 patients (Yacoub technique in 606 and David technique in 732) from 13 centres were included. In most series, cardiopulmonary bypass time and aortic cross-clamp time were longer for the David technique compared to the Yacoub technique. Early mortality was comparable between the two techniques (0-6.9% for the Yacoub technique and 0-6% for the David technique). There is a tendency for a higher freedom from significant long-term aortic insufficiency in the David group than the Yacoub group, which does not necessarily result in a higher reoperation rate in the Yacoub group. In the largest series reported, freedom from a moderate-to-severe aortic insufficiency at 12 years was 82.6 ± 6.2% in the Yacoub and 91.0 ± 3.8% in the David group (P=0.035). Freedom from reoperation at the same time point was 90.4 ± 4.7% in the Yacoub group and 97.4 ± 2.2% in the David group (P=0.09). In another series, freedom from reoperation at a follow-up time of about four years was 89 ± 4% in the Yacoub group and 98 ± 2% in the David group. Although some authors merely preferred the Yacoub technique for a bicuspid aortic valve, the accumulated evidence in the current review indicates comparable results for both techniques in a bicuspid aortic valve. Current evidence is in favour of the David rather than the Yacoub technique in pathologies such as Marfan syndrome, acute type A aortic dissection, and excessive annular dilatation that may impair aortic root integrity. Careful selection of patients for each technique and

  17. Effect of methanolic extract of Piper sarmentosum leaves on neointimal foam cell infiltration in rabbits fed with high cholesterol diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amran, Adel A.; Zakaria, Zaiton; Othman, Faizah; Das, Srijit; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Raj, Santhana; Nordin, Nor-Anita MM

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown the beneficial effects of aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum (P.s) on atherosclerosis. The first stage in atherosclerosis is the formation of foam cell. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the methanol extract of P.s on fatty streaks by calculating neointimal foam cell infiltration in rabbits fed with high cholesterol diet. Thirty six male New Zealand white rabbits were divided equally into six groups: (i) C: control group fed normal rabbit chow; (ii) CH: cholesterol diet (1 % cholesterol); (iii) PM1: 1 % cholesterol with methanol extract of P.s (62.5 mg/kg); (iv) PM2: 1 % cholesterol with methanol extract of P.s (125 mg/kg); (v) PM3: 1 % cholesterol with methanol extract of P.s (250 mg/kg); (vi) SMV group fed 1 % cholesterol supplemented with Simvistatin drug (1.2 mg/kg). All animals were treated for 10 weeks. At the end of the treatment, the rabbits were fasted and sacrificed and the aortic tissues were collected for histological studies to measure the area of the neointimal foam cell infiltration using software. The thickening of intima ratio of atherosclerosis and morphological changes by scanning electron microscope were measured. The results showed that the atherosclerotic group had significantly bigger area of fatty streak compared to the control group. The area of fatty streak in the abdominal aorta was significantly reduced in the treatment groups which were similar with the SMV group. Similarly, there was a reduction in the number of foam cell in the treatment groups compared to the atherosclerotic group as seen under scanning microscope. In conclusion, histological study demonstrated that the methanol extract of the P.s could reduce the neointimal foam cell infiltration in the lumen of the aorta and the atherosclerotic lesion. PMID:27366140

  18. Association of ficolin-3 with abdominal aortic aneurysm presence and progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez-García, C-E; Burillo, E; Lindholt, J S

    2017-01-01

    Essentials Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is asymptomatic and its evolution unpredictable. To find novel potential biomarkers of AAA, microvesicles are an excellent source of biomarkers. Ficolin-3 is increased in microvesicles obtained from activated platelets and AAA tissue. Increased ficolin-3...... plasma levels are associated with AAA presence and progression. SUMMARY: Background Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) patients are usually asymptomatic and AAA evolution is unpredictable. Ficolin-3, mainly synthesized by the liver, is a molecule of the lectin complement-activation pathway involved in AAA...... pathophysiology. Objectives To define extra-hepatic sources of ficolin-3 in AAA and investigate the role of ficolin-3 as a biomarker of the presence and progression of AAA. Methods Microvesicles (exosomes and microparticles) were isolated from culture-conditioned medium of ADP-activated platelets, as well as from...

  19. Infective endocarditis of the aortic valve in a Border collie dog with patent ductus arteriosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Takuma; Sunahara, Hiroshi; Sugimoto, Keisuke; Ito, Tetsuro; Kanai, Eiichi; Fujii, Yoko

    2015-03-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) in dogs with cardiac shunts has not been reported previously. However, we encountered a dog with concurrent patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and IE. The dog was a 1-year-old, 13.9-kg female Border collie and presented with anorexia, weight loss, pyrexia (40.4 °C) and lameness. A continuous murmur with maximal intensity over the left heart base (Levine 5/6) was detected on auscultation. Echocardiography revealed a PDA and severe aortic stenosis (AS) caused by aortic-valve vegetative lesions. Corynebacterium spp. and Bacillus subtilis were isolated from blood cultures. The dog responded to aggressive antibiotic therapy, and the PDA was subsequently surgically corrected. After a series of treatments, the dog showed long-term improvement in clinical status.

  20. Possible interaction between myxomatosis and calicivirosis related to rabbit haemorrhagic disease affecting the European rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchandeau, S; Bertagnoli, S; Peralta, B; Boucraut-Baralon, C; Letty, J; Reitz, F

    2004-11-06

    Serological data on myxoma virus, rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) virus and RHD-like viruses in juvenile rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) trapped in 1995, 1996 and 1997 in two areas of France were analysed. For each disease, the effects of bodyweight, year, month and seropositivity for the other disease were modelled by using logistic regressions. In one area, a model including RHD seropositivity was selected to explain the myxoma virus seropositivity. Models including myxoma virus seropositivity were selected to explain the RHD seropositivity in both areas, and the odds of a rabbit being seropositive to both viruses were 5.1 and 8.4 times higher than the odds of a rabbit being seronegative to myxoma virus and seropositive to RHD. The year and bodyweight had significant effects for myxomatosis in one area and for RHD in both areas.

  1. Inhibitory role of Notch1 in calcific aortic valve disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Acharya

    Full Text Available Aortic valve calcification is the most common form of valvular heart disease, but the mechanisms of calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD are unknown. NOTCH1 mutations are associated with aortic valve malformations and adult-onset calcification in families with inherited disease. The Notch signaling pathway is critical for multiple cell differentiation processes, but its role in the development of CAVD is not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular changes that occur with inhibition of Notch signaling in the aortic valve. Notch signaling pathway members are expressed in adult aortic valve cusps, and examination of diseased human aortic valves revealed decreased expression of NOTCH1 in areas of calcium deposition. To identify downstream mediators of Notch1, we examined gene expression changes that occur with chemical inhibition of Notch signaling in rat aortic valve interstitial cells (AVICs. We found significant downregulation of Sox9 along with several cartilage-specific genes that were direct targets of the transcription factor, Sox9. Loss of Sox9 expression has been published to be associated with aortic valve calcification. Utilizing an in vitro porcine aortic valve calcification model system, inhibition of Notch activity resulted in accelerated calcification while stimulation of Notch signaling attenuated the calcific process. Finally, the addition of Sox9 was able to prevent the calcification of porcine AVICs that occurs with Notch inhibition. In conclusion, loss of Notch signaling contributes to aortic valve calcification via a Sox9-dependent mechanism.

  2. Preoperative computer tomography evaluation in transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groudeva, V.; Stoynova, V.; Trendafilova, D.; Dzhorgova, Y.; Nachev, G.

    2014-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement is rapidly emerging technique alternative to surgery in high risk patients. Imaging and especially computer tomography is important in preoperative assessment of the aortic ring and the prosthetic valve choice. The aim of this study is to share authors initial experience in CT assessment of the aortic ring prior to Transcatheter aortic valve replacement. 49 patients (mean age 76,55) underwent 320 rows MDCT (Acquilon One) prior TAVI. Protocol involved scanning from thoracic inlet to common femoral arteries. Aortic root size, aortic diameter at the level of coronary sinuses and the sinotubular junction and distance to coronary ostia were evaluated on a Vitrea work station. MDCT established maximal aortic ring diameter from 18 to 31 mm mean 25,04 mm while the lesser rate was from 16 to 21 mm. Accordingly positioned prostheses were in 34,75% No. 23, in 49% - No. 26 and in16,3% - No. 29. MDCT is crucial in aortic valve assessment prior to TAVI in experienced hands and multidisciplinary team. (authors) Key words: TRANSCATHETER AORTIC VALVE REPLACEMENT (TAVI). MDCT AORTIC VALVE ASSESSMENT

  3. Aortic events in a nationwide Marfan syndrome cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Kristian A; Stochholm, Kirstine; Hove, Hanne; Kyhl, Kasper; Gregersen, Pernille A; Vejlstrup, Niels; Østergaard, John R; Gravholt, Claus H; Andersen, Niels H

    2017-02-01

    Marfan syndrome is associated with morbidity and mortality due to aortic dilatation and dissection. Preventive aortic root replacement has been the standard treatment in Marfan syndrome patients with aortic dilatation. In this study, we present aortic event data from a nationwide Marfan syndrome cohort. The nationwide cohort of Danish Marfan syndrome patients was established from the Danish National Patient Registry and the Cause of Death Register, where we retrieved information about aortic surgery and dissections. We associated aortic events with age, sex, and Marfan syndrome diagnosis prior or after the first aortic event. From the total cohort of 412 patients, 150 (36.4 %) had an aortic event. Fifty percent were event free at age 49.6. Eighty patients (53.3 %) had prophylactic surgery and seventy patients (46.7 %) a dissection. The yearly event rate was 0.02 events/year/patient in the period 1994-2014. Male patients had a significant higher risk of an aortic event at a younger age with a hazard ratio of 1.75 (CI 1.26-2.42, p = 0.001) compared with women. Fifty-three patients (12.9 %) were diagnosed with MFS after their first aortic event which primarily was aortic dissection [n = 44 (83.0 %)]. More than a third of MFS patients experienced an aortic event and male patients had significantly more aortic events than females. More than half of the total number of dissections was in patients undiagnosed with MFS at the time of their event. This emphasizes that diagnosing MFS is lifesaving and improves mortality risk by reducing the risk of aorta dissection.

  4. The risk for type B aortic dissection in Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hartog, Alexander W; Franken, Romy; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Timmermans, Janneke; Scholte, Arthur J; van den Berg, Maarten P; de Waard, Vivian; Pals, Gerard; Mulder, Barbara J M; Groenink, Maarten

    2015-01-27

    Aortic dissections involving the descending aorta are a major clinical problem in patients with Marfan syndrome. The purpose of this study was to identify clinical parameters associated with type B aortic dissection and to develop a risk model to predict type B aortic dissection in patients with Marfan syndrome. Patients with the diagnosis of Marfan syndrome and magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomographic imaging of the aorta were followed for a median of 6 years for the occurrence of type B dissection or the combined end point of type B aortic dissection, distal aortic surgery, and death. A model using various clinical parameters as well as genotyping was developed to predict the risk for type B dissection in patients with Marfan syndrome. Between 1998 and 2013, 54 type B aortic dissections occurred in 600 patients with Marfan syndrome (mean age 36 ± 14 years, 52% male). Independent variables associated with type B aortic dissection were prior prophylactic aortic surgery (hazard ratio: 2.1; 95% confidence interval: 1.2 to 3.8; p = 0.010) and a proximal descending aorta diameter ≥27 mm (hazard ratio: 2.2; 95% confidence interval: 1.1 to 4.3; p = 0.020). In the risk model, the 10-year occurrence of type B aortic dissection in low-, moderate-, and high-risk patients was 6%, 19%, and 34%, respectively. Angiotensin II receptor blocker therapy was associated with fewer type B aortic dissections (hazard ratio: 0.3; 95% confidence interval: 0.1 to 0.9; p = 0.030). Patients with Marfan syndrome with prior prophylactic aortic surgery are at substantial risk for type B aortic dissection, even when the descending aorta is only slightly dilated. Angiotensin II receptor blocker therapy may be protective in the prevention of type B aortic dissections. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease: advantages of cELISA in assessing immunity in wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Tao; Parkes, John P

