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Sample records for cultured panax ginseng

  1. DNA MUTAGENESIS IN PANAX GINSENG CELL CULTURES

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    Kiselev K.V.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available At the present time, it is well documented that plant tissue culture induces a number of mutations and chromosome rearrangements termed “somaclonal variations”. However, little is known about the nature and the molecular mechanisms of the tissue culture-induced mutagenesis and the effects of long-term subculturing on the rate and specific features of the mutagenesis. The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare DNA mutagenesis in different genes of Panax ginseng callus cultures of different age. It has previously been shown that the nucleotide sequences of the Agrobacterium rhizogenes rolC locus and the selective marker nptII developed mutations during long-term cultivation of transgenic cell cultures of P. ginseng. In the present work, we analyzed nucleotide sequences of selected plant gene families in a 2-year-old and 20-year-old P. ginseng 1c cell culture and in leaves of cultivated P. ginseng plants. We analysed sequence variability between the Actin genes, which are a family of house-keeping genes; the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL and dammarenediol synthase (DDS genes, which actively participate in the biosynthesis of ginsenosides; and the somatic embryogenesis receptor kinase (SERK genes, which control plant development. The frequency of point mutations in the Actin, PAL, DDS, and SERK genes in the 2-year-old callus culture was markedly higher than that in cultivated plants but lower than that in the 20-year-old callus culture of P. ginseng. Most of the mutations in the 2- and 20-year-old P. ginseng calli were A↔G and T↔C transitions. The number of nonsynonymous mutations was higher in the 2- and 20-year-old callus cultures than the number of nonsynonymous mutations in the cultivated plants of P. ginseng. Interestingly, the total number of N→G or N→C substitutions in the analyzed genes was 1.6 times higher than the total number of N→A or N→T substitutions. Using methylation-sensitive DNA fragmentation

  2. Endophytic Bacteria Isolated from Panax ginseng Improves Ginsenoside Accumulation in Adventitious Ginseng Root Culture

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    Xiaolin Song

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ginsenoside is the most important secondary metabolite of ginseng. Natural sources of wild ginseng have been overexploited. Although root culture could reduce the length of the growth cycle of ginseng, the number of ginsenosides is fewer and their contents are lower in adventitious roots of ginseng than that in ginseng cultivated in the field. In this study, we investigated the effects of endophytic bacterial elicitors on biomass and ginsenoside production in adventitious roots cultures of Panax ginseng. Endophyte LB 5-3 as an elicitor could increase biomass and ginsenoside accumulation in ginseng adventitious root culture. After 6 days elicitation with a 10.0 mL of strain LB 5-3, the content of total ginsenoside was 2.026 mg g−1 which was four times more than that in unchallenged roots. The combination of methyl jasmonate and strain LB 5-3 had a negative effect on ginseng adventitious root growth and ginsenoside production. The genomic DNA of strain LB 5-3 was sequenced, and was found to be most closely related to Bacillus altitudinis (KX230132.1. The challenged ginseng adventitious root extracts exerted inhibitory effect against the HepG2 cells, which IC50 value was 0.94 mg mL−1.

  3. [Effects of culture conditions on biomass and active components of adventitious roots culture in Panax ginseng].

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    Huang, Tao; Gao, Wenyuan; Wang, Juan; Cao, Yu

    2010-01-01

    To optimize the culture condition of adventitious roots of Panax ginseng. The adventitious roots were obtained through tissue culture by manipulation of inoculum, various sucrose concentrations and salt strength. The contents of ginsenosides Re, Rb1 and Rg1 were determined by HPLC while the contents of polysaccharides were determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. The multiplication of adventitious roots reached the peak when the inoculum was 20 g x L(-1). The effects of sucrose concentration and salt strength on adventitious roots were observed. The contents of polysaccharides were higher when the medium contained more sucrose. 40 g x L(-1) sucrose was favorable for roots growth and biosynthesis of Re, while 30 g x L(-1) was favorable for the biosynthesis of Rb1 and Rg1. 3/4MS medium was benefit for the growth of adventitious roots and the biosynthesis of ginsenosides. The contents of polysaccharides were decreased with the increase of salt strength. The results showed that inoculum, various sucrose concentrations and salt strength have significant influences on adventitious roots growth, secondary metabolite and polysaccharide synthesis in P. ginseng.

  4. Effect of Panax ginseng saponins and Eleutherococcus senticosus on survival of cultured mammalian cells after ionizing radiation.

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    Ben-Hur, E; Fulder, S

    1981-01-01

    Panax ginseng saponin and Eleutherococcus senticosus extract were applied to cells in culture in order to assess the effect of these substances on resistance to gamma-irradiation. Eleutherococcus was slightly radio protective. However, ginseng saponin at a dose of 10 microgram/ml was significantly radioprotective (Do = 2.25 Gy) compared to control (Do = 1.80 Gy) when it was present prior to gamma-irradiation. It enhanced radiation response if it was also present for 4-6 hours after gamma-irradiation (Do = 1.10 Gy). Ginseng-treated cells made 30% less RNA and 14% more protein during a 1 hour pulse of labeled intermediates. The cells were morphologically altered. It is concluded that ginseng saponin can increase radiation resistance. The effect is indirect, due to alterations in cell physiology rather than DNA repair processes.

  5. [Induction of hairy roots of Panax ginseng and studies on suitable culture condition of ginseng hairy roots].

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    Zhao, Shou-Jing; Li, Chang-Yu; Qian, Yan-Chun; Luo, Xiao-Pei; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Xue-Song; Kang, Bo-Yu

    2004-03-01

    Ginseng is a valuable medicinal plant with ginsenosides as its mian effective components. Because ginseng is a perennial plant and has a very strict demand for soil conditions, the way of cultivating ginseng by cutting woods is still used in China at present and thus forest resources has been extremely destroyed. Increasing attention has been paid to the hairy roots induced by the infection of Agrobacterium rhizogenes in the production of plant secondary metabolic products for the hairy roots are characterized by rapid growth and stable hereditary and biochemical traits. That has opened a new way for the industrial production of ginseosides. However, there is little report for such studies from China. In this paper, hairy roots of ginseng were induced from the root explants of two-year-old ginseng by Agrobacterium rhizogenes A4 with directly inoculating. The transformed hairy roots could grow rapidly on MS medium and 1/2 MS medium without hormones. The cultured clones of the hairy roots were established on a solid 1/2 MS medium. After 4 - 5 subcultures the hairy roots still maintained a vigorous growth. A pair of primers were designed and synthesized according to the analytical results of RiA4TL-DNA sequence by Slightom et al . 0.8kb rolC was obtained by PCR using the genome DNA of hairy root of ginseng. Transformation was confirmed by PCR amplification of rolC genes from the hairy roots of P. ginseng. Growth rate of hairy roots on liquid medium increased by 2 times then that of the solid medium. The growth of the hairy roots can be divided into three stages: high speed in the first two weeks, middle speed in the 3 - 4 weeks and low speed hereafter. Changing the culture solution at 2 weeks regular intervals is conductive to maintaining the rapid growth of the hairy roots. By means of determination for specific growth rate and ginsenosides content, the high-yield hairy root clone R9923 was selected. The content of monomer gisenoside of Rg1, Re, Rf, Rbl, Rc, Rb2 and

  6. Methyl Jasmonate and Salicylic Acid Induced Oxidative Stress and Accumulation of Phenolics in Panax ginseng Bioreactor Root Suspension Cultures

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    Kee-Yoeup Paek

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the enzyme variations responsible for the synthesis of phenolics, 40 day-old adventitious roots of Panax ginseng were treated with 200 μM methyl jasmonate (MJ or salicylic acid (SA in a 5 L bioreactor suspension culture (working volume 4 L. Both treatments caused an increase in the carbonyl and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 contents, although the levels were lower in SA treated roots. Total phenolic, flavonoid, ascorbic acid, non-protein thiol (NPSH and cysteine contents and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical reducing activity were increased by MJ and SA. Fresh weight (FW and dry weight (DW decreased significantly after 9 days of exposure to SA and MJ. The highest total phenolics (62%, DPPH activity (40%, flavonoids (88%, ascorbic acid (55%, NPSH (33%, and cysteine (62% contents compared to control were obtained after 9 days in SA treated roots. The activities of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, substrate specific peroxidases (caffeic acid peroxidase, quercetin peroxidase and ferulic acid peroxidase were higher in MJ treated roots than the SA treated ones. Increased shikimate dehydrogenase, chlorogenic acid peroxidase and β-glucosidase activities and proline content were observed in SA treated roots than in MJ ones. Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity remained unaffected by both MJ and SA. These results strongly indicate that MJ and SA induce the accumulation of phenolic compounds in ginseng root by altering the phenolic synthesis enzymes.

  7. Effects of Korean ginseng ( Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) root extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Korean ginseng ( Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) root extract on egg production performance and egg quality of laying hens. ... The trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and total phenolics concentration of PGRE were 598 ± 1.841 mmol trolox/kg, 15.45 ± 0.457 mmol ...

  8. Applications of molecular markers in the discrimination of Panax species and Korean ginseng cultivars (Panax ginseng

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    Ick Hyun Jo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of molecular markers is one of the most useful methods for molecular breeding and marker-based molecular associated selections. Even though there is less information on the reference genome, molecular markers are indispensable tools for determination of genetic variation and identification of species with high levels of accuracy and reproducibility. The demand for molecular approaches for marker-based breeding and genetic discriminations in Panax species has greatly increased in recent times and has been successfully applied for various purposes. However, owing to the existence of diverse molecular techniques and differences in their principles and applications, there should be careful consideration while selecting appropriate marker types. In this review, we outline the recent status of different molecular marker applications in ginseng research and industrial fields. In addition, we discuss the basic principles, requirements, and advantages and disadvantages of the most widely used molecular markers, including restriction fragment length polymorphism, random amplified polymorphic DNA, sequence tag sites, simple sequence repeats, and single nucleotide polymorphisms.

  9. Applications of molecular markers in the discrimination of Panax species and Korean ginseng cultivars (Panax ginseng).

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    Jo, Ick Hyun; Kim, Young Chang; Kim, Dong Hwi; Kim, Kee Hong; Hyun, Tae Kyung; Ryu, Hojin; Bang, Kyong Hwan

    2017-10-01

    The development of molecular markers is one of the most useful methods for molecular breeding and marker-based molecular associated selections. Even though there is less information on the reference genome, molecular markers are indispensable tools for determination of genetic variation and identification of species with high levels of accuracy and reproducibility. The demand for molecular approaches for marker-based breeding and genetic discriminations in Panax species has greatly increased in recent times and has been successfully applied for various purposes. However, owing to the existence of diverse molecular techniques and differences in their principles and applications, there should be careful consideration while selecting appropriate marker types. In this review, we outline the recent status of different molecular marker applications in ginseng research and industrial fields. In addition, we discuss the basic principles, requirements, and advantages and disadvantages of the most widely used molecular markers, including restriction fragment length polymorphism, random amplified polymorphic DNA, sequence tag sites, simple sequence repeats, and single nucleotide polymorphisms.

  10. Ginseng Genome Database: an open-access platform for genomics of Panax ginseng.

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    Jayakodi, Murukarthick; Choi, Beom-Soon; Lee, Sang-Choon; Kim, Nam-Hoon; Park, Jee Young; Jang, Woojong; Lakshmanan, Meiyappan; Mohan, Shobhana V G; Lee, Dong-Yup; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2018-04-12

    The ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) is a perennial herbaceous plant that has been used in traditional oriental medicine for thousands of years. Ginsenosides, which have significant pharmacological effects on human health, are the foremost bioactive constituents in this plant. Having realized the importance of this plant to humans, an integrated omics resource becomes indispensable to facilitate genomic research, molecular breeding and pharmacological study of this herb. The first draft genome sequences of P. ginseng cultivar "Chunpoong" were reported recently. Here, using the draft genome, transcriptome, and functional annotation datasets of P. ginseng, we have constructed the Ginseng Genome Database http://ginsengdb.snu.ac.kr /, the first open-access platform to provide comprehensive genomic resources of P. ginseng. The current version of this database provides the most up-to-date draft genome sequence (of approximately 3000 Mbp of scaffold sequences) along with the structural and functional annotations for 59,352 genes and digital expression of genes based on transcriptome data from different tissues, growth stages and treatments. In addition, tools for visualization and the genomic data from various analyses are provided. All data in the database were manually curated and integrated within a user-friendly query page. This database provides valuable resources for a range of research fields related to P. ginseng and other species belonging to the Apiales order as well as for plant research communities in general. Ginseng genome database can be accessed at http://ginsengdb.snu.ac.kr /.

  11. New Polyacetylenes, DGAT inhibitors from the roots of Panax ginseng.

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    Lee, Seung Woong; Kim, Koanhoi; Rho, Mun-Chual; Chung, Mi Yeon; Kim, Young Ho; Lee, Sangku; Lee, Hyun Sun; Kim, Young Kook

    2004-03-01

    The petroleum ether extract of Panax ginseng showed a significant inhibition of the diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) enzyme from rat liver microsomes. Bioactivity-guided fractionation led to the isolation of two new polyacetylenic compounds, (9 R,10 S)-epoxyheptadecan-4,6-diyn-3-one ( 1) and 1-methoxy-(9 R,10 S)-epoxyheptadecan-4,6-diyn-3-one ( 2). Their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence and asymmetric synthesis. IC50 values of 9 microg/mL ( 1) and 32 microg/mL ( 2) were obtained.

  12. Protein extraction from the stem of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer: A ...

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    Administrator

    2011-05-23

    May 23, 2011 ... Meyer: A tissue of lower protein extraction efficiency for proteomic analysis ..... key technology R&D program (No. 2007BAI38B02),. National ... Six new dammarane-type triterpene saponins from the leaves of. Panax ginseng.

  13. Rhizospheric microbial communities are driven by Panax ginseng at different growth stages and biocontrol bacteria alleviates replanting mortality

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    Linlin Dong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of Panax plants is hindered by replanting problems, which may be caused by plant-driven changes in the soil microbial community. Inoculation with microbial antagonists may efficiently alleviate replanting issues. Through high-throughput sequencing, this study revealed that bacterial diversity decreased, whereas fungal diversity increased, in the rhizosphere soils of adult ginseng plants at the root growth stage under different ages. Few microbial community, such as Luteolibacter, Cytophagaceae, Luteibacter, Sphingomonas, Sphingomonadaceae, and Zygomycota, were observed; the relative abundance of microorganisms, namely, Brevundimonas, Enterobacteriaceae, Pandoraea, Cantharellales, Dendryphion, Fusarium, and Chytridiomycota, increased in the soils of adult ginseng plants compared with those in the soils of 2-year-old seedlings. Bacillus subtilis 50-1, a microbial antagonist against the pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum, was isolated through a dual culture technique. These bacteria acted with a biocontrol efficacy of 67.8%. The ginseng death rate and Fusarium abundance decreased by 63.3% and 46.1%, respectively, after inoculation with B. subtilis 50-1. Data revealed that microecological degradation could result from ginseng-driven changes in rhizospheric microbial communities; these changes are associated with the different ages and developmental stages of ginseng plants. Biocontrol using microbial antagonists alleviated the replanting problem. KEY WORDS: Panax ginseng, Microbial communities, Replanting problem, High-throughput sequencing, Different ages, Bioremediation

  14. [Optimization of dissolution process for superfine grinding technology on total saponins of Panax ginseng fibrous root by response surface methodology].

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    Zhao, Ya; Lai, Xiao-Pin; Yao, Hai-Yan; Zhao, Ran; Wu, Yi-Na; Li, Geng

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the effects of superfine comminution extraction technology of ginseng total saponins from Panax ginseng fibrous root, and to make sure the optimal extraction condition. Optimal condition of ginseng total saponins from Panax ginseng fibrous root was based on single factor experiment to study the effects of crushing degree, extraction time, alcohol concentration and extraction temperature on extraction rate. Response surface method was used to investigate three main factors such as superfine comminution time, extraction time and alcohol concentration. The relationship between content of ginseng total saponins in Panax ginseng fibrous root and three factors fitted second degree polynomial models. The optimal extraction condition was 9 min of superfine comminution time, 70% of alcohol, 50 degrees C of extraction temperature and 70 min of extraction time. Under the optimal condition, ginseng total saponins from Panax ginseng fibrous root was average 94. 81%, which was consistent with the predicted value. The optimization of technology is rapid, efficient, simple and stable.

  15. Translocation of Endosulfan from Soil to Ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer

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    Jiyoon Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to examine the translocation of highly residual agrochemical in soil, the endosulfan (total, to ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer. The soil with the level of the amount of 5.0 mg kg−1 of endosulfan (total was prepared in a Wagner pot into which the seedling of ginseng was transplanted and then the specimens of ginseng (root, leaf, and stem were collected quarterly and analyzed through GC-MS. The level of residual of endosulfan (total in the soil has decreased from 4.28 mg kg−1 (April 2013 to 1.94 mg kg−1 (December 2014 while the level in the specimens of leaf and stem of ginseng respectively sampled according to its growth phase in June and September from 2013 and 2014 showed an increase from 0.56 mg kg−1 (June 2013 to 2.46 mg kg−1 (September 2013 and decrease from 0.29 mg kg−1 (June 2014 to 0.18 mg kg−1 (September 2014. For the case of the root of ginseng, the level of the amount of 10.77 mg kg−1 of endosulfan (total was detected in June 2013 and then, the level has decreased to the level of 4.88 mg kg−1 in December 2014. The translocation of residual endosulfan (total in soil to ginseng with time was identified. The amount of residuals of α-endosulfan and β-endosulfan was also decreased with time however, the ratio of endosulfan-sulfate, the main metabolite, was gradually increasing. The retention of metabolite (endosulfan-sulfate in soil identified thereby thus suggests the potential of its translocation to plants in the case of the soils containing the residual of endosulfan (total.

  16. The Effects of Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius on Thermoregulation in Animal Models

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    Hong, Bin Na; Do, Moon Ho; Her, You Ri

    2015-01-01

    We devised a study using animal models of hyperthermia and hypothermia and also attempted to accurately assess the effects of Panax ginseng (PG) and Panax quinquefolius (PQ) on body temperature using these models. In addition, we investigated the effects of PG and PQ in our animal models in high and low temperature environments. The results of our experiments show that mice with normothermia, hyperthermia, and hypothermia maintained their body temperatures after a certain period in accordance with the condition of each animal model. In our experiments of body temperature change in models of normal, low, or high room temperature, the hyperthermic model did not show any body temperature change in either the PG- or PQ-administered group. In the normal and low room temperature models, the group administered PG maintained body temperature, while the body temperature of the PQ-administered group was lower than or similar to that of the control group. In conclusion, the fact that PG increases body temperature could not be verified until now. We also showed that the effect of maintaining body temperature in the PG-administered group was superior in a hypothermia-prone low temperature environment. PMID:25709709

  17. Implications of red Panax ginseng in oxidative stress associated chronic diseases

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    Yoon-Mi Lee

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The steaming process of Panax ginseng has been reported to increase its major known bioactive components, ginsenosides, and, therefore, its biological properties as compared to regular Panax ginseng. Biological functions of red Panax ginseng attenuating pro-oxidant environments associated with chronic diseases are of particular interest, since oxidative stress can be a key contributor to the pathogenesis of chronic diseases. Additionally, proper utilization of various biomarkers for evaluating antioxidant activities in natural products, such as ginseng, can also be important to providing validity to their activities. Thus, studies on the effects of red ginseng against various diseases as determined in cell lines, animal models, and humans were reviewed, along with applied biomarkers for verifying such effects. Limitations and future considerations of studying red ginseng were been discussed. Although further clinical studies are warranted, red ginseng appears to be beneficial for attenuating disease-associated symptoms via its antioxidant activities, as well as for preventing oxidative stress-associated chronic diseases.

  18. Dammarane triterpenes from the leaves of Panax ginseng enhance cellular immunity

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    Tran, Tien-Lam; Kim, Young-Ran; Yang, Jun-Li

    2014-01-01

    In our search for immune stimulating materials from natural source, bioassay-guided fractionation of a methanol extract of Panax ginseng leaves led to the isolation of three dammarane triterpenes (1-3), including two previously unknown compounds 27-demethyl-(E,E)-20(22),23-dien-3β,6α,12β-trihydro......In our search for immune stimulating materials from natural source, bioassay-guided fractionation of a methanol extract of Panax ginseng leaves led to the isolation of three dammarane triterpenes (1-3), including two previously unknown compounds 27-demethyl-(E,E)-20(22),23-dien-3β,6α,12β...

  19. Discrimination of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer cultivar Chunpoong and American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius using the auxin repressed protein gene

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    Jong-Hak Kim

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: These results suggest that great impact to prevent authentication of precise Chunpoong and other cultivars using the auxin repressed protein gene. We therefore present an effective method for the authentication of the Chunpoong cultivar of P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius.

  20. Stimulation of nitric oxide synthesis by the aqueous extract of Panax ginseng root in RAW 264.7 cells.

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    Friedl, R; Moeslinger, T; Kopp, B; Spieckermann, P G

    2001-12-01

    1. In this study, we investigated the effect of Panax ginseng root aqueous extracts upon inducible nitric oxide synthesis in RAW 264.7 cells. Panax ginseng root extract has been used in the Asian world for centuries as a traditional herb to enhance physical strength and resistance and is becoming more and more popular in Europe and North America. 2. Incubation of murine macrophages (RAW 264.7 cells) with increasing amounts of aqueous extracts of Panax ginseng (0.05 - 0.8 microg microl(-1)) showed a dose dependent stimulation of inducible nitric oxide synthesis. 3. Polysaccharides isolated from Panax ginseng showed strong stimulation of inducible nitric oxide synthesis, whereas a triterpene-enriched fraction from an aqueous extract of Panax ginseng did not show any stimulation. 4. Inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression was enhanced in a dose dependent manner as revealed by immunoblotting when cells were incubated with increasing amounts of Panax ginseng extract. This was associated with an incline in inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA-levels as determined by semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction and electromobility shift assay studies indicated enhanced nuclear factor-kappaB DNA binding activity. 5. As nitric oxide plays an important role in immune function, Panax ginseng treatment could modulate several aspects of host defense mechanisms due to stimulation of the inducible nitric oxide synthase.

  1. Ginseng and obesity: observations and understanding in cultured cells, animals and humans.

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    Zhang, Longyun; Virgous, Carlos; Si, Hongwei

    2017-06-01

    Ginseng, a traditional medical herb, has been reported having beneficial effects in fatigue, heart diseases, diabetes, immune function and erectile dysfunction. In recent years, increasing investigations have been conducted on ginseng in preventing and treating of obesity, one of the major worldwide escalating public health concerns. However, the effect and the relevant mechanisms behind how ginseng works as an antiobesity treatment are still controversial. In this review, we briefly discussed the chemical structures, metabolism and pharmacokinetics of ginseng and its major bioactive components ginsenosides. The major focus is on the antiobesity effects and the physiological, cellular and molecular mechanisms of ginseng and its ginsenosides in cultured cells, animal models and humans. We particularly compared the ginsenosides profiles, the antiobesity effects and the mechanisms between Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng) and American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius), the two major ginseng species having opposite medical effects in traditional Chinese medicine. Our unpublished data on the ginseng antiobesity in cultured cells and mice were also included. We further addressed the current problems and future directions of the ginseng antiobesity research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Eustress and Malondialdehyde (MDA: Role of Panax Ginseng: Randomized, placebo controlled prospective study

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    hayder Al-kuraishy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of present study was evaluation the effect of Panax Ginseng on malondialdehyde (MDA serum levels during eustress on normal healthy volunteers. Method: 65 healthy volunteers were recruited from medical students at college of medicine with age range (22.61±3.63 years, the volunteers were divided into two groups, Group A: 35 subjects treated by Panax Ginseng 500mg/day regarded as treated group. Group B: 30 subjects treated by placebo 500mg/day regarded as control group. Baseline data was obtained and then after one month of study for following induction of psychological stress through daily psychomotor performance task and visual working memory accuracy testing while; stress-induced oxidative stress was assessed by malondialdehyde (MDA serum levels. Results: placebo showed significant increases in MDA serum levels p=0.0004 which related with significant increases in perceived stress scale from p<0.0001, while; Panax Ginseng led to significant reduction in MDA serum levels from p<0.01 that related with significant increment in perceived stress scale p=0.02. Conclusion: An MDA serum level is positively correlated with eustress and this association is modulated by   Panax Ginseng therapy that produced significant reduction in MDA and rising of eustress level.

  3. Microbial transformation of ginsenosides extracted from Panax ginseng adventitious roots in an airlift bioreactor

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    Xiaolin Song; Hao Wu; Xuanchun Piao; Zhenhao Yin; Chengri Yin

    2017-01-01

    Background: Ginsenoside is the most important secondary metabolite in ginseng. Natural sources of wild ginseng have been overexploited. Although root culture can reduce the length of the growth cycle of ginseng, the number of species of ginsenosides is reduced and their contents are lower in the adventitious roots of ginseng than in the roots of ginseng cultivated in the field. Results: In this study, 147 strains of β-glucosidase-producing microorganisms were isolated from soil. Of these, ...

  4. Panax ginseng extract attenuates neuronal injury and cognitive deficits in rats with vascular dementia induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion

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    Jun-De Zhu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Panax ginseng is a slow-growing perennial plant. Panax ginseng extract has numerous biological activities, including antitumor, anti-inflammatory and antistress activities. Panax ginseng extract also has a cognition-enhancing effect in rats with alcohol-induced memory impairment. In this study, we partially occluded the bilateral carotid arteries in the rat to induce chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, a well-known model of vascular dementia. The rats were then intragastrically administered 50 or 100 mg/kg Panax ginseng extract. Morris water maze and balance beam tests were used to evaluate memory deficits and motor function, respectively. Protein quantity was used to evaluate cholinergic neurons. Immunofluorescence staining was used to assess the number of glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive cells. Western blot assay was used to evaluate protein levels of vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, Bcl-2 and Bax. Treatment with Panax ginseng extract for 8 weeks significantly improved behavioral function and increased neuronal density and VEGF and bFGF protein expression in the hippocampal CA3 area. Furthermore, Panax ginseng extract reduced the number of glial fibrillary acidic protein-immunoreactive cells, and it decreased apoptosis by upregulating Bcl-2 and downregulating Bax protein expression. The effect of Panax ginseng extract was dose-dependent and similar to that of nimodipine, a commonly used drug for the treatment of vascular dementia. These findings suggest that Panax ginseng extract is neuroprotective against vascular dementia induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, and therefore might have therapeutic potential for preventing and treating the disease.

  5. Mass culture of mountain Ginseng roots using rare earth elements in bioreactor cultures

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    Hwang, Sung Jin; Kim, Chang Hyun; Kim, Ha Lim [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-15

    An adventitious roots of mountain ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) was used in this experiments. Various concentration of lanthanide were tested to find out optimal conditions for biomass and ginsenoside contents in mountain ginseng roots. The MS basal medium with 100 {mu}g/L lanthanide created the most optimum condition for growth of adventitious roots of mountain ginseng. Batch culture with 100 {mu}g/L lanthanide and 0.5 g (F.W) inoculation volume produced maximum final biomass of 1.89 g(F.W/flask) within 4 weeks. However, lanthanide was not effect the ginsenoside contents in adventitious roots of mountain ginseng. In bioreactors, 3.23 g F.W./L of biomass were obtained when 100 {mu}g/L lanthanide were added to the MS basal medium at 26 .deg. C

  6. Synthesis and absolute configurations of the cytotoxic polyacetylenes isolated from the callus of Panax ginseng.

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    Fujimoto, Y; Satoh, M; Takeuchi, N; Kirisawa, M

    1990-06-01

    Panaxacol (1) and dihydropanaxacol (2), cytotoxic polyacetylenes isolated from the callus of Panax ginseng, were synthesized starting from D-(-)-diethyl tartrate. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined to be 9R, 10R and the absolute configuration at C-3 of 2 was tentatively assigned as 3S by the application of the R(+)-alpha-methoxy-alpha-(trifluoro methyl)phenylacetyl (MTPA) method.

  7. Eustress and Malondialdehyde (MDA): Role of Panax Ginseng: Randomized Placebo Controlled Study.

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    Al-Kuraishy, Hayder M; Al-Gareeb, Ali I

    2017-07-01

    Objective: The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of Panax Ginseng on malondialdehyde (MDA) serum levels during eustress on healthy volunteers. Method: In this study, 65 healthy volunteers were recruited from students of a medical school, with the mean age of 22.61±3.63 years. The volunteers were divided into 2 groups: Group A included 35 participants who were treated by Panax Ginseng 500 mg/day, which was regarded as the treated group; group B included 30 participants treated by placebo 500 mg/day, which was regarded as the control group. Baseline data were obtained and then one month after the study, the participants were followed with respect to induction of psychological stress through daily psychomotor performance task and visual working memory accuracy testing. Stress was assessed by malondialdehyde (MDA) serum levels. Results: The participants in the control group showed significant increases in MDA serum levels (p = 0.0004), which were related to significant increases in perceived stress scale from pstress scale (p = 0.02). Conclusion: Panax Ginseng produced significant reduction in oxidative stress and augmented eustress level in healthy volunteers 1 month after therapy.

  8. Melanogenesis inhibition activity of floralginsenoside A from Panax ginseng berry

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    Dae Young Lee

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: FGA showed the most potent inhibition of melanogenesis in both in vitro and in vivo studies. This study suggests that FGA purified from P. ginseng may be an effective melanogenesis inhibitor.

  9. [A sudden rise in INR due to combination of Tribulus terrestris, Avena sativa, and Panax ginseng (Clavis Panax)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turfan, Murat; Tasal, Abdurrahman; Ergun, Fatih; Ergelen, Mehmet

    2012-04-01

    Warfarin sodium is an antithrombin agent used in patients with prosthetic valve and atrial fibrillation. However, there are many factors that can change the effectiveness of the drug. Today, herbal mixtures promoted through targeted print and visual media can lead to sudden activity changes in patients using warfarin. In this case report we will present two cases with a sudden rise in INR due to using combination of Tribulus terrestris, Avena sativa and Panax ginseng (Panax Clavis). Two patients who used warfarin due to a history of aortic valve replacement (case 1) and atrial fibrillation (case 2) were admitted to the hospital due very high levels of INR detected during routine follow-up. Both patients had used an herbal medicine called ''Panax'' during the last month. The patients gave no indication regarding a change in diet or the use of another agent that might interact with warfarin. In cases where active bleeding could not be determinated, we terminated the use of the drug and re-evaluated dosage of warfarin before finally discharging the patient.

  10. Article Expression, Purification, and Characterization of Cu/ZnSOD from Panax Ginseng

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    Dayong Ding

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Superoxide dismutase (SOD has a strong antioxidant effect, but the traditional SOD extraction method is not the most efficient method of SOD amplification. In this study, we report the cloning of the Cu/ZnSOD gene from Panax ginseng into a temperature-regulated expression plasmid, pBV220. Cu/ZnSOD inclusion bodies were expressed in E. coli at a high level. Then, the inclusion bodies were purified by ion-exchange chromatography and molecular sieve chromatography. Finally, we obtained stable SOD in the bacterial broth, with a protein content of 965 mg/L and enzyme specific activity of 9389.96 U/mg. These results provide a foundation for future studies on the antioxidant mechanisms of ginseng and the development and application of ginseng Cu/ZnSOD.

  11. [Development of indel markers for molecular authentication of Panax ginseng and P. quinquefolius].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rong-Bo; Tian, Hui-Li; Wang, Hong-Tao; Li, Gui-Sheng

    2018-04-01

    Panax ginseng and P. quinquefolius are two kinds of important medicinal herbs. They are morphologically similar but have different pharmacological effects. Therefore, botanical origin authentication of these two ginsengs is of great importance for ensuring pharmaceutical efficacy and food safety. Based on the fact that intron position in orthologous genes is highly conserved across plant species, intron length polymorphisms were exploited from unigenes of ginseng. Specific primers were respectively designed for these two species based on their insertion/deletion sequences of cytochrome P450 and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and multiplex PCR was conducted for molecular authentication of P.ginseng and P. quinquefolius. The results showed that the developed multiplex PCR assay was effective for molecular authentication of P.ginseng and P. quinquefolius without strict PCR condition and the optimization of reaction system.This study provides a preferred ideal marker system for molecular authentication of ginseng,and the presented method can be employed in origin authentication of other herbal preparations. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  12. Positive Selection Driving Cytoplasmic Genome Evolution of the Medicinally Important Ginseng Plant Genus Panax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Peng; Shi, Feng-Xue; Li, Ming-Rui; Liu, Bao; Wen, Jun; Xiao, Hong-Xing; Li, Lin-Feng

    2018-01-01

    Panax L. (the ginseng genus) is a shade-demanding group within the family Araliaceae and all of its species are of crucial significance in traditional Chinese medicine. Phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses demonstrated that two rounds of whole genome duplications accompanying with geographic and ecological isolations promoted the diversification of Panax species. However, contributions of the cytoplasmic genomes to the adaptive evolution of Panax species remained largely uninvestigated. In this study, we sequenced the chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes of 11 accessions belonging to seven Panax species. Our results show that heterogeneity in nucleotide substitution rate is abundant in both of the two cytoplasmic genomes, with the mitochondrial genome possessing more variants at the total level but the chloroplast showing higher sequence polymorphisms at the genic regions. Genome-wide scanning of positive selection identified five and 12 genes from the chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes, respectively. Functional analyses further revealed that these selected genes play important roles in plant development, cellular metabolism and adaptation. We therefore conclude that positive selection might be one of the potential evolutionary forces that shaped nucleotide variation pattern of these Panax species. In particular, the mitochondrial genes evolved under stronger selective pressure compared to the chloroplast genes.

  13. Systems-level mechanisms of action of Panax ginseng: a network pharmacological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sa-Yoon; Park, Ji-Hun; Kim, Hyo-Su; Lee, Choong-Yeol; Lee, Hae-Jeung; Kang, Ki Sung; Kim, Chang-Eop

    2018-01-01

    Panax ginseng has been used since ancient times based on the traditional Asian medicine theory and clinical experiences, and currently, is one of the most popular herbs in the world. To date, most of the studies concerning P. ginseng have focused on specific mechanisms of action of individual constituents. However, in spite of many studies on the molecular mechanisms of P. ginseng , it still remains unclear how multiple active ingredients of P. ginseng interact with multiple targets simultaneously, giving the multidimensional effects on various conditions and diseases. In order to decipher the systems-level mechanism of multiple ingredients of P. ginseng , a novel approach is needed beyond conventional reductive analysis. We aim to review the systems-level mechanism of P. ginseng by adopting novel analytical framework-network pharmacology. Here, we constructed a compound-target network of P. ginseng using experimentally validated and machine learning-based prediction results. The targets of the network were analyzed in terms of related biological process, pathways, and diseases. The majority of targets were found to be related with primary metabolic process, signal transduction, nitrogen compound metabolic process, blood circulation, immune system process, cell-cell signaling, biosynthetic process, and neurological system process. In pathway enrichment analysis of targets, mainly the terms related with neural activity showed significant enrichment and formed a cluster. Finally, relative degrees analysis for the target-disease association of P. ginseng revealed several categories of related diseases, including respiratory, psychiatric, and cardiovascular diseases.

  14. Panax ginseng induces the expression of CatSper genes and sperm hyperactivation

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    Eun Hwa Park

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The cation channel of sperm (CatSper protein family plays important roles in male reproduction and infertility. The four members of this family are expressed exclusively in the testis and are localized differently in sperm. To investigate the effects of Panax ginseng treatment on the expression of CatSper genes and sperm hyperactivation in male mice, sperm motility and CatSper gene expression were assessed using a computer-assisted semen analysis system, a Fluoroskan Ascent microplate fluorometer to assess Ca 2+ influx, real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting and immunofluorescence. The results suggested that the Ca 2+ levels of sperm cells treated with P. ginseng were increased significantly compared with the normal group. The P. ginseng-treated groups showed increased sperm motility parameters, such as the curvilinear velocity and amplitude of lateral head displacement. Taken together, the data suggest that CatSper messenger ribonucleic acid levels were increased significantly in mouse testes in the P. ginseng-treated group, as was the protein level, with the exception of CatSper2. In conclusion, P. ginseng plays an important role in improving sperm hyperactivation via CatSper gene expression.

  15. Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius and Licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Root Extract Combinations Increase Hepatocarcinoma Cell (Hep-G2 Viability

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    David G. Popovich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined cytoactive effects of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius and licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis root extracts were investigated in a hepatocarcinoma cell line (Hep-G2. An isobolographic analysis was utilized to express the possibility of synergistic, additive or antagonistic interaction between the two extracts. Both ginseng and licorice roots are widely utilized in traditional Chinese medicine preparations to treat a variety of ailments. However, the effect of the herbs in combination is currently unknown in cultured Hep-G2 cells. Ginseng (GE and licorice (LE extracts were both able to reduce cell viability. The LC50 values, after 72 h, were found to be 0.64 ± 0.02 mg/mL (GE and 0.53 ± 0.02 mg/mL (LE. An isobologram was plotted, which included five theoretical LC50s calculated, based on the fixed fraction method of combination ginseng to licorice extracts to establish a line of additivity. All combinations of GE to LE (1/5, 1/3, 1/2, 2/3, 4/5 produced an effect on Hep-G2 cell viability but they were all found to be antagonistic. The LC50 of fractions 1/3, 1/2, 2/3 were 23%, 21% and 18% above the theoretical LC50. Lactate dehydrogenase release indicated that as the proportion of GE to LE increased beyond 50%, the influence on membrane permeability increased. Cell-cycle analysis showed a slight but significant arrest at the G1 phase of cell cycle for LE. Both GE and LE reduced Hep-G2 viability independently; however, the combinations of both extracts were found to have an antagonistic effect on cell viability and increased cultured Hep-G2 survival.

  16. Comparative phenolic compound profiles and antioxidative activity of the fruit, leaves, and roots of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) according to cultivation years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ill-Min; Lim, Ju-Jin; Ahn, Mun-Seob; Jeong, Haet-Nim; An, Tae-Jin; Kim, Seung-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Background The study of phenolic compounds profiles and antioxidative activity in ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots with respect to cultivation years, and has been little reported to date. Hence, this study examined the phenolic compounds profiles and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical-scavenging activities in the fruit, leaves, and roots of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) as a function of cultivation year. Methods Profiling of 23 phenolic compounds in ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots was investigated using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with the external calibration method. Antioxidative activity of ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots were evaluated using the method of DPPH free-radical-scavenging activity. Results The total phenol content in ginseng fruit and leaves was higher than in ginseng roots (p phenol content in the ginseng samples was significantly correlated to the DPPH free-radical-scavenging activity (r = 0.928****). In particular, p-coumaric acid (r = 0.847****) and ferulic acid (r = 0.742****) greatly affected the DPPH activity. Among the 23 phenolic compounds studied, phenolic acids were more abundant in ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots than the flavonoids and other compounds (p phenolic compounds in 3–6-yr-old ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots. Conclusion This study provides basic information about the antioxidative activity and phenolic compounds profiles in fruit, leaves, and roots of Korean ginseng with cultivation years. This information is potentially useful to ginseng growers and industries involved in the production of high-quality and nutritional ginseng products. PMID:26843824

  17. Characterization of Korean Red Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer: History, preparation method, and chemical composition

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    Sang Myung Lee

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that Korean Red Ginseng has been manufactured for 1,123 y as described in the GoRyeoDoGyeong record. The Korean Red Ginseng manufactured by the traditional preparation method has its own chemical component characteristics. The ginsenoside content of the red ginseng is shown as Rg1: 3.3 mg/g, Re: 2.0 mg/g, Rb1: 5.8 mg/g, Rc:1.7 mg/g, Rb2: 2.3 mg/g, and Rd: 0.4 mg/g, respectively. It is known that Korean ginseng generally consists of the main root and the lateral or fine roots at a ratio of about 75:25. Therefore, the red ginseng extract is prepared by using this same ratio of the main root and lateral or fine roots and processed by the historical traditional medicine prescription. The red ginseng extract is prepared through a water extraction (90°C for 14–16 h and concentration process (until its final concentration is 70–73 Brix at 50–60°C. The ginsenoside contents of the red ginseng extract are shown as Rg1: 1.3 mg/g, Re: 1.3 mg/g, Rb1: 6.4 mg/g, Rc:2.5 mg/g, Rb2: 2.3 mg/g, and Rd: 0.9 mg/g, respectively. Arginine-fructose-glucose (AFG is a specific amino-sugar that can be produced by chemical reaction of the process when the fresh ginseng is converted to red ginseng. The content of AFG is 1.0–1.5% in red ginseng. Acidic polysaccharide, which has been known as an immune activator, is at levels of 4.5–7.5% in red ginseng. Therefore, we recommended that the chemical profiles of Korean Red Ginseng made through the defined traditional method should be well preserved and it has had its own chemical characteristics since its traditional development.

  18. Effect of single-dose Ginkgo biloba and Panax ginseng on driving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaSala, Gregory S; McKeever, Rita G; Patel, Urvi; Okaneku, Jolene; Vearrier, David; Greenberg, Michael I

    2015-02-01

    Panax ginseng and Gingko biloba are commonly used herbal supplements in the United States that have been reported to increase alertness and cognitive function. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of these specific herbals on driving performance. 30 volunteers were tested using the STISIM3® Driving Simulator (Systems Technology Inc., Hawthorne, CA, USA) in this double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The subjects were randomized into 3 groups of 10 subjects per group. After 10-min of simulated driving, subjects received either ginseng (1200 mg), Gingko (240 mg), or placebo administered orally. The test herbals and placebo were randomized and administered by a research assistant outside of the study to maintain blinding. One hour following administration of the herbals or placebo, the subjects completed an additional 10-min of simulated driving. Standard driving parameters were studied including reaction time, standard deviation of lateral positioning, and divided attention. Data collected for the divided attention parameter included time to response and number of correct responses. The data was analyzed with repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Kruskal-Wallis test using SPSS 22 (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA). There was no difference in reaction time or standard deviation of lateral positioning for both the ginseng and Ginkgo arms. For the divided attention parameter, the response time in the Ginkgo arm decreased from 2.9 to 2.5 s. The ginseng arm also decreased from 3.2 to 2.4 s. None of these values were statistically significant when between group differences were analyzed. The data suggests there was no statistically significant difference between ginseng, Ginkgo or placebo on driving performance. We postulate this is due to the relatively small numbers in our study. Further study with a larger sample size may be needed in order to elucidate more fully the effects of Ginkgo and ginseng on driving ability.

  19. The effective mechanism of the polysaccharides from Panax ginseng on chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Sun, Chengxin; Zheng, Yan; Pan, Hongling; Zhou, Yifa; Fan, Yuying

    2014-04-01

    Ginseng acidic polysaccharide WGPA isolated from the root of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer was fractionated into WGPA-A and WGPA-N by anion-exchange chromatography. The antifatigue activity of ginseng acidic polysaccharide WGPA has been reported in our previous research. This present study was designed to identify its active component and elucidate the mechanism for preventing chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). WGPA, WGPA-A and WGPA-N were orally administered to mice once daily for 15 days. The effects of these compounds on physiological biomarkers of oxidative stress and on the morphology of the mitochondria in striated skeletal muscle were assessed. The results of forced swimming test-induced indicated that WGPA and WGPA-A could lengthen the swimming time, while WGPA-N could not. In addition, malondialdehyde and lactate dehydrogenase levels in serum were enhanced; while those of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were lowered. Interestingly, the structural degeneration of mitochondria were all ameliorated. These findings suggested that WGPA-A is the active component of WGPA, it might have potential therapeutic effects for CFS and the oxidative stress might be involved in the pathogenesis. Our results also provided essential data for a better understanding of the antifatigue effects of P. ginseng extracts.

  20. Proteomic variation in Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ulysses Akporoba

    2016-08-10

    Aug 10, 2016 ... number of ginsenoside types contained in Korean ginseng (38 ... License 4.0 International License .... AnchorChip TM 600/384 MALDI plate (Bruker Daltonik), and ... The peptide mass fingerprint search included a few.

  1. Cytohistological study of the leaf structures of Panax ginseng Meyer and Panax quinquefolius L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ok Ran Lee

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: The anatomical leaf structure of both P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius shows that they are typical shade-loving sciophytes. Slight differences in chloroplast structure suggests that the two different species can be authenticated using transmission electron microscopy images, and light-resistant cultivar breeding can be performed via controlling photosynthesis efficiency.

  2. Regulation of tissue differentiation by plant growth regulators on tTCLs of Panax ginseng adventitious roots

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Langhansová, Lenka; Maršík, Petr; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 1 (2012), s. 154-159 ISSN 0926-6690 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB400550705; GA MŠk ME08070 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Adventitious roots * Panax ginseng * Ginsenosides Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.468, year: 2012

  3. The skin protective effects of compound K, a metabolite of ginsenoside Rb1 from Panax ginseng

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    Eunji Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Compound K (CK is a ginsenoside, a metabolite of Panax ginseng. There is interest both in increasing skin health and antiaging using natural skin care products. In this study, we explored the possibility of using CK as a cosmetic ingredient. Methods: To assess the antiaging effect of CK, RT-PCR was performed, and expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase-1, cyclooxygenase-2, and type I collagen were measured under UVB irradiation conditions. The skin hydrating effect of CK was tested by RT-PCR, and its regulation was explored through immunoblotting. Melanin content, melanin secretion, and tyrosinase activity assays were performed. Results: CK treatment reduced the production of matrix metalloproteinase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 in UVB irradiated NIH3T3 cells and recovered type I collagen expression level. Expression of skin hydrating factors—filaggrin, transglutaminase, and hyaluronic acid synthases-1 and -2—were augmented by CK and were modulated through the inhibitor of κBα, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, or extracellular signal-regulated kinases pathway. In the melanogenic response, CK did not regulate tyrosinase activity and melanin secretion, but increased melanin content in B16F10 cells was observed. Conclusion: Our data showed that CK has antiaging and hydrating effects. We suggest that CK could be used in cosmetic products to protect the skin from UVB rays and increase skin moisture level. Keywords: compound K, melanogenesis, Panax ginseng, skin protection, UVB irradiation

  4. [Progress in improvement of continuous monoculture cropping problem in Panax ginseng by controlling soil-borne disease management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Dong, Lin-Lin; Xu, Jiang; Chen, Jun-Wen; Li, Xi-Wen; Chen, Shi-Lin

    2016-11-01

    The continuous monoculture cropping problem severely has hindered the land resource of Panax ginseng cultivation and threatened the sustainable development of ginseng industry. There are comprehensive factors causing the continuous monoculture cropping problem, such as deterioration of soil physical and chemical properties, accumulation of allelochemical, increase of pesticide residue and heavy metal, imbalance of rhizospheric micro-ecosystem, and increase of soil-borne diseases. Among soil-borne disease was one of the key factors. More than 40 soil-borne diseases have been reported in the ginseng cultivation, especially, the diseases were more serious in the ginseng replanting land. Here main soil-borne diseases and their prevention way have been summarized, and we try to provide the effective improvement strategy of continuous monoculture cropping problem focusing on the disease control and offer reference for overcoming the ginseng continuous monoculture cropping problem. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  5. Microbial transformation of ginsenosides extracted from Panax ginseng adventitious roots in an airlift bioreactor

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    Xiaolin Song

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: These findings may not only solve the problem of low productivity of metabolite in ginseng root culture but may also result in the development of a new valuable method of manufacturing ginsenoside CK.

  6. PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF HYDROETHANOLIC EXTRACTS FROM POWDERED ROOTS OF Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer AND Heteropterys tomentosa A. Juss AND EVALUATION OF THEIR EFFECTS ON ASTROCYTE CELL DEATH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Gomes Bezerra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The medicinal plants Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer (Araliaceae and Heteropterys tomentosa A. Juss (Malpighiaceae are widely and separately used by the Brazilian population as phytotherapeutics for the same medicinal purposes as tonics and to improve cognition. A chemical analysis was carried out on hydroethanolic extracts of powdered roots from P. ginseng and H. tomentosa using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS (High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to Diode-Array Detector and Electrospray Ionization - Mass Spectrum/Mass Spectrum. The ginsenosides Rg1, Rf, mRg and mRf were the main constituents in a hydroethanolic extract from P. ginseng, while in the hydroethanolic extract from H. tomentosa, caffeoylquinic acid derivatives and astilbin isomers were the main constituents. Concentration-time-effect curves were generated in cultures of astrocytes that were incubated with hydroethanolic extracts of these species to elucidate their toxicities. The P. ginseng extract was nontoxic at all of the tested times and concentrations. The hydroethanolic extract from H. tomentosa demonstrated toxicity at a concentration of 1000 µg/mL. P. ginseng extract had no protective effect against staurosporine. Many studies have demonstrated the neuroprotective effect of ginsenosides, caffeoylquinic derivatives and flavonoids.

  7. Validation of suitable reference genes for quantitative gene expression analysis in Panax ginseng

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    Meizhen eWang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reverse transcription-qPCR (RT-qPCR has become a popular method for gene expression studies. Its results require data normalization by housekeeping genes. No single gene is proved to be stably expressed under all experimental conditions. Therefore, systematic evaluation of reference genes is necessary. With the aim to identify optimum reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis of gene expression in different tissues of Panax ginseng and the seedlings grown under heat stress, we investigated the expression stability of eight candidate reference genes, including elongation factor 1-beta (EF1-β, elongation factor 1-gamma (EF1-γ, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3G (IF3G, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3B (IF3B, actin (ACT, actin11 (ACT11, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH and cyclophilin ABH-like protein (CYC, using four widely used computational programs: geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and the comparative ΔCt method. The results were then integrated using the web-based tool RefFinder. As a result, EF1-γ, IF3G and EF1-β were the three most stable genes in different tissues of P. ginseng, while IF3G, ACT11 and GAPDH were the top three-ranked genes in seedlings treated with heat. Using three better reference genes alone or in combination as internal control, we examined the expression profiles of MAR, a multiple function-associated mRNA-like non-coding RNA (mlncRNA in P. ginseng. Taken together, we recommended EF1-γ/IF3G and IF3G/ACT11 as the suitable pair of reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis of gene expression in different tissues of P. ginseng and the seedlings grown under heat stress, respectively. The results serve as a foundation for future studies on P. ginseng functional genomics.

  8. Antibacterial Effects against Various Foodborne Pathogens and Sensory Properties of Yogurt Supplemented with Panax ginseng Marc Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Su Jin; Hwang, Ji Eun; Kim, Kee-Tae; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2017-01-01

    Panax ginseng marc is produced from fresh ginseng roots during processing and is generally treated as industrial waste. The primary aim of this study was to improve its utilization in the dairy industry as a potential high-value resource. Yogurt was prepared from 11% skim milk powder, 0.1% pectin, 10% sucrose, and ginseng marc ethanol extract (GME, 0.5% and 1.0%) in milk, and was inoculated with a 0.02% yogurt culture (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, and Streptococcus thermophilus). After fermentation at 40°C for 6-8 h, the physicochemical properties of samples were analyzed by the AOAC, Kjeldahl, and Soxhlet methods. Sensory evaluation was performed based on consumer acceptability scores with a 7-point scale, and antimicrobial effects were measured by the agar plate method. The moisture, crude protein, crude fat, and ash contents of yogurt supplemented with 1% GME were 85.06±0.06%, 4.41±0.01%, 4.30±0.05%, and 0.81±0.03%, respectively, with no significant changes noted from those of yogurt without GME (control), except for an increase in the crude fat content. The sensory scores of color, flavor, texture, overall taste, and overall acceptance of yogurt supplemented with below 1% GME did not differ significantly (pyogurt. In addition, the growths of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, and Enterobacter sakazakii were inhibited during fermentation and storage. These results suggest that GME could be used in dairy products as a supplement and in the food industry as an antimicrobial material. PMID:29147103

  9. Characterization of the Variability of Nucleoli in the Cells of Panax ginseng Meyer In Vivo and In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrolenko, Yuliya A; Burundukova, Olga L; Lauve, Lyudmila S; Muzarok, Tamara I; Makhan'kov, Vyacheslav V; Zhuravlev, Yuri N

    2012-07-01

    Results of karyological study of intact plants and some callus lines of Panax ginseng are presented. In the native plants of P. ginseng the nucleus with 1 nucleolus (90%) dominate, and nucleus with 2 nucleoli is rare. One nucleolar nucleus also dominate in interphase nuclei of cells of cultivated P. ginseng (from 2006), but we also found nucleus with 2 to 3 nucleoli in the same cell lines. Interphase nuclei of P. ginseng in long cultivated lines (from 1988) contain 1 to 9 nucleoli, with a predominance of nuclei containing from 3 to 4 nucleoli. It was shown that long-time cells (cultivated since 1988) had cytogenetic changes such as increase level of polyploid and aneuploid cells, increase of nucleoli number into interphase nucleus and decrease of nuclei/nucleoli ratio. These long-time cultivated cells had very low ginsenoside content.

  10. Converting Panax ginseng DNA and chemical fingerprints into two-dimensional barcode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yong; Li, Peng; Li, Xi-Wen; Zhao, Jing; Chen, Hai; Yang, Qing; Hu, Hao

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we investigated how to convert the Panax ginseng DNA sequence code and chemical fingerprints into a two-dimensional code. In order to improve the compression efficiency, GATC2Bytes and digital merger compression algorithms are proposed. HPLC chemical fingerprint data of 10 groups of P. ginseng from Northeast China and the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequence code as the DNA sequence code were ready for conversion. In order to convert such data into a two-dimensional code, the following six steps were performed: First, the chemical fingerprint characteristic data sets were obtained through the inflection filtering algorithm. Second, precompression processing of such data sets is undertaken. Third, precompression processing was undertaken with the P. ginseng DNA (ITS2) sequence codes. Fourth, the precompressed chemical fingerprint data and the DNA (ITS2) sequence code were combined in accordance with the set data format. Such combined data can be compressed by Zlib, an open source data compression algorithm. Finally, the compressed data generated a two-dimensional code called a quick response code (QR code). Through the abovementioned converting process, it can be found that the number of bytes needed for storing P. ginseng chemical fingerprints and its DNA (ITS2) sequence code can be greatly reduced. After GTCA2Bytes algorithm processing, the ITS2 compression rate reaches 75% and the chemical fingerprint compression rate exceeds 99.65% via filtration and digital merger compression algorithm processing. Therefore, the overall compression ratio even exceeds 99.36%. The capacity of the formed QR code is around 0.5k, which can easily and successfully be read and identified by any smartphone. P. ginseng chemical fingerprints and its DNA (ITS2) sequence code can form a QR code after data processing, and therefore the QR code can be a perfect carrier of the authenticity and quality of P. ginseng information. This study provides a theoretical

  11. Adição de extratos de Ginkgo biloba e Panax ginseng em néctares mistos de frutas tropicais Addition of Ginkgo biloba and Panax ginseng extracts to mixed tropical fruit nectars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Machado de Sousa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou desenvolver formulações de néctares mistos de frutas tropicais, acrescidos de diferentes concentrações de extratos de Ginkgo biloba, Panax ginseng e misturas de Ginkgo biloba e Panax ginseng, avaliar características sensoriais, físico-químicas e químicas dos néctares selecionados. As formulações dos néctares tiveram a seguinte composição de polpa: caju (Anacardium occidentale, 12,25%; manga (Mangifera indica L, 21%; e acerola (Malpighia emarginata D.C., 1,75%. Foram desenvolvidas diferentes formulações, com a adição dos extratos nas concentrações variando de 15 a 30 mg.100 mL-1 de néctar. A avaliação sensorial da impressão global, sabor e aroma foi feita por meio de teste de aceitação. Para as bebidas formuladas com Panax ginseng, somente o atributo sabor apresentou variação com o aumento da concentração do extrato. Para as bebidas acrescidas de Ginkgo biloba, observou-se um decréscimo linear para todos os atributos avaliados com o aumento da concentração do extrato. Para a mistura de extratos, não se observou variação das médias com o aumento da concentração dos extratos. Conclui-se que a adição de extrato de Panax ginseng até a concentração de 20 mg.100 mL-1 de néctar e a mistura dos extratos, em concentrações de 7,5 mg.100 mL-1 de néctar de cada extrato, apresentam boa aceitação sensorial. A adição dos extratos não afetou a composição química dos néctares que apresentaram quantidades elevadas de vitamina C, carotenoides, fenólicos totais e antocianinas.The objectives of this study were to develop formulations of mixed nectars of tropical fruits adding different concentrations of Ginkgo biloba, Panax ginseng, and a mixture of Ginkgo biloba and Panax ginseng extracts and to assess sensory, physicochemical, and chemical characteristics of selected nectars. The nectar formulations had the following pulp composition: cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale, 12.25%, mango

  12. Variation in the number of nucleoli and incomplete homogenization of 18S ribosomal DNA sequences in leaf cells of the cultivated Oriental ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelomina, Galina N; Rozhkovan, Konstantin V; Voronova, Anastasia N; Burundukova, Olga L; Muzarok, Tamara I; Zhuravlev, Yuri N

    2016-04-01

    Wild ginseng, Panax ginseng Meyer, is an endangered species of medicinal plants. In the present study, we analyzed variations within the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) cluster to gain insight into the genetic diversity of the Oriental ginseng, P. ginseng, at artificial plant cultivation. The roots of wild P. ginseng plants were sampled from a nonprotected natural population of the Russian Far East. The slides were prepared from leaf tissues using the squash technique for cytogenetic analysis. The 18S rDNA sequences were cloned and sequenced. The distribution of nucleotide diversity, recombination events, and interspecific phylogenies for the total 18S rDNA sequence data set was also examined. In mesophyll cells, mononucleolar nuclei were estimated to be dominant (75.7%), while the remaining nuclei contained two to four nucleoli. Among the analyzed 18S rDNA clones, 20% were identical to the 18S rDNA sequence of P. ginseng from Japan, and other clones differed in one to six substitutions. The nucleotide polymorphism was more expressed at the positions 440-640 bp, and distributed in variable regions, expansion segments, and conservative elements of core structure. The phylogenetic analysis confirmed conspecificity of ginseng plants cultivated in different regions, with two fixed mutations between P. ginseng and other species. This study identified the evidences of the intragenomic nucleotide polymorphism in the 18S rDNA sequences of P. ginseng. These data suggest that, in cultivated plants, the observed genome instability may influence the synthesis of biologically active compounds, which are widely used in traditional medicine.

  13. Development of EST Intron-Targeting SNP Markers for Panax ginseng and Their Application to Cultivar Authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongtao; Li, Guisheng; Kwon, Woo-Saeng; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2016-06-04

    Panax ginseng is one of the most valuable medicinal plants in the Orient. The low level of genetic variation has limited the application of molecular markers for cultivar authentication and marker-assisted selection in cultivated ginseng. To exploit DNA polymorphism within ginseng cultivars, ginseng expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were searched against the potential intron polymorphism (PIP) database to predict the positions of introns. Intron-flanking primers were then designed in conserved exon regions and used to amplify across the more variable introns. Sequencing results showed that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), as well as indels, were detected in four EST-derived introns, and SNP markers specific to "Gopoong" and "K-1" were first reported in this study. Based on cultivar-specific SNP sites, allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was conducted and proved to be effective for the authentication of ginseng cultivars. Additionally, the combination of a simple NaOH-Tris DNA isolation method and real-time allele-specific PCR assay enabled the high throughput selection of cultivars from ginseng fields. The established real-time allele-specific PCR assay should be applied to molecular authentication and marker assisted selection of P. ginseng cultivars, and the EST intron-targeting strategy will provide a potential approach for marker development in species without whole genomic DNA sequence information.

  14. Effects of Panax ginseng extract in patients with fibromyalgia: a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

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    Alessandra S. Braz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of an extract of Panax ginseng in patients with fibromyalgia. A randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial was carried out over 12 weeks to compare the effects of P. ginseng (100 mg/d with amitriptyline (25 mg/d and placebo in 38 patients with fibromyalgia: 13 in Group I (amitriptyline, 13 in Group II (placebo, and 12 in Group III (P. ginseng. Ratings on the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS revealed a reduction in pain in the P. ginseng group (p < .0001, an improvement in fatigue (p < .0001 and an improvement in sleep (p < .001, with respect to baseline characteristics, but there were no differences between the three groups. With respect to anxiety, improvements occurred in the P. ginseng group compared to baseline (p < .0001; however, amitriptyline treatment resulted in significantly greater improvements (p < .05. P. ginseng reduced the number of tender points and improved patients' quality of life (using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire - FIQ; however, there were no differences between groups. The beneficial effects experienced by patients for all parameters suggest a need for further studies to be performed on the tolerability and efficacy of this phytotherapic as a complementary therapy for fibromyalgia.

  15. Single doses of Panax ginseng (G115) reduce blood glucose levels and improve cognitive performance during sustained mental activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reay, Jonathon L; Kennedy, David O; Scholey, Andrew B

    2005-07-01

    Single doses of the traditional herbal treatment Panax ginseng have recently been shown to elicit cognitive improvements in healthy young volunteers. The mechanisms by which ginseng improves cognitive performance are not known. However, they may be related to the glycaemic properties of some Panax species. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, balanced crossover design, 30 healthy young adults completed a 10 min test battery at baseline, and then six times in immediate succession commencing 60 min after the day's treatment (placebo, 200mg G115 or 400mg G115). The 10 min battery comprised a Serial Threes subtraction task (2 min); a Serial Sevens task (2 min); a Rapid Visual Information Processing task (5 min); then a 'mental fatigue' visual analogue scale. Blood glucose was measured prior to each day's treatment, and before, during and after the post-dose completions of the battery. Both the 200mg and 400mg treatments led to significant reductions in blood glucose levels at all three post-treatment measurements (p 0.005 in all cases). The most notable behavioural effects were associated with 200mg of ginseng and included significantly improved Serial Sevens subtraction task performance and significantly reduced subjective mental fatigue throughout all (with the exception of one time point in each case) of the post-dose completions of the 10 min battery (p 0.05). Overall these data suggest that Panax ginseng can improve performance and subjective feelings of mental fatigue during sustained mental activity. This effect may be related to the acute gluco-regulatory properties of the extract.

  16. Radioprotective effect of Panax ginseng on the phosphatases and lipid peroxidation level in testes of Swiss albino mice

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    Kumar M.; Sharma M.K.; Saxena P.S.; Kumar A. [Rajasthan Univ., Jaipur (India)

    2003-03-01

    The Panax ginseng has been used as traditional medicine for past several years among oriental people. The present investigation has been made to assess the radioprotective efficacy of ginseng root extract in the testicular enzymes of Swiss albino mice. The Swiss albino mice were divided into different groups. Ginseng treated group: The animals were administered 10 mg/kg body weight ginseng root extract intraperitoneal (i.p.). Radiation treated group: The animals were exposed to 8 Gy gamma radiation at the dose rate of 1.69 Gy/min at the distance of 80 cm. Combination group: Animals were administered ginseng extract continuously for 4 d and on 4th day they were irradiated to 8 Gy gamma radiation after 30 min of extract administration. The animals from above groups were autopsied on day 1, 3, 7, 14 and 30. Biochemical estimations of acid and alkaline phosphatases and Lipid peroxidation (LPO) in testes were done. In ginseng treated group acid and alkaline phosphatases activity and LPO level did not show any significant alteration. In irradiated animals there was a significant increase in acid phosphatase activity and LPO level. However, significant decline in alkaline phosphatase activity was observed. The treatment of ginseng before irradiation causes significant decrease in acid phosphatase and LPO level and significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity. One of the cause of radiation damage is lipid peroxidation. Due to lipid peroxidation, lysosomal membrane permeability alters and thus results in release of hydrolytic enzymes. So, an increase in acid phosphatase was noticed after radiation treatment. The alkaline phosphatase activity is associated with membrane permeability and different stages of spermatogenesis. Due to membrane damage and depletion of germ cells of testes after irradiation the enzyme activity was decreased. Ginseng markedly inhibits lipid peroxidation. It acts in indirect fashion to protect radical processes by inhibition of initiation of

  17. Radioprotective effect of Panax ginseng on the phosphatases and lipid peroxidation level in testes of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, M.; Sharma, M.K.; Saxena, P.S.; Kumar, A.

    2003-01-01

    The Panax ginseng has been used as traditional medicine for past several years among oriental people. The present investigation has been made to assess the radioprotective efficacy of ginseng root extract in the testicular enzymes of Swiss albino mice. The Swiss albino mice were divided into different groups. Ginseng treated group: The animals were administered 10 mg/kg body weight ginseng root extract intraperitoneal (i.p.). Radiation treated group: The animals were exposed to 8 Gy gamma radiation at the dose rate of 1.69 Gy/min at the distance of 80 cm. Combination group: Animals were administered ginseng extract continuously for 4 d and on 4th day they were irradiated to 8 Gy gamma radiation after 30 min of extract administration. The animals from above groups were autopsied on day 1, 3, 7, 14 and 30. Biochemical estimations of acid and alkaline phosphatases and Lipid peroxidation (LPO) in testes were done. In ginseng treated group acid and alkaline phosphatases activity and LPO level did not show any significant alteration. In irradiated animals there was a significant increase in acid phosphatase activity and LPO level. However, significant decline in alkaline phosphatase activity was observed. The treatment of ginseng before irradiation causes significant decrease in acid phosphatase and LPO level and significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity. One of the cause of radiation damage is lipid peroxidation. Due to lipid peroxidation, lysosomal membrane permeability alters and thus results in release of hydrolytic enzymes. So, an increase in acid phosphatase was noticed after radiation treatment. The alkaline phosphatase activity is associated with membrane permeability and different stages of spermatogenesis. Due to membrane damage and depletion of germ cells of testes after irradiation the enzyme activity was decreased. Ginseng markedly inhibits lipid peroxidation. It acts in indirect fashion to protect radical processes by inhibition of initiation of

  18. New Steroidal Erythrityl Triesters from the Heat Processed Roots of Panax ginseng

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    Ill-Min Chung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new compounds stigmasta-3α-ol-3α-(2′R,3′S-butane-1′,2′,3′,4′-tetraolyl-2′,3′-dioctadec-9″/9‴-enoyl-4′-octadec-9″″,12″″-dienoate (1 and stigmasta-5-en-3β-ol-3β-(2′R,3′S-butane-1′,2′,3′,4′-tetraolyl-2′,3′-dioctadec-9″/9‴-enoyl-4′-octadec-9″″,12″″-dienoate (2 along with β-sitosterol-β-D-glucoside were isolated and identified from the heat processed roots of Panax ginseng. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR (COSY, HSQC, and HMBC spectroscopic techniques aided by FAB-MS, ESI FT/MS, and IR spectra.

  19. The skin protective effects of compound K, a metabolite of ginsenoside Rb1 from Panax ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunji; Kim, Donghyun; Yoo, Sulgi; Hong, Yo Han; Han, Sang Yun; Jeong, Seonggu; Jeong, Deok; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Cho, Jae Youl; Park, Junseong

    2018-04-01

    Compound K (CK) is a ginsenoside, a metabolite of Panax ginseng . There is interest both in increasing skin health and antiaging using natural skin care products. In this study, we explored the possibility of using CK as a cosmetic ingredient. To assess the antiaging effect of CK, RT-PCR was performed, and expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase-1, cyclooxygenase-2, and type I collagen were measured under UVB irradiation conditions. The skin hydrating effect of CK was tested by RT-PCR, and its regulation was explored through immunoblotting. Melanin content, melanin secretion, and tyrosinase activity assays were performed. CK treatment reduced the production of matrix metalloproteinase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 in UVB irradiated NIH3T3 cells and recovered type I collagen expression level. Expression of skin hydrating factors-filaggrin, transglutaminase, and hyaluronic acid synthases-1 and -2-were augmented by CK and were modulated through the inhibitor of κBα, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, or extracellular signal-regulated kinases pathway. In the melanogenic response, CK did not regulate tyrosinase activity and melanin secretion, but increased melanin content in B16F10 cells was observed. Our data showed that CK has antiaging and hydrating effects. We suggest that CK could be used in cosmetic products to protect the skin from UVB rays and increase skin moisture level.

  20. Dynamics of Panax ginseng Rhizospheric Soil Microbial Community and Their Metabolic Function

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    Yong Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial communities of 1- to 6-year ginseng rhizosphere soils were characterized by culture-independent approaches, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD, and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA. Culture-dependent method (Biolog was used to investigate the metabolic function variance of microbe living in rhizosphere soil. Results showed that significant genetic and metabolic function variance were detected among soils, and, with the increasing of cultivating years, genetic diversity of bacterial communities in ginseng rhizosphere soil tended to be decreased. Also we found that Verrucomicrobia, Acidobacteria, and Proteobacteria were the dominants in rhizosphere soils, but, with the increasing of cultivating years, plant disease prevention or plant growth promoting bacteria, such as Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, and Bacillus, tended to be rare.