    2011-12-15

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) is an acute fatal disease of domestic and wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) caused by RHD virus (RHDV). Accurate assessment of immunity is of great importance for the conservation and control of wild rabbits. We evaluated a competitive ELISA (cELISA) against isotype ELISAs for assessing the protective immunity against the disease by challenging 50 wild-caught rabbits with a lethal dose of RHDV. Death or survival to the challenge was used as a criterion to determine the performance characteristics of the assay for the assessment of immunity in rabbits. At 1:10 dilution, a serum exhibiting ≥ 25% inhibition (1:10(25)) was regarded as the presence of RHDV-specific antibodies. Eleven of 16 (68.8%) rabbits with antibodies at 1:10(25) (<1:40) died of RHD. When the cut-off was moved from 25% to 50% inhibition (1:10(50)) at 1:10 serum dilution, the assay sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for the protective immunity were improved from 84%, 54.2% and 69.4% to 84%, 100% and 91.8%, respectively. We also demonstrated at the epitope amino acid sequence level why the presence of the RHDV-cross reactive benign rabbit calicivirus, which interfered with isotype ELISAs, had little impact on the specificity of the cELISA for the diagnosis of RHDV infection. The presence of RHDV-specific antibody at 1:10(50) by the cELISA is a reliable indicator for the protective immunity. In contrast to isotype ELISAs, the cELISA is a valuable specific tool for monitoring the herd immunity to RHD for the conservation and management of wild rabbits in the field. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Selective Aortic Arch and Root Replacement in Repair of Acute Type A Aortic Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischman, Fernando; Elsayed, Ramsey S; Cohen, Robbin G; Tatum, James M; Kumar, S Ram; Kazerouni, Kayvan; Mack, Wendy J; Barr, Mark L; Cunningham, Mark J; Hackmann, Amy E; Baker, Craig J; Starnes, Vaughn A; Bowdish, Michael E

    2018-02-01

    Controversy exists regarding the optimal extent of repair for type A aortic dissection. Our approach is to replace the ascending aorta, and only replace the aortic root or arch when intimal tears are present in those areas. We examined intermediate outcomes with this approach to acute type A aortic dissection repair. Between March 2005 and October 2016, 195 patients underwent repair of acute type A aortic dissection. Repair was categorized by site of proximal and distal anastomosis and extent of repair. Mean follow-up was 31.0 ± 30.9 months. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to assess survival. Multiple variable Cox proportional hazards modeling was utilized to identify factors associated with overall mortality. Overall survival was 85.1%, 83.9%, 79.1%, and 74.4% at 6, 12, 36, and 60 months, respectively. Eight patients required reintervention. The cumulative incidence of aortic reintervention at 1 year with death as a competing outcome was 3.95%. Multiple variable regression analysis identified factors such as age, preoperative renal failure, concomitant thoracic endograft, postoperative myocardial infarction and sepsis, and need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as predictive of overall mortality. Neither proximal or distal extent of repair, nor need for reintervention affected overall survival (proximal: hazard ratio 1.63, 95% confidence interval: 0.75 to 3.51, p = 0.22; distal: hazard ratio 1.12, 95% confidence interval: 0.43 to 2.97, p = 0.81; reintervention: hazard ratio 0.03, 95% confidence interval: 0.002 to 0.490, p < 0.01). A selective approach to root and arch repair in acute type A aortic dissection is safe. If aortic reintervention is needed, survival does not appear to be affected. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Percutaneous implantation of the first repositionable aortic valve prosthesis in a patient with severe aortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buellesfeld, Lutz; Gerckens, Ulrich; Grube, Eberhard

    2008-04-01

    Percutaneous aortic valve replacement is a new less-invasive alternative for high-risk surgical candidates with aortic stenosis. However, the clinical experience is still limited, and the currently available 'first-generation devices' revealed technical shortcomings, such as lack of repositionability and presence of paravalvular leakages. We report the first-in-man experience with the new self-expanding Lotus Valve prosthesis composed of a nitinol frame with implemented bovine pericardial leaflets which is designed to address these issues, being repositionable and covered by a flexible membrane to seal paravalvular gaps. We implanted this prosthesis in a 93-year old patient presenting with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis (valve area: 0.6 cm(2)). Surgical valve replacement had been declined due to comorbidities. We used a retrograde approach for insertion of the 21-French Lotus catheter loaded with the valve prosthesis via surgical cut-down to the external iliac artery. Positioning of the valve was guided by transesophageal echo and supra-aortic angiograms. The prosthesis was successfully inserted and deployed within the calcified native valve. Echocardiography immediately after device deployment showed a significant reduction of the transaortic mean pressure gradient (32 to 9 mmHg; final valve area 1.7 cm(2)) without evidence of residual aortic regurgitation. The postprocedural clinical status improved from NYHA-IV to NYHA-II. These results remained unchanged up to the 3 month follow-up. Successful percutaneous aortic valve replacement can be performed using the new self-expanding and repositionable Lotus valve for treatment of high-risk patients with aortic valve stenosis. Further studies are mandatory to assess device safety and efficacy in larger patient populations. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Relation of thoracic aortic and aortic valve calcium to coronary artery calcium and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Nathan D; Sciammarella, Maria; Arad, Yadon; Miranda-Peats, Romalisa; Polk, Donna; Hachamovich, Rory; Friedman, John; Hayes, Sean; Daniell, Anthony; Berman, Daniel S

    2003-10-15

    Aortic calcium, aortic valve calcium (AVC), and coronary artery calcium (CAC) have been associated with cardiovascular event risk. We examined the prevalence of thoracic aortic calcium (TAC) and AVC in relation to the presence and extent of CAC, cardiovascular risk factors, and estimated risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). In 2,740 persons without known CHD aged 20 to 79 years, CAC was assessed by electron beam- or multidetector-computed tomography. We determined the prevalence of TAC and AVC in relation to CAC, CHD risk factors, and predicted 10-year risk of CHD. A close correspondence of TAC and AVC was observed with CAC. TAC and AVC increased with age; by the eighth decade of life, the prevalence of TAC was similar to that of CAC (>80%), and 36% of men and 24% of women had AVC. Age, male gender, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were directly related to the likelihood of CAC, TAC, and AVC; higher diastolic blood pressure and cigarette smoking additionally predicted CAC. Body mass index and higher systolic and lower diastolic blood pressures were also related to TAC, and higher body mass index and lower diastolic blood pressure were related to AVC. Calculated risk of CHD increased with the presence of AVC and TAC across levels of CAC. TAC and AVC provided incremental value over CAC in association with the 10-year calculated risk of CHD. If longitudinal studies show an incremental value of aortic and aortic valve calcium over that of CAC for prediction of cardiovascular events, future guidelines for risk assessment incorporating CAC assessment may additionally incorporate the measurement of aortic and/or aortic valve calcium.

  9. Characterization of Pasteurella multocida involved in rabbit infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massacci, Francesca Romana; Magistrali, Chiara Francesca; Cucco, Lucilla

    2018-01-01

    In rabbit, P. multocida is considered a predominant pathogenic agent; despite this, few data on the molecular epidemiology are available so far. The aim of this work was to characterize P. multocida isolates from rabbit affected by various diseases in Italy. Comparison was made to reference strains...... belonged to the LPS genotypes 3 (22/39) or 6 (17/39). The clonal relationships of the Italian strains from rabbit had similarity to previously reported rabbit isolates that belonged to ST9, ST74, ST204 and ST206, however, they differed from other rabbit references strains that belonged to six other STs....... In particular, ST9 with capsular type F has been previously reported from diseased rabbit in Czech Republic and ST74 has been observed for older rabbit isolates. ST50 has probably been reported from Spain. ST9 and ST50 have previously also been reported from birds and pig, respectively, whereas ST74 has...

  10. Influence of radiation (Co60) in pre-implant rabbit embryos: effect on mitotic index and embryonic pole malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approbato, M.S.; Moura, K.K.V.O.; Florencio, R.S.; Cunha Junior, C.; Garcia, R.; Faria, R.S.; Benedetti, L.N.; Goulart, F.B.

    1995-01-01

    We studied the effect of ionizing irradiation on 12 New Zealand rabbits (65 embryos), at three different times: at match time (zero hour), two days after and four days after, with two different irradiation doses: five c Gy and ten c Gy. Six rabbits (36 blastocysts) were used as controls. the matching instant was the zero hour. Exactly six days after (± 60 minutes) the embryos of each rabbit was picked up by flushing the uterus with culture media. the embryos were fixed in methanol for 48 hours, and colored with acid Mayer hematoxylin. The following embryo parameters were studied: mitotic index; embryonic pole malformations. There were no gross abnormalities of embryo pole. The mitotic index were altered both by the time and doses. (author)

  11. Ultrastructural researches on rabbit myxomatosis. Lymphnodal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcato, P S; Simoni, P

    1977-07-01

    Ultrastructural examination of head and neck lymph nodes in rabbits with spontaneous subacute myxomatosis showed fusion of immature reticuloendothelial cells which lead to the formation of polykarocytes. There was no ultrastructural evidence of viral infection of these polykaryocytes. Histiosyncytial lymphadenitis can be considered a specific lesion of myxomatosis.

  12. Ficus mucoso and Senna occidentalis in rabbits.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rev Olaleye

    ABSTRACT: A total of 20 domestic rabbits divided into 4 groups of 5 animals per ... Herbs have been used as food and ... adjuncts in helping reduced the risk of cardiovascular ... effective with minimal toxicity should be processed ... confirmed to have purgative, diuretic effects in dogs ... It is a glabrous tender shrub, annual or.

  13. Measures For Achieving Sustainable Rabbit Production In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to ascertain ways of achieving sustainable rabbits production in Ogba/Egbema/Ndoni Local Government Area of Rivers State. The study population involved 120 respondents comprising 40 students and 80 farmers. Two sets of structured questionnaire designed with a 4-point Likert type rating scale ...

  14. Strategies for rearing of rabbit does

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommers, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of different rearing strategies for young rabbit does on body development and reproduction performance. In current rearing, does are often fed to appetite from weaning to first insemination. First insemination is applied when 75 to 80% of mature body weight (BW) is

  15. Dystocia in a rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickie, Erica

    2011-01-01

    A 4-year-old female dwarf lop rabbit was presented with dystocia after mis-mating. Abdominal palpation, vaginal examination, and radiography confirmed that the doe was carrying 3 kits. Treatment for the dystocia consisted of gentle manual extraction of the fetuses and fetal membranes, and administration of oxytocin and calcium borogluconate. PMID:21461214

  16. Dystocia in a rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    OpenAIRE

    Dickie, Erica

    2011-01-01

    A 4-year-old female dwarf lop rabbit was presented with dystocia after mis-mating. Abdominal palpation, vaginal examination, and radiography confirmed that the doe was carrying 3 kits. Treatment for the dystocia consisted of gentle manual extraction of the fetuses and fetal membranes, and administration of oxytocin and calcium borogluconate.

  17. Resveratrol protects rabbits against cholesterol diet- induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... groups compared to HFD group only. In conclusion, the findings indicated that Resveratrol may contain polar products able to lower plasma lipid concentrations and might be beneficial in treatment of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. Keywords: Cholesterol diet, Lipidaemia, Rabbit; Resveratrol, LDL-c, HDL-c, TC, TG ...

  18. Nuclear triiodothyronine receptors in rabbit heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, S.K.; Ulrich, J.M.; Kaldor, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear triiodothyronine receptors from rat liver have been characterized in detail by several investigators. However, little work has been done in this area using heart tissue. In this study they examined and characterized the triiodothyronine binding in rabbit hearts. Nuclei have been prepared from ventricular muscle cells of normal and thyrotoxic rabbits as well as from atrial muscle cells of normal rabbit. Hearts were perfused with a minimum essential medium containing collagenase and bovine serum albumin. Myocardial cells were isolated and then disrupted by sonication and washing with a Triton X-100 buffer solution. A discontinuous sucrose density gradient was then used to isolate the mycoardial nuclei. Radiolabelled triiodothyronine (T 3 ) binding to nuclei was examined using conditions described by established procedures. Scatchard analysis of the binding data yields maximum binding capacity (B/sub max/) of 0.17 +/- 0.2 pmol/mg DNA and apparent dissociation constant (K/sub d/) of 400 +/- 50 pM for normal heart T 3 -receptors. The apparent capacity for T 3 binding is approximately 40% greater in myocardial nuclei prepared from hearts of hyperthyroid rabbits. The binding capacity of atrial muscle nuclei is about fourfold lower than ventricular cell nuclei. The results suggest that binding capacity for T 3 -receptor in the atrium is considerably lower than that found in the ventricle

  19. Alanine - Valine dynamics in pregnant rabbits | Emudianughe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [15N]-alanine and [15N]–valine dynamics were studied in 29 -30 days pregnant New-Zealand rabbits. Over the experimental period, there was no detectable significant difference of mean ± SD of alanine concentrations within the sampling intervals in maternal, umbilical venous and arterial blood samples suggesting that ...

  20. Studies of radiolabelled preparations in the rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.G.; Hardy, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    Rabbits are used to investigate the dose-response relationship of radiopharmaceuticals. The relationship can be divided into three phases:- (i) Pharmaceutical, covering the rate of release of the drug from the preparation. (ii) Pharmacokinetic, comprising processes of absorption, distribution and metabolism. (iii) Pharmacodynamic, interaction of the drug with the receptor site. (U.K.)