  1. Changes in element accumulation, phenolic metabolism, and antioxidative enzyme activities in the red-skin roots of Panax ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Yang, Zhenming; Gao, Lingling; Liu, Wen; Liu, Rongkun; Zhao, Junting; You, Jiangfeng

    2017-07-01

    Red-skin root disease has seriously decreased the quality and production of Panax ginseng (ginseng). To explore the disease's origin, comparative analysis was performed in different parts of the plant, particularly the epidermis, cortex, and/or fibrous roots of 5-yr-old healthy and diseased red-skin ginseng. The inorganic element composition, phenolic compound concentration, reactive oxidation system, antioxidant concentrations such as ascorbate and glutathione, activities of enzymes related to phenolic metabolism and oxidation, and antioxidative system particularly the ascorbate-glutathione cycle were examined using conventional methods. Aluminum (Al), iron (Fe), magnesium, and phosphorus were increased, whereas manganese was unchanged and calcium was decreased in the epidermis and fibrous root of red-skin ginseng, which also contained higher levels of phenolic compounds, higher activities of the phenolic compound-synthesizing enzyme phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and the phenolic compound oxidation-related enzymes guaiacol peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase. As the substrate of guaiacol peroxidase, higher levels of H 2 O 2 and correspondingly higher activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase were found in red-skin ginseng. Increased levels of ascorbate and glutathione; increased activities of l-galactose 1-dehydrogenase, ascorbate peroxidase, ascorbic acid oxidase, and glutathione reductase; and lower activities of dehydroascorbate reductase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, and glutathione peroxidase were found in red-skin ginseng. Glutathione- S -transferase activity remained constant. Hence, higher element accumulation, particularly Al and Fe, activated multiple enzymes related to accumulation of phenolic compounds and their oxidation. This might contribute to red-skin symptoms in ginseng. It is proposed that antioxidant and antioxidative enzymes, especially those involved in ascorbate-glutathione cycles, are activated to protect against phenolic compound

  2. Electrocardiographic and blood pressure effects of energy drinks and Panax ginseng in healthy volunteers: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sachin A; Occiano, Andrew; Nguyen, Tinh An; Chan, Amanda; Sky, Joseph C; Bhattacharyya, Mouchumi; O'Dell, Kate M; Shek, Allen; Nguyen, Nancy N

    2016-09-01

    Energy drink usage has been linked to emergency room visits and deaths. The objective of the study is to assess the electrocardiographic and blood pressure effects of energy drinks, Panax ginseng and placebo in healthy individuals. This was a randomized, double blinded, placebo controlled, crossover study. Young healthy volunteers with no comorbid conditions consumed 32oz of an energy drink, control drink with 800mg of Panax ginseng or matching placebo-control drink over 45min. Primary endpoints were QTc interval and systolic blood pressure. Secondary endpoints included QT interval, PR interval, QRS duration, heart rate, and diastolic blood pressure. All endpoints were assessed at baseline, 1, 2, 3.5, and 5.5h. A significant increase in QTc interval 2h post energy drink consumption was evident when compared to placebo (3.37±10.7ms and -3.19±11.8ms respectively; p=0.030). Similarly, systolic blood pressure 2h post energy drink consumption increased when compared to placebo (2.00±6.37mmHg and -2.67±5.83mmHg respectively; p=0.014). The PR interval significantly reduced over a 2h period post energy drink use in a clinically non-meaningful manner. Heart rate at 2h was not significantly higher in the energy drink group when compared to others. The QT interval, QRS interval and diastolic blood pressure were not impacted at any time point. Certain energy drinks consumed at a high volume significantly increase the QTc interval and systolic blood pressure by over 6ms and 4mmHg respectively. Panax ginseng does not have a significant impact on ECG or blood pressure parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of Panax ginseng, consumed with and without glucose, on blood glucose levels and cognitive performance during sustained 'mentally demanding' tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reay, Jonathon L; Kennedy, David O; Scholey, Andrew B

    2006-11-01

    Single doses of the traditional herbal treatment Panax ginseng have recently been shown to lower blood glucose levels and elicit cognitive improvements in healthy, overnight-fasted volunteers. The specific mechanisms responsible for these effects are not known. However, cognitive improvements may be related to the glycaemic properties of Panax ginseng. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, balanced-crossover design, 27 healthy young adults completed a 10 minute "cognitive demand" test battery at baseline. They then consumed capsules containing either ginseng (extract G115) or a placebo and 30 minutes later a drink containing glucose or placebo. A further 30 minutes later (i.e. 60 minutes post-baseline/capsules) they completed the "cognitive demand" battery six times in immediate succession. Depending on the condition to which the participant was allocated on that particular day, the combination of capsules/drink treatments corresponded to a dose of: 0mg G115/0 mg glucose (placebo); 200mg G115/0 mg glucose (ginseng); 0 mg G115/25 g glucose (glucose) or 200 mg G115/25 g glucose (ginseng/glucose combination). The 10 minute "cognitive demand" battery comprised a Serial Threes subtraction task (2 min); a Serial Sevens subtraction task (2 min); a Rapid Visual Information Processing task (5 min); and a "mental fatigue" visual analogue scale. Blood glucose levels were measured prior to the day's treatment, and before and after the post-dose completions of the battery. The results showed that both Panax ginseng and glucose enhanced performance of a mental arithmetic task and ameliorated the increase in subjective feelings of mental fatigue experienced by participants during the later stages of the sustained, cognitively demanding task performance. Accuracy of performing the Rapid Visual Information Processing task (RVIP) was also improved following the glucose load. There was no evidence of a synergistic relationship between Panax ginseng and exogenous glucose ingestion

  4. The mRNA and miRNA transcriptomic landscape of Panax ginseng under the high ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Inuk; Kang, Hyejin; Kim, Jang Uk; Chang, Hyeonsook; Kim, Sun; Jung, Woosuk

    2018-03-19

    Ginseng is a popular traditional herbal medicine in north-eastern Asia. It has been used for human health for over thousands of years. With the rise in global temperature, the production of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A.Meyer) in Korea have migrated from mid to northern parts of the Korean peninsula to escape from the various higher temperature related stresses. Under the high ambient temperature, vegetative growth was accelerated, which resulted in early flowering. This precocious phase change led to yield loss. Despite of its importance as a traditional medicine, biological mechanisms of ginseng has not been well studied and even the genome sequence of ginseng is yet to be determined due to its complex genome structure. Thus, it is challenging to investigate the molecular biology mechanisms at the transcript level. To investigate how ginseng responds to the high ambient temperature environment, we performed high throughput RNA sequencing and implemented a bioinformatics pipeline for the integrated analysis of small-RNA and mRNA-seq data without a reference genome. By performing reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR and sanger sequencing of transcripts that were assembled using our pipeline, we validated that their sequences were expressed in our samples. Furthermore, to investigate the interaction between genes and non-coding small RNAs and their regulation status under the high ambient temperature, we identified potential gene regulatory miRNAs. As a result, 100,672 contigs with significant expression level were identified and 6 known, 214 conserved and 60 potential novel miRNAs were predicted to be expressed under the high ambient temperature. Collectively, we have found that development, flowering and temperature responsive genes were induced under high ambient temperature, whereas photosynthesis related genes were repressed. Functional miRNAs were down-regulated under the high ambient temperature. Among them are miR156 and miR396 that target flowering (SPL6

  5. Time-Course Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Resistance Genes of Panax ginseng Induced by Cylindrocarpon destructans Infection Using RNA-Seq.

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    Yuan Gao

    Full Text Available Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer is a highly valued medicinal plant. Cylindrocarpon destructans is a destructive pathogen that causes root rot and significantly reduces the quality and yield of P. ginseng. However, an efficient method to control root rot remains unavailable because of insufficient understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying C. destructans-P. ginseng interaction. In this study, C. destructans-induced transcriptomes at different time points were investigated using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq. De novo assembly produced 73,335 unigenes for the P. ginseng transcriptome after C. destructans infection, in which 3,839 unigenes were up-regulated. Notably, the abundance of the up-regulated unigenes sharply increased at 0.5 d postinoculation to provide effector-triggered immunity. In total, 24 of 26 randomly selected unigenes can be validated using quantitative reverse transcription (qRT-PCR. Gene ontology enrichment analysis of these unigenes showed that "defense response to fungus", "defense response" and "response to stress" were enriched. In addition, differentially expressed transcription factors involved in the hormone signaling pathways after C. destructans infection were identified. Finally, differentially expressed unigenes involved in reactive oxygen species and ginsenoside biosynthetic pathway during C. destructans infection were indentified. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report on the dynamic transcriptome triggered by C. destructans. These results improve our understanding of disease resistance in P. ginseng and provide a useful resource for quick detection of induced markers in P. ginseng before the comprehensive outbreak of this disease caused by C. destructans.

  6. Enhancement of ginsenoside Rg(1) in Panax ginseng hairy root by overexpressing the α-L-rhamnosidase gene from Bifidobacterium breve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ru; Zhang, Bian-Ling; Li, Gu-Cai; Xie, Tao; Hu, Teng; Luo, Zhi-Yong

    2015-10-01

    To improve the production of ginsenoside Rg1 in Panax ginseng. The α-L-rhamnosidase gene from Bifidobacterium breve (BbRha) was overexpressed into hairy root culture system using Agrobacterium rhizogenes A4. Ginsenoside Rg1 in hairy roots was obtained following transformation via overexpressed gene representing 2.2-fold higher than those of control lines. Several overexpression transgenic hairy root lines were obtained exhibiting markedly increased levels of the corresponding α-L-rhamnosidase enzymatic activity relative to control. Ginsenoside Rg1 levels in the transgenic lines were higher (2.2-fold) than those of control after following 30 days culturing, while ginsenoside Re contents in tested transgenic lines were found to be lower. The transgenic hairy roots harboring α-L-rhamnosidase gene improved the accumulation of ginsenoside Rg1 up to 3.6 mg g(-1) dry weight. BbRha gene selectively enhances the production of ginsenoside Rg1 in P. ginseng hairy roots.

  7. Effects of acute supplementation of Panax ginseng on endurance running in a hot & humid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Fadzel Wong Chee; Keong, Chen Chee; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Athletes in Malaysia need to perform in a hot and humid environment due to the climatic nature of the country. c0 hronic supplementation of Panax ginseng (PG) (a deciduous perennial plant belonging to the Araliaceae family) enhances physical performance. As the ergogenic effect of acute supplementation of PG on endurance performance has not been explored in the Malaysian population especially in a hot and humid condition this study was taken up. Methods: Nine heat adapted recreational runners (age : 25.4 ± 6.9 yr, body mass : 57.6 ± 8.4 kg; body height : 168.3 ± 7.6 cm) were recruited in this placebo-controlled double-blind randomized study. Subjects ingested 200 mg of PG one hour before the exercise test on treadmill at 70 per cent of their VO2max in a laboratory environment of 31 °C and 70 per cent relative humidity. They drank 3 ml/kg body weight of cool water every 20 min during the exercise to prevent adverse effects of dehydration. Blood samples were drawn every 20 min for the analysis of glucose, lactate, insulin and free fatty acids. Oxygen uptake was determined every 20 min while heart rate, body and skin temperatures, and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded every 10 min during the trials. Results: Endurance running time to exhaustion did not differ between PG and placebo trials. Heart rate, skin temperature, core body temperature, oxygen uptake, RPE, plasma insulin, glucose, free fatty acid and lactate levels during the endurance exercise did not show any significant differences between the trials. Interpretation & conclusions: We conclude that acute supplementation of 200 mg of PG did not affect the endurance running performance of the heat-adapted male recreational runners in the heat. PMID:21321426

  8. Effects of administration of the standardized Panax ginseng extract G115 on hepatic antioxidant function after exhaustive exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voces, J; Alvarez, A I; Vila, L; Ferrando, A; Cabral de Oliveira, C; Prieto, J G

    1999-06-01

    The effect of prolonged treatment with the standardized Panax ginseng extract G115 on the antioxidant capacity of the liver was investigated. For this purpose, rats that had received G115 orally at different doses for 3 months and untreated control rats were subjected to exhaustive exercise on a treadmill. A bell-shaped dose response on running time was obtained. The results showed that the administration of G115 significantly increases the hepatic glutathione peroxidase activity (GPX) and the reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in the liver, with a dose-dependent reduction of the thiobarbituric acid reactant substances (TBARS). After the exercise, there is reduced hepatic lipid peroxidation, as evidenced by the TBARS levels in both the controls and the treated animals. The GPX (glutathione peroxidase) and SOD (superoxide dismutase) activity are also significantly increased in the groups receiving G115, compared with the controls. The hepatic transaminase levels, ALT (Alanine-amino-transferase) and AST (Aspartate-amino-transferase), in the recuperation phase 48 h after the exercise, indicate a clear hepatoprotective effect related to the administration of the standardized Panax ginseng extract G115. At hepatic level, G115 increases the antioxidant capacity, with a marked reduction of the effects of the oxidative stress induced by the exhaustive exercise.

  9. Evolution, functional differentiation, and co-expression of the RLK gene family revealed in Jilin ginseng, Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yanping; Wang, Kangyu; Li, Xiangyu; Sun, Chunyu; Yin, Rui; Wang, Yanfang; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Meiping

    2018-02-21

    Most genes in a genome exist in the form of a gene family; therefore, it is necessary to have knowledge of how a gene family functions to comprehensively understand organismal biology. The receptor-like kinase (RLK)-encoding gene family is one of the most important gene families in plants. It plays important roles in biotic and abiotic stress tolerances, and growth and development. However, little is known about the functional differentiation and relationships among the gene members within a gene family in plants. This study has isolated 563 RLK genes (designated as PgRLK genes) expressed in Jilin ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer), investigated their evolution, and deciphered their functional diversification and relationships. The PgRLK gene family is highly diverged and formed into eight types. The LRR type is the earliest and most prevalent, while only the Lec type originated after P. ginseng evolved. Furthermore, although the members of the PgRLK gene family all encode receptor-like protein kinases and share conservative domains, they are functionally very diverse, participating in numerous biological processes. The expressions of different members of the PgRLK gene family are extremely variable within a tissue, at a developmental stage and in the same cultivar, but most of the genes tend to express correlatively, forming a co-expression network. These results not only provide a deeper and comprehensive understanding of the evolution, functional differentiation and correlation of a gene family in plants, but also an RLK genic resource useful for enhanced ginseng genetic improvement.

  10. [Differences between cold and hot natures of processed Radix ginseng rubra and Panax quinquefolius L. based upon mice temperature tropism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-Ru; Zhao, Yan-Ling; Wang, Jia-Bo; Zhou, Can-Ping; Liu, Ta-Si; Zhao, Hai-Ping; Ren, Yong-Shen; Yan, Dan; Xiao, Xiao-He

    2009-07-28

    To establish an objective method to estimate the disparity between the cold and hot natures on the basis of an intrinsic correlation between temperature tropism of mice and the cold and hot natures of Chinese medicines. Male KM mice were randomly divided into 7 groups of 6 each, namely the normal group (NM), the weak model group (WM), the strong model group (SM), the weak model plus Radix ginseng rubra group (WM + RG), the weak model plus Panax quinquefolius L. group (WM + PQ), the strong model plus Radix ginseng rubra group (SM + RG) and the strong model plus Panax quinquefolius L. group (SM +PQ). The specific herbal drugs were administered intragastricly. To induce the weak model, mice were fed with a limited supply of feed and forced to swim in cold water until almost drowning while the strong model induced by feeding a high-protein diet with an unlimited feed access. The doses of Radix ginseng rubra and Panax quinquefolius L. were 35 mg/g of body weight per day (counted by the quantity of crude material) and lasting for seven days. The NM and model groups without dosing were intragastricly administered with physiological saline of the same volume to the dosing groups. The percentage of the remaining time of mouse on a high temperature (40 degrees C) pad to the total monitoring time was recorded by a self-designed intelligent animal behavior monitoring system. Meanwhile, the drinking volume of mice in each group was measured. Immediately after experiment, the activities of Na(+)K(+)-ATPase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver tissue were measured by assay kits of phosphorus and xanthine oxidase methods respectively. The features of deficient and cold symptom, such as fatigue, stagnant weight growth, decreased water intake, cold limbs and tail etc, were observed in WM group. And the features of heat symptom, such as increased weight and water intake, hyperactivity etc, were observed in SM group. The percentage of time that the mouse remained on 40 degrees C

  11. Effect of Ginseng (Panax ginseng Berry EtOAc Fraction on Cognitive Impairment in C57BL/6 Mice under High-Fat Diet Inducement

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    Chang Hyeon Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High-fat diet-induced obesity leads to type 2 diabetes. Recently, there has been growing apprehension about diabetes-associated cognitive impairment (DACM. The effect of ginseng (Panax ginseng berry ethyl acetate fraction (GBEF on mice with high-fat diet-induced cognitive impairment was investigated to confirm its physiological function. C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet for 5 weeks and then a high-fat diet with GBEF (20 and 50 mg/kg of body weight for 4 weeks. After three in vivo behavioral tests (Y-maze, passive avoidance, and Morris water maze tests, blood samples were collected from the postcaval vein for biochemical analysis, and whole brains were prepared for an ex vivo test. A method based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC accurate-mass quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF/MS was used to determine major ginsenosides. GBEF decreased the fasting blood glucose levels of high-fat diet-induced diabetes mellitus (DM mice and improved hyperglycemia. Cognitive behavior tests were examined after setting up the DM mice. The in vivo experiments showed that mice treated with GBEF exhibited more improved cognitive behavior than DM mice. In addition, GBEF effectively inhibited the acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity and malondialdehyde (MDA levels of DM mice brain tissues. Q-TOF UPLC/MS analyses of GBEF showed that ginsenoside Re was the major ginsenoside.

  12. Induction of micronuclei in human and mouse lymphocytes irradiated with gamma radiation and effect of panax ginseng C. A. Meyer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Ho; Oh, Heon; Lee, Song Eun [Chonnam National Univ., Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yun Sil; Kim, Tae Hwan [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Kyu Sik [Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Si Yun [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-09-01

    The frequencies of {gamma}-ray-induced micronuclei (MN) in Cytokinesis-Blocked (CB) lymphocytes at several doses were measured in three donors of human and C57BL/6 mice. Measurements performed after irradiation showed a dose-related increases in MN frequency in each of the donors studied. The relative sensitivity of mouse in Spleen Lymphocytes (SLs) compared with human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes (PBLs) was estimated by best fitting linear-quadratic model based on the radiation-induced MN data over the range from 0 cGy to 400 cGy. In the case of MN frequency with 0.2 per CB cell, the relative sensitivity of mouse SLs was 1.67. Compared with the radiation-induced MN formation in the PBLs of human, the SLs of mouse were more radiosensitive. Using this MN assay with human PBLs and mouse SLs, studies were performed to determine whether the water fraction of ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A.Meyer)against radiation-induced MN in human PBLs after in vitro irradiation (3Gy) and in SLs of C57BL/6 mice after in vivo irradiation (3Gy). The frequency of MN in human PBLs was reduced by water fraction of ginseng (0.5mg/ml of medium) both pre-and post treatment (p<0.01) in vitro. In addition, the frequency of MN in mouse SLs was also reduced by pretreatment of ginseng (2mg/ml of drinking water for 7 days) in vivo.

  13. Análise comparativa de embalagens secundárias e bulas de medicamentos contendo Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer A comparative analysis of inner wrapping and package inserts for medicines containing Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Tirico Auricchio

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available As informações contidas nas bulas e embalagem de medicamentos de diferentes fabricantes contendo Panax ginseng foram analisadas comparativamente com os dados encontrados na literatura científica. Observaram-se bulas longas, com várias informações em relação às indicações de uso, muitas das quais sem comprovação em humanos, e todas foram deficitárias em relação aos .efeitos adversos e interações medicamentosas. Foi observada falta de padronização quanto às posologias, em relação tanto ao extrato seco, quanto ao teor dos ginsenosídeos presentes. Constatou-se a falta de homogeneidade nas informações aos usuários sobre indicações de uso, efeitos adversos e interações medicamentosas entre as oito amostras estudadas.The information provided on package inserts and inner wrapping of eight products containing Panax ginseng from different manufacturers was compared internally and checked against data from the scientific literature. The inserts included extensive text, containing abundant information on indications for use, but no scientific evidence in humans. All the inserts lacked information on potential adverse effects and drug interaction. There was no standardization as to dose regimens, particularly in relation to the dried extract and ginsenoside concentration. The eight inserts thus showed no concern over standardization, indication for usage, or possible side effects and drug interactions.

  14. Quantification of maltol in Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng) products by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyun Cheol; Hong, Hee-Do; Kim, Young-Chan; Rhee, Young Kyoung; Choi, Sang Yoon; Kim, Kyung-Tack; Kim, Sung Soo; Lee, Young-Chul; Cho, Chang-Won

    2015-01-01

    Background: Maltol, as a type of phenolic compounds, is produced by the browning reaction during the high-temperature treatment of ginseng. Thus, maltol can be used as a marker for the quality control of various ginseng products manufactured by high-temperature treatment including red ginseng. For the quantification of maltol in Korean ginseng products, an effective high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method was developed. Materials and Methods: The HPLC-DAD method for maltol quantification coupled with a liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method was developed and validated in terms of linearity, precision, and accuracy. An HPLC separation was performed on a C18 column. Results: The LLE methods and HPLC running conditions for maltol quantification were optimized. The calibration curve of the maltol exhibited good linearity (R2 = 1.00). The limit of detection value of maltol was 0.26 μg/mL, and the limit of quantification value was 0.79 μg/mL. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the data of the intra- and inter-day experiments were <1.27% and 0.61%, respectively. The results of the recovery test were 101.35–101.75% with an RSD value of 0.21–1.65%. The developed method was applied successfully to quantify the maltol in three ginseng products manufactured by different methods. Conclusion: The results of validation demonstrated that the proposed HPLC-DAD method was useful for the quantification of maltol in various ginseng products. PMID:26246746

  15. Desenvolvimento de néctares mistos de frutas tropicais adicionados de Ginkgo biloba e Panax ginseng

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Paulo Henrique Machado de

    2006-01-01

    Com o apelo da mudança para hábitos saudáveis, observa-se o aumento do consumo de fruta fresca em todo o mundo, que se estende aos sucos processados. Bebidas com novos sabores e aromas estão sendo elaboradas, sendo as bebidas mistas de frutas mais uma opção para os consumidores e uma tendência do mercado internacional. A adição de componentes funcionais também vem sendo feita, e os extratos de Ginkgo biloba e Panax ginseng vêm como uma nova opção, por apresentarem inúmeros benefícios à saúde,...

  16. Assessment of radical scavenging, whitening and moisture retention activities of Panax ginseng berry mediated gold nanoparticles as safe and efficient novel cosmetic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Zuly; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Mathiyalagan, Ramya; Seo, Kwang-Hoon; Mohanan, Padmanaban; Ahn, Jong-Chan; Kim, Yu-Jin; Yang, Deok Chun

    2018-03-01

    Panax ginseng berry extract possess remarkable pharmacological effects on skin treatment such as anti-aging, antioxidant, promotor of collagen synthesis and alleviation against atopic dermatitis. In recent years, gold nanoparticles have gained much attention due to their extensive range of applications in particular in the field of drug delivery as a result of their biological compatibility and low toxicity. In a previous study, we designed and developed biocompatible gold and silver nanoparticles based on phytochemical profile and pharmacological efficacy of P. ginseng berry extract, we were able to reduce gold ions to nanoparticles through the process of green synthesis. However, its potential as a cosmetic ingredient is still unexplored. The aim of the present study is to investigate the moisture retention, in-vitro scavenging and whitening properties of gold nanoparticles synthesized from P. ginseng berry in cosmetic applications. Our findings confirm that P. ginseng berry mediated gold nanoparticles exhibited moisture retention capacity. In addition, MTT assay results confirmed that P. ginseng berry mediated gold nanoparticles are non-toxic to human dermal fibroblast and murine melanoma skin cells, possess scavenging activity, protect and provide alleviation against injured caused by H 2 O 2 -induced damage. In addition, P. ginseng berry mediated gold nanoparticles, significantly reduced melanin content and suppress tyrosinase activity in α-MSH-stimulated B16BL6 cells. We conclude that P. ginseng berry mediated gold nanoparticles are biocompatible and environmental affable materials and can be a potential novel cosmetic ingredient.

  17. Panax ginseng Improves Functional Recovery after Contusive Spinal Cord Injury by Regulating the Inflammatory Response in Rats: An In Vivo Study

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    Young Ock Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury (SCI results in permanent loss of motor function below the injured site. Neuroinflammatory reaction following SCI can aggravate neural injury and functional impairment. Ginseng is well known to possess anti-inflammatory effects. The present study investigated the neuroprotective effects of Panax ginseng C.A. Mayer (P. ginseng after SCI. A spinal contusion was made at the T11-12 spinal cord in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=47 using the NYU impactor. Motor function was assessed using the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB score in P. ginseng (0.1, 0.5, 1, 3, and 5 mg/kg or vehicle (saline treated after SCI. We also assessed the protein expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS at the lesion site by western blot and then measured the cavity area using luxol fast blue/cresyl violet staining. P. ginseng treated group in SCI showed a significant improvement in locomotor function after the injury. The protein expression of COX-2 and iNOS at the lesion site and the cavity area were decreased following SCI by P. ginseng treatment. These results suggest that P. ginseng may improve the recovery of motor function after SCI which provides neuroprotection by alleviating posttraumatic inflammatory responses.

  18. A strategy for efficient discovery of new natural compounds by integrating orthogonal column chromatography and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis: Its application in Panax ginseng, Panax quinquefolium and Panax notoginseng to characterize 437 potential new ginsenosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-zhi; Ye, Min; Qiao, Xue; Liu, Chun-fang; Miao, Wen-juan; Bo, Tao; Tao, Hai-yan; Guo, De-an

    2012-08-20

    To discover new natural compounds from herbal medicines tends to be more and more difficult. In this paper, a strategy integrating orthogonal column chromatography and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis was proposed, and was applied for rapid discovery of new ginsenosides from Panax ginseng (PG), Panax quinquefolium (PQ), and Panax notoginseng (PN). The ginsenosides extracts were fractionated by MCI gel×silica gel orthogonal column chromatography. The fractions were then separated on a C(18) HPLC column, eluted with a three-component mobile phase (CH(3)CN/CH(3)OH/3mM CH(3)COONH(4)H(2)O), and detected by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The structures of unknown ginsenosides were elucidated by analyzing negative and positive ion mass spectra, which provided complementary information on the sapogenins and oligosaccharide chains, respectively. A total of 623 comprising 437 potential new ginsenosides were characterized from the ethanol extracts of PG, PQ and PN. New acylations, diversified saccharide chains and C-17 side chains constituted novelty of the newly identified ginsenosides. An interpretation guideline was proposed for structural characterization of unknown ginsenosides by LC/MS. To confirm reliability of this strategy, two targeted unknown trace ginsenosides were obtained in pure form by LC/MS-guided isolation. Based on extensive NMR spectroscopic analysis and other techniques, they were identified as 3-O-[6-O-(E)-butenoyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1,2)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-20(S)-protopanaxadiol-20-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1,6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (named ginsenoside IV) and 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1,2)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-3β,12β,20(S),24(R)-tetra hydroxy-dammar-25-ene-20-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1,6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (ginsenoside V), respectively. The fully established structures were consistent with the MS-oriented structural elucidation. This study expanded our understanding on ginsenosides of Panax species, and the

  19. Effect of boron nutrition on American ginseng in field and in nutrient cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John T.A. Proctor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Field and nutrient cultures of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L. were used to establish foliar symptoms related to boron (B concentration in leaves and soils, and to evaluate radish as a time-saving model system for B nutrition. Application of excess B, 8 kg/ha versus the recommended 1.5 kg/ha, to field plantings of 2-, 3-, and 4-yr-old American ginseng plants just prior to crop emergence caused, within 4 wk after crop emergence, leaf symptoms of chlorosis followed by necrosis starting at the tips and progressing along the margins. The B concentration in leaves of 2–4-yr-old plants receiving 1.5 kg/ha B was 30 μg/g dry mass compared to 460 μg/g dry mass where 8 kg/ha B was applied. Similarly, B concentration in soils receiving the lower B concentration was 1.8 μg/g dry mass and 2.2–2.8 μg/g dry mass where the higher B concentration was applied. Application of 8 kg/ha B reduced the dry yield of 3rd-yr roots by 20% from 2745 kg/ha to 2196 kg/ha and 4th-yr roots by 26% from 4130 kg/ha to 3071 kg/ha. Ginseng seedlings and radish were grown under greenhouse conditions in nutrient culture with four B concentrations ranging from 0 mg/L to 10 mg/L. At 5 mg/L and 10 mg/L ginseng and radish developed typical leaf B toxicity symptoms similar to those described above for field-grown plants. Increasing B in the nutrient solution from 0.5 mg/L to 10 mg/L decreased, in a linear fashion, the root and leaf dry mass of ginseng, but not radish. Given the many similarities of ginseng and radish to B utilization, radish might be used as a time-saving model system for the study of B, and other micronutrients, in the slow-growing perennial ginseng.

  20. Analysis of the relationship between rusty root incidences and soil properties in Panax ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q. X.; Xu, C. L.; Sun, H.; Ma, L.; Li, L.; Zhang, D. D.; Zhang, Y. Y.

    2016-08-01

    Rusty root is a serious problem in ginseng cultivation that limits the production and quality of ginseng worldwide. The Changbai Mountains are the most famous area for ginseng cultivation in China. To clarify the relationship between rusty root and soil characteristics, physico-chemical properties and enzymatic activities of soil collected from five different fields in the Changbai Mountains were analyzed and a controlled experiment carried out by increasing the concentration of Fe (II). Soil bulk density, moisture, total iron (Fe) and total manganese (Mn) concentrations and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity were significantly higher in rusty root than healthy root groups (two-sample test, Ptest showed that there was a significant positive correlation between rusty root index and pH, N, Fe, Mn, Al, Zn and Ca of soil samples collected from fields (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and a significant positive correlation also occurred between rusty root index and Fe (II) added to soil in Fe (II) inducing rusty root (P<0.01). Physiological factors may be very important roles giving rise to ginseng rusty root. Fe (III) reduction and Fe (II) oxidation could be important in increasing the incidence of rusty root. Soil moisture and bulk density of non-rhizosphere soil not attached to the root surface, and pH, N and PPO content of rhizosphere soils attached to the root surface were heavily involved in the reduction, oxidation and sequestration of metal ions.

  1. Comprehensive Profiling and Quantification of Ginsenosides in the Root, Stem, Leaf, and Berry of Panax ginseng by UPLC-QTOF/MS

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    Jae Won Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The effective production and usage of ginsenosides, given their distinct pharmacological effects, are receiving increasing amounts of attention. As the ginsenosides content differs in different parts of Panax ginseng, we wanted to assess and compare the ginsenosides content in the ginseng roots, leave, stems, and berries. To extract the ginsenosides, 70% (v/v methanol was used. The optimal ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS method was used to profile various ginsenosides from the different parts of P. ginseng. The datasets were then subjected to multivariate analysis including principal component analysis (PCA and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA. A UPLC-QTOF/MS method with an in-house library was constructed to profile 58 ginsenosides. With this method, a total of 39 ginsenosides were successfully identified and quantified in the ginseng roots, leave, stem, and berries. PCA and HCA characterized the different ginsenosides compositions from the different parts. The quantitative ginsenoside contents were also characterized from each plant part. The results of this study indicate that the UPLC-QTOF/MS method can be an effective tool to characterize various ginsenosides from the different parts of P. ginseng.

  2. Alcohol extract of North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) reduces fatty liver, dyslipidemia, and other complications of metabolic syndrome in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ratnesh K; Lui, Edmund; Wright, David; Taylor, Adrian; Bakovic, Marica

    2017-09-01

    We investigated whether North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) could reduce development of the metabolic syndrome phenotype in a mouse model (ETKO) of the disease. Young ETKO mice have no disease but similar to humans start to develop the fatty liver, hypertriglyceridemia, obesity, and insulin resistance at 25-30 weeks of age, and the disease continues to progress with ageing. ETKO mice were orally given an ethanol extract of ginseng roots at 4 and 32 weeks of age. Treatments with ginseng eliminated the ETKO fatty liver, reduced hepatic and intestinal lipoprotein secretion, and reduced the level of circulating lipids. Improvements by ginseng treatments were manifested as a reduction in the expression of genes involved in the regulation of fatty acid and triglyceride (fat) synthesis and secretion by the lipoproteins on one hand, and the stimulation of fatty acid oxidation and triglyceride degradation by lipolysis on the other hand. These processes altogether improved glucose, fatty acid, and triglyceride metabolism, reduced liver fat load, and reversed the progression of metabolic syndrome. These data confirm that treatments with North American ginseng could alleviate metabolic syndrome through the maintenance of a better balance between glucose and fatty acid metabolism, lipoprotein secretion, and energy homeostasis in disease-prone states.

  3. Proinflammatory cytokines and CD14 expression in mammary tissue of cows following intramammary inoculation of Panax ginseng at drying off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baravalle, C; Dallard, B E; Cadoche, M C; Pereyra, E A L; Neder, V E; Ortega, H H; Calvinho, L F

    2011-11-15

    The lack of efficacy of conventional strategies for the maintenance of healthy udders in domestic cattle has prompted studies on the use of immunomodulators or biological response modifiers (BRM) for this purpose. These compounds are agents that modify the host's response to pathogens leading to beneficial effects on disease outcome. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a single intramammary infusion of Panax ginseng (GS) extract on the amount of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the number of monocytes/macrophages present in bovine mammary tissues at drying off. Eight mammary quarters from six nonpregnant cows in late lactation were infused with 10 mL of GS (3mg/mL), six quarters were treated with 10 mL of placebo (vehicle alone) and six quarters were maintained as uninoculated controls. The analyses of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) by immunohistochemistry revealed that the production of this proinflammatory cytokine significantly increased (Pmastitis at drying off, either alone or in conjunction with dry cow antibiotic therapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of the Interaction of Veratrum Nigrum with Panax Ginseng on Estrogenic Activity In Vivo and In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ying; Ding, Jie; An, Jin-na; Qu, Ya-kun; Li, Xin; Ma, Xiao-ping; Zhang, Yi-min; Dai, Guo-jing; Lin, Na

    2016-01-01

    Panax ginseng (GS) and Veratrum nigrum (VN) are representative of incompatible pairs in “eighteen antagonistic medicaments” that have been recorded in the Chinese medicinal literature for over 2,000 years. However, evidence linking interference effects with combination use is scare. Based on the estrogen-like effect of GS described in our previous studies, we undertake a characterization of the interaction on estrogenic activity of GS and VN using in vivo models of immature and ovariectomized (OVX) mice and in vitro studies with MCF-7 cells for further mechanism. VN decreased the estrogenic efficacy of GS on promoting the development of the uterus and vagina in immature mice, and reversing the atrophy of reproductive tissues in OVX mice. VN interfered with the estrogenic efficacy of GS by decreasing the increase of the serum estradiol and the up-regulation of ERα and ERβ expressions by treatment with GS. And VN antagonized the estrogenic efficacy of GS on promoting the viability of MCF-7 cells and up-regulation of protein and gene expressions of ERs. In conclusion, this study provided evidence that GS and VN decreased effects on estrogenic activity, which might be related to regulation of estrogen secretion and ERs. PMID:27229740

  5. Physicochemical Characterization of Polysaccharides with Macrophage Immunomodulatory Activities Isolated from Red Ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four polysaccharide fractions designated as RGP1, RGP2, RGP3, and RGP4 were isolated from red ginseng by DEAE-52 cellulose chromatography, and their macrophage immunomodulatory activities were investigated. The results revealed that the proliferation, NO production, and neutral red phagocytosis of RAW 264.7 macrophage cells in groups treated with RGP1 and RGP2 in vitro were increased significantly compared to RGP3 and RGP4. In addition, the level of TNF-α in RAW 264.7 cells was significantly increased in RGP1 and RGP2 groups. All the results consistently indicated that polysaccharide fractions RGP1 and RGP2 had strong macrophage immunomodulatory activities. Furthermore, RGP1 and RGP2 were purified by Sephadex G-100 column and RGP2 was further fractionated into a homogeneous fraction RGP2-1, with the molecular weight of 2.16 × 104 Da. The analysis of monosaccharide composition revealed that RGP1 was composed of arabinose, glucose, and galactose with a relative molecular ratio of 0.02 : 0.88 : 0.10. RGP2-1 was composed of rhamnose, arabinose, glucose, and galactose with a relative molecular ratio of 0.02 : 0.10 : 0.77 : 0.11. These results provided evidences that the neutral polysaccharide fractions RGP1 and RGP2 possessed significant immunomodulatory activity and could be explored as a promising natural immunomodulating agent applied in functional foods or medicines.

  6. A randomized, double-blind, placebo- controlled study on the anti-haemostatic effects of Curcuma longa, Angelica sinensis and Panax ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Foon Yin; Wong, Wan Hui; Ang, Seng Kok; Koh, Hwee Ling; Kun, Mei Ching; Lee, Lai Heng; Li, Xiaomei; Ng, Heng Joo; Tan, Chuen Wen; Zhao, Yan; Linn, Yeh Ching

    2017-08-15

    Herbs with "blood-activating" properties by traditional medicine theory often raise concerns for their possible anti-platelet or anticoagulation effects based on reports from in vitro studies. Such herbs have been implicated for bleeding manifestations based on only anecdotal reports. In particular, the combination of such herbs with anti-platelet agents is often empirically advised against despite lack of good clinical evidence. Here we studied 3 commonly used herbal preparations Curcuma longa, Angelica sinensis and Panax ginseng on their respective anti-platelet and anticoagulation effect, alone and in combination with aspirin. This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 25 healthy volunteers for each herbal preparation. Each subject underwent 3 phases comprising of herbal product alone, aspirin alone and aspirin with herbal product, where each phase lasted for 3 weeks with 2 weeks of washout between phases. PT/APTT, platelet function by light transmission aggregometry and thrombin generation assay by calibrated automated thrombogram were measured at baseline and after each phase. Information on adverse reaction including bleeding manifestations was collected after each phase. On the whole there was no clinically relevant impact on platelet and coagulation function. With the exception of 5 of 24 subjects in the Curcuma longa group, 2 of 24 subjects in the Angelica sinensis group and 1 of 23 subjects in the Panax ginseng group who had an inhibition in arachidonic-acid induced platelet aggregation, there was no effect of these 3 herbals products on platelet aggregation by other agonists. Combination of these herbal products with aspirin respectively did not further aggravate platelet inhibition caused by aspirin. None of the herbs impaired PT/APTT or thrombin generation. There was no significant bleeding manifestation. This study on healthy volunteers provides good evidence on the lack of bleeding risks of Curcuma longa, Angelica sinensis

  7. Novel application of cultured roots of mountain ginseng ( Panax ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The study demonstrated that CRMG and Re were non-toxic compounds and significantly reduced tyrosinase activity and melanin content in B16 cells. Re decreased the mRNA expression of tyrosinase and other melanin synthesisrelated genes in B16 cells. In addition, in silico docking studies showed that Re had ...

  8. Overexpression of a Panax ginseng tonoplast aquaporin alters salt tolerance, drought tolerance and cold acclimation ability in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yanhui; Lin, Wuling; Cai, Weiming; Arora, Rajeev

    2007-08-01

    Water movement across cellular membranes is regulated largely by a family of water channel proteins called aquaporins (AQPs). Since several abiotic stresses such as, drought, salinity and freezing, manifest themselves via altering water status of plant cells and are linked by the fact that they all result in cellular dehydration, we overexpressed an AQP (tonoplast intrinsic protein) from Panax ginseng, PgTIP1, in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants to test its role in plant's response to drought, salinity and cold acclimation (induced freezing tolerance). Under favorable conditions, PgTIP1 overexpression significantly increased plant growth as determined by the biomass production, and leaf and root morphology. PgTIP1 overexpression had beneficial effect on salt-stress tolerance as indicated by superior growth status and seed germination of transgenic plants under salt stress; shoots of salt-stressed transgenic plants also accumulated greater amounts of Na(+) compared to wild-type plants. Whereas PgTIP1 overexpression diminished the water-deficit tolerance of plants grown in shallow (10 cm deep) pots, the transgenic plants were significantly more tolerant to water stress when grown in 45 cm deep pots. The rationale for this contrasting response, apparently, comes from the differences in the root morphology and leaf water channel activity (speed of dehydration/rehydration) between the transgenic and wild-type plants. Plants overexpressed with PgTIP1 exhibited lower (relative to wild-type control) cold acclimation ability; however, this response was independent of cold-regulated gene expression. Our results demonstrate a significant function of PgTIP1 in growth and development of plant cells, and suggest that the water movement across tonoplast (via AQP) represents a rate-limiting factor for plant vigor under favorable growth conditions and also significantly affect responses of plant to drought, salt and cold stresses.

  9. THE USE OF PANAX GINSENG AND ITS ANALOGUES AMONG PHARMACY CUSTOMERS IN ESTONIA: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volmer, Dasy; Raal, Ain; Kalle, Raivo; Sõukand, Renata

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the cross-sectional study was to evaluate the pattern of complementary self-treatment with P. ginseng and its analogues amongst pharmacy customers in Estonia. The study instrument consisted of multiple-choice items related to personal knowledge about and experience with the use of P. ginseng and its analogues. In total, 1233 customers participated in the study. Of study participants, 18.1% reported the use of P. ginseng and its analogues in their lives. P. ginseng preparations were used mostly according to the well- known indications (tiredness, weakness and decreased mental and physical capacity). Of P. ginseng users 44.3% reported positive treatment effects and 12.0% had experienced different side effects. With increase of age (p < 0.01) and at lower levels of education (p = 0.04), the use of ginseng or its analogues decreased. The better the users evaluated their health, the better they perceived the effect of P. ginseng preparations (p < 0.01). This study reported rather frequent use of P. ginseng and its analogues. P. ginseng could be seen in the treatment of conditions, where the use of local medicinal plants has not been established. Further research is needed to learn more about public knowledge and experiences about efficacy and safety of P. ginseng and its analogues.

  10. A Strategy for Simultaneous Isolation of Less Polar Ginsenosides, Including a Pair of New 20-Methoxyl Isomers, from Flower Buds of Panax ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha-Sha Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to simultaneously isolate the less polar ginsenosides from the flower buds of Panax ginseng (FBPG. Five ginsenosides, including a pair of new 20-methoxyl isomers, were extracted from FBPG and purified through a five-step integrated strategy, by combining ultrasonic extraction, Diaion Hp-20 macroporous resin column enrichment, solid phase extraction (SPE, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC analysis and preparation, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR analysis. The quantification of the five ginsenosides was also discussed by a developed method with validations within acceptable limits. Ginsenoside Rg5 showed content of about 1% in FBPG. The results indicated that FBPG might have many different ginsenosides with diverse chemical structures, and the less polar ginsenosides were also important to the quality control and standardization of FBPG.

  11. Effects of a standardized Panax ginseng extract on the skeletal muscle of the rat: a comparative study in animals at rest and under exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, A; Vila, L; Voces, J A; Cabral, A C; Alvarez, A I; Prieto, J G

    1999-04-01

    The effect of standardized Panax ginseng extract G115 on enzymatic activities, myotypological composition, capillaries and mitochondrial content was studied in the skeletal muscle of male rats Wistar. Simultaneously to the G115 administration the rats performed exercise. The animals were divided into 4 groups. The dose of the ginseng extract G115 was 50 mg/kg. The length of the experimental period was 12 weeks. After 24 hours of inactivity the muscles of the hindlimb were extracted. With regard to the enzymatic activities of the citrate synthase (CS) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), CS increases with exercise, while the LDH undergoes no major variations, either due to the exercise or the treatment. Treatment with G115 increases the capillary density and the mitochondrial content of the red gastrocnemius muscle. The results suggest that prolonged treatment with G115 increases the capillary density and the oxidative capacity of the muscles with greater aerobic potential in a manner similar to the performance of physical exercise. When exercise and treatment are combined, the effects that are obtained separately are not potentiated.

  12. Panax ginseng Leaf Extracts Exert Anti-Obesity Effects in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seul-Gi; Lee, Yoon-Jeong; Jang, Myeong-Hwan; Kwon, Tae-Ryong; Nam, Ju-Ock

    2017-09-10

    Recent studies have reported that the aerial parts of ginseng contain various saponins, which have anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-obesity properties similar to those of ginseng root. However, the leaf extracts of Korean ginseng have not yet been investigated. In this study, we demonstrate the anti-obesity effects of green leaf and dried leaf extracts (GL and DL, respectively) of ginseng in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats. The administration of GL and DL to HFD-induced obese rats significantly decreased body weight (by 96.5% and 96.7%, respectively), and epididymal and abdominal adipose tissue mass. Furthermore, DL inhibited the adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes through regulation of the expression of key adipogenic regulators, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)-α. In contrast, GL had little effect on the adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes but greatly increased the protein expression of PPARγ compared with that in untreated cells. These results were not consistent with an anti-obesity effect in the animal model, which suggested that the anti-obesity effect of GL in vivo resulted from specific factors released by other organs, or from increased energy expenditure. To our knowledge, these findings are the first evidence for the anti-obesity effects of the leaf extracts of Korean ginseng in vivo.

  13. American Ginseng Extract (Panax quinquefolius L. Is Safe in Long-Term Use in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

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    Iva Mucalo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The objective of the present study was to test the safety of supplementation with the American ginseng (AG interventional material as an adjunct to conventional therapy (diet and/or medications in type 2 diabetes, using a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel design. Methods. Each participant received either AG (10% ginsenosides or placebo capsules (500 mg/meal = 3 g/day for a period of 12 weeks. Outcomes included measures of safety including kidney function (urates and creatinine, liver function (AST and ALT, and haemostatic function (PV and INR. Results. Seventy-four participants with well-controlled type 2 diabetes (sex: 28 M and 46 F, age: 63 ± 9.5, BMI: 32 ± 5, and HbA1c: 7 ± 1.3, randomized to either intervention (n=35 or control (n=39 group, completed the study. There was no change in any of the measures of safety between treatments from baseline. The number or severity of adverse events did not differ between the AG intervention and placebo. Conclusion. Following 12 weeks of supplementation with AG, safety was not compromised in a high cardiovascular disease (CVD risk population of patients with type 2 diabetes. This demonstrated that safety is noteworthy, as reviews have continuously warned of possible adverse effects of ginseng consumption.

  14. Influence of fluoride on streptozotocin induced diabetic nephrotoxicity in mice: Protective role of Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng & banaba (Lagerstroemia speciosa on mitochondrial oxidative stress

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    Mahaboob P Basha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Chronic fluoride intoxication through drinking water is a serious health problem. Patients with diabetes are known to have impaired renal function and elimination of fluoride from the body is mainly done through kidney. Fluoride toxicity in diabetes patients may aggravate complications. In this study, the influence of fluoride was assessed on streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetes in mice as also the efficacy/protective effective of oral supplementation of ginseng (GE and banaba leaf extracts (BLE. Methods: The efficacy of plant extracts, GE and BLE at doses of 50, 150, 250 mg/kg b.w./day alone and in combination, was tested for a period of 15 days on fluoride treated STZ induced diabetic animals. Results: Fluoride exposure to mice with STZ-induced diabetes produced significant changes in OSI (organo-somatic index, fluoride content, blood glucose, urea, serum creatinine and oxidative stress indices in kidney tissues with evident histological alterations. Among the antioxidant treatments, combination therapy of GE and BLE at 150 mg/kg b.w. significantly normalized the impaired biochemical variables in kidney tissues of fluoride toxicated diabetic mice. Interpretations & conclusions: High fluoride uptake was found to be diabetogenic and further aggravated the renal oxidative damage and thereby the toxicity in mice with STZ induced diabetes mice. GE and BLE exposure individually or in combination at a dose of 150 mg/kg b.w./day for 15 days exhibited protective effects on fluoride toxicated STZ induced nephrotoxicity in mice.

  15. Transcriptomics-based identification of WRKY genes and characterization of a salt and hormone-responsive PgWRKY1 gene in Panax ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuruzzaman, Mohammed; Cao, Hongzhe; Xiu, Hao; Luo, Tiao; Li, Jijia; Chen, Xianghui; Luo, Junli; Luo, Zhiyong

    2016-02-01

    WRKY proteins belong to a transcription factor (TF) family and play dynamic roles in many plant processes, including plant responses to abiotic and biotic stresses, as well as secondary metabolism. However, no WRKY gene in Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer has been reported to date. In this study, a number of WRKY unigenes from methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-treated adventitious root transcriptome of this species were identified using next-generation sequencing technology. A total of 48 promising WRKY unigenes encoding WRKY proteins were obtained by eliminating wrong and incomplete open reading frame (ORF). Phylogenetic analysis reveals 48 WRKY TFs, including 11 Group I, 36 Group II, and 1 Group III. Moreover, one MeJA-responsive unigene designated as PgWRKY1 was cloned and characterized. It contains an entire ORF of 1077 bp and encodes a polypeptide of 358 amino acid residues. The PgWRKY1 protein contains a single WRKY domain consisting of a conserved amino acid sequence motif WRKYGQK and a C2H2-type zinc-finger motif belonging to WRKY subgroup II-d. Subcellular localization of PgWRKY1-GFP fusion protein in onion and tobacco epidermis cells revealed that PgWRKY1 was exclusively present in the nucleus. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that the expression of PgWRKY1 was relatively higher in roots and lateral roots compared with leaves, stems, and seeds. Importantly, PgWRKY1 expression was significantly induced by salicylic acid, abscisic acid, and NaCl, but downregulated by MeJA treatment. These results suggested that PgWRKY1 might be a multiple stress-inducible gene responding to hormones and salt stresses. © The Author 2015. Published by ABBS Editorial Office in association with Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  16. Ginseng in Dermatology: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabouri-Rad, Sarvenaz; Sabouri-Rad, Sara; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Tayarani-Najaran, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    Ginseng has gained fame as one of the most popular herbs originating from Eastern countries. Among different species which are known as ginseng, Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. (Korean or Asian ginseng) is the most frequently used one. Ginsenosides have been proposed to account for most of the biological activities of ginseng. The widely appreciated health-promoting effect of ginseng pertains to the beneficial effects of this plant against immune, cardiovascular and sexual diseases and cancer. In addition, there are some new aspects of the pharmacological activity of this plant which justify its use in dermatologic diseases. In dermatology, ginseng has been investigated mechanistically for its therapeutic effects in photoaging, wound and injury, skin cancer, dermatitis, hair loss, alopecia and cold hypersensitivity. Here, we reviewed experimental and clinical studies exploring the therapeutic efficacy of ginseng and ginsenosides in the field of dermatology. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Heterologous Expression of Panax ginseng PgTIP1 Confers Enhanced Salt Tolerance of Soybean Cotyledon Hairy Roots, Composite, and Whole Plants

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    Jing An

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Panax ginseng TIP gene PgTIP1 was previously demonstrated to have high water channel activity by its heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes and in yeast; it also plays a significant role in growth of PgTIP1-transgenic Arabidopsis plants under favorable conditions and has enhanced tolerance toward salt and drought treatment. In this work, we first investigated the physiological effects of heterologous PgTIP1 expression in soybean cotyledon hairy roots or composite plants mediated by Agrobacterium rhizogenes toward enhanced salt tolerance. The PgTIP1-transgenic soybean plants mediated by the pollen tube pathway, represented by the lines N and J11, were analyzed at the physiological and molecular levels for enhanced salt tolerance. The results showed that in terms of root-specific heterologous expression, the PgTIP1-transformed soybean cotyledon hairy roots or composite plants displayed superior salt tolerance compared to the empty vector-transformed ones according to the mitigatory effects of hairy root growth reduction, drop in leaf RWC, and rise in REL under salt stress. Additionally, declines in K+ content, increases in Na+ content and Na+/K+ ratios in the hairy roots, stems, or leaves were effectively alleviated by PgTIP1-transformation, particularly the stems and leaves of composite soybean plants. At the whole plant level, PgTIP1-trasgenic soybean lines were found to possess stronger root vigor, reduced root and leaf cell membrane damage, increased SOD, POD, CAT, and APX activities, steadily increased leaf Tr, RWC, and Pn values, and smaller declines in chlorophyll and carotenoid content when exposed to salt stress compared to wild type. Moreover, the distribution patterns of Na+, K+, and Cl- in the roots, stems, and leaves of salt-stressed transgenic plants were readjusted, in that the absorbed Na+ and Cl- were mainly restricted to the roots to reduce their transport to the shoots, and the transport of root-absorbed K+ to the

  18. Primary structures of two ribonucleases from ginseng calluses - New members of the PR-10 family of intracellular pathogenesis-related plant proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moiseyev, GP; Fedoreyeva, LI; Zhuravlev, YN; Yasnetskaya, E; Jekel, PA; Beintema, JJ

    1997-01-01

    The amino acid sequences of two ribonucleases from a callus cell culture of Panax ginseng were determined, The two sequences differ at 26% of the amino acid positions, Homology was found with a large family of intracellular pathogenesis-related proteins, food allergens and tree pollen allergens from

  19. Radioprotective Effects of Hairy Roots of Ginseng

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Hyun Jung; Kim, Jin Kyu [Korea Atomic research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Young; Yang, Deok Cho [Chungbuk National Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Panax ginseng is an important medicinal plant in Korea, which has broad efficacious effects against hypertension, diabetes, nociception and cancer. And it improves weakness. The native ginseng is a slow growing plant taking 5-7 years from seed planting to mature root harvesting, during which time much care is needed since its growth is susceptible to many environmental factors such as soil, shade, climate, pathogens and pests. Nowadays, a wild ginseng has become extremely scarce and the ginseng supply depends almost exclusively on field cultivation, which is a time-consuming and labor-intensive process. To meet the demand for the plant in the international market, a bioreactor technology is a useful tool for production of root biomass on a large scale. Therefore, suspension culture of ginseng roots in bioreactors is viewed as a primary alternative method for large-scale production and recently our laboratory has developed a protocol for the in vitro culture of P. ginseng. About 60-70% of cellular DNA damage produced by ionizing radiation is caused by OH, formed from the radiolysis of water. Oxidative stress occurs when there is an excessive free radical production and/or low antioxidant defense, and results in the chemical alterations of biomolecules causing structural and functional modifications. The generation of the reactive oxygen metabolites plays an important role in the pathogenesis of the irradiation-induced tissue injury. An extensive literature review implicates cellular DNA as the primary target for the biological and lethal effects of ionizing radiation. Besides DNA, lipids and proteins are also attacked by free radicals. The purpose of this study, aimed at investigating the possible radioprotective effect of the hairy roots of P. ginseng on irradiation-induced damage by the comet assay.

  20. Radioprotective Effects of Hairy Roots of Ginseng

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Hyun Jung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Kim, Eun Young; Yang, Deok Cho

    2005-01-01

    Panax ginseng is an important medicinal plant in Korea, which has broad efficacious effects against hypertension, diabetes, nociception and cancer. And it improves weakness. The native ginseng is a slow growing plant taking 5-7 years from seed planting to mature root harvesting, during which time much care is needed since its growth is susceptible to many environmental factors such as soil, shade, climate, pathogens and pests. Nowadays, a wild ginseng has become extremely scarce and the ginseng supply depends almost exclusively on field cultivation, which is a time-consuming and labor-intensive process. To meet the demand for the plant in the international market, a bioreactor technology is a useful tool for production of root biomass on a large scale. Therefore, suspension culture of ginseng roots in bioreactors is viewed as a primary alternative method for large-scale production and recently our laboratory has developed a protocol for the in vitro culture of P. ginseng. About 60-70% of cellular DNA damage produced by ionizing radiation is caused by OH, formed from the radiolysis of water. Oxidative stress occurs when there is an excessive free radical production and/or low antioxidant defense, and results in the chemical alterations of biomolecules causing structural and functional modifications. The generation of the reactive oxygen metabolites plays an important role in the pathogenesis of the irradiation-induced tissue injury. An extensive literature review implicates cellular DNA as the primary target for the biological and lethal effects of ionizing radiation. Besides DNA, lipids and proteins are also attacked by free radicals. The purpose of this study, aimed at investigating the possible radioprotective effect of the hairy roots of P. ginseng on irradiation-induced damage by the comet assay

  1. Photosynthesis rates, growth, and ginsenoside contents of 2-yr-old Panax ginseng grown at different light transmission rates in a greenhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, In-Bae; Lee, Dae-Young; Yu, Jin; Park, Hong-Woo; Mo, Hwang-Sung; Park, Kee-Choon; Hyun, Dong-Yun; Lee, Eung-Ho; Kim, Kee-Hong; Oh, Chang-Sik

    2015-10-01

    Ginseng is a semishade perennial plant cultivated in sloping, sun-shaded areas in Korea. Recently, owing to air-environmental stress and various fungal diseases, greenhouse cultivation has been suggested as an alternative. However, the optimal light transmission rate (LTR) in the greenhouse has not been established. The effect of LTR on photosynthesis rate, growth, and ginsenoside content of ginseng was examined by growing ginseng at the greenhouse under 6%, 9%, 13%, and 17% of LTR. The light-saturated net photosynthesis rate (A sat) and stomatal conductance (g s) of ginseng increased until the LTR reached 17% in the early stage of growth, whereas they dropped sharply owing to excessive leaf chlorosis at 17% LTR during the hottest summer period in August. Overall, 6-17% of LTR had no effect on the aerial part of plant length or diameter, whereas 17% and 13% of LRT induced the largest leaf area and the highest root weight, respectively. The total ginsenoside content of the ginseng leaves increased as the LTR increased, and the overall content of protopanaxatriol line ginsenosides was higher than that of protopanaxadiol line ginsenosides. The ginsenoside content of the ginseng roots also increased as the LTR increased, and the total ginsenoside content of ginseng grown at 17% LTR increased by 49.7% and 68.3% more than the ginseng grown at 6% LTR in August and final harvest, respectively. These results indicate that 13-17% of LTR should be recommended for greenhouse cultivation of ginseng.

  2. Systematic profiling and comparison of the lipidomes from Panax ginseng, P. quinquefolius, and P. notoginseng by ultrahigh performance supercritical fluid chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry and ion mobility-derived collision cross section measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaojian; Yang, Wenzhi; Qiu, Shi; Hou, Jinjun; Wu, Wanying; Guo, Dean

    2018-05-04

    Lipidomics currently is still confronted with challenges from chromatographic separation and lipids identification. Here we report a lipidomics platform by integrating ultrahigh performance supercritical fluid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPSFC/QTOF-MS) and collision cross section (CCS) measurement using ion mobility spectroscopy/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (IMS/QTOF-MS), aiming to enhance the profiling performance and identification reliability of lipids. The lipidomes extracted from three congeneric Panax species (P. ginseng, P. quinquefolius, and P. notoginseng) by methyl tert-butyl ether are comprehensively profiled and compared by use of this platform. A potent UHPSFC/QTOF-MS approach was developed on a 1.7-μm particles packed Torus 2-PIC column using CH 3 OH (in CO 2 ) as a modifier and CH 3 OH/0.2 mM ammonium acetate as the makeup liquid, enabling well resolution of six lipid subclasses by both positive and negative MS E modes. In contrast to the reversed-phase chromatography, "normal-phase" like elution order and better resolution of polar lipids and some lipid isomers were achieved by UHPSFC separation. Pattern recognition chemometric analysis of 60 batches of Ginseng samples ultimately unveiled 24 lipid markers, of which triacylglycerols were the most important. Aside from the automated MS database searching against HMDB and LIPID MAPS, the application of CCS retrieval or CCS prediction improved lipid identification by reducing the possible hits. In conclusion, this integral platform can significantly improve the chromatographic separation and the reliability of lipids identification in lipidomics studies. It is the first report that systematically compares the lipidomic difference of three reputable Panax species, providing useful information for their quality control in addition to ginsenoside analysis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Qualitative and quantitative radiation protection analysis of mucosa of ICR strained mice using selected herbal extracts such as GC-2112 from garlic (Allium sativum) and GX-2137 from ginseng (Panax sp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunagan, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Earlier reports showed that ginseng has significant radioprotective and stimulatory effect on the recovery of the lymphocytes and leukocytes. Using graded absorbed doses of radiation (1.5, 5, 20, 50 Gy) applied in ICR strain male white mice which was injected with GX-2137 from ginseng (Panax sp.) and GC-2112 from garlic (Allium sativum) was tested to prove some radioprotective efficiency. The herbal extracts were injected intraperitoneally and the experimental mice were sacrificed 2 and 48 hrs post-irradiation. Factors such as analyzing kinetics of critical tissue parameters (length of villi, the number of crypt and villi cells and cell density) and determining the Relative Protection Efficiencies (RPE) using quantitative histopathological techniques were used to quantify the radiation protection assay in the duodenum of ICR strain mice. Results showed that GC-2112 and GX-2137 protected the villi structures. After 2 hrs. post irradiation, tissue degeneration was evident. RPE values of significant radioprotection of the crypts is demonstrated at absorbed dose. It was found that some villi cells are even viable at non-physiologic dose of 50 Gy. (author)

  4. Intercontinental and intracontinental biogeography of the eastern Asian - Eastern North American disjunct Panax (the ginseng genus, Araliaceae), emphasizing its diversification processes in eastern Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Yun-Juan; Wen, Jun; Zhou, Shi-Liang

    2017-12-01

    The intercontinental biogeography between eastern Asia and eastern North America has attracted much attention from evolutionary biologists. Further insights into understanding the evolution of the intercontinental disjunctions have been hampered by the lack of studies on the intracontinental biogeography in eastern Asia, a region with complex geology, geography, climates and habitats. Herein we studied the biogeographic history of the eastern Asian-eastern North American disjunct genus Panax with special emphasis on the investigation of its uneven diversification in Asia. This study reconstructs the diversification history of Panax and also emphasizes a large clade of Panax taxa, which has a wide distribution in eastern Asia, but was unresolved in previous studies. We examined the noncoding plastid DNA fragments of trnH-psbA, rps16, and psbM-trnD, the mitochondrial b/c intron of NAD1, and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of 356 samples from 47 populations. The results revealed the subtropical Northern Hemisphere origin (Asia or Asia and North America) of Panax in the Paleocene. Intercontinental disjunctions between eastern Asia and eastern North America formed twice in Panax, once estimated in early Eocene for the split of P. trifolius and another in mid-Miocene for the divergence of P. quinquefolius. Intercontinental diversifications in Panax showed temporal correlation with the increase of global temperature. The evolutionary radiation of the P. bipinnatifidus species complex occurred around the boundary of Oligocene and Miocene. Strong genetic structure among populations of the species complex was detected and the populations may be isolated by distance. The backbone network and the Bayesian clustering analysis revealed a major evolutionary radiation centered in the Hengduan Mountains of western China. Our results suggested that the evolutionary radiation of Panax was promoted by geographic barriers, including mountain ranges

  5. The effect of irrigation and foliar fertilization on the colonization of american ginseng (Panax quinquefolium l. diseased parts by different micro-organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Pastucha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Field studies on the health of American ginseng cultivated in the Lublin district on poor sandy soil were conducted in the years 2004-2006. The studies involved treatment combinations with irrigation and without irrigation as well as foliar fertilization with Alkalin PK and Resistim of American ginseng plants. Mycological analysis was made of diseased ginseng parts with the aim of determining the quantitative and qualitative composition of fungi-like organisms and fungi threatening the cultivation of this plant. Fungi from the genera of Cylindrocarpon, Fusarium and the following species Alternaria alternata, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, as well as fungi-like organisms: Pythium irregulare and Phytophthora sp., were isolated from the infected parts of ginseng. The smallest number of fungi was isolated from the plants growing on the plots without irrigation and those where foliar application with Alkalin PK was applied.

  6. Saponin production in root cultures of .I.Panax ginseng./I. C. A. Meyer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Langhansová, Lenka; Maršík, Petr; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 2, Supl. 1 (2002), s. 333 ISSN 1576-0952. [Annual Congress of the Society for Medicinal Plant Research /50./. 08.09.2002-12.09.2002, Barcelona] R&D Projects: GA ČR GP521/02/P064; GA MŠk OC 843.10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : saponin Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  7. The effect of ginseng (the genus panax on glycemic control: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra' Shishtar

    Full Text Available Despite the widespread use of ginseng in the management of diabetes, supporting evidence of its anti-hyperglycemic efficacy is limited, necessitating the need for evidence-based recommendations for the potential inclusion of ginseng in diabetes management.To elucidate the effect of ginseng on glycemic control in a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in people with and without diabetes.MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library (through July 3, 2013.Randomized controlled trials ≥30 days assessing the glycemic effects of ginseng in people with and without diabetes.Relevant data were extracted by 2 independent reviewers. Discrepancies were resolved by consensus. The Heyland Methodological Quality Score and the Cochrane risk of bias tool were used to assess study quality and risk of bias respectively.Sixteen trials were included, in which 16 fasting blood glucose (n = 770, 10 fasting plasma insulin (n = 349, 9 glycated hemoglobin (n = 264, and 7 homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (n = 305 comparisons were reported. Ginseng significantly reduced fasting blood glucose compared to control (MD =  -0.31 mmol/L [95% CI: -0.59 to -0.03], P = 0.03. Although there was no significant effect on fasting plasma insulin, glycated hemoglobin, or homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, a priori subgroup analyses did show significant reductions in glycated hemoglobin in parallel compared to crossover trials (MD = 0.22% [95%CI: 0.06 to 0.37], P = 0.01.Most trials were of short duration (67% trials<12wks, and included participants with a relatively good glycemic control (median HbA1c non-diabetes = 5.4% [2 trials]; median HbA1c diabetes = 7.1% [7 trials].Ginseng modestly yet significantly improved fasting blood glucose in people with and without diabetes. In order to address the uncertainty in our effect estimates and provide better assessments of ginseng's anti

  8. Efficacy and safety of Panax ginseng berry extract on glycemic control: A 12-wk randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Seok Choi

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: The present study suggests that ginseng berry extract has the potential to improve glucose metabolism in human, especially in those with fasting glucose level of 110 mg/dL or higher. For a more meaningful benefit, further research in people with higher blood glucose levels is required.

  9. GC-MS Metabolomic Analysis to Reveal the Metabolites and Biological Pathways Involved in the Developmental Stages and Tissue Response of Panax ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ginsenosides, the major compounds present in ginseng, are known to have numerous physiological and pharmacological effects. The physiological processes, enzymes and genes involved in ginsenoside synthesis in P. ginseng have been well characterized. However, relatively little information is known about the dynamic metabolic changes that occur during ginsenoside accumulation in ginseng. To explore this topic, we isolated metabolites from different tissues at different growth stages, and identified and characterized them by using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The results showed that a total of 30, 16, 20, 36 and 31 metabolites were identified and involved in different developmental stages in leaf, stem, petiole, lateral root and main root, respectively. To investigate the contribution of tissue to the biosynthesis of ginsenosides, we examined the metabolic changes of leaf, stem, petiole, lateral root and main root during five development stages: 1-, 2-, 3-, 4- and 5-years. The score plots of partial least squares-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA showed clear discrimination between growth stages and tissue samples. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway analysis in the same tissue at different growth stages indicated profound biochemical changes in several pathways, including carbohydrate metabolism and pentose phosphate metabolism, in addition, the tissues displayed significant variations in amino acid metabolism, sugar metabolism and energy metabolism. These results should facilitate further dissection of the metabolic flux regulation of ginsenoside accumulation in different developmental stages or different tissues of ginseng.

  10. American Ginseng Stimulates Insulin Production and Prevents Apoptosis through Regulation of Uncoupling Protein-2 in Cultured β Cells

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    John Zeqi Luo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available American ginseng root displays the ability to achieve glucose homeostasis both experimentally and clinically but the unknown mechanism used by ginseng to achieve its therapeutic effects on diabetes limits its application. Disruption in the insulin secretion of pancreatic β cells is considered the major cause of diabetes. A mitochondrial protein, uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2 has been found to play a critical role in insulin synthesis and β cell survival. Our preliminary studies found that the extracts of American ginseng inhibit UCP-2 expression which may contribute to the ability of ginseng protecting β cell death and improving insulin synthesis. Therefore, we hypothesized that ginseng extracts suppress UCP-2 in the mitochondria of pancreatic β cells, promoting insulin synthesis and anti-apoptosis (a programmed cell-death mechanism. To test the hypothesis, the serum-deprived quiescent β cells were cultured with or without interleukin-1β (IL-1β, (200 pg ml−1, a cytokine to induce β cell apoptosis and water extracts of American ginseng (25 μg per 5 μl administered to wells of 0.5 ml culture for 24 h. We evaluated effects of ginseng on UCP-2 expression, insulin production, anti-/pro-apoptotic factors Bcl-2/caspase-9 expression and cellular ATP levels. We found that ginseng suppresses UCP-2, down-regulates caspase-9 while increasing ATP and insulin production/secretion and up-regulates Bcl-2, reducing apoptosis. These findings suggest that stimulation of insulin production and prevention of β cell loss by American ginseng extracts can occur via the inhibition of mitochondrial UCP-2, resulting in increase in the ATP level and the anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2, while down-regulation of pro-apoptotic factor caspase-9 occurs, lowering the occurrence of apoptosis, which support the hypothesis.

  11. Protective Effects of Ginseng on Neurological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Yi eOng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ginseng (Order: Apiales, Family: Araliaceae, Genus: Panax has been used as a traditional herbal medicine for over 2000 years, and is recorded to have antianxiety, antidepressant and cognition enhancing properties. The protective effect of ginseng on neurological disorders is discussed in this review. Ginseng species and ginsenosides, and their intestinal metabolism and bioavailability are briefly introduced. This is followed by molecular mechanisms of effects of ginseng on the brain, including glutamatergic transmission, monoamine transmission, estrogen signaling, nitric oxide production, the Keap1/Nrf2 adaptive cellular stress pathway, neuronal survival, apoptosis, neural stem cells and neuroregeneration, microglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and cerebral microvessels. The molecular mechanisms of the neuroprotective effects of ginseng in Alzheimer’s disease including Aβ formation, tau hyperphosphorylation and oxidative stress, major depression, stroke, Parkinson’s disease and multiple sclerosis / experimental allergic encephalitis are then presented. It is hoped that this discussion will stimulate more studies on the use of ginseng in these disorders.

  12. Cytological analysis of ginseng carpel development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jeniffer; Kim, Yu-Jin; Xiao, Dexin; Sukweenadhi, Johan; Hu, Tingting; Kwon, Woo-Saeng; Hu, Jianping; Yang, Deok-Chun; Zhang, Dabing

    2017-09-01

    Panax ginseng Meyer, commonly known as ginseng, is considered one of the most important herbs with pharmaceutical values due to the presence of ginsenosides and is cultivated for its highly valued root for medicinal purposes. Recently, it has been recognized that ginseng fruit contains high contents of triterpene such as ginsenoside Re as pharmaceutical compounds. However, it is unclear how carpel, the female reproductive tissue of flowers, is formed during the three-year-old growth before fruit is formed in ginseng plants. Here, we report P. ginseng carpel development at the cytological level, starting from the initial stage of ovule development to seed development. The carpel of P. ginseng is composed of two free stigmas, two free styles, and one epigynous bilocular ovary containing one ovule in each locule. Based on our cytological study, we propose that the female reproductive development in P. ginseng can be classified into seven stages: early phase of ovule development, megasporogenesis, megagametogenesis, pre-fertilization, fertilization, post-fertilization, and seed development. We also describe the correlation of the female and male gametophyte development and compare morphological differences in carpel development between ginseng and other higher plants. One unique feature for ginseng seed development is that it takes 40 days for the embryo to develop to the early torpedo stage and that the embryo is small relative to the seed size, which could be a feature of taxonomic importance. This study will provide an integral tool for the study of the reproductive development and breeding of P. ginseng.

  13. Carbon nanotubes as carriers of Panax ginseng metabolites and enhancers of ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 anti-cancer activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiani, Mohamed H.; Eassa, Souzan; Parnell, Charlette; Nima, Zeid; Ghosh, Anindya; Biris, Alexandru S.; Khodakovskaya, Mariya V.

    2017-01-01

    A major benefit to nanomaterial based-medicine is the ability to provide nanosized vehicles for sporadic metabolites. Here, we describe how the conjugation of valuable ginseng secondary metabolites (ginsenoside Rb1 or Rg1) with carbon nanotubes (CNT) can enhance their anti-proliferative and anti-cancer effects. Ginsenoside-CNT conjugate (Rb-CNT or Rg-CNT) permitted the ginsenosides to be used at a low dose, yet achieve a higher incidence of cancer killing. We were able to demonstrate that the ginsenoside-CNT conjugate can decrease cell viability up to 62% in breast cancer cells (MCF-7) and enhance antiproliferation of drug-resistant pancreatic cancer cells (PANC-1) by 61%. The interaction of the ginsenoside-CNT conjugate with breast cancer cells was studied using Raman Spectroscopy mapping. Total transcriptome profiling (Affymetrix platform) of MCF-7 cells treated with the ginsenoside-CNT conjugate shows that a number of cellular, apoptotic and response to stimulus processes were affected. Therefore, our data confirmed the potential use of CNT as a drug delivery system.

  14. Optimization of dynamic-microwave assisted enzymatic hydrolysis extraction of total ginsenosides from stems and leaves of panax ginseng by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yan; Ren, Hui

    2018-03-21

    Ginseng stems and leaves (GSAL) are abundant in ginsenosides compounds. For efficient utilization of GSAL and the enhancement of total ginsenosides (TG) compound yields in GSAL, TG from GSAL were extracted, using dynamic-microwave assisted extraction coupled with enzymatic hydrolysis (DMAE-EH) method. The extraction process has been simulated and its main influencing factors such as ethanol concentration, microwave temperature, microwave time and pump flow rate have been optimized by response surface methodology coupled with a Box-Behnken design(BBD). The experimental results indicated that optimal extraction conditions of TG from GSAL were as follows: ethanol concentration of 75%, microwave temperature of 60°C, microwave time of 20 min and pump flow rate of 38 r/min. After experimental verification, the experimental yields of TG was 60.62 ± 0.85 mg g -1 , which were well agreement with the predicted by the model. In general, the present results demonstrated that DMAE-EH method was successfully used to extract total ginsenosides in GSAL.

  15. A 1H NMR-based metabolomics approach to evaluate the geographical authenticity of herbal medicine and its application in building a model effectively assessing the mixing proportion of intentional admixtures: A case study of Panax ginseng: Metabolomics for the authenticity of herbal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huy Truong; Lee, Dong-Kyu; Choi, Young-Geun; Min, Jung-Eun; Yoon, Sang Jun; Yu, Yun-Hyun; Lim, Johan; Lee, Jeongmi; Kwon, Sung Won; Park, Jeong Hill

    2016-05-30

    Ginseng, the root of Panax ginseng has long been the subject of adulteration, especially regarding its origins. Here, 60 ginseng samples from Korea and China initially displayed similar genetic makeup when investigated by DNA-based technique with 23 chloroplast intergenic space regions. Hence, (1)H NMR-based metabolomics with orthogonal projections on the latent structure-discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA) were applied and successfully distinguished between samples from two countries using seven primary metabolites as discrimination markers. Furthermore, to recreate adulteration in reality, 21 mixed samples of numerous Korea/China ratios were tested with the newly built OPLS-DA model. The results showed satisfactory separation according to the proportion of mixing. Finally, a procedure for assessing mixing proportion of intentionally blended samples that achieved good predictability (adjusted R(2)=0.8343) was constructed, thus verifying its promising application to quality control of herbal foods by pointing out the possible mixing ratio of falsified samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Characteristics of Watermelon Mosaic Virus Transmission Occurring in Korean Ginseng

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    Seung-Kook Choi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng is the most popular herb for medical purpose in Korea. Recently, viral diseases from Korean ginseng showing various degrees of severe mottling, variegation and mosaic symptoms have caused quantity losses of Korean ginseng in a large number of farms. Watermelon mosaic virus (named WMVgin was identified as a causal agent for the disease of Korean ginseng. Interestingly, WMV-gin failed to infect both Korean ginseng plant and susceptible host species including cucurbitaceous plants by mechanical inoculation. However, WMV-gin could successfully infect Korean ginseng by transmission of two aphid species (Myzus persicae and Aphis gossypii. It is likely that transmission of WMV-gin was done by both the aphid species during feeding behavior of the two aphid species on Korean ginseng, though the aphids dislike feeding in Korea ginseng. Similarly, a strain of WMV (WMV-wm isolated from watermelon was transmitted successfully to Korean ginseng plant by the two aphid species, but not by mechanical inoculations. Transmission assays using M. persicae and A. gossypii clearly showed both WMV-gin and WMV-wm were not transmitted from infected Korean ginseng plant to cucurbit species that are good host species for WMV. These results suggest WMV disease occurring in Korean ginseng plant can be controlled by ecological approaches.

  17. [A technological study on the extraction of ultra-fine powder of Panax notoginsen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yaohai; Huang, Mingqing; Zeng, Huifang; Guo, Wei; Xi, Ping

    2005-12-01

    To investigate the extraction of ultra-fine powder Panax notoginsen. The extraction rate of ginseng saponin Rg1, Re, Rb1, notoginseng saponin R1 and filtrated time were determined by alcoholic and aqueous extraction of Panax notoginsen in tablet, coarse powder, ultra-fine powder and recostitution granules of ultra-fine powder. The filtered time of ultra-fine powder of Panax notoginsen extraction and that of the tablet of Panax notoginsen extraction were similar, while the extraction rates of various saponins of it were high. The method of aqueous extrction in ltra-fine powder of Panax notoginsen is easy in filtrationer, higher in extraction rate of Panax notoginsen and lower in production cost.

  18. Identification and Analysis of the Chloroplast rpoC1 Gene Differentially Expressed in Wild Ginseng

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    Lee Kwang-Ho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Panax ginseng is a well-known herbal medicine in traditional Asian medicine, and wild ginseng is widely accepted to be more active than cultivated ginseng in chemoprevention. However, little has actually been reported on the difference between wild ginseng and cultivated ginseng. Thus, to identify and analyze those differences, we used suppressive subtraction hybridization (SSH sequences with microarrays, realtime polymerase chain reaction (PCR, and reverse transcription PCRs (RT-PCRs. One of the clones isolated in this research was the chloroplast rpoC1 gene, a β subunit of RNA polymerase. Real-time RT-PCR results showed that the expression of the rpoC1 gene was significantly upregulated in wild ginseng as compared to cultivated ginseng, so, we conclude that the rpoC1 gene may be one of the important markers of wild ginseng.

  19. Antioxidant effects of cultured wild ginseng root extracts on the male reproductive function of boars and guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Suk Jun; Bae, Gui-Seck; Park, Jae Hawn; Song, Tae Ho; Choi, Ahreum; Ryu, Buom-Yong; Pang, Myung-Geol; Kim, Eun Joong; Yoon, Minjung; Chang, Moon Baek

    2016-07-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of cultured wild ginseng root extracts (cWGRE) on the sperm of boars and the reproductive system of guinea pigs. Firstly, semen collected from boars (n=10) were incubated in 38°C for 1h with xanthine and xanthine oxidase to generate ROS. The cWGRE was added to the sperm culture system to test its antioxidant effect on the boar sperm. The amount of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) was measured by a chemiluminescence assay using luminol. The results indicated that the addition of cWGRE to boar sperm culture inhibited xanthine and xanthine oxidase-induced ROS concentrations. Treatment with cWGRE also had a positive effect on maintaining sperm motility. Effects of cWGRE administration on vitamin C-deficient guinea pigs were further investigated. Hartley guinea pigs (n=25) at 8 weeks of age were randomly divided into five groups. With the exception of the positive control group, each group was fed vitamin C-deficient feed for 21days (d). Respective groups were also orally administered cWGRE, ginseng extract, or mixed ginsenosides for 21 days. In comparison to the control group, oral administration of cWGRE reduced (Pproduction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Asian Ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care provider before using Asian ginseng. Keep in Mind Tell all your health care providers about any ... Privacy and Policies Accessibility en Español FOIA Site Map Contact Us U.S. Department of Health & Human Services , ...

  1. Probability of identification: adulteration of American Ginseng with Asian Ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnly, James; Chen, Pei; Harrington, Peter De B

    2013-01-01

    The AOAC INTERNATIONAL guidelines for validation of botanical identification methods were applied to the detection of Asian Ginseng [Panax ginseng (PG)] as an adulterant for American Ginseng [P. quinquefolius (PQ)] using spectral fingerprints obtained by flow injection mass spectrometry (FIMS). Samples of 100% PQ and 100% PG were physically mixed to provide 90, 80, and 50% PQ. The multivariate FIMS fingerprint data were analyzed using soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) based on 100% PQ. The Q statistic, a measure of the degree of non-fit of the test samples with the calibration model, was used as the analytical parameter. FIMS was able to discriminate between 100% PQ and 100% PG, and between 100% PQ and 90, 80, and 50% PQ. The probability of identification (POI) curve was estimated based on the SD of 90% PQ. A digital model of adulteration, obtained by mathematically summing the experimentally acquired spectra of 100% PQ and 100% PG in the desired ratios, agreed well with the physical data and provided an easy and more accurate method for constructing the POI curve. Two chemometric modeling methods, SIMCA and fuzzy optimal associative memories, and two classification methods, partial least squares-discriminant analysis and fuzzy rule-building expert systems, were applied to the data. The modeling methods correctly identified the adulterated samples; the classification methods did not.

  2. Protective effects of cultured and fermented ginseng extracts against scopolamine-induced memory loss in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Song-Hee; Kim, Sung-June; Yun, Young Won; Nam, Sang Yoon; Lee, Hu-Jang; Lee, Beom-Jun

    2018-03-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of a concentrate of fermented wild ginseng root culture (HLJG0701) on memory improvement in the scopolamine (SPL)-induced memory-deficient mouse model. Eight-week-old male ICR mice were used to evaluate the protective effect of HLJG0701 against the SPL-induced memory loss animal model. The Morris water maze test, which measures hippocampus-dependent learning ability, and the Y-maze test, a short-term memory assessment test, were performed and related markers were analyzed. HLJG0701-treated groups displayed significantly reduced acetylcholinesterase activity and increased acetylcholine level compared with the SPL-administered group (SPL-G) ( P memory loss by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase activity and preventing acetylcholine deficiency.

  3. Experimental and epidemiological evidence on non-organ specific cancer preventive effect of Korean ginseng and identification of active compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, T.-K

    2003-03-01

    Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer has been the most highly recognized medicinal herb in the Orient. The prolonged administration of red ginseng extract significantly inhibits the incidence of hepatoma and also proliferation of pulmonary tumors induced by aflatoxin B{sub 1} and urethane. Statistically significant anticarcinogenic effects were in aged or heat treated extracts of ginseng and red ginseng made by steaming in a 9 weeks medium-term anticarcinogenicity test using benzo[a]pyrene. In case-control studies, odds ratios (OR) of the cancer of lip, oral cavity and pharynx, larynx, lung, esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, ovary, and colorectum were significantly reduced. As to the type of ginseng, the ORs for cancer were reduced in user of fresh ginseng extract intakers, white ginseng extract, white ginseng powder, and red ginseng. In a cohort study with 5 years follow-up conducted in a ginseng cultivation area, ginseng users had a decreased relative risk (RR) compared with non-users. The relative risks (RRs) of ginseng users were decreased in gastric cancer and lung cancer. These findings strongly suggest that Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer cultivated in Korea has non-organ specific cancer preventive effects against various cancers. To investigate the active components for cancer prevention, several fractions of fresh and red ginseng and four semi-synthetic ginsenoside Rh{sub 1}, Rh{sub 2}, Rg{sub 3} and Rg{sub 5}, the major saponin components in red ginseng, were prepared among the ginsenosides. By using Yun's model, Rg{sub 3} and Rg{sub 5} showed statistically significant reduction of lung tumor incidence and Rh{sub 2} had a tendency to decrease the incidence. In conclusion, these results strongly suggested that Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer cultivated in Korea is a non-organ specific cancer preventive against human cancers and also indicated that the anticarcinogenicity or human cancer preventive effect of Panax ginseng is due to ginsenoside Rg{sub 3}, Rg{sub 5} and Rh

  4. Animal lectins: potential receptors for ginseng polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Hee Loh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Panax ginseng Meyer, belonging to the genus Panax of the family Araliaceae, is known for its human immune system-related effects, such as immune-boosting effects. Ginseng polysaccharides (GPs are the responsible ingredient of ginseng in immunomodulation, and are classified as acidic and neutral GPs. Although GPs participate in various immune reactions including the stimulation of immune cells and production of cytokines, the precise function of GPs together with its potential receptor(s and their signal transduction pathways have remained largely unknown. Animal lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins that are highly specific for sugar moieties. Among many different biological functions in vivo, animal lectins especially play important roles in the immune system by recognizing carbohydrates that are found exclusively on pathogens or that are inaccessible on host cells. This review summarizes the immunological activities of GPs and the diverse roles of animal lectins in the immune system, suggesting the possibility of animal lectins as the potential receptor candidates of GPs and giving insights into the development of GPs as therapeutic biomaterials for many immunological diseases.

  5. Ginseng pharmacology: a new paradigm based on gintonin-lysophosphatidic acid receptor interactions

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    Seung-Yeol eNah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ginseng, the root of Panax ginseng, is used as a traditional medicine. Despite the long history of the use of ginseng, there is no specific scientific or clinical rationale for ginseng pharmacology besides its application as a general tonic. The ambiguous description of ginseng pharmacology might be due to the absence of a predominant active ingredient that represents ginseng pharmacology. Recent studies show that ginseng abundantly contains lysophosphatidic acids (LPAs, which are phospholipid-derived growth factor with diverse biological functions including those claimed to be exhibited by ginseng. LPAs in ginseng form a complex with ginseng proteins, which can bind and deliver LPA to its cognate receptors with a high affinity. As a first messenger, gintonin produces second messenger Ca2+ via G protein-coupled LPA receptors. Ca2+ is an intracellular mediator of gintonin and initiates a cascade of amplifications for further intercellular communications by activation of Ca2+-dependent kinases, receptors, gliotransmitter and neurotransmitter release. Ginsenosides, which have been regarded as primary ingredients of ginseng, cannot elicit intracellular [Ca2+]i transients, since they lack specific cell surface receptor. However, ginsenosides exhibit non-specific ion channel and receptor regulations. This is the key characteristic that distinguishes gintonin from ginsenosides. Although the current discourse on ginseng pharmacology is focused on ginsenosides, gintonin can definitely provide a mode of action for ginseng pharmacology that ginsenosides cannot. This review article introduces a novel concept of ginseng ligand-LPA receptor interaction and proposes to establish a paradigm that shifts the focus from ginsenosides to gintonin as a major ingredient representing ginseng pharmacology.

  6. Siberian Ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Some people use Siberian ginseng to improve athletic performance and the ability to do work. They also use it to treat sleep problems ( ... to reduce symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome. Mental performance. Early ... in women experiencing mental stress. An inherited disorder that causes ...

  7. Effects of Sun ginseng on memory enhancement and hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang Hwan; Kim, Jong Min; Kim, Dong Hyun; Park, Se Jin; Liu, Xiaotong; Cai, Mudan; Hong, Jin Gyu; Park, Jeong Hill; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2013-09-01

    Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer has been used in traditional herb prescriptions for thousands of years. A heat-processing method has been used to increase the efficacy of ginseng, yielding what is known as red ginseng. In addition, recently, a slightly modified heat-processing method was applied to ginseng, to obtain a new type of processed ginseng with increased biological activity; this new form of ginseng is referred to as Sun ginseng (SG). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of SG on memory enhancement and neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) region. The subchronic administration of SG (for 14 days) significantly increased the latency time in the passive avoidance task relative to the administration of the vehicle control (P memory-enhancing activities and that these effects are mediated, in part, by the increase in the levels of pERK and pAkt and by the increases in cell proliferation and cell survival. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Black ginseng extract ameliorates hypercholesterolemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Evelyn; Jeon, Bo Ra; Jeong, Da-Hye; Lee, Kija; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Kim, Seung-Hyung; Sung, Chang-Keun; Roh, Seong-Soo; Kim, Sung Dae; Kim, Hyun-Kyoung; Rhee, Man-Hee

    2016-04-01

    Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) is a well-characterized medicinal herb listed in the classic oriental herbal dictionary as "Shin-nong-bon-cho-kyung." Ginseng has diverse pharmacologic and therapeutic properties. Black ginseng (BG, Ginseng Radix nigra) is produced by repeatedly steaming fresh ginseng nine times. Studies of BG have shown that prolonged heat treatment enhances the antioxidant activity with increased radical scavenging activity. Several recent studies have showed the effects of BG on increased lipid profiles in mice. In this study report the effects of water and ethanol extracts of BG on hypercholesterolemia in rats. To our knowledge, this is the first time such an effect has been reported. Experiments were conducted on male Sprague Dawley rats fed with a high-cholesterol diet supplemented with the water and ethanol extracts of BG (200 mg/kg). Their blood cholesterol levels, serum white blood cell levels, and cholesterol-metabolizing marker genes messenger RNA (mRNA) expression were determined. Liver and adipose tissues were histologically analyzed. We found that BG extracts efficiently reduced the total serum cholesterol levels, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels with increased food efficiency ratio and increased number of neutrophil cells. It also attenuated the key genes responsible for lipogenesis, that is, acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) acetyltransferase 2, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase, and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2, at the mRNA level inside liver cells. Furthermore, the BG extract also reduced the accumulation of fat in adipose tissues, and inhibited the neutral fat content in liver cells stained with hematoxylin and eosin and oil red O. Administration of BG extracts to Sprague Dawley rats fed with high-cholesterol diet ameliorated hypercholesterolemia, which was mediated via modulation of cholesterol-metabolizing marker genes. This data throw a light on BG's cardioprotective effects.

  9. Nitrogênio e fósforo no crescimento de plantas de ginseng brasileiro [Pfaffia glomerata(Spreng. Pedersen] cultivadas in vitro Nitrogen and phosphorus on growth of brazilian ginseng [Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen] in vitro cultured plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Russowski

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available O ginseng brasileiro [Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen] apresenta propriedades medicinais marcantes e, por isso, atualmente, é largamente explorado de forma extrativista, tanto por parte dos coletores de ervas como pela indústria farmacêutica. Este trabalho objetivou caracterizar o efeito da variação isolada da concentração de N e P do meio MS no crescimento de plantas de P. glomerata cultivadas in vitro. Segmentos nodais de 1,0cm de comprimento e sem folhas, de plantas já estabelecidas in vitro, foram cultivados em meio MS contendo cinco concentrações (0, 25, 50, 100 e 150% da concentração padrão do meio de cultura MS de nitrogênio ou fósforo. Aos 15 dias após a inoculação (DAI, o número de raízes e o percentual de enraizamento são maiores na concentração de N e P equivalentes a 50% daquela do meio de cultura MS. Aos 40 DAI, o crescimento em altura das brotações, número de segmentos nodais, índice de área foliar, número de folhas, matéria seca de raízes, da parte aérea e total da planta é maior na concentração de N e P, em média, próxima a 80% daquela do meio de cultura MS.Brazilian ginseng [Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen] has expressionable medicinal properties, and therefore, nowadays it is extensively exploited either by the herb collectors as well as the pharmaceutical industry. The aim of this work was to characterize the effect of N and P concentrations from the MS medium on growth of P. glomerata in vitro cultured plants. 1-node segment without leaves, from in vitro cultivated plants, were grown on five levels (0, 25, 50, 100, and 150% of the strength of the MS medium of N and P. After 15 days of inoculation, root number and rooting percentage are greater on N and P levels of the MS medium with 50% strength. After 40 days of inoculation, growth, based on sprout height, number of nodal segments per plant, leave area index per plant, number of leaves per plant, dry weight of aerial parts, roots

  10. Qualitation and quantification of specific polysaccharides from Panax species using GC-MS, saccharide mapping and HPSEC-RID-MALLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Kit-Leong; Wu, Ding-Tao; Deng, Yong; Leong, Fong; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Wen-Jie; Li, Shao-Ping

    2016-11-20

    The objective of this study was to qualify and quantify the specific polysaccharides in Panax spp. The analyses of specific polysaccharides were performed by using GC-MS, saccharide mapping and high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) coupled with multi angle laser light scattering (MALLS) and refractive index detector (RID). Results showed that compositional monosaccharides were the same in different species of Panax and composed of rhamnose, arabinose, galacturonic acid, mannose, glucose, and galactose. Saccharide mapping results showed that glycosides linkages, which existed in specific polysaccharides from Panax spp., were similar. Additionally, the content of specific polysaccharides of P. ginseng, P. notoginseng and P. quinquefolium were 17.9-20.5mg/g, 11.9-15.0mg/g, and 9.9-13.3mg/g, respectively. P. ginseng, P. notoginseng, and P. quinquefolium could be clustered into three groups using both hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis. The results possessed great potential in characterization and content determination of specific polysaccharides in Panax spp. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. American ginseng tea protects cellular DNA within 2 h from consumption: results of a pilot study in healthy human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeto, Yim Tong; Sin, Yuk Shan Pauline; Pak, Sok Cheon; Kalle, Wouter

    2015-01-01

    The acute genoprotective effect of Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng) has been investigated. The experiment was carried out to explore the DNA protective effect after a single dose of American ginseng tea bag infusion. Fourteen subjects (6 males and 8 females) were recruited in this study. Seven of them (3 males and 4 females) were asked to drink a cup of freshly prepared American ginseng infusions. Water was taken by the remaining subjects as the control group. Blood samples of both groups were taken before and 2 h post-ingestion. The blood samples were challenged with ultraviolet B irradiation followed by using comet assay. Completed slides were stained with Giemsa stain and DNA damage was assessed. Results showed a significant decrease in comet score after American ginseng supplementation and no change in the control group. The current study demonstrated a cup of American ginseng infusion could protect cellular DNA from oxidative stress at least within 2 h.

  12. Red Ginseng Extract Attenuates Kainate-Induced Excitotoxicity by Antioxidative Effects

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    Jin-Yi Han

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the neuroprotective activity of red ginseng extract (RGE, Panax ginseng, C. A. Meyer against kainic acid- (KA- induced excitotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. In hippocampal cells, RGE inhibited KA-induced excitotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner as measured by the MTT assay. To study the possible mechanisms of the RGE-mediated neuroprotective effect against KA-induced cytotoxicity, we examined the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS and [Ca2+]i in cultured hippocampal neurons and found that RGE treatment dose-dependently inhibited intracellular ROS and [Ca2+]i elevation. Oral administration of RGE (30 and 200 mg/kg in mice decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA level induced by KA injection (30 mg/kg, i.p.. In addition, similar results were obtained after pretreatment with the radical scavengers Trolox and N, N′-dimethylthiourea (DMTU. Finally, after confirming the protective effect of RGE on hippocampal brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF protein levels, we found that RGE is active compounds mixture in KA-induced hippocampal mossy-fiber function improvement. Furthermore, RGE eliminated 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radicals, and the IC50 was approximately 10 mg/ml. The reductive activity of RGE, as measured by reaction with hydroxyl radical (•OH, was similar to trolox. The second-order rate constant of RGE for •OH was 3.5–4.5×109 M−1·S−1. Therefore, these results indicate that RGE possesses radical reduction activity and alleviates KA-induced excitotoxicity by quenching ROS in hippocampal neurons.

  13. [Ginseng prescription rules and molecular mechanism in treating coronary heart disease based on data mining and integrative pharmacology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sen; Tang, Shi-Huan; Liu, Jin-Ling; Su, Jin; He, Fu-Yuan

    2018-04-01

    The ancient dragon Materia Medica, Compendium of Materia Medica and other works recorded that the main effect of ginseng is tonifying qi. It is reported that the main active ingredient of ginseng is ginsenoside. Modern studies have found that ginseng mono saponins are effective for cardiovascular related diseases. This paper preliminary clarified the efficacy of traditional ginseng-nourishing qi and cardiovascular disease through the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) inheritance auxiliary platform and integration platform of association of pharmacology. With the help of TCM inheritance auxiliary platform-analysis of "Chinese medicine database", Chinese medicine treatment of modern diseases that ginseng rules, so the traditional effect associated with modern medicine and pharmacology; application integration platform enrichment analysis on the target of drug and gene function, metabolic pathway, to further explore the molecular mechanism of ginseng in the treatment of coronary heart disease, aimed at mining the molecular mechanism of ginseng in the treatment of coronary heart disease. Chinese medicine containing ginseng 307 prescriptions, 87 kinds of disease indications, western medicine disease Chinese medicine therapy for ginseng main coronary heart disease; analysis of molecular mechanism of ginseng pharmacology integration platform for the treatment of coronary heart disease. Ginsenosides(Ra₁, Ra₂, Rb₁, Rb₂, Rg₁, Ro) bind these targets, PRKAA1, PRKAA2, NDUFA4, COX5B, UQCRC1, affect chemokines, non-alcoholic fatty liver, gonadotropin, carbon metabolism, glucose metabolism and other pathways to treat coronary heart disease indirectly. The molecular mechanism of Panax ginseng's multi-component, multi-target and synergistic action is preliminarily elucidated in this paper. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  14. Ginseng administration protects skeletal muscle from oxidative stress induced by acute exercise in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voces, J; Cabral de Oliveira, A C; Prieto, J G; Vila, L; Perez, A C; Duarte, I D G; Alvarez, A I

    2004-12-01

    Enzymatic activity was analyzed in the soleus, gastrocnemius (red and white) and plantaris muscles of acutely exercised rats after long-term administration of Panax ginseng extract in order to evaluate the protective role of ginseng against skeletal muscle oxidation. Ginseng extract (3, 10, 100, or 500 mg/kg) was administered orally for three months to male Wistar rats weighing 200 +/- 50 g before exercise and to non-exercised rats (N = 8/group). The results showed a membrane stabilizing capacity of the extract since mitochondrial function measured on the basis of citrate synthase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activities was reduced, on average, by 20% (P < 0.05) after exercise but the activities remained unchanged in animals treated with a ginseng dose of 100 mg/kg. Glutathione status did not show significant changes after exercise or treatment. Lipid peroxidation, measured on the basis of malondialdehyde levels, was significantly higher in all muscles after exercise, and again was reduced by about 74% (P < 0.05) by the use of ginseng extract. The administration of ginseng extract was able to protect muscle from exercise-induced oxidative stress irrespective of fiber type.

  15. Ginseng administration protects skeletal muscle from oxidative stress induced by acute exercise in rats

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    J. Voces

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic activity was analyzed in the soleus, gastrocnemius (red and white and plantaris muscles of acutely exercised rats after long-term administration of Panax ginseng extract in order to evaluate the protective role of ginseng against skeletal muscle oxidation. Ginseng extract (3, 10, 100, or 500 mg/kg was administered orally for three months to male Wistar rats weighing 200 ± 50 g before exercise and to non-exercised rats (N = 8/group. The results showed a membrane stabilizing capacity of the extract since mitochondrial function measured on the basis of citrate synthase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activities was reduced, on average, by 20% (P < 0.05 after exercise but the activities remained unchanged in animals treated with a ginseng dose of 100 mg/kg. Glutathione status did not show significant changes after exercise or treatment. Lipid peroxidation, measured on the basis of malondialdehyde levels, was significantly higher in all muscles after exercise, and again was reduced by about 74% (P < 0.05 by the use of ginseng extract. The administration of ginseng extract was able to protect muscle from exercise-induced oxidative stress irrespective of fiber type.

  16. DNA protective effect of ginseng and the antagonistic effect of Chinese turnip: A supplementation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeto, Yim Tong; Wong, Kam Shing; Han, Andrea; Pak, Sok Cheon; Kalle, Wouter

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this clinical study is to provide scientific evidence for supporting traditional Chinese application and usage to the patients. For this purpose, we tested the ability if Panax ginseng extract to lower oxidative damage to nuclear DNA in human lymphocytes by comparing the effect of cooked Chinese turnip on this effect. Seven healthy subjects (4 males and 3 females from 37 to 60 years) participated two occasions which were at least 2 weeks apart. About 2 mL of fasting blood sample for baseline measurement was taken on arrival. They were requested to ingest the content of 5 ginseng capsules in 200 mL water. The subject remained fasting for 2 h until the second blood sample taken. In the other occasion, the experiment was repeated except a piece of cooked turnip (10 g) was taken with the ginseng extract. The two occasions could be interchanged. Comet assay was performed on two specimens on the same day for the evaluation of lymphocytic DNA damage with or without oxidative stress. For the group with ginseng supplementation, there was a significant decrease in comet score for hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) treatment over the 2-h period while no change in DNA damage for unstressed sample. For the group with ginseng together with turnip supplementation, there was no significant difference in comet score for both H 2 O 2 treatment and phosphate-buffered saline treatment. Ginseng extract could reduce DNA damage mediated by H 2 O 2 effectively, but this protection effect was antagonized by the ingestion of cooked turnip at the same time. In the current study, commercial ginseng extract was used for supplementing volunteers. Ginseng extract could protect DNA from oxidative stress in vivo while turnip diminished the protection.

  17. PECULIARITIES OF SECONDARY METABOLITES BIOSYNTHESIS IN PLANT CELL CULTURES

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    A.M. NOSOV

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available metabolites formation in plant cell cultures of Panax spp., (ginsenosides; Dioscorea deltoidea (steroid glycosides; Ajuga reptans, Serratula coronata, Rhaponticum carthamoides (ecdisteroids; Polyscias spp., (triterpene glycosides, Taxus spp. (taxoids, Stevia rebaudiana (diterpene steviol-glycosides, Stephania glabra (alkaloids. They are some regular trends of secondary metabolites synthesis in the plant cell culture:It can be noted the stable synthesis of the compound promoting cell proliferation. Indeed, cell cultures of Dioscorea deltoidea were demonstrated to accumulate only furostanol glycosides, which promoted cell division. Furostanol glycoside content of Dioscorea strain DM-0.5 was up to 6 - 12% by dry biomass.Panax ginseng and P. japonicus plant cell cultures synthesize as minimum seven triterpene glycosides (ginsenosides, the productivity of these compounds was up to 6.0 - 8.0% on dry biomass.By contrast, the detectable synthesis of diterpene steviol-glycosides in cultivated cells of Stevia rebaudiana initiated in the mixotrophic cultures during chloroplast formation only.Despite these differences, or mainly due to them, plant cell cultures have become an attractive source of phytochemicals in alternative to collecting wild plants. It provides a guideline to bioreactor-based production of isoprenoids using undifferentiated plant cell cultures

  18. Study on the Correlation between Gene Expression and Enzyme Activity of Seven Key Enzymes and Ginsenoside Content in Ginseng in Over Time in Ji'an, China.

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    Yin, Juxin; Zhang, Daihui; Zhuang, Jianjian; Huang, Yi; Mu, Ying; Lv, Shaowu

    2017-12-11

    Panax ginseng is a traditional medicine. Fresh ginseng is one of the most important industries related to ginseng development, and fresh ginseng of varying ages has different medicinal properties. Previous research has not systematically reported the correlation between changes in key enzyme activity with changes in ginsenoside content in fresh ginseng over time. In this study, for the first time, we use ginseng samples of varying ages in Ji'an and systematically reported the changes in the activity of seven key enzymes (HMGR, FPS, SS, SE, DS, CYP450, and GT). We investigated the content of ginsenoside and gene expression of these key enzymes. Ginsenoside content was measured using HPLC. HPLC, GC-MS, and LC-MS were combined to measure the enzyme activity of the key enzymes. Quantitative PCR was used in the investigation of gene expression. By analyzing the correlation between the enzyme activity and the transcription level of the key enzymes with ginsenoside content, we found that DS and GT enzyme activities are significantly correlated with the ginsenoside content in different ages of ginseng. Our findings might provide a new strategy to discriminate between ginseng of different years. Meanwhile, this research provides important information for the in-depth study of ginsenoside biosynthesis.

  19. A study on the comparison of antioxidant effects among wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and cultivated ginseng extracts

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    Hae Young, Jang

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The objective of this study was to compare the antioxidant effects among wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and ginseng extracts. Methods : In vitro antioxidant activities were examined by total antioxidant capacity (TAC, oxygen radical scavenging capacity(ORAC, total phenolic content, 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity, inhibition of induced lipid peroxidation using liver mitochondria, reactive oxygen species(ROS scavenging effect using 2’, 7’-dichlorofluorescein(DCF fluorescence. Results : 1. TAC of 1.5 and 3.75 mg extracts was highest in cultivated wild ginseng, followed by wild ginseng and lowest in ginseng. 2. ORAC of 2, 10, and 20 μg extracts was highest in cultivated wild ginseng, followed by wild ginseng and lowest in ginseng. 3. Total phenolic content of 0.375, 0.938, and 1.875 mg extracts was highest in cultivated wild ginseng, followed by wild ginseng and lowest in ginseng. 4. DPPH(1, 1 -Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity between wild ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng did not differ significantly (p>0.05. 5. Induced lipid peroxidation, measured by TBARS concentration in solution containing rat liver mitochondria incubated in the presence of FeSO4/ascorbic acid was inhibited as amounts of wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and ginseng extracts increased. TBARS concentration of ginseng extracts were significantly (p<0.05 higher than wild ginseng or cultivated wild ginseng extracts. 6. DCF fluorescence intensity was decreased as concentrations of wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and ginseng extracts increased, demonstrating that ROS generation was inhibited in a concentrationdependent manner. Conclusions : In summary, the results of this study demonstrate that cultivated wild ginseng extracts had similar antioxidant activities to wild ginseng extracts and greater that of cultivated ginseng extracts.

  20. Ginseng and Ginkgo Biloba Effects on Cognition as Modulated by Cardiovascular Reactivity: A Randomised Trial.

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    Derek Ong Lai Teik

    Full Text Available There is some evidence to suggest that ginseng and Ginkgo biloba can improve cognitive performance, however, very little is known about the mechanisms associated with such improvement. Here, we tested whether cardiovascular reactivity to a task is associated with cognitive improvement.Using a double-blind, placebo controlled, crossover design, participants (N = 24 received two doses of Panax Ginseng (500, 1000 mg or Ginkgo Biloba (120, 240 mg (N = 24, and underwent a series of cognitive tests while systolic, diastolic, and heart rate readings were taken. Ginkgo Biloba improved aspects of executive functioning (Stroop and Berg tasks in females but not in males. Ginseng had no effect on cognition. Ginkgo biloba in females reversed the initial (i.e. placebo increase in cardiovascular reactivity (systolic and diastolic readings increased compared to baseline to cognitive tasks. This effect (reversal was most notable after those tasks (Stroop and Iowa that elicited the greatest cardiovascular reactivity during placebo. In males, although ginkgo also decreased cardiovascular readings, it did so from an initial (placebo blunted response (i.e. decrease or no change from baseline to cognitive tasks. Ginseng, on the contrary, increased cardiovascular readings compared to placebo.These results suggest that cardiovascular reactivity may be a mechanism by which ginkgo but not ginseng, in females is associated with certain forms of cognitive improvement.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02386852.

  1. Component Analysis of Cultivated Ginseng, Red Ginseng, Cultivated Wild Ginseng, and Red Wild Ginseng Using HPLC Method

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    Jang Ho, Lee

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The aim of this experiment is to provide an differentiation of ginseng, red ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng(CWG, and red wild ginseng(RWG through component analysis using HPLC(High Performance Liquid Chromatography, hereafter HPLC. Methods : Comparative analyses of ginsenoside Rg3, ginsenoside Rh2, and ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 of various ginsengs were conducted using HPLC. Results : 1. CWG was relatively heat-resistant and showed slow change in color during the process of steaming and drying, compared to cultivated ginseng. 2. Ginsenoside Rg3 was not detected in cultivated ginseng and CWG, whereas it was high in red ginseng and RWG. Ginsenoside Rg3 was more generated in red ginseng than in RWG. 3. Ginsenoside Rh2 appreared during steaming and drying of cultivated ginseng, whereas it was more increased during steaming and drying of CWG. 4. Ginsenoside Rg1 content was more increased during steaming and drying of cultivated ginseng, whereas it was more decreased during steaming and drying of CWG. 5. Ginsenoside Rb1 content was increased about 500% during steaming and drying of cultivated ginseng, whereas it was increased about 30% during steaming and drying of CWG, indicating that ginsenoside Rb1 was more generated in red ginseng than in RWG. 6. Ginsenoside Rg3 content was higher, whereas ginsenoside Rg1 content was lower in 11th RWG than in 9th RWG, indicating that ginsenoside Rg3 content was increased and Rg1 content was decreased as steaming and drying continued to proceed. Ginsenoside Rh2 and Rb1 contents began to be increased, followed by decreased after 9th steaming and drying process. Conclusions : Above experiment data can be an important indicator for the identification of ginseng, red ginseng, CWG, and RWG. And the following studies will be need for making good product using CWG.

  2. Component analysis of cultivated ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng by structural parts using HPLC method

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    Young-Ju,Han

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The aim of this experiments is to provide an objective differentiation of ginseng, Korean and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng through components analysis of different parts of ginseng. Methods : Comparative analyses of ginsenoside-, ginsenoside-, and ginsenosides and from the root, stem, and leaves of ginseng, Korean and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng were conducted using HPLC. Results : 1. For content comparison of leaves, ginseng showed highest content of ginsenoside than other samples. Natural wild ginseng showed relatively high content of ginsenosides and than other samples. 2. For content comparison of the stem, ginseng and 10 years old Chinese cultivated wild ginseng didn't contain ginsenoside . Natural wild ginseng showed higher content of ginsenosides and than other samples. 3. For content comparison of the root, ginsenoside was found only in 5 and 10 years old Korean cultivated wild ginseng. 4. Distribution of contents by the parts of ginseng was similar in ginseng and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng. Conclusions : Above experiment data can be an important indicator for the identification of ginseng, Korean and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng.

  3. Effects of Ultrasound on Extraction of Saponin from Ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Ohdaira, Etsuzo; Ide, Masao

    1994-05-01

    We performed a study of the effects of ultrasound on the extraction of saponin from Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer. In this study, the extraction of saponin was examined as functions of irradiation time (0.5 to 6 h) and acoustic pressure (0 to 90 kPa). It has been observed that the yields of both total extract and saponin are larger with ultrasonic irradiation than those without ultrasonic irradiation; the increase in yield of total extract is approximately 15 wt%, and that of saponin is approximately 30 wt% at an acoustic pressure 67 kPa. In addition, the yield increases with the acoustic pressure. It is also demonstrated that saponin was not resolved in the acoustic intensity range of this experiment. The enhancement in liquid-solid extraction caused by ultrasound can be attributed to the phenomenon of cavitation.

  4. Incorporation of Tongkat Ali and Ginseng extracts from mass propagated roots derived from bioreactor technology as supplements in energy chocolate confectionery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seri Cempaka Mohd Yusof; Sobri Hussein; Salmah Moosa; Salahbiah Badul Majid; Azhar Mohammad; Foziah Ali; Shafii Khamis; Rusli Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia) and Ginseng (Panax ginseng) are well known herbs among Asians and have been sought after by Europeans and others for the benefits to health, especially as aphrodisiac and nourishing stimulants. They have high antioxidant level and were reported to be used in the treatment of type II diabetes, as well as for sexual dysfunction in men. Since Tongkat Ali and Ginseng are difficult to cultivate and have a long cultivation period, the bioreactor technology is the alternative method to produce huge amount of raw materials for the herbal industry and continuous supply of standardized raw materials that is not affected by geographical and environmental factors, soil less and free from pesticides and other contaminants. Tongkat Ali and Ginseng extracts from mass propagated roots derived from bioreactor technology have similar profiles as extracts derived from normal cultivation. Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (LC-MS) profiles showed presence of active compounds in the Tongkat Ali and Ginseng extracts from the mass propagated roots. Cytotoxicity test using the brine shrimp (Artemia salina Leach) lethality assay, revealed that higher concentration of Tongkat Ali and Ginseng extracts from mass propagated roots did not kill or affect the brine shrimps, implying that the extracts were safe for consumption. Incorporation of combination of Tongkat Ali and Ginseng total extracts from mass propagated roots derived from bioreactor technology energy chocolate confectionery was accepted by the panelists in sensory evaluation and showed that the chocolate product has good potential as a carrier besides beverages and capsules. (author)

  5. Is ginseng an ergogenic aid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrke, Michael S; Morgan, William P; Stegner, Aaron

    2009-06-01

    Ginseng is one of the most popular herbal supplements in the world. Although it is used for the treatment and prevention of many ailments, it is also used to increase work efficiency and is purported to increase energy and physical stamina. Athletes use ginseng for its alleged performance-enhancing attributes. However, many studies examining the pharmacological effects of ginseng on physical performance have not employed sound scientific design and methodology. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on published empirical research focusing primarily on the efficacy of ginseng with respect to physical and athletic performance. Despite attempts in recent investigations to improve on the scientific rigor used in examining the ergogenic properties of ginseng, the authors conclude that many of the same methodological shortcomings observed in earlier studies persist. Enhanced physical performance after ginseng administration in well-designed investigations remains to be demonstrated.

  6. In situ analysis of chemical components induced by steaming between fresh ginseng, steamed ginseng, and red ginseng

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    Gyo In

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: This study elucidates the dynamic changes in the chemical components of P. ginseng when the steaming process was induced. These results are thought to be helpful for quality control and standardization of herbal drugs using P. ginseng and they also provide a scientific basis for pharmacological research of processed ginseng (Red ginseng.

  7. Application of gamma irradiation in ginseng for both photodegradation of pesticide pentachloronitrobenzene and microbial decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Hsiao-Wei [Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, National Chung Hsing University, 250, Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Ming-Fa [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, 200, Chung Pei Road, Chungli 320, Taiwan (China); Wang, Ya-Ting; Chung, Hsiao-Ping [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang Fu Road, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Po-Chow; Lin, I-Hsin [Committee on Chinese Medicine and Pharmacy, Department of Health, Executive Yuan, Taipei 104, Taiwan (China); Chou, Fong-In, E-mail: fichou@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang Fu Road, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang Fu Road, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

    2010-04-15

    This study investigates the feasibility of using gamma irradiation for photodegradation of a common residual fungicide, pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB), in ginseng, and for microbial decontamination. American ginseng, Panax quinquefolius, was subjected to gamma irradiation. PCNB residues were analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection and mass spectrometry. Eighty percent of PCNB (100 ppm) in a methanol aqueous solution was degraded by 5 kGy irradiation, and the primary degradation product was pentachloroaniline. Furthermore, contaminated PCNB (3.7 ppm) in ginseng were reduced to 0.2 ppm after 20 kGy irradiation. The IC{sub 50} for treatment of Sclerotium rolfsii with 20 kGy irradiated PCNB was about 2.7 times higher than that for treatment with unirradiated PCNB. The survival rate of mouse fibroblast L929 cells treated with 20 kGy irradiated PCNB was about 12.9% higher than that of L929 cells treated with unirradiated PCNB. Additionally, after 20 kGy irradiation, less than 5% reduction of contents of ginsenoside Rb1 and Re were observed, and amounts of ginsenosides Rc, Rd, and Rg1 were not reduced significantly. The minimal gamma dose for microbial decontamination was 10 kGy. Therefore, gamma irradiation can be used for both PCNB photodegradation and microbial decontamination of ginseng without obvious loses of ginsenoside contents.

  8. Comprehensive Characterization for Ginsenosides Biosynthesis in Ginseng Root by Integration Analysis of Chemical and Transcriptome

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    Jing-Jing Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Herbgenomics provides a global platform to explore the genetics and biology of herbs on the genome level. Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer is an important medicinal plant with numerous pharmaceutical effects. Previous reports mainly discussed the transcriptome of ginseng at the organ level. However, based on mass spectrometry imaging analyses, the ginsenosides varied among different tissues. In this work, ginseng root was separated into three tissues—periderm, cortex and stele—each for five duplicates. The chemical analysis and transcriptome analysis were conducted simultaneously. Gene-encoding enzymes involved in ginsenosides biosynthesis and modification were studied based on gene and molecule data. Eight widely-used ginsenosides were distributed unevenly in ginseng roots. A total of 182,881 unigenes were assembled with an N50 contig size of 1374 bp. About 21,000 of these unigenes were positively correlated with the content of ginsenosides. Additionally, we identified 192 transcripts encoding enzymes involved in two triterpenoid biosynthesis pathways and 290 transcripts encoding UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs. Of these UGTs, 195 UGTs (67.2% were more highly expressed in the periderm, and that seven UGTs and one UGT were specifically expressed in the periderm and stele, respectively. This genetic resource will help to improve the interpretation on complex mechanisms of ginsenosides biosynthesis, accumulation, and transportation.

  9. GABA-BZD Receptor Modulating Mechanism of Panax quinquefolius against 72-h Sleep Deprivation Induced Anxiety like Behavior: Possible Roles of Oxidative Stress, Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Neuroinflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanana, Priyanka; Kumar, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Panax quinquefolius (American Ginseng) is known for its therapeutic potential against various neurological disorders, but its plausible mechanism of action still remains undeciphered. GABA (Gamma Amino Butyric Acid) plays an important role in sleep wake cycle homeostasis. Thus, there exists rationale in exploring the GABA-ergic potential of Panax quinquefolius as neuroprotective strategy in sleep deprivation induced secondary neurological problems. Objective: The present study was designed to explore the possible GABA-ergic mechanism in the neuro-protective effect of Panax quinquefolius against 72-h sleep deprivation induced anxiety like behavior, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, HPA-axis activation and neuroinflammation. Materials and Methods: Male laca mice were sleep deprived for 72-h by using Grid suspended over water method. Panax quinquefolius (American Ginseng 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) was administered alone and in combination with GABA modulators (GABA Cl− channel inhibitor, GABA-benzodiazepine receptor inhibitor and GABAA agonist) for 8 days, starting 5 days prior to 72-h sleep deprivation period. Various behavioral (locomotor activity, mirror chamber test), biochemical (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, catalase, nitrite levels), mitochondrial complexes, neuroinflammation marker (Tumor Necrosis Factor, TNF-alpha), serum corticosterone, and histopathological sections of brains were assessed. Results: Seventy two hours sleep deprivation significantly impaired locomotor activity, caused anxiety-like behavior, conditions of oxidative stress, alterations in mitochondrial enzyme complex activities, raised serum corticosterone levels, brain TNFα levels and led to neuroinflammation like signs in discrete brain areas as compared to naive group. Panax quinquefolius (100 and 200 mg/kg) treatment restored the behavioral, biochemical, mitochondrial, molecular and histopathological alterations. Pre-treatment of GABA Cl− channel

  10. Asian and Siberian ginseng as a potential modulator of immune function: an in vitro cytokine study using mouse macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huamin; Actor, Jeffrey K; Indrigo, Jessica; Olsen, Margaret; Dasgupta, Amitava

    2003-01-01

    Ginseng is a widely used herbal product in China, other Asian countries, and in the Unites States. There is a traditional belief that ginseng stimulates immune functions. In this study, the innate effects of Asian and Siberian ginsengs on cytokines and chemokines produced by cultured macrophages were examined. The effects of Asian and Siberian ginseng on cytokines and chemokines produced by cultured macrophages were examined. Mouse macrophages (J774A.1) were incubated with Asian or Siberian ginseng at varying concentrations (1, 10, 100, and 1000 microg/ml) for 24 h and then harvested for RNA isolation. The expression levels of IL-1beta, IL-12, TNF-alpha, MIP-1 alpha, and MIP-2 mRNA were measured by quantitative PCR. Our data showed that Asian ginseng induced a statistically significant increase in IL-12 expression at both mRNA and protein levels. However, the minor twofold increase is probably biologically insignificant. No significant increase of IL-12 by Siberian ginseng was observed at any dose level studied. No significant change in IL-1beta, IL-15, TNF-alpha, or MIP-1alpha mRNA was observed by either Asian or Siberian ginseng treatment. Our data showed statistically significant differential regulation of IL-12 by Asian ginseng. Siberian ginseng did not show a statistically significant increase. We conclude that both Asian ginseng and Siberian ginseng cannot significantly stimulate innate macrophage immune functions that influence cellular immune responses. Therefore, contrary to the popular belief, Asian and Siberian ginseng may not stimulate immune function.

  11. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detector and Electrospray Ionization Ion Trap Time-of-Flight Tandem Mass Spectrometry to Evaluate Ginseng Roots and Rhizomes from Different Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Ping; Zhang, You-Bo; Yang, Xiu-Wei; Yang, Xin-Bao; Xu, Wei; Xu, Feng; Cai, Shao-Qing; Wang, Ying-Ping; Xu, Yong-Hua; Zhang, Lian-Xue

    2016-05-09

    Ginseng, Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, is an industrial crop in China and Korea. The functional components in ginseng roots and rhizomes are characteristic ginsenosides. This work developed a new high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization ion trap time-of-flight multistage mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-IT-TOF-MS(n)) method to identify the triterpenoids. Sixty compounds (1-60) including 58 triterpenoids were identified from the ginseng cultivated in China. Substances 1, 2, 7, 15-20, 35, 39, 45-47, 49, 55-57, 59, and 60 were identified for the first time. To evaluate the quality of ginseng cultivated in Northeast China, this paper developed a practical liquid chromatography-diode array detection (LC-DAD) method to simultaneously quantify 14 interesting ginsenosides in ginseng collected from 66 different producing areas for the first time. The results showed the quality of ginseng roots and rhizomes from different sources was different due to growing environment, cultivation technology, and so on. The developed LC-ESI-IT-TOF-MS(n) method can be used to identify many more ginsenosides and the LC-DAD method can be used not only to assess the quality of ginseng, but also to optimize the cultivation conditions for the production of ginsenosides.

  12. Representative parameter of immunostimulatory ginseng polysaccharide to predict radioprotection

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    Son, Hyeog Jin; Shim, Ji Young; Ahn, Ji Yeon; Yun, Yeon Sook; Song, Jie Young [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    According to the increase in the use of radiotherapy to cancer patients, many approaches have been tried to develop new agents for the protection of surrounding normal tissues. However, it is still few applied in the clinic as a radioprotector. We aim to find a representative parameter for radioprotection to easily predict the activity of in vivo experiment from the results of in vitro screening. The polysaccharide extracted from Panax ginseng was used in this study because the immunostimulator has been regarded as one of the radioprotective agent category and was already reported having a promising radioprotective activity through the increase of hematopoietic cells and the production of several cytokines. Mitogenic activity, AK cells activity and nitric oxide production were monitored for the in vitro immunological assay, and endogenous Colony-Forming Unit (e-CFU) was measured as in vivo radioprotective parameter. The immunological activity was increased by the galactose contents of ginseng polysaccharide dependently. The result of this study suggests that mitogenic activity of splenocytes demonstrated a good correlation with in vivo radioprotective effect, and may be used as a representative parameter to screen the candidates for radioprotector.

  13. Study on production of useful metabolites by development of advanced cell culture techniques using radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Byung Yeoup; Kim, Jin Hong; Lee, Seung Sik; Kim, Jae Sung; An, Byung Chull; Moon, Yu Ran; Lee, Eun Mi; Lee, Min Hee; Lee, Jae Tack [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    The purpose of this project is improvement of investigation, materialization and evaluation techniques on effectiveness for functional natural compounds throughout development of tissue/cell culture techniques for mass production of useful metabolites using radiation. Research scope includes 1) Development of a technique for radiation tissue and cell culture, 2) Database construction for radiation response in plants and radiation effects, 3) Construction of general-purpose national based techniques of cell culture technique using radiation. Main results are as follow: mass culture of the adventitious roots of mountain ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) roots using rare earth elements in bioreactor: characterization of a transcription factor EoP gene from centipedegrass and the transcription regulation of LexA from Synechocystis sp PCC6803 and E. coli: identification of gamma-ray induced hydrogenase synthesis in hox gene transformed E. coli: transformation and the selection of the EoP transgene from Arabidopsis, rice and lettuce: Identification of the maysin and maysin derivatives in centipedegrass: characterization of gamma-ray induced color change in Taxus cuspidata: verification of the expression of antioxidant proteins (POD, APX and CAT) to gamma-ray in Arabidopsis: comparison of the response of the expression level to gamma-ray or H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in Arabidopsis; verification of the responses and effects to gamma-ray from plants (analysis of NPQ and ROS levels): the development method for rapidly enhancing maysin content of centipede grass; establishment of mass culture system for red beet

  14. Study on production of useful metabolites by development of advanced cell culture techniques using radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Byung Yeoup; Kim, Jin Hong; Lee, Seung Sik; Kim, Jae Sung; An, Byung Chull; Moon, Yu Ran; Lee, Eun Mi; Lee, Min Hee; Lee, Jae Tack

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this project is improvement of investigation, materialization and evaluation techniques on effectiveness for functional natural compounds throughout development of tissue/cell culture techniques for mass production of useful metabolites using radiation. Research scope includes 1) Development of a technique for radiation tissue and cell culture, 2) Database construction for radiation response in plants and radiation effects, 3) Construction of general-purpose national based techniques of cell culture technique using radiation. Main results are as follow: mass culture of the adventitious roots of mountain ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) roots using rare earth elements in bioreactor: characterization of a transcription factor EoP gene from centipedegrass and the transcription regulation of LexA from Synechocystis sp PCC6803 and E. coli: identification of gamma-ray induced hydrogenase synthesis in hox gene transformed E. coli: transformation and the selection of the EoP transgene from Arabidopsis, rice and lettuce: Identification of the maysin and maysin derivatives in centipedegrass: characterization of gamma-ray induced color change in Taxus cuspidata: verification of the expression of antioxidant proteins (POD, APX and CAT) to gamma-ray in Arabidopsis: comparison of the response of the expression level to gamma-ray or H 2 O 2 in Arabidopsis; verification of the responses and effects to gamma-ray from plants (analysis of NPQ and ROS levels): the development method for rapidly enhancing maysin content of centipede grass; establishment of mass culture system for red beet

  15. Korean red ginseng and its primary ginsenosides inhibit ethanol-induced oxidative injury by suppression of the MAPK pathway in TIB-73 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Min; Kim, Shang-Jin; Mun, A-Reum; Go, Hyeon-Kyu; Kim, Gi-Beum; Kim, Sung-Zoo; Jang, Seon-Il; Lee, Sei-Jin; Kim, Jin-Shang; Kang, Hyung-Sub

    2012-06-14

    Panax ginseng (P. ginseng) is one of the most widely used medicinal plants due to its wide spectrum of medicinal effects. Among the currently available Panax ginseng products, Korea red ginseng (KRG) has been shown to exhibit a variety of antioxidative and hepatoprotective action. Our aim was to investigate the effects of KRG and its primary ginsenosides (Rg3 and Rh2) on EtOH-induced injury to mouse hepatocytes (TIB-73). We investigated the effects of KRG and its primary ginsenoside on EtOH-induced injury to TIB-73 cells and evaluated MAPKs signals as a possible mechanism of action. Hepatocytic injury was evaluated by biochemical assays as cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), ROS and mitochondria membrane potential (MMP) level in TIB-73 cells. The levels of MAPK activation were analyzed by Western blots. The results showed that exposure of EtOH to TIB-73 cells led to cell death and membrane damage, accompanied by a decrease in cell viability, MMP, and Mg(2+) concentrations, but an increase in LDH, AST, ROS and MAPK activation. KRG and its primary ginsenosides reduced EtOH-induced generation of ROS and the activation of ERK and JNK, and increased Mg(2+) concentrations. These results suggest that KRG and its primary ginsenosides inhibit EtOH-induced oxidative injury by suppression of the MAPK pathway in TIB-73 cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pharmacogenomics and the Yin/Yang actions of ginseng: anti-tumor, angiomodulating and steroid-like activities of ginsenosides

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    Yeung Hin

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Chinese medicine, ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer has long been used as a general tonic or an adaptogen to promote longevity and enhance bodily functions. It has also been claimed to be effective in combating stress, fatigue, oxidants, cancer and diabetes mellitus. Most of the pharmacological actions of ginseng are attributed to one type of its constituents, namely the ginsenosides. In this review, we focus on the recent advances in the study of ginsenosides on angiogenesis which is related to many pathological conditions including tumor progression and cardiovascular dysfunctions. Angiogenesis in the human body is regulated by two sets of counteracting factors, angiogenic stimulators and inhibitors. The 'Yin and Yang' action of ginseng on angiomodulation was paralleled by the experimental data showing angiogenesis was indeed related to the compositional ratio between ginsenosides Rg1 and Rb1. Rg1 was later found to stimulate angiogenesis through augmenting the production of nitric oxide (NO and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Mechanistic studies revealed that such responses were mediated through the PI3K→Akt pathway. By means of DNA microarray, a group of genes related to cell adhesion, migration and cytoskeleton were found to be up-regulated in endothelial cells. These gene products may interact in a hierarchical cascade pattern to modulate cell architectural dynamics which is concomitant to the observed phenomena in angiogenesis. By contrast, the anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic effects of ginsenosides (e.g. Rg3 and Rh2 have been demonstrated in various models of tumor and endothelial cells, indicating that ginsenosides with opposing activities are present in ginseng. Ginsenosides and Panax ginseng extracts have been shown to exert protective effects on vascular dysfunctions, such as hypertension, atherosclerotic disorders and ischemic injury. Recent work has demonstrates the target molecules of ginsenosides to be a

  17. When science meets culture: The prevention and management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Because of the increasing number of men seeking treatment for ED, there is a need to assess the safety and biological plausibility of some of the readily available ... These include oysters, alcoholic beverages, chocolate, chilli, Epimedium extract (horny goat weed), Panax ginseng, Ginkgo biloba, Tribulis terrestris, Eriosema ...

  18. Characteristics of Korean ginseng varieties of Gumpoong, Sunun, Sunpoong, Sunone, Cheongsun, and Sunhyang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jang-Ho; Lee, Joon-Soo; Kwon, Woo-Saeng; Kang, Je-Yong; Lee, Dong-Yun; In, Jun-Gyo; Kim, Yun-Soo; Seo, Jiho; Baeg, In-Ho; Chang, Il-Moo; Grainger, Keith

    2015-04-01

    Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) is an important medicinal herbs in Asia. However, ginseng varieties are less developed. To developed ginseng varieties, a pure line selection method was applied in this study. Gumpoong was testing of 4-yr-old specimens in 2002, the proportions of the below-ground roots that were rusty colored for Gumpoong was 1.29 in Daejeon and 1.45 in Eumseong, whereas the proportions for its yellow berry variant were 2.60 and 2.45 in the two regions, respectively. Thus the Gumpoong was resistant to root rust. Sunpoong has a high yielding property. Its average root weight is 70.6 g for 6-yr-old roots. Its yield is 2.9 kg/1.62m(2) and the rate of heaven- and earth-grade product is 20.9%, which is very high compared to 9.4% for Yunpoong. Sunone is resistance to root rot and the survival rate of 4-yr-old roots was 44.4% in 1997, whereas that of the violet-stem variant landrace was 21.7%. Sunhyang has content of arginyl-fructosyl-glucose (AFG), which produces the unique scent of red ginseng, is 95.1 μmol/g and greater than the 30.8 μmol/g of Chunpoong in 6-yr-old plants. Sunun and Cheongsun are being nurtured to protect genetic resources. Developed ginsneg varieties will be used as the basis for the protection of genetic resources and breeding.

  19. Radioprotective potency of ginseng on some haematopoietic and physiological parameters in irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashry, O.M.; Hussein, E.M.

    2007-01-01

    Currently, investigations focus on co administration of natural products with radiation treatment. The present study was assessed to investigate the potency of ginseng as a radioprotective agent on haematopoietic cell recovery, the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) and malonaldehyde (MDA) level in addition to physiological bio markers. Panax ginseng was intraperitoneally injected (100 mg/ kg) to female rats 24 h before gamma irradiation of 7 Gy which is liable to disturb the haematopoietic system and the organs involved as the bone marrow and spleen. Animals were investigated after 5 and 9 days from irradiation, ginseng or dual treatments. Irradiation caused significant wt loss of the body and spleen, decrease in bone marrow (B.M.) viable cells, significant depression in leukocytes with its differential counts, significant drop in erythrocytes, haemoglobin and haematocrite values besides elevation in MCV. Gamma-irradiation treatment resulted in significant increase in serum MDA and glucose as well as significant reduction in blood GSH. Significant elevations in transaminases (ALT and AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities were recorded after gamma irradiation. Preservation of body wt, B.M. viable cells, spleen wt and haematopoietic cell recovery was evident upon ginseng pre-administration. It ameliorated the depression in GSH content and the elevation in MDA level. ALT, AST and ALP were depressed approaching the control level after 9 days from dual treatments and blood sugar level was maintained. The study points out the promising positive role played by ginseng as a nontoxic natural product to reduce the time necessary for reconstituting haematopoietic cells and protecting vital physiological processes after irradiation

  20. [Two cases of acute coronary syndrome after intake of Clavis Panax].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atar, Aslı İnci; Er, Okan; Güven, Abdullah; Eryonucu, Beyhan

    2012-04-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is an epidemic in today's world. It is one of the most common causes of hospitalization and death. Therefore, remedies to control or heal the disease are continuously sought. In addition to scientifically researched therapies, patients frequently utilize alternative medicine. However, effective and toxic doses, metabolisms, and drug interactions of the herbs and herbal nutrition supplements are largely unknown. Herein, we present two cases with acute coronary syndrome. The first case was admitted with a diagnosis of acute inferior myocardial infaction (MI) and a stent was implanted to the occluded right coronary artery (RCA). There was a 50% stenosis in his left anterior descending artery (LAD). He was admitted with a diagnosis of non-ST elevation MI (NSTEMI) 6 months later. In the coronary angiogram, there was stent restenosis in RCA, the lesion in LAD had become thrombotic and progressed to a stenosis of 90%. He was referred to surgical revascularization. The second case was admitted for acute inferior MI and a stent was implanted to the occluded circumflex artery. Two months later, he was hospitalized for NSTEMI. Progression of coronary plaques to stenosis and stent restenosis was detected and he was referred to surgical revascularization. Both patients used the product sold as Clavis Panax, which contains panax ginseng, tribulus terrestris, and oat, after their first coronary intervention. Intake of a mixture of plant extracts may have serious consequences in humans as drug interactions and side effects are unknown.

  1. Interações farmacocinéticas entre as plantas medicinais Hypericum perforatum, Gingko bilobae Panax gingseng e fármacos tradicionais

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira, Ana Elisa; Dalla Costa, Teresa

    2004-01-01

    Como o uso de plantas medicinais tem se popularizado, sendo comum sua utilização como complemento aos tratamentos convencionais, a falta de conhecimento sobre interações entre fármacos e plantas medicinais põem em risco a saúde dos usuários. Neste artigo é apresentada uma revisão de literatura sobre interações farmacocinéticas entre fármacos e plantas medicinais utilizadas no Brasil como Hypericum perforatum, Gingko biloba e Panax ginseng. O ajuste da dose recomendada do fármaco d...

  2. GABA-BZD Receptor Modulating Mechanism of Panax quinquefolius against 72-hours Sleep Deprivation Induced Anxiety like Behavior: Possible Roles of Oxidative Stress, Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Neuroinflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka eChanana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTRationale- Panax quinquefolius (American Ginseng is known for its therapeutic potential against various neurological disorders, but its plausible mechanism of action still remains undeciphered. GABA (Gamma Amino Butyric Acid plays an important role in sleep wake cycle homeostasis. Thus there exists rationale in exploring the GABA-ergic potential of Panax quinquefolius as neuroprotective strategy in sleep deprivation induced secondary neurological problems.Objective- The present study was designed to explore the possible GABA-ergic mechanism in the neuro-protective effect of Panax quinquefolius against 72-hours sleep deprivation induced anxiety like behaviour, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, HPA-axis activation and neuroinflammation.Materials and Methods- Male laca mice were sleep deprived for 72-hours by using Grid suspended over water method. Panax quinquefolius (American Ginseng 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg was administered alone and in combination with GABA modulators (GABA Cl- channel inhibitor, GABA-benzodiazepine receptor inhibitor and GABAA agonist for 8 days, starting five days prior to 72-hours sleep deprivation period. Various behavioural (locomotor activity, mirror chamber test, biochemical (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, catalase, nitrite levels, mitochondrial complexes, neuroinflammation marker (Tumour Necrosis Factor, TNF-alpha, serum corticosterone, and histopathological sections of brains were assessed. Results- 72-hours sleep deprivation significantly impaired locomotor activity, caused anxiety-like behaviour, conditions of oxidative stress, alterations in mitochondrial enzyme complex activities, raised serum corticosterone levels, brain TNFα levels and led to neuroinflammation like signs in discrete brain areas as compared to naive group. Panax quinquefolius (100 and 200 mg/kg treatment restored the behavioural, biochemical, mitochondrial, molecular and histopathological alterations. Pre-treatment of

  3. Ninjin'yoeito and ginseng extract prevent oxaliplatin-induced neurodegeneration in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Ayano; Ohsawa, Masahiro; Motoo, Yoshiharu; Mizukami, Hajime; Makino, Toshiaki

    2015-10-01

    Ninjin'yoeito (NYT) is a formula of Japanese traditional kampo medicine composed of 12 crude drugs, and is designed to improve the decline in constitution after recovery from disease, fatigue, anemia, anorexia, perspiration during sleep, cold limbs, slight fever, chills, persistent cough, malaise, mental disequilibrium, insomnia, and constipation. Oxaliplatin (L-OHP) is a platinum-based anticancer drug used to treat colorectal, pancreatic, and stomach cancers. However, it often causes acute and chronic peripheral neuropathies including cold allodynia and mechanical hyperalgesia. In this study, we investigated the preventive effects of NYT on neuronal degeneration caused by L-OHP using PC12 cells, which are derived from the rat adrenal medulla and differentiate into nerve-like cells after exposure to nerve growth factor. L-OHP treatment decreased the elongation of neurite-like projection outgrowths in differentiated PC12 cells. When PC12 cells were treated with NYT hot water extract, neurodegeneration caused by L-OHP was significantly prevented in a concentration-dependent manner. Among the 12 crude drugs composing NYT, the extract of Ginseng (the root of Panax ginseng) exhibited the strongest preventive effects on neurodegeneration in differentiated PC12 cells. By activity-guided fractionation, we found that the fraction containing ginsenosides displayed preventive activity and, among several ginsenosides, ginsenoside F2 exhibited significant preventive effects on L-OHP-induced decreases in neurite-like outgrowths in differentiated PC12 cells. These results suggest that NYT and ginseng are promising agents for preventing L-OHP-induced neuropathies and present ginsenoside F2 as one of the active ingredients in ginseng.

  4. Identification of suitable sites for mountain ginseng cultivation using GIS and geo-temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hag Mo; Choi, Soo Im; Kim, Hyun

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore an accurate site identification technique using a geographic information system (GIS) and geo-temperature (gT) for locating suitable sites for growing cultivated mountain ginseng (CMG; Panax ginseng), which is highly sensitive to the environmental conditions in which it grows. The study site was Jinan-gun, South Korea. The spatial resolution for geographic data was set at 10 m × 10 m, and the temperatures for various climatic factors influencing CMG growth were calculated by averaging the 3-year temperatures obtained from the automatic weather stations of the Korea Meteorological Administration. Identification of suitable sites for CMG cultivation was undertaken using both a conventional method and a new method, in which the gT was added as one of the most important factors for crop cultivation. The results yielded by the 2 methods were then compared. When the gT was added as an additional factor (new method), the proportion of suitable sites identified decreased by 0.4 % compared with the conventional method. However, the proportion matching real CMG cultivation sites increased by 3.5 %. Moreover, only 68.2 % corresponded with suitable sites identified using the conventional factors; i.e., 31.8 % were newly detected suitable sites. The accuracy of GIS-based identification of suitable CMG cultivation sites improved by applying the temperature factor (i.e., gT) in addition to the conventionally used factors.

  5. Chemical composition, and cytotoxic, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the essential oil from ginseng leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rui; Sun, Liwei; Wang, Yanbing; Liu, Jianzeng; Liu, Xiaodan; Feng, Hao; Zhao, Daqing

    2014-06-01

    Panax ginseng C.A.Meyer is one of the most valuable traditional Chinese medicines. In this study, the essential oil of ginseng leaves (EOGL), collected using hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS, contained a complex mixture of aliphatic (69.0%), terpenoid (21.5%) and aromatic compounds (2.4%). Among 54 components identified, the major ones were palmitic acid (36.1%), beta-farnesene (15.4%), linoleic acid (9.8%) and phytol (5.6%). In the cytotoxicity study, EOGL exhibited obvious cytotoxic activities against different cancer cell lines, including Hela, A549, ZR-75-1, HT-29, SGC7901 and B16 cells. Furthermore, Annexin V-FITC/PI staining assay indicated that EOGL can induce late apoptosis of ZR-75-1 cells, and the percentage of apoptotic cells increased in a concentration-dependent manner (0.9% to 5.6% and 67.4%). In addition to this, we also found that EOGL exhibited weak DPPH radical scavenging (12.0 +/- 0.4 mg/mL) and ABTS radical scavenging activities (1.6 +/- 0.1 mg/mL), and showed antibacterial activity against the Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, and the Gram-negative bacterium, Escherichia coli. The data suggest that EOGL, which possesses important biological activities, especially significant anticancer activity, could be a potential medicinal resource.

  6. Inhibitory Effect of Triterpenoids from Panax ginseng on Coagulation Factor X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingxin Xiong

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes involved in the coagulation process have received great attention as potential targets for the development of oral anti-coagulants. Among these enzymes, coagulation factor Xa (FXa has remained the center of attention in the last decade. In this study, 16 ginsenosides and two sapogenins were isolated, identified and quantified. To determine the inhibitory potential on FXa, the chromogenic substrates method was used. The assay suggested that compounds 5, 13 and 18 were mainly responsible for the anti-coagulant effect. Furthermore, these three compounds also possessed high thrombin selectivity in the thrombin inhibition assay. Furthermore, Glide XP from Schrödinger was employed for molecular docking to clarify the interaction between the bioactive compounds and FXa. Therefore, the chemical and biological results indicate that compounds 5 (ginsenoside Rg2, 13 (ginsenoside Rg3 and 18 (protopanaxtriol, PPT are potential natural inhibitors against FXa.

  7. A study on the comparison of antioxidant effects among cultivated ginseng, and cultivated wild ginseng extracts -Using the measurement of superoxide and hydroxy radical scavenging activities-

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    Tae Jin, Rhim

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The objective of this study was to compare the antioxidant effects among cultivated wild ginseng and ginseng extracts. Methods : In vitro antioxidant activities were examined by superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng extracts. Results : 1. In the superoxide radical scavenging activities of ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng extracts, antioxidant activities of cultivated wild ginseng extracts was showed higher than cultivated ginseng in the concentration of 0.25 and 0.50㎎/㎖. 2. In the hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng extracts, antioxidant activities of cultivated wild ginseng extracts was showed higher than cultivated ginseng in the concentration of 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0㎎/㎖. Conclusions : In summary, the results of this study demonstrate that cultivated wild ginseng extracts had higher antioxidant activities to cultivated ginseng.

  8. [Formulation optimization of panax notoginsenoside orally fast disintegration tablets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Wei, Li; Chen, Ting

    2008-07-01

    To optimize the formulation of panax notoginsenoside orally fast disintegrating tablets. Mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose (PH 102) and lactose 80 were used as diluent. A polynomial regression algorithm was used to evaluate the relationship between the controlling factor, compacting pressure and diluent ratio, and disintegration time, tensile strength of tablets. Optimum formulation and process parameters could be determined by contrast the contour plot of tensile strength to that of disintegration time. The disintegration time and tensile strength of panax notoginsenoside oral disintegrating tablets were good, and the taste was satisfactory. Panax notoginsenoside oral disintegrating tablets achieve the goal of design and this method can be fairly used in formulation screening.

  9. Distribution of 19 organochlorinated pesticides residues in ginseng ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The organochlorinated pesticides widely applied and still remains in soils, has become toxic to ginseng production in Jilin Province. In this study, 19 trace organochlorinated pesticide residues in five types of ginseng products and soil samples from four ginseng production areas were analyzed using a gas ...