  1. Abnormalities of aortic arch shape, central aortic flow dynamics, and distensibility predispose to hypertension after successful repair of aortic coarctation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donazzan, Luca; Crepaz, Robert; Stuefer, Josef; Stellin, Giovanni

    2014-10-01

    Systemic hypertension (HT) is a major long-term complication even after successful repair of aortic coarctation (CoA), and many factors are involved in this pathophysiology. To investigate the role of abnormalities in the aortic arch shape, central aortic flow dynamics, and distensibility in developing HT after successful repair of CoA. We selected a group of 26 normotensive patients (mean age 16.9±7.3 years, range 9-32 years) with anatomically successful repair of CoA among 140 patients regularly followed after repair of CoA and analyzed their last clinical and echocardiographic data. Bicycle exercise test and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) were also obtained. Mean age at surgical repair was 3.2±3.9 years (range 10 days-15 years); 12 patients underwent surgical correction during the first year of life. Repair of CoA was performed by end-to-end anastomosis (TT) in 23 patients (extended TT in 6 patients with arch hypoplasia), patch aortoplasty in 2, and subcalvian flap aortoplasty in 1. The postsurgical follow-up was 13.8±7.2 years (range 3.5-29.4 years). The shape of the aortic arch was defined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on this global geometry (normal-gothic-crenel), ratio of the height-transverse diameter (A/T), percentage of residual stenosis, and growth index of the transverse arch segments. Flow mapping by phase-contrast imaging in the ascending and descending aorta was performed in order to measure the systolic waveforms and central aortic distensibility. Twenty normal age-matched patients submitted to the same MRI protocol were used as controls. Six patients were found to have a gothic and 20 a normal aortic arch shape. Patients with gothic aortic arch shape had an increased A/T ratio (0.80±0.07 vs 0.58±0.05, P135 mm Hg on ABPM were higher in the gothic than in the normal arch group. There was a correlation between nocturnal SBP, 24 hours pulse pressure on ABPM in the whole group, and different MRI variables (A/T, distensibility of

  2. Detecting atheromatous plaques in the aortic arch or supra-aortic arteries for more accurate stroke subtype classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaoyang; Wu, Simiao; Zeng, Quantao; Xiao, Jiahe; Liu, Ming

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the correlations of atheromatous plaques in the aortic arch or supra-aortic arteries with intracranial arterial stenosis and carotid plaques in stroke patients, and to determine whether taking these plaques into account will reduce the proportion of patients in the undetermined etiology group. We prospectively enrolled 308 ischemic stroke patients, whose clinical characteristics and A-S-C-O classifications were compared with analyses of intracranial arteries, carotid arteries, aortic arch, and supra-aortic arteries. 125(40.6%) patients had plaques in the aortic arch or supra-aortic arteries, of which 106 (84.8%) had complex plaques. No correlations were observed between these plaques and carotid plaques ( p = 0.283) or intracranial arterial stenosis ( p = 0.097). After detecting the mobile thrombi in the aortic arch and supra-aortic arteries, the proportion of patients in the atherothrombosis group was increased from 33.8% to 55.5% ( p = 0.00), whereas the proportion of patients in stroke of undetermined etiology group was decreased from 19.2% to 11.0% ( p = 0.00). Examining only the carotid and intracranial arteries may not provide adequate information about large arteries in stroke patients. Therefore, it would be better to include a search for relevant plaques in the aortic arch or supra-aortic arteries in modern stroke workup, for it may lead to more accurate stroke subtype classification and guide secondary prevention.

  3. Aortic Blood Flow Reversal Determines Renal Function: Potential Explanation for Renal Dysfunction Caused by Aortic Stiffening in Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Junichiro; Ito, Sadayoshi

    2015-07-01

    Aortic stiffness determines the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and predicts the progressive decline of the GFR. However, the underlying pathophysiological mechanism remains obscure. Recent evidence has shown a close link between aortic stiffness and the bidirectional (systolic forward and early diastolic reverse) flow characteristics. We hypothesized that the aortic stiffening-induced renal dysfunction is attributable to altered central flow dynamics. In 222 patients with hypertension, Doppler velocity waveforms were recorded at the proximal descending aorta to calculate the reverse/forward flow ratio. Tonometric waveforms were recorded to measure the carotid-femoral (aortic) and carotid-radial (peripheral) pulse wave velocities, to estimate the aortic pressure from the radial waveforms, and to compute the aortic characteristic impedance. In addition, renal hemodynamics was evaluated by duplex ultrasound. The estimated GFR was inversely correlated with the aortic pulse wave velocity, reverse/forward flow ratio, pulse pressure, and characteristic impedance, whereas it was not correlated with the peripheral pulse wave velocity or mean arterial pressure. The association between aortic pulse wave velocity and estimated GFR was independent of age, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, and antihypertensive medication. However, further adjustment for the aortic reverse/forward flow ratio and pulse pressure substantially weakened this association, and instead, the reverse/forward flow ratio emerged as the strongest determinant of estimated GFR (P=0.001). A higher aortic reverse/forward flow ratio was also associated with lower intrarenal forward flow velocities. These results suggest that an increase in aortic flow reversal (ie, retrograde flow from the descending thoracic aorta toward the aortic arch), caused by aortic stiffening and impedance mismatch, reduces antegrade flow into the kidney and thereby deteriorates renal function. © 2015 American Heart Association

  4. Serial transmission of human T-cell leukemia virus type I by blood transfusion in rabbits and its prevention by use of X-irradiated stored blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotani, S.; Yoshimoto, S.; Yamato, K.; Fujishita, M.; Yamashita, M.; Ohtsuki, Y.; Taguchi, H.; Miyoshi, I.

    1986-06-15

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) was serially transmitted for 5 passages from rabbit to rabbit by blood transfusion. The virus could be transmitted with 20 ml of whole blood or washed blood cell suspension (fresh or stored for 1-2 weeks at 4 degrees C) but not with cell-free plasma from seroconverted rabbits. Seroconversion occurred 2-4 weeks after blood transfusion and serum anti-HTLV-I titers ranged from 1:20 to 1:640 with the immunofluorescence assay. From transfusion recipients of the 1st to 4th passages, virus-producing cell lines were established by culturing lymphocytes in the presence of T-cell growth factor (TCGF). Three of the 4 cell lines became TCGF-independent after 2-12 months of continuous culture. Blood was transfused between rabbits of opposite sexes and the recipient origin of each cell line was determined by chromosome analysis. We also investigated the effect of X-irradiation (6,000 rad) on blood from seropositive rabbits. Seroconversion likewise occurred in rabbits transfused with blood that had been irradiated immediately before transfusion but not in rabbits transfused with blood that had been irradiated and stored for 1-2 weeks at 4 degrees C. Thus, our rabbit model shows that HTLV-I is serially transmissible by blood transfusion and that this can be prevented by irradiation of blood. The same procedure, therefore, may be useful for the prevention of transfusion-related transmission of HTLV-I in humans.

  5. Acute Type A Aortic Dissection Successfully Managed with One-stage Surgery of Total Aortic Arch Replacement with Supra-aortic Transposition Plus Frozen Elephant Trunk Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Lin Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute type A aortic dissection has long been a challenging issue. The surgical techniques traditionally vary with the anatomic extent of the aortic dissection. Simple ascending aortic grafting can be lifesaving, but the lesions beyond the aorta, which include the arch vessels and descending aorta, remain potential hazards. In this paper, we present a patient in which acute type A aortic dissection with lesions extending into descending thoracic aorta was successfully managed by total arch replacement with supra-aortic transposition plus the frozen elephant trunk technique to the descending aorta. A 67-year-old gentleman presented with severe tearing pain from the anterior to posterior chest. Computed tomography confirmed the diagnosis of acute type A dissection extending to the level of the right common iliac artery. An emergent operation was performed as in the aforementioned technique. The surgery went well and the patient was discharged without comorbidities on postoperative day 25. The patient had regular outpatient clinical follow-up. The follow-up computed tomography images showed adequate results with the obliteration of the false lumen. In conclusion, total aortic arch replacement with supra-aortic transposition plus frozen elephant trunk technique is a safe and feasible operative method for patients with detrimental acute type A aortic dissection.

  6. 3D echocardiographic analysis of aortic annulus for transcatheter aortic valve replacement using novel aortic valve quantification software: Comparison with computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediratta, Anuj; Addetia, Karima; Medvedofsky, Diego; Schneider, Robert J; Kruse, Eric; Shah, Atman P; Nathan, Sandeep; Paul, Jonathan D; Blair, John E; Ota, Takeyoshi; Balkhy, Husam H; Patel, Amit R; Mor-Avi, Victor; Lang, Roberto M

    2017-05-01

    With the increasing use of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in patients with aortic stenosis (AS), computed tomography (CT) remains the standard for annulus sizing. However, 3D transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) has been an alternative in patients with contraindications to CT. We sought to (1) test the feasibility, accuracy, and reproducibility of prototype 3DTEE analysis software (Philips) for aortic annular measurements and (2) compare the new approach to the existing echocardiographic techniques. We prospectively studied 52 patients who underwent gated contrast CT, procedural 3DTEE, and TAVR. 3DTEE images were analyzed using novel semi-automated software designed for 3D measurements of the aortic root, which uses multiplanar reconstruction, similar to CT analysis. Aortic annulus measurements included area, perimeter, and diameter calculations from these measurements. The results were compared to CT-derived values. Additionally, 3D echocardiographic measurements (3D planimetry and mitral valve analysis software adapted for the aortic valve) were also compared to the CT reference values. 3DTEE image quality was sufficient in 90% of patients for aortic annulus measurements using the new software, which were in good agreement with CT (r-values: .89-.91) and small (software can accurately measure aortic annulus in patients with severe AS undergoing TAVR, in better agreement with CT than the existing methodology. Accordingly, intra-procedural TEE could potentially replace CT in patients where CT carries significant risk. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Human-derived nanoparticles and vascular response to injury in rabbit carotid arteries: Proof of principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A K Schwartz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Maria A K Schwartz1, John C Lieske2, Vivek Kumar2, Gerard Farell-Baril2, Virginia M Miller1,31Departments of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Internal Medicine; 2Division of Nephrology, and 3Surgery, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USAAbstract: Self-calcifying, self-replicating nanoparticles have been isolated from calcified human tissues. However, it is unclear if these nanoparticles participate in disease processes. Therefore, this study was designed to preliminarily test the hypothesis that human-derived nanoparticles are causal to arterial disease processes. One carotid artery of 3 kg male rabbits was denuded of endothelium; the contralateral artery remained unoperated as a control. Each rabbit was injected intravenously with either saline, calcified, or decalcified nanoparticles cultured from calcified human arteries or kidney stones. After 35 days, both injured and control arteries were removed for histological examination. Injured arteries from rabbits injected with saline showed minimal, eccentric intimal hyperplasia. Injured arteries from rabbits injected with calcified kidney stone- and arterial-derived nanoparticles occluded, sometimes with canalization. The calcified kidney stone-derived nanoparticles caused calcifications within the occlusion. Responses to injury in rabbits injected with decalcified kidney stone-derived nanoparticles were similar to those observed in saline-injected animals. However, decalcified arterial-derived nanoparticles produced intimal hyperplasia that varied from moderate to occlusion with canalization and calcifi cation. This study offers the first evidence that there may be a causal relationship between human-derived nanoparticles and response to injury including calcification in arteries with damaged endothelium.Keywords: arterial calcification, endothelial injury, intimal hyperplasia

  8. Prostaglandin synthesis and catabolism in the gastric mucosa: studies in normal rabbits and rabbits immunized with prostaglandin E2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redfern, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    Antral and fundic mucosal homogenates obtained from prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits converted 14C-arachidonic acid to prostaglandin E2, 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha, prostaglandin F2 alpha, and prostaglandin D2. Percentage conversion of 14C-arachidonic acid to these prostaglandin products was not significantly different in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits compared with control rabbits (thyroglobulin-immunized and unimmunized rabbits combined). Synthesis of 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha, prostaglandin E2 and 13,14-dihydro 15-keto prostaglandin E2 from endogenous arachidonic acid after vortex mixing fundic mucosal homogenates was similar in prostaglandin E2 immunized rabbits and control rabbits. Both in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits and controls, 3H-prostaglandin E2 was catabolized extensively by the fundic mucosa, whereas 3H-6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha, 3H-prostaglandin F2 alpha, and 3H-prostaglandin D2 were not catabolized to any appreciable extent. The rate of catabolism of PGs was not significantly different in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits and control rabbits, with the exception of prostaglandin F2 alpha which was catabolized slightly more rapidly in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits. These results indicate that development of gastric ulcers in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits is not associated with an alteration in the capacity of the gastric mucosa to synthesize or catabolize prostaglandins

  9. Can early aortic root surgery prevent further aortic dissection in Marfan syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Hideyuki; Kasahara, Hirofumi; Nemoto, Atsushi; Yamabe, Kentaro; Ueda, Toshihiko; Yozu, Ryohei

    2012-02-01

    We reviewed 50 patients with Marfan syndrome who underwent surgery for aortic root pathologies comprising a root aneurysm without (n = 25; group A) and with (n = 25; group B) dissection. Aortic root repair included Bentall (n = 37) and valve-sparing (n = 13) procedures. Hospital mortality was 4.0%. Twenty-two patients required 36 repeat surgeries on the distal aorta. The main indication for re-intervention was the dilation of the false lumen. In group A, the distal aorta was stable for up to 7 years, but new dissection developed in 5 (33.3%) of the 15 patients who were followed up for >7 years after the root repair. Actuarial survival including operative mortality was 88.1 and 65.0% at 10 and 20 years, respectively; groups A and B did not significantly differ. Rates of freedom from all-cause death, new dissection or repeated aortic surgery were 60.1, 44.5 and 26.0% at 5, 10 and 15 years, respectively. Group A was significantly better than group B. Prophylactic aortic root repair apparently reduces the likelihood of overall adverse events, but it cannot guarantee the prevention of further aortic dissection. A multidisciplinary approach is needed for patients with Marfan syndrome.

  10. Endovascular Treatment of Late Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms after Surgical Repair of Congenital Aortic Coarctation in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juszkat, Robert; Perek, Bartlomiej; Zabicki, Bartosz; Trojnarska, Olga; Jemielity, Marek; Staniszewski, Ryszard; Smoczyk, Wiesław; Pukacki, Fryderyk

    2013-01-01

    Background In some patients, local surgery-related complications are diagnosed many years after surgery for aortic coarctation. The purposes of this study were: (1) to systematically evaluate asymptomatic adults after Dacron patch repair in childhood, (2) to estimate the formation rate of secondary thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAAs) and (3) to assess outcomes after intravascular treatment for TAAs. Methods This study involved 37 asymptomatic patients (26 female and 11 male) who underwent surgical repair of aortic coarctation in the childhood. After they had reached adolescence, patients with secondary TAAs were referred to endovascular repair. Results Follow-up studies revealed TAA in seven cases (19%) (including six with the gothic type of the aortic arch) and mild recoarctation in other six (16%). Six of the TAA patients were treated with stentgrafts, but one refused to undergo an endovascular procedure. In three cases, stengrafts covered the left subclavian artery (LSA), in another the graft was implanted distally to the LSA. In two individuals, elective hybrid procedures were performed with surgical bypass to the supraaortic arteries followed by stengraft implantation. All subjects survived the secondary procedures. One patient developed type Ia endoleak after stentgraft implantation that was eventually treated with a debranching procedure. Conclusions The long-term course of clinically asymptomatic patients after coarctation patch repair is not uncommonly complicated by formation of TAAs (particularly in individuals with the gothic pattern of the aortic arch) that can be treated effectively with stentgrafts. However, in some patients hybrid procedures may be necessary. PMID:24386233

  11. 'Generalizability' of a radial-aortic transfer function for the derivation of central aortic waveform parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Sarah A; Meredith, Ian T; Tay, David; Cameron, James D

    2007-09-01

    Arterial transfer functions (TFs) describe the relationship between the pressure waveform at different arterial sites. Generalized TFs are used to reconstruct central aortic waveforms from non-invasively obtained peripheral waveforms and have been promoted as potentially clinically useful. A limitation is the paucity of information on their 'generalizability' with no information existing on the number of subjects required to construct a satisfactory TF, nor is adequate prospective validation available. We therefore investigated the uniformity of radial-aortic TFs and prospectively estimated the capacity of a generalized TF to reconstruct individual central blood pressure parameters. Ninety-three subjects (64 male) were studied by simultaneous radial applanation and high-fidelity (Millar Mikro-tip catheter) direct measurement of central aortic BP during elective coronary procedures. Subjects were prospectively randomized to either a derivation or validation group. Increasing numbers of individual TFs from the derivation group were averaged to form a generalized TF. There was minimal change with greater than 20 TFs averaged. In the validation group, the error in most reconstructed parameters related to the absolute value of the directly measured parameter [systolic blood pressure (SBP) and pulse pressure, Pcentral aortic SBP and pulse pressure (negatively) and time to peak systole (positively) (all PInclusion of more than 20 individual TFs in the construction of a generalized TF does not improve 'generalizability'. There appear to be systematic errors in derived central pressure waveforms and derived aortic augmentation index is inaccurate compared to the directly measured value.

  12. The changing course of aortic valve disease in Scotland: temporal trends in hospitalizations and mortality and prognostic importance of aortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Colin; Lloyd, Suzanne M; Wang, Yanzhong; Macdonald, Alyson; Ford, Ian

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the contemporary clinical course of aortic valve disease types. We performed a retrospective population-level epidemiological study of hospitalized care in Scotland from 1 January 1997 to 31 December 2005 using electronic case identification of hospital admissions and deaths. Time-to-event analyses were performed using Cox Proportional-Hazards models. A total of 19 733 adults with an index hospitalization and a final diagnosis of non-congenital aortic valve disease were identified. Aortic stenosis, aortic insufficiency, mixed aortic valve disease, or unspecified aortic valve disease occurred in 13 220 (67.0%), 2807 (14.2%), 699 (3.5%), and 3007 (15.2%), individuals, respectively. The majority of hospitalizations occurred in elderly persons aged 80 and older. In total, 9981 (50.6%) patients had died by 31 December 2006. When compared with aortic stenosis, the risk of death was less with aortic insufficiency [hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) 0.79 (0.74, 0.84)] and mixed aortic valve disease [0.83 (0.74, 0.93)]. Female gender, admission year, and hypertension were associated with lower mortality in patients with aortic stenosis. Patients with aortic stenosis had increased risk of death or heart failure (adjusted P valve replacement of whom 73.2% had aortic stenosis, 11.9% aortic valve disease (unspecified),10.0% aortic insufficiency, and 4.9% aortic stenosis with insufficiency. Patients with aortic stenosis with insufficiency had increased likelihood of aortic valve replacement [1.19 (1.02, 1.38)]. Age, female gender, and co-morbidity reduced the likelihood of aortic valve replacement. The incidence of aortic valve stenosis has substantially increased in Scotland in recent years. Aortic stenosis predicts morbidity and mortality when compared with other types of aortic valve disease.

  13. Detection and localization of rabbit hepatitis e virus and antigen in systemic tissues from experimentally intraperitoneally infected rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Mao

    Full Text Available Rabbit hepatitis E virus (HEV is a novel genotype of HEV, and is considered to pose a risk of zoonotic transmission. Research into the systemic distribution of rabbit HEV in rabbits during different periods of infection has rarely been reported. To better understand this virus, we infected rabbits with second-passage rabbit HEV via an intraperitoneal route. After inoculation, the infection showed two types, temporary and constant infection. The detection of HEV RNA in the feces varied with time, and serum antigen correlated with fecal HEV RNA. Viremia only appeared 72 days after inoculation. The rabbits remained antibody negative throughout the experimental period. When HEV was localized, several organs besides the liver were HEV RNA positive. Tissue antigen was observed immunohistochemically in the different cells of various organs, especially in parts of the small intestine and the characteristic rabbit gut-associated lymphoid tissue. These data provide valuable information for future research into the pathogenesis of HEV.

  14. Factors associated with the development of aortic valve regurgitation over time after two different techniques of valve-sparing aortic root surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, Thorsten; Charitos, Efstratios I; Stierle, Ulrich; Robinson, Derek; Gorski, Armin; Sievers, Hans-H; Misfeld, Martin

    2009-02-01

    Early results after aortic valve-sparing root reconstruction are excellent. Longer-term follow-up, especially with regard to aortic valve function, is required for further judgment of these techniques. Between July of 1993 and September of 2006, 108 consecutive patients (mean age 53.0 +/- 15.8 years) underwent the Yacoub operation (group Y) and 83 patients underwent the David operation (group D). Innovative multilevel hierarchic modeling methods were used to analyze aortic regurgitation over time. In general, aortic regurgitation increased with time in both groups. Factors associated with the development of a significant increase in aortic regurgitation were Marfan syndrome, concomitant cusp intervention, and preoperative aortic anulus dimension. In Marfan syndrome, the initial aortic regurgitation was higher in group Y versus group D (0.56 aortic regurgitation vs 0.29 aortic regurgitation, P = .049), whereas the mean annual progression rate of aortic regurgitation was marginally higher in group Y (0.132 aortic regurgitation vs 0.075 aortic regurgitation, P = .1). Concomitant cusp intervention was associated with a significant aortic regurgitation increase in both groups (P Marfan syndrome and a large preoperative aortic annulus diameter were better treated with the reimplantation technique, whereas those with a smaller diameter were better treated with the remodeling technique. Concomitant free-edge plication of prolapsing cusps was disadvantageous in both groups. Considering these factors may serve to improve the aortic valve longevity after valve-sparing aortic root surgery.

  15. Aortic dissection presenting as a febrile disease and atrial fibrillation

    OpenAIRE

    Blas-Macedo, Jorge; Márquez-Ramírez, Dolores; Gómez-Dominguez, José de Jesús

    2007-01-01

    Aortic dissection is a cardiovascular emergency. Its main manifestation is severe chest pain, and approximately 50% of patients present with an elevated systemic blood pressure. Rare reported physical findings include a pulsatile sterno-clavicular joint, dysphagia or testicular tenderness. The absence of sudden onset of pain lowers the likelihood of aortic dissection. We describe a patient in whom aortic dissection was accompanied by fever, nightsweats, suprasternal pain and atrial fibrillati...

  16. Diminutive Porcelain Ascending Aorta With Supravalvular Aortic Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houmsse, Mustafa; McDavid, Asia; Kilic, Ahmet

    2018-05-01

    This report describes the case of a 49-year-old man with a medical history significant for congenital aortic stenosis. The patient presented with progressive shortness of breath and decreased stamina and was found to have a concentric, diminutive porcelain ascending aorta with diffuse supravalvular aortic stenosis. We describe treatment with an aortic root augmentation and Bentall procedure using hypothermic circulatory arrest. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Transcatheter aortic valve prosthesis surgically replaced 4 months after implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyregod, Hans Gustav; Lund, Jens Teglgaard; Engstrøm, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation is a new and rapidly evolving treatment option for high-risk surgical patients with degenerative aortic valve stenosis. Long-term results with these new valve prostheses are lacking, and potential valve dysfunction and failure would require valve replacemen....... We report the first case of surgical valve replacement in a patient with a dysfunctional transcatheter-implanted aortic valve prosthesis 4 months after implantation....

  18. Late skin damage in rabbits and monkeys after exposure to particulate radiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergtold, D. S.; Cox, A. B.; Lett, J. T.; Su, C. M.

    Skin biopsies were taken from the central regions of the ears of New Zealand white rabbits following localized exposure of one ear of each rabbit to 530 MeV/amu Ar or 365 MeV/amu Ne ions. The unirradiated ears served as controls. Biopsies were taken also from the chests and inner thighs of rhesus monkeys after whole-body exposure to 32 MeV protons and from unirradiated control animals. The linear energy transfers (LET∞'s) for the radiations were 90 +/- 5, 35 +/- 3, and ~1.2 keV/μm, respectively. In the rabbit studies, explants were removed with a 2 mm diameter dermal punch at post-irradiation times up to five years after exposure. Similar volumes of monkey tissue were taken from skin samples excised surgically 16-18 years following proton irradiation. Fibroblast cultures were initiated from the explants and were propagated in vitro until terminal senescence (cessation of cell division) occurred. Cultures from irradiated tissue exhibited decreases in doubling potential that were dependent on radiation dose and LET∞ and seemed to reflect damage to stem cell populations. The implications of these results for astronauts exposed to heavy ions and/or protons in space include possible manifestations of residual effects in the skin many years after exposure (e.g. unsatisfactory responses to trauma or surgery).

  19. Single Coronary Artery with Aortic Regurgitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsetos, Manny C.; Toce, Dale T.