  10. Sun Ginseng Protects Endothelial Progenitor Cells From Senescence Associated Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Wooseok; Chung, Jin-Young; Bhan, Jaejun; Lim, Jiyeon; Lee, Soon-Tae; Chu, Kon; Kim, Manho

    2012-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) are a population of cells that circulate in the blood stream. They play a role in angiogenesis and, therefore, can be prognostic markers of vascular repair. Ginsenoside Rg3 prevents endothelial cell apoptosis through the inhibition of the mitochondrial caspase pathway. It also affects estrogen activity, which reduces EPC senescence. Sun ginseng (SG), which is heat-processed ginseng, has a high content of ginsenosides. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of SG on senescence-associated apoptosis in EPCs. In order to isolate EPCs, mononuclear cells of human blood buffy coats were cultured and characterized by their uptake of acetylated low-density lipoprotein (acLDL) and their binding of Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (ulex-lectin). Flow cytometry with annexin-V staining was performed in order to assess early and late apoptosis. Senescence was determined by β-galactosidase (β-gal) staining. Staining with 4′-6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole verified that most adherent cells (93±2.7%) were acLDL-positive and ulex-lectin-positive. The percentage of β-gal-positive EPCs was decreased from 93.8±2.0% to 62.5±3.6% by SG treatment. A fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis showed that 4.9% of EPCs were late apoptotic in controls. Sun ginseng decreased the apoptotic cell population by 39% in the late stage of apoptosis from control baseline levels. In conclusion, these results show antisenescent and antiapoptotic effects of SG in human-derived EPCs, indicating that SG can enhance EPC-mediated repair mechanisms. PMID:23717107

  11. Synergistic effects of climate change and harvest on extinction risk of American ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souther, Sara; McGraw, James B

    Over the next century, the conservation of biodiversity will depend not only on our ability to understand the effect of climate change, but also on our capacity to predict how other factors interact with climate change to influence species viability. We used American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.), the United States' premier wild-harvested medicinal, as a model system to ask whether the effect of harvest on extinction risk depends on changing climatic conditions. We performed stochastic projections of viability response to an increase in maximum growing-season temperature of 1°C over the next 70 years by sampling matrices from long-term demographic studies of 12 populations (representing 75 population-years of data). In simulations that included harvest and climate change, extinction risk at the median population size (N = 140) was 65%, far exceeding the additive effects of the two factors (extinction risk = 8% and 6% for harvest and climate change, respectively; quasi-extinction threshold = 20). We performed a life table response experiment (LTRE) to determine underlying causes of the effect of warming and harvest on deterministic λ (λd). Together, these factors decreased λd values primarily by reducing growth of juvenile and small adult plants to the large-adult stage, as well as decreasing stasis of the juveniles and large adults. The interaction observed in stochastic model results followed from a nonlinear increase in extinction risk as the combined impact of harvest and warming consistently reduced λ values below the demographic tipping point of λ = 1. While further research is needed to create specific recommendations, these findings indicate that ginseng harvest regulations should be revised to account for changing climate. Given the possibility of nonlinear response like that reported here, pre-emptive adaptation of management strategies may increase efficacy of biodiversity conservation by allowing behavior modification prior to precipitous

  12. Administration of red ginseng ameliorates memory decline in aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeonju; Oh, Seikwan

    2015-07-01

    It has been known that ginseng can be applied as a potential nutraceutical for memory impairment; however, experiments with animals of old age are few. To determine the memory enhancing effect of red ginseng, C57BL/6 mice (21 mo old) were given experimental diet pellets containing 0.12% red ginseng extract (approximately 200 mg/kg/d) for 3 mo. Young and old mice (4 mo and 21 mo old, respectively) were used as the control group. The effect of red ginseng, which ameliorated memory impairment in aged mice, was quantified using Y-maze test, novel objective test, and Morris water maze. Red ginseng ameliorated age-related declines in learning and memory in older mice. In addition, red ginseng's effect on the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase and proinflammatory cytokines was investigated in the hippocampus of aged mice. Red ginseng treatment suppressed the production of age-processed inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-1β expressions. Moreover, it was observed that red ginseng had an antioxidative effect on aged mice. The suppressed glutathione level in aged mice was restored with red ginseng treatment. The antioxidative-related enzymes Nrf2 and HO-1 were increased with red ginseng treatment. The results revealed that when red ginseng is administered over long periods, age-related decline of learning and memory is ameliorated through anti-inflammatory activity.

  13. Anti-obesity effects of chikusetsusaponins isolated from Panax japonicus rhizomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okuda Hiromichi

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rhizomes of Panax japonicus are used as a folk medicine for treatment of life-style related diseases such as arteriosclerosis, hyperlipidemia, hypertension and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus as a substitute for ginseng roots in China and Japan. Obesity is closely associated with life-style-related diseases. This study was performed to clarify whether chikusetsusaponins prevent obesity induced in mice by a high-fat diet for 9 weeks. Methods We performed two in vivo experiments. In one, female ICR mice were fed a high-fat diet with or without 1 or 3% chikusetsusaponins isolated from P. japonicus rhizomes for 9 weeks. In the other, lipid emulsion with or without chikusetsusaponins was administered orally to male Wistar rats, and then the plasma triacylglycerol level was measured 0.5 to 5 h after the orally administered lipid emulsion. For in vitro experiments, the inhibitory effects of total chikusetsusaponins and various purified chikusetsusaponins on pancreatic lipase activity were determined by measuring the rate of release of oleic acid from triolein in an assay system using triolein emulsified with lecithin. Results Total chikusetsusaponins prevented the increases in body weight and parametrial adipose tissue weight induced by a high-fat diet. Furthermore, consumption of a high-fat diet containing 1 or 3% total chikusetsusaponins significantly increased the fecal content and triacylglycerol level at day 3 compared with the high-fat diet groups. Total chikusetsusaponins inhibited the elevation of the plasma triacylglycerol level 2 h after the oral administration of the lipid emulsion. Total chikusetsusaponins, chikusetsusaponin III, 28-deglucosyl-chikusetsusaponin IV and 28-deglucosyl-chikusetsusaponin V inhibited the pancreatic lipase activity. Conclusion The anti-obesity effects of chikusetsusaponins isolated from P. japonicus rhizomes in mice fed a high-fat diet may be partly mediated through delaying the

  14. Administration of polysaccharide from Panax notoginseng prolonged the survival of H22 tumor-bearing mice

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    Li HY

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Huaiyu Li,1,* Longlong Gu,1,2,* Yuanyuan Zhong,1 Yajuan Chen,1 Lei Zhang,1 Annie R Zhang,3 Robert W Sobol,4,5 Tong Chen,1,6 Jianfeng Li4,5 1Yunnan Key Laboratory of Pharmacology for Natural Products, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2Haiyuan College, Kunming Medical University, Kunming, Yunnan, People’s Republic of China; 3Graduate School of Applied and Professional Psychology, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ, 4Department of Oncologic Sciences, 5Mitchell Cancer Institute, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL, USA; 6Yunnan Panax notoginseng (Burk F.H. Chen Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering Research Center, Kunming, Yunnan, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Polysaccharides from various sources are being considered potential sources for the treatment of liver cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of polysaccharide isolated from Panax notoginseng (PPN on the proliferation of H22 liver cancer cells and the survival of the tumor-bearing mice transplanted with H22 cells.Materials and methods: Polysaccharide from PPN was added to the culture medium of mouse hepatoma H22 cells at different doses. Cell proliferation was assayed with a standard MTT assay. Survival rates of tumor-bearing mice were recorded. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were assayed by flow cytometry. Serum interleukin-2 levels in peripheral blood were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Results: Polysaccharide from PPN inhibited the growth of H22 cells and significantly prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice. The increase in activated CD4+ T-cells and the elevation of serum interleukin-2 may contribute to the antitumor activity of PPN.Conclusion: PPN has potential antitumor activity for the treatment of liver cancer. Keywords: polysaccharide, Panax notoginseng, liver cancer, immunotherapy, IL-2

  15. Aluminium resistant, plant growth promoting bacteria induce overexpression of Aluminium stress related genes in Arabidopsis thaliana and increase the ginseng tolerance against Aluminium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farh, Mohamed El-Agamy; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Sukweenadhi, Johan; Singh, Priyanka; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2017-07-01

    Panax ginseng is an important cash crop in the Asian countries due to its pharmaceutical effects, however the plant is exposed to various abiotic stresses, lead to reduction of its quality. One of them is the Aluminum (Al) accumulation. Plant growth promoting bacteria which able to tolerate heavy metals has been considered as a new trend for supporting the growth of many crops in heavy metal occupied areas. In this study, twelve bacteria strains were isolated from rhizosphere of diseased Korean ginseng roots located in Gochang province, Republic of Korea and tested for their ability to grow in Al-embedded broth media. Out of them, four strains (Pseudomonas simiae N3, Pseudomonas fragi N8, Chryseobacterium polytrichastri N10, and Burkholderia ginsengiterrae N11-2) were able to grow. The strains could also show other plant growth promoting activities e.g. auxins and siderophores production and phosphate solubilization. P. simiae N3, C. polytrichastri N10, and B. ginsengiterrae N11-2 strains were able to support the growth of Arabidopsis thaliana stressed by Al while P. fragi N8 could not. Plants inoculated with P. simiae N3, C. polytrichastri N10, and B. ginsengiterrae N11-2 showed higher expression level of Al-stress related genes, AtAIP, AtALS3 and AtALMT1, compared to non-bacterized plants. Expression profiles of the genes reveal the induction of external mechanism of Al resistance by P. simiae N3 and B. ginsengiterrae N11-2 and internal mechanism by C. polytrichastri N10. Korean ginseng seedlings treated with these strains showed higher biomass, particularly the foliar part, higher chlorophyll content than non-bacterized Al-stressed seedlings. According to the present results, these strains can be used in the future for the cultivation of ginseng in Al-persisted locations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Ginseng, the natural effectual antiviral: Protective effects of Korean Red Ginseng against viral infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungtaek Im

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Korean Red Ginseng (KRG is a heat-processed ginseng developed by the repeated steaming and air-drying of fresh ginseng. Compared with fresh ginseng, KRG has been shown to possess greater pharmacological activities and stability because of changes that occur in its chemical constituents during the steaming process. In addition to anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and immune-modulatory activities, KRG and its purified components have also been shown to possess protective effects against microbial infections. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on the properties of KRG and its components on infections with human pathogenic viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, influenza virus, human immunodeficiency virus, human herpes virus, hepatitis virus, norovirus, rotavirus, enterovirus, and coxsackievirus. Additionally, the therapeutic potential of KRG as an antiviral and vaccine adjuvant is discussed.

  17. [Screening strains for Trichoderma spp. for strong antagonism against ginseng root pathogens and study on their biological characters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, A-Na; Ding, Wan-Long; Zhu, Dian-Long

    2006-10-01

    To screen the Trichodenna spp. for strong antagonist against ginseng root pathogens. The biological characters of ten Trichoderma strains were compared by culturing on different media. And their antagonistic activity against Phytophthora cactorum, Cylindrocarpon destructans and Rhizoctonia solani were measured on PDA. Tv04-2 and Th3080 showed a good growth on soil solution medium and PDA, and also showed high inhibitory efficacy to the three pathogens. The two Trichoderma strains showed different growth rate under light conditions and pH. Trichoderma strains were sensitive to most fungicides used in ginseng root disease controlling, however Tv04-2 was not sensitive to the fungicide Junchong Jueba.

  18. Cytoprotective Effect of American Ginseng in a Rat Ethanol Gastric Ulcer Model

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    Chi-Chang Huang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Panax quinquefolium L. (American Ginseng, AG is one of the most popular herbal medicines in the World. We aimed to investigate whether chronic (28-day supplementation with AG could protect against ethanol-induced ulcer in gastric tissue. Furthermore, we investigated the possible molecular mechanisms leading to AG-mediated gastric mucosal protection. We randomized 32 male Wistar rats into four groups for treatment (n = 8 per group: supplementation with water (vehicle and low-dose (AG-1X, medium-dose (AG-2X and high-dose (AG-5X AG at 0, 250, 500, and 1250 mg/kg, respectively. In the first experiment, animals were fed vehicle or AG treatments for 4 weeks. At day 29, 75% ethanol was given orally to each animal at 10 mL/kg to induce gastric ulceration for 2 h. In a second experiment, animals were pretreated orally with each treatment for 1 hr before a single oral administration of ethanol (70%, 10 mL/kg. Trend analysis revealed that AG treatments inhibited ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage. AG supplementation dose-dependently decreased the pro-inflammatory levels of interleukin 1β and cyclooxygenase 2 and the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins tBid, cytochrome C, and caspases-9 and -3 and increased the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and p-Bad. AG could have pharmacological potential for treating gastric ulcer.

  19. [A crisis of ginseng capital and the countermeasures of the ginseng-cultivating people during Daehan empire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jeong Pil

    2009-12-01

    This thesis examines a crisis of ginseng capital and the source of crisis during Daehan empire. After the China-Japan war of 1894, the Japanese merchants actively engaged in taking over the ginseng fields, so that ginseng-cultivating Koreans suffered substantial economic losses. After the Russo-Japanese war, the Japanese imperialists undertook the 'Currency Arranging Business'(CAB) in order to set a cornerstone for their invasion of Korea. The CAB eventually provoked a wide depression which in turn produced massive number of Korean merchants going bankrupt. The Kaesong merchants were no exception, since CAB stroke a severe blow on the ginseng industry, which relied heavily on the commercial capitals of the Kaesong merchants. Moreover, the Japanese imperialists broke the previous promise and bought ginseng at a dirt-cheap price, which put ginseng-cultivating Koreans in serious trouble. In order to combat such crisis, ginseng field-owners protested against such injustice by petitioning or stirring up Kaesong popular riot in vain, and consequently the number of ginseng field-owners decreased sharply. A few of the ginseng field-owners survived, and managed to maintain and even flourish more than before. These successful owners were characterized with their strong link with the official circle, utilizing their influence in ginseng industry. Their original background was not identical as some came from the influential families of Kaesong area for generations, while others made their own fortunes and continue to prosper through the difficult times of the late of the Daehan empire period.

  20. Study on irradiation of freshening ginseng and toxicity test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ziwen; Xu Dechun; Yang Wanqi

    1991-01-01

    The ginsengs irradiated by 1 or 2 kGy of γ-rays have been stored for 6 months under room temperature. Its freshening rates was 86.67% and 88.33% respectively. The saponin content was maintained. The irradiated ginsengs had the vigour of sap fully and beautiful colour. Therefore they can be stored much longer for sell. The toxicity test showed that there was no toxicity for irradiated ginsengs

  1. Discrimination of ginseng cultivation regions using light stable isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kiwook; Song, Joo-Hyun; Heo, Sang-Cheol; Lee, Jin-Hee; Jung, In-Woo; Min, Ji-Sook

    2015-10-01

    Korean ginseng is considered to be a precious health food in Asia. Today, thieves frequently compromise ginseng farms by pervasive theft. Thus, studies regarding the characteristics of ginseng according to growth region are required in order to deter ginseng thieves and prevent theft. In this study, 6 regions were selected on the basis of Korea regional criteria (si, gun, gu), and two ginseng-farms were randomly selected from each of the 6 regions. Then 4-6 samples of ginseng were acquired from each ginseng farm. The stable isotopic compositions of H, O, C, and N of the collected ginseng samples were analyzed. As a result, differences in the hydrogen isotope ratios could be used to distinguish regional differences, and differences in the nitrogen isotope ratios yielded characteristic information regarding the farms from which the samples were obtained. Thus, stable isotope values could be used to differentiate samples according to regional differences. Therefore, stable isotope analysis serves as a powerful tool to discriminate the regional origin of Korean ginseng samples from across Korea. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Research on ginseng trade competitiveness between China and Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Min-Tong; Yang, Guang; Tang, Xiao-Jing

    2017-05-01

    Ginseng is one of China's valuable Chinese herbal medicines, with a long using history. Ginseng has worldwide reputation, and widely used in food, medicine, health products, cosmetics and other production. China and South Korea have a big ginseng industrial, and sharing half of the export market. The ginseng export competitiveness analysis seems important and necessary between China and South Korea. In this paper, the data of customs and trade of ginseng in COMTRADE database were studied, and ginseng export competitiveness was analyzed between China and Korea. The results showed that the ginseng export competitiveness of Korean more competitive than China. Contrast with China, South Korea using only 15% total amount of ginseng exports and produced the same total export amount. This article has the reference value to the traditional Chinese medicine resources management and the economics research. On this basis, this paper further discusses the problems that should be paid attention to in the development of ginseng industry in China. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  3. Administration of red ginseng ameliorates memory decline in aged mice

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yeonju; Oh, Seikwan

    2015-01-01

    Background: It has been known that ginseng can be applied as a potential nutraceutical for memory impairment; however, experiments with animals of old age are few. Methods: To determine the memory enhancing effect of red ginseng, C57BL/6 mice (21 mo old) were given experimental diet pellets containing 0.12% red ginseng extract (approximately 200 mg/kg/d) for 3 mo. Young and old mice (4 mo and 21 mo old, respectively) were used as the control group. The effect of red ginseng, which ameliora...

  4. Cultivated method of short root american ginseng

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guang; Yuan Yuchun; Jia Zhifa; Suo Binhua

    1998-01-01

    The distribution rate of 14 C assimilated material and root vitality of two years old American ginseng at green seed stage were measured. An exploratory research was made by cutting part of main root and spraying ABT on leaves of American ginseng. The results show that with cutting part of main root out before transplant and then sticking them in the seed bed, the plant develop and grow normally and the lateral and fibrous roots grow well. Spraying ABT on leaves of the plant at seed forming stage accelerate the transfer of assimilated material to the root and enhance the root vitality, especially the lateral root vitality. It is considered that cutting part of main root out is major method and spraying ABT on leaves is a supplementary measurement

  5. Restoration of radiation injury by ginseng, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Atsuhiko; Katoh, Norio; Yonezawa, Morio

    1982-01-01

    Radiation protection by post-irradiation injection of a thermostable fraction of the ginseng extract in mice, rats and guinea pigs was studied. The thermostable fraction lost ''by-effects'' of decrease in body weight and splenic hyperplasia which were caused in injected mice by the original ginseng extract. The fraction protected mice (male) irradiated with 720 R of X-rays and rats (male) irradiated with 825 R with the dose about 6 mg per 100 g of body weight. The fraction also protected guinea pigs, both female and male, irradiated with 325 R with the dose about 80 mg per 300 g of body weight. The thermostable fraction stimulated recovery of thrombocyte and erythrocyte counts, but not leukocyte counts, in 550-R irradiated mice. Recovery of all the three blood cell counts was stimulated by the fraction in rats irradiated with 630 R and guinea pigs irradiated with 200 R. Comparison of stimulated recovery by the thermostable fraction of the ginseng extract among the three blood cell counts showed that restoring action was the most marked on thrombocyte counts, commonly in the three species of the animals. (author)

  6. Restoration of radiation injury by ginseng, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonezawa, Morio; Katoh, Norio; Takeda, Atsuhiko

    1981-01-01

    Some properties of the radioprotective substances in a ginseng extract that increased the 30-day survival ratio in irradiated mice were studied. Methanol-soluble fraction of the extract did not protect the irradiated animals. Acid or alkali (0.12 N) inactivated the extract at 60 0 C. But the radioprotective activity was stable after heating the ginseng extract in physiological saline at pH 7 in a boiling-water bath for 15 min. The ginseng extract was separated into two fractions by CM-cellulose column chromatography. One of them (CM-A) was significantly efficacious at 5% level, and the other (CM-B) at 0.1% level with the doses proportional to their yields. CM-B, not containing saponin, was subjected to further purification, UV spectrum and a biuret test suggested the presence of protein in this fraction. The supernatant obtained after heating CM-B solution at pH 7 was separated into three fractions, namely G-I, G-II and G-III, by gel-chromatography with a Sephadex G-75 column. Both G-I (0.44 mg per animal) and G-III (0.84 mg, calculated dose) were significantly efficacious, but G-II (0.47 mg) was not. (author)

  7. Identification of ginseng root using quantitative X-ray microtomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Ye

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: This study is the first to provide evidence of the distribution characteristics of COCCs to identify four types of ginseng, with regard to species authentication and age identification, by X-ray phase-contrast microtomography quantitative imaging. This method is also expected to reveal important relationships between COCCs and the occurrence of the effective medicinal components of ginseng.

  8. Recent methodology in the phytochemical analysis of ginseng

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelova, N.; Kong, H.-W.; Heijden, R. van de; Yang, S.-Y.; Choi, Y.H.; Kim, H.K.; Wang, M.; Hankemeier, T.; Greef, J. van der; Xu, G.; Verpoorte, R.

    2008-01-01

    This review summarises the most recent developments in ginseng analysis, in particular the novel approaches in sample pre-treatment and the use of high-performance liquid-chromatography-mass spectrometry. The review also presents novel data on analysing ginseng extracts by nuclear magnetic resonance

  9. Identification of ginseng root using quantitative X-ray microtomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Linlin; Xue, Yanling; Wang, Yudan; Qi, Juncheng; Xiao, Tiqiao

    2017-07-01

    The use of X-ray phase-contrast microtomography for the investigation of Chinese medicinal materials is advantageous for its nondestructive, in situ , and three-dimensional quantitative imaging properties. The X-ray phase-contrast microtomography quantitative imaging method was used to investigate the microstructure of ginseng, and the phase-retrieval method is also employed to process the experimental data. Four different ginseng samples were collected and investigated; these were classified according to their species, production area, and sample growth pattern. The quantitative internal characteristic microstructures of ginseng were extracted successfully. The size and position distributions of the calcium oxalate cluster crystals (COCCs), important secondary metabolites that accumulate in ginseng, are revealed by the three-dimensional quantitative imaging method. The volume and amount of the COCCs in different species of the ginseng are obtained by a quantitative analysis of the three-dimensional microstructures, which shows obvious difference among the four species of ginseng. This study is the first to provide evidence of the distribution characteristics of COCCs to identify four types of ginseng, with regard to species authentication and age identification, by X-ray phase-contrast microtomography quantitative imaging. This method is also expected to reveal important relationships between COCCs and the occurrence of the effective medicinal components of ginseng.

  10. Cancer chemoprevention by ginseng in mouse liver and other organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, H; Tokuda, H; Ii, T; Takemura, M; Kuchide, M; Kanazawa, M; Mou, X Y; Bu, P; Takayasu, J; Onozuka, M; Masuda, M; Satomi, Y; Konoshima, T; Kishi, N; Baba, M; Okada, Y; Okuyama, T

    2001-01-01

    Oral administration of red ginseng extracts (1% in diet for 40 weeks) resulted in the significant suppression of spontaneous liver tumor formation in C3H/He male mice. Average number of tumors per mouse in control group was 1.06, while that in red ginseng extracts-treated group was 0.33 (p<0.05). Incidence of liver tumor development was also lower in red ginseng extracts-treated group, although the difference from control group was not statistically significant. Anti-carcinogenic activity of white ginseng extracts, besides red ginseng extracts, was also investigated. In the present study, the administration of white ginseng extracts was proven to suppress tumor promoter-induced phenomena in vitro and in vivo. It is of interest that oral administration of the extracts of Ren-Shen-Yang- Rong-Tang, a white ginseng-containing Chinese medicinal prescription, resulted in the suppression of skin tumor promotion by 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-initiated CD-1 mice. These results suggest the usefulness of ginseng in the field of cancer prevention. PMID:11748379

  11. Protective effect of Korean Red Ginseng extract against Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric inflammation in Mongolian gerbils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minkyung Bae

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric inflammation includes induction of inflammatory mediators interleukin (IL-8 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, which are mediated by oxidant-sensitive transcription factor NF-κB. High levels of lipid peroxide (LPO and increased activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO, a biomarker of neutrophil infiltration, are observed in H. pylori-infected gastric mucosa. Panax ginseng Meyer, a Korean herb medicine, is widely used in Asian countries for its biological activities including anti-inflammatory efficacy. The present study aims to investigate whether Korean Red Ginseng extract (RGE inhibits H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation in Mongolian gerbils. One wk after intragastric inoculation with H. pylori, Mongolian gerbils were fed with either the control diet or the diet containing RGE (200 mg RGE/gerbil for 6 wk. The following were determined in gastric mucosa: the number of viable H. pylori in stomach; MPO activity; LPO level; mRNA and protein levels of keratinocyte chemoattractant factor (KC, a rodent IL-8 homolog, IL-1β, and iNOS; protein level of phospho-IκBα (which reflects the activation of NF-κB; and histology. As a result, RGE suppressed H. pylori-induced mRNA and protein levels of KC, IL-1β, and iNOS in gastric mucosa. RGE also inhibited H. pylori-induced phosphorylation of IκBα and increases in LPO level and MPO activity of gastric mucosa. RGE did not affect viable H. pylori colonization in the stomach, but improved the histological grade of infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils, intestinal metaplasia, and hyperplasia. In conclusion, RGE inhibits H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation by suppressing induction of inflammatory mediators (KC, IL-1β, iNOS, MPO activity, and LPO level in H. pylori-infected gastric mucosa.

  12. The host immune enhancing agent Korean red ginseng oil successfully attenuates Brucella abortus infection in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Alisha Wehdnesday Bernardo; Hop, Huynh Tan; Arayan, Lauren Togonon; Huy, Tran Xuan Ngoc; Park, Soo Jong; Kim, Kwang Dong; Min, WonGi; Lee, Hu Jang; Rhee, Man Hee; Kwak, Yi-Seong; Kim, Suk

    2017-02-23

    Panax ginseng Meyer (Araliaceae), is one of the most valuable traditional Chinese medicines and is used for the treatment of various human diseases. In this study, we elucidated the protective mechanism of the essential oil from Korean red ginseng (RGO) against Brucella infection. The effects of RGO on Brucella abortus viability, NO production, uptake and intracellular growth in macrophages were investigated. Mice were intraperitoneally infected with B. abortus and orally treated with RGO for 14 days. The weights and bacterial numbers from each spleen were monitored, and the sera were evaluated for cytokine production. B. abortus viability was not affected, whereas NO production, internalization and intracellular replication were inhibited in RGO-treated macrophages. Bacterial adherence, F-actin polymerization and MAPK signaling protein phosphorylation (ERK1/2, JNK and p38α) were reduced and the co-localization of B. abortus-containing phagosomes with LAMP-1 was augmented in RGO-treated cells compared to untreated cells. RGO displayed protective effects against cell damage by inhibiting nitrite production during B. abortus infection in macrophages. Moreover, the spleen weight and bacterial burden were lower in the RGO-treated group than in the control group. The uninfected RGO-treated mice displayed increased TNF-α and IFN-γ production, whereas the B. abortus-infected RGO-treated mice showed reduced IL-10 production compared to the control. RGO exhibits protective effects against B. abortus infection in vitro and in vivo, which emphasize the beneficial effects of RGO in the prevention and treatment of brucellosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Studies on safety and efficacy of gamma-irradiated ginseng

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Joong Ho; Cho, Han Oak; Byun, Myung Woo; Kim, Suk Won; Yang, Jae Seung; You, Young Soo; Jin, Joon Ha; Park, Soon Chul

    1992-09-01

    Microbiological qualities were evaluated for the commercial red ginseng. Molds, which might cause microbial spoilage of stored ginseng, were isolated and identified for determining radiosensitivity and growth characteristics on ginseng-extract agar media. Red ginseng inoculated with isolated molds was incubated under the ideal condition following irradiation at different doses to pre-establish the effective dose-range for decontamination by confirming mold growth on the surface of the sample. At this point of time, moisture content was determined for the corresponding sample. By comparing the monolayer moisture content of red ginseng and its actual moisture level causing microbial spoilage during storage, it was intended to establish a basal condition for the continued project regarding irradiation effects on the quality of high-moisture products and their storage stability. (Author)

  14. Effects of ginseng on Pseudomonas aeruginosa motility and biofilm formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hong; Lee, Baoleri; Yang, Liang

    2011-01-01

    protected animal models from developing chronic lung infection by P. aeruginosa. In the present study, the effects of ginseng on the formation of P. aeruginosa biofilms were further investigated in vitro and in vivo. Ginseng aqueous extract at concentrations of 0.5-2.0% did not inhibit the growth of P......Biofilm-associated chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections in patients with cystic fibrosis are virtually impossible to eradicate with antibiotics because biofilm-growing bacteria are highly tolerant to antibiotics and host defense mechanisms. Previously, we found that ginseng treatments....... aeruginosa, but significantly prevented P. aeruginosa from forming biofilm. Exposure to 0.5% ginseng aqueous extract for 24 h destroyed most 7-day-old mature biofilms formed by both mucoid and nonmucoid P. aeruginosa strains. Ginseng treatment enhanced swimming and twitching motility, but reduced swarming...

  15. Korean Red Ginseng exhibits no significant adverse effect on disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized, double-blind, crossover study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Kyung Cho

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Panax ginseng is a well-known immune modulator, and there is concern that its immune-enhancing effects may negatively affect patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA by worsening symptoms or increasing the risk of adverse effects from other drugs. In this randomized, crossover clinical trial, we evaluated the impact of Korean Red Ginseng (KRG on disease activity and safety in RA patients. Methods: A total of 80 female RA patients were randomly assigned to either the KRG (2 g/d, n = 40 treatment or placebo (n = 40 groups for 8 wk, followed by crossover to the other treatment group for an additional 8 wk. The primary outcome was the disease flare rate, defined as worsening disease activity according to the disease activity score 28 joints-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR. The secondary outcomes were development of adverse events (AEs and patient reported outcomes. Outcomes were evaluated at baseline and 8 wk and 16 wk. The outcomes were compared using the Chi-square test. Results: Of the 80 patients, 70 completed the full study. Their mean age was 51.9 yr, and most exhibited low disease activity (mean DAS28-ESR 3.5 ± 1.0 at enrollment. After intervention, the flare rate was 3.7% in each group. During KRG treatment, 10 AEs were reported, while five AEs were developed with placebo; however, this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.16. Gastrointestinal- and nervous system-related symptoms were frequent in the KRG group. Conclusion: KRG is not significantly associated with either disease flare rate or the rate of AE development in RA patients. Keywords: effect, Korean Red Ginseng, rheumatoid arthritis, safety

  16. Anti-cancer and anti-oxidant efficacies of wild ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng of Korea and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Min,Ahn

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The aim of this study was to verify anti-cancer and anti-oxidant efficacies of Korean wild ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng of Korea and China. Methods : For the measurement of anti-oxidation, SOD-like activity was evaluated using xanthine oxidase reduction method under in vitro environment. Subcutaneous and abdominal cancer were induced using CT-26 human colon cancer cells for the measurement of growth inhibition of cancer cells and differences in survival rate. Results : 1. Measurement of anti-oxidant activity of ginseng, Chinese and Korean cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng samples showed concentration dependent anti-oxidant activity in HX/XOD system. Anti-oxidant activity showed drastic increase at 1mg/ml in all samples. 2. For the evaluation of growth inhibition of cancer cells after hypodermic implantation of CT-26 cancer cells in the peritoneal cavity of mice, Chinese and Korean cultivated wild ginseng and natural wild ginseng groups showed significant inhibition of tumor growth from the 12th day compared to the control group. Similar inhibitory effects were also shown on the 15th and 18th days. But there was no significant difference between the experiment groups. 3. For the observation of increase in survival rate of the natural wild ginseng group, CT-26 cancer cells were implanted in the peritoneal cavity of mice.

  17. From Woohwang Cheongsimwon* to Ginseng - The History of Medicine Use in the Joseon Era -**

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-su KIM

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In Korean traditional medicine, though herbal decoction, acupuncture, and moxibustion are all used to treat diseases, restorative medicines are the most widely preferred treatment method. This paper explores the historical background of restorative herbal medicines and ginseng among the Korean public and Korean traditional medicine practice. It also seeks to clarify how social and cultural perspectives on drug use have changed since restorative medicine became mainstream during the Joseon era. Drug use tendencies were affected by the medical system of the Joseon Dynasty, patients’ desires for reliable treatment, and perceptions of the human body and the causes of disease. In the late Joseon Dynasty, medicine, an industry originally monopolized by the government, began to be manufactured and traded on the free market, and medical personnel began to participate in medical activities on a large scale. As the health preserving theory became more popular and medical personnel became more accessible, medicinal preferences also changed. Specifically, whereas preference was first given to common medicines, such as Cheongsimwon, which are effective for various symptoms, restorative medicines, such as ginseng, gradually became more popular. These restorative medicines were faithful to the basic tenet of East Asian traditional medicine: to avoid disease by making the body healthy before the onset of illness. Patients’ desires for safe treatment and growing competition among commercial doctors who wanted stable profits further increased the popularity of milder medicines. Ultimately, as ginseng cultivation was realized, its use expanded even further in a wave of commercialization.

  18. Characteristics of phosphorus metabolism in panax quinquefolium linne plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guang; Li Xianggao

    2001-01-01

    Distribution and metabolism of panax quinquefolium linne plant were determined dynamically by using 32 P application on the surface of leaves. The results showed that phosphorus was distributed mainly to active metabolic part of panax quinquefolium linne plant in different growth stages. The fruit was main distribution center in fruit stage. In bloom stage 32 P was easily transported to root. The 32 P absorbed by the surface of leaves went into metabolism quickly and changed from in organism into many kinds of organic phosphides. About 80 percent of 32 P was in the form of phenol soluble phosphide and 32 P distribution rate was higher in up-ground plant than in sub-ground plant

  19. Glycosyl glycerides from hydroponic Panax ginseng inhibited NO production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byeong-Ju Cha

    2015-04-01

    Results and conclusion: The glycosyl glycerides were identified to be (2S-1-O-7(Z,10(Z,13(Z-hexadecatrienoyl-3-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (1, (2S-1-O-linolenoyl-3-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (2, (2S-1-O-linolenoyl-2-O-linolenoyl-3-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (3, and 2(S-1-O-linoleoyl-2-O-linoleoyl-3-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (4. Compounds 1 and 2 showed moderate inhibition activity on NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells [half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50: 63.8 ± 6.4μM and 59.4 ± 6.8μM, respectively] without cytotoxicity at concentrations < 100μM, whereas Compounds 3 and 4 showed good inhibition effect (IC50: 7.7 ± 0.6μM and 8.0 ± 0.9μM, respectively without cytotoxicity at concentrations < 20μM. All isolated compounds showed reduced messenger RNA (mRNA expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α in LPS-induced macrophage cells with strong inhibition of mRNA activity observed for Compounds 3 and 4.

  20. Anticancer activity and potential mechanisms of 1C, a ginseng saponin derivative, on prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu De Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: AD-2 (20(R-dammarane-3b, 12b, 20, 25-tetrol; 25-OH-PPD is a ginsenoside and isolated from Panax ginseng, showing anticancer activity against extensive human cancer cell lines. In this study, effects and mechanisms of 1C ((20R-3b-O-(L-alanyl-dammarane-12b, 20, 25-triol, a modified version of AD-2, were evaluated for its development as a novel anticancer drug. Methods: MTT assay was performed to evaluate cell cytotoxic activity. Cell cycle and levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS were determined using flow cytometry analysis. Western blotting was employed to analyze signaling pathways. Results: 1C concentration-dependently reduces prostate cancer cell viability without affecting normal human gastric epithelial cell line-1 viability. In LNCaP prostate cancer cells, 1C triggered apoptosis via Bcl-2 family-mediated mitochondria pathway, downregulated expression of mouse double minute 2, upregulated expression of p53 and stimulated ROS production. ROS scavenger, N-acetylcysteine, can attenuate 1C-induced apoptosis. 1C also inhibited the proliferation of LNCaP cells through inhibition on Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Conclusion: 1C shows obvious anticancer activity based on inducing cell apoptosis by Bcl-2 family-mediated mitochondria pathway and ROS production, inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. These findings demonstrate that 1C may provide leads as a potential agent for cancer therapy. Keywords: 1C, AD-2, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species, Wnt/β-catenin pathway

  1. A Design of Ginseng Planting Environment Monitoring System Based on WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Ding

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Through the analysis of ginseng products industry chain, this paper designs and implements ginseng planting environment monitoring system. The system realized data collection and detection of ginseng planting environment in real time by using wireless sensor, transmission of environmental parameters in real time by using GPRS wireless transmission module, and video monitor and alarm of ginseng land by using unattended machine. It is the foundation of information transformation of ginseng products industry chain based on the Internet of Things. The experiment of ginseng planting base in Fusong indicates the system can offer support of original data for scientific cultivation of ginseng, comprehensive analysis of ginseng products and propaganda of ginseng brand.

  2. Studies on safety and efficacy of gamma-irradiated ginseng -Development of irradiation techniques for quality improvement of ginseng products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Han Ok; Byeon, Meong Uh; Yang, Jae Seung; Cho, Seong Ki; Kang, Il Joon

    1993-10-01

    The fourth year research program on Korean ginseng was carried out in order to improve in the microbiological quality and physical properties of red ginseng and its processing by application of irradiation technology. The quality of red ginseng and their products were strictly controlled by government invested Korean Tobacco Ginseng Co., but there is a need of alternative technology for decontaminating and disinfestating in view of supplying stable raw material and securing the hygienic production because the use of food fumigants and preservatives has been restricted due to their harmful effects on human and environment. It is desirable that the limited moisture content of red ginseng product should be increased, considering the economic and physical properties of its products, by application of irradiation technology for sterilization of prepackaged red ginseng products. Red ginseng products were irradiated at dose of 0, 5, 7.5, 10 kGy respectively, following moisture content of sample were increased up to 14%, 16%, 18% and 20% by keeping at humidity controlled desiccator. Each sample stored at ambient temperature (20 deg C, 70% RH) and accelerated storage condition (40 deg C, 90% RH) were used for the evaluation of microbiological quality, TBA value, color difference measurement, hydrogen donating activity, HPLC pattern and content of saponins, change of fatty acids and characteristics of moisture absorption

  3. Proof of the mysterious efficacy of ginseng: basic and clinical trials: effects of red ginseng on learning and memory deficits in an animal model of amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijo, Hisao; Uwano, Teruko; Zhong, Yong-Mei; Ono, Taketoshi

    2004-06-01

    Ameliorating effects of red ginseng on learning and memory deficits due to hippocampal lesions and aging were reviewed; the performance of young rats with selective hippocampal lesions with or without red ginseng (p.o.), and aged rats with or without red ginseng (p.o.) in the spatial learning tasks was compared with that of sham-operated or intact young rats. Each rat was tested with 3 types of spatial learning tasks (distance movement task, DMT; random reward place search task, RRPST; and place learning task, PLT) in a circular open field using intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) as reward. The results in the DMT and RRPST indicated that motivational and motor activity of young rats with hippocampal lesions with and without ginseng and aged rats with and without ginseng were not significantly different from that of control young rats. However, young rats with hippocampal lesions without ginseng and aged rats without ginseng displayed significant deficits in the PLT. Treatment with red ginseng significantly ameliorated place-navigation deficits in young rats with hippocampal lesions in the PLT. Similarly, red ginseng improved performance of aged rats in the PLT. The results, along with previous studies showing significant effects of red ginseng on the central nervous system, suggest that red ginseng ameliorates learning and memory deficits through effects on the central nervous system, partly through effects on the hippocampal formation. However, its mechanisms are still unclear, and further studies are required.

  4. Taste characteristics based quantitative and qualitative evaluation of ginseng adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shaoqing; Yang, Liangcheng; Wang, Jun; Wang, Xinlei

    2015-05-01

    Adulteration of American ginseng with Asian ginseng is common and has caused much damage to customers. Panel evaluation is commonly used to determine their differences, but it is subjective. Chemical instruments are used to identify critical compounds but they are time-consuming and expensive. Therefore, a fast, accurate and convenient method is required. A taste sensing system, combining both advantages of the above two technologies, provides a novel potential technology for determining ginseng adulteration. The aim is to build appropriate models to distinguish and predict ginseng adulteration by using taste characteristics. It was found that ginsenoside contents decreased linearly (R(2) = 0.92) with mixed ratios. A bioplot of principal component analysis showed a good performance in classing samples with the first two principal components reaching 89.7%, and it was noted that it was the bitterness, astringency, aftertaste of bitterness and astringency, and saltiness leading the successful determination. After factor screening, bitterness, astringency, aftertaste of bitterness and saltiness were employed to build latent models. Tastes of bitterness, astringency and aftertaste bitterness were demonstrated to be most effective in predicting adulteration ratio, mean while, bitterness and aftertaste bitterness turned out to be most effective in ginsenoside content prediction. Taste characteristics of adulterated ginsengs, considered as taste fingerprint, can provide novel guidance for determining the adulteration of American and Asian ginseng. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Studies on the preservation of Korean Ginseng by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, H.S.; Park, M.H.; Lee, K.S.; Cho, H.O.

    1982-01-01

    In order to evaluate the feasibility for the sterilization of Korean red and white ginseng powder by irradiation, red and white ginseng powder (120 mesh) was irradiated by 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 1.0 and 2.0 Mrad with 60 Co irradiator (dose rate: 4000 rad/h). Extraction rate of crude saponins by buthanol and by 50% ethanol were slightly increased according to the irradiation dose (buthanol ex. 1.7%, 50% ethanol ex. 2.6%) at 1.0 Mrad irradiation. There are no remarkable changes in HPLC patterns of crude saponins by radiation. It was found that irradiation up to 1 Mrad on Korean ginseng products have no significant effect on proximate component, reducing sugar and amino nitrogen of ginseng powder and on the color density of ginseng extract with 50% ethanol. Irradiation up to 1 Mrad could be utilized for the sterilization of Korean ginseng powder without changes of physicochemical properties. (Author)

  6. Studies on safety and efficacy of gamma-irradiated ginseng -Development of irradiation techniques for quality improvement of ginseng products-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Han Ok; Byun, Myung Woo; Cho, Sung Kee; Kand, Il Joon; Yook, Hong Sun

    1995-02-01

    Gamma irradiation was applied to red ginseng powder for improving microbiological and physicochemical quality. Irradiation at 5-10 kGy was effective for sterilizing all contaminated microorganisms of red ginseng powder. At the dose levels, major physicochemical properties (saponin, amino acids, sugars, proximate composition, color, pH, acidity, hydrogen donating activity, fatty acids and minerals) were not changed by gamma irradiation upto 10 kGy. Based upon the results, it is concluded that gamma irradiation can effectively improve the microbiological quality of red ginseng powders without significant unfavorable changes. Therefore, it is suggested that irradiation technology is a viable alternative method to other sanitary process containing chemical fumigant and will be useful for the improvement of the quality of red ginseng powders and their products. 5 figs, 18 tabs, 92 refs. (Author)

  7. Studies on safety and efficacy of gamma-irradiated ginseng -Development of irradiation techniques for quality improvement of ginseng products-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Han Ok; Byun, Myung Woo; Cho, Sung Kee; Kand, Il Joon; Yook, Hong Sun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-01

    Gamma irradiation was applied to red ginseng powder for improving microbiological and physicochemical quality. Irradiation at 5-10 kGy was effective for sterilizing all contaminated microorganisms of red ginseng powder. At the dose levels, major physicochemical properties (saponin, amino acids, sugars, proximate composition, color, pH, acidity, hydrogen donating activity, fatty acids and minerals) were not changed by gamma irradiation upto 10 kGy. Based upon the results, it is concluded that gamma irradiation can effectively improve the microbiological quality of red ginseng powders without significant unfavorable changes. Therefore, it is suggested that irradiation technology is a viable alternative method to other sanitary process containing chemical fumigant and will be useful for the improvement of the quality of red ginseng powders and their products. 5 figs, 18 tabs, 92 refs. (Author).

  8. Matrix metalloproteinase-13 downregulation and potential cartilage protective action of the Korean Red Ginseng preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je Hyeong Lee

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Some preparations from Korean Red Ginseng and ginseng leaves, particularly GDF/F4, may possess the protective activity against cartilage degradation in joint disorders, and may have potential as new therapeutic agents.

  9. [Correlation of gene expression related to amount of ginseng saponin in 15 tissues and 6 kinds of ginseng saponin biosynthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kang-yu; Zhang, Mei-ping; Li, Chuang; Jiang, Shi-cui; Yin, Rui; Sun, Chun-yu; Wang, Yi

    2015-08-01

    Fifteen tissues of 4-year-old fruit repining stage Jilin ginseng were chosen as materials, six kinds of monomer saponins (ginsenosides Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rc, Rb2 and Rd) content in 15 tissues was measured by HPLC and vanillin-sulfuric acid method. The relative expression of FPS, SQS, SQE, OSC, β-AS and P450 genes in 15 tissues was analyzed by real-time PCR. The correlations between ginseng saponin content in 15 tissues of Jilin ginseng and biosynthetic pathway -related genes were obtained. The results showed that was a synergistic increase and decrease trend of positive linear correlation among six kinds of monomer saponin content, and there was a significantly (P saponin content and total saponins content. Monomer saponin content and 6 kinds of enzyme gene correlation were different. Biosynthesis of ginseng total saponins and monomer saponin were regulated by six kinds of participation ginsenoside biosynthesis enzyme genes, the expression of these six kinds of genes in different tissues of ginseng showed collaborative increase and decrease trend, and regulated biosynthesis of ginseng ginsenoside by group coordinative manner.

  10. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of furosine in fresh and processed ginsengs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yali Li

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: These results indicate that FML is a promising indicator to estimate the heat treatment degree and honey addition level during the manufacture of ginseng products. The FML content is also an important parameter to identity the quality of ginseng products. In addition, the generation and regulation of potentially harmful Maillard reaction products-FML in ginseng processing was also investigated, providing a solid theoretical foundation and valuable reference for safe ginseng processing.

  11. Molecular differentiation of Russian wild ginseng using mitochondrial nad7 intron 3 region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guisheng Li

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: An effective DNA method for molecular discrimination of Russian wild ginseng from Chinese and Korean cultivated ginseng was developed. The established real-time allele-specific PCR was simple and reliable, and the present method should be a crucial complement of chemical analysis for authentication of Russian wild ginseng.

  12. Ginseng and the hypothalamic-pituitary control of stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulder, S J

    1981-01-01

    There are a group of so-called tonic remedies in Far Eastern medicine which are traditionally viewed as harmonizing or adjustive. Ginseng and eleutherococcus are the best known, and there is evidence that they increase arousal, stamina and stress resistance. We have attempted to explore the relationship between the behavioral and the stress effects, and to relate this to traditional concepts. In one series of experiments mice were given ginseng throughout their lifespan. At intervals their behavior response to mild stress was examined and found to be exaggerated compared to controls without ginseng. However, normal ambulatory behavior in the absence of stress was unaffected. A second series of experiments indicated that the binding of corticosteroid to certain brain regions was increased in adrenalectomized rats given ginseng saponin, compared to saline treated controls. This can be interpreted as a result of an increase in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal sensitivity caused by ginseng saponin. This is in accord with traditional concepts of the use of these remedies.

  13. The Medicinal Usage and Restriction of Ginseng in Britain and America, 1660-1900*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heasim SUL

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article demonstrates the medicinal usage of ginseng in the West from 1660 to 1914. Asian[Korea] ginseng was first introduced into England in the early 17th century, and North American ginseng was found in the early 18th century. Starting from the late 17th century doctors prescribed ginseng to cure many different kinds of ailments and disease such as: fatigue general lethargy, fever, torpidity, trembling in the joints, nervous disorder, laughing and crying hysteria, scurvy, spermatic vessel infection, jaundice, leprosy, dry gripes and constipation, strangury, yellow fever, dysentery, infertility and addictions of alcohol, opium and tobacco, etc. In the mid-18th century Materia Medica began to specify medicinal properties of ginseng and the patent medicines containing ginseng were widely circulated. However, starting in the late 18th century the medicinal properties of ginseng began to be disparaged and major pharmacopoeias removed ginseng from their contents. The reform of the pharmacopoeia, influenced by Linnaeus in botany and Lavoisier in chemistry, introduced nomenclature that emphasized identifying ingredients and active constituents. Western medicine at this period, however, failed to identify and to extract the active constituents of ginseng. Apart from the technical underdevelopment of the period, the medical discourses reveal that the so-called chemical experiment of ginseng were conducted with unqualified materials and without proper differentiation of various species of ginseng.

  14. [Research on quality changes in ginseng stems and leaves before and after frost].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Ma, Shuang; Cai, En-Bo; Liu, Shuang-Li; Yang, He; Zhang, Lian-Xue; Wang, Shi-Jie

    2014-08-01

    The present study is to investigate the quality changes of ginseng stems and leaves before and after frost. The contents changes of ginsenoside, free amino acid, and total phenolic compounds, as well as DPPH radical scavenging effect before and after frost were measured. The content of 9 ginsenoside monomer in ginseng stems was decreased except for Rg, and Re after frost, but in ginseng leaves was all decreased. The total content of amino acids was decreased in ginseng stems after frost, while increased in ginseng leaves. The content of phenolic compounds in ginseng stems and leaves were both decreased after frost while the ability of DPPH radical scavenging was improved. The factor of frost has great impact on the quality of ginseng stems and leaves.

  15. Antimicrobial activity of saponins produced by two novel endophytic fungi from Panax notoginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhaoxia; Gao, Lin; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Tianyi; Yu, Fang; Zhang, Zongshen; Guo, Qiong; Wang, Biying

    2017-11-01

    Endophytes in plants may be co-producer of the bioactive compounds of their hosts. We conducted a study to bioprospect for saponin-producing endophytic fungi from Panax notoginseng and evaluate the antimicrobial activity of saponins. Two novel fungal endophytes, Fusarium sp. PN8 and Aspergillus sp. PN17, were isolated from traditional Chinese medicinal herb P. notoginseng. After eight days of fermentation, the total saponins produced in the culture broth of PN8 and PN17 were 1.061 and 0.583 mg mL -1 , respectively. The saponin extracts exhibited moderate to high (inhibition zone diameter 15.7-28.4 mm, MIC 1.6-12.5 mg mL -1 ) antimicrobial activity against pathogens tested. Further analysis showed that triterpenoid saponins produced by Fusarium PN8 were Rb 1 , Rd and 20(S)-Rg 3 , while Aspergillus PN17 had the ability to synthesise ginsenoside Re, Rd and 20(S)-Rg 3 . The isolated endophytes may be used as potential sources for microbial production of plant secondary metabolites and for antimicrobial agents.

  16. [Identification of saponins from Panax notoginseng in metabolites of rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wen-Wen; Zhang, Yin; Qiu, Shou-Bei; Zhu, Fen-Xia; Jia, Xiao-Bin; Tang, Dao-Quan; Chen, Bin

    2017-10-01

    UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS was used to identify metabolites in rat blood, urine and feces after the administration of n-butanol extract derived from steamed notoginseng. The metabolic process of saponins came from steamed notoginseng was analyzed. The metabolites were processed by PeakView software, and identified according to the structural characteristics of prototype compounds and the accurate qualitative and quantitative changes of common metabolic pathways. Four saponins metabolites were identified based on MS/MS information of metabolites, namely ginsenoside Rh₄, Rk₃, Rk₁, Rg₅,and their 15 metabolites were verified. The metabolic pathways of the four ginsenosides in n-butanol extract included glucuronidation, desugar, sulfation, dehydromethylation, and branch loss. The metabolites of main active saponin components derived from steamed Panax notoginseng were analyzed from the perspective of qualitative analysis. And the material basis for the efficacy of steamed notoginseng was further clarified. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  17. Stereoisomers of Saponins in Panax notoginseng (Sanqi): A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ming; Yi, Ya X.; Zhang, Tong; Ding, Yue; Le, Jian

    2018-01-01

    Panax notoginseng (Sanqi), a traditional Chinese medical drug which has been applied to medical use for over four centuries, contains high content of dammarane-type tetracyclic triterpenoid saponins. A number of stereoisomeric dammarane-type saponins exist in this precious herb, and some are particularly regarded as “biomarkers” in processed notoginseng. Contemporary researches have indicated that some saponin stereoisomers may show stereospecific pharmacological activities, such as anti-tumor, antioxidative, anti-photoaging, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and neuro-protective activities, as well as stereoselective effects on ion channel current regulation, cardiovascular system, and immune system. The current review provides a comprehensive overview of chemical compositions of raw and processed P. notoginseng with a particular emphasis on saponin stereoisomers. Besides, the pharmacological and pharmacokinetic researches, as well as determination and biotechnological preparation methods of stereoisomeric saponins in notoginseng are discussed extensively. PMID:29593531

  18. Studies on safety and efficiency of gamma-irradiated ginseng

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Joong Ho; Cho, Han Ok; Byun, Myung Wo; Kim, Suc Won; Yang, Jae Seong; Yoo, Young Soo; Jin, Joon Ha; Park, Soon Chul

    1991-09-01

    Gamma irradiation was applied to the biological quality improvement and preservation of white ginseng which has problems in a hygienic quality and storage stability. The current phosphine treatment showed no influence on microorganisms contaminated even though it was very useful for disinfestation of the sample, while 5 kGy irradiation effectively controlled the biological quality of the stored sample, with minimal effects on the quality parameters of white ginseng. Thus, it is concluded that gamma irradiation at a range of 5 kGy can be an alternative method of chemical fumigants provided air-tight packaging excluding recontamination is used for the stored product. (Author)

  19. AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN EKSTRAK UMBI AKAR GINSENG JAWA (Talinum triangulare Willd. [Antioxidant Activity of Javanese Ginseng (Talinum triangulare Willd. Root Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teti Estiasih1

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant activity of some extracts of javanese ginseng root was investigated. Javanese ginseng root extracts were prepared by solvent extraction using methanol, ethanol (96%, ethanol (70%, acetone, and hexane. Total antioxidant activity of the extracts was measured by ferric thiocyanate method, whereas radical scavenging capacity and reducing power were measured by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and the reducing potential methods, respectively. The result showed that the highest total antioxidant activity was observed in acetone and methanol extracts. It was supposed that the ability of these extracts for partitioning at the interface of the emulsion in the tested oxidation system was the highest among other extracts, therefore it had the best activity to inhibit oxidation. The highest radical scavenging capacity measured by EC50 was observed in acetone extract. The type of phenolic compounds of this extract was suggested to be responsible for the highest radical scavenging capacity. Different phenomena occurred for reducing power. Methanol extract had the highest reducing power and the least is hexane and acetone extract. It was suggested that each extracts comprised different types of phenolic based on different polarity of solvents used for extraction. The antioxidant compounds of javanese ginseng root extracts were primary antioxidant based on these ability to scavenge free radical. It could be concluded that acetone was the best solvent for antioxidant extraction of javanese ginseng root. However, all tested antioxidant mechanisms in this research showed that vitamin E (1000 ppm had better activity than javanese ginseng root extracts (1000 ppm for all types of solvent. Javanese ginseng extracts might contain other compounds that not responsible for antioxidant activity, therefore at the same concentration the activity were lower than vitamin E.

  20. Compound K, a metabolite of ginseng saponin, induces apoptosis via caspase-8-dependent pathway in HL-60 human leukemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sung-Hee; Chung, Kyung-Sook; Choi, Jung-Hye; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2009-01-01

    Compound K [20-O-β-(D-glucopyranosyl)-20(S)-protopanaxadiol], a metabolite of the protopanaxadiol-type saponins of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, has been reported to possess anti-tumor properties to inhibit angiogenesis and to induce tumor apoptosis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Compound K on apoptosis and explored the underlying mechanisms involved in HL-60 human leukemia cells. We examined the effect of Compound K on the viabilities of various cancer cell lines using MTT assays. DAPI assay, Annexin V and PI double staining, Western blot assay and immunoprecipitation were used to determine the effect of Compound K on the induction of apoptosis. Compound K was found to inhibit the viability of HL-60 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner with an IC 50 of 14 μM. Moreover, this cell death had typical features of apoptosis, that is, DNA fragmentation, DNA ladder formation, and the externalization of Annexin V targeted phosphatidylserine residues in HL-60 cells. In addition, compound-K induced a series of intracellular events associated with both the mitochondrial- and death receptor-dependent apoptotic pathways, namely, (1) the activation of caspases-3, -8, and -9; (2) the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential; (3) the release of cytochrome c and Smac/DIABLO to the cytosol; (4) the translocation of Bid and Bax to mitochondria; and (5) the downregulations of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. Furthermore, a caspase-8 inhibitor completely abolished caspase-3 activation, Bid cleavage, and subsequent DNA fragmentation by Compound K. Interestingly, the activation of caspase-3 and -8 and DNA fragmentation were significantly prevented in the presence of cycloheximide, suggesting that Compound K-induced apoptosis is dependent on de novo protein synthesis. The results indicate that caspase-8 plays a key role in Compound K-stimulated apoptosis via the activation of caspase-3 directly or indirectly through Bid cleavage, cytochrome c release, and caspase-9 activation

  1. Integrated evaluation of malonyl ginsenosides, amino acids and polysaccharides in fresh and processed ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jin-Yi; Fan, Yong; Yu, Qing-Tao; Ge, Ya-Zhong; Yan, Chen-Pu; Alolga, Raphael N; Li, Ping; Ma, Zhong-Hua; Qi, Lian-Wen

    2015-03-25

    Many analytical methods have been developed to characterize ginsenosides in ginseng. Relatively less attention has been paid to the malonyl ginsenosides, amino acids and polysaccharides in various processing ginsengs. In this study, malonyl ginsenosides were characterized by LC-Q-TOF/MS. In positive mode, the most abundant ions at m/z 425.38 were observed corresponding to the protopanoxadiol-type ginsenosides. A rich diagnostic ion at 835.48 was shown representing the malonyl ginsenosides with at least two glucosides. Twelve malonyl ginsenosides were rapidly screened using 835.48-835.49 to restructure ion chromatograms. In negative mode, besides the high deprotonated ion, a neutral loss of 44 Da (CO2) was found. High-energy collision-induced dissociation at 50 V produced the most abundant product ion [M-H-malonyl](-) by a neutral loss of 86 Da. Determination of 17 common amino acids was performed on an automatic amino acid analyzer. Arginine, glutamic acid, and aspartic acid were abundant. The contents of amino acids were 9.1% in fresh ginseng and 3.1% in black ginseng. Phenol-sulfuric acid method was applied to analysis of polysaccharides. The contents of polysaccharides were 29.1% in fresh ginseng and 11.1% in black ginseng. The optimal growth age for the accumulation of constituents was supposed to be 5-6 years. In conclusion, the contents of malonyl ginsenosides, amino acids, and polysaccharides, based on decreasing order, ranked as follows: fresh ginseng>frozen ginseng>white ginseng>stoved ginseng>red ginseng>black ginseng. Processing should be paid more attention for the quality control of ginseng products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Taste profile characterization of white ginseng by electronic tongue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pg4) from white ginseng was checked using an electronic tongue. The bitterness and aftertaste-B of Pg3 were perceived as significantly higher than those of the other subfractions. The sourness of Pg2 had the highest rating compared to that of the other subfractions. The umami of Pg4 was higher than that of the other ...

  3. High performance liquid chromatographic determination of Ginseng saponin by ultraviolet derivatisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besso, H.; Saruwatari, Y.; Futamura, K.; Kunihiro, K.; Fuwa, T.; Tanaka, O.

    1979-01-01

    Ginsenoides Rb 1 , b 2 , c, d, e and g 1 quantitatively reacted with benzoyl chloride in pyridine to afford the respective derivatives having strong UV absorption. The UV-derivatized saponins were separated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the saponin-contents of the various Ginseng varieties were determined. It is possible to distinguish white Ginseng from the root hairs of Ginseng by the pattern analysis of HPLC. (orig.) [de

  4. Bioavailability of ginsenosides from white and red ginsengs in the simulated digestion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Ok; Cha, Kwang Hyun; Lee, Eun Ha; Kim, Sang Min; Choi, Sang Won; Pan, Cheol-Ho; Um, Byung-Hun

    2014-10-15

    This study aims to investigate the bioavailability of ginsenosides during simulated digestion of white (WG) and red (RG) ginseng powders. Stability, bioaccessibility, and permeability of ginsenosides present in WG and RG were studied in a Caco-2 cell culture model coupled with oral, gastric, and small intestinal simulated digestion. Most ginsenosides in WG and RG were stable (>90%) during the simulated digestion. Bioaccessibilities of total ginsenosides during in vitro digestion of WG and RG were similar at approximately 85%. However, the bioaccessibility of protopanaxatriol type ginsenosides in the early food phase was greater than that of the protopanaxadiol type. The less polar RG ginsenosides were released later following the jejunum phase. Ginsenosides had low permeability (digestion and that ginsenosides are poorly absorbed in humans.

  5. Application of neutron radiography and tomography for analysis of root morphology of growing ginseng

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Ho; Sung, Bong Jae; Park, Jong Yoon [Geumsan Agricultural Development and Technology Center, Geumsan (Korea, Republic of); Sim, Cheul Muu; Kim, Young Jin; Lee, Seung Wook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The shape of main root of ginseng is very important for its commercial value. The morphology of main root is predominantly determined by the root-growing pattern in one year after transplantation of ginseng seedling(one years root). There are many factors affecting the root growing of young ginseng but no systematic approach has been applied to find the effects of various factors. The main reason for this was no method was sought to see the root shapes non-destructively. Neutron radiography is thought to be an appropriate NDT method for root morphology examination in ginseng and a study on using NR for the research on ginseng is being conducted. Considering that the live plants should be moved to the reactor site for their examination of four or five times per year at least, the pot growing method is indispensable. The pot should contain enough soils for growing-up of ginseng and its maximum size is limited to have good contrast in neutron radiography image of ginseng root. Thus, a preliminary radiographic study was performed to find the proper size of ginseng pot using the NR facility of HANARO. Several pots will be prepared for young ginsengs and they will be examined for about one year.

  6. Ginseng treatment reduces bacterial load and lung pathology in chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Z; Johansen, H K; Faber, V

    1997-01-01

    the inflammation and antibody responses could be changed by treatment with the Chinese herbal medicine ginseng. An aqueous extract of ginseng was injected subcutaneously, and cortisone and saline were used as controls. Two weeks after challenge with P. aeruginosa, the ginseng-treated group showed a significantly...... resembling a TH1-like response. On the basis of these results it is suggested that ginseng may have the potential to be a promising natural medicine, in conjunction with other forms of treatment, for CF patients with chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection....

  7. Application of neutron radiography and tomography for analysis of root morphology of growing ginseng

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Ho; Sung, Bong Jae; Park, Jong Yoon; Sim, Cheul Muu; Kim, Young Jin; Lee, Seung Wook

    2005-01-01

    The shape of main root of ginseng is very important for its commercial value. The morphology of main root is predominantly determined by the root-growing pattern in one year after transplantation of ginseng seedling(one years root). There are many factors affecting the root growing of young ginseng but no systematic approach has been applied to find the effects of various factors. The main reason for this was no method was sought to see the root shapes non-destructively. Neutron radiography is thought to be an appropriate NDT method for root morphology examination in ginseng and a study on using NR for the research on ginseng is being conducted. Considering that the live plants should be moved to the reactor site for their examination of four or five times per year at least, the pot growing method is indispensable. The pot should contain enough soils for growing-up of ginseng and its maximum size is limited to have good contrast in neutron radiography image of ginseng root. Thus, a preliminary radiographic study was performed to find the proper size of ginseng pot using the NR facility of HANARO. Several pots will be prepared for young ginsengs and they will be examined for about one year

  8. American ginseng significantly reduced the progression of high-fat-diet-enhanced colon carcinogenesis in ApcMin/+mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhao Yu

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: Further studies are needed to link our observed effects to the actions of the gut microbiome in converting the parent ginsenosides to bioactive ginseng metabolites. Our data suggest that American ginseng may have potential value in CRC chemoprevention.

  9. [Analysis of saponins from panax notoginseng using pressurized solvent extraction coupled with liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jianbo; Li, Changming; Li, Shaopin; Kong, Lingyi; Wang, Yitao

    2005-10-01

    To establish a method for qualitative analysis of saponins from Panax notoginseng using pressurized solvent extraction coupled with LC-ESI-MS. The PSE technology was applied to the process of extraction for Panax notoginseng, and the negative ion detection and multiple reaction monitoring model were used. The saponins were investigated based on total ion chromatogram (TIC) and MRM chromatogram. According to the fragment character of saponins, the molecular weight and their structures could be identified. The method can be used for qualitative analysis of saponins from Panax notoginseng.

  10. Immunomodulatory Activity of Red Ginseng against Influenza A Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Seok Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginseng herbal medicine has been known to have beneficial effects on improving human health. We investigated whether red ginseng extract (RGE has preventive effects on influenza A virus infection in vivo and in vitro. RGE was found to improve survival of human lung epithelial cells upon influenza virus infection. Also, RGE treatment reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory genes (IL-6, IL-8 probably in part through interference with the formation of reactive oxygen species by influenza A virus infection. Long-term oral administration of mice with RGE showed multiple immunomodulatory effects such as stimulating antiviral cytokine IFN-γ production after influenza A virus infection. In addition, RGE administration in mice inhibited the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the bronchial lumens. Therefore, RGE might have the potential beneficial effects on preventing influenza A virus infections via its multiple immunomodulatory functions.

  11. Studies on panax acetylenes: absolute structure of a new panax acetylene, and inhibitory effects of related acetylenes on the growth of L-1210 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Yoshio; Satoh, Mitsuru; Isobe, Kimiaki; Mohri, Kunihiko; Yoshida, Yuki; Fujimoto, Yasuo

    2007-04-01

    A new Panax acetylene, 3-oxo-PQ-1 (1), was isolated from Panax quinquefolium. The absolute configurations of 3-oxo-PQ-1 (1) and PQ-1 (2) were determined to be (9R,10R) and (3R,9R,10R), respectively, by synthesizing 1 and 2 starting from D-(-)-diethyl tartrate, and by synthesizing their stereoisomers from L-(+)-diethyl tartrate. The growth inhibitory effects of Panax acetylenes (1-8) and their stereoisomers against leukemia cells were tested. Unnatural acetylenes having the (3S)-configuration (2, 5, 6, 7, 8; IC(50)=0.01-0.1 microg/ml) were found to be approximately ten times more potent than natural acetylenes (IC(50)=0.1-1.0 microg/ml) with the (3R)-configuration. Potency differences due to the configuration at C-9 and C-10 were unrelated to this stereochemistry. The C(14)-polyacetylenes, PQ-8 (4) and its isomer (IC(50)=1.0-10.0 microg/ml), were found to exhibit weaker cytotoxicity than the C(17)-polyacetylenes.

  12. Ginseng Berry Extract Promotes Maturation of Mouse Dendritic Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available Ginseng extract has been shown to possess certain anti-virus, anti-tumor and immune-activating effects. However, the immunostimulatory effect of ginseng berry extract (GB has been less well characterized. In this study, we investigated the effect of GB on the activation of mouse dendritic cells (DCs in vitro and in vivo. GB treatment induced up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules in bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs. Interestingly, GB induced a higher degree of co-stimulatory molecule up-regulation than ginseng root extract (GR at the same concentrations. Moreover, in vivo administration of GB promoted up-regulation of CD86, MHC class I and MHC class II and production of IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-α in spleen DCs. GB also promoted the generation of Th1 and Tc1 cells. Furthermore, Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4 and myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88 signaling pathway were essential for DC activation induced by GB. In addition, GB strongly prompted the proliferation of ovalbumin (OVA-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells. Finally, GB induced DC activation in tumor-bearing mice and the combination of OVA and GB treatment inhibited B16-OVA tumor cell growth in C57BL/6 mice. These results demonstrate that GB is a novel tumor therapeutic vaccine adjuvant by promoting DC and T cell activation.

  13. Effects of Temperature variations on the Super Fine Powderization of Korean Cultivated Wild Ginseng

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    Jin Ho Kim

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The aim of this study was to find optimal conditions for producing red ginseng from cultivated wild ginseng using the Turbo Mill. Methods : Characteristics of powdered cultivated wild ginseng based on various temperature settings of the Turbo Mill were observed, and changes in the content was measured by HPLC for various ginsenosides. Results : 1. The diameter of cultivated wild ginseng powder ground by the Turbo Mill was around 10㎛. 2. As the temperature rose, presusre, Specific Mechanical Energy(SME, and density decreased, whileas Water Solubility Index(WSI increased. 3. As the temperature rose, super fine powder showed tendency to turn into dark brown. 4. Measuring content changes by HPLC, there was no detection of ginsenoside Rg3 and ginsenosideRg1, Rb1, and Rh2 concentrations decreased with increase in temperature. Conclusions : Super fine powder of cultivated wild ginseng produced by the Turbo Mill promotes easy absorption of effective ingredients by breaking the cell walls. Using this mechanism to produce red ginseng from cultivated wild ginseng, it yielded less than satisfactory results under the current experiment setup. Furtherresearches are needed to verify more suitable condition for the production of red ginseng.

  14. Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Red Ginseng Extracts or Red Ginseng Hydrolyzates-added Asiago Cheese during Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Hoon Choi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate physicochemical properties of different concentrations (0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5% of red ginseng hydrolyzates (RGH- or red ginseng extract (RGE-added Asiago cheeses (AC during ripening at 14°C for 4 months. The moisture content significantly increased with increasing concentrations of both RGH- and RGE- added AC (p<0.05. While RGHAC and RGEAC were more yellow and darker with increasing concentrations than that of control (p<0.05, the color was not influenced from the hydrolysis. In texture analysis, hardness, cohesiveness, and chewiness of RGHAC and RGEAC significantly decreased compared to the control during the ripening (p<0.05. In sensory analysis, bitterness and ginseng flavor and taste scores increased significantly with increasing the concentrations of RGH and RGE during ripening (p<0.05. In conclusion, the addition of RGH and RGE into cheese slightly influenced the properties of Asiago cheese, and similarities were observed between RGHAC and RGEAC. Thus, the lower concentrations (0.1% to 0.3% of RGH and RGE added to AC were preferred for color, texture, and sensory during the ripening, therefore, these cheeses would be worth developing commercially.

  15. Development of distinction method of production area of ginsengs by using a neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Youngjin; Chung, Yongsam; Sim, Chulmuu; Sun, Gwangmin; Lee, Yuna; Yoo, Sangho

    2011-01-15

    During the last 2 years of the project, we have tried to develop the technology to make a distinction of the production areas for Korean ginsengs cultivated in the various provinces in Korea and foreign countries. It will contribute to secure the health food safety for public and stability of its market. In this year, we collected ginseng samples cultivated in the northeastern province in Chinese mainland such as Liaoning province, Jilin province and Baekdu mountain within Jilin province. 10 ginseng samples were collected at each province. The elemental concentrations in the ginseng were analyzed by using a neutron activation analysis technique at the HANARO research reactor. The distinction of production area was made by using a statistical software. As a result, the Chinese Korean ginsengs were certainly differentiated from those cultivated in the famous province in Korea though there was a limitation that the number of our sample we analyzed is very small.

  16. Development of distinction method of production area of ginsengs by using a neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Youngjin; Chung, Yongsam; Sim, Chulmuu; Sun, Gwangmin; Lee, Yuna; Yoo, Sangho

    2011-01-01

    During the last 2 years of the project, we have tried to develop the technology to make a distinction of the production areas for Korean ginsengs cultivated in the various provinces in Korea and foreign countries. It will contribute to secure the health food safety for public and stability of its market. In this year, we collected ginseng samples cultivated in the northeastern province in Chinese mainland such as Liaoning province, Jilin province and Baekdu mountain within Jilin province. 10 ginseng samples were collected at each province. The elemental concentrations in the ginseng were analyzed by using a neutron activation analysis technique at the HANARO research reactor. The distinction of production area was made by using a statistical software. As a result, the Chinese Korean ginsengs were certainly differentiated from those cultivated in the famous province in Korea though there was a limitation that the number of our sample we analyzed is very small

  17. Studies on the preservation of Korean Ginseng by irradiation: pt. 2. Effect of gamma irradiation on the physicochemical properties of Ginseng powder during the storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, H.S.; Park, M.H.; Lee, K.S. (Korea Ginseng and Tobacco Research Institute, Seoul (Republic of Korea)); Cho, H.O. (Korea Advanced Energy Research Inst., Seoul (Republic of Korea))

    1982-06-01

    The effect of the physicochemical properties of red and white ginseng powder after /sup 60/Co-..gamma.. ray irradiation during the storage for 4 months at 25degC was investigated. The storage periods and the treatment of irradiation at various doses on ginseng powders had no significant effects on the proximate composition and color density of ginseng extract with 50% ethanol. No changes in the contents of saponin and its HPLC patterns were found during the storage. However, a little increase was found in the yield of 50% ethanol extract and Hunter's color value of powder. But generally it was found to be stable in the physicochemical properties of red and white ginseng powder by irradiation of the intensity during the storage.