    2003-01-01

    An isolated single coronary artery can be associated with normal life expectancy; however, patients are at an increased risk of sudden death. A case is reported of a 54-year-old man with several months of chest pressure with activity. On exercise Sestamibi stress testing, the patient developed a hypotensive response with no symptoms and minimal electrocardiographic changes. Nuclear scanning demonstrated reversible septal and lateral perfusion defects consistent with severe ischemia. Coronary angiography revealed a single coronary artery with the right coronary artery arising from the left main. There were high-grade stenotic lesions in the left anterior descending and circumflex arteries with only moderate atherosclerotic disease in the right coronary artery. An aortogram showed 2-3+ aortic regurgitation, with an ejection fraction of 45% on ventriculography. The patient underwent four-vessel revascularization and aortic valve replacement and did well postoperatively

  20. Diagnosis of aortic interruption by CT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirani, Shapour; Soleymanzadeh, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Interrupted aortic arch (IAA) is a rare congenital malformation of the aortic arch, which might be accompanied with other coexisting cardiovascular anomalies. Many cases with IAA are diagnosed at their neonatal and newborn period but in rare cases the diagnosis is not established until adulthood. The patients may have no clinical symptoms but the signs of heart failure will gradually appear and may cause death. The development of imaging methods such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has dramatically changed the diagnostics. Here we report a 20-year-old young man with IAA associated with sinus venosus atrial septal defect (SVD) and partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection (PAPVC) referred to our hospital

  1. Suprarenal Abdominal Aortic Coarctation Diagnosed During Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Hajsadeghi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Coarctation of the abdominal aorta is an extremely rare vascular defect inwhich congenital or acquired etiologies have been described. This case concernsa 30-year-old pregnant woman with 15-years history of uncontrolled hypertensionand lower limb claudication presented with worsened hypertension during herfirst pregnancy. Magnetic resonance angiography study of aorta revealed astenosis in abdominal aorta about 12mm from the origin of celiac axisaccompanied by left sided aortic arch and right aberrant subclavian artery. Thiscase highlights the importance of a throughout physical examination in patientspresented with hypertension and it emphasizes considering the coarctation of theabdominal aorta during the diagnostic workup of hypertension, especially inyoung patients. In such cases magnetic resonance angiography of the aorta is auseful tool to reach a definitive diagnosis especially in pregnant women.Also to our knowledge, this patient is the first one found to have aortic archmalformation combined with an abdominal coarctation.

  2. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation and cerebrovascular accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stortecky, Stefan; Wenaweser, Peter; Windecker, Stephan

    2012-09-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is an evidence-based treatment alternative for selected high-risk patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis as acknowledged in the most recent edition of the ESC Guidelines on Valvular Heart Disease 2012. However, periprocedural complications and in particular cerebrovascular accidents remain a matter of concern. While transcatheter heart valve technology continuously improves and the development of novel and even less invasive implantation techniques is on-going, cerebrovascular events complicating TAVI may abrogate the usual improvement in terms of prognosis and quality of life. This article describes the incidence of cerebrovascular events after cardiovascular procedures, provides an overview of the pathophysiological mechanisms as well as the impact on outcomes and provides some insights into preventive strategies as well as the acute management of these events.

  3. Spontaneous aortic dissecting hematoma in two dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulineau, Theresa Marie; Andrews-Jones, Lydia; Van Alstine, William

    2005-09-01

    This report describes 2 cases of spontaneous aortic dissecting hematoma in young Border Collie and Border Collie crossbred dogs. Histology was performed in one of the cases involving an unusual splitting of the elastin present within the wall of the aorta, consistent with elastin dysplasia as described in Marfan syndrome in humans. The first case involved a young purebred Border Collie that died suddenly and the second case involved a Border Collie crossbred dog that died after a 1-month history of seizures. Gross lesions included pericardial tamponade with dissection of the ascending aorta in the former case and thoracic cavity hemorrhage, mediastinal hematoma, and aortic dissection in the latter. Histologic lesions in the case of the Border Collie crossbred dog included a dissecting hematoma of the ascending aorta with elastin dysplasia and right axillary arterial intimal proliferation.

  4. Aortic valve replacement during acute rheumatic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A; Chi, S; Gonzalez-Lavin, L

    1978-07-01

    Emergency aortic valve replacement was performed during an attack of acute rheumatic fever in a 12-year-old black boy. He had an uneventful recovery and has remained asymptomatic 27 months after operation. In the light of this experience and that of others, one might conclude that the decision to operate on these patients should be based on the severity of the haemodynamic derangement rather than on the state of activity in the rheumatic process.

  5. Total Percutaneous Aortic Repair: Midterm Outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bent, Clare L.; Fotiadis, Nikolas; Renfrew, Ian; Walsh, Michael; Brohi, Karim; Kyriakides, Constantinos; Matson, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the immediate and midterm outcomes of percutaneous endovascular repair of thoracic and abdominal aortic pathology. Between December 2003 and June 2005, 21 patients (mean age: 60.4 ± 17.1 years; 15 males, 6 females) underwent endovascular stent-graft insertion for thoracic (n = 13) or abdominal aortic (n = 8) pathology. Preprocedural computed tomographic angiography (CTA) was performed to assess the suitability of aorto-iliac and common femoral artery (CFA) anatomy, including the degree of CFA calcification, for total percutaneous aortic stent-graft repair. Percutaneous access was used for the introduction of 18- to 26-Fr delivery devices. A 'preclose' closure technique using two Perclose suture devices (Perclose A-T; Abbott Vascular) was used in all cases. Data were prospectively collected. Each CFA puncture site was assessed via clinical examination and CTA at 1, 6, and 12 months, followed by annual review thereafter. Minimum follow-up was 36 months. Outcome measures evaluated were rates of technical success, conversion to open surgical repair, complications, and late incidence of arterial stenosis at the site of Perclose suture deployment. A total of 58 Perclose devices were used to close 29 femoral arteriotomies. Outer diameters of stent-graft delivery devices used were 18 Fr (n = 5), 20 Fr (n = 3), 22 Fr (n = 4), 24 Fr (n = 15), and 26 Fr (n = 2). Percutaneous closure was successful in 96.6% (28/29) of arteriotomies. Conversion to surgical repair was required at one access site (3.4%). Mean follow-up was 50 ± 8 months. No late complications were observed. By CT criteria, no patient developed a >50% reduction in CFA caliber at the site of Perclose deployment during the study period. In conclusion, percutaneous aortic stent-graft insertion can be safely performed, with a low risk of both immediate and midterm access-related complications.

  6. Paradoxical aortic stenosis: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaca, Rita; Teixeira, Rogério; Vieira, Maria João; Gonçalves, Lino

    2017-04-01

    Aortic stenosis (AS) is a complex systemic valvular and vascular disease with a high prevalence in developed countries. The new entity "paradoxical low-flow, low-gradient aortic stenosis" refers to cases in which patients have severe AS based on assessment of aortic valve area (AVA) (≤1 cm 2 ) or indexed AVA (≤0.6 cm 2 /m 2 ), but paradoxically have a low mean transvalvular gradient (<40 mmHg) and a low stroke volume index (≤35 ml/m 2 ), despite preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (≥50%). A search was carried out in the PubMed database on paradoxical AS for the period 2007-2014. A total of 57 articles were included for this review. The prevalence of paradoxical AS ranged from 3% to 35% of the population with severe degenerative AS. It was more frequent in females and in older patients. Paradoxical AS was associated with characteristic left ventricular remodeling as well as an increase in systemic arterial stiffness. It was noted that there may be errors and inaccuracies in the calculation of AVA by the continuity equation, which could erroneously suggest the paradoxical phenotype. There are new diagnostic methods to facilitate the study of AS, such as aortic valve calcium score, valvuloarterial impedance and the longitudinal mechanics of the left ventricle. With regard to its natural history, it is not clear whether paradoxical AS corresponds to an advance stage of the disease or if paradoxical AS patients have a distinct phenotype with specific characteristics. Valve replacement, either surgical or percutaneous, may be indicated in patients with severe and symptomatic paradoxical AS. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Relationship between aortic diseases and renal cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashizume, Toshikazu

    2009-01-01

    Based on empirical observations, patients with aortic diseases (AoD) (abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) and aortic dissection (AD)) appeared to present with an increased incidence of renal cysts (RC) observed on computed tomography (CT). To clarify any potential relationship, I compared incidence of RC on CT scans in patients with and without AoD. A comparison was conducted on the incidence of RC on CT scans in 107 patients (74.6 years old; n=71 males, n=36 females) with AoD (57 AAA, 36 TAA, 14 AD) versus 332 control patients (73.6 years old; n=193 males, n=139 females) without AoD. Univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression were performed to evaluate the relationship between AoD and RC incidence. In patients with AoD, 65.0% presented with RC compared to only 28.6% in the control group (p<0.0001). In comparison, the AoD group presented with a higher frequency of hypertension (63.6% vs. 33.4%, p<0.0001), coronary artery disease (26.2% vs. 13.6%, p<0.0001), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (10.3% vs. 4.2%, p<0.0001), but no significant frequency of dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus was observed between the 2 groups. Multivariate analysis indicated three independent predictors of AoD: hypertension (p=0.013; odds ratio=2.32), COPD (p=0.015; odds ratio=5.62) and RC (p<0.0001; odds ratio=4.88). These results indicate a significantly higher incidence of RC in patients with versus without AoD. A close relationship between AoD and RC may exist, and coincidental RC could be a potential indicator for AoD screening. (author)

  8. Relationship between aortic diseases and renal cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashizume, Toshikazu [Minami Wakayama Medical Center, Tanabe, Wakayama (Japan)

    2009-12-15

    Based on empirical observations, patients with aortic diseases (AoD) (abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) and aortic dissection (AD)) appeared to present with an increased incidence of renal cysts (RC) observed on computed tomography (CT). To clarify any potential relationship, I compared incidence of RC on CT scans in patients with and without AoD. A comparison was conducted on the incidence of RC on CT scans in 107 patients (74.6 years old; n=71 males, n=36 females) with AoD (57 AAA, 36 TAA, 14 AD) versus 332 control patients (73.6 years old; n=193 males, n=139 females) without AoD. Univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression were performed to evaluate the relationship between AoD and RC incidence. In patients with AoD, 65.0% presented with RC compared to only 28.6% in the control group (p<0.0001). In comparison, the AoD group presented with a higher frequency of hypertension (63.6% vs. 33.4%, p<0.0001), coronary artery disease (26.2% vs. 13.6%, p<0.0001), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (10.3% vs. 4.2%, p<0.0001), but no significant frequency of dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus was observed between the 2 groups. Multivariate analysis indicated three independent predictors of AoD: hypertension (p=0.013; odds ratio=2.32), COPD (p=0.015; odds ratio=5.62) and RC (p<0.0001; odds ratio=4.88). These results indicate a significantly higher incidence of RC in patients with versus without AoD. A close relationship between AoD and RC may exist, and coincidental RC could be a potential indicator for AoD screening. (author)

  9. Vascular complications associated with transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardar, M Rizwan; Goldsweig, Andrew M; Abbott, J Dawn; Sharaf, Barry L; Gordon, Paul C; Ehsan, Afshin; Aronow, Herbert D

    2017-06-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is now an accepted pathway for aortic valve replacement for patients who are at prohibitive, severe and intermediate risk for traditional aortic valve surgery. However, with this rising uptrend and adaptation of this new technology, vascular complications and their management remain an Achilles heel for percutaneous aortic valve replacement. The vascular complications are an independent predictor of mortality for patients undergoing TAVR. Early recognition of these complications and appropriate management is paramount. In this article, we review the most commonly encountered vascular complications associated with currently approved TAVR devices and their optimal percutaneous management techniques.

  10. Possible Subclinical Leaflet Thrombosis in Bioprosthetic Aortic Valves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkar, Raj R; Fontana, Gregory; Jilaihawi, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A finding of reduced aortic-valve leaflet motion was noted on computed tomography (CT) in a patient who had a stroke after transcatheter aortic-valve replacement (TAVR) during an ongoing clinical trial. This finding raised a concern about possible subclinical leaflet thrombosis...... patients and 1 of 115 patients, respectively; P=0.007). CONCLUSIONS: Reduced aortic-valve leaflet motion was shown in patients with bioprosthetic aortic valves. The condition resolved with therapeutic anticoagulation. The effect of this finding on clinical outcomes including stroke needs further...

  11. The Effects of Fetuin-A Levels on Aortic Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Tutuncu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We aimed to investigate the relation between fetuin-A and calcific aortic stenosis in non diabetic patients whose renal function were normal. Material and Method: 26 patients followed for aortic stenosis by our cardiology clinic for outpatients and 25 voluntary healthy subjects were included in the study. The fetuin%u2013A levels were measured from the venous blood samples of the study population. All patients underwent transthorasic echocardiography, the aortic valvular area and left ventricular parameters of the patients were measured. Results: The average age of the patients in degenerative aortic stenosis group was significantly higher than the control group. The parameters related to aortic valve were naturally higher in patients with dejenerative aortic valve. There was no siginificant difference between two groups about fetuin-A levels. Further more there was no significant relation between fetuin-a levels and aortic stenosis severity. Discussion: In conclusion fetuin-A is a multifunctional glycoprotein that plays important role in systemic calcification inhibition and valvular calcification. Finally aortic stenosis is an active process and larger studies that investigate the relation between fetuin-a and the progression and prognosis of aortic stenosis are needed.