  18. Current Evaluation of the Millennium Phytomedicine- Ginseng (I): Etymology, Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry, Market and Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lee; Zhao, Yuqing

    2009-01-01

    The dawning of this millennium broke new ground in life science and technology, presented us genomic and proteomic revolution, nanotechnology innovation, and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) used for separating and identifying new chemical entities at pico-, or even femto-concentrations. Applications of these high technologies to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) opened a new chapter in the ancient medicine, and prompted us to re-evaluate the thousand-year-old phytomedicine–ginseng from current perspectives. We, therefore, collected the latest information (mostly within 10 years) on ginseng, and condensed the information into two parts of this review serial. The present part covers etymology of ginseng, its pharmacognosy (natural origin, physical appearance, chemical properties, and specie identification), its cultivation and processing-related metabolic changes in active ingredients, standardized analytical methods used for quality control of various ginseng products, modern analytical methods used to identify and classify more than 100 chemical entities (many were recently unfolded) derived from ginseng species and their metabolites. The global markets and production of ginseng and relevant government regulations are herein updated to exchange information and understandings about current people’s uses and cultivation of ginseng. The second part of the review serial will classify all these 100 chemical entities separated from various ginseng species into different groups based on their structural similarities, and summarize bioactivities of these entities. The second part of the review serial will also focus on recent findings of ginseng pharmacology and its clinical trials for various diseases, and brief side effects of ginseng. PMID:19601793

  19. Current evaluation of the millennium phytomedicine--ginseng (I): etymology, pharmacognosy, phytochemistry, market and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lee; Zhao, Yuqing

    2009-01-01

    The dawning of this millennium broke new ground in life science and technology, presented us genomic and proteomic revolution, nanotechnology innovation, and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) used for separating and identifying new chemical entities at pico-, or even femto-concentrations. Applications of these high technologies to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) opened a new chapter in the ancient medicine, and prompted us to re-evaluate the thousand-year-old phytomedicine- ginseng from current perspectives. We, therefore, collected the latest information (mostly within 10 years) on ginseng, and condensed the information into two parts of this review serial. The present part covers etymology of ginseng, its pharmacognosy (natural origin, physical appearance, chemical properties, and specie identification), its cultivation and processing-related metabolic changes in active ingredients, standardized analytical methods used for quality control of various ginseng products, modern analytical methods used to identify and classify more than 100 chemical entities (many were recently unfolded) derived from ginseng species and their metabolites. The global markets and production of ginseng and relevant government regulations are herein updated to exchange information and understandings about current people's uses and cultivation of ginseng. The second part of the review serial will classify all these 100 chemical entities separated from various ginseng species into different groups based on their structural similarities, and summarize bioactivities of these entities. The second part of the review serial will also focus on recent findings of ginseng pharmacology and its clinical trials for various diseases, and brief side effects of ginseng.

  20. Protective Effects of Cultivated Ginseng, Cultivated Wild Ginseng of Korean and Chinese Against CCl4 and t-BHP Induced Acute Hepatotoxicity in ICR Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim, Young-Jin

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This study was aimed at investigating live protection mechanism of Cultivated Ginseng and Cultivated Wild Ginseng of Korean and Chinese by inducing liver toxicity through and t-BHP in mice and evaluated serological findings. Methods : Experiment groups was categorized into untreated normal group, treated control group, and orally administered Cultivated Ginseng and Cultivated Wild Ginseng of Korean and Chinese experimental groups. At the termination of experiment, gross examination of the liver as well as Total bilirubin, AST, and ALT contents in the serum were evaluated. Results : 1. In the induced acute hepatotoxicity test, total bilirubin, AST and ALT didn't show significant differences between the control and experimental groups. 2. In the t-BHP induced acute hepatotoxicity test, total bilirubin, AST and ALT didn't show significant differences between the control and experimental groups. Conclusion : Taken together, Cultivated Ginseng and Cultivated Wild Ginseng of Korean and Chinese cannot be effectively used for recovering the liver functions in acute hepatotoxicity tests using and t-BHP. Further researches, for example treated long period, must be tried to verify the efficacies.

  1. [White ginseng commercialization and sales expansion activities of Gaesung merchants in the 1910s and 1920s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jeongpil

    2011-06-30

    Ginseng has always been the typical export item in Korean history. Until the 18th century, exporting ginseng was wild ginseng from the mountains. Since the 19th century, exporting ginseng became red ginseng, which was red due to steaming and drying process. Red ginseng was produced by Gaesung merchants, so that these merchants were able to gain the control of the output. Gaesung merchants of the 19th century exported red ginseng to China and made huge economic success. However, when the Korean Empire and Japanese colonial government established red ginseng monopoly, it essentially blocked Gaesung traders from manufacturing and exporting any further of its prized commodity. Then, the traders turned to sun-dried white ginseng as a substitute to red ginseng. As a result, white ginseng production dramatically increased after 1914, which in turn made Gaesung merchants newly aware of the commercial value of white ginseng, which was previously ignored. The traders made good use of the traditional medicine herb market, which opened annually, to promote the expansion of white ginseng sales. Moreover, the merchants also adopted modern marketing techniques, as they founded companies to handle solely white ginseng sales, refreshed packaging to raise commodity values, and made an effort in advertising and mail order sales. Due to such endeavors, demand for white ginseng grew exponentially both in domestic and foreign markets, which generated steady growth of white ginseng prices despite the rapid increase of its supply. This phenomenon naturally brought about the rich economic accomplishments of Gaesung merchants. Through the white ginseng sales activities of Gaesung merchants in post-1910s era, two facts can be newly uncovered. First, the mass consumption of white ginseng today in Korean society took a full-scale step after the 1910s. Second, it was a widely-held view that during the Japanese rule, majority of Korean traditional merchants were economically ruined, while a

  2. Panax ginseng total protein promotes proliferation and secretion of collagen in NIH/3T3 cells by activating extracellular signal-related kinase pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuenan Chen

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: Our studies suggest that GTP promoted proliferation and secretion of collagen in NIH/3T3 cells by activating the ERK signal pathway, which shed light on a potential function of GTP in promoting wound healing.

  3. In vitro antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of the compound K-rich fraction BIOGF1K, prepared from Panax ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Jahangir Hossen

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Overall, our data suggest that the suppression of IKKβ and TBK1, which mediate transcriptional regulation of NF-κB and IRF3, respectively, may contribute to the broad-spectrum inhibitory activity of BIOGF1K.

  4. Panax ginseng has anti-infective activity against opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa by inhibiting quorum sensing, a bacterial communication process critical for establishing infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Z; Kong, K F; Wu, H

    2010-01-01

    Virulent factors produced by pathogens play an important role in the infectious process, which is regulated by a cell-to-cell communication mechanism called quorum sensing (QS). Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic human pathogen, which causes infections in patients with compromis...

  5. Penicimenolides A-F, Resorcylic Acid Lactones from Penicillium sp., isolated from the Rhizosphere Soil of Panax notoginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ya-Nan; Zhang, Xue; Zhang, Tian-Yuan; Zhang, Meng-Yue; Qian-Zhang; Deng, Xiao-Yu; Zhao, Feng; Zhu, Ling-Juan; Wang, Guan; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Yi-Xuan; Liu, Bo; Yao, Xin-Sheng

    2016-06-08

    Five new 12-membered resorcylic acid lactone derivatives, penicimenolides A-E (1-5), one new ring-opened resorcylic acid lactone derivative penicimenolide F (6), and six known biogenetically related derivatives (7-12) were isolated from the culture broth of a strain of Penicillium sp. (NO. SYP-F-7919), a fungus obtained from the rhizosphere soil of Panax notoginseng collected from the Yunnan province of China. Their structures were elucidated by extensive NMR analyses, a modified Mosher's method, chemical derivatization and single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Compounds 2-4 exhibited potent cytotoxicity against the U937 and MCF-7 tumour cell lines and showed moderate cytotoxic activity against the SH-SY5Y and SW480 tumour cell lines. The substitution of an acetyloxy or 2-hydroxypropionyloxy group at C-7 significantly increased the cytotoxic activity of the resorcylic acid lactone derivatives. Subsequently, the possible mechanism of compound 2 against MCF-7 cells was preliminarily investigated by in silico analysis and experimental validation, indicating compound 2 may act as a potential MEK/ERK inhibitor. Moreover, proteomics analysis was performed to explore compound 2-regulated concrete mechanism underlying MEK/ERK pathway, which is still need further study in the future. In addition, compounds 2-4 and 7 exhibited a significant inhibitory effect on NO production induced by LPS.

  6. Compound K, a metabolite of ginseng saponin, induces apoptosis via caspase-8-dependent pathway in HL-60 human leukemia cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Jung-Hye

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Compound K [20-O-β-(D-glucopyranosyl-20(S-protopanaxadiol], a metabolite of the protopanaxadiol-type saponins of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, has been reported to possess anti-tumor properties to inhibit angiogenesis and to induce tumor apoptosis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Compound K on apoptosis and explored the underlying mechanisms involved in HL-60 human leukemia cells. Methods We examined the effect of Compound K on the viabilities of various cancer cell lines using MTT assays. DAPI assay, Annexin V and PI double staining, Western blot assay and immunoprecipitation were used to determine the effect of Compound K on the induction of apoptosis. Results Compound K was found to inhibit the viability of HL-60 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner with an IC50 of 14 μM. Moreover, this cell death had typical features of apoptosis, that is, DNA fragmentation, DNA ladder formation, and the externalization of Annexin V targeted phosphatidylserine residues in HL-60 cells. In addition, compound-K induced a series of intracellular events associated with both the mitochondrial- and death receptor-dependent apoptotic pathways, namely, (1 the activation of caspases-3, -8, and -9; (2 the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential; (3 the release of cytochrome c and Smac/DIABLO to the cytosol; (4 the translocation of Bid and Bax to mitochondria; and (5 the downregulations of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. Furthermore, a caspase-8 inhibitor completely abolished caspase-3 activation, Bid cleavage, and subsequent DNA fragmentation by Compound K. Interestingly, the activation of caspase-3 and -8 and DNA fragmentation were significantly prevented in the presence of cycloheximide, suggesting that Compound K-induced apoptosis is dependent on de novo protein synthesis. Conclusions The results indicate that caspase-8 plays a key role in Compound K-stimulated apoptosis via the activation of caspase-3 directly or indirectly through

  7. Merit of Ginseng in the Treatment of Heart Failure in Type 1-Like Diabetic Rats

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    Cheng-Chia Tsai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the merit of ginseng in the improvement of heart failure in diabetic rats and the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors δ (PPARδ. We used streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat (STZ-rat to screen the effects of ginseng on cardiac performance and PPARδ expression. Changes of body weight, water intake, and food intake were compared in three groups of age-matched rats; the normal control (Wistar rats received vehicle, STZ-rats received vehicle and ginseng-treated STZ-rats. We also determined cardiac performances in addition to blood glucose level in these animals. The protein levels of PPARδ in hearts were identified using Western blotting analysis. In STZ-rats, cardiac performances were decreased but the food intake, water intake, and blood glucose were higher than the vehicle-treated control. After a 7-day treatment of ginseng in STZ-rats, cardiac output was markedly enhanced without changes in diabetic parameters. This treatment with ginseng also increased the PPARδ expression in hearts of STZ-rats. The related signal of cardiac contractility, troponin I phosphorylation, was also raised. Ginseng-induced increasing of cardiac output was reversed by the cotreatment with PPARδ antagonist GSK0660. Thus, we suggest that ginseng could improve heart failure through the increased PPARδ expression in STZ-rats.

  8. Discrimination between ginseng from Korea and China by light stable isotope analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horacek, Micha, E-mail: micha.horacek@ait.ac.at [Department of Environmental Resources and Technology, Austrian Institute of Technology, 2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Min, Ji-Sook; Heo, Sang-Cheol [National Institute of Scientific Investigation, 331-1 Shinwol-7dong, Yangcheon-ku, Seoul 158-707 (Korea, Republic of); Soja, Gerhard [Department of Environmental Resources and Technology, Austrian Institute of Technology, 2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)

    2010-12-03

    Ginseng is a health food and traditional medicine highly valued in Asia. Ginseng from certain origins is higher valued than from other origins, so that a reliable method for differentiation of geographical origin is important for the economics of ginseng production. To discriminate between ginseng samples from South Korea and PR China, 29 samples have been analyzed for the isotopic composition of the elements H, C and N. The results showed {delta}{sup 2}H values between -94 and -79 per mille , for {delta}{sup 13}C -27.9 to -23.7 per mille and for {delta}{sup 15}N 1.3-5.4 per mille for Chinese ginseng. Korean ginseng gave {delta}{sup 2}H ratios between -91 and -69 per mille , {delta}{sup 13}C ratios between -31.2 and -22.4 per mille and {delta}{sup 15}N ratios between -2.4 and +7 per mille . Despite the overlap between the values for individual isotopes, a combination of the isotope systems gave a reasonable differentiation between the two geographic origins. Especially the statistically significant difference in {delta}{sup 2}H ratios facilitated the differentiation between Korean and Chinese ginseng samples.

  9. Discrimination between ginseng from Korea and China by light stable isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horacek, Micha; Min, Ji-Sook; Heo, Sang-Cheol; Soja, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Ginseng is a health food and traditional medicine highly valued in Asia. Ginseng from certain origins is higher valued than from other origins, so that a reliable method for differentiation of geographical origin is important for the economics of ginseng production. To discriminate between ginseng samples from South Korea and PR China, 29 samples have been analyzed for the isotopic composition of the elements H, C and N. The results showed δ 2 H values between -94 and -79 per mille , for δ 13 C -27.9 to -23.7 per mille and for δ 15 N 1.3-5.4 per mille for Chinese ginseng. Korean ginseng gave δ 2 H ratios between -91 and -69 per mille , δ 13 C ratios between -31.2 and -22.4 per mille and δ 15 N ratios between -2.4 and +7 per mille . Despite the overlap between the values for individual isotopes, a combination of the isotope systems gave a reasonable differentiation between the two geographic origins. Especially the statistically significant difference in δ 2 H ratios facilitated the differentiation between Korean and Chinese ginseng samples.

  10. Modification of ginseng flavors by bitter compounds found in chocolate and coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sook Chung, Hee; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2012-06-01

    Ginseng is not widely accepted by U.S. consumers due to its unfamiliar flavors, despite its numerous health benefits. Previous studies have suggested that the bitter compounds in chocolate and coffee may mask the off-flavors of ginseng. The objectives of this study were to: (1) profile sensory characteristics of ginseng extract solution, caffeine solution, cyclo (L-Pro-L-Val) solution, theobromine solution, and 2 model solutions simulating chocolate bitterness; and (2) determine the changes in the sensory characteristics of ginseng extract solution by the addition of the bitter compounds found in chocolate and coffee. Thirteen solutions were prepared in concentrations similar to the levels of the bitter compounds found in coffee and chocolate products. Twelve panelists participated in a descriptive analysis panel which included time-intensity ratings. Ginseng extract was characterized as sweeter, starchier, and more green tea than the other sample solutions. Those characteristics of ginseng extract were effectively modified by the addition of caffeine, cyclo (L-Pro-L-Val), and 2 model solutions. A model solution simulating dark chocolate bitterness was the least influenced in intensities of bitterness by the addition of ginseng extract. Results from time-intensity ratings show that the addition of ginseng extract increased duration time in certain bitterness of the 2 model solutions. Bitter compounds found in dark chocolate could be proposed to effectively mask the unique flavors of ginseng. Future studies blending aroma compounds of chocolate and coffee into such model solutions may be conducted to investigate the influence on the perception of the unique flavors through the congruent flavors. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Extraction of ecdysterone from roots of Brazilian ginseng

    OpenAIRE

    Flores, Rejane; Nicoloso, Fernando Teixeira; Brondani, Daniela; Maldaner, Joseila; Cezarotto, Verciane; Giacomelli, Sandro Rogério

    2009-01-01

    Este estudo teve como objetivo otimizar a extração de ecdisterona em raízes de ginseng brasileiro. Primeiramente, para se avaliar a eficiência do solvente extrator, amostras de raízes dois acessos (BRA e JB-UFSM) de P. glomerata foram extraídas em Soxhlet com metanol e clorofórmio, separadamente, durante 4 horas. No segundo ensaio, com o intuito de se escolher o método extrator, a extração foi conduzida em Soxhlet e em ultrassom, utilizando metanol como solvente. Em P. tuberosa, as amostras f...

  12. Protective effects of panax notoginseng saponins on cardiovascular diseases: a comprehensive overview of experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaochen; Xiong, Xingjiang; Wang, Heran; Wang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) are one of the most important compounds derived from roots of the herb Panax notoginseng which are traditionally used as a hemostatic medicine to control internal and external bleeding in China for thousands of years. To date, at least twenty saponins were identified and some of them including notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rb1, and ginsenoside Rg1 were researched frequently in the area of cardiovascular protection. However, the protective effects of PNS on cardiovascular diseases based on experimental studies and its underlying mechanisms have not been reviewed systematically. This paper reviewed the pharmacology of PNS and its monomers Rb1, Rg1, and R1 in the treatment for cardiovascular diseases.

  13. Protective Effects of Panax Notoginseng Saponins on Cardiovascular Diseases: A Comprehensive Overview of Experimental Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochen Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS are one of the most important compounds derived from roots of the herb Panax notoginseng which are traditionally used as a hemostatic medicine to control internal and external bleeding in China for thousands of years. To date, at least twenty saponins were identified and some of them including notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rb1, and ginsenoside Rg1 were researched frequently in the area of cardiovascular protection. However, the protective effects of PNS on cardiovascular diseases based on experimental studies and its underlying mechanisms have not been reviewed systematically. This paper reviewed the pharmacology of PNS and its monomers Rb1, Rg1, and R1 in the treatment for cardiovascular diseases.

  14. Effect of aspirin on the pharmacokinetics and absorption of panax notoginseng saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhihao; Pang, Huanhuan; Zhang, Qiang; Du, Shouying; Lu, Yang; Zhang, Lin; Bai, Jie; Li, Pengyue; Li, Danqi; Zhao, Mengdi; Chen, Xiaonan

    2018-02-01

    Panax notoginseng saponins, a traditional Chinese medicine extraction, and aspirin are both widely used to treat cerebral infarction in China. Good results in clinical practice have been achieved, when Panax notoginseng saponins was taken together with aspirin. To investigate the interaction of the two drugs in vivo, the concentration of notoginsenoside R 1 , ginsenoside Rg 1 , Rb 1 , Re and Rd. in blood were simultaneously measured by UPLC/MS/MS. Sample preparation was carried out by the protein precipitation technique with an internal standard saikosaponin A standard. The separation of six components was achieved by using an ACQUITY UPLC ®BEH C18 column (1.7μm 2.1×100mm) by gradient elution using water (containing 0.2% formic acid) and acetonitrile (containing 0.2% formic acid) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.2mL/min. The pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using non-compartmental analysis. The transport of notoginsenoside R 1 , ginsenoside Rg 1 , Rb 1 , Re and Rd. in MDCK -MDR1 cell monolayer was also used to verify the conclusion of pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction and study the mechanism of drug interaction. The concentrations of the five components increased in a certain extent when the two drugs administered together in rats. The values of apparent permeability coefficients were significantly increased when the two drugs were used together. Aspirin and salicylic acid could destroy the tight junction protein and open the intercellular space to increase the absorption of Panax notoginseng saponins. Pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction in vivo existed between Panax notoginseng saponins and aspirin. The drug-drug interaction mainly occurred in the process of absorption. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Quantitative Comparison and Metabolite Profiling of Saponins in Different Parts of the Root of Panax notoginseng

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jing-Rong; Yau, Lee-Fong; Gao, Wei-Na; Liu, Yong; Yick, Pui-Wing; Liu, Liang; Jiang, Zhi-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Although both rhizome and root of Panax notoginseng are officially utilized as notoginseng in ?Chinese Pharmacopoeia?, individual parts of the root were differently used in practice. To provide chemical evidence for the differentiated usage, quantitative comparison and metabolite profiling of different portions derived from the whole root, as well as commercial samples, were carried out, showing an overall higher content of saponins in rhizome, followed by main root, branch root, and fibrous ...

  16. Microbial conversion of major ginsenoside Rb1 to minor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... minor ginsenoside Rd by Indian fermented food bacteria. Kalaiselvi ... South Korea. Accepted 17 April, 2009. Ginsenoside Rb1 is the predominant secondary metabolite (saponin) in Panax ginseng. Hydrolysis of the sugar .... culture and 200 µl of major ginsenoside Rb1. The reaction mixture was incubated ...

  17. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of PnbHLH1 Transcription Factor in Panax notoginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Panax notoginseng has been extensively used as a traditional Chinese medicine. In the current study, molecular cloning and characterization of PnbHLH1 transcription factor were explored in Panax notoginseng. The full length of the PnbHLH1 gene obtained by splicing was 1430 bp, encoding 321 amino acids. Prokaryotic expression vector pET-28a-PnbHLH1 was constructed and transferred into the BL21 prokaryotic expression strain. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay of PnbHLH1 protein binding to E-box cis-acting elements verified that PnbHLH1 belonged to the bHLH class transcription factor which could interact with the promoter region of the E-box core sequence. The expression levels of key genes involved in the biosynthesis of triterpenoid saponins in PnbHLH1 transgenic cells were higher than those in the wild cells. Similarly, the total saponin contents were increased in the PnbHLH1 transgenic cell lines compared with the wild cell lines. Such results suggest that the PnbHLH1 transcription factor is a positive regulator in the biosynthesis of triterpenoid saponins in Panax notoginseng.

  18. Ginseng-berry-mediated gold and silver nanoparticle synthesis and evaluation of their in vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial, and cytotoxicity effects on human dermal fibroblast and murine melanoma skin cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez Pérez ZE

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Zuly Elizabeth Jiménez Pérez,1 Ramya Mathiyalagan,1 Josua Markus,1 Yeon-Ju Kim,2 Hyun Mi Kang,3 Ragavendran Abbai,1 Kwang Hoon Seo,2 Dandan Wang,2 Veronika Soshnikova,2 Deok Chun Yang1,21Department of Biotechnology and Ginseng Bank, 2Department of Oriental Medicine Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Republic of Korea; 3Advanced Cosmeceutical Technology R&D Center, Suwon, Republic of KoreaAbstract: There has been a growing interest in the design of environmentally affable and biocompatible nanoparticles among scientists to find novel and safe biomaterials. Panax ginseng Meyer berries have unique phytochemical profile and exhibit beneficial pharmacological activities such as antihyperglycemic, antiobesity, antiaging, and antioxidant properties. A comprehensive study of the biologically active compounds in ginseng berry extract (GBE and the ability of ginseng berry (GB as novel material for the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (GBAuNPs and silver nanoparticles (GBAgNPs was conducted. In addition, the effects of GBAuNPs and GBAgNPs on skin cell lines for further potential biological applications are highlighted. GBAuNPs and GBAgNPs were synthesized using aqueous GBE as a reducing and capping agent. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized for their size, morphology, and crystallinity. The nanoparticles were evaluated for antioxidant, anti-tyrosinase, antibacterial, and cytotoxicity activities and for morphological changes in human dermal fibroblast and murine melanoma skin cell lines. The phytochemicals contained in GBE effectively reduced and capped gold and silver ions to form GBAuNPs and GBAgNPs. The optimal synthesis conditions (ie, temperature and v/v % of GBE and kinetics were investigated. Polysaccharides and phenolic compounds present in GBE were suggested to be responsible for stabilization and functionalization of nanoparticles. GBAuNPs and GBAgNPs showed increased scavenging activity

  19. Comparative effects of gamma irradiation and ozone treatment on hygienic quality of Korean red ginseng powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung-Woo; Yook, Hong-Sun; Kang, Il-Jun; Chung, Cha-Kwon; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Choi, Kang-Ju

    1998-06-01

    For the purpose of improving hygienic quality of Korean red ginseng powder, the comparative effects of gamma irradiation and ozone treatment on the microbial and physicochemical properties were investigated. Gamma irradiation at 7.5 kGy resulted in sterilization of total aerobic bacteria, molds and coliforms below detective levels, while ozone treatment for 8 hours up to 18 ppm did not sufficiently eliminate the microorganisms of the red ginseng powder. Physicochemical properties including compositions of the red ginseng saponin (ginsenosides) and fatty acids, pH and hydrogen donating activity were not significantly changed by gamma irradiation, whereas, ozone treatment caused significant changes in fatty acid compositions, TBA value, pH, acidity and hydrogen donating activity. The results from this study led us to conclude that gamma irradiation was more effective than ozone treatment both for the improvement of hygienic quality and for the maintenance of physicochemical quality of red ginseng powder.

  20. Assessment of microclimate conditions under artificial shades in a ginseng field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu Jong Lee

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Weather measurements outside the shade and LWD estimates derived from these measurements would be useful as inputs for decision support systems to predict ginseng growth and disease development.

  1. Comparative effects of gamma irradiation and ozone treatment on hygienic quality of Korean red ginseng powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Myung-Woo; Yook, Hong-Sun; Kang, Il-Jun; Chung, Cha-Kwon; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Choi, Kang-Ju

    1998-01-01

    For the purpose of improving hygienic quality of Korean red ginseng powder, the comparative effects of gamma irradiation and ozone treatment on the microbial and physicochemical properties were investigated. Gamma irradiation at 7.5 kGy resulted in sterilization of total aerobic bacteria, molds and coliforms below detective levels, while ozone treatment for 8 hours up to 18 ppm did not sufficiently eliminate the microorganisms of the red ginseng powder. Physicochemical properties including compositions of the red ginseng saponin (ginsenosides) and fatty acids, pH and hydrogen donating activity were not significantly changed by gamma irradiation, whereas, ozone treatment caused significant changes in fatty acid compositions, TBA value, pH, acidity and hydrogen donating activity. The results from this study led us to conclude that gamma irradiation was more effective than ozone treatment both for the improvement of hygienic quality and for the maintenance of physicochemical quality of red ginseng powder

  2. A brief method for preparation of gintonin-enriched fraction from ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Hye Choi

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: Because GEF can be prepared through water precipitation of ginseng ethanol extract and is easily reproducible with high yield, it could be commercially utilized for the development of gintonin-derived functional health food and natural medicine.

  3. 50 CFR 23.68 - How can I trade internationally in roots of American ginseng?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... registration of persons buying and selling ginseng in that State or on tribal lands. (ii) A requirement that... of the roots. Future export certification of this stock must be issued against the weight receipt. (v...

  4. Discrimination of white ginseng origins using multivariate statistical analysis of data sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuk-Hwan Song

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Results suggest that ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry coupled with OPLS-DA is an efficient tool for identifying the difference between the geographical origins of white ginsengs.

  5. Efek ekstrak akar ginseng Jawa dan Korea terhadap libido mencit jantan pada prakondisi testosteron rendah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Winarni

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This research was designed to compare the potency and duration effect of Java ginseng and Korean ginseng root extract administration on sexual behavior of male mice. It was done experimentally on male mice (strain BALB, aged 8–10 weeks, weighed 25–35 g. Thirty eight mice were grouped to 4 (four groups: First group was treated with solvent (as positive control, 2nd group was treated ethynilestradiol (EE2 (as negative control, 3rd group was treated with Java ginseng root extract, and 4th group was treated with Korean ginseng root extract. All groups were administered with EE2 0.56 mg/20 g bw/day for 9 days as pretreatment to decrease the testosteron level. After pretreatment, each group divided to 3 subgroups (each would receive treatment for 9, 18, and 27 days. Ethynilestradiol 0.56 mg/20 g bw/day was administered along treatment to keep testosterone level low, except to positive control group. Java ginseng and Korean ginseng root extract (equal with 1.4 mg ginseng root powder/ 20 g bw/day and EE2 were administered orally. The level of testosterone after pretreatment was measured by RIA (radioimmuoassay and changes in libido were determined by libido test. After the last treatment, 1 male mouse kept singly in individual cage. Libido test was carried out for 20 minutes. All of these activities during test recorded by handycam. The mice were observed for time from the introduction of female into the cage of male upto the first mount (mounting latency/ ML and for the number of mounts (mounting frequency/MF. The results indicated that at low testosterone level, Java ginseng root extract administration at the dose equal with 1.4 mg ginseng root powder/20 g bw/day shortened mounting latency and increased mounting frequency but Korean ginseng extract root at the same dose gave negative effects. Duration of administration of both Java and Korean ginseng root extract didn’t give effect on libido.

  6. Physicochemical Characteristics and Antioxidant Capacity in Yogurt Fortified with Red Ginseng Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Jieun; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Yoon, Hyun Joo; Jang, Hye Ji; Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Jee, Hee-Sook; Li, Xiang; Lee, Na-Kyoung; Lee, Si-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate characteristics and functionality of yogurt applied red ginseng extract. Yogurts added with red ginseng extract (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2%) were produced using Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilus and stored at refrigerated temperature. During fermentation, pH was decreased whereas titratable aicidity and viable cell counts of L. acidophilus and S. thermophilus were increased. The composition of yogurt samples was measured on day 1,...

  7. Heat-processed ginseng saponin ameliorates the adenine-induced renal failure in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Eun Jin; Oh, Hyun-A; Choi, Hyuck Jai; Park, Jeong Hill; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Nam Jae

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of the saponin of heat-processed ginseng (Sun ginseng, SG), we investigated the protective effect of SG total saponin fraction against adenine-induced chronic renal failure in rats. SG saponin significantly decreased the levels of urea nitrogen and creatinine in the serum, but increased the urinary excretion of urea nitrogen and creatinine, indicating an improvement of renal function. SG saponin also inhibited adenine-induced kidney hypertrophy and edema. SG saponin red...

  8. Subacute Oral Toxicity Study of Korean Red Ginseng Extract in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sang-Jin; Lim, Kwang-Hyun; Noh, Jeong-Ho; Jeong, Eun Ju; Kim, Yong-Soon; Han, Byung-Cheol; Lee, Seung-Ho; Moon, Kyoung-Sik

    2013-01-01

    Ginseng is a well-known traditional medicine used in Asian countries for several thousand years, and it is currently applied to medicine, cosmetics, and nutritional supplements due to its many healing and energygiving properties. It is well demonstrated that ginsenosides, the main ingredient of ginseng, produce a variety of pharmacological and therapeutic effects on central nerve system (CNS) disorders, cardiovascular disease, endocrine secretions, aging, and immune function. Korean red ginse...

  9. Morphine dependence is attenuated by red ginseng extract and ginsenosides Rh2, Rg3, and compound K

    OpenAIRE

    Yayeh, Taddesse; Yun, Kyunghwa; Jang, Soyong; Oh, Seikwan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Red ginseng and ginsenosides have shown plethoric effects against various ailments. However, little is known regarding the effect of red ginseng on morphine-induced dependence and tolerance. We therefore investigated the effect of red ginseng extract (RGE) and biotransformed ginsenosides Rh2, Rg3, and compound K on morphine-induced dependence in mice and rats. Methods: While mice were pretreated with RGE and then morphine was injected intraperitoneally, rats were infused with g...

  10. Physicochemical Characteristics and Antioxidant Capacity in Yogurt Fortified with Red Ginseng Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jieun; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Yoon, Hyun Joo; Jang, Hye Ji; Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Jee, Hee-Sook; Lee, Na-Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate characteristics and functionality of yogurt applied red ginseng extract. Yogurts added with red ginseng extract (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2%) were produced using Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilus and stored at refrigerated temperature. During fermentation, pH was decreased whereas titratable aicidity and viable cell counts of L. acidophilus and S. thermophilus were increased. The composition of yogurt samples was measured on day 1, an increase of red ginseng extract content in yogurt resulted in an increase in lactose, protein, total solids, and ash content, whereas fat and moisture content decreased. The pH value and cell counts of L. acidophilus and S. thermophilus were declined, however titratable acidity was increased during storage period. The antioxidant capacity was measured as diverse methods. During refrigerated storage time, the value of antioxidant effect was decreased, however, yogurt fortified with red ginseng extract had higher capacity than plain yogurt. The antioxidant effect was improved in proportion to concentration of red ginseng extract. These data suggests that red ginseng extract could affect to reduce fermentation time of yogurt and enhance antioxidant capacity. PMID:27433113

  11. Effects of ginseng on stress-related depression, anxiety, and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungyeop Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ginseng effectively regulates the immune response and the hormonal changes due to stress, thus maintaining homeostasis. In addition to suppressing the occurrence of psychological diseases such as anxiety and depression, ginseng also prevents stress-associated physiological diseases. Recent findings have revealed that ginseng is involved in adjusting the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and controlling hormones, thus producing beneficial effects on the heart and brain, and in cases of bone diseases, as well as alleviating erectile dysfunction. Recent studies have highlighted the potential use of ginseng in the prevention and treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases such as diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and allergic asthma. However, the mechanism underlying the effects of ginseng on these stress-related diseases has not been completely established. In this review, we focus on the disease pathways caused by stress in order to determine how ginseng acts to improve health. Central to our discussion is how this effective and stable therapeutic agent alleviates the anxiety and depression caused by stress and ameliorates inflammatory diseases.

  12. A review on the medicinal potentials of ginseng and ginsenosides on cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Ho Lee

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ginseng is widely used for its promising healing and restorative properties as well as for its possible tonic effect in traditional medicine. Nowadays, many studies focus on purified individual ginsenoside, an important constituent in ginseng, and study its specific mechanism of action instead of whole-plant extracts on cardiovascular diseases (CVDs. Of the various ginsenosides, purified ginsenosides such as Rb1, Rg1, Rg3, Rh1, Re, and Rd are the most frequently studied. Although there are many reports on the molecular mechanisms and medical applications of ginsenosides in the treatment of CVDs, many concerns exist in their application. This review discusses current works on the countless pharmacological functions and the potential benefits of ginseng in the area of CVDs. Results: Both in vitro and in vivo results indicate that ginseng has potentially positive effects on heart disease through its various properties including antioxidation, reduced platelet adhesion, vasomotor regulation, improving lipid profiles, and influencing various ion channels. To date, approximately 40 ginsenosides have been identified, and each has a different mechanism of action owing to the differences in chemical structure. This review aims to present comprehensive information on the traditional uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of ginseng, especially in the control of hypertension and cardiovascular function. In addition, the review also provides an insight into the opportunities for future research and development on the biological activities of ginseng.

  13. Physicochemical Characteristics and Antioxidant Capacity in Yogurt Fortified with Red Ginseng Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jieun; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Yoon, Hyun Joo; Jang, Hye Ji; Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Jee, Hee-Sook; Li, Xiang; Lee, Na-Kyoung; Lee, Si-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate characteristics and functionality of yogurt applied red ginseng extract. Yogurts added with red ginseng extract (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2%) were produced using Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilus and stored at refrigerated temperature. During fermentation, pH was decreased whereas titratable aicidity and viable cell counts of L. acidophilus and S. thermophilus were increased. The composition of yogurt samples was measured on day 1, an increase of red ginseng extract content in yogurt resulted in an increase in lactose, protein, total solids, and ash content, whereas fat and moisture content decreased. The pH value and cell counts of L. acidophilus and S. thermophilus were declined, however titratable acidity was increased during storage period. The antioxidant capacity was measured as diverse methods. During refrigerated storage time, the value of antioxidant effect was decreased, however, yogurt fortified with red ginseng extract had higher capacity than plain yogurt. The antioxidant effect was improved in proportion to concentration of red ginseng extract. These data suggests that red ginseng extract could affect to reduce fermentation time of yogurt and enhance antioxidant capacity.

  14. Dietary supplementation of chinese ginseng prevents obesity and metabolic syndrome in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoxiao; Luo, Jing; Anandh Babu, Pon Velayutham; Zhang, Wei; Gilbert, Elizabeth; Cline, Mark; McMillan, Ryan; Hulver, Matthew; Alkhalidy, Hana; Zhen, Wei; Zhang, Haiyan; Liu, Dongmin

    2014-12-01

    Obesity and diabetes are growing health problems worldwide. In this study, dietary provision of Chinese ginseng (0.5 g/kg diet) prevented body weight gain in high-fat (HF) diet-fed mice. Dietary ginseng supplementation reduced body fat mass gain, improved glucose tolerance and whole body insulin sensitivity, and prevented hypertension in HF diet-induced obese mice. Ginseng consumption led to reduced concentrations of plasma insulin and leptin, but had no effect on plasma adiponectin levels in HF diet-fed mice. Body temperature was higher in mice fed the ginseng-supplemented diet but energy expenditure, respiration rate, and locomotive activity were not significantly altered. Dietary intake of ginseng increased fatty acid oxidation in the liver but not in skeletal muscle. Expression of several transcription factors associated with adipogenesis (C/EBPα and PPARγ) were decreased in the adipose tissue of HF diet-fed mice, effects that were mitigated in mice that consumed the HF diet supplemented with ginseng. Abundance of fatty acid synthase (FASN) mRNA was greater in the adipose tissue of mice that consumed the ginseng-supplemented HF diet as compared with control or un-supplemented HF diet-fed mice. Ginseng treatment had no effect on the expression of genes involved in the regulation of food intake in the hypothalamus. These data suggest that Chinese ginseng can potently prevent the development of obesity and insulin resistance in HF diet-fed mice.

  15. The psychopharmacological activities of Vietnamese ginseng in mice: characterization of its psychomotor, sedative–hypnotic, antistress, anxiolytic, and cognitive effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Joy I. dela Peña

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: VG, like other ginseng products, has significant and potentially useful psychopharmacological effects. This includes, but is not limited to, psychomotor stimulation, anxiolytic, antistress, and memory enhancing effects.

  16. Isolation, structural determination, and evaluation of the biological activity of 20(S)-25-methoxyl-dammarane-3beta, 12beta, 20-triol [20(S)-25-OCH3-PPD], a novel natural product from Panax notoginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y; Wang, W; Han, L; Rayburn, E R; Hill, D L; Wang, H; Zhang, R

    2007-01-01

    Ginseng has been used extensively for medicinal purposes, with suggested utility for indications as diverse as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Herein we report the discovery and characterization of 20(S)-25-OCH3-PPD, a ginsenoside that inhibits growth and survival of cancer cells. The novel dammarane triterpene sapogenin (C31H56O4; molecular weight 492) was isolated from the total hydrolyzed saponins extracted from the leaves of Panax notoginseng using conventional and reverse-phase silica gel chromatography. Based on physicochemical characteristics and NMR data, the compound was identified as 20(S)-25-OCH3-PPD. The biological activities of 20(S)-25-OCH3-PPD and its known analogs, 20(S)-PPD and Rg3, were evaluated in 12 human cancer cell lines. In all cell lines, the order of cytotoxicity of the test compounds was 20(S)-25-OCH3-PPD > 20(S)-PPD > Rg3. 20(S)-25-OCH3-PPD also induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase, and inhibited proliferation in breast cancer cell lines, demonstrating its potent biological effects. In regard to cytotoxicity, the IC50 values of 20(S)-25-OCH3-PPD for most cell lines were in the lower microM range, a 5-15-fold greater cytotoxicity relative to 20(S)-PPD and a 10-100-fold increase over Rg3. These findings suggest a structure-activity relationship among dammarane-type sapogenins. The data presented here may provide a basis for the future development of 20(S)-25-OCH3-PPD as a novel anti-cancer agent.

  17. Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy B; Rodríguez, Melanie Domenech; Bernal, Guillermo

    2011-02-01

    This article summarizes the definitions, means, and research of adapting psychotherapy to clients' cultural backgrounds. We begin by reviewing the prevailing definitions of cultural adaptation and providing a clinical example. We present an original meta-analysis of 65 experimental and quasi-experimental studies involving 8,620 participants. The omnibus effect size of d = .46 indicates that treatments specifically adapted for clients of color were moderately more effective with that clientele than traditional treatments. The most effective treatments tended to be those with greater numbers of cultural adaptations. Mental health services targeted to a specific cultural group were several times more effective than those provided to clients from a variety of cultural backgrounds. We recommend a series of research-supported therapeutic practices that account for clients' culture, with culture-specific treatments being more effective than generally culture-sensitive treatments. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. [Research on compatibility of prescriptions including Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Trogopterus Dung based on complex network analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng-Wen; Fan, Xin-Sheng; Zhang, Ling-Shan; Wang, Cong-Jun

    2017-09-01

    The applications of prescriptions including Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Trogopterus Dung in contemporary literatures from 1949 to 2016 are compiled and the data mining techniques containing scale-free complex network method are utilized to explore its practical characteristics, with comparison between modern and ancient ones. The results indicate that malignant neoplasms, coronary heart disease which present Qi deficiency and blood stasis type are the main diseases treated by prescriptions including Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Trogopterus Dung according to the reports during 1949 to 2016. The complex network connection shows that Glycyrrhizae Radixet Rhizoma, Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Astragali Radix, Typhae Pollen, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma are the primary drugs related to Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Trogopterus Dung. The next are Paeoniae Radix Alba, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, Persicae Semen, Foria, et al. Carthami Flos, Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Cyperi Rhizoma, Bupleuri Radix are the peripheral ones. Also, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma-Glycyrrhizae Radixet Rhizoma, Trogopterus Dung-Glycyrrhizae Radixet Rhizoma, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma-Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Trogopterus Dung-Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma-Astragali Radix, Trogopterus Dung-Astragali Radix are the main paired drugs. The paired drugs including Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma-Trogopterus Dung-Glycyrrhizae Radixet Rhizoma, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma-Trogopterus Dung-Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma-Trogopterus Dung-Astragali Radix, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma-Trogopterus Dung-Typhae Pollen have a higher support degree. The main compatible drugs are different in ancient and modern prescriptions including Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Trogopterus Dung. Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Typhae Pollen, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Astragali Radix are utilized frequently in modern prescriptions while less used in ancient ones. It is also shown

  19. Trace elements determination in ginseng and ginkgo biloba medicinal plants; Determinacao de elementos traco nos fitofarmacos ginseng e ginkgo biloba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avino, Simone; Saiki, Mitiko; Fulfaro, Roberto [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica

    2002-07-01

    Determinations of trace elements in medicinal plants or in their extracts are of great interest since some elements are components of active constituents or they can affect the plant metabolism and consequently the formation of active constituents. In this work, inorganic components in medicinal drugs, Ginseng e Ginkgo Biloba provided from different laboratories, were analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Elements As, Br, Ca, Cl, Co Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, and Zn, were determined in these samples. Comparisons carried out between the results obtained for samples from different laboratories indicated distinct concentrations for several elements. These results may be attributed to the effect of soil composition and environmental conditions where these plants were cultivated. The precision and accuracy of the results were evaluated by analyzing reference materials Bowen's Kale from IUAPC and Cabbage from IAEA. (author)

  20. Anticancer effects of saponin and saponin–phospholipid complex of Panax notoginseng grown in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Thu Dang Kim; Hai Nguyen Thanh; Duong Nguyen Thuy; Loi Vu Duc; Thu Vu Thi; Hung Vu Manh; Patcharee Boonsiri; Tung Bui Thanh

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo of saponin–phospholipid complex of Panax notoginseng. Methods: The in vitro cytotoxic effect of saponins extract and saponin–phospholipid complex against human lung cancer NCI-H460 and breast cancer cell lines BT474 was examined using MTS assay. For in vivo evaluation of antitumor potential, saponin and saponin–phospholipid complex were administered orally in rats induced mammary carcinogenesis by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)a...

  1. Bacterial Diversity and Community Structure in Korean Ginseng Field Soil Are Shifted by Cultivation Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ngoc-Lan; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Hoang, Van-An; Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy; Kang, Jong-Pyo; Kang, Chang Ho; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Traditional molecular methods have been used to examine bacterial communities in ginseng-cultivated soil samples in a time-dependent manner. Despite these efforts, our understanding of the bacterial community is still inadequate. Therefore, in this study, a high-throughput sequencing approach was employed to investigate bacterial diversity in various ginseng field soil samples over cultivation times of 2, 4, and 6 years in the first and second rounds of cultivation. We used non-cultivated soil samples to perform a comparative study. Moreover, this study assessed changes in the bacterial community associated with soil depth and the health state of the ginseng. Bacterial richness decreased through years of cultivation. This study detected differences in relative abundance of bacterial populations between the first and second rounds of cultivation, years of cultivation, and health states of ginseng. These bacterial populations were mainly distributed in the classes Acidobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Sphingobacteria. In addition, we found that pH, available phosphorus, and exchangeable Ca+ seemed to have high correlations with bacterial class in ginseng cultivated soil.

  2. A Metabolomic Approach for the Discrimination of Red Ginseng Root Parts and Targeted Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In, Gyo; Seo, Hyun Kyu; Park, Hee-Won; Jang, Kyoung Hwa

    2017-03-15

    Ginsenosides are used as existing markers of red ginseng (RG) quality, and ginsenoside ratios are also indicative of the different components of red ginseng. For the analysis and classification of ginsenoside content, red ginseng was separated into three parts, namely, main roots, lateral roots, and fine roots, and each extract was subjected to ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QToF-MS) with multivariate statistical analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed a clear discrimination between the extracts of main roots and fine roots and suggested discrimination markers (four for the main roots and five for the fine roots). The fine root markers were identified as ginsenoside. We identified two markers for the main roots of red ginseng in this study. Moreover, the contents of 22 ginsenosides were analyzed in all three components of red ginseng. Fine roots have the highest protopanaxadiol (PPD)/protopanaxatriol (PPT) ratio. The PPD group of ginsenosides, which is quantitatively dominant in fine roots, clearly distinguishes the main roots from the other parts.

  3. Pharmacokinetics study of bio-adhesive tablet of Panax notoginseng saponins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Hanzhou

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Panax notoginseng saponin (PNS is the main active gradient of Chinese traditional medicine Panax notoginseng. Although its prominent therapeutic efficacy has been demonstrated by various researchers, the broader application is restricted by the low bioavailability of PNS. This article aims to discuss PNS's plasma pharmacokinetics after oral administration of bio-adhesive tablet of PNS to beagle dogs and improve its bioavailability in comparison with normal tablet. The bio-adhesive tablet was prepared according to our previous patent, using chitosan as main excipient. A simple and sensitive LC-MS/MS combined with solid-phase extraction (SPE method for the analysis of PNS in dog's plasma was developed in our previous study, and was validated to apply in the pharmacokinetics study in this work. Three ingredients: Notoginsenoside R1 (R1, Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1 and Ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1 (Figure 1, were chosen as indicators of PNS to analyze it in vivo. Statistically significant increase (P

  4. Panax notoginseng Preparations for Unstable Angina Pectoris: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Haiying; Wang, Peili; Liu, Jiangang; Wang, Chenglong

    2017-08-01

    This paper assessed the evidence of Panax notoginseng preparations in patients suffering from UAP using meta-analysis and systematic review methods. Methods were according to the Cochrane Handbook and analysed using Revman 5.3. A search of PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, MEDLINE, Chinese national knowledge infrastructure (CNKI), Vip information database, Wanfang data and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (SinoMed) was conducted to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of P. notoginseng preparations on UAP regardless of blinding, sex and language. The outcomes include all-cause mortality, cardiac mortality, cardiovascular events, UAP symptoms, improvement of electrocardiogram and adverse events. Eighteen RCTs including 1828 patients were identified. The level of reporting is generally poor. Among 18 studies, 16 studies were prescribed P. notoginseng injections, and two studies were oral P. notoginseng preparations. Reduction of cardiovascular events (RR:0.35;95% CI:0.13 to 0.94), alleviation of angina pectoris symptoms (RR:1.23;95% CI 1.18 to 1.29), improvement of ECG (RR:1.22;95% CI 1.15 to 1.28) and reduced frequency of angina pectoris (MD:-1.48; 95% CI -2.49 to -0.48) were observed. Cardiac mortality and duration of angina pectoris were not statistically significant. Panax notoginseng is beneficial to UAP patients; the results of these reviews may have important implications to clinical work. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Ca2+ influx and efflux in animal cells in the presence of panax notoginseng extracts: investigated by using 45Ca as a radioactive tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yuanyou; Liu Ning; Mo Shangwu; Liao Jiali; Xu Falun

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the influence of extracts of Panax notoginseng on Ca 2+ influx and efflux in isolated rat visceral organs was investigated by using 45 Ca as a radioactive tracer. The results indicated that both extracts, the total flavonoids and total saponins of Panax notoginseng had significant influence on Ca 2+ influx and efflux in the isolated rat aorta, heart, and kidney, in those organs it could markedly block 45 Ca entering into cell and could facilitate efflux of intracellular Ca 2+ . Compared with the total flavonoids, total saponins had stronger role in the regulation of Ca 2+ influx and efflux. Also, regulation effects of Ca 2+ influx and efflux of the total saponins were compared with positive drug Verapamil, or even better. This implies that the total flavonoids and total saponins of Panax notoginseng have calcium antagonistic effect, and both may be the active ingredients in Panax notoginseng for coronary heart disease treatment. (authors)

  6. Quality and characteristics of fermented ginseng seed oil based on bacterial strain and extraction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Hee Lee

    2017-07-01

    Results and Conclusion: The color of the fermented ginseng seed oil did not differ greatly according to the fermentation or extraction method. The highest phenolic compound content recovered with the use of supercritical fluid extraction combined with fermentation using the Bacillus subtilis Korea Food Research Institute (KFRI 1127 strain. The fatty acid composition did not differ greatly according to fermentation strain and extraction method. The phytosterol content of ginseng seed oil fermented with Bacillus subtilis KFRI 1127 and extracted using the supercritical fluid method was highest at 983.58 mg/100 g. Therefore, our results suggested that the ginseng seed oil fermented with Bacillus subtilis KFRI 1127 and extracted using the supercritical fluid method can yield a higher content of bioactive ingredients, such as phenolics, and phytosterols, without impacting the color or fatty acid composition of the product.

  7. Absorption of nitrogen by ginseng and effect of nitrogen on 14C-assimilate distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Xianju; Zhang Ping; Liu Tong

    1999-01-01

    By using 15 N and 14 C tracer technique, the utilization, recovery and loss rate of N fertilizer in ginseng ware studied. With different applying levels of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 gN/m 2 14 CO 2 assimilating ability, NR activity, N compound, sugar and ginseng saponin were determined. The results showed that the N fertilizer utilization rate was 9.85% in the first year, the accumulative utilization rate for two years was 19.06%. Recovery rate of the fertilizer-N was 81.5% in the first year and 69.78% in second year. Loss rate of the fertilizer-N was 30.22%. With the treatment of 10 gN/m 2 , 14 CO 2 assimilation ability and NR activity was the highest. With the treatment of 40 gN/m 2 , total soluble sugar, sucrose and ginseng saponin content decreased and starch content increased

  8. Biogenic silver and gold nanoparticles synthesized using red ginseng root extract, and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Priyanka; Kim, Yeon Ju; Wang, Chao; Mathiyalagan, Ramya; El-Agamy Farh, Mohamed; Yang, Deok Chun

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, we report a green methodology for the synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles, using the root extract of the herbal medicinal plant Korean red ginseng. The silver and gold nanoparticles were synthesized within 1 h and 10 min respectively. The nanoparticles generated were not aggregated, and remained stable for a long time, which suggests the nature of nanoparticles. The phytochemicals and ginsenosides present in the root extract assist in reducing and stabilizing the synthesized nanoparticles. The red ginseng root extract-generated silver nanoparticles exhibit antimicrobial activity against pathogenic microorganisms including Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Candida albicans. In addition, the silver nanoparticles exhibit biofilm degrading activity against S. aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Thus, the present study opens up a new possibility of synthesizing silver and gold nanoparticles in a green and rapid manner using Korean red ginseng root extract, and explores their biomedical applications.

  9. Effects of ginseng extract on various haematological parameters during aerobic exercise in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, A; Vila, L; Voces, J A; Cabral, A C; Alvarez, A I; Prieto, J G

    1999-04-01

    The effects of the Ginseng extract on various biochemical and haematological parameters in male Wistar rats subjected to a treadmill exercise protocol were studied for 12 weeks. The results showed increases in the haematological parameters, these increases being greatest for the animals treated with the extract during the third month of the study. The exercise also led to increases in these parameters, while the combination of both exercise and extract produced smaller increases. This study shows a clear physiological response due to the ginseng extract administration that reproduces many of the effects obtained after long-term exercise. The combination of exercise and treatments seems to support the theory that there is no clear synergic effect when the advantages associated with the ingestion of ginseng are compared with the performance of exercise.

  10. Development of Distinction Method of Production Area of Ginsengs by Using a Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Jin; Chung, Yong Sam; Sun, Gwang Min; Lee, Yu Na; Yoo, Sang Ho [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    Distinction of production area of Korean ginsengs has been tried by using neutron activation techniques such as an instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and a prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA). A distribution of elements has varied according to the part of plant clue to the difference of enrichment effect and influence from a soil where the plants have been grown. So correlation study between plants and soil has been an Issue. In this study, the distribution of trace elements within a Korean ginseng was investigated by using an instrumental neutron activation analysis

  11. Investigation of distribution of elements in a Korean ginseng by using a neutron activation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yu Na; Sun, Gwang Min; Chung, Yong Sam; Kim, Young Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    The Distinction of production areas of Korean ginsengs has been tried by using neutron activation techniques such as an instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and a prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA). This study was done as a part of those efforts. As is well known, the distribution of elements varies according to the part of plant due to the difference of enrichment effect and influence from a soil where the plants have been grown. So a correlation study between plants and soil is an important issue. In this study, the distribution of trace elements within a Korean ginseng was investigated by using an instrumental neutron activation analysis.

  12. Aeromicrobium ginsengisoli sp. nov., isolated from a ginseng field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung Kyum; Park, Min-Ju; Im, Wan-Taek; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2008-09-01

    Strain Gsoil 098(T), a Gram-positive, non-spore-forming, non-motile coccus, was isolated from soil from a ginseng field in South Korea and characterized in order to determine its taxonomic position. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain Gsoil 098(T) belongs to the family Nocardioidaceae, and the highest degrees of sequence similarity were found with Aeromicrobium marinum T2(T) (99.0%), A. panaciterrae Gsoil 161(T) (98.9%), A. alkaliterrae KSL-107(T) (98.4%), A. fastidiosum KCTC 9576(T) (98.1%) and A. erythreum NRRL B-3381(T) (97.5%). Chemotaxonomic analysis revealed that strain Gsoil 098(T) possesses menaquinone MK-9(H(4)) and predominant fatty acids C(16 : 0), 10-methyl C(18:0) and C(18:0). DNA-DNA hybridization results and physiological and biochemical tests clearly demonstrated that strain Gsoil 098(T) represents a distinct species. Based on these data, Gsoil 098(T) (=KCTC 19207(T) =JCM 14732(T) =GBS 39(T)) should be classified as the type strain of a novel Aeromicrobium species, for which the name Aeromicrobium ginsengisoli sp. nov. is proposed.

  13. Anti-fatigue activity of a mixture of seahorse (Hippocampus abdominalis hydrolysate and red ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalae Kang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Seahorse, a syngnathidae fish, is one of the important organisms used in Chinese traditional medicine. Hippocampus abdominalis, a seahorse species successfully cultured in Korea, was validated for use in food by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety in February 2016; however. the validation was restricted to 50% of the entire composition. Therefore, to use H. abdominalis as a food ingredient, H. abdominalis has to be prepared as a mixture by adding other materials. In this study, the effect of H. abdominalis on muscles was investigated to scientifically verify its potential bioactivity. In addition, the anti-fatigue activity of a mixture comprising H. abdominalis and red ginseng (RG was evaluated to commercially utilize H. abdominalis in food industry. H. abdominalis was hydrolyzed using Alcalase, a protease, and the effect of H. abdominalis hydrolysate (HH on the muscles was assessed in C2C12 myoblasts by measuring cell proliferation and glycogen content. In addition, the mixtures comprising HH and RG were prepared at different percentages of RG to HH (20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80% RG, and the anti-fatigue activity of these mixtures against oxidative stress was assessed in C2C12 myoblasts. In C2C12 myoblasts, H2O2-induced oxidative stress caused a decrease in viability and physical fatigue-related biomarkers such as glycogen and ATP contents. However, treatment with RG and HH mixtures increased cell viability and the content of fatigue-related biomarkers. In particular, the 80% RG mixture showed an optimum effect on cell viability and ATP synthesis activity. In this study, all results indicated that HH had anti-fatigue activity at concentrations approved for use in food by the law in Korea. Especially, an 80% RG to HH mixture can be used in food for ameliorating fatigue.

  14. Physiological and Biochemical Studies on The Possible Protective Role of Ginseng in Gamma Irradiated Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkiki, Sh.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Administration of Ginseng prior to radiation exposure at both doses 2 or 6 Gy of gamma rays minimize the hazardous effect of radiation by decreasing the level of serum total lipid, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides, MDA and lipids of RBCS membrane. Also, Ginseng treatment before exposure to single separate doses 2 and 6 Gy of γ- rays increasing the levels of low density lipoprotein (LDL), total protein, albumin, globulin, RBCs count, WBCs count, hemoglobin content and erythropoietin. Morphological studies of bone marrow revealed that administration of Ginseng before exposure to 2 or 6 Gy of γ- radiation improve the cellularity comparing to the irradiated one. While administration of Ginseng after exposure to 6 Gy of γ-rays had no effect and showed severe hypo cellularity and loss cell wall. The radioprotective effect of Ginseng administration before exposure to irradiation was more effective than that of Ginseng administered after exposure to irradiation. Ginseng was obviously investigated as an effective agent on hematopoiesis

  15. Effect of enzyme on extraction of ginsenoside Rb1 and Rg3 from Panax notoginseng roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuong, Nguyen Tran Xuan; Thy, Lu Thi Mong; Khang, Nguyen Luu Vinh; My, Huynh Thi Kieu; Tam, Nguyen Le Phuong; Hieu, Nguyen Huu

    2018-04-01

    Panax notoginseng is distributed throughout the north and northwest of Vietnam, especially Ha Giang, Lao Cai, and Cao Bang provinces. The root of this plant contains ginsenosides (Rb1, Rb2, Rd, Rg3), flavonoids, polyacetylene, polysaccharides, amino acids, fatty acids, and peptides. In this study, the ratios of enzyme (Viscozyme, Termamyl, Cellulase), solvent of components, and time extraction were investigated. The results showed that the highest contents of Rb1 and Rg3 were achieved in the sample extracted with the ratio of enzymes V:C:T = 1:0:0, ethanol:water (60:40, v/v) as extracting solvent in 45 minutes. Then, conditions of high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector method to determine the content of ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg3 in the roots of Panax notoginseng were studied, including wavelength, mobile phase, and flow rate. The separation was subjected on a reversed-phase C18 column using acetonitrile (A) and water (B) as mobile phase. The gradient elution was set as follow: 0-10 min, 15-25% A; 10-20 min, 25-30% A; 20-40 min, 30-60% A; 40-60 min, 60-80% A; and 60-65 min back to 15% A before the next injection, at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min, and the wavelength was set at 202 nm. The linear range was from 298.59 to 696.72 µg/mL for Rb1 and from 8.19 to 19.10 µg/L for Rg3. The limits of detection for Rb1 and Rg3 obtained were 0.31 µg/mL and 0.33 µg/mL, respectively. The limits of quantification were 0.95 µg/mL and 1.01 µg/mL for Rb1 and Rg3, respectively. Consequently, the high performance liquid chromatography demonstrated the highly sensitive and accurate method for determination of Rb1 and Rg3 in Panax notoginseng.

  16. Cytotoxic effect of x-irradiation of mouse tumor cells in the presence of Korean ginseng extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hyoung Cheol; Kim, Jin Ki; Kim, Jung Soo [College of Medicine, Chonbuk National Univ., Junju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Dong Seong [College of Medicine, Woosuck Univ., Wanju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-09-01

    We already reported the results that aqueous extract of Korean ginseng roots showed a marked cytotoxicity. In this study, we investigated whether combined ginseng product with X-irradiation increase the cytotoxicity of tumor cells than X-irradiation or not. Fifty gram of Korean ginseng powder mixed with 1 L of distilled water was extracted with reflux flask under condition of 100 .deg. C for 5 hrs. This aqueous ginseng extract was filtered, centrifuged and then was freezed under condition of -90 .deg. C for 16-18 hrs. The freezing extract was dried with freeze drier, and then diluted. X-irradiation was given to tumor cells by 6 MeV linear accelerator. The cytotoxicity of ginseng in vitro was evaluated from its ability to reduce the clonogenecity of fibrosarcoma (FSa ll) cells. In X-irradiation alone group, each 2, 4, 6 and 8 Gy was given to tumor cells. In X-irradiation with ginseng group, 0.2 mg/mL or ginseng extract was exposed to tumor cells for 1 hour before X-irradiation. The yield for 50 g of ginseng extract which was treated with freezing drier was 3.13 g(6.3%). Cytotoxicity in vitro was measured as survival fraction which was judged from the curve, at ginseng concentration of 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mg/ml were 0.89{+-}0.04, 0.86{+-}0.06, 0.73{+-}0.01 and 0.09{+-}0.02, respectively. Survival fraction at X-irradiation alone of 2, 4, 6 and 8 Gy were 0.81{+-}0.07, 0.42{+-}0.08, 0.15{+-}0.02, 0.03{+-}0.01, respectively. But, survival fraction in combined group of X-irradiation and ginseng (0.2mg/mL) at each same radiation dose were 0.28{+-}0.01, 0.18{+-}0.03, 0.08{+-}0.02, 0.006{+-}0.002, respectively (p<0.05). The yield for ginseng extract which was treated with freezing drier was 6.3%. Cytotoxicity of Fsa II in combined ginseng with X-irradiation group was increased than that at X-irradiation alone group, and its enhancing effect seemed to be added.

  17. Cytotoxic effect of x-irradiation of mouse tumor cells in the presence of Korean ginseng extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Hyoung Cheol; Kim, Jin Ki; Kim, Jung Soo; Choi, Dong Seong

    2000-01-01

    We already reported the results that aqueous extract of Korean ginseng roots showed a marked cytotoxicity. In this study, we investigated whether combined ginseng product with X-irradiation increase the cytotoxicity of tumor cells than X-irradiation or not. Fifty gram of Korean ginseng powder mixed with 1 L of distilled water was extracted with reflux flask under condition of 100 .deg. C for 5 hrs. This aqueous ginseng extract was filtered, centrifuged and then was freezed under condition of -90 .deg. C for 16-18 hrs. The freezing extract was dried with freeze drier, and then diluted. X-irradiation was given to tumor cells by 6 MeV linear accelerator. The cytotoxicity of ginseng in vitro was evaluated from its ability to reduce the clonogenecity of fibrosarcoma (FSa ll) cells. In X-irradiation alone group, each 2, 4, 6 and 8 Gy was given to tumor cells. In X-irradiation with ginseng group, 0.2 mg/mL or ginseng extract was exposed to tumor cells for 1 hour before X-irradiation. The yield for 50 g of ginseng extract which was treated with freezing drier was 3.13 g(6.3%). Cytotoxicity in vitro was measured as survival fraction which was judged from the curve, at ginseng concentration of 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mg/ml were 0.89±0.04, 0.86±0.06, 0.73±0.01 and 0.09±0.02, respectively. Survival fraction at X-irradiation alone of 2, 4, 6 and 8 Gy were 0.81±0.07, 0.42±0.08, 0.15±0.02, 0.03±0.01, respectively. But, survival fraction in combined group of X-irradiation and ginseng (0.2mg/mL) at each same radiation dose were 0.28±0.01, 0.18±0.03, 0.08±0.02, 0.006±0.002, respectively (p<0.05). The yield for ginseng extract which was treated with freezing drier was 6.3%. Cytotoxicity of Fsa II in combined ginseng with X-irradiation group was increased than that at X-irradiation alone group, and its enhancing effect seemed to be added

  18. Study on the secondary metabolic regulation of callus of Panax quinquefolium L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Meiping; Wang Yi; Sun Chunyu; Li Xianggao

    2003-01-01

    The effects of precursors with different kind, concentration, growth phase, time and different ATP, nicotinic acid concentration on the callus growth and saponin formation with the buds of Panax quinquefolium L. has been studied. The results showed that 0.1% mevalonic acid inhibited the callus growth but promoted the saponin formation; L-leucine of 100 mg/L had no obvious effects on callus growth, but promoted the saponin formation; Mg(Ac) 2 of 444 mg/L promoted both the callus growth and saponin content. The optimum time for precursor feeding is at the beginning of regeneration. The optimum time for mevalonic acid is 6h; ATP of 160 mg/L promoted both the callus growth and saponin formation. Nicotinic acid of 1.0 mg/L promoted callus growth and saponin formation. With 4000 Gy of 60 Co γ-rays, the saponin content has been increased 1 time compared with nonirradiation

  19. Quantitative comparison and metabolite profiling of saponins in different parts of the root of Panax notoginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Rong; Yau, Lee-Fong; Gao, Wei-Na; Liu, Yong; Yick, Pui-Wing; Liu, Liang; Jiang, Zhi-Hong

    2014-09-10

    Although both rhizome and root of Panax notoginseng are officially utilized as notoginseng in "Chinese Pharmacopoeia", individual parts of the root were differently used in practice. To provide chemical evidence for the differentiated usage, quantitative comparison and metabolite profiling of different portions derived from the whole root, as well as commercial samples, were carried out, showing an overall higher content of saponins in rhizome, followed by main root, branch root, and fibrous root. Ginsenoside Rb2 was proposed as a potential marker with a content of 0.5 mg/g as a threshold value for differentiating rhizome from other parts. Multivariate analysis of the metabolite profile further suggested 32 saponins as potential markers for the discrimination of different parts of notoginseng. Collectively, the study provided comprehensive chemical evidence for the distinct usage of different parts of notoginseng and, hence, is of great importance for the rational application and exploitation of individual parts of notoginseng.

  20. Micromorphology and development of the epicuticular structure on the epidermal cell of ginseng leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyounghwan Lee

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: The outwardly projected cuticle and epidermal cell wall (i.e., an epicuticular wrinkle acts as a major barrier to block out sunlight in ginseng leaves. The small vesicles in the peripheral region of epidermal cells may suppress the cuticle and parts of epidermal wall, push it upward, and consequently contribute to the formation of the epicuticular structure.

  1. 77 FR 20610 - United States Standards for Grades of Cultivated Ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... defects. The new grades will replace the current ones and promote the orderly and efficient marketing of ginseng in an evolving global economy. Other changes will include a revised General Section, new... to determine and complement the new grades. DATES: Effective Date: May 7, 2012. FOR FURTHER...

  2. 76 FR 53875 - United States Standards for Grades of Cultivated Ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... proposed revisions would be based on quality and percentage defects. The new grades would replace the current ones and promote the orderly and efficient marketing of ginseng in an evolving global economy... amending definitions. These revisions are needed to determine and complement the new grades. DATES...

  3. Effects of Radix Ginseng on microbial infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hong; Høiby, Niels; Yang, Liang

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarized the antimicrobial-like effects of Radix Ginseng, which provide important information to the relevant researchers and clinicians, and will benefit the clinical treatment of infectious diseases. METHODS: PubMed and Google were used to search for and collect scientific publi...

  4. The quality of irradiated red ginseng powder following transport from Korea to the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, J.H. [Department of Food Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jhkwon@knu.ac.kr; Lee, J.; Waje, C.; Ahn, J.J.; Kim, G.R. [Department of Food Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, H.W. [Korea Food and Drug Administration, Seoul 122-704 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, D.H.; Lee, J.W.; Byun, M.W. [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Jeongeup, Jeonbuk 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, K.S. [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, K.S.; Park, S.H. [Greenpia Tech Inc., Yeoju, Gyeonggi-do 469-810 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, E.J.; Ahn, D.U. [Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50010-3150 (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Irradiated red ginseng powder (2.4 kg) in commercial bottles was transported from Korea to Iowa State University (USA) via air- (10 days) and sea-cargos (50 days) to prove its qualities and identity. The microbial loads of transported samples by both methods after 5 kGy irradiation were reduced from 10{sup 6} to 10{sup 3} CFU/g in total aerobic bacteria and from 20 CFU/g (minimum detection level) to negative in coliforms, respectively, which are in accordance with Korean microbial standard for ginseng powders. Sea-transported irradiated samples showed the increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and Hunter's a (red) value, but sensory qualities of all the red ginseng samples were not significantly different depending on irradiation and transportation means. Irradiated samples could be identified from the non-irradiated ones by the analysis of photostimulated luminescence, thermoluminescence, and electron spin resonance. This trial proved the feasibility of inter-country transportation of irradiated red ginseng powder.

  5. cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Kreutz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Es un estudio cualitativo que adoptó como referencial teorico-motodológico la antropología y la etnografía. Presenta las experiencias vivenciadas por mujeres de una comunidad en el proceso salud-enfermedad, con el objetivo de comprender los determinantes sócio-culturales e históricos de las prácticas de prevención y tratamiento adoptados por el grupo cultural por medio de la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los temas que emergieron fueron: la relación entre la alimentación y lo proceso salud-enfermedad, las relaciones con el sistema de salud oficial y el proceso salud-enfermedad y lo sobrenatural. Los dados revelaron que los moradores de la comunidad investigada tienen un modo particular de explicar sus procedimientos terapéuticos. Consideramos que es papel de los profesionales de la salud en sus prácticas, la adopción de abordajes o enfoques que consideren al individuo en su dimensión sócio-cultural e histórica, considerando la enorme diversidad cultural en nuestro país.

  6. Protective role of ginseng against gentamicin induced changes in kidney of albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafeez, M.; Saeed, F.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Use of gentamicin is now limited due to its toxic effects, mainly on kidney and vestibular system. Herbal products including ginseng has been reported to possess protective effects against drugs induced nephrotoxicity in experimental animals. The current investigation was designed to evaluate the effects of ginseng on gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity. Methods: Eighteen male albino mice of 6-8 weeks age, were divided into 3 groups. Group-A served as control and was given normal mouse diet; Group-B was given 80 mg/Kg/day of gentamicin intraperitoneally dissolved in 1 ml of distilled water for fifteen days. Group-C was given 80 mg/Kg/day of gentamicin intraperitoneally dissolved in 1 ml of distilled water along with 100 mg/Kg/day of ginseng orally dissolved in 1 ml of distilled water, also for fifteen days. At the end of the experiment, blood was drawn from each animal by cardiac puncture for renal function tests. Each animal was then sacrificed and kidneys removed for routine histological studies. Results: In group B, weight of the animals and kidneys decreased and there was significant increase in mean serum urea, creatinine and intraluminal diameter (p<0.001) of proximal convoluted tubules as compared to the controls (group-A). Moderate to severe necrotic and degenerative changes in proximal convoluted tubules were seen in this group. When the Ginseng and gentamicin were given together (group-C), a statistically significant improvement in the mean body and kidney weight along with improvement in renal function tests and tubular diameter were seen (p<0.001). Conclusion: It appears that Ginseng has some protective role against gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity. (author)

  7. Traditional uses, botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chen: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Guo, Rixin; Zhou, Guohong; Zhou, Xidan; Kou, Zhenzhen; Sui, Feng; Li, Chun; Tang, Liying; Wang, Zhuju

    2016-07-21

    Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chen is a widely used traditional Chinese medicine known as Sanqi or Tianqi in China. This plant, which is distributed primarily in the southwest of China, has wide-ranging pharmacological effects and can be used to treat cardiovascular diseases, pain, inflammation and trauma as well as internal and external bleeding due to injury. This paper provides up-to-date information on investigations of this plant, including its botany, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology. The possible uses and perspectives for future investigation of this plant are also discussed. The relevant information on Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chen was collected from numerous resources, including classic books about Chinese herbal medicine, and scientific databases, including Pubmed, SciFinder, ACS, Ebsco, Elsevier, Taylor, Wiley and CNKI. More than 200 chemical compounds have been isolated from Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chen, including saponins, flavonoids and cyclopeptides. The plant has pharmacological effects on the cardiovascular system, immune system as well as anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, haemostatic and anti-tumour activities, etc. Panax notoginseng is a valuable traditional Chinese medical herb with multiple pharmacological effects. This review summarizes the botany, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of P. notoginseng, and presents the constituents and their corresponding chemical structures found in P. notoginseng comprehensively for the first time. Future research into its phytochemistry of bio-active components should be performed by using bioactivity-guided isolation strategies. Further work on elucidation of the structure-function relationship among saponins, understanding of multi-target network pharmacology of P. notoginseng, as well as developing its new clinical usage and comprehensive utilize will enhance the therapeutic potentials of P. notoginseng. Copyright © 2016

  8. A prebiotic fiber increases the formation and subsequent absorption of compound K following oral administration of ginseng in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Ah Kim

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: These results show that prebiotic diets, such as NUTRIOSE, may promote the metabolic conversion of ginsenosides to CK and the subsequent absorption of CK in the gastrointestinal tract and may potentiate the pharmacological effects of ginseng.