  12. Aortic root abscess resulting from endocarditis: spectrum of angiographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, S.W.; Dinsmore, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    Abscesses in the aortic root are a serious complication of infective endocarditis and require accurate diagnosis for antibiotic and surgical management. Nineteen cases of endocarditis of a native valve or prosthetic valve and adjacent abscess cavities were identified with angiography. Of 6 patients with endocarditis of a native valve, 5 had bicuspid aortic valves and all had severe aortic regurgitation. Of 13 patients with endocarditis of a prosthetic aortic valve, all had paravalvular regurgitation. Fistulas were detected into the mitral anulus in 8 patients, and into the right ventricle in 3 patients. No complications from the catheterization were recorded during the 48-hour follow-up

  13. Aortic Disease in the Young: Genetic Aneurysm Syndromes, Connective Tissue Disorders, and Familial Aortic Aneurysms and Dissections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Cury

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many genetic syndromes associated with the aortic aneurysmal disease which include Marfan syndrome (MFS, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS, Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS, familial thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections (TAAD, bicuspid aortic valve disease (BAV, and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD. In the absence of familial history and other clinical findings, the proportion of thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysms and dissections resulting from a genetic predisposition is still unknown. In this study, we propose the review of the current genetic knowledge in the aortic disease, observing, in the results that the causative genes and molecular pathways involved in the pathophysiology of aortic aneurysm disease remain undiscovered and continue to be an area of intensive research.

  14. Aortic aneurysm disease vs. aortic occlusive disease - differences in outcome and intensive care resource utilisation after elective surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Jannie; Gilsaa, Torben; Rønholm, Ebbe

    2013-01-01

    clamping is more pronounced in patients with aortic aneurysm disease, which may affect outcome. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this observational cohort study was to evaluate outcome after open elective abdominal aortic surgery, hypothesising a higher 30-day mortality, a higher incidence of postoperative organ...... dysfunction and a longer length of stay in patients with aortic aneurysm compared with aortic occlusive disease. DESIGN: Cohort observational study based on prospective registrations from national databases. SETTING: Eight Danish hospitals, including four university and four non-university centres, from 1...... or inotropes, ICU stay more than 24 h, hospital length of stay and mortality. RESULTS: Compared with aortic occlusive disease, more patients with aortic aneurysm disease had ICU stays more than 24 h (62 vs. 45%, P ...

  15. Supra-aortic interventions for endovascular exclusion of the entire aortic arch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrási, Terézia B; Grossmann, Marius; Zenker, Dieter; Danner, Bernhard C; Schöndube, Friedrich A

    2017-07-01

    Our aim was to analyze the outcomes of endovascular exclusion of the entire aortic arch (proximal landing in zone 0, distal landing in zone III or beyond, after Ishimaru) in which complete surgical debranching of the supra-aortic vessels (I), endovascular supra-aortic revascularization (chimney, fenestrated, or branched grafts) with partial surgical debranching (II), or total endovascular supra-aortic revascularization (III) was additionally performed. Publications describing endovascular repair of the aortic arch (2000-2016) were systematically searched and reviewed. From a total of 53 relevant studies including 1853 patients, only 1021 patients undergoing 35 different total aortic arch procedures were found eligible for further evaluation and included in group I, II, or III (429, 190, and 402 patients, respectively). Overall early mortality was higher in group I vs groups II and III (P = .001; 1 - β = 95.6%) but exceeded in group III (18.6%) and group II (14.0%) vs group I (8.0%; P = .044; 1 - β = 57.4%) for diseases involving zone 0. Mortality was higher in all subgroups treated for zone 0 disease compared with corresponding subgroups treated for zone I to zone III disease. The incidence of cerebral ischemic events was increased in groups I and II vs group III (7.5% and 11% vs 1.7%; P = .0001) and correlated with early mortality (R 2  = .20; P = .033). The incidence of type II endoleaks and endovascular reintervention was similar between groups and correlated with each other (R 2  = .37; P = .004). Type Ia endoleak occurred more often in groups II and III than in group I (7.1% and 12.1% vs 5.8%; P = .023) and correlated with midterm mortality (R 2  = .53; P = .005). Retrograde type A dissection was low in all groups, whereas aneurysm growth was higher in group III (2.6%, 4.2%, 10.7%; P = .002), correlating with midterm mortality (R 2  = .311; P = .009). Surgical revision slightly correlated with surgical complications (R 2  = .18; P = .044

  16. Thrombocytosis following splenectomy and aortic valve replacement for idiopathic thrombocytopaenic purpura with bicuspid aortic valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarika Katiyar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic thrombocytopaenic purpura (ITP patients are at high risk for complications during and after cardiac surgeries involving cardiopulmonary bypass. The main clinical problem of primary ITP is an increased risk of bleeding although bleeding may not always be present. More recently, thrombosis has become appreciated as another potential complication of the procedure. We report a 22-year-old female patient with ITP with bicuspid aortic valve and splenomegaly, who underwent uncomplicated aortic valve replacement and splenectomy simultaneously. She was readmitted with chest pain due to coronary thrombosis following splenectomy which made the management difficult. We describe our experience in managing this patient who presented with thrombotic complication rather than bleeding in post-operative period and the challenges met in maintaining appropriate anticoagulation for aortic valve replacement as well as thrombosis, post-splenectomy

  17. Delirium After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuseffi, Jennifer L; Borges, Nyal E; Boehm, Leanne M; Wang, Li; McPherson, John A; Fredi, Joseph L; Ahmad, Rashid M; Ely, E Wesley; Pandharipande, Pratik P

    2017-07-01

    Postoperative delirium is associated with increased mortality. Patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement are at risk for delirium because of comorbid conditions. To compare the incidence, odds, and mortality implications of delirium between patients undergoing transcatheter replacement and patients undergoing surgical replacement. The Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale and the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit were used to assess arousal level and delirium prospectively in all patients with severe aortic stenosis who had transcatheter or surgical aortic valve replacement at an academic medical center. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between procedure type and occurrence of delirium. Cox regression was used to assess the association between postoperative delirium and 6-month mortality. A total of 105 patients had transcatheter replacement and 121 had surgical replacement. Patients in the transcatheter group were older (median age, 81 vs 68 years; P replacement. Delirium is less likely to develop in the transcatheter group but is associated with higher mortality in both groups. ©2017 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  18. Aortic dose constraints when reirradiating thoracic tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Jaden D.; Gomez, Daniel R.; Amini, Arya; Rebueno, Neal; Allen, Pamela K.; Martel, Mary K.; Rineer, Justin M.; Ang, Kie Kian; McAvoy, Sarah; Cox, James D.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Welsh, James W.

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: Improved radiation delivery and planning has allowed, in some instances, for the retreatment of thoracic tumors. We investigated the dose limits of the aorta wherein grade 5 aortic toxicity was observed after reirradiation of lung tumors. Material and methods: In a retrospective analysis, 35 patients were identified, between 1993 and 2008, who received two rounds of external beam irradiation that included the aorta in the radiation fields of both the initial and retreatment plans. We determined the maximum cumulative dose to 1 cm 3 of the aorta (the composite dose) for each patient, normalized these doses to 1.8 Gy/fraction, and corrected them for long-term tissue recovery between treatments (NID R ). Results: The median time interval between treatments was 30 months (range, 1–185 months). The median follow-up of patients alive at analysis was 42 months (range, 14–70 months). Two of the 35 patients (6%) were identified as having grade 5 aortic toxicities. There was a 25% rate of grade 5 aortic toxicity for patients receiving composite doses ⩾120.0 Gy (vs. 0% for patients receiving R ⩾90.0 Gy) to 1 cm 3 of the aorta

  19. Acute aortic dissection: be aware of misdiagnosis

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    Asteri Theodora

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute aortic dissection (AAD is a life-threatening condition requiring immediate assessment and therapy. A patient suffering from AAD often presents with an insignificant or irrelevant medical history, giving rise to possible misdiagnosis. The aim of this retrospective study is to address the problem of misdiagnosing AD and the different imaging studies used. Methods From January 2000 to December 2004, 49 patients (41 men and 8 women, aged from 18–75 years old presented to the Emergency Department of our hospital for different reasons and finally diagnosed with AAD. Fifteen of those patients suffered from arterial hypertension, one from giant cell arteritis and another patient from Marfan's syndrome. The diagnosis of AAD was made by chest X-ray, contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT, transthoracic echocardiography (TTE and coronary angiography. Results Initial misdiagnosis occurred in fifteen patients (31% later found to be suffering from AAD. The misdiagnosis was myocardial infarction in 12 patients and cerebral infarction in another three patients. Conclusion Aortic dissection may present with a variety of clinical manifestations, like syncope, chest pain, anuria, pulse deficits, abdominal pain, back pain, or acute congestive heart failure. Nearly a third of the patients found to be suffering from AD, were initially otherwise diagnosed. Key in the management of acute aortic dissection is to maintain a high level of suspicion for this diagnosis.

  20. Multiple subfailures characterize blunt aortic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemper, Brian D; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A; Brasel, Karen J

    2007-05-01

    Blunt aortic injuries result from rapid deceleration of the thorax as may occur during automotive impacts and falls from extreme heights. Pathological findings can range from failure of specific vessel layers to immediate vessel wall rupture. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the sequence of local structural events that may lead to aortic wall disruption. Fourteen porcine aorta specimens were opened to expose the intima and longitudinally distracted until rupture. Longitudinal mechanics were quantified and subfailures were identified. Histology was used to examine internal layer subfailure. Videography demonstrated that subfailures propagated into complete vessel wall rupture. Subfailures occurred before complete vessel rupture in 93% of specimens. Intimal and medial subfailures were present at 74% of the stress and 82% of the strain to rupture. Multiple subfailures were evident in 79% of specimens. Present results supported the clinical theory that nonimmediate death as a result of blunt aortic injury is commonly caused by propagation of lesser lesions, initiating on the intimal layer, into complete vessel rupture including the adventitial layer. This finding, along with histologic evidence of subfailure pathological findings, confirms the presence of an acute window during which recognition and initiation of permissive hypotension may be lifesaving.

  1. Recurrent Pneumonia due to Double Aortic Arch

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    I. Sedighi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pneumonia is one of the most common infections during childhood. In children with recurrent bacterial pneumonia complete evaluation for underlying factors is necessary. The most common underlying diseases include: antibody deficiencies , cystic fibrosis , tracheoesophageal fistula and increased pulmonary blood flow. Vascular ring and its pressure effect is a less common cause of stridor and recurrent pneumonia. Congenital abnormalities in aortic arch and main branches which form vascular ring around esophagus and trachea with variable pressure effect cause respiratory symptoms such as stridor , wheezing and recurrent pneumoniaCase Report: A 2 year old boy was admitted in our hospital with respiratory distress and cough . Chest x-Ray demonstrated right lobar pneumonia. He had history of stridor and wheezing from neonatal period and hospitalization due to pneumonia for four times. The patient received appropriate antibiotics. Despite fever and respiratory distress improvement, wheezing continued. Review of his medical documents showed fixed pressure effect on posterior aspect of esophagus in barium swallow. In CT angiography we confirmed double aortic arch.Conclusion: Double aortic arch is one of the causes of persistant respiratory symptom and recurrent pneumonia in children for which fluoroscopic barium swallow is the first non-invasive diagnostic method.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;19(1:70-74

  2. Preventative valve-sparing aortic root replacement and pregnancy outcome in Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol, Vesna; Zlopasa, Gordan; Herman, Mislav; Planinić, Pavao; Micevska, Ana

    2012-06-01

    In Marfan syndrome, with dilatation of the aortic root secondary to an underlying connective tissue defect, pregnancy can cause hemodynamic stress leading to the development of an aortic aneurysm and even a fatal aortic dissection. In the presence of existing aortic root enlargement and a family history of aortic dissection, preventative elective surgery is suggested. Aortic root replacement with or without a valve-sparing procedure is superior to total aortic root replacement with prosthetic valve/tube graft. It provides excellent survival with low rates of aortic - valve related complications.

  3. Innate resistance to myxomatosis in wild rabbits in England*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J.; Sanders, M. F.

    1977-01-01

    Wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from one study area in England have been used over a period of 11 years to investigate the possible appearance of innate resistance to myxomatosis. Rabbits of 4-6 weeks old were captured alive, retained in the laboratory until at least 4 months old, and then infected with a type of myxoma virus which kills 90-95% of laboratory rabbits. Observations were made of symptoms, mortality rate and survival times. In the first 4 years of the study (1966-9), mortality rates were not significantly different from those of laboratory rabbits, although survival times of wild rabbits were appreciably longer. In 1970, the mortality rate amongst wild rabbits was 59%, in 1974 it was 17%, and in 1976 it was 20%, thus showing that a considerable degree of inherited resistance to myxomatosis has developed. The types of myxoma virus most commonly isolated from wild rabbits in Great Britain in recent years have been those which cause 70-95% mortality in laboratory rabbits. Therefore, if the degree of innate resistance demonstrated is widespread in Great Britain, there are serious implications regarding the size of the rabbit population, because myxomatosis has been an important factor in holding rabbit numbers at a relatively low level. PMID:270526

  4. Innate resistance to myxomatosis in wild rabbits in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J; Sanders, M F

    1977-12-01

    Wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from one study area in England have been used over a period of 11 years to investigate the possible appearance of innate resistance to myxomatosis. Rabbits of 4-6 weeks old were captured alive, retained in the laboratory until at least 4 months old, and then infected with a type of myxoma virus which kills 90-95% of laboratory rabbits. Observations were made of symptoms, mortality rate and survival times.In the first 4 years of the study (1966-9), mortality rates were not significantly different from those of laboratory rabbits, although survival times of wild rabbits were appreciably longer. In 1970, the mortality rate amongst wild rabbits was 59%, in 1974 it was 17%, and in 1976 it was 20%, thus showing that a considerable degree of inherited resistance to myxomatosis has developed.The types of myxoma virus most commonly isolated from wild rabbits in Great Britain in recent years have been those which cause 70-95% mortality in laboratory rabbits. Therefore, if the degree of innate resistance demonstrated is widespread in Great Britain, there are serious implications regarding the size of the rabbit population, because myxomatosis has been an important factor in holding rabbit numbers at a relatively low level.