  9. Compound Schisandra-Ginseng-Notoginseng-Lycium Extract Ameliorates Scopolamine-Induced Learning and Memory Disorders in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ning; Liu, Cong; Jing, Shu; Wang, Mengyang; Wang, Han; Sun, Jinghui; Wang, Chunmei; Chen, Jianguang; Li, He

    2017-01-01

    Schisandra, Ginseng, Notoginseng, and Lycium barbarum are traditional Chinese medicinal plants sharing cognitive-enhancing properties. To design a functional food to improve memory, we prepared a compound Schisandra-Ginseng-Notoginseng-Lycium (CSGNL) extract and investigated its effect on scopolamine-induced learning and memory loss in mice. To optimize the dose ratios of the four herbal extracts in CSGNL, orthogonal experiments were performed. Mice were administered CSGNL by gavage once a da...

  10. Enact of Glutathione(GSH/GSSG) Contents of Fermented Ginseng on the γ-irradiated Liver of Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, In Ho

    2006-01-01

    The radioprotective effects of white and fermented ginseng on liver damage induced by 60 Co γ-ray were investigated. To one group of ICR male mice were given white(150 mg/kg/day for 7 days, orally) and fermented ginseng(150 mg/kg/day for 7 days, orally) before 60 Co γ--ray irradiation. To another group were irradiated by 5 Gy(1.01 Gy/min) dose of 60 Co γ--ray. Contrast group were given with saline(0.1 mL). The levels of reduced(GSH) and oxidized(GSSG) glutathione in liver tissue were measured. In the fermented(150 mg/kg) and white ginseng(150 mg/kg) groups than irradiation group, the GSH levels were significantly increased, but the GSSG levels were significantly decreased. The ratio of GSSG/total GSH was significantly decreased in the fermented(150 mg/kg) and white ginseng(150 mg/kg) groups than irradiation group. In the fermented(150 mg/kg) groups than white ginseng(150 mg/kg) groups the GSH levels were significantly increased. The radioprotective effects of fermented(150 mg/kg) groups than white ginseng(150 mg/kg) groups were increased.

  11. Enact of Glutathione(GSH/GSSG) Contents of Fermented Ginseng on the {gamma}-irradiated Liver of Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, In Ho [Dept. of Radiology Technology, Jeju Halla College, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    The radioprotective effects of white and fermented ginseng on liver damage induced by {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray were investigated. To one group of ICR male mice were given white(150 mg/kg/day for 7 days, orally) and fermented ginseng(150 mg/kg/day for 7 days, orally) before {sup 60}Co {gamma}--ray irradiation. To another group were irradiated by 5 Gy(1.01 Gy/min) dose of {sup 60}Co {gamma}--ray. Contrast group were given with saline(0.1 mL). The levels of reduced(GSH) and oxidized(GSSG) glutathione in liver tissue were measured. In the fermented(150 mg/kg) and white ginseng(150 mg/kg) groups than irradiation group, the GSH levels were significantly increased, but the GSSG levels were significantly decreased. The ratio of GSSG/total GSH was significantly decreased in the fermented(150 mg/kg) and white ginseng(150 mg/kg) groups than irradiation group. In the fermented(150 mg/kg) groups than white ginseng(150 mg/kg) groups the GSH levels were significantly increased. The radioprotective effects of fermented(150 mg/kg) groups than white ginseng(150 mg/kg) groups were increased.

  12. Neuroprotective Effect of Ginseng against Alteration of Calcium Binding Proteins Immunoreactivity in the Mice Hippocampus after Radiofrequency Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhiraj Maskey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium binding proteins (CaBPs such as calbindin D28-k, parvalbumin, and calretinin are able to bind Ca2+ with high affinity. Changes in Ca2+ concentrations via CaBPs can disturb Ca2+ homeostasis. Brain damage can be induced by the prolonged electromagnetic field (EMF exposure with loss of interacellular Ca2+ balance. The present study investigated the radioprotective effect of ginseng in regard to CaBPs immunoreactivity (IR in the hippocampus through immunohistochemistry after one-month exposure at 1.6 SAR value by comparing sham control with exposed and ginseng-treated exposed groups separately. Loss of dendritic arborization was noted with the CaBPs in the Cornu Ammonis areas as well as a decrease of staining intensity of the granule cells in the dentate gyrus after exposure while no loss was observed in the ginseng-treated group. A significant difference in the relative mean density was noted between control and exposed groups but was nonsignificant in the ginseng-treated group. Decrease in CaBP IR with changes in the neuronal staining as observed in the exposed group would affect the hippocampal trisynaptic circuit by alteration of the Ca2+ concentration which could be prevented by ginseng. Hence, ginseng could contribute as a radioprotective agent against EMF exposure, contributing to the maintenance of Ca2+ homeostasis by preventing impairment of intracellular Ca2+ levels in the hippocampus.

  13. Simultaneous analysis of nucleobases, nucleosides and ginsenosides in ginseng extracts using supercritical fluid chromatography coupled with single quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yang; Zhang, Tingting; Zhao, Yumei; Zhou, Haibo; Tang, Guangyun; Fillet, Marianne; Crommen, Jacques; Jiang, Zhengjin

    2017-09-10

    Nucleobases, nucleosides and ginsenosides, which have a significant impact on the physiological activity of organisms, are reported to be the active components of ginseng, while they are less present in ginseng extracts. Few analytical methods have been developed so far to simultaneously analyze these three classes of compounds with different polarities present in ginseng extracts. In the present study, a simple and efficient analytical method was successfully developed for the simultaneous separation of 17 nucleobases, nucleosides and ginsenosides in ginseng extracts using supercritical fluid chromatography coupled with single quadrupole mass spectrometry (SFC-MS). The effect of various experimental factors on the separation performance, such as the column type, temperature and backpressure, the type of modifier and additive, and the concentration of make-up solvent were systematically investigated. Under the selected conditions, the developed method was successfully applied to the quality evaluation of 14 batches of ginseng extracts from different origins. The results obtained for the different batches indicate that this method could be employed for the quality assessment of ginseng extracts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Green synthesis of multifunctional silver and gold nanoparticles from the oriental herbal adaptogen: Siberian ginseng

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    Abbai R

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ragavendran Abbai,1,* Ramya Mathiyalagan,1,* Josua Markus,1 Yeon-Ju Kim,2 Chao Wang,2 Priyanka Singh,2 Sungeun Ahn,2 Mohamed El-Agamy Farh,2 Deok Chun Yang1,2 1Ginseng Bank, Graduate School of Biotechnology, 2Department of Oriental Medicinal Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Pharmacologically active stem of the oriental herbal adaptogen, Siberian ginseng, was employed for the ecofriendly synthesis of Siberian ginseng silver nanoparticles (Sg-AgNPs and Siberian ginseng gold nanoparticles (Sg-AuNPs. First, for metabolic characterization of the sample, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis (indicated the presence of eleutherosides A and E, total phenol content, and total reducing sugar were analyzed. Second, the water extract of the sample mediated the biological synthesis of both Sg-AgNPs and Sg-AuNPs that were crystalline face-centered cubical structures with a Z-average hydrodynamic diameter of 126 and 189 nm, respectively. Moreover, Fourier transform infrared analysis indicated that proteins and aromatic hydrocarbons play a key role in the formation and stabilization of Sg-AgNPs, whereas phenolic compounds accounted for the synthesis and stability of Sg-AuNPs. 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl-2,5-diphenyl-2H tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay determined that Sg-AgNPs conferred strong cytotoxicity against MCF7 (human breast cancer cell line and was only slightly toxic to HaCaT (human keratinocyte cell line at 10 µg·mL-1. However, Sg-AuNPs did not display cytotoxic effects against both of the cell lines. The disc diffusion assay indicated a dose-dependent increase in the zone of inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538, Bacillus anthracis (NCTC 10340, Vibrio parahaemolyticus (ATCC 33844, and Escherichia coli (BL21 treated with Sg-AgNPs, whereas Sg-AuNPs did not show inhibitory activity. In addition, the 2,2-diphenyl-1

  15. Possibility of electron beam irradiation degradation of many pesticides in ginseng oral liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Qiyong; Liu Yang; Ge Hanguang; Wu Ruoxin

    2013-01-01

    This paper is to explore the technological feasibility in degradation of pesticides in ginseng oral liquid under the irradiation of electron beam. Sixteen residual concentration-restricted pesticides in ginseng oral liquid were experimented under the dose of 0 ∼ 15 kGy. Results showed that, when the dose of the irradiation of electron beam increased, the degradation rates of all the pesticides enhanced, and the electron beam radiation showed the most remarkable effect on the degradation of pesticides such as imidacloprid and fenpropathrinwith degradation rates of more than 90% and 50%, respectively. The degradation rates of fonofos, methidathion, diazinon, phosalone and carbaryl were all higher than 30%. No significant degradation was observed in the other 9 pesticides under the same condition. (authors)

  16. Assessment of microclimate conditions under artificial shades in a ginseng field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyu Jong; Lee, Byun-Woo; Kang, Je Yong; Lee, Dong Yun; Jang, Soo Won; Kim, Kwang Soo

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge on microclimate conditions under artificial shades in a ginseng field would facilitate climate-aware management of ginseng production. Weather data were measured under the shade and outside the shade at two fields located in Gochang-gun and Jeongeup-si, Korea, in 2011 and 2012 seasons to assess temperature and humidity conditions under the shade. An empirical approach was developed and validated for the estimation of leaf wetness duration (LWD) using weather measurements outside the shade as inputs to the model. Air temperature and relative humidity were similar between under the shade and outside the shade. For example, temperature conditions favorable for ginseng growth, e.g., between 8°C and 27°C, occurred slightly less frequently in hours during night times under the shade (91%) than outside (92%). Humidity conditions favorable for development of a foliar disease, e.g., relative humidity > 70%, occurred slightly more frequently under the shade (84%) than outside (82%). Effectiveness of correction schemes to an empirical LWD model differed by rainfall conditions for the estimation of LWD under the shade using weather measurements outside the shade as inputs to the model. During dew eligible days, a correction scheme to an empirical LWD model was slightly effective (10%) in reducing estimation errors under the shade. However, another correction approach during rainfall eligible days reduced errors of LWD estimation by 17%. Weather measurements outside the shade and LWD estimates derived from these measurements would be useful as inputs for decision support systems to predict ginseng growth and disease development.

  17. Antiobesity, antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of red Ginseng plant extract in obese diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Abbas Shalaby

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to investigate the effects of red ginseng extract (RGE on adiposity index, some serum biochemical parameters and tissue antioxidant activity in obese diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Five groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Group (1 was negative control and the other 4 groups were fed on high fat-diet for 6 weeks to induce obesity. The obese rats were then rendered diabetic by intraperitoneal injection of alloxan for 5 days. Group (2 was kept obese diabetic (positive control and the other 3 groups were orally given RGE at 100, 200 and 400 mg /kg /day, respectively, for 4 weeks. Blood samples were collected for biochemical analyses and kidneys were taken to assay of activities of antioxidant enzymes. Results: oral dosage of RGE to obese diabetic rats significantly (P < 0.05 reduced adiposity index; decreased serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, gamma- glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT enzymes, total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, and low density lipoproteins (LDL-c and improved atherogenic index. Blood glucose and leptin hormone decreased, but insulin increased by administration of RGE. it increased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and catalase (CAT antioxidant enzymes in kidneys tissues. Conclusion: Red ginseng extract produces antiobesity, antioxidant, and antidiabetic activities in obese diabetic rats. The study suggests that red ginseng plant may be beneficial for the treatment of patients who suffer from obesity associated with diabetes. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2013; 2(3.000: 165-172

  18. Ginseng Berry Extract Supplementation Improves Age-Related Decline of Insulin Signaling in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunhui Seo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ginseng berry extract on insulin sensitivity and associated molecular mechanisms in aged mice. C57BL/6 mice (15 months old were maintained on a regular diet (CON or a regular diet supplemented with 0.05% ginseng berry extract (GBD for 24 or 32 weeks. GBD-fed mice showed significantly lower serum insulin levels (p = 0.016 and insulin resistance scores (HOMA-IR (p = 0.012, suggesting that GBD improved insulin sensitivity. Pancreatic islet hypertrophy was also ameliorated in GBD-fed mice (p = 0.007. Protein levels of tyrosine phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1 (p = 0.047, and protein kinase B (AKT (p = 0.037, were up-regulated in the muscle of insulin-injected GBD-fed mice compared with CON-fed mice. The expressions of forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1 (p = 0.036 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ (p = 0.032, which are known as aging- and insulin resistance-related genes, were also increased in the muscle of GBD-fed mice. We conclude that ginseng berry extract consumption might increase activation of IRS-1 and AKT, contributing to the improvement of insulin sensitivity in aged mice.

  19. Restoration of radiation injury by ginseng, 2. Some properties of the radioprotective substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonezawa, M.; Katoh, N.; Takeda, A. (Radiation Center of Osaka Prefecture, Sakai (Japan))

    1981-09-01

    Some properties of the radioprotective substances in a ginseng extract that increased the 30-day survival ratio in irradiated mice were studied. Methanol-soluble fraction of the extract did not protect the irradiated animals. Acid or alkali (0.12 N) inactivated the extract at 60/sup 0/C. But the radioprotective activity was stable after heating the ginseng extract in physiological saline at pH 7 in a boiling-water bath for 15 min. The ginseng extract was separated into two fractions by CM-cellulose column chromatography. One of them (CM-A) was significantly efficacious at 5% level, and the other (CM-B) at 0.1% level with the doses proportional to their yields. CM-B, not containing saponin, was subjected to further purification, UV spectrum and a biuret test suggested the presence of protein in this fraction. The supernatant obtained after heating CM-B solution at pH 7 was separated into three fractions, namely G-I, G-II and G-III, by gel-chromatography with a Sephadex G-75 column. Both G-I (0.44 mg per animal) and G-III (0.84 mg, calculated dose) were significantly efficacious, but G-II (0.47 mg) was not.

  20. [Qualitative characteristics and classification study on commodity specification and grade standard of Panax notoginseng].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Da-Hui; Xu, Na; Guo, Lan-Ping; Jin, Yan; Cui, Xiu-Ming; Yang, Ye; Zhu, Xin-Yan; Zhan, Zhi-Lai; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2016-03-01

    Through the markets investigations and literature surveying, this paper investigates and analyzes the qualitative characteristics and commodity condition of Panax notoginseng. And the samples collected from market and origin were analyzed in order to revise the commodity specification and grade standard of P. notoginseng combined with production practice. In this paper, the authors divide the P. notoginseng into 4 commodity specification which are root (including Cunqi and Dongqi ), Rhizome and rootlet according to different parts and harvest time. And the root were divided into 8 grade which are 20, 30, 40, 60, 80, 120, countless and substandard. The density and internal components between the different commodity specification and grade of P. notoginseng were also compared. As well as the effect of different producing area, cultivation years and harvesting time on the commodity specification and grade of P. notoginseng were researched. On this basis, we revise and improve the commodity specification and grade standard of P. notoginseng. Moreover, we suggest the quality control indexes of P. notoginseng should be developed according to the different medicinal part and commodity specification in CHP. In order to guide the standardized production of traditional Chinese medicine and ensure the quality of medicinal materials, the cultivation years and density of each medicinal materials should also be indicated in CHP. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  1. [Physiological response and bioaccumulation of Panax notoginseng to cadmium under hydroponic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zi-wei; Yang, Ye; Cui, Xiu-ming; Liao, Pei-ran; Ge, Jin; Wang, Cheng-xiao; Yang, Xiao-yan; Liu, Da-hui

    2015-08-01

    The physiological response and bioaccumulation of 2-year-old Panax notoginseng to cadmium stress was investigated under a hydroponic experiment with different cadmium concentrations (0, 2.5, 5, 10 μmol · L(-1)). Result showed that low concentration (2.5 μmol · L(-1)) of cadmium could stimulate the activities of SOD, POD, APX in P. notoginseng, while high concentration (10 μmol · L(-1)) treatment made activities of antioxidant enzyme descended obviously. But, no matter how high the concentration of cadmium was, the activities of CAT were inhibited. The Pn, Tr, Gs in P. notoginseng decreased gradually with the increase of cadmium concentration, however Ci showed a trend from rise to decline. The enrichment coefficients of different parts in P. notoginseng ranked in the order of hair root > root > rhizome > leaf > stem, and all enrichment coefficients decreased with the increase of concentration of cadmium treatments; while the cadmium content in different parts of P. notoginseng and the transport coefficients rose. To sum up, cadmium could affect antioxidant enzyme system and photosynthetic system of P. notoginseng; P. notoginseng had the ability of cadmium enrichment, so we should plant it in suitable place reduce for reducing the absorption of cadmium; and choose medicinal parts properly to lessen cadmium intake.

  2. Investigation of the Antifatigue Effects of Korean Ginseng on Professional Athletes by Gas Chromatography-Time-of-Flight-Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bei; Liu, Yao; Shi, Aixin; Wang, Zhihong; Aa, Jiye; Huang, Xiaoping; Liu, Yi

    2018-05-01

    Ginseng is usually used for alleviating fatigue. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the regulatory effect of Korean ginseng on the metabolic pattern in professional athletes, and, further, to explore the underlying mechanism of the antifatigue effect of Korean ginseng. GC-time-of-flight-MS was used to profile serum samples from professional athletes before training and after 15 and 30 day training, and professional athletes administered with Korean ginseng in the meanwhile. Biochemical parameters of all athletes were also analyzed. For the athlete control group, strength-endurance training resulted in an elevation of creatine kinase (CK) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and a reduction in blood hemoglobin, and a dynamic trajectory of the metabolomic profile which were related to fatigue. Korean ginseng treatment not only lead to a marked reduction in CK and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in serum, but also showed regulatory effects on the serum metabolic profile and restored scores plots close to normal, suggesting that the change in metabolic profiling could reflect the antifatigue effect of Korean ginseng. Furthermore, perturbed levels of 11 endogenous metabolites were regulated by Korean ginseng significantly, which might be primarily involved in lipid metabolism, energy balance, and chemical signaling. These findings suggest that metabolomics is a potential tool for the evaluation of the antifatigue effect of Korean ginseng and for the elucidation of its pharmacological mechanism.

  3. Effects of spermidine, proline and carbohydrate sources on somatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The in vitro main roots transverse thin cell layers of Vietnamese ginseng (Panax vietnamensis Ha et. Grushv.) were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1.0 mg.l-1 2,4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 0.2 mg.l-1 kinetin and 0.5 mg.l-1 naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), 30 g.l-1 sucrose and 8.5 ...

  4. An essential role of Nrf2 in American ginseng-mediated anti-oxidative actions in cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinqing; Ichikawa, Tomonaga; Jin, Yu; Hofseth, Lorne J; Nagarkatti, Prakash; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Windust, Anthony; Cui, Taixing

    2010-07-20

    Ginseng has been used as a folk medicine for thousands of years in Asia, and has become a popular herbal medicine world-wide. Recent studies have revealed that ginseng, including American ginseng, exerts antioxidant effects in the cardiovascular system; however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Thus, we investigated role of Nrf2, a master transcription factor of endogenous anti-oxidative defense systems, in the regulation of American ginseng-mediated anti-oxidative actions in cardiomyocytes. A standardized crude extract of American ginseng was supplied by the National Research Council of Canada, Institute for National Measurement Standards. H9C2 cells, a rat cardiomyocyte cell line, were exposed to angiotensin II (Ang II) or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) to induce oxidative stress that was examined by measuring formation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Oxidative stress-induced cell death was induced by exogenous addition of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). Proteins were measured by Western blot and mRNA expression was determined by quantitative real time PCR. Nrf2-driven transcriptional activity was assessed by antioxidant response element (ARE)-luciferase reporter assay. Direct Nrf2 binding to its target gene promoters was determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Adenoviral over-expression of Nrf2 shRNA was utilized to knock down Nrf2 in H9C2 cells. Immunochemical staining was applied for Nrf2 expression in the heart. American ginseng induced dramatic increases in Nrf2 protein expression, Nrf2 nuclear translocation, Nrf2 transcriptional activity, direct Nrf2 binding to its target gene promoters, and expression of a group of anti-oxidative genes driven by Nrf2 in H9C2 cells. In addition, American ginseng inhibited Ang II- or TNFalpha-induced free radical formation and H(2)O(2)-induced cell death in H9C2 cells over-expressed with control shRNA but not in the cells over-expressed with Nrf2 shRNA. Finally, oral

  5. Inhibitory effect of red ginseng acidic polysaccharide from Korean red ginseng on phagocytic activity and intracellular replication of Brucella abortus in RAW 264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Alisha Wehdnesday Bernardo; Simborio, Hannah Leah Tadeja; Hop, Huynh Tan; Arayan, Lauren Togonon; Min, Won Gi; Lee, Hu Jang; Rhee, Man Hee; Chang, Hong Hee; Kim, Suk

    2016-09-30

    Korean red ginseng (KRG) has long been used in traditional Korean and Oriental medicine. However, the anti-bacterial mechanism and therapeutic efficiency of KGR for intracellular Brucella infection are still unclear. In this study, the bactericidal activity of Korean red ginseng acidic polysaccharide (RGAP) on Brucella (B.) abortus and its cytotoxic effects on RAW 264.7 cells were evaluated. In addition, B. abortus internalization and intracellular replication in macrophages were investigated after RGAP treatment. RGAP-incubated cells displayed a marked reduction in the adherence, internalization and intracellular growth of B. abortus in macrophages. Furthermore, decreased F-actin fluorescence was observed relative to untreated B. abortus-infected cells. Western blot analysis of intracellular signaling proteins revealed reduced ERK, JNK and p38α phosphorylation levels in B. abortus-infected RGAP-treated cells compared to the control. Moreover, elevated co-localization of B. abortus-containing phagosomes with lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP-1) were observed in RGAP-treated cells compared with the control. Overall, the results of this study suggest that RGAP can disrupt phagocytic activity of B. abortus via suppression of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling proteins ERK, JNK and p38 levels and inhibit intracellular replication of B. abortus by enhancing phagolysosome fusion, which may provide an alternative control of brucellosis.

  6. Effect of Panax notoginseng saponins on the content of IL-8 in serum after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion in rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Wei; Zhu Zunping

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of Panax notoginseng saponins (Pns) against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods: Focal cerebral ischemia-reperal ischemia-reperfusion model in rat was established by occlusion the middle cerebral artery for 2 h, after 3 h reperfusion. The serum concentration of IL-8 was detected with radioimmunoassay (RIA). Results: Png 50 mg·kg -1 ip, qd x 7d before MCAO decreased the serum content of IL-8 after ischemia-reperfusion. Conclusion: Pns has protective effect against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury by decreased the serum content of IL-8

  7. Chemical differentiation and quality evaluation of commercial Asian and American ginsengs based on a UHPLC-QTOF/MS/MS metabolomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yujie; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Chen, Hubiao; Yi, Tao; Qin, Minjian; Liang, Zhitao

    2015-01-01

    Asian and American ginsengs are widely used medicinal materials and are being used more and more in health products. The two materials look alike but function differently. Various forms of both types of ginseng are found in the market, causing confusion for consumers in their choice. To evaluate the overall quality of commercial Asian and American ginsengs and investigate the characteristic chemical markers for differentiating between them. This article investigated 17 Asian and 21 American ginseng samples using an ultra-HPLC combined with quadrupole time-of-flight MS/MS technique. The data were processed by principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squared discriminant analysis. In the chromatograms, a total of 40 peaks were detected. Among them, six were positively identified, and all of the remainder were tentatively identified. According to statistical results, ginsenosides Rf, Rb2 and Rc together with their isomers and derivatives were more likely to be present in Asian ginsengs, whereas ginsenoside Rb1 , pseudoginsenoside F11 and ginsenoside Rd together with their isomers and derivatives tended to be present in American ginsengs. For Asian ginsengs, ginsenoside Ra3 and 20-β-D-glucopyranosyl-ginsenoside-Rf were more likely to be present in forest samples, whereas contents of floralquinquenoside B, ginsenosides Ro and Rc, and zingibroside R1 were higher in sun-dried ginsengs. For American ginseng, wild samples often had more of the notoginsenosides R1 and Rw2 and less of the ginsenosides Rd, Rd isomer and 20 (S)-Rg3 than cultivated samples. The method provided important fingerprint information for authentication and evaluation of Asian and American ginsengs from various commercial products. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Classification of cultivation locations of Panax quinquefolius L samples using high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and chemometric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panax quinquefolius L (P. quinquefolius L) samples grown in the United States and China were analyzed with high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC—MS). Prior to classification, the two-way datasets were subjected to pretreatment including baseline correction and retention tim...

  9. Evaluation of a new eastern blotting technique for the analysis of ginsenoside Re in American ginseng berry pulp extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinaga, Osamu; Uto, Takuhiro; Yuan, Chun-Su; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Shoyama, Yukihiro

    2010-06-01

    A new eastern blotting technique has been established for ginsenoside Re (G-Re) contained in American ginseng berry pulp extracts. G-Re in American ginseng berry pulp was extracted using 100% methanol, 100% ethanol, 50% aqueous methanol, and 50% aqueous ethanol. The combined crude extracts were applied onto a polyethersulfone membrane and developed using the methanol-water-acetic acid solvent system (45:55:1 v/v). Separated components were immunostained using anti-G-Re monoclonal antibody. G-Re was first specifically detected and then quantitatively analyzed using NIH Imaging software. We also confirmed that the most suitable solvent was 50% aqueous methanol for extracting G-Re from American ginseng berry pulp. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Expression of saponin biosynthesis related genes in different tissues of Panax quinquefolius].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kang-Yu; Liu, Wei-Can; Zhang, Mei-Ping; Zhao, Ming-Zhu; Wang, Yan-Fang; Li, Li; Sun, Chun-Yu; Hu, Ke-Xin; Cong, Yue-Yi; Wang, Yi

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between saponin content of Panax quinquefolius in different parts of the organization and expression of ginsenoside biosynthesis related gene was obtained by the correlation analysis between saponin content and gene expression. The 14 tissue parts of P. quinquefolius were studied, six saponins in P. quinquefolius. Samples (ginsenoside Rg₁, Re, Rb₁, Rc, Rb₂ and Rd), group saponins and total saponins were determined by high performance liquid chromatography and vanillin-sulfuric acid colorimetric method. Simultaneously, the expression levels of 7 ginsenoside biosynthesis related genes ( SQS, OSC, DS, β-AS, SQE, P450 and FPS ) in different tissues of P. quinquefolius were determined by Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR. Although 7 kinds of ginsenoside biosynthesis related enzyme gene in the P. quinquefolius involved in ginsenoside synthesis, the expression of β-AS and P450 genes had no significant effect on the content of monosodium saponins, grouping saponins and total saponins, FPS, SQS, OSC, DS and SQE had significant or extremely significant on the contents of single saponins Re, Rg1, Rb1, Rd, group saponin PPD and PPT, total saponin TMS and total saponin TS ( P saponins, grouping saponins and total saponins in P. quinquefolius was affected by the interaction of multiple enzyme genes in the saponin synthesis pathway, the content of saponins in different tissues of P. quinquefolius was determined by the differences in the expression of key enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway. Therefore, this study further clarified that FPS, SQS, OSC, DS and SQE was the key enzyme to control the synthesis of saponins in P. quinquefolius by correlation analysis, the biosynthesis of ginsenosides in P. quinquefolius was regulated by these five kind of enzymes in cluster co-expression of interaction mode. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  11. Herbal products containing Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Crataegus spp., and Panax spp.: Labeling and safety concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Maria Antónia; Rodrigues, Francisca; Alves, Rita C; Oliveira, Maria Beatriz P P

    2017-10-01

    Herbs have been used from ancient times for infusion preparation based on their potential health effects. In particular, the consumption of Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Crataegus spp. and Panax spp. has been largely associated to cardiovascular benefits. In this work, the label information of 52 herbal products for infusion preparation containing the referred herbs was analyzed and discussed, taking into consideration the European Union regulation for herbal products, which intends to protect public health and harmonize the legal framework in Member States. Details about the cardiovascular-related statements and warning notifications about consumption were considered. Also, regulatory issues and possible herb-drug interactions were explored and discussed. A total of 14 of the 52 herbal products selected presented health claims/statements on the label. Hibiscus was present in the majority of the products and, in some cases, it was mentioned only in the ingredients list and not on the product front-of-pack. Despite the promising outcomes of these plants to modulate cardiovascular risk markers, consumers with some sort of cardiovascular dysfunction and/or under medication treatments should be aware to carefully analyze the labels and consult additional information related to these herbal products. Manufacturers have also a huge responsibility to inform consumers by presenting awareness statements. Lastly, health professionals must advise and alert their patients about possible interactions that could occur between the concomitant consumption of drugs and herbs. Overall, there is still a real need of additional studies and clinical trials to better understand herbs effects and establish a science-based guidance to assess their safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of different cleaning treatments on heavy metal removal of Panax notoginseng (Burk) F. H. Chen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahui, Liu; Na, Xu; Li, Wang; Xiuming, Cui; Lanping, Guo; Zhihui, Zhang; Jiajin, Wang; Ye, Yang

    2014-01-01

    The quality and safety of Panax notoginseng products has become a focus of concern in recent years. Contamination with heavy metals is one of the important factors as to P. notoginseng safety. Cleaning treatments can remove dust, soil, impurities or even heavy metals and pesticide residues on agricultural products. But effects of cleaning treatments on the heavy metal content of P. notoginseng roots have still not been studied. In order to elucidate this issue, the effects of five different cleaning treatments (CK, no treatment; T1, warm water (50°C) washing; T2, tap water (10°C) washing; T3, drying followed by polishing; and T4, drying followed by tap water (10°C) washing) on P. notoginseng roots' heavy metal (Cu, Pb, Cd, As and Hg) contents were studied. The results showed that heavy metal (all five) content in the three parts all followed the order of hair root > rhizome > root tuber under the same treatment. Heavy metal removals were in the order of Hg > As > Pb > Cu > Cd. Removal efficiencies of the four treatments were in the order of T2 > T1 > T3 > T4. Treatments (T1-T4) could decrease the contents of heavy metal in P. notoginseng root significantly. Compared with the requirements of WM/T2-2004, P. notoginseng roots' heavy metal contents of Cu, Pb, As and Hg were safe under treatments T1 and T2. In conclusion, the cleaning process after production was necessary and could reduce the content of heavy metals significantly. Fresh P. notoginseng root washed with warm water (T2) was the most efficient treatment to remove heavy metal and should be applied in production.

  13. Extração de ecdisterona em raízes de ginseng brasileiro Extraction of ecdysterone from roots of Brazilian ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane Flores

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo otimizar a extração de ecdisterona em raízes de ginseng brasileiro. Primeiramente, para se avaliar a eficiência do solvente extrator, amostras de raízes dois acessos (BRA e JB-UFSM de P. glomerata foram extraídas em Soxhlet com metanol e clorofórmio, separadamente, durante 4 horas. No segundo ensaio, com o intuito de se escolher o método extrator, a extração foi conduzida em Soxhlet e em ultrassom, utilizando metanol como solvente. Em P. tuberosa, as amostras foram extraídas com metanol, e a extração foi conduzida em Soxhlet e em banho ultrasônico. O conteúdo de ecdisterona foi determinado em Cromatógrafo Líquido de Alta Eficiência (CLAE. Em ambas as espécies, um maior conteúdo de ecdisterona foi detectado nas amostras extraídas com metanol e em Soxhlet. A metodologia proposta mostrou-se eficaz para a quantificação da ecdisterona a partir das raízes de P. glomerata e P. tuberosa, podendo ser aplicada no controle de qualidade de drogas vegetais e/ou fitoterápicos.This study aimed at optimizing the extraction method from ecdysterone of Brazilian ginseng. Root samples of two accessions (BRA and JB-UFSM of P. glomerata were extracted in a Soxhlet with methanol or chloroform for 4h. In the second trial, the extration was conduced in a Soxhlet or ultrasonic using metanol as a solvent. In P. tuberosa, the roots samples were extracted with methanol in a Soxhlet or in ultrasonic. The ecdysterone content was determinated using high efficiency liquid chromatography methods. In both studied species, the highest ecdisterone content was detected from samples extracted in a Soxhlet and using methanol as a solvent. This extration method has been successfully applied for determination of ecdysterone content from roots of Brazilian ginseng, and could be useful for the quality control of drugs and pharmaceutical formulations.

  14. Chemometric analysis for identification of botanical raw materials for pharmaceutical use: a case study using Panax notoginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jieqiang; Fan, Xiaohui; Cheng, Yiyu; Agarwal, Rajiv; Moore, Christine M V; Chen, Shaw T; Tong, Weida

    2014-01-01

    The overall control of the quality of botanical drugs starts from the botanical raw material, continues through preparation of the botanical drug substance and culminates with the botanical drug product. Chromatographic and spectroscopic fingerprinting has been widely used as a tool for the quality control of herbal/botanical medicines. However, discussions are still on-going on whether a single technique provides adequate information to control the quality of botanical drugs. In this study, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), capillary electrophoresis (CE) and near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) were used to generate fingerprints of different plant parts of Panax notoginseng. The power of these chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques to evaluate the identity of botanical raw materials were further compared and investigated in light of the capability to distinguishing different parts of Panax notoginseng. Principal component analysis (PCA) and clustering results showed that samples were classified better when UPLC- and HPLC-based fingerprints were employed, which suggested that UPLC- and HPLC-based fingerprinting are superior to CE- and NIR-based fingerprinting. The UPLC- and HPLC- based fingerprinting with PCA were able to correctly distinguish between samples sourced from rhizomes and main root. Using chemometrics and its ability to distinguish between different plant parts could be a powerful tool to help assure the identity and quality of the botanical raw materials and to support the safety and efficacy of the botanical drug products.

  15. Chemometric analysis for identification of botanical raw materials for pharmaceutical use: a case study using Panax notoginseng.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieqiang Zhu

    Full Text Available The overall control of the quality of botanical drugs starts from the botanical raw material, continues through preparation of the botanical drug substance and culminates with the botanical drug product. Chromatographic and spectroscopic fingerprinting has been widely used as a tool for the quality control of herbal/botanical medicines. However, discussions are still on-going on whether a single technique provides adequate information to control the quality of botanical drugs. In this study, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC, capillary electrophoresis (CE and near infrared spectroscopy (NIR were used to generate fingerprints of different plant parts of Panax notoginseng. The power of these chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques to evaluate the identity of botanical raw materials were further compared and investigated in light of the capability to distinguishing different parts of Panax notoginseng. Principal component analysis (PCA and clustering results showed that samples were classified better when UPLC- and HPLC-based fingerprints were employed, which suggested that UPLC- and HPLC-based fingerprinting are superior to CE- and NIR-based fingerprinting. The UPLC- and HPLC- based fingerprinting with PCA were able to correctly distinguish between samples sourced from rhizomes and main root. Using chemometrics and its ability to distinguish between different plant parts could be a powerful tool to help assure the identity and quality of the botanical raw materials and to support the safety and efficacy of the botanical drug products.

  16. Intraconversion of Polar Ginsenosides, Their Transformation into Less-Polar Ginsenosides, and Ginsenoside Acetylation in Ginseng Flowers upon Baking and Steaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Heating is a traditional method used in ginseng root processing, however, there aren’t reports on differences resulting from baking and steaming. Moreover, ginseng flowers, with 5.06 times more total saponins than ginseng root, are not fully taken advantage of for their ginsenosides. Transformation mechanisms of ginsenosides in ginseng flowers upon baking and steaming were thus explored. HPLC using authentic standards of 20 ginsenosides and UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS were used to quantify and identify ginsenosides, respectively, in ginseng flowers baked or steamed at different temperatures and durations. Results show that baking and steaming caused a 3.2-fold increase in ginsenoside species existed in unheated ginseng flowers (20/64 ginsenosides and transformation of a certain amount of polar ginsenosides into numerous less polar ginsenosides. Among the 20 ginsenosides with standards, polar ginsenosides were abundant in ginseng flowers baked or steamed at lower temperatures, whereas less polar ginsenosides occurred and were enriched at higher temperatures. Furthermore, the two types of heating treatments could generate mostly similar ginsenosides, but steaming was much efficient than baking in transforming polar- into less polar ginsenosides, with steaming at 120 °C being comparably equivalent to baking at 150 °C. Moreover, both the two heating methods triggered ginsenoside acetylation and thus caused formation of 16 acetylginsenosides. Finally, a new transformation mechanism concerning acetyl-ginsenosides formation was proposed.

  17. Intraconversion of Polar Ginsenosides, Their Transformation into Less-Polar Ginsenosides, and Ginsenoside Acetylation in Ginseng Flowers upon Baking and Steaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Yao, Fan; Fan, Hang; Li, Ke; Sun, Liwei; Liu, Yujun

    2018-03-26

    Heating is a traditional method used in ginseng root processing, however, there aren't reports on differences resulting from baking and steaming. Moreover, ginseng flowers, with 5.06 times more total saponins than ginseng root, are not fully taken advantage of for their ginsenosides. Transformation mechanisms of ginsenosides in ginseng flowers upon baking and steaming were thus explored. HPLC using authentic standards of 20 ginsenosides and UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS were used to quantify and identify ginsenosides, respectively, in ginseng flowers baked or steamed at different temperatures and durations. Results show that baking and steaming caused a 3.2-fold increase in ginsenoside species existed in unheated ginseng flowers (20/64 ginsenosides) and transformation of a certain amount of polar ginsenosides into numerous less polar ginsenosides. Among the 20 ginsenosides with standards, polar ginsenosides were abundant in ginseng flowers baked or steamed at lower temperatures, whereas less polar ginsenosides occurred and were enriched at higher temperatures. Furthermore, the two types of heating treatments could generate mostly similar ginsenosides, but steaming was much efficient than baking in transforming polar- into less polar ginsenosides, with steaming at 120 °C being comparably equivalent to baking at 150 °C. Moreover, both the two heating methods triggered ginsenoside acetylation and thus caused formation of 16 acetylginsenosides. Finally, a new transformation mechanism concerning acetyl-ginsenosides formation was proposed.

  18. Metabonomic analysis of water extracts from Chinese and American ginsengs by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance: identification of chemical profile for quality control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Pui

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the gaining popularity of commercially prepared decoctions of herbal medicines on the market, an objective and efficient way to reveal the authenticity of such products is urgently needed. Previous attempts to use chromatographic or spectroscopic methods to identify ginseng samples made use of components derived from methanol extracts of the herb. It was not established that these herbs can be distinguished solely from consumable components, which are responsible for the clinical efficacy of the herb. In this study, metabonomics, or metabolic profiling, based on the application of 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR, is applied to distinguish the water extracts of three closely related ginseng species: P. ginseng (from two different cultivated regions in China, P. notoginseng and P. quinquefolius. Methods A water extraction protocol that mimics how ginseng decoctions are made for consumption was used to prepare triplicate samples from each herb for analysis. High-resolution 1H NMR spectroscopy was used to acquire metabolic profiles of the four ginseng samples. The spectral data were subjected to multivariate and univariate analysis to identify metabolites that were able to distinguish different types of ginseng. Results H NMR metabolic profiling was performed to distinguish the water extracts of P. ginseng cultivated in Hebei and Jilin of China, both of which were distinguished from extracts of P. notoginseng and P. quinquefolius, by unsupervised principle component analysis based on the entire 1H NMR spectral fingerprint Statistically significant differences were found for several discriminating features traced to common metabolites and the ginsenosides Rg1 and Rd, in the 1H NMR spectra. Conclusion This study demonstrated that 1H NMR metabonomics can simultaneously distinguish different ginseng species and multiple samples of the same species that were cultivated in different regions. This technique is applicable to the

  19. Quality Characteristics, Changes in Physiochemical Properties and Functional Properties of Camembert Cheese Containing Red Ginseng Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jai-Sung; Bae, Inhyu

    2018-02-01

    Effects of quality, physicochemical properties and antioxidants in Camembert cheese added with red ginseng powder (RGP) were investigated. Cheese samples were prepared with 0.05%, 0.10%, 0.15% and 0.20% RGP. and then monitored during ripening at 14°C for 28 d. The pH of the RGP amended treatment groups increased during the ripening period relative to the control ( p camembert cheese, but the ripening grade was similar to that of the common camembert cheese, and the additional function of the cheese was reinforced. Functional cheese could be developed.

  20. Extração de ecdisterona em raízes de ginseng brasileiro

    OpenAIRE

    Flores,Rejane; Nicoloso,Fernando Teixeira; Brondani,Daniela; Maldaner,Joseila; Cezarotto,Verciane; Giacomelli,Sandro Rogério

    2009-01-01

    Este estudo teve como objetivo otimizar a extração de ecdisterona em raízes de ginseng brasileiro. Primeiramente, para se avaliar a eficiência do solvente extrator, amostras de raízes dois acessos (BRA e JB-UFSM) de P. glomerata foram extraídas em Soxhlet com metanol e clorofórmio, separadamente, durante 4 horas. No segundo ensaio, com o intuito de se escolher o método extrator, a extração foi conduzida em Soxhlet e em ultrassom, utilizando metanol como solvente. Em P. tuberosa, as amostras f...

  1. [Application of the vanillin sulfuric acid colorimetry-ultraviolet spectrometry on quality evaluation of Panax notoginseng].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yong-Li; Wang, Yuan-Zhong; Zhang, Ji; Zhang, Qing-Zhi; Zhang, Jin-Yu; Jin, Hang

    2013-02-01

    In this study, Panax notoginseng samples were extracted by chloroform, ethanol and water, or by those extracted solution with 5% vanillin sulfuric acid to establish two kinds of UV fingerprint of P. notoginseng which were compared by applying the common and variation peak ratio dual index sequence analysis method and SIMCA software qualitative analysis. The results indicated that the optimization extraction time of P. notoginseng samples was 20 min with chloroform, ethanol and water extraction, but the fingerprint differed significantly after add vanillin sulfuric acid. The common peak ratios of UV fingerprint of P. notoginseng were scattered. The minimum was 25% (Y5-Y8), while the maximum was 84.38% (Y11-Y13, Y20-Y21). The maximum variation peak ratio was 177.78% (Y8-Y5), meanwhile, the variation peak ratios of several samples were more than 100%. However, the common peak ratios of UV fingerprint of P. notoginseng with vanillin sulfuric acid were concentrated (distributed in the range of 50%-70%): the minimum was 42.86%(Y1-Y19), whereas the maximum was 79.55% (Y22-Y23); the range of the variation peak ratios was also smaller with the ranges of 20%-50% in general. The result of the dual index sequence analysis was agreement with the fingerprint implied. The similarity of the UV fingerprint of the extracts of P. notoginseng after adding vanillin sulfuric acid was greater than before. Both the ages and origin was related with the difference of UV fingerprint. The similarity of the two samples with same age was more significant than those with different ages. The similarity and difference between samples was no correlation with the distance of geographic space, the near origin samples maybe have a significant similarity or difference. This method appears as good alternative for evaluate quality of the P. notoginseng and can distinguish at least two samples quantitatively, duo to it reaches the limitation of the multiple methods which only could be used to indistinctly

  2. Soil-Plant Metal Relations in Panax notoginseng: An Ecosystem Health Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Xiaohong; Wang, Li; Guo, Lanping; Cui, Xiuming; Liu, Dahui; Yang, Ye

    2016-01-01

    This study features a survey of the content of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, As, Hg and Cu) in root and cultivation soils of Panax notoginseng (P. notoginseng), carried out in China’s Yunnan Province. The average contents of Pb, Cd, Cr, As, Hg, and Cu in the soil were 61.6, 0.4, 102.4, 57.1, 0.3, and 35.1 mg·kg−1, respectively. The heavy metals’ pollution indexes can be ranked as follows: As > Cd > Hg > Cu > Cr > Pb. The proportion of soil samples at slight, middle, strong, very strong, and extremely strong levels of potential environmental risk had values of 5.41%, 21.62%, 35.14%, 10.81%, and 27.03%, respectively. The potential environment risk index (RI) showed that 29.73% out of the total sample sites were above the level of strong and extremely strong. The ranges of Pb, Cd, Cr, As, Hg, and Cu content in tuber were 0.04–3.26, 0.04–0.33, 0.22–5.4, 0.10–1.8, 0.00–0.02, and 5.0–20.9 mg·kg−1, respectively. In combination with P. notoginseng consumption data, the estimated heavy metal daily intakes (EDIs) were 0.08–0.23, 0.006–0.019, 0.17–0.52, 0.04–0.12, 0.001–0.002, and 0.59–1.77 μg·kg−1·bw/day. All target hazard quotients (THQs) of individual elements and hazard indexes (HI) were less than one. The present study indicates that most of the P. notoginseng cultivation soil in the province of Yunnan presented slight and moderate ecological risk. Thus, more attention should be given to the heavy metals As, Cd, and Hg when selecting planting areas for the cultivation of P. notoginseng. Health risks associated with the intake of a single element or consumption of the combined metals through P. notoginseng are absent. PMID:27827951

  3. The effect of red ginseng extract on superoxide dismutase activity in the kidney of gamma-ray irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yong Soon

    1992-01-01

    This study was prepared to observe the change of enzyme activities in kidney treated with red ginseng extract in the gamma ray irradiated mice. Determine the activity of SOD, peroxidase, catalase in the kidney a period of 1 day, 2 day, 3 day, 4 day, 5 day after a saline injection or injection of red ginseng extract or gamma ray irradiated group into four classify. The activity SOD and catalase showed a tendency to increase and recovery at the early state but pay no regard. Where ase, the activity of peroxide restored and increased pay regard. A physiological saline injection group after gamma ray irradiation showed a tendency to diminish after remarkable increase of activity of SOD, peroxidase and catalase than control group. Injection group of red ginseng extract after gamma ray irradiation observed rapid recovery on activity of SOD, peroxidase, catalase than a saline injection group. Experimental result suggested that injection of red ginseng extract after irradiation have the recovery effect on the changed of activity of SOD, peroxidase and catalase against radiation injury

  4. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure extract of fresh ginseng on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mak-Soon; Jung, Sunyoon; Oh, Soojung; Shin, Yoonjin; Kim, Chong-Tai; Kim, In-Hwan; Kim, Yangha

    2015-09-01

    Red ginseng is produced by steaming and drying fresh ginseng. Through this processing, chemical compounds are modified, and then biological activities are changed. In the food-processing industry, high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) has become an alternative to heat processing to make maximum use of bioactive compounds in food materials. This study comparatively investigated the anti-adipogenic effects of water extract of red ginseng (WRG) and high hydrostatic pressure extract of fresh ginseng (HPG) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Both WRG and HPG inhibited the accumulation of intracellular lipids and triglycerides, and the activity of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH), a key enzyme in triglyceride biosynthesis. Intracellular lipid content and GPDH activity were significantly lower in the HPG group compared to the WRG group. In addition, mRNA expression of adipogenic genes, including CEBP-α, SREBP-1c and aP2, were lower in HPG-treated cells compared to WRG-treated cells. HPG significantly increased the activity of AMPK, and WRG did not. Results suggested that HPG may have superior beneficial effects on the inhibition of adipogenesis compared with WRG. The anti-adipogenic effects of HPG were partially associated with the inhibition of GPDH activity, suppression of adipogenic gene expression and activation of AMPK in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Effect of pulse-wave factors in Middle Aged Women by Mountain Cultivated Ginseng Pharmacopuncture Original Articles

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    Park Sang Wook

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this experiment is to know about Effect of pulse-wave factors in Middle Aged Women by Mountain Cultivated Ginseng Pharmacopuncture. Methods: First 20 Middle Aged women are diagnosed by pulse diagnosis, and then Mountain Cultivated Ginseng Pharmacopuncture(1 injection 20cc were injected. 30 minutes later, pulse diagnosis again performed. As a result, method of one-group pretest-posttes design were used for evaluation. Results: T(Total pulse cycle time statistically significant increased on both left and right chon, kwan,cheok. T4 time statistically significant increased on both left and right chon, kwan, cheok. T4-T1/T indexs except left cheokmaek, Right cheokmaek observation area decreased significantly in four sites.Wm(indicating high pressure retention time indexs increased significantly in the five sites were observed except right chon maek. Conclusions: Effect of pulse-wave factors in Middle Aged Women by Mountain Cultivated Ginseng Pharmacopuncture increased T, T4, Wm and decreased T4-T1/T indexs. The results of this experiment,Mountain Cultivated Ginseng Pharmacopuncture induced to increase the Pulse-wave's stability and strength.

  6. Ginseng Berry Extract Prevents Atherogenesis via Anti-Inflammatory Action by Upregulating Phase II Gene Expression

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    Chun-Ki Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginseng berry possesses higher ginsenoside content than its root, which has been traditionally used in herbal medicine for many human diseases, including atherosclerosis. We here examined the antiatherogenic effects of the Korean ginseng berry extract (KGBE and investigated its underlying mechanism of action in vitro and in vivo. Administration of KGBE decreased atherosclerotic lesions, which was inversely correlated with the expression levels of phase II genes to include heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 and glutamine-cysteine ligase (GCL. Furthermore, KGBE administration suppressed NF-κB-mediated expression of atherogenic inflammatory genes (TNF-α, IL-1β, iNOS, COX-2, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1, without altering serum cholesterol levels, in ApoE-/- mice fed a high fat-diet. Treatment with KGBE increased phase II gene expression and suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced reactive oxygen species production, NF-κB activation, and inflammatory gene expression in primary macrophages. Importantly, these cellular events were blocked by selective inhibitors of HO-1 and GCL. In addition, these inhibitors reversed the suppressive effect of KGBE on TNF-α-mediated induction of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, resulting in decreased interaction between endothelial cells and monocytes. These results suggest that KGBE ameliorates atherosclerosis by inhibiting NF-κB-mediated expression of atherogenic genes via upregulation of phase II enzymes and thus has therapeutic or preventive potential for atherosclerosis.

  7. Comparative effects of gamma irradiation and phosphine fumigation on the quality of white ginseng

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, J.-H.Joong-Ho; Byun, M.-W.Myung-Woo; Kim, K.-S.Kang-Soo; Kang, I.-J.Il-Jun

    2000-03-01

    The hygienic, physicochemical, and organoleptic qualities of white ginseng were monitored during 6 months under accelerated conditions (40 deg. C, 90% r.h.) by observing its microbial populations, disinfestation, and some quality attributes following either gamma irradiation at 2.5-10 kGy or commercial phosphine (PH{sub 3}) fumigation. In a comparative study, both treatments were found to be effective for disinfecting the stored samples. Phosphine showed no appreciable decontaminating effects on microorganisms contaminated including coliforms, while 5 kGy irradiation was sufficient to control all microorganisms related to the quality of the packed samples. Irradiation at 5 kGy caused negligible changes in physicochemical attributes of the samples, such as ginsenosides, amino acids, fatty acids, and organoleptic properties, whereas phosphine fumigation was found detrimental to sensory flavor (P<0.01). Quality deterioration occurred in the commercially-packed samples was in the following order: the control, 10 kGy-, phosphine-, and 2.5-5 kGy-treated samples. Accordingly, irradiation at <5 kGy was found to be an effective alternative to phosphine fumigation for white ginseng. (author)

  8. An experimental study of radioprotective effect of ginseng alkaloid fraction on cellular damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Seong Yul; Cho, Chul Koo; Kim, Mi Sook; Yoo, Hyung Jun; Kim, Seong Ho; Kim, Tae Hwan [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-09-01

    This paper is to assess the effect of Adaptagen as a radioprotector in which main component is alkaloid fraction of ginseng. Evaluation was made in vitro and in vivo study with NIGP(S) mouse by the measurement of regeneration of jejunal crypt cell and micronucleus assay to analyze radioprotective effect of ginseng alkaloid fraction in comparison with that of water fraction after whole body irradiation. The results were as follows, 1. The degree of radiation damage of mouse jejunal crypt cell was diminished in both of alkaloid and water fraction groups compared to control group but more in alkaloid fraction group than water fraction group. 2. Regeneration of mouse jejunal crypt cell was higher both in alkaloid and water fraction groups than control group. 3. In vitro study, frequency of micronucleus was diminished in tendency for the treated groups than control group but statistically insignificant. 4. In vitro study, frequency of micronucleus was diminished in both alkaloid and water fraction groups compared to control group but more in alkaloid fraction group than water fraction group.

  9. Valid Probabilistic Predictions for Ginseng with Venn Machines Using Electronic Nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the application of electronic noses (E-noses, probabilistic prediction is a good way to estimate how confident we are about our prediction. In this work, a homemade E-nose system embedded with 16 metal-oxide semi-conductive gas sensors was used to discriminate nine kinds of ginsengs of different species or production places. A flexible machine learning framework, Venn machine (VM was introduced to make probabilistic predictions for each prediction. Three Venn predictors were developed based on three classical probabilistic prediction methods (Platt’s method, Softmax regression and Naive Bayes. Three Venn predictors and three classical probabilistic prediction methods were compared in aspect of classification rate and especially the validity of estimated probability. A best classification rate of 88.57% was achieved with Platt’s method in offline mode, and the classification rate of VM-SVM (Venn machine based on Support Vector Machine was 86.35%, just 2.22% lower. The validity of Venn predictors performed better than that of corresponding classical probabilistic prediction methods. The validity of VM-SVM was superior to the other methods. The results demonstrated that Venn machine is a flexible tool to make precise and valid probabilistic prediction in the application of E-nose, and VM-SVM achieved the best performance for the probabilistic prediction of ginseng samples.

  10. Progression from Chronic Atrophic Gastritis to Gastric Cancer; Tangle, Toggle, Tackle with Korea Red Ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon Jae; Chung, Jun Won; Lee, So Jung; Choi, Ki Seok; Kim, Ju Hyun; Hahm, Ki Baik

    2010-01-01

    Key molecular players that link inflammation to carcinogenesis are prostaglandins, cytokines, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), chemokines, angiogenic growth factors, and free radicals, all of which lead to increased mutations and altered functions of important enzymes and proteins, for example, activation of oncogenic products and/or inhibition of tumor suppressor proteins, in inflamed tissues, thus contributing to multi-stage carcinogenesis process. Interpreted reversely, the identification of the molecular mechanisms by which chronic inflammation increases cancer risk or optimal intervention of targeted drugs or agents during the inflammation-associated carcinogenic process could be a necessary basis for developing new strategy of cancer prevention at many sites. In this review, we discuss the possibilities for cancer prevention by controlling inflammation process in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-associated inflamed stomach with Korea red ginseng. Korea red ginseng is a good example of a natural herb that has ubiquitous properties that are conductive to stop inflammatory carcinogenesis that is un wanted outcome of H. pylori infection, rendering rejuvenation of chronic atrophic gastritis. PMID:20490314

  11. The Study on Acute and Subacute Toxicity and Anti-Cancer Effects of cultivated wild ginseng Herbal acupuncture

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    Ki-Rok, Kwon

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate acute and subacute toxicity and sarcoma-180 anti-cancer effects of herbal acupuncture with cultivated wild ginseng (distilled in mice and rats. Methods : Balb/c mice were injected intravenous with cultivated wild ginseng herbal acupuncture for LD50 and acute toxicity test. Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intravenous with cultivated wild ginseng herbal acupuncture for subacute toxicity test. The cultivated wild ginseng herbal-acupuncture was injected at the tail vein of mice. Results : 1. In acute LD50 toxicity test, there was no mortality thus unable to attain the value. 2. Examining the toxic response in the acute toxicity test, there was no sign of toxication. 3. In acute toxic test, running biochemical serum test couldn't yield any differences between the control and experiment groups. 4. In subacute toxicity test, there was no sign of toxication in the experimental groups and didn't show any changes in weight compared to the normal group. 5. In subacute toxicity test, biochemical serum test showed significant increase of Total albumin, Albumin, and Glucose in the experimental group I compared with the control group. Significant decrease of GOT, ALP, GPT, and Triglyceride were shown. In experiment group II, only Glucose showed significant increase compared with the control group. 6. Measuring survival rate for anti-cancer effects of Sarcoma-180 cancer cell line, all the experimental groups showed significant increase in survival rate. 7. Measuring NK cell activity rate, no significant difference was shown throughout the groups. 8. Measuring Interleukin-2 productivity rate, all the experimental groups didn't show significant difference. 9. For manifestation of cytokine mRNA, significant decrease of interleukin-10 was witnessed in the experimental group compared to the control group. Conclusion : According to the results, we can conclude cultivated wild ginseng herbal acupuncture

  12. Chemical fingerprinting and quantitative analysis of a Panax notoginseng preparation using HPLC-UV and HPLC-MS

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    Shao Qing

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Xuesaitong (XST injection, consisting of total saponins from Panax notoginseng, was widely used for the treatment of cardio- and cerebro-vascular diseases in China. This study develops a simple and global quality evaluation method for the quality control of XST. Methods High performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV was used to identify and quantify the chromatographic fingerprints of the XST injection. Characteristic common peaks were identified using HPLC with photo diode array detection/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-PDA/ESI-MSn. Results Representative fingerprints from ten batches of samples showed 27 'common saponins' all of which were identified and quantified using ten reference saponins. Conclusion Chemical fingerprinting and quantitative analysis identified most of the common saponins for the quality control of P. notoginseng products such as the XST injection.

  13. Effect of ginseng pretreatment on cerebral glucose metabolism in ischaemic rats using animal positron emission tomography (PET) and [18F]-FDG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rye, Choi Seok; Magata, Y.; Saji, H.; Tajima, K.; Kitano, H.; Konishi, J.; Yokoyama, A. [Department of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Yoshida Shimoadachi-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-01 (Japan)

    1997-07-01

    To investigate the effect of ginseng on damaged brain activity, we evaluated the cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglc) as a functional index in post-ischaemic rats and compared the results with those obtained after the administration of a ginseng extract. CMRglc was measured using high resolution animal positron emission tomography with {sup 18}F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ({sup 18}F-FDG). The rats subjected to a 30-min occlusion showed a significant reduction of k3, the rate constant for phosphorylation of {sup 18}F-FDG by hexokinase, compared with the normal value. The ginseng pretreatment prevented the reduction in k3 and CMRglc caused by ischaemia. Although further investigation is needed to elucidate the mechanism of action, ginseng may be useful for prevention and treatment of ischaemia. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. [Preparation of panax notoginseng saponins-tanshinone H(A) composite method for pulmonary delivery with spray-drying method and its characterization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua-Mei; Fu, Ting-Ming; Guo, Li-Wei

    2013-02-01

    To prepare panax notoginseng saponins-tanshinone II(A) composite particles for pulmonary delivery, in order to explore a dry powder particle preparation method ensuring synchronized arrival of multiple components of traditional Chinese medicine compounds at absorption sites. Panax notoginseng saponins-tanshinone II(A) composite particles were prepared with spray-drying method, and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared analysis (IR), dry laser particle size analysis, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the aerodynamic behavior was evaluated by a Next Generation Impactor (NGI). The dry powder particles produced had narrow particle size distribution range and good aerodynamic behavior, and could realize synchronized administration of multiple components. The spray-drying method is used to combine traditional Chinese medicine components with different physical and chemical properties in the same particle, and product into traditional Chinese medicine compound particles in line with the requirements for pulmonary delivery.

  15. [Investigation and analysis of heavy metal pollution related to soil-Panax notoginseng system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lu; Mi, Yan-Hua; Lin, Xin; Liu, Da-Hui; Zeng, Min; Chen, Xiao-Yan

    2014-07-01

    In this study, five heavy metals contamination of soil and different parts of Panax notoginseng in the plantation area was investigated. Analysis of heavy metals correlation between the planting soil and P. notoginseng; and the absorption and accumulation characteristics and translocation of soil heavy metals by P. notoginseng plants was revealed. Through field investigation and laboratory analytical methods, analysis of China's 30 different soil P. notoginseng origin and content of heavy metals in five different parts of the P. notoginseng plant content of heavy metals. The results revealed that the soil heavy metals should not be neglected in the plantation area Referring to the national soil quality standards (GB15608-1995), the excessive degree of soil heavy metals pollution showed Hg > As > Cd > Cr in the plantation area, and Pb content of soil was in the scope of the standard. Refer to 'Green Industry Standards for Import and Export of Medical Plants and Preparations', the excessive degree of heavy metals content of P. notoginseng plants showed As > Pb > Cr > Cd, and Hg content of plants was in the scope of the standard. Concentrations of five heavy metals of underground parts of P. notoginseng plants are higher than aboveground, and heavy metals elements are more concentrated in the root, followed by the rhizome of P. notoginseng plants. Heavy metal accumulation characteristics of the different parts of the P. notoginseng of the overall performance is the root > the rhizome > the root tuber > leaves > stems. From the point of view BCF value analysis of various parts of the P. notoginseng plants to absorb heavy metals in soil, BCF values of all samples were less than 1, description P. notoginseng not belong Hyperaccumulator. From the view of transportation and related analysis of the soil-P. notoginseng systems, the rhizome of P. notoginseng and the content of As and Cr in soil was significantly correlated, the root of P. notoginseng and the content of Cd in

  16. Neuroprotective effects of ginsenoside Rg1 against oxygen–glucose deprivation in cultured hippocampal neurons

    OpenAIRE

    He, Qing; Sun, Jianguo; Wang, Qin; Wang, Wei; He, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) is believed to be one of the main active principles in ginseng, a traditional Chinese medicine extensively used to enhance stamina and deal with fatigue as well as physical stress. It has been reported that Rg1 performs multiple biological activities, including neuroprotective activity. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of ginsenoside Rg1 on ischemia–reperfusion injury in cultured hippocampal cells and also probed its possible mechanisms. Methods...

  17. Analysis of Serum Proteom after Intravenous Injection of cultivated wild ginseng pharmacopuncture

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    Dong-Hee,Lee

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : To observe the changes in the serum proteins after intravenous injection of cultivated wild ginseng pharmacopuncture. Methods : Blood was collected before and after the administration of cultivated wild ginseng pharmacopuncture and only the serum was taken. Then differences in the spots on the scanned image after carrying out 2-Dimensional electrophoresis were located and conducted mass analysis and protein identification. Results : Following results were obtained from the comparative analysis of serum proteins before and after the administration of cultivated wild ginseng pharmacopuncture. 1. 28 spots were identified before and after the administration. 2. In confirming manifestation degree, spots with more than two-times increase were 204, 1302, 2205, 3105, 7104, 8006, spots with more than one-time increase were 1101, 1505, 2013, 2403, 3009, 3010, 4002, 4009, 6704, 8101, and spots with decrease were 205, 801, 803, 3205, 5202, 6105, 6106, 7103, 9001, 9003. 3. After conducting protein identification, proteins 205, 804, 1302, 4009, 6105, 6106 are unidentified yet, and 1l01 is unnamed protein. Protein 204 is identified as complement receptor CR2-C3d, 801 as YAPl protein, 803 as antitrypsin polymer, 1505 as PRO0684, 2013 and 3010 as proapolipoprotein, 2205 as USP48, 2403 as vitamin D binding protein, 3009 as complement component 4A preprotein, 3105 as immunoglobulin lambda chain, 3205 as transthyretin, 4002 as Ras-related protein Ral-A, 4204 as beta actin, 5202 and 7104 as apolipoprotein Ll, 6704 as alpha 2 macroglobulin precursor, 7103 as complement component 3 precursor, 8006 as testis-specific protein Y, 8101 as transferrin, 9001 as (Alpha-Oxy, Beta-(Cl12gdeoxy T-State Human Hemoglobin, and 9003 as human hemoglobin. 4. Immune protein CR2-C3d(204, which acts against microbes and pathogenic organisms, was increased by more than two-times after the administration of pharmacopuncture. 5. Antitrypsin(803, which is secreted with

  18. Degradation of 14C-lindane in soils of planting ginseng

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhengguo; Zhao Jing; Yao Jianren

    1992-01-01

    14 C-Lindane was used to study degradation of Lindane (γ-BHC) in different types of soil of planting ginseng. Results indicated that Lindane was very slowly mineralized after a 228 day's incubation period in closed system. It took about 9 years to completely mineralize Lindane in the chernozem, and 11 years in the brown calcareous at 20 ppm in the soils. In addition, the rate of Lindane mineralized depended on population and number of microorganism. In this test the fungi played more important role than the bacteria in the Lindane mineralization. 14 C-Lindane residues extracted from the soils were 77.43%-80.54%, and Lindane residues associated with the soils were 13.11%-20.77%

  19. Analysis of Serum proteom before and after Intravenous Injection of wild ginseng herbal acupuncture

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    Tae-Sik Kang

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : To observe changes in the serum proteins before and after intravenous injection of wild ginseng herbal acupuncture. Methods : Blood was collected before and after the administration of wild ginseng herbal acupuncture and only the serum was centrifuged. Then differences in the spots on the scanned image after running 2-Dimensional electrophoresis were located and conducted mass analysis and protein identification. Results : Following results were obtained from the comparative analysis of serum proteins before and after the administration of wild ginseng herbal acupuncture. 1. 28 spots were identified before and after the administration. 2. In confirming manifestation degree, spots with more than two-times increase were 204, 803, 1505, 2205, 3105, 7104, 9001 spots, with more than one-time increase were 1101, 1302, 2013, 3009, 3010, 4002, 4009, 6706, 7103, 8006, 8101, and spots with decrease were 205, 801, 3205, 5202, 6105. 3. After conducting protein identification, proteins 205, 804, 1302, 4009, 6105, 6106 are unidentified yet, and 1101 is unnamed protein. Protein 204 is identified as complement receptor CR2-C3d, 801 as YAP1 protein, 803 as antitrypsin polymer, 1505 as PRO0684, 2013 and 3010 as proapolipoprotein, 2205 as USP48, 2403 as vitamin D binding protein, 3009 as complement component 4A preprotein, 3105 as immunoglobulin lambda chain, 3205 as transthyretin, 4002 as Ras-related protein Ral-A, 4204 as beta actin, 5202 and 7104 as apolipoprotein L1, 6704 as alpha 2 macroglobulin precursor, 7103 as complement component 3 precursor, 8006 as testis-specific protein Y, 8101 as transferrin, 9001 as (Alpha-Oxy, Beta-(C112gdeoxy T-State Human Hemoglobin, and 9003 as human hemoglobin. 4. Immune protein CR2-C3d, which acts against microbes and pathogenic organisms, and Antitrypsin(803, which is secreted with inflammatory response in the lungs, were increased by more than 200% after the administration of herbal acupuncture. 5

  20. Ginseng Rb fraction protects glia, neurons and cognitive function in a rat model of neurodegeneration.

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    Kangning Xu

    Full Text Available The loss and injury of neurons play an important role in the onset of various neurodegenerative diseases, while both microgliosis and astrocyte loss or dysfunction are significant causes of neuronal degeneration. Previous studies have suggested that an extract enriched panaxadiol saponins from ginseng has more neuroprotective potential than the total saponins of ginseng. The present study investigated whether a fraction of highly purified panaxadiol saponins (termed as Rb fraction was protective for both glia and neurons, especially GABAergic interneurons, against kainic acid (KA-induced excitotoxicity in rats. Rats received Rb fraction at 30 mg/kg (i.p., 40 mg/kg (i.p. or saline followed 40 min later by an intracerebroventricular injection of KA. Acute hippocampal injury was determined at 48 h after KA, and impairment of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory as well as delayed neuronal injury was determined 16 to 21 days later. KA injection produced significant acute hippocampal injuries, including GAD67-positive GABAergic interneuron loss in CA1, paralbumin (PV-positive GABAergic interneuron loss, pyramidal neuron degeneration and astrocyte damage accompanied with reactive microglia in both CA1 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus. There was also a delayed loss of GAD67-positive interneurons in CA1, CA3, hilus and dentate gyrus. Microgliosis also became more severe 21 days later. Accordingly, KA injection resulted in hippocampus-dependent spatial memory impairment. Interestingly, the pretreatment with Rb fraction at 30 or 40 mg/kg significantly protected the pyramidal neurons and GABAergic interneurons against KA-induced acute excitotoxicity and delayed injury. Rb fraction also prevented memory impairments and protected astrocytes from KA-induced acute excitotoxicity. Additionally, microglial activation, especially the delayed microgliosis, was inhibited by Rb fraction. Overall, this study demonstrated that Rb fraction protected both

  1. Antitumor activity of ginseng sapogenins, 25-OH-PPD and 25-OCH3-PPD, on gastric cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chen; Su, Guangyue; Wang, Xude; Zhang, Xiaoshu; Guo, Shuang; Zhao, Yuqing

    2016-01-01

    25-Hydroxyprotopanaxadiol (25-OH-PPD) and 25-methoxylprotopanaxadiol (25-OCH3-PPD), two ginseng sapogenins, have potent antitumor activity and their effects on gastric cancer (BGC-823, SGC-7901, MKN-28) cells and a gastric mucosa (GES-1) cell line are reported. Both compounds significantly inhibited the growth of gastric cancer cells, while having lesser inhibitory effects on GES-1 cells by MTT assay. A mechanistic study revealed that the two ginseng sapogenins could induce apoptosis in BGC-823 cells by morphological observation, DNA fragmentation, flow cytometry and western blot analysis. Besides, the apoptosis was inhibited by Ac-DEVD-CHO, a caspase 3 inhibitor, which was confirmed by cell viability analysis. These results indicate that 25-OH-PPD and 25-OCH3-PPD have potential to be promising agents for the treatment of gastric cancer.

  2. A key role of microRNA-29b for the suppression of colon cancer cell migration by American ginseng.

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    Deepak Poudyal

    Full Text Available Metastasis of colon cancer cells increases the risk of colon cancer mortality. We have recently shown that American ginseng prevents colon cancer, and a Hexane extract of American Ginseng (HAG has particularly potent anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. Dysregulated microRNA (miR expression has been observed in several disease conditions including colon cancer. Using global miR expression profiling, we observed increased miR-29b in colon cancer cells following exposure to HAG. Since miR-29b plays a role in regulating the migration of cancer cells, we hypothesized that HAG induces miR-29b expression to target matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 thereby suppressing the migration of colon cancer cells. Results are consistent with this hypothesis. Our study supports the understanding that targeting MMP-2 by miR-29b is a mechanism by which HAG suppresses the migration of colon cancer cells.

  3. Comparative effects of gamma irradiation and ethylene oxide fumigation on some chemical quality of white ginseng powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, J.H.; Byun, M.W.; Cho, H.O.; Han, B.H.

    1994-01-01

    Ginseng saponins and proximate components were considerably resistant to both gamma irradiation at less than 10 kGy and commercial ethylene oxide cycle, while sulfur-containing amino acids, reducing sugar, pH, and acidity of white ginseng powder were significantly changed by EO fumigation. The contents of saponins, reducing sugar, pH and acidity were relatively liable to change under the higher relative humidity (90%), especially in the non-treated control sample. However, irradiated samples at optimum-dose range (5 to 10 kGy) depending on the microbial load following airtight packaging showed a good chemical quality for 7 months of storage at 30 pm 2 deg. C irrespective of relative humidity

  4. Detection and quantification of ginsenoside Re in ginseng samples by a chromatographic immunostaining method using monoclonal antibody against ginsenoside Re.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinaga, Osamu; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Shoyama, Yukihiro

    2006-01-02

    A chromatographic immunostaining method has been developed for the determination of ginsenoside Re (G-Re) in ginseng samples on a polyethersulphone (PES) membrane. G-Re standard and the extracts of ginseng roots were applied to a PES membrane and developed by methanol-water-acetic acid (45:55:1, by volume). G-Re was clearly detected by an immunostaining method using a monoclonal antibody against G-Re. The coloring spots of G-Re were analyzed quantitatively using NIH Image software indicating at least 0.125 microg of G-Re was detectable. G-Re can be analyzed quantitatively between 0.25 and 4.0 microg.

  5. Comparative effects of gamma irradiation and ethylene oxide fumigation on sorption properties and microbiological quality of white ginseng powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, J.H.; Byun, M.W.; Lee, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    The microbial populations of exportable and domestic white ginseng powders, which have been problems in quality control, were higher than the legally-permissive level of microorganisms as 5x10 4 g in total bacteria and as negative coliforms. Various microorganisms contaminated in the sample were effectively decontaminated by gamma irradiation at below 10 kGy as well as ethylene oxide (EO) fumigation. The radiosensitivity of microorganisms was the highest in coliforms, followed by molds and aerobic bacteria (D 10 : 1.25 kGy). The good microbiological quality could be retained in white ginseng powders for more than 7 months of storage at 30 per mille 2 deg. C irrespective of relative humidities if products are prepared with a lower moisture content below 10% and treated by gamma irradiation at 5 to 10 kGy in an airtight packaging

  6. Could ginseng-based medicines be better than nitrates in treating ischemic heart disease? A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yongliang; Zhang, Shikai; Huang, Fangyi; Leung, Siu-wai

    2012-06-01

    Ginseng-based medicines and nitrates are commonly used in treating ischemic heart disease (IHD) angina pectoris in China. Hundreds of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reported in Chinese language claimed that ginseng-based medicines can relieve the symptoms of IHD. This study provides the first PRISMA-compliant systematic review with sensitivity and subgroup analyses to evaluate the RCTs comparing the efficacies of ginseng-based medicines and nitrates in treating ischemic heart disease, particularly angina pectoris. Past RCTs published up to 2010 on ginseng versus nitrates in treating IHD for 14 or more days were retrieved from major English and Chinese databases, including PubMed, Science Direct, Cochrane Library, WangFang Data, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure. The qualities of included RCTs were assessed with Jadad scale, a refined Jadad scale called M scale, CONSORT 2010 checklist, and Cochrane risk of bias tool. Meta-analysis was performed on the primary outcomes including the improvement of symptoms and electrocardiography (ECG). Subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis, and meta-regression were performed to evaluate the effects of study characteristics of RCTs, including quality, follow-up periods, and efficacy definitions on the overall effect size of ginseng. Eighteen RCTs with 1549 participants were included. Overall odds ratios for comparing ginseng-based medicines with nitrates were 3.00 (95% CI: 2.27-3.96) in symptom improvement (n=18) and 1.61 (95% CI: 1.20-2.15) in ECG improvement (n=10). Subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis, and meta-regression found no significant difference in overall effects among all study characteristics, indicating that the overall effects were stable. The meta-analysis of 18 eligible RCTs demonstrates moderate evidence that ginseng is more effective than nitrates for treating angina pectoris. However, further RCTs for higher quality, longer follow-up periods, lager sample size, multi-center/country, and are

  7. Cognitive effects of two nutraceuticals Ginseng and Bacopa benchmarked against modafinil: a review and comparison of effect sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Chris; Camfield, David; Reay, Jonathon; Stough, Con; Scholey, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    Over recent years there has been increasing research into both pharmaceutical and nutraceutical cognition enhancers. Here we aimed to calculate the effect sizes of positive cognitive effect of the pharmaceutical modafinil in order to benchmark the effect of two widely used nutraceuticals Ginseng and Bacopa (which have consistent acute and chronic cognitive effects, respectively). A search strategy was implemented to capture clinical studies into the neurocognitive effects of modafinil, Ginseng and Bacopa. Studies undertaken on healthy human subjects using a double-blind, placebo-controlled design were included. For each study where appropriate data were included, effect sizes (Cohen's d) were calculated for measures showing significant positive and negative effects of treatment over placebo. The highest effect sizes for cognitive outcomes were 0.77 for modafinil (visuospatial memory accuracy), 0.86 for Ginseng (simple reaction time) and 0.95 for Bacopa (delayed word recall). These data confirm that neurocognitive enhancement from well characterized nutraceuticals can produce cognition enhancing effects of similar magnitude to those from pharmaceutical interventions. Future research should compare these effects directly in clinical trials. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  8. Efficacy of Polyphenon E, Red Ginseng, and Rapamycin on Benzo(apyrene-Induced Lung Tumorigenesis in A/J Mice

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    Ying Yan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation was to determine the efficacy of several novel agents in preventing lung tumorigenesis in mice. We evaluated polyphenon E, red ginseng, and rapamycin in A/J mice treated with the tobacco-specific carcinogen benzo(apyrene for their ability to inhibit pulmonary adenoma formation and growth. We found that treatment with polyphenon E exhibited a significant reduction on both tumor multiplicity and tumor load (tumor multiplicity × tumor volume in a dose-dependent fashion. Polyphenon E (2% wt/wt in the diet reduced tumor multiplicity by 46% and tumor load by 94%. This result provided key evidence in support of a phase II clinical chemoprevention trial of lung cancer. Administration of red ginseng in drinking water decreased tumor multiplicity by 36% and tumor load by 70%. The mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor rapamycin showed significant efficacy against lung tumor growth in the tumor progression protocol and reduced tumor load by 84%. The results of these investigations demonstrate that polyphenon E, red ginseng, and rapamycin significantly inhibit pulmonary adenoma formation and growth in A/J mice.

  9. Cognitive effects of two nutraceuticals Ginseng and Bacopa benchmarked against modafinil: a review and comparison of effect sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Chris; Camfield, David; Reay, Jonathon; Stough, Con; Scholey, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Over recent years there has been increasing research into both pharmaceutical and nutraceutical cognition enhancers. Here we aimed to calculate the effect sizes of positive cognitive effect of the pharmaceutical modafinil in order to benchmark the effect of two widely used nutraceuticals Ginseng and Bacopa (which have consistent acute and chronic cognitive effects, respectively). A search strategy was implemented to capture clinical studies into the neurocognitive effects of modafinil, Ginseng and Bacopa. Studies undertaken on healthy human subjects using a double‐blind, placebo‐controlled design were included. For each study where appropriate data were included, effect sizes (Cohen's d) were calculated for measures showing significant positive and negative effects of treatment over placebo. The highest effect sizes for cognitive outcomes were 0.77 for modafinil (visuospatial memory accuracy), 0.86 for Ginseng (simple reaction time) and 0.95 for Bacopa (delayed word recall). These data confirm that neurocognitive enhancement from well characterized nutraceuticals can produce cognition enhancing effects of similar magnitude to those from pharmaceutical interventions. Future research should compare these effects directly in clinical trials. PMID:23043278

  10. Gut microbiota-involved mechanisms in enhancing systemic exposure of ginsenosides by coexisting polysaccharides in ginseng decoction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shan-Shan; Xu, Jun; Zhu, He; Wu, Jie; Xu, Jin-Di; Yan, Ru; Li, Xiu-Yang; Liu, Huan-Huan; Duan, Su-Min; Wang, Zhuo; Chen, Hu-Biao; Shen, Hong; Li, Song-Lin

    2016-03-01

    Oral decoctions of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) serve for therapeutic and prophylactic management of diseases for centuries. Small molecules and polysaccharides are the dominant chemicals co-occurred in the TCM decoction. Small molecules are well-studied by multidisciplinary elaborations, whereas the role of polysaccharides remains largely elusive. Here we explore a gut microbiota-involved mechanism by which TCM polysaccharides restore the homeostasis of gut microbiota and consequently promote the systemic exposure of concomitant small molecules in the decoction. As a case study, ginseng polysaccharides and ginsenosides in Du-Shen-Tang, the decoction of ginseng, were investigated on an over-fatigue and acute cold stress model. The results indicated that ginseng polysaccharides improved intestinal metabolism and absorption of certain ginsenosides, meanwhile reinstated the perturbed holistic gut microbiota, and particularly enhanced the growth of Lactobacillus spp. and Bacteroides spp., two major metabolic bacteria of ginsenosides. By exploring the synergistic actions of polysaccharides with small molecules, these findings shed new light on scientization and rationalization of the classic TCM decoctions in human health care.

  11. Analysis of the transcriptome of Panax notoginseng root uncovers putative triterpene saponin-biosynthetic genes and genetic markers

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    Luo Hongmei

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Panax notoginseng (Burk F.H. Chen is important medicinal plant of the Araliacease family. Triterpene saponins are the bioactive constituents in P. notoginseng. However, available genomic information regarding this plant is limited. Moreover, details of triterpene saponin biosynthesis in the Panax species are largely unknown. Results Using the 454 pyrosequencing technology, a one-quarter GS FLX titanium run resulted in 188,185 reads with an average length of 410 bases for P. notoginseng root. These reads were processed and assembled by 454 GS De Novo Assembler software into 30,852 unique sequences. A total of 70.2% of unique sequences were annotated by Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST similarity searches against public sequence databases. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG assignment discovered 41 unique sequences representing 11 genes involved in triterpene saponin backbone biosynthesis in the 454-EST dataset. In particular, the transcript encoding dammarenediol synthase (DS, which is the first committed enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of major triterpene saponins, is highly expressed in the root of four-year-old P. notoginseng. It is worth emphasizing that the candidate cytochrome P450 (Pn02132 and Pn00158 and UDP-glycosyltransferase (Pn00082 gene most likely to be involved in hydroxylation or glycosylation of aglycones for triterpene saponin biosynthesis were discovered from 174 cytochrome P450s and 242 glycosyltransferases by phylogenetic analysis, respectively. Putative transcription factors were detected in 906 unique sequences, including Myb, homeobox, WRKY, basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH, and other family proteins. Additionally, a total of 2,772 simple sequence repeat (SSR were identified from 2,361 unique sequences, of which, di-nucleotide motifs were the most abundant motif. Conclusion This study is the first to present a large-scale EST dataset for P. notoginseng root acquired by next

  12. Analysis of the transcriptome of Panax notoginseng root uncovers putative triterpene saponin-biosynthetic genes and genetic markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Panax notoginseng (Burk) F.H. Chen is important medicinal plant of the Araliacease family. Triterpene saponins are the bioactive constituents in P. notoginseng. However, available genomic information regarding this plant is limited. Moreover, details of triterpene saponin biosynthesis in the Panax species are largely unknown. Results Using the 454 pyrosequencing technology, a one-quarter GS FLX titanium run resulted in 188,185 reads with an average length of 410 bases for P. notoginseng root. These reads were processed and assembled by 454 GS De Novo Assembler software into 30,852 unique sequences. A total of 70.2% of unique sequences were annotated by Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) similarity searches against public sequence databases. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) assignment discovered 41 unique sequences representing 11 genes involved in triterpene saponin backbone biosynthesis in the 454-EST dataset. In particular, the transcript encoding dammarenediol synthase (DS), which is the first committed enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of major triterpene saponins, is highly expressed in the root of four-year-old P. notoginseng. It is worth emphasizing that the candidate cytochrome P450 (Pn02132 and Pn00158) and UDP-glycosyltransferase (Pn00082) gene most likely to be involved in hydroxylation or glycosylation of aglycones for triterpene saponin biosynthesis were discovered from 174 cytochrome P450s and 242 glycosyltransferases by phylogenetic analysis, respectively. Putative transcription factors were detected in 906 unique sequences, including Myb, homeobox, WRKY, basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH), and other family proteins. Additionally, a total of 2,772 simple sequence repeat (SSR) were identified from 2,361 unique sequences, of which, di-nucleotide motifs were the most abundant motif. Conclusion This study is the first to present a large-scale EST dataset for P. notoginseng root acquired by next-generation sequencing (NGS

  13. COMPRIMENTO DA ESTACA DE RAMO NO ENRAIZAMENTO DE GINSENG BRASILEIRO (Pfaffia glomerata SHOOT CUTTING LENGTH ON ROOTING OF BRAZILIAN GINSENG (Pfaffia glomerata

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    Fernando Teixeira Nicoloso

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available A Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen é uma dentre várias espécies conhecidas como ginseng brasileiro e é usada como planta medicinal. O objetivo desse trabalho foi determinar se o comprimento da estaca de ramo influencia o enraizamento da P. glomerata. Os tratamentos usados consistiram de três comprimentos de estacas (10, 15 e 20cm; ± 1cm de variação. As estacas foram obtidas dos 70cm basais de ramos, com 80 a 140cm de comprimento, de plantas possuindo dois anos de idade, cultivadas no Jardim Botânico da UFSM. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com três repetições e 30 estacas por unidade experimental. O bloco experimental consistiu de uma bandeja plástica com capacidade para 36 litros de solução nutritiva. O experimento foi instalado no dia 15 de julho de 1998 e conduzido por 44 dias sob condições controladas de temperatura, luminosidade e umidade do ar. Os resultados indicaram que (i o tamanho da estaca não afeta a percentagem de enraizamento, a produção de massa seca de folhas e raízes. Por outro lado, as mudas obtidas de estacas de 10cm apresentam maior número de brotações, comprimento das brotações, massa seca de talos e massa seca total produzida por estaca que as de 20cm; e (ii o uso de estacas com 10cm de comprimento é viável e, conseqüentemente, possibilita a obtenção de um maior número de estacas por ramo.Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen is among several species known as Brazilian ginsengs and it is used as medicinal plant. The aim of this work was to evaluate the length of the shoot cuttings on rooting of P. glomerata. Treatments consisted of three length of cuttings (10, 15, and 20cm; ± 1cm of variation. Cuttings were obtained from the 70cm of the basal portion from shoots of 80 to 140cm of length, from two-year-old plants grown in the Botanical Garden at State University of Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. Treatments were distributed in a completely randomized block design with

  14. Rapid solubilization of insoluble phosphate by a novel environmental stress-tolerant Burkholderia vietnamiensis M6 isolated from ginseng rhizospheric soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ki-Hyun; Lee, O-Mi; Jung, Ho-Il; Jeong, Jin-Ha; Jeon, Young-Dong; Hwang, Dae-Youn; Lee, Chung-Yeol; Son, Hong-Joo

    2010-04-01

    We isolated and characterized novel insoluble phosphate (P)-solubilizing bacteria tolerant to environmental factors like high salt, low and high pHs, and low temperature. A bacterium M6 was isolated from a ginseng rhizospheric soil and confirmed to belong to Burkholderia vietnamiensis by BIOLOG system and 16S rRNA gene analysis. The optimal cultural conditions for the solubilization of P were 2.5% (w/v) glucose, 0.015% (w/v) urea, and 0.4% (w/v) MgCl(2).6H(2)O along with initial pH 7.0 at 35 degrees C. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that B. vietnamiensis M6 produced gluconic and 2-ketogluconic acids. During the culture, the pH was reduced with increase in gluconic acid concentration and was inversely correlated with P solubilization. Insoluble P solubilization in the optimal medium was about 902 mg l(-1), which was approximately 1.6-fold higher than the yield in NBRIP medium (580 mg l(-1)). B. vietnamiensis M6 showed resistance against different environmental stresses like 10-45 degrees C, 1-5% (w/v) salt, and 2-11 pH range. The maximal concentration of soluble P produced by B. vietnamiensis M6 from Ca(3)(PO(4))(2), CaHPO(4), and hydroxyapatite was 1,039, 2,132, and 1,754 mg l(-1), respectively. However, the strain M6 produced soluble P with 20 mg l(-1) from FePO(4) after 2 days and 100 mg l(-1) from AlPO(4) after 6 days, respectively. Our results indicate that B. vietnamiensis M6 could be a potential candidate for the development of biofertilizer applicable to environmentally stressed soil.

  15. American Ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... short-term. This treatment might also reduce some physical side effects of antipsychotic drugs. However, it does not improve other mental symptoms. Aging. Anemia. Bleeding disorders. Digestive disorders. Dizziness. ...

  16. Chemical profiles and anticancer effects of saponin fractions of different polarity from the leaves of Panax notoginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Mao; Yi, Li; Song-Lin, Li; Jie, Yang; Ping-Hu, Zhang; Qiang, Wang

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the chemical profiles and cytotoxic effects among the total saponin fraction (TSF), 25% ethanol fraction (25EF), 50% ethanol fraction (50EF), and 85% ethanol fraction (85EF) prepared by macroporous resin from the leaves of Panax notoginseng. The simultaneous determination of thirteen main saponins, as well as the chemical profiles of saponin fractions of different polarity, was made by HPLC-DAD and LC-ESI-MS(n) analysis. The cytotoxic effects were determined against KP4 cells (human pancreatic cancer), NCI-H727 cells (human lung cancer), HepG2 cells (human hepatocellular cancer), and SGC-7901 cells (human gastric adenocarcinoma). Chemical analysis indicated that 85EF possessed the most abundant cytotoxic protopanaxadiol saponins, including the marker saponins F2, 20(R)-Rg3, 20(S)-Rg3, and Rh2. The MTT assay showed that 85EF also had the strongest cytotoxic effects among the four fractions. 25EF showed no anti-proliferative effects, while 50EF and TSF exhibited weak anti-proliferative activity. From the aspect of comprehensive utilization of resources, 85EF, enriched with low polarity PPD group saponins, is a new alternative source of anticancer saponins, and a promising botanical preparation for further anticancer studies. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Expression profiling of the triterpene saponin biosynthesis genes FPS, SS, SE, and DS in the medicinal plant Panax notoginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yunyun; Luo, Hongmei; Sun, Chao; Yang, Tae-Jin; Dong, Linlin; Huang, Linfang; Chen, Shilin

    2014-01-01

    Panax notoginseng (Burk) F. H. Chen, an economically significant medicinal plant with hemostatic and health tonic activities, has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for more than 3,000 years. Triterpene saponins are responsible for most of the pharmacological activities of P. notoginseng. Here, we cloned five cDNA sequences encoding the key enzymes involved in triterpene saponin biosynthesis, namely, PnFPS, PnSS, PnSE1, PnSE2, and PnDS, and analyzed the conserved domains and phylogenetics of their corresponding proteins. Their organ-specific expression patterns in four-year-old P. notoginseng were detected by real-time PCR, showing that they were all most highly expressed in flowers. In addition, four of the genes, excluding PnSE2, were upregulated in leaves following stimulation with methyl jasmonate. This study is the first comprehensive analysis of the expression patterns of pivotal genes for triterpene saponin biosynthesis in P. notoginseng and provides a basis to further elucidate the molecular mechanism for the biosynthesis of these medically important compounds. © 2013.

  18. [Studies on preparative technology and quantitative determination for extracts of total saponin in roof of Panax japonicus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yu-min; Lu, Ke-ming; Yuan, Ding; Zhang, Chang-cheng

    2008-11-01

    To explore the optimum extraction and purification condition of the total saponins in the root of Panax japonicus (RPJ), and establish its quality control methods. Designed L16 (4(5)) orthogonal test with the extraction rate of total saponins as index, to determine the rational extraction process, and the techniques of water-saturated n-butanol extraction and acetone precipitation were applied to purify the alcohol extract of RPJ. Total saponins were detected by spectrophotometry and its triterpenoidal sapogenin oleanolic acid detected by HPLC. The optimum conditions of total saponins from RPJ was as follows: the material was pulverized, dipped in 60% ethanol aqueous solution as extract solvent at 10 times of volume, and refluxed 3 times for 3 h each time. Extractant of water-saturated n-butanol with extraction times of 3 and precipitant of acetone with precipitation amount of 4-5 times were included in the purification process, which would obtain the quality products. The content of total saponins could reach to 83.48%, and oleanolic acid to 38.30%. The optimized preparative technology is stable, convenient and practical. The extract rate of RPJ was high and steady with this technology, which provided new evidence for industrializing production of the plant and developing new drug.

  19. Panax Notoginseng Saponins as a Novel Nature Stabilizer for Poorly Soluble Drug Nanocrystals: A Case Study with Baicalein

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    Yuanbiao Xie

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at seeking a nature saponin-based stabilizer for drug nanosuspensions. A poorly soluble drug (baicalein, BCL was used as a model drug. BCL nanosuspensions with particle size of 156 nm were prepared by means of homogenization and converted into BCL nanocrystals (BCL-NC stabilized with panax notoginseng saponins (PNS. It was found that PNS was able to prevent the aggregation of BCL-NS during storage and improve the redispersibility of BCL-NC after freeze-drying and spray-drying, compared with polymer stabilizer PVPK30. The freeze-dried and spray-dried BCL-NC with PNS exhibited excellent performance as evidenced by scanning_electron_microscope (SEM analysis. It was the reason that PNS possessed the interfacial property (41.69 ± 0.32 mN/m and electrostatic effect (−40.1 ± 1.6 mV, which could easily adsorb onto the surface of hydrophobic BCL nanocrystals and prevent from its aggregation. It is concluded that PNS can be used as an effective nature stabilizer for production of drug nanocrystals.

  20. Enhanced Inhibitory Effect of Ultra-Fine Granules of Red Ginseng on LPS-induced Cytokine Expression in the Monocyte-Derived Macrophage THP-1 Cells

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    Hong-Yeoul Kim

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Red ginseng is one of the most popular traditional medicines in Korea because its soluble hot-water extract is known to be very effective on enhancing immunity as well as inhibiting inflammation. Recently, we developed a new technique, called the HACgearshift system, which can pulverize red ginseng into the ultra-fine granules ranging from 0.2 to 7.0 μm in size. In this study, the soluble hot-water extract of those ultra-fine granules of red ginseng (URG was investigated and compared to that of the normal-sized granules of red ginseng (RG. The high pressure liquid chromatographic analyses of the soluble hot-water extracts of both URG and RG revealed that URG had about 2-fold higher amounts of the ginsenosides, the biologically active components in red ginseng, than RG did. Using quantitative RT-PCR, cytokine profiling against the Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS in the monocyte-derived macrophage THP-1 cells demonstrated that the URG-treated cells showed a significant reduction in cytokine expression than the RG-treated ones. Transcription expression of the LPS-induced cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TGF-β was significantly inhibited by URG compared to RG. These results suggest that some biologically active and soluble components in red ginseng can be more effectively extracted from URG than RG by standard hot-water extraction.

  1. Ginseng and Ganoderma lucidum use after breast cancer diagnosis and quality of life: a report from the Shanghai Breast Cancer Survival Study.

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    Ping-Ping Bao

    Full Text Available To evaluate associations between quality of life (QOL and use of ginseng and Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum among breast cancer survivors.Included in this study were 4,149 women with breast cancer who participated in the Shanghai Breast Cancer Survival Study. Ginseng use was assessed at 6-, 18-, and 36-month post-diagnosis surveys; G. lucidum use was assessed at the 6- and 36-month surveys. QOL was evaluated at the 6- and 36-month surveys. Multiple linear regression models were used to examine associations between ginseng and G.lucidum use and QOL assessed at the 36-month survey, with adjustment for potential confounders and baseline QOL.At 6 months post-diagnosis, 14.2% of participants reported regular use of ginseng and 58.8% reported use of G. lucidum. We found no significant associations between ginseng use at 6, 18, and 36 months post-diagnosis and participants' total QOL score or individual scores for psychological, physical, or social well-being. Post-diagnosis G. lucidum use was positively associated with social well-being (adjusted mean difference: 1.26; 95% CI: 0.66, 1.86, but was inversely associated with physical well-being (adjusted mean difference: -1.16; 95% CI: -1.86, -0.47 with a dose-response pattern observed for cumulative number of times of use (P for trend <0.001 for both.We found no evidence that post-diagnosis ginseng use improved the QOL of breast cancer survivors. Post-diagnosis G. lucidum use was associated with better social well-being scores, but poorer physical well-being scores.

  2. Enraizamento e germinação na propagação de Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen (ginseng-brasileiro Rooting and germination in propagation of Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen (ginseng-brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana de Paula Quintão Scalon

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de avaliar a propagação sexuada e assexuada de Pfaffia glomerata (ginseng brasileiro. As sementes foram pré-embebidas por 24 horas em KNO3 1%; ácido giberélico 50, 100 e 200 mg L-1 ; emágua e as sementes que não receberam tratamento serviram como testemunha. A semeadura foi em placas de petri sobre duas folhas de papel de filtro e a incubação a 25ºC, sob iluminação constante e na ausência de luz. As estacas com º15 cm foram imersas durante 6 horas em IAA 250 e IBA 500 mg L-1, ácido bórico 1% e em água e plantadas em embalagem plástica, contendo terra+areia (1:1. O primeiro experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 2 (níveis de luz x 6 (tratamento de pré-embebição em 4 repetições de 20 sementes. O segundo em DIC com 5 tratamentos, 4 repetições de 15 estacas por repetição. As sementes de ginseng brasileiro necessitam de tratamento de pré-embebição para acelerar a germinação, sendo a imersão em KNO3 o método mais eficiente, proporcionando 63% de germinação. Apresentam fotoblastismo neutro, com germinação média de 45%. As estacas de ginseng brasileiro imersas apenas em água apresentaram 100% de enraizamento, maior número de brotos (2,5 e maior comprimento de raiz (8,6 cm. A espécie apresenta potencial para ambos os métodos de propagação.The objective of this study was to evaluate sexual and asexual propagation of Pfaffia glomerata (Brazilian Ginseng. The seeds were pre-soaked for 24 hours in KNO3 1% , gibberellic acid 50, 100, 200 mg L-1 , and in water. Untreated seeds served as control. Sowing was accomplished in petri dishes on 2 sheets of filter paper, at 25ºC incubation, under constant illumination, and in the absence of light. The cuttings with º1,5 cm were immersed for 6 hours in IAA 250 and 500mg L-1, boric acid1% ,and in water. Soon after they were planted in plastic containers with soil + sand (1:1. The

  3. Effect of fermented red ginseng on cytochrome P450 and P-glycoprotein activity in healthy subjects, as evaluated using the cocktail approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Gul; Kim, Yunjeong; Jeon, Ji-Young; Kim, Dal-Sik

    2016-12-01

    We assessed the drug interaction profile of fermented red ginseng with respect to the activity of major cytochrome (CYP) P450 enzymes and of a drug transporter protein, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), in healthy volunteers. This study was an open-label crossover study. The CYP probe cocktail drugs caffeine, losartan, dextromethorphan, omeprazole, midazolam and fexofenadine were administered before and after 2 weeks of fermented red ginseng administration. Plasma samples were collected, and tolerability was assessed. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated, and the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of the geometric mean ratios of the parameters were determined from logarithmically transformed data. Values were compared between before and after fermented red ginseng administration using analysis of variance (anova). Fifteen healthy male subjects were evaluated, none of whom were genetically defined as a poor CYP2C9, CYP2C19 or CYP2D6 metabolizer based on genotyping. Before and after fermented red ginseng administration, the geometric least-square mean metabolic ratio (90% CI) was 0.901 (0.830-0.979) for caffeine (CYP1A2) to paraxanthine, 0.774 (0.720-0.831) for losartan (CYP2C9) to EXP3174, 1.052 (0.925-1.197) for omeprazole (CYP2C19) to 5-hydroxyomeprazole, 1.150 (0.860-1.538) for dextromethorphan (CYP2D6) to dextrorphan, and 0.816 (0.673-0.990) for midazolam (CYP3A4) to 1-hydroxymidazolam. The geometric mean ratio of the area under the curve of the last sampling time (AUC last ) for fexofenadine (P-gp) was 1.322 (1.112-1.571). No significantly different drug interactions were observed between fermented red ginseng and the CYP probe substrates following the two-week administration of concentrated fermented red ginseng. However, the inhibition of P-gp was significantly different between fermented red ginseng and the CYP probe substrates. The use of fermented red ginseng requires close attention due to the potential for increased systemic exposure when it is used in

  4. Ginseng Berry Extract Attenuates Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Acute and Chronic Colitis

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    Wei Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the in vivo functions of ginseng berry extract (GB as a therapy for dextran sodium sulfate (DSS-induced colitis. C57BL/6 mice were given drinking water containing DSS (3% for eight days to induce acute colitis. At the same time, the mice received an oral dose of GB (50 mg/kg once daily. The GB-treated mice were less susceptible to the development of acute colitis than were control mice treated with saline, as determined by weight loss, disease activity, and colon histology. The administration of GB to DSS-treated mice also reduced the numbers and inhibited the activation of colon-infiltrating T cells, neutrophils, intestinal CD103−CD11c+ dendritic cells (cDCs, and macrophages. In addition, GB treatment promoted the migration of CD103+CD11c+ cDCs and expansion of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in the colons of DSS-treated mice. Similarly, in the DSS-induced chronic colitis model, GB treatment improved the macroscopic and histological appearance of the colon wall when compared to untreated control mice, as indicated by longer colon length and lower histological scores. This is the first report to show that oral administration of GB suppresses immune activation and protects against experimentally induced colitis.

  5. Background Reduction around Prompt Gamma-ray Peaks from Korean White Ginseng

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. N.; Sun, G. M.; Moon, J. H.; Chung, Y. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y. E. [Chung-buk National University, Chungju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-15

    Prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA) is recognized as a very powerful and unique nuclear method in terms of its non-destruction, high precision, and no time-consuming advantages. This method is used for the analysis of trace elements in various types of sample matrix such as metallurgical, environmental, biological samples, etc. When a spectrum is evaluated, background continuum is a major disturbing factor for a precise and accurate analysis. Furthermore, a prompt gamma spectrum is complicate with a wide range. To make the condition free from this limitation, a reduction of the background is important for the PGAA analysis. The background-reducing methods are divided into using the electronic equipment like a suppression mode and principal component analysis (PCA) based on a multivariate statistical method. In PGAA analysis, Lee et al. compared the background reduction methods like PCA and wavelet transform for the prompt gamma-ray spectra. Lim et al. have applied the multivariate statistical method to the identification of the peaks with low-statistics from the explosives. In this paper, effective reduction of background in the prompt gamma spectra using the PCA is applied to the prompt gammaray peaks from Korean Baeksam (Korean white ginseng)

  6. Neutron Tomography Application for Aircraft-parts and Root of Ginseng

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yi Kyung; Lee, Seung Wook; Sim, Chul Mu; Jeon, Jin Su; Kim, Tae Ju [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The neutron computerized tomography is considered to be a complementary tool to X-ray tomography in the sense that neutron interacts with atomic nucleus, otherwise X-ray interacts with an orbital electron of atom. The neutron tomography compared with X-ray tomography has a relatively short history. It is employed in stationary, as neutron sources are produced by the nuclear reactor. The full potential of the neutron tomography has yet to be investigated. Since, HANARO NRF was installed in 1995, the neutron radiography research group of KAERI has been developed the non-destructive testing methods by the computer tomography served for aerospace industry and agricultural industry. Concerning to NDT for aerospace, research was cooperated with Korean Air force. At the first stage, research was focused to find the micro-cracks based on internal passages inside aircraft parts and residual core of turbine blade. Concerning to NDT for agriculture, research was cooperated with the Agricultural Development and Technology Center. Research was focused to find the alive roots of Korean ginseng.

  7. Korean Red Ginseng Improves Blood Pressure Stability in Patients with Intradialytic Hypotension

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    I-Ju Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intradialytic hypotension (IDH is a common complication during hemodialysis which may increase mortality risks. Low dose of Korean red ginseng (KRG has been reported to increase blood pressure. Whether KRG can improve hemodynamic stability during hemodialysis has not been examined. Methods. The 8-week study consisted of two phases: observation phase and active treatment phase. According to prehemodialysis blood pressure (BP, 38 patients with IDH were divided into group A (BP ≥ 140/90 mmHg, n = 18 and group B (BP < 140/90 mmHg, n = 20. Patients were instructed to chew 3.5 gm KRG slices at each hemodialysis session during the 4-week treatment phase. Blood pressure changes, number of sessions disturbed by symptomatic IDH, plasma levels of vasoconstrictors, blood biochemistry, and adverse effects were recorded. Results. KRG significantly reduced the degree of blood pressure drop during hemodialysis (P<0.05 and the frequency of symptomatic IDH (P<0.05. More activation of vasoconstrictors (endothelin-1 and angiotensin II during hemodialysis was found. The postdialytic levels of endothelin-1 and angiotensin II increased significantly (P<0.01. Conclusion. Chewing KRG renders IDH patients better resistance to acute BP reduction during hemodialysis via activation of vasoconstrictors. Our results suggest that KRG could be an adjuvant treatment for IDH.

  8. Transcriptomic analysis of Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) to discover genes involved in saponin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hwan-Su; Lee, Hyoshin; Choi, Yong Eui

    2015-03-14

    Eleutherococcus senticosus, Siberian ginseng, is a highly valued woody medicinal plant belonging to the family Araliaceae. E. senticosus produces a rich variety of saponins such as oleanane-type, noroleanane-type, 29-hydroxyoleanan-type, and lupane-type saponins. Genomic or transcriptomic approaches have not been used to investigate the saponin biosynthetic pathway in this plant. In this study, de novo sequencing was performed to select candidate genes involved in the saponin biosynthetic pathway. A half-plate 454 pyrosequencing run produced 627,923 high-quality reads with an average sequence length of 422 bases. De novo assembly generated 72,811 unique sequences, including 15,217 contigs and 57,594 singletons. Approximately 48,300 (66.3%) unique sequences were annotated using BLAST similarity searches. All of the mevalonate pathway genes for saponin biosynthesis starting from acetyl-CoA were isolated. Moreover, 206 reads of cytochrome P450 (CYP) and 145 reads of uridine diphosphate glycosyltransferase (UGT) sequences were isolated. Based on methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment and real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis, 3 CYPs and 3 UGTs were finally selected as candidate genes involved in the saponin biosynthetic pathway. The identified sequences associated with saponin biosynthesis will facilitate the study of the functional genomics of saponin biosynthesis and genetic engineering of E. senticosus.

  9. Neuroprotective and Cognition-Enhancing Effects of Compound K Isolated from Red Ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Ji Yeon; Ju, Sung Hee; Oh, Jisun; Lee, Seung Kwon; Kim, Jong-Sang

    2016-04-13

    The present study was aimed at elucidating the effect of compound K derived from red ginseng on memory function in mouse model and glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in mouse hippocampal HT22 cells. Compound K induced antioxidant enzymes in nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)-mediated manner, and effectively attenuated cytotoxicity and mitochondrial damage induced by glutamate in HT22 cells. However, the cytoprotective effect by compound K was abolished by heme oxygenase-1 inhibitor, tin protophorphyrin IX, suggesting that neuroprotective effect of compound K was caused by its Nrf2-mediated induction of antioxidant enzymes. Further, memory deficit induced by scopolamine was restored by compound K, which did not inhibit acetylcholine esterase, in C57BL/6 mice but not in Nrf2 knockout mice as assessed by passive avoidance test, Y-maze and water maze tests, suggesting that scopolamine-induced memory impairment was overcome by the induction of Nrf2-mediated antioxidant enzymes by the compound K. Overall, our data indicate that compound K could be useful in prevention and treatment of reactive oxygen species-induced neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease.

  10. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction (MAP) for ginseng components by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Joong-Ho; Bélanger, Jacqueline M R; Paré, J R Jocelyn

    2003-03-26

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to predict optimum conditions for microwave-assisted extraction-a MAP technology-of saponin components from ginseng roots. A central composite design was used to monitor the effect of ethanol concentration (30-90%, X(1)) and extraction time (30-270 s, X(2)) on dependent variables, such as total extract yield (Y(1)), crude saponin content (Y(2)), and saponin ratio (Y(3)), under atmospheric pressure conditions when focused microwaves were applied at an emission frequency of 2450 MHz. In MAP under pre-established conditions, correlation coefficients (R (2)) of the models for total extract yield and crude saponin were 0.9841 (p extraction conditions were predicted for each variable as 52.6% ethanol and 224.7 s in extract yield and as 77.3% ethanol and 295.1 s in crude saponins, respectively. Estimated maximum values at predicted optimum conditions were in good agreement with experimental values.

  11. Protective Effects of Korean Red Ginseng against Alcohol-Induced Fatty Liver in Rats

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    Hyo Jin Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study tested the hypothesis that Korean red ginseng (KRG provides a protective effect against alcoholic fatty liver. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups and fed a modified Lieber-DeCarli diet containing 5% (w/v alcohol or an isocaloric amount of dextrin-maltose for the controls for 6 weeks: normal control (CON, alcohol control (ET, and ET treated with 125 or 250 mg/kg body weight/day of KRG (RGL or RGH, respectively. Compared with the CON group, the ET group exhibited a significant increase in triglycerides, total cholesterol and the presence of lipid droplets in the liver, and a decrease in fat mass, which were all attenuated by KRG supplementation in adose-dependent manner. The mitigation was accompanied by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK signaling pathways in the liver and adipose tissue. In addition, suppression in the alcohol-induced changes of adipose adipokine mRNA expression was also observed in KRG supplementation group. These findings suggest that KRG may have the potential to ameliorate alcoholic fatty liver by suppressing inappropriate lysis of adipose tissue and preventing unnecessary de novo lipogenesis in the liver, which are mediated by AMPK signaling pathways. A mechanism for an interplay between the two organs is still needed to be examined with further assays.

  12. Improved penetration of wild ginseng extracts into the skin using low-temperature atmospheric pressure plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Seoul Hee; Hae Choi, Jeong; Song, Yeon Suk; Lee, Hae-June; Hong, Jin-Woo; Kim, Gyoo Cheon

    2018-04-01

    Wild ginseng (WG) is a well-known traditional medicinal plant that grows in natural environments in deep mountains. WG has been thought to exert potent physiological and medicinal effects, and, recently, its use in skin care has attracted much interest. This study investigated the efficient penetration of WG extracts into the skin by means of low-temperature atmospheric pressure plasma (LTAPP), and its effects on the skin at the cellular and tissue levels. NIH3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts and HRM-2 hairless mice were used to confirm the improved absorption of WG extracts into the skin using LTAPP. The gene expression levels in NIH3T3 cells and morphological changes in skin tissues after WG treatment were monitored using both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Although WG extracts did not show any significant effects on proliferative activity and cytotoxicity, at a concentration of 1:800, it significantly increased the expression of fibronectin and vascular endothelial growth factor. In the in vivo study, the combinational treatment of LTAPP and WG markedly induced the expression of fibronectin and integrin α6, and it thickened. Our results showed that LTAPP treatment safely and effectively accelerated the penetration of the WG extracts into the skin, thereby increasing the effects of WG on the skin.

  13. The history of ginseng in the management of erectile dysfunction in ancient China (3500-2600 BCE

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    Rajesh Nair

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Emperor Shen-Nung was the second of China′s mythical emperors (3500-2600 BCE. Widely considered the father of Chinese medicine, he catalogued over 365 species of medicinal plants which he personally tasted. Through his treatise ′Shen Nung Benchau Jing′, we relive Emperor Shen-Nung′s contribution to urology with reference to his management of erectile dysfunction. Time-related sources in medical and historical literature were reviewed, including the ′Shen Nung Benchau Jing′ (The medicine book of Emperor Shen-Nung, archives and manuscripts at the Wellcome History of Medicine Collection, the Royal Society of Medicine, London, The Hong Kong Museum of Medical Sciences, and The Museum of Medical History, Shanghai, China. Chinese traditional herbal medicine began approximately 5000 years ago. Agricultural clan leader, Emperor Shen-Nung, was said to have a ′crystal-like belly′ to watch the reactions in his own stomach of the herbs he collected. Ginseng was among of Shen Nung′s contributions to herbal medicine. He experienced a warm and sexually pleasurable feeling after chewing the root. He advocated this as a treatment for erectile dysfunction and used it to stimulate sexual appetite. The reputation of ginseng as an aphrodisiac is based on the doctrine of signatures, since the adult root has a phallic shape. Shen-Nung believed that ginseng′s resemblance to the human form is proof of its rejuvenative and aphrodisiac properties. It was believed that the closer the similarity to the human figure, the more potent the root. The use of ginseng for erectile dysfunction by Emperor Shen-Nung was unique for its time. It continues to hold parallels as a modern-day herbal aphrodisiac 5000 years on.

  14. Panax Notoginseng Saponins Promote Endothelial Progenitor Cell Mobilization and Attenuate Atherosclerotic Lesions in Apolipoprotein E Knockout Mice

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    Ya Liu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs derived from the bone marrow (BM play a key role in the homeostasis of vascular repair by enhanced reendothelialization. Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS, a highly valued traditional Chinese medicine, has been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality from coronary artery disease. The present research was designed to explore the contribution of progenitor cells to the progression of atherosclerotic plaques and the possible modulatory role of PNS in this process. Methods: PNS (60 or 120 mg/kg via intraperitoneal injection was administered over 8 weeks in apolipoprotein E knockout mice on an atherogenic diet. The sizes and histochemical alteration of atherosclerotic lesions and numbers of EPCs in BM and peripheral blood were analyzed. The expression of chemokine stromal cell-derived factor 1α (SDF-1α and its receptor, CXCR4, was monitored as well. Results: PNS significantly reduced the lesion area and intima-to-media ratio compared to vehicle treatment. PNS also augmented endothelialization and reduced the smooth muscle cell (SMCs content of the lesions. The number of c-kit and sca-1 double-positive progenitor cells and flk-1 and sca-1 double-positive progenitor cells were significantly increased in the BM and the peripheral blood of the PNS-treated groups. PNS treatment increased the plasma levels of SDF-1α and SCF as well as the BM levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9. Moreover, the mRNA levels of SDF-1α and protein levels of CXCR4 were both increased in the BM of mice treated with PNS, while SDF-1α expression decreased. Conclusion: PNS reduce the size of atherosclerotic plaques, and this effect appears to involve progenitor cell mobilization. SDF-1α-CXCR4 interactions and the possible modulatory role of PNS in this process may contribute to the increased progenitor cell mobilization.

  15. Resource investigation of traditional medicinal plant Panax japonicus (T.Nees) C.A. Mey and its varieties in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaopeng; Wang, Rufeng; Zeng, Wanyong; Zhu, Wenjun; Zhang, Xifeng; Wu, Chong; Song, Jia; Zheng, Yonglian; Chen, Ping

    2015-05-26

    Panax japonicus, the perennial herb in the Araliaceae family, was used as the natural medicinal herb by Chinese traditional doctors for more than thousand years. Its rhizome was mainly used as a tonic, anti-inflammatory and hemostatic agent in China. Most of the therapeutic effects of P. japonicus had been reported due to the presence of tetracyclic or pentacyclic triterpene saponins. Volatile oil, polysaccharides and amino acids had also been found in P. japonicus species and reported in the pharmacological functions. A three-year survey was conducted to determine the current resource status of P. japonicus (T.Nees) C. A. Mey and its varieties (P. japonicus var. major (Burkill) C.Y.Wu & Feng and P. japonicus var. bipinnatifidus (Seem.) C.Y.Wu & Feng) in 10 provinces of southern and southwestern China. Whole plants were sampled at 64 sites. Resource distribution, habitat type, morphological variation and market trend of them were studied and discussed. The natural resource in China is rarely available due to extensive exploitation and continual environment deterioration in recent decades, Abundance of P. japonicus was much lower than previous records, mainly found in Hubei, Sichuan, Guizhou and Yunnan province. Wild resources of P.japonicus var. major and P.japonicus var. bipinnatifidus were even scarcer, only found in Guizhou and Yunan province. Despite their dramatic rise of market trend, the artificial cultivation of them was still not fully developed in China, but progressed rapidly in Hubei province. In this study, we synthesized our understandings of the current resource state of P. japonicus׳s existence, variation and cultivation in China. This study will aid further investigations and increased protection of these plants, which are very valuable to traditional herbal medicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of ginseng saponina on nicotine-induced dopamine release in the rat nucleus accumbens and striatum

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    Kim, Sang Eun [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shim, In Sop [Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-10-01

    We investigated the effect of ginseng total saponin (GTS) on nicotine-induced dopamine (DA) release in the striatum and nucleus accumbens of freely moving rats using in vivo microdialysis technique. Systemic pretreatment with GTS decreased striatal DA release induced by local infusion of nicotine into the striatum. However, GTS had no effect on the resting levels of extracellular DA in the striatum. GTS also blocked nicotine-induced DA release in the nucleus accumbens. The results of the present study suggest that GTS acts on the DA terminals to prevent DA release induced by nicotine. This may reflect the blocking effect of GTS on behavioral hyperactivity induced by psychostimulants.

  17. Effect of ginseng saponina on nicotine-induced dopamine release in the rat nucleus accumbens and striatum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Eun; Shim, In Sop; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the effect of ginseng total saponin (GTS) on nicotine-induced dopamine (DA) release in the striatum and nucleus accumbens of freely moving rats using in vivo microdialysis technique. Systemic pretreatment with GTS decreased striatal DA release induced by local infusion of nicotine into the striatum. However, GTS had no effect on the resting levels of extracellular DA in the striatum. GTS also blocked nicotine-induced DA release in the nucleus accumbens. The results of the present study suggest that GTS acts on the DA terminals to prevent DA release induced by nicotine. This may reflect the blocking effect of GTS on behavioral hyperactivity induced by psychostimulants

  18. Volatile Discrimination of Irradiated and Fumigated White Ginseng Powders at Different Storage Times and Temperatures Using the Electronic Nose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, J.H.; Shin, J.A.; Lee, K.T.

    2006-01-01

    The pattern of volatile emissions from white ginseng powders (WGP) that were treated with selected preservatives was investigated during 5-months of storage (at-10 and 25℃) by an electronic nose system equipped with 12 metal-oxide sensors. WGP were treated with gamma radiation at 5 kGy, commercial methyl bromide (MeBr), and phosphine fumigations. Electronic nose differentiated the volatile patterns of the WGP with each different preservative treatment. In addition, each volatile pattern was affected by both storage time (1, 2 and 5 months) and temperature (-10 and 25℃)

  19. Proteomic Analysis of the Effect of Korean Red Ginseng in the Striatum of a Parkinson?s Disease Mouse Model

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dongsoo; Jeon, Hyongjun; Ryu, Sun; Koo, Sungtae; Ha, Ki-Tae; Kim, Seungtae

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) suppresses dopaminergic neuronal death in the brain of a Parkinson's disease (PD) mouse model, but the mechanism is still elusive. Using a 2-dimensional electrophoresis technique, we investigated whether KRG can restore the changes in protein expressions in the striatum (ST) of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-injected mice. Male C57BL/6 mice (9 weeks old) were injected with 20 mg/kg MPTP intraperitoneally four times a...

  20. Cloning and characterization of three squalene epoxidase genes in panax vietnamensis var. fuscidicus, a rare medical plant with high content of ocotillot-type ginsenosides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, C.H.; Jiang, N.H.; Chen, J.W.; Zhang, G.H.

    2016-01-01

    Panax vietnamensis var. fuscidiscus, is a new variety of Panax. vietnamensis, which was first found in Jinping County, the southern part of Yunnan Province, China. It is also one of the most prized medicinal plants used in traditional ethnic minority medicine systems. This species contains higher content of ocotillol-type saponin, especially majonoside R2, which make this plant particularly suitable for identification of the SE genes responsible for the biosynthesis of ginsenosides. Three cDNAs encoding SE were cloned from P. vietnamensis var. fuscidiscus, and their molecular characterizations were investigated. The tissue-specific expression patterns of the three SE genes were analyzed by RT-qPCR. The transcription levels of these genes in Methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-treated leaves of P. vietnamensis var. fuscidiscus were also estimated by RT-qPCR. PvfSE, PvfSE2 and PvfSE3 differed in predicted membrane-spanning helices. Phylogenetic analysis grouped these SE into three different clades. The three PvfSE isoforms were all most highly expressed in leaves. Moreover, they exhibited different response patterns under MeJA induction. The three PvfSE isoforms may play different roles in sterol or ginsenoside biosynthesis in this herb This report is the first attempt to clone and expression analysis of SE from P. vietnamensis var. fuscidiscus and provides a new foundation for further understanding the role of SE in the biosynthesis of ginsenosides. (author)

  1. Black ginseng-enriched Chong-Myung-Tang extracts improve spatial learning behavior in rats and elicit anti-inflammatory effects in vitro

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    Evelyn Saba

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: Our research for the first time provides the scientific evidence that consumption of black ginseng-enriched CMT extract as a brain tonic improves memory impairment. Thus, our study results can be taken as a reference for future neurobehavioral studies.

  2. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-15

    Jun 15, 2016 ... rats were accidentally divided into the control, sham and test group ... cadmium chloride due to abundant antioxidant property. ..... Karadeniz A, Cemek M, Simsek N. The effects of Panax ginseng and Spirulina platensis on.

  3. Dietary honey and ginseng protect against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatonephrotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Denshary, Ezzeldeen S; Al-Gahazali, Mohammad A; Mannaa, Fathia A; Salem, Hesham A; Hassan, Nabila S; Abdel-Wahhab, Mosaad A

    2012-11-01

    Liver diseases are amongst the most serious health problems in the world today and hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the world's deadliest cancers. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the protective effect of sider honey and/or Korean ginseng extract (KGE) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced hepato-nephrotoxicity in rat. Eighty male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were allocated into different groups and over a 4-week period, they orally received honey and/or KGE or were treated either with CCl(4) alone (100 mg/kg b.w) or with CCl(4) after a pretreatment period with honey, KGE or a combination of both. Clinical, clinico-pathological and histopathological evaluations were done and CCl(4)-treated groups were compared with rats receiving no treatment and with rats given honey, KGE or a combination of these substances. The results indicated that oral administration of CCl(4) induced severe hepatic and kidney injury associated with oxidative stress. The combined treatment with CCl(4) plus honey and/or KGE resulted in a significant improvement in all evaluated parameters. This improvement was prominent in the group receiving CCl(4) after combined pretreatment with honey and KGE. Animals receiving honey and/or KGE (without CCl(4)-treatment) were comparable to the control untreated group. It could be concluded that honey and KGE protect SD rats against the severe CCl(4)-induced hepatic and renal toxic effects. Our results suggest that the protective activity of honey and KGE may have been related to their antioxidant properties. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Supplementation of Korean Red Ginseng improves behavior deviations in animal models of autism

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    Edson Luck T. Gonzales

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorders that primarily display social and communication impairments and restricted/repetitive behaviors. ASD prevalence has increased in recent years, yet very limited therapeutic targets and treatments are available to counteract the incapacitating disorder. Korean Red Ginseng (KRG is a popular herbal plant in South Korea known for its wide range of therapeutic effects and nutritional benefits and has recently been gaining great scientific attention, particularly for its positive effects in the central nervous system. Objectives: Thus, in this study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of KRG in alleviating the neurobehavioral deficits found in the valproic acid (VPA-exposed mice models of ASD. Design: Starting at 21 days old (P21, VPA-exposed mice were given daily oral administrations of KRG solution (100 or 200 mg/kg until the termination of all experiments. From P28, mice behaviors were assessed in terms of social interaction capacity (P28–29, locomotor activity (P30, repetitive behaviors (P32, short-term spatial working memory (P34, motor coordination (P36, and seizure susceptibility (P38. Results: VPA-exposed mice showed sociability and social novelty preference deficits, hyperactivity, increased repetitive behavior, impaired spatial working memory, slightly affected motor coordination, and high seizure susceptibility. Remarkably, long-term KRG treatment in both dosages normalized all the ASD-related behaviors in VPA-exposed mice, except motor coordination ability. Conclusion: As a food and herbal supplement with various known benefits, KRG demonstrated its therapeutic potential in rescuing abnormal behaviors related to autism caused by prenatal environmental exposure to VPA.

  5. Korean Red Ginseng Extract Attenuates 3-Nitropropionic Acid-Induced Huntington’s-Like Symptoms

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    Minhee Jang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Korean red ginseng (KRG possesses neuroprotective activity. However, the potential neuroprotective value of KRG for the striatal toxicity is largely unknown. We investigated whether KRG extract (KRGE could have a neuroprotective effect in a 3-nitropropionic acid- (3-NP induced (i.p. Huntington’s disease (HD model. KRGE (50, 100, and 250 mg/kg/day, p.o. was administrated 10 days before 3-NP injection (pre-administration, from the same time with 3-NP injection (co-administration, or from the peak point of neurological impairment by 3-NP injection (post-administration. Pre-administration of KRGE produced the greatest neuroprotective effect in this model. Pre-administration of KRGE significantly decreased 3-NP-induced neurological impairment, lethality, lesion area, and neuronal loss in the 3-NP-injected striatum. KRGE attenuated microglial activation and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB signal pathway. KRGE also reduced the level of mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin- (IL- 1β, IL-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and OX-42. Interestingly, the intrathecal administration of SB203580 (a p38 inhibitor or PD98059 (an inhibitor of MAPK Kinase, MEK increased the survival rate in the 3-NP-induced HD model. Pre-administration of KRGE may effectively inhibit 3-NP-induced striatal toxicity via the inhibition of the phosphorylation of MAPKs and NF-κB pathways, indicating its therapeutic potential for suppressing Huntington’s-like symptoms.

  6. Antiatherosclerotic Effect of Korean Red Ginseng Extract Involves Regulator of G-Protein Signaling 5

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    Eun Ju Im

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulator of G-protein signaling 5 (RGS5, an inhibitor of Gα(q and Gα(i activation, has been reported to have antiatherosclerosis. Previous studies showed antiatherosclerotic effect of Korean red ginseng water extract (KRGE via multiple signaling pathways. However, potential protective effect of KRGE through RGS5 expression has not been elucidated. Here, we investigated the antiatherosclerotic effect of KRGE in vivo and in vitro and its role on RGS5 mRNA expression. Elevated levels of total cholesterol, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and triglyceride (TG in western diet groups of low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient LDLr−/− mice were reversed by oral administration of KRGE. KRGE suppressed transcriptional activity of tumor necrotic factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and leptin in adipose tissue. It also potently repressed western diet-induced atheroma formation in aortic sinus. While KRGE showed reduced mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, it enhanced mRNA expression of RGS5. Moreover, RGS5 siRNA transfection of microglia cells pretreated with KRGE reversed its inhibitory effect on the expression of iNOS, COX-2, and IL-1β mRNA. In conclusion, KRGE showed antiatherosclerotic and anti-inflammatory effects in western diet fed LDLr−/− mice and this effect could partly be mediated by RGS5 expression.

  7. Ginseng Purified Dry Extract, BST204, Improved Cancer Chemotherapy-Related Fatigue and Toxicity in Mice

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    Hyun-Jung Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer related fatigue (CRF is one of the most common side effects of cancer and its treatments. A large proportion of cancer patients experience cancer-related physical and central fatigue so new strategies are needed for treatment and improved survival of these patients. BST204 was prepared by incubating crude ginseng extract with ginsenoside-β-glucosidase. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of BST204, mixture of ginsenosides on 5-fluorouracil (5-FU-induced CRF, the glycogen synthesis, and biochemical parameters in mice. The mice were randomly divided into the following groups: the naïve normal (normal, the HT-29 cell inoculated (xenograft, xenograft and 5-FU treated (control, xenograft + 5-FU + BST204-treated (100 and 200 mg/kg (BST204, and xenograft + 5-FU + modafinil (13 mg/kg treated group (modafinil. Running wheel activity and forced swimming test were used for evaluation of CRF. Muscle glycogen, serum inflammatory cytokines, aspartic aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, creatinine (CRE, white blood cell (WBC, neutrophil (NEUT, red blood cell (RBC, and hemoglobin (HGB were measured. Treatment with BST204 significantly increased the running wheel activity and forced swimming time compared to the control group. Consistent with the behavioral data, BST204 markedly increased muscle glycogen activity and concentrations of WBC, NEUT, RBC, and HGB. Also, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6, AST, ALT, and CRE levels in the serum were significantly reduced in the BST204-treated group compared to the control group. This result suggests that BST204 may improve chemotherapy-related fatigue and adverse toxic side effects.

  8. The risk-benefit profile of commonly used herbal therapies: Ginkgo, St. John's Wort, Ginseng, Echinacea, Saw Palmetto, and Kava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Edzard

    2002-01-01

    Because use of herbal remedies is increasing, a risk-benefit profile of commonly used herbs is needed. This article provides a clinically oriented overview of the efficacy and safety of ginkgo, St. John's wort, ginseng, echinacea, saw palmetto, and kava. Wherever possible, assessments are based on systematic reviews of randomized clinical trials. Encouraging data support the efficacy of some of these popular herbal medicinal products, and the potential for doing good seems greater than that for doing harm. The published evidence suggests that ginkgo is of questionable use for memory loss and tinnitus but has some effect on dementia and intermittent claudication. St. John's wort is efficacious for mild to moderate depression, but serious concerns exist about its interactions with several conventional drugs. Well-conducted clinical trials do not support the efficacy of ginseng to treat any condition. Echinacea may be helpful in the treatment or prevention of upper respiratory tract infections, but trial data are not fully convincing. Saw palmetto has been shown in short-term trials to be efficacious in reducing the symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Kava is an efficacious short-term treatment for anxiety. None of these herbal medicines is free of adverse effects. Because the evidence is incomplete, risk-benefit assessments are not completely reliable, and much knowledge is still lacking.

  9. A placebo-controlled trial of Korean red ginseng extract for preventing Influenza-like illness in healthy adults

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    Ha Ki-Chan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstracts Background Standardized Korean red ginseng extract has become the best-selling influenza-like illness (ILI remedy in Korea, yet much controversy regarding the efficacy of the Korean red ginseng (KRG in reducing ILI incidence remains. The aim of the study is to assess the efficacy of the KRG extract on the ILI incidence in healthy adults. Methods/Design We will conduct a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study at the onset of the influenza seasons. A total of 100 subjects 30-70 years of age will be recruited from the general populations. The subjects will be instructed to take 9 capsules per day of either the KRG extract or a placebo for a period of 3 months. The primary outcome measure is to assess the frequency of ILI onset in participated subjects. Secondary variable measures will be included severity and duration of ILI symptoms. The ILI symptoms will be scored by subjects using a 4-point scale. Discussion This study is a randomized placebo controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of the KRG extract compared to placebo and will be provided valuable new information about the clinical and physiological effects of the KRG extract on reduction of ILI incidence including flu and upper respiratory tract infections. The study has been pragmatically designed to ensure that the study findings can be implemented into clinical practice if KRG extract can be shown to be an effective reduction strategy in ILI incidence. Trial Registration NCT01478009.

  10. Qualitative and quantitative analysis on aroma characteristics of ginseng at different ages using E-nose and GC-MS combined with chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shaoqing; Wang, Jun; Yang, Liangcheng; Wu, Jianfeng; Wang, Xinlei

    2015-01-01

    Aroma profiles of ginseng samples at different ages were investigated using electronic nose (E-nose) and GC-MS techniques combined with chemometrics analysis. The bioactive ginsenoside and volatile oil content increased with age. E-nose performed well in the qualitative analyses. Both Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Discriminant Functions Analysis (DFA) performed well when used to analyze ginseng samples, with the first two principal components (PCs) explaining 85.51% and the first two factors explaining 95.51% of the variations. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) successfully clustered the different types of ginsengs into four groups. A total of 91 volatile constituents were identified. 50 of them were calculated and compared using GC-MS. The main fragrance ingredients were terpenes and alcohols, followed by aromatics and ester. The changes in terpenes, alcohols, aromatics, esters, and acids during the growth year once again confirmed the dominant role of terpenes. The Partial Least Squares (PLS) loading plot of gas sensors and aroma ingredients indicated that particular sensors were closely related to terpenes. The scores plot indicated that terpenes and its corresponding sensors contributed the most in grouping. As regards to quantitative analyze, 7 constituent of terpenes could be accurately explained and predicted by using gas sensors in PLS models. In predicting ginseng age using Back Propagation-Artificial Neural Networks (BP-ANN), E-nose data was found to predict more accurately than GC-MS data. E-nose measurement may be a potential method for determining ginseng age. The combination of GC-MS can help explain the hidden correlation between sensors and fragrance ingredients from two different viewpoints. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of Panax japonicus hypolipidemic compound on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice and its mechanism

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    Li DUAN

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effects of Panax japonicas hypolipidemic compound (ZDS on the lipid metabolism and its possible mechanism in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD mice induced by high sugar and fat diet. Methods The extracts of Panaax japonica rhizoma, Salviae Miltiorrhiz radix Et rhizoma and Crataegi Fructus were prepared, and ZDS compound was formulated according to their antioxidant activities. Forty SPF male Kunming mice were randomly divided into four groups (10 each: normal control group, model group, high-dose ZDS-treated group, and low-dose ZDS-treated group. In addition to the mice in normal control group were given conventional diet, the mice in other three groups were fed high-sugar high-fat diet. High-dose and low-dose ZDS-treated group were given 90mg/kg or 30mg/kg ZDS. After the treatment of five weeks, the histomorphology and lipid deposition of the liver were observed to confirm the establishment of mouse NAFLD model and the improvement of ZDS compound on lipid deposition. The relative expression of miR-34a, SIRT1, and lipid metabolism related genes (FASN, ACC1 was detected by RT-qPCR and RT-PCR. SIRT1 protein expression was detected by Western blotting. Results Compared with the normal group, the morphological results showed hepatic lipid accumulation in the model group was more serious, the levels of triglyceride (TG and miR- 34a in the liver tissue increased significantly (P<0.05, the expression levels of SIRT1 decreased, and the gene of lipid metabolism such as FASN, ACC1 significantly increased (P<0.05. However, compared with the model group, ZDS compound improve hepatic lipid accumulation, liver TG content significantly decreasd (P<0.05, liver tissue miR-34a, FASN and ACC1 expressions decreased, while SIRT1 expression increased (P<0.05. The protein expression of SIRT1 was consistent with its mRNA expression. Conclusion ZDS compound can effectively improve liver cell steatosis through the miR-34a/SIRT1

  12. Transcriptome analysis of Panax vietnamensis var. fuscidicus discovers putative ocotillol-type ginsenosides biosynthesis genes and genetic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guang-Hui; Ma, Chun-Hua; Zhang, Jia-Jin; Chen, Jun-Wen; Tang, Qing-Yan; He, Mu-Han; Xu, Xiang-Zeng; Jiang, Ni-Hao; Yang, Sheng-Chao

    2015-03-08

    P. vietnamensis var. fuscidiscus, called "Yesanqi" in Chinese, is a new variety of P. vietnamensis, which was first found in Jinping County, the southern part of Yunnan Province, China. Compared with other Panax plants, this species contains higher content of ocotillol-type saponin, majonoside R2. Despite the pharmacological importance of ocotillol-type saponins, little is known about their biosynthesis in plants. Hence, P. vietnamensis var. fuscidiscus is a suitable medicinal herbal plant species to study biosynthesis of ocotillol-type saponins. In addition, the available genomic information of this important herbal plant is lacking. To investigate the P. vietnamensis var. fuscidiscus transcriptome, Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 sequencing platform was employed. We produced 114,703,210 clean reads, assembled into 126,758 unigenes, with an average length of 1,304 bp and N50 of 2,108 bp. Among these 126,758 unigenes, 85,214 unigenes (67.23%) were annotated based on the information available from the public databases. The transcripts encoding the known enzymes involved in triterpenoid saponins biosynthesis were identified in our Illumina dataset. A full-length cDNA of three Squalene epoxidase (SE) genes were obtained using reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and the expression patterns of ten unigenes were analyzed by reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). Furthermore, 15 candidate cytochrome P450 genes and 17 candidate UDP-glycosyltransferase genes most likely to involve in triterpenoid saponins biosynthesis pathway were discovered from transcriptome sequencing of P. vietnamensis var. fuscidiscus. We further analyzed the data and found 21,320 simple sequence repeats (SSRs), 30 primer pairs for SSRs were randomly selected for validation of the amplification and polymorphism in 13 P. vietnamensis var. fuscidiscus accessions. Meanwhile, five major triterpene saponins in roots of P. vietnamensis var. fuscidicus were determined using high performance

  13. Bioconversion of Ginsenosides in the American Ginseng (西洋參 Xī Yáng Shēn Extraction Residue by Fermentation with Lingzhi (靈芝 Líng Zhī, Ganoderma Lucidum

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    Bo Yang Hsu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ginseng (人参 Rén Shēn has been widely employed in functional foods and traditional medicines in many Asian countries. Owing to the high consumer demand of ginseng products, a large amount of ginseng residue is generated after extraction of ginseng. However, the ginseng residue still contains many bioactive compounds such as ginsenosides. The objective of this research was to convert ginsenosides in American ginseng (西洋參 Xī Yáng Shēn extraction residue (AmR by fermentation with lingzhi (靈芝 Líng Zhī, Ganoderma lucidum and the fermentation products will be used for further hypoglycemic activity research. Thus, this study was primarily focused on the ginsenosides that have been reported to possess hypoglycemic activity. In this study, the changes in seven ginsenoside [Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rc, Rg3(S, compound K (CK, and Rh2(S] in the products as affected by fermentation were investigated. Our results showed that the levels of ginsenosides, namely, Rg1, Rg3(S, and CK increased, while the other ginsenosides (Re, Rb1, and Rc decreased during the fermentation process.

  14. Bacillus beijingensis sp. nov. and Bacillus ginsengi sp. nov., isolated from ginseng root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Fubin; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Liu, Lin; Sun, Lei; Schumann, Peter; Song, Wei

    2009-04-01

    Four alkaligenous, moderately halotolerant strains, designated ge09, ge10(T), ge14(T) and ge15, were isolated from the internal tissue of ginseng root and their taxonomic positions were investigated by using a polyphasic approach. Cells of the four strains were Gram-positive-staining, non-motile, short rods. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strains ge09 and ge10(T) formed one cluster and strains ge14(T) and ge15 formed another separate cluster within the genus Bacillus. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with type strains of other Bacillus species were less than 97 %. Levels of DNA-DNA relatedness among the four strains showed that strains ge09 and ge10(T) and strains ge14(T) and ge15 belonged to two separate species; the mean level of DNA-DNA relatedness between ge10(T) and ge14(T) was only 28.7 %. Their phenotypic and physiological properties supported the view that the two strains represent two different novel species of the genus Bacillus. The DNA G+C contents of strains ge10(T) and ge14(T) were 49.9 and 49.6 mol%, respectively. Strains ge10(T) and ge14(T) showed the peptidoglycan type A4alpha l-Lys-d-Glu. The lipids present in strains ge10(T) and ge14(T) were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, a minor amount of phosphatidylcholine and two unknown phospholipids. Their predominant respiratory quinone was MK-7. The fatty acid profiles of the four novel strains contained large quantities of branched and saturated fatty acids. The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 0) (42.5 %), anteiso-C(15 : 0) (22.2 %), anteiso-C(17 : 0) (7.3 %) and C(16 : 1)omega7c alcohol (5.7 %) in ge10(T) and iso-C(15 : 0) (50.7 %) and anteiso-C(15 : 0) (20.1 %) in ge14(T). On the basis of their phenotypic properties and phylogenetic distinctiveness, two novel species of the genus Bacillus are proposed, Bacillus beijingensis sp. nov. (type strain ge10(T) =DSM 19037(T) =CGMCC 1.6762(T)) and Bacillus ginsengi sp. nov. (type strain ge14

  15. Structures and biological activities of azaphilones produced by Penicillium sp. KCB11A109 from a ginseng field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Sangkeun; Ko, Sung-Kyun; Kim, Jong Won; Lee, Jae Kyoung; Jang, Mina; Ryoo, In-Ja; Hwang, Gwi Ja; Kwon, Min Cheol; Shin, Kee-Sun; Futamura, Yushi; Hong, Young-Soo; Oh, Hyuncheol; Kim, Bo Yeon; Ueki, Masashi; Takahashi, Shunji; Osada, Hiroyuki; Jang, Jae-Hyuk; Ahn, Jong Seog

    2016-02-01

    Twelve metabolites, including five highly oxygenated azaphilones, geumsanols A-E, along with seven known analogues were isolated from Penicillium sp. KCB11A109, a fungus derived from a ginseng field. Their structures were assigned by spectroscopic means (NMR and MS), and stereochemistries were determined by extensive spectroscopic analyses ((1)H-(1)H coupling constants, NOESY, and HETLOC) and chemical derivatizations (modified Mosher's method and acetonide formation). The isolates were evaluated for their anticancer, antimicrobial, antimalarial activities, and phenotypic effects in zebrafish development. Of these compounds possessing no pyranoquinone core, only geumsanol E exhibited cytotoxic activities and toxic effects on zebrafish embryos, suggesting that a double bond at C-11 and C-12 is important for biological activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Improved inflammatory balance of human skeletal muscle during exercise after supplementations of the ginseng-based steroid Rg1.

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    Chien-Wen Hou

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of ginseng-based steroid Rg1 on TNF-alpha and IL-10 gene expression in human skeletal muscle against exercise challenge, as well as on its ergogenic outcomes. Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trials were performed, separated by a 4-week washout. Healthy young men were randomized into two groups and received capsule containing either 5 mg of Rg1 or Placebo one night and one hour before exercise. Muscle biopsies were conducted at baseline, immediately and 3 h after a standardized 60-min cycle ergometer exercise. While treatment differences in glycogen depletion rate of biopsied quadriceps muscle during exercise did not reach statistical significance, Rg1 supplementations enhanced post-exercise glycogen replenishment and increased citrate synthase activity in the skeletal muscle 3 h after exercise, concurrent with improved meal tolerance during recovery (P<0.05. Rg1 suppressed the exercise-induced increases in thiobarbituric acids reactive substance (TBARS and reversed the increased TNF-alpha and decreased IL-10 mRNA of quadriceps muscle against the exercise challenge. PGC-1 alpha and GLUT4 mRNAs of exercised muscle were not affected by Rg1. Maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max was not changed by Rg1. However, cycling time to exhaustion at 80% VO2max increased significantly by ~20% (P<0.05.Our result suggests that Rg1 is an ergogenic component of ginseng, which can minimize unwanted lipid peroxidation of exercised human skeletal muscle, and attenuate pro-inflammatory shift under exercise challenge.

  17. Improved inflammatory balance of human skeletal muscle during exercise after supplementations of the ginseng-based steroid Rg1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chien-Wen; Lee, Shin-Da; Kao, Chung-Lan; Cheng, I-Shiung; Lin, Yu-Nan; Chuang, Sheng-Ju; Chen, Chung-Yu; Ivy, John L; Huang, Chih-Yang; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of ginseng-based steroid Rg1 on TNF-alpha and IL-10 gene expression in human skeletal muscle against exercise challenge, as well as on its ergogenic outcomes. Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trials were performed, separated by a 4-week washout. Healthy young men were randomized into two groups and received capsule containing either 5 mg of Rg1 or Placebo one night and one hour before exercise. Muscle biopsies were conducted at baseline, immediately and 3 h after a standardized 60-min cycle ergometer exercise. While treatment differences in glycogen depletion rate of biopsied quadriceps muscle during exercise did not reach statistical significance, Rg1 supplementations enhanced post-exercise glycogen replenishment and increased citrate synthase activity in the skeletal muscle 3 h after exercise, concurrent with improved meal tolerance during recovery (P<0.05). Rg1 suppressed the exercise-induced increases in thiobarbituric acids reactive substance (TBARS) and reversed the increased TNF-alpha and decreased IL-10 mRNA of quadriceps muscle against the exercise challenge. PGC-1 alpha and GLUT4 mRNAs of exercised muscle were not affected by Rg1. Maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) was not changed by Rg1. However, cycling time to exhaustion at 80% VO2max increased significantly by ~20% (P<0.05). Our result suggests that Rg1 is an ergogenic component of ginseng, which can minimize unwanted lipid peroxidation of exercised human skeletal muscle, and attenuate pro-inflammatory shift under exercise challenge.