  5. Ethanolic Extract of Vitis thunbergii Exhibits Lipid Lowering Properties via Modulation of the AMPK-ACC Pathway in Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits

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    Chun-Hsu Pan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitis thunbergii (VT is a wild grape that has been shown to provide various cardioprotective effects. The present study was designed to examine whether a VT extract could reduce serum lipid levels and prevent atherogenesis in a hypercholesterolemic rabbit model. At the end of an 8-week study, our results showed that a VT extract supplement markedly suppressed the serum levels of cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein, reduced lipid accumulation in liver tissues, and limited aortic fatty streaks. Our findings suggest that the VT extract activated AMPK (5′-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase with subsequent inhibition of the activation of ACC (acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Our results suggest that this VT extract could be further developed as a potential lipid-lowering agent and as a natural health food to prevent atherogenesis.

  6. Aortic distensibility after aortic root replacement assessed with cardiovascular magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melina, Giovanni; Rajappan, Kim; Amrani, Mohamed; Khaghani, Asghar; Pennell, Dudley J; Yacoub, Magdi H

    2002-01-01

    The changes in geometry of the aortic root during the cardiac cycle are thought to be essential for optimal valve function, both in terms of leaflet stress and dynamic behavior. Using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), the study aim was to determine aortic root distensibility of the homograft (group H) and the Medtronic Freestyle xenograft (group F) after aortic root replacement, from a prospective randomized trial. CMR was performed in 15 patients (six homografts, nine Freestyle) at six months and one year after surgery. Percentage change in aortic radius (PCR) and pressure strain elastic modulus (PSEM) were measured as indices of distensibility, and results related to left ventricular mass (LVM). At six months after surgery, mean PCR was 12+/-2.5 in group H and 12.9+/-6.1 in group F (p = NS), and PSEM was 428.5+/-69.8 and 493.5+/-72.7 g/cm2, respectively (p = NS). PCR was reduced to 10+/-1.7% in group H, and by 8.5+/-2.8% in group F (p = NS), while PSEM was increased to 520.5+/-87.3 and 825+/-420.4, respectively (p = NS) at the one-year follow up. Regression analysis showed a correlation between PCR and LVM (r = 0.52, p = 0.08) and LVM index (r = 0.46, p = 0.14), respectively. In addition, there was a relationship between PSEM, LVM and LVM index, suggesting that the stiffer the root wall, the higher the postoperative LVM. Up to one year after aortic root replacement, the wall of both the allogenic and xenogenic valves retained near-normal distensibility. For the first time, a correlation was demonstrated between the elastic properties of the aortic root and LVM. The longer-term behavior and clinical implications of these findings require further investigation.

  7. Blood Pressure and Arterial Load After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement for Aortic Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindman, Brian R; Otto, Catherine M; Douglas, Pamela S; Hahn, Rebecca T; Elmariah, Sammy; Weissman, Neil J; Stewart, William J; Ayele, Girma M; Zhang, Feifan; Zajarias, Alan; Maniar, Hersh S; Jilaihawi, Hasan; Blackstone, Eugene; Chinnakondepalli, Khaja M; Tuzcu, E Murat; Leon, Martin B; Pibarot, Philippe

    2017-07-01

    After aortic valve replacement, left ventricular afterload is often characterized by the residual valve obstruction. Our objective was to determine whether higher systemic arterial afterload-as reflected in blood pressure, pulsatile and resistive load-is associated with adverse clinical outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Total, pulsatile, and resistive arterial load were measured in 2141 patients with severe aortic stenosis treated with TAVR in the PARTNER I trial (Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valve) who had systolic blood pressure (SBP) and an echocardiogram obtained 30 days after TAVR. The primary end point was 30-day to 1-year all-cause mortality. Lower SBP at 30 days after TAVR was associated with higher mortality (20.0% for SBP 100-129 mm Hg versus 12.0% for SBP 130-170 mm Hg; P <0.001). This association remained significant after adjustment, was consistent across subgroups, and confirmed in sensitivity analyses. In adjusted models that included SBP, higher total and pulsatile arterial load were associated with increased mortality ( P <0.001 for all), but resistive load was not. Patients with low 30-day SBP and high pulsatile load had a 3-fold higher mortality than those with high 30-day SBP and low pulsatile load (26.1% versus 8.1%; hazard ratio, 3.62; 95% confidence interval, 2.36-5.55). Even after relief of valve obstruction in patients with aortic stenosis, there is an independent association between post-TAVR blood pressure, systemic arterial load, and mortality. Blood pressure goals in patients with a history of aortic stenosis may need to be redefined. Increased pulsatile arterial load, rather than blood pressure, may be a target for adjunctive medical therapy to improve outcomes after TAVR. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00530894. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Aortic allografts in treatment of aortic valve and ascending aorta prosthetic endocarditis

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    S.V. Spiridonov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim – to assess short- and long-term results of aortic root replacement using aortic allografts in patients with prosthetic endocarditis. Materials and methods. Since February 2009 until June 2016 aortic valve and ascending aorta replacement using aortic allografts was performed in 26 patients with prosthetic endocarditis. In 50 % of cases at initial operation aortic valve replacement was performed, in another 50 % of cases – aortic valve and ascending aorta replacement. Echocardiography was performed 10 days, 3, 6 and 12 months, 2, 3 and 5 years after surgery. Analysis of long-term results included all cases of deaths, prosthesis-related complications and recurrence of endocarditis. Results. 30-day mortality was 23.1 %. Extracorporeal membranous oxygenation (ECMO was used only in 5 patients (19.2 %. Four patients were weaned from ECMO. We did not observe any allograft-related complications. During follow-up period there were no cases of reoperation due to structural allograft failure. Relapse of infection occurred in 1 patient (3.8 % four years after the operation and led to lethal outcome. Conclusion. Reoperations using allografts are an effective surgical treatment of prosthetic endocarditis. In majority of cases prosthetic endocarditis was caused by gram-positive cocci (Staphylococcus. In 84.6 % of cases it was associated with destruction of paravalvular structures and abscesses formation. Heart failure was a causative factor of different complications in these patients, which required ECMO in 19.2 % of patients. In 80 % of cases patients were weaned from ECMO. Allografts using for the treatment of prosthetic endocarditis is associated with high resistance to infection and with a significant rate of freedom from recurrence of endocarditis within 3 years after surgery.

  9. Longitudinal strain predicts left ventricular mass regression after aortic valve replacement for severe aortic stenosis and preserved left ventricular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelsomino, Sandro; Lucà, Fabiana; Parise, Orlando; Lorusso, Roberto; Rao, Carmelo Massimiliano; Vizzardi, Enrico; Gensini, Gian Franco; Maessen, Jos G

    2013-11-01

    We explored the influence of global longitudinal strain (GLS) measured with two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography on left ventricular mass regression (LVMR) in patients with pure aortic stenosis (AS) and normal left ventricular function undergoing aortic valve replacement (AVR). The study population included 83 patients with severe AS (aortic valve area regression (all P regression in patients with pure AS undergoing AVR. Our findings must be confirmed by further larger studies.

  10. Effect of personalized external aortic root support on aortic root motion and distension in Marfan syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izgi, Cemil; Nyktari, Evangelia; Alpendurada, Francisco; Bruengger, Annina Studer; Pepper, John; Treasure, Tom; Mohiaddin, Raad

    2015-10-15

    Personalized external aortic root support (PEARS) is a novel surgical approach with the aim of stabilizing the aortic root size and decreasing risk of dissection in Marfan syndrome patients. A bespoke polymer mesh tailored to each patient's individual aorta shape is produced by modeling and then surgically implanted. The aim of this study is to assess the mechanical effects of PEARS on the aortic root systolic downward motion (an important determinant of aortic wall stress), aortic root distension and on the left ventricle (LV). A cohort of 27 Marfan patients had a prophylactic PEARS surgery between 2004 and 2012 with 24 having preoperative and follow-up cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging studies. Systolic downward aortic root motion, aortic root distension, LV volumes/mass and mitral annular systolic excursion before the operation and in the latest follow-up were measured randomly and blinded. After a median follow-up of 50.5 (IQR 25.5-72) months following implantation of PEARS, systolic downward motion of aortic root was significantly decreased (12.6±3.6mm pre-operation vs 7.9±2.9mm latest follow-up, p<0.00001). There was a tendency for a decrease in systolic aortic root distension but this was not significant (median 4.5% vs 2%, p=0.35). There was no significant change in LV volumes, ejection fraction, mass and mitral annular systolic excursion in follow-up. PEARS surgery decreases systolic downward aortic root motion which is an important determinant of longitudinal aortic wall stress. Aortic wall distension and Windkessel function are not significantly impaired in the follow-up after implantation of the mesh which is also supported by the lack of deterioration of LV volumes or mass. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Aortic annulus eccentricity before and after transcatheter aortic valve implantation: Comparison of balloon-expandable and self-expanding prostheses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuhbaeck, Annika; Weingartner, Christina; Arnold, Martin; Schmid, Jasmin; Pflederer, Tobias; Marwan, Mohamed; Rixe, Johannes; Nef, Holger; Schneider, Christian; Lell, Michael; Uder, Michael; Ensminger, Stephan; Feyrer, Richard; Weyand, Michael; Achenbach, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Post-implant geometry of catheter-based aortic valve prostheses is influenced by aortic valve calcification. • Balloon-expandable prostheses are more circular as compared to self-expanding prostheses. • The impact of post-implant geometry on valve function needs to be investigated. - Abstract: Introduction: The geometry of the aortic annulus and implanted transcatheter aortic valve prosthesis might influence valve function. We investigated the influence of valve type and aortic valve calcification on post-implant geometry of catheter-based aortic valve prostheses. Methods: Eighty consecutive patients with severe aortic valve stenosis (mean age 82 ± 6 years) underwent computed tomography before and after TAVI. Aortic annulus diameters were determined. Influence of prosthesis type and degree of aortic valve calcification on post-implant eccentricity were analysed. Results: Aortic annulus eccentricity was reduced in patients after TAVI (0.21 ± 0.06 vs. 0.08 ± 0.06, p < 0.0001). Post-TAVI eccentricity was significantly lower in 65 patients following implantation of a balloon-expandable prosthesis as compared to 15 patients who received a self-expanding prosthesis (0.06 ± 0.05 vs. 0.15 ± 0.07, p < 0.0001), even though the extent of aortic valve calcification was not different. After TAVI, patients with a higher calcium amount retained a significantly higher eccentricity compared to patients with lower amounts of calcium. Conclusions: Patients undergoing TAVI with a balloon-expandable prosthesis show a more circular shape of the implanted prosthesis as compared to patients with a self-expanding prosthesis. Eccentricity of the deployed prosthesis is affected by the extent of aortic valve calcification

  12. Effects of acute dietary nitrate supplementation on aortic blood pressure and aortic augmentation index in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, William E; Ueda, Kenichi; Treichler, David P; Casey, Darren P

    2016-09-30

    Aging is associated with elevated blood pressure (peripheral and aortic; BP) and aortic augmentation index (AIx) which may contribute to aortic BP. Although inorganic nitrate consumption reduces peripheral BP in both young and older adults, the effects of nitrate consumption on aortic BP and wave reflection in young and older adults is unknown. Therefore, we sought to characterize the effects of nitrate consumption on aortic BP and AIx in young and older adults. Noninvasive aortic pressure waveforms were synthesized from high-fidelity radial pressure waveforms via applanation tonometry before and following (60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 min) consumption of a nitrate-rich beetroot juice in 26 healthy adults (young: 25 ± 4 years, n = 14; older: 64 ± 5 years, n = 12). Aortic BP and indices of aortic wave reflection (AIx and AIx normalized for heart rate; AIx@75bpm) were calculated from the generated aortic pressure waveform. Nitrate consumption increased plasma nitrite in both groups 60-180 min following beetroot consumption (P young and older adults (P age groups. Conversely, indices of aortic wave reflection were reduced only in young adults following nitrate consumption (range of change from baseline over time: AIx@75bpm, -4.3 to -8.8%, P adults. Taken together, our results suggest that acute dietary nitrate supplementation reduces peripheral and aortic BP similarly in young and older adults despite differential effects on aortic AIx between age groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The rabbit meat quality after different feeding

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    Adriana Pavelková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this present work was to evaluation the effect of feeding on selected chemical and physical parameters rabbit meat. For testing was used rabbits incurred by the crossing of two breeds: the mother - Nitriansky králik and father - Nemecký obrovitý strakoš. Rabbits came from domestic breeding and were 8 weeks old separated from the mother. We created two groups: group A was fed by feed wheat and group B was fed by granulated fodder Králik gold forte. During all the time of fattening, rabbits were fed with hay, respectively green fodder. Rabbits were slaughtered at the age of 19 weeks. After slaughtering was dissection obtained fresh rabbit meat for analysis. From chemical parameters were determined: dry matter, fat, protein, ash, energy value and biogenic amines as putrescine, cadaverine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine. From physical parameter was measured pH of meat. The initial value of pH in group A was 6.12 and after 48 hours was 6.38 and in group B was 7.32 and 6.40, respectively.Dry matter in group A was 24.86 g.100 g-1 and in group B was 24.70 g.100 g-1, content of fat was 1.44 g.100g-1 and 1.33 g.100 g-1, protein was 20.94 g.100 g-1 and 21.12 g.100 g-1, ash was 1.18 g.100 g-1 and 1.25 g.100 g-1, energy value was 461.89 kJ.100 g-1 and 440.27 kJ.100 g-1, respectively. Statistical evaluation of all results we found statistically significant differences (p <0.05 only between the groups A and B only in biogenic amine - spermidine. Experiment was shown a high correlation between biogenic amines putrescine and tyramine, putrescine and spermine, cadaverine and tyramine. Normal 0 21 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE

  14. Mechanisms of recurrent aortic regurgitation after aortic valve repair: predictive value of intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    le Polain de Waroux, Jean-Benoît; Pouleur, Anne-Catherine; Robert, Annie; Pasquet, Agnès; Gerber, Bernhard L; Noirhomme, Philippe; El Khoury, Gébrine; Vanoverschelde, Jean-Louis J

    2009-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the intraoperative echocardiographic features associated with recurrent severe aortic regurgitation (AR) after an aortic valve repair surgery. Surgical valve repair for AR has significant advantages over valve replacement, but little is known about the predictors and mechanisms of its failure. We blindly reviewed all clinical, pre-operative, intraoperative, and follow-up transesophageal echocardiographic data of 186 consecutive patients who underwent valve repair for AR during a 10-year period and in whom intraoperative and follow-up echo data were available. After a median follow-up duration of 18 months, 41 patients had recurrent 3+ AR, 23 patients presented with residual 1+ to 2+ AR, and 122 had no or trivial AR. In patients with recurrent 3+ AR, the cause of recurrent AR was the rupture of a pericardial patch in 3 patients, a residual cusp prolapse in 26 patients, a restrictive cusp motion in 9 patients, an aortic dissection in 2 patients, and an infective endocarditis in 1 patient. Pre-operatively, all 3 groups were similar for aortic root dimensions and prevalence of bicuspid valve (overall 37%). Patients with recurrent AR were more likely to display Marfan syndrome or type 3 dysfunction pre-operatively. At the opposite end, patients with continent AR repair at follow-up were more likely to have type 2 dysfunction pre-operatively. After cardiopulmonary bypass, a shorter coaptation length, the degree of cusp billowing, a lower level of coaptation (relative to the annulus), a larger diameter of the aortic annulus and the sino-tubular junction, the presence of a residual AR, and the width of its vena contracta were associated with the presence of AR at follow-up. Multivariate Cox analysis identified a shorter coaptation length (odds ratio [OR]: 0.8, p = 0.05), a coaptation occurring below the level of the aortic annulus (OR: 7.9, p < 0.01), a larger aortic annulus (OR: 1.2, p = 0.01), and residual aortic regurgitation

  15. Can early aortic root surgery prevent further aortic dissection in Marfan syndrome?

    OpenAIRE

    Shimizu, Hideyuki; Kasahara, Hirofumi; Nemoto, Atsushi; Yamabe, Kentaro; Ueda, Toshihiko; Yozu, Ryohei

    2011-01-01

    We reviewed 50 patients with Marfan syndrome who underwent surgery for aortic root pathologies comprising a root aneurysm without (n = 25; group A) and with (n = 25; group B) dissection. Aortic root repair included Bentall (n = 37) and valve-sparing (n = 13) procedures. Hospital mortality was 4.0%. Twenty-two patients required 36 repeat surgeries on the distal aorta. The main indication for re-intervention was the dilation of the false lumen. In group A, the distal aorta was stable for up to ...

  16. Over 20 years experience with aortic homograft in aortic valve replacement during acute infective endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solari, Silvia; Mastrobuoni, Stefano; De Kerchove, Laurent; Navarra, Emiliano; Astarci, Parla; Noirhomme, Philippe; Poncelet, Alain; Jashari, Ramadan; Rubay, Jean; El Khoury, Gebrine

    2016-12-01

    Despite the controversy, the aortic homograft is supposedly the best option in acute infective endocarditis (AIE), due to its resistance to reinfection. However, the technical complexity and the risk of structural deterioration over time have limited its utilization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term results of aortic homograft for the treatment of infective endocarditis in our institution with particular attention to predictors of survival and homograft reoperation. The cohort includes 112 patients who underwent aortic valve replacement with an aortic homograft for AIE between January 1990 and December 2014. Fifteen patients (13.4%) died during the first 30 days after the operation. Two patients were lost to follow-up after discharge from the hospital; therefore, 95 patients were available for long-term analysis. The median duration of follow-up was 7.8 years (IQR 4.7-17.6). Five patients (5.3%) suffered a recurrence of infective endocarditis (1 relapse and 4 new episodes). Sixteen patients (16.8%) were reoperated for structural valve degeneration (SVD; n = 14, 87.5%) or for infection recurrence (n = 2, 12.5%). Freedom from homograft reoperation for infective endocarditis or structural homograft degeneration at 10 and 15 years postoperatively was 86.3 ± 5.5 and 47.3 ± 11.0%, respectively. For patients requiring homograft reoperation, the median interval to reintervention was 11.6 years (IQR 8.3-14.5). Long-term survival was 63.6% (95% CI 52.4-72.8%) and 53.8% (95% CI 40.6-65.3%) at 10 and 15 years, respectively. The use of aortic homograft in acute aortic valve endocarditis is associated with a remarkably low risk of relapsing infection and very acceptable long-term survival. The risk of reoperation due to SVD is significant after one decade especially in young patients. The aortic homograft seems to be ideally suited for reconstruction of the aortic valve and cardiac structures damaged by the infective process especially in early surgery.

  17. Experiment of amnion epithelial cell suspension liquid used for acute rabbit corneal alkali burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Yan Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the effects of amnion epithelial cell(AECsuspension liquid on the biological behavior of the rabbit's corneal epithelium, combined with the in vitro and in vivo experiments. METHODS: The rabbit's corneal epithelium were cultured in the lower chamber of transwell, and AEC suspension liquid was dropwised in the upper chamber. There was only culture medium in the upper chamber of the control group. The proliferation of rabbit's corneal epithelium was observed with CCK-8 automated colorimetry and the expression of PCNA was detected by immunocytochemistry. We used the scratch wound assay to detect the migration of corneal epithelial cell(CEC. The in vivo models were established by placing a 10mm diameter corneal trephine in the center of the cornea, within 1mol/L NaOH for 1min. We divided those into three groups: treatment group of AEC suspension liquid eye drop, AEC suspension liquid subconjunctival injection and the control group without any treatment. Using the slit-lamp biomicroscope and fluorescence staining to observe the cornea per week. After 28d we took the eyeballs with the HE staining. The expression of VEGF was detected by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: The activity of CEC with AEC treatment was much higher than the control group(PPIn vivo, the inflammation of the corneal and the CNV of the AEC group were all significantly reduced compared with the control group(PPCONCLUSION: AEC suspension liquid can promote the proliferation and migration of the rabbit's corneal epithelium. The potential of AEC suspension liquid as a therapy for acute corneal alkali burn.

  18. Postoperative Reverse Remodeling and Symptomatic Improvement in Normal-Flow Low-Gradient Aortic Stenosis After Aortic Valve Replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter-Storch, Rasmus; Møller, Jacob E; Christensen, Nicolaj L

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Severe aortic stenosis (AS) most often presents with reduced aortic valve area (benefit of aortic valve...... replacement (AVR) among NFLG patients is controversial. We compared the impact of NFLG condition on preoperative left ventricular (LV) remodeling and myocardial fibrosis and postoperative remodeling and symptomatic benefit. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eighty-seven consecutive patients with reduced aortic valve area...... and normal stroke volume index undergoing AVR underwent echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging, a 6-minute walk test, and measurement of natriuretic peptides before and 1 year after AVR. Myocardial fibrosis was assessed from magnetic resonance imaging. Patients were stratified as NFLG or normal...

  19. Early Outcomes of Sutureless Aortic Valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Onur Hanedan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In elderly high-risk surgical patients, sutureless aortic valve replacement (AVR should be an alternative to standard AVR. The potential advantages of sutureless aortic prostheses include reducing cross-clamping and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB time and facilitating minimally invasive surgery and complex cardiac interventions, while maintaining satisfactory hemodynamic outcomes and low rates of paravalvular leakage. The current study reports our single-center experience regarding the early outcomes of sutureless aortic valve implantation. Methods: Between October 2012 and June 2015, 65 patients scheduled for surgical valve replacement with symptomatic aortic valve disease and New York Heart Association function of class II or higher were included to this study. Perceval S (Sorin Biomedica Cardio Srl, Sallugia, Italy and Edwards Intuity (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA, USA valves were used. Results: The mean age of the patients was 71.15±8.60 years. Forty-four patients (67.7% were female. The average preoperative left ventricular ejection fraction was 56.9±9.93. The CPB time was 96.51±41.27 minutes and the cross-clamping time was 60.85±27.08 minutes. The intubation time was 8.95±4.19 hours, and the intensive care unit and hospital stays were 2.89±1.42 days and 7.86±1.42 days, respectively. The mean quantity of drainage from chest tubes was 407.69±149.28 mL. The hospital mortality rate was 3.1%. A total of five patients (7.69% died during follow-up. The mean follow-up time was 687.24±24.76 days. The one-year survival rate was over 90%. Conclusion: In the last few years, several models of valvular sutureless bioprostheses have been developed. The present study evaluating the single-center early outcomes of sutureless aortic valve implantation presents the results of an innovative surgical technique, finding that it resulted in appropriate hemodynamic conditions with acceptable ischemic time.

  20. Early Outcomes of Sutureless Aortic Valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanedan, Muhammet Onur; Mataracı, İlker; Yürük, Mehmet Ali; Özer, Tanıl; Sayar, Ufuk; Arslan, Ali Kemal; Ziyrek, Uğur; Yücel, Murat

    2016-06-01

    In elderly high-risk surgical patients, sutureless aortic valve replacement (AVR) should be an alternative to standard AVR. The potential advantages of sutureless aortic prostheses include reducing cross-clamping and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) time and facilitating minimally invasive surgery and complex cardiac interventions, while maintaining satisfactory hemodynamic outcomes and low rates of paravalvular leakage. The current study reports our single-center experience regarding the early outcomes of sutureless aortic valve implantation. Between October 2012 and June 2015, 65 patients scheduled for surgical valve replacement with symptomatic aortic valve disease and New York Heart Association function of class II or higher were included to this study. Perceval S (Sorin Biomedica Cardio Srl, Sallugia, Italy) and Edwards Intuity (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA, USA) valves were used. The mean age of the patients was 71.15±8.60 years. Forty-four patients (67.7%) were female. The average preoperative left ventricular ejection fraction was 56.9±9.93. The CPB time was 96.51±41.27 minutes and the cross-clamping time was 60.85±27.08 minutes. The intubation time was 8.95±4.19 hours, and the intensive care unit and hospital stays were 2.89±1.42 days and 7.86±1.42 days, respectively. The mean quantity of drainage from chest tubes was 407.69±149.28 mL. The hospital mortality rate was 3.1%. A total of five patients (7.69%) died during follow-up. The mean follow-up time was 687.24±24.76 days. The one-year survival rate was over 90%. In the last few years, several models of valvular sutureless bioprostheses have been developed. The present study evaluating the single-center early outcomes of sutureless aortic valve implantation presents the results of an innovative surgical technique, finding that it resulted in appropriate hemodynamic conditions with acceptable ischemic time.