  18. Louis XIV’s Ginseng: Shaping of Knowledge on an Herbal Medicine in the Late 17 and the Early 18 Century France

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    Hye-Min LEE

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to investigate the shaping of knowledge and discourse on ginseng, especially among physicians and botanists, since its introduction to France from the 17th century until the early 18th century. In France, knowledge on herbal medicine, including that of ginseng, was shaped under the influence of the modern state’s policy and institution: mercantilism and the Académie royale des sciences. The knowledge of herbal medicine developed as an important part of the mercantilist policy supported systematically by the Académie. The East Asian ginseng, renowned as a panacea, was first introduced into France in the 17th century, initially in a roundabout way through transportation and English and Dutch publications of travel tales from various foreign countries. The publication activity was mainly conducted by Thévenot company with the intention to meet the needs of French mercantilism promoted by Colbert. It also implied interests on medicine in order to bolster the people’s health. The Thévenot company’s activity thus offered vital information on plants and herbs abroad, one of which was ginseng. Furthermore, with Louis XIV’s dispatching of the Jesuit missionaries to East Asia, the Frenchmen were able to directly gather information on ginseng. These information became a basis for research of the Académie. In the Académie, founded in 1666 by Colbert, the king’s physicians and botanists systematically and collectively studied on exotic plants and medical herbs including ginseng. They were also key figures of the Jardin du Roi. These institutions bore a striking contrast to the faculty of medicine at the University of Paris which has been a center of the traditional Galenic medicine. The research of the Académie on ginseng was greatly advanced, owing much to the reports and samples sent from China and Canada by Jartoux, Sarrazin, and Lapitau. From the early 18th century, the conservative attitude of the University of Paris

  19. [Louis XIV's Ginseng: Shaping of Knowledge on an Herbal Medicine in the Late 17th and the Early 18th Century France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Min

    2016-04-01

    This article aims to investigate the shaping of knowledge and discourse on ginseng, especially among physicians and botanists, since its introduction to France from the 17th century until the early 18th century. In France, knowledge on herbal medicine, including that of ginseng, was shaped under the influence of the modern state's policy and institution: mercantilism and the Académie royale des sciences. The knowledge of herbal medicine developed as an important part of the mercantilist policy supported systematically by the Académie. The East Asian ginseng, renowned as a panacea, was first introduced into France in the 17th century, initially in a roundabout way through transportation and English and Dutch publications of travel tales from various foreign countries. The publication activity was mainly conducted by Thévenot company with the intention to meet the needs of French mercantilism promoted by Colbert. It also implied interests on medicine in order to bolster the people's health. The Thévenot company's activity thus offered vital information on plants and herbs abroad, one of which was ginseng. Furthermore, with Louis XIV's dispatching of the Jesuit missionaries to East Asia, the Frenchmen were able to directly gather information on ginseng. These information became a basis for research of the Académie. In the Académie, founded in 1666 by Colbert, the king's physicians and botanists systematically and collectively studied on exotic plants and medical herbs including ginseng. They were also key figures of the Jardin du Roi. These institutions bore a striking contrast to the faculty of medicine at the University of Paris which has been a center of the traditional Galenic medicine. The research of the Académie on ginseng was greatly advanced, owing much to the reports and samples sent from China and Canada by Jartoux, Sarrazin, and Lapitau. From the early 18th century, the conservative attitude of the University of Paris, which was a stronghold of

  20. Compound K Production from Red Ginseng Extract by β-Glycosidase from Sulfolobus solfataricus Supplemented with α-L-Arabinofuranosidase from Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Chul Shin

    Full Text Available Ginsenoside compound K (C-K is attracting a lot of interest because of its biological and pharmaceutical activities, including hepatoprotective, antitumor, anti-wrinkling, and anti-skin aging activities. C-K has been used as the principal ingredient in skin care products. For the effective application of ginseng extracts to the manufacture of cosmetics, the PPD-type ginsenosides in ginseng extracts should be converted to C-K by enzymatic conversion. For increased yield of C-K from the protopanaxadiol (PPD-type ginsenosides in red-ginseng extract (RGE, the α-L-arabinofuranoside-hydrolyzing α-L-arabinofuranosidase from Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus (CS-abf was used along with the β-D-glucopyranoside/α-L-arabinopyranoside-hydrolyzing β-glycosidase from Sulfolobus solfataricus (SS-bgly because SS-bgly showed very low hydrolytic activity on the α-L-arabinofuranoside linkage in ginsenosides. The optimal reaction conditions for C-K production were as follows: pH 6.0, 80°C, 2 U/mL SS-bgly, 3 U/mL CS-abf, and 7.5 g/L PPD-type ginsenosides in RGE. Under these optimized conditions, SS-bgly supplemented with CS-abf produced 4.2 g/L C-K from 7.5 g/L PPD-type ginsenosides in 12 h without other ginsenosides, with a molar yield of 100% and a productivity of 348 mg/L/h. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest concentration and productivity of C-K from ginseng extract ever published in literature.

  1. Historical parallels of biological space experiments from Soyuz, Salyut and Mir to Shenzhou flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechitailo, Galina S.; Kondyurin, Alexey

    2016-07-01

    Human exploitation of space is a great achievement of our civilization. After the first space flights a development of artificial biological environment in space systems is a second big step. First successful biological experiments on a board of space station were performed on Salyut and Mir stations in 70-90th of last century such as - first long time cultivation of plants in space (wheat, linen, lettuce, crepis); - first flowers in space (Arabidopsis); - first harvesting of seeds in space (Arabidopsis); - first harvesting of roots (radish); - first full life cycle from seeds to seeds in space (wheat), Guinness recorded; - first tissue culture experiments (Panax ginseng L, Crocus sativus L, Stevia rebaundiana B; - first tree growing in space for 2 years (Limonia acidissima), Guinness recorded. As a new wave, the modern experiments on a board of Shenzhou Chinese space ships are performed with plants and tissue culture. The space flight experiments are now focused on applications of the space biology results to Earth technologies. In particular, the tomato seeds exposed 6 years in space are used in pharmacy industry in more then 10 pharmaceutical products. Tissue culture experiments are performed on the board of Shenzhou spaceship for creation of new bioproducts including Space Panax ginseng, Space Spirulina, Space Stetatin, Space Tomato and others products with unique properties. Space investments come back.

  2. Strengthening Triterpene Saponins Biosynthesis by Over-Expression of Farnesyl Pyrophosphate Synthase Gene and RNA Interference of Cycloartenol Synthase Gene in Panax notoginseng Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available To conform to the multiple regulations of triterpene biosynthesis, the gene encoding farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPS was transformed into Panax notoginseng (P. notoginseng cells in which RNA interference (RNAi of the cycloartenol synthase (CAS gene had been accomplished. Transgenic cell lines showed both higher expression levels of FPS and lower expression levels of CAS compared to the wild-type (WT cells. In the triterpene and phytosterol analysis, transgenic cell lines provided a higher accumulation of total triterpene saponins, and a lower amount of phytosterols in comparison with the WT cells. Compared with the cells in which RNAi of the CAS gene was achieved, the cells with simultaneously over-expressed FPS and silenced CAS showed higher triterpene contents. These results demonstrate that over-expression of FPS can break the rate-limiting reaction catalyzed by FPS in the triterpene saponins biosynthetic pathway; and inhibition of CAS expression can decrease the synthesis metabolic flux of the phytosterol branch. Thus, more precursors flow in the direction of triterpene synthesis, and ultimately promote the accumulation of P. notoginseng saponins. Meanwhile, silencing and over-expressing key enzyme genes simultaneously is more effective than just manipulating one gene in the regulation of saponin biosynthesis.

  3. A novel strategy with standardized reference extract qualification and single compound quantitative evaluation for quality control of Panax notoginseng used as a functional food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S P; Qiao, C F; Chen, Y W; Zhao, J; Cui, X M; Zhang, Q W; Liu, X M; Hu, D J

    2013-10-25

    Root of Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chen (Sanqi in Chinese) is one of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) based functional food. Saponins are the major bioactive components. The shortage of reference compounds or chemical standards is one of the main bottlenecks for quality control of TCMs. A novel strategy, i.e. standardized reference extract based qualification and single calibrated components directly quantitative estimation of multiple analytes, was proposed to easily and effectively control the quality of natural functional foods such as Sanqi. The feasibility and credibility of this methodology were also assessed with a developed fast HPLC method. Five saponins, including ginsenoside Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rd and notoginsenoside R1 were rapidly separated using a conventional HPLC in 20 min. The quantification method was also compared with individual calibration curve method. The strategy is feasible and credible, which is easily and effectively adapted for improving the quality control of natural functional foods such as Sanqi. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A Limited Role of p53 on the Ability of a Hexane Fraction of American Ginseng to Suppress Mouse Colitis

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    Deepak Poudyal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ulcerative colitis (UC is debilitating and carries a high colon cancer risk. Apoptosis of inflammatory cells is a key mechanism regulating UC. We have recently shown that American ginseng (AG, and to a greater extent, a Hexane fraction of AG (HAG can cause apoptosis and suppress mouse colitis through a p53-mediated mechanism. Here, we tested the hypothesis that HAG suppresses colitis through a p53 mechanism. We found only a limited impact of p53 in the ability of HAG to induce inflammatory cell apoptosis and suppress mouse colitis in vitro and in vivo. Finally, we asked whether HAG could cause cell cycle arrest of HCT116 colon cancer cells in vitro. Interestingly, HAG caused a G1 arrest of such cells independent of p53 status. Findings are significant because HAG suppresses colitis and associated colon cancer, and mutation in p53 is observed in most colitis-driven colon cancers. Therefore, HAG might be very effective in targeting the inflammatory cells and cancer cells since it induces apoptosis of inflammatory cells and cell cycle arrest in both p53−/− and WT p53 colon cancer cells.

  5. Fluoride Exposure Aggravates the Testicular Damage and Sperm Quality in Diabetic Mice: Protective Role of Ginseng and Banaba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sm, Saumya; Mahaboob Basha, P

    2017-06-01

    Fluoride toxicity is known to pose infertility in fluoride-intoxicated animals as well as in people residing in fluoride endemic zones. The present study addresses the degree of impairments caused due to co-exposure of high fluoride toxicity in diabetic mice. Swiss mice, Mus musculus, were subjected to fluoride toxicity by providing fluoride-supplemented drinking water (600 ppm NaF) for a period of 30 days after the confirmation of streptozotocin-induced diabetes(STZ, 50 mg/kgbw). Consequently, aggravated hyperglycemia and tissue fluoride accumulation were witnessed in fluoride-intoxicated diabetic mice; later, these toxicated mice were treated with ginseng extract (GE) and banaba leaf extract, (BLE) at dose of 150 mg/kgbw/day alone and in combination for 15 and 30-day duration to check the efficacy of phytoextracts in reversing the toxicity. The spermatological indices studied, such as sperm density, motility, viability and morphology as well as the testicular biochemical parameters showed enhanced impairment in reproductive status of fluoride-intoxicated diabetic mice. Further, 15-days administration of GE and BLE in combination at a dose of 150 mg/kgbw/day was found to be beneficial in normalizing the alterations observed upon fluoride intoxication to diabetic mice. However, the correlates showed moderate association between blood glucose levels and the spermatological as well as biochemical indices wherein the tissue fluoride levels correlate least.

  6. Proteomic Analysis of the Effect of Korean Red Ginseng in the Striatum of a Parkinson's Disease Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongsoo; Jeon, Hyongjun; Ryu, Sun; Koo, Sungtae; Ha, Ki-Tae; Kim, Seungtae

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) suppresses dopaminergic neuronal death in the brain of a Parkinson's disease (PD) mouse model, but the mechanism is still elusive. Using a 2-dimensional electrophoresis technique, we investigated whether KRG can restore the changes in protein expressions in the striatum (ST) of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-injected mice. Male C57BL/6 mice (9 weeks old) were injected with 20 mg/kg MPTP intraperitoneally four times at 2-h intervals. KRG (100 mg/kg) was orally administered once a day for 3 days from one hour after the first MPTP injection. Two hours after the third KRG administration a pole test was performed to evaluate motor function, after which the brains were immediately harvested. Survival of dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal pathway and protein expression in the ST were measured by immunohistochemistry and 2-dimensional electrophoresis. KRG suppressed MPTP-induced behavioral dysfunction and neuronal death in the nigrostriatal pathway. Moreover, 30 proteins changed by MPTP and KRG in the ST were identified and shown to be related to glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease and PD. KRG has neuroprotective effects against MPTP toxicity and alleviates protein expression profiles related to enhancing energy metabolism in the ST of MPTP-treated mice.

  7. Simultaneous determination of notoginsenoside R₁, ginsenoside Rg₁, ginsenoside Re and 20(S) protopanaxatriol in beagle dog plasma by ultra high performance liquid mass spectrometry after oral administration of a Panax notoginseng saponin preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huichao; Liu, Huimin; Bai, Jie; Lu, Yang; Du, Shouying

    2015-01-01

    20(S) protopanaxatriol is the main metabolite of notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rg1, ginsenoside Re in Panax notoginseng and has significant activities. A ultra high performance liquid mass spectrometry method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of notoginsenoside R₁ (R1), ginsenoside Rg₁ (Rg₁), ginsenoside Re (Re) and 20(S) protopanaxatriol (PPT) in beagle dog plasma after oral administration of a Panax notoginseng saponin preparation. After the addition of the internal standard (digoxin), plasma samples were subjected to liquid-liquid extraction with acetone and methanol and separated on a 100 × 2.1 mm ACQUITY 1.7 μm C₁₈ column (Waters, USA), with acetonitrile and water as the mobile phase, within a runtime of 7.0 min. The analytes were detected without interference in Selected Reaction Monitoring mode with a change in the electrospray ionization from positive to negative. The detection limits were 0.01 to 0.04 mg/L and the calibration curves of the peak areas for the four ingredients were linear over four orders of magnitude with a correlation coefficient greater than 0.9957. The intra-day and inter-day precision values (relative standard deviation, RSD, %) were within 10.25% and 13.51%, respectively, and the accuracy (relative error, RE, %) was less than 7.81%. The validated method was successfully applied to a comparative pharmacokinetic study of four saponins in beagle dogs after oral administration of a Panax Notoginseng Saponins preparation. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated with DAS 3.20. The Tmax and Cmax values indicate a dose-dose relationship between the saponins (R1, Rg1, and Re) and their sapogenin (PPT). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of a Biofungicide Using a Mycoparasitic Fungus Simplicillium lamellicola BCP and Its Control Efficacy against Gray Mold Diseases of Tomato and Ginseng

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    Teak Soo Shin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To develop a commercial product using the mycoparasitic fungus Simplicillium lamellicola BCP, the scaleup of conidia production from a 5-l jar to a 5,000-l pilot bioreactor, optimization of the freeze-drying of the fermentation broth, and preparation of a wettable powder-type formulation were performed. Then, its disease control efficacy was evaluated against gray mold diseases of tomato and ginseng plants in field conditions. The final conidial yields of S. lamellicola BCP were 3.3 × 10⁸ conidia/ml for a 5-l jar, 3.5 × 10⁸ conidia/ml for a 500-l pilot vessel, and 3.1 × 10⁸ conidia/ml for a 5,000-l pilot bioreactor. The conidial yield in the 5,000-l pilot bioreactor was comparable to that in the 5-l jar and 500-l pilot vessel. On the other hand, the highest conidial viability of 86% was obtained by the freeze-drying method using an additive combination of lactose, trehalose, soybean meal, and glycerin. Using the freeze-dried sample, a wettable powder-type formulation (active ingredient 10%; BCP-WP10 was prepared. A conidial viability of more than 50% was maintained in BCP-WP10 until 22 weeks for storage at 40°C. BCP-WP10 effectively suppressed the development of gray mold disease on tomato with control efficacies of 64.7% and 82.6% at 500- and 250-fold dilutions, respectively. It also reduced the incidence of gray mold on ginseng by 65.6% and 81.3% at 500- and 250-fold dilutions, respectively. The results indicated that the new microbial fungicide BCP-WP10 can be used widely to control gray mold diseases of various crops including tomato and ginseng.

  9. An Experimental Study on Effects of Distilled Red-ginseng Herbal Acupuncture on A549 human ephithelial lung cancer cell in vitro and implanted Sarcoma-180

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    Seung Hwan Won

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : In order to investigate effects and immune improvement of distilled red-ginseng herbal Acupuncture, expression of Cox-1, Cox-2, and mRNA of Bcl-2 and Bax were analyzed in A549 cell in vivo. Survival time and expression of cytokine mRNA were measured for the mice with Sarcoma-180 induced abdominal cancer. Methods : Balb/c mouse was treated with distilled red-ginseng Herbal Acupuncture at Wisu(BL21 and Chung- wan(CV12 to investigate anti-cancer effects and immune response. Results : 1. For expression of mRNA of Cox-1 using RT-PCR, the control group and the experiment groups didn't show significant differences. For Cox-2, both experiment groups and the normal group showed significant decrease. 2.For expression of mRNA of Bcl-2 using RT-PCR, experiment groups showed slight decrease compared to the control group. For Bax, no significant changes were shown between the control group and experiment groups. 3.For survival time, all of experiment groups showed 11.1 % increase compared to the control group. 4. For IL-2 and IL-4 productivity using Flow cytometry, all of experiment groups didn't show any significance. 5.For IL-2 productivity using ELISA, all of experiment groups didn't show any significance. 6.For expression of cytokine mRNA using RT-PCR, significant increase of IL-2 and IL-4 were witnessed in the experiment group II compared to the control group. Significant increase of IL-10 was shown in all of experiment groups compared to the control group. Conclusion : According to the results, we can expect that distilled red-ginseng Herbal Acupuncture may be further effects in anti-cancer and immune improvement if increasing concentration.

  10. Korean Red Ginseng Improves Glucose Control in Subjects with Impaired Fasting Glucose, Impaired Glucose Tolerance, or Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Bang, Hyangju; Kwak, Jung Hyun; Ahn, Hyeon Yeong; Shin, Dong Yeob; Lee, Jong Ho

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of Korean red ginseng (KRG) supplementation on glucose control in subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), or newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The study was a 12-week randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled (5 g of KRG [n=21] or placebo [n=20] in tablet form) trial. Glucose-related biomarkers, including serum and whole blood levels of glucose, insulin, and C-peptide, were measured by 2...

  11. Ginsenoside Rb1 Protects Rat Neural Progenitor Cells against Oxidative Injury

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    Na Ni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ginseng, the root of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, has been used as a tonic to enhance bodily functions against various ailments for hundreds of years in Far Eastern countries without apparent adverse effects. Ginsenoside Rb1, one of the most active ingredients of ginseng, has been shown to possess various pharmacological activities. Here we report that Rb1 exhibits potent neuroprotective effects against oxidative injury induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH assay demonstrated that incubation with 300 µm t-BHP for 2.5 h led to a significant cell loss of cultured rat embryonic cortex-derived neural progenitor cells (NPCs and the cell viability was pronouncedly increased by 24 h pretreatment of 10 µm Rb1. TUNEL staining further confirmed that pretreatment of Rb1 significantly reduced the cell apoptosis in t-BHP-induced oxidative injury. Real time PCR revealed that pretreatment with Rb1 activated Nrf2 pathway in cultured NPCs and led to an elevated expression of HO-1. The results of the present study demonstrate that Rb1 shows a potent anti-oxidative effect on cultured NPCs by activating Nrf2 pathway.

  12. Combination of autologous transplantation of G-CSF-mobilized peripheral blood mononuclear cells and Panax notoginseng saponins in the treatment of unreconstructable critical limb ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiuchun; Jiang, Liping; Wang, Xuemei; Yin, Fengling; Li, Guixin; Feng, Xueqiang; Wang, Kai; Sun, Shunji

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the efficacy and safety of the combination of autologous transplantation of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-mobilized peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) and Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) in the treatment of unreconstructable critical limb ischemia (CLI). We performed an open-label, parallel-group, single-center, randomized clinical trial in this study. A total of 52 patients were enrolled and randomly divided into 2 groups (the PBMNC + PNS group and the PBMNC group) in a 1:1 ratio. Evaluation variables, including changes in the ankle-brachial index (ABI) of ischemic limbs, ulcer area, severity of rest pain, transcutaneous oxygen pressure (T(C)PO2), and 6-min walk distance from baseline to week 8 and 16, as well as angiographic scores for new collateral vessel formation at week 16, were used to compare the benefits of these 2 treatment approaches. After 16 weeks of treatment, improvement in ABI, T(C)PO2, and 6-min walk distance was significantly better in the PBMNC + PNS group. In addition, the combination of PBMNC transplantation and PNS administration yielded a greater reduction in ulcer area and severity of rest pain than did PBMNC transplantation alone. The proportion of patients experiencing any adverse event was similar between both treatment groups. Adverse events caused by PBMNC transplantation or PNS were generally mild and no serious adverse events occurred throughout the entire period of study. A combination of PNS and PBMNC transplantation appears to be a safe and effective treatment for patients with unreconstructable CLI. This combination may have great potential advantages in comparison with PBMNC transplantation alone and might constitute a novel therapeutic option for unreconstructable CLI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Multi-Template Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Based on SBA-15 for Selective Separation and Determination of Panax notoginseng Saponins Simultaneously in Biological Samples

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    Chenghong Sun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The feasible, reliable and selective multi-template molecularly imprinted polymers (MT-MIPs based on SBA-15 (SBA-15@MT-MIPs for the selective separation and determination of the trace level of ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1, ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1 and notoginsenoside R1 (R1 simultaneously from biological samples were developed. The polymers were constructed by SBA-15 as support, Rb1, Rg1, R1 as multi-template, acrylamide (AM as functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA as cross-linker. The new synthetic SBA-15@MT-MIPs were satisfactorily applied to solid-phase extraction (SPE coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC for the separation and determination of trace Rb1, Rg1 and R1 in plasma samples. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection (LODs and quantitation (LOQs of the proposed method for Rb1, Rg1 and R1 were in the range of 0.63–0.75 ng·mL−1 and 2.1–2.5 ng·mL−1, respectively. The recoveries of R1, Rb1 and Rg1 were obtained between 93.4% and 104.3% with relative standard deviations (RSDs in the range of 3.3–4.2%. All results show that the obtained SBA-15@MT-MIPs could be a promising prospect for the practical application in the selective separation and enrichment of trace Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS in the biological samples.

  14. Ginseng gintonin activates the human cardiac delayed rectifier K+ channel: involvement of Ca2+/calmodulin binding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sun-Hye; Lee, Byung-Hwan; Kim, Hyeon-Joong; Jung, Seok-Won; Kim, Hyun-Sook; Shin, Ho-Chul; Lee, Jun-Hee; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Rhim, Hyewhon; Hwang, Sung-Hee; Ha, Tal Soo; Kim, Hyun-Ji; Cho, Hana; Nah, Seung-Yeol

    2014-09-01

    Gintonin, a novel, ginseng-derived G protein-coupled lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor ligand, elicits [Ca(2+)]i transients in neuronal and non-neuronal cells via pertussis toxin-sensitive and pertussis toxin-insensitive G proteins. The slowly activating delayed rectifier K(+) (I(Ks)) channel is a cardiac K(+) channel composed of KCNQ1 and KCNE1 subunits. The C terminus of the KCNQ1 channel protein has two calmodulin-binding sites that are involved in regulating I(Ks) channels. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of gintonin-mediated activation of human I(Ks) channel activity by expressing human I(Ks) channels in Xenopus oocytes. We found that gintonin enhances IKs channel currents in concentration- and voltage-dependent manners. The EC50 for the I(Ks) channel was 0.05 ± 0.01 μg/ml. Gintonin-mediated activation of the I(Ks) channels was blocked by an LPA1/3 receptor antagonist, an active phospholipase C inhibitor, an IP3 receptor antagonist, and the calcium chelator BAPTA. Gintonin-mediated activation of both the I(Ks) channel was also blocked by the calmodulin (CaM) blocker calmidazolium. Mutations in the KCNQ1 [Ca(2+)]i/CaM-binding IQ motif sites (S373P, W392R, or R539W)blocked the action of gintonin on I(Ks) channel. However, gintonin had no effect on hERG K(+) channel activity. These results show that gintonin-mediated enhancement of I(Ks) channel currents is achieved through binding of the [Ca(2+)]i/CaM complex to the C terminus of KCNQ1 subunit.

  15. The Effect of Korean Red Ginseng on Sexual Function in Premenopausal Women: Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Crossover Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Seok Chung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether Korean red ginseng (KRG extracts could improve sexual function in premenopausal women. Forty-one premenopausal women participated in this placebo-controlled, double-blind, and crossover clinical study with administration of either three ginseng capsules (1 g per capsule or placebo daily. After 8 weeks of medication of KRG or placebo, medication was changed for the subjects to placebo or KRG after 2 weeks of washout period. The efficacy of KRG extracts was measured by using Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI. Results. Twenty-three women completed the study. Total FSFI scores increased after KRG treatment (from 20.13±2.87 to 23.98±4.10, p=0.015 and placebo treatment (from 20.06±2.64 to 23.78±3.28, p=0.003. However, this change was not significantly different between the two groups (p=0.702. KRG treatment significantly improved sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and satisfaction domains; however, there was no treatment effect compared with placebo. There was a case of gastric discomfort after taking KRG extracts. Oral administration of KRG extracts improved sexual function in premenopausal women; however, there were no statistical significant changes compared to placebo. It implies that KRG extracts have a substantial placebo effect in premenopausal women with sexual dysfunction.

  16. Hepatoprotective effect of fermented ginseng and its major constituent compound K in a rat model of paracetamol (acetaminophen)-induced liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igami, Kentaro; Shimojo, Yosuke; Ito, Hisatomi; Miyazaki, Toshitsugu; Kashiwada, Yoshiki

    2015-04-01

    This work aimed at evaluating the effect of fermented ginseng (FG) and fermented red ginseng (FRG) against rat liver injury caused by paracetamol (acetaminophen (APAP)). Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in the serum and histopathological changes in the liver were analysed to determine the degree of liver injury. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) microarray analysis was performed to compare gene expression levels altered in the rat livers. Phosphorylated Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells were detected using western blot analysis to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of compound K. Pretreatment with FG, containing compound K at high concentration, attenuated AST as well as ALT levels in rats, while no obvious effect was observed in the group that received FRG, whose content of compound K was lower than that of FG. In addition, the results of our histopathological analysis were consistent with changes in the serum biochemical analysis. DNA microarray analysis indicated that JNK- and glutathione S-transferase (GST)-related genes were involved in the hepatotoxicity. Notably, compound K, a major ginsenoside in FG, inhibited the phosphorylation of JNK in HepG2 cells. FG was shown to possess hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol (APAP)-induced liver injury better than FRG. Compound K might play an important role for an anti-inflammatory activity of FG by inhibiting JNK signalling in the liver. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  17. EFFECTS OF CREATINE, GINSENG, AND ASTRAGALUS SUPPLEMENTATION ON STRENGTH, BODY COMPOSITION, MOOD, AND BLOOD LIPIDS DURING STRENGTH-TRAINING IN OLDER ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Rogers

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of supplemental dietary creatine and a botanical extract consisting of ginseng and astragalus were evaluated in 44 adults aged 55-84 years participating in a 12-week strength-training program. Participants consumed creatine only (Cr, creatine plus botanical extract (CrBE, or placebo (PL, and performed bench press, lat pull down, biceps curl, leg press, knee extension, and knee flexion for 3 sets of 8-12 reps on 3 days per week for 12 weeks. The 1-repetition maximum for each exercise, body composition (full-body DEXA, blood lipids, and mood states were evaluated before and after the intervention. Training improved (p < 0.05 strength and lean mass for all groups, however greater gains were observed with Cr and CrBE compared with placebo (but no difference was found between Cr and CrBE. Only CrBE improved blood lipids and self-reported vigor, and the CrBE group lost significantly more body fat and gained more bench press strength than Cr. These results indicate that strength and lean mass gains achieved by older adults participating in a strength training program can be enhanced with creatine supplementation, and that ginseng and astragalus may provide additional health and psychological benefits. However, these herbs do not appear to have an additive effect on strength and lean mass gains during training

  18. Urine culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You also may have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This likely means that you have a urinary ...

  19. Safeguards Culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2012-07-01

    The concepts of nuclear safety and security culture are well established; however, a common understanding of safeguards culture is not internationally recognized. Supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration, the authors prepared this report, an analysis of the concept of safeguards culture, and gauged its value to the safeguards community. The authors explored distinctions between safeguards culture, safeguards compliance, and safeguards performance, and evaluated synergies and differences between safeguards culture and safety/security culture. The report concludes with suggested next steps.

  20. Organizational culture

    OpenAIRE

    Schein, Edgar H.

    1988-01-01

    Cultural orientations of an organization can be its greatest strength, providing the basis for problem solving, cooperation, and communication. Culture, however, can also inhibit needed changes. Cultural changes typically happen slowly – but without cultural change, many other organizational changes are doomed to fail. The dominant culture of an organization is a major contributor to its success. But, of course, no organizational culture is purely one type or another. And the existence of sec...

  1. Effects of cultivated wild ginseng pharmacopuncture on lowering lipid and oxidative capacity in biochemical and molecular biological study in obese rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Ju Choi

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This study was carried out to identified the effects of distilled cultivated wild ginseng pharmacopuncture to the obesity. Methods : Cultivated wild ginseng pharmacopuncture was administered on the points of chung-wan(CV12, Ch'ŏnch'u(ST25, and Chok-samni(ST36 on lowering lipid and oxidative capacity in biochemical and molecular biological aspects were investigated in obese rats fed with high fat diet. Results : 1. The contents of plasma β-lipoprotein showed a tendency to decrease in the pharmacopuncture groups compared to the control group. In the pharmacopuncture groups, the values of ST25 and ST36 pharmacopuncture groups showed lower value. 2. The contents of plasma free fatty acids showed a tendency to decrease in pharmacopuncture groups compared to the control group. However, in the pharmacopuncture groups, the values were not significantly different. 3. Plasma triglyceride and glucose showed lower value in the ST25 pharmacopuncture groups compared with the other groups. 4. The activity of AST showed a tendency to decrease in the pharmacopuncture groups. However, the activity of ALT was not significantly different in all the treatment groups. 5. Plasma total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol showed lower value in the ST25 and ST36 pharmacopuncture groups and HDL-cholesterol showed higher value in the CV12 pharmacopuncture groups than that of the other treatment groups. 6. Liver total cholesterol values didn't show significant difference in all the treatment groups, and triglyceride showed lower value in the pharmacopuncture groups. 7. The contents of plasma TBARS showed lower value in the ST25 pharmacopuncture group and contents of liver TBARS showed a tendency to decrease in the pharmacopuncture groups. However these values didn't show significant difference in the pharmaco puncture groups. 8. Liver super oxide dismutase activity showed higher value in the ST25 and ST36 pharmacopuncture groups, and the value of liver

  2. Saponins from Panax japonicus attenuate D-galactose-induced cognitive impairment through its anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic effects in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Di, Guojie; Yang, Li; Dun, Yaoyan; Sun, Zhiwei; Wan, Jingzhi; Peng, Ben; Liu, Chaoqi; Xiong, Guangrun; Zhang, Changcheng; Yuan, Ding

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the neuroprotective effects of saponins from Panax japonicus (SPJ) on D-galactose (D-gal)-induced brain ageing, and further explore the underlying mechanisms. SPJ were analysed using high-pressure liquid chromatography. Male Wistar rats weighing 200 ± 20 g were randomly divided into four groups: control group (saline), D-gal-treated group (400 mg/kg, subcutaneously), D-gal + SPJ groups (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, orally) and vitamin E group (100 mg/kg). Rats were injected corresponding drugs once daily for 8 weeks. Neuroprotective effects of SPJ were evaluated by Morris water maze, histopathological observations, biochemical assays, western blot analysis and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis in vivo as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurement and apoptosis assay in vitro. Our present study showed that D-gal had a neurotoxic effect in rats and in SH-SY5Y cells due to oxidative stress induction, including decreased total anti-oxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase activity, ultimately leading to spatial learning and memory impairment in rats and ROS accumulation in SH-SY5Y cells. SPJ improved spatial learning and memory deficits, attenuated hippocampus histopathological injury and restored impaired anti-oxidative as well as anti-apoptotic capacities in D-gal-induced ageing rats. In addition, SPJ remarkably decreased lipofuscin levels, increased hippocampus nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and silent mating type information regulation 2 homologue (SIRT1) protein levels and anti-oxidant genes expression such as manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), heme oxygenase (HO-1), NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and cysteine ligase catalytic (GCLC) in D-gal-induced brain ageing. Our data suggested that D-gal induced multiple molecular and functional changes in brain similar to natural ageing process. SPJ protected brain from D-gal-induced neuronal

  3. Protective Effect of Panax notoginseng Root Water Extract against Influenza A Virus Infection by Enhancing Antiviral Interferon-Mediated Immune Responses and Natural Killer Cell Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang-Gi Choi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Influenza is an acute respiratory illness caused by the influenza A virus, which causes economic losses and social disruption mainly by increasing hospitalization and mortality rates among the elderly and people with chronic diseases. Influenza vaccines are the most effective means of preventing seasonal influenza, but can be completely ineffective if there is an antigenic mismatch between the seasonal vaccine virus and the virus circulating in the community. In addition, influenza viruses resistant to antiviral drugs are emerging worldwide. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop new vaccines and antiviral drugs against these viruses. In this study, we conducted in vitro and in vivo analyses of the antiviral effect of Panax notoginseng root (PNR, which is used as an herbal medicine and nutritional supplement in Korea and China. We confirmed that PNR significantly prevented influenza virus infection in a concentration-dependent manner in mouse macrophages. In addition, PNR pretreatment inhibited viral protein (PB1, PB2, HA, NA, M1, PA, M2, and NP and viral mRNA (NS1, HA, PB2, PA, NP, M1, and M2 expression. PNR pretreatment also increased the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 6] and interferon (IFN-beta and the phosphorylation of type-I IFN-related proteins (TANK-binding kinase 1, STAT1, and IRF3 in vitro. In mice exposed to the influenza A H1N1 virus, PNR treatment decreased mortality by 90% and prevented weight loss (by approximately 10% compared with the findings in untreated animals. In addition, splenocytes from PNR-administered mice displayed significantly enhanced natural killer (NK cell activity against YAC-1 cells. Taking these findings together, PNR stimulates an antiviral response in murine macrophages and mice that protects against viral infection, which may be attributable to its ability to stimulate NK cell activity. Further investigations are needed to reveal the molecular

  4. Cultural entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Klamer (Arjo)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractCultural entrepreneurship is a new character in the cultural sector. This paper characterizes the cultural entrepreneur paying homage to the hermeneutic approach of Don Lavoie and others. The challenge is to render the "cultural" meaningful. An invention is the highlighting of the

  5. Industrial cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    1996-01-01

    The chapter deals with different paradigms andtheories of cultural development. The problem toexplain change and methods to analyse developmentin different cultures are presented and discussed.......The chapter deals with different paradigms andtheories of cultural development. The problem toexplain change and methods to analyse developmentin different cultures are presented and discussed....

  6. Ginsenoside Rb1 protects against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced oxidative stress by increasing heme oxygenase-1 expression through an estrogen receptor-related PI3K/Akt/Nrf2-dependent pathway in human dopaminergic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Yong Pil; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2010-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are polyphenolic non-steroidal plant compounds with estrogen-like biological activity. Ginseng, the root of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (Araliaceae), is a popular traditional herbal medicine. Ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1), an active component commonly found in ginseng root, is a phytoestrogen that exerts estrogen-like activity. In this study, we demonstrate that the phytoestrogen Rb1 inhibits 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced oxidative injury via an ER-dependent Gβ1/PI3K/Akt and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) pathway. Pretreatment of SH-SY5Y cells with Rb1 significantly reduced 6-OHDA-induced caspase-3 activation and subsequent cell death. Rb1 also up-regulated HO-1 expression, which conferred cytoprotection against 6-OHDA-induced oxidative injury. Moreover, Rb1 induced both Nrf2 nuclear translocation, which is upstream of HO-1 expression and PI3K activation, a pathway that is involved in induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation, HO-1 expression and cytoprotection. Also, Rb1-mediated increases in PI3K activation and HO-1 induction were reversed by co-treatment with ICI 182,780 and pertussis toxin. Taken together, these results suggest that Rb1 augments the cellular antioxidant defenses through ER-dependent HO-1 induction via the Gβ1/PI3K/Akt-Nrf2 signaling pathway, thereby protecting cells from oxidative stress. Thus our study indicates that Rb1 has a partial cytoprotective role in dopaminergic cell culture systems.

  7. ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND MANAGEMENT CULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Tudor Hobeanu; Loredana Vacarescu Hobeanu

    2010-01-01

    Communication reveals the importance of organizational culture and management culture supported by the remarkable results in economic and social level of organization. Their functions are presented and specific ways of expression levels of organizational culture and ways of adapting to the requirements of the organization's management culture.

  8. Korean Ginseng Berry Fermented by Mycotoxin Non-producing Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae: Ginsenoside Analyses and Anti-proliferative Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhipeng; Ahn, Hyung Jin; Kim, Nam Yeon; Lee, Yu Na; Ji, Geun Eog

    2016-01-01

    To transform ginsenosides, Korean ginseng berry (KGB) was fermented by mycotoxin non-producing Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae. Changes of ginsenoside profile and anti-proliferative activities were observed. Results showed that A. niger tended to efficiently transform protopanaxadiol (PPD) type ginsenosides such as Rb1, Rb2, Rd to compound K while A. oryzae tended to efficiently transform protopanaxatriol (PPT) type ginsenoside Re to Rh1 via Rg1. Butanol extracts of fermented KGB showed high cytotoxicity on human adenocarcinoma HT-29 cell line and hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell line while that of unfermented KGB showed little. The minimum effective concentration of niger-fermented KGB was less than 2.5 µg/mL while that of oryzae-fermented KGB was about 5 µg/mL. As A. niger is more inclined to transform PPD type ginsenosides, niger-fermented KGB showed stronger anti-proliferative activity than oryzae-fermented KGB.

  9. Inhibitory effects of ginseng total saponin on up-regulation of cAMP pathway induced by repeated administration of morphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jeong-Ju; Lee, Jae-Woong; Lee, Wan-Kyu; Hong, Jin-Tae; Lee, Chong-Kil; Lee, Myung-Koo; Oh, Ki-Wan

    2008-02-01

    We have reported that ginseng total saponin (GTS) inhibited the development of physical and psychological dependence on morphine. However, the possible molecular mechanisms of GTS are unclear. Therefore, this study was undertaken to understand the possible molecular mechanism of GTS on the inhibitory effects of morphine-induced dependence. It has been reported that the up-regulated cAMP pathway in the LC of the mouse brain after repeated administration of morphine contributes to the feature of withdrawals. GTS inhibited up-regulation of cAMP pathway in the LC after repeated administration of morphine in this experiment. GTS inhibited cAMP levels and protein expression of protein kinase A (PKA). In addition, GTS inhibited the increase of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation. Therefore, we conclude that the inhibitory effects of GTS on morphine-induced dependence might be mediated by the inhibition of cAMP pathway.

  10. A case report of monitoring PSA level changes in two prostate cancer patients treated with Mountain Ginseng Pharmacopuncture and Sweet Bee Venom along with western anticancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonhee Lee

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this report is to find out how Mountain Ginseng Pharmacopuncture(MGP and Sweet Bee Venom(SBV treatments are effective on prostate cancer patients by monitoring Prostate specific antigen(PSA values. Methods: We treated two prostate cancer patients with MGP and SBV from October 2008 to April 2011. One patient had localized prostate cancer, the other was in the terminal stage of prostate cancer with lung and bone metastasis and both had been receiving western anticancer therapy. We had monitored the changes of PSA value. Results: In case 1, MGP and SBV treatments seemed to be helpful in preventing the recurrence of localized prostate cancer. In case 2, PSA value was decreased by MGP treatment. Conclusions: It is conceivable that MGP and SBV are effective treatments for patients with prostate cancer.

  11. Cultural commons and cultural evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo, Giangiacomo

    2010-01-01

    Culture evolves following a process that is akin to biological evolution, although with some significant differences. At the same time culture has often a collective good value for human groups. This paper studies culture in an evolutionary perspective, with a focus on the implications of group definition for the coexistence of different cultures. A model of cultural evolution is presented where agents interacts in an artificial environment. The belonging to a specific memetic group is a majo...

  12. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the saponins in Panax notoginseng leaves using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Panax notoginseng leaves (PNL exhibit extensive activities, but few analytical methods have been established to exclusively determine the dammarane triterpene saponins in PNL. Methods: Ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF MS and HPLC-UV methods were developed for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of ginsenosides in PNL, respectively. Results: Extraction conditions, including solvents and extraction methods, were optimized, which showed that ginsenosides Rc and Rb3, the main components of PNL, are transformed to notoginsenosides Fe and Fd, respectively, in the presence of water, by removing a glucose residue from position C-3 via possible enzymatic hydrolysis. A total of 57 saponins were identified in the methanolic extract of PNL by UPLC/Q-TOF MS. Among them, 19 components were unambiguously characterized by their reference substances. Additionally, seven saponins of PNL—ginsenosides Rb1, Rc, Rb2, and Rb3, and notoginsenosides Fc, Fe, and Fd—were quantified using the HPLC-UV method after extraction with methanol. The separation of analytes, particularly the separation of notoginsenoside Fc and ginsenoside Rc, was achieved on a Zorbax ODS C8 column at a temperature of 35°C. This developed HPLC-UV method provides an adequate linearity (r2>0.999, repeatability (relative standard deviation, RSD < 2.98%, and inter- and intraday variations (RSD < 4.40% with recovery (98.7–106.1% of seven saponins concerned. This validated method was also conducted to determine seven components in 10 batches of PNL. Conclusion: These findings are beneficial to the quality control of PNL and its relevant products. Keywords: ginsenoside transformation, notoginsenoside Fd, notoginsenoside Fe, Panax notoginseng leaves, UPLC/Q-TOF MS

  13. Culturing Protozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Paul

    1980-01-01

    Compares various nutrient media, growth conditions, and stock solutions used in culturing protozoa. A hay infusion in Chalkey's solution maintained at a stable temperature is recommended for producing the most dense and diverse cultures. (WB)

  14. Consumer perception of balsamic vinegar: A cross-cultural study between Korea and Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torri, Luisa; Jeon, Seon-Young; Piochi, Maria; Morini, Gabriella; Kim, Kwang-Ok

    2017-01-01

    Understanding cross-cultural differences in food perception is a key issue of food research in order to understand consumer behaviour in different countries. The objective of this study was to explore potential cultural differences of balsamic vinegar perception between Korean and Italian consumers using the sorted napping method. Nine balsamic vinegars different in terms of ingredients, aging time, and origin were evaluated by Korean (n=50) and Italian (n=49) consumers using sorted napping. Familiarity and food matching were also examined. Descriptive analysis was performed to verify the attitude of the consumers in product description. The results obtained from two groups of consumers in Korea and Italy revealed a higher description attitude of the Italians (higher number of total elicited attributes, of attributes in common with the trained panel, of attributes shared with the vocabulary reported in literature, of significant specific positive product-attribute associations). Italian subjects generated various descriptors associated with the European gastronomic culture (aromatic herbs, fortified wine, dried figs, Indian fig, Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese), whereas Korean consumers used more terms related to the Asian food culture (red ginseng, Chinese medicine, Japanese apricot, teriyaki sauce, persimmon vinegar, balloon flower roots). Moreover, cultural differences of food matching were also observed: the Italians would pair the balsamic vinegars mainly with vegetables, fruits and cheese, while Koreans would combine the balsamic vinegars preferably with bread, vegetables and meat. In conclusion, familiarity resulted the main factors for cross-cultural differentiation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, L.J.

    2003-01-01

    Safety culture has become a topic of increasing interest for industry and regulators as issues are raised on safety problems around the world. The keys to safety culture are organizational effectiveness, effective communications, organizational learning, and a culture that encourages the identification and resolution of safety issues. The necessity of a strong safety culture places an onus on all of us to continually question whether the safety measures already in place are sufficient, and are being applied. (author)

  16. Beyond Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Daniel D.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the lack of literature relating to cultural differences and school library media programs and reviews the book "Beyond Culture" by Edward T. Hall. Highlights include the population/environment crisis, cultural literacy, the use of technology, and Marshall McLuhan's idea of the global village. (LRW)

  17. Bile culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - bile ... is placed in a special dish called a culture medium to see if bacteria, viruses, or fungi ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Body fluid - anaerobic culture. In: ... . 6th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:225-226. Kim AY, ...

  18. Handling Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieter van Nispen tot Pannerden

    2011-01-01

    The article indicates how companies may prepare for and deal with cultural differences. Because the research base is still rather limited an overall perspective may not be realised. After discussing definitions and concepts of culture, as well as values, cultural differences between states are

  19. Effect of panax notoginseng saponins on efficacy and hemorrhagic transformation of rt-PA intravenous thrombolysis in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-sheng LI

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To study the effect of panax notoginseng saponins (PNS on the efficacy and hemorrhagic transformation (HT of recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA intravenous thrombolysis in patients with acute ischemic stroke.  Methods A total of 200 patients with early acute ischemic stroke (the length of time between attack and hospital admission < 4.50 h were divided into 2 groups according to random number table method: treatment group (N = 100 and control group (N = 100. The control group was treated with routine rt-PA intravenous thrombolysis treatment, and the treatment group was treated with rt-PA intravenous thrombolysis plus PNS injection. The ischemia-reperfusion injury index [malondialdehyde (MDA and superoxide dismutase (SOD], hemorrhagic transformation prediction index [matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 and fibronectin (FN] and nerve function index [National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS and Barthel Index (BI] were measured and compared before treatment, 24 h after thrombolysis and 14 d after thrombolysis. Adverse drug reactions and hemorrhagic transformation rate were observed 14 d after thrombolysis, and the prognosis (mortality and BI was evaluated 12 months after thrombolysis.  Results Compared with control group, serum SOD (P = 0.000 and BI (P = 0.000 in treatment group were significantly higher, while serum MDA (P = 0.001, MMP-9 (P = 0.001, plasma FN (P = 0.000 and NIHSS score (P = 0.006 were significantly lower. In treatment group, 24 h after rt-PA intravenous thrombolysis plus PNS injection, serum MDA (P = 0.000, MMP-9 (P = 0.000 and BI (P = 0.000 were significantly increased, while NIHSS score (P = 0.000 was significantly decreased; 14 d after treatment, serum MDA (P = 0.000 and MMP-9 (P = 0.000 were decreased, serum SOD (P = 0.000 and BI (P = 0.000 were continuously increased, plasma FN (P = 0.000 and NIHSS score (P = 0.000 were continuously decreased. On the 14th day after thrombolysis

  20. Spatial Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Spatial Culture – A Humanities Perspective Abstract of introductory essay by Henrik Reeh Secured by alliances between socio-political development and cultural practices, a new field of humanistic studies in spatial culture has developed since the 1990s. To focus on links between urban culture...... and modern society is, however, an intellectual practice which has a much longer history. Already in the 1980s, the debate on the modern and the postmodern cited Paris and Los Angeles as spatio-cultural illustrations of these major philosophical concepts. Earlier, in the history of critical studies, the work...... Foucault considered a constitutive feature of 20th-century thinking and one that continues to occupy intellectual and cultural debates in the third millennium. A conceptual framework is, nevertheless, necessary, if the humanities are to adequa-tely address city and space – themes that have long been...

  1. Cultural contrast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周志

    2016-01-01

    Chinese cultural contains a great number of styles;culture differentiation does not depend on region differentiation.This research would interpret what difference between Hong Kong and Shenzhen.1.Food culture in china Traditional Chinese medicine suggests eating local seasonal fruit and vegetables,as they are most suitable for the body during a particular season.It is also divided food into 3 characteristics:cooling foods,warming foods and balance or

  2. Culture evolves

    OpenAIRE

    Whiten, Andrew; Hinde, Robert A.; Laland, Kevin N.; Stringer, Christopher B.

    2011-01-01

    Culture pervades human lives and has allowed our species to create niches all around the world and its oceans, in ways quite unlike any other primate. Indeed, our cultural nature appears so distinctive that it is often thought to separate humanity from the rest of nature and the Darwinian forces that shape it. A contrary view arises through the recent discoveries of a diverse range of disciplines, here brought together to illustrate the scope of a burgeoning field of cultural evolution and to...

  3. Manuscript Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    What do Mesoamerica, Greece, Byzantium, Island, Chad, Ethiopia, India, Tibet, China and Japan have in common? Like many other cultures of the world, they share a particular form of cultural heritage: ancient handwritten documents. In 2007, scholars from some20 countries around the world gathered...... at the University of Copenhagen for a workshop on manuscripts to compare notes. This event led to the publication of this volume, which brings together16 articles on philological, cultural, and material aspects of manuscripts in search for a common ground across disciplines and cultures....

  4. Skin or nail culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucosal culture; Culture - skin; Culture - mucosal; Nail culture; Culture - fingernail; Fingernail culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria, ...

  5. Burkholderia ginsengiterrae sp. nov. and Burkholderia panaciterrae sp. nov., antagonistic bacteria against root rot pathogen Cylindrocarpon destructans, isolated from ginseng soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farh, Mohamed El-Agamy; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Van An, Hoang; Sukweenadhi, Johan; Singh, Priyanka; Huq, Md Amdadul; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2015-04-01

    Strain DCY85(T) and DCY85-1(T), isolated from rhizosphere of ginseng, were rod-shaped, Gram-reaction-negative, strictly aerobic, catalase positive and oxidase negative. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain DCY85(T) as well as DCY85-1(T) belonged to the genus Burkholderia and were closely related to Burkholderia fungorum KACC 12023(T) (98.1 and 98.0 % similarity, respectively). The major polar lipids of strain DCY85(T) and DCY85-1(T) were phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified aminolipid and two unidentified phospholipids. The major fatty acids of both strains are C16:0, C18:1 ω7c and summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω6c and/or C16:1 ω7c). The predominant isoprenoid quinone of each strain DCY85(T) and DCY85-1(T) was ubiquinone (Q-8) and the G+C content of their genomic DNA was 66.0 and 59.4 mol%, respectively, which fulfill the characteristic range of the genus Burkholderia. The polyamine content of both DCY85(T) and DCY85-1(T) was putrescine. Although both DCY85(T) and DCY85-1(T) have highly similar 16S rRNA and identical RecA and gyrB sequences, they show differences in phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics. DNA-DNA hybridization results proved the consideration of both strains as two different species. Based on the results from our polyphasic characterization, strain DCY85(T) and DCY85-1(T) are considered novel Burkholderia species for which the name Burkholderia ginsengiterrae sp. nov and Burkholderia panaciterrae sp. nov are, respectively, proposed. An emended description of those strains is also proposed. DCY85(T) and DCY85-1(T) showed antagonistic activity against the common root rot pathogen of ginseng, Cylindrocarpon destructans. The proposed type strains are DCY85(T) (KCTC 42054(T) = JCM 19888(T)) and DCY85-1(T) (KCTC 42055(T) = JCM 19889(T)).

  6. Cultural probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob Østergaard

    The aim of this study was thus to explore cultural probes (Gaver, Boucher et al. 2004), as a possible methodical approach, supporting knowledge production on situated and contextual aspects of occupation.......The aim of this study was thus to explore cultural probes (Gaver, Boucher et al. 2004), as a possible methodical approach, supporting knowledge production on situated and contextual aspects of occupation....

  7. Cultural Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Jose

    It is too often taken for granted that the communication process with culturally different children takes place as readily as it might with children from Anglo cultures. Most teachers receive training in verbal and formal communication skills; children come to school with nonverbal and informal communication skills. This initially can create…

  8. Connecting Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugegaard, Rikke; Mynster Christensen, Maya

    2017-01-01

    The understanding of cultural dynamics in the area of operations is essential in to the accomplishment of military missions in international operations. The aim of this handbook is to introduce a tool enabling the use of culture as part of the military operational planning process....

  9. Stool Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infections and may be identified with a stool culture. Some important examples include: Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and other toxin- ... the toxin-producing C. difficile will be performed. Examples of other less common causes include: ... of stool cultures that are reported as negative usually reflect the ...

  10. Boosting Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Culture makes up an indispensable part of our lives, just like material comfort. It is thought of as an important source of a nation’s vitality and creativity, and constitutes a key factor uniting the nation,while making it distinctive from other countries. It is also said culture is a productiv

  11. Internet culture

    CERN Document Server

    Porter, David

    2013-01-01

    The internet has recently grown from a fringe cultural phenomenon to a significant site of cultural production and transformation. Internet Culture maps this new domain of language, politics and identity, locating it within the histories of communication and the public sphere. Internet Culture offers a critical interrogation of the sustaining myths of the virtual world and of the implications of the current mass migration onto the electronic frontier. Among the topics discussed in Internet Culture are the virtual spaces and places created by the citizens of the Net and their claims to the hotly contested notion of "virtual community"; the virtual bodies that occupy such spaces; and the desires that animate these bodies. The contributors also examine the communication medium behind theworlds of the Net, analyzing the rhetorical conventions governing online discussion, literary antecedents,and potential pedagogical applications.

  12. Avatar Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koda, Tomoko; Ishida, Toru; Rehm, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    and Western designers. The goals of the study were: (1) to investigate cultural differences in avatar expression evaluation and apply findings from psychological studies of human facial expression recognition, (2) to identify expressions and design features that cause cultural differences in avatar facial...... expression interpretation. The results of our study confirmed that (1) there are cultural differences in interpreting avatars’ facial expressions, and the psychological theory that suggests physical proximity affects facial expression recognition accuracy is also applicable to avatar facial expressions, (2......Avatars are increasingly used to express our emotions in our online communications. Such avatars are used based on the assumption that avatar expressions are interpreted universally among all cultures. This paper investigated cross-cultural evaluations of avatar expressions designed by Japanese...

  13. CULTURAL TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana POP

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will try to analyse the cultural tourism. We will start by referring to the complex concepts of tourism and culture and to the synergies existing between them. We will define cultural tourism and present its appearance and evolution as well as its importance as a modern form of tourism. We will present the various types of cultural tourism with their characteristics and the specific features of cultural tourists according to their interests. We will also mention that there are advantages and disadvantages for any kind of tourism depending on the position – local communities, companies or tourists. For the future we will refer to the new partnership between UNWTO and UNESCO.

  14. Safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drukraroff, C.

    2010-01-01

    The concept of Safety Culture was defined after Chernobyl's nuclear accident in 1986. It has not been exempt from discussion interpretations, adding riders, etc..., over the last 24 years because it has to do with human behavior and performance in the organizations. Safety Culture is not an easy task to define, assess and monitor. The proof of it is that today we still discussing and writing about it. How has been the evolution of Safety Culture at the Juzbado Factory since 1985 to today?. What is the strategy that we will be following in the future. (Author)

  15. Effect of Sucrose Stearate on the Sensory-Related Quality of the Broth and Porridge of Ready-To-Eat Ginseng Chicken Soup Samgyetang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triyannanto, Endy; Lee, Keun Taik

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the sensory-related characteristics of the broth and porridge of ready-to-eat (RTE) ginseng chicken soup ( Samgyetang ) with sucrose stearate added at various concentrations (0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.3%) during storage at 25°C for 12 mon. Scores indicating the lightness and size of fat droplets in the broth increased during storage as the sucrose stearate concentration increased, while the clarity scores decreased until 9 mon and the taste scores decreased throughout the storage period ( p 0.05). The taste scores were lower for treated porridge samples than for the control group ( p 0.05). The addition of sucrose stearate to the RTE Samgyetang broth improved the lightness (CIE L *) value of the broth and various sensory palatability parameters, including the color and fat droplet size of the broth and the softness and vividness of the porridge, despite reductions in broth clarity and taste scores for the broth and porridge during storage.

  16. The anti-obesity effects of the dietary combination of fermented red ginseng with levan in high fat diet mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jin sun; Lee, Seung Ri; Hwang, Keum Taek; Ji, Geun Eog

    2014-04-01

    In this study, to evaluate the anti-obesity effects of fermented red ginseng (FG), levan (L), and their combination (FGL), we investigated their effects on the weights of body, liver and white adipose tissue, lipid profiles, and biomarkers for insulin resistance in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese C57BL/6J male mice. Furthermore, the levels of leptin in the serum were measured. FG (150 mg/kg/d), L (100 mg/kg/d), and FGL (150 mg/kg/d of FG plus 100 mg/kg/d of L) were administered orally to mice daily for 11 weeks. After 11 weeks feeding, FGL showed significantly lower body weight and fat mass with decreasing food efficiency ratio than the HFD control mice. In addition, the FGL group was significantly lower in the levels of total cholesterol and fasting blood glucose and score of the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance. Furthermore, FGL decreased serum leptin levels compared to the HFD control group. Taken together, FGL showed a significant anti-obesity effect in HFD-induced obese mice and prevent insulin and leptin resistance. FGL may be potentially useful for the prevention of obesity. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. A high-fat diet increases oxidative renal injury and protein glycation in D-galactose-induced aging rats and its prevention by Korea red ginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sok; Kim, Chan-Sik; Min, Jinah; Lee, Soo Hwan; Jung, Yi-Sook

    2014-01-01

    Declining renal function is commonly observed with age. Obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) may reduce renal function. Korean red ginseng (KRG) has been reported to ameliorate oxidative tissue injury and have an anti-aging effect. This study was designed to investigate whether HFD would accelerate the D-galactose-induced aging process in the rat kidney and to examine the preventive effect of KRG on HFD and D-galactose-induced aging-related renal injury. When rats with D-galactose-induced aging were fed an HFD for 9 wk, enhanced oxidative DNA damage, renal cell apoptosis, protein glycation, and extracellular high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), a signal of tissue damage, were observed in renal glomerular cells and tubular epithelial cells. However, treatment of rats with HFD- plus D-galactose-induced aging with KRG restored all of these renal changes. Our data suggested that a long-term HFD may enhance D-galactose-induced oxidative renal injury in rats and that this age-related renal injury could be suppressed by KRG through the repression of oxidative injury.

  18. Social isolation stress-induced oxidative damage in mouse brain and its modulation by majonoside-R2, a Vietnamese ginseng saponin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Nguyen Thi Thu; Murakami, Yukihisa; Tohda, Michihisa; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Kinzo

    2005-08-01

    Stressors with a physical factor such as immobilization, electric foot shock, cold swim, etc., have been shown to produce oxidative damage to membrane lipids in the brain. In this study, we investigated the effect of protracted social isolation stress on lipid peroxidation activity in the mouse brain and elucidated the protective effect of majonoside-R2, a major saponin component of Vietnamese ginseng, in mice exposed to social isolation stress. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance levels, one of the end products of lipid peroxidation reaction, were increased in the brains of mice subjected to 6-8 weeks of social isolation stress. Measurements of nitric oxide (NO) metabolites (NO(x)(-)) also revealed a significant increase of NO production in the brains of socially isolated mice. Moreover, the depletion of brain glutathione content, an endogenous antioxidant, in socially isolated animals occurred in association with the rise in lipid peroxidation. The intraperitoneal administration of majonoside-R2 (10-50 mg/kg) had no effect on thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), NO, or glutathione levels in the brains of group-housed control mice but it significantly suppressed the increase in TBARS and NO levels and the decrease in glutathione levels caused by social isolation stress. These results suggest that mice subjected to 6-8 weeks of social isolation stress produces oxidative damage in the brain partly via enhancement of NO production, and that majonoside-R2 exerts a protective effect by modulating NO and glutathione systems in the brain.

  19. Protective mechanism of Korean Red Ginseng in cisplatin-induced ototoxicity through attenuation of nuclear factor-κB and caspase-1 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su-Jin; Kwak, Hyun Jeong; Kim, Dae-Seung; Choi, Hyun-Myung; Sim, Jung-Eun; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Um, Jae-Young; Hong, Seung-Heon

    2015-07-01

    Cisplatin is an effective anti-cancer drug; however, one of its side effects is irreversible sensorineural hearing damage. Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) has been used clinically for the treatment of various diseases; however, the underlying mechanism of KRG treatment of ototoxicity has not been studied extensively. The present study aimed to further investigate the mechanism of KRG on cisplatin-induced toxicity in auditory HEI-OC1 cells in vitro, as well as in vivo. The pharmacological effects of KRG on cisplatin-induced changes in the hearing threshold of mice were determined, as well as the effect on the impairment of hair cell arrays. In addition, in order to elucidate the protective mechanisms of KRG, the regulatory effects of KRG on cisplatin-induced apoptosis-associated gene levels and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation were investigated in auditory cells. The results revealed that KRG prevented cisplatin-induced alterations in the hearing threshold of mice as well as the destruction of hair cell arrays in rat organ of Corti primary explants. In addition, KRG inhibited cisplatin-mediated cell toxicity, reactive oxygen species generation, interleukin-6 production, cytochrome c release and activation of caspases-3 in the HEI-OC1 auditory cell line. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that KRG inhibited the activation of NF-κB and caspase-1. In conclusion, these results provided a model for the pharmacological mechanism of KRG and provided evidence for potential therapies against ototoxicity.

  20. Paramilitary Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, James William

    1989-01-01

    Identifies the movie, "Rambo," and "Soldier of Fortune" magazine as artifacts of "paramilitary culture." Contends that they are a social phenomenon which helps legitimate the United States government's rapid escalation of military forces. (MS)

  1. Rectal culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have an infection of the rectum, such as gonorrhea . It may also be done instead of a ... infection. This may be: Bacterial infection Parasitic enterocolitis Gonorrhea Sometimes a culture shows that you are a ...

  2. Safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The response to a previous publication by the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG), indicated a broad international interest in expansion of the concept of Safety Culture, in such a way that its effectiveness in particular cases may be judged. This report responds to that need. In its manifestation, Safety Culture has two major components: the framework determined by organizational policy and by managerial action, and the response of individuals in working within and benefiting by the framework. 1 fig

  3. Historical study of the research of Korean Ginseng by Japanese and Korean doctors in eighteenth ;century%18世纪日朝医家关于朝鲜人参的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏; 梁永宣

    2015-01-01

    In the eighteenth Century, Korean envoys and Japanese doctors did a lot of conversation on Korean ginseng, the content of which were arranged as books later by Japanese. Through 5 collections of those books, it is found that the contents of those conversations are focused mainly on 3 aspects, viz. , the name and the quality of the Korean ginseng, processing method and cultivation conditions. Those records not only reflect the condition of Japanese doctors truly and actually getting the knowledge of Korean ginseng, but also provide precious historical data to the research on the history of Japan and Korea medical communi-cation in the Edo period.%18世纪时,朝鲜通信使者与日本医家围绕朝鲜人参进行了多次笔谈交流,其文字后经日方整理成册。通过对其中5部笔谈书籍的研究,发现其内容主要涉及探讨朝鲜人参名称及品种优劣、药物加工方法、栽培情况等3方面。这些记录不仅可以真实、生动地了解日本医家学习朝鲜人参知识的状况,也为研究江户时期日朝医学交流史提供了珍贵史料。

  4. Urine culture - catheterized specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... urinary tract infections may be found in the culture. This is called a contaminant. You may not ...

  5. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the saponins in Panax notoginseng leaves using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Ma, Ni; He, Chengwei; Hu, Yuanjia; Li, Peng; Chen, Meiwan; Su, Huanxing; Wan, Jian-Bo

    2018-04-01

    Panax notoginseng leaves (PNL) exhibit extensive activities, but few analytical methods have been established to exclusively determine the dammarane triterpene saponins in PNL. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF MS) and HPLC-UV methods were developed for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of ginsenosides in PNL, respectively. Extraction conditions, including solvents and extraction methods, were optimized, which showed that ginsenosides Rc and Rb3, the main components of PNL, are transformed to notoginsenosides Fe and Fd, respectively, in the presence of water, by removing a glucose residue from position C-3 via possible enzymatic hydrolysis. A total of 57 saponins were identified in the methanolic extract of PNL by UPLC/Q-TOF MS. Among them, 19 components were unambiguously characterized by their reference substances. Additionally, seven saponins of PNL-ginsenosides Rb1, Rc, Rb2, and Rb3, and notoginsenosides Fc, Fe, and Fd-were quantified using the HPLC-UV method after extraction with methanol. The separation of analytes, particularly the separation of notoginsenoside Fc and ginsenoside Rc, was achieved on a Zorbax ODS C8 column at a temperature of 35°C. This developed HPLC-UV method provides an adequate linearity ( r 2  > 0.999), repeatability (relative standard deviation, RSD PNL. These findings are beneficial to the quality control of PNL and its relevant products.

  6. Cultural tourism and tourism cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    Presenting a comprehensive and dynamic understanding of cultural tourism, this volume examines cultural mediators and how they help tourists appreciate foreign cultures. It also shows how tourism experiences are strategically crafted by mediators, the complexity of the mediation process, and how...... various products are mediated differently. A number of different products are investigated, including destination brand identities, "living" cultures and everyday life, art and history. The author illustrates his arguments by comparing the tourism strategies of Copenhagen and Singapore, and demonstrates...... how tourism is an agent for social change. The author also offers an original and refreshing way of understanding tourist behaviour through the concept of the "versatile tourist". The book's empirical cases and dialogic framework provide new and deep insights into tourism activities. In his...

  7. Cultured Trash, Not Trash Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufiqurrohman Taufiqurrohman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available As civilized creature, human actually can manage trash as well as possible although it is often stereotyped as a vain thing. This article gives the proof that trash can be cultured as well so that a society can take benefits from the existence of it. This article parses ways of orderly managing it at schools, in this case two schools in Jepara. The results say that trash can be cultured by having an organization to manage the Trash Bank at schools and to train students to classify and recycle trash then take advantage of it by selling the collected and the recycled trash. It makes trash have good transformation of values, repelling against the prior stereotype. Finally, by taking example from Trash Bank management at schools, human can have so cultured trash that they would not be trapped by trash culture.

  8. A Cultural Sexuality or a Sexual Culture?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandermeersch, Patrick

    1990-01-01

    P. Vandermeersch, A Cultural Sexuality or a Sexual Culture? In: F. VAN DE VIJVER & G. HUTSCHEMAEKERS (ed.), The Investigation of Culture. Current Issues in Cultural Psychology, Tilburg, Tilburg University Press, 1990, 43-58.

  9. Structure modification and medical application of the natural products by proton beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D. W.; Park, J. K.; Kang, J. E.; Shin, S. C.; Ahn, J. H.; Lee, E. S. [Dongguk University, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-04-15

    This study was performed for the investigation of changes of constituent contents of Korean ginseng (Panax genseng C.A. Meyer) after proton beam irradiation (Beam energy from MC-50 cyclotron : 36.5MeV) with beam range of 500 - 10000Gy

  10. Drug: D06760 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e ginseng (TN) Chikusetsusaponin III [CPD:C17539], Chikusetsusaponin IV [CPD:C17540], Chikusetsusaponin V [CPD:C17543], Chikusetsusap...onin Ia [CPD:C17544], Chikusetsusaponin Ib [CPD:C17545] ... Panax japonicus [TAX:44...nax rhizome Major component: Chikusetsusaponin [CPD:C17539 C17540 C17543 C17544 C17545] ... PubChem: 47208411 ...

  11. Structure modification and medical application of the natural products by proton beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. W.; Park, J. K.; Kang, J. E.; Shin, S. C.; Ahn, J. H.; Lee, E. S.

    2008-04-01

    This study was performed for the investigation of changes of constituent contents of Korean ginseng (Panax genseng C.A. Meyer) after proton beam irradiation (Beam energy from MC-50 cyclotron : 36.5MeV) with beam range of 500 - 10000Gy

  12. Short communication: Influence of pasteurization on the active compounds in medicinal plants to be used in dairy products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäger, Anna Katharina; Saaby, Lasse; Kudsk, Dorte Søndergaard

    2010-01-01

    Interest from the dairy industry in adding herbal drugs to milk and yogurt products raises the question of whether these plant materials can be pasteurized. Root material of Rhodiola rosea, Eleutherococcus senticosus, and Panax ginseng, all plants with adaptogenic activities, was pasteurized...

  13. Cultural Resurrection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    "Who are we?Where are we from?"Humans have been pondering these questions since the day they first came into being.One of the ways we preserve memories of the past is through our cul- tural heritage that has been passed on from generation to genera- tion.Intangible cultural heritage,as well as tangible cultural her- itage,is essential to the continuity of human civilization. Since the United Nations Educational,Scientific and Cultural Organization(UNESCO)unveiled the Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity in 2001,China has had Kunqu opera,Guqin and its music,the art of Uygur Muqam of Xinjiang and the traditional Mongolian folk song Long Song added to UNESCO’s protection list.It is now one of the coun-

  14. Japanese Shame Culture and American Guilt Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Weijie

    2016-01-01

    Culture is an important factor contributing to the success of intercultural communication. In the east and west, there are many different cultures, among which Japanese shame culture and American guilt culture are two typical ones. Influenced by different cultures, these two countries have different characteristics, which reminds us that in intercultural communication culture should be paid much attention to.

  15. Mayan Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hervik, Peter Bent

    1992-01-01

    The social categories « Maya » and « mestizo » habe been applied to denote the Yucatec Mayan people in Mexico. The A. examines the cluster of perceived attributes (schemata) evoked by the terms and how they relate to each other. He shows that there is an incongruency between them along the lines ...... of local and academic categorization, which is an implication of the different social spaces in which they arise. In spite of the incongruency and the cultural plurality evoked by their usage, the A. argues that the people of Yucatec share a single culture....

  16. Information cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skouvig, Laura

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to suggest a genealogy of the concept of information beyond the 20th century. The article discusses how the concept of information culture might provide a way of formulating such a genealogic strategy. The article approaches this purpose by providing a general...... narrative of premodern information cultures, examining works on early-modern scholars and 18th century savants and discussion of what seems to be a Foucauldian rupture in the conceptualization of information in 19th century England. The findings of the article are situated in the thinking that a genealogy...... of information would reveal that information had specific purposes in specific settings....

  17. Effects of Multivitamins and Known Teratogens on Chick Cardiomyocytes Micromass Culture Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samreen Memon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: This study aimed to find out whether the chick cardiomyocyte micromass (MM system could be employed to predict the teratogenecity of common environmental factors. Different multivitamins and over the counter drugs were used in this study.   Materials and Methods: White Leghorn 5-day-old embryo hearts were dissected and trypsinized to produce a cardiomyocyte cell suspension in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium. The cultures were incubated at 370C in 5% CO2 in air, and observations were made at 24, 48 and 144 hr, for the detection of cell beating. Cellular viability was assessed using the resazurin assay and cell protein content was assessed by the kenacid blue assay. It was observed that while not affecting total cell number folic acid, vitamin C, sodium fluoride and ginseng did not significantly reduced cell activity and beating. However cadmium chloride significantly reduced the beating, cell viability and cell protein content in micromass cultures. Results: The results demonstrate the potential of the chick cardiomyocyte MM culture assay to identify teratogens/embryotoxins that alter morphology and function, which may result in either teratogenic outcome or cytotoxicity. Conclusion: This could form part of a screen for developmental toxicity related to cardiac function

  18. Hydroponic Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steucek, G. L.; Yurkiewicz, W. J.

    1973-01-01

    Describes a hydroponic culture technique suitable for student exercises in biology. This technique of growing plants in nutrient solutions enhances plant growth, and is an excellent way to obtain intact plants with root systems free of soil or other particulate matter. (JR)

  19. Blood culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria or other disease-causing germs grow. A gram stain may also ... any time the skin is broken) Alternative Names ... Charnot-Katsikas A. Specimen collection and handling for diagnosis of infectious diseases. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical ...

  20. Cultural Usability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Qingxin

    2007-01-01

    Culture has already played an important role in the global market. It not only affects products, but also impacts on usability evaluation methods. This project aims to examine in the established thinking aloud usability evaluation method (TA UEM), how does the evaluator build a supportive